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Title: Dictionary of Historical Allusions
Author: Harbottle, Thomas Benfield
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Dictionary of Historical Allusions" ***

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                      DICTIONARY OF HISTORICAL ALLUSIONS

                        _Uniform with this Volume._


                   1. =Dictionary of Quotations= (English).
                       By COL. P. H. DALBIAC.

                   2. =Dictionary of Quotations= (Classical).
                       By T. B. HARBOTTLE.

                   3. =Dictionary of Quotations= (French and
                       Italian). By COL. P. H. DALBIAC and
                       T. B. HARBOTTLE.

                   4. =What Great Men have said about
                       Great Men.= By WILLIAM WALE.

                   5. =Famous Sayings of Great Men.=
                       By EDWARD LATHAM. _Shortly._

                   6. =Dictionary of Quotations= (German and
                       Spanish). By COL. P. H. DALBIAC and
                       T. B. HARBOTTLE. _In prep._


                   LONDON: SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO., LTD.



                             DICTIONARY OF
                         HISTORICAL ALLUSIONS

                                  By
                       THOMAS BENFIELD HARBOTTLE

         _Author of “Dictionary of Quotations (Classical)” and
                Co-Author of “Dictionary of Quotations
                        (French and Italian)”_

                            [Illustration]

                                LONDON

                     SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO. LTD.
                          PATERNOSTER SQUARE
                                 1903



_ERRATA._


Page 14 _Sub voce_ Armed Neutrality  _for_ 1870 _read_ 1780.

  ”  22    ”     Bar                     ” 1876   ”  1768.

  ”  34    ”     Bobbing John            ” 1815   ”  1715.

  ”  71    ”     Cyprus                  ” 1788   ”  1878.

  ”  77    ”     Disarming the Highlands ” 1825   ”  1725.

  ”  94    ”     Fifteen                 ” 1815   ”  1715.

  ”  96    ”     Flowery Land            ” 1684   ”  1864.

  ”  98    ”     Forty-five              ” 1845   ”  1745.

  ” 101    ”     French Shore    _for_ interferg _read_ interfere.

                                         ”  minine ”  mining.

  ” 110    ”     Great Commoner          ” younger ”  elder.

  ” 115    ”     Harper’s Ferry         _for_ 1869 _read_ 1859.

  ” 139    ”     Kitcat Club             ” 1793   ”  1703.

                _for_ French Revolution _read_ Revolution of 1688.

  ” 185    ”     Panslavism      _for_ haning _read_ having.

  ” 207    ”     Quietists               ”  1780  ”   1680.

  ” 224    ”     Sanquhar                ” Charles I.  ” Charles II.

  ” 244    ”     Succession Act, 1534, _for_ setting _read_ settling.

  ” 245    ”     Suttee    _Add._--This practice had been made
                            illegal by an Order in Council of Lord
                            William Bentinck’s Government in 1826.

  ” 255    ”     Toledo   _Delete_ 2nd line.



DICTIONARY OF HISTORICAL ALLUSIONS


Abbeville, Treaty of.

A treaty between the English Barons and Louis IX of France, signed in
1259, shortly after the establishment in England of the Council of
Fifteen. By its provisions England retained Bordeaux, Bayonne, and
Gascony, and surrendered all claim to Normandy, Anjou, Poitou, and
Maine. The French king agreed to supply a sum of money sufficient to
maintain for two years five hundred knights, to be employed for the
benefit of England or of the Church.


Abecedarians.

A branch of the Anabaptists, founded in Germany in the sixteenth century
by Stork, a disciple of Luther. They held that all human knowledge was
valueless, and therefore declined to learn even the alphabet.


Abencerrages.

A noble Moorish family of Granada, in the fifteenth century. They were
accused by a rival family, the Zegris, of plotting against Abdallah,
King of Granada, and were lured into the Alhambra, where they were
barbarously massacred. Thirty-six members of the family perished.


Abhorrers.

Another name for the Tories in the reign of Charles II. They were so
called from their use of the word in their addresses to the king,
protesting against the petitions in favour of summoning a Parliament in
1679.


Abingdon Law.

Execution first and trial afterwards. The phrase is derived from the
methods adopted by Major-General Brown, of the Commonwealth Army, at
Abingdon, during the Civil War. It was his habit, it is said, to deal in
this fashion with Malignants who fell into his hands.


Abjuration, Act of (England).

An Act passed in 1702, imposing upon all who took office under the
State, an oath abjuring the House of Stuart, and binding them to support
each successor to the throne named in the Act of Settlement.


Abjuration, Act of (Netherlands).

The declaration of independence made at The Hague in 1581 by the
deputies of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, deposing Philip II.
It did not, however, substitute any other form of government.


Abo, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Sweden, signed in 1743, after the surrender
of the Swedish army at Helsingfors. Russia acquired Finland, as far as
the river Kiümer, and secured the election of Adolphus Frederick of
Holstein as Crown Prince of Sweden, in the place of the Prince Royal of
Denmark.


Abolitionists.

The extreme anti-slavery party in the United States, in 1860. They
demanded the total abolition of slavery, and would agree to no
compromise with the South, even at the cost of civil war.


Absentee Tax.

A tax imposed upon absentee landlords in Ireland, in the reign of
Richard II. An attempt was made to reimpose it in 1773, but
unsuccessfully, mainly owing to the opposition of Edmund Burke.


Academic Legion.

A body of armed students who took an active part in the revolutionary
disturbances in Vienna in 1848.


Acadia.

The original name of Nova Scotia.


Acte Additionel.

A proclamation by Napoleon, on his return from Elba in 1815, in which he
accepted, with some slight modifications, the _Charte_ of Louis XVIII.


Adam Kok, Treaty with.

A treaty made with Adam Kok, a Griqua chief, by Sir Peregrine Maitland
in 1845. One of its provisions, which later caused considerable trouble
in the Orange River Sovereignty, prevented the alienation of land by the
Griquas to Europeans over a considerable portion of Kok’s territory. The
treaty was denounced by Great Britain in 1856 after the Convention of
Bloemfontein.


Addled Parliament.

A Parliament summoned by James I, in 1615. An attempt by certain of its
members, who were dubbed the Undertakers, to control it in the interests
of the Court, failed signally, and the king promptly dissolved it.


Adendorff Trek.

A threatened trek of a large number of Transvaal Boers, under a leader
named Adendorff, into Mashonaland, in 1891. Sir Henry Loch raised a
protest, on the ground that the trek would be an infringement of the
Swaziland Convention of 1890, and an act of hostility towards Great
Britain, whereupon President Kruger issued a proclamation forbidding all
Transvaal burghers to take part in the movement.


Adis Ababa, Treaty of.

A treaty signed May 15, 1902, between Great Britain and Ethiopia
(Abyssinia). It provides for the rectification and delimitation of the
frontier between Abyssinia and the Soudan. The Negus undertakes not to
sanction any damming of the Sobat or the Blue Nile without the consent
of Great Britain, grants a lease of a tract of country on the Baro
river, for the formation of a commercial _entrepôt_, and gives Great
Britain the right to connect Uganda and the Soudan by a railway running
through Abyssinia. A further treaty, to which Italy is also a party,
provides for the rectification of the frontiers of Eritrea with
Abyssinia and the Soudan.


Adjutators.

Delegates elected by each regiment of the Parliamentary Army in 1647, to
act with the officers in placing their demands and grievances before
Parliament prior to disbandment.


Admonition.

A document issued by Thomas Cartwright, the leader of the Puritans, in
1572, demanding the establishment of Presbyterianism, as being a divine
institution.


Admonition, Cardinal Allen’s.

A pamphlet addressed to the “Nobility and People of England,” bringing a
series of scandalous charges against Queen Elizabeth, issued by Cardinal
Allen in 1588.


Adonis of Fifty.

A nickname of George IV.


Adrian, Bull of.

A bull issued by Adrian IV, in 1156, granting the sovereignty of Ireland
to Henry II, in return for his undertaking to support the Papal
authority, and to pay Peter’s Pence.


Adrianople, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Turkey, signed in 1829, following the
capture by Russia of the fortresses of Varna, Silistria, and Adrianople.
It gave Russia control over the mouths of the Danube, and the
appointment of protector of the privileges of Moldavia and Wallachia.


Adriatic, Marriage of the.

An ancient ceremony celebrated yearly at Venice on Ascension Day, and
typifying the greatness of Venice as a maritime power. The Doge was
conveyed in his state barge to the sea, and threw into the water a
consecrated ring. The ceremony was established in 1174 by Pope Alexander
III, in memory of the victory of the Venetians over the fleet of
Barbarossa.


Adscriptus Glebæ.

A person who was compelled to remain on his lord’s estate. The condition
of a villein or serf in feudal times.


Adullamites.

A small section of the Liberal party, headed by Mr. Lowe (Lord
Sherbrooke) who opposed Mr. Gladstone’s Reform Bill of 1866. The name
had its origin in a speech of John Bright, who likened the malcontents
to those who took refuge in the Cave of Adullam. The term “cave” is now
applied to any small knot of dissentients within the ranks of one of the
great political parties.


Adventurers of 1642.

The gentlemen and others who had advanced money to the Government during
the Irish Rebellion of 1641, to be repaid by grants of forfeited land.
In 1653 these claims were recognized by grants in various parts of
Leinster and Munster.


Afrancesados.

The partizans of Napoleon in Spain and the Spanish Colonies.


Afrikander Bond.

An organization formed in Cape Colony in 1881, with the avowed object of
securing for the Afrikanders a larger share of political power. Its
moving Spirit was Mr. Hofmeyr, a member of the Cape Ministry. It has
taken a leading part in Cape politics, generally in opposition to
British rule, and during the Boer war of 1899-1902 gave strong evidence
of disloyalty.


Agraviados.

The Catalan insurgents, in 1825, called themselves the Agraviados, or
men with a grievance.


Agrarian League.

A league formed in Berlin in 1893, to advocate bimetalism and a return
to protection. In the latter portion of its programme, it has had
considerable success.


Agricultural Alliance Bill.

The name given to a bill passed by the Prussian Parliament in 1896, at
the instigation of the Agricultural Alliance. It prohibited time
bargains in corn, mining shares, etc., and provided for the regulation
of the Berlin Bourse, Corn Exchange, and other Exchanges, by a committee
under a Government official. To escape these vexatious restrictions, the
produce brokers deserted the Exchange and formed a Free Commercial
Union, meeting in another building to carry on their business.


Aids.

Taxes levied on their feudatories by the English kings, prior to Magna
Charta. By that instrument, however, it was provided that they were to
be granted only by the Great Council, except in three specified cases:
the delivery of the king from prison, the knighting of the king’s eldest
son, or the marriage of his eldest daughter.


Aigun, Convention of.

A treaty between Russia and China, signed in 1858, by which Russia
obtained all the territory eastward of the Ussuri river to the Japan
Sea, and fixed her southern boundary at the frontier of Corea.


Aix-la-Chapelle, Congress of.

A congress held in 1818, and attended by plenipotentiaries from Great
Britain, Prussia, Austria and Russia, to arrange for the evacuation of
France by the army of occupation, and the readmission of France, as one
of the Great Powers, to the Councils of Europe.


Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of.

A treaty between the Triple Alliance (England, Holland and Sweden) and
Louis XIV of France, signed in May, 1668. Spain, which acceded to the
Treaty, received Franche Comté from France, and surrendered certain
frontier towns, including Lille, Courtray, and Tournay. The Triple
Alliance were thus enabled to checkmate Louis’ designs in the Low
Countries.


Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of.

A treaty signed by England, France, Austria, Spain, and Holland, in
1748, putting an end to the War of the Austrian Succession.
Territorially, its provisions in the main amounted to a return to the
_status quo ante_, but it was provided that the Pretender should be
expelled from France, that Spain should renew the Asiento treaty with
England, and that Austria was to receive the acknowledgment by the
signatories of the Duke of Lorraine, husband of Maria Theresa, as
Emperor, in return for the cession of Silesia to Prussia.


Akerman, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Turkey, supplementary to the Treaty of
Bucharest, signed in 1826. It provided that the Hospodars of Moldavia
and Wallachia should rule independently, each with a council of Boyars,
and should not be deposed without the Czar’s consent; that Servia should
elect her own princes, and that Russia should occupy the East coast of
the Black Sea, and should have free access to all Turkish waters.


Alabama.

A privateer fitted out in England during the American Civil War, to prey
upon the commerce of the Northern States. After the war the United
States made an enormous claim for compensation, which was submitted to
arbitration, with the result that England was condemned to pay about
three and a half millions sterling.


Alais, Treaty of.

A treaty between the Catholics and the Huguenots in France, signed in
1629, after the fall of La Rochelle. By this treaty the Huguenots were
finally deprived of their political rights.


Alaric Cottin.

A sobriquet of Frederick the Great of Prussia, given him by Voltaire. It
infers that he was a great soldier but a very poor poet.


Alascans.

The name given to the foreign Protestant refugees in England during the
reign of Edward VI. The name is derived from Laski, the superintendent
of foreign church communities.


Alaska Purchase.

By a treaty between the United States and Russia, in 1867, the latter
Power surrendered all her possessions on the continent of the United
States, together with the Probyloff Islands, in consideration of a
payment of 7,200,000 dols.


Alaska Treaty.

A treaty between Great Britain and the United States, signed in 1903, by
which it was agreed to submit the question of the boundary between
Alaska and Canada to a commission of six jurists, three to be nominated
by each side. This question had been pending since the cession of Alaska
to the United States by Russia in 1867, the doubt as to the true
frontier arising from the very indefinite terms of the Anglo-Russian
Convention of 1825.


Albanian League.

A league founded by the Porte in 1880, to oppose the aspirations of
Montenegro towards an increase of territory. In 1887 the league
presented to the Sultan a petition for autonomy, under an Albanian
governor, and receiving no answer, rose in rebellion. The outbreak,
however, was easily suppressed.


Albany Regency.

A coterie of Democrats who from 1820 to 1854 exercised a controlling
influence over the politics of New York State, and had consequently
considerable power in national politics. Their headquarters were at
Albany.


Albigenses.

A sect of dissenters from the Romish doctrine, settled in the South of
France, under the protection of Raymond, Count of Toulouse, their name
being derived from the town of Albi. Innocent III organised a crusade
against them in 1215, under the leadership of Simon de Montfort, and at
the siege of Béziers it is estimated that 15,000 Albigenses were put to
the sword. They nevertheless held out until 1229, when Raymond
capitulated, and the Inquisition was established in Toulouse. The sect,
though dispersed, was not destroyed, and its members carried the seeds
of Protestantism into Bohemia, Germany and England.


Alcantara, Knights of.

A Spanish order of religious chivalry, established in 1177, and directed
against Mohammedanism.


Ale Conner.

An official appointed annually the Court-Leet to test and examine the
ale sold in the borough, and to prosecute dishonest vendors.


Alexander of Bulgaria, Abduction of.

A conspiracy of the pro-Russian party in Bulgaria, in 1886. Prince
Alexander, whose policy was to free his country from Russian influence,
was kidnapped by some Bulgarian officers, and carried off in his yacht
to Russian territory. An attempt was then made to establish a
pro-Russian government under M. Zankoff, but the sympathies of the
Bulgarians were with the Prince, and M. Stambuloff set up a Council of
Regency, and demanded his return. The Prince came back, but with nerves
completely shattered by his experiences, or, as was alleged, by the
administration of certain drugs, and he shortly afterwards abdicated.
There seems little doubt that the Russian Foreign Office was privy to
the plot.


Alexander of the North.

A sobriquet of Charles XII of Sweden (1682-1718).


Alexander, The Albanian.

Iskander Beg (George Castriot, 1404-1467) was so called.


Alexander, The English.

A sobriquet of Henry V.


Alexander Newski, Order of.

A Russian order of knighthood, founded by Peter the Great in 1722.


Alien Act.

An act passed in 1793, to deal with the enormous influx of foreigners
into England, due to the French Revolution. Aliens were required to
state the object of their visit, to register their names, and to obtain
passports for moving to and fro.


Alien and Sedition Laws.

A series of Acts of Congress passed in 1798, to deal with the situation
caused by the residence in the United States of a large number of
naturalized Frenchmen who sympathized with France in the difficulties
then pending between the two countries. They gave the President the
power to banish undesirable aliens. They were very unpopular, and were,
in fact, never enforced with any stringency, but are noticeable as
having led to the first declaration of States Rights, Kentucky and
Virginia declaring them unconstitutional.


Aliwal North, First Treaty of.

A treaty, signed in 1858 between the Orange Free State and Moshesh, the
Basuto chief, through the mediation of Sir George Grey. This treaty
rectified the frontier somewhat in favour of the Basutos, and made other
provisions tending to the maintenance of peace.


Aliwal North, Second Treaty of.

A treaty between Great Britain and the Orange Free State, signed in
1869, settling the boundary between the two contracting parties in
Basutoland. After the annexation by Great Britain of the territories of
Moshesh, the Orange Free State claimed the boundary line fixed by the
treaty of Thaba Bosigo, while Great Britain claimed that in existence
before the war of 1865. A compromise was eventually arrived at, and the
frontier thus fixed is that at present existing between the Orange River
Colony and the Cape.


All Red Cable.

A cable route from England to Australia, touching only British soil,
projected by the Ottawa Conference in 1894. The scheme met with the
approval and support of the Imperial Parliament, and the cable was
completed in 1902.


Allgemeines Landrecht.

The Prussian Code of Law, amplified from the Landrecht of Frederick the
Great.


Alliance Society.

A political association formed in Belgium in 1897, with the object of
uniting the different branches of the Liberal Party.


Allodial Lands.

Among the Franks, lands held in absolute proprietorship, as opposed to
lands held as fiefs, and dependent upon a superior. They were subject to
no burden, except the call to arms for national defence, and passed at
death to all the children equally, or, failing issue, to the next of
kin.


Alte Fritz.

Frederick the Great of Prussia is constantly referred to by this
sobriquet.


Althing.

The general assembly of the Norsemen. (_See also_ Thing.)


Alumbrados.

A sect of mystics, founded in Spain about 1520, the forerunners of the
better known Illuminati of Germany. They were finally suppressed by the
Inquisition.


Amalfitan Code.

A code of maritime law, drawn up during the First Crusade by the
mercantile community of Amalfi. It is the oldest known maritime code.


Amboise, Conspiracy of.

A plot on the part of Condé and the Bourbons, in 1560, to seize the
Guises, and the King, Francis II, who was a mere puppet in their hands.
The plot was discovered, and several of the leaders were executed.


Amboise, Convention of.

An agreement between Catherine de’ Medici and the Huguenots in 1563,
after the first civil war, by which the Huguenots were allowed the free
exercise of their religion.


Amboyna, Massacre of.

The murder of ten Englishmen, in the employment of the India Company, at
the Dutch factory of Amboyna in 1623.


America Act.

An Act passed in 1775, consolidating all the previous penal acts
relating to the American Colonies. It declared that all American vessels
were lawful prizes, and that all Americans captured in them, or
elsewhere, could be forced to take service against America.
Commissioners were appointed to receive the submission of the revolted
colonies, but no provisions were made for the redress of grievances.


America, Discovery of.

According to the Norse Sagas, the discovery of America should be placed
to the credit of the Vikings, who made five expeditions to the coast
between 985 and 1011, the first being that of Eric the Red, who settled
in Greenland in 986, and the most famous that of Thorfinn Karlsefne,
about 1007. The rediscovery by Columbus took place in 1492.


American Customs Act.

An Act passed in 1764, levying customs duties on goods imported into the
American Colonies. These duties were to be levied for the benefit of
England, and the proceeds thereof paid into the English Treasury. The
assertion of this right to tax the Colonies for the benefit of the
Mother Country may be considered the cause of the loss of the American
Colonies.


American-Japanese Treaty.

A treaty negotiated between the Shôgun and Commodore Perry on behalf of
the United States in 1854, by which Japan opened the ports of Yokohama,
Kobe, Nagasaki, and Hakodaté to foreign commerce. Foreigners had been
excluded from Japan for 216 years before this date, with the exception
of the Dutch, who however were strictly confined to their factory at
Deshima.


American-Spanish Treaty.

A treaty signed in 1898, at the close of the war, by which Spain
surrendered her sovereign rights over Cuba, and ceded Porto Rico and her
other West Indian possessions. The United States undertook to pay twenty
million dollars for the Philippines and Sulu Islands, but did not assume
any responsibility for the Cuban debt.


Ami des Hommes.

A sobriquet of the Marquis de Mirabeau (1715-1789).


Ami du Peuple.

Jean Paul Marat, the French revolutionary leader, was known as the
Friend of the People. It was also the title of the journal which he
edited.


Amiens, Award of.

The award of Louis IX of France, in 1264, in the dispute between Henry
III of England and his Barons, which had been referred to the
arbitration of the French King. He pronounced entirely in favour of the
Crown, annulling the Provisions of Oxford, especially with regard to
the King’s right to employ aliens as governors of his castles. Also
known as the Mise of Amiens.


Amiens, Peace of.

A treaty signed by France and England, in 1801, after the defeat of the
French army in Egypt. England restored all her conquests from France,
Spain and Holland, excepting Ceylon and Trinidad. Both parties agreed to
the evacuation of Egypt, and the independence of Portugal was
guaranteed. This peace was of very short duration, England and France
being at war again in 1803.


Amistad Case.

The case of a Spanish slaver in 1839, in which the slaves had broken out
and seized the ship. She was afterwards captured by a U.S. cruiser, and
the Supreme Court declared that the seizure of the vessel by the slaves
was not an act of piracy.


Amour, Loi d’.

The name ironically applied to a severely repressive measure against the
Press, introduced in the French Chamber by Peyronnet in 1827.


Amoureux, Guerre des.

The name given to the war between Henry III and Henry of Navarre in
1580. It arose purely out of a court intrigue, and its only event of
importance was the capture of Cahors by the Huguenots.


Ampoule, La Sainte.

The Holy Vase, containing the consecrated oil with which the French
kings were anointed at their coronation at Reims. It was preserved in
the Church of Saint Remi in that city.


Anabaptists.

A fanatical sect which had its rise in Westphalia, early in the
sixteenth century. In 1535 the Anabaptists seized the city of Münster,
and under their leader Boccold, otherwise John of Leyden, who had
arrogated to himself royal prerogatives, they held out for some time
against the forces of the Bishop of Münster. They were, however,
eventually overpowered, and their leaders put to death. Among other
extreme doctrines, they advocated communism and polygamy.


Anarchist Riots, Chicago.

Riots arising out of the Labour agitation in Chicago in the spring of
1886. The Anarchists took advantage of the disturbed condition of the
city, and in the course of a meeting which they summoned, a bomb was
thrown at the police, which was followed by shooting. Sixty police were
wounded. Seven of the rioters, mostly Germans, were convicted of murder.


Ancients, Council of.

The second chamber of the French Directory (1794-1799). It was composed
of 250 members.


Ancon, Treaty of.

A treaty of peace between Chile and Peru, putting an end to the War of
the Pacific, signed in 1883. Chile obtained by this treaty and one
concluded shortly afterwards with Bolivia, the coast region of the
latter state, and the district of Tarapaca in Peru. She further secured
important concessions with regard to the guano deposits.


Andrassy Note.

A note of remonstrance prepared by Count Andrassy, the Austrian Foreign
Minister, and addressed to the Porte in 1876 by the Powers signatory of
the Treaty of Paris, insisting on Turkey fulfilling her engagements.


Anes, Journée des.

The name given by the French to the defeat of the Papal Army, under the
Duke of Urbino, near Bologna, on May 22, 1571, by the Bolognese and the
French men-at-arms. The name was given to this battle on account of the
enormous number of baggage animals captured.


Anglo-Chinese Agreement, 1902.

An agreement between Great Britain and China providing for the abolition
of _Likin_, and an increase of duties at the port of entry, to
compensate for the loss of revenue thus incurred. This agreement,
however, can only come into operation if the other nations having
commercial treaties with China agree to the increase of the import
duties.


Anglo-Dutch Treaty, 1872.

A treaty by which Holland surrendered to Great Britain all her
possessions on the Gold Coast.


Anglo-French Agreement, 1896.

An agreement with respect to Siam, by which Great Britain agreed to the
cession to France of Mongain, and a strip of territory, twenty-five
kilometres wide, on the right bank of the Mekong. Both parties agreed
not to invade the territory left to Siam by this arrangement, and it was
further stipulated that any commercial privileges in Yunnan and
Sze-Chuan accorded by China to either nation should be common to both.


Anglo-German Agreement, 1890.

An agreement, fixing the limits of the spheres of influence of the two
Powers in East, West, and South-West Africa, with the exception of the
southern limit of Walfisch Bay, left open for further inquiry. The
agreement further provided for the cession of Heligoland to Germany, and
the recognition by the latter of Great Britain’s protectorate over
Zanzibar.


Anglo-German Agreement, 1900.

An agreement, also known as the Yang-tse Agreement, signed May 16, 1900,
defining the policy of the two Powers in China. It was agreed to support
the policy of the “Open Door,” and to permit free access for all nations
to the ports, rivers and littorals where the signatories have influence;
to refrain from seeking special territorial advantages, and to oppose
the grant of such to other Powers, the right being reserved to concert
measures in the event of such advantages being sought. Germany has since
declared that she does not consider this agreement to have any bearing
on the Russian occupation of Manchuria.


Anglo-Italian Agreement, 1885.

An agreement by which Great Britain recognizes Italy’s rights to the
East Coast of Africa between Massowah and Obock, and further agrees to
give her her moral support in Tripoli. Italy in return undertakes the
same friendly offices for Great Britain in Egypt.


Anglo-Japanese Agreement, 1902.

An agreement signed in London, January 30, 1902, by which the relations
of the two Powers in the China seas are defined. It is provided that if
one of the signatories be involved in war, in defence of her interests
in these regions, the other shall maintain a strict neutrality, but that
if the belligerent be attacked by a second Power, the other signatory
shall join her ally, and that the war shall thenceforward be conducted
in common, and peace made only by mutual agreement. It is further
stipulated that neither party shall enter into a separate agreement with
another Power, to the prejudice of the joint interests of the allies,
these interests being defined as the maintenance of the territorial
integrity of China and Korea, and the securing therein equal
opportunities for the commerce of all nations.


Anglo-Japanese Treaty, 1895.

A treaty between Great Britain and Japan, signed in 1895, abolishing
extra-territorial jurisdiction in Japan for British subjects. Great
Britain was thus the first European nation to acknowledge the entry of
Japan into the comity of nations. The treaty became operative in 1899.


Anglo-Portuguese Treaty, 1891.

Following the disturbances on the Mashonaland border, where a collision
had taken place between Portuguese troops and British South African
Police, an ultimatum was despatched to Portugal, demanding the
withdrawal of her troops from the disputed territory. A treaty was
subsequently signed delimiting the spheres of influence of the two
Powers and declaring the navigation of the Shiré and the Zambesi open to
all nations, while Portugal agreed to facilitate communication by these
and other river and land routes.


Anglo-Russian Convention, 1825.

A convention by which it was agreed that both Powers should enjoy equal
fishing rights in the Pacific Ocean. A line of demarcation was also
drawn between Alaska and British Columbia, but it was never properly
demarcated, and the vagueness of the boundary has been a fruitful source
of dissension between England and the United States, probably to be
ended by the Alaska Treaty of 1903.


Ankarström’s Conspiracy.

A conspiracy of Swedish nobles, headed by Counts Ribbing and Horn and
Captain Ankarström, to assassinate Gustavus III of Sweden. Captain
Ankarström, who had a personal grievance against the king, shot him at a
masquerade in the Opera House at Stockholm on March 16, 1792.


Annates.

The first year’s income of a benefice, claimed as tribute by the Popes.
This and all other tributes to the Roman See were abolished in England
in the reign of Henry VIII. by the Annates Act, passed in 1534.


Annunziata.

An Italian order of knighthood, holding the third place (after the
Garter and the Golden Fleece) among the orders of chivalry. It was
founded by Amadeus V of Savoy in 1362, and has been twice remodelled,
namely, by Charles III in 1518, and by Victor Emmanuel in 1869. It is
restricted to twenty members, exclusive of royal knights.


Annus Mirabilis.

The year 1666, famous in English history for two decisive victories over
the Dutch fleet, and for the Great Fire of London. Dryden’s poem of this
name commemorates these events.


Anti-Corn Law League.

An association founded in Manchester in 1838, to work for the repeal of
the Corn Laws, which imposed heavy duties on imported corn. Its leaders
were Richard Cobden and Charles Villiers. The agitation bore fruit in
1846, in which year the Act repealing the Corn Laws was passed.


Anti-federalists.

_See_ Federalists.


Antigone, The Modern.

Marie Thérèse, the daughter of Louis XVI, was so called.


Anti-Parnellites.

The majority of the Irish Parliamentary Party, who deposed Mr. Parnell
from the leadership, after the O’Shea divorce case, at the bidding of
Mr. Gladstone and the Irish Bishops.


Anti-Remonstrants.

A party among the Irish Catholics, who declined to sign the Petition of
Remonstrance, drawn up by Peter Walsh, in 1666, protesting against the
belief prevalent in England that toleration of Catholicism was
incompatible with the safety of the State.


Anti-Semitism.

An anti-Jewish crusade which broke out in Eastern Europe in the latter
part of the nineteenth century. It was especially virulent in Russia and
Austria, while in Germany an Anti-Semitic League was formed in Berlin in
1880, to “prevent the Judification of Germany.” The Judenhetze, as it
was called, was carried to such lengths as to call for the interference
of the Emperor. Still later the crusade against the Jews extended to
France, where the anti-Semitic party is strong. As a consequence of this
persecution, thousands of Jews have emigrated from the Continent to
England and to the United States.


Anti-Slavery Society.

A society formed at Philadelphia in 1833, under the presidency of
William Lloyd Garrison, to work for the abolition of slavery in the
United States. It was dissolved in 1870, having accomplished its object.


Anziani.

The Council of the Ancients of Florence, established about the middle of
the thirteenth century, to control all matters relating to the
government the State. It consisted of fourteen leading citizens.


Apologie of William of Orange.

A justification of his actions, presented by William of Orange to the
States-General of Holland in 1580, in reply to the proscription edict of
Philip II. The States declared Philip’s charges against the Prince to be
without foundation.


Appanages (France).

The provision made for the younger sons of the French Kings. It
consisted of feudal lands held by the Crown.


Appanages (Russia).

The Russian Imperial estates are so called.


Apparel, Statutes of.

A series of sumptuary laws, passed about 1540, regulating the dress of
the labouring and farming classes.


Appeals, Act of.

An Act passed in 1533, under Henry VIII, declaring the Church of England
capable of dealing with its own spiritual questions, and forbidding
appeals to any dignitary higher than the Archbishop.


Apprentices, Statute of.

A statute of Elizabeth, passed in 1563, by which no person was permitted
to exercise a trade in England unless he had previously served an
apprenticeship to it of seven years.


Apprenticeship (Transvaal).

This question was much debated in England in the early seventies, some
people alleging that the apprenticeship of black children was a covert
form of slavery, especially as indentures were transferable before a
landdrost. On the annexation of the country in 1877, however, it was
found that the charge was quite groundless.


Arabi’s Rebellion.

This revolt arose originally from a quarrel between the Circassian and
the Arab officers of the Egyptian Army in 1881. Three Arab colonels, one
of them Arabi, headed a successful mutiny, demanding a change at the
Ministry of War, which was controlled entirely by the Circassians. Later
in the year further trouble arose, and Arabi, supported by the whole
army, obtained the appointment of Under Secretary, and subsequently that
of War Minister. By June, 1882, he was practically a military dictator,
and commenced fortifying Alexandria. An ultimatum from the British
Government was without effect, and Alexandria was bombarded by the
British fleet. The defeat of Arabi at Tel-el-Kebir put an end to the
rebellion.


Aragon, Privilege of.

A charter granted to the nobles of Aragon by Alfonso III in 1287. It
gave them a constitutional right to federate against the king, if he
infringed their immunities, and at need to depose him and elect a
successor. The Privilege was withdrawn by Pedro IV in 1348.


Arbitration Court.

_See_ Hague Congress.


Arbitrations.

_See_ Alabama, Amiens, Behring Sea, Caroline Islands, Keate, San Juan,
Venezuela.


Argonauts of Forty-nine.

The name given to the early settlers in California after the discovery
of gold in 1849. They are also called Fortyniners.


Arima, Rebellion of.

A rising of his dependents against the Daimio of Arima, which was joined
by a large number of Japanese Christians. The rebels were finally
subdued in 1658, the Shôgun having had recourse to the Dutch for help,
and the result was the complete suppression of Christianity in Japan.


Arkansas Civil War.

A dispute, in 1874, between the factions of Brooks and Baxter, each of
whom claimed to be the duly elected Governor of Arkansas and was backed
by an armed force, dignified by the name of the State Militia. It was
found necessary to call out United States troops, whereupon Baxter
relieved the situation by withdrawing.


Armagh, Synod of.

A Synod of the Irish Prelates, held in 1170, at which, in view of the
threatened English invasion, it was resolved to release all English
captives held in slavery.


Armagnac War.

The war between Frederick III of Germany and the Swiss in 1444, so
called because Frederick’s forces were principally composed of
mercenaries who had been engaged in the French civil war on the Armagnac
side.


Armagnacs.

The party of the Orleans Princes in the French civil war, which broke
out in 1410, during the reign of the imbecile Charles VI. Their
opponents, the Burgundians, succeeded in obtaining possession of Paris
by treachery in 1418, and the Armagnac leaders were captured and thrown
into prison. The Paris mob, always hostile to this party, broke into the
prisons and murdered all the prisoners. In this affair, which is known
as the Massacre of the Armagnacs, it is said that 3,500 persons
perished, including the Comte d’Armagnac, the Chancellor, and many
nobles and members of the Parlement.


Armatoli.

A body of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Sultans of Turkey from
the fifteenth to the early nineteenth centuries.


Armed Neutrality.

A league of the northern nations of Europe, formed under the leadership
of Prussia and Russia in 1870, to contest the right of search exercised
by British ships of war over neutrals. The contentions of the league
were that the flag covers the merchandise, except in the case of
contraband of war, and that a blockade must be effective to be
respected.


Armenian Massacres.

In 1895 and 1896 terrible massacres of the Armenians took place in
Anatolia, at the hands of the Kurds, who were probably aided, and
certainly not hindered, by the regular Turkish garrison. In 1896, on the
ground that a dangerous conspiracy was on foot, the authorities connived
at a massacre of Armenians in Constantinople, in which over two thousand
are believed to have perished. This produced a strong joint protest from
the Powers, followed by the re-establishment of some semblance of order
in the disturbed districts.


Arminians.

The followers of Arminius, a Leyden professor, in the early part of the
seventeenth century, who dissented from the strict Calvinism of the
Dutch Protestants, and endeavoured to introduce a milder system. By a
decree of the Synod of Dort, in 1618, the Arminian preachers were
banished, while the Great Pensioner, Barneveldt, the chief lay supporter
of the sect, was executed. The English High Church party in the reign of
Charles I were sometimes called Arminians.


Army Plot.

An abortive conspiracy in the army, in 1641, under Wilmot, the
Commissary-General, formed, with the connivance of Charles I, to overawe
the Parliament. Goring, one of the ringleaders, becoming dissatisfied,
betrayed the plot to Pym, but by that time the conspirators had already
decided against active measures.


Army Purchase.

The system of purchase of commissions in the army was abolished by an
Act of Parliament introduced by Mr. Cardwell in 1871.


Arrabiati.

The party of the Medici, during the existence of the Florentine
Republic, established in 1493.


Arras, Congress of.

The first instance of a congress of the European Powers, held at Arras
in 1435. All the leading States were represented, and an attempt was
made to settle the peace of Europe, but the rival claims of France and
England, the two countries most immediately concerned, proved
irreconcilable, and no solution was arrived at.


Arras, Treaty of.

During the Congress of Arras, in 1435, France succeeded in detaching
Burgundy from the English alliance, and a treaty was signed by which the
Duke of Burgundy acknowledged the sovereignty of Charles VII, but
stipulated that he himself should be freed from personal homage during
his own and Charles’ lifetime. In return his claim was admitted to the
Boulonnais, and he received Mâcon, Arcis-sur-Aube and Auxerre. Burgundy
renounced the English alliance, and France that of the Emperor.


Arrière Fief.

Land held by the vassal of a vassal is an arrière fief of the overlord.


Artels.

Associations of workmen in Russia, living and working together, and
dividing the profits of each job. They are sometimes of a temporary
nature and sometimes more nearly resembling a guild, as in the case of
the bank porters, where the association is responsible to the employers
for the acts of its members.


Articles.

_See_ Eleven, Five, Forty-two, Henry, Lambeth, Louvain, Nine,
Schmalkald, Six, Ten, Thirty-nine, Thirty-three.


Articles, Lords of the.

The Committee which prepared measures to be submitted to the Scottish
Parliament was so called.


Articles of Henry.

_See_ Pacta Conventa.


Articles of Prague.

The confession of faith of the Hussites, issued by John Zisca in 1420.


Articuli super Cartas.

Twenty clauses added to Magna Charta, when it was confirmed by Edward I
during the Parliament of 1300. The most important are those dealing with
purveyance, the jurisdiction of the officers of the Crown, and the jury
system.


Arya Somaj.

A Hindu sect founded by Dayânandu Sarasvati (died 1882). While reforming
many of the grosser superstitions of the Brahminical faith, its
followers still hold by the doctrinal teachings of the Vedas.


Aschaffenburg, Concordat of.

An agreement between the Emperor Ferdinand III and Pope Nicholas V, in
1448, regulating the Papal rights in ecclesiastical matters in Germany.
The Pope surrendered the right of appointing arbitrarily to all
benefices, but retained it for those falling in during each alternate
six months. He retained the annates, and gave the chapters the right of
electing to bishoprics, except in the case of translations, or of the
appointment of some notoriously unfit person.


Ashbourne’s Act, Lord.

_See_ Irish Land Act, 1885.


Ashburton Treaty.

A treaty between England and the United States, signed in 1842, finally
settling the boundary line between Canada and the States. This treaty is
also known as the Treaty of Washington.


Asiento.

The right to trade in slaves with the American Colonies was claimed by
Spain, and was at different periods granted by treaty to France or to
England. The permission thus granted was known as the Asiento.


Assassination Plot.

A Jacobite plot in 1696, to assassinate William III. He was to be shot
while returning from hunting in Richmond Forest. It is probable that
James was privy to it, but the actual ringleader was Sir George Barclay.
The plot was discovered, and several of the leaders convicted and
executed.


Assassins.

The followers of the Old Man of the Mountain, Hassan ben Sabah, who
founded the sect on the borders of the Caspian Sea about 1090. The motto
of the Society was “To the faithful nothing is forbidden,” and its
adherents were guilty of the foulest murders. Among its other well-known
victims was Conrad of Montferrat, in 1192.


Assertion of the Seven Sacraments.

The book written by Henry VIII against Luther, which procured for him
from Leo X the title of Defender of the Faith.


Assignats.

An issue of paper money authorized by the French National Assembly in
December, 1789, secured on the lands and buildings of the church, which
were to be confiscated and sold. They were largely forged by Royalists
and others, and went to an extraordinary discount; thus in February,
1796, a gold louis of 20 francs was worth on the Paris Bourse 5,300
francs in assignats.


Assize of Arms.

A reorganization of the old Militia of England, carried out by Henry II
in 1181.


Assize of Bread.

An ordinance of Henry III of England in 1266, regulating the prices to
be charged by bakers, in accordance with the fluctuations in the value
of corn.


Assize of Clarendon.

An ordinance issued by Henry II in 1166, to provide for the trial of
criminal cases in the Shire Courts. It was ordained that twelve men
should be selected from each hundred, and four from each township, to
determine whether there were any criminals in their district, and if so
to present them for trial. This is the origin of the Grand Jury system.
This Assize also abolished trial by compurgation.


Assize of Northampton.

An ordinance issued by Henry II in 1176, confirming and strengthening
the Assize of Clarendon.


Assize of Woodstock.

An ordinance issued by Henry II in 1184, containing regulations for the
government of the royal forests. Many of the rules were very oppressive,
and were considerably modified by the Charter of Forests, in 1217.


Association, The.

A bond drawn up by the Council and nobles of England in 1584, whereby
the signatories bound themselves to take arms against all who should
attempt to harm the person of Queen Elizabeth. It was signed by
Catholics and Protestants alike, and Parliament was speedily summoned to
endorse it.


Association, The.

A union of the Eastern counties, formed in 1643, with the object of
keeping the civil war beyond its borders.


Association Treaty.

A treaty, signed in 1682, between Holland, Sweden, the Emperor and
certain German Princes, pledging the signatories to defend the treaties
of Utrecht and Nimeguen. It provided that any of the contracting parties
accused of violating the provisions of these treaties should submit the
matter to the arbitration of the other signatories, who, in the event of
his refusal, agreed to unite against him in arms. Similar provisions
were agreed to to meet the case of a non-signatory power violating the
peace of Europe and refusing to submit to arbitration.


Associations Act, Ireland.

An Act passed in 1826, directed mainly against the Catholic Association.
It restricted the right of meeting of political associations, and
forbade the levying of subscriptions or the administration of oaths.


Associations Law, 1833.

A law passed by the French Government in 1833, forbidding any
association, even literary or religious, to exist without Government
authorization.


Associations Law, 1901.

A law passed by the French Assembly in 1901, requiring all religious
associations engaged in teaching or charitable work to apply to the
Government for authorization. It was specially aimed at associations
like the Assumptionist Fathers, who had taken an active part in politics
in opposition to the Government. In 1902 the law was strenuously
enforced by M. Combes, the French Premier, against many harmless
communities of nuns and others engaged in teaching, causing serious
disturbances in Brittany and other Catholic centres.


Assurance, The.

A form of oath exacted in Scotland after the accession of William III
from all persons holding positions of trust. It set forth that William
was King not only _de facto_ but _de jure_ and by just title, and was
intended to discriminate, in the Church, between those Episcopalians who
were at heart Jacobites, and those who were honestly ready to accept the
new régime. About a hundred Episcopalian divines took the oath, and were
permitted to retain their benefices.


Assured Lords.

The Scottish lords captured at Solway Moss, and allowed to return to
Scotland under the obligation to further the interests of Henry VIII, in
1542. Among them were the Earl of Angus, Lords Cassilis, Glencairn, and
Maxwell.


Assysthement.

The ancient Scottish law of the assessment of the value of a life, to be
paid by the murderer.


Astor Place Riot.

A serious riot in New York in 1849, arising out of a dispute between
Macready, the English actor, and Edwin Forest, the American actor. A mob
of 20,000 men attacked the Astor Place Opera House, where Macready was
playing in “Macbeth,” and it was found necessary to call out the troops
in order to quell the disturbance.


Ataman.

The chief of a community of Cossacks. The office was elective.


Ateliers Nationaux.

Government workshops established in Paris in 1848 to provide work for
the unemployed. Within the year the workers rose against the Government,
and erected barricades in the streets of Paris. They were, however,
promptly suppressed by General Cavaignac, and their leaders arrested and
condemned to transportation.


Attainder, Act of.

An Act passed by the Irish Parliament, summoned by James after the
landing of William III in England in 1689. The Act contained a list of
between two and three thousand names, and was made the vehicle of many
private vengeances.


Attalik Ghazi.

The title bestowed on Yakoub Beg, the leader of the revolt against China
in Kashgar in 1870. The revolt was suppressed in 1877, after the death
of Yakoub Beg.


Atterbury’s Plot.

A Jacobite plot to depose George I in 1722, and to place the old
Pretender, James Edward, on the throne. The ringleaders were Lord
Orrery, Lord North, Lord Gower, and Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester. The
plot included a plan for an expedition under James and Lord Ormonde, to
sail from Spain. The scheme, however, was disclosed to the British
Minister in Paris, and the leaders, including Atterbury, were arrested.


Audiencias.

The final courts of appeal in South America, under Spanish rule. They
were eleven in number, and in addition to their judicial functions,
acted as advisory boards to the Viceroys and Captains-General.


Augmentations, Court of.

A Court appointed by Henry VIII, after the dissolution of the
monasteries, to deal with all questions arising out of the confiscation
of the Church Lands.


Augsburg, Confession of.

A statement of the Protestant doctrine drawn up by Melancthon at the
Diet of Augsburg, in 1529.


Augsburg, League of.

A league between the Emperor, Spain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Bavaria,
and the circles of Suabia and Franconia, formed in 1682, to preserve the
peace of Europe against the encroachments of Louis XIV. The war, which
began in 1688 and was ended by the Peace of Ryswick in 1697, is known as
the War of the League of Augsburg.


Augsburg, Peace of.

_See_ Religious Peace.


Aulic Council.

A tribunal established by the Emperor Maximilian I in 1501. It was
reorganized by Rudolf II, to deal with questions arising out of the
interpretation of the Peace of Augsburg, during the counter-reformation
in Germany. The Council accompanied the Emperor, having no fixed place
of meeting, and was almost entirely under the domination of the Court,
and thoroughly Catholic in its tendencies.


Aurum Reginae.

_See_ Queen’s Gold.


Ausculta Fili, Bull.

A bull, also known as the Greater Bull, issued by Pope Boniface VIII
against Philip IV of France in 1302. It calls on Philip to cease his
opposition to the claims of the Church, and reminds him that he holds
his throne only by the goodwill of the Pope. The bull was publicly burnt
in Philip’s presence.


Ausgleich.

The agreement settling the economic relations between Austria and
Hungary. The first Ausgleich was signed in 1867, for a period of ten
years, and was renewed with slight variations in 1877 and 1887. The
Austrian Reichsrath refused to sanction the Ausgleich of 1897, and it
was promulgated by what is known as the Dictatorship paragraph of the
Austrian Constitution, in other words by Imperial decree. In 1899 it was
amended by the Szell formula, by which M. Szell, the Hungarian premier,
stipulated that if the Ausgleich were not formally renewed before the
end of 1902, the economic union between the two countries should come to
an end in 1907. On New Year’s Eve, 1902, a new Ausgleich, to run for ten
years, was agreed to by the Austrian and Hungarian Premiers.


Austin Riots.

An outbreak of the Coloured League against the White League, at Austin,
Mississippi, in 1874. Several sanguinary engagements took place, in
which the blacks were worsted, and many killed.


Austrägal Court.

A court consisting of several members of the Germanic Confederation,
convened to decide whether questions pending between one of the
Confederated States and a foreign power could be taken up by the
Confederation as a whole.


Australasian League.

A society established in Melbourne in 1851, under the auspices of the
Rev. John West, to secure “by moral means only” the abolition of the
transportation of convicts to any part of the Australasian continent.


Australian Colonies Act.

An Act passed in 1849, separating Victoria from New South Wales, and
providing a constitution for the new colony, as well as for Tasmania,
South Australia, and (subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions)
Western Australia.


Australian Commonwealth Act.

An Act to give force to the Constitution drafted by Australian statesmen
for the union into a Commonwealth of the Colonies of New South Wales,
Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Western Australia, and Tasmania,
power being reserved to New Zealand to enter the union if she so desire.
The Act provides for the establishment of a central Government, with the
control of the customs, postage, and certain other matters, each colony
retaining its own Parliament, with power to manage its internal affairs
as before. Considerable difference of opinion arose as to the right of
appeal from the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth to the Privy Council,
and it was finally enacted that in the case of constitutional questions
affecting the rights of the Commonwealth or individual States no appeal
should lie, unless the Supreme Court certified that the matter was one
which should be determined by the Privy Council.


Austrian Succession, War of the.

The war which broke out in 1741, in connexion with the Pragmatic
Sanction of Charles VI. It was ended by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in
1748.


Auto de fe.

The Act of Faith, the name given to the ceremony which accompanied the
execution of persons condemned for heresy by the Inquisition in Spain
and Portugal. The last Auto de Fe took place at Valencia, in 1826.


Avignon Captivity.

The period of seventy years during which the Popes resided at Avignon,
practically in a condition of vassalage to the French Crown. It lasted
from 1305 to 1377, or from the Papacy of Clement V to that of Gregory
XI. It is also known as the Babylonish Captivity.


Avignon, Reunion of.

From the time of the return of the Popes to Rome in 1377, until 1791,
Avignon was, with certain short intervals, governed by Papal Legates. In
the latter year, by a decree of the National Assembly, it was reunited
to France, and this reunion was acknowledged by the Pope, by the Treaty
of Tolentino in 1797.


Ayankeeados.

The name given by the Mexicans to the sympathizers with America during
the Mexican War of 1846.



B


Babington Plot.

A plot set on foot by Babington and a Jesuit, named Ballard, in 1585, to
assassinate Queen Elizabeth. Letters secured by Walsingham were said to
have proved the complicity of Mary Queen of Scots, and led to her
imprisonment at Fotheringay, and subsequent trial and execution.


Babylonish Captivity.

_See_ Avignon.


Back Lane Parliament.

An assembly of Delegates from the whole of Ireland, which met in Dublin
in 1792. They prepared an address expressing their loyalty to the
throne, and asking for the franchise.


Baconists.

The Liberal Party in Virginia in 1676, who rose in rebellion under
Nathaniel Bacon. The name was afterwards adopted by the Maryland
Liberals in 1678.


Badger State.

The popular name of the State of Wisconsin, U.S.A., from the badger in
its coat of arms.


Badinguet.

A nickname of Napoleon III. It was the name of the workman in whose
clothes he escaped from the Château of Ham, in 1846.


Bag and Baggage Policy.

The policy advocated in speech and pamphlet by Mr. Gladstone in 1876
(while in opposition), at the time of the Bulgarian Atrocities. It was
to the effect that if Turkey would not reform the administration of her
Christian provinces, she must be turned out of Europe “bag and baggage.”


Bagimont’s Roll.

A valuation of the ecclesiastical benefices of Scotland, compiled by
Bagimont of Vicci in 1274. On this valuation the tithes payable to the
Roman See were computed, up to the time of the Reformation.


Bailli.

In French feudal times the bailli was the representative of the king in
the territories of the great feudal lords. He held a court which took
cognizance of matters concerning the rights of the Crown, and outside
the jurisdiction of the feudal courts.


Baiser de Lamourette.

A reconciliation between the extreme parties in the French Legislative
Assembly in 1792, effected by the persuasive eloquence of Lamourette,
Bishop of Lyons. It was purely emotional and irrational, and only lasted
a few days. It is also called the Norman Reconciliation.


Balafré, Le.

The sobriquet of Henry de Guise (1550-1589).


Balkan Agreement.

An agreement between Austria and Russia, officially communicated to the
Balkan States in 1897, by which the parties announced their intention of
maintaining the _status quo_ in the Balkan Peninsula.


Ballarat Reform League.

An association of miners, formed at Ballarat (Victoria) in 1854, to
agitate for reforms in the administration of the goldfields, as well as
for certain political reforms, including manhood suffrage, payment of
members, and short Parliaments. The more militant members eventually
took up arms against the Government.


Ballot Act.

The Act to substitute secret for open voting at Parliamentary elections
was passed in 1871.


Banbury Man.

A term applied to the Puritans during the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries.


Banda Oriental.

The old name of the Republic of Uruguay.


Bandes d’Ordonnance.

A body of 3,000 cavalry which formed the only standing army of the
Netherlands, circ. 1550.


Bank Charter Act, 1833.

An Act renewing the charter of the Bank of England, originally granted
in 1694. It made the notes of the bank legal tender, and provided that
the notes issued should bear to the specie in hand a ratio not exceeding
three to one.


Bank Charter Act, 1844.

By this Act it was provided that the Bank of England should not issue
notes in excess of £14,000,000, unless a corresponding reserve of specie
were held. It also restricted the note issue of other banks, and
provided that no banks established after the passing of the Act should
have the right to issue notes.


Bar, Confederation of.

A league of Polish nobles, formed in 1876, with the object of dethroning
Stanislas Augustus (Poniatowski), and freeing the country from foreign
influence.


Barbarossa.

Frederick II, Emperor of Germany (1152-1190), so called from his red
beard.


Barbons.

The name given to Sillery, Jeannin, and Villeroy, the veteran
councillors of Louis XIII, circ. 1612.


Barcelona, Treaty of, 1493.

A treaty between Charles VIII of France and Ferdinand and Isabella of
Spain, by which Roussillon and Cerdagne were restored to the Crown of
Arragon.


Barcelona, Treaty of, 1529.

A treaty between Charles V and Pope Clement VII, by which the Emperor
undertook to proceed to Rome to receive the crown at the Pope’s hands,
and to take all the steps in his power to check the spread of the
reformed religion.


Bardo, Treaty of.

A treaty between France and Tunis, signed in 1861. The Bey recognized
the French right to occupy military positions securing the frontier and
the sea coast. France in return guaranteed to the Bey his personal
security, and that of his dynasty and dominions. She also undertook the
due execution of all treaty obligations to foreign powers, but for the
future reserved the right to control all the international relations of
the Bey.


Barebone’s Parliament.

A Parliament summoned by Cromwell on July 4, 1653, which lasted only
till December 12 of the same year. It took its name from one of its
members, a leather merchant named Praise-God Barebone, and it was also
known as the Little Parliament.


Bari, Council of.

At this council, summoned by Pope Urban II in 1098, the orthodox
doctrine of the Holy Ghost was established.


Barmecides.

A celebrated Persian family, who rose to the highest offices of state
under the Abbaside Khalifs. One of their number, Jaafar, was the
favourite Vizier of Haroun-al-Raschid. For some reason not sufficiently
explained by the Arab historians, Haroun, without warning, caused the
whole family, numbering over a thousand, to be massacred in 802.


Barnburners.

Bands of agricultural labourers who, from 1830 to 1833, endeavoured, by
burning ricks and farm buildings, to terrorize the landlords into the
concession of improved conditions. The threatening letters written to
their employers were generally signed “Captain Swing.”


Barnburners.

A name given to the Radical wing of the Democratic party in New York in
1844. The Barnburners joined the Freesoilers in 1848.


Baroda Commission.

A commission appointed in 1875, composed of three Europeans and three
natives, to investigate the charge against the Gaekwar of Baroda of
attempting to poison Colonel Phayre, the English Resident. The
commission disagreed, the Englishmen considering the charge proved,
while the natives were of the contrary opinion. Lord Northbrook,
however, decided on deposing him.


Barons, League of the.

A league of the Barons of Northern France, under Peter, Count of
Brittany, during the regency of Blanche of Castile, in support of the
rights of their order against the usurpations of the Crown.


Barons’ War.

The war which broke out under Simon de Montfort in 1263, in consequence
of the failure of Henry III to fulfil his various engagements to his
Barons. The war lasted till 1267, though only desultory fighting took
place after the death of de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265.


Barrackpur Mutiny.

A mutiny of the 42nd Native Infantry Regiment in 1826, the reason
assigned being the harsh treatment to which they were subjected by their
officers. The mutiny was promptly suppressed.


Barricades, Journée des.

May 12, 1588, on which date Henri III sent his Swiss Guards to oppose
the return to Paris of Henri de Guise. The Parisian mob formed
barricades of paving stones, from behind which they shot down the Swiss.
The same name has been given to other days on which the Parisians have
erected barricades against the constituted authorities.


Barrier Treaty, First.

A treaty between England and Holland, signed in 1709, by which Holland
agreed to recognize the Protestant succession in England, and to make
the expulsion of the Pretender a _sine qua non_ of peace with France. In
return England guaranteed to Holland a barrier line of strong places,
including Nieuport, Lille, Ryssel, Tournay, Maubeuge, Charleroi and
Namur.


Barrier Treaty, Second.

A treaty between England and the Netherlands signed in 1713, by which
the line of fortresses, as set out in the Barrier Treaty of 1709, was
altered, somewhat to the disadvantage of the Dutch. The Treaty of
Utrecht in the same year confirmed the principle of the Barrier.


Barwalde, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1631 between Louis XIII. and Gustavus Adolphus,
providing for the security of the Ocean and the Baltic, with liberty of
commerce to the ships of both nations. It was also provided that the
forts on both seas and in the Canton of the Grisons should be
demolished.


Bashi-Bazouks.

Turkish irregular troops, generally recruited amongst the Kurds and
other Asiatic tribes in the Ottoman Empire. They became notorious during
the Bulgarian atrocities of 1875.


Basilikon Doron.

A book written in 1599 by James VI of Scotland (afterwards James I of
England), containing advice on the art of government, and intended for
the instruction of his eldest son, Henry.


Basle, Council of.

A council summoned by Martin V, but held under Eugenius IV, in 1433. The
council abolished many of the privileges claimed by the Popes,
including annates and the reservation of benefices. Finding the Pope
obdurate in his refusal to accept their decrees, they suspended and
finally deposed him.


Basle Treaties.

Two treaties made by Napoleon with Prussia and Spain respectively in
1795, by which he detached these two powers from the European coalition.
His bribe to Prussia was the withdrawal of the French troops from the
right bank of the Rhine, while the inducement offered to Spain was the
return to her of the Spanish half of the island of San Domingo.


Basle, Treaty of.

A treaty between Austria and the Swiss Cantons in 1499, whereby the
virtual independence of the thirteen cantons was recognized.


Bassein, Treaty of.

A treaty between the British and Baji Rao II, Peshwa of Poonah, signed
in 1802. The Peshwa agreed to receive a subsidiary force, and to pay for
its maintenance; to admit into the Mahratta States no European hostile
to England; to surrender all claims to Surat, and to remain the faithful
ally of the English. This treaty practically put an end to the Mahratta
independence.


Bastard of Orleans.

Jean Dunois (natural son of Louis of Orleans), the famous French general
(1402-1468), was so called.


Bastille.

The famous state prison of Paris, built in 1370 by Charles V, and
destroyed by the mob in 1789, at the beginning of the French Revolution.


Bates’ Case.

A case decided in 1606, in the reign of James I, in which the judges
held that it was lawful for the King to raise the customs duties without
the consent of Parliament.


Bath, Order of the.

An order of knighthood, founded by Henry IV in 1399. From the time of
Charles I it lapsed, until revived by George I in 1725 as a military
order, which it remained until 1845, when it was established on its
present basis with a military and a civil division.


Bats, Parliament of.

_See_ Club Parliament.


Battles.

_See_ Brothers, Chapter of Mitton, Clan Chattan, Clouds, Death Ride,
Dingaan, Dysiefald, Eperons, Field of Mourning, Giants, Glorious,
Herrings, Last, Loose Coat, Nations, Seven Days, Soldiers, Spurs,
Standard, Thirty, Three Emperors.


Bavarian Succession, War of the.

A war between Austria and Prussia, arising out of the failure of the
male line of the Bavarian princely house. No fighting took place, and
the pending questions were settled by the Peace of Teschen in 1779.


Bay State.

A name given to the State of Massachusetts, U.S.A., from the old name of
the Colony, namely “Massachusetts Bay.”


Bayonne Decree.

A decree issued by Napoleon in 1808, ordering that all foreign vessels
then in French ports should be seized.


Bayou State.

The State of Mississippi, U.S.A., is so called from the number of creeks
or bayous along its shores.


Bear State.

Arkansas, U.S.A., is so called from the bears that in former days
infested its forests.


Béarnais, Le.

Henri IV of France was so called from Béarn, his native province.


Beau Sabreur, Le.

The sobriquet of Joachim Murat, Napoleon’s best cavalry leader, created
by him King of Naples.


Beauclerc.

The sobriquet of Henry I of England, in allusion to his scholarship,
which was superior to that of most mediæval monarchs.


Bec, Compromise of.

An arrangement between Henry I and Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, in
1106, by which the long standing dispute as to the King’s right of
investiture was settled. By this arrangement the King retained the right
of exacting from the Bishops the oath of fealty and homage, surrendering
the purely formal right of bestowing the ring and crozier.


Bedchamber Question.

The difficulty that arose between Queen Victoria and Sir Robert Peel, on
the resignation of the Melbourne Ministry in 1839. Through some
misunderstanding the Queen thought that Peel wished her to change all
the ladies holding Court appointments, a step she refused to take. It
ended in Peel refusing to take office, and Lord Melbourne coming back.


Bedford Protest.

A protest signed by a hastily summoned meeting of the minority of the
House of Lords in March, 1766, on the night that the repeal of the Stamp
Act, imposing stamp duties on the American Colonies, passed that House.
The signatories to the protest were headed by the Duke of Bedford.


Beggars, The.

_See_ Gueux.


Beggars of the Sea.

A company of Dutch privateersmen, commissioned by the Prince of Orange,
circ. 1570, to prey upon Spanish commerce. Their chief was William de la
Marck.


Beggars, The Wild.

A brotherhood of freebooters, who, under the guise of a revolutionary
faction, infested the Netherlands about 1568.


Behring Sea Fisheries.

The question as to the right of Canadian sealers to capture seals in
Behring Sea (known as Pelagic Sealing), after being long in dispute, was
submitted to arbitration in 1892. The United States claimed to have
acquired from Russia, by the purchase of Alaska, the exclusive right to
the seal fisheries of the Behring Sea, alleging that this right had
always been claimed by Russia, without protest from Great Britain, and
that their interest in the seal herd justified them in putting a stop
to pelagic sealing. In 1893 the arbitrators decided that the United
States had not acquired any such exclusive right. Further, as authorized
by the terms of the reference, they made the following regulations: all
sealing within sixty maritime miles of the Probyloff Islands to be
forbidden; a close time for seals to be established, and all sealing
vessels to be licensed.


Bekcagsog, Convention of.

A treaty between Great Britain and Sweden, by which Great Britain
undertook to pay 12,000 men to be employed in Pomerania in aid of the
coalition against Napoleon in 1805.


Bel Anglais, Le.

A name given by the French to John Churchill, the great Duke of
Marlborough.


Belgian Neutrality Treaty.

The neutrality of Belgium being threatened by the Franco-German War in
1870, treaties were signed by Great Britain with France and Germany
respectively, by which the belligerents agreed to respect the neutrality
of Belgium during the war and for one year after its close, from which
date the Treaty of London of 1839 was again to become operative.


Belgrade, Treaty of.

A treaty between Austria and Russia on the one hand, and Turkey on the
other, by which Austria surrendered Wallachia and Servia, while Russia
withdrew from her conquests in Moldavia and Bessarabia, and renounced
her rights of navigation in the Black Sea. This treaty was signed in
1739, after the capture of Belgrade by the Turks.


Bell the Cat.

The sobriquet of Archibald Douglas, the “great” Earl of Angus, which he
earned by undertaking to take the lead in removing James III of Scotland
from the pernicious influence of Cochrane, Earl of Mar, in 1481.


Belski.

One of the two factions of nobles who between them ruled Russia during
the minority of Ivan IV (The Terrible), circ. 1533. The other faction
was that of the Chouiski.


Belted Will.

Lord William Howard (1563-1640), Warden of the Marches, was so called.


Benares, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1773 between Warren Hastings and the Vizier of Oude,
by which it was stipulated that an English force should be lent to Oude
for service against the Rohillas, the Vizier paying forty lacs down and
two lacs per month for their services. Further, Hastings agreed to cede
Oorah and Allahabad to Oude, in return for an annual tribute of fifty
lacs of rupees.


Benedictines.

The first regular monastic order, founded by St. Benedict in 527.


Benefit of Clergy.

The right claimed by the Church to withdraw its members from the
jurisdiction of the secular courts, to be dealt with by the
ecclesiastical courts. In the dark ages “clerk” was held to cover all
who could read, but with the spread of education after the Renaissance,
the abuse of this definition became intolerable, and in 1532, an act was
passed limiting the right of pleading benefit of clergy, in cases of
felony, to those of the rank of sub-deacon and above.


Benevolences.

An arbitrary method of taxation without the consent of Parliament,
introduced by Edward IV of England. Benevolences were declared illegal
by the Parliament of Richard III.


Bengal Land Law.

An Indian Act passed in 1859, by which the proprietary rights of the
cultivators under the Zemindari system in Bengal were recognized with
certain restrictions.


Bengal Mutiny.

An agitation in the East India Company’s regiments in 1795-6 for the
assimilation of the conditions of pay and pensions to those established
by Lord Cornwallis in the Civil Service. The Company handled the matter
with very little discretion, promoting one of the leading malcontents to
an important post, but Lord Wellesley on his arrival took stern
measures, and the embryo mutiny quickly subsided.


Bergara, Convention of.

The surrender of the Carlists under General Maroto in 1839, which ended
the great Carlist war.


Berlin Congress.

A congress held at Berlin in 1878, after the conclusion of the
Russo-Turkish war. The outcome of the Congress was a Treaty, which
modified the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano. By its provisions
Roumania, Servia and Montenegro were made independent States, the latter
also obtaining a port on the Adriatic. The northern portion of Bulgaria
was made a self-governing State, under the suzerainty of the Porte, and
the southern portion, known as Eastern Roumelia, remained Turkish
territory, but under a Christian governor. Austria was to administer
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Roumania returned a portion of Bessarabia to
Russia, while in Asia Turkey ceded Ardalian, Kars, and Batoum to Russia.
It is of this treaty that Lord Beaconsfield used the famous phrase “We
have brought back Peace with Honour.”


Berlin Decree.

A decree issued by Napoleon in 1806, proclaiming the Continental
Blockade.


Berserker.

The bravest champions of the Vikings were so called, perhaps because
they fought in their shirts, without coats of mail. They seem in battle
to have worked themselves into a kind of frenzy, known as the Berserk
rage, somewhat resembling that of the Mohammedan “Ghazi.”


Berwick, Treaty of.

A treaty between Charles I and the Scotch in 1639, following Charles’
abortive attempt to invade Scotland, by which it was agreed that a free
Scottish Parliament should be held, in return for which concession the
royal castles were to be returned, and the army of the Covenanters
disbanded.


Bessborough Commission.

A commission, under the chairmanship of the Earl of Bessborough,
appointed to report on the Irish Land Laws. Following on its report, Mr.
Gladstone introduced the Irish Land Bill of 1891.


Betterment.

The increase in the value of property in a certain limited area, owing
to municipal improvements, such as roads and bridges. Certain municipal
reformers advocate the levying of a special rate from persons thus
benefiting, instead of throwing the whole cost of the improvements upon
the ratepayers as a body.


Betting Act.

_See_ Cockburn’s Act.


Bezaaygeld.

A tax levied in Holland about the middle of the eighteenth century on
seed put into the ground.


Bianchi.

A sect of fanatics who appeared in Italy in 1399. They dressed always in
long white garments, and lived entirely on bread and water. They are
said to have brought about a remarkable improvement in the morals of the
time, but they were nevertheless opposed by the Pope.


Bianchi and Neri.

The two factions of the Guelf party in Florence, circ. 1300. Modern
Italian society is divided into sections, also bearing these two names,
of which the former are supporters of the House of Savoy, while the
latter uphold the temporal claims of the Vatican.


Biatagh.

A tenant in Ireland, in the Celtic times, who held his land on the
tenure of providing hospitality for travellers.


Bien Aimé, Le.

The sobriquet of Louis XV of France (1715-1774).


Bien Public, Guerre du.

An insurrection against Louis XI of certain malcontent nobles, aided by
the Dukes of Burgundy, Brittany, and Bourbon. It was ended by the Treaty
of Conflans, in 1465.


Big Beggarman.

Daniel O’Connell was so called by the Irish landlords.


Bill of Right.

The Act passed by the Convention Parliament in 1689, embodying as a
statute the Declaration of Rights accepted by William III.


Bills of Exchange Act.

An Act passed in 1882, codifying the various acts and decisions relating
to Bills of Exchange. It is practically the only codification in the law
of Great Britain.


Bimetallists.

The advocates of a monetary system which would place gold and silver on
the same basis for coinage purposes, by making silver legal tender to
any amount, and establishing a fixed ratio of value between the two
metals.


Birkenhead, Wreck of the.

The Birkenhead, a troopship, was wrecked near the Cape of Good Hope in
1852. There were not sufficient boats to save all on board, and while
the women and children were all saved, the troops stood to attention on
the main deck, and went down with the ship.


Birmingham Riots.

An outbreak in Birmingham in 1791, directed against Dr. Priestley, who
had organized a dinner of sympathizers with the French Revolution, to
celebrate the anniversary of the fall of the Bastille. Dr. Priestley’s
house and library were wrecked.


Biron’s Plot.

An attempt by the Baron de Biron, one of the King’s most trusted
generals, to unite the Catholic and Huguenot malcontents against Henri
IV, in conjunction with a league of Spain and Savoy against the French
king. The plot was betrayed by a subordinate, named La Fin, and Biron
was condemned and executed in 1602.


Bishop Usher’s Model.

A compromise between the Episcopalians and Presbyterians, proposed by
Bishop Usher after the Restoration. He suggested that while the bishops
were restored, a number of suffragan bishops should be appointed, each
of whom was to be president of a council of Presbyters. Charles II
declared himself in favour of this form of union, but when a bill was
prepared to carry it into effect, the whole power of the Court was
utilized to secure its rejection.


Bishops in Partibus Infidelium.

In the Roman Catholic Church, Bishops holding imaginary sees, in
countries where there is no Catholic community, were formerly so called.
Since 1882 they have been styled Titular Bishops.


Bismarck of Asia.

Li Hung Chang, the Chinese statesman, was so called.


Black Act.

An Act passed in 1722 to put a stop to the depredations of certain
persons who frequented Epping Forest in disguise and killed the deer.
The Act was repealed in 1827.


Black Agnes.

Agnes, wife of the Earl of March, who was distinguished for her gallant
defence of Dunbar against the English in 1339.


Black Assize.

The assize held at Oxford in July, 1577, when an outbreak of typhus
fever carried off three hundred persons, including many of the officials
and jurors attending the court.


Black Bands.

A body of German soldiers enlisted by Louis XII of France, and employed
in the Italian wars of the sixteenth century.


Black Bartholomew.

St. Bartholomew’s Day, 1662, is so called. On this day all beneficed
clergy had to declare their assent to the Book of Common Prayer, in
accordance with the provisions of the Act of Uniformity, and those who
refused were deprived of their livings. Over two thousand Presbyterians
were ejected from their parishes on this day.


Black Book.

The name given to the report of the committee appointed by Henry VIII
in 1535 to investigate the condition of the monasteries.


Black Box.

A box said to have contained the marriage certificate of Charles II and
Lucy Waters, the mother of the Duke of Monmouth, and to have been stolen
from her. Had the documents it purported to contain been forthcoming,
they would, of course, have established the Duke’s right to the throne
in the place of James II.


Black Brunswickers.

A regiment of horse raised by the Duke of Brunswick in 1809, to avenge
the death of his father who was killed at Auerstadt. They wore black
uniforms, and their badge was the skull and crossbones.


Black Circuit.

A circuit held in Cape Colony in 1812 to investigate the charges brought
by the London Missionary Society against the Dutch settlers of
ill-treating their native slaves. The results showed that the charges
were grossly exaggerated, but a great deal of illfeeling was engendered
amongst the Dutch by the thoroughness with which the English Government
went into the matter.


Black Clergy.

The members of the regular monastic orders in Russia. They alone take
any part in the ecclesiastical administration.


Black Death.

A pestilence which passed over Europe, and finally reached England in
1349. Its ravages were terrible, amounting, according to some
chroniclers, to a third of the population. It probably had its origin in
the East, and is thought by some to have been the disease now known as
the Bubonic Plague.


Black Eagle, Order of the.

The most coveted of the Prussian orders of knighthood. It was founded by
Frederick I in 1701, to commemorate his assumption of the royal title.
It is limited to thirty members, who must be of noble descent for four
generations.


Black Flags.

Rebel Chinese in the service of the King of Annam, who were the most
dangerous opponents of the French during the Tong-King war.


Black Friday.

May 11, 1866, on which day the failure of Overend and Gurney was
announced. There was a terrible panic in financial circles, and, among
other extraordinary measures, it was found necessary to suspend the Bank
Charter.


Black Hole of Calcutta.

The dungeon in which some 200 English prisoners were confined when
Calcutta was taken by Surabjah Dowlah, the Subahdar of Bengal, in 1756.
Only twenty-three survived the night.


Black Monday.

The name given to an Irish rising in County Dublin in 1209, which nearly
exterminated the newly-established English Colony.


Black Popes.

The chiefs of the Society of Jesus, during the Papacy of Pius IX, were
known by this name, their power in Rome being almost as great as that
of the Pope himself.


Black Prince.

The sobriquet of Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Edward III, from the
black armour which he habitually wore.


Black Rent.

An annual stipend paid by the English settlers within the Pale to the
Irish chieftains on their borders, in consideration of their restraining
their followers from raiding the English settlements. Black Rent was
first paid about 1410.


Black Sea Treaty.

A treaty signed in London in 1871 by the signatories of the Treaty of
Paris of 1856. In 1870, Russia, taking advantage of the Franco-German
war, issued a note, declaring herself no longer bound by the clause of
that treaty neutralising the Black Sea. A conference was called in
London to consider the situation, and by the resulting treaty the clause
in question was abrogated. The conference also took the opportunity to
prolong the existence of the Danubian Commission for a further period of
twelve years.


Black Thursday.

Thursday, February 6, 1851, is so called in Victoria. A very dry summer
was followed by the simultaneous outbreak on that day of numerous bush
fires, which did enormous damage, and even threatened Melbourne, coming
within a few miles of the town.


Black Watch.

A body of Highlanders, enrolled in 1725 for the purpose of maintaining
order in the Highlands. They were made a regular line regiment in 1739,
and numbered the 43rd. They later became the 42nd, and are now the Royal
Highlanders (Black Watch).


Black Wednesday.

_See_ Victorian Deadlocks.


Blackbirders.

The name given to the vessels engaged in the Kanaka labour traffic in
the Southern Seas.


Blackburn Riots.

A series of disturbances by the Lancashire weavers, in 1826, as a
protest against the introduction of machinery. A large amount of damage
was done before the rioters were dispersed by the troops.


Blanche Nef.

The White Ship, in which Prince William, son of Henry I, was returning
to England, after the close of Henry’s second French war. The vessel
struck coming out of Barfleur harbour, and only one of the crew escaped.


Blancs d’Espagne.

The name given to the ultra-royalist party in France who support the
claim of the Spanish Bourbons, represented by General de Bourbon, to the
throne of France.


Bland Act.

An Act of Congress passed in 1878, at the instance of Mr. Bland,
providing for the coinage of silver dollars of 412½ grains Troy, which
should be legal tender in payment of all debts and dues. The State was
bound to purchase not more than four or less than two million dollars
worth of silver per annum, to be so coined, and the profit in the
operation was to belong to the State.


Blanketeers.

The name given to a party of Lancashire operatives, who, in the famine
year of 1817, started to march to London, to demand assistance from
Parliament. Each man carried provisions and a blanket, hence the name.


Blanquillos.

The supporters of Oribe in Uruguay, in 1835. Their opponents, who
followed Rivera, were called Colorados.


Bloc, Le.

The name given to the general body of Republicans, of various shades of
opinion, in the French Chamber, who supported the Ministry of M. Combes
in 1902-3.


Bloemfontein Conference.

A conference of delegates from Cape Colony, Natal, and the Orange Free
State, which met in 1895 to discuss the question of a Customs Union.
Natal could not come to terms, and withdrew, but an arrangement was
arrived at by the other two parties, and a convention tariff, with five
per cent. ad valorem duties, was accepted by both Governments.


Bloemfontein Convention.

A convention signed in 1854, by which the British Government abolished
the Orange River Sovereignty, and recognized the independence of the
Orange Free State. Among the provisions of the treaty were clauses
binding the British Government to make no treaties with native chiefs
likely to be detrimental to the interests of the Republic, forbidding
slavery, and providing for extradition.


Blood and Iron, The Man of.

A nickname of Prince Bismarck, taken from a phrase in a speech delivered
by him in 1862.


Blood Bath of Stockholm.

The execution, by Christian II, the last king of United Scandinavia, of
many of the leaders of the Swedish National party, in 1520, after the
capture of Stockholm. In the same year Gustavus Vasa raised the standard
of revolt, and the war which followed led to the final expulsion of the
Danes, and the crowning of Gustavus as King of Sweden.


Blood Council.

A tribunal established in 1567 by Alva in the Netherlands, to deal with
the crime of treason. It had no charter, or official authority of any
kind, but it practically usurped the functions of the Council of State,
and exercised jurisdiction over all municipal bodies and provincial
parliaments. It was abolished in 1576. It was also known as the Council
of Troubles.


Blood, Man of.

Charles I was so called by the Puritan party, because he waged war on
the Parliament.


Blood Tax.

The sixteenth section of the Crimes Act of 1882, by which it was
proposed to levy compensation for murder or maiming on the ratepayers of
the district where the crime was committed, was so called by the Irish
members.


Blood-red Wedding.

_See_ Noces Vermeilles.


Blood-wite.

Another name for _Were-gild_.


Bloods, The Five.

The five chief septs or clans in Ireland in the middle ages. They were
the O’Neills of Ulster, the O’Briens of Thomond, the O’Connors of
Connaught, the O’Lachlans of Meath, and the M’Murroughs of Leinster.


Bloody Assize of Eperies.

A tribunal established by Leopold I of Austria after the defeat of the
Turks at Vienna and their expulsion from Hungary. It was intended to
remove those who had been concerned in Tököli’s rising, and many nobles
and magnates were brought before this tribunal on the charge of being in
correspondence with Tököli. Most of those accused were condemned, and so
numerous were the victims that thirty executioners were employed.


Bloody Assizes.

The Assizes held by Jeffreys on the Western Circuit, shortly after the
suppression of Monmouth’s rebellion in 1686. Hundreds of Monmouth’s
adherents were sent to the scaffold, or transported as slaves to the
West Indies.


Bloody Statute.

The Act of the Six Articles, passed in the reign of Henry VIII, was so
called.


Blue-Grass State.

A name sometimes given to the State of Kentucky, U.S.A., which contains
the famous blue grass region, celebrated for the raising of horses.


Blue Laws of Connecticut.

A series of enactments said to have existed in Connecticut, circ. 1640,
by which the death penalty was inflicted for idolatry, blasphemy,
witchcraft, theft, perjury, adultery and disobedience to parents. It is,
however, generally believed that they are apocryphal.


Bluff King Hal.

The nickname of Henry VIII.


Board of Control.

The board established by Pitt’s India Act in 1784 to supervise the
Government of India by the East India Company.


Bobbing John.

The sobriquet of the Earl of Mar, the Jacobite leader in the rebellion
of 1815. He was a notorious trimmer.


Bocca di Leone.

The name given to the opening in the wall of the antechamber in the
Doge’s Palace at Venice, into which anonymous accusations were dropped.


Bocland.

In Saxon times, land held by grant or by charter from the public lands.


Body of Liberties.

The first constitution of Massachusetts, prepared by Nathaniel Ward. It
provided that all public officials should be chosen annually by the
freemen of the plantation. Each town also elected deputies to a general
assembly, to serve for one year. Each town had the right to make its
own by bye-laws. It further provided for the annual election of judges,
and for equal justice to all, including foreigners, while severe
penalties were enacted for witchcraft and blasphemy.


Bomba.

The sobriquet of Ferdinand II, King of the Two Sicilies (1759-1825).


Bombay, Cession of.

Bombay was ceded to Charles II by Portugal in 1662, as part of the dowry
of the Infanta of Portugal. In 1668 it was surrendered by the Crown to
the East India Company.


Bonaght.

_See_ Coyne and Livery.


Bond.

_See_ Afrikander.


Bond-Blaine Convention.

An agreement between Newfoundland and the United States, signed in 1890,
providing for the continuance of the _modus vivendi_ affording
reciprocal fishing rights to the two countries.


Bondevenner.

The Peasants’ Friends, a political party formed in Denmark in 1845, in
the interests of the rural population.


Bondi.

In Norse times, the freeholders or owners of Odal land.


Book of Rates.

A table of unauthorized import duties issued by Cecil, Earl of
Salisbury, in 1608, after the decision in the Crown’s favour in Bates’
case. In 1610 the Commons declared these impositions illegal.


Book of Sports.

A declaration of James I in 1618, as to the sports which might lawfully
be indulged in on Sundays after Divine Service. Dancing, archery,
maypoles, leaping were permitted; bear-baiting was forbidden. None,
however, might take part unless they had been to church.


Booth’s Conspiracy.

A conspiracy headed by John Wilkes Booth, at the end of the American
Civil War, having for its object the assassination of the President,
Vice-President, and some others. President Lincoln was shot by Booth on
April 14, 1865, and on the same date Seward, the Secretary of State, was
wounded by Payne, another of the conspirators. The conspirators were
brought to trial, and four of them hanged, the others being sentenced to
various terms of imprisonment.


Border Laws.

A code of laws framed in 1249 by a commission composed of twelve English
and twelve Scottish knights. They dealt with the surrender of fugitives
crossing the border, and provided for the trial of border raiders by
special courts, held under the joint authority of the two nations.


Border States.

Before the American Civil War, this name was applied to the States
bordering on the free states, namely, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia,
Kentucky, and Missouri.


Borough English, Custom of.

An old system of land tenure, still existing in certain ancient
boroughs, whereby real estate passes to the youngest son.


Boston Massacre.

A small affray in Boston in 1770, in which the troops fired on the
rioters, and a few persons were killed. Captain Preston, who commanded
the troops, was tried and acquitted.


Boston Port Act.

An Act passed in 1774, closing the Custom House and Port of Boston. It
was passed as a measure of retaliation for the action of the inhabitants
in preventing the importation of tea by the East India Company free of
the English duty.


Boston Tea Riots.

In December, 1773, on the arrival of the tea-ships of the East India
Company, bringing duty-free tea, the ships were boarded by a party of
men disguised as Red Indians, who threw the tea into the harbour. The
result of this action was the passing of the Boston Port Act.


Botany Bay.

A small inlet in the coast of New South Wales, where the first convict
establishment was formed in 1787. The penal settlement was removed to
Port Jackson in the following year, but the name was constantly used,
generically, for the convict settlements in Australia.


Boulangists.

The supporters of General Boulanger, who obtained a brief popularity in
France in 1886, largely owing to the army reforms he introduced while
Minister of War. He gradually, however, attracted to his standard the
reactionary parties, who hoped that he would destroy Parliamentary
Government. He quickly obtained a large following in the country, rather
by denunciation of Parliamentary abuses than by the advocacy of any
definite policy, and in 1888 he was elected for three Departments. At
this period he might have overturned the Government, but shrank from the
decisive step, and from that time his influence began to wane. He left
France to escape prosecution, and his following quickly dwindled away,
until in 1890, it was found desirable to dissolve the Boulangist
committee. Boulanger committed suicide in Brussels in 1891.


Bounty, Mutiny of the.

A mutiny on board H.M.S. Bounty, Captain Bligh, headed by a master’s
mate named Christian, in 1790. The mutineers made first for Tahiti, but
eventually settled on Pitcairn Island, where they founded a community
whose descendants still inhabit the island. Pitcairn Island was taken
under British protection in 1839.


Boustrapa.

A nickname of Napoleon III, compounded of the first syllables of
Boulogne, Strasbourg, and Paris, the scenes of his two unsuccessful and
one successful _coups d’état_, in 1840, 1836, and 1851 respectively.


Bow Street Runners.

Eight famous police officers, attached to Bow Street Police Court, who
were appointed about 1805. The most famous of them was Townsend. They
were also known as the “Robin Redbreasts” from their red waistcoats.


Boxers.

A Chinese Secret Society, whose principal object is the expulsion from
China of Europeans, and especially of missionaries. They have met with
considerable sympathy in Court circles, and their outrages in 1900 led
to a joint European expedition. Their rising was suppressed for a time,
but the agitation is seething, and may break out again at any time.


Boy Popes.

This title is given to John XII, who was elected Pope in 956, at the age
of eighteen, and Benedict IX, who was Pope from 1033 to 1044, having
been chosen at the age of ten.


Boyars.

In early Russian history, the large landowners, under the authority of
the great princes who ruled the various Principalities into which Russia
was divided.


Boycotting.

One of the weapons employed by the Irish Land League, in its campaign
against the landlords. It consists in ostracizing the person aimed at,
and forbidding any one to deal with or work for him, or supply his
wants. Its first victim was Captain Boycott, the agent of the Earl of
Erne in 1880, and from his name the word is derived.


Boys.

The name given by Walpole to the party of young Whigs, under William
Pitt, who acted with the “Patriots” in 1733.


Braemar Gathering.

_See_ Hunting of Braemar.


Brahmins.

The highest or priestly caste among the Hindus.


Brahmo Somaj.

A Hindu sect, founded in 1830 by Rammohun Roy. Its tenets are
monotheistic, rejecting the numerous gods of the Hindu Pantheon, and
adoring Brahma as the supreme deity. Its adherents ignore all caste
distinctions.


Brandy Nan.

Queen Anne was so called by the Londoners.


Bras de Fer.

The sobriquet of Baldwin, first Count of Flanders.


Bras Droit du Cardinal.

A nickname of François du Tremblay, the familiar of Cardinal Richelieu.
He was also called the _Alter Ego_ of Richelieu, and _l’Eminence Grise_.


Brass Band, The Pope’s.

A band of agitators in Ireland, under the leadership of John Sadleir,
who stumped the country in opposition to the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill
in 1851.


Brave des Braves, Le Plus.

The sobriquet of Marshal Ney, conferred on him by Napoleon during the
Russian campaign of 1812.


Bread and Cheese War.

A peasant revolt in Kemmerland and Friesland in 1491, caused by the
exaction of the Ruytergeld, notwithstanding the enormous price of bread.


Bread Riots.

A series of disturbances in various parts of England, in 1816, caused
by the high prices of food-stuffs, due to the bad harvest and the
cessation of the Great War. In many places it was necessary to call out
the military to disperse the rioters.


Breda, Compromise of.

The agreement between the Catholic and Protestant nobles of the
Netherlands to agitate for the exclusion of the Inquisition. It was
signed at Breda in 1566, and from it originated the Society of the
_Gueux_.


Breda, Declaration of.

A manifesto issued by Charles II, in 1660, after the retirement of
Richard Cromwell. By this instrument he promised a general amnesty,
liberty of conscience, the settlement by Parliament of the various
claims to forfeited estates, and payment of all arrears due to the army,
subject always to such advice as might subsequently be tendered him by
Parliament.


Breda, Peace of.

Three treaties signed by England with Holland, France and Denmark
respectively in 1667, after the naval war with Holland, in which de
Witte had succeeded in penetrating to Sheerness. By the treaty with
Holland, each country retained her conquests, England thus securing New
York and New Jersey, and Holland, Surinam. By the treaty with France,
England acquired St. Kitts, Antigua and Montserrat, and restored to
France Nova Scotia and Cayenne. By that with Denmark, the latter power
reserved her right to the Orkneys.


Brehon Law.

The Irish Law which prevailed throughout Ireland after the conquest by
Henry II, excepting within the Pale. It was abolished in the reign of
James I.


Breslau, Treaty of.

A treaty between Prussia and Austria, signed in 1742, after Frederick’s
victory at Chotusitz. Austria ceded Silesia to Prussia.


Brétigny, Peace of.

A treaty, signed in 1360, four years after the battle of Poitiers,
between Edward III and the Dauphin Charles. By it France surrendered to
England, Gascony, Guienne, and Poitou, Saintonge, Périgord, Limoges and
other counties in the south, Montreuil, Ponthieu and Calais in the
north, freed from all feudal claims. England surrendered her claim to
the French crown, and to all sovereignty in Normandy, Touraine, Anjou,
Maine, Brittany and Flanders, and agreed to release King John on payment
of a ransom of three million gold pieces.


Breton Club.

A revolutionary club formed in Paris in the early days of the
Revolution. Its founders were certain Breton deputies, and among its
members were many who were afterwards prominent Jacobins, amongst others
Robespierre.


Bretts and Scots, Laws of the.

The code of laws under which the Celtic inhabitants of Scotland were
governed, up to the thirteenth century. This code was abolished by an
edict of Edward I, when he conquered Scotland in 1305.


Bretwalda.

Under the Saxon Heptarchy, the sovereign of one of the seven kingdoms
was often acknowledged as the leader of the Federation, under the title
of Bretwalda.


Brewer of Ghent.

James van Arteveldt, the leader of the Burgher party in Flanders in
1338, was so called.


Bridal of Norwich.

A conspiracy against William I, entered into at the bridal feast of
Ralph of Gwader, Earl of Norfolk, and Emma, sister of the Earl of
Hereford. The two earls, with Waltheof, Earl of Nottingham, designed to
depose William and divide the kingdom between them. Waltheof seems to
have repented, and confessed the plot to Lanfranc. The conspiracy was at
once suppressed, Waltheof executed, and Hereford imprisoned for life,
while Ralph escaped to Brittany.


Bride of the Sea.

Venice was so called, in allusion to the annual ceremony of the Marriage
of the Adriatic.


Brig-bot.

In Anglo-Saxon times, a tax levied on freemen for the repair of bridges.


Brigham, Treaty of.

A treaty between England and Scotland signed in 1290, by which a
marriage was arranged between the Maid of Norway, heiress to the
Scottish throne, and the son of Edward I. It was agreed that the two
kingdoms, though under one crown, should remain separate, each under its
own laws. England was not to call on Scotland for military aid, and no
appeal was to lie from the Scotch to the English courts. The death of
the Maid of Norway, however, rendered the stipulations of this treaty
null and void.


Bright Clauses.

The clauses in the Irish Land Act of 1870, dealing with the sale of land
to tenants are so called, John Bright having for many years advocated
State aid in the creation of a peasant proprietary in Ireland.


Brilliant Madman.

Charles XII of Sweden is so called.


Brissotins.

The followers of Brissot, one of the leaders of the Gironde, during the
French Revolution. The name fell into disuse, as the party became merged
in the Girondins.


Bristol Riots.

A riot in Bristol in 1831, consequent upon the rejection of the Reform
Bill by the House of Lords. The Recorder of Bristol, Sir Charles
Wetherell, was mobbed on his entrance into the city, and the rioters
seized the town hall. The weakness of the authorities left the disorder
unchecked for two days, but at the last the military were called out and
the disturbance suppressed.


British Empire League.

An association formed in 1896 to carry on the work of the Imperial
Federation League, in educating the nation to an understanding of the
needs of the Empire. The Duke of Devonshire was the first president.


Broad-bottomed Administration.

Pelham’s Ministry as reconstructed in 1744 was so called, because it
contained members representing every shade of Whig opinion, and even a
certain admixture of Toryism.


Brömsebro, Treaty of.

A treaty between Sweden and Denmark, signed in 1645, by which Denmark
surrendered Jämtland, Hejealand and Halland, and granted to Swedish
vessels exemption from the payment of Sound Dues.


Brother Jonathan.

The nickname of the American nation.


Brothers, Battle of the.

The name given to the battle of Fontenay, June 25, 841, at which Charles
the Bald and Louis the German, sons of Louis le Debonaire, totally
defeated their brother Lothair.


Brownists.

A dissenting sect, who seceded from the Church in 1582. They objected to
general church government, and claimed for each congregation the right
to regulate its own worship. They may be considered the forerunners of
the Independents.


Brunnen, League of.

_See_ Perpetual League.


Brussels Conference, 1874.

A conference of the Powers held in Brussels in 1874, at the suggestion
of the Russian Government, to consider the usages of war. Great Britain
entered the conference with many reservations, declining to send a
plenipotentiary, and no changes of any importance were agreed to.


Brussels Conference, 1876.

A conference of the Powers held at Brussels in 1876, at which an
International Association was formed for the purpose of exploring and
civilizing Central Africa. This association was the germ of the Congo
Free State.


Brussels Convention.

A convention signed by the sugar-producing countries in 1902, by which
the contracting parties undertook that in the event of any
sugar-producing country declining to abolish bounties, they would
prohibit the importation of sugar from such country, or impose
countervailing duties.


Brussels, Union of.

An agreement, signed in 1517 by certain Catholic noblemen of the
Netherlands, to unite for the purpose of expelling the Spanish garrison,
while at the same time maintaining the Catholic religion, and the
sovereignty of the king.


Buccaneers.

An association of sea-rovers formed about 1525, to harry the Spanish
possessions in South America, and prey upon their commerce. They were of
various nationalities, but chiefly English and French, and their most
famous leaders were Montbars, known as the Exterminator, and Henry
Morgan, afterwards Sir Henry, and Deputy-Governor of Jamaica. Under the
latter leader they crossed the Isthmus and sacked the city of Panama in
1671, and for years they paralyzed the Spanish trade, both in the
Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific. They ceased to exist as an
association early in the eighteenth century, but some of them continued
a career of indiscriminate piracy for many years longer. They were
called by the French Flibustiers.


Bucharest, Treaty of.

A treaty, signed by Russia and Turkey in 1812, after the war which began
in 1806, and ended in the defeat of the Turks by Kutusoff in the later
year. Turkey by this treaty surrendered all her territory north of the
Pruth.


Buckeye State.

The popular name of the State of Ohio, U.S.A., from the number of
buckeye-trees found within its borders.


Budchaz, Treaty of.

A treaty between Poland and Turkey, signed in 1670, by which Poland
surrendered the Ukraine, and agreed to pay an annual tribute of 20,000
ducats.


Bulgarian Atrocities.

A rising of the Mohammedan inhabitants of Bulgaria, assisted by the
Bashi-Bazouks, or Turkish Irregulars, against the Christians in 1876.
Thousands of Christians were massacred, and horrible cruelties
perpetrated, though it is held by some authorities that the stories told
were grossly exaggerated. Turkey refused redress, and Russia
consequently declared war in the following year.


Bulls, Papal.

_See_ Adrian, Ausculta Fili, Clericis Laicos, Cum ex Apostolatus, Decet
Romanum, Demarcation, Deposition, Dominus ac Redemptor, Exsurge Domine.
Golden, Greater, In Coena Domini, In Eminenti, Ineffabilis Deus, Inter
Gravissimas, Lesser, Regimen Militantis, Unam Sanctam, Unigenitus, Vox
in Excelso.


Bundesrath.

The assembly of representatives of the twenty-two states forming the
North German Confederation.


Bundschuh.

A peasant revolt in Germany in 1502.


Burgage.

The tenure by which burgesses of towns held their lands. It was similar
to socage.


Burgfrieden.

A confederation of the cities of the Rhine, formed for commercial
purposes, circ. 1255.


Burgher Senate.

A council of six members, established at the Cape in 1796, after the
capture of that Colony by the English. Its duties were to advise the
Governor in matters of internal administration. It was abolished in
1828.


Burgos, Laws of.

A code of laws regulating the employment of Indian labour in the
Spanish-American Colonies, promulgated at Burgos in 1572.


Burgundians.

_See_ Armagnacs.


Burlaw.

_See_ Jedburgh Justice.


Burning of Frendraught.

A feud between the Crichtons of Frendraught and the Gordons of Huntly
having been temporarily adjusted, the Gordons escorted the Crichtons
home. The Gordon party, including Lord Aboyne, Huntly’s heir, were
entertained for the night by the Crichtons, and during the night the
tower in which they were sleeping was burnt to the ground. The fire was
believed to be incendiary, but the crime was not brought home to the
Crichtons.


Burnt Candlemas.

The name given to the march of Edward III into Scotland in 1355. He
burnt every building, and laid waste the country for a distance of
twenty miles from the coast.


Burr’s Conspiracy.

A plot initiated by Aaron Burr and Harman Blennerhassett in 1805, to
free Mexico from Spanish rule, and unite it into an independent empire
with some of the Western American States. Burr was arrested and tried
for treason in Kentucky, and again in Virginia in 1807, but was on both
occasions acquitted.


Burschenschaft.

A club of German students who had fought in the Napoleonic wars, founded
at Jena in 1815. It was suspected of revolutionary tendencies, and was
dissolved by the Prussian Government in 1819.


Butcher, The.

The Duke of Cumberland was so called by the Scots, on account of his
cruelties after the battle of Culloden in 1746.


Bye Plot.

A conspiracy in 1603, under the leadership of George Brooke and Markham,
to unite the Roman Catholics and Puritans in an attempt to secure
toleration for the extremists of both classes. Their idea was to seize
James I, and hold him to ransom. At the same period a plot to overthrow
Cecil was entered into by Sir Walter Raleigh, Lord Cobham, the Duke of
Northumberland and others, known as the Main Plot. These plots were
betrayed to Cecil by the Jesuits, one of whom named Watson had been
concerned in them, and the ringleaders were arrested. Watson and another
were executed, Raleigh imprisoned, and the others pardoned.


Bywoners.

Boers in the Transvaal and Orange Free State who had no land of their
own, and lived by working on the farms of others, or sometimes as small
tenant farmers.



C


Ça Ira.

A revolutionary song, highly popular in Paris, composed in 1789 for the
Fête de la Fédération.


Caaba.

The sacred shrine of Mecca, the holy place of the whole Moslem world. A
Mohammedan who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca is known as a Hadji.


Cabal.

The Ministry which succeeded to power when Charles II dismissed
Clarendon in 1667. Its members were Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham,
Ashley (afterwards Lord Shaftesbury), and Lauderdale, the initials of
these names forming the word “Cabal.”


Cabal, American.

A low intrigue in the American Congress in 1777, directed against
Washington. Those concerned in it were mostly representatives of the
Northern States, and its object was the advancement of Lee. It is also
known as Conway’s cabal, from the name of its leader.


Cabanagem.

The rebels who overran the Amazon Valley and other parts of Brazil, in
1833 to 1836, after the abdication of Pedro I. The name means cottagers.


Cabinet Noir.

A department of the French Post Office, established in the reign of
Louis XIV, for the surveillance of the correspondence of suspected
persons. Napoleon III availed himself of its services freely, and it was
only abolished in 1886.


Cabochiens.

The guild of butchers in Paris, so called from Caboche, one of their
leaders. They were bitter opponents of the Armagnacs, and were guilty of
terrible atrocities on the persons of their political foes. The
corporation was dissolved in 1416.


Cacos.

A political party in Guatemala in 1820, who favoured complete separation
from Spain, and the establishment of a republic. The word means
pickpockets.


Cadan, Treaty of.

A treaty between the leading German Princes, signed in 1534, by which
Ferdinand of Austria acknowledged Ulrich, Duke of Würtemberg, with the
proviso that Würtemberg was to be considered an _arrière-fief_ of the
Empire, dependent on Austria. The League of Schmalkald acknowledged
Ferdinand as King of the Romans, but stipulated that in future that
dignity should only be conferred by the unanimous vote of the electors.


Caen, Treaty of.

A treaty between William Rufus and Robert of Normandy, signed in 1091,
by which Robert renounced all claim to England, and recognized William’s
feudal rights over certain Norman Seigneuries, among others those of
Cherbourg, Fécamp, and Mont St. Michel.


Cahiers de Doléances.

The instructions given to the Deputies of the States-General, as to the
grievances to be laid before the King in 1789. The principal demands
were: equality in punishments; suppression of the sale of public
offices; suppression of seignorial judicial powers, of the Gabelle, the
corvée and the militia ballot; religious toleration, and amelioration of
the condition of the parish clergy.


Caisse de Poissy.

A species of bank, established at Poissy, near Paris, under municipal
control, to secure the proper provisioning of the Paris market. It
proceeded by way of loan to the butchers, charging interest on the
advances and a percentage on all meat purchased, and as none could enter
the markets without a certificate of the payment of this fee, it had
absolute control of the trade. It was abolished in 1791, re-established
in 1810, under the control of the Prefect of the Seine, and finally
abolished in 1858.


Calatrava, Knights of.

A Spanish order of religious chivalry, established by Papal Bull in
1164. The rules of the order were similar to those of the Benedictines,
the knights being bound, among other vows, to perpetual celibacy. The
object of the order was the expulsion of the Mussulman power from Spain.


Calendar Act.

An Act passed in 1751 substituting the Gregorian for the Julian
Calendar. With the exception of Sweden and Russia, England was the last
country to adopt the new style.


Calixtines.

The more moderate of the two sections into which the Hussite sect was
divided after the death of Jerome of Prague. The more fanatical section
was that of John Zisca, known as the Taborites.


Calvin, Institutes of.

The profession of the Calvinistic doctrine, issued by Calvin, 1535.


Camarilla.

The name given to the favourites and admirers of Ferdinand VII of Spain,
after his restoration in 1814. They were in reality the rulers of Spain,
distributing justice and office throughout the kingdom to the highest
bidder.


Cambray, League of.

An alliance between Louis XII and the Emperor Maximilian, formed in
1508, for the partition of the Venetian provinces between the
contracting parties. The Venetian armies were forced to retreat before
the allies, but the partition was never carried into effect, and the
league was dissolved by the Treaty of Noyon in 1516.


Cambray, Treaty of.

A treaty between Charles V and Francis I, signed in 1529, confirming the
main provisions of the Treaty of Madrid (1526), which had been found
unacceptable by the French notables. This treaty is generally known as
the Paix des Dames.


Camel-driver of Mecca.

A nickname of Mohammed.


Cameronians.

An extreme section of the Covenanters who followed Richard Cameron in
1679. They were afterwards (1689) formed into a regiment, and served
against the Jacobites in the Highlands in that year. The regiment later
became the Twenty-sixth Regiment of the Line, and is now known as the
Cameronians (Scottish Rifles).


Camissards.

The Protestants of the Cevennes, who rose in rebellion in 1702. The
revolt was suppressed in 1704.


Camorra.

A secret society in Naples, which for many years terrorized the kingdom.
An attempt was made by Francis II of Naples to suppress the society, and
many of its members were deported, but the remainder joined the
Garibaldians and were largely instrumental in the expulsion of the
Bourbons in 1867.


Campo Formio, Treaty of.

A treaty between France and Austria, following Napoleon’s successful
campaign in Northern Italy, signed in 1797. France secured possession of
the Belgian provinces, the left bank of the Rhine, and the Ionian
Islands, and recognized the Cisalpine Republic, formed out of the
territories conquered from Austria, Venice and the Pope. Austria
resigned the city of Venice, and her eastern provinces, Dalmatia, Friuli
and Istria.


Canada Act.

An Act passed in 1774, giving a constitution to Canada.


Canada, Confederation of.

An Act was passed in 1867, for the purpose of confederating the two
provinces of Canada with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and providing a
federal constitution. Provision was also made for the admission into the
Dominion of such other of the North American Colonies as might desire to
come in. Under this clause Manitoba joined the confederation in 1870,
British Columbia and Vancouver’s Island in 1871, and Prince Edward’s
Island in 1873. The Hudson’s Bay Territory having been acquired in 1869,
the whole of the British possessions in North America are now included
in the Dominion, with the exception of Newfoundland.


Canadian Fisheries Question.

A long-standing dispute between Canada and the United States, dating
from the treaty of peace of 1783, when American fishermen were given
fishing rights on the coast of Canada. The Americans claimed that this
right was inalienable, England that it was forfeited during the second
war. In 1818 a _modus vivendi_ was arrived at by which the Americans
were allowed to fish outside the three mile limit, but friction still
continued till 1871, when a treaty was signed at Washington giving the
two countries reciprocal rights. Canada maintained that the right to
fish off the American coast was of little value to her, and in 1877 a
commission was appointed, which met at Halifax, to assess the damage she
had sustained. The award of the commission was that Canada and
Newfoundland should receive five and a half million dollars as
compensation.


Canons of 1604.

The new canons, issued by Convocation in 1604, contained regulations for
the conduct of public worship. They excommunicated all who attacked the
Prayer Book, the Thirty-nine Articles, or the Supremacy of the Crown, as
also those who seceded from the Church. They were, however, held by the
Courts at Westminster to be binding only on the clergy.


Canons of 1640.

A series of seventeen canons, supplementary to the canons of 1604,
issued by Convocation, and confirmed by the King, under the Great Seal.
Parliament subsequently passed a measure giving them full canonical
validity, but not the force of an Act of Parliament.


Canossa.

The castle of Matilda of Tuscany, where Gregory VII was staying when the
Emperor Henry IV made a pilgrimage to Italy, in 1077, to make his
submission to the Pope, who had excommunicated him. He was treated in
the most humiliating fashion by Gregory, who left him for three days in
the snow in the courtyard of the Castle before consenting to receive
him. It is to this incident that Bismarck referred in the famous phrase,
“Nach Canossa gehen wir nicht” (We are not going to Canossa), uttered in
the Reichstag in 1872, during the Kulturkampf.


Canossa Bill.

A bill introduced into the Prussian Landstag in 1880, making great
concessions to the Catholic clergy, but maintaining the supremacy of the
State over the Church.


Capitularies.

The edicts of the early French Kings were so called.


Capitulations.

Arrangements by which foreigners are subject to the jurisdiction of
their own consuls, and not to the tribunals of the country in which they
are residing. These are generally in force in Mohammedan and other
non-Christian states, where Western ideas of justice are non-existent.


Caporal Violet.

Napoleon was so called by his adherents in France, during his exile in
Elba in 1814-15.


Cappel, Treaty of.

A treaty between the five Catholic Cantons of Switzerland, and Zurich
and Berne, following the defeat of the two latter States at Cappel, and
the death of Zwingli, in 1531. Zurich and Berne consented to tolerate
Catholicism in their dominions.


Carbonari.

A Sicilian secret society, utilized by the Bourbons of Naples against
Murat. The name was afterwards adopted by the ultra-royalist secret
societies in France, which conspired against Louis XVIII in 1822.


Carlisle, Statute of.

A statute of 1307, enacting that no Papal instruments should be
permitted in England.


Carlists.

The supporters of Don Carlos and his branch of the Bourbon family, as
claimants to the Spanish throne. Don Carlos was the younger brother of
Ferdinand VII, and under the constitution of 1812 should have inherited
the throne, as the female succession was excluded. In 1832, however,
Ferdinand, who had already, by a decree which he subsequently withdrew,
readmitted the principle of female succession, finally settled the crown
on his daughter Isabella, who succeeded in the same year, with her
mother, Christina, as regent. Don Carlos was exiled, but various risings
have since taken place in support of his claims, chiefly in the Biscayan
provinces, including the first Carlist War, which lasted till 1840.


Carlowitz, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1699, by which Turkey finally surrendered the various
provinces of the Ottoman Empire conquered by the Allies during the wars
of the preceding forty years. Austria retained Transylvania, Sclavonia
and Hungary; Poland took Podolia and part of the Ukraine; Russia, her
conquests on the Black Sea, and Venice, the Morea.


Carlsbad, Congress of.

A congress of Austria, Prussia, and other German States, held in 1819,
to consider measures for dealing with the growth of democratic movement
in Germany. It issued the Carlsbad Decrees.


Carlsbad Decrees.

A series of proposals submitted to the German Diet by the Congress of
Carlsbad, and accepted by the Diet. They included the establishment of a
strict censorship of the press, and the suppression of the
Burschenschaft.


Carmagnole.

The favourite song of the Paris mob, during the Reign of Terror
(1792-3.)


Carmelites.

A religious order, originally formed by associating the hermits living
on the slopes of Mount Carmel about 1156. They were recognized as a
monastic order by Honorius III, in 1224. They were driven out of
Palestine by the Saracens in 1238, and were made a mendicant order by
Innocent IV. in 1247.


Carolina, Proprietaries of.

The original landowners of Carolina, to whom the Colony was granted by
Charles II in 1643. They were eight in number, among whom were
Clarendon, Monk and Lord Craven. Their authority was practically
absolute, Charles exacting a bare allegiance to the English crown.


Caroline Islands Arbitration.

In 1885 Germany endeavoured to establish a protectorate over the
Caroline Islands, which Spain claimed to have been under her dominion
since the seventeenth century. Germany disputed this claim and occupied
Yap. Matters became very serious, and the two countries were on the
verge of war. It was, however, finally agreed to submit the question to
the Pope, who gave his award in favour of Spain, as to the sovereignty,
but allowed to Germany free trading and colonizing rights.


Caroline Ordinance.

A codification of the criminal laws of Germany, issued by the Diet of
Ratisbon, in the name of Charles V, in 1532.


Carpet-baggers.

Northerners who came into the Southern States after the Civil War, many
of them with the object of getting returned for Congress by the aid of
the negro vote. The name was intended to convey the idea that they had
no stake or interest in the country, beyond the baggage they carried
with them.


Cartel System.

A system prevailing in Germany and Austria, by which a ring of sugar
manufacturers, aided by heavy import duties, combine to obtain very
high prices for all sugar consumed at home. They utilize the large
profits thus secured to ship the surplus sugar below cost price, thus
securing for themselves all unprotected markets.


Cartellpartie.

A party in the German Reichstag, formed in 1888, by a coalition of the
Conservatives and the old National Liberals, and pledged to support
Bismarck.


Carthage of the North.

Lübeck was so called when the head of the Hanseatic League.


Carthusians.

A monastic order, with very severe rules, founded by St. Bruno, during
the papacy of Urban II in 1086. The order was recognized by Alexander
III in 1176. Their most famous convent is that of La Grande Chartreuse,
near Grenoble. The Charterhouse, in London, was formerly one of their
monasteries.


Carucage.

A tax imposed by the early English Kings on every carucate or hundred
acres of land. It was first levied by Richard I in 1198, when the tax
amounted to five shillings on the carucate.


Cas Royaux.

All cases in which the sovereign and his interests were concerned were
so called in France. By the “_Etablissements_” of Louis IX, all such
cases were withdrawn from the jurisdiction of feudal courts, and could
be decided only by the Royal Bailiffs, or by the Parlement.


Casenbrotspel.

_See_ Bread and Cheese War.


Casket Letters.

A series of letters and sonnets, purporting to be written by Mary Queen
of Scots to Bothwell, and left behind by him when he fled from Edinburgh
in 1567. If genuine, these letters undoubtedly prove Mary to have been
privy to the murder of Darnley.


Cassini Convention.

A secret treaty between Russia and China, supposed to have been signed
in 1896, by which Russia secured certain definite rights over Manchuria.
She has since made several attempts to replace this agreement by a
public treaty, but has been prevented by the opposition of the Powers.
Russia’s present position in Manchuria, therefore, is correct so far as
China is concerned, but has not been acknowledged by the other Powers.


Castle Council.

A council established in Dublin by Lord Wentworth in 1633.


Catamaran Expedition.

An unsuccessful attempt on the part of the British to burn Napoleon’s
flotilla in Boulogne harbour in 1804.


Câteau Cambrésis, Treaty of.

A treaty between Henry II of France and the Emperor, Charles V. Both
parties agreed to return the conquests made by them during the war of
the previous eight years, and bound themselves to maintain the Catholic
faith throughout their dominions.


Catégories de La Bourdonnaye.

A list of Imperialists whose proscription he advocated, drawn up by La
Bourdonnaye, in 1815. They were divided into three categories.


Catherine, Conspiracy of.

A conspiracy entered into by Catherine II of Russia, with the Orloffs
and Princess Dashkoff, to remove her husband, Peter III, and ascend the
throne as his successor. She succeeded in getting herself recognized by
the nobles as Catherine II, and in 1762 the conspirators, headed by one
of the Orloffs, strangled Peter III at a house near Peterhof.


Catholic Association.

An association formed by Daniel O’Connell in 1823, to press the claims
of the Irish Catholics upon Parliament. It held entirely aloof from all
the secret societies, and endeavoured to keep strictly with the limits
of the law, but in 1825 it had become so powerful that an Act was passed
declaring it an illegal association.


Catholic Emancipation Act.

An Act passed in 1829, substituting for the old formula, which included
abjuration, a new form of oath, and thus enabling Catholics to sit in
either House. It opened to them all offices under the state, except
those of Regent, Lord Chancellor, Viceroy of Ireland, and Royal
Commissioner of the General Assembly of Scotland. The Roman Catholic
Church was to remain a dissenting church, and restrictions were placed
on the immigration of members of the monastic orders, and especially of
Jesuits, while the use of ecclesiastical titles was forbidden.


Catholic League (France).

_See_ League.


Catholic League (Germany.)

A league of the Catholic Princes of Germany, formed at Frankfort in
1651, to carry out the provisions of the Peace of Westphalia.


Catholic Relief Act.

An Act passed in 1793, admitting Catholics to the magistracy, grand
juries, and the franchise.


Catholic Rent.

An unauthorized tax or cess levied upon Irish Catholics by O’Connell’s
Catholic Association in 1823, and afterwards. The funds thus obtained
were placed in O’Connell’s hands, to be used at his absolute discretion
for furthering the objects of the Association.


Cato Street Conspiracy.

A plot to murder the Ministers, during Lord Liverpool’s administration
in 1820, at a dinner which they were to attend at Lord Harrowby’s house.
The plot was discovered by a police agent named Edwards, who posed as
one of the conspirators, and Thistlewood, the ringleader, and four
others were executed.


Caucus.

A private meeting of members of a political party to decide upon the
adoption of candidates, or the platform of the party. The name is of
American origin.


Cautionary Towns.

The Dutch towns of Flushing, Walcheren, Rammerkins and Briel, which were
handed over to Elizabeth in 1585, to be held as security for the payment
of the English troops in the Netherlands. They were restored to Holland
by James I.


Cavalier Parliament.

_See_ Pensioned Parliament.


Cavaliers.

The supporters of Charles I against the Parliament. The name was first
applied to them in the course of the frequent disturbances which arose
in London between the King’s party and the City party, the “Roundheads,”
in 1641.


Cave.

_See_ Adullamites.


Cawnpore, Massacre of.

The massacre by Nana Sahib of the English Garrison in Cawnpore, during
the Indian Mutiny of 1857. The garrison had surrendered under a pledge
of being permitted to retire unharmed. Of those massacred, 560 were
women and children.


Cecil’s Fast.

The name given to an Act passed by Cecil, Lord Burleigh, after the
Reformation, enjoining the eating of fish on certain days. Fish had
almost ceased to be an article of diet in England, as it was looked upon
as a badge of Romanism.


Cent Jours.

_See_ Hundred Days.


Centralists.

A party in Mexico, who support the centralized republican government,
and are opposed to undue extension of the autonomy of the various
states. The party came into existence about 1823.


Centralists.

A party in Switzerland in 1800, who supported the Helvetic Constitution,
which established a uniform republican government, and abolished the old
cantonal liberties.


Centennial State.

Colorado is so called, as having been admitted a State in 1876, the year
of the centenary of the Union.


Centro-Americana, Confederacion.

A league of Nicaragua, Honduras, and Salvador, formed in 1842, with the
object of uniting the Central American States into a federal republic.
Guatemala opposed the scheme and it fell to the ground.


Centrumsfraction.

The Centre, or Clerical, party in the first German Reichstag in 1871,
under the leadership of Dr. Windhorst. They were strong supporters of
the Papal claims in the subsequent Kulturkampf.


Centum Gravamina.

The list of grievances and charges against the Roman Catholic clergy,
drawn up by the Diet of Nuremburg in 1523.


Ceorl.

In Saxon times, a freeman owning his own land, and independent of any
overlord.


Chambre Ardente.

A court, specially composed of bigoted Catholics, established by Henri
II in 1551, for the trial of heretics.


Chambre Introuvable.

The French Assembly elected in 1815, and dissolved in the following
year, was so named by Louis XVIII.


Champ de Mars.

The annual meetings of the Franks for military purposes during the early
times were held during the month of March. At a later period the month
of meeting appears to have been altered to May, when the assembly was
called a Champ de Mai. The great parade-ground in Paris is known as the
Champ de Mars.


Chaperons Blancs.

The White Capes, the popular party in Ghent in 1379, under the
leadership of Jan Yoens.


Chapter of Mitton.

The name given by the Scots to the defeat of the Archbishop of York’s
forces at Mitton, in 1319, by a Scottish invading army. It was so called
on account of the number of ecclesiastics in the Archbishop’s army.


Charte La.

The charter issued by Louis XVIII on ascending the French throne in
1814. He proclaimed the equality of all Frenchmen before the law,
liberty of opinion and liberty of the press, and confirmed the
inviolability of all property sold by the state. He established an
hereditary peerage, and fixed, as the qualification for electors to the
Chamber of Deputies, the payment of direct taxes amounting to 300 francs
per annum.


Charter of 1826.

A constitution promulgated by Pedro IV of Portugal, on the model of the
English Parliamentary system.


Charters.

_See_ Acte Additionel, Aragon, Confirmatio, First, Forests, Fuero,
Groote Privilegie, Irish, Joyeuse Entrée, Justice, Maryland, Magna,
Massachusetts, People’s, Pfaffenbrief, Priests’, Virginia.


Chartism.

An agitation which broke out in 1837 and culminated in the Chartist
riots of 1839. It was probably due to the declaration by the Liberal
party that they were satisfied with the results of the Reform Bill of
1832, and did not intend to press for further reform in this direction.
The movement takes its name from the “People’s Charter,” a manifesto
setting forth the aims of the agitators. This Charter demanded manhood
suffrage, annual Parliaments, the ballot, abolition of the property
qualification for a member of Parliament, payment of members, and equal
electoral districts. The most prominent Chartists were Feargus O’Connor,
Frost, and Williams.


Chartres, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1299, by Edward I of England and Philip IV of France,
after Edward’s abortive Flemish expedition. England recovered Guienne,
and undertook to give up the Flemish alliance, while France renounced
the alliance with Scotland.


Chastisement of Novgorod.

The massacre, by Ivan the Terrible, of over 1,500 prominent citizens of
Novgorod, owing to his suspecting the aristocracy of the city of a
design to open the gates to the Poles.


Châteaubriand, Edict of.

An edict issued by Henri III, enacting severe measures against heresy.
Among its provisions was one forbidding all argument on religious
matters, and another confiscating the property of any person who went to
Geneva. This edict also established the Chambre Ardente.


Châtillon, Congress of.

A congress opened at Châtillon on February 5, 1814, to treat with
Napoleon as sovereign of France. The allies, however, found his demands
impossible, and before the Congress was dissolved, the Treaty of
Chaumont had been signed, by which Napoleon lost all chance of obtaining
the terms that the allies were at first prepared to grant.


Chauffeurs.

Bands of brigands, who in 1793 infested the northern and afterwards the
central departments of France. They took their name from their habit of
roasting the feet of their victims, to force them to disclose the
whereabouts of their valuables.


Chaumont, Treaty of.

A treaty signed by England, Austria, Russia and Prussia, in March, 1814,
after the allies had entered France. The signatories bound themselves
for twenty years to unite in resisting the designs of France. Each of
the contracting parties was to provide 150,000 men, and England in
addition a subsidy of £5,000,000. It was the knowledge of the signature
of this treaty which induced Joseph, in Napoleon’s absence, to order the
Marshals to capitulate, and the army to leave Paris, thus entailing the
abdication of the Emperor.


Chauvinism.

Originally an unreasoning admiration for Napoleon, the name being taken
from Chauvin, a character in Scribe’s “Le Soldat Laboureur.” At the
present time, the word has lost its dynastic significance, and is used
to express a perfervid patriotism, somewhat corresponding to the English
Jingoism.


Chefoo Convention.

A convention between Great Britain and China, negotiated by Sir Thomas
Wade in 1876, by which China recognized the right of foreigners to
travel in the interior, and to be duly protected while so doing.


Chester, County Palatine of.

A County Palatine, established by William the Conqueror, who bestowed it
on his nephew, Hugh Lupus. The earldom was seized by Henry III in 1237,
and has since been an appanage of the crown.


Chevalier Sans Peur et sans Reproche.

Pierre du Terrail, Seigneur de Bayard (1476-1524), is called by his
biographer “the fearless and stainless knight.”


Chevaliers du Poignard.

A band of royalists, who, armed with daggers and hunting knives,
assembled at the Tuileries on February 28, 1791. They were dispersed and
disarmed by Lafayette, and being charged with a conspiracy to carry off
the king, maintained that they were assembled only for his protection.


Chiltern Hundreds.

The Hundreds of Bodenham, Desborough, and Stoke, in Buckinghamshire, the
stewardship of which is a sinecure, in the gift of the crown, originally
established to keep down the bands of robbers which infested the
Chiltern Hills. It is now used as a means of enabling a member of
Parliament to vacate his seat, as by accepting the office he becomes
disqualified for a seat in Parliament, unless re-elected.


Chimney Money.

_See_ Hearth Money.


Chinandega, Pacto de.

A name given to the Confederacion Centro-Americana, which was formed at
Chinandega in 1842, with the object of uniting the Central American
States.


Chinese Gordon.

The sobriquet of General Charles Gordon, the conqueror of the Taepings.


Chônin.

In old Japan the wardsmen or trading class, the lowest in rank of the
four Japanese classes.


Chouans.

The royalist party in La Vendée and other parts of Brittany, who held
out against the revolutionary armies until 1779. Among their most
celebrated leaders were Larochejaquelin and Cadoudal.


Chouiski.

_See_ Belski.


Christ, Order of.

A Portuguese order of knighthood, founded circ. 1318.


Christian Alliance.

An offensive and defensive alliance entered into in 1529 by Austria and
the Canton of Zurich. It was also known as the Treaty of Ferdinand.


Christinos.

The Spanish party supporting the Regency of Queen Christina in 1833, in
opposition to the Carlists.


Chupatties.

Small cakes of unleavened bread, which were sent through the villages of
British India just before the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny in 1857. It
is supposed that they were a signal to prepare for a rising, though
other explanations have been given of their meaning.


Cicero, The British.

A sobriquet of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (1708-1778).


Cid, The.

Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, a celebrated Spanish chieftain, in the reigns of
Ferdinand I, Sancho II, and Alfonso VI, was known as the Cid Campeador,
or Campaigning Chief. He died in 1099.


Ci-devants.

The name given during the French Revolution to those who, owing to the
abolition of all titles of honour, were no longer known by their titles,
but by their family names. Thus Marie Antoinette was brought to trial as
the “Widow Capet.”


Cincinnatus, The American.

A sobriquet of George Washington.


Cinq-Mars, Conspiracy of.

A conspiracy directed against Richelieu, the leaders of which were
Cinq-Mars, the favourite of Louis XIII, the Duc d’Orléans and De Thou.
An arrangement was made with Spain, by which she was to support the
conspirators with men and money. This agreement was discovered by
Richelieu in 1642, and Cinq-Mars and De Thou were arrested and executed.


Cinque Cento.

The sixteenth century, the later period of the Italian Renaissance.


Cinque Ports.

These were originally Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover and Sandwich, to
which were afterwards added Rye and Winchilsea. They were incorporated
at a very early, though uncertain date, to provide and man ships for the
defence of the Channel, and in return enjoyed certain privileges,
judicial and other. Their earliest known charter was granted by Edward
I, but they were summoned to send Barons to Parliament by Henry III in
1265, there is no doubt that they were incorporated in some form at a
considerably earlier period. Their privileges were finally abolished by
the Municipal Corporations Act in 1835.


Cintra, Convention of.

A convention signed by Junot and Sir Hew Dalrymple in 1808, after the
defeat of the French at Vimeira. It permitted Junot to evacuate
Portugal, England providing transport, with liberty to him and his
troops to serve elsewhere. The convention caused great indignation in
England, and led to the recall of the three English generals, Dalrymple,
Burrard, and Wellesley.


Circe of the Revolution.

Madame Roland was so called from the influence exercised by her
fascinating manner over the leaders of the French Revolution, and
especially over the Girondins.


Circumspecte Agatis, Statute.

A statute of Edward I, issued in 1205, to put a stop to the pretensions
of the ecclesiastical courts, which were gradually encroaching more and
more upon the functions of the civil courts.


Cisalpine Republic.

A republic formed by Napoleon out of the provinces conquered by him in
Northern Italy in 1796-1797.


Cispadane Republic.

A republic, with Bologna for its capital, established by Napoleon in
Italy in 1797.


Civil Marriage Bill.

A Bill introduced into the Hungarian Diet in 1893, by Dr. Wekerle. It
made civil marriage compulsory, permitted marriage with a deceased
wife’s sister, and made sundry changes in the divorce laws in the
direction of greater freedom. It was violently opposed by the Catholics,
and only passed the Upper House through the personal interposition of
the King Emperor.


Civil Rights Act.

An Act of Congress, passed in 1875, conferring equal rights on all
citizens, black or white, in the matter of public conveyances, inns,
places of amusement and jury service.


Claim of Right.

A declaration by the Scottish Convention of 1689, accompanying the offer
of the crown to William III. It was similar in character to the
Declaration of Rights of the English Parliament, but in addition it
proclaimed the abolition of the Episcopacy.


Claimant, The.

Thomas Castro, alias Arthur Orton, a butcher of Wagga-Wagga, New South
Wales, who in 1871 brought an action with intent to prove that he was
Sir Roger Tichbourne, the rightful owner of the Tichbourne estates in
Hampshire. His case broke down, after a long trial, and in 1874 he was
convicted of perjury and sentenced to fourteen years’ penal servitude.


Clair-on-Epte, Treaty of.

A treaty between Charles the Simple of France, and the Northmen under
Rolf the Ganger, in 912. In order to obtain immunity from the Viking
raids, Charles ceded to the Northmen the coast of Normandy.


Clan Act.

An Act passed in 1715, providing (1) that if a feudal chief rebelled,
all his vassals who remained loyal should in future hold direct from the
crown. (2) That a loyal tenant whose landlord was convicted of treason
should have two years gratuitous possession added to his lease. (3) That
the lands of a disloyal tenant should revert to his chief if loyal. (4)
That settlements of estates after August 1, 1714, should be no bar to
their forfeiture for high treason.


Clan Chattan and Clan Quhele.

A combat between thirty picked men of each of these clans was fought at
Perth in 1396. It is supposed to have been for the purpose of deciding a
dispute as to the chieftainship of the Clan Chattan.


Clan-na-Gael.

An Irish secret society, an offshoot of the Fenians, formed in 1881. It
was composed of the extreme physical force men among the Fenians, and
was also known as the United Brotherhood.


Clarendon Code.

The name given to the four Acts composing the repressive ecclesiastical
legislation of Clarendon, in the reign of Charles II, namely the
Corporation, Uniformity, Conventicle, and Five Mile Acts.


Clarendon, Council of.

_See_ Constitutions of Clarendon.


Classes, Act of.

An Act of the Scots Parliament, passed in 1649, disqualifying from
public office and seats in Parliament, all Malignants, enemies of the
Covenant, Engagers, etc.


Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

A treaty between Great Britain and the United States, signed in 1850,
providing for the construction of a canal to connect the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans. It was stipulated that in the event of such canal being
constructed, neither party should erect fortifications on the line of
the canal, nor assume any sovereign rights over any portion of Central
America. The United States afterwards repudiated the treaty, and it is
now superseded by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.


Clean the Causeway.

The name given to a brawl in the streets of Edinburgh in 1519, in which
the Douglas faction were attacked by the supporters of the Government.
The Douglasses swept their opponents from the streets, killing their
leader, Sir Patrick Stuart.


Cleargrits.

The extreme democratic party in Canada in 1850 were so called. They were
in favour of secession from England and annexation to the United States.


Clemency Canning.

A nickname given to Lord Canning, Governor-General of India, in
consequence of what many considered his undue leniency in the treatment
of the rebels, after the suppression of the Indian Mutiny in 1858.


Clementine League.

_See_ Holy League.


Clergy of France, Declaration of the.

A manifesto issued by Bossuet in 1682, declaring that the Pope had no
power in France in temporal affairs, and that his spiritual authority
was subject to that of a General Council, as proclaimed by the Council
of Constance; that the constitution of the Gallican Church was not to be
subverted, and that, in questions of faith, the Pope’s opinion was not
binding unless supported by the Church. This declaration was, by Royal
Edict given the force of law.


Clericis Laicos, Bull of.

A Bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII in 1296, forbidding the clergy to
pay tribute to a temporal sovereign. The result of this Bull in England
was that the clergy refused to pay taxes. They were consequently
outlawed, and much church property was confiscated by Edward I.


Clermont, Council of.

A Council summoned by Urban II in 1095, at which the Pope proclaimed the
duty of Christians to free the Holy Sepulchre from the hands of
Saracens. At the Council Godefroi de Bouillon and other notable
personages assumed the red cross, and the First Crusade followed.


Clicquot, King.

The nickname by which Frederick William IV of Prussia was known in
England.


Clontarf Meeting.

The name given to an incident which marked the collapse of O’Connell’s
Repeal agitation. A monster meeting was fixed to be held at Clontarf on
October 8, 1843. The Government proclaimed the meeting, and O’Connell
did his best to prevent the peasants assembling. In this he was
successful, but the proof that he did not mean under any circumstances
to resort to strong measures was the death blow to his movement.


Clouds, Battle above the.

The name given to the attack on Lookout Mountain by the Federal troops
at the battle of Chattanooga in 1863, during the American Civil War.
They advanced to the attack through a heavy mist, and the battle was
fought in a clear atmosphere, with the fog below.


Closter Seven, Convention of.

A convention, signed in July, 1757, between the French and the Duke of
Cumberland, who had advanced to the Weser in command of an English
force, and had been driven back by a French army, under D’Estrées, to
the mouth of the Elbe. The Duke agreed to disband his army.


Club, The.

A section of the Whig party in Scotland, who, at the accession of
William and Mary, advocated extreme views as to the limitations to be
set to the power of the king. Notwithstanding their opinions, they did
not hesitate to ally themselves with the Jacobites in their opposition
to William.


Club Parliament.

The Parliament of 1346, so called because the Barons attended it
accompanied by their retainers armed with clubs. It is also called the
Parliament of Bats (or Batons.)


Clubmen.

The name assumed by bands of peasants who, in 1644, assembled in various
parts of England, but especially in the West, to protect their lands
from the ravages of the civil war. They sided with neither party, but
attacked both impartially when their property was threatened.


Coalition Ministry.

A Ministry formed under Lord Aberdeen in 1853, composed of Liberals and
Peelites, and including among its members, Lord John Russell, Lord
Palmerston and Mr. Gladstone.


Cockburn’s Act.

The Betting Act, passed in 1853, is so called after its introducer, Sir
Alexander Cockburn. It did away with betting houses, and rendered the
exhibition of betting lists illegal. In 1874 the Act was extended to
Scotland.


Cockerton Judgment.

A judgment in the Court of Queen’s Bench in the case of Regina _v._
Cockerton. Mr. Cockerton, the auditor of the Local Government Board, had
surcharged certain expenditure of the London School Board, and the
correctness of his action being called in question, the court held that
it was illegal to make a payment out of the rates (1) for advanced
instruction in art and science in elementary day schools, (2) for any
instruction to adults at evening continuation classes.


Cockpit of Europe.

The name given to Belgium on account of the numerous important battles
which have been fought there.


Code Napoleon.

The Code of Law issued by Napoleon in 1803. It was based on the old
French law, with such alterations as had been rendered necessary by the
Revolution, and certain new provisions, introduced by Napoleon, notably
those relating to the law of succession and to the marriage law. For the
purpose of this codification, which remains the law of France, he called
to his councils the most eminent French lawyers, irrespective of party,
among others Tronchet, Cambacérès, Portalis and Roederer.


Codes.

Allgemeines Landrecht, Brehon, Bretts and Scots, Burgos, Caroline
Ordinance, Clarendon, Consolato, Doom-Book, Etablissements, Frédéric,
Frostathing, Fuero Juzgo, Grágás, Gulathing, Jus Magdeburgicum, Jutland,
Landrecht, Louis, Libro de Tasas, Lübeck, Ludlow, Martian, Mulmutine,
Noir, Oleron, Recess of Colding, Regiani Majestatem, Savary, Siete
Partidas, Thirty-three Articles, Wisbuy, Wisliza.


Codini.

The Pigtail Party, a name given by the supporters of the House of Savoy
to the Papal party in Rome, the suggestion being that they are behind
the times.


Coercion Act.

An Act of Parliament passed in 1833, giving the Lord Lieutenant of
Ireland power to prohibit any meeting of whatever nature which he
regarded as dangerous to the peace, and to declare any district to be in
a disturbed state. The bill gave the right to search for arms and
suspended the Habeas Corpus Act in the proclaimed districts,
substituting martial law for the regular tribunals.


Cœur de Lion.

The sobriquet of Richard I of England.


Cognac, League of.

_See_ Holy League.


Collectivism.

A form of socialism, the leading tenet of which is that capital and the
means of production should be in the hands of associations of workers,
and not be privately owned.


College of Justice.

The supreme court of Scotland in civil cases. It was established by
James V in 1533, and was composed of fourteen judges and a president. At
the same time the body of Advocates was created.


Colonial Conference.

A conference held in London in 1902, between Mr. Chamberlain and the
Colonial Premiers. The principal recommendations of the conference were
an increase in the Colonial contribution to the navy, increased
facilities for Colonial cadets to enter the services, that preferential
duties between Great Britain and the Colonies should be kept in view,
that the metric system should be adopted, and that postage rates should
be lowered.


Colonies, Council for the.

A Council appointed by Charles II in 1660, to supervise all the affairs
of the oversea plantations.


Coloquy of Poissy.

A conference of divines summoned by Catherine de’ Medici in 1561, and
attended, among others, by Peter Martyr and Beza. It was hoped that a
_modus vivendi_ with the Huguenots might be arrived at, but the
divergences between the two religions were perhaps unduly emphasized by
the reformers, and the conference proved abortive, though in the
following year an edict was issued permitting the Huguenots to worship
outside the towns.


Colorados.

_See_ Blanquillos.


Coloured League.

A confederation of the coloured people of the Southern States of
America, formed after the war, with the object of securing for the
negroes the free exercise of their political rights.


Comité de Salut Public.

The Committee of Public Safety was appointed by the French Convention in
April, 1893, to exercise the functions of a Ministry. The first object
was to drive the Girondists from power. The members of the first Comité
were comparatively moderate men, but it was reorganized in July of the
same year, from which time it was composed almost entirely of the
extremists, and became a mere instrument in the hands of Robespierre.


Comitia Paludata.

The Diet which met in Poland during an interregnum only. The whole body
of nobles attended, the meeting taking place on an open plain, and the
members appearing armed and mounted.

Comitia Togata.

The ordinary Polish Diet of representatives of the nobles. It was
summoned by the king, and the members attended unarmed.


Commando.

The military system established by the English in South Africa in 1806.
The country was split up into districts, each under a field cornet,
whose duty it was to summon the burghers when called out for military
service. The burghers were divided into three classes, according to age,
and every male was liable to service from sixteen to sixty. The system
was maintained by the independent Dutch States, till the close of the
Boer War in 1902, but compulsory service was abolished in Cape Colony in
1834.


Commendation.

In feudal times the personal submission of a man to a feudal lord, by
which he became his vassal, was so called.


Commercial Treaty of 1786.

A treaty between France and England, abolishing prohibitive duties and
establishing a moderate tariff between the two countries. The Methuen
Treaty between England and Portugal, which had been very prejudicial to
French interests, was abrogated.


Commission of Government.

A Commission of Peers, authorized by Richard II in 1386, to inquire into
abuses in the Government, and to prepare a scheme of reform.


Commission of Grace.

A proclamation under the Great Seal by James I in 1604, securing Irish
landowners from all claims of the Crown, and empowering the governor,
in all cases of precarious tenure, to grant indefeasible titles.


Commissions of Array.

Commissions given by the English Kings to certain commissioners to
impress men for military service. They were first issued under Edward I.


Committee of Religion.

A committee appointed by the Long Parliament in 1641 to consider the
question of religious reform.


Commune, Paris.

An outbreak of the extreme revolutionary party in Paris in 1871, after
the withdrawal of the Germans. Its leaders were Assi, Billioray,
Blanqui, Cluseret, Paschal Grousset, Félix Pyat, and other noted
extremists. They obtained complete possession of Paris, and were guilty
of terrible atrocities, including the cold-blooded murder of the
so-called hostages, amongst whom was the Archbishop of Paris. The city
underwent a second siege at the hands of the Provisional Government, but
after severe fighting the Government troops, under the Marquis de
Gallifet, surmounted the last barricade, and those of the Communist
leaders who failed to escape were brought to trial, and executed or
transported. Many of the public buildings, including the Tuileries, were
set fire to during the fighting by the “Pétroleuses.”


Communeros, Revolt of the.

_See_ Santa Junta.


Compactata of Prague.

An agreement between the Hussites and their religious opponents in 1433.
This agreement afterwards formed the basis of the Treaty of Iglau.


Compagnies d’Ordonnance.

The first French regular army, called into existence by Charles V in
1370.


Complaints of the Commons of Kent.

A document submitted to the Government in 1450 by the insurgents under
Jack Cade. It set forth the causes of the unpopularity of Suffolk, and
demanded the restoration to favour of the Duke of York.


Composition of Connaught.

An arrangement between Sir James Perrot, Governor of Ireland, and the
landowners of Connaught in 1585, by which the landowners agreed to pay a
fixed ground rent, in consideration of a patent from the Crown, and
relief from all other taxes and imposts. At the same time all members of
the clans were released from their allegiance to their chiefs, and
placed directly under the Crown.


Compound Householder.

The occupier of a small tenement who did not pay poor rates directly,
but compounded with his landlord, who was responsible for the rate to
the authorities. During the debates on the Reform Bill of 1867, the
question of his enfranchisement was very hotly contested, and in the end
the compound householder was abolished, and every name put on the rate
book.


Compounders.

The name given to the more moderate section of the English Jacobites in
1692. They desired a restoration of the Stuarts, but accompanied by a
general amnesty. The non-compounders, who would listen to no suggestions
of moderation, were, however, more powerful at St. Germains.


Compromise, The.

A document signed in 1566 by some 2,000 nobles and gentlemen of the
Netherlands, by which the signatories bound themselves to offer the most
strenuous resistance to the Inquisition, while loyally supporting the
sovereignty of Philip II.


Compromise Act.

An Omnibus Act passed by Congress in 1850. It provided for the admission
to the Union of California as a state, and of New Mexico and Utah as
territories, for the settlement of the boundaries of Texas, the return
of fugitive slaves to the owners, and the suppression of the slave trade
in the district of Columbia.


Compte Rendu.

A manifesto by the Moderate party in the French Chamber, drawn up by
Odilon Barrot in May, 1832. It denounced the Ministry for continuing the
Restoration rather than the Revolution, and complained of the
institution of hereditary peerages, the excessive civil list, and the
extravagant expenditure on the army. With regard to foreign policy it
pointed out that, through lack of firmness, the Government was
abandoning Italy to Austria and Poland to Russia.


Compurgation.

The acquittal of an accused person, in consequence of an oath taken by
his kinsmen to the effect that he was innocent of the charges brought
against him. This was abolished by the Assize of Clarendon in 1166.


Concentration Camps.

Camps formed in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony, during the Boer
War, for the reception of women and children who could not be protected
in their own homes in the disturbed parts of the two colonies. Charges
were made of gross mismanagement of these camps, but a commission
appointed to investigate pronounced that the complaints were absurd, and
that everything had been done for the refugees that the circumstances
permitted.


Conclave.

An assembly of the Cardinals summoned for the purpose of electing a
Pope. The regulations governing the Conclave were issued by Gregory X in
1275.


Conclusions.

An argument drawn up by the Puritans of Salem, Massachusetts, in 1629,
and circulated among the Puritans of England, setting forth the
desirability of strengthening the Colony of Salem.


Concordat.

An agreement entered into in 1801 between Napoleon and the Pope,
providing for the re-establishment of Roman Catholicism, which had been
proscribed during the Revolution, as the religion of the majority of
the French nation. It was agreed, among other provisions, that bishops
were to be nominated by the State, but instituted by the Pope. The
nomination of parish priests was vested in the bishops, the State having
a right of veto. The State undertook to see that adequate stipends were
provided for the clergy, to replace the ancient revenues which had been
confiscated during the Revolution.


Concordat of 1516.

An agreement between Francis I of France and Leo X, by which the King
obtained the right of nominating archbishops, bishops and mitred abbots,
the inferior clergy being appointed by the bishops as before. In return
for this, Francis granted the Pope annates and the right to levy a
yearly tribute.


Concordat of 1855.

An agreement between Francis Joseph of Austria and Pius IX, by which the
control of public education was entrusted to the priesthood, and all
offences against canon law were sent for trial before ecclesiastical
courts. This concordat was abrogated in 1870.


Concordats.

_See_ Aschaffenburg, Bec, German, Worms.


Condottieri.

Soldiers of fortune who hired themselves out to the various petty states
of Italy, during the wars of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.


Confederate Catholics.

A federation of Irish Catholics formed in 1642, at the commencement of
the Great Rebellion. They formed a provisional government, consisting of
a general assembly, with two houses, and appointed a judicial body for
each county under their control, with an appeal to a supreme council of
twenty-four persons.


Confederate States.

The independent republic formed, under the presidency of Jefferson
Davis, by the states which seceded from the Union prior to the American
Civil War of 1860.


Confederation of 1573.

An enactment of the Polish Diet, granting to all sects liberty of
conscience and equal rights and privileges. This is the first instance
of the establishment of complete religious toleration.


Confederation, Treaty of.

An agreement entered into in 1643, by Connecticut, Massachusetts, and
New Haven, and later joined by Plymouth, uniting the four communities
under the title of the United Colonies of New England.


Confines, Audiencia de los.

During the Spanish domination, the Supreme Court of Central America. It
was established in 1542.


Confirmatio Cartarum.

The confirmation by Edward I in 1297 of Magna Charta and the Charter of
Forests, to which was added an article known as “De Tallagio non
Concedendo,” sometimes referred to as a separate statute, and denying
the right of the king to levy Tallages without the consent of
Parliament.


Conflans, Treaty of.

A treaty between Louis XI and his nobles, signed in 1465, putting an end
to the Guerre du Bien Public. Louis ceded the Duchy of Normandy to his
brother, the Duc de Berri, to be held as a fief of France, and made
certain concessions to the Duc de Bretagne, the Comte de Charolais, and
others.


Congé d’Elire.

The invitation sent by the Crown to a cathedral chapter to elect a
certain person as bishop of the diocese.


Congo Conference.

A conference of the Powers held at Berlin in 1884-5. It declared for
freedom of commerce in the basin and mouths of the Congo, and along the
coast from Gaboon to Angola, and appointed an international commission
to regulate the navigation of the Congo and the Niger. It recognised the
neutrality of the Congo Free State, decreed the abolition of slave gangs
and slave markets, and all monopolies, and insisted that foreigners
should enjoy equal rights with the subjects of the sovereign state.


Congregation, Lords of the.

The leaders of the reforming party in Scotland, who issued the First
Covenant in 1557, took this title.


Congress.

The Parliament of the United States, consisting of two Chambers, a House
of Representatives, and a Senate. The former consists of a certain
number of members from each state, elected by direct popular vote. The
number of representatives of each state is in proportion to the
population, as shown in the decennial census. The Senate is composed of
two members from each state, irrespective of population, elected by the
respective state legislatures. One third of the Senate retires annually.


Congresses.

_See_ Aix-la-Chapelle, Arras, Berlin, Brussels, Carlsbad, Châtillon,
Congo, General, Hague, Heilbronn, Kilkenny, Laibach, Troppau, Vienna,
Verona.


Conservative.

This name came into use to designate the Tory party about 1837. It was
first employed by John Wilson Croker, in an article in the _Quarterly
Review_.


Consistoriali.

A secret society, established in Naples, with the Papal authorization,
during the first decade of the nineteenth century, to oppose the
Carbonari and support the Church.


Consistorium.

A tribunal established in Geneva by Calvin in 1541, to deal with
offences against religion and morals. Its rule was terribly severe, all
amusements being proscribed and all criticism of the Calvinist doctrine
being sternly repressed. In five years the Consistorium imprisoned over
800 persons, and put to death fifty-eight.


Consistory.

An assembly of the Cardinals, in the presence of the Pope; summoned for
the transaction of business.


Consolato del Mare.

A code of maritime law, said to have been compiled, from Roman and
Rhodian laws, by the trading communities of Barcelona about the middle
of the thirteenth century. Other authorities attribute it to the
Venetians or the Pisans.


Conspiracies, Plots, etc.

_See_ Alexander, Amboise, Ankarstrôm. Army, Assassination, Atterbury,
Babington, Biron, Booth, Bridal of Norwich, Burr, Bye, Catherine, Cato
Street, Cinq Mars, Craigmillar, Despard, Dutch, Emmett, Falieri,
Fieschi, Gowrie, Gunpowder, Hunting of Braemar, Incident, Jerviswood,
Malet, Meal Tub, Orsini, Overton, Pablen, Pazzi, Pichegru, Popish,
Porcari, Strelitzi, Ridolfi, Rye House, Queensberry, Throgmorton,
Tiepoli, Venner, Vowel, Waller.


Constance, Council of.

A council summoned by John XXIII, at the instance of the Emperor
Sigismund in 1415. It was concerned with the Hussite heresy, and John
Huss, who attended under a safe-conduct, was declared a heretic and,
notwithstanding the safe-conduct, burnt at the stake. The council
further dealt with the schism, deposing two popes, and electing Martin
V.


Constance, Peace of.

A treaty, signed at Constance in 1183, between Frederick Barbarossa and
the Italian cities, after the successful revolt of the Lombard League.
It provided for the re-establishment of self-government in the cities,
including the right of electing their magistrates, subject to certain
unimportant reservations of the Imperial prerogative.


Constantinople, Conference of.

A conference of the Great Powers, summoned in 1876, with the object of
preventing war between Russia and Turkey. The terms agreed upon by the
Powers were, however, rejected by the Porte, and war followed.


Constantinople, Council of.

A council of the Church, held at Constantinople in 754, under the
auspices of Leo the Iconoclast. It proscribed the use of images and
religious pictures in worship. The decrees of this council were
anathematised by the Synod of Rome in 769, and reversed by the Council
of Nicæa in 787. It is not regarded by the Church as an Oecumenical
Council.


Constantinople, Fourth Council of.

An Oecumenical Council, held in 869, which declared that no Metropolitan
could enter upon his functions until he had received the pallium from
the Pope. This decision practically placed the nomination of the higher
church dignitaries in the Pope’s hands.


Constitution of 1812.

The Constitution drawn up by the Spanish Cortes which met at Cadiz in
1810. Ferdinand VII, on his restoration in 1814, refused to subscribe to
the instrument, and continued to govern the country on absolute
principles, but a military _pronunciamiento_ forced him finally to give
way and agree to its conditions in 1820.


Constitutions.

_See_ Body of Liberties, Canada, Eadgar, Estatuto Real, Federal Pact,
May, Mediation, Model, Nine Articles, Waldemariana.


Constitutions of Clarendon.

A recital of the ancient customs of England, defining the relations
between the Church and the Crown, drawn up by order of Henry II, and
accepted, after much opposition, by Thomas á Becket on behalf of the
Church. It made the criminous clerk subject to the civil jurisdiction,
provided that questions relating to land claimed by the Crown should be
submitted to a jury, constituted the King the final court of appeal, and
limited the power of the bishops. By these and other provisions, the
supremacy of the Crown was assured. The constitutions were promulgated
at the Council of Clarendon in 1164.


Consulta.

The committee of three members of the Council of State of the
Netherlands, during the regency of Margaret of Parma, 1559 to 1567. The
three were Viglius, Barlaymont, and the Bishop of Arras.


Continental Blockade.

A system established by Napoleon, in 1806, by the Berlin Decree. In this
instrument he declared the whole of the British Isles to be in a state
of blockade, and forbade any correspondence with them on the part of the
countries dependent on him. He further declared all Englishmen found in
any country occupied by French troops to be prisoners of war, and
ordered all English merchandise and all private property of English
subjects wherever found to be confiscated. So impracticable was it to
carry out this system that, within the year, Napoleon found it necessary
to purchase English cloth to clothe his own troops.


Contra-Remonstrants.

The Gomarists, the opponents of the Arminians in the Netherlands, were
so called from their having presented to the States-General a
counter-remonstrance, protesting against the five articles set out in
the remonstrance of the Arminians in 1610.


Contracting Out.

The chief point at issue in the Employers’ Liability Bill of 1893. The
difference of opinion between the two Houses on this point wrecked the
bill. _See_ Employers’ Liability.


Conventicle Act.

An Act passed in 1664, rendering illegal any meeting for religious
purposes which was attended by more than five persons beyond the family,
unless held in accordance with Church of England practice.


Conventicles.

Open air meetings for public worship held by the dispossessed Scotch
ministers, after the establishment of the Episcopal Church in Scotland
at the Restoration. They were declared illegal, were then permitted by
Indulgence, and finally again made illegal, and suppressed whenever
possible.


Convention Parliament.

Two Parliaments are known by this title, being irregular assemblies, as
not having been summoned by Royal Writ--(1) The Parliament which
restored the Crown to Charles II in 1660. (2) The Parliament which
offered the throne to William and Mary in 1689.


Conventions Bill.

An Act passed by the Irish Parliament in 1793. It forbade the holding of
meetings for the purpose of petitioning the King or Parliament, and also
the election of delegates to attend such meetings.


Convicts Prevention Act.

An Act passed by the Victorian Legislature in 1852, forbidding the
immigration into the colony of any but free men, thus shutting out
ticket-of-leave men from the penal settlements. The Queen at first
refused her assent, but the bill was passed a second time and became
law.


Conway’s Cabal.

_See_ Cabal, American.


Co-operation.

The first Co-operative Society was started in 1844 by twenty-eight
Rochdale weavers. They began their operations with a capital of £28
only, and in sixteen years the Society was worth over £120,000.


Copperheads.

A name given by the Federals, during the American Civil War, to the
Peace Party in the Northern States. The copperhead is a peculiarly
venomous snake, as deadly as the rattlesnake and more dangerous, because
not provided with the warning rattle.


Coppernose.

A nickname of Henry VIII. derived from the silver coinage of his reign,
which was made of an alloy containing a quantity of copper.


Copyhold.

A tenure by service, as opposed to freehold or leasehold. In most cases
the service has long since been commuted for a small annual payment. In
the event of a copyholder dying intestate and without issue, the
copyhold reverts to the Lord of the Manor.


Cordeliers.

A revolutionary club in Paris, in the early days of the French
Revolution, composed mainly of the partisans of Danton. It took its name
from an old monastery of the Cordelier order, where its meetings were
held.


Corn Law of 1804.

An Act establishing a prohibitive duty on foreign corn while the price
of English wheat stood at 63s. per quarter or under, and fixing the duty
at 3s. 6d. per quarter with the price between 63s. and 66s., and at 6d.
per quarter with the price above 66s.


Corn Law of 1815.

An Act prohibiting the importation of foreign corn, until the price of
English wheat stood at 80s. per quarter.


Corn Law of 1824.

An Act reaffirming the principle of the sliding scale of duties on
imported grain, as in the Corn Law of 1804.


Corn Laws, Repeal of the.

An Act passed by Sir Robert Peel’s Government in 1846, reducing
immediately the tax on foreign grain, and providing for its ultimate
abolition, with the exception of a registration duty amounting to 1s.
per quarter. This Act was mainly the result of the efforts of the
Anti-Corn Law League.


Cornwall, Duchy of.

Cornwall was created a Duchy by Edward III, and its revenues were
assigned to the maintenance of his eldest son, the Prince of Wales.
Since that period the eldest son of the Sovereign has borne the title of
Duke of Cornwall, and enjoyed the revenues of the Duchy. Alterations in
the internal administration were made by Acts passed in 1863 and 1893.


Coronation Stone.

The ancient Scottish Coronation Stone of Scone was brought to England by
Edward I, after his defeat of Balliol at Dunbar in 1296, and is now in
Westminster Abbey.


Corporal John.

The great Duke of Marlborough was so called by his soldiers.


Corporation Act.

An Act passed in 1661, compelling all holders of office in corporations
to swear to their belief in the doctrine of Passive Obedience, to
receive the sacrament according to the rites of the English Church, and
to renounce the Covenant. This Act was not repealed until 1828.


Corsican Ogre.

A nickname of the great Napoleon.


Cortes.

The Spanish Parliament is so called.


Corti Compromise.

A compromise proposed by Count Corti, Italian Ambassador to the Porte in
1880, to meet the difficulties raised by Turkey in carrying out the
provisions of the Berlin Treaty, relative to Montenegro. He proposed
that Turkey should retain Gussinje and Plava, ceding instead
Kutschi-Kraina and Podgoritza.


Corvée.

Enforced labour on the roads and other public works, exacted from the
French peasant before the Revolution. The same system prevailed in Egypt
prior to the English occupation.


Cossacks.

The inhabitants of the debateable land between the Russian frontier and
the Crim Tartars. The most important of these communities were those of
the Dnieper and the Don. They retained a certain degree of independence
until the reign of Catherine II of Russia. The soldiers of the military
cordon established by the Russians and Poles along their southern
frontiers were also known as Cossacks.


Cottereaux.

Bands of mercenaries in the French service during the twelfth century.


Cotton Famine.

The name given to the distress in Lancashire in 1862, in consequence of
the cessation of cotton shipments from America during the Civil War, by
which thousands of operatives were thrown out of employment. Large sums
were received by subscriptions in aid, and in August of that year the
Relief Act was passed, by which loans were granted to the guardians to
enable them to establish relief works.


Council of State.

A council of forty-one members, in whom Parliament vested the executive
power, on the proclamation of the Commonwealth in 1649. They were
appointed for one year.


Councils.

_See_ Ancients, Anziani, Aulic, Blood, Castle, Clarendon, Consulta,
Colonies, Federal, Fifteen, Five Hundred, Hlutdaw, Indies, Kilkenny,
Magnum, North, Policy, Reason, Sixteen, Ten, Thirty-six.


Councils, Church.

_See_ Bari, Basle, Clermont, Constance, Constantinople, Dort, Lateran,
Lyons, Nicæa, Œcumenical, Pisa, Trent, Vatican, Vienne.


Country Party.

A political party, formed about 1673, under the leadership of Lords
Russell and Cavendish. They were in full sympathy with the demands of
the Dissenters for toleration, and made it their special business to
keep a watch on the religious and political designs of the Court. They
afterwards became known as Whigs.


County Palatine.

A county possessing certain Royal privileges, created originally for
defence of the frontier against the Welsh, the Scotch and the French.
They were Chester, Lancaster, Durham, Kent, Shropshire, Pembrokeshire,
and Hexhamshire. Only the three first named retained any of their
privileges beyond the sixteenth century.


Coup d’Etat.

A term applied to any overthrow of free institutions by military
intervention, but used especially to denote the bold stroke of Louis
Napoleon, who by a display of military force in the Paris streets in
December, 1851, and the imprisonment of the Republican members of the
Chamber, succeeded in getting himself proclaimed Consul, and, later,
Emperor.


Cour d’Héritage.

An ancient feudal court in Jersey, having jurisdiction over all disputed
questions as to landed property.


Cours Plénières.

Assemblies of the Barons, called, on the great festivals of the year, by
the early kings of France and England.


Court Baron.

A court of the old Norman Manor, summoned to settle all questions
arising out of the cultivation of the demesne land of the Manor.


Court Customary.

A baronial court in feudal times held to decide questions arising out of
the tenure of land by villeins.


Court Leet.

Under Henry I the Hundred Court was so called, when it sat for the
purpose of trying criminal cases under the presidency of the Sheriff.


Courte Paix.

_See_ Longjumeau.


Courts.

_See_ Audiencias, Augmentations, Aulic, Austrägal, College of Justice,
Chambre, Confines, Consistorium, Curia Regis, Four Burghs, Great
Session, Haute Cour, Heemraden, High Commission, Jews, Manor, Parlement,
Piés Poudrées, Reichskammergericht, Requests, Salford, Star Chamber,
Tribunal, Tynwald, Vehmgericht, Wales.


Coventry Act.

An Act passed in 1671 declaring nose-slitting or other mutilation of the
person to be a felony. It was passed in consequence of a dastardly
attack upon Sir James Coventry, a Member of Parliament, who, having
incurred the enmity of the Court party by some comments in the House on
Charles the Second’s _liaison_ with Nell Gwynne, was waylaid on his way
home by Sir Thomas Sandys and some of the King’s friends, who dragged
him from his coach and slit his nose to the bone.


Cowboys.

Bands of British marauders who infested the banks of the Hudson River
during the American War of Independence. The name is now applied to the
cattlemen on the ranches in the Far West.


Cowper-Temple Clause.

A clause inserted in the Education Act of 1870, embodying an amendment
moved by Mr. Cowper-Temple. It provides that unsectarian Bible teaching
shall be given during school hours in all rate-aided schools under the
School Boards.


Coyne and Livery.

The right of an Irish chieftain to quarter his soldiery on the tenants.
It was forbidden by the Statute of Kilkenny in 1307, and was finally
stopped in 1603. It was called by the Irish “Bonaght.”


Cradle of Liberty.

The name given to Faneuil Hall, Boston, which was the place of meeting
of the American patriots during the period of the Revolution.


Craigmillar, Bond of.

An agreement entered into in 1566, at the instigation of Bothwell, by
Argyle, Huntly, Maitland and Sir James Balfour, with the object of
compassing the death of Darnley.


Crapaud, Jean.

A Frenchman is so called, probably from the fleur-de-lys of the old
French standard, which bears a faint resemblance to a toad (crapaud).


Creole State.

The State of Louisiana is so called because of the large number of its
inhabitants who are descendants of the original French and Spanish
settlers.


Creoles.

In Spanish America this term is applied to all persons of pure European
descent, born in South America. Those with an admixture of Indian blood
are known as Mestizos. The word Creole was also applied in Louisiana to
those of pure French descent who were born in the Colony.


Cretan Convention.

A convention between the Porte and the Powers, signed in September,
1896. It provided for the appointment of a Christian Governor, and for
the summoning of an Assembly within six months. Two-thirds of the
official appointments were to be held by Christians and one third by
Mohammedans. The Cretan Government was to retain one half of the Customs
duties, the other half being taken by the Sultan, in lieu of the old
tribute.


Crimes Act, 1882.

An Act empowering the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to suspend jury trial
in disturbed districts, and to send agrarian cases for trial by a
commission of three judges, with an appeal to the Court of Criminal
Cases Reserved. Power of search was given to the police in proclaimed
districts, and, further, power to arrest and remove strangers thought
dangerous to public safety.


Crimes Act, 1887.

An Act to repress the lawlessness of the Irish Land League. It gave
power to the Lord Lieutenant to proclaim the affected districts, and to
suppress seditious gatherings and unlawful associations. It also
provided for change of venue, in cases where a fair trial could not be
relied upon under ordinary conditions.


Croppies.

A name given to the Roundheads during the Civil War. The Irish rebels of
1798 were also called by this name.


Crown, Treaty of the.

A treaty signed at Vienna in 1700, between the Emperor Leopold I, and
Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, by which Leopold recognized Frederick
as King of Prussia. Frederick undertook to place 10,000 men in the field
for the service of the empire, if required, to support Austria in the
German Diet, and to vote, as Elector, for Leopold’s son, Joseph, and his
successors as occupants of the Imperial throne.


Crusade of Children.

In 1212, some 90,000 children, mostly from Germany, inspired by the
crusading spirit of the times, left their homes for the Holy Land. Many
who embarked at Marseilles were carried to Alexandria and there sold as
slaves. Others got no further than Genoa, where they were enslaved by
the Genoese.


Cum ex Apostolatus Officio, Bull.

A Bull of Pope Paul IV, issued in 1559, declaring all Protestant Princes
incapable of reigning, and giving Catholics the right to levy on their
possessions.


Cumbernauld, Bond of.

An agreement signed by John Graham, Earl of Montrose, and his
associates, prior to their invasion of England in August, 1640, by which
they bound themselves to oppose any dictatorship vested in the hands of
subjects.


Cupar Justice.

_See_ Jedburgh Justice.


Curfew, or Couvrefeu.

The famous enactment of William the Conqueror, ordering all persons in
the country districts to be in their houses, with all lights
extinguished, by eight o’clock in winter and sunset in summer. It was
presumably designed to prevent secret meetings and conspiracies directed
against the King, of which there were many, owing to his unpopularity
with the Saxon element of the population.


Curia Regis.

A court of law established by William the Conqueror as the Final Court
of Appeal of the realm. At its head was the Justiciary, as the King’s
representative. It was re-organised in the reign of Henry I, when the
Exchequer Court was established by Roger of Salisbury, the Barons of the
Curia Regis sitting as Barons of the Exchequer for financial purposes.
It was again reconstituted by Henry II, who limited its numbers to five,
and by Magna Charta, when it was divided into three courts, those of the
Exchequer, the Common Pleas, and the King’s Bench. It thus took the form
which lasted, with minor modifications, until the Judicature Acts of
1873-5.


Curt-Mantle.

The nickname of Henry II of England, from his wearing the short cloak of
Anjou instead of the longer mantle worn by his predecessors.


Custer Massacre.

The destruction by a body of Sioux Indians of the whole of General
Custer’s force, on the Little Big Horn, Montana, in 1876.


Custos Rotulorum.

The keeper of the rolls of the County Sessions. The office is generally
held by the Lord Lieutenant of the County.


Cyprus Treaty.

A treaty between Great Britain and Turkey, signed in 1788, whereby the
Sultan recognized the occupation and administration of Cyprus by Great
Britain, with the following provisos: that a Mussulman religious
tribunal should be established; that all surplus revenue should be paid
to him; that the Porte should retain the right to sell or lease lands
belonging to the Crown, and that Cyprus should be restored to the Porte
in the event of Russia restoring Kars.



D


Dacoity.

The name given in India to brigandage or highway robbery. It was very
prevalent in Burmah after the annexation.


Daimios.

The great hereditary nobles of Japan. The principal Daimios, such as the
Princes of Satsuma, Choshiu, Kaga, and some others, were almost in the
position of independent sovereigns, though they owed a nominal
allegiance to the Emperor, and in some cases to the Shôgun. The word,
strictly Dai-miyo, signifies “Great Name.”


Dalai Lama.

The sovereign pontiff or spiritual ruler of Thibet. He is supposed to be
always a reincarnation of a previous holder of the office. The actual
government is carried on by the Des-ri, or king.


Dancing Chancellor.

Sir Christopher Hatton, Chancellor of Queen Elizabeth, was so called.
The Queen first saw him at a masque, where her attention was attracted
by his graceful dancing.


Dandy King.

A nickname of Joachim Murat, King of Naples.


Danegelt.

A tax imposed for the first time by Æthelred the Unready, for the
purpose of buying off the Danish invaders, in 994. It became a permanent
tax till the reign of Henry II, who replaced it by “Scutage.”


Danelagh.

The country ceded to the Danes by the Treaty of Wedmore, in 878.


Danites.

A Mormon secret society, founded in 1838, for the protection of the
Mormons from the “Gentiles.” It contained organized companies, called
“Destruction Companies,” whose business it was to burn and destroy
“Gentile” property, nominally by way of reprisals, and there is little
doubt that these bands did not stop short of assassination. They were
probably concerned in the Mountain Meadow Massacre.


Dannebrog, Order of the.

A Danish order of knighthood, founded by Waldemar II in 1219, and
reconstituted by Christian V in 1693.


Danube Navigation Commission.

An international commission appointed in 1856, when the navigation of
the Danube was thrown open to all nations. It was originally appointed
for two years only, but has from time to time been continued, the last
extension being for twenty-one years from 1883. Its jurisdiction extends
from the mouths of the Danube to the Iron Gate.


Dardanelles, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in London in 1841, after the conclusion of the Syrian
War, by England, France, Russia, Prussia, Austria and Turkey. It
confirmed the agreement arrived at by the Convention of London of the
previous year, depriving Mehemet Ali of all his Asiatic possessions, but
securing him the Government of Egypt. It also provided that the
Bosphorus and the Dardanelles should be closed to all ships of war,
excepting small vessels under a special firman. This provision was
confirmed by the Treaty of Paris of 1856. The Treaty of the Dardanelles
is also known as the Treaty of London.


Darien Scheme.

A scheme promoted by a Scotchman named Paterson, in the reign of William
III, to secure the trade with the Far East by utilising a route across
the Isthmus of Darien. A company was formed, and obtained a charter from
the Scottish Parliament, granting a monopoly for thirty-one years of the
trade with Asia, Africa, and America, and the right to introduce all
goods from those regions free of duty, excepting sugar and tobacco. In
1698, 1,200 colonists started for Darien, but were at once opposed by
the Spanish colonists, and though a further expedition was dispatched in
the following year, the whole enterprise failed ignominiously. The
scheme had from the first been opposed in England, and was the cause of
much bad blood between the two countries, and of a heavy pecuniary loss
to Scotland.


Dauphin.

The title of the first-born heir-male to the French throne.


De Facto King, Statute of.

A Statute of Henry VII, passed in 1485, enacting that no person could be
convicted of high treason for services rendered to the King who was
actually on the throne.


Death Ride.

The charge of the Light Cavalry Brigade at Balaclava, on September 20,
1854, is so called.


Debateable Land.

A district on the English and Scottish borders, claimed by both
countries, and inhabited by the Grahams, who were generally on the
English side in war time, though they raided both sides of the border
impartially in time of peace. The district lay between the waters of the
Esk and the Sark. Under James I the whole Graham Clan was removed to
Ulster.


Decamisados.

The extreme section of the Spanish revolutionists in 1821. They may be
said to correspond to the French _sans-culottes_. The word means the
“shirtless ones.”


December Emeute.

A meeting of about 200 students and young people, on the Nekvsi Prospekt
in St. Petersburg, in 1876, at which cheers were raised for the exiles
in Siberia, The police interfered, and arrested some thirty, but there
seems to have been little resistance, and the affair, though supposed to
have been part of a more important movement, was probably much
exaggerated by the authorities.


December, Man of.

Napoleon III was so called because December was the month of his
election to the Presidency, of the _Coup d’Etat_, and of his taking the
title of Emperor.


December Rising.

An outbreak in St. Petersburg in December, 1825, on the accession of
Nicholas I, fomented by a revolutionary society known as the Society of
the North. The rightful heir to the throne was Constantine, the elder
brother of Nicholas, but he had waived his rights. The revolutionists,
however, made use of the question of succession to excite the mob, their
real object being the overthrow of the dynasty. The rising was easily
suppressed, and the ringleaders convicted and hanged. The conspirators
were afterwards known as the Dekabrists.


Decet Romanum Pontificum, Bull.

A Bull of Leo X, issued in January, 1521, calling upon the German
Princes to uphold the Papal authority by condemning Luther unheard.


Decimation.

An arbitrary income-tax of ten per cent. levied on all Royalists by
Cromwell’s Major-Generals, in 1655.


Declaration of Independence (America).

The Manifesto issued by the second Congress in America, on July 4, 1776,
declaring the colonies independent. It was only carried in Congress by a
majority of one.


Declaration of Independence (Brazil).

This instrument, promulgated in 1822, proclaimed the separation of
Brazil from the Crown of Portugal. The colony was erected into a
constitutional monarchy, Pedro, the second son of John VI of Portugal,
being proclaimed Emperor.


Declaration of Indulgence, 1673.

A proclamation by Charles II, suspending all penal laws against
Dissenters. Parliament, however, held that while the King had the power
of pardon in individual cases, he had no constitutional right to suspend
general enactments. The King was consequently forced to withdraw the
Declaration.


Declaration of Indulgence, 1687.

A proclamation by James II, issued on his sole authority, annulling all
religious tests, and all penal enactments against Dissenters, which he
ordered to be read in the churches. This led to the famous Protest of
the Seven Bishops.


Declaration of Right.

A declaration by the Convention, accompanying the offer of the Crown to
William of Orange in 1689. It declared that the dispensing power was
non-existent, that the sovereign could only raise money by the aid of
Parliament, and that no army could be maintained in time of peace. It
further asserted the right of petition, of freedom of debate in
Parliament, of free choice of representatives, and of pure
administration, and the necessity of frequent Parliaments. The
declaration was accepted by William, and afterwards embodied in the Bill
of Right.


Declaration of Rights.

A manifesto issued by the General Congress in America, in 1774,
maintaining the rights of American colonists as Englishmen, and
demanding the repeal of the Boston Port Act and other obnoxious
legislation.


Decretals, False.

A collection of Decretals, or Papal Edicts, purporting to have been
issued by very early Popes, which was produced in the ninth century.
These Decretals were designed to support the claim of the Bishops of
Rome to supreme authority in the Church.


Defender of the Faith.

The title granted to Henry VIII by Leo X in 1521, in recognition of his
book “The Assertion of the Seven Sacraments,” written in opposition to
the Lutheran doctrine. This title has been borne by all the English
Sovereigns since Henry VIII.


Defenders.

The name assumed by the agrarian bands formed by the Catholic farmers of
Ulster for defence against the Peep o’ Day Boys, in 1782.


Defensionale.

A joint military scheme for the defence of the country, drawn up by the
Federated States of Switzerland, in 1647.


Deficit, Madame.

A name given by the Parisians to Marie Antoinette, circ. 1786, the
constant deficits in the French Budget being attributed to her
extravagance.


Dekabrists.

The name given to the conspirators concerned in the December rising in
St. Petersburg in 1825.


Delegations.

A body of 120 members, chosen half by the Austrian and half by the
Hungarian Legislature, which controls all questions affecting the common
interests of the dual monarchy. To this body the Ministers of War,
Foreign Affairs, and Finance are responsible. To have the force of law,
its enactments require the confirmation of both Parliaments.


Demarcation, Bull of.

The Bull issued by Pope Alexander VI in 1493, defining the respective
colonial spheres of Spain and Portugal. A line was drawn north and
south, 100 leagues west of the Azores. All extra-European countries east
of this line were granted to Portugal, and all west of it to Spain. On
this Bull Spain based her claim to the whole of the American Continent.


Demesne Lands.

The lands belonging to the Crown were so called in the early days of
English History.


Demetrius, The False.

A pretender to the Russian throne, who appeared in Poland, and obtained
the support of the Jesuits in 1591. He claimed to be the Demetrius
Ivanovitch who was supposed to have been murdered by the usurper Boris.
After the death of Boris, the Pretender, aided by the Poles, entered
Moscow, and ascended the throne, but the Muscovites soon discovered the
fraud and put him to death.


Democrats (U.S.A.).

_See_ Republicans.


Deogam, Treaty of.

A treaty between the British and the Rajah of Berar, at the close of the
second Mahratta War in 1803. The Rajah surrendered Katak and Balasore,
and all his territory west of the Wardha, and assented to the conditions
of the Treaty of Bassein.


Deposition, Bull of, 1535.

A Bull of Pope Paul III, dated in 1535, and issued in the following
year, excommunicating and deposing Henry VIII. It was the Pope’s reply
to the Act of Supremacy and the execution of Fisher and Sir Thomas More.


Deposition, Bull of, 1569.

A Bull issued by Pius V, declaring Queen Elizabeth to have forfeited her
right to the throne, and freeing her subjects from their allegiance.


Derby Dilly.

A name given to a section of the Tory party in 1835, which followed Lord
Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby.


Despard’s Plot.

A conspiracy, headed by Colonel Despard, a retired army officer, who
had become imbued with the principles of the French Revolution, to
assassinate George III, 1802. His accomplices were almost all men of the
labouring classes. The conspirators were seized, and Despard and some
others hanged.


Des-ri.

The king or political ruler of Thibet, to whom the functions of
government are handed over by the Dalai Lama.


Destiny, Man of.

Napoleon I was so-called, owing to his firm belief in his lucky star.


Devil’s Parliament.

A Parliament summoned by Henry VI at Coventry in 1459. It passed a Bill
of Attainder against the Yorkist leaders.


Devil’s Wall.

The wall which in ancient times separated England from Scotland.


Devolution, Law of.

An ancient local custom in certain fiefs of Brabant, whereby, upon the
death of one parent the fief passed to the children.


Diamond, Battle of.

The name given to an affray in 1795, at Diamond, a village near Armagh,
between the Defenders and the Peep o’ Day Boys, in which the latter were
victorious.


Diamond Necklace.

A scandal of the Court of Louis XVI, in 1785, to which the unpopularity
of Marie Antoinette was largely due. Mme. Lamothe, the mistress of the
Cardinal de Rohan, gave the Cardinal an order, purporting to be signed
by the Queen, for a diamond necklace, which the Cardinal ordered from
the Court jeweller, giving bills for payment by instalments. Madame
Lamothe, by means of another forged document, obtained possession of the
necklace, and turned it to her own uses. The Cardinal being unable to
meet the first bill when it became due, the jeweller applied to the
Queen. The matter came to the ears of the King, who ordered an inquiry,
and Mme. Lamothe was arrested and convicted, and the Cardinal disgraced.
Nothing was proved against the Queen, but the public remained convinced
that she was in some way mixed up in the affair.


Diamond State.

The State of Delaware, U.S.A., is so called.


Diamond Trade Act.

An Act passed by the Cape Parliament in 1882, to suppress illicit
diamond buying, or I.D.B. This Act made it criminal to possess an uncut
diamond without being able to account for its lawful possession. It also
gave the police large powers of search, including the right to open
suspicious parcels in the post. The administration of this Act was the
cause of the Kimberley Riots.


Dictator of a Day.

Pavia, Captain-General of Madrid, who by a _pronunciamiento_ in 1869,
obtained the supreme power, which he at once handed over to Marshal
Serrano.


Dingaan’s Day.

December 16, 1838, on which day the Transvaal Commandos completely
routed the Zulu chief Dingaan, thus avenging the massacre of the Boer
farmers in the early part of the same year.


Directoire.

The Government established in France after the fall of Robespierre, in
July, 1794. The power was vested in five directors, assisted by a
Council of five hundred, and a Council of two hundred and fifty members
known as the Council of Ancients. It lasted until 1799, when the
Consulate was established by the _Coup d’Etat_ of November 9 (18th
Brumaire).


Disarming Act.

One of the Irish Penal Laws, passed in 1695, under which all Papists
were ordered to surrender their arms, under penalty of a heavy fine for
the first offence, and of imprisonment for life for the second.


Disarming the Highlands, Act for.

An Act passed in 1825, forbidding the carrying of arms by the Highland
clansmen.


Disastrous Peace.

The Treaty of Câteau Cambrésis in 1559, whereby Henri renounced his
Italian claims, was so called by the French.


Discipline, Books of.

The two publications embodying the constitution and procedure of the
Church of Scotland. The first was drawn up by John Knox, and four other
ministers, in 1560. The second, a revised version of the first, was
drawn up by Andrew Melville, and sanctioned by the General Assembly in
1578.


Discoverers.

Certain persons in Ireland, circ. 1616, who made it their business to
investigate some of the older titles to land. In the event of their
discovering any flaw in the titles, such lands were confiscated, the
informer receiving a percentage of the value.


Disinherited.

The Barons who continued the Barons’ War after the Battle of Evesham
were so called because a decree of forfeiture had been issued against
all the supporters of Simon de Montfort.


Dissolution of Monasteries.

This was carried out by an Act passed in 1536, supplemented in 1539 by a
further Act, vesting all monastic property in the Crown.


Divine Right.

The doctrine of the inalienable right of the next in succession to
ascend the throne by virtue of inheritance, apart from any
considerations of fitness or Parliamentary sanction. It reached its
apogee in the Stuart times, and was discarded with the adoption of
William III as King of Great Britain and Ireland.


Dix-huit Brumaire.

The _Coup d’Etat_ of November 9, 1799, when Napoleon overthrew the
Directoire, and had himself appointed First Consul.


Dix-huit Fructidor.

The _Coup d’Etat_ of September 4, 1797, whereby the Royalist plot in
which certain members of the Directoire and the Councils were
implicated, was frustrated.


Dixie’s Land.

A popular name for the Southern States of America in the slavery days.


Doctrinaires.

The name given to the philosophic Liberals in France, in the reign of
Louis XVIII.


Domesday Book.

A register of the holders of land compiled by Commissioners appointed by
William the Conqueror.


Dominicans.

An order of mendicant friars, known as the Preaching Friars, and in
England as the Black Friars, founded by St. Dominic and recognized by
Pope Honorius III in 1216. To this Order was entrusted the conduct of
the Inquisition.


Dominus ac Redemptor noster, Bull.

The Bull of Clement XIV, issued in 1773, suppressing the Jesuits.


Don Pacifico.

A British subject, a Jew of Gibraltar, whose house at Athens was burnt
by a mob in 1847. The difficulty and delay in obtaining compensation led
to Lord Palmerston sending a fleet to the Piraeus. Greece appealed to
France and Russia, and a European war was for some time within
measurable distance.


Donation of Charles.

A gift of Charlemagne to Pope Adrian I, in 774. It is uncertain of what
the donation consisted, though it included a confirmation of the
“Donation of Pepin.” It was declared by the Popes, however, to have been
a gift of the whole of the Italian peninsula, and by some even to have
been a renewal of the fabled “Donation of Constantine.”


Donation of Constantine.

A legendary gift to the Pope of the imperial sovereignty over Italy and
the whole of the Western Empire. This document is included amongst the
False Decretals.


Donation of Pepin.

The gift of Pepin, the first king of the Carlovingian dynasty, to the
See of Rome, in 755, of Ravenna and the surrounding country, which he
had recently conquered from the Lombards. This donation may be said to
be the foundation of the temporal power of the Popes, which lasted until
1870.


Donauwörth, Troubles of.

A series of disturbances at Donauwörth, a free Protestant town in
Suabia, in 1606, due to the Catholic minority insisting on holding
religious processions through the streets of the town. The Aulic
Council, supported by the Emperor, placed Donauwörth under the ban of
the Empire, and eventually made it a Catholic town, within the
jurisdiction of Bavaria. The action of the Aulic Council in this case
resulted in the formation of the Protestant League in 1608.


Dongan Charter.

The charter of the City of New York, granted in 1686 by Thomas Dongan,
Governor of New York under James II.


Donis Conditionalibus, Statute De.

A Statute of Edward the First’s reign, which provided that if an estate
were given to a man and his children, he had only a life interest in it,
and in the event of his dying without issue, the estate reverted to the
donor. Prior to this statute, it was sufficient that a child was born to
him, when the estate became his absolute property, and could be
alienated at will. This statute, in fact, established the system of
entails.


Doom-Book.

A codification of the Anglo-Saxon laws and customs, made by Alfred the
Great (871-901).


Doppers.

The members of the Separatist Reformed Church in the Transvaal and
Orange Free State. It was established by Mr. Postma in the Transvaal, in
1859, and is now a very influential body. Its tenets are not unlike
those of the Scottish Covenanters.


Dorr’s Rebellion.

An insurrection in Rhode Island, headed by Thomas W. Dorr, in 1841,
having for its object the extension of the suffrage, which remained as
originally instituted by the Charter of Charles II in 1663. He seized
the State Arsenal, but was overpowered, and later was arrested and
sentenced to imprisonment for life. He was afterwards pardoned. His
movement, however, resulted in the adoption, in 1842, of a constitution
to supersede the Charter of 1663.


Dort, Synod of.

A synod held in 1618, to which all the Protestant Churches were invited
to send representatives. It was specially convened for the purpose of
considering the Arminian heresy, and resulted in the condemnation of
Arminianism, and the expulsion of its followers from Holland.


Douglas Larder.

When Sir James Douglas (The Good) recovered his castle from the English
in 1306, he massacred the garrison, and threw their bodies, together
with all the stores and provisions found in the castle, into a cellar.
This was called by the English the “Douglas Larder.”


Douglas Wars.

The Civil War in Scotland between the King’s men and Queen’s men from
1568 to 1573, was so called from the family name of the Earl of Morton,
who was Regent during the later period of the war.


Dover, Treaty of.

A treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV, signed in 1670, by which
Charles was to re-establish Roman Catholicism, receiving from Louis
£200,000 a year, and the use of 6,000 French troops. He was to aid Louis
in his designs against Holland, receiving as a reward the Province of
Zeeland, and further to support Louis in his claim to the Spanish
succession, for which service he was to receive as payment Minorca and
Ostend.


Dózsa Revolt.

A revolt of peasants under George Dózsa, in Hungary, in the reign of
Ladislas (1490-1516) which was suppressed with considerable difficulty
and great cruelty, and led to the peasants being reduced to a condition
little removed from serfdom.


Draft Riots.

An outbreak in New York in 1863, to resist the drafting of New Yorkers
into the Union Army. The mob held possession of the city for four days,
the absence of the militia at the front having left only the police
available for the protection of the city. It is calculated that over
1,000 persons were killed, and damage done to the extent of two million
dollars during the riots.


Dragonnades.

The persecution of the Huguenots in Poitou and other parts of France by
the dragoons of Louvois and Marillac in 1685.


Dred Scott Case.

A case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1855. Dred
Scott, a negro, claimed that having lived with his owner in a free
labour state, he could not be sold back into slavery on his master’s
death. The Supreme Court decided against him, and further laid it down
that he had no _locus standi_ before the Court, as the rights of
citizenship could not be claimed by any person who had been a slave or
was the descendant of a slave.


Dreikaiserbund.

An alliance, more or less formal, between the three Emperors of Austria,
Germany, and Russia, dating from a personal meeting in 1872. It had
ceased to exist in any form prior to 1879, when the foundation of the
existing Triple Alliance was laid.


Dreyfus Case.

In December, 1894, Captain Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery officer, employed
at the General Staff in Paris, was found guilty of supplying
confidential documents to foreign Powers, and sentenced to degradation
and transportation for life. His friends were convinced of his
innocence, and began an agitation which by degrees attracted the
attention of many eminent Frenchmen, among others Emile Zola, who took
up his cause with great warmth. Eventually the Government were forced to
submit the case to the Cour de Cassation, which quashed the conviction
and ordered a new trial. Dreyfus was brought back to France in 1899, and
tried by court-martial at Rennes. Though his innocence was generally
believed in outside France, he was again found guilty, but was almost
immediately pardoned by the President. The Case was the occasion of a
wild outburst of anti-semitism in France. In February, 1903, it was
rumoured that the case was to be re-opened by the Dreyfusites, evidence
having come to light of the methods adopted by the General Staff to
secure the second conviction.


Drifts, Closing the.

In 1895 the Transvaal Government raised the rates on merchandise on the
railway between the Vaal and Johannesburg, in order to force importers
to use the newly-opened Delagoa Bay Railway. The Cape importers
thereupon unloaded their merchandise at the frontier, and sent it on to
Johannesburg by waggon. President Kruger then closed the drifts, or
fords, on the Vaal on October 1. He was reminded that this action was a
breach of the London Convention, but he remained obdurate, and it was
found necessary to resort to a display of force, before which he gave
way.


Drogheda, Statute of.

Generally known as Poyning’s Act.


Drunken Parliament.

A Scottish Parliament which assembled in 1661. It passed the Episcopal
Ordination and the Mile Acts, and it is said that at the passing of the
first-named Act, the whole assembly, with one exception, was
intoxicated.


Dual Alliance.

The alliance at present existing (1903) between France and Russia. Its
earliest form was a military convention, signed in 1891, whereby it was
stipulated that either nation should, with a specified force, assist in
repelling an attack on the other by Germany. This convention was
extended in 1894, and in 1897 became a definite alliance, for defensive
purposes only, wherein all special reference to Germany is dropped.


Dual Control.

The control by England and France of the Egyptian finances established
by a decree of September 4, 1879, which provided that the
Comptrollers-General of the two Powers should have the rank of Egyptian
Ministers, and the right to attend, but not to vote at, meetings of the
Council, together with full powers of inquiry into all questions of
finance. The Dual Control ceased to exist when France declined to
co-operate with England in the suppression of the Arabi revolt.


Duclair Incident.

This name is given to the seizure and destruction of six English vessels
at Duclair, on the Seine, by the Germans during their occupation of
France in 1870. Full apologies and compensation were given.


Duel, Trial by.

Among the Norsemen a claimant was allowed, under certain conditions, to
make good his claim by an appeal to arms. If victorious his claim was
considered established. This system was abolished among the Danes and
Norsemen by King Knut.


Dukhobors.

A Russian sect, claiming to live without submitting themselves to human
laws, and without reference to any other authority than that of God. The
refusal to undergo military service led to their expulsion from Russia,
and they are now domiciled in Canada, where, in 1902, they caused the
authorities no little trouble by their refusal to submit to the law of
the land.


Dulcigno Arrangement.

The final settlement of the Montenegro boundary question, long pending
between the Great Powers and Turkey, replacing the Corti Compromise
which was not carried out. The transfer of territory fixed by this
arrangement was completed in 1881.


Dumb Captain.

The Prince de Condé, the leader of the conspiracy of Amboise, was so
called by his confederates.


Dunces, Parliament of.

The Parliament of Henry IV, which met at Coventry in 1404. _See_
Unlearned Parliament.


Dungannon Convention.

A convention of Ulster volunteer corps, held in 1781, at which
resolutions were passed protesting against Irish legislative dependence
on England and against a perpetual Mutiny Act. The meeting further
demanded freedom of commerce for Ireland, and proclaimed its belief in
the right of private judgment in religious matters.


Dupes, Journée des.

November 11, 1603, on which day Marie de’ Medici, Anne of Austria, and
the Duke of Orleans, were outwitted by Richelieu, whom they had
persuaded Louis XIII to dismiss from his service. The Cardinal returned
to office more powerful than ever.


Durham, County Palatine of.

Durham was made a County Palatine in the reign of William I, and
Palatine privileges were enjoyed by the Bishops of Durham until 1836.
The administrative authority is now exercised on behalf of the Crown.


Dutch East India Company.

A company with trading and political rights, to which a charter was
granted in 1602. Its affairs were controlled by a board of directors in
Holland, and a governor-general in the Indies. It founded a colony at
the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. In 1795 the Company ceased to exist,
having become insolvent.


Dutch Plot.

A rising in New York in 1690 under Jacob Leisler, declaring for William
III.


Dysiefald.

The catastrophe of Dysieaa, where the revolting peasants were defeated
by Waldemar I of Denmark in 1181.



E


Eadgar’s Law.

The constitution of England during the reign of Eadgar (959-975) when,
under the virtual rule of Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, the various
tribes of Saxons and Danes were united under one administration. Knut
re-established Eadgar’s Law on his accession in 1016.


Eagle of Brittany.

Bertrand Duguesclin, Constable of France (died 1380), was so called.


Ealdorman.

In Saxon times, a national officer, appointed by the king and council to
control military affairs in the shire. He sat with the sheriff in the
Shire Court.


Earthquake, Council of the.

The name given to the Synod of the English Church at which the
Wycliffite doctrines were declared heretical. It was so called from a
shock of earthquake which was felt during the sitting of the Synod.


East India Company.

The first charter to the Indian merchants was granted in 1600, and made
perpetual in 1609, a company being constituted under the title of the
India Company, with the monopoly of the Eastern trade. During the
Revolution a rival company was formed whose competition threatened to
extinguish the older Company, but eventually the two were amalgamated in
1708. As the field of operations in India was extended, political
questions became increasingly important, and such was the
maladministration of the Company, that the Government was constantly
forced to interfere. In 1773 a Regulating Act was passed, by which a new
council was appointed and other administrative reforms introduced, but
the consequent improvement was not marked, and in 1784 Pitt’s India Bill
withdrew all political power from the hands of the Company, while
leaving their trading rights intact, and established a Board of Control,
to be appointed by the British Government. In 1813 the trading monopoly
of the Company was broken, so far as India was concerned, by the
admission of independent traders to the Company’s territories, but they
still retained the China trade. In 1834, however, the restrictions on
trade still afforded by the Company’s charter were felt to be out of
harmony with modern commercial ideas, and the whole of the Company’s
trading rights were swept away, in return for an annuity, payable for
forty years, of £630,000, redeemable at the end of that period, at the
Government’s option, for a sum of £12,000,000. Before that period was
ended, however, the Indian Mutiny broke out, and on its suppression, in
1858, the Company was finally dissolved, and India passed under the
direct rule of the United Kingdom.


Ecclesiastical Reservation.

A clause in the Religious Peace of Augsburg, of 1555, providing that any
spiritual prince who changed his religion was to forfeit his office and
the revenues of his see.


Ecclesiastical Titles Act.

An Act passed in 1851 in response to the agitation caused by the action
of the Pope in appointing Cardinal Wiseman to the Roman Catholic
Archbishopric of Westminster. The Act declared the assumption of such
titles to be illegal, but provided no penalties for a breach of the law,
and hence was never enforced. It was repealed in 1871.


Economists.

A philosophical school, or sect, founded in France about 1761 by a
physician of Mantes, named Quesnay. He maintained that there was a
natural order of human institutions, divinely ordained, and that, if
this were adhered to, prosperity must ensue. He further argued that
agriculture was the only true source of wealth. These doctrines largely
influenced Turgot, the finance minister of Louis XVI.


Ecorcheurs.

Bands of brigands who harried France during the Hundred Years’ War.


Edict of Nantes.

An edict issued in 1598 by Henri IV of France (Henry of Navarre)
granting toleration to the Huguenots. It was revoked by Louis XIV in
1685, as a preliminary to a cruel persecution of the Protestants, one
result of which was their wholesale emigration to England, Holland, and
other Protestant countries.


Edicts.

_See_ Capitularies, Châteaubriand, Emancipation, Fraternity, Hatti
Humayun, Majestäts Brief, Moulins, Nemours, Orléans, Pavia, Perpetual,
Quarantaine, Reformation, Restitution, Reunion, Romorantin, Six,
Soissons, Tours, Villers-Cotterets, Worms.


Edinburgh, Treaties of.

Two treaties, signed in 1560, between France and Scotland and France and
England respectively. By the first France undertook to withdraw her
troops from Scotland, leaving the Government in the hands of the Council
of the Lords. By the second she acknowledged Elizabeth’s sovereignty
over England and Ireland, and undertook to maintain her pledges to the
Scots.


Edmunds Law.

A stringent law against polygamy, passed by the United States Congress
in 1882. It was specially directed against the practice prevailing in
the Mormon settlements of Utah.


Education Act, 1870.

An Act passed in 1870, establishing a system of national elementary
education in England and Wales, controlled by popularly elected bodies
known as School Boards. Its introducer was Mr. W. E. Forster. The system
lasted till 1902, when it was abolished by the Act passed in that year.


Education Act, 1902.

An Act for the regulation and co-ordination of primary and secondary
education in England and Wales, excepting London. It abolishes the
School Boards established by the Act of 1870, and makes the County
Council or Borough Council the education authority, subject in certain
respects to the Board of Education. It further provides for the
inclusion in the scheme of denominational schools, which prior to the
passing of the Act received no support from the rates, but are now
maintained from the same sources as the old board schools for all
purposes of secular education.


Egalité.

The sobriquet of Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, assumed by him to show his
sympathy with the Revolutionary party in France in 1789.


Eight Cantons, League of the.

The confederation formed in 1351-1353 by the admission of Zurich,
Glarus, Zug and Berne into the Perpetual League of the four Forest
Cantons.


Eikon Basilike.

A book published in 1649, shortly after the execution of Charles I,
purporting to be his own account of his reign. In 1660, however, the
authorship of it was claimed by Dr. Gauden, Bishop of Exeter. The point
in dispute is still unsettled, though most authorities oppose the theory
that it is the work of Charles.


El Dorado.

_See_ Manoa.


Elephant, Order of the.

A Danish order of knighthood, said to date from the first Crusade, but
reorganized in 1693 by Christian V. It is confined to thirty members,
exclusive of royal knights.


Eleven Articles.

A short profession of the Protestant faith, issued on the accession of
Queen Elizabeth, pending the revision of the forty-two Articles of 1552.


Eltchi, The Great.

The sobriquet of Sir Stratford Canning (Lord Stratford de Redcliffe),
British Ambassador to the Porte from 1825 to 1828, and again from 1842
to 1858.


Emancipation Act.

An Act passed in 1833 for the abolition of slavery in the British
dominions. It provided that all children under six, and all born after
the passing of the Act, should be free. All other slaves were, for a
period of twelve years, to serve their masters for three-fourths of
their time, the remaining fourth being their own. This period was
subsequently reduced to seven years, and after being tried for four
years the system was abandoned, and all slaves completely freed. Twenty
million pounds was voted as compensation to the planters for the loss of
their slave property.


Emancipation, Edict of.

An edict issued by Freiherr von Stein, Prussian Minister in 1807,
abolishing every form of villeinage then existing in Prussia, and
declaring that from 1810 there should be none but freemen in the
Prussian dominions.


Emancipation Proclamation.

A proclamation, issued by President Lincoln in January 1, 1863,
declaring that all persons held in slavery in the States in arms against
the Union were henceforth free. This proclamation did not apply to those
States which had not seceded from the Union, whose slaves were liberated
by an amendment to the Constitution.


Embargo Act, First.

An Act of Congress, passed in 1807, as a reply to the English Orders in
Council, prohibiting English vessels from making use of American ports.
The Act was repealed in 1809.


Embargo Act, Second.

An Act passed by the United States Congress in 1810, by which vessels
flying the United States flag were forbidden to trade between France and
England, while French and English vessels were, at the same time,
forbidden to touch at American ports. The American shipowners very soon
found means to evade this law.


Embassy, The.

A deputation from the Victorian Government, under Graham Berry, to the
Colonial Office, in 1878, arising out of the Victorian Deadlock. The
Colonial Secretary declined to interfere, and the “Embassy” became the
laughing-stock of the Colony.


Emigrés.

The nobles and other Royalists, to the number of 123,000, who left
France during the Revolution. Their estates were forfeited, and owing to
the terms of the “Charte” of Louis XVIII were not, as a rule, recovered
at the Restoration. It was said of them that they returned from exile
“having learnt nothing and forgotten nothing.”


Eminence Grise, L’.

A nickname of François du Tremblay, the familiar of Cardinal Richelieu.


Emmett’s Rebellion.

An Irish rising under Robert Emmett in 1803. It was fomented by
Napoleon, who had despatched numerous emissaries to Ireland during the
currency of the Peace of Amiens. The rising was easily suppressed, and
Emmett was hanged.


Empire State.

The State of New York is so called as being the richest and most
influential of the States of the Union.


Empire State of the South.

The State of Georgia is so-called.


Employers’ Liability Bill, 1893.

A bill rendering employers liable for compensation to their workmen for
injuries received while at work. The bill was not passed, being wrecked
by the question of “contracting out.” Many large employers of labour had
arrangements with their men, by which the latter contributed to an
assurance fund, maintained in the main by the employer, for the purpose
of providing compensation for injury, the men being bound, under these
conditions, not to take legal action for compensation. The House of
Commons passed a clause rendering such contracts illegal, but the Lords
inserted an amendment rendering them legal under certain safeguards as
to the amount of the employers’ contribution to the fund, etc. Neither
party would give way, and the bill was withdrawn.


Employers’ Liability Act, 1897.

An Act providing compensation for death or injury, to workmen or their
representatives, to be paid by the employer. The Act permits
“contracting out,” but in cases where the insurance fund is not
sufficient to provide the compensation required by the Act, the employer
is bound to make up the amount.


Encomiendas.

Concessions granted to the colonists in South America under Spanish
rule, whereby they were permitted to hold as slaves, for a certain
number of years, such Indians as they might require, for agricultural or
mining purposes.


Encumbered Estates Act.

An Act to facilitate the sale of encumbered estates in Ireland, and to
give certain powers to sell, in cases otherwise restricted under
entail.


Encyclopædia.

The famous work of Diderot Voltaire, d’Alembert and others, which was
declared to be irreligious, and was undoubtedly hostile to the Church
and to superstition. It was produced between 1751 and 1765, and was
proscribed in 1757, but continued to circulate notwithstanding.


Enfant de la Fortune.

The nickname of “The Child of Fortune” was given to Masséna by Napoleon,
after the battle of Rivoli in 1797.


Enfants de Dieu.

The Camissards called themselves by this title.


Engagement.

An agreement between Charles I and the two Scottish commissioners at
Carisbrooke, in 1647, by which the Scotch agreed to support the king
with an armed force, in return for which he undertook to accept the
Covenant and establish Presbyterianism. The supporters of this agreement
in Scotland were known as Engagers.


Englishry, Law of.

This arose from an edict of William I, inflicting a heavy fine for the
murder of one of his soldiers. It was always assumed that any dead body
discovered was that of a Norman, and to escape the fine it was necessary
to prove that the corpse was that of an Englishman. This was called
“Presentment of Englishry.”


Enragés, Club des.

The Club of the Duc d’Orléans, Philippe Egalité, circ. 1789.


Entail.

A system of land tenure, introduced by the statute “De Donis” in 1285,
wherein the holder has only a life interest in the land, which passes at
his death to his heirs male, and is precluded from alienation, or from
any act which may diminish the capital value of the estate.


Eperons d’Or, Journée des.

_See_ Spurs.


Episcopal Ordination Act (Scotland).

An Act passed by the Drunken Parliament in 1662, enacting that all
holders of livings should be episcopally ordained. It is said that under
this act some 350 ministers were deprived of their livings.


Equador, Confederação do.

A revolutionary society, formed at Pernambuco in 1824, with the object
of seceding from the Empire of Brazil and forming a republic. Its leader
was Paes de Andrade. The revolt was suppressed in the same year.


Era of Good Feeling.

The period of Monroe’s presidentship of the United States (1816-1820),
during which there was a truce between the two great political parties.


Erastians.

The followers of Thomas Liebler, known as Erastus, a Swiss theologian
(1524-1583). He held that the Church was a civil institution, and
subject to the State, and that consequently the Church _per se_ had no
right to punish by excommunication or otherwise any offences against the
Church, its doctrine or government, such right belonging to the State
alone.


Eric.

Under the Brehon Law in Ireland, the only punishment recognized for all
classes of offences, namely a money compensation.


Erie Ring.

A confederation of speculators who obtained control of the Erie Railway,
and, working in with the Tammany Ring in New York, succeeded in amassing
large fortunes, at the expense of the shareholders. The various
transactions between the two rings were exposed in 1871, and the Erie
Ring was ousted from the management of the railway.


Escheat.

The reversion to the crown of an estate held in vassalage, on the
failure of heirs to the vassal.


Escuage.

_See_ Scutage.


Essex Junto.

The name given to a party of extreme Federalists in the United States
about 1800. The name is taken from Essex County, Massachusetts, which
was the centre of their influence.


Est-it-possible.

The nickname of George of Denmark, the husband of Queen Anne. It was his
invariable remark when any startling news was told him.


Estates of Scotland.

The Scottish Parliament was so called, as being an assembly of the three
estates of the kingdom, namely the Clergy, the Barons, and the
Burgesses. All the three Estates sat in one chamber.


Estatuto Real.

The new constitution promulgated by Bermudez, the Minister of the
Queen-Regent, Christina of Spain, in 1834, to replace the despotic
system of Ferdinand.


Etablissements de St. Louis.

The code of laws issued by Louis IX of France, directed against the
abuses of seignorial jurisdiction, and providing for the regular
administration of justice by state functionaries. It also settled the
principles of procedure in the courts thus established.


Etas.

The outcasts in old Japan. They exercised all the most degrading trades,
acting as scavengers, butchers, tanners, executioners, etc. They are
supposed by some authorities to be descendants of Korean prisoners of
war.


Etcetera Oath.

An oath imposed upon the English clergy by the Canons of 1640, to the
effect that they would never consent to any alteration in the government
of the Church of England, by Archbishops, Deans, Archdeacons, etcetera.


Ethel.

In early Anglo-Saxon times land held on the original allotment made at
the time of the Saxon invasion, as opposed to Bocland, land held by
grant or charter.


Etruria, Kingdom of.

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was thus re-named, on passing to the Duke of
Parma under the provisions of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801.


Eureka Stockade.

A stockade erected and defended by the Ballarat miners under Peter Lalor
in 1854. The stockade was taken by the Government troops, and the
outbreak quickly suppressed, but it resulted in the appointment of a
commission to inquire into the miners’ grievances, which reported
largely in their favour in the course of the following year.


European Association.

A society of foreign political refugees, formed in London in 1855 to
promote the Republican movement on the Continent. Its founders were
Mazzini, Kossuth, and Ledru-Rollin.


Ever Victorious Army.

The name given to the army which finally overpowered the Taeping rebels
in 1865 under General Gordon.


Evil May-day.

May 1, 1517, the date of a serious outbreak of the London apprentices,
when grave outrages were perpetrated on foreigners and others.


Evora, Convention of.

A convention putting an end to the civil war in Portugal, signed in
1834, by which the Pretender, Don Miguel, renounced the throne, and
agreed to leave Portugal.


Excelsior State.

A name given to the State of New York, from its motto, “Excelsior.”


Exchequer.

A court formed out of the _Curia Regis_ to deal with questions of
finance. It was established by Roger of Salisbury, in the reign of Henry
I.


Exclusion Bill.

A Bill introduced into Parliament in 1679, providing for the exclusion
of James, Duke of York, from the succession. The bill failed to pass,
but was reintroduced in 1681. After it had been read a first time
Charles II dissolved Parliament, and did not summon another during his
reign.


Executors.

_See_ Sixteen, Council of.


Exsurge Domine, Bull.

The Bull issued by Leo X in 1520, “against the errors of Martin Luther.”
It was publicly burnt by Luther in the market place of Wittemburg.



F


F. F. V’s.

The First Families of Virginia. The name given to the descendants of the
adventurers who colonized Virginia under the Charter of 1606.


Fabius, The American.

George Washington was so called.


Factory Acts.

A series of Acts providing for the inspection and regulation of
factories in Great Britain. The first Act dealing with this question was
the Cotton Industry Act of 1831, and further legislation took place in
1834, 1844, 1850, 1864, 1867, 1870, and 1874, some of these Acts
relating to factories as a whole, and others to particular trades. The
most important enactment, however, is that of 1878, which deals with
factories and workshops of all kinds, as well as with domestic
workshops. Regulations are made limiting the hours of employment of
women, young persons, and children, forbidding the carrying on of
certain trades by women, and providing for systematic inspection by
Government officials.


Faggot Votes.

Votes manufactured, chiefly in country districts, by the creation of
small freeholders. The sale of land to accomplish this was often merely
nominal, no money passing, and the vendor lending the purchase money
under mortgage.


Fair Maid of Kent.

The sobriquet of Joan, Countess of Salisbury, the wife of Edward the
Black Prince.


Fair Quakeress.

Hannah Lightfoot, whom George III married in 1759, the year before he
ascended the throne. The marriage was, of course, not recognized.


Fair Rosamond.

The daughter of Lord Clifford and mistress of Henry II of England.


Falaise, Treaty of.

A treaty between Henry II of England and William the Lyon of Scotland,
signed in 1174. William, who had been captured by the English and
carried off to Normandy, agreed, as the price of his liberty, to
acknowledge Henry’s suzerainty and do homage for his crown. The right
was, however, surrendered by Richard Cœur de Lion in 1189, in exchange
for a payment of 10,000 marks.

Falczi, Treaty of.

_See_ Pruth.


Falieri, Conspiracy of Marino.

A plot, headed by Falieri, the Doge of Venice, to overthrow the
Government of the Republic. The conspiracy was discovered, and Falieri
was beheaded within the walls of the Ducal Palace in 1355.


Falk Laws.

A series of laws introduced by Dr. Falk, Prussian Minister of Public
Worship, between 1872 and 1879, in pursuance of the Kulturkampf. They
were exceedingly oppressive to the Catholic population. The more
important of them were passed in the month of May, 1873, whence they are
also known as the May laws.


Family Compact.

A secret agreement, made in 1733, between Louis XV of France and Philip
V of Spain, the object of which was the harassing of English commerce in
the South Seas, and the recovery by Spain of Gibraltar and Minorca. It
culminated in 1761 in a close alliance between the two Powers, to which
the Bourbon Princes of Parma and Naples were also admitted.


Family Convention.

An agreement between Giovanni de’ Medici and Philip V of Spain, in 1731,
by which the former recognized Don Carlos as his heir to the Grand Duchy
of Tuscany.


Farines, Journée des.

The day of the Cornsacks was January 3, 1591, when some of the
followers of Henri IV of France disguised themselves as millers, and
attempted to seize the barrier of St. Honoré, with the object of making
themselves masters of Paris.


Farmer George.

A nickname of George III.


Farmers’ Alliance.

A political organization formed in the United States in 1873 to promote
the interests of the agricultural classes. It was absorbed by the
Populists in 1891.


Farquharsons, Massacre of the.

The Farquharsons of Deeside were practically exterminated in the reign
of James VI by the Gordons under the Marquis of Huntly, in revenge for
the murder of Gordon of Brackley. Two hundred children who survived the
massacre were kept by Huntly as wild beasts, and fed from a pig trough.
They were rescued from their inhuman captor by the Laird of Grant, who
distributed them among his clansmen. It is said that their descendants
are still known as the Race of the Trough.


Farthings, War of.

_See_ Rappenkrieg.


Fashoda Question.

This question brought France and England to the verge of war in 1898. In
that year, Captain Marchand, after an adventurous journey from the
French Soudan, reached Fashoda on the Nile, and hoisted the French flag
there and at certain points on the Sobat river. Sir Herbert Kitchener,
who had just captured Khartoum, invited Marchand to withdraw, and
hoisted the English and Egyptian flags. Marchand refusing, the matter
was referred to London and Paris. The French were at first inclined to
hold that, the Anglo-Egyptian occupation of the Soudan having been
suspended by the Mahdist domination, it was open to them to make a
settlement on the Nile. It was clearly proved, however, that they had
been warned on several occasions that this would not be permitted, and
after some hesitation, due probably to the doubt as to whether they
would have the support of Russia if they stood firm, they yielded, and
the Marchand expedition was withdrawn.


Father of America.

The sobriquet of Samuel Adams, the American revolutionary leader
(1722-1803.)


Father of his Country.

This title has been bestowed upon several patriots in ancient and modern
history, among others Cosmo de’ Medici of Florence (1389-1464), Andrea
Doria, the Genoese Admiral (1468-1560), and George Washington
(1732-1799).


Father of his People.

A title bestowed on Louis XII of France (1498-1515), and on Christian
III of Denmark (1533-1559).


Featherheads.

_See_ Half-breeds.


Federal Council of the Australian Colonies.

A Council formed in accordance with the provisions of the Imperial
Federation Enabling Act of 1855, by delegates from Victoria,
Queensland, South and Western Australia, and Tasmania, which met at
Hobart in January, 1886, under the presidency of James Service. The
non-adhesion of New South Wales, however, was fatal to the scheme.


Federal Pact.

A Swiss Constitution, evolved by the “Long Diet” of Zurich, and approved
by the Powers at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.


Federalistas.

The party in Mexico who favour a large measure of autonomy in the
separate states, and oppose excessive centralization of authority in the
central government.


Federalists.

A party, in the early days of American independence, who favoured the
concentration of power in the hands of the central government, while
their opponents, known as Anti-federalists, and later as Democrats, were
supporters of the rights of individual states.


Fédérés.

A band of young Marseillais, who, under the leadership of Barbaroux,
marched to Paris in 1792 to aid the Revolution.


Fehden.

In mediaeval Germany, the private wars between the semi-independent
barons and knights were known by this name.


Fellaheen.

The peasants of Egypt. The word signifies “tillers.”


Fenian Association.

An Irish revolutionary society, established about 1858. During the
American Civil War, it became an organized institution, with
headquarters in New York, with the avowed object of fomenting
disturbances in Ireland, and making the Government of that country by
England impossible. Its leader was James Stephens. In 1866 the Fenians
attempted a raid into Canada, which was entirely unsuccessful. In 1867 a
general rising in Ireland was planned, which also failed. Two further
unsuccessful attempts upon Canada took place in 1870 and 1871, from
which point its activity was confined to a few isolated outrages of
small importance. The name Fenian is taken from the old Irish Militia,
which was known as Fionna Eirinn.


Feormfultum.

In Anglo-Saxon times a tax levied on the land for the support of the
royal household. It was paid in kind.


Ferdinand, Treaty of.

_See_ Christian Alliance.


Ferm.

In Anglo-Saxon and early feudal times, a rent paid by the shires on
public lands and royal domains.


Fermiers Généraux.

Persons, generally royal favourites, who obtained the right of
collecting the taxes, by payment of a fixed sum. This system was
initiated in France in 1546 by Francis I, who farmed out the Gabelle,
and continued until the Revolution.


Feudal System.

A system of land tenure general on the continent of Europe, becoming
universal in France in the tenth century, while it was introduced into
England at the time of the Norman Conquest. The king as lord paramount
was the owner of the whole country, which was held in fief, or
vassalage, by the great territorial lords, who owed him homage and
service, military or other. They in turn had vassals of lesser degree,
bound to them by similar ties, but, subject to the due discharge of such
service, perfectly free. By the growth of “subinfeudation” this system
became indefinitely extended.


Feuillants.

A club formed in 1791, during the French Revolution, by the monarchical
majority of the Jacobin Club, who objected to the principles and
language of the minority. Their impolitic action in seceding from the
Jacobins rendered the extreme revolutionists masters of the situation,
owing to the enormous influence of the name Jacobin throughout France.


Fief.

In feudal times land held by a vassal by military service or other
feudal tenure.


Field Cornet.

An officer charged, under the Landdrost, with the superintendence of
military matters in the South African States. See Commando.


Field of Lies.

_See_ Lügenfeld.


Field of Mourning.

The battlefield of Fraga, in Spain, where fell, in 1134, Alfonso I of
Aragon, surnamed the Warrior, and famed for his successes against the
Moors, whom he expelled from the valley of the Ebro.


Field of the Cloth of Gold.

The meeting place of Henry VIII and Francis I, between Guines and
Ardres. This meeting, which took place in 1520, was arranged by Francis
with the object of securing the friendship of Henry, and detaching him
from the Spanish alliance. A marriage was agreed upon between the
Dauphin and Princess Mary of England, but within a very few weeks Henry
went back on his word, and gave Charles V an undertaking that he would
proceed no further in the matter.


Fieschi Conspiracy.

An unsuccessful conspiracy to overthrow the Doge, Doria, and the French
party in Genoa in 1547.


Fieschi’s Plot.

A plot to assassinate Louis Philippe in July, 1835. A machine composed
of twenty-four gun-barrels was fired from an upper window at the Royal
_cortége_, as the king was on his way to a review. The king was unhurt,
but several prominent persons, including Marshal Mortier, were killed.
Fieschi and his accomplices were caught red-handed.


Fifteen, Council of.

A council of state appointed by the Barons of the Mad Parliament in 1258
to carry on the Government. The Fifteen produced the Provisions of
Oxford, under which the kingdom was governed until the Mise of Amiens in
1264.


Fifteen, Rebellion of the.

The Jacobite rebellion in Scotland in 1815, under the Earl of Mar. The
rebels succeeded in penetrating into England, but were defeated at
Preston, and shortly afterwards Mar was defeated at Sheriffmuir. With
little further fighting the rebel army was broken up, and the Pretender
retired to France. Lords Derwentwater and Kenmure and many other less
important personages were executed for complicity in the rebellion.


Fifth Monarchy Men.

A sect of fanatics who formed an important element in the Cromwellian
armies. They considered the Protectorate to be the Fifth Monarchy
prophesied in the Apocalypse, during which the millennium would come
upon the earth.


Fiftieth Ordinance.

An ordinance of the Cape Government in 1828, by which Hottentots and
other free natives were relieved from all the restrictions of the pass
law, and put upon a political equality with the whites. This was very
distasteful to the Dutch settlers.


Fifty-one, Committee of.

A committee of merchants and gentry in New York, formed in 1774. They
were in favour of a General Congress, but opposed to the non-intercourse
policy advocated by some other colonies, and especially in
Massachusetts.


Fighting Prelate.

Henry Spencer, Bishop of Norwich, who led the troops against Wat Tyler
in 1381, was so called.


Financial Relations Committee.

A committee appointed in 1895 to report on the financial relations
between England and Ireland. In the following year, a majority report
was issued in which it was stated that the Act of Union had laid too
heavy a financial burden on Ireland; that the increase in the Irish
contribution sanctioned in 1853 and in 1860 was unjustifiable; and that
Ireland’s tax revenue was one-eleventh, whereas it should only be
one-twentieth of that of England.


Fines, Statute of.

A statute passed in the 4th year of Henry VII, re-enacted almost
verbatim from a statute of Richard III, the object of which was to
prevent the multiplication in the courts of suits for the recovery of
lands. The method adopted was to fix at five years the period of
occupation giving prescriptive rights.


Fire of London.

A fire which broke out on September 2, 1660, at a house in Fish Street
Hill. It burnt for four days and destroyed eighty-nine churches,
including St. Paul’s, and over 13,000 houses.


Firebrand of France.

The sobriquet of John, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France (1390-1435).


Firebrand of the Universe.

Tamerlane, the great Tartar conqueror, was so called.


Fire-Eaters.

The extreme supporters of Slavery and States’ Rights in the Southern
States of America were so called by their political opponents before
the Civil War.


Firman.

An official edict of the Porte, issued in the Sultan’s name, though not
necessarily bearing his signature.


First Charter.

A charter issued by Henry I, in 1100, by which he re-established the law
of King Edward, that is to say the old institutions of the country prior
to the Conquest. He further undertook to make only such claims upon his
feudatories as were in accordance with feudal law, and made the same
course obligatory on them in relation to their vassals. He also
recognized the right of bequeathing property by will.


First Gentleman of Europe.

George IV, when Prince Regent, was so called.


Fisheries Treaty, 1888.

A treaty between Great Britain and the United States, signed in 1888,
providing for reciprocal fishing rights for the Canadian and American
fishermen. Pending ratification a _modus vivendi_ was established, by
which American fishermen could fish in Canadian and Newfoundland waters
on payment of a license of $1.50 per ton. The Senate, however, declined
to ratify the treaty.


Five Articles of Perth.

A document embodying certain changes in ritual, in the direction of
Episcopalianism, forced upon the Scotch Presbyterians by James I in
1621. They excited great discontent, but remained in force until 1638.


Five Boroughs.

A confederation, under Danish law, of the five tribes which occupied the
ancient Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia. The five boroughs were Derby,
Lincoln, Leicester, Stamford and Nottingham. The confederacy was broken
up in 910 by Æthelflaed, the Lady of the Mercians.


Five Hundred, Council of.

The name given to the Lower House of Assembly under the Directoire in
France (1795-1799).


Five Kings of France.

The name applied to the five men composing the French Directoire
(1795-1799).


Five Members.

Pym, Hampden, Haselrig, Strode and Holles, five members of the Long
Parliament, who were specially active in their opposition to the king’s
illegal actions. Charles attempted to arrest them in the House of
Commons in 1642, but they escaped to the City, and Charles was unable to
seize them, in the face of the support accorded to them by the citizens.


Five Mile Act.

An Act passed in 1665, forbidding any clergyman who had not subscribed
to the Act of Uniformity to teach, or to come within five miles of a
borough or corporate town. A similar Act, known as the Mile Act, had
been passed in Scotland three years earlier.


Five Nations.

The five tribes of Red Indians who formerly ranged the east coast of
America, along the Hudson, and as far south as the Delaware. They were
always on the English side in the wars with France. They were the
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. The remnants of these
tribes are now domiciled in Canada.


Flagellants.

A sect which appeared in Hungary during the Great Plague of 1348. They
looked upon scourging as the only means of avoiding the divine
punishment for sin.


Flammock’s Rebellion.

A rising in Cornwall, headed by Thomas Flammock in 1497, in opposition
to the tax levied for the maintenance of the war against Scotland. The
rebels were defeated at Blackheath, and Flammock and others executed.


Fleet Marriages.

Marriages celebrated within the precincts of the Fleet Prison by
clergymen of indifferent character. They were rendered impossible by
Lord Hardwicke’s Act in 1753.


Flibustiers.

_See_ Buccaneers.


Flood’s Reform Bill.

A sweeping measure of reform introduced into the Irish Parliament by
Flood in 1784. It gave rise to scenes of the wildest disorder, both in
the House and throughout the country.


Flower of Chivalry.

Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) was so called.


Flowery Land, Mutiny of the.

A mutiny on board an English vessel on a voyage to Singapore in 1684,
the crew, composed of various nationalities, murdering the captain and
first mate. The second mate, who was spared to navigate the vessel, was
able to give information which led to the arrest of most of the crew,
five of whom were hanged in due course.


Folcland.

In early Saxon times all the land which was not partitioned off into
homesteads, or specially granted, remained the property of the nation,
and was known as folcland. In the times of the later Saxon kings, the
folcland became royal demesne, and after the Conquest William seized it
as crown property.


Folenbray.

A treaty between Henri IV of France and the Duc de Mayenne, by which the
League came to an end.


Folkething.

_See_ Rigsdag.


Folkmote.

In early Saxon times the gathering of the tribe in arms was so called.


Fommanah, Treaty of.

A treaty between Great Britain and the King of Ashanti, signed after the
first Ashanti War in 1874. The king renounced the right to exact tribute
from the kings of Denkera and Adansi, other native chiefs, and also his
supremacy over Elmira. He agreed to offer no obstacle to British trade,
to maintain an open road to Kumasi, and to abolish human sacrifices.
Prempeh’s failure to adhere to the terms of this treaty led to the
second Ashanti expedition in 1900.


Fontainebleau, Decree of.

A decree issued by Napoleon in October, 1810, ordering all British
merchandise found in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and other places in
the occupation of the French troops to be destroyed.


Fontainebleau, Treaty of, 1807.

A treaty, disclosed in the autumn of 1807, between Napoleon and Godoy,
the Minister of Charles IV, and the _de facto_ ruler of Spain. It
provided for the joint occupation of Portugal by France and Spain, and
the dismemberment of that country, Godoy receiving as his reward the
provinces of Alemtejo and the Algarves to be erected into a
principality, and the northern province to be given to the King of
Etruria, in exchange for Tuscany, which would pass to Napoleon.


Fontainebleau, Treaty of, 1814.

A treaty between Napoleon and the Allied Powers, signed April 14, 1814,
after the occupation of Paris. Napoleon surrendered all claims to the
thrones of France and Italy, and received in return the sovereignty of
Elba for himself, and Parma and Piacenza for the Empress and the King of
Rome.


Foraker Act.

An Act of Congress, passed in 1900, establishing local self-government
in Porto Rico, and creating a tariff. In 1901 the tariff provisions were
repealed, and free trade with the United States instituted.


Force Act.

An Act of Congress passed in 1870, giving the Federal authorities the
right to intervene in certain contingencies in the police and other
internal arrangements of individual States. This Act was rendered
necessary by the covert support given by the authorities of the Southern
States to such organizations as the Ku-Klux Klan. A similar Act was
passed in 1871.


Force Bill.

The popular name for the bill introduced by Mr. Lodge in Congress, in
1890, for the reform of the electoral law of the United States. The bill
did not pass the Senate.


Foreign Enlistment Act.

An Act passed in 1819, making it a misdemeanour for a British subject to
enlist in the service of a foreign power at war with a nation friendly
to Great Britain, or to build or equip any ship for the service of such
power.


Forests, Charter of.

A charter granted by Henry III in 1217, when renewing Magna Charta,
mitigating the severity of the Forest laws of the Anglo-Norman kings.


Formosan Expedition.

An expedition sent to Formosa by Japan in 1873-4, to exact reparation
for the murder of a ship’s crew from the Loo Choo Islands. China was
highly incensed, and war between the two nations was imminent, but Sir
Thomas Wade persuaded the Chinese to pay an indemnity and recognize
Japanese sovereignty over the Loo Choo Islands.


Forty-five, Rebellion of the.

The second Jacobite rebellion, in 1845, under the Young Pretender,
Prince Charles Edward. Joined by many of the Highland clans, he
succeeded in defeating the English under Cope at Preston Pans, and
penetrated into England as far as Derby, but was forced to retreat, and
was finally disastrously defeated by the Duke of Cumberland at Culloden.
Charles Edward escaped to France, but many of his leading supporters
were captured and executed.


Forty-niners.

_See_ Argonauts.


Forty-two Articles.

The articles of the Reformed Church of England, as issued originally in
1552, were forty-two in number. They were afterwards reduced, by the
omission of three, to thirty-nine, which remain binding to-day.


Forwards, Marshal.

A nickname given to Blucher during the campaign of 1813.


Fouage.

A tax on chimneys imposed by the Black Prince in Gascony.


Four Burghs, Court of the.

In early Scottish history a court established for the purpose of dealing
with all cases in which the Scottish Burghs were concerned.


Fourierism.

A system of communism devised by Charles Fourier, the French Socialist,
in 1832. The proposal was to form communities of 1,800 persons each,
known as _phalanges_, to be united under a central government. The gains
of each _phalange_ were to be held in common. An attempt to establish
the system near Versailles was completely unsuccessful.


Fourth Party.

A small but active body of free-lances of the Conservative party, which
was formed under Lord Randolph Churchill during the session of 1880.
Though various Conservative members acted with it from time to time, the
party is generally considered to have consisted of four persons. Lord
Randolph Churchill, Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Gorst, Sir H. Drummond
Wolff and Mr. Arthur Balfour.


Francfief.

A tax on commoners who became possessed of fiefs, to compensate for
their inability to render military service. It was imposed by Louis IX
of France in 1260, and abolished by his successor, Philip III.


Franchise Act.

An Act passed in 1884, assimilating the county to the borough franchise,
and giving the vote to residents in a house who are neither occupiers
nor lodgers (known as the Service Franchise) under certain restrictions.
In the House of Lords, Lord Cairns carried an amendment that the Act
should not become operative until a Redistribution Bill had been passed.


Franciscans.

An order of mendicant friars, founded by St. Francis d’Assisi, and
authorized by Innocent II in 1215. They were not confined to
monasteries, like the earlier orders, but worked amongst the poor, and
took themselves a vow of poverty in addition to the ordinary monastic
vows.


Franco-American Treaty, 1778.

A treaty by which France recognized the independence of the United
States. Both parties agreed to give each other most-favoured-nation
treatment in tariff matters, while America accepted the French
interpretation of the treaties of Utrecht and Paris with respect to the
Newfoundland fishery question, thus admitting the right of France not
only to the fishing, but to the use of one half of the shore for drying
stations. France further agreed to recognize any conquests made by the
United States from England in the course of the war.


Franco-Annamese Treaty, 1874.

A treaty between France and Annam, by which Annam recognized the French
sovereignty of Lower Cochin China, and granted free navigation of the
Red River.


Franco-Siamese Treaty, 1893.

By this instrument Siam ceded to France all her territory on the east of
the Mekong, and agreed to keep no fortified place within fifteen miles
of the river on the west bank. France was to occupy Chantaboon until the
conditions were fulfilled.


Franco-Siamese Treaty, 1902.

By this treaty Siam made further territorial concessions to France,
ceding practically all the territory ever held by Annam or Tonquin. She
also conceded to France the right to protect Siamese subjects of
Annamese or Tonquinese extraction, and undertook to open a certain
number of official posts to Frenchmen. France agreed to evacuate
Chantaboon.


Francs-Archers.

A militia raised for the first time by Charles VII of France in 1448.
Each parish was ordered to provide and equip one man, who, in return for
his military service, was freed from all taxation.


Francs-Tireurs.

French peasants who took up arms during the Franco-German war of 1870,
and carried on a species of guerilla warfare against the German troops.
In the early part of the war they were treated as brigands, and shot
when captured. Later they were organized by the French authorities, and
were then treated as belligerents.


Frankfort, Confederacy of.

A league composed of the Emperor, the Kings of Prussia and Sweden, the
Elector Palatine and the Landgrave of Hesse, formed in 1744 with the
object of forcing Maria Theresa to acknowledge Charles VII as Emperor.


Frankfort, General Treaty of.

A treaty signed by Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia,
confirming the various territorial changes effected by the Treaties of
Paris and Vienna of 1815.


Frankfort, Treaty of.

The treaty embodying the terms agreed upon at Versailles by Prince
Bismarck and M. Thiers, after the surrender of Paris in 1871. It
provided for the cession to Germany of Alsace, including Strasburg, but
not including Belfort, and of a part of Lorraine, including Metz,
together with the payment of a war indemnity of five milliards of
francs, or two hundred millions sterling.


Frankfurter Attentat.

A rising of students and others at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1833,
occasioned by the oppressive measures adopted by the Bundesrath towards
the Press. The outbreak was promptly quelled.


Frankpledge.

A system existing in the early Norman, and probably the later Saxon
period, by which the whole of the free population of England was divided
into groups of ten men, mutually responsible for the other members of
the group. It was by this means that the policing of the country was
carried out, under the supervision of the Hundred Court. It was also
called Frithbohr.


Fraternity, Edict of.

An edict issued by the French Convention in 1792, offering fraternity to
all nations ready to welcome liberal institutions.


Frédéric, Code.

_See_ Landrecht.


Frederickshamm, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Sweden, signed in 1809, shortly after the
death of Gustavus IV, by which Russia acquired Finland as far as the
Tornea.


Free Church of Scotland.

A secession from the Established Church of Scotland, which took place
under Dr. Chalmers in 1843. About 500 ministers seceded with him. The
points at issue were State Control and Lay Patronage, to which Dr.
Chalmers and his followers objected.


Free Companies.

The Mercenaries employed by both French and English during the Hundred
Years’ War. After the Peace of Brétigny they were disbanded, and being
without employment, formed bands under their own leaders, and committed
frightful ravages in France, and, later, in Italy.


Free Imperial Cities.

Certain towns in Germany, owing allegiance to no sovereign prince,
excepting only to the Emperor. They exercised sovereign powers within
their own limits, and sent representatives to the Diet. In 1790 they
were fifty-one in number. The three last cities to retain their
privileges were Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg, which in 1871 became an
integral part of the German Empire.


Free Selection.

A scheme for settling small farmers on portions of the large holdings of
the Squatters, or Pastoralists, in Australia. This system was first
introduced in New South Wales, in 1861, and was adopted in Victoria in
the following year. Intending settlers could take up, in the districts
set apart for the purpose, from 40 to 240 acres, paying £1 per acre, or
if they preferred, 10s. down and the balance by annual instalments of
2s. 6d. Many of those who took advantage of this offer, proved however
to be mere dummies, put up by the squatters, who thus obtained land
more cheaply than they could purchase from the Government. Amending
bills were consequently introduced to prevent these evasions.


Freesoilers.

A party formed in the United States in 1848 to resist the extension of
slavery to the Territories. They were absorbed into the Republican party
in 1856.


Freestone State.

A popular name for the State of Connecticut, owing to the large number
of freestone quarries within its borders.


Free Trade, Apostle of.

The name given to Richard Cobden, the leader of the Manchester School.
It is also occasionally applied to John Bright.


Free Trade.

The principle of the free interchange of commodities was first advocated
by Adam Smith in his _Wealth of Nations_, in 1776. It may be said to
have first become a question of practical politics in 1846, thanks to
the advocacy of Richard Cobden and the Manchester School.


Freischöffe.

The initiated members of the Vehmgerichte.


Freigraffen.

The officers of the Vehmgerichte.


Freisinnige.

A party in the German Reichstag, formed under Richter in 1884, by a
coalition of the advanced Radicals with seceders from the National
Liberals. Their programme was distinctly Radical.


French Fury.

A treacherous attempt to sack Antwerp by the French under the Duc
d’Anjou in 1583. Though taken by surprise, the citizens promptly obeyed
the call to arms, and the French, after severe fighting, were driven out
with heavy loss.


French Shore.

A question still (1903) pending between Great Britain and France. By the
Treaty of Utrecht, 1713, Newfoundland was declared English, but the
French were suffered to retain their fishery rights and the use of a
certain portion of the coast for drying stations. France has for many
years sought to give a very wide interpretation to this use of the
Newfoundland coast, claiming almost sovereign rights, which seriously
interfere with the railway and mining development of the colony. A
_modus vivendi_ has been arrived at, pending final settlement, but the
long delay in coming to an agreement has caused much irritation in
Newfoundland.


Frèrage.

The system by which in French feudal times provision was made for the
younger members of a family. The land passed to the eldest son, who
retained a portion of it, and passed the rest on to his brothers, who
did homage for it. Frèrage was similar in its form and in its results to
subinfeudation.


Friends of Ireland.

The title under which the Catholic Association was reconstituted by
O’Connell in 1830. It was declared illegal, whereupon it reappeared in
a new form as the Society of Irish Volunteers.


Friends of the People.

A society formed in 1792 to agitate for the removal of the existing
inequalities in representation. It numbered among its members many
leading Whig politicians, amongst others Russell, Sheridan, Erskine and
Grey.


Frithbohr.

_See_ Frankpledge.


Frith-guilds.

Societies formed in the towns, on conditions of mutual responsibility
somewhat analogous to the Frankpledge, in the early Plantagenet times.
They afterwards combined, forming the powerful merchant guilds which
eventually came to control not only the conditions of labour, but the
selling price of the commodities in which they dealt.


Fronde.

A revolt of the Parlement and citizens of Paris, under the leadership of
the Cardinal de Retz, against the unrestrained autocracy of Louis XIV.
The court was forced to leave Paris in 1648, but the first outbreak was
ended during the year following by an arrangement called the Treaty of
Ruel. It was finally suppressed in 1652. The contention of the Fronde
was that the king’s prerogative should only be exercised within the
limits of the law, and should not be above the law, as was claimed by
the king.


Frostathing’s Law.

One of the codes of law of the Norsemen. It was codified by Hakon the
Good, King of Denmark (934-960) but was probably in existence at a much
earlier date.


Fudai.

The vassal Daimios or nobles of the Shôgun, in old Japan.


Fuero.

The charter granted to a Spanish town in the Middle Ages. The earliest
known Fuero is that of Leon, granted by Alfonso V in 1020.


Fuero Juzgo.

The code of laws of the Gothic kings of Spain.


Fugitive Slave Circular.

A circular issued by the Admiralty in 1876, which gave instructions to
the captains of H.M. ships as to the treatment of slaves who took refuge
on board in the territorial waters of slave-holding states. These
instructions were held to be inconsistent with the principle that there
could be no slavery under the British Flag, and a strong feeling was
aroused in the matter. Eventually a committee was appointed to examine
the legal aspects of the question, with the result that a modified
circular was issued.


Fugitive Slave Law.

A law forming part of the Compromise Act, passed by Congress in 1850,
under which fugitive slaves could be arrested in the free-labour states,
while it was made a felony under certain conditions to harbour or aid in
the escape of such slaves.


Fum the Fourth.

A nickname of George IV.


Furies de la Guillotine.

_See_ Tricoteuses.


Fürstenbund.

A league of the German Princes, formed under the auspices of Frederick
the Great in 1785, to uphold the Peace of Teschen. The cause of its
formation was an attempt of the Emperor, Joseph II, to obtain possession
of Bavaria, by exchanging for it the Austrian Netherlands.


Fusillades.

The wholesale massacres in Lyons, after the surrender of that city to
the Revolutionary troops in 1792 were so called.



G


G.O.M.

The Grand Old Man, the sobriquet of Mr. Gladstone.


Gabelle.

A tax on salt, imposed at various periods of French history. Towards the
latter part of the eighteenth century it was a most burdensome impost
and its incidence was most irregular. It was abolished in 1791.


Gachupin.

The name given in Central and South America to Spaniards and Spanish
partizans during the war of independence.


Gadesden Purchase.

A purchase from Mexico by the United States for ten million dollars of a
large tract of land now included in Arizona and New Mexico. The purchase
was negotiated by James Gadesden, while United States’ Minister to
Mexico in 1853.


Gafol-land.

In Anglo-Saxon times folcland which was let out on rent was so called.
Gafol means tribute.


Galleons, The Spanish.

The treasure ships, which sailed once a year from the New World,
bringing the tribute of the Colonies to Spain. They were frequently
captured by the English gentlemen adventurers and by the buccaneers
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.


Gallican Confession.

The profession of faith of the French Reformed Church, adopted at the
Synod of La Rochelle in 1571.


Gallowglasses.

_See_ Kerns.


Gamelle.

The nickname applied to the Duc d’Orléans, when he applied to be allowed
to do his term of service as a private in the French Army, saying that
he would be proud to eat his dinner out of the _gamelle_ (mess tin) like
any other Frenchman.


Gandamak, Treaty of.

A treaty between Great Britain and Afghanistan in 1879. It was
stipulated that the foreign affairs of Afghanistan should be under
British control, and that a British Resident should be appointed. All
Afghan territory occupied during the previous campaign was to be
restored, except the Kuram, Pishin and Sibi valleys. Great Britain was
to control the Khyber and Michni passes, and to pay the Ameer an annual
subsidy of £60,000. Within the year the British Resident, Cavagnari, was
murdered in Cabul, almost certainly with the connivance of the Ameer,
and the invasion of Afghanistan followed.


Garden of England.

This title is given to the counties of Kent and Worcestershire.


Garden State.

A popular name for the State of Kansas.


Garibaldini.

A democratic party in modern Italy, who desire to realize Garibaldi’s
ideal of a United Italy under a republic.


Garter, Order of the.

The premier order of knighthood, instituted by Edward III in 1344.


Gastein, Treaty of.

A treaty signed by Austria and Prussia, at the close of the
Schleswig-Holstein War, in 1865, by which Schleswig was ceded to Prussia
and Holstein to Austria, while the latter power made over to Prussia all
her rights in the Duchy of Lauenburg.


Gauchos.

The shepherds of the Pampas, or plains in the interior of the Argentine
Republic. They supported Ortiz de Rosas, who was practically dictator of
that state from 1835 to 1852.


Gautiers.

Insurgent bands of peasants in Normandy, circ. 1580.


Gavelkind.

In Anglo-Saxon and early Norman times all estates not held on military
tenure were subject to the law of Gavelkind, by which the inheritance
was divided equally among the sons. This tenure survived the decay of
the feudal system in Kent only, and where it exists, real estate, in
case of intestacy, still passes to the sons in equal shares, instead of
to the eldest.


Gem of Normandy.

Emma, daughter of Robert, Duke of Normandy, and wife of Ethelred II of
England, and afterwards of Knut, was known by this name.


Gemot.

The Shire Court in Anglo-Saxon times.


General Congress.

An assembly summoned at Philadelphia in 1774, after the passing of the
Boston Port Act, as a preliminary to a general revolt against English
rule. Twelve of the thirteen colonies were represented, Georgia alone
holding aloof.


Geneva Convention.

A convention signed at Geneva in 1864, by which the Powers bound
themselves to observe certain regulations in warfare, tending to
ameliorate the condition of the wounded. The Red Cross, the badge of the
Convention, is a protection to all working under it, and to all
buildings, such as hospitals, over which it is flown.


Gentoo Laws.

The digest of Hindoo and Mohammedan law prepared in Calcutta, circ.
1790, under the direction of Sir William Jones.


Georges’ Conspiracy.

_See_ Pichegru.


Geraldines.

The clansmen of the Fitzgeralds of Desmond and Kildare, one of the great
families of Norman nobles who settled in Ireland at the time of the
conquest under Henry II. They were exceedingly turbulent, and during
Tudor times were constantly intriguing with Spain, and rebelling against
English rule. Their last and most serious rising was in 1569, when they
held out against the royal troops until 1580, when the clan was
practically broken up, and ceased to be a power in Irish politics.


German Concordat.

_See_ Aschaffenburg.


Germanada.

An association of the people of Valencia directed against the privileges
of the nobles, formed in 1519, with the connivance of the Emperor
Charles V.


Germanic League.

A league composed of the smaller German States, with portions of the
dominions of Prussia and Austria, and the Free Cities, constituted at
the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Its constitution underwent considerable
changes in the course of the risings which took place in various states
in 1848, while in 1866 Prussia annexed all the states north of the Main.


Germany, Unification of.

This was accomplished at Versailles in 1871, when Hesse, Baden,
Würtemberg, and Bavaria applied to be allowed to enter the North German
Confederation. At the same time the King of Bavaria invited William to
assume the Imperial Crown, and on his acceptance the German Empire, as
it at present exists, was constituted.


Gerrymandering.

_See_ Jerrymandering.


Gersamma Reginæ.

_See_ Queen’s Gold.


Ghazi.

A Mohammedan fanatic who believes that he will enjoy exceptional bliss
in Paradise, if he dies in the act of killing an unbeliever. In Asiatic
warfare, especially among the Afghans and the Afridi hill tribes, a mob
of Ghazis usually lead the attack.


Ghazi.

A Turkish title of honour, signifying the Victorious, bestowed upon
successful generals, as in the cases of Osman Pacha and Moukhtar Pacha.


Ghent, Convention of.

A convention of the Netherlands provinces in 1477, whereat the Groote
Privilegie, the Magna Charta of Holland, was granted by Mary of
Burgundy.


Ghent, Pacification of.

An agreement between the Estates of Holland and Zeeland and the Prince
of Orange on the one side, and the Provinces of Brabant, Flanders,
Hainault, Artois and others on the other, signed in 1576. It recognized
the reformed religion in Holland and Zeeland, abolished the edicts of
Charles V, and agreed to the expulsion of the Spaniards.


Ghent, Treaty of.

A treaty between Great Britain and the United States, signed in 1814, at
the close of the war of 1811. The basis of the treaty was the _status
quo ante_. Commissioners were appointed to delimit the frontiers of the
United States and the British Colonies. Both parties undertook to aid
each other in the suppression of the slave trade, and it was provided
that all Indian tribes that had been dispossessed during the war should
be restored to their lands.


Ghibellines.

_See_ Guelfs.


Giants, Battle of the.

The battle of Marignano, where Francis I defeated the Swiss in 1515, was
so called by Trivulzio, the French Marshal.


Gin Act.

An Act passed in 1736, imposing a duty of 20_s._ per gallon on gin sold
by retail, and a £50 fee for every retailer’s licence. The Act was
evaded, and though gin was openly sold as before, no duties were paid
and no licences taken out. It was therefore repealed in 1743.


Giovane Italia, La.

_See_ Young Italy.


Gisors, Treaty of.

A treaty between Henry I of England and Louis VI of France, signed in
1113, after the defeat of the French at Puysac, and the loss of Alençon.
The French King renounced his claim to suzerainty over Maine, Belesme
and Brittany.


Gladstone’s Umbrella.

A phrase constantly used during the general election of 1885, having
reference to the way in which Mr. Gladstone succeeded in uniting under
his banner the various sections of the Liberal party.


Glamorgan Treaty.

A treaty concluded in 1644 between the Irish Catholics and the Earl of
Glamorgan, acting for Charles I. The published conditions were the
removal of the disabilities imposed on the Catholics by Poyning’s Act, a
general amnesty, and a limitation of the period during which titles to
land might be questioned. There was, however, a further secret treaty,
granting the Catholics the right of public worship in all churches not
occupied by the State Church, in return for which they agreed to provide
10,000 men for the King’s army in England, to be paid for out of the
church revenues.


Glasgow Riots.

An outbreak in Glasgow, under the leadership of a mechanic named Finlay,
in opposition to the Act of Union with England in 1706.


Glen Grey Act.

An Act amending the regulations as to Kaffir reservations in Cape
Colony, passed in 1894. It provided for the division of the reservations
into six-acre plots, and the granting of inalienable titles to the
allottees, with succession to the eldest son. At the same time all
subsidies were withdrawn, with the object of encouraging industry among
the Kaffirs.


Glencoe, Massacre of.

The treacherous massacre, in 1692, of the clansmen of Macdonald of
Glencoe, under the orders of Breadalbane, a member of the Clan Campbell,
the hereditary foes of the Macdonalds. An appearance of legality was
given to the massacre by the fact that Macdonald had delayed till the
last moment taking the oath of allegiance to William and Mary, and owing
to stress of weather did not actually take it till after the prescribed
date.


Glippers.

The name given to the Netherlanders who sided with the Spanish King’s
party, circ. 1570.


Glorious First of June.

The name given to the battle off Ushant, fought on June 1, 1794, in
which Lord Howe utterly defeated the French fleet.


Gold-bugs.

The name given in the United States to the supporters of the single gold
standard.


Golden Book.

The book containing the names of the noble Venetian families who were
qualified to be members of the Grand Council. It was compiled in 1319.


Golden Bull (Germany).

An edict issued in 1356 by the Emperor Charles IV, to settle certain
disputes as to the composition of the Electoral College, which had led
to constant civil strife in Germany. It was provided that the Electors
should be seven in number: three ecclesiastical, namely, the Archbishops
of Cologne, Trèves and Mayence; and four lay, namely, the King of
Bohemia, the Duke of Saxony, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, and the
Margrave of Brandenburg. The Electors became absolute monarchs within
their own dominions.


Golden Bull (Hungary).

The Hungarian Charter of liberties, extorted by his nobles from Andrew
II of Hungary in 1222. Among other concessions it provided for the
annual assembling of the Diet.


Golden Fleece, The.

One of the oldest orders of chivalry, founded at Bruges by Philip the
Good of Burgundy, in 1430. When the Netherlands became a Spanish
province, the Golden Fleece was made a Spanish order, and, Charles V
being also Emperor of Germany, it was claimed by his successors of the
House of Hapsburg as an Austrian order. It has thus, at the present day,
two branches, and two sovereigns, namely, the King of Spain and the
Emperor of Austria.


Golden Horde.

A Tartar kingdom founded in the thirteenth century by a grandson of
Genghis Khan. It was the Khans of the Golden Horde who ruled over Russia
during the Tartar domination.


Golden League.

A league of the Catholic States of Switzerland, formed in 1586, to
defend the Catholic Faith.


Golden State.

The popular name for California, from its rich gold deposits.


Gomarists.

The followers of Gomarus, and opponents of Arminius, the two professors
of theology at Utrecht whose differences, in 1604, divided the Dutch
Church, and led to the convening of the Synod of Dort in 1618. Gomarus
supported the sterner doctrine of Calvin, Arminius favoured a milder and
broader form of religious belief.


Good Parliament.

A Parliament of Edward III, which met in 1376. It secured a change in
the Council, and brought about the return to power of William of Wykeham
and the clerical party. This Parliament is noteworthy as offering the
first instance in English history of the impeachment of an officer of
State: that, namely, of Lord Latimer, the Chamberlain.


Gordon Riots.

A dangerous outbreak of the London mob, led by Lord George Gordon, in
June, 1780, in opposition to the various measures proposed for the
relief of the Catholics. London was in the hands of the mob for four
days, before the troops were called out and the rioters dispersed.


Gôshi.

In old Japan, a class ranking between the Samurai and the agricultural
class. Like the Samurai they were entitled to wear two swords. They owed
no allegiance to feudal lords, but farmed their own lands.


Gothenburg System.

A system of licensing which originated at Gothenburg in 1865. All the
houses licensed for the sale of alcohol are in the hands of a company
and run by salaried managers. All the profits of the company, after
payment of five per cent. to the shareholders, are paid into the
treasury of the town.


Gotteshausbund.

A league of the nobles and communes of the Engadine, formed in 1367, to
protect the liberties of the country from the encroachments of Austria.


Gowrie Conspiracy.

A conspiracy headed by the Earl of Gowrie and his brother, Alexander
Ruthven, in 1600, to murder James VI of Scotland. It is supposed that
their motive was to avenge the death of their father, who had been
executed sixteen years before, though both the brothers had been treated
with the greatest kindness by the King. James was decoyed to Gowrie
House, in Perth, on the plea of examining a suspicious prisoner, and was
attacked in the absence of his suite, and nearly overpowered. He managed
to give the alarm, and was rescued by Sir James Ramsay, his page, and
others of his followers. The King’s story was at the time doubted by
many people, but documents afterwards came to light proving the
existence of a plot at least to kidnap the King.


Grace, Act of.

An Act of indemnity passed in 1690, granting a pardon for all political
offences committed up to the time of the passing of the Act, the only
exceptions to the general amnesty being such of the regicides as might
still be living, and about thirty other persons, against none of whom,
however, were any proceedings taken.


Grace, Act of.

An Act passed in 1784, restoring the estates forfeited for high treason
in 1745, to the descendants of their former owners.


Graces.

A number of concessions granted to Ireland by Lord Falkland in 1628, in
return for the aids which were destined to relieve the embarrassed
exchequer of James I.


Grágás.

A codification of the laws of the Norsemen, made by Magnus the Good,
King of Denmark and Norway (1035-1047).


Gran Capitan, El.

Gonsalvo of Cordova, the famous Spanish Captain (1453-1515), was so
called.


Gran Reunion Americana.

A secret society formed in London about 1800 to aid the movement in the
Spanish-American Colonies in the direction of independence. Among its
leaders were O’Higgins, Miranda and Bolivar.


Granary of Europe.

The Island of Sicily was formerly so called, owing to its remarkable
fertility.


Grand Alliance, 1701.

An alliance formed in 1701 between England, Holland, and the Empire, to
maintain the balance of power, supposed to be threatened by the bequest
of the Spanish Crown to a French Prince. It was followed by the war
known as the War of the Spanish Succession.


Grand Alliance, 1813.

The alliance between Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Sweden and Austria,
which led to the downfall of Napoleon, and his first abdication in the
following year.


Grand Corruption.

A nickname of Sir Robert Walpole, in allusion to his constant employment
of bribery to gain his ends.


Grand Old Man.

The sobriquet of Mr. Gladstone, generally abbreviated into G.O.M.


Grand Monarque.

Louis XIV of France was so called.


Grand Rebellion of Virginia.

A rising of the Virginian colonists under Nathaniel Bacon in 1676,
against the corruption of the Government and the excessive taxation.
After a strenuous resistance they were at last overpowered by the
Royalists, and the only result of the rising was that Virginia was
deprived of her constitution, and all the old grievances were revived.


Grand Serjeanty.

A form of tenure from the Crown, the condition being the performance of
certain service, when called upon, such as acting as Chamberlain or
Butler on occasions of state.


Grangers.

_See_ Patrons of Husbandry.


Granite State.

The State of New Hampshire is so called from the extent of the granite
formation within its borders.


Grattan’s Parliament.

The free Irish Parliament established in 1782 is known by this name,
Grattan having led the agitation which brought about the abolition of
the old restrictions.


Graubund.

_See_ Grey League.


Greased Cartridges.

The ostensible cause of the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857 was the issue to the
native troops of cartridges for the newly issued Enfield rifle, which
were said to be greased with a mixture of cows-fat and hogs-lard. This
would be obnoxious to both the Hindoo and the Mohammedan Sepoys, and the
story was used by the instigators of the revolt to engender the belief
that an attempt was being made forcibly to convert them to Christianity.


Great Commoner.

A sobriquet of the younger Pitt.


Great Contract.

A proposed arrangement between James I and the Parliament in 1610. James
offered to surrender all the emoluments of the Crown from feudal
tenures, excepting the aids, in return for which Parliament proposed to
vote James an annual subsidy of £100,000. The King, however, did not
consider the amount sufficient, and the bargain was not concluded.


Great Dauphin.

Louis, the son of Louis XIV of France, was so called.


Great Intercourse.

A treaty signed in 1496 between Henry VII and Philip of Burgundy,
stipulating for free commercial intercourse between the dominions of the
two sovereigns, and joint efforts for the suppression of piracy. By this
treaty also Perkyn Warbeck was expelled from Burgundian territory.


Great Session, Court of.

The old Supreme Court of Wales, abolished in 1831.


Great Storm.

The famous storm of November 26-27, 1703, when the first Eddystone
lighthouse was destroyed. Twelve men-of-war and many merchant vessels
were wrecked on the coast, and over 8,000 persons drowned. The damage
done in London is said to have exceeded two millions sterling.


Great Triad Society.

An important secret society in China, supposed to be pledged to the
expulsion of the Manchus and the establishment of a Chinese dynasty.


Greater Bull.

_See_ Ausculta Fili.


Green Bag Enquiry.

A sealed bag of documents laid on the table of the House of Commons by
the Government in 1817, and said to contain papers justifying the double
suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act which had taken place during the
year. A committee, chosen entirely from the supporters of the
Government, was appointed to investigate its contents.


Green Mountain Boys.

An organized band of settlers in Vermont, formed in 1773 to resist the
encroachments of the New Yorkers, who claimed Vermont as part of the
territory of that State under the charter of Charles II.


Green Mountain State.

The popular name of the State of Vermont, U.S.A.


Greenback Party.

A party formed about 1874 in the United States, which advocated the
payment of the national debt in paper money. It ceased to exist in 1884.


Grenville Act.

An Act passed in 1770, transferring from Parliament to a Parliamentary
Committee the duty of investigating and determining the validity of
disputed elections.


Gretna Green Marriages.

These were made illegal by an Act passed in 1856, whereby it was
declared that the Scotch marriage law should only apply in cases where
one at least of the parties had resided in Scotland for the twenty-one
days immediately preceding the marriage.


Grey League.

A league of the landowners and communes of the western part of the
Grisons, formed in 1395.


Griffith’s Valuation.

An official valuation of Irish properties, made by Sir Richard Griffith
as Commissioner of Valuation under the Irish Valuation Act of 1827. This
valuation was the basis of the outcry against the landlords, the figures
showing that in many cases excessive rents were being paid.


Grondvet.

The fundamental law or constitution of the South African Republic as
adopted by the communities established north of the Vaal in 1849.


Groote Privilegie.

A charter granted to the Netherlands by Mary of Burgundy in 1477, at the
Convention of Ghent. It gave the cities and provinces of the Netherlands
the right to hold diets at their discretion, and forbade the Duchess or
her descendants raising taxes or making war without the consent of the
Estates.


Grosbec.

A nickname bestowed on Napoleon III on account of his prominent nose.


Grütli, Men of.

The Swiss who, according to tradition, took a solemn oath at Grütli,
near Lucerne, on November 7, 1307, to free their country from the
domination of Austria. The three leaders were Fürst of Uri, Stauffacher
of Schwyz, and Melchthal of Unterwalden.


Guadeloupe Hidalgo, Treaty of.

A treaty between the United States and Mexico in 1848, at the close of
the Mexican War. It provided for the cession to the United States of New
Mexico and California, in return for a cash payment of fifteen million
dollars. The United States also took over the debts of Mexico to
American citizens, amounting to about three and a half million dollars.


Guelf Fund.

The indemnity payable to the King of Hanover by Prussia, as compensation
for the loss of his sovereign rights. This fund was sequestrated by
Prussia in 1868, on the plea that the King was intriguing against her,
and was employed by Bismarck in subsidizing the Press. (_See_ Reptile
Fund.)


Guelfs and Ghibellines.

The two great parties into which Italy was divided, during the lengthy
struggle between the Empire and the Papacy. The Guelfs were the Papal,
the Ghibellines the Imperial faction, but there were occasions when this
division of parties was not adhered to, as in the case of the Second
Lombard League of 1255. These names had their origin in the civil war of
1139, in the course of which the Imperialists under Conrad III were
besieging the town of Weinsberg. An attempt was made by the rebels to
relieve it, and in the battle which followed the rebels charged with the
cry of “Welf,” to which the Imperialists replied with “Waibling.” These
names became recognized as descriptive of the two parties, and were
later Italianized into the better known forms.


Guerre Folle.

The rising of the Dukes of Brittany and Orleans against the Regent Anne,
in 1484, is so called.


Gueux, Les.

A confederacy of patriotic noblemen and gentlemen of the Netherlands,
formed in 1566 under Brederode and Count Louis of Nassau. The
Confederacy was broken up in the following year, and many of its members
perished on the scaffold.


Gulathing’s Law.

One of the codes of law of the Norsemen. It was codified by Hakon the
Good of Norway (934-960), but was probably of far earlier date.


Gulf States.

The name given to the States which border on the Gulf of Mexico, namely,
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas.


Gulistan, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Persia, signed in 1813, by which Persia,
after a two years’ war of disastrous defeats, surrendered all her
possessions north of Armenia, together with the right of navigating the
Caspian Sea.


Gunpowder Act.

An Act passed by the Irish Parliament in 1793, forbidding the
importation of arms and gunpowder into Ireland, and rendering their
possession without a license illegal.


Gunpowder Plot.

A plot to blow up the Parliament House during a sitting of Parliament,
the leaders in which were Catesby, Winter and Fawkes, and which was
connived at by the Jesuits. It was hoped thereby to bring about a
Catholic rising in England. The plot was betrayed by Tresham, one of the
conspirators, to Lord Monteagle, his brother-in-law, and the
conspirators were either arrested or killed during their flight.



H


Habeas Corpus Act.

An Act of Parliament passed in 1679. Since Magna Charta every Englishman
had theoretically the right to trial, and could demand a writ of Habeas
Corpus, under which the duly constituted courts were bound to take
cognisance of his case. In practice, however, various obstacles were
from time to time opposed to the obtaining of this writ. The Act of 1679
ordered that a judge should at any time grant such a writ on
application, and inflicted severe penalties on the gaoler who failed to
obey it.


Habitans.

The name given to the Canadian farmers of French descent in the province
of Quebec.


Hadji.

A Mohammedan who has made the Hadj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, is entitled
to this name.


Hæretico Comburendo, Statute de.

A statute passed in the reign of Henry IV (1401), forbidding teaching
and preaching without a bishop’s license. The bishop was further given
the power of condemning heretical books. The punishment for obduracy was
burning at the stake. This statute was specially directed against the
Lollards.


Hague Congress.

A Congress of the Powers, summoned at the instance of the Czar in 1899,
to consider the possibility of universal disarmament, and other
questions bearing on the peace of the world. The larger schemes
foreshadowed by the Czar were found impracticable, but the Congress
resulted in the appointment of an International Tribunal of Arbitration,
to sit at the Hague. It was further agreed to prohibit in future warfare
the throwing of explosives from balloons or air ships, the use of shells
containing deleterious gases, and the use of expanding or explosive
bullets.


Haleuca.

The body-guard of slaves of Touran Shah, Sultan of Egypt, afterwards
known as the Mamelukes.


Half-breeds.

The name given by the Stalwarts in New York State in 1881 to those
Republicans who supported President Garfield in his movement for Civil
Service reform. They were also known as Featherheads.


Half-way Covenant.

An agreement between Connecticut and Massachusetts, recommended for the
acceptance of Plymouth and New Haven in 1662. It somewhat mitigated the
ultra-stringent conditions of Church membership then obtaining, whence
it was derisively called the Half-way Covenant by the extreme Puritan
party.


Halifax Fishery Commission.

A commission appointed in 1877 to assess the compensation to be awarded
to the British-American Colonies, in return for the recognition of
American fishing rights in Colonial waters. Canada was awarded four and
a half million dollars, and Newfoundland a million.


Hammer of England.

The sobriquet of Sir William Wallace (1270-1305).


Hammer of Scotland.

On the tomb of Edward I was inscribed “Edwardus Longus, Scotorum Malleus
hic est.”


Hampton Court Conference.

A conference held in 1604 between the Bishops and the Puritans, to
consider the Millenary Petition. It ended in the complete triumph of the
High Church party.


Hampton Roads Conference.

A conference held on February 3, 1865, on board a man-of-war in Hampton
Roads, between President Lincoln and representatives of the Southern
States, with the object of bringing about a suspension of hostilities.
The conference was, however, without results.


Handsuppers.

The name given to those Boers who surrendered in response to Lord
Roberts’ proclamation, or at later stages of the Boer War of 1899-1902.
They were looked upon with contempt by those who fought to the bitter
end, and seem not unlikely to form a separate Pro-British party in the
new Colonies.


Hanging Gale.

A custom of Irish Land Tenure, having the force of law, by which a
respite of from three to six months is given to the tenant before he can
be proceeded against for non-payment of rent.


Hanover, Treaty of.

A treaty signed by Great Britain, France and Prussia in 1725, which
subsequently received the adhesion of Holland, Sweden and Denmark, by
which the contracting parties mutually guaranteed to each other the
enjoyment of their then possessions.


Hanseatic League.

A confederation of the principal trading centres of Germany, formed in
1241 for commercial purposes, and specially for mutual defence against
the Baltic pirates, and the robber nobles. Its founders were Hamburg and
Lübeck, who were shortly afterwards joined by Bremen, Cologne, Danzig
and other cities, and still later by many foreign towns, until, at the
height of its prosperity, the league comprised eighty cities. The league
was dissolved in 1630, but Hamburg, Bremen and Lübeck retained their
privileges as free towns, until they were absorbed into the German
Empire in 1871.


Hara-kiri.

The method of suicide adopted in old Japan by members of the Samurai, or
military class, who had no alternative but to die. Hara-kiri might be
either voluntary, or by order of a feudal lord, as the penalty of some
crime which did not imply degradation from the rank of Samurai. In the
latter case it was in the nature of an execution, and was surrounded by
an elaborate ceremonial, especially in the case of a Daimio or a
gentleman of high rank.


Harangue.

An appeal addressed by William of Orange to the Princes of Germany, in
1571, setting forth the wrongs of the Reforming party, and calling for
their assistance.


Hardshell Democrats.

One of the sections of the Democratic party in New York State from 1848
to 1854. They were strongly in favour of the Fugitive Slave Law. Their
opponents were known as the Softshell Democrats.


Hardwicke’s Act, Lord.

An Act, also known as the Marriage Act, passed in 1753. It provided that
a legal marriage could be contracted only in the parish church, after
publication of banns, or by special license of the Archbishop.


Harper’s Ferry.

The scene of John Brown’s abortive rising in 1869, in the attempt to
bring about a revolt against the Southern slaveowners. He and his
followers seized the United States armoury at that place, but his little
band were soon overpowered, John Brown being captured.


Hartford Convention.

A secret convention of prominent members of the Peace Party in New
England, who objected to the energetic prosecution of the war with
England in 1814. They proposed to amend the constitution in the
direction of diminishing the control of Congress over questions of peace
and war.


Hatamotos.

In old Japan, the retainers of the Shôgun were known by this name, which
signifies “under the flag.” They were eighty thousand in number. Those
whose lands were of a certain extent furnished a contingent in time of
war; those with smaller revenues paid money dues. The Hatamotos may be
described as a created nobility, as opposed to the hereditary nobility
of the Daimios. They date from the time of the Shôgun Iyemitsu, in the
early part of the seventeenth century.


Hats and Caps.

Two political parties in Sweden in the eighteenth century, who were
partizans respectively of the French and the Russians. They were so
called from their wearing the headgear of the respective countries.


Hatti Humayun.

An edict of the Sultan of Turkey, Abdul Mejid, issued in 1856,
conferring equal rights on all his subjects, Christian and Mohammedan
alike. This concession was the result of the efforts of Lord Stratford
de Redcliffe.


Hatti Sherif.

A firman or decree of the Porte, signed by the Sultan personally.


Haute Cour.

A tribunal established by the French Legislative Assembly in 1791, to
enable it to deal with ministers and public functionaries obnoxious to
the majority of that body. The Haute Cour had the power of initiating
prosecutions as well as of judging, and there was no appeal from its
decisions.


Hawkeye State.

The popular name of the State of Iowa, U.S.A. It is derived from a
famous Indian chief of that name.


Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.

A treaty signed in 1901 between Great Britain and the United States, to
amend the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 with respect to the proposed
canal to unite the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The new treaty maintains
the general principle of neutralization of the canal, but the United
States alone is charged with the maintenance of its neutrality. No
fortifications are to be built in any way commanding it, and it is to be
always free from blockade. The United States reserve the right to
maintain a military police force along the line of the canal for
protective purposes.


Headborough.

In Anglo-Saxon times the chief of the Frankpledge. In the event of a
member of the Frankpledge failing in his obligations and fleeing from
justice, it was the duty of the Headborough to prove that the other
members of the Frankpledge were guiltless of complicity with the
defaulter.


Hearth Money.

A tax of two shillings on every hearth, first imposed in 1663. It was
very unpopular, and was abolished in 1689. A similar tax, known as
Chimney Money, had been levied as early as the Norman Conquest.


Heaven-sent Minister.

A sobriquet of the younger Pitt.


Heemraden, Court of.

A court first established at Stellenbosch, Cape Colony, in 1682. It was
composed of four local burghers, and its duty was the settlement of
small disputes among the inhabitants of the district. Similar courts
were established in other townships, and the system lasted till 1828,
when the Heemraden were abolished by the Charter of Justice.


Hegira.

The flight of Mohammed from Mecca in 622. It is from this date that the
Mohammedan era is computed.


Heidelberg Catechism.

A profession of the Calvinistic faith issued from Heidelberg in the
sixteenth century. It is also called the Palatinate Catechism.


Heilbronn, Union of.

A meeting summoned by Oxenstierna, the Swedish Chancellor, in 1633,
after the death of Gustavus Adolphus, with the object of preventing the
dissolution of the German Protestant Alliance. The meeting was attended
by representatives of England, France and Holland, and the circles of
the Upper and Lower Rhine, Suabia and Franconia.


Helvetic Confession.

A statement of the Protestant doctrine, harmonizing to some extent the
opposing views of Calvin and Zwingli, drawn up in 1566 by Bullinger, and
accepted by the majority of the Protestant Cantons.


Helvetic Republic.

The constitution established in Switzerland in 1798, under the
revolutionary impulse generated by the French Revolution. It superseded
the Federation of the Thirteen Cantons.


Henry, Articles of.

_See_ Pacta Conventa.


Heptarchy.

The various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were known as the Heptarchy, though as
a fact they were at no time seven in number, two or more being grouped
at various periods, under one monarch. The most powerful sovereign of
the time was usually recognized as the Bretwalda, or leader, of the
rest. The various kingdoms of the Heptarchy were finally united under
one crown, during the reign of Æthelstan (925-940.)


Herad.

Among the Norse nations, the Herad was the land of the Her or host, the
Her being composed of a number of families who acted together for mutual
protection under a chief, and formed in fact a tribe.


Herald’s College.

This was founded as a College of Arms by Richard III in 1484. Its
members were the Earl Marshal, the Kings of Arms, and the Heralds, and
its functions the supervision of all questions that might arise as to
the bearing of coat-armour.


Heresy of the Politicians.

The teachings of Arnold of Brescia were known by this name. He commenced
a crusade at Brescia in 1139 against the corruption of the Church and
its assumption of temporal power. He was ultimately condemned as a
heretic, and burnt at the stake in 1155.


Heretoga.

In Anglo-Saxon times the title given to the commander of the army.


Heriot.

A fine due to the lord of the manor on the death of a person holding
land of the manor. It consisted of the best beast or chattel belonged to
the deceased.


Heritable Jurisdictions Act.

An Act passed in 1747, abolishing hereditary jurisdictions throughout
Scotland. Up to this date the decision of ordinary actions at law,
especially in the Highlands, had been in the hands of the chiefs of the
clans, and principal landowners, and had descended by heredity, with the
result that judicial functions were frequently exercised by persons
having no legal knowledge or aptitude. By this Act these powers were
transferred to sheriffs-depute, one being appointed for each county.


Hermandad.

A confederation of the principal cities of Castile, formed during the
middle ages for mutual protection against brigands and other lawless
persons. By degrees the brotherhood usurped the functions of a
legislative body, enforcing their rules, when necessary, by force of
arms. It was also known as the Santa Hermandad, or Holy Brotherhood.


Herrings, Battle of the.

The name given to an unsuccessful attack by the French upon the
entrenched camp of Sir John Fastolfe at Rouvray in 1429.


Hero of the Nile.

A sobriquet of Nelson.


Herschel System.

The system of State Education established in Cape Colony in 1838, and
designed by Sir John Herschel, the astronomer. Public elementary schools
were provided in all the principal centres of European population, where
instruction was given free to all children of good conduct. Religious
instruction was also given to all whose parents did not object, and
clergymen of any denomination were permitted to catechise the children
of their congregation at stated hours. Secondary schools were
established in the principal villages, and a normal seminary in
Capetown, to train teachers for the elementary schools.


Hersir.

In ancient Norse times, the hereditary chief of a Her, or tribunal
community.


Hidage.

In Anglo-Saxon times, a land tax for war purposes. Under Æthelred the
Unready the tax took the form of the furnishing of one man at arms for
every eight hides, and one ship for every three hundred hides.


Hide.

In Saxon times the portion of land allotted to every free householder.


High Commission, Court of.

A court established in the reign of Elizabeth, to deal with all
questions appertaining to church discipline. It was abolished by
Parliament in 1641, but reconstituted by James II in 1686, under the
notorious Jeffreys, in whose hands it became a mere instrument for
persecution and extortion. Under pressure of the pending invasion of
William of Orange, James, in the last year of his reign, consented to
its abolition.


High Commission, Court of (Ireland).

A court established by Lord Wentworth in 1634, to exercise the same
functions as the English court of the same name.


Highland Garb Act.

An Act passed in 1746, after the suppression of the Rebellion of
Forty-five, rendering the wearing of the Highland dress illegal.


Hintchak.

An Armenian secret society, founded at Tiflis in 1887, to carry on a
newspaper of the same name. The statutes of the society, however,
clearly show that its aims were revolutionary, and it was largely
concerned in fomenting the disturbances which preceded the Armenian
massacres of 1895-6.


Hinterland Doctrine.

A doctrine enunciated by Germany to the effect that in newly-occupied
countries, such as East or West Africa, the possession of the coast line
implied a right to the back country, to be taken up at convenience, and
that no other country had a right to take up country behind, and block
the way into the interior.


Hlutdaw.

The old Burmese Council of Ministers. In 1886 five of the Ministers were
confirmed in their offices, to act as an advisory board for native
affairs to the Chief Commissioner. In 1889 the pacification of the
country was sufficiently advanced to permit of the board being
abolished.


Holkar.

The title of the Mahratta Maharajahs of Indore.


Holy Alliance.

An alliance formed between Russia, Austria and Prussia in September,
1815, by which the three sovereigns undertook that for the future their
policy should be guided solely by Christian principles. At the same time
there is no doubt that the alliance was intended to stem the tide of
political liberty, set flowing by the French Revolution, and their
threatened interference in the quarrel between Spain and her American
colonies, which was the cause of the enunciation of the Monroe doctrine,
is a sufficiently clear indication of this fact.


Holy Experiment.

The name given to William Penn’s experiment of establishing (in
Pennsylvania) a colony on the basis of absolute self-government, as a
free colony of all mankind.


Holy League.

A league formed by Pope Julius II in 1511, ostensibly for his protection
against the aggression of Louis XII of France. Its members were Henry
VIII, the Emperor Maximilian I, Ferdinand of Spain, and the Venetian
Republic. Two years later Julius’ successor, Leo X, came to terms with
Louis, and the league was dissolved.


Holy League.

A league formed by Clement VII in 1526, directed against the Emperor
Charles V. Its members, in addition to the Pope, were Francis I of
France, the Venetian Republic, and Duke Sforza of Milan.


Holy League.

A league of the Catholic Princes of Germany, formed in 1609 under the
leadership of Maximilian of Bavaria, as a counterpoise to the Protestant
Union of 1608.


Holy League of Nuremburg.

A league of Catholic Princes, formed by Held, the Chancellor of Charles
V, in 1538, to oppose the Lutheran Princes. Its principal members were
Duke George of Saxony, the Elector of Bavaria, and the Archbishops of
Mentz and Salzburg.


Holy Office.

_See_ Inquisition.


Holy Roman Empire.

The Empire of the West, which had been destroyed by the barbarian
invasions, was to a great extent restored by Charlemagne, who was
crowned its first Emperor by Leo III in 800. After the extinction of the
Carlovingian line, the Emperors were exclusively German Princes, and
were elected to the throne by the sovereign rulers of certain German
States, though the Popes always claimed, and sometimes exercised, the
right of veto, by refusing to crown. In 1272 the first Emperor of the
House of Hapsburg, Rudolf, was elected, and from 1438 the Emperors were
without exception members of this house, until the Empire was finally
broken up by Napoleon in 1806.


Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the.

An order of knighthood instituted by Pope Alexander VI for the
guardianship of the Holy Places in Palestine and the protection of
pilgrims.


Home Rule Bill, 1886.

The first Home Rule Bill, introduced by Mr. Gladstone, providing for the
creation of a legislative body in Dublin, with control of the
administration, subject to safeguards as to the unity of the Empire, and
the protection of minorities. It was to have control of all taxation,
except of customs and excise, but was forbidden to legislate on any
matter relating to the crown, defence, or foreign relations, or to endow
any religious bodies. The Irish representation at Westminster was to be
abolished. The bill divided the Liberal Party, many of Mr. Gladstone’s
Cabinet deserting him, including Lord Hartington, Sir Henry James, Mr.
Bright and Mr. Chamberlain, and consequently it failed to pass the
second reading. The general election which followed proved that the
country was strongly opposed to the scheme.


Home Rule Bill, 1893.

The second Home Rule Bill, introduced by Mr. Gladstone in 1893, was to a
great extent on the lines of the first bill, creating a Parliament in
Dublin, with legislative powers subject to certain reservations as to
peace and war, external affairs, etc. In one respect, however, it
differed widely, in that the Irish Parliamentary representation at
Westminster was not abolished, but merely reduced. The bill passed the
Commons after lengthy and acrimonious discussion, especially in
Committee, where Mr. Gladstone introduced the system of “Closure by
Compartments,” but was rejected by the Lords.


Home Rulers.

A party formed in 1873, under the leadership of Isaac Butt, to agitate
for the re-establishment of a separate Parliament for Ireland. His
successor in the leadership of the party was Charles Stewart Parnell.


Homestead Act (New Zealand).

An Act passed in 1885, providing that a male under eighteen could take
up twenty acres of first class, or thirty acres of second class land,
and a male over eighteen, fifty or seventy-five acres respectively, free
of all cost, providing he agreed to reside five years on the land, and
fulfil certain requirements as to cultivation.


Homesteads Act (Western Australia).

An Act passed in 1893, providing for free grants of 160 acres each to
all males above eighteen, subject to certain conditions as to residence
and improvements.


Honest Broker.

A nickname of Prince Bismarck, with reference to his attitude, as
President of the Berlin Congress in 1878, on the points in dispute
between Russia and Austria.


Honour of the Flag.

The claim made by Cromwell that England had the right to exact from all
foreign ships, a salute to her flag in the narrow seas. The Dutch
Admiral Van Tromp refusing the salute in 1652, he was fired upon by the
English Admiral, and the action which followed led to the declaration of
war in July of the same year. The Dutch afterwards conceded the claim by
the Treaty of 1654.


Honved.

The Hungarian Landwehr or reserve is so called. The word means “Land
Defenders,” and was given to the national champions in the early days of
Hungarian history.


Hooks.

The party of the nobles in the Netherlands in the fourteenth century.
(_See_ Kabbeljaws.)


Hoosier State.

The popular name of the State of Indiana, U.S.A. It is probably a
corruption of Husher, a Western term for a bully.


Hospitallers, Knights.

_See_ Malta, Knights of.


Hospodars.

The Princes of Moldavia and Wallachia were so called from 1789, when
these countries came under the sway of Russia.


Hot Gospellers.

The Puritans were so styled after the Restoration in 1660. The name was
originally given to Edward Underhill, a Protestant who was imprisoned in
1553 for an attack made by him on the Roman Catholics on the accession
of Mary.


Hotspur.

The sobriquet of Henry Percy (1364-1403).


Houghers.

An Irish agrarian society which appeared in Connemara in 1711. They took
their name from their practice of houghing the cattle of obnoxious
persons. The society was suppressed in 1713.


House-carls.

A body of standing troops raised by Knut, circ. 1030. The first standing
army in England.


Hovering Act.

An Act passed in 1784, extending the authority of the revenue officers
to a distance of four leagues from the coast.


Hubertsberg, Treaty of.

A treaty between Prussia and Austria, signed in 1763, at the conclusion
of the Seven Years’ War. It was a pendent to the Peace of Paris, and
confirmatory of that instrument, as between the two signatory Powers.


Hudson’s Bay Company.

A Company formed in 1670, under a charter granted by Charles II giving
it absolute control of the watershed of Hudson’s Bay (then known as
Rupertsland), in return for a small annual tribute. The Company’s
territories were absorbed by the Dominion of Canada in 1869.


Hué, Treaty of.

A treaty between France and Annam, signed in 1874, by which Annam
accepted the French protectorate over her territories.


Huguenots.

The name given to the French Protestants. It is probably derived from
Hugues, a Calvinist of Geneva, though other derivations have been given.
When, by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, the exercise of
their religion was denied them, many thousands of them emigrated to
England, Holland, and other Protestant countries.


Human Leopards.

A secret society of negroes, discovered and suppressed in Sierra Leone
in 1896. The members of the society, which had been in existence for
about twenty years, practised cannibalism, and had murdered and eaten
several hundred persons. The leaders were hanged.


Hundred.

In early Saxon times this name was given to a subdivision of the tribe
which corresponded to the ancient German _pagus_ (so called by Tacitus.)
It seems to have consisted of a hundred heads of families, and it
furnished a hundred warriors to the tribal army, and a hundred assessors
to the judicial court.


Hundred Days.

The period between Napoleon’s return from Elba and his second
abdication.


Hundred Years’ War.

The name given to the series of wars between France and England which
lasted from 1338 to 1449 and ended by the expulsion of the English from
France, with the exception of Calais, which they held till 1558.


Hungarian Martyrs.

The thirteen Hungarian generals executed at Arad, after the War of
Independence in 1849.


Hungarian War of Independence.

A rising of the Hungarian national party under Kossuth, in 1848, owing
to the refusal of the Austrians to give any redress for the outrages of
the Croatian troops under Jellachich in the valleys of the Theiss and
the Danube. Kossuth was appointed Dictator by the Hungarian Diet, and
the rising was at first successful, but in 1849 the Austrians received
the assistance of a large Russian army, and in August of that year, the
Magyars were forced to surrender, and their leaders left the country.
General Hainau made himself notorious by his cruelties after the
collapse of the armed resistance.


Hunkers.

The extreme pro-slavery section of the New York Democrats from 1844 to
1848. They were known after the latter date as Hardshell Democrats.


Hunting of Braemar.

A meeting of the Jacobite leaders, ostensibly for sport, summoned by the
Earl of Mar, in 1715, to concert measures for the rising which took
place in the autumn of that year.


Hussites.

The followers of John Huss, a professor of the University of Prague, who
had imbibed the Wycliffite doctrines. Though excommunicated by Pope
Alexander V in 1412, he continued to disseminate these doctrines, and
was consequently summoned to the Council of Constance in 1414, where,
though under the Emperor’s safe-conduct, he was thrown into prison, and
subsequently burnt at the stake. His principal disciple, Jerome of
Prague, suffered the same fate in 1416, but his followers, under John
Zisca, rose in revolt against the Church, to the number of 40,000. They
destroyed some five hundred convents, and defeated the Emperor
Sigismund, but were broken up into sections in 1424, following upon
Zisca’s death. They still, however, remained in insurrection until 1436,
when the revolt was ended by the treaty of Iglau.


Hyde Park Riots.

A riot which broke out in 1866, after the defeat of the Russell Ministry
over the Reform Bill of that year. A meeting had been summoned by the
Reform League, to meet in Hyde Park, but the Government prohibited the
meeting, and closed the park gates, whereupon the mob pulled down the
railings. Little other damage, however, was done, and the riot was
easily quelled.



I


I. D. B.

_See_ Illicit Diamond Buying.


Iconoclasts.

This name was first given to the followers of Leo III, Emperor of the
East, who in 726 interdicted the worship of images. The opposition of a
considerable section of his subjects did not deter him from carrying his
principles into effect, and what is known as the Iconoclast War was the
result. The same title is applied to the more militant Huguenots in
France in 1560 and 1561, who, wherever they obtained the upper hand,
ruthlessly destroyed the statues which adorned the churches and
monasteries, and also to a section of the Puritans during the English
Civil War.


Iglau, Treaty of.

A treaty between the Hussites and the Emperor Sigismund, signed in 1436,
putting an end to the Hussite War. It was based upon the Compactata of
Prague, and secured to the Hussites the free exercise of their religion
on the lines of that document.


Ilbert Bill.

A bill introduced in the Legislative Council of India by Mr. Ilbert in
1883 “to amend the criminal jurisdiction over British subjects.” It
largely extended the jurisdiction of native magistrates in the trial of
Europeans, and was most bitterly criticised by the Anglo-Indian
community, especially by planters and others living in remote districts.


Illicit Diamond Buying.

An illegal trade in diamonds carried on by certain speculators in
Kimberley, who purchased from the employés of the Diamond companies
rough diamonds which they had secreted in the process of washing. It was
largely checked by the Diamond Trade Act of 1882. This illicit trade is
generally known as I.D.B.


Illuminati.

A famous sect of German mystics, founded at Ingolstadt by Adam
Weisshaupt in 1776. It undertook a crusade against Jesuitism and Church
domination generally, but did not hold aloof from politics, its higher
initiates being professed Republicans. It was suppressed by the Elector
of Bavaria in 1785.


Immigrants Restriction Bill.

A bill passed in 1901 by the Federal Parliament of Australia in response
to the outcry for a “White Australia.” It prohibits the immigration of
all coloured labour, including the South Sea Islanders, or Kanakas. This
restriction has caused much concern in Northern Queensland, where the
climate is not suitable for white labour, and its enforcement will
destroy the sugar and other industries and render the country almost
valueless.


Imparani, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1866 after the Basuto War of 1865-66 between the
Orange Free State and Molapo, the son of Moshesh. Molapo surrendered to
the Free State the greater part of his country, and became a vassal of
the State. He further bound himself to render no assistance to any other
Basuto chief who might rise against the Free State.


Imperial Chamber.

_See_ Reichskammergericht.


Imperial Federation Enabling Act.

An Act passed in 1885 to facilitate the federation of the Australasian
Colonies. (_See_ Federal Council.)


Importants.

The party who supported the Regent, Anne of Austria, during the minority
of Louis XIV. They strongly opposed Mazarin’s policy, but the cardinal
succeeded in embroiling them with the queen, thanks to feminine
intrigues, and their leaders were imprisoned or banished.


Impositions.

Illegal additions to the authorized customs duties, levied by James I
without the consent of Parliament. They were among the grievances
detailed in the Petition of Grievances in 1610.


In Cœna Domini, Bull.

A Bull issued at intervals during the Middle Ages, and annually on Holy
Thursday from 1627 to 1770. It was a summary of the offences against the
Church and the priesthood, and of the ecclesiastical censures pronounced
against them. The sovereigns of Europe regarded this Bull as an
infringement of their rights, and it was in consequence of their
continued protests that Clement XIV ceased to promulgate it.


In Eminenti, Bull.

A Bull of Urban VII, issued in 1642, condemning the “Augustinus” of
Jansen as heretical.


Incas.

The ruling family of the ancient Peruvians up to the conquest of Peru by
Pizarro in 1531. They claimed to be descended from the Sun-God.


Incident, The.

A plot, discovered during the visit of Charles I to Scotland in 1641, to
kill or kidnap Argyle and Hamilton. The king was suspected of being
privy to it, though he strenuously denied it.


Incorruptible, The.

The name given by his followers to Robespierre.


Indemnity and Oblivion, Act of.

An Act passed at the Restoration in 1660, granting a free pardon to
those who had been in arms against the king, with the exception of the
Regicides and Sir Harry Vane and General Lambert, and settling in favour
of _bonâ fide_ holders all claims to land acquired during the
Commonwealth.


Independence.

_See_ Declaration.


Independents.

A sect of extreme Puritans, originally identified with the Brownists.
They afterwards became a political party, holding more advanced views
than the Presbyterians, who represented a conservative form of
republicanism, and ultimately, under the leadership of Cromwell and with
the aid of the army, which was mainly officered by them, they became the
predominant party in the state.


Index Expurgatorius.

The list of books the perusal of which is forbidden to devout Catholics.
The first index was drawn up by Paul IV in 1555 to prevent the diffusion
of heretical opinions through the writings of the Reformers.


India Act, Pitt’s.

An Act passed in 1784 by which all political power was taken from the
East India Company and vested in a Board of Control nominated by the
Government. The Company retained all its patronage, excepting the
appointment of Commander-in-Chief and some other high posts, and their
commercial rights under their Charter were not interfered with.


Indian National Congress.

An annual congress of natives of India, with some few Europeans, whose
object is to promote the extension to India of Western political
institutions, such as representative government. The first congress met
at Allahabad in 1888, and was attended by a few Mohammedans, but it has
now fallen almost entirely into the hands of the Bengali Babus.


Indians, Apostle of the.

The name given to Bartolomeo de las Casas (1474-1566), the Spanish
ecclesiastic who devoted his life to the amelioration of the condition
of the South American Indians.


Indies, Apostle of the.

St. Francis Xavier, the famous Jesuit missionary to India in the
sixteenth century is so called.


Indies, Council of the.

A supreme court for American affairs, established in Spain by Ferdinand
in 1511 and reorganized by Charles V in 1524. The council promulgated
all the laws relating to the government of the colonies and appointed to
all colonial offices under the Crown.


Indulgence.

A measure of toleration granted to the Scottish Presbyterians in 1669,
by which their ministers were permitted to preach in vacant parishes and
received some pecuniary aid from the Government. This measure, however,
did nothing to reconcile the more bigoted members of the Church, who
continued their resistance to all State control. The Indulgence was soon
withdrawn.


Indulgence.

_See_ Declaration.


Indulgences.

Forms of absolution granted by Leo X, which were openly sold by his
agents, the proceeds of the sale being devoted to the completion of St.
Peter’s at Rome. It was the sale of these by Tetzel in 1517, in the
dominions of the Elector of Saxony, which called forth Luther’s vehement
protest, and was the beginning of the Reformation in Germany.


Ineffabilis Deus, Bull.

The Bull of Pius IX, issued in 1854, by which the doctrine of the
Immaculate Conception of the Virgin was proclaimed as an article of the
Catholic faith.


Inexorable Families.

The old aristocratic families of Virginia, who were expected, during the
War of Independence, to show British sympathies, but earned the name of
“Inexorable” by their staunch adherence to the national cause.


Infallible.

A title assumed by the Pope Pelagius (578-590).


Infante.

The title of the eldest son of the Spanish Sovereign.


Infernal Legion.

A body of irregular troops, composed of desperadoes of all nations,
organized by Bover on the side of the Royalists during the revolt of the
Spanish American Colonies in 1814.


Initiative.

Under the Swiss Constitution, the right of the people to initiate
proposals for the enactment, repeal or amendment of a law. Fifty
thousand signatures are required to make the demand operative.


Inquisition.

A tribunal to inquire into and suppress heresy, established by Innocent
III at the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215. It was introduced into
Germany in 1231, but abolished in 1234, and never again restored. In
Italy it was successful in stamping out heresy, but it is in Spain that
its tyranny was most notorious, an auto-de-fé having been held in that
country as late as 1826. Its administration was entrusted to the
Dominican Order.


Instrument of Government.

A document issued by Cromwell in 1653 by which he took the title of
Protector. He was to be assisted by a Council of State of fifteen
members, and a new Parliament was to be elected, to number 400, with a
£200 qualification both for members and electors. No Parliament was to
be dissolved unless it had sat for five months, and Parliaments were to
be triennial.


Insurrection Act.

An Act passed by the Irish Parliament in 1796 empowering the Government
to declare any county to be in a state of insurrection, whereupon the
officials had the right to search for arms and to imprison persons found
abroad between sunset and sunrise.


Insurrection of Women.

An outbreak of the women of Paris on October 5, 1789. They broke into
the armoury of the Hôtel de Ville, and, having armed themselves, marched
to Versailles, to demand speech of the king. The result of the rising
was the return of the king to Paris, which took place on the following
day.


Inter Gravissimas, Bull.

The Bull of Gregory XIII, issued in 1582, ordaining the use of the new
calendar throughout Christendom.


Interdict.

The proclamation issued by Innocent III in 1208 against John and the
realm of England. It forbade all services of the Church, except Baptism
and Supreme Unction, and only permitted the burial of the dead in
unconsecrated ground. In the following year the Interdict was followed
by the excommunication of John.


Interim of Leipsic.

A modification of the Interim of Ratisbon, issued by Charles V in
December, 1548, and accepted by Melancthon on behalf of the Lutherans.


Interim of Ratisbon.

A system of doctrine issued by Charles V in May, 1548, as an attempt to
reconcile the differences dividing the religious world. While retaining
all the salient doctrines of Catholicism, it permitted certain
modifications in practice and ritual calculated to conciliate the
Protestants. It did not, however, succeed in pleasing either party.


Intermarriage Act.

One of the laws of the Irish Penal Code, which provided that a man who
married a Catholic should be regarded as a Papist and subject to all
their disabilities, while a woman so marrying should be dead to the law.


International African Association.

An international commission formed at the Brussels Conference in 1876,
with the object of exploring Central Africa. It resulted in the
formation of the Congo Free State in 1885.


International, The.

An association of working men, founded in London in 1864, the original
statutes of the society being drawn up by the German Socialist leader
Marx. It was intended as a centre of combination for all workmen’s
societies and unions of every nation, but disclaimed any desire to
interfere with them individually. In 1872 a split occurred in the
society between the Marxists and the followers of the Anarchist Bakunin,
and the International soon after ceased to exist as an organization.


Intransigentes.

The extreme revolutionary party in the southern towns of Spain in 1873.


Invincible Armada.

The name given by the Spaniards to the great Spanish and Portuguese
fleet dispatched by Philip II for the conquest of England in 1588. After
being harried by the English ships under Howard of Effingham, Drake,
Frobisher and others, it was finally dispersed by violent storms in the
North Sea, and out of 130 ships only 53 returned to Spain.


Invincibles.

An Irish secret society, with headquarters in America, which became
notorious in 1882 as having provided the assassins of Lord Frederick
Cavendish and Mr. Burke. Those immediately concerned in the murder were
brought to justice, but the heads of the society, including Tynan, the
famous No. 1, were never made amenable.


Ionian Islands, Cession of.

By a treaty between Great Britain and Greece, signed in 1864, these
islands were ceded to Greece.


Irish Board of Agriculture.

A new department established in Ireland in 1897, independent of the
Castle and the Irish Office. Its first president was Mr. Horace Plunket.


Irish Charter.

The Charter granted to the Irish settlers by Henry III on his accession.
It was practically a recital of the clauses of Magna Charta, with such
variations as were rendered necessary by the different conditions.


Irish Church Act, Althorp’s.

An Act passed in 1833 abolishing the Church fees, which were paid by
all, whether Churchmen, Catholics or Dissenters, and reducing the number
of Irish bishops from twenty-two to twelve.


Irish Church Disestablishment.

An Act for the disestablishment and partial disendowment of the Irish
Church was passed by Mr. Gladstone’s Government in 1869. The Irish
bishops lost their seats in the House of Lords, the Irish Ecclesiastical
Courts were abolished, and the union between the English and Irish
Churches dissolved. The future government of the Irish Church was
entrusted to a synod elected by the clergy and laity. Of the Church
property, valued at about sixteen millions, seven millions were used to
compensate incumbents and to replace the Maynooth Grant and the Regium
Donum.


Irish Land Act, 1870.

An Act passed by Mr. Gladstone’s Government giving for the first time a
legal status to the Ulster custom and extending it to all tenancies in
Ireland. The Act provided for compensation for disturbance and
compensation for improvements in the event of the landlord determining a
tenancy, and enacted that improvements should be deemed to be the
tenant’s, the onus of proof to the contrary being thrown upon the
landlord.


Irish Land Act, 1881.

This Act, passed in 1881, introduced the principle of judicial
interference between landlord and tenant. It permitted the sale of
tenant right and allowed the tenant to apply to the Court to fix a
judicial rent, such rent to hold good for fifteen years. It made certain
alterations, in the tenant’s favour, in the law relating to compensation
for improvements. It further established a Land Commission with power
(1) to advance money to tenants for the purchase of their holdings, and
(2) under certain conditions to purchase whole estates from the
landlords.


Irish Land Act, 1885.

An Act known as Lord Ashbourne’s Act, giving additional facilities for
the purchase by tenants of their holdings. An advance of £5,000,000 was
made to the Land Commissioners for this purpose, while the terms to
purchasers were more generous than those of the Bill of 1881. The
purchase money was to be advanced at 4 per cent., and be repayable in
forty-nine years, while the surplus of the Disestablished Church funds
was to be used as a guarantee to the State against loss.


Irish Land Act, 1896.

An Act amending and consolidating the previous Land Acts and dealing
specially with the case of “Town Parks.” It introduced no new principle,
and though the Nationalists tried to secure the valuation of these
holdings at prairie value, the Government carried in the main their plan
for an equitable division between landlord and tenant of any increase of
value due to situation.


Irish Land Conference.

A conference held in Dublin in January, 1903, known also as the Dunraven
Conference, between representatives of the Irish Landlords and the
tenants, under the presidency of Lord Dunraven. The conference issued a
unanimous report recommending the abolition of dual ownership by means
of a comprehensive scheme of land purchase. They proposed that the
landlords should be bought out at a price based on their present income
from rent, and that the tenants should purchase at from 15 per cent. to
25 per cent. less, the balance being found by the State, which would
also advance the purchase money, to be repaid by instalments.


Irish National League.

An association formed in Dublin in 1882, after the suppression of the
Land League, to unite all sections of Irish Nationalists.


Irish Society.

A society formed by twelve of the City Companies of London to colonize
lands in Ulster forfeited from O’Neill and O’Donnell. They were granted
a charter by James I in 1613, which was suspended in 1637 but restored
in 1670.


Irish Volunteers, Society of.

_See_ Friends of Ireland.


Iron Chancellor.

A sobriquet of Prince Bismarck.


Iron Chest.

A secret closet in the bedchamber of Louis XVI. Its existence was
revealed by Gamain, the king’s locksmith, who had constructed it, and it
was searched immediately by order of the National Convention, when
certain compromising documents were found.


Iron Cross.

A Prussian decoration conferred for bravery in the field. It was
established in 1813.


Iron Crown.

The royal crown of Lombardy, said to have been forged from a nail of the
true cross. It was first used in 591 at the coronation of Agilulf, King
of the Lombards, and is now the royal crown of Italy.


Iron Duke.

The sobriquet of the great Duke of Wellington.


Iron Emperor.

Nicholas I of Russia (1825-55) was so called.


Iron Hand, Götz of the.

The sobriquet of Götz von Berlichingen, the leader in the German
Peasants’ War of 1525. His right hand, which he had lost in battle, was
replaced by an artificial hand made of iron.


Iron Mask, The Man with the.

A mysterious personage whose face was always covered with an iron mask,
who was confined in the Bastille and other State prisons in France
during the reign of Louis XIV. Many theories have been advanced as to
his identity. It has been contended that he was an elder brother, a twin
brother, and a natural son of the king, Count Matthioli, minister of the
Duke of Mantua, and M. de Marchiel, the head of a wide-spread conspiracy
against Louis XIV, while many other solutions of the problem have been
put forward.


Iron Tooth.

The nickname of Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg (1688-1713).


Ironclad Oath.

The oath of office established by the United States Congress in 1867 at
the conclusion of the Civil War. It was designed to prevent the
assumption of office by any possible enemy of the Union.


Ironside.

The nickname of Edmund, King of the English in 1016.


Ironsides.

Cromwell’s Regiment of Horse was so called.


Iskander Beg.

The sobriquet of George Castriot, the Albanian patriot (1414-67).
Iskander is Alexander.


Isabella Catolica, Order of.

A Spanish order of knighthood, instituted in 1815, to reward those
Spanish-Americans who remained faithful to the Crown during the Wars of
Independence.


Island of Saints.

Ireland was so called in the Middle Ages.


Italia Irredenta.

Unredeemed Italy consists of those provinces and islands not included in
the Kingdom of Italy which are racially or linguistically Italian. They
are the Austrian provinces of Southern Tyrol, Görz, Trieste, Istria and
Dalmatia, the Swiss Canton of Ticino, the British island of Malta and
the French island of Corsica. The Irredentists are a party whose aims
are similar to those of the Pan-Slavists and Pan-Germans, and who desire
to see these provinces, especially those belonging to Austria, added to
the kingdom.


Italy, Unification of.

The work of Victor Emmanuel and his minister Cavour, aided by Garibaldi
and his volunteers. The Treaty of Zurich in 1859 left Victor Emmanuel in
possession of the whole of Northern Italy excepting the Venetian states
east of the Mincio. The central states, Parma, Modena, etc., applied to
be united to the kingdom in 1860, while in the same year the South
revolted against Francis II of Naples, and with the aid of Garibaldi the
Bourbons were expelled, Victor Emmanuel being crowned King of Italy in
1861. The Venetian provinces were added to the kingdom by the Treaty of
Prague in 1866, and in 1870, France withdrawing her support of the Pope,
the King entered Rome and completed the emancipation of Italy.



J


Jacobites.

The supporters of the House of Stuart after their expulsion from Great
Britain.


Jacquerie.

The peasant rising in France in 1358 is so called from Jacques Bonhomme,
the familiar name for a peasant. The revolt was most sanguinary, the
peasants burning over 200 châteaux, and murdering indiscriminately all
who refused to join them. Equally cruel reprisals followed the
suppression of the insurrection.


Jaffa Massacre.

The massacre by Napoleon in 1799 of the Turkish garrison of Jaffa, who
had surrendered as prisoners of war.


Jamaica Bill.

A bill suspending the constitution of Jamaica, brought in by the
Melbourne Ministry in 1839, in consequence of the House of Assembly
refusing to put in force an Act for the better regulation of prisons in
that island. The bill only passed the House of Commons by a majority of
five, and Lord Melbourne resigned.


Jameson Raid.

An invasion of the Transvaal by the forces of the British South Africa
Company in January, 1896. Jameson acted on an undated letter, signed by
certain members of the Johannesburg Reform Committee, summoning him to
the aid of the Uitlanders. His raid, however, was ill-timed, the
Johannesburgers being unable to give him the assistance he counted on,
and he was defeated by the hastily summoned Boer commandos. Cecil Rhodes
was a party to the scheme, which was designed to overthrow the corrupt
Boer Government. The Boers made the raid an excuse for increasing their
armaments.


Janissaries.

A military force established about the middle of the fourteenth century
by Amurath I, Sultan of Turkey. They were recruited from Christian
youths captured in war, who were brought up in the Mohammedan faith and
trained to arms.


Jansenists.

A sect or schism of Catholics, founded in France in the seventeenth
century, who strongly opposed the doctrinal and ethical teachings of the
Jesuits. Their doctrines were based on the _Augustinus_ of Cornelius
Jansen, Bishop of Yprès, published after his death, which took place in
1638. Its adherents included such men as Arnauld and Pascal. Jansenism
was finally declared heretical by the Bull Unigenitus in 1653.


January, Edict of.

An edict issued by Charles IX of France in January, 1562, setting forth
the terms of pacification between the Huguenots and the Catholics as
arrived at by a conference between the leaders of the two parties.


Jarl.

In the early Norse times the Jarl was a dignity conferred by the king
upon chiefs of conspicuous ability as leaders in war. The title was not
hereditary.


Jassy, Peace of.

A treaty signed in 1792 by Catherine II of Russia and the Sultan Selim
III after a war rendered memorable by the successes of Potemkin and
Suwarrow. Turkey surrendered Oszakov, and the Dniester was fixed as the
boundary line between the two empires.


Jay’s Treaty.

The name given to the treaty between Great Britain and the United States
in 1794, which provided for the surrender to the latter of the British
military forts in the North-East and settled certain boundary and
financial questions pending between the signatories.


Jedburgh Justice.

The prompt measures taken by the Earl of Dunbar in the reign of James I
and VI to punish border raiders at Jedburgh and other Scottish towns
gave rise to this phrase. Raiders were hanged always, and tried if
circumstances permitted. “Cupar Justice” and “Burlaw” have the same
meaning.


Jehad.

A holy war of Mohammedans against Christians is so called.


Jenkin’s Ear.

One of the many stories of the ill-treatment by the Spanish Guardia
Costa of British subjects in the employment of the South Sea Company.
These stories were utilized by the war party in Parliament to force the
Government into war with Spain in 1738. War was in fact declared the
following year.


Jesuits.

A religious order founded in 1534 by Ignatius Loyola, a Spaniard, and
sanctioned by Paul III in 1540. They have always endeavoured to lead and
control public opinion, and to that end have taken an active part in
education and in political intrigue, as well as in missionary work. The
order was suppressed by Papal Bull in 1773, but revived in 1814.


Jerrymandering.

The manipulation of electoral divisions in such a way as to give an
undue advantage to one political party. The word is said to be rightly
Gerrymandering, and to be derived from Elbridge Gerry, Governor of
Massachusetts in 1812, who was the originator of the idea.


Jerviswood Plot.

A plot entered into by certain Scottish Presbyterian gentlemen, under
the leadership of Lord Melville, the Earl of Tarras and Baillie of
Jerviswood, to prevent the Duke of York succeeding to the throne on the
death of Charles II. The plot was discovered owing to the failure of the
Rye House Plot, and though Melville and other leaders made good their
escape, Baillie was seized and executed in 1634.


Jeu de Paume, Séance du.

The famous session of the Tennis Court, on June 22, 1789, when the
Deputies of the National Assembly, excluded from their regular place of
meeting, took an oath that they would not separate, but would continue
to meet when and where they could until they had promulgated the new
constitution.


Jeunesse Dorée.

The gilded youth, or young men of Paris, who endeavoured to bring about
the counter-revolution after the fall of Robespierre in 1794.


Jewish Disabilities Acts.

A series of Acts passed during the reign of Queen Victoria by which the
disabilities under which the Jews laboured were gradually removed. In
1845 they were admitted to office in municipalities; in 1846 they were
placed on the same footing as Protestant Dissenters in respect of their
schools, while by the alteration in the form of the Parliamentary oath
in 1858 they were enabled to sit in Parliament.


Jews’ Exchequer.

A special court established by Richard I in 1194 to hear cases in which
Jews were concerned and to supervise their contributions to the revenue.


Jingoes.

The war party in England during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 were so
called by their political opponents. The name arose from a music-hall
song, sung by “The Great Macdermott,” the chorus of which began “We
don’t want to fight, but by Jingo if we do.” The term “Jingoism” is now
applied to aggressive Imperialism.


Jo-I.

The ultra-nationalist party in Japan in the early days of the new
régime. They were strongly opposed to the invasion of Western ideas. The
name signifies “Expel the Barbarians.”


Jockey of Norfolk.

The sobriquet of Sir John Howard, an adherent of Richard III.


John Company.

The East India Company was so called.


Joinville, Treaty of.

A secret treaty between the Guises and Philip II of Spain in 1584,
providing that the Cardinal de Bourbon should succeed Henri III, and
that no heretic should ascend the throne or hold office in France.
Philip undertook to advance 50,000 crowns monthly for the purposes of
the League, to be repaid on the accession of the Cardinal.


Joyeuse Entrée.

The ancient charter of Brabant, granted by Wenceslas of Luxemburg in the
latter part of the fourteenth century. It provided that no one should be
prosecuted except before the ordinary courts of law; that no foreigner
should hold office in the State; that no alteration should be made in
the status of the Church without the consent of the Estates, and that
any breach of the Constitution by the prince should absolve his subjects
from their allegiance. The charter was abrogated by Joseph II in 1789.


Judicature Acts, 1873 and 1875.

By these Acts a Supreme Court of Justice was created, in place of the
various courts in existence dealing with various branches of the law.
These Courts were made branches of the High Court of Justice. In the
same way the various appeal courts were brought into one general Court
of Appeal. Certain provincial jurisdictions were abolished, such as the
Courts of Pleas of the Palatine counties of Lancaster and Durham.
Probate, Divorce and Admiralty were united in one division by the latter
of the two Acts.


Judenhetze.

The anti-Jewish campaign, started in Berlin in 1880. See Anti-semitism.


July, Government of.

The reign of Louis Philippe (1830-48) is so called, as having been
inaugurated by the Revolution of July.


July Laws.

Two laws passed in July, 1883, modifying certain of the severer
provisions of the Falk Laws.


July, Revolution of.

The revolution of 1830, which overthrew the Government of Charles X and
established Louis Philippe on the throne, is so called.


July, Treaty of.

A treaty signed on July 15, 1840, by Great Britain, Russia, Austria and
Prussia, dictating terms to Mehemet Ali, Pasha of Egypt, which terms he
was given ten days to accept. He was to retain the Pashalic of Egypt for
himself and his descendants, and Acre for life, withdrawing from the
rest of Syria and the Holy Land. This treaty was confirmed in 1841 by
the Treaty of the Dardanelles.


Junkers.

The younger members of the aristocratic Conservative party in Prussia
with whom Bismarck acted at the beginning of his political life.


Junius, Letters of.

A series of letters issued anonymously from 1769 onwards, attacking the
King and the Grafton Ministry with extraordinary vigour, and full of
literary merit. The authorship of these letters remains a mystery, but
they are generally attributed to Sir Philip Francis.


Junta.

In Spain, an assembly of persons, whether legally summoned or
self-constituted, exercising legislative or administrative functions.
The Junta of 1808, which represented those portions of Spain not under
the rule of Joseph Buonaparte, is one of the best known.


Junta Apostolica.

A Junta formed in Spain in 1824, under Saez, to carry out to the full
the principles of absolutism and ecclesiastical domination. For some
time the Junta practically ruled Spain.


Junto.

The chiefs of the Whig party, and leaders of the Ministry formed in
1696. They were Somers, Russell, Halifax and Wharton.


Junto, Presbyterian.

The name given to the Sons of Liberty by the Royalist party in America
in 1765.


Jurandes.

Committees of the trade guilds in France, appointed to supervise the
operations of the members of the guild, with special reference to the
granting of apprenticeships and the payment of the necessary fees
thereupon. The regulations of these guilds were often exceedingly
oppressive.


Jury, Trial by.

The origin of the system is probably to be found in the Assize of
Clarendon in 1166, by which it was enacted that twelve men should be
appointed from each hundred to present criminals for trial by ordeal.
They were sworn to determine the value of the charge, and could commit
or release the accused. By Magna Charta, the right of every Englishman
to be tried by his peers is expressly stipulated.


Jus Magdeburgicum.

The local law of Magdeburg, a free city of Germany. It was composed
partly of Saxon custom and partly of ancient local usages, and was
adopted in many of the Slav countries.


Justice, Charter of.

A charter issued by Canning’s Government in 1828 providing for the
reorganization of the judicial system in Cape Colony, and regulating
other matters connected with the Government. It abolished the Heemraden,
and instituted courts in which all the pleadings were to be in English.
It was superseded in 1834 by an amended charter, whereby, among other
changes, ignorance of English was no longer to be held a bar to jury
service.


Justiciary.

Under the Norman kings this functionary was the President of the Curia
Regis and the king’s representative and regent during his absence from
the realm.


Justinian, Code of.

A codification of the Roman law, carried out by Tribonianus by order of
Justinian in 529.


Justiza.

The supreme judge in the kingdom of Aragon. He was appointed by the
Cortes, and was the final interpreter of the laws, even the king being
obliged to consult him in doubtful cases. He was the ultimate court of
appeal in all cases, and had himself the right to initiate prosecutions.


Jutland, Law of.

The code of law presented to a Danish National Assembly by Waldemar II
(Seir) of Denmark, and confirmed in 1241. This remained the law of the
whole of Denmark till the reign of Christian V (1670-1699).



K


Kabbeljaws.

The party of the towns, in the Netherlands, in the fourteenth century.
The word signifies “Codfish-jaws,” and the opposing party, that of the
nobles, was known as the “Hooks.”


Kaiser Kläs.

The German nickname for Napoleon.


Kalf-vel.

A document issued by Charles V curtailing the privileges of the city of
Ghent.


Kanaka Labour Traffic.

In the early eighties attention was attracted to the methods of the
“Blackbirders,” or ships engaged in supplying Kanaka labourers for the
Queensland sugar plantations. The captain of the _Hopeful_ was brought
to trial for kidnapping, and the disclosures in the case caused the
Government to appoint a commission in 1884 to investigate the whole
question. It was found that kidnapping was much more general than was
thought, and in all the instances which were brought to light the
natives were returned to their islands, and the planters compensated for
the loss of their services.


Kansas-Nebraska Act.

An Act of Congress passed in 1854 by which Kansas and Nebraska were
admitted to the Union as territories. This Act was a breach of the
Missouri Compromise, as it left it to each of the new territories to
settle the question of slavery within its borders.


Karl.

Among the Norsemen the holders of Odal or freehold land were so called.


Karmathians.

A Moslem sect, taking their name from Karmath, a disciple of Babek,
whose leading tenets were the indifference of all human actions and the
non-existence of private property. The Karmathians first appeared in
890, and it is said that a hundred battles were fought before they were
exterminated. They were at one time in possession of Mecca.


Keate Award.

The award, in 1871, of Mr. R. W. Keate, Lieutenant-Governor of Natal, on
the territorial questions pending between the South African Republic and
various native chiefs, amongst others Waterboer, Mankoroane, and
Montsiwa. It practically endorsed the native claims, and is specially
important as having enabled Great Britain at a later date to annex
Bechuanaland, thus opening a way to the centre of the continent, and
rendering possible the colonization of Rhodesia.


Kenilworth, Dictum of.

A proclamation of Henry III in 1267, after the final overthrow of Simon
de Montfort, wherein the king reaffirmed Magna Charta and restored to
their lands those of the barons who had been dispossessed, on payment of
a solatium to the then holders.


Kelly Gang.

A famous gang of bushrangers which infested the north-eastern part of
New South Wales from 1878 to 1880. Towards the end of the latter year
they were hunted down by the police. In the fight which followed the
whole gang were killed except their leader, Ned Kelly, who was captured
and hanged.


Kentish Petition.

A petition from the Grand Jury of Kent, presented to Parliament in 1701,
praying the House to abstain from the prosecution of personal vengeance
and to give its attention to the needs of the country.


Kentucky Resolutions.

A series of resolutions passed by the Kentucky Legislature in 1798,
declaring the Alien and Sedition Laws unconstitutional, and asserting
the doctrine of State Rights.


Kenyon-Slaney Clause.

A clause introduced into the Education Act of 1902, on the motion of
Colonel Kenyon-Slaney. It provides that in all voluntary schools taken
over by the new education authority the religious teaching shall be in
accordance with the provisions of the trust deed, and be under the
control of the managers. The object of the clause is to prevent a
clergyman of extreme views forcing upon a school a form of doctrinal
instruction contrary to the generally received teaching of the Church of
England.


Kerns.

Mercenary troops, partly Irish and partly Scotch, maintained by the
petty Irish chieftains, and employed in their inter-tribal wars up to
the time of Elizabeth. They were also known as “Gallowglasses.”


Ket’s Rebellion.

A rising of the peasantry against the landed gentry, led by Ket, a
tanner, in 1549. He collected some 16,000 followers in a camp near
Norwich, and established a tribunal, on which he sat, with the Mayor of
Norwich, to try obnoxious gentlemen. The rebellion was suppressed by the
Earl of Warwick, and Ket and other leaders hanged.


Keys, House of.

The Lower House of the Isle of Man legislature.


Keystone State.

A name given to the State of Pennsylvania, as being the central State of
the thirteen originally forming the Union.


Khalsa.

The Sikh Commonwealth in the Punjaub was known by this name.


Khozain.

The head of a household in the Russian Mir or village community. Before
the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 the family generally owned all
property in common, those who went to work in the towns sending a
proportion of their wages to the common stock. The Khozain was the
administrator of the general fund.


Kiel, Peace of.

A treaty between Sweden and Denmark signed in 1814, after the expulsion
of the Danes from Holstein by Bernadotte. Denmark surrendered Norway to
the Crown of Sweden, reserving, however, Greenland, Iceland and the
Faroë Islands, which had been considered appanages of the Norwegian
Crown.


Kilkenny, Convention of.

A convention of the prelates, nobles and commons of Ireland held in
1338. It presented a petition of grievances to Edward III, complaining
of the neglect by his lieutenants of the fortified places, whereby they
suffered from the raids of the Irish; of the corruption prevailing
amongst the royal officers; of their absenteeism, and of the
misrepresentation which the petitioners had suffered at their hands.


Kilkenny, Council of.

A council of twenty-four members formed in 1642 to organize the Irish
Catholics in support of the royal cause during the Civil War.


Kilkenny, Statute of.

A statute passed in 1367 by which the English colonists in Ireland were
forbidden under penalty of high treason to intermarry with the Irish, to
present an Irishman to a Church living, or to offer hospitality to an
Irish bard or minstrel.


Kilkenny, Synod of.

A synod of the Irish bishops and other Church dignitaries, held in 1642
at the commencement of the Great Rebellion, to form a provisional
government. It established the Council of Kilkenny.


Kilmainham Treaty.

A supposed agreement between Mr. Gladstone and Mr. Parnell (then a
prisoner in Kilmainham Gaol), negotiated by Mr. O’Shea in 1882, by which
Parnell undertook, if released, to use all his influence in the
suppression of agrarian crime. Both parties stoutly denied the existence
of any compact, but the matter gave rise to stormy debates in the House
of Commons, and many wild stories were current as to the terms of the
agreement.


Kimberley Riots.

A series of disturbances in 1884 due to the opposition of the employés
in the diamond mines at Kimberley to the Search Act, passed in 1882 with
the object of checking illicit diamond buying.


King of the Commons.

A sobriquet of James V of Scotland.


King Philip’s War.

The name given to a rising of the Wampanoags, an Indian tribe, in 1675,
with the object of exterminating the white settlers in New England. The
war lasted over a year, with much destruction of property, but finally
the Indians were defeated and their leader, Philip, shot.


King’s Friends.

The name given to the secret advisers of George III in his attempts to
restore the royal prerogative to its old position in the State. They
were mainly Tories, though drawn from both parties, and their leader was
the Earl of Bute.


King’s Prymer.

A book of the ritual of the Church of England, issued in 1545 by the
authority of Henry VIII, and containing the Services for the Hours. It
is the basis of all subsequent prymers, including those of Edward VI and
Elizabeth.


Kingmaker, The.

The sobriquet of Neville, Earl of Warwick (1428-71), the most prominent
figure in the Wars of the Roses.


Kinmont Willie.

The nickname of William Armstrong, the famous border raider. He was the
hero of a celebrated rescue at the hands of the Lord of Buccleugh in
1596, having been captured by the English and confined in Carlisle
Castle.


Kirke’s Lambs.

The troopers of Colonel Kirke, who was in command at Bridgwater after
the suppression of Monmouth’s rebellion. Their barbarous treatment of
their prisoners and of suspected adherents of Monmouth hardly fell
behind the judicial cruelties of Jeffreys. Their name was ironically
derived from the Lamb, their regimental badge.


Kit-Kat Club.

A club formed by certain prominent Whig politicians in 1793 to promote
the principles of the French Revolution. Walpole, Steele and Addison
were among its members.


Kitchen Cabinet.

The name given by their political opponents to the unofficial advisers
of Andrew Jackson, President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
Among them were Amos Kendall, Isaac Hill and F. P. Blair.


Knighthood, Orders of.

_See_ Alcantara, Alexander, Annunziata, Bath, Black Eagle, Calatrava,
Dannebrog, Elephant, Garter, Golden Fleece, Holy Sepulchre,
Hospitallers, Iron Cross, Isabella, Legion of Honour, Livonian, Malta,
Montesa, Our Lady, Rhodes, St. Andrew, St. Esprit, St. Hubert, St.
Lazare, St. Patrick, Santiago, Templars, Teutonic, Thistle.


Knight’s Fee.

The extent of land the holding of which qualified for knighthood in
feudal times. The amount is uncertain, but it is thought to have been an
annual value of twenty pounds.


Knights of Labour.

A society for the protection of workmen, founded in 1869 at Philadelphia
by Uriah S. Stevens. It has become one of the most powerful labour
organizations of the world, and claims a membership of 200,000.


Knights of the Shire.

The representatives of the counties in the early Parliaments. They were
elected in the Shire Courts, which all the freeholders of the county
were entitled to attend.


Know-Nothings.

A political party formed in America in 1855. Their essential tenet was
the necessity of keeping the Government in the hands of genuine
Americans, and with this object they proposed a twenty-one years’
residence as a qualification for naturalization. The party was
short-lived, scarcely surviving the presidential election of 1856.


Kongelov.

The Royal Law, a new Danish Constitution promulgated in 1660,
proclaiming an hereditary instead of an elective monarchy. The
administration was confided to certain bureaux whose members were
appointed by the king.


Kossuthists.

The modern National party in Hungary. They take their name from the
famous patriot of the War of Independence of 1848, and his son, who is
one of the leaders of the existing party.


Kreuz Partie.

The party of the Cross, under whose influence Frederick William IV of
Prussia lay during the latter years of his reign. Their policy included
a closer union with Russia and Austria, and a tacit resistance to the
more liberal ideas of Western Europe.


Kshatriya.

The second or military caste among the Hindoos.


Ku Klux Klan.

An organization formed in the Southern States, after the American Civil
War, to coerce the coloured people and their sympathisers and prevent
them recording their votes. It became so powerful that a stringent Act,
known as the Ku Klux Act, was passed by Congress in 1871, inflicting
heavy penalties on all convicted of belonging to this and similar
associations.


Kuldja Treaty.

A treaty between Russia and China, negotiated in 1880 after the
suppression of the Mohammedan revolt in Western China, during which the
Russians had held and administered Kuldja. It provided for the retention
by Russia of the most valuable part of Kuldja, including the Tekes
Valley and the passes into Kashgaria and Yarkand. It further stipulated
that Russia should enjoy the use of an overland route to Hankow for
Russian merchants, and the free navigation of the Sungari River, which
practically opened the whole of Manchuria to Russian trade. Chang How,
who had negotiated this treaty, was disgraced, and China refused to
ratify it. In 1881, however, a second treaty was concluded, and
eventually ratified, by which Russia retroceded the whole of Kuldja, the
other stipulations of the treaty of 1880 remaining practically
unaltered.


Kulterkampf.

The crusade in Germany against the Pope and the Ultramontanes, who were
looked upon as the foes of civil as well as religious liberty. After the
issue of the Vatican Decree on Papal Infallibility many of the bishops
attempted to force the dogma upon university professors and others
holding State appointments, and their high-handed interference in this
and other ways led to the enacting of the Falk Laws. The conflict lasted
over ten years.


Kurucz.

The name given to the followers of Dózsa, Tököli and Rákóczy in the
various risings of the Hungarians against Austrian rule which they
headed. It means the wearers of the Cross, or Crusaders.


Kutchuk-Kainardji, Treaty of.

A treaty between Catherine II of Russia and the Sultan Abdul-Hamed,
signed in 1774, after the occupation by the Russians of Crim-Tartary,
Moldavia and Wallachia. Turkey surrendered the Crimea, Azov and
Taganrog, and by the seventh clause of the treaty undertook to protect
the Christian religion and its churches, and to permit the Russian
Minister to make at all times representations on behalf of the new
church in Constantinople, such representations to be taken into
consideration as proceeding from a sincerely friendly Power. In this
clause lay the germ of the Crimean War, for Russia interpreted it as
giving her the right to interfere for the protection of all Christians
of the Greek Church in the Turkish Empire.



L


La Granja, Revolution of.

The revolution by which Queen Christina of Spain was compelled in 1836
to restore the constitution of 1812 which had been abrogated by
Ferdinand.


Labancz.

The name given to their opponents by the Hungarians under Tököli and
Rákóczy in 1678 and 1704 respectively. It signifies the “foot people,”
the Magyars being almost all mounted men.


Labour, American Federation of.

A labour organization founded at Columbus, Ohio, in 1886, and now
claiming to have over 600,000 members.


Labourers, Statute of.

A statute passed in the reign of Edward III, after the Black Death in
1348. This pestilence had made labour scarce, and labourers were
demanding exorbitant wages. It was enacted that all labourers should be
compelled to serve their former masters and for the same wage that they
had received before the plague.


Lackland.

The nickname of King John, given him because he received no fiefs from
his father.


Lady of the Mercians.

Æthelfled, daughter of Alfred the Great, was so called.


Lagthing.

_See_ Storthing.


Lahore, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1846, at the end of the first Sikh War, by which
Dhulip Singh was recognized as Rajah of the Punjaub. The Sikhs
surrendered the Doab to the British.


Laibach, Congress of.

A congress of the European Powers held in 1821, at which armed
intervention to suppress the Republican risings in Naples and Piedmont
was decided upon.


Laissez Faire.

A phrase used by a French merchant to Colbert, who asked him in what way
he could aid trade. The meaning of the reply is “Leave us alone,” and
the phrase has become the watchword of the freetraders and those who
oppose Government interference.


Lake State.

The popular name of the State of Michigan, U.S.A. It is so called
because it borders on Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Superior.


Lambeth Articles.

A series of nine articles, embodying the Calvinistic doctrine, drawn up
in 1595 by Archbishop Whitgift. They were not, however, approved by the
Queen, and were consequently never enforced.


Lambeth, Treaty of.

A treaty between Henry III and Louis the Dauphin, signed in 1217, after
the Fair of Lincoln. It provided for the immediate departure of Louis
and his troops for France, an interchange of prisoners, and a general
amnesty.


Lancaster, County Palatine of.

Lancaster was created a Palatine County by Edward III in 1351, and
granted by him to John of Gaunt. It became Crown property on the
accession of Henry IV, and has so remained. The Judicature Act of 1873,
however, withdrew all the existing judicial privileges excepting those
of the Chancery Court. The Chancellor of the Duchy is a member of the
Government, and is frequently in the Cabinet.


Land Act, 1864.

An Act passed by the Legislature of New South Wales, by which half the
land in the occupation of the squatters was reserved to them on a
twenty-one years’ tenure and the remaining half thrown open to selection
by _bonâ fide_ settlers.


Land Commission.

A Commission established by the Irish Land Act of 1881. It was empowered
to appoint sub-commissioners to sit as land courts for the purpose of
fixing fair rents.


Land Convention.

An association formed in Victoria in 1857 to oppose the Haines Land Bill
and advocate Free Selection. Its leaders were Wilson Gray and Sir George
Stephen.


Land League.

An Irish organization, founded by Michael Davitt in 1879, with the
object of driving out the landlords and establishing a peasant
proprietary in Ireland. The agrarian outrages in which its members were
implicated led to its being proclaimed an illegal association, and it
was suppressed in 1881.


Landamman.

The chief magistrate in the Forest Cantons of Switzerland, elected by
the Landsgemeinde.


Landdrost.

A local magistrate in Dutch South Africa. The first official bearing
this title was appointed to Stellenbosch in 1685. In addition to his
judicial duties, he had the superintendence of the Dutch East India
Company’s farms and outlying stations. He also presided over the
Heemraden. The office was abolished in British South Africa in 1832, but
in the independent Dutch States it has existed up to the present time
(1903).


Landeyda.

The raven banner of the Danes. The word means “Desolation of the
Country.”


Landfriede.

In mediaeval Germany the peace of the land, or freedom from private war,
was so called. Many edicts were issued to secure it, but it was rarely
attained.


Land-fyrd.

The general levy of fighting men in Anglo-Saxon times. The origin of the
Militia.


Landrecht.

The codification of Prussian law, otherwise known as the Code Frédéric,
published in 1751 under the auspices of Frederick the Great.


Landrica.

In Saxon times, a wealthy landowner, who acted as the King’s
representative within the limits of his district, and had jurisdiction
over the smaller freeholders. His position was in fact somewhat similar
to that of a feudal baron.


Landsgemeinde.

The ancient popular assembly in the Forest Cantons of Switzerland. Every
male above the age of sixteen had access to it. It elected the chief
magistrate (Landamman), levied taxes, and exercised judicial functions.


Landstag.

The Prussian Parliament.


Landsturm.

The final reserve of the German and Austrian armies. It can only be
called out in times of emergency.


Landsthing.

_See_ Rigsdag.


Landtmanna Party.

The country party in the Swedish Parliament. Originally it was composed
almost entirely of landowners, but latterly the peasants have become the
more powerful section of it.


Landwehr.

The first reserve of the German and Austrian armies.


Langue d’Oc.

In old France the language of the southern provinces, from which the
province of Languedoc took its name. In its modern form of Provencal it
is little better than a _patois_, though there has been some attempt to
revive it as a literary language during the nineteenth century.


Langue d’Oïl.

The language of the northern provinces of France, and the parent of
modern French. It contains a much larger admixture of Teutonic roots
than the Langue d’Oc, though its grammatical form is Latin.


Last Battle.

The Battle of Culloden, fought in 1746, is so called as being the last
battle fought on British soil.


Last of the Barons.

A sobriquet of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (1428-1471).


Last of the Knights.

A nickname of Maximilian, Emperor of Germany (1493-1519).


Last of the Stuarts.

Henry Stuart, Cardinal York, the last male descendant of the Stuart
Kings, was so called. He died in 1807.


Last of the Tribunes.

Colas de Rienzi, who was chosen tribune by the citizens of Rome in 1347,
was so called. He was also known as the “Last of the Romans.”


Lanterne, La.

The Extremists or Robespierre Section of the Mountain, in the French
Convention. Their denunciation by Danton and Camille Desmoulins led to
the condemnation and execution of the Dantonists in April 1794.


Lateran Council, First.

A Council summoned by Calixtus II in 1123. It is notable as being the
first Œcumenical Council whose decrees were issued in the name of the
Pope, and not in that of the Council.


Lateran Council, Second.

An Œcumenical Council summoned by Innocent II in 1139, at which the
marriage of the priesthood was forbidden.


Lateran Council, Fourth.

A Council summoned to meet in Rome by Innocent III, in 1215, to consider
the most effectual means of suppressing heresy. It declared that any
prince protecting heretics or permitting the dissemination of heretical
doctrines in his dominions should be excommunicated. It further
established the Inquisition, to deal with heretics individually.


Lateran Council, Fifth.

An Œcumenical Council summoned by Julius II, in 1512, at which the acts
of the Council of Pisa were condemned.


Latin Union.

A confederation, for monetary purposes, of France, Italy, Switzerland
and Belgium, formed in 1865. It provided for the establishment of a
uniform and interchangeable coinage, on a bimetallic basis, for the
countries concerned. Greece joined the union in 1868. Belgium left it in
1885.


Latitudinarians.

A party in the English Church in the seventeenth century, who stood
midway between the extreme Episcopal and the Puritan parties. It was the
prototype of the modern Broad Church.


Latter Day Saints.

The proper name of the sect generally known as Mormons.


Lautero, Sociedad de.

A secret society formed in Spain at the beginning of the nineteenth
century, to aid the movement of the Spanish-American colonies in the
direction of independence.


Lawburrows, Writ of.

A writ, in Scottish law, by which any person who made oath that he went
in fear of violence from his neighbour, could have him bound over to
keep the peace. This legal form was used in 1678 against the gentry of
the West, who had refused to enter into a bond binding themselves and
all their dependents to abstain from active sympathy with the
Covenanters.


Law of Flanders.

A law of Charles the Good, Earl of Flanders, decreeing that any one who
married a serf became a serf.


Law’s Bubble.

_See_ Mississippi Scheme.


Lay Impropriator.

A layman in receipt of tithes, an ecclesiastical form of revenue. The
_lay impropriator_ originated in grants of lands made by abbeys and
other Church communities to powerful laymen, in exchange for their
protection.


League.

The League, also called the Catholic League, was formed by the Guises in
1577, ostensibly to promote the ascendency of Catholicism, and to oppose
the concessions granted to the Reformed Faith by Henri II of France.
Secretly, however, it contemplated the deposition of the Valois dynasty,
and the placing of a Guise on the throne. (_See_ Joinville, Treaty of.)


League above the Lake.

A league of the Cantons of St. Gall and Appenzell with the towns of the
Rheinthal, formed in 1405. It was broken up in 1408, Appenzell being
defeated at Bregenz by the burghers of Constance and the Suabian nobles.


Leagues, Associations, etc.

See Afrikander, Agrarian, Albanian, Anti-Corn Law, Anti-Semitism, Armed
Neutrality, Association, Australasian, Ballarat, Bar, Barons, British
Empire, Brunnen, Burgfrieden, Cambray, Catholic, Centro-Americana,
Chinandega, Clementine, Cognac, Coloured, Confederate, Eight Cantons,
Equador, Frankfort, Fürstenbund, Germanada, Germanic, Golden,
Gotteshausbund, Grey, Hanseatic, Hermandad, Holy, Irish National, Land,
Liberal, Lombard, Nationalverein, Perpetual, Pilsen, Poor Conrad,
Presburg, Protestant, Reformverein, Rense, Rhenish, Rhine, Rome,
Sandomierz, Santa Junta, Schmalkald, Seven Cantons, Six Cities,
Sonderbund, Suabian, Targowitz, Ten Jurisdictions, Thirteen Cantons,
Torgau, Triumvirate, Tuscany, United Irish, Utrecht, Venice, White,
Würtzburg.


Leap in the Dark.

This phrase was applied to Disraeli’s Reform Bill of 1867 by Lord
Cranbourne, and was afterwards adopted by Lord Derby as an accurate
description of the course the Government was taking.


Learned Fool.

James I of England was called by Sully the most learned fool in
Christendom.


Lebanon Massacres.

An outbreak between the Druses and the Maronites having occurred in
1860, the Turkish authorities compelled the latter to lay down their
arms, under promise of protection. This they failed to afford, and the
Druses attacked the Maronite villages, and massacred hundreds. Later in
the year, the fanatical anti-Christian spirit spread to Damascus, and
the Christian quarter of the town was sacked, over two thousand
Christians perishing at the hands of the Moslems, without any attempt at
interference on the part of the Turkish Governor. A European Convention
was held, and France and England were entrusted by the Powers with the
task of restoring order in the disturbed districts. This they
accomplished, and forced upon the Sultan the appointment of a Christian
Governor in the Lebanon.


Legacy of Iyeyasu.

A document left by the Shôgun Iyeyasu, founder of the Tokugawa dynasty
of Shôguns, in 1598, as a guide to his successors in the conduct of
affairs.


Legations.

The provinces of Bologna, Ferrara and Romagna, over which the Popes
claimed sovereign rights. They were surrendered to France by the Treaty
of Tolentino in 1797.


Legion Memorial.

A memorial drawn up by Defoe, in support of the Kentish Petition in
1701.


Legion of Despair.

An armed band of Frisian peasants, some thousands in number, who rose in
revolt in 1580, being exasperated beyond endurance by the license of the
States’ soldiery. Though well-drilled and led, they were unable to stand
against the veterans of the Count of Hohenlohe, by whom they were
defeated and dispersed.


Legion of Honour.

The only existing French order of knighthood, instituted by Napoleon,
when First Consul, in 1802. Though military in form, it is open to
civilians.


Legitimists.

The supporters of the claims of the Bourbon branch of the Royal House of
France from 1814 to 1883. On the death of the Comte de Chambord without
issue in the latter year, they transferred their allegiance to the
Orleans branch, with the exception of a small section, known as the
Blancs d’Espagne, who support the Spanish Bourbons as the rightful
occupiers of the throne of France.


Léman, République du.

The name assumed by the State of Vaud when she revolted from the Canton
of Berne in 1798.


Lesser Bull, The.

A Bull, the authenticity of which is somewhat doubtful, issued by
Boniface VIII against Philip IV of France, shortly before the issue of
the Bull “Ausculta Fili.” It is couched in somewhat milder terms than
the latter, but is of similar tenour.


Lessive du Panama.

_See_ Panama Scandal.


Letters of Marque.

Commissions granted by a belligerent to private individuals, authorizing
them to arm ships for the purpose of capturing merchant vessels flying
the enemy’s flag. This right was abolished by the Treaty of Paris in
1856.


Letters of the Sepulchre.

The laws and ordinances of Godefroi de Bouillon, King of Jerusalem, were
so called.


Lettres de Cachet.

Warrants of arrest, issued by the French Kings, or their Ministers,
under which persons obnoxious to the Court could be imprisoned
indefinitely without being brought to trial.


Levellers (England).

Originally a religious sect, but later a political organization under
the Commonwealth. They held extreme communistic views, and in 1649 their
propagandism in the ranks of the army led to numerous mutinies. They
were, however, ruthlessly suppressed by Cromwell, and after the loss of
their leaders gave little further trouble.


Levellers (Ireland).

The name given to agrarian bands, first formed in Limerick in 1761, who
tore down the fences with which the commons had been enclosed. They were
afterwards known as Whiteboys, from the white shirts they wore over
their other garments.


Lewes, Mise of.

An agreement between Henry III and Simon de Montfort, as leader of the
Barons, after the defeat of the King at Lewes in 1264, by which the
questions in dispute between the King and the Barons were to be
submitted to the arbitration of a court composed of two Frenchmen and
one Englishman.


Libel Act.

An Act passed in 1791, transferring from the judge to the jury the duty
of deciding whether a statement was libellous or not.


Liberal League.

A league formed in 1902, composed of Liberals who follow Lord Rosebery
in his attitude with regard to the Boer War, and on Imperial questions
generally.


Liberal Republicans.

A section of the Republican party in the United States, who favoured
more tolerant treatment of the Southern States, and opposed the
re-election of General Grant in 1872. They nominated Horace Greeley for
President, but were disastrously defeated at the polls, and ceased
thereupon to exercise any political influence.


Liberal Unionists.

The section of the Liberal party who seceded from Mr. Gladstone on the
introduction of the Home Rule Bill in 1886. They have since acted with
the Conservatives on most questions, and in 1895 their leaders accepted
office under a Conservative Prime Minister.


Liberator, The.

Daniel O’Connell was so called.


Libertador, El.

Simon Bolivar, the Liberator, was so called. He headed the revolt of the
Spanish-American colonies which broke out in 1810, taking the field in
1813. After successively freeing New Granada and Venezuela, he finally
drove the Spaniards from Peru, Callao, the last fortress in their hands
falling in January 1826.


Libertins (France).

A sect of free-thinkers and hedonists in France, circ. 1730.


Libertins (Switzerland).

The party who opposed the extreme stringency of the Calvinistic doctrine
in Geneva, in 1541. They were severely handled by the Consistorium.


Liberty, Apostle of.

The nickname of Henry Clay, the American statesman, who ardently
supported the South American States in their struggle for independence
in 1820.


Liberum Veto.

A provision in the ancient Polish constitution, giving every member of
the Diet the right of vetoing a proposition under discussion. In other
words, complete unanimity was necessary to effect any legislation
whatever.


Libro de Tasas.

A code of laws, based on the ancient system of the Incas, prepared by
Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of Peru from 1569 to 1580. This code
determined the principles on which Peru was ruled by subsequent
viceroys.


Licensing Act, 1902.

An Act to amend the licensing laws, passed in 1902. Its most important
provisions are those dealing with habitual drunkards, who after
successive convictions are placed on a black list, which prevents their
obtaining any alcoholic liquor for three years, and those compelling the
registration of all clubs where alcohol is sold, and their subjection to
police supervision.


Ligurian Republic.

A republic, with Genoa as its capital, established by Napoleon in 1797.
It was made a French Department in 1802.


Likin.

A system of inland duties, levied at various points on the waterways and
trade routes of China, greatly hampering the inland trade. The duties
are farmed out to the Mandarins, who make large incomes out of their
collection. By the Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1902, these duties are to
be abolished, subject to the consent of the other Powers having
commercial treaties with China.


Limerick, Pacification of.

The terms accorded to the Irish by William III after the second siege of
Limerick in 1691. To all Irish officers and soldiers who so desired,
permission was given to withdraw to France, while the others were
amnestied and allowed to return to their homes. To all other Catholics
William restored the privileges accorded them by Charles II, and granted
a complete amnesty, on condition of their taking the oath of allegiance.


Lincoln, Fair of.

The defeat of the revolted Barons and the forces of Louis, the Dauphin
of France, by Pembroke, in the streets of Lincoln in 1216.


Lincolnshire Insurrection.

A rising fomented by the priests in 1536, following closely upon the
dissolution of the monasteries. It was entirely a movement of the
peasants, and had no countenance from the gentry. It was easily
suppressed.


Lion of Sweden.

Johan Gustafsson Banér, the Swedish Field-Marshal (1595-1641), was so
called.


Lion of the North.

The sobriquet of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1611-32).


Lion Rouge, Le.

Marshal Ney was so called from his red hair.


Lion’s Mouth.

_See_ Bocca di Leone.


Liquidation, Law of.

A law passed in Egypt in 1881, on the recommendation of the
Commissioners of England, France, Italy, Germany and Austria, settling
the conditions on which the debts due by the State on December 31, 1880,
were to be regulated, and providing for the future apportionment of the
revenue to the service of particular debts, and to general purposes.


Lit de Justice.

A royal sitting of the States-General of France, when the King attended
to enforce by edict an ordinance or law to which the States had refused
their consent.


Literati.

In China those who have passed the public examinations in literature,
qualifying them for official positions under the State.


Lithsmen.

A guild of shipowners and merchants in London, which was in existence in
the time of the Danish Kings.


Little Gentleman in Velvet.

A favourite Jacobite toast in the reign of Queen Anne. The allusion is
to the death of William III, which was accelerated by an accident caused
by his horse stumbling over a molehill.


Little Parliament.

_See_ Barebone’s Parliament.


Little Rhody.

The popular name of the State of Rhode Island, U.S.A., the smallest
State in the Union.


Live Oak State.

A popular name for the State of Florida, U.S.A.


Liveries, Statute of.

A statute passed in 1461, in the reign of Edward IV, prohibiting the
granting of liveries and the maintenance of retainers. It confirmed
similar enactments of Edward I and Richard II.


Livonian Knights.

An order of chivalry, founded at Riga in 1201, by Albert of Buxhœwden,
Bishop of Riga. Their statutes were similar to those of the Templars,
and their special object was to spread Christianity among the Livonians
and neighbouring tribes. In 1237 a section of the Teutonic knights of
Lithuania was merged into the Livonian order. The order was dissolved in
the sixteenth century during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Grand
Master ceding Livonia to Poland.


Local Government Act, 1888.

An Act carried through Parliament by Mr. Ritchie, establishing County
Councils, to which were entrusted the various administrative functions
previously exercised by committees of the county magistrates. The larger
boroughs were exempted from their jurisdiction, being left under the
control of their own municipalities, while a special County of London
was created, comprising all the newer suburbs.


Local Government Act, 1894.

An Act completing the Local Government Act of 1888 by the creation of
Parish and District Councils. One of the most important provisions of
this Act is that giving the newly established bodies power to acquire
land, compulsorily if necessary, for the purpose of providing labourers’
allotments.


Locofocos.

The name given in 1835 to the Radical section of the Democratic party in
the United States. At a meeting of this wing of the party, an opponent
present turned off the gas, whereupon candles were procured, and lit by
“locofoco” matches, from which time the faction was dubbed by its
opponents the “Locofocos.”


Lodi, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1454 by the Republic of Venice and Duke Sforza of
Milan, by which Sforza secured the whole of the Milanese.


Lœt.

In Saxon times labourers dependent on the feudal lord on whose land they
worked. They are, however, not to be confounded with the theows, or
slaves.


Lögretta.

Among the Norsemen, the Law Court, the highest authority of the State
under the King. It consisted of thirty-six members, partly _ex-officio_,
and partly elected.


Loi Bérenger.

A law passed in 1891 in France, by which, in the case of first
offenders, the tribunal might suspend the sentence for five years. If
during that period the culprit did not again make himself amenable to
the law, the sentence lapsed. If again convicted, however, he had to
serve the old sentence as well as the new.


Lollards.

A religious sect, followers of Wycliffe, which arose in Edward III’s
reign. They attacked the abuses of the Church, and especially the
wealthy religious orders, and claimed the right of private
interpretation in matters of doctrine. They are said to have numbered,
at one time, fully one-third of the population of England. In spite of
continued persecution, the sect remained powerful through several
reigns, and they doubtless paved the way for the ready acceptance by
England of the Reformed Doctrines in the reign of Henry VIII.


Lombard League, First.

A league of sixteen cities of Northern Italy, headed by Milan, and
including Venice, formed in 1167 against Frederick Barbarossa. The
league defeated the Emperor at Legnano in 1176, and in 1183, by the
Peace of Constance he granted practical independence to the cities,
subject to the recognition of his suzerainty, and the payment of certain
small dues.


Lombard League, Second.

A league formed under the Marquis d’Este in 1255, to resist Pope
Alexander IV. This league consisted mainly of the Guelf cities of
Lombardy, while Alexander’s principal supporters were Ezzelino of Verona
and his brother Alberic of Treviso. Ezzelino was disastrously defeated
at Cassano in 1259.


Lombards.

The Italian merchants who spread over Europe during the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries were known as Lombards. They were the first bankers
of modern Europe.


London Company.

A company formed in 1606, under charter from James I, with the object of
colonizing Virginia.


London Convention, 1832.

A convention between Great Britain, France and Russia on the one side,
and Bavaria on the other, by which Greece was erected into an
independent kingdom, under the guarantee of the Powers, and Prince Otto
of Bavaria placed on the throne, with the proviso, however, that the
crowns of Greece and Bavaria should never be united in the person of one
sovereign.


London Convention, 1862.

An instrument signed in London by Great Britain, France and Spain,
agreeing to demand from Mexico a guarantee for the better protection of
the subjects of the signatories, and at the same time undertaking not to
seek for any territorial acquisitions, nor to interfere in the internal
government of Mexico. It soon became evident that Napoleon III was
determined to force Mexico into a war, with the object of placing
Maximilian of Austria on the throne, whereupon Great Britain and Spain
withdrew from the convention.


London Convention, 1884.

A convention between Great Britain and the Transvaal, amending the
Convention of Pretoria of 1881. All direct reference to the suzerainty
was omitted, but it was expressly stipulated that no treaties should be
negotiated with Foreign Powers (excepting the Orange Free State), or
with native chiefs, without the consent of Great Britain. The suzerainty
was thus maintained in fact, as Great Britain retained full control of
the foreign relations of the Transvaal. Provision was also made for the
presence of a British Resident at Pretoria, and certain questions of
frontier were re-adjusted.


London, Treaty of, 1674.

The treaty between England and Holland closing the war of 1672, which
arose out of England’s claim that foreign ships should salute her flag
wherever it was met in the narrow seas. Holland accepted the principle
involved, and agreed to pay an indemnity of 2,000,000 guilders. (_See_
Honour of the Flag.)


London, Treaty of, 1827.

A treaty between England, France and Russia, during the Greek War of
Independence. The contracting parties bound themselves to take action
for the purpose of securing the independence of Greece under Turkish
suzerainty. The destruction of the Turkish and Egyptian fleets at
Navarino followed closely the signature of this treaty.


London, Treaty of, 1833.

An agreement between Great Britain and France on the one hand, and
Holland on the other, providing for the erection of the Flemish and
Walloon provinces into an independent kingdom, to be known as Belgium.
This treaty was confirmed by the five Great Powers in 1839.


London, Treaty of, 1839.

A treaty signed by Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia,
confirming the provisional treaty of 1833, with regard to the separation
of Belgium from the Netherlands, subject to certain small changes as to
the navigation of the Scheldt and the boundaries of Luxemburg.


London, Treaty of, 1841.

_See_ Dardanelles.


London, Treaty of, 1852.

A treaty signed by Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia and
Sweden, settling the succession to the Danish throne upon Prince
Christian of Schleswig Holstein and his issue. The integrity of the
Danish monarchy was acknowledged, but the rights of the German
Confederation over the Duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg were not in any
way touched by the treaty.


Lone Star State.

The popular name for the State of Texas, derived from the single star
in its coat of arms.


Long Diet.

A Diet which met at Zurich in 1813, and after declaring the Constitution
of Mediation extinct, proceeded to evolve a new Federal Constitution,
known as the Federal Pact, which was accepted by the Powers at the
Congress of Vienna in 1815.


Long Parliament.

The Parliament which met in the reign of Charles I, in 1640, and lasted
till 1653, when all that was left of it, known as the Rump, was forcibly
expelled from the House by Cromwell.


Long Parliament of Versailles.

The first Parliament of the Third French Republic, which was not
dissolved till December 31, 1875.


Longjumeau, Paix de.

A treaty between Catherine de’ Medici and the Huguenots, signed March
20, 1568, by which various concessions were granted the Huguenots. It
was signed by the Queen to save Chartres, which was in danger of
falling, and was broken within six months. It is known as the _Courte
Paix_, or the _Paix Fourrée_.


Longshanks.

The nickname of Edward I of England.


Longsword.

The sobriquet of William, Earl of Salisbury (1196-1226), the natural son
of Henry II, and also of his son (died 1250).


Loo, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1701 by England, Holland and the Emperor, to oppose
the designs of Louis XIV. The signatories aimed at the conquest of
Flanders, to be given to Holland, of Milan, Naples and Sicily, to be
added to the Empire, and of the French and Spanish West Indies, to be
divided between the two maritime Powers.


Loose-Coat Field.

The name given to the battle near Erpingham, in Rutlandshire, in 1470,
where Edward IV defeated the rebels under Sir Thomas Wells.


Lorcha “Arrow.”

The boarding of this vessel, flying the British flag, in the Canton
River in 1856, and the arrest of twelve of her crew on a charge of
piracy, led to the war with China in 1857-8, when the English were aided
by the French. The war resulted in the reception of British and French
legations at Peking, and the concession of certain additional privileges
to traders and missionaries.


Lord Paramount.

Under the feudal system the Sovereign was so called, as the owner of the
whole of the land, the great nobles holding under him as
tenants-in-chief.


Lords Appellant.

A body of peers, in the reign of Richard II, who impeached, as guilty of
high treason, the Archbishop of York, the Duke of Ireland, and other
favourites of the King, in 1386. They afterwards convened the Merciless
Parliament, in 1388.


Los von Rom.

A movement started about 1899 by the Austrian Pan-German Deputies, to
detach their followers from the Roman Catholic Church. The object of the
movement is to make the German States of Austria more acceptable members
of the German Empire than they would be as rigidly Catholic countries,
in the event of the break up of the Austrian Empire.


Louis, Code.

A codification of the laws relating to criminal procedure and evidence,
issued as an edict by Louis XIV in 1667.


Louisiana Purchase.

The purchase from France by the United States in 1803 of New Orleans and
the territory West of the Mississippi, extending to the eastern spurs of
the Rocky Mountains and to the British frontier on the North. The price
was 15 million dollars.


Louvain, Articles of.

A confession of the Catholic Faith, drawn up by the University of
Louvain by order of Charles V in 1544. All Charles’ subjects in the
Netherlands were required to conform to these articles, under pain of
death, and that this was not an idle threat was shown by the burning at
the stake, at Tournay, in February, 1545, of Peter du Breuil, a
Calvinist preacher, who refused to obey the proclamation.


Loyale Epée, La.

A sobriquet of Marshal Macmahon (1808-1893).


Lübeck Law.

The law administered in the law courts and in the foreign factories of
the Hanseatic League.


Lübeck, Treaty of.

A treaty between the Emperor Ferdinand II and Christian IV. of Denmark,
signed in 1629, after the latter had been driven out of Germany by Tilly
and Wallenstein. Christian retained all his possessions, and agreed to
interfere no further in German affairs, except in his capacity of Duke
of Holstein. He made no stipulations in favour of any of his German
allies, none of whom, in consequence, were parties to the treaty.


Luddite Riots.

A series of outbreaks in the manufacturing districts of England, and
especially about Nottingham, in 1811, as a protest against the
introduction of machinery into the factories. The rioters, or rather
conspirators, for their proceedings were secret, used to assemble at
night, break into a factory, destroy the machinery, and then disperse,
as a rule unmolested. They took their name from an idiot lad, named
Ludd, who thirty years previously had gone about in the Nottingham
district breaking stocking-frames.


Ludlow’s Code.

A code of laws compiled by John Ludlow in 1650, for the colony of
Connecticut.


Lügenfeld.

The camp of Lothair, son of Louis the Pious, near Basle, where Louis
surrendered to his revolted sons in 833. The false pretences by which
the surrender was obtained, led to the incident being called the “Field
of Lies,” or Lügenfeld.


Lumber State.

The State of Maine, U.S.A., is so called, on account of its valuable
forests.


Lunéville, Treaty of.

A treaty between France and Austria, following on the disasters to the
Austrian arms at Marengo and Hohenlinden. By its provisions France
obtained an extension of territory on the north, as far as the Rhine
from the Swiss to the Dutch frontiers, together with the cession of the
Belgian provinces. In Italy Austria retired from the Milanese and the
Venetian provinces, up to the line of the Adige, while Tuscany was taken
from the Austrian Grand-Dukes, and conferred upon the House of Parma,
with the title of the King of Etruria.


Luxemburg Treaty.

A treaty signed in 1867 by Great Britain, Austria, Belgium, France,
Italy, Holland, Russia and Prussia, agreeing to maintain on the throne
of Luxemburg the House of Orange-Nassau, and constituting the Duchy a
perpetual neutral State under the guarantee of the Powers. It was
further agreed that the fortress of Luxemburg should be demolished and
the Prussian troops withdrawn, and that the Duchy of Limburg should form
part of the Netherlands.


Lydford Law.

A phrase having the same signification as “Jedburgh Justice.”


Lynch Law.

The substitution of an irregular trial for the regular process of law,
common in the Western States of America during the wilder days of the
fifties and sixties, and now rife in the Southern States, in the case of
negroes charged with offences against white women. The name is supposed
to be derived from James Lynch, of Piedmont, Virginia, who introduced it
in 1688, to enable criminals to be promptly dealt with when the proper
officers of the law were scattered and hard to come at.


Lyons, Council of, 1245.

A council summoned by Innocent IV in 1245. It deposed the Emperor
Frederick II, and absolved his subjects from their allegiance, thus
endorsing the claim of Gregory VII that the Church could appoint and
depose Sovereigns.


Lyons, Council of, 1275.

An Œcumenical Council, held in 1275 under Gregory X, at which the rules
governing the election of the Pope by the Cardinals were amended by the
provision that the Cardinals, within ten days of the death of the late
Pope, should be shut up in conclave until his successor was elected.



M


Maamtrasna Murders.

The murder of a family named Joyce in Ireland in 1882. Ten men were put
on their trial for the crime, of whom two turned Queen’s Evidence, and
the remainder were convicted, three being hanged. In 1884 Casey, one of
the informers, declared that he had given false evidence against Myles
Joyce, one of the men who had been hanged, and that he had been ordered
by the officials, on pain of capital punishment, to swear away this
man’s life. A searching inquiry confirmed the justice of the sentence,
but the case was made the pretext for a violent attack in Parliament
upon the Irish Secretary.


McKinley Tariff.

A Tariff Act passed in the United States in 1890. Large increases were
made in the import duties, and the measure as a whole was one of
thoroughgoing protection. It was repealed in 1894.


McMillanites.

The Cameronians were so called, after the Revolution, from the name of
their minister, McMillan.


Mad Cavalier.

The sobriquet of Prince Rupert of Bavaria, nephew of Charles I.


Mad Parliament.

A Parliament of Henry III, which met in June 1258. It was by this
Parliament that the Commission was appointed which drew up the
Provisions of Oxford.


Madame Véto.

_See_ Monsieur Véto.


Madman of the North.

A sobriquet of Charles XII of Sweden (1682-1718).


Madras Mutiny.

A mutiny of the officers in the Madras Army of the East India Company in
1809. It was caused by the action of the Board of Directors in depriving
the officers of some of their perquisites. Sir George Barlow appealed to
the sepoys, who supported the authorities against their officers, and
the latter were forced to give in. With the exception of twenty-one of
the ringleaders, the mutinous officers were forgiven, and allowed to
resume their posts.


Madras, Peace of.

A treaty between Haidar Ali and the British, closing the first Mysore
War in 1769. It provided for mutual restoration of all conquered
territories, and a mutual guarantee of the integrity of each other’s
dominions.


Madrid Conference.

A conference of the Powers, held in 1880, to consider the affairs of
Morocco, and especially the treatment of Jews, and the right of foreign
nations to protect their subjects. An agreement was arrived at, and a
joint Note addressed to the Sultan, insisting on the necessity of
respecting liberty of conscience, and of enforcing toleration on the
part of his subjects.


Madrid, Treaty of.

A treaty between Charles V and Francis I, putting an end to the
captivity of Francis, signed in 1526. The French King ceded Burgundy to
Charles, and renounced the sovereignty of Flanders and all his rights in
Italy.


Maffia.

A secret society which largely controlled the appointment of officials,
and practically governed Sicily. The disclosures following the murder of
Signor Notarbartolo, deputy for Palermo, in 1899, caused the Italian
Government to institute a searching inquiry, which led to the
suppression, temporarily at least, of the Maffia.


Magdeburg, Sack of.

At the capture of Magdeburg by the Austrian General, Tilly, in 1629,
during the Thirty Years’ War, the Protestant inhabitants were put to the
sword with ruthless barbarity.


Magna Charta.

The Great Charter of English liberty, extorted from John by his Barons
in 1215. It prescribed the constitution of the Great Council of the
Kingdom, the members whereof were to be summoned by writ; it defined and
limited the feudal obligations of the Barons and other tenants of the
Crown; restricted the powers of the sheriffs and other royal officers,
and secured the liberties of the free towns. It further declared the
right of an accused person to be tried by his peers.


Magnum Concilium.

The Great Council of the Realm, which in Norman times took the place of
the Anglo-Saxon Witanegemot, and was the forerunner of the Parliament.
It consisted in the main of the King’s great vassals, and with the King
exercised legislative functions and initiated taxation. Its constitution
was defined, and the mode of summoning it prescribed in Magna Charta.


Magyars.

The original Turanian invaders of Pannonia, the modern Hungary. The name
is now applied to Hungarians generally, whether of pure Turanian descent
or not. It is often erroneously used as referring to the Hungarian
nobles or magnates only, but it carries with it no idea of rank or
dignity.


Mahdi.

The expected Messiah of the Moslems, said to have been promised by
Mohammed. The title has been claimed by several pretenders, the best
known being Mohammed Ahmed, who headed a rising in the Eastern Soudan in
1881, and afterwards captured Khartoum.


Maid of Norway.

The daughter of Eric, King of Norway, and grand-daughter of Alexander
III of Scotland. On the death of her grandfather in 1286, she succeeded
to the Scottish throne, but died on her voyage to Scotland, leaving the
throne open to numerous claimants, of whom Balliol was eventually
chosen. Had she lived she was to have become the wife of Edward, son of
Edward I of England, thus uniting the two crowns.


Maid of Orleans.

The name given to Jeanne d’Arc, after the relief of Orleans in 1429.


Maid of Saragossa.

The name given to Agostina Zaragoza, in consequence of her bravery at
the siege of Saragossa in 1808, where she took her part with the
soldiers in fighting the guns on the ramparts.


Maiden King.

The sobriquet of Malcolm IV of Scotland (1153-1165).


Maiden Queen.

Elizabeth of England is so called.


Maillotins, Insurrection of the.

A rising in Paris in 1382, against a tax on the sale of provisions and
merchandise. The name is derived from the heavy iron maces with which
the majority of the insurgents were armed.


Main Plot.

_See_ Bye-Plot.


Maine Liquor Law.

A law passed in the State of Maine, U.S.A., in 1851, prohibiting the
trade in intoxicants. It has since been incorporated in the constitution
of the State, rendering repeal impossible without previous recourse to a
popular vote.


Maintainers.

Bodies of retainers in the service of the great feudal lords. It was to
check the abuses arising from the system of maintenance that the Star
Chamber was originally established.


Maire du Palais.

The prime ministers of the later Merovingian Kings, and the _de facto_
rulers, as these monarchs took no part in the Government. The last Maire
du Palais was Charles Martel, the father of Pepin, and founder of the
Carlovingian dynasty.


Maison du Roi.

The military household of Louis XIV of France. It consisted of the
Gardes du Corps and the Mousquetaires du Roi, all gentlemen by birth,
numbering twelve thousand.


Majestäts Brief.

An edict issued by the Emperor Rudolph II in 1609 granting to all
Bohemians of certain recognized religions freedom of conscience,
admission to the University of Prague, and the right to build churches
on Crown lands. The edict further declared that any subsequent
ordinances issued in contravention of this charter were null and void.


Major-Generals, Cromwell’s.

Twelve officers, commanding the twelve military districts into which
Cromwell divided England in 1655. They were given command of the
militia, and their functions were to suppress any Royalist rising, and
to supervise the collection of the 10 per cent. tax levied from
Royalists. The plan was abandoned in 1651, Parliament refusing to vote
the money for the militia.


Majuba Hill.

The scene of the defeat of General Colley’s force by the Boers on
February 27, 1881, which virtually closed the Boer War of that year. The
surrender of the British Government to the Boer demands is generally
known as the “Majuba Surrender,” and the bitter feeling thereby aroused
caused “Remember Majuba” to be a sort of war-cry at the outbreak of the
war of 1899-1902. The Paardeberg surrender on the anniversary of Majuba
in 1900 was hailed as in some degree wiping out the disgrace attached to
the word.


Malcontents.

In 1578 the Walloon troops of the Netherlands, being irritated by the
promulgation of the Religious Peace, and by their pay being in arrear,
mutinied under the leadership of the Seigneur de Montigny. Attempts to
appease them were fruitless, and eventually, with the support of the
nobles of Hainault and Artois, the mutiny ended in the formation of a
confederacy of the Walloon provinces, pledged to support the
Pacification of Ghent, and owning allegiance to Philip II.


Malet’s Plot.

A plot contrived by General Malet and the Abbé Lafone, in 1812, to
dethrone Napoleon. By means of forged papers Malet persuaded a section
of the Paris garrison that Napoleon was dead, and that he was entrusted
by the Senate with the command of the troops. He then proceeded to the
police ministry, where he arrested Savary, the minister, and the prefect
of police. Attempting, however, to dispose in the same way of General
Hullin, the Commandant of Paris, he was overpowered by the General’s
orderlies, and the plot came to an abortive end.


Maletolte.

An additional tax of forty shillings the sack on the export of wool
imposed by Edward III in 1337.


Malignants.

During the latter part of the Civil War and under the Commonwealth,
those who had borne arms on the King’s side were so called by the
Parliamentarians.


Malisset, Société.

A company under the control of the French Government, formed about 1767
to keep up the price of breadstuffs. The company took advantage of the
scarcity to make enormous profits, and it seems clear that Louis XV was
pecuniarily interested in its transactions. About 1774 it became known
as the Pacte de Famine.


Malta, Knights of.

An order of religious chivalry, established in Malta in 1104. In 1310
they captured Rhodes, and were known as the Knights of Rhodes until they
were expelled from that island by the Turks in 1503, when they returned
to Malta. They are now known as the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of
Jerusalem, and have become an English order, interesting themselves
specially in ambulance work.


Malus Intercursus.

The name given by the Dutch to the Treaty of Commerce between England
and Philip of Burgundy signed in 1506. By this instrument British ships
were admitted free of harbour dues to the Ports of Antwerp, Bruges,
Berghem and Middelburg, and English merchants were permitted to sell
cloth throughout the Netherlands. In return Henry VII. agreed to
surrender to Philip all rebels and fugitives from the Burgundian States
captured in his dominions, a provision which was of no benefit to the
Dutch.


Mamelucos.

Bands of half-breeds who raided the missions of the Jesuits in Paraguay
in the seventeenth century, carrying off the converts as slaves. The
word is generally applied in Brazil to those of mixed Indian and Negro
blood.


Mamelukes.

The bodyguard of the Egyptian Sultans, chiefly composed of Circassian
and Georgian slaves. In 1250 they mutinied, murdered the Sultan, and
founded a dynasty of their own, nominating and removing the Sultans at
their will. The Mameluke Dynasty lasted till 1517, when they were
finally suppressed by the Sultan Selim.


Mamelukes.

The name given to the Savoy party in Geneva in the sixteenth century.


Manchester Martyrs.

Allen, Larkin and O’Brien, who were executed for the murder of a
policeman in the attempt to rescue the Fenian prisoners at Manchester in
1867, are so called by the disloyal Irish.


Manchester Massacre.

A cavalry charge through a crowded meeting which was being held in St.
Peter’s Field, Manchester, in connexion with the Reform agitation in
1819. Many persons were injured. The accident, for it practically
amounted to no more, was entirely due to the mismanagement of the
magistrates, who attempted to arrest the agitator, Hunt, while on the
platform in the centre of the meeting. This affair is also called,
derisively, “Peterloo.”


Manchester School.

A political and economic school, which was responsible for the formation
of the Anti-Corn Law League, under Cobden, in 1838. They believed in the
principle of _laissez faire_, in free competition and freedom of
contract, and looked upon Government interference with, or control of
trade, as an economic heresy.


Mandamus Councillors.

A council of thirty-six members, formed by Gage, the Governor of
Massachusetts, after the subversion of the constitution in 1774. As no
one of any standing would accept an appointment to this council. Gage,
in whom was vested the whole of the administrative and judicial
authority, appointed those whom he selected by writ of mandamus.


Mandarins.

The name given by Europeans to the Chinese official classes. The word is
of Portuguese origin, and means “officer” or “commander.”


Mandeshwar, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1818, by which Holkar of Indore, after his defeat at
Mahidpore, renounced his claim to suzerainty over the Rajput States, and
placed himself under British protection.


Mangalore, Treaty of.

A treaty between the British and Tippu Sahib, at the close of the second
Mysore War in 1784, by which a return was agreed upon to the _status quo
ante_.


Manoa.

The fabled capital city of El Dorado, said to be situated to the East of
the Andes, near the equator. It was the objective of an expedition led
by Gonzalo Pizarro from Quito in 1539, who had many imitators, both
Spanish and English, as unsuccessful as himself. According to the Indian
tales, gold was so plentiful in the district of El Dorado that it was
used for the gates and roofs of the houses in Manoa.


Manor Court.

In Anglo-Saxon times the court of a township built on the land of a
lord, and not on public land. Such townships were known as manors, and
the lord undertook the duties, and enjoyed the privileges which in other
townships were in the hands of the freeholders.


Mantua, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1791 by Austria, Spain and Sardinia, by which the
contracting parties bound themselves to provide forces to act on the
French frontiers, with the object of overawing the revolutionists, and
to issue a manifesto to the French nation, calling upon them to submit
to the authority of their King, failing which the allies would take
active steps to coerce them.


Marathon Murders.

The murder by brigands, near Athens, of a party of Englishmen, including
Mr. Herbert, a secretary of the British Legation, in 1870. The Greek
Government were greatly blamed for the action they took in moving troops
against the brigands, contrary to their express undertaking, before the
required ransom, which had been provided, had been handed over to the
brigands and the prisoners released.


Mark System.

A system of land tenure, apparently of a communistic nature, which
prevailed in Germany in very early times. It seems to have been
introduced into England by the Saxon invaders, and traces of it are
found in the common lands.


Marlborough, Statute of.

A re-enactment by the Parliament of Marlborough in 1267, after the
Barons’ War, of the Provisions of Oxford, with some slight changes,
giving the King the power of appointing the Ministers of the Crown and
the sheriffs.


Maroons.

The fugitive slaves in Jamaica, who, after the conquest of the island by
England in 1655, took refuge in the mountains, and maintained a guerilla
warfare against the colonists, which lasted until 1795.


Marranos.

The Spanish Moors who, after the conquest of Granada, accepted
Christianity.


Marriage Act.

_See_ Hardwicke’s Act.


Married Women’s Property Act.

An Act passed in 1882, by which, in all marriages subsequent to the
passing of the Act, a wife’s property is vested in herself, and is not
subject to her husband’s control, as was previously the case.


Martian Law.

A code of British Law translated by Alfred the Great into Anglo-Saxon.
It is said to have been compiled by Martia, the wife of Guithelin,
great-grandson of Mulmutius, King of the Britons, in 300 B.C.


Martin Mar-Prelate.

The pseudonym of the author of certain pamphlets advocating Puritan
doctrines, which appeared between 1588 and 1590. The suspected author, a
Welshman named Penry, was brought to trial, condemned and executed.


Maryland, Charter of.

A charter for the colonisation of Maryland, granted to Lord Baltimore by
Charles I in 1629. It was similar in its provisions to the Charter of
Virginia.


Masaniello, Revolt of.

A revolt of the Neapolitans, under a fisherman named Tommaso Aniello,
against the Spanish Viceroy in July, 1647. The revolt was completely
successful, and the Viceroy was compelled to come to terms with
Masaniello, whose head, however, seems to have been turned by his
success, as he was guilty of the most extraordinary excesses, and was
murdered by his former followers in the course of the month in which the
rising took place.


Mason and Dixon’s Line.

The line delimiting Delaware and Maryland, drawn by Mason and Dixon in
1764-67. It is often erroneously referred to as the line between the
freesoil and the slave States, but as a matter of fact both the States
in question were slave-holding States.


Mason and Slidell.

_See_ Trent Incident.

Massachusetts, Charter of.

A charter issued by Charles I in 1629, providing for the government of
the colony by a governor, deputy, and eighteen assistants, to be elected
annually by the freemen of the plantation. They were entrusted with both
legislative and executive functions, but it was provided that no laws
should be made which were not in harmony with the law of England. The
charter was revoked in 1684, after a dispute on the subject of the
navigation laws.


Massacres.

_See_ Abencerrages, Amboyna, Armagnacs, Armenian, Barmecides, Blood
Bath, Boston, Bulgarian, Cawnpore, Chastisement, Custer, Dragonnades,
Farquharsons, French Fury, Fusillades, Glencoe, Jaffa, Lebanon,
Magdeburg, Manchester, Mountain Meadow, Noyades, Privas, St.
Bartholomew, St. Brice, Scullabogue, September, Sicilian Vespers,
Sinope, Spanish Fury, Tenth of August, Ulster, Valtelline, Vassy,
Veronese.


Match Tax.

An impost proposed by Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke), Chancellor of the
Exchequer in 1871. The proposal was excessively unpopular, and was
withdrawn.


Mau-brulez, Journée des.

April 27, 1562, when two Protestant ministers. Mallard and Faveau, were
to be burnt at the stake by order of Granville, Bishop of Arras. They
were rescued by the populace.


May, Constitution of.

The constitution established by the Polish Diet on May 3, 1791. It
abolished the elective monarchy, and named the Royal House of Saxony as
successors to Poniatowski. It abolished the Liberum Veto, and vested the
legislative authority in the King, the Senate and the Chamber of
Nuncios, and the executive in the King, with a council of six Ministers.


Mayflower.

The ship that carried the first colonists of New England, the Pilgrim
Fathers, to the shores of America. They were chiefly Independents from
the neighbourhood of Scrooby, in Lincolnshire, who under stress of
persecution determined to leave England. They went first to Holland, and
then, deciding to make their home in America, finally sailed from
Plymouth on September 6, 1620. They landed on the shores of Cape Cod,
and named their first township Plymouth.


Maximum.

By a decree of May 4, 1793, the French Convention established a maximum
price for food stuffs, obliging farmers to state the quantity of grain
in their possession, bring it to market, and accept a price fixed by the
commune in which it was offered, such price to be based on the average
price ruling in the district during the four previous months. Heavy
penalties were enacted for concealment of grain supplies, and for taking
more than the authorised price.


Maynooth Grant.

A grant to the Roman Catholic College of Maynooth, in Ireland, made in
the face of strong Protestant opposition by Sir Robert Peel’s Government
in 1845. It was abolished in 1869, at the time of the Disestablishment
of the Irish Church.


Maynooth, Pardon of.

The name given ironically to the suppression of the revolt of the
Geraldines in 1535, when Maynooth Castle, the seat of the Earl of
Desmond, was captured, and out of thirty-seven prisoners taken,
twenty-six were executed.


Meal Tub Plot.

A pretended plot, fabricated by Dangerfield in 1679, in emulation of
Titus Oates, the inventor of the Popish Plot. Dangerfield averred that a
Presbyterian plot existed to depose the King, and establish a Republic.
After arrest he stated that this was only a blind to conceal a plot of
the Papists, documents relating to which would be found hidden in a meal
tub in the house of Mrs. Cellier, a Roman Catholic. This lady was tried
for high treason and acquitted. Dangerfield was condemned to be flogged
from Newgate to Tyburn and back, and died under the lash.


Measures, Assize of.

An edict issued in 1197, with the object of securing uniformity in
weights and measures throughout England. It was, however, found
impossible to obtain acceptance for this reform, and the edict remained
a dead letter.


Mediation, Constitution of.

A constitution in which an attempt was made to harmonise the old
Cantonal system with the new Helvetic Constitution, and which was
imposed upon the Swiss by Napoleon in 1803.


Mediatized Princes.

Members of the old ruling families of the smaller German States, who
have at various times been deprived of their sovereign rights.


Meersen, Treaty of.

A treaty, signed in 870, by which Lewis the German and Charles the Bald
divided the territories of their nephews, Lewis II and Charles. The
former took Alsace and the Rhine Provinces, the latter Burgundy and
Provence, thus finally separating Germany and France.


Mellanriks Law.

The decree confirming the Union of Sweden and Norway, accepted by the
Norwegians in November, 1814, and defining the financial and other
relations between the two kingdoms.


Melun, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1593, between Queen Elizabeth and Henri IV of France,
providing for an offensive and defensive alliance against Philip II of
Spain.


Mercatoribus, Statute de.

A statute of Edward I, passed in 1283, giving protection to foreign
merchants settled in England.


Merchandise Marks Act.

An Act passed in 1887, inflicting penalties for the use of false trade
descriptions, and enacting that, in all cases of imported goods, when
any question is likely to arise as to the country of origin, the same
shall be clearly marked on the goods.


Merchant Adventurers.

A guild of merchants established in Brabant in 1296. They received
special trading privileges in England from Henry VII, and in 1564 were
given a charter of incorporation by Elizabeth.


Merchant Shipping Act.

_See_ Plimsoll’s Act.


Merchants, Charter of the.

A charter granted by Edward I in 1303, to foreign merchants trading in
England, which at the same time imposed import and export duties on wool
and other commodities passing through their hands.


Merciless Parliament.

_See_ Wonderful Parliament.


Merry Monarch.

A sobriquet of Charles II of England.


Mestizos.

In Spanish America persons of mixed European and Indian blood are so
called.


Métayage.

A system of land tenure in France, prior to the Revolution, by which the
tenant was supplied by the landlord with stock and farming implements,
and the produce of the land, after payment of taxes, was divided equally
between them. Farmers holding land on this tenure were called métayers.


Methuen Treaty.

A treaty between England and Portugal, signed in 1703, whereby the
latter was induced to join the Grand Alliance. It contained only two
clauses, one admitting English woollen goods into Portugal, the other
providing that Portuguese wines imported into England should only pay
one-third of the duty levied on French wines. This treaty was abrogated
on the signing of a commercial treaty between England and France in
1786.


Middle Kingdom.

China is so called by the Chinese, who believe it to be the centre of
the inhabited world.


Mignon.

A nickname of Henri III of France (1574-1589).


Mikado.

The name by which the hereditary sovereign of Japan was known to
Europeans, in the early days of intercourse with that country. From the
time of the Shôgun Iyeyasu, in the early part of the seventeenth
century, the functions of the “Mikado” as a temporal ruler were usurped
by the Shôguns, or Commanders-in-Chief, though he was always recognized
as the _de jure_ head of the State. Since the revolution, however, he
has resumed his rightful position as Emperor of Japan. The title is now
in disuse, the Emperor being known as the Tenno.


Milan Decree.

A decree issued by Napoleon in 1807, as a reply to the Orders in
Council, declaring that every vessel, of whatever nationality, sailing
to or from a British port or colony, had forfeited her neutrality, and
was a lawful prize.


Mile Act.

An Act of the Scottish Parliament, passed in 1662, forbidding any
minister who had failed to comply with the provisions of the Episcopal
Ordination Act to reside within five miles of a royal borough, or within
twenty of his own parish.


Military Septennate.

A compromise, introduced by Bismarck in the Reichstag, between an annual
vote for military purposes, and a vote for an indefinite period. It
fixes the military establishment and the requisite supplies for a period
of seven years.


Millenary Petition.

A petition presented to James I by certain Puritan clergymen of the
Church of England, said to have numbered a thousand, asking to be
relieved from the celebration of certain ceremonies to which they were
conscientiously opposed. The petition was rejected.


Million Act.

An Act passed in 1692, authorising the raising of one million sterling
by means of tontine annuities, in aid of the expenses of the French War.
This is the first instance of the English Government raising money by
means of annuities.


Ministère de Trois Jours.

The ministry of the Tiers Parti in France, under the Duc de Bassano, in
1834. It held office for three days only.


Ministry of All the Talents.

A ministry under Lord Grenville, with Fox as Foreign Secretary, formed
on the death of Pitt in 1806. It is so called because it was not formed
exclusively from Grenville’s supporters, but was an attempt to bring
together the best men of various political shades. Thus Earl Spencer
and Mr. Windham, who had been members of Pitt’s first administration,
held office in it.


Mints, Indian.

These were closed to the free coinage of silver in 1893, and the value
of the rupee for exchange purposes fixed at 1s. 4d.


Minute Men.

A militia of 12,000 men enrolled during the American Civil War by the
State of Massachusetts. They bound themselves to be ready for service at
a moment’s notice.


Mir.

The Russian village commune, holding and tilling land in common. The
land is divided into plots, of which a certain number are allotted to
each family, in proportion to its size. These plots are farmed by the
family in common, and they pay into the coffers of the Mir a certain
fixed sum, retaining the rest for the general use of the family. The Mir
is responsible to the Government for the payment of the taxes of the
community, which are in the nature of a poll-tax on the adult males. The
division of the land is periodically revised, to meet changes in the
circumstances of the different families. The affairs of the Mir are
controlled by the village Elder, or Selski Starosta, who is elected by
the heads of families.


Mirabeau of the Mob.

A sobriquet of Danton, the French revolutionary leader.


Miracle of Nature.

Christina, Queen of Sweden (1632-1654), was so called.


Mise of Amiens.

_See_ Amiens.


Mise of Lewes.

_See_ Lewes.


Mississippi Scheme.

A wild scheme, not unlike the South Sea Bubble, propounded by John Law
in Paris in 1718. A company was formed, which was permitted to establish
a Bank of Issue, the shares of which were offered to the national
creditors in exchange for their stock. The company was also granted a
monopoly of the trade with Canada and the Mississippi. The usual
inflation of values followed, and subsequently the inevitable collapse,
which almost amounted to national bankruptcy. It is also called “Law’s
Bubble.”


Missouri Compromise.

An agreement between the slavery and anti-slavery parties of the United
States in 1821, arising out of the admission of Missouri to the Union as
a free-labour State. It was determined that slavery should only be
lawful south of 36° 30´ north latitude. This arrangement was maintained
until 1854, when it was violated by the admission of Kansas and Nebraska
as territories, with the right to decide the slavery question for
themselves.


Mitad.

In South America, under Spanish rule, the bodily service to which every
Indian from fifteen to fifty was liable. Those upon whom the lot fell
had to work for six months in the mines, and such were the conditions of
servitude that barely a fifth survived the ordeal. It is estimated that
over eight millions perished from this cause in Peru alone.


Mitchelstown Riot.

A riot at Mitchelstown, co. Cork, at a Land League meeting in August,
1887. The Government reporter and his police escort endeavoured to force
their way through the crowd to the platform, which the crowd resented.
The police lost their heads and fired on the people. “Remember
Mitchelstown” was for some time afterwards the watchword of the
Land-leaguers.


Mixed Pickles.

The name given to the Liberal Imperialist party in the first Reichstag
of the German Empire.


Model, The.

The Constitution of Carolina, prepared by John Locke in 1670. It was the
only constitution in America providing for an hereditary nobility, and
recognizing different classes of citizens. It was in some respects
feudal in its character, as the small cultivator was _adscriptus glebæ_,
and had no franchise. North Carolina objected to the model, rose in
revolt, and formed itself into a separate colony.


Modern Gracchus.

A sobriquet of the Comte de Mirabeau (1749-1801).


Modern Messalina.

A name given to Catherine II of Russia (1762-1796), referring to her
vicious and cruel character.


Moldavian Capitulation.

A treaty signed in 1512 between Bogdan, Voivode of Moldavia, and Selim
I, Sultan of Turkey, by which Bogdan recognized the suzerainty of
Turkey, and agreed to pay tribute.


Molinists.

The followers of Molina, the Spanish Jesuit, who was the principal
antagonist of the Jansenists and Port Royal.


Mollahs.

In Turkey, the name given to the principal judges, who, the law being
more ecclesiastical than civil, exercise functions of almost a priestly
character. In less civilized Moslem communities, as in Arabia, and among
the Afridis and Afghans, the mollahs are priests or holy men.


Molly Maguires.

An agrarian society formed in Ireland in 1843, to resist distraint for
rent. They took their name, originally “Maguires,” from Cornelius
Maguire, a leader in the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the word Molly being
afterwards added because they usually dressed in women’s clothes when
engaged in their raids.


Molly Maguires.

An Irish secret society, which terrorized the mining districts of
Pennsylvania from 1867 to 1877. Its object was, apparently, to control
the State and municipal politics. In the latter year, owing to
informers, its leaders were discovered and convicted, and the society
broken up.


Molokáni.

A Russian sect who model their institutions on the early Apostolic
Church, as depicted in the New Testament. They are strong upholders of
the right of private judgment, allowing considerable latitude to
individual opinion within the fold.


Monastic Orders.

_See_ Benedictines, Carmelites, Carthusians, Dominicans, Franciscans,
Jesuits, Theatins.


Monçon, Treaty of.

A treaty between France and Austria, signed in 1626, after the French
invasion of the Valtelline. It provided for a return in the Grisons and
Valtelline to the _status quo_ before 1617. Only Catholicism was to be
tolerated in the valley. The Valtelline was to have the right of
electing her own magistrates, subject to the veto of the Grisons, and
was to pay the Grisons an annual tribute. The forts in the Valtelline
and Chiavenna were to be razed.


Monetary Conference, International.

A conference held at Brussels in 1892, to discuss the question of a
bimetallic standard. Great diversity of opinion was shown by the
delegates, and the conference dissolved without making any
recommendations.


Monroe Doctrine.

A statement of policy in the message to Congress of President Monroe in
1825, to the effect that the United States could not regard with
indifference any further territorial expansion on the part of European
Powers on the American Continent. The occasion for the pronouncement was
the suspected intention of the Holy Alliance to interfere on behalf of
Spain in her struggle with her revolted colonies. Various
interpretations have been given to this doctrine, some, like that of Mr.
Olney, going much further than President Monroe’s words warrant, but it
is now generally held to mean that the United States will consider her
interests involved, if any European Power seeks territorial
aggrandisement in any part of America, or interferes with the internal
affairs of any American State.


Monsieur Véto.

A nickname of Louis XVI, referring to the power given him by the
Constitution of 1791 to veto the acts of the Legislative Assembly. Marie
Antoinette was known as Madame Véto, as it was believed that it was
largely her influence which induced the King to exercise his right.


Montesa, Knights of.

A Spanish order of religious chivalry, established in 1317. They
succeeded the Templars in Aragon.


Montpelier, Treaty of.

A treaty between Louis XIII and the Huguenots, after their last
appearance in arms in 1622. The King undertook to observe the Edict of
Nantes, and gave the Huguenots two towns. La Rochelle and Montauban, as
places of safety.


Montrouge Club.

A club composed of friends of the Duc d’Orléans (Philippe Egalité),
which was formed about 1789. Its object was to supplant the reigning
dynasty by the Orleans branch. Among its prominent members were
Mirabeau, Siéyès and Sillery.


Montsioa War.

In 1884 the Transvaal Boers attacked Montsioa, a Bechuana chief under
British protection, and forced him to make a treaty with them, in
defiance of the London Convention. In the following year a force under
Sir Charles Warren occupied the disturbed territory, which was brought
under the British administration, and the Boers were forced to withdraw.


Montt-Varistas.

The extreme reactionaries of the Pelucones, or Conservative party, in
Chile in 1850. They took their name from President Montt, and his
Secretary of State, Varas.


Moonlighters.

An agrarian secret society, similar in its constitution and methods to
the Whiteboys, which was guilty of numerous outrages in Ireland in 1881.


Moors, Expulsion of.

The final overthrow of the Moorish power in Spain was accomplished by
the capture of Granada in 1492, under Ferdinand and Isabella. The terms
of capitulation provided that the Moors, while remaining under Spanish
dominion, should preserve their own laws, language and religion, with
the right to hold property free of molestation. The non-Christian Moors
were, however, expelled from Spain by Philip III in 1610.


Morant Bay Riots.

An outbreak of negroes in Jamaica in 1865, which was promptly
suppressed, and is only noteworthy as leading to the long controversy
with regard to the action of Governor Eyre, whose repressive measures
led to his recall. Several attempts were made to bring him to trial, but
the case never got beyond the Grand Jury, who always declined to find a
true bill.


Moravians.

A Protestant sect, having its origin in the Hussites, which was very
numerous in Bohemia and Moravia in the sixteenth century. In 1627 they
were expelled from these countries, and, later, settled in Saxony.


Morey Letter.

A letter purporting to be written by Garfield, on the eve of the
Presidential Election in the United States in 1880, to a large employer
of labour named Morey. It advocated free admission of Chinese labour,
and it was hoped by the Democrats would seriously injure the Republican
cause on the Pacific Slope. It was of course a forgery.


Mormons.

A sect founded by Joseph Smith, the son of a Vermont farmer, in 1830, at
Fayette, New York State. The Mormons moved westward and, after several
years’ wanderings, settled on the Great Salt Lake in 1847, under Brigham
Young. Their advocacy of polygamy was for a long time a bar to the
admission of Utah to the Union, but the enforcement of the Edmunds Act
of 1882 led to the formal abandonment of polygamy as a tenet by the
Mormons in 1890, and Utah was admitted a State in 1896.


Mortmain, Statute of.

A statute passed in 1279, to put a stop to the growing practice of
giving landed property to the Church, and receiving it back as tenants,
thus evading feudal obligations. To prevent land thus passing into a
dead hand (_mortuum manum_), all such alienations were forbidden, except
with the King’s consent.


Morton’s Fork.

The scheme devised by Morton, the Minister of Henry VII, to increase the
revenues of the State. He exacted contributions from those who lived
well on the plea that they were obviously rich, and from those who lived
plainly on the ground that their economy had made them wealthy.


Mossbacks.

The name given to an old-fashioned section of the Democratic party in
the United States, most numerous in Ohio. The word is derived from the
popular name for the snapping turtle, which is so called from the growth
of a species of aquatic moss on its shell.


Most Holy Synod.

A body charged with the administration of the Russian National Church.
Its members are appointed and removed by the Czar, and its head, the
Procurator, is practically an autocrat in all matters of Church
discipline. It has however no jurisdiction over matters of dogma.


Mother Ann.

The leader of the Shakers in Sussex, at the end of the eighteenth
century. Her name was Ann Lee.


Mother of Presidents.

The State of Virginia is so called, as having furnished no less than six
Presidents of the United States.


Mother of States.

A name given to the State of Virginia, either as the oldest colony, or
as having had five States, namely, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and
West Virginia, formed out of her original territories.


Moujik.

The Russian peasant.


Moulins, Edict of.

An edict issued in 1566 by the Chancellor, de l’Hôpital, after a
conference of Notables representing both the Huguenot and the Catholic
parties. It dealt with the reform of judicial procedure.


Mountain.

The Jacobins, or ultra-revolutionary party in the Convention during the
French Revolution. Its leaders were Danton and Robespierre. The Mountain
came to an end with the fall of Robespierre and his followers on the 9th
Thermidor (July 28, 1794). It was so called because its members occupied
the upper tiers of seats in the Convention.


Mountain Meadow Massacre.

The massacre by Indians, under Mormon leadership, of a party of 140
emigrants, who were crossing Utah on their way to California in 1857.
The Mormons had been for some time in difficulties with the United
States Government, and Federal troops were in the neighbourhood of Salt
Lake City, but no hostilities had taken place. The leader of the band,
J. D. Lee, a Mormon Bishop, was executed for the crime on the actual
site of the massacre in 1877.


Mountain Men.

A name given to the Cameronians.


Mugwumps.

A section of the Republican party in the United States who, in 1884,
supported Cleveland, the Democratic candidate for President, owing to
his advocacy of Civil Service Reform. The word is also applied to those
who for various reasons decline to attach themselves definitely to
either of the great political parties.


Mulmutine Laws.

A code of laws said to have been drawn up by Mulmutius, King of the
Britons, circ. 400 B.C. They were translated by Alfred the Great, and
remained the basis of English law until the Conquest.


Mundebunde or Mundium.

Among the Franks the protection afforded by the King or a feudal lord to
an ecclesiastic or other person not being an ordinary vassal.


Municipal Reform Act.

An Act passed in 1835, dealing with 178 municipalities. In the majority
of these the election to municipal offices had been entirely in the
hands of the freemen, often a very small minority of the inhabitants.
The Act instituted an electoral qualification of three years’ residence,
and the payment of poor and borough rates. It also established town
councils, and provided for an independent audit.


Mustafiz.

The second line of reserve, or militia, of the Turkish army.


Mutiny Act.

This Act was passed for the first time in 1689, for one year only, and
has since that time been passed annually. It gives disciplinary powers
to the officers of the army and navy, apart from the ordinary process of
law, and neither service could be maintained without it.


Mutualists.

A secret association of the _chefs d’ateliers_, or middlemen, of the
Lyons weavers, which ordered a strike of workmen in April, 1834. The
strike resulted in a rising, which was promptly suppressed, and the
leaders were prosecuted under the Associations Law.



N


Nag’s Head Controversy.

A controversy which arose over an allegation of the Roman Catholics, in
1599, that Archbishop Parker’s consecration, forty years previously, had
taken place in the most informal manner at the Nag’s Head Tavern, in
Cheapside. The statement was proved to be entirely devoid of foundation.


Nanking, Treaty of.

A treaty between Great Britain and China, signed in 1842, at the close
of the Opium War. By its terms England secured Hong Kong in perpetuity,
and Shanghai and other ports were opened to foreign trade.


Napoleon of Peace.

A sobriquet of Louis Philippe, whose peaceful reign of eighteen years
was a marked contrast to the constant wars of the Napoleonic era.


Natal, Republic of.

A republic founded by emigrant burghers from Cape Colony in 1838. It
stretched from the Drakensberg to the sea, and from the Tugela to the
Umzimvubu river, while Zululand, under Panda, was tributary to it. The
British Government never recognized the republic, and in 1842 steps were
taken to obtain possession of the country, in which a regular colonial
government was established in 1845.


Nation of Shopkeepers.

A phrase first applied to England by Samuel Adams, the American
politician, in 1776. It is generally attributed to Napoleon, but was
probably taken by him from a translation of the speech in which it
occurs.


National Association for King William.

An association formed on the discovery of the Assassination Plot in
1696, at the suggestion of Sir Rowland Gwyn. The signatories declared
their loyalty to the King, and bound themselves to take vengeance on all
who might attempt his life.


National Debt.

The origin of the National Debt was a loan raised by Montague,
afterwards Lord Halifax, in 1693. The lenders were life-annuitants, and
as each died his annuity was divided among the survivors till only seven
remained; after which, on the death of each of the seven, his portion
was absorbed by the Government.


National Guard.

An urban militia raised in Paris in 1789 by Flesselles, Prévôt des
Marchands. It took a leading part in the destruction of the Bastille.


National Guards.

A body of volunteers raised by Napper Tandy in Ireland in 1792. They
were promptly suppressed by the Government.


National Scouts.

A force recruited from surrendered Boers, for service as scouts with the
British Army, during the latter stages of the Boer War of 1899-1902.


Nationalverein.

An association formed in 1859, the declared object of which was to
substitute for the Confederation the German constitution of 1848, under
the hegemony of Prussia, and to the complete exclusion of Austria. Its
founder was Baron Benigsen of Hanover.


Nations, Battle of the.

The Battle of Leipsic, fought on October 16, 17 and 18, 1813, is so
called. Five nations--France, Prussia, Russia, Austria and Sweden, were
engaged.


Naturalia.

The contributions in kind exacted for the support of the royal household
among the Franks.


Naturalization Act.

An Act of Congress passed in 1870, which, while authorizing the
naturalization of the African negro, declined to admit to the
citizenship Indians and Chinese.


Naundorff Claimant.

A claim was brought before the French courts in 1874 by the son of a
clock-maker of Delft, named Naundorff. The claimant, who called himself
Adalbert de Bourbon, demanded to be recognized as the grandson of Louis
XVI, on the ground that his father, Naundorff, was in reality the
Dauphin, who had been imprisoned in the Temple, and of whose escape he
told a marvellous story. The courts dismissed his claim.


Navigation Act.

An Act passed in 1651, under the Commonwealth, prohibiting the
importation of goods into England except in British ships, or in ships
belonging to the country of origin of the goods. The Act was renewed in
1672, and, with the modifications then introduced, continued in force
till the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, when the English Government agreed to
suspend its operation so far as concerned vessels of the United States.


Neck Verse.

A verse of the Psalms, read by condemned criminals who claimed “benefit
of clergy,” as a test of their clerkship. It was so called because those
who succeeded in reading it in clerkly fashion were handed over to the
ecclesiastical authorities, and saved their necks.


Negus.

The title of the King of Abyssinia or Ethiopia.


Nemours, Edict of.

An edict issued by Henri III in 1785, withdrawing all the privileges
accorded to the Huguenots by previous edicts, and giving them six months
to conform to the Roman Catholic Church or to leave the realm.


Nepaul Treaty.

A treaty signed in 1815, at the end of the Ghoorka war, between the
British and Nepaul. By its provisions Nepaul relinquished all rights
over the Hill Rajahs west of the Kali river, ceded the major portion of
the Terai, restored the territory conquered from the Rajah of Sikkim,
and agreed to receive a British resident at Khatmandu.


Neri.

_See_ Bianchi.


Nertchinsk, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and China signed in 1689, and notable as being
the first convention between China and a European Power. This treaty put
a stop for nearly 150 years to Russia’s eastward expansion in Siberia.


Nestor of Europe.

Leopold I, King of the Belgians (1831-1865) was so called.


Neuf Thermidor.

July 27, 1794, the day on which the Decree of Accusation was launched
against Robespierre, Couthon, St. Just and the other extremists of the
Revolution, thus putting an end to the Reign of Terror.


New Custom.

A system of granting to foreign merchants the privilege of trading with
English ports in return for a subsidy. This system was introduced by
Edward I in 1303, and is the origin of Customs Duties.


New Departure.

A change of programme on the part of a section of the Democratic party
in the United States in 1871. They admitted that all, including negroes,
were entitled to equal rights and full citizenship, but demanded a
universal amnesty for the Southerners, condemned protective duties as
levied solely in the interests of the Northern manufacturers, and
strongly protested against the Force Bill of 1870.


New England Confederation.

A union of the four New England Colonies, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth,
New Haven, and Connecticut, formed in 1643 for mutual protection against
the Dutch and the Indians.


New Learning.

The name given in England to the revival of learning in the West, the
first manifestation of which was the Italian Renaissance.


New Model.

The name given to the Parliamentary Army as reformed by the Self-denying
Ordinance of 1645.


New Republic.

A republic formed in 1884 in what was later the Vryheid district of the
Transvaal, the territory having been given by Dinizulu to certain Boers
in return for their help in his war with Usibepu. Lucas Meyer was
elected president, but the republic was short-lived, being absorbed by
the South African Republic in 1887.


New Roof.

A nickname given to the Constitution of the United States shortly after
its promulgation.


New Style.

The name given to the Gregorian Calendar, introduced into England by the
Calendar Act of 1752.


New Tipperary.

A township started in 1890, under the Plan of Campaign, with the object
of bringing to terms the owner of the land on which the town of
Tipperary stands. The scheme was a complete fiasco, and collapsed in
1891.


New Unionism.

This form of trade unionism had its rise about 1884. It differs from the
old unionism in that it is frankly Socialistic in its tendencies, and
demands State interference between workmen and employers, whereas the
old demanded only to be left alone and to be allowed the right of
combination for the advancement of the interests of the workers.


New Zealand Centralization.

By an Act passed in 1876, during the premiership of Sir Julius Vogel,
the nine provinces of New Zealand were united, with one Parliament
sitting at Wellington. The nine provincial Parliaments were abolished,
their administrative functions being entrusted to road boards in the
country districts and municipalities in the towns.


Newcastle Programme.

The platform of the Liberal party at the general election of 1892,
based on resolutions passed at the meeting of the National Liberal
Federation at Newcastle in October, 1891. The “planks” of the platform
were Abolition of the House of Lords, Home Rule, Disestablishment of the
Church in Wales, Taxation of Ground Values, and One Man One Vote.


Newfoundland Fisheries.

_See_ French Shore.


Newport, Treaty of.

The final attempt of the Parliament to come to terms with the King in
1648. Negotiations were opened at Newport, but the King contested every
demand of the Parliament, and the Independents, supported by the Army,
lost patience, and confined the King in Hurst Castle.


Nicæa, Second Council of.

An Œcumenical Council held during the reign of the Empress Irene, at
which the decrees of the Council of Constantinople with regard to
image-worship were reversed.


Nichan-Sherif.

A decree of the Sultan Ahmed I in 1604, granting the Venetians certain
trading and navigating facilities in the Ottoman dominions.


Nightmare of Europe.

A sobriquet of the Great Napoleon.


Nihilists.

The Russian revolutionary society, an important section of which is in
favour of physical force. Their position is perhaps best explained by
the manifesto issued after the assassination of the Czar Alexander II in
1881, in which they declare their object to be the amelioration of the
condition of the peasantry, and the introduction of more civilized
methods of government. They go on to say that Russia demands a new
system, and that, their peaceful efforts having only met with
repression, they have been driven to adopt violent means to gain their
ends.


Nimeguen, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1678, following the five years’ war of Louis XIV
against Holland and Spain. Louis obtained Franche-Comté and sixteen
fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands.


Nîmes, Edict of.

An edict issued in 1629, shortly after the fall of La Rochelle, which,
while confirming the religious freedom granted to the Huguenots by the
Edict of Nantes, deprived them of their special political status, and
thus broke up the Huguenot League.


Nine Articles, Constitution of.

A constitution drawn up at Winburg in 1837 by the emigrant burghers who
had settled between the Orange and the Vaal rivers after the Great Trek.
A Volksraad was elected, and the burghers bound themselves to observe
the old Roman-Dutch law, except when inconsistent with the articles of
the constitution.


Ninety-eight.

The Irish rebellion under Lord Edward Fitzgerald and Wolfe Tone in 1798.
The rebellion had been carefully planned for some years before the
outbreak, and, the sympathies of the French having been enlisted, a
landing by Hoche was attempted at Bantry Bay. This was unsuccessful, and
a little later Humbert, who landed at Killala, was forced to surrender
to Lord Cornwallis. Horrible outrages were perpetrated by the rebels,
and the consequent reprisals gave a most bloodthirsty character to the
whole affair. The rebels were finally defeated at Vinegar Hill, which
put an end to all organized resistance, though there were a few isolated
risings from time to time. Wolfe Tone was captured and condemned to
death, but escaped the scaffold by suicide. Fitzgerald was killed a few
days before the outbreak, resisting the military who were about to
arrest him.


Nine Worthies.

This title was given to nine members of the Privy Council of William
III, namely, the Duke of Devonshire, the Earls of Nottingham, Dorset,
Monmouth, Orford, Pembroke and Marlborough, Lord Caermarthen, and Sir
John Lowther.


Nizam.

The regular infantry of the Turkish Army.


No Popery Agitation.

An agitation against the action of the Pope in creating Cardinal Wiseman
Archbishop of Westminster in 1851. To appease the Protestant party the
Government brought in the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill.


Nobles’ War.

The rising of Rhenish knights under Franz von Sickingen in 1522. They
were bitterly hostile to the Suabian League and to the new institutions,
such as the Reichskammergericht. The rising was suppressed in the
following year.


Noces Vermeilles.

“The blood-red wedding” was the name given afterwards to the marriage
between the Protestant Henry of Navarre and the Catholic Marguerite de
Valois in May 1572, only three months before the massacre of the
Huguenots on the eve of St. Bartholomew.


Noche Triste.

The night of June 20, 1520, when the Spaniards under Cortes were
attacked by the Mexicans as they were evacuating Mexico, and suffered
very heavy losses.


Noir, Code.

The code of laws promulgated by Louis XIV in 1685 to be enforced in the
West Indian colonies of France. It had special reference to the
treatment of negroes, whether slaves or freedmen.


Nomansland.

The district south of the Basuto country, now known as Griqualand East,
was so called in 1860. It was settled in 1861 by the migration of Adam
Kok and his tribe of Griquas from the country they had previously
occupied between the Orange and the Riet Rivers.


Nomansland.

A district lying between Kansas, New Mexico, Texas, and the Indian
territory, which now forms part of the territory of Oklahoma.

The same name is given to a strip of land in dispute between the States
of Delaware and Pennsylvania.


Nominees, Assembly of.

Barebone’s Parliament is sometimes known by this name.


Non-Compounders.

_See_ Compounders.


Non-Jurors.

The clergymen, between three and four hundred in number, who refused to
take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy on the accession of William
III in 1689.


Non-Resistance.

The doctrine that it was a deadly sin to oppose the will of the King as
being sovereign by Divine right. This tenet was preached by the Anglican
clergy in the times of the Stuarts. It was also called the “Doctrine of
Passive Obedience.”


Nore, Mutiny at the.

The name usually given to the mutinies in the fleet at the Nore and
Spithead, which broke out in 1797. The discontent, due to real
grievances, first showed itself at Spithead, where Lord Howe, who was in
command, succeeded by his tact in arranging matters satisfactorily, and
nothing very serious occurred. At the Nore the mutiny assumed a
political character, the men demanding a revision of the Articles of War
and other impossible concessions. Their demands being refused the
mutineers seized the fleet, but gradually yielded, and finally Parker,
the ringleader, was arrested and hanged, with four or five others.


Norman Reconciliation.

_See_ Baiser de Lamourette.


North, Council of the.

A council established by Henry VIII in 1536, after the Insurrection of
the North, to deal with questions arising out of that event. In the
reign of Charles I it was reorganized by Wentworth on the lines of the
Star Chamber, and it was finally abolished by Act of Parliament in 1641.


North, Society of the.

A Russian secret society. (_See_ December Rising.)


North German Confederation.

A confederation of twenty-two States north of the Maine, formed in 1867,
after the signing of the Treaty of Prague, under the perpetual
presidency of Prussia. Two assemblies were formed, one, the Reichstag,
being representative of the people, the other, the Bundesrath, being
composed of delegates from the Governments of the twenty-two States.


Northampton, Treaty of.

A treaty between England and Scotland, signed in 1328, by which Robert
Bruce was acknowledged as King of Scotland, and the independence of
Scotland was recognized, Edward III renouncing his suzerainty. Bruce
agreed to pay compensation for damage in the North of England, and to
reinstate the Scottish lords who had been dispossessed on account of
their supporting Edward.


Nottingham, Peace of.

A treaty signed between Æthelred and the Northmen in 868, by which
Mercia was saved from their depredations.


Noyades.

The Vendean refugees who had fled to Nantes in 1793 were, by order of
Carrier, crowded into boats, which were towed out into the middle of the
river and sunk. This wholesale murder is known as “The Noyades.”


Nuevas Ordenanzas.

A code of laws designed to ameliorate the condition of the Indians in
the Spanish Colonies, promulgated at Madrid in 1543. They were largely
due to the efforts of Las Casas.


Nullifiers.

The supporters of State Rights in the Southern States were thus called,
from the action of South Carolina, in 1832, in declaring
unconstitutional and “nullifying” an Act of Congress imposing import
duties on textile fabrics.


Number Forty-five.

The famous number of the _North Briton_, which appeared on April 23,
1763, and attacked the King’s Speech at the close of the previous
session. It led to the expulsion of John Wilkes from the House of
Commons.


Nun of Kent.

Elizabeth Barton, a woman of humble birth, who claimed to have the gift
of prophecy, and formed a rallying point for the discontented Catholics
after the divorce of Catherine by Henry VIII. She was in correspondence
with Catherine and with the Emperor, and although no treasonable
practices could be proved against her, she was an undoubted danger to
the State. She was arrested and executed in 1534.


Nutmeg State.

A name given derisively to the State of Connecticut in allusion to their
supposed large trade in wooden nutmegs.


Nystad, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Sweden, signed in 1721, at the conclusion of
the prolonged war which had been commenced in 1700. Peter the Great
secured for Russia the provinces, of Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, Carelia,
and part of Finland.



O


O.P. Riots.

A series of riots which disturbed London in 1809, owing to Kemble having
raised the prices at Covent Garden Theatre. The mob demanded the “old
prices.” Clifford, a barrister, was charged with inciting to riot by
appearing in the theatre with the letters “O.P.” in his hat, but was
acquitted, whereupon Kemble gave way.


Oakboys.

An agrarian society in Ulster in 1763. It was formed to protest against
the action of the Grand Juries, who had decided upon the construction of
certain roads which the peasantry maintained were to be made solely in
the interests of the great landowners.


Oath of Allegiance.

A formula drawn up after Gunpowder Plot in 1606, which asserted the
supremacy of the Sovereign in ecclesiastical matters, and denied the
power of the Pope to relieve his subjects from their allegiance, or to
depose him.


Oath of Strasburg.

The oath of allegiance taken by Charles and Louis, the sons of Louis le
Débonnaire, to their brother Lothair, the Emperor, after the battle of
Fontenay in 841.


Oberstuhlherr.

The chief of the Westphalian Vehmgericht, as representative of the
Emperor. The post was usually filled by the Archbishop of Cologne.


Oblivion and Indemnity, Act of.

A proclamation under the Great Seal in 1603, by which James I promised a
complete amnesty to all those who had taken part in the rebellions in
Ireland during the reign of his predecessor.


Occasional Conformity Bill.

A bill introduced into Parliament in 1703 to render illegal the practice
of nonconformists receiving the sacrament according to the rites of the
Church of England, in order to qualify for municipal office, and then
returning to their own form of worship. The bill entailed heavy
penalties on all those who held office under these conditions. The bill
failed to pass, was reintroduced in the following session, and was again
thrown out, while a further attempt to pass it in 1704 was defeated by
the Lords. It at last became law in 1711.


O’Connell’s Tail.

The nickname given to the following of Daniel O’Connell in the House of
Commons, after the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832.


October Club.

A club composed of Tories and Jacobites, formed in 1710. Among its
members were Bolingbroke and his followers.


Odal.

A system of land tenure among the Norsemen, by which property in the
land was absolute. It was probably land allotted to the warrior after
conquest, to be held by him and his descendants, though according to the
Gulathing’s law, it could not become Odal until it had been held for
three generations. The udallers of Orkney hold under this tenure.


Odalsthing.

_See_ Storthing.


Œcumenical Councils.

The General Councils of the Church accepted by ecclesiastical
authorities as genuinely Œcumenical are twenty-one in number, namely:
two of Nicæa, four of Constantinople, Ephesus, Chalcedon, five Lateran
Councils, two of Lyons, Vienna, Constance, Basle, Florence, Trent and
the Vatican.


Œil de Bœuf.

The name given to the antechamber in the Palace of Versailles. It was so
called from two bull’s-eye windows near the ceiling.


Ohio Company.

A company of Virginian settlers who colonised the Ohio Valley under a
charter from the British Government in 1749.


Old Abe.

A nickname of President Abraham Lincoln.


Old Catholics.

A section of the Roman Catholics in Germany who, under the leadership of
Dr. Döllinger, rejected the dogma of Papal Infallibility imposed by the
Vatican Council in 1870.


Old Czechs.

The Conservative section of the Czech or National party in Bohemia.


Old Dominion.

A name given to the State of Virginia, as the original English Colony in
America.


Old Glorious.

A sobriquet of William III of England.


Old Hickory.

Andrew Jackson, President of the United States from 1829 to 1837, was so
called on account of his obstinacy of character.


Old Hunkers.

The Conservative wing of the Democratic party in New York, 1824-1848.


Old Line State.

The State of Maryland is so called with reference to the Mason and Dixon
Line, which divides it from Pennsylvania.


Old Man of the Mountain.

_See_ Assassins.


Old Morality.

A nickname of Mr. W. H. Smith, leader of the House of Commons from 1887
1891.


Old Noll.

A nickname of Oliver Cromwell.


Old Pretender.

James Edward, son of James II, was so called by the adherents of the
Hanoverian succession.


Old Rough and Ready.

General Zachary Taylor, President of the United States in 1849, was so
called by his soldiers during the Mexican war.


Old Rowley.

A nickname of Charles II.


Old Style.

The old or Julian Calendar, superseded in England by the Gregorian in
1751, but still in use in Russia.


Oleron, Laws of.

A code of commercial and maritime laws founded on the Consolato del
Mare, issued in the reign of Louis IX of France.


Olive Branch Petition.

An appeal to the King by the Second American Congress, 1775, expressing
a desire for reconciliation, but offering no concessions. The King,
however, refused to receive it, on the ground that it was issued by an
unauthorized assembly.


Olmütz, Convention of.

Also called the Humiliation of Olmütz. A convention signed in 1850
between Prussia and Austria, by which the former Power renounced all her
projects of union, and recognized the restoration of the old Germanic
Diet, under the presidency of Austria.


Olney Doctrine.

An extension of the Monroe Doctrine put forward by Mr. Olney, President
Cleveland’s Secretary of State, in a despatch on the Venezuela boundary
question in July, 1895. He claimed that Great Britain had no right to
interfere on the American Continent, and that, if force was necessary,
British Guiana must rely on her own resources, without calling in aid
from Great Britain. He further maintained that the United States had a
right to insist upon all claims concerning questions of territory being
submitted to arbitration unreservedly, and was justified in taking steps
to satisfy herself that no territory had been or was being unwarrantably
annexed. Lord Salisbury absolutely repudiated this doctrine, and refused
in any sense to accept it as binding on Great Britain.


Omladina.

A secret society having its headquarters in Servia, whose object is the
establishment of a Pan-Slavic confederation on a republican basis. It
has from time to time caused Austria some trouble in Bohemia.


Open Door.

The declared English policy in China, as opposed to the policy of
“Spheres of Influence.” It is defined in the Anglo-German agreement of
1900 as the free access, under equal conditions, of all nations to the
ports, rivers and littorals of China.


Opium Commission.

A commission appointed in 1893 to inquire into the opium question in
India. The commission reported in 1895, eight out of nine members
signing the report, to the effect that the use of opium in India was
strictly moderate, that native opinion made no demand for restriction,
that any interference with the growing of opium in the native states
would be unjustifiable, and that the Government of China was perfectly
satisfied with the existing arrangements as to the opium trade. There
was, therefore, in the opinion of the commissioners, absolutely no
ground for legislative interference.


Opium War.

The war with China in 1840 is so called, because it arose out of the
action of the Chinese authorities, who in their efforts to stop opium
smuggling, insisted on the forfeiture of the stocks of opium in the
hands of British merchants in China. It resulted in the cession to Great
Britain in perpetuity of Hong Kong, and the opening of Canton, Amoy,
Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai as treaty ports.


Opportunists.

A school, rather than a party, in French politics who, unlike the
Doctrinaires, do not seek to enforce their views in season and out of
season, but allow due weight to considerations of expediency. Among them
may be named Gambetta and Jules Ferry.


Orange Peel.

A nickname given to Sir Robert Peel, when Chief Secretary for Ireland in
1812-18, on account of the strong anti-Catholic bias he is considered
to have displayed.


Orangemen.

A society of the Protestants of Ulster, founded in 1790, originally in
opposition to the Catholic Defenders. It has remained, however, a strong
and important body in the north of Ireland, firmly attached to the
Union, and bitterly anti-Catholic.


Ordainers, Lords.

A commission of twenty-one persons, to whom the Government of England
was confided for a period of eighteen months (1309-1310) during the
reign of Edward II. Their task was to propound a scheme for the reform
of the Government.


Ordeal, Trial by.

This is of Norse origin, and was practised in England in Anglo-Saxon and
early Norman times. The ordeal was of various kinds, one of the most
severe consisting in the accused walking barefoot and blindfold over
red-hot ploughshares. If within a given period the burns so caused were
not healed he was adjudged guilty. The ordeal was forbidden by the
Fourth Lateran Council in 1215.


Orders in Council, 1807.

England’s reply to Napoleon’s Berlin Decree, establishing the
Continental Blockade, was the issue of a series of Orders in Council.
They forbade vessels to trade between any ports in France or the
territories of the allies, granted the right of reprisals against
Tuscany, Naples, Dalmatia and the Ionian Islands, declared a blockade
against all ports from which the English flag was excluded, and finally
declared the sale of ships by a belligerent to a neutral illegal. These
orders had a very serious effect upon the American carrying trade, and
the irritation caused thereby was one of the causes of the outbreak of
war in 1812.


Ordinance of 1784.

An Act providing for the Government of the North-West Territory, passed
by the United States Congress in 1784.


Ordinance of 1787.

An Act of Congress making further provision for the government of the
North-West Territory, and decreeing freedom from slavery and religious
toleration.


Ordinances.

The articles of reform prepared by the Lords Ordainers in the reign of
Edward II and agreed to by the King and Parliament in 1311. They
provided that no war should be undertaken without the consent of
Parliament, that all customs duties imposed since the death of Edward I
should be removed; that the great officers of state should be nominated
with the consent of Parliament; that Parliament should meet annually,
and that the King’s undesirable companions should be removed and his
household reformed. Piers Gaveston in particular being banished from the
kingdom.


Ordonnance de Mai.

An edict issued in May, 1413, by Charles VI of France, reforming the
finances and abolishing numerous sinecures about the Court.


Ordonnances de Juillet.

The decrees issued by Charles X on July 24, 1830. The first suspended
the liberty of the Press, the second dissolved the Chamber of Deputies,
and the third ordained that the future Chamber should consist only of
Deputies from the Departments. A revolutionary outbreak, fomented by the
journalists, followed immediately on the promulgation of these
ordinances, and Charles fled from Paris, and abdicated on August 3.


Oregon Treaty.

A treaty between Great Britain and the United States, signed in 1846,
defining the frontier between Oregon and British Columbia. It involved
the settlement of the claim to Vancouver Island in favour of Great
Britain.


Organic Statute.

A Russian ukase, issued in 1832, withdrawing constitutional government
from Poland.


Organizer of Victory.

Lazare Nicolas Carnot, the revolutionary leader, was so called during
the wars of the French Revolution.


Oriflamme.

The ancient standard of France: a crimson flag attached to a gilded
lance.


Orleanists.

The party among the French Royalists who supported the claims of the
Orleans Branch of the French Royal Family to the throne of France. On
the death of the last of the French Bourbons in 1883 the party was
augmented by the adhesion of the majority of the Legitimists.


Orléans, Edict of.

An edict issued in 1561 by the Chancellor, de l’Hôpital, proclaiming
certain reforms in the Church and the Justiciary. In the former category
were included the abolition of annates and of the sale of benefices, and
in the latter the abolition of all extraordinary Courts of Justice. It
further authorized the Government to take possession of the surplus
income of all religious communities, and to apply the sum thus obtained
to educational purposes.


Ormée.

The name given to the insurrectionary government established at Bordeaux
in 1652. It is derived from the fact of the leaders of the movement
holding their meetings under a large elm near the Fort du Ha.


Orphan of the Temple.

Marie Thérèse, Duchess of Angouléme, the daughter of Louis XVI, was so
called in allusion to her three years’ imprisonment in the Temple in
Paris.


Orsini Bombs.

A conspiracy to murder Napoleon III by blowing up his carriage as he was
on his way to the opera in 1858. The Emperor escaped unhurt, but ten
persons were killed and 158 injured by the explosion of the bombs.
Orsini, who was captured and executed, had been a refugee in London,
where the plot was hatched, a fact which led to an intensely hostile
feeling towards England on the part of the French.


Ostend Manifesto.

The outcome of a conference at Ostend in 1854 between Messrs. Buchanan,
Mason and Soulé, the representatives of the United States at the Courts
of Great Britain, France and Spain respectively. They were asked to
advise on the Cuban question, and advised their Government that the
proper course was purchase, or if Spain refused to sell, that the United
States were fully justified in using force if they felt themselves
sufficiently powerful.


Otokodaté.

In old Japan a friendly association of the Chônin, or wardsmen of the
large towns. They were very particular as to the character of their
members, their aim being mutual assistance against oppression and
wrong-doing of every kind, while among themselves they were a sort of
benefit society, aiding those of their members who through misfortune
were in need of assistance.


Ottawa Conference.

A conference of delegates from the British self-governing colonies, held
at Ottawa in 1894. The conference agreed to resolutions asking for
Imperial legislation enabling the Colonies to enter into treaties of
reciprocity with each other, and the denunciation of existing foreign
treaties which prevented this. The delegates further pronounced in
favour of preferential customs arrangements between the Mother Country
and the Colonies, of a line of fast steamers between Canada and
Australia, and of an “All Red” cable to Australia.


Oude Proclamation.

A proclamation issued by Lord Canning after the fall of Lucknow in 1858,
confiscating all proprietary rights to land in Oude, with the exception
of the estates of seven unimportant proprietors. All others must throw
themselves on the mercy of the British Government, and clemency would be
extended to them, if they had not been concerned in the murder of
Englishmen. This proclamation was considered by Lord Ellenborough unduly
severe, and a controversy arose which nearly led to Lord Canning’s
resignation.


Our Lady of Mercy, Order of.

A Spanish Order of Knighthood, instituted in 1218 by James I of Aragon.
Its special mission was to work for the deliverance of captives in the
hands of the Moors.


Outlawry.

Among the Norsemen certain crimes, such as the violation of a temple, or
secret or unprovoked murder, could not be atoned for by “weregild,” and
were punished by confiscation of all property and loss of all rights,
the criminal becoming an outlaw. A man was also outlawed if he or his
family were unable to pay “weregild.”


Overton’s Plot.

An abortive conspiracy to overthrow the Commonwealth and murder
Cromwell, Lambert and other leading men, in 1655. It was headed by
Major-General Overton, one of the most successful of the Parliamentary
generals.


Oxford Movement.

A movement, designed to bring the Church of England nearer to the Church
of Rome, which took its rise at Oxford in 1841. Its leaders were Keble,
Pusey and Newman, and their views were in the first instance published
to the world in a series of papers called “Tracts for the Times,” whence
it is also known as the Tractarian Movement. Its followers were
generally called Puseyites by their opponents.


Oxford’s Assault.

The attempted assassination of Queen Victoria by Edward Oxford in 1840
is so called. He fired twice at the Queen, but missed. At his trial he
was found to be insane, and was incarcerated in Bethlem Hospital, and
afterwards in Broadmoor.


Oyer and Terminer.

A commission specially nominated to hear and determine specific cases,
especially of high treason, in England. This legal form was extended to
Scotland in 1709, after the abortive trial of the Stirlingshire
Jacobites under the ordinary Scotch procedure in 1708.



P


Pacific, War of the.

The war between Chile on the one side and Peru and Bolivia on he other
in 1879-83 is so called.


Pacta Conventa.

The agreement entered into between the nobles and candidates for the
throne at the election of the Polish kings. The terms agreed upon at the
election of Henry in 1573 included the following: Henry undertook not to
influence the diet in the choice of his successor, not to declare war,
to marry or to divorce without their consent, not to impose taxes nor to
appoint ambassadors. These terms were known as the Articles of Henry,
and similar disabilities were imposed upon subsequent kings of Poland.


Pacte de Famine.

_See_ Malisset.


Pahlen’s Conspiracy.

A conspiracy of Count Pahlen, Governor of St. Petersburg, in 1801, to
dethrone Paul I. The Czarewitch gave his countenance to the plot, with
the stipulation that no bodily harm should befall his father. Paul was
nevertheless murdered by Pahlen and his accomplices.


Paix de Monsieur.

A treaty between Catherine de’ Medici and the Huguenots in 1576, whereby
the Huguenots were allowed the exercise of their religion in certain
towns which they held. Certain appanages were granted to their leaders,
Condé, Henry of Navarre and others.


Paix des Dames.

The Peace of Cambray, so called because it was negotiated by Louise of
Savoy, mother of Francis I, and Margaret, aunt of Charles V.


Paix Fourrée.

The name of the Patched-up Peace is given to the Peace between Jean
Sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy, and the Duc d’Orléans, the leader of the
Armagnacs in 1407. It was a device of Jean to get the Duc d’Orléans into
his power and three days afterwards Orléans was murdered by the Duke of
Burgundy’s agents.

The same title is sometimes given to the Peace of Longjumeau, between
Charles IX and the Huguenots in 1586.


Paladins.

A select band of knights in the service of Charlemagne, the most famous
of whom was Roland or Orlando. Most of them were killed at the Battle of
Roncesvalles, where Charlemagne’s troops were defeated by the Moors in
778.


Palatinate Catechism.

_See_ Heidelberg Catechism.


Palatines.

In Poland the generals of the forces raised in the various palatinates,
or provinces, were so called.


Pale, The.

The portion of Ireland subdued and settled by Henry II in 1175, within
which only the English law was in force.


Palisades, Burgesses of the.

_See_ Pfahlbürger.


Pallium.

The cloak or robe of office sent by the Pope to metropolitans and other
high dignitaries of the Church, without which they could not enter upon
the exercise of their functions.


Palmetto State.

A name given to the State of South Carolina, in allusion to the number
of palmettos growing within its borders. The palmetto is in the arms of
the State.


Pam.

The nickname of Lord Palmerston.


Pan-American Congress.

A congress of the various States of North, South and Central America,
organized by James G. Blaine during the term of office of President
Harrison, and held at Washington in 1890. Among the subjects discussed
were reciprocity treaties, and a uniform standard of coinage, weights
and measures for the American Continent. No practical results, however,
accrued.


Pan-Germanism.

A movement in Germany and the German provinces of Austria, to unite the
latter to the German Empire. The Austrian Pan-Germans make no secret of
their desire to break up the Austrian Empire with this end in view.


Pan-Islamism.

A secret movement fomented by certain fanatical Mohammedans, for the
freedom of all Moslems from Christian domination. It cannot be said to
be in any way organized, but its emissaries are from time to time found
at work in Mohammedan districts under Russian and British rule.


Pan-Slavism.

A Russian movement having for its ideal the confederation of all the
Slavonic nations under the hegemony of Russia. The Pan-Slavists are
naturally strong advocates of a forward policy in the political
relations of Russia and Turkey.


Panama Canal Treaty.

A treaty between the United States and Colombia, signed in January,
1903, providing for the acquisition by the former Power of the canal
rights of the new Panama Company. The United States secured a strip of
territory, six miles wide, along the route of the canal, against a
payment to Colombia of £2,000,000 and an annual subsidy. This is granted
on a lease for a hundred years, renewable at the option of the United
States. An arrangement is made for joint police and judicial control,
but the subjects of the United States can claim to be tried by their own
courts. The port dues are ceded by Colombia to the United States.


Panama Scandal.

During the investigation, in 1892, into the affairs of the Panama Canal
Company, which had become bankrupt, it was discovered that large sums of
money belonging to the shareholders were not properly accounted for. It
appeared that in order to get the Panama Lottery Bill passed in 1888,
the Baron de Reinach had distributed three millions of francs in bribes
to deputies and senators, and that over one hundred had accepted bribes
to vote for the bill. The directors of the company, including M. de
Lesseps and his son, were tried and found guilty of malversation of the
company’s funds, and several deputies and senators, including eight
ex-ministers, were prosecuted for receiving bribes. The Parisians called
this affair “La Lessive du Panama,” or the Panama dirty linen.


Panamino.

The bank scandal in Italy in 1893, in which several deputies were
involved, was known as the Panamino, or Little Panama.


Pandours.

A corps of Hottentots and half-breeds, raised by the Dutch East India
Company at the Cape in 1793.


Panthay Rebellion.

A rising of the Mohammedans of Yunnan against China, which broke out in
1855, under the leadership of Dow-Win-Sheou. The rising was successful,
and the Viceroy of Yunnan finally signed a treaty by which Dow-Win-Sheou
was given practically uncontrolled sway over Western Yunnan. After his
death the Peking Government at last determined to restore the Imperial
rule and dispatched a force for that purpose in 1867 which, after a long
conflict, defeated and almost exterminated the Mohammedans.


Papal Infallibility.

This was made a dogma of the Roman Catholic Church by a decree of the
Vatican Council in 1870. It is decreed that in all matters of faith and
morals the Pope is infallible when he speaks _ex cathedrâ_, that is to
say, officially as the vicegerent of God.


Paper King.

John Law of the Mississippi Scheme was so called from his issue of large
amounts of paper money without an adequate reserve in specie.


Parc aux Cerfs.

The harem of Louis XV of France in the Park of Versailles.


Paris Fund.

A fund raised by subscriptions from America for the support of the Irish
Home Rule agitation and of the evicted tenants. It was deposited in
Paris, and was under the control of Parnell. After his death in 1891, a
serious quarrel followed between the Parnellites and the
anti-Parnellites as to the disposal of the fund. Eventually, in 1894, it
was handed over to Mr. Justin McCarthy.


Paris Matins.

The name given to the massacre of St. Bartholomew.


Paris, Treaty of, 1763.

A treaty between England, France and Spain, at the close of the Seven
Years War. England obtained the whole of the French possessions in
America, except New Orleans and the territory west of the Mississippi,
together with Florida, ceded by Spain in return for Havana, which was
restored to her. The French fishing rights on the Newfoundland coast and
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence were formally recognized. Guadeloupe and
Martinique were restored to France, who also obtained St. Lucia. England
recovered Minorca, in exchange for which France ceded to Spain Louisiana
west of the Mississippi. In India, France retained her factories, but
agreed to withdraw her troops.


Paris, Treaty of, 1814.

A treaty between France and the Allied Powers, signed in 1814, after the
entry of the Allies into Paris. By its provisions France was restricted
to her frontier of 1790, with the exception of a slight increase of
territory, including some strong places, towards the Rhine, and about
half Savoy, towards the Alps. Mauritius was surrendered to England, who
retained Malta and the Cape of Good Hope. The independence of the German
and Swiss states, and of the Italian states outside the Austrian
dominions was proclaimed. Holland, under the rule of the Prince of
Orange, was to receive an accession of territory, which, by a secret
article, was declared to be Belgium. Sardinia received Genoa, in
compensation for the portion of Savoy ceded to France. These provisions
formed the basis for discussion at the Congress which met immediately
afterwards at Vienna to settle the affairs of Europe.


Paris, Treaty of, 1815.

A treaty between France and the Allies, signed in 1815, after the
Waterloo Campaign. France lost the advanced frontier accorded her by the
treaty of 1814, and was restricted absolutely to her frontier of 1790.
She was further mulcted in a sum of seven hundred million francs, to be
paid within five years, and pending payment an army of occupation was to
hold certain fortresses.


Paris, Treaty of, 1856.

A treaty signed by England, France, Russia, Turkey, Prussia and
Sardinia, after the close of the Crimean War. It provided for the return
of Kars to Turkey and of Sebastopol to Russia. The Powers agreed to
respect the integrity of Turkey, while the Sultan undertook to issue a
firman ameliorating the condition of his Christian subjects. The Black
Sea was neutralized, and the Bosphorus and Dardanelles closed to ships
of war in time of peace, while the navigation of the Danube was thrown
open to all nations. The treaty also dealt with the laws of maritime
war, and the following principles were accepted by the signatories: (1)
Privateering to be henceforth unlawful; (2) The flag to cover the
merchandise, except in the case of contraband of war; (3) Neutral goods
under an enemy’s flag not to be liable to capture, unless contraband of
war; (4) Blockades not to be binding unless effective. In 1870 Russia
took advantage of the Franco-German War to repudiate the clause
neutralizing the Black Sea.


Paris, Treaty of, 1857.

A treaty between Great Britain and Persia, by which Persia renounced all
her rights in Afghanistan, including Herat, and undertook to submit to
the arbitration of Great Britain any questions that might arise between
her and Afghanistan. By a clause in this treaty the slave trade in the
Persian Gulf was made illegal.


Parish School Act.

An Act passed by the Irish Parliament in 1537, providing that no person
should be appointed to any benefice in Ireland who was not acquainted
with the English language, and requiring every beneficed clergyman to
establish and maintain English schools in his parish, and to teach his
parishioners the prayers of the Church in the English tongue.


Parlement.

The judicial body which succeeded the Cours Plénières, or Baronial
Courts of the early French kings. It was organized by Louis IX, and was
at first without any fixed seat, though under Philip the Fair in 1302 it
was established in Paris and became known as the Parlement de Paris. It
was then composed of two prelates, two nobles, thirteen clerics and
thirteen laymen. Its earliest records are dated 1254. Later, similar
bodies, known also as Parlements, were established in the chief
provincial centres.


Parliament of 1265.

To this Parliament of Henry III, in addition to the knights of the
shires, who had been summoned intermittently since the reign of William
the Conqueror, there were summoned, for the first time in English
history, two burgesses from each of the principal cities. The first
regular Parliament, however, in which all the estates of the realm were
duly represented is generally held to have been that of Edward I, which
met in 1294.


Parliaments.

_See_ Addled, Barebone’s, Bats, Cavalier, Club, Convention, Devil’s,
Drunken, Dunces, Good, Grattan’s, Long, Mad, Merciless, Pensioned,
Reformed, Rump, Short, Unlearned, Useless, White Bands, Wonderful.


Parliaments, Foreign.

Althing, Bundesrath, Chambre, Congress, Cortes, Delegations, Folkething,
Junta, Landesgemeinde, Landstag, Long Diet, Odalsthing, Potchefstroom,
Reichsrath, Reichstag, Rigsdag, Skuptschina, Sobranje, States General,
Storthing, Thing, United Diet, Volksraad.


Parnell Commission.

A commission appointed by Act of Parliament in 1888 to try the charges
brought against Mr. Parnell by the _Times_ in their articles “Parnellism
and Crime.” The gravamen of these charges was that Parnell and other
Irish leaders were insincere in their condemnation of agrarian crime,
and they were based on a series of letters sold to the _Times_ by a
certain Pigott. In one of these letters Mr. Parnell wrote that Mr.
Burke, who was murdered in Phœnix Park, had only got his deserts. Under
cross-examination Pigott broke down, and confessed that the letters were
forgeries. The Commission cleared Parnell and the other Irish members of
the graver charges, but considered their complicity in much of the
lawlessness of the Land League clearly proved.


Parnellites.

The followers of Mr. Parnell in the House of Commons, especially the
small section of the party which remained faithful to him after his
deposition from the leadership in 1890, and which continued in
opposition to the Anti-Parnellites after his death, under the leadership
of Mr. Redmond.


Parsees.

Descendants of the ancient Zoroastrians of Persia, who, rather than
forsake their religion, fled to India, on the conquest of Persia by the
Caliph Omar in 651. They form a community of about 85,000, with their
headquarters in Bombay.


Parsons’ Emperor.

_See_ Pfaffen-Kaiser.


Parthenopæan Republic.

A short-lived republic, established in the kingdom of Naples in 1799, as
the result of a popular rising.


Partition Treaty, First.

A treaty between Great Britain, Holland and Spain, signed in 1698, with
the object of dealing in anticipation with the claims of the rival
pretenders to the Spanish succession. It was agreed that Spain, the
Netherlands, and the Spanish Indies should pass to the Elector of
Bavaria, the least powerful of the three claimants. France was to
receive Guipuscoa and the two Sicilies, and Austria the Milanese. The
terms of this treaty, though secret, leaked out, and Charles was
persuaded to execute a will leaving the whole of his dominions to the
Bavarian Prince.


Partition Treaty, Second.

The death of the Elector of Bavaria having rendered the First Partition
Treaty of no effect, a second treaty was signed by the same three powers
in 1700. By this instrument Spain, the Netherlands and the Indies were
assigned to the Austrian Archduke, while France, in addition to the two
Sicilies and Guipuscoa, was to receive the Milanese, to be exchanged
eventually for Lorraine, which was a German fief encroaching on the
natural dominions of France.


Pasquinades.

A series of satires on the authorities issued in Rome towards the end of
the fifteenth century by a witty tailor named Pasquino. The word is now
applied generally to political lampoons.


Passarowitz, Treaty of.

A treaty between Venice and Turkey, signed in 1718, by which the Morea,
which had been secured to Venice by the treaty of Carlowitz in 1699, was
restored to Turkey.


Passau, Treaty of.

A treaty between the Emperor Charles V and the Protestant Princes of
Germany, signed in 1552, after the surprise of Charles at Innspruck by
Maurice of Saxony. The Protestants of Germany secured thereby the free
exercise of their religion and freedom from Imperial interference.


Passive Obedience.

_See_ Non-Resistance.


Pastoureaux.

A band of shepherds and peasants, led by a Hungarian, who styled himself
the Master of Hungary, who rose in revolt in France in 1251. Their
avowed objects were the reform of the abuses of the Church and the
release of the Holy Land from Moslem rule. The outbreak, directed in the
first instance against priests and scholars, was accompanied by wild
excesses, but was soon suppressed, the Master being killed in an attack
on Bourges.


Patrimonia Sancti Petri.

The city of Rome and the surrounding district, handed over to Alexander
III by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1177 as St. Peter’s
Inheritance.


Patriots.

A section of Whig malcontents who, in 1733, under the leadership of
Pulteney strongly opposed Walpole’s Excise Bill. They were supported by
the “Boys,” the Young Whig party under William Pitt, and by the small
remnant of the Tories under Bolingbroke. Walpole, however, was too
strong for them, and, as a protest, the Patriots retired from Parliament
in a body.


Patrons of Husbandry.

A secret society formed for the promotion of agricultural interests in
the United States in 1870. Between that date and 1876, when the society
reached its zenith, the number of their lodges or “granges” increased in
number from 90 to 19,000. The discussion of political questions was
strictly forbidden at their meetings. The members of the society are
known as Grangers.


Pavia, Edict of.

An edict issued by the Emperor Conrad II in 1037, by which all lesser
fiefs throughout the Empire were made hereditary, while the feudal dues
payable to the greater Lords were reduced. This edict became the law of
German feudalism.


Pazzi, Conspiracy of the.

A conspiracy against the Medici in Florence in 1478, headed by the Pazzi
family, and supported by Pope Sixtus IV. The plan was to assassinate the
two brothers, Lorenzo and Giuliano, in the cathedral, but the assassins
failed to kill Lorenzo, whose prompt measures quickly put down the
rising.


Peace of 1782.

A treaty between Great Britain and the United States which closed the
American War of Independence. By its provisions Great Britain recognized
the independence of the United States, and their right to the whole of
the Northern Continent of America except Canada and Newfoundland. This
treaty was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles of 1783, to which Spain
and France were also parties.


Peace Preservation Act.

An Act passed in the Queensland Parliament in 1894, to deal with the
terrorism rife in the pastoral districts owing to the action of the
Shearers’ Union.


Peace Society.

A society founded in London in 1816 to advocate the principle that war
is inconsistent with Christianity and humanity. It is entirely
unsectarian, though most of its earlier members were Quakers.


Peasant War.

A rising of the peasants of Suabia, Franconia, Alsace and Lorraine, in
1525, under the leadership of Görtz von Berlichingen. They issued a
manifesto demanding, among other concessions, the right to choose their
own pastors, the payment of tithes in kind only, the proceeds thereof to
be devoted to ecclesiastical purposes, the abolition of serfdom, and
free hunting and fishing. In the later stages of the war they were led
by the fanatic Münzer, who proclaimed community of goods. After much
bloodshed the rising was suppressed in the course of the year, Münzer
being killed in battle.


Pecquigny, Treaty of.

A treaty between Edward IV and Louis XI, by which the English King
agreed to withdraw his troops from France, on the payment by Louis of
the expenses of the war, a yearly pension, and 50,000 crowns as ransom
for Margaret of Anjou. This treaty, signed in 1475, was secured by Louis
mainly by large bribes administered to Edward’s advisers.


Pecsovics.

The name given by the Magyars, after the war of 1848, to those
Hungarians who were suspected of Austrian sympathies.


Peelites.

The followers of Sir Robert Peel in his departure from extreme Toryism,
on the lines of the Tamworth Manifesto of 1835.


Peep-o’-Day Boys.

Bands of Protestant peasantry, formed in Ulster in 1782, who made it
their business to eject Catholic tenants from their farms.


Peers, Trial of.

The establishment of the right of a peer to be tried by his peers in
Parliament dates from the reign of Edward III, when Stratford,
Archbishop of Canterbury, refused to answer the charges brought against
him before any other tribunal. He was supported by the Lords, and the
King was at last compelled to yield. The privilege thus secured was
embodied in a statute.


Pelagic Sealing.

The capture of seals in the open sea, and not on their breeding grounds.
_See_ Behring Sea.


Pelican State.

A name given to the State of Louisiana, from the pelican in its coat of
arms.


Pelucones.

The reactionary party in Chile in 1828 were known as the Pelucones or
Wigs.


Peking, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1860 by China, Great Britain and France, ratifying
the provisions of the Treaty of Tientsin. China also made certain
additional concessions, and paid an increased indemnity as compensation
for the treatment accorded to the plenipotentiaries on their way to
Peking to ratify the previous treaty.


Pembroke, Settlement of.

A settlement of Flemings at Haverfordwest and Tenby, under the Earl of
Clare, in 1107.


Penal Laws.

A series of Acts passed at various times from the reign of William III
to that of George II, and notably in the time of Queen Anne, imposing
various most harassing disabilities on the Irish Catholics. The first
relaxation of these Acts took place in 1778.


Pendleton Bill.

A bill to promote Civil Service reform, which was passed by the United
States Senate in 1882. Its principal provision was the throwing open of
appointments in the Civil Service to competitive examination.


Peninsular State.

A name sometimes given to the State of Florida, U.S.A.


Penny Post.

This great reform was introduced in the Budget of 1839, and became
operative on January 10, 1840. Its introduction is due to the
perseverance of Sir Rowland Hill, who after many years of argument, at
last succeeded in convincing the Postal authorities that the increase of
correspondence would more than compensate for the loss occasioned by the
lowering of the rates.


Pensioned Parliament.

The Parliament of 1661-79 was so called from the large number of its
members who were Cavaliers in receipt of Royal pensions. It was also
called the Cavalier Parliament.


Pentecôte Vivante.

This sobriquet was bestowed upon Cardinal Mezzofanti, who was said to
speak fifty-eight languages.


People’s Charter.

_See_ Chartism.


People’s Party.

_See_ Populists.


Perdita.

The name by which Mrs. Mary Robinson, the favourite of George IV, was
generally known.


Père des Lettres.

Francis I of France was called the Father of Letters.


Permanent Settlement.

The arrangement by which Lord Cornwallis finally adopted the Zemindari
System of land tenure in Bengal in 1793. (_See_ Zemindar).


Péronne, Treaty of.

A treaty between Louis XI of France and Charles the Bold of Burgundy, in
1468, by which Louis, who had been treacherously imprisoned by Charles,
obtained his release in return for certain important concessions.


Perpetual Edict.

A document issued at Brussels by Philip II in 1577, confirming the
Pacification of Ghent. Philip agreed to the withdrawal of the Spanish
Army, exchange of all prisoners, confirmation of the Charters and
Constitutions of the Netherlands, and the maintenance of the two
religions.


Perpetual League.

A league entered into in 1291 by the three Forest Cantons of
Switzerland, Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden, for mutual assistance against
aggression. This league, which is also known as the League of Brunnen,
is the germ of the Swiss Confederation. A second Perpetual League was
formed in 1332, when Lucerne was admitted into the Federation.


Perpetual Peace.

A treaty of peace entered into between Austria and the Federated Swiss
Cantons in 1474, by which Austria renounced her claim to all the
territory won back from her by the Swiss, in return for which they
promised their aid in the war with Burgundy.


Perpetual Peace.

A treaty between England and Scotland in 1502, whereby Margaret,
daughter of Henry VII, was betrothed to James IV.


Perth, Convocation of.

An assembly summoned by Edward I in 1305, after the annexation of
Scotland, to elect members to represent Scotland in the English
Parliament of that year.


Peshwa.

The minister of the Mahratta princes of India. The Peshwas, who were
seven in succession, may be said to have formed a Mahratta dynasty, as,
though nominally ministers, they were actually rulers of the Mahratta
States. Their power came to an end with the treaty of Bassein in 1802.


Peterloo.

_See_ Manchester Massacre.


Peter’s Pence.

A tribute to the Pope which seems to have originated in an undertaking
by Æthelwulf (836-857) to find funds for the support of a Saxon College
at Rome. This tribute was later exacted by the Popes as a right, and was
so paid by William the Conqueror and later kings.


Petit Caporal.

Napoleon’s nickname among his soldiers, given to him after the battle of
Lodi.


Petition and Advice.

An enactment passed by Parliament in 1657, and accepted by Cromwell,
amending the Constitution. Among other provisions it restored the second
chamber, which had been abolished by the Long Parliament, and placed the
army under Parliament and the head of the executive jointly. It also
provided that Cromwell should take the title of King, a provision which
he refused to accept.


Petition of Grievances.

A petition presented by Parliament to James I in 1610, complaining of
the Impositions, of the Courts of High Commission and of Wales, and of
the free use of Royal Proclamations having the force of Statutes.


Petition of Right.

A petition presented to Charles I by his third Parliament in 1628. It
comprised four demands: (1) That no taxes should be levied without the
consent of Parliament. (2) That no subject of the realm should be
imprisoned unless due cause were shown. (3) That the forces of the Crown
should not be billeted on the people. (4) That no commission should
issue in time of peace to try a subject by martial law. The King gave a
qualified acceptance to the petition, but never adhered to its
conditions.


Petitioners.

The signatories to petitions to Charles II in 1679, urging him to call
Parliament together, he having prorogued the new Parliament for a year
before it had commenced to discuss business. The loyalist party, who
forwarded an address to the King expressing their abhorrence of the
petitions, were called Abhorrers.


Pétroleuses.

A band of women who, in the last hours of the Paris Commune, spread over
Paris with petroleum, setting fire to public buildings. When caught by
the Government troops, they were promptly shot.


Pfaffenbrief.

The Priests’ Charter, an ordinance issued in 1370 by the Federal States
of Switzerland, declaring ecclesiastics to be subject to the authority
of the State, and to have no special privileges.


Pfaffen-Kaiser.

Charles IV, the Emperor set up by the Guelf Party in 1346 in opposition
to Lewis IV, was called the Parsons’ Emperor.


Pfahl-bürger.

Burgesses of the Palisades, refugees from the tyranny of the feudal
barons, who established themselves outside the walls but within the
liberties of the free cities. These liberties were usually defined by a
line of palisades, from which the name is derived.


Philike Hetairia.

A Greek secret society established in 1814 for the purpose of fomenting
a rising against Turkish rule.


Phœnix Park Murders.

The murder in the Phœnix Park, Dublin, on May 6, 1882, by the
Invincibles, an Irish secret society, of Lord Frederick Cavendish, the
Chief Secretary, and Mr. Burke, the Under Secretary. The assassins
escaped, but were afterwards brought to justice through the disclosures
of an informer named Carey.


Piagnoni.

The Weepers, the followers of Savonarola, who was the guiding spirit of
the Florentine Republic established during the temporary eclipse of the
power of the Medici in 1493.


Pichegru’s Conspiracy.

A conspiracy to overthrow the Consulate and bring back the Bourbons,
planned by Georges Cadoudal, the Breton leader, and General Pichegru in
1804. The Comte d’Artois was privy to it, and the English Ministers at
the Courts of Bavaria and Würtemberg were also supposed to have had
knowledge of it. Certain information reaching the police, the
conspirators and many who were entirely innocent were arrested. Among
other innocent victims was the young Duc d’Enghien, son of the Prince de
Condé, who was shot by order of Napoleon. It is of this action that
Fouché said, “It is worse than a crime, it is a blunder.”


Piés Poudrées, Court of.

A special court established during the great fairs in Scotland and
England to try trivial offences, such as disturbances of the peace,
committed within the fair limits. It derives its name from the “dusty
feet” of the pedlars, who were the principal vendors at these
gatherings. In England it was called the Court of Pie Powder.


Pilgrim Fathers.

The Puritan emigrants who left England in the _Mayflower_, and were the
first colonists of New England in 1620.


Pilgrimage of Grace.

The Catholic rising in the North of England in the reign of Henry VIII
(1537).


Pilnitz, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in August, 1791, by the King of Prussia and the Emperor,
by which the former agreed to support the allies in their efforts to
suppress the French Revolution. The two monarchs subsequently issued a
manifesto, known as the Declaration of Pilnitz, declaring that the
position of the King of France was a matter of interest to all
sovereigns, and that if the European rulers united to aid Louis, they
would combine with them for the purpose. The price of Prussia’s
co-operation in this movement was a secret undertaking on the part of
Austria not to interfere with her proceedings in Poland.


Pilsen, League of.

A confederation of Hussites in 1422, sworn to resist Sigismund, and to
oppose any sovereign who would not permit communion in both kinds.


Pindaris.

A body of freebooters, or soldiers of fortune, in India, originally
formed as a body of irregular horse, with licence to plunder, by the
last Mohammedan dynasty of the Deccan. At the beginning of the
nineteenth century they were in the service of the Mahratta
Confederacy, and after the breaking up of this they continued to give
great trouble to the British by their predatory raids. They were finally
dispersed, and ceased to exist as an organized force in 1818.


Pine Tree State.

The state of Maine is so called, from the wide extent of its pine
forests.


Pisa, Council of.

A Council, summoned during the schism in 1409, which deposed Gregory XII
and Benedict XIII, and elected Alexander V as Pope. The two first named
declined to recognize the authority of the Council, with the result that
there were now three Popes.


Pitaux, Insurrection of the.

A peasant rising in Saintonge and Poitou in 1548, to obtain redress of
grievances in connection with the Gabelle, or salt-tax. The insurgents
held Bordeaux for some time, but were eventually overpowered, and their
leaders executed. The rising, however, led to a reduction in the
Gabelle.


Pitt’s India Bill.

_See_ East India Company.


Place Bill.

A Bill which, after several failures, became law in 1743, in spite of
the strong opposition of the King, rendering pensioners of the Crown and
holders of offices about the Court ineligible for seats in the House of
Commons.


Plague of London.

The pestilence which broke out in London in 1665, and was not completely
stamped out until the Great Fire of the following year. It carried off
nearly 100,000 persons out of a total population of half a million.


Plain.

The name given to the Girondins in the French Convention, because they
occupied the lower tiers of seats in the Assembly. The Jacobins, who sat
on the upper benches, were known as the Mountain.


Plan of Campaign.

A combination of tenants to refuse their rents on those Irish estates
where the reductions demanded were not conceded. The tenants bound
themselves to act together, and to make no separate arrangements with
the landlord. If the reduction was refused, they then paid their rent
into a common fund, to be used for the support of those who were
evicted. The Plan was put into operation on forty estates. In April,
1888, it was pronounced unlawful by the Vatican.


Platine States.

The name given to the South American Republics bordering on the River
Plate, namely, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.


Plébiscite.

The submission of a question to the direct national vote, instead of to
a vote of the elected representatives. It was adopted by Napoleon III
after the Coup d’Etat of 1851, when he referred to the people the
question of his assumption of the Imperial dignity.


Plimsoll’s Act.

The Merchant Shipping Act of 1876, passed owing to the efforts of Mr.
Plimsoll on behalf of merchant seamen. It contains provisions preventing
unseaworthy ships from leaving English ports, and regulates the load
line and deck cargoes. The mark indicating the waterline of a fully
loaded ship is known as the Plimsoll Mark.


Plon-Plon.

The nickname of Prince Napoleon, son of Jerome Bonaparte. It was given
him during the Crimean war, and is a euphemism for Craint-Plomb (Fear
Bullet).


Pochi Danari.

The Penniless, a nickname given by the Italians to the Emperor
Maximilian I (1493-1519).


Podestà.

The chief magistrate in the Italian cities during the thirteenth
century. He was elected annually by the citizens. In some cases his
functions were purely judicial; in other cities he also exercised
certain executive functions, including the control of the military
forces.


Poire, La.

The nickname of Louis Philippe of France, whose face was usually
portrayed by the caricaturists of the day in the shape of a pear.


Poland, First Partition of.

An arrangement arrived at in 1772 by Frederick of Prussia, Catherine of
Russia, and Maria Theresa of Austria, by which Prussia obtained the
whole of Polish Prussia, except Dantzig and Thorn; Austria annexed
Galicia and Lodomiria; and Russia acquired all the territory between the
Dwina, the Dnieper and the Drutsch.


Poland, Second Partition of.

At the close of the Polish Civil War in 1793, Prussia and Russia invaded
Poland, and as a consequence added to their dominions--Russia 85,000
square miles of territory, and Prussia 21,000, together with the towns
of Dantzig and Thorn.


Poland, Third Partition of.

The small remnant of the Kingdom of Poland was divided between Prussia,
Austria and Russia after Kosciusko’s abortive rising in 1795.


Policy, Council of.

The local Council established at Cape Town in 1652 to govern the Colony
under the General Council of the Dutch East India Company. It consisted
at first of four members, but was enlarged to eight in 1685.


Polish Note.

A joint note presented to Russia by Great Britain, France and Austria in
1863, after the suppression of the Polish insurrection of that year. It
contained suggestions for an amnesty, national self-government, liberty
of conscience, and other liberal measures, but as there was obviously no
intention of backing it by force, Russia treated it with complete
indifference.


Polish Succession, War of the.

The war which broke out on the death of Augustus II in 1733. Stanislas
Leszczynski was supported for the throne by France, Spain and Sardinia,
Augustus III by Russia and Austria. The war was ended by the Treaty of
Vienna in 1738, Augustus obtaining the crown.


Political Assessments Act.

An Act of the United States Congress, passed in 1876, which forbids the
soliciting or receiving of assessments for political purposes from any
person holding an official position under the Government.


Politiques.

A party which came into existence in France after the massacre of St.
Bartholomew in 1572, under the leadership of the Montmorency family. It
was composed of Catholics who had no sympathy with the Huguenot
persecutions and desired to extend toleration to their heretic
fellow-countrymen.


Poll Tax.

A tax, graduated from £1 to 1_s._ a head, on every man or woman in
England, imposed in 1380. It caused great discontent, which culminated
in the rising of Wat Tyler and Jack Cade in 1381.


Pontage.

A tax imposed on all freemen in feudal times, for the repair and
maintenance of bridges.


Poonah, Treaty of.

A treaty between the British and the Peshwa signed in 1817, whereby the
Peshwa recognized the dissolution of the Mahratta Confederacy, and
renounced all his claims on Sindhia, Holkar, the Gaekwar and the Rajah
of Berar. He undertook to hold no communication with foreign princes,
and to provide for the maintenance of a force of 5,000 horse and 3,000
foot. He also relinquished all territorial rights north of the Nerbudda,
and undertook not to interfere in Indian affairs.


Poor Law Acts.

The first Act dealing with this question was passed in the reign of
Elizabeth in 1572, and was followed by other enactments which were
consolidated in the Act of 1601. By this Act rogues and vagabonds were
severely dealt with, but workhouses were provided for the relief of the
deserving poor, and parish officers, known as Overseers, appointed to
superintend the working of the Act. This Act of Elizabeth continued in
force till the Poor Law Act of 1832. By that time numerous abuses had
crept into the administration of the Poor Law, resulting in the complete
pauperisation of many parishes, owing largely to the stringency of the
regulations against vagabondage having been relaxed. By the new Act, the
separation between the two classes was rendered definite, relief was
only to be granted to the able-bodied in return for labour, and children
were separated from adult paupers. The machinery was in the main left
unchanged, but small parishes were formed into Unions, and a central
Board of Control was established.


Pope, Election of.

The present system of election to the Papal chair was established by
Nicholas II at the Synod of Rome in 1059, and amended by Gregory X at
the Council of Lyons in 1275.


Pope of Geneva.

A nickname of Calvin.


Popish Plot.

A pretended plot in the reign of Charles II, having for its object the
assassination of the King and the forcible establishment of the Roman
Catholic religion. The arch-informer, Titus Oates, was a renegade
English clergyman, who had been admitted into the Jesuit order. It is
possible that there may have been some such scheme on foot, but the
so-called revelations of Oates and his fellow-informers were nothing but
a tissue of absurdities. Unfortunately, the murder by some person
unknown of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey, before whom Oates made his first
deposition, so inflamed the popular mind that no justice could be
expected, and five Catholic peers denounced by Oates were sent to the
Tower, while many innocent priests and others were condemned and
executed.


Popular Sovereignty.

The political doctrine in the United States that the question of negro
slavery was one for each Territory or State to decide for itself. It was
perhaps better known as Squatter Sovereignty.


Populists.

A party formed at Cincinnati in 1891, under the style of the People’s
Party of the United States. Their “platform,” drawn up by Ignatius
Donnelly, consists of the following “planks” among others: Abolition of
National Banks, Free Coinage of Silver, Laws against Alien Landowners,
Graduated Income-tax, and National Control of Railways.


Porcari, Conspiracy of.

An attempt, under the leadership of Stefano Porcari in 1453, to restore
republican institutions in Rome. It was the final struggle of the Romans
against the temporal domination of the Popes.


Port Philip Association.

An association of Pioneers under John Pascoe Fawkner and John Batman,
who were the first colonists to settle on the shores of Port Phillip
Bay, and therefore the founders of Melbourne, in 1835.


Porteous Riots.

An outbreak in Edinburgh in 1736, when the mob broke into the Tolbooth
and hanged an officer named Porteous, who had been sentenced to death
for firing on the crowd at an execution where he was in command of the
guard, and afterwards reprieved. After executing their vengeance, the
mob dispersed, and none of the rioters were ever detected.


Portroyal.

A religious and literary community established in Paris circ. 1594 by
the Arnault family, the leaders of the Jansenists. Pascal was one of its
most famous members.


Portugal, Independence of.

In 1640 the weakness of Spain under Charles IV induced the Portuguese
nobles, headed by the Archbishop of Lisbon, to throw off their
allegiance to the Spanish Crown, and proclaim their legitimate
sovereign, the Duke of Braganza, King of Portugal by the title of John
IV. The Spaniards accepted the situation, without any effort to maintain
their authority.


Portuguese Mars.

Alfonso d’Albuquerque (1453-1515), the famous Indian Viceroy, was so
called.


Postal Convention, International.

A convention of the principal States of Europe and America, held at
Berne in 1874, at which a uniform rate of postage between the various
States was agreed upon.


Post-nati.

The name given to James I’s Scottish subjects who were born after his
accession to the English throne. The question arose as to whether they
were aliens in England, and a legal decision was given to the effect
that they were not aliens.


Potato Famine.

The failure of the potato crop in Ireland in 1847 is so called. It
caused terrible distress, notwithstanding all the efforts made to
relieve the sufferers, and thousands in consequence emigrated to
America. Its effects on population, land tenure and other Irish
questions have been very far-reaching.


Potchefstroom, Volksraad of.

The first Volksraad north of the Vaal River, established in 1840.


Poyning’s Act.

An Act introduced by Sir Edward Poyning, and passed in 1495, which
declared that no Irish Parliament should be convoked until its programme
of legislation had been sanctioned by the English Privy Council, and
attested by the Great Seal. It was afterwards a source of endless
complications between the Irish and English Governments, as it limited
the absolute power of the Lord Lieutenant, and rendered impossible any
policy of the English colony in Ireland to which the Mother Country was
opposed. This Act was temporarily repealed in 1689, re-enacted in 1691,
and finally rescinded in 1782.


Praemunire, Statute of.

A statute passed in 1392, finally confirming the Statute of Provisors of
the previous reign, and declaring the realm of England to be free of all
earthly subjection. The procuring of any Bull or other Papal instrument
was made punishable by outlawry and forfeiture.


Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges.

A proclamation of Charles VII of France in 1438, declaring that the
authority of a General Council was superior to that of the Pope. It
further followed the terms of the Concordat of Aschaffenburg,
proclaiming that annates were abolished, and that the election of the
Bishops was to be free of Papal control.


Pragmatic Sanction of Charles VI.

The fundamental law issued in 1724, settling the succession to the
Austrian throne on Maria Theresa and her descendants. This, the most
famous of the various Pragmatic Sanctions, was the cause of the War of
the Austrian Succession, and was not finally accepted by the European
Powers till the Peace of Aix La Chapelle in 1748.


Pragmatic Sanction of Frankfort.

A manifesto issued in 1338 by the Electors of the German Empire, in
reply to the anathemas of Boniface XII, maintaining the Emperor’s
independence of Papal control.


Pragmatic Sanction of Louis IX.

A decree issued in 1269, against the privileges of the clergy and the
Papal usurpations. It forbade the sale of benefices and the levy of any
tax by the Pope.


Pragmatic Sanction of Mentz.

The decree issued in 1439 by Albert II, the first Hapsburg Emperor,
settling the throne of Germany upon the royal house of Austria.


Pragmatic Sanction of 1759.

The instrument by which Charles III of Spain settled the succession to
the throne of Naples upon his third son and his descendants.


Pragmatic Sanction of 1830.

The decree issued by Ferdinand VII of Spain, abolishing the Salic Law,
in order to secure the crown for his daughter Isabella. This document is
chiefly responsible for the Carlist wars.


Prague, Congress of.

A Congress of Panslavists held at Prague in 1848. It was the occasion of
an outbreak on the part of the Czechs, and led to the bombardment of the
city by Windischgrätz.


Prague, Peace of.

A treaty signed in 1635, to which all the sovereign States of Germany
were parties. Certain concessions were made to the Protestants, the
hereditary right of Austria to Bohemia was recognized, Pomerania was
given to the Elector of Brandenburg, and Lusatia to the Elector of
Saxony. The latter, in return, agreed to aid Austria in expelling the
Swedes from Germany, thus scandalously deserting his northern ally.


Prague, Treaty of.

A treaty signed by Prussia, Austria and Italy, after the defeat of
Austria at Sadowa in 1866. Prussia annexed Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein,
Hesse-Cassel and Nassau. Austria renounced all right of interference in
the North German States, as President of the Diet, and further ceded the
Venetian provinces to Italy.


Praguerie.

A revolt of the Dukes of Bourbon and Alençon and other great nobles
against Charles VII in 1439, owing to the imposition, by the Ordonnance
of Orléans, of a tax on their lands for military purposes. They were
joined by the Dauphin Louis, but were defeated by Charles in 1440, when
the war came to an end. It broke out again, but was finally suppressed
in 1441.


Prairie State.

The State of Illinois, U.S.A., is so called from the vast expanse of
level prairie it contains.


Precariae.

Grants of Church lands to laymen during the Middle Ages, often extorted
by force. They were generally for the life of the grantee, but were
sometimes renewed to his successor.


Predial Servitude.

The condition of villeinage under the feudal system. _See_ Villeins.


Preobajensky.

A secret political police, established by Peter the Great of Russia. It
was somewhat similar in constitution to the modern “Third Section.” It
was abolished by Peter III in 1762.


Presburg, Confederation of.

A confederation of the Austrian, Bohemian and Hungarian States against
the Emperor Rudolph II, formed by his brother Matthias in 1608. He
succeeded in wresting these possessions from Rudolph.


Presburg, Treaty of.

A treaty between France and Austria, signed in December, 1805, a few
days later than the Treaty of Schönbrunn. Austria, left at Napoleon’s
mercy by the defection of Prussia, was forced to accept what was
practically a measure of spoliation. She surrendered Venice and the
Adriatic provinces to Italy, and portions of her dominions to Bavaria,
Würtemberg and Baden, while she recognized the erection of Bavaria and
Würtemberg into kingdoms, and agreed to abstain from interference in the
affairs of Naples.


Pretoria Convention.

A convention signed in 1881, after the Majuba disaster, between Great
Britain and the Transvaal. The Transvaal was granted complete internal
independence, under British suzerainty, Great Britain to have control of
the foreign policy of the Transvaal, and to be represented by a Resident
at Pretoria.


Pretoria, Treaty of.

A treaty between Portugal and the Transvaal, signed in 1869, providing
for the delimitation of the frontier between their respective
territories.


Pride’s Purge.

The name given to the forcible removal from the House by Colonel Pride
and his troopers of over a hundred members of the majority of the Long
Parliament. The ejected members were imprisoned, and the remnant, known
as the Rump, fell completely under the domination of the army.


Priests’ Charter.

_See_ Pfaffenbrief.


Prince Florizel.

A nickname of George IV, derived from the name he assumed in his
correspondence with Mrs. Mary Robinson (Perdita).


Prince of Alchemy.

A sobriquet of Rudolph II, Emperor of Germany.


Princes Expulsion Bill.

A Bill passed by the French Chambers in 1886, expelling from French
territory all claimants to the throne and their immediate heirs. As a
consequence, Prince Napoleon and the Comte de Paris and his family left
France.


Princess Party.

The party headed by the Churchills, who supported the Princess Anne
during the reign of William III.


Principe de la Paz.

The Prince of the Peace, the title of Godoy, the minister of Charles IV
of Spain, in the last decade of the eighteenth century.


Prisoner of Chillon.

François de Bonnivard, a Frenchman who offended Charles III of Savoy,
and was imprisoned by him for six years in the Castle of Chillon on the
Lake of Geneva.


Prisoner of the Vatican.

Pope Pius IX was so called by his adherents after Rome became the seat
of the Italian Government in 1870.


Privas, Massacre of.

A massacre of Huguenots at the taking of Privas by Louis XIII in 1629.


Privilege of the Clan Macduff.

In ancient times any person within the ninth degree of kinship with the
Chief of the Macduffs who had been guilty of unpremeditated homicide
could, if he reached in safety Macduff’s Cross in Fife, escape the death
penalty, and go free on payment of a fine. This privilege is said to
have been granted by Malcolm Canmore (1057-93.)


Professio Fidei.

A profession of the Catholic Faith, issued by the Council of Trent in
1545, as a counterblast to the Protestant Confession of Augsburg. Its
acceptance was made obligatory on every aspirant to a degree throughout
the German Universities.


Promissory Oaths Act.

An Act passed in 1868, consolidating and amending the various Acts
dealing with the oath of allegiance and abjuration. It provides a
Parliamentary, an official and a judicial oath, of a nature that can be
taken by Roman Catholics and Jews, ending with the formula “So help me,
God.” The wording of the Parliamentary oath came into special prominence
in 1880-5, in the course of Mr. Bradlaugh’s attempts to take his seat in
the House of Commons.


Pronunciamiento.

In Spain and Spanish America a proclamation issued by a military leader,
backed by his troops, against the existing Government.


Propaganda, College of the.

The Congregatio de Propaganda Fide is a council of ecclesiastics,
founded by Gregory XV in 1622, to superintend the diffusion of the
Catholic Faith in distant lands. The Council has at present control of
all foreign missions and of a college at Rome for the training of
missionaries.


Protestant Duke.

James, Duke of Monmouth, the natural son of Charles II, who, though
brought up as a Catholic, afterwards adopted the Protestant faith, was
so called by his supporters.


Protestant Hero.

The name given by the English people to Frederick the Great of Prussia.


Protestant League.

A league of the Protestant Princes of Germany, formed in 1651, to
maintain their territorial rights and uphold the Peace of Westphalia.


Protestant Union.

A league of Protestants formed at a Congress held at Ahausen, in
Anspach, in 1608, in consequence of the course pursued by the Emperor
and the Catholic Princes in the Troubles of Donauwörth. Its object was
mutual defence, and its leading members were the Elector Palatine,
Christian of Anhalt, and John Frederick of Würtemberg. It was afterwards
joined by fifteen Imperial cities.


Provisions of Oxford.

A decree issued in 1258 by the Council of State. It provided for the
placing of the royal castles in the hands of English Governors, and for
the summoning of Parliament three times a year. This document is
noteworthy as being the first public document issued in the English
language.


Provisors, Statute of.

A statute passed in the thirty-eighth year of Edward III (1365), and
directed against the claim of the Pope to appoint to benefices in
England. It confirmed a previous statute which enacted that the King and
the Lords were to appoint to benefices of their own or their ancestors’
creation, and not the Pope of Rome, and further made the introduction of
Papal Bulls and Briefs into the realm illegal.


Prudhommes.

Notable citizens elected, in the French towns in the twelfth century, to
act as an advisory board to the provost or representative of the King.


Pruth, Peace of the.

A treaty between Russia and Turkey, signed in 1711, after the relief of
Peter the Great, who had been besieged in Hush. It provided for the
cession to Turkey of Azov, and the retirement of Charles XII to Sweden
unmolested. It is also called the Treaty of Falczi.


Pucelle, La.

A sobriquet of Joan of Arc.


Punishment Act.

An Act passed by the British Parliament in 1836, at the instance of Lord
Glenelg, which, after setting forth in the preamble that the Cape Colony
was inhabited by “uncivilized persons,” proceeded to give the officers
of the Crown power to arrest and bring to trial in Cape Town all British
subjects dwelling south of the twenty-fifth parallel of latitude. It
caused intense irritation in South Africa, especially in Natal, which
was claiming to be erected into a separate British Colony, and refused
to recognize the right of the Cape Government to enforce the law while
affording them no protection against Kaffir and other enemies.


Punjaub, Annexation of.

Following on the victory of Gujerat, which closed the second Sikh war,
the Punjaub was annexed in 1851, an arrangement being made to pay a life
annuity of £50,000 to the Maharajah, Dhuleep Singh. Among the treasures
which were surrendered to the British was the Koh-i-Noor.


Purandhar, Treaty of.

A treaty between the British and the Mahrattas, signed in 1776, by which
the Treaty of Surat was annulled, Salsette being surrendered and
Raghoba’s cause abandoned. This was due to the action of the Council of
Bengal, which declared that the Treaty of Surat was unjust and
inexpedient, and that the Bombay Council had acted _ultra vires_ in
agreeing to it.


Purveyance.

The right claimed by the followers of the early Norman Kings who
attended their lord during his progresses, to exact from the inhabitants
such supplies as they might think fit, without payment. The abuses which
grew out of this system were to some extent alleviated by Henry I, and
the right was afterwards restricted by Magna Charta, and by the Statute
of Stamford.


Puseyites.

The followers of Dr. Pusey, one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement in
1841.


Pyrenees, Treaty of the.

A treaty between France and Spain, signed in 1659, after the defeat of
the Spaniards by Turenne at Dunes. France acquired Artois and
Roussillon, and surrendered in return all the territory she held beyond
the Pyrenees. The duchy of Lorraine was restored to the Duke, but France
reserved the right of marching her troops through his country on their
way to or from Alsace.



Q


Quadrilateral.

The name given to four fortresses in Northern Italy, Peschiera, Mantua,
Legnago and Verona.


Quadrilateral, Bulgarian.

The four fortresses of Varna, Silistria, Rustchuk and Schumla are known
by this name.


Quadrilateral Treaty.

A treaty signed in 1840, by Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia,
by which the signatories bound themselves to protect the Porte against
aggression.


Quadruple Alliance, 1718.

An alliance between England, France, Austria and Holland, formed to
prevent Spain recovering her former possessions in Italy. It became the
Quadruple Alliance through the adhesion of Austria to the Triple
Alliance of 1717. Its operations were completely successful, and Spain
gave way in 1719.


Quadruple Alliance, 1834.

An alliance of Great Britain, France, Spain and Portugal, effected by
Palmerston as a counterpoise to the Holy Alliance of Russia, Prussia and
Austria.


Quakers.

The name commonly given to the Society of Friends, a sect founded in
1648 by George Fox, a Leicestershire shoemaker. The sect was organized
into a Society in 1866.


Quarantaine le Roy.

An ordinance issued in the early part of the reign of Louis IX, designed
to put a stop to private warfare. It provided that in the event of a
crime being committed, a period of forty days should elapse before
vengeance was exacted, and that at any time during that period the
relatives of the murdered man might call upon the Bailli to execute the
justice of the King.


Quarterage.

A special tax levied in the reign of Queen Anne upon all Catholics who
established a business in Ireland.


Quebec Act.

An Act passed in 1775 by Lord North’s Government, authorizing the Crown
to throw open posts of honour to the Catholics in Canada, and restoring
the French system of law in the French Canadian provinces. It also
confirmed the Roman Catholic Clergy in their benefices.


Queen Anne’s Bounty.

The revenue derived from annates and tithes on Church property, which
had been transferred from the Church to the Crown by Henry VIII. In
1704, Queen Anne, with the consent of Parliament, retransferred these
revenues to commissioners, to be employed in supplementing the incomes
of benefices of less than £200 per annum. The amount annually
distributed is about £36,000.


Queen Dick.

A nickname of Richard Cromwell, having reference to the weakness of his
character.


Queen of the Adriatic.

The city of Venice is so called.


Queen of the Antilles.

A name given to the island of Cuba.


Queen of Tears.

The sobriquet of Mary of Modena, wife of James II of England.


Queen Sarah.

Sarah Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744) was so called on account of the
ascendency she exercised over Queen Anne.


Queen’s Gold.

The right of the Queen Consort of England to every tenth mark paid to
the King on the granting or renewal of leases or charters. Charles I
bought the right from his wife for £10,000, and it has never since been
enforced. It was also called the _aurum reginæ_, and is probably the
_Gersamma Reginæ_ of Domesday Book.


Queensberry Plot.

A plot on the part of Lord Lovat, in 1703, to ruin Lord Athole, the
Keeper of the Privy Seal in Scotland, with whom he had a feud. The plan
was to implicate him in a pretended Jacobite rising in the Highlands.
Lord Queensberry, the Commissioner, who also had a grudge against
Athole, was drawn into the plot by the production of a letter from the
ex-Queen, purporting to be addressed to Athole, as a proof that he was
in correspondence with the exiled Stuarts. Athole had no great
difficulty in clearing himself of suspicion, and Queensberry was forced
to resign. This is known also as the Scots Plot.


Queensland, Separation of.

The erection of the northern portion of New South Wales into a separate
colony under the title of Queensland was effected by an Act passed in
1859.


Quia Emptores, Statute of.

A Statute passed in 1290, with the object of preventing the formation of
new manors. By this Statute land granted by a feudal lord ceased to
belong to him, and owed feudal dues to the superior lord of the estate.
Its result was to increase largely the number of gentlemen holding
direct from the Crown.


Quietists.

A sect which arose in France about 1780, under the leadership of Mme.
Guyon, who advocated a contemplative rather than an active religious
life. Fénélon was to a considerable extent influenced by these tenets.


Quixote of the North.

A nickname of Charles XII of Sweden (1697-1718).


Quo Warranto.

Commissions of Quo Warranto were issued by Edward I to enquire as to how
estates and judicial rights had passed from the Crown into the hands of
individuals and corporations, and to settle definitely which were the
Royal Manors.



R


Rabbling the Curates.

The expulsion of Episcopalian clergymen in the west of Scotland by the
Covenanters in 1689 is so called. These proceedings were subsequently
legalized by the Scottish Parliament.


Radicals.

A name given to the advanced wing of the Liberal Party about 1816. Its
leaders were Hunt, Cobbett, and Sir Francis Burdett.


Ragman Rolls.

A series of documents recording the progress of Edward I through
Scotland in 1296, with the names of the nobles and others who did homage
to him.


Raid of the Redswear.

A border fight between the English and Scotch in 1575, arising out of a
dispute at a meeting between the two Wardens of the Marches for the
surrender of criminals who had crossed the border. It is the last border
fight recorded.


Rail Splitter.

A nickname of Abraham Lincoln, who is said to have earned his living in
1830 by splitting rails.


Raipur Ghât, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1805 between the British and Holkar, by which the
latter renounced all rights to territory north of the Chambul, and all
his claims to Bundelcund and Poonah, while the East India Company agreed
not to interfere with Holkar’s enjoyment of the territories he possessed
to the south of the Chambul.


Rákóczy’s Rebellion.

A Magyar rising, headed by Rákóczy in 1704, against the Austrian
domination. The war which ensued lasted over seven years, and was at
last ended by the peace of Szatmar.


Ralliés.

Members of the Catholic and Reactionary parties in France who in 1890
declared their adhesion to the Republican Government, and their
abandonment of reactionary principles. The leader of the movement was
Cardinal Lavigerie, Archbishop of Algiers.


Rapparees.

Bands of Irish brigands who waged a guerilla warfare against the
Protestant settlers in Ireland circ. 1711.


Rappenkrieg.

The War of Farthings, a revolt of the peasants against the city of Berne
in 1594.


Raskol.

The great schism in the Russian Church in the seventeenth century. The
dissenters objected to certain innovations in ritual introduced by
Nikon, the Patriarch, in order to correct errors which had crept in
owing to careless copying of Liturgies and other religious books. The
dissenters were excommunicated, and thousands fled from the country.


Ratipole.

A nickname of Napoleon III.


Re Galantuomo.

The name given to Victor Emmanuel, the first king of United Italy.


Reason, Council of.

A council established by the States General summoned by Henri IV of
France in 1596. Its functions were to administer one half of the
revenues of the State, for the payment of all civil officials, the
remaining half being handed to the King for his private purse and for
the defence of the realm.


Rebellions, Mutinies, etc.

Arabi, Arima, Attalik, Barrackpur, Bengal, Bounty, Boxers, Bread and
Cheese, Cabanagem, Camisards, Commune, Communeros, Dorr, Dozsa,
Dysiefald, Emmett, Eureka, Fifteen, Forty-five, Frankfurter, Fronde,
Geraldines, Hungarian, Jacquerie, Ket, Lincolnshire, Madras, Maillotins,
Nobles’, Nore, Panthay, Peasants’, Pilgrimage, Poor Conrad, Praguerie,
Rákóczy, Red River, Riel, Santa Junta, Satsuma, Shays’, Slachter’s Nek,
Sonthal, Taeping, Tököli, Whiskey.


Rebecca Riots.

Riots in Wales in 1843, in protest against the excessive tolls exacted
on the Welsh roads. Mobs, led by a man in woman’s clothes, assembled and
pulled down the turnpike gates. The name Rebecca is taken from a passage
in Genesis: “And they blessed Rebekah and said unto her, let thy seed
possess the gates of those which hate them.” The riots were suppressed
and a commission appointed to inquire into the alleged grievances.


Recess of Colding.

A codification of the law of Denmark, promulgated during the reign of
Christian III, circ. 1540.


Reconcentrados.

The inhabitants of the country districts of Cuba which during the
insurrection of 1895-9, were laid waste by General Weyler. By his orders
these people were driven from their homes and herded into concentration
camps where, owing to Government neglect, they died in thousands of
famine and pestilence.


Reconciliation, Act of.

An Act passed in 1554, shortly after the accession of Mary, to give
effect to the proposals of Cardinal Pole, the Papal Legate, for the
re-establishment of the Papal authority in Church matters as it existed
before the ecclesiastical legislation of Henry VIII.


Recruiters.

The name given by the Royalists to the members of the Long Parliament
elected to fill the places of those who had been “disabled” by
Parliament for joining the King’s forces.


Recusant Act.

An Act passed in the first year of Queen Elizabeth’s reign, subjecting
to fine all persons who absented themselves from Divine Service in their
parish church on Sundays and Holy Days. Protestant dissenters were
relieved from the penalties of this Act by the Toleration Act of William
and Mary, but Roman Catholics obtained no relief until 1791.


Red Comyn.

The nickname of Alexander Comyn, a claimant to the Scottish throne,
murdered by Robert Bruce in 1306.


Red Cross Knights.

The Knights Templars were so called.


Red Cross League.

_See_ Geneva Convention.


Red Cross Society.

The generic name of the various associations formed, under the Geneva
Convention, for the relief of the wounded in war. The Red Cross is the
badge of military hospitals, ambulances, doctors, etc.


Red Prince.

The sobriquet of Prince Frederick Charles (1828-1885), nephew of William
I of Germany.


Red River Rebellion.

An outbreak in 1869 of the half-breed settlers on the Red River, who
resented the transfer of their settlement from the Hudson’s Bay Company
to the newly formed province of Manitoba. It was found necessary to send
regular troops against the insurgents, and the revolt was promptly
quelled by Colonel (now Viscount) Wolseley. Their leader, Louis Riel,
escaped, and was later the ringleader in the rising of 1885 known as
Riel’s Rebellion.


Redif.

The reserve of the Turkish Army.


Redistribution Bill.

A Bill passed in 1885 as the complement of the Franchise Act of 1884. It
subdivided the old constituencies so as to leave only a few two-member
constituencies in the boroughs. All the counties were divided into
districts, each district returning one member. The plan adopted was the
result of a conference between the two parties.


Reeve.

The Shire-reeve or Sheriff in Saxon times was the representative of the
King for judicial and fiscal purposes. He presided over the Shire Court.


Referendum.

A provision in the constitution of Switzerland to the effect that all
laws passed by the Federal Assembly must be submitted to the popular
vote, if such a course is demanded by 30,000 Swiss citizens, or by the
legislatures of eight Cantons.


Reform Bill.

The Great Reform Bill of 1832 abolished no less than fifty-six rotten
boroughs, but its provisions as to redistribution and the franchise
still left the larger share of political power in the hands of the
landowning classes. It was first introduced in 1831, and passed the
Commons by a majority of one, but was rejected by the Lords. A
dissolution followed and, on the new Parliament assembling, the Bill
again passed the Commons, this time by a majority of 109, but was again
rejected by the Lords. The Ministry refused to resign, and the popular
feeling was so strong that the Lords were forced to give way, and the
Bill became law in 1832. In addition to 111 seats obtained by the
disfranchisement of the rotten boroughs, some thirty boroughs were
deprived of one member each. Of the seats thus obtained sixty-five were
distributed among the counties, sixty-five among the larger towns, and
thirteen were allotted to Scotland and Ireland. The borough franchise
was given to ten pound householders, and in the counties the vote was
given to copyholders and leaseholders, and to tenants at will paying £50
in rent.


Reform Bill of 1867.

This Bill, passed by Lord Derby’s Ministry in 1867, enfranchised all
occupiers and all lodgers, of one year’s residence, paying £10 per annum
rent in the boroughs, and in the counties all owners of property of £5
annual value and all occupiers paying £12 per annum. Tacked on to it was
a Redistribution Bill which disfranchised certain small boroughs, and
created a corresponding number of new constituencies. It gave an
additional member each to Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham and Liverpool,
and a member to London University.


Reform Committee.

_See_ Transvaal National Union.


Reforma, Guerra de la.

The war between the followers of Juarez, the Mexican Liberal leader, and
the reactionary party under Miramon, which broke out in 1858. It ended
with the triumph of Juarez in 1861.


Reformation, Edict of.

An edict issued by Charles V in 1548 at the Diet of Ratisbon, providing
for the reform of the Catholic Church throughout the Empire. It
contained regulations for the election of the clergy, for the
administration of the sacraments and for the better disciplining of the
holders of benefices.


Reformed Parliament.

The Parliament summoned in 1654 under the Instrument. Cromwell
dissolved it at the end of five months.


Reformverein.

An association formed in 1862, having for its object the unification of
Germany under the leadership of Austria.


Régale.

The right of the French Kings to present to benefices falling vacant
during a vacancy in the diocese to which they belonged, and to enjoy the
revenues of vacant sees. The question of the exercise of this right
caused a somewhat acrimonious discussion between Louis XIV and Innocent
XI in 1681, and led to the publication of Bossuet’s “Declaration of the
Clergy of France.”


Regiam Majestatem.

A collection of the ancient laws of Scotland, said to have been compiled
by order of David I. Its authenticity is disputed.


Regicides.

The name given by the Royalists to the signatories of the death-warrant
of Charles I.


Regimen Militantis, Bull.

The Bull of Paul III, issued in 1540, giving the Papal approval to the
rules of the Society of Jesus, as drawn up by Loyola.


Registration Act.

An Act passed in 1836, and amended by subsequent enactments, rendering
obligatory the registration of all births and deaths in the United
Kingdom. Prior to this Act registration was in the hands of the Church,
the parish register being the only record kept.


Regium Donum.

A grant from the Crown for the maintenance of Presbyterian ministers in
Ireland. It was originally granted by Charles II, and after having
lapsed during the reign of his successor, was revived by William III. It
was finally abolished in 1869, at the time of the Disestablishment of
the Irish Church.


Regulating Act (America).

An Act passed by Lord North’s Government in 1774, after the Boston
Riots, “for better regulating the Province of Massachusetts.” It
withdrew all rights and privileges hitherto granted, and placed the
whole executive and judicial power in the hands of the Governor.


Regulating Act (India).

An Act passed in 1773, altering the form of government of India, under
the East India Company. The Governor of Bengal was made Governor-General
of India, with authority over the Governors of the other two
Presidencies. A council nominated by Parliament was formed, and a
Supreme Court on the English model instituted.


Regulators.

The herdsmen and farmers in the west of North Carolina, finding it
impossible to attend the law courts, which were seldom held elsewhere
than at Charlestown, formed associations for the purpose of regulating
their own affairs of police. In 1770 and 1771 they came into conflict
with the State authorities, and being defeated, emigrated west in large
numbers and colonized Tennessee.


Reichenbach, Treaty of.

A treaty between Great Britain, Russia and Prussia, signed in 1813. It
provided for the maintenance in the field by Prussia of an army of
80,000 men, in return for a subsidy from Great Britain of two-thirds of
a million, while a secret clause stipulated for the restoration of
Prussia to her territorial position in 1806. Russia was to supply an
army of 160,000 men, and receive a subsidy double that of Prussia. There
was to be an issue of paper money, under the joint guarantee of the
three Powers, of £5,000,000 sterling, of which two-thirds was to be at
the disposal of Russia. This treaty may be said to have laid the
foundation of the Grand Alliance, which finally freed Europe from the
domination of Napoleon.


Reichskammergericht.

The Supreme Tribunal of the German Empire, reorganized from the Imperial
Council by Maximilian I in 1495. Unlike the Aulic Council, which
accompanied the Emperor wherever he went, this tribunal sat permanently
at Spires.


Reichsrath.

The Austrian Parliament. It consists of two Houses, the upper composed
of princes of the blood, nobles, archbishops and bishops, and certain
life members nominated by the Emperor; the lower of elected members.


Reichstag.

The National Assembly of the German Empire.


Reine Blanche.

The name given by the French to Mary Queen of Scots, because she wore
white as mourning for her husband.


Reinsurance Treaty.

A secret treaty signed by Russia and Germany, after the establishment of
the alliance between Germany and Austria, remaining in force from 1887
to 1890. It is said to have secured the contracting parties mutually
against invasion by Austria. The existence of this treaty was revealed
by the _Hamburger Nachrichten_, one of Bismarck’s organs, in 1896, and
was not denied by the Government.


Relief.

A tribute due to a feudal lord on succession to a fief by inheritance.


Religiosis, Statute de.

The correct title of the Statute more commonly known as the Statute of
Mortmain.


Religious Peace.

An edict of the States-General in 1578 enacting complete toleration to
all religions throughout the United Netherlands. It ordered that
churches should be provided by the town authorities for all forms of
worship, and that no inquiry should be made into any man’s religious
belief. This edict caused great discontent in the Walloon provinces, and
was one of the causes of the “Malcontent” rising.


Religious Peace of Augsburg.

The grant by Charles V, in 1555, of toleration to all who accepted the
Confession of Augsburg, but to no other sect. Any State in the Empire
might set up either form of faith as its State religion, permission
being given to dissentients to dispose of their estates and emigrate. It
was, however, provided that any spiritual prince who accepted the new
doctrine should lose his office and his revenues.


Religious Peace of Nuremburg.

An agreement, in 1632, between the League of Schmalkald and the
Catholics, by which the latter agreed not to molest the Lutherans, who
in their turn undertook not to give any support to the Zwinglists and
Anabaptists.


Remonstrance, Great.

A recapitulation of the tyrannical and unconstitutional acts of Charles
the First’s reign, issued by the Long Parliament in 1641.


Remonstrance, Petition of.

A petition drawn up by Peter Walsh, on behalf of the Irish Catholics,
and presented to Charles II in 1666. It protested against the prevailing
opinion that the toleration of Catholicism was a danger to the State.


Remonstrants (Netherlands).

The followers of Arminius, who in 1610 presented to the States-General a
remonstrance against the charges of heresy that had been brought against
them. They set forth in this document what are known as the “Five
Articles of Arminianism.”


Remonstrants (Scotland).

The Scotch Presbyterians who remonstrated against the union of Argyle
and others with the Royalist party to oppose Cromwell in 1650.


Renaissance.

The revival of learning in Italy in the fifteenth century. It was
largely due to the advent in the West of many Greek scholars who fled
from Constantinople on its capture by the Turks in 1453, and introduced
the masterpieces of Greek literature for the first time to the scholars
of the West. The revival was further aided and stimulated by the
invention of printing, which had recently taken place.


Rense, Union of.

A league of the electors to the Imperial throne, pledged to support the
Emperor, Louis of Bavaria against the pretensions of Benedict XII, and
to maintain the independence of Germany.


Repartimiento.

A system prevailing in Spanish South America, whereby the natives were
divided into districts, for the purpose of forced labour, and Government
depôts provided to supply them with necessaries. This system led to the
most outrageous extortion, the officials forcing on the natives
commodities they did not need, at exorbitant prices. In 1780 the
misconduct of those officials brought about a rising of Indians, under
Condorcanqui, an Inca Cacique, who, however, was captured by the
Spaniards and put to death. The revolt was continued by his cousin,
Andres, the last of the Incas, who captured Sorate, and massacred all
the inhabitants. He was, however, shortly afterwards captured, and the
revolt suppressed, but it was not fruitless, for it led to the abolition
of the Repartimiento system.


Repealers.

The supporters of Daniel O’Connell in his agitation for the Repeal of
the Union in 1825 and onwards.


Reptile Fund.

The interest on the indemnity payable to the ex-King of Hanover for the
loss of his sovereign rights, which indemnity had been impounded by
Prussia on the ground that the ex-King continued his attacks on her.
This fund was employed by Bismarck to subsidise the semi-official Press.


Reptile Press.

The German newspapers which received payment from Bismarck out of the
Guelf fund to support his views, were known by this name.


Republicans (U.S.A.).

One of the two great parties in the United States. The three chief
points in their political creed are Protection, the maintenance of the
Gold Standard, and Equal Rights for the Black and White races. They are
strongest in the manufacturing districts of the East and Centre. Their
opponents, the Democrats, are less united; in the South they are strong
for the suppression of the negro, but by no means united on the other
two questions. In the mining States of the West the question which is
most to the fore is the free coinage of silver, while in the grain and
cattle districts free trade is the rallying cry. The Democrats are also
supporters of States Rights against Federalism, though this is now
rather an academical than an acute question.


Requests, Court of.

A court established by Somerset in the reign of Edward VI, to enable
such of the poorer classes as had grievances against the administration,
to approach him privately. He used this court to set aside, whenever it
suited his purpose, the ordinary process of law.


Rescissory Act.

An Act passed by the Scottish Parliament of 1661 (the Drunken
Parliament) cutting off or repealing all the legislation since 1640.


Resolutioners.

The Scotch Presbyterians, under Argyle, who adopted the resolution to
unite with the Royalists against Cromwell.


Restitution, Edict of.

An edict issued by the Emperor Ferdinand II, immediately after the Peace
of Lübeck, in 1629, restoring ecclesiastical matters to the condition in
which they were at the time of the Treaty of Passau in 1552, and
declaring that Catholics only were entitled to benefit by the provisions
of that instrument. The execution of this edict met with strong
opposition from the Protestants, and it was largely instrumental in
bringing about the intervention of Gustavus Adolphus.


Resumption Act.

An Act passed in 1700, dealing with the forfeited lands which had fallen
into the King’s hands after the pacification of Limerick. Some of them
had been restored to their original owners, and others granted as
rewards for services rendered, or given to the King’s favourites. The
Act revoked all these grants, and vested the land in trustees.


Reunion, Edict of.

An edict issued by Henri III in 1585, revoking all previous measures of
toleration and summoning the Huguenots to recant or leave France.


Revolution of July, 1830.

The revolution by which Charles X was forced to abdicate the throne of
France.


Revolution of July, 1848.

The revolution by which Louis Philippe was driven into exile, and the
second French Republic established. Its effects were felt throughout the
Continent of Europe, and it was followed by republican risings in
Germany, Italy, Belgium and elsewhere.


Rhenish League.

A league formed under the auspices of Mazarin in 1658, by the union of
the Protestant and Catholic Leagues of German Princes which had been
established in 1651. The league was supported financially by Louis XIV,
and its affairs were managed by a Directory, sitting at Frankfort, under
the presidency of the Elector of Mentz.


Rhine, Confederation of the.

A confederation of German States formed under the auspices of Napoleon
in 1806. It was composed of Bavaria, Baden, Würtemberg, the Duchy of
Berg, Hesse-Darmstadt, and some other States of minor importance, and
was in alliance with France.


Rhodes, Knights of.

_See_ Malta, Knights of.


Rhudlann, Statute of.

A statute of Edward I, enacted in 1204, by which Wales was annexed to
the English Crown. It takes its name from Rhudlann Castle, where the
King was staying at the time of its promulgation. (See Wales, Statute
of.)


Ribbonism.

An agrarian movement in the South and West of Ireland, about 1869, its
object being to agitate for security of tenure. Its methods, possibly
harmless at first, soon degenerated into terrorism.


Riding of Parliament.

An old feudal custom connected with the opening of the Scots Parliament,
celebrated with special pomp at the meeting of the last Parliament in
1703. All the members rode in procession from Holyrood to Parliament
Square, fully robed and accompanied by train-bearers and servants.


Ridolfi Plot.

A plot instigated by Pius V in 1571, against Elizabeth and in the
interests of Mary Queen of Scots. Ridolfi was employed to sound the Duke
of Norfolk, who consented to enter into the scheme. A Catholic rising
was to be engineered, which was to be aided by a Spanish invasion,
Elizabeth was to be dethroned, and the Catholic religion restored. The
existence of the plot was discovered through the arrest of one of
Ridolfi’s messengers. His letters being in cypher, the names of the
conspirators were not discovered. A little later, however, Norfolk was
found in treasonable correspondence with Mary’s partisans in Scotland,
the whole scheme was laid bare, and the leaders arrested. Norfolk was
executed in the following year.


Riel’s Rebellion.

A rising of Indian half-breeds in Saskatchewan, North-West Canada, in
1885, under Louis Riel, who had been the ringleader of the Red River
Rebellion in 1869. It was easily suppressed by the Canadian Militia, and
Riel captured and executed.


Right, Captain.

The name given to the head of a secret agrarian society which sprang up
in Munster about 1785.


Right of Search.

In maritime law, the right to search neutral vessels for the enemy’s
merchandise. It was abolished by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, when it
was agreed that a neutral flag should cover the merchandise, except in
the case of contraband of war.


Rights of Man, Declaration of the.

A declaration of the principles of government recognized by the
Revolutionists, adopted by the French National Assembly in 1789.


Rigsdag.

The Parliament of Denmark. It is composed of two Houses, the Landsthing,
consisting partly of elected members and partly of life members
nominated by the King, and the Folkething, an assembly elected by
practically universal suffrage.


Riot Act (England).

An Act passed in 1715, providing that any twelve or more persons
assembled to the disturbance of the peace who shall fail to disperse
when called upon to do so by proclamation of a magistrate or sheriff,
shall be deemed guilty of felony.


Riot Act (Ireland).

An Act passed by the Irish Parliament in 1787 for the suppression of
agrarian crime. The Bill, as originally drafted, contained a clause
enacting that all Roman Catholic chapels in which agrarian societies had
held meetings should be razed to the ground. This clause, however,
excited violent opposition, and was expunged from the Bill.


Riots.

_See_ Anarchist, Astor Place, Austin, Birmingham, Blackburn, Boston,
Bread, Bristol, Chartism, Donauwörth, Draft, Evil May Day, Glasgow,
Gordon, Hyde Park, Kimberley, Luddite, Mitchelstown, Morant Bay, O.P.,
Porteous, Rebecca, Tithe, Trafalgar Square, Twenge’s.


Robert the Devil.

The younger brother of Richard, Duke of Normandy, was so called. He
rebelled against his brother, and, finding himself worsted, feigned
submission, and invited the Duke and his chief followers to a banquet,
where he poisoned them, and succeeded to the Dukedom.


Roberts’ March.

The famous march of Lord Roberts (then Sir Frederick) to the relief of
Kandahar. He started from Kabul in August, 1880, with 10,000 troops and
8,000 camp followers, taking provisions for the whole march, as it was
impossible to procure supplies _en route_. The distance of 318 miles was
accomplished in twenty-three days, inclusive of halts.


Robin Redbreasts.

_See_ Bow Street Runners.


Robot.

A form of the _corvée_, in existence in Bosnia and Herzegovina under
Turkish rule. It was abolished by the Austrians in 1892.


Rock, Captain.

The name adopted by the leader of an Irish agrarian society in 1822.


Roeskild, Treaty of.

A treaty between Denmark and Sweden, signed in 1656, after the
successful campaign of Charles X of Sweden. Denmark thereby surrendered
all her remaining Swedish possessions.


Rogue Money.

A tax levied in Scotland in former times, the proceeds of which were
applied to the apprehension and prosecution of criminals. It was first
raised by statute in the reign of George I.


Rohosz.

In ancient Poland a self-constituted assembly of nobles, who took the
lead in calling the nobility to arms when force became necessary to
enable them to obtain from the King satisfaction of their demands. It
was practically a revolutionary committee.


Roi Citoyen.

Louis Philippe of France was called the Citizen King.


Roi des Barricades.

A nickname of Louis Philippe, whose accession was preceded by an
_émeute_ lasting three days, during which the mob raised numerous
barricades in the streets of Paris.


Roi du Roi.

A sobriquet of Cardinal Richelieu, who during the reign of Louis XIII
(1610-1643) was the real ruler of France. The same title was bestowed on
Anne de Joyeuse, because of his ascendency over Henri III (1574-1589).


Roi Panade.

A nickname of Louis XVIII of France.


Roi Soleil.

A sobriquet of Louis XIV of France.


Rois Fainéans.

A name given to the later kings of the Merovingian dynasty, who took no
part in the government of their States, leaving all public affairs in
the hands of the Maire du Palais.


Roman Triumvirate, 1848.

A Provisional Government established by the revolutionary party in Rome
in 1848. It consisted of Counts Corsini, Camerata and Galetti.


Roman Triumvirate, 1849.

An executive appointed by the Italian Constituent Assembly, which met in
Rome with the object of promoting Italian unity under a Republican
Government, and proceeded to depose the Pope as a secular ruler. The
members of the Triumvirate were Mazzini, Saffi and Armellini.


Roman-Dutch Law.

The fundamental law of the Orange Free State and South African Republic.
It is based on the Institutes of Justinian, with the changes introduced
into them in the Netherlands.


Rome, League of.

A league against the Turks, formed under the auspices of Adrian VI in
1523. Its members were Charles V, Henry VIII, the Archduke of Austria,
the Duke of Milan, and the Republics of Venice, Florence, Genoa, Siena
and Lucca.


Rome, Synod of.

At this Synod, held in 1059, Nicholas II issued regulations for the
election of the Pope, which with slight modifications are in force at
the present day. Up to this date the election had been more or less
under the control of the Emperor, but by the new regulations it was
vested in the Cardinals assembled in Conclave.


Rome-Scot.

Another name for Peter’s Pence.


Romorantin, Edict of.

An edict issued by de l’Hôpital, in 1560, transferring the power of
judging heretics from the special court established by the Guises to the
bishops.


Roncaglia, Diet of.

A Diet held by Frederic Barbarossa in 1158, after the surrender of
Milan. Edicts were issued increasing the power of the Emperor over the
Italian cities, regulating the appointment of podestàs to act jointly
with the consuls, and forbidding private war between the various cities.


Rônin.

In old Japan, men of gentle blood who, by the commission of some crime
or for some other reason had become detached from their clan, and ceased
to owe allegiance to any feudal lord. Many became hired swashbucklers;
others fell in the social scale, and entered into trade. The word
signifies “wave men.”


Roof of the World.

The name given to the Pamirs, the great Central Asian plateau, the mean
elevation of which is 13,000 feet above the sea-level.


Root and Branch Bill.

The name given to a bill introduced into Parliament in 1641, for “the
utter abolition of archbishops, bishops, deans, archdeacons,
prebendaries and canons.”


Roturiers.

Wealthy citizens in the French feudal days, who purchased land from the
feudal lords. The ranks of the nobility were recruited from their
descendants, as the possession of land for three generations ennobled
the third holder. This was abolished, however, in the reign of Philip
the Fair, from which time the roturiers remained a class apart.


Round Robin.

A document signed by the Duke of Leinster, and other Irish peers and
commoners, by which the signatories undertook to make government in
Ireland impossible, if the government inflicted penalties upon any of
their number on account of their action in the matter of the regency in
1789. They had been instrumental in obtaining a resolution of the Irish
Parliament, in opposition to the Ministry, offering the sovereignty of
Ireland unconditionally to the Prince of Wales.


Round Table Conference.

A series of meetings held in 1887 between Sir George Trevelyan, Mr.
Chamberlain, Mr. John Morley and Sir William Harcourt, with the object,
if possible, of finding a basis for the reunion of the Liberal Unionists
and the Gladstonians. No result was arrived at.


Roundheads.

The name given to the Puritan party, on account of their close-cropped
hair. It was first used during the riots in London in 1641.


Rout of Moy.

An attempt by 1,500 men of the Clan MacLeod, in 1846, to capture the
Young Pretender, who was staying at the Castle of Moy, belonging to the
Laird of MacIntosh. Their approach was discovered by the blacksmith of
the MacIntoshes, who with five or six companions was patrolling near the
castle. This small party separated, and firing into the MacLeods from
different parts of the wood, so disconcerted them that they fled in
disorder, thinking they had fallen into an ambush of the Pretender’s
whole army.


Royal Marriage Act.

An Act passed in 1772, forbidding any member of the Royal Family, except
the children of Princesses married abroad, to marry under the age of
twenty-five without the King’s consent. After that age, twelve months’
notice of such intended marriage must be given, and unless petitioned
against by both Houses of Parliament, the marriage could then take
place.


Royal Martyr.

Charles I of England is so called.


Royal Titles Act.

An Act passed in 1876, by which the title of Empress of India was added
to the Royal titles.


Rüchversicherung.

_See_ Reinsurance Treaty.


Rump.

The name given to the remnant of the Long Parliament, which continued to
sit after Pride’s Purge, until ejected by Cromwell in 1653. In 1659,
after Cromwell’s death, the Rump was recalled, and returned, to the
number of forty-two, with Lenthall, the Speaker. In the following year,
however, they were again turned out by Monk, and the Long Parliament at
last came to an end.


Run-about Raid.

A rising in Scotland in 1565, of certain noblemen who were displeased at
Mary’s marriage with Darnley. Their leader was the Earl of Murray. They
were unable to stand against the Queen’s supporters, and, after various
rapid marches, finally crossed the border into England and disbanded
their forces.


Rupert of Debate.

This name was given to Edward, Earl of Derby (1799-1869) by Lord Lytton.


Russian Note of 1870.

A Note issued by the Russian Government, in which, taking advantage of
the Franco-German War, Russia declared that she no longer considered
herself bound by the Black Sea Neutrality clause in the Treaty of Paris,
and that she held herself at liberty to build and maintain a fleet of
warships in those waters. This Note caused intense irritation in London,
but no steps could be taken till the close of the war, when a conference
met in London to consider the point at issue.


Russo-Japanese Convention.

A convention between Russia and Japan, signed in 1897, by which the
contracting parties guaranteed the independence of Korea. Japan was
permitted to keep a force of 200 armed police for the protection of the
telegraph lines, and a small military force in Seoul, Fusan and Gensan.
Russia was allowed to maintain an equivalent force for the protection of
her legation.


Ruthven, Raid of.

The seizure of James VI of Scotland at Perth in 1581 by Lord Gowrie and
others of the Protestant leaders, by way of checkmating the schemes of
Lennox and the Catholics for the restoration of Catholicism.


Ruytergeld.

In feudal Holland a tax paid in lieu of military service, similar to
scutage.


Rye House Plot.

A Whig conspiracy to assassinate Charles II in 1683. It was revealed by
one of the conspirators, and its ringleaders, Russell and Sidney, were
convicted and executed, while the Earl of Essex died by his own hand in
prison.


Ryotwari.

The system of land taxation in India by which every peasant farmer is
looked upon as the proprietor of his land, and pays his taxes direct to
the Government. It is the opposite of the Zemindari system, the survival
of the system practised under Mogul Emperors, where the Zemindar was
responsible for the taxation of a certain district.


Ryswick, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1697 between France, England, Holland and Spain,
ending the War of the League of Augsburg, whereby Louis XIV surrendered
all his conquests since the Treaty of Nimeguen in 1678, and agreed to
acknowledge William III as King of England, and to withdraw his support
from James. A month later the Emperor Leopold, who was not a signatory
of the first treaty, signed a separate instrument, by which he
recovered all Louis’ conquests except Strasburg, including all the
French fortifications on the right bank of the Rhine. Lorraine was
restored to the Duke Leopold, with the proviso that passage should be
granted when required to the troops of France.



S


Sac and Soc.

Freedom from the jurisdiction of the Hundred which, in Saxon times,
generally accompanied grants of land. From this arose the jurisdiction
of the feudal lords over their own estates, including such townships as
might be built upon them.


Safety, Committee of.

A committee composed of ten commoners and five peers appointed by the
Long Parliament in 1642, to conduct the war against the King.


Sagas.

The Norse chronicles, recording the exploits of the most famous Viking
chiefs. The earliest Sagas to which even an approximate date can be
assigned are of the sixth century: the latest, of the thirteenth.


St. Andrew, Order of.

The oldest Russian order of knighthood, founded by Peter the Great in
1698.


St. Bartholomew.

The massacre of the Huguenots in Paris on St. Bartholomew’s day, 1572,
when 15,000 persons are said to have perished. The Duc de Guise took an
active part in the massacre, which was doubtless planned with the
connivance of Charles IX and Catherine de’ Medici. Among those who were
murdered was Admiral Coligny.


St. Brice, Massacre of.

The Massacre of the Danes settled in Wessex, by Æthelred the Unready, on
St. Brice’s day, 1002.


St. Esprit, Order of the.

A French order of knighthood, founded by Henri III in 1578. It ceased to
exist after the revolution of 1830.


St. George, Company of.

The first body of regular troops raised in Italy. It was formed by Count
Barbiano about 1379.


St. Germains, Treaty of.

A treaty between Charles IX and the Huguenots, signed in 1570. It
granted to the Huguenots the right of worshipping according to their own
rites in private houses, with certain restrictions as to the numbers
present. The Reformed Religion was to be maintained in those towns which
had held out for the Huguenot cause up to the signing of the treaty, and
four towns, La Rochelle, Cognac, Montauban and La Charité, were given
them as places of safety.


St. Hubert, Order of.

An ancient Bavarian order of knighthood, founded in 1444, by Gerard V,
Count of Ravensberg. It is conferred only on members of the Bavarian
Royal Family, foreign sovereigns, princes and barons.


St. Lazare, Knights of.

A French order of religious chivalry, confirmed by Pope Alexander IV in
1255. Their special function was the cure of lepers. The order existed
until the Revolution.


St. Patrick, Order of.

An order of knighthood instituted by George III in 1783. The Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland is an ex-officio member.


St. Petersburg, Treaty of.

A treaty between England and Russia, signed in 1805, by which the
signatories pledged themselves to support a European league to demand
from France the evacuation of Hanover and Italy and the independence of
Holland and Switzerland. They further undertook not to interfere in the
internal affairs of France, and to summon a Congress for the settlement
of all outstanding European questions. This treaty was the germ of the
Coalition against Napoleon.


St. Simonism.

The political system of the Comte de St. Simon (1760-1825) who may be
considered the founder of French socialism. It includes the abolition of
the hereditary principle, and the vesting in the State of all the
instruments of production, the worker, however, being rewarded according
to his capacity, and not by equal division regardless of merit.


Saisons, Société des.

A revolutionary secret society in Paris, headed by Bernard, Blanqui and
Barbès. Some 600 members of the Society rose in 1837, and raised
barricades in the streets of Paris, but the outbreak was immediately
suppressed, and its leaders were all seized and imprisoned.


Saladin Tax.

A tax of a tenth on all property, imposed by Henry III for the
prosecution of the Crusades.


Salamanca, Council of.

A council summoned by Ferdinand of Spain in 1486, to which were
submitted the plans of Columbus for a voyage to the West.


Salbai, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1782 at the close of the first Mahratta War, by which
the Mahrattas agreed to pension Raghoba, and Haidar Ali surrendered all
his conquests. It was further stipulated that all Europeans other than
British and Portuguese should be expelled from the Mahratta States.


Salchichon (The Sausage).

A nickname bestowed by the Spaniards on Thomas, Duke of Genoa, who was
put forward by Marshal Prim as a candidate for the Spanish throne.


Salford Court of Record.

A Court of Record of the Hundred of Salford, which dates back to
Anglo-Saxon times. It is one of the very few mediæval courts which were
not abolished by the Judicature Act of 1873.


Salic Law.

A code of laws promulgated by Clovis, generally called the founder of
the French Monarchy, circ. 500. By the Salic Law women were forbidden to
inherit land, a prohibition which was afterwards interpreted as
including the right of succession to the throne. The English Kings
refused to accept this interpretation, and the various attempts they
made to enforce their claim to the French throne led to the prolonged
conflict known as the Hundred Years War, which broke out in the reign of
Edward III. Edward claimed the throne through his mother Isabella,
daughter of Philip IV, all of whose sons died without male issue.


Sallee Rovers.

The name given to the Moorish pirates who infested the Mediterranean
till well into the nineteenth century. Sallee or Sali, one of their
principal ports, is on the Atlantic coast of Morocco.


Samoan Conference.

A conference held at Berlin in 1889, at which Germany, Great Britain and
the United States were represented. An arrangement was arrived at by
which the three Powers recognized the independence of Samoa, and the
right of the natives to elect their king. At the same time provision was
made for a Supreme Court of Justice, under European control, and for the
regulation of the trade in arms and intoxicating liquors. It was
superseded in 1899 by the Samoan Treaty.


Samoan Treaty.

A treaty between Germany, Great Britain and the United States signed in
1899, after the suppression of the civil war between Mataafa and
Malietoa. Germany obtained possession of Samoa, and the United States
secured a naval port at Tutuila, in Pago Pago, while England’s rights
over Tonga were recognized. Equal liberty of trading was secured to all
the contracting parties.


Samurai.

The military, governing and literary class in Old Japan, the retainers
of the Daimios. They were the highest of the four classes into which the
nation was divided, and formed in fact the gentry of Japan. The army and
navy of to-day are almost exclusively officered by members of the
Samurai families.


San Ildefonso, Treaty of.

A treaty between Spain and the French Directoire, signed in 1794,
providing that either Power, in the case of one or the other being
attacked, should provide for its ally material aid in the shape of
fifteen ships of war, and a land contingent of 24,000 men. This
provision, however, was not to apply to the war in which France was then
engaged, excepting only in the case of England, against whom Spain,
having grievances of her own, was prepared to take up arms at once.


San Juan Arbitration.

The question as to the ownership of the island of San Juan, lying
between Vancouver and the American coast, arose out of the wording of
the Treaty of Ghent in 1818, by which instrument the middle of the
channel between Vancouver and the mainland was fixed as the boundary.
San Juan being in the middle of the channel, the question of ownership
was a doubtful one, but the arbitrators, in 1872, decided in favour of
the United States.


San Stefano, Treaty of.

A treaty signed by Russia and Turkey, at the close of the Russo-Turkish
War in 1878. By its provisions the whole of the Christian provinces of
Turkey were rendered practically independent, while Bulgaria was erected
into an important state with a port on the Ægean Sea. England refused to
recognize this treaty, and eventually Russia agreed to submit it to a
European Congress, which was held at Berlin in the autumn of the same
year.


Sanctuary.

The right claimed by the Church of affording protection to criminals who
took refuge in churches and other consecrated precincts. In some cases
these refugees from justice were enabled to set the law at defiance for
years, by keeping within these precincts. Some of the most notorious of
these cities of refuge were abolished by Act of Parliament in 1697, but
it was not until the reign of George I that the last of them, the
Sanctuary of St. Peter’s, Westminster, ceased to exist.


Sand River Convention.

A treaty signed in 1852 by which the British Government recognized the
right of the emigrants beyond the Vaal to manage their own affairs, and
govern themselves in accordance with their own laws. Other clauses of
the Convention provided for free trade, except in arms, arbitration in
any dispute that might arise in respect of the boundary over the
Drakensberg, extradition, and free passage of the Vaal for all except
criminals and fugitive debtors. The British Government further
disclaimed the right to make treaties with native tribes north of the
Vaal.


Sandomierz, Confederation of.

A league of the nobles of Little Poland formed in 1702 to oppose Charles
XII of Sweden and support Augustus II.


Sanfedisti.

A Neapolitan secret society established in Naples, with the approval of
the Pope, during the first decade of the nineteenth century, to oppose
the Carbonari and support the Church.


Sanquhar Declaration.

A declaration issued by Richard Cameron and other leaders of the
Covenanters in 1680, proclaiming that Charles I had forfeited the crown
by his breach of the Covenant.


Sans Gêne, Madame.

The sobriquet of the Maréchale Lefebvre, Duchesse de Dantzic, given her
on account of her free and easy manners at the Court of Napoleon. She
had been a washerwoman, and afterwards followed her husband in the wars
as a vivandière.


Sans Souci, the Philosopher of.

Voltaire’s name for Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740-86).


Sansculottes.

The revolutionary rabble of Paris, so called by the Royalists because
they wore trousers instead of the knee-breeches affected by the upper
classes. The word means literally “without breeches.”


Santa Hermandad.

_See_ Hermandad.


Santa Junta.

A league of the Castilian cities in 1520, under Juan de Padilla and
Ferdinand de Avalos, which refused to recognize the authority of Adrian
Boyens, the Fleming appointed Regent by Charles V. Charles offered
certain concessions, which were refused, and a civil war resulted, which
ended in the total defeat of the Junta in 1521, though Toledo held out
for another year. This rising is also known as the Revolt of the
Communeros.


Santiago de Compostella, Order of.

A Spanish order of religious chivalry founded in 1170, and approved by
Papal Bull in 1175. Its members were vowed to obedience, community of
goods and conjugal chastity, and also to perpetual war against the
Mussulman.


Santiago, Treaty of.

A treaty between Chile and Bolivia, concluded in 1866, delimiting the
frontier between the two States.


Sardinia, Kingdom of.

This kingdom came into existence in 1720, when Sardinia was ceded by
Austria to the House of Savoy, in exchange for Sicily, the name being
applied to the new combination of Savoy, Sardinia and Piedmont. It
lasted until Victor Emmanuel became King of United Italy in 1861.


Sardinian Convention.

A convention, signed in 1855, by which the King of Sardinia undertook to
furnish 15,000 men in aid of France and England in the Crimea, the
troops to be transported by England. In return the allies guaranteed the
integrity of the King’s dominions.


Sarnen, League of.

A league formed in 1832 by the cantons of Basle, Uri, Schwyz,
Unterwalden, Valais, and Neuchâtel to oppose Federal revision and
support the Federal Pact of 1815. It was also called the Sonderbund.


Satisfaction.

An agreement arrived at in 1578 between the Protestant party and the
Catholic magistrates of Amsterdam, whereby, following the example of
other Dutch cities, the two religions were placed on an equal footing.


Satsuma Rebellion.

A rising of the Prince of Satsuma against the Japanese Government in
1877, at the head of the party opposed to reform. The rebellion was soon
suppressed.


Savary, Code.

A codification of the French Commercial Law, issued by Louis XIV in
1673.


Saviour of the Nations.

The Duke of Wellington was so called after the battle of Waterloo.


Savoy Conference.

A conference of bishops of the Church of England, held in 1661, with the
object of so amending the liturgy as to permit of the Puritan party
remaining in the Church. It was, however, found impossible to arrive at
any acceptable middle course.


Savoy Confession.

A declaration of faith of the Congregational Churches of England, issued
in 1658. It is a modification of the Westminster Confession.


Saxonicum Litus.

The ancient name of the coast line of England, from the Wash to
Shoreham.


Scabini.

Judicial assessors, twelve in number, chosen by the allodial landowners,
who accompanied each Count to the general assemblies of the early French
kings.


Scalds.

The bards of the ancient Norsemen were so called.


Scandalum Magnatum.

The spreading of libellous reports concerning peers, judges or great
officers of the State was created an offence by a statute of 1275, which
was repealed in 1887.


Schism.

After the Avignon Captivity and the death of Gregory XI, the cardinals,
under pressure of the Roman populace, elected as Pope in 1378 a
perfectly unfit person, who took the name of Urban VI. They endeavoured
to persuade him to resign, but failing, elected Robert of Geneva, who
took the name of Clement VII. The schism continued, each Pope having a
successor appointed at his death, till at the Council of Pisa, in 1409,
both were deposed, and a Franciscan monk elected who took the name of
Alexander V. As neither of the deposed Popes would give way, there were
now three. Alexander was succeeded by Cossa, as John XXIII, and finally
the schism was ended by the Council of Constance in 1415, where all
three Popes were deposed, and Martin V, a Colonna, was elected.


Schism Act.

An Act passed in 1714, by which all persons were forbidden to keep
schools or act as tutors, who were not members of the Church of England,
and duly licensed for the purpose by the bishop. It was repealed in
1719.


Schism, Great.

The severance between the Churches of the East and the West, which
became final in 1054, when the legates of Pope Victor II laid the papal
anathema upon the altar of St. Sophia of Constantinople.


Schleswig-Holstein Question.

By the Treaty of London of 1852 it was provided that the succession to
the Danish throne was to be vested in Prince Christian of
Schleswig-Holstein, but that the Duchies, one of which, Holstein, was a
German Duchy, sending delegates to the German Diet, should not be
incorporated in the kingdom of Denmark. The Danes, however, did not
observe the compact, and before the death of Frederick VII of Denmark,
in 1862, Schleswig had been made practically a part of Denmark. After
the succession of Christian IX, Austria and Prussia, finding protests
unavailing, entered the Duchies, and, after a short struggle,
overwhelmed the Danish army. By the Treaty of Gastein, signed in 1865,
Schleswig was allotted to Prussia and Holstein to Austria.


Schmalkald, Articles of.

A profession of the Lutheran doctrine, similar to, but more forcibly
worded than, the Augsburg Confession, drawn up by Luther at the request
of John Frederick of Saxony.


Schmalkald, League of.

A confederation of the Lutheran Princes of Germany, headed by the
Elector of Saxony, formed in 1530 to unite the supporters of the
Reformed Religion against Charles V.


Schomburgk Line.

The line of demarcation between British Guiana and Venezuela fixed by
Sir Robert Schomburgk in his official survey of the colony in 1840. The
Schomburgk Line was, with unimportant exceptions, upheld by the
arbitrators in the Venezuelan arbitration award of 1899.


Schönbrunn, Proclamation of.

A proclamation of Napoleon in 1805, declaring the deposition of the
Bourbons from the throne of Naples.


Schönbrunn, Treaty of.

A treaty between France and Prussia, signed in December 1805, by which
Napoleon succeeded in detaching Prussia from the coalition. Prussia
entered into an offensive and defensive alliance with France, and
surrendered Anspach and Neuchâtel, receiving Hanover in exchange.


Scots Plot.

_See_ Queensberry Plot.


Scottish Solomon.

A sobriquet of James I of England and VI of Scotland.


Scrutin d’Arrondissement.

A system of election by which every Department is divided into wards, or
divisions, each returning one member to the Chamber of Deputies. It is
the system at present in force in France.


Scrutin de Liste.

A system of election in France by which all the deputies for a
Department are elected _en bloc_. It was in force in 1848 and again in
1871, while an unsuccessful attempt to reintroduce it was made in 1881.
It is also the system prevailing in Italy.


Scullabogue, Massacre of.

The massacre by the Irish Rebels in 1798 of nearly 200 Protestant
prisoners. They were shut up in a barn, and after the defeat of the
rebels at New Ross, the barn was fired and they were burnt to death, or
piked as they attempted to escape.


Scutage.

A money payment exacted from knights in lieu of personal service. The
first instance of it occurs in the reign of Henry II. It enabled the
king to hire mercenaries for his foreign wars, and to dispense with the
services of his barons, and came to be regarded as a regular source of
revenue. The right of the sovereign to exact it, however, was greatly
restricted by Magna Charta. It was also known as escuage.


Sea-dogs.

English privateers in the early days of Elizabeth, who preyed on French
commerce in the Channel, sailing under letters of marque granted by
Condé and the Huguenots. When the differences between the Huguenots and
Catholics were adjusted and the letters of marque withdrawn, they joined
the Dutch “Beggars of the Sea” in their raids upon the Spaniards.


Sealed Knot.

A small band of Royalists formed as a secret committee to manage the
affairs of the party in 1657. One of their number, Willis, was in the
pay of Cromwell, who was thereby enabled to counteract their numerous
plots for his destruction.


Secession, Ordinance of.

The declaration issued by South Carolina in 1860 dissolving its union
with the United States. The other Southern States followed with similar
declarations.


Second Charlemagne.

A sobriquet of Charles V, Emperor of Germany (1519-58).


Second Washington.

Henry Clay, the American statesman (1777-1852), was so called.


Secret Treaty.

A document published in the _Times_ of July 25, 1870, purporting to be
the text of a treaty between France and Prussia, containing the
following provisions: the recognition by France of Prussia’s
acquisitions in the war with Austria; an undertaking by Prussia to use
her influence with Holland to secure Luxemburg for France, and to aid
France if she found it necessary to undertake the conquest of Belgium,
providing a force if required to resist any foreign interference; an
undertaking by France not to oppose Prussia’s designs for the
unification of Germany. Whether this treaty was ever signed or not,
there is little doubt that proposals of this nature were made to
Bismarck by Benedetti, Napoleon’s minister at Berlin.


Sections, Journée des.

October 5, 1794, on which day the troops of the Convention, under
Buonaparte, routed the National Guard of the “Sections” of Paris and
established the rule of the Directoire, thus marking the end of the
Revolution.


Sects.

_See_ Albigenses, Alumbrados, Anabaptists, Arminians, Arya Somaj,
Assassins, Bianchi, Brahmo Somaj, Brownists, Calixtines, Cameronians,
Doppers, Dukhobors, Erastians, Fifth Monarchy Men, Flagellants,
Hussites, Iconoclasts, Illuminati, Independents, Jansenists,
Karmathians, Latitudinarians, Levellers, Lollards, Molokani, Moravians,
Mormons, Old Catholics, Quakers, Quietists, Senussi, Shakers, Shiah,
Sikhs, Socinians, Skoptsi, Stundists, Sunni, Taborites, Utraquists,
Wahabis, Waldenses.


Secularization.

By a treaty concluded in 1803, in the promotion of which Napoleon took a
prominent part, the ecclesiastical States of Germany, three of which,
the Sees of Mayence, Treves and Cologne, were Electors to the Imperial
crown, were secularized and distributed among the other German States.


Securities Bill.

A Bill brought forward at the instance of Charles II in 1679, to provide
for the succession of James, who was a declared Roman Catholic. The Bill
provided that while a Catholic prince was on the throne the right of
appointing to livings should be withdrawn from him, and that the
appointment of all judges, councillors, lords lieutenant and officers of
the fleet should be in the hands of the two Houses of Parliament. This
Bill was not considered sufficiently stringent.


Security, Act of.

An Act passed by the Scottish Parliament in 1703, declaring that the
successor of Queen Anne in Scotland should not be the same as in
England, unless free commercial intercourse were secured between the two
countries.


Sédan, Man of.

A name bestowed on Napoleon III after his surrender, with the army of
Macmahon, at Sédan in September, 1870.


Self-denying Ordinance.

A resolution of the Parliament, passed at the instance of Cromwell, by
which the members of both Houses were made ineligible for commands in
the army. Its object was to get rid of some of the Parliamentary
generals, such as Manchester, Essex and Waller, in as delicate a way as
possible. The resolution was at first rejected by the Lords, but was
afterwards passed.


Selski Starosta.

The village elder or elected head of a Russian mir, or village
community.


Semiramis of the North.

Margaret of Denmark (1387) was so called. Voltaire also gave this title
to Catherine of Russia (1729-96).


Sempach, Convention of.

A military ordinance promulgated in 1393 by the eight federated cantons
of Switzerland, together with Soleure, making provision for the
repression of private war, brigandage and pillage.


Senussi.

A Mohammedan religious fraternity founded at Fez by Mohammed-es-Senussi
about 1830. It has spread all over Northern Africa, and is a powerful
factor in uniting African Mohammedanism.


September Convention.

A convention between France and Italy, signed in 1864, by which Louis
Napoleon agreed gradually to withdraw the French troops from Rome,
Victor Emmanuel undertaking not to violate the Pope’s territory.


September Laws.

A series of laws restricting the liberty of the Press, passed in France
in 1835.


September Massacres.

The massacre, after a mock trial, of the priests, officials and other
Royalists confined in the prisons of Paris between the 2nd and 6th of
September, 1792. About 1,000 prisoners are known to have perished. The
men engaged in the massacre were afterwards called the Septembriseurs.


Septembrists.

A section of the democratic party of Portugal, during the reign of Queen
Maria, who in September, 1836, demanded the abrogation of the Charter of
1826 and a return to the democratic form of government established by
the Constitution of 1824. A compromise between them and the supporters
of the Charter was effected in 1852.


Septennial Act.

An Act passed in 1716, prolonging the term of the then existing
Parliament from three to seven years. It was intended as a temporary
measure, but has never been repealed, and is the Act under which
Parliaments are now held.


Serfs, Russian.

Prior to the emancipation of the serfs by Alexander II. in 1861, the
Russian peasants were serfs, either of the State, or of a great
landowner. The State serfs were practically free, with the exception
that they could not change their domicile, but they were permitted, on
payment of a small fee, to leave their villages, subject to the due
payment of their share of the village taxes. The serfs of the nobles
were more like slaves. Some of them were taken as house servants, others
remained in the villages and rendered certain services to the lord in
return for the land which he surrendered to the village commune. The
house serfs were practically chattels, and were not infrequently sold.


Seringapatam, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1792 at the close of the third Mysore War, by which
Tippu Sahib surrendered Dindigul, Baramahal and Malabar, and agreed to
pay a war indemnity of three crores of rupees to the British and thirty
lacs to the Mahratta States.


Serrar del Consiglio.

A measure passed in Venice in 1298 providing that no citizens should be
eligible for election to the Grand Council except the families of
senators then in office. The Government was thus established on purely
aristocratic lines.


Servian Capitulation.

A treaty signed in 1375 between Mourad I, Sultan of Turkey, and Lazar,
Despot of Servia, by which Servia acknowledged the suzerainty of Turkey
and agreed to pay an annual tribute.


Settled Lands Act.

An Act passed in 1882, introduced by Lord Cairns, removing many of the
restrictions and difficulties existing in dealing with entailed estates.


Settlement, Act of, 1652.

An Act passed by Cromwell, providing for the banishment of all the
officers of the Catholic army in Ireland, who, with their followers,
withdrew to the Continent, to the number of some 30,000; the
confiscation of a portion of the property of the remaining Royalists,
and the distribution of their lands among the English adventurers. It
further confined the Catholics to the right bank of the Shannon.


Settlement, Act of, 1661.

An Act passed after the Restoration, by which, and a supplementary Act
passed in 1665, restitution was made to the dispossessed Royalist
officers and some others, partly out of lands which had not been
alienated by Cromwell, and partly out of land surrendered, to the extent
of one-third of their estates, by the adventurers. The majority of the
claims for compensation were disregarded, with the result that by far
the larger part of Ireland remained in Protestant hands. This Act was
repealed by the Irish Parliament summoned by James II in 1689.


Settlement, Act of, 1700.

The Act settling the succession after the death of Queen Anne upon the
Electress Sophia of Hanover and her descendants. It provided for various
limitations of the royal prerogative; among its provisions being that
the sovereign should be a member of the Church of England; that Great
Britain should not be called upon to defend any territories not being
British territory, without the consent of Parliament; that the sovereign
should not quit the realm; that no person born out of the realm should
be capable of holding office under the Crown, and that no person holding
office or enjoying a pension should sit in the House of Commons.


Settlement, Law of.

A law passed in 1662, providing that a labourer not born in the parish
or resident therein for forty days, might be removed to the parish of
his birth or former residence, on complaint of the overseers that he was
likely to become chargeable to the rates. The object was that each
parish should be compelled to support its own paupers, under the Poor
Law of Elizabeth.


Settlement of India Act.

An Act passed in 1858, transferring to the Government of the Queen all
the territories hitherto governed by the East India Company.


Seven Bishops, Petition of the.

A petition signed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and six bishops
against the Declaration of Indulgence of James II in 1687. The bishops
were brought before the Council and ordered to find bail, and on
refusing were committed to the Tower.


Seven Cantons, League of the.

The Siebenkonkordat, a league of the liberal Cantons, Lucerne, Zurich,
Berne, Soleure, St. Gall, Aargau and Thurgau, formed in 1832, with the
object of protecting the constitutions of these Cantons and promoting
Federal reforms.


Seven Days Battle.

A series of battles fought during the Peninsular Campaign of the
American Civil War, from June 25 to July 1, 1862, between the Federals
under McClellan and the Confederates under Lee. McClellan was driven
back to the James River.


Seven Days King.

Masaniello was so called after his brief rule in Naples in 1647.


Seven Earls.

The dignitaries next in importance to the king in mediæval Scotland. In
the time of Alexander I they formed the Council of the Kingdom, and they
claimed the right of appointing the king.


Seven Pillars.

The seven men chosen in 1639 by the Puritan colonists of New Haven to
organize the Government of the colony. The most prominent among them
were Eaton and Davenport.


Seven Points.

A document published in 1871, purporting to be an agreement between
certain prominent Conservatives and the delegates of the Council of
Skilled Workmen, on the subject of social reform. As the “points”
included a statutory eight hours’ day, free places of amusement and full
local self-government in all towns and villages, it is not surprising
that the document was repudiated by most of those who were said to have
signed it, including Lords Salisbury, Lorne and Carnarvon.


Seven Weeks War.

The war between Prussia and Austria in 1866 is so called.


Seven Years War.

The war maintained by Frederick the Great, with some aid, chiefly naval
and financial, from England, against the combined forces of France,
Russia, Austria, Sweden and Saxony. It lasted from 1756 to 1763, but
early in 1762 Frederick succeeded in detaching Russia from the allies
and received her aid till the end of the struggle.


Seville, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1729 by England, Spain and France, and subsequently
Holland, thus detaching Spain from the Austrian alliance concluded by
the Treaty of Vienna of 1725. Spain revoked all the concessions made to
Austria under that instrument, again confirmed the Asiento, and in
return received the support of the other signatories to the succession
of Don Carlos to the Duchies of Tuscany and Parma.


Shakers.

A sect founded in England about 1757 by a body of seceders from the
Quakers, under Ann Lee, known as Mother Ann. They emigrated to America
in 1772, where they are found chiefly in New York State.


Shays’ Rebellion.

A rising in Massachusetts in 1786, headed by an ex-officer named Daniel
Shays, in opposition to a decision of Congress to apportion the National
Debt of the United States among the various States of the Union. The
rising was quickly suppressed by the militia, and the ring leaders
arrested.


Sheriff’s Tourn.

The Hundred Court, when occupied with the View of Frank pledge, was
known by this name.


Sherman’s March.

The famous march of General Sherman during the American Civil War from
Atlanta to Savannah, a distance of 300 miles, which he accomplished in
about a month, reaching Savannah in December, 1864.


She-wolf of France.

Isabel, daughter of Philip the Fair, and Queen of Edward II of England,
was so called.


Sheyk-ul-Islam.

The chief of the Ulema of Constantinople.


Shiah.

One of the two great Mohammedan sects. It rejects the Sunni, or body of
tradition, accepting the Koran only.


Shimonoseki, Treaty of.

A treaty, closing the Chino-Japanese War, signed April 10, 1895. China
agreed to cede to Japan Formosa, the Pescadores and the Liao-Tung
Peninsula, including Port Arthur, and to pay an indemnity of 200 million
taels. However, Russia, France and Germany intervened and forced Japan
to surrender the Liao-Tung peninsula, receiving as compensation an
additional 30 million taels.


Shinto.

The ancient and also the State religion of Japan. It is in its origin a
form of ancestor and hero worship, but has been much corrupted by the
interweaving of many of the grosser Buddhistic superstitions.


Ship-money.

A tax imposed by Charles I in 1634, first on the maritime counties, but
later on the whole kingdom, ostensibly to protect the country from the
incursions of the Algerine pirates and from Dutch aggression, but in
reality to provide himself with funds without having recourse to
Parliament. It was in resisting the payment of this tax that Hampden
first became prominent. The House of Commons declared it illegal in
1641, and at the same time impeached the six judges who had pronounced
in favour of the right of the Crown to impose it.


Shôgun.

The _de facto_ ruler of Japan prior to the Revolution of 1868. The title
signifies Commander-in-Chief, and his relations with the Tenno or
Mikado, the legitimate sovereign of Japan, were analogous to those of
the Maire du Palais and the Merovingian Rois Fainéants. The title of
Tycoon or Great Prince was assumed by the Shôgun to impress the Western
nations with his dignity when diplomatic relations were first opened
with Japan. The title of Shôgun was first borne by Minamoto-no-Yoritomo
in 1192.


Short Parliament.

A Parliament summoned by Charles I in 1640 in the hope of obtaining
supplies to meet the threatened renewal of hostilities with Scotland.
The Parliament met on April 13, but finding it more intent on the
redress of grievances than on the grant of supplies, Charles dissolved
it on May 5 following.


Short-lived Administration.

The name given to the Ministry formed by William Pulteney, Earl of Bath,
in February, 1746. It held office for two days only.


Sicilian Vespers.

A rising in Sicily in 1282, when the adherents of Don Pedro of Aragon, a
claimant to the Sicilian throne, annihilated the French garrison of his
rival Charles of Anjou. The first outbreak took place at Palermo, and
the insurrection spread rapidly through the island till not a Frenchman
was left alive in Sicily.


Sick Man of the East.

A phrase commonly applied to the Turkish Empire. It was first used in
its present form by Nicholas I of Russia in 1854, but Montesquieu
(1689-1755) in the _Lettres Persanes_ speaks of the Ottoman Empire as
“Ce corps malade” (This sickly body).


Siebenkonkordat.

_See_ Seven Cantons.


Siete Partidas.

The famous code of laws compiled by Alfonso (surnamed the Wise), of Leon
and Castille (1252-82). The code became the basis of the law of Spain.


Sieve Oultagh.

The name given to the head of the Whiteboys, an Irish Secret Society in
Munster in 1761.


Silent, The.

The sobriquet of William I, Prince of Orange (1533-84).


Silk Riots.

An outbreak of the Spitalfields weavers in 1765 owing to their
disappointment at the rejection of a Bill prohibiting the importation of
foreign silks. They were, after serious rioting, quieted by the promise
that the Bill would be reintroduced.


Silly Billy.

A nickname of William IV.


Silver Coinage Act.

An Act of Congress, passed in 1890, by which the Treasury is obliged to
purchase four and a half million ounces of silver monthly at market
price, such price not to exceed 371¼ grains of silver per dollar.


Sikhs.

A religious sect in Northern India, founded in the sixteenth century by
Babu Nának. They profess a reformed form of Hinduism, rejecting caste
and various Brahminical superstitions. Under Govind Rai, towards the end
of the seventeenth century, they formed a strong military organization,
which reached its zenith under Ranjit Singh early in the nineteenth
century. Their power was finally crushed by the British in 1851.


Sikkim Treaty.

A treaty between Great Britain and China, signed in 1890, by which China
recognized the British rights in Sikkim.


Simla Manifesto.

A proclamation issued by Lord Auckland in 1838 setting out the British
policy with regard to Afghanistan. It declared that Dost Mahomed and his
brother had shown themselves unfriendly to England by supporting the
Persian designs on Herat and by attacking Ranjit Singh. That in
consequence the British Government had decided to support the claim of
Shah Sujah-ul-Mulk to the throne of Afghanistan and maintain him thereon
by force if necessary.


Simple Repeal.

A controversy in the Irish Parliament, which arose in 1782 immediately
after the establishment of Grattan’s Parliament. A party headed by Flood
held that the abnegation by England of her former legislative control
was not sufficient, as she might at any time re-enact the obnoxious
controlling laws. He held that England should expressly renounce all
controlling rights. Grattan held that the repeal of these enactments was
sufficient, and carried Parliament with him, but the masses continued to
hold the opposite opinion.


Sindhia.

The title of the Mahratta rulers of Gwalior.


Sinope, Massacre of.

The destruction of a Turkish squadron by the Russian fleet at Sinope in
1853. It seems clear that no quarter was given, and it is said that of
the crews of nine Turkish men-of-war only 400 survived, almost all of
whom were wounded.


Sirji Arjengam, Treaty of.

A treaty between the British and Daulat Rao Sindhia of Gwalior, signed
in 1803 at the close of the second Mahratta War. Sindhia ceded to the
British all his territory between the Jumna and the Ganges, all north of
Jeypur, Jodhpur and Gohad, and all between Adjanta Ghât and the
Godaveri, together with the town and district of Ahmednaggar.


Sistova, Treaty of.

A treaty between Austria, Prussia, and Turkey, signed in 1791, by which
Leopold of Austria surrendered all his conquests, in consequence of the
mediation of Prussia and England. By a separate convention the Porte
agreed to cede to Austria Old Orsova and a small district in Croatia.


Sitvatorok, Treaty of.

A treaty between Austria and the Porte, signed in 1607. The Porte
abandoned the tribute hitherto paid by Austria, recognized the Austrian
Sovereign as Emperor, instead of only King of Vienna, as the Turks had
hitherto styled him, and agreed that the future diplomatic intercourse
should be carried on on a footing of equality between the two nations.
This treaty may be said to mark the turning point in the fortunes of the
Ottoman Empire.


Six Acts.

A series of enactments passed in the autumn session of 1819 to
strengthen the law against sedition, in view of the numerous risings of
the past few years. They were as follows: (1) An Act to prevent delay in
the administration of justice; (2) an Act to prevent the training of
persons in the use of arms; (3) an Act for the prevention of blasphemy
and seditious libel; (4) an Act authorizing Justices of the Peace to
seize and retain arms; (5) an Act subjecting certain publications to the
newspaper stamp duty; and (6) an Act to prevent seditious assemblies.


Six Articles, Act of the.

An Act passed in 1539, at the instance of the Anti-Reformers headed by
Norfolk, by which the acceptance of six cardinal articles of the
Catholic faith was made obligatory under heavy penalties. It was
repealed by an Act passed in 1547, on the accession of Edward VI.


Six Circles.

By a decree of the Diet of Augsburg in 1500, Germany was divided into
six circles--Bavaria, Franconia, The Rhine, Saxony, Suabia and
Westphalia.


Six Cities, League of the.

A league formed in 1346 by the German towns of Bautzen, Görlitz, Kamenz,
Lauban, Löbau and Zittau for mutual protection against the marauding
barons.


Six Edicts.

A series of edicts of a liberal character issued by Turgot, the minister
of Louis XVI in 1776. They provided for the suppression of (1) the
Caisse de Poissy; (2) duties on grain in the markets; (3) harbour dues;
(4) statutes of apprenticeship and incorporation; (5) the corvée, and
for (6) the diminution of market dues. They met with much opposition,
and were not registered without recourse to a Lit de Justice, while they
eventually led to Turgot’s downfall.


Six Nations.

The five tribes of North American Indians known as the Five Nations
admitted into their confederacy, in 1715, the Tuscaroras, and were
afterwards known as the Six Nations.


Sixpenny War.

The O.P. riots were so called, as being caused by the decision of the
managers of Covent Garden Theatre to raise the prices by sixpence.


Sixteen.

A society formed about 1584 by the more violent partisans of the League.
It was so called because its proceedings were directed by a committee of
sixteen, each of whom took a district of Paris under his special charge.


Sixteen, Council of.

A council provided by the will of Henry VIII, to act as regents until
Edward VI came of age. They were also called the Executors.


Skanderbeg.

_See_ Iskander Beg.


Skinners.

Bands of American marauders who infested the east bank of the Hudson
during the American War of Independence.


Skirmishing Fund.

The name given to a fund raised by the Fenians about 1880, for the
purpose of procuring the commission of dynamite outrages in England.


Skoptsi.

A Russian sect of schismatics, who practise self-mutilation. They
interpret the Scriptures literally, and act on the injunction: “If thine
eye offend thee, pluck it out.”


Skuptschina.

The Servian National Assembly.


Slachter’s Nek, Insurrection of.

An insurrection of burghers in the Graaf-Reinet district of Cape Colony
in 1815, arising out of an attempt to bring a certain Jan Bezuidenhoot
to justice for ill-treating a Kaffir. He and his relations and
neighbours rose against the Government, but were overpowered, after a
short resistance, at Slachter’s Nek. Bezuidenhoot fled, but was killed
by his pursuers a few days later. Six of the leaders were condemned to
death, but at the execution four of the ropes broke. Notwithstanding the
remonstrances of the spectators, who considered this to be a Divine
intimation of their innocence, the sentence was duly carried out. This
execution is still looked upon by the Dutch as one of the crimes of the
British Government.


Slave Kings.

The third Dynasty of the Mohammedan Kings of India, founded by
Kutb-ud-Din, the favourite slave of Mohammed of Ghor, who ruled as
Mohammed’s viceroy from 1186 to 1206, and on his master’s death, without
issue, ascended the throne. The dynasty lasted till 1288.


Slave Trade.

The trade in slaves was made a felony by an Act passed in 1807. The Act
abolishing slavery in the British Dominions, known as the Emancipation
Act, was not passed till 1833.


Slavery.

_See_ Abolitionists, Anti-Slavery, Compromise Act, Dred Scott,
Emancipation, Freesoilers. Fugitive, Harper’s Ferry, Kansas, Missouri
Compromise, Squatter Sovereignty, Underground Railroad, Wilmot Proviso.


Slavophils.

A band of educated Muscovites who led the reaction against the
indiscriminate adoption of Western ideas, and the abandonment of ancient
Russian customs. They were especially active about the period of the
emancipation of the serfs in 1861, when the village communal system was
threatened by the reforming party.


Sliding Scale.

A system of graduated duties on imported corn, based upon the prices
ruling for home-grown wheat, first adopted in the Corn Law of 1804.


Smithfield, Treaty of.

A treaty between the Orange Free State and Moshesh, paramount chief of
the Basutos, signed in 1855. It was designed to prevent friction between
the Basutos and the farmers living along their borders, but Moshesh
clearly had no intention of observing its provisions, and took no
trouble to enforce them on his subjects.


Snow King.

A nickname given by the Viennese to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
(1611-32).


Snow Queen.

A sobriquet of Christina, Queen of Sweden (1633-54).


Sobranje.

The Bulgarian National Assembly.


Societies, Secret.

_See_ Alumbrados, Barn-burners, Boxers, Burschenschaft, Camorra,
Carbonari, Clan-na-Gael, Consistoriali, Danites, Fenians, Gran Reunion,
Great Triad, Hintchak, Human Leopards, Illuminati, Invincibles, Ku Klux,
Lautaro, Levellers, Mafia, Molly Maguires, Moonlighters, Mutualists.
Nihilists, Oakboys, Omladina, Orangemen, Patrons of Husbandry, Philike
Hetairia, Ribbonism, Right, Rock, Saisons, Sanfedisti.


Socinians.

A sect founded by Lælius Socinus in 1560, which numbered many adherents
in Poland. Their doctrines were similar to those of the modern
Unitarians. In 1658 they were proscribed by the Diet of Warsaw, and the
sect gradually faded out of existence.


Soft-shell Democrats.

The anti-slavery section of the Democratic party in New York from 1848
to 1854.


Soissons, Constitution of.

The earliest existing French edict. It had reference to the preservation
of the public peace, and required the consent of the great feudal lords,
who swore to obey it.


Sokmen.

In Saxon times, freemen who owed suit to the Lord’s court, or Sok.


Soldiers’ Battle.

The Battle of Inkerman is so called, as having been for the most part a
series of detached combats, in which regiments were broken up and
officers separated from their men, owing to the dense fog that
prevailed.


Solemn League and Covenant.

An agreement between Scotland and the Long Parliament in 1643, by which
the former undertook to join forces with the Parliament against Charles
I, on condition that the Oath of the Covenant was taken by the English.


Solid South.

A phrase used to express the consistency of the Southern States of
America in their support of the Democratic Party. It appears to have
been first applied during the presidential campaign of 1876. In 1896 the
Solid South showed signs of breaking up, four Southern States being
carried by the Republicans.


Solidité.

A system of taxation in France in the seventeenth century, by which a
peasant was held responsible for the taxes of his neighbours, though he
might himself have paid all that was due from him.


Solomon of France.

A sobriquet of Louis IX of France (1226-70).


Son of the Last Man.

The title given by the Parliamentarians to Charles II, after the
execution of his father. Charles I, was styled the Last Man, as implying
that he was the last who would sit on the English throne.


Sonderbund.

_See_ Sarnen, League of.


Sons of Liberty.

A society of Americans, pledged to work for liberty in the American
colonies, which was founded in New York in 1765. It derived its name
from a phrase used by Isaac Barré, in a speech in the House of Commons
during the debate on the Stamp Bill in 1765. The last achievement of the
Society was the convening of the Continental Congress in 1774.


Sonthal Revolt.

A rising of the Sonthal hillmen in India in 1855, due to dislike of the
procedure of the courts of justice in enforcing the claims of Bengali
moneylenders. They raided the European stations, and were not subdued
without considerable difficulty.


Sound Dues.

A tax payable to Denmark by all foreign ships entering or quitting the
Baltic. It was abolished in 1857.


South Sea Bubble.

A scheme professedly for trading to the Pacific, originally launched in
1711. In 1720 Sir John Blount, one of the directors, negotiated an
arrangement with the Government, by which the Company took over the
National Debt, amounting to some sixteen millions, the Government paying
a lower rate of interest than they had been paying to the annuitants.
The Company then persuaded the holders of Government Annuities to
exchange them for shares in the Company. The plan was fairly successful,
but led to a wild inflation in the value of the shares, and in the
subsequent collapse thousands were ruined.


Southampton, Treaty of.

A treaty of alliance between England and Holland, signed in 1625,
pledging the contracting parties to support each other against Spain, so
long as she occupied any part of the Palatinate. England, however,
reserved to herself the right to claim compensation from Holland for the
massacre of Amboyna.


Spanish Fury.

The name given to the sack of Antwerp by the Spaniards under Sancho
d’Avila, in 1576. It is estimated that over 7,000 of the inhabitants
perished.


Spanish Main.

Properly the mainland between the mouth of the Orinoco and the Isthmus
of Panama, but often improperly employed to denote the Caribbean Sea.


Spanish Marriages.

The question of the marriage of Isabella, the young Queen of Spain,
nearly led to a rupture between England and Spain in 1846. Louis
Philippe proposed as her husband the Duke of Cadiz, believing that such
marriage would prove unfruitful. At the same time the Queen’s sister,
the Infanta, was to be married to the Duc de Montpensier, with the
object of eventually placing the Crown of Spain on the head of a French
Prince. Palmerston proposed that the second marriage should be postponed
until the Queen had issue, to which the King feigned assent, but
meanwhile he and his minister, Guizot, worked on the Queen Regent to
consent to the marriages taking place at once, and they were duly
solemnized, causing great indignation in England.


Spanish Succession, War of the.

A war arising out of the bequest of the Spanish Crown to Philip, Duke of
Anjou, in 1700, by Charles II of Spain, who had left no direct heir. The
Grand Alliance of England, Holland and the Empire was promptly formed to
oppose this, while Louis XIV supported his grandson. Marlborough’s
campaign in Flanders, and the overrunning of Spain by the Archduke
Charles followed, but in 1713 Philip was recognized by the Allies as
King of Spain, and the war ended.


Specie Circular.

A circular issued by the United States Treasury in 1836, directing
collectors of revenue to accept nothing but coin in payment of customs
and other dues. It caused the bankruptcy of many well-known American
business houses.


Speenhamland Act.

The name given to a proclamation issued in 1795 by the magistrates of
Buckinghamshire and some other counties, fixing the amount of outdoor
relief to be afforded according to the price of wheat and the number of
children in the family. The practical result in the agricultural
districts was the substitution of relief for wages.


Spires, Diet of.

A diet of the German Empire, held in 1529, which repealed the Act of
Toleration passed at the previous Diet. The Lutheran Party, headed by
the Elector of Saxony, the Margrave of Brandenburg and the Landgrave of
Hesse, signed a protest against the action of the Diet, whence the
reforming party became known as Protestants.


Spurs, Battle of the.

This name is given to two battles: (1) The Battle of Courtrai, when the
Flemings defeated the French, July 11, 1302. It is said that 7,000 gilt
spurs were picked up on the field of battle; (2) the Battle of
Guinegate, where Henry VIII defeated the French, August 18, 1513. The
name is derived from the headlong flight of the French cavalry.


Squadrone Volante.

A party under the leadership of Tweeddale in the last Scottish
Parliament (1705), which attempted to hold the balance between the
supporters and the opponents of union with England.


Squatter Sovereignty.

The principle of leaving the slavery question to the decision of the
settlers, first applied on the admission to the Union as territories of
the districts acquired from Mexico in 1848. It was afterwards extended,
in defiance of the Missouri Compromise, to Kansas and Nebraska in 1854.


Stabbing, Statute of.

An Act passed in the reign of James I, by which, for the first time in
England, it was made a capital offence to draw sword or dagger on a man
whose sword was not drawn, if within six months he died from wounds thus
received. The Act was passed to put a stop to the constant brawls
between the English courtiers and James’ Scottish followers.


Stalwarts.

A section of the Republican Party in the United States, led by Senator
Conkling of New York, who were opposed to President Garfield in 1881 on
the question of Civil Service Reform. Guiteau, the assassin of Garfield,
was a Stalwart, and gave as his reason for the crime that he could see
no other way to bring about a reunion of the Republican Party.


Stamford, Statute of.

A statute of reform forced upon Edward II by his nobles in 1309. It
renewed the first Statute of Westminster, checked the abuses of
constables and others exercising the royal authority, and repealed
certain unauthorized taxes upon wool and hides.


Stamp Act.

An Act passed in 1765, for the purpose of raising revenue from the
colonies. It was even more unpopular in America than the American
Customs Act, and proved almost impossible to enforce. It was repealed in
1766.


Standard, Battle of the.

The name given to the Battle of Luton Moor, between the English and the
Scots in 1138. The standard displayed on this occasion was that of St.
Cuthbert of Durham, which was always thought to secure victory.


Stannaries.

The tin mines of Cornwall are so called. Their administration is in the
hands of the Warden of the Stannaries, an official of the Duchy of
Cornwall. The Stannaries are technically the property of the Crown, and
are worked under Royal License.


Staple.

A term applied to the chief products of England, and also to certain
towns in Flanders where alone these commodities were permitted to be
sold. These transactions were carried out under the surveillance of
Government officers, and it was obligatory on the vendor to bring back a
certain proportion of the proceeds of the sale in coin. Edward III,
however, named nine English towns as the Staple towns, and made it a
penal offence for an Englishman to carry any of the staple commodities
beyond the seas.


Staples, Statute of.

A statute of 1353, regulating foreign trade and the privileges of the
Merchant Guild.


Star Chamber, Court of.

A court established by Henry VII in 1487, to check the power of the
great feudal houses by the suppression of maintenance, which, by
providing them with large bodies of armed retainers, enabled the more
powerful nobles to foment disturbances and insurrections. Later the Star
Chamber became an instrument in the hands of the Sovereign for the
suppression of free speech, and its arbitrary and corrupt decisions
became notorious. It was abolished by Act of Parliament in 1641.


Star of the North.

A name given to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden by the German Protestants
during the Thirty Years War.


Stars and Stripes.

The flag of the United States. It consists of thirteen stripes, being
the number of the original States of the Union, and a number of stars
equal to the number of States in the Union for the time being, an
additional star being added for each State admitted.


Start, The.

An excursion of Charles II into the Highlands in 1650, with the object
of escaping from the Scottish Presbyterians, of whose loyalty he was
somewhat doubtful, and also of raising a force in the Highlands to
support him, in which he was entirely unsuccessful.


States-General (France).

An assembly of the three estates of the realm, nobles, clergy and
commoners, first summoned in 1302 by Philip the Fair.


States-General (Netherlands).

The general congress of the estates of the various provinces forming the
Netherlands. Its chief business was financial, as through it alone could
the Sovereign legally obtain supplies.


States’ Rights.

A political doctrine in the United States, which maintains that the
Federal State is not a sovereign state, but that its acts require
ratification by the individual States forming the Union, who are thus at
liberty to disregard its enactments if they consider them
unconstitutional. Thus South Carolina, in 1832, “nullified” an Act of
Congress relating to import duties, and the doctrine was held in 1860 to
justify the secession of the Southern States.


Status quo ante.

A term used to express the return after a war to the position occupied
by the belligerents before the war broke out.


Statutes.

_See_ Apparel, Apprentices, Carlisle, Donis, Drogheda, Fines, Hæretico,
Kilkenny, Labourers, Liveries, Mercatoribus, Præmunire, Provisors, Quia
Emptores, Rhudlann, Stabbing, Stamford, Staples, Submission, Tallagio,
Treason, Uses, Wales, Westminster, Wills, Winchester.


Steelboys.

An Irish agrarian society, formed in 1772 in Down and Antrim, chiefly on
the estates of the Marquis of Donegal, where there had been wholesale
evictions. Very serious outrages were perpetrated, and it was found
necessary to try prisoners in Dublin.


Steelyard, Merchants of the.

A guild of German merchants established in England in the fourteenth
century. They were formed into a guild in order that they might be kept
under Government supervision.


Stellaland.

A republic in South Africa, formed by a party of Boer adventurers who
had supported Massouw, a Battapin chief, against Mankoroane, in 1882.
Two years later it was annexed by Great Britain, and incorporated in
British Bechuanaland.


Stockenström Treaties.

A series of treaties made by Sir Andries Stockenström with the Gaika and
Fingo chiefs in 1836, after the sixth Kaffir war, by which the
boundaries were fixed between British territory and the Kaffir country.


Stockholm, Treaty of, 1719.

A treaty between Great Britain and Sweden, by which Sweden surrendered
the Duchies of Bremen and Verden to George I, in return for a payment of
one million rix-dollars.


Stockholm, Treaty of, 1812.

A treaty between Great Britain, Sweden and Russia, whereby Sweden
undertook to provide 30,000 men to act with the Russian troops against
Napoleon. Great Britain engaged to pay Sweden a subsidy of one million
sterling annually, to cede to her Guadeloupe, receiving in return
certain commercial privileges, and to accede to the convention between
Sweden and Russia, relative to the cession of Norway to the former
Power.


Stockholm, Treaty of, 1855.

A treaty signed by Great Britain, France, Norway and Sweden, by which
Sweden undertook not to cede or make any grants of pasturage, fishery or
any other rights to Russia, Great Britain and France agreeing to
guarantee Sweden from Russian aggression.


Stolbova, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Sweden, signed in 1617, after the successful
campaign of Gustavus Adolphus. By this instrument Sweden retained
possession of Ingermanland, Karelia and part of Livonia, restoring to
Russia the rest of her conquests.


Stonewall Jackson.

A nickname given to Thomas J. Jackson, the Confederate General, during
the American Civil War.


Storthing.

The Norwegian Parliament. On first assembling, one-fourth of the members
of the Storthing are chosen to form an Upper House, known as the
Lagthing, the remaining three-fourths forming the Lower House, or
Odalsthing. In the event of the Lagthing twice rejecting a Bill sent up
by the Odalsthing, the two houses sit together.


Stranniki.

A sect of ascetics in Russia, which sprang up in the reign of Catherine
II. They believe the Czar to be Antichrist, and are opposed to military
service, the payment of taxes, and any recognition of secular authority.


Strasburg, Oath of.

The oath of mutual fidelity taken by Louis and Charles, sons of Louis
the Débonnaire, and their followers, at Strasburg, in 841.


Strelitzi.

A body of regular infantry established, to repel the Tartar incursions,
by Ivan IV (The Terrible), circ. 1535. They were disbanded and many of
them killed by Peter the Great after their rebellion in 1698.


Strelitzi, Conspiracy of the.

A conspiracy of Sophia, half sister of Peter the Great, aided by the
Strelitzi, to murder Peter, and rule the State in the name of her
imbecile brother Ivan, in 1689. Peter was warned, seized Sophia, and
shut her up in a convent.


Strongbow.

A nickname of Richard de Clare, Count of Strigul, who became King of
Leinster in 1170, in succession to Dermot, his father-in-law.


Stundists.

A Russian dissenting sect, who object to the ikon-worship of the
Orthodox Church.


Sturm und Drang Zeit.

The end of the eighteenth century, when the French Revolution had
rendered many thinking men discontented with existing institutions, was
known in Germany as the period of Storm and Stress.


Suabian League.

A league of the cities of Suabia formed in 1376, for mutual defence
against the depredations of the Counts of Würtemberg.


Subinfeudation.

The practice of making grants of land by the holders of hereditary fiefs
to sub-vassals, to be held on terms similar to those on which the
grantor held from his overlord. This is the real origin of the feudal
system in its fullest development.


Submission of the Clergy, Statute of.

A Statute passed in 1534, embodying an agreement forced upon Convocation
by Henry VIII in 1532. It enacted that no new canons should be issued
without the royal sanction, and that the power of summoning Convocation
should be vested in the King, who should also be entitled to appoint
commissioners to revise the Canon Law.


Subsidiary System.

A system introduced by Warren Hastings in his dealings with Oude, and
extended by the Marquis of Wellesley. Under this system native states
acknowledged the paramountcy of the British Government, which in return
guaranteed their integrity and independence. They were bound not to make
war without the consent of the Government, and undertook to maintain a
force to be at the Government’s disposal when required.


Subsidy.

A tax imposed by Parliament in the reign of Charles I to meet the King’s
demands for money. It amounted to 4s. in the £ on real property, and 2s.
8d. in the £ on personalty, aliens and Popish recusants paying double.


Succession, Act of, 1534.

An Act declaring Henry VIII’s marriage with Catherine of Aragon null and
void, and setting the succession on the issue of his second marriage,
with Anne Boleyn.


Succession Act, 1701.

An Act restricting in certain directions the royal prerogative, and
settling the succession upon the Electress Sophia of Hanover. One of its
clauses forbade the sovereign to leave the kingdom, but it was repealed
in 1716, at the instance of George I, to enable him to visit his kingdom
of Hanover.


Sucker State.

A name derisively applied to the State of Illinois, U.S.A., by the
inhabitants of other Western States.


Sudras.

The fourth or servile caste of the Hindus.


Suez Canal Treaty.

A treaty between England and France, signed in 1887, guaranteeing the
neutrality of the Suez Canal. The Canal is to be at all times free to
the ships of all nations, but in war time no belligerent is to be
permitted to land troops or munitions of war in the Canal or its ports
of access. The Khedive is charged with the carrying out of these
stipulations. Practically all the Powers concerned have given their
adhesion to this instrument.


Sunni.

One of the two great Mohammedan sects. They accept the Sunna, a
collection of laws and precepts, as well as the Koran.


Supplicants.

Those who signed the Supplication against the use of Archbishop Laud’s
Service Book in 1637. In 1638, the Supplicants having signed the
Covenant, became known as the Covenanters.


Supplication of William of Orange.

A letter addressed to Philip of Spain by William of Orange and the
Estates of Holland and Zeeland in 1573, demanding the restoration of
their privileges, and the recall of the Duke of Alva.


Suppression of Papacy, Act for the.

One of the Irish Penal Laws, passed in 1704. It provided that no
Catholic could be a guardian or trustee, take land on a longer lease
than thirty-one years, or inherit land if there were a Protestant heir
living. It forbade Catholics settling in Galway or Limerick. The Act was
in fact a deliberate attempt to bribe the younger generation of
Catholics into apostasy.


Supremacy, Act of.

An Act passed in 1534, conferring on Henry VIII the title of Supreme
Head of the Church of England. It was made high treason to question the
title. The provisions of this Act as to treason were repealed in the
reign of Edward VI, and re-enacted under Elizabeth.


Surat, Treaty of.

A treaty between the British and Raghoba, signed in 1775, by which it
was agreed to support Raghoba for the office of Peshwa, in return for
the cession of Salsette and Bassein.


Suspects, Loi des.

A law passed by the French Convention in 1793, declaring suspect: (1)
all persons who had shown themselves enemies of liberty; (2) all who
could not show that they had regular means of livelihood; (3) those who
refused to take out certificates of civism; (4) all suspended public
functionaries; (5) ci-devant nobles and their families; and (6) emigrés.
All such persons were to be arrested, and kept in confinement at their
own expense.


Suttee.

The ancient Hindu custom of burning the widow on the pyre with her
deceased husband’s body. It was put down during the Viceroyalty of Lord
Dalhousie, circ. 1856.


Swainmote.

In early Norman times the court of the forest freemen was so called. It
was arranged on the lines of the Shiremote, or County Court.


Swaziland Convention, 1890.

A convention between Great Britain and the Transvaal, agreeing to
preserve the independence of Swaziland, and to appoint a committee of
three persons, one each to be named by the contracting parties and one
by the Swazis, to rule the white residents. It was further stipulated
that the Transvaal might acquire a railway belt through Swaziland, and
thence through Amatongaland to the sea.


Swaziland Convention, 1893.

A convention between Great Britain and the Transvaal, by which it was
agreed that, subject to the consent of the Queen Regent of the Swazis,
Swaziland should be under the protection of the Transvaal. All British
subjects in Swaziland were to be at once admitted to full burgher rights
in the South African Republic. No railway was to be built beyond the
eastern frontier, without the consent of Great Britain.


Swaziland Convention, 1895.

The Queen of Swaziland having refused her consent to the Convention of
1893, a further convention was made similar to that of 1893, but
omitting the clause requiring the Queen’s consent.


Swing, Captain.

_See_ Barn-burners.


Sword in Hand Address.

An address presented to Queen Anne, in 1713, by the Highland Chiefs who
had been the recipients of her gift of money, which they seem to have
looked upon as payment for services rendered to the Stuart cause. In the
address they refer to the sacred house of Stuart, and express the hope
that in the Queen’s successor they may find one who shall obtain “both
the hereditary and the parliamentary sanction.”


Szatmar, Peace of.

The peace concluded in 1711, after Rákóczy’s Rebellion. Austria granted
the Magyars a complete amnesty, restoration of all forfeited property,
and the free exercise of the Protestant religion.


Szegedin, Peace of.

The peace which ended in 1444 the invasion of the Turkish dominions by
Hunyadi Janos of Hungary, and George, Despot of Servia, who penetrated
as far as the Balkans. The Sultan Amurath restored Servia to George,
against payment of a tribute of half the revenue of the State, and
placed Wallachia under the protection of Hungary.


Szell Formula.

_See_ Ausgleich.



T


Taal.

The corrupt form of Dutch spoken in the Dutch portions of South Africa.
Its corruption is due principally to the large proportion of foreigners
among the early immigrants, and to their intercourse with the native
races.


Tables, The.

A board or committee established in Scotland in 1637, chosen by the
Supplicants with the object of bringing about an agreement between
Archbishop Laud and the Presbyterians. It consisted of four members of
each of the four classes: nobles, lesser barons, burgesses and clergy.


Taborites.

The Hussites under John Zisca were so called, from the name he gave
their stronghold--Tabor, a camp or tent.


Tackers.

A section of the extreme Tories in 1704, who were anxious to secure the
passage of the Occasional Conformity Bill through the Lords by tacking
it on to the Land Tax Bill, which the Lords could not reject without
stopping supplies. They were unsuccessful, however, in carrying their
point.


Taeping Rebellion.

A rebellion under Hung Hsiu Chwan, which broke out in the province of
Canton in 1851. The rebels marched northward, and after capturing
Nanking, established their headquarters there in 1853. They then invaded
Honan, Shansi and Chihli, but were driven back. They held out, however,
against the Imperial troops until 1864, when Nanking was captured by
General Gordon, and the rebellion was finally suppressed in the
following year.


Tafna, Treaty of.

A treaty between the French and Abd-el-Kader, the Algerian chief, signed
in 1847, and assuring the French domination in Algeria.


Tahiti Question.

A serious difficulty which arose between Great Britain and France in
1844, owing to the action of the French in arresting Mr. Pritchard, a
missionary, who was the British Consul in Tahiti, and was very obnoxious
to the Roman Catholics. He was only released on his undertaking to leave
the Pacific. Great indignation was felt in England at this outrage, but
after lengthy negotiations the matter was smoothed over, and
compensation given to Mr. Pritchard.


Taille.

A tax levied in France on the produce of the soil, paid exclusively by
the cultivator, the landowner being exempt. It was abolished in 1791.


Taille.

A method of warfare introduced by the Archbishop of Bordeaux in 1228, in
his attempt to bring to terms Count Raymond of Toulouse. It consisted in
the systematic cutting down of vines and fruit trees, and the
destruction of houses and enclosures.


Tallage.

That portion of the feudal dues levied by the Norman Kings which was
paid by the towns. Its arbitrary exaction was held to be illegal in the
reign of Edward I.


Tallagio non Concedendo, Statute de.

A Statute passed in 1297, declaring the exaction of tallages illegal.


Talukdar.

An hereditary contractor for land revenue in Oude. The Talukdar
collected rents over a certain district, and paid the taxes for the
district to the Government. He often had no proprietary right whatever
in the land. By the new land system introduced into Oude by Lord
Dalhousie in 1856, under which the British Government entered into
direct relations with the villages, most of the Talukdars were
dispossessed, and much discontent was occasioned thereby.


Tammany Ring.

The Democratic party in New York City, who have for years kept the
absolute control of public affairs in the city. As a party organization
it grew out of the Tammany Society, an organization founded in 1805,
ostensibly as a charitable institution, and for the promotion of an
extended franchise. In 1871 the connexion of its leaders with the
notorious Erie Ring led to a crusade against the party, headed by the
_New York Times_, and an inquiry disclosed wholesale jobbery and
corruption in the administration. As a consequence Tammany was totally
defeated at the polls in 1872, but returned to office at the following
election, and remained in power until 1902, when they were again driven
from office.


Tamworth Manifesto.

A statement of policy issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1835, after the
dismissal of the Melbourne Ministry. It promised considerable
concessions to the Dissenters, and was in many respects a departure from
the old Toryism, and a recognition of the necessity for reform along
cautious lines. Those who followed Sir Robert Peel in his new departure
were known as Peelites.


Tanistry.

The ancient law of succession in Ireland, by which the chieftainship of
a sept descended to the eldest and most worthy of the same blood.


Targowitz, Confederation of.

A confederation of Polish nobles formed in 1792, under the auspices of
Catherine of Russia, to oppose the new constitution established in 1791,
and to promote a return to the old order of things. They compelled
Stanislas Augustus to give way and abrogate the 1791 constitution.


Tartar Invasion.

The invasion of Russia by the Tartars under Genghis Khan in 1237. They
overran Russia up to the Carpathians, burning the chief towns, and
carrying off the inhabitants as slaves. After subjugating the country,
the Tartars contented themselves with demanding an oath of allegiance
and a tribute from the Russian Princes, allowing the free exercise of
the Christian religion, and interfering in no way with the institutions
and customs of the country.


Tattooed Man.

A nickname of James G. Blaine, derived from a political caricature, in
which he was represented as Phryne before her judges, tattooed with the
names of the various scandals with which his name had been connected.


Tchinovniks.

The holders of Russian official appointments. They are mainly drawn from
the ranks of the nobles and the clergy, and in particular from certain
noble families, who may be said to be the real rulers of Russia. There
are fourteen classes of officials, which classes are called “Tchins.”
Every official, whatever his birth, has to enter in the lowest Tchin,
and promotion is nominally by merit only.


Tea-Party.

The Boston tea riots are so called.


Tea-room Party.

A party of advanced Radicals who opposed Mr. Gladstone’s amendment to
Lord Derby’s Reform Bill of 1867. This amendment would have restricted
the borough franchise to those occupiers whose names were on the rate
book, but would have drawn a line of value below which no house should
be rated. This small party not only defeated Mr. Gladstone, but
succeeded in forcing upon the Government household franchise pure and
simple.


Temperance, Apostle of.

The name given to Father Mathew, the Irish Temperance advocate, circ.
1838.


Templars, Knights.

An order of knighthood established in Palestine in 1118, and confirmed
by Honorius II in 1128. Its functions were the protection of pilgrims to
the Holy Sepulchre, and its headquarters were on the site of Solomon’s
Temple. During the thirteenth century, the order, which had become very
powerful, and spread widely over Europe, was accused of heresy and other
crimes, and was proscribed by Clement V in 1312, and its property
confiscated.


Ten Articles.

A profession of the Protestant Doctrine as then held in England drawn up
by a Convocation held in 1536, and based upon the Confession of
Augsburg.


Ten, Council of.

The Supreme Council of Venice, established in 1310. It really consisted
of seventeen members, as to the ten were added the Doge and his six
councillors. It controlled the magistracy and the senate, and had charge
of the foreign relations of the Republic. It is, however, best known as
an arbitrary secret tribunal, trying and condemning for all classes of
offences against the laws and the State, without appeal.


Ten Jurisdictions, League of the.

A league formed in the eastern part of Rhætia in 1436, in the
territories of the Counts of Toggenburg. It afterwards amalgamated with
the Graubund and the Gotteshausbund.


Ten Minutes Bill.

The Reform Bill of 1867, as first introduced, is so called. At a Cabinet
Council held on the day that Mr. Disraeli was to introduce the Bill, it
was found that Ministers were not in agreement, and there were only ten
minutes left to decide what was to be done. It happened that a Bill had
been prepared, proposing a milder measure of reform, and this it was
decided to introduce. It met with little approval from any section, and
was ultimately withdrawn in favour of the original Bill. The story was
some time afterwards told by Sir John Pakington to his constituents, and
the makeshift Bill was promptly christened the Ten Minutes Bill.


Tenmannetale.

The name by which the system of Frankpledge was known in the northern
parts of England.


Tenth of August, Massacre of the.

The massacre of the Swiss Guards at the Tuileries, on August 10, 1792,
is known by this name. It is estimated that 5,000 persons perished at
the hands of the Paris mob.


Tenure of Office Act.

An Act passed by the United States Congress in 1867, to prevent the
removal from office by the President, without the consent of the Senate,
of any person holding a Government position. It was enacted in
consequence of the action of President Johnson in removing Mr. Stanton
in what was held to be an unconstitutional manner.


Teplitz, Treaty of.

A treaty of alliance between Russia, Austria and Prussia, signed in
1813, and directed against Napoleon.


Terreur Blanche.

The name of the White Terror was given to the excesses of the
counter-revolutionists in the French provinces, especially in the South,
in 1795, after the fall of Robespierre.


Terror, Reign of.

The culmination of the French Revolution, lasting from the fall of the
Girondins, in October 1793 to that of Robespierre, in July 1794. During
this period the only limit to the number of executions was the time at
the disposal of Fouquier-Tinville and the Revolutionary Tribunal for the
trial of prisoners.


Terrorists.

The extreme revolutionary party in Paris in 1848. They demanded, not
work, but the spoliation of the rich, and were prepared to adopt the
methods of 1793 to secure their object. They attempted to coerce and
dissolve the National Assembly, and set up a Revolutionary Government at
the Hôtel de Ville, but were overpowered by the Garde Mobile.


Terry Alts.

An Irish rebel society which was guilty of numerous outrages in Clare
during the years immediately following the Union.


Teschen, Peace of.

A treaty signed at the conclusion of the Bavarian War of Succession in
1779, by which Austria withdrew her opposition to the reunion of Anspach
and Bayreuth with Prussia. Certain territorial changes were made in
Bavaria, and the Treaty of Westphalia was renewed.


Teshu Lama.

The second spiritual ruler of Thibet, who exercises the functions of the
Dalai Lama between the death of one occupant of that position and the
enthronement of his successor.


Test Act.

An Act passed in 1673, ordaining that all holders of temporal offices
under the Crown must receive the Sacrament according to the rites of the
Church of England, and renounce the doctrine of Transubstantiation.
James II endeavoured to bring about its repeal, but without success, and
it remained on the Statute Book till 1828.


Tetrapolitan Confession.

The profession of faith of the Reformed Non-Lutheran German Church,
drawn up by Bucer, and issued in 1530.


Teutonic Knights.

An order of knighthood founded by Henry, King of Jerusalem, during the
third Crusade, its original members being followers of Frederick
Barbarossa. In 1230, under their Grand Master, Hermann von Salza, the
Teutonic knights marched against the Pagans of the Baltic shore of what
is now known as Prussia. This country, which was a fief of Poland, they
held until 1526, when Albert of Brandenburg, then Grand Master, made a
treaty with Sigismund of Poland, by which Prussia was erected into a
Grand Duchy, with Albert as Grand Duke. The order was dissolved by
Napoleon in 1809.


Thaba Bosigo, Treaty of.

A treaty between the Orange Free State and Moshesh, signed in 1866,
after the Basuto war of 1865-6. Moshesh surrendered the greater portion
of his country to the Free State, and undertook to withdraw all his
subjects from the ceded territory. He not only failed to carry out the
terms, but in the following years sent large bodies of warriors into
these districts, and prevented their settlement by Europeans.


Theatins.

A monastic order, founded by John Caraffa, Bishop of Theate (afterwards
Paul IV), and authorised by Clement V in 1524. The Theatins were strong
supporters of the movement for the reform of the Papacy which arose
within the Church about the middle of the sixteenth century.


Thegns.

In Saxon times the thegns were originally the King’s servants. Later,
enriched by grants of land, they superseded the old nobility, and became
eventually the Barons.


Thelusson’s Act.

An Act passed in 1800, by which it was made illegal to devise property
to accumulate for a longer period than twenty-one years. It arose from
the will of Peter Thelusson, a wealthy merchant, who left £800,000 to
accumulate until his grandson’s grandson reached the age of twenty-one.
The will led to protracted litigation, and the resulting accumulation
was consequently much less than had been anticipated.


Theological Controversy.

An assembly of Catholic and Protestant divines, held at Westminster in
1559, to discuss certain points of dogma and ritual. The questions set
for discussion were: the use of prayer in a tongue not understood by the
people, the right of individual congregations to alter their ritual to
suit their needs, and the propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and the
dead in the celebration of the Mass. No decision was arrived at on any
point.


Theows.

In Saxon times the slaves of the feudal lords, reduced to the servile
condition either as prisoners of war, or through debt.


Thermidoriens.

The party who voted the decree of accusation against Robespierre and
his followers in July (Thermidor) 1794. During the Directoire they still
showed themselves advanced Republicans, being in favour of maintaining
the decrees against the clergy, the noblesse and the emigrés.


Thing.

Amongst the Norsemen, the assembly of freemen. The Things were of
varying importance, and bore different names, according to the purpose
for which they were convoked. Thus, the Althing was the general assembly
of the nation, held annually; the Konungs-thing, a meeting specially
summoned by the King; and so on down to the Husthing, a meeting of his
own men summoned by any petty chief.


Thingamen.

Another name for the Housekarls of King Knut.


Third Section.

A section of the Russian secret police, specially established to watch
all political movements. It was formed by Nicholas I in 1865.


Thirteen Cantons, Confederation of.

The Confederation formed by the admission, between 1481 and 1513, of the
Cantons of Fribourg, Soleure, Basle, Schaffhausen and Appenzell, into
the Perpetual League.


Thirteen States.

The thirteen American colonies forming the original thirteen States of
the Union were Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts.
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, South Carolina and Virginia.


Thirty, Battle of the.

A combat between the followers of Simon de Montfort and those of Charles
of Blois, fought at Ploermel in Brittany in 1350. The combatants were
limited to thirty on each side, and the English were defeated.


Thirty Years War.

A war between Ferdinand II and the Protestant Princes of Germany, which
broke out on the accession of Ferdinand to the Austrian throne in 1619.
The Protestant Princes had elected to the Imperial Throne Frederic V,
the Elector Palatine, and took up arms in his support. Sweden under
Gustavus Adolphus, and later France, were drawn into the conflict, and
the war did not terminate till 1648, when Ferdinand III signed the
Treaty of Westphalia.


Thirty-nine Articles.

The articles of faith of the Church of England, consisting of
thirty-nine of the original forty-two articles issued in 1552. By an Act
of Elizabeth passed in 1571, the acceptance of these was made incumbent
on all the clergy of the Established Church.


Thirty-six, Council of.

A council appointed in 1357 to carry on the Government of France during
the captivity of John. They had power to levy taxes, to appoint the
chief officers of State, and generally to exercise all executive
functions.


Thirty-three Articles.

A code of laws drawn up by the Volksraad of Potchefstroom in 1844, and
adopted in 1849 by all the communities established to the north of the
Vaal river.


Thistle, Order of the.

An order of knighthood instituted, according to tradition, by Archaicus,
King of the Scots in 809. Though thus older than the Garter in its
origin, it has been several times in abeyance, having been revived by
James V of Scotland, by James II of England, and finally by Queen Anne,
who placed it on its present footing.


Thorn, Conference of.

A conference summoned by Ladislaus IV of Poland in 1645, in an endeavour
to unite the Protestants to the Catholic Church. It lasted about four
months, and was entirely without result.


Thorough.

The Policy of Thorough is the phrase used by Strafford and Laud to
express their determination to carry through their schemes for the
public advantage, regardless of the obstacles thrown in their way by
interested parties.


Thralls.

Among the Norse nations slaves were so called. They were generally
captives taken in war.


“Three Acres and a Cow.”

A phrase used by Mr. Jesse Collings, in the election campaign of 1885,
expressive of the plank in his programme of free allotments of land for
all agricultural labourers.


Three Emperors, Battle of the.

The battle of Austerlitz, December 2, 1805, is so called, because
Napoleon and the Emperors of Austria and Russia were all present.


Three F’s.

The ostensible programme of the Irish Land League in 1880: Fixity of
Tenure, Fair Rent, Free Sale.


Three Kings, Alliance of the.

An alliance formed in 1849 between the Kings of Prussia, Hanover, and
Saxony, to take joint measures for the suppression of the disorders rife
in their States at that time.


Thresher, Captain.

The pseudonym of the leader of a band of lawless Irishmen, who in 1806
attacked the collectors of tithes.


Throgmorton’s Conspiracy.

A conspiracy of certain Jesuits and English Catholics in 1583, to rise
against Queen Elizabeth, in conjunction with an invasion of French and
Spanish troops. Suspicion was aroused by Throgmorton’s constant visits
to the Spanish Ambassador. He was arrested, and under torture revealed
the details of the plot, and the names of the principal conspirators.


Thugs.

A quasi-religious sect of robbers and murderers in India, who despatched
their victims by strangling. They were put down by Lord Dalhousie about
1856.


Thunderbolt of Italy.

The sobriquet of Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512), given him
on account of his brilliant campaign in Italy.


Thurn and Taxis.

A princely house of Germany, with large estates in Austria, Bavaria,
Würtemberg, and elsewhere, who established the earliest postal system in
Germany in 1460. In 1595 a member of the house was appointed hereditary
grand master of the posts of the Empire, and though the privileges of
the office were gradually infringed by the larger German States, the
monopoly was not finally abolished till 1867.


Tiberine Republic.

A republic with Rome as its capital, established by Napoleon in Central
Italy in 1797.


Tichborne Case.

_See_ Claimant.


Tientsin, Treaty of, 1858.

A treaty between Great Britain, France and China, at the close of the
war of 1857, providing for the establishment of Chinese Legations in
London and Paris, and French and English Legations in Pekin, the
toleration of Christianity in China, and access to the interior of China
and to the navigable rivers for British and French subjects. In 1860 the
envoys proceeding to Pekin to exchange ratifications were not permitted
to proceed. Further hostilities ensued, and certain European prisoners
were barbarously tortured by the Chinese, in revenge for which the
Allies destroyed the Summer Palace of Pekin.


Tientsin, Treaty of, 1885.

A treaty between France and China, by which China withdrew her claim to
exercise a protectorate over Annam.


Tiepoli, Conspiracy of.

A conspiracy of Venetian nobles, headed by Tiepoli and the family of the
Querini, against Gradenigo, the Doge of Venice, in 1310. The
conspirators enlisted the aid of the Paduans, and formed a plan to seize
the Doge in the Ducal Palace by means of their own armed retainers,
holding the Square of St. Mark till the arrival of the Paduans. The plan
miscarried, owing to the vigilance of the Doge, who was prepared for the
attack, and the conspiracy failed. Many of the leaders were killed in
the fighting, and others were executed, but Tiepoli escaped.


Tiers Etat.

The third estate of the Realm, or Commoners, in France. It is held that
they were first consulted by Louis IX, who summoned twelve citizens from
the principal towns of France, to advise him on the national coinage.


Tiers Parti.

A moderate party formed in the French Assembly in 1832, in the reign of
Louis Philippe. In 1834 they formed a ministry under the Duc de Bassano,
but the Chamber refused to support it, and it resigned in three days. In
1836, however, it formed a more durable administration under Thiers.


Tilsit, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1807 between France, Prussia and France all her
provinces on the left bank of the Elbe, to form the kingdom of
Westphalia for the benefit of Jerome Buonaparte. In addition,
recognition was accorded to Louis Buonaparte as King of Holland, to
Joseph as King of Spain, and to the Confederation of the Rhine. The
Grand Duchy of Warsaw was created out of the Duchies of Warsaw and
Posen, and given to the King of Saxony. There were certain secret
clauses in the treaty between France and Russia, by which Russia agreed
to aid France against England and to coerce Portugal, Sweden and Denmark
to take the same course, while France undertook to aid Russia against
the Turks if the Porte declined to accept his mediation.


Tio Porsupuesto, El.

The nickname of Bolivar, the Liberator of South America, from his habit
of beginning an argument with the words “Por supuesto,” “Let us
suppose.”


Tithe Commutation Act.

An Act passed in 1836, commuting the tithe into a permanent rent charge
upon the land, annually adjusted upon the price of corn, and redeemable
at twenty-five years’ purchase of the average amount.


Tithe Commutation Act (Ireland).

An Act passed in 1838, commuting the tithe into an annual rent charge,
with a reduction of 25 per cent. At the same time the loan of one
million sterling made in 1833 in aid of the destitute Irish Clergy, was
converted into a gift.


Tithe Riots.

A series of disturbances in Montgomeryshire and elsewhere in North Wales
in protest against the payment of tithes in 1887. Riots were caused by
sales under distraint in various parts of Wales, and for some time such
sales could only be carried out under military protection.


Togakuto.

The Society of Oriental Learning, a party in Korea violently opposed to
Western ideas, and anxious to exclude all foreigners. In 1893 some
200,000 members gathered in Seoul, with the object of coercing the King,
who had refused their preposterous demands.


Toisée.

An order issued by Emery, finance minister of Louis XIV, in 1644, to the
effect that houses built in the Paris suburbs in contravention of an
edict issued a hundred years before, but never enforced, should be
redeemed by payment of a heavy fine. This order caused great discontent,
and was eventually withdrawn.


Tököli’s Rebellion.

A rising of the Magyars against Austrian domination in 1678, headed by
Tököli, who, aided by the Turks, succeeded in driving the Austrian
troops out of Hungary. He maintained his position until 1683, when he
was defeated, and the Turks being at the same time repulsed from Vienna,
the rising came to an end, and Tököli was forced to flee the country.


Toledo, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1538 after Russia. Prussia abandoned to Francis’
invasion of Piedmont, by Charles V and Francis I, by which Francis
obtained possession of Bresse, Savoy, and half of Piedmont, Charles
taking the remainder of Piedmont and the Milanese. The Pays de Vaud was
left to Berne, and the independence of Geneva guaranteed.


Tolentino, Treaty of.

A treaty between France and the Papal See, signed in 1797. By this
treaty the Pope surrendered the Legations and Ancona, and agreed to the
final inclusion of Avignon in France. He also consented to pay a heavy
sum in coin and jewels and to permit the removal to France of certain
specified works of art. In return France recognized the Pope’s power to
control the religious communities in Rome.


Toleration Acts.

An Act passed on the accession of William and Mary in 1689, giving
Protestant Dissenters the right to hold services in their own chapels,
provided such chapels were registered. A further Act applying to
Scotland was passed in 1712 for the toleration of all episcopal
clergymen who were willing to take the Oath of Abjuration established by
the Act of 1702.


Tonkinois, Le.

A nickname of Jules Ferry, referring to his responsibility for the
unpopular Tongking expedition of 1883.


Tonnage and Poundage.

A tax levied on all merchandise other than the staple commodities,
whether exported or imported. It varied from 1s. 6d. to 3s. on every tun
of wine or beer, and from 6d. to 1s. on every pound of merchandise. It
was first levied in the reign of Edward III.


Toom Tabard.

Empty Jacket, the nickname of John Baliol, King of Scotland (1292-1314),
because he had the semblance but not the reality of royal power.


Tordesillas, Treaty of.

A treaty between Spain and Portugal, signed in 1494. Portugal being
dissatisfied with the terms of the Papal Bull of Demarcation, Spain
agreed to the dividing line between the two spheres of colonisation
being drawn 370 leagues west of Cape Verde. Under the terms of this
treaty Portugal subsequently claimed Brazil.


Torgau, League of.

A league formed at Torgau in 1526 by the Protestant Princes of Germany,
headed by the Landgrave of Hesse and the Elector of Saxony, as a counter
move to the reported combination of Duke George of Saxony, the Elector
of Brandenburg, the Archbishop of Mentz and other Catholic Princes to
oppose the Reformation.


Torres Vedras, Lines of.

The strongly intrenched position in front of Lisbon, occupied by
Wellington during the winter of 1810-11, after the fall of Ciudad
Rodrigo.


Tory.

The name given to the Loyalist Party in the reign of Charles II. It is
taken from the name applied to the Irish outlaws. The word now implies
extreme Conservatism.


Tory Democracy.

The political creed of Lord Randolph Churchill and his followers. He
maintained that Toryism was not necessarily the creed of an exclusive
class, but was as democratic in its aims as Radicalism.


Toshachs.

In the earliest days of Scottish history, an inferior grade of chieftain
in the Highlands.


Tourkmantchai, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Persia, signed in 1828, by which Persia
ceded Erivan and Nakitchevan, and accorded exceptional commercial
facilities to Russian subjects.


Tours, Edict of.

An edict issued by Henri IV in 1591, repealing the edicts of his
predecessor with respect to the Huguenots, and re-establishing the
Concordat between the two religions contained in the Edict of January.


Tractarian Movement.

_See_ Oxford Movement.


Trade Unions.

Combinations of workmen in a particular trade, formed for mutual
protection against rapacious employers, and also as benefit societies.
They are mostly the growth of the nineteenth century, but have their
origin in the trade guilds of the earlier times.


Trafalgar Square Riots.

A series of disturbances in London in 1887. Meetings, nominally of
unemployed, were held in Trafalgar Square, and addressed by well-known
Socialist leaders, among others John Burns and Cunningham-Grahame. As
these meetings led to disorder and obstruction of the traffic, they were
prohibited by Sir Charles Warren, the Chief Commissioner of Police. The
Socialists insisted on their right to hold the meetings, and the
disturbances culminated on Sunday, November 13th, when a number of
processions on their way to the Square were broken up by the police, and
their leaders arrested, severe fighting taking place at several points.
This, however, ended the rioting, as no further attempts were made to
hold the prohibited meetings.


Trails-bâtons.

Outlaws who in 1305 infested the country districts of England, hiring
themselves out for the execution of private vengeance. Stringent
measures were taken against them under the Statute of Winchester.


Train-bands.

Properly the Trained Bands, a force in the nature of a militia,
established by James I in 1604, to replace the Fyrd. They numbered
160,000.


Transplantation, Irish.

By an Act of Parliament passed in 1653, the whole of Ireland, excepting
Connaught and the county of Clare, was opened for settlement by
adventurers and the soldiers of the Commonwealth. The whole of the Irish
population was transplanted to the province and county named above.


Transvaal National Union.

An association of the Uitlanders in the South African Republic, formed
in Johannesburg in 1892, with the object of securing the franchise and
reforms in general for foreigners settled in the country. In December
1895 it took the name of the Reform Committee, and was largely
instrumental in bringing about the Jameson Raid, which took place at the
end of that month, though it seems evident that the actual moment chosen
for the Raid did not accord with its plans. After Jameson’s defeat the
leaders of the Committee were arrested and tried for treason, four of
them being sentenced to death, though they were afterwards reprieved.


Treason, Statute of.

A Statute of Edward III, in 1352, which defines high treason as plotting
the death of the King or Queen, or their eldest son, levying war against
the King, or comforting or adhering to his enemies. This Statute is
still in force.


Treaties, Conventions, Alliances, etc.

_See_ Abbeville, Abo, Adam Kok, Adis Ababa, Adrianople, Aigun,
Aix-la-Chapelle, Akerman, Alaska, Aliwal North, Amboise,
American-Japanese, American-Spanish, Amiens, Anglo-Chinese, Anglo-Dutch,
Anglo-French, Anglo-German, Anglo-Italian, Anglo-Japanese,
Anglo-Portuguese, Anglo-Russian, Arras, Ashburton, Association,
Barcelona, Bardo, Barrier, Barwalde, Basle, Bassein, Bekcagsog, Belgian,
Berlin, Berwick, Black Sea, Bloemfontein, Bond-Blaine, Breda, Breslau,
Brétigny, Brigham, Brömsebro, Brunnen, Brussels, Bucharest, Budchaz,
Cadan, Caen, Campo-Formio, Cappel, Carlowitz, Cassini, Câteau Cambrésis,
Chartres, Chaumont, Christian, Cintra, Clair-on-Epte, Clayton-Bulwer,
Closter Seven, Commercial, Confederation, Conflans, Constance, Cretan,
Crown, Cyprus, Dardanelles, Deogam, Dover, Dreikaiserbund, Dual,
Edinburgh, Evora, Falczi, Falaise, Family, Ferdinand, Field, Fisheries,
Folenbray, Fommanah, Fontainebleau, Franco-American, Franco-Annamese,
Franco-Siamese, Frankfort, Frederickshamm, Gandamak, Gastein, Geneva,
Ghent, Gisors, Grand Alliance, Great Intercourse, Guadeloupe-Hidalgo,
Gulistan, Hanover, Hay-Pauncefote, Holy Alliance, Hubertsberg, Hué,
Iglau, Imparani, Jassy, Joinville, Jay, July, Kenilworth, Kiel, Kuldja,
Kutchuk Kainardji, Lahore, Lambeth, Lodi, London, Longjumeau, Lübeck,
Loo, Lunéville, Luxemburg, Madras, Madrid, Malus Intercursus,
Mandeshwar, Mangalore, Mantua, Meersen, Methuen, Moldavian, Monçon,
Montpelier, Nanking, Nertchinsk, Newport, Nimeguen, Northampton,
Nottingham, Nystad, Olmütz, Oregon, Paix, Panama, Paris, Passau,
Passarowitz, Peace, Pecquigny, Péronne, Perpetual, Pilnitz, Poland,
Prague, Presburg, Pretoria, Pruth, Purandhar, Pyrenees, Quadrilateral,
Quadruple, Reichenbach, Reinsurance, Roeskild, Russo-Japanese, Ryswick,
St. Germains, St. Petersburg, Salbai, Samoan, San Ildefonso, San
Stefano, Sand River, Santiago, Schönbrunn, Secret, September,
Seringapatam, Servian, Seville, Shimonoseki, Sikkim, Sitvatorok,
Smithfield, Southampton, Stockenström, Stockholm, Stolbova, Suez, Surat,
Swaziland, Szatmár, Szegedin, Teplitz, Teschen, Thaba Bosigo, Three
Kings, Tientsin, Tilsit, Toledo, Tolentino, Tordesillas, Tourkmantchai,
Tripartite, Triple, Tri-regal, Troyes, Turin, Unkiar Skelessi, Utrecht,
Uxbridge, Vaal, Verdun, Vereeniging, Versailles, Vervins, Vienna,
Villefranche, Wallachia, Wallingford, Washington, Waterboer, Wedmore,
Werelä, Westphalia, Worms, Yandabo, Zanzibar, Zurich.


Treaty Ports.

Ports specially set aside for trade purposes and the residence of
foreigners in countries where unrestricted foreign trade is not
permitted, as in China.


Treinta y Tres.

The thirty-three Uruguayan patriots who raised the standard of revolt
against Brazil in 1825. Aided by Argentina, Uruguay shook off the
Brazilian yoke and was proclaimed an independent republic in 1828.


Trek, Great.

The great emigration of Dutch settlers from Cape Colony in 1836 and
1837. A variety of causes, among others the emancipation of the Kaffir
slaves, for which the farmers received very inadequate compensation, led
to this trek, which brought about the first colonisation of the country
beyond the Orange river. Other parties crossed the Drakensberg into
Natal, where they established a republic in 1838.


Trek, Second.

An emigration of Boer farmers from the country between the Orange river
and the Vaal, in 1844 and 1845. Their object was to escape British rule,
which was about to be established in the country they were leaving, and
which took shape in the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848. These trekkers
founded the South African Republic.


Trent, Council of.

A council summoned by Paul III in 1545, to settle, if possible, the
religious questions arising out of the Reformation. The council lasted
till 1563, and in the end merely emphasised the differences between the
Catholic Church and the Reformers, reasserting as essentially Catholic
the doctrines of purgatory, transubstantiation, the intercession of
saints, and others.


Trent Incident.

The forcible removal from an English steamer, the _Trent_, by Captain
Wilkes, of the U.S. sloop _Jacinto_, of Messrs. Mason and Slidell, who
were on their way to Europe as envoys of the Southern States in 1861.
They were subsequently released, but not until considerable public
feeling had been aroused on both sides, and the British Government had
gone the length of reinforcing the Canadian garrison.


Treuga Dei.

The Truce of God, imposed upon all the vassals of the Empire who were at
war amongst themselves by an edict of the Emperor Henry III, issued at
the Diet of Constance in 1403. It was to be observed from Wednesday
evening till Monday morning in each week.


Tribunal Révolutionnaire.

A tribunal, at first called the Tribunal Extraordinaire, established by
the French Convention in March 1793, to deal with Royalist and other
suspects and political prisoners. It was composed of five judges, with a
standing jury, each member of which had to give his verdict audibly.
There was no appeal from the decisions of this court, which sent some
two thousand persons to the guillotine.


Tribune of the People.

A sobriquet of John Bright.


Tricoteuses de Robespierre.

Robespierre’s knitters were a knot of women who, during the Terror, used
to sit, knitting, at the meetings of the Convention and of the Tribunal
Révolutionnaire, or round the guillotine. They were also called “Les
Furies de la Guillotine.”


Triennial Act.

An Act passed in 1694, limiting the duration of a Parliament to three
years. It was practically repealed by the Septennial Act of 1716.


Triers.

An examining body appointed by Cromwell in 1554, to inquire into the
qualifications of persons appointed to benefices. Any one, other than a
Catholic, whose creed was fundamentally orthodox, and whose life was
free from reproach, was permitted to retain his cure.


Trim, Remonstrance of.

A document submitted to Charles I by Ormonde in 1643, in which the Irish
Catholics complained of the disabilities under which they laboured owing
to the legislation of Elizabeth’s reign. At the same time they offered
to place ten thousand men at the King’s disposal.


Trinoda Necessitas.

In Saxon times the obligation thrown on every inhabitant of bearing his
share in (1) war service; (2) the repair of roads and bridges; and (3)
the maintenance of fortifications. This obligation was continued after
the Conquest.


Tripartite Treaty, 1800.

A treaty between the British, the Nizam of Hyderabad, and a
representative of the ancient royal family of Mysore, dividing between
the three signatories, the dominions of Tippu Sahib.


Tripartite Treaty, 1856.

A treaty signed by Great Britain, France and Austria, immediately after
signature of the Treaty of Paris of 1856, guaranteeing the independence
and territorial integrity of Turkey, and declaring that they would
consider any infraction of the Treaty of Paris to be a casus belli.


Triple Alliance, 1668.

An alliance concluded in 1668 between England, Holland and Sweden, by
which the contracting parties bound themselves to oppose the advance of
France. Within two years, however, Charles II signed a treaty with the
French king, binding himself not to interfere with the French designs on
the Netherlands.


Triple Alliance, 1717.

An alliance of England, France and Holland, guaranteeing the clauses of
the Treaty of Utrecht with reference to the English Protestant
succession, the French succession, and the renunciation by Spain of her
claim to the throne of France. It was intended as a counterpoise to the
alliance of Russia, Sweden and Spain. It became the Quadruple Alliance
by the adhesion of Austria in 1718.


Triple Alliance, 1883.

In 1879 Germany and Austria entered into a defensive alliance, which
provided for mutual assistance against Russia, and at least a benevolent
neutrality against any other Power. In 1883 it was announced that Italy
was a party to this alliance, which then became known as the Triple
Alliance. It has been several times renewed, the last occasion being in
1902.


Triple Alliance (India).

An alliance between the English, the Peshwa and the Nizam, concluded in
1790, by which it was agreed that the contracting parties should combine
to invade the dominions of Tippoo Sahib, and that all conquests should
be equally divided between them.


Triple Alliance, War of the.

The war waged by Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay against Paraguay from
1865 to 1869.


Tri-regal Alliance.

An alliance between the kings of Prussia, Saxony and Hanover in 1849,
with the object of bringing about a union of the German States, to the
exclusion of Austria. It was broken up by the Humiliation of Olmütz in
1850.


Trismegistus, The German.

Rudolph II of Germany was so called.


Triumvirate, The.

Grenville’s Ministry in 1763 was so called, because the Secretaries of
State, Lords Egremont and Halifax, were regarded as holding the
direction of affairs jointly with Grenville.


Triumvirate, The Catholic.

The league between the Duc de Guise, the Maréchal de St. André, and the
Constable of France in the reign of Charles IX was so called.


Triumvirate, The (Russia).

This title was given to Adam Czartoryski, Novossiltsof and Strogonof,
the three principal advisers of Alexander I of Russia on his accession.


Troppau, Congress of.

A meeting of the Russian, Austrian and Prussian sovereigns in 1820, to
consider the questions raised by the Neapolitan revolution, and to
confirm the Holy Alliance.


Trott of Turriff.

An attack by the Gordons under Robert Johnston on the Covenanters at
Turriff in 1639, the Covenanters being driven out.


Troubles, Council of.

_See_ Blood Council.


Trough, Race of the.

_See_ Farquharsons.


Troyes, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1420 by Henry V of England and Philip, Count of
Charolais, on behalf of the Burgundian Party, by which it was provided
that Henry should marry Catherine of France, and succeed to the French
Crown on the death of Charles VI. It only resulted in a fresh effort on
the part of the patriotic party, the Armagnacs, and the defeat of the
English at Beaugé, while Henry, hastening back to France to re-establish
his position, died there in 1422.


Truck Act.

An Act passed in 1831, and extended in 1887, forbidding the payment of
wages, either wholly or in part, in goods. It applies to all persons
engaged in manual labour, except domestic servants.


Tsung-li-Yamen.

The old Board of Foreign Affairs in China. It was abolished by Imperial
edict in 1901, and replaced by a new Board known as the Wai-Wupu.


Tübingen, Treaty of.

The name given to an agreement between Ulrich of Würtemberg and his
subjects in 1514, by which the latter agreed to pay the Duke’s debts in
return for certain concessions.


Tuchins.

Bands of revolted peasants in the Cevennes in 1381, who waged war
against all who did not belong to the labouring classes.


Tugendbund.

A secret society established in Germany in 1808, to arouse the national
spirit against the domination of Napoleon.


Tulchan Bishops.

The contemptuous sobriquet given to the titular bishops in Scotland,
1572, referring to their surrender to the lay patrons of practically the
whole of their benefices. “Tulchan” is a calf-skin, stuffed with straw,
used to induce a cow to give her milk more easily.


Turin, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1860 by France and Sardinia, providing for the
cession to France of Savoy and Nice, in return for Lombardy, in
accordance with the secret agreement of Napoleon III and Victor
Emmanuel.


Turkey Company.

A trading company incorporated in 1581, for the consolidation of the
various interests trading in the Levant.


Turnip-Hoer.

A nickname of George I, who is said to have suggested planting St.
James’s Park with turnips.


Turpentine State.

A popular name for the State of North Carolina, referring to its large
production of turpentine.


Tuscany, League of.

A league of the Tuscan cities, formed under the auspices of Innocent
III, “for the honour and aggrandizement of the Apostolic See.” Pisa
alone refused to join the league.


Tweed Ring.

A ring headed by W. M. Tweed, the Tammany Boss, which robbed the city of
New York of large sums. Tweed was convicted of fraud in 1873. See
Tammany.


Twelve Peers of France.

A body of peers, holding direct from the Crown, who were limited to
twelve during the reign of Philip Augustus (1180-1223). They were six
lay peers, namely, the Dukes of Normandy, Aquitaine and Burgundy, and
the Counts of Toulouse, Flanders and Champagne; and six spiritual, the
Archbishop of Rheims, and the Bishops of Beauvais, Châlons, Langres,
Laon, and Noyon.


Twenge’s Riots.

In 1230 a secret society formed, under the leadership of Sir Robert
Twenge, to oppose the granting of benefices to foreign priests, had
recourse to violent measures to advance their cause. Many foreigners
were robbed and outraged, and Twenge had the audacity to justify himself
before Henry III, and was allowed to go unpunished.


Two Nations, Committee of the.

A joint committee appointed by the English and Scots Parliaments in
1643, after the acceptance of the Solemn League and Covenant, to carry
on the war against the King.


Tycoon.

_See_ Shôgun.


Tynwald, Court of.

The legislature of the Isle of Man. It is composed of two houses, the
Council and the House of Keys.


Tything.

The ten persons united under the system of Frankpledge were called a
tything.



U


Udallers.

The name given to the proprietors of allodial lands in the Orkneys.


Ukase.

A decree of the Czar of Russia is so called. The Czar being an absolute
monarch, it has all the force of a legal enactment.


Ulema.

The body of professional theologians and lawyers in Turkey. They are the
interpreters of the law of the Koran, and from their body are selected
the pleaders and magistrates as well as the priests. The head of the
Ulema is the Sheyk-ul-Islam.


Ulm, Capitulation of.

The surrender of the Austrian General Mack, with 30,000 men, to Napoleon
in October 1805.


Ulster Custom.

A system of land tenure prevailing in the greater part of Ulster, by
which the tenant’s property in all improvements affected by him is
recognised by the landlord. This custom had practically the force of
law, and was made a part of the Irish Land Laws by Mr. Gladstone’s Act
of 1870.


Ulster Massacre.

The Irish rebellion of 1641 began with an attack upon the English
settlers in Ulster, many of whom, living outside the towns, were
murdered in cold blood. The number of victims has been put as high as
300,000, but this is doubtless a gross exaggeration. Still, some
thousands unquestionably perished.


Ulster, Plantation of.

The colonisation, between 1606 and 1612, of lands forfeited from Tyrone,
Tyrconel, and other rebels, by retired servants of the Crown. It was a
condition of the colonisation that the Irish were to be confined to
their own districts, and not allowed to settle on the forfeited lands.
The City of London undertook the colonisation of Derry.


Ultimus Romanorum.

A sobriquet of Horace Walpole (1717-97).


Ultramontanes.

The name given to any party strongly supporting the Papal claim to
temporal power. It was used especially in Germany, of the Catholic
party, led by Dr. Windthorst during the Kulturkampf.


Umritsar, Treaty of.

A treaty between the East India Company and Ranjit Singh, concluded in
1809. It provided that the British should not seek to exercise any
control in the territories north of the Sutlej, while Ranjit Singh
agreed to respect the rights of the cis-Sutlej chiefs living under
British protection.


Unam Sanctam, Bull of.

A Bull issued by Boniface VIII at the Council of Rome in 1302, declaring
that the temporal power is inferior to the spiritual, and that the Pope
has the power of appointing and deposing sovereigns. This Bull was
specially directed against Philip the Fair of France.


Uncle Sam.

The popular name for the Government of the United States.


Uncrowned King.

Charles Stewart Parnell was called the Uncrowned King of Ireland.


Underground Railroad.

An organization formed in the Northern States of America, after the
passing of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850, to aid fugitive slaves to
escape to British territory.


Undertakers.

A number of English gentlemen who undertook the settlement of Ulster in
1569. The forfeited lands were to be peopled by settling a family on
each 240 acres, and no Irish were to be admitted as tenants. Neither of
these obligations was adhered to, and little was accomplished till the
Plantation of Ulster in 1606.


Undertakers.

The name given to certain members of the Addled Parliament in 1615, who
undertook to control it in the interests of the King. Their plans became
known, and they consequently failed to carry out their scheme.


Undertakers, Parliamentary.

Twenty-five Irish landowners who, in the unreformed Parliament, were
able to control the return of 116 members out of a house of 300. They
were thus enabled to make their own terms with the Government, and were
consequently known by the above title.


Uniformity, Act of.

An Act passed in 1549 (Edward VI), forbidding the use in churches of any
book of prayers except the Book of Common Prayer approved by the
Parliament then sitting, and known as Edward VI’s First Prayer Book.
Certain alterations having been made in the book, a further Act was
passed in 1552, substituting the new version for the First Prayer Book.
The use of this book having been abolished during Mary’s reign, it was
again made obligatory by an Act of Queen Elizabeth in 1559, and made to
apply to Ireland, while the same course was pursued after the
Restoration in 1662, with the additional proviso that no clergyman might
hold a living who was not ordained by a bishop and prepared to accept
the Prayer Book.


Unigenitus, Bull.

A Bull issued by Innocent X in 1653, in condemnation of the Jansenist
heresy.


Union Catholique.

A union of the League with the less bigoted Catholics of France, formed
in 1588 on the virtual acceptance by Henri III of the League formulas.


Union Cellar.

An underground cellar in the High Street, Edinburgh, where the principal
supporters of the union with England held secret meetings, the feeling
against the union being so strong that they dared not meet openly.


Union de la France Chrétienne.

A union formed in 1891 to hinder the movement for adhesion to the
Republic on the part of the Catholic party. Its leaders were M. de
Chesnelong, the Comte de Mun, and the Baron de Mackau.


Union of Calmar.

By this instrument, promulgated in 1397 by Margaret of Denmark, the
three northern kingdoms of Norway, Sweden and Denmark were united into
one monarchy. It was renounced by Sweden in 1523.


Union Jack.

The union flag, when hoisted at the jackstaff of a man-of-war, is so
called. The union flag is composed of the red cross of St. George on a
white ground (England), the white saltire of St. Andrew on a blue ground
(Scotland), and the red saltire of St. Patrick on a white ground
(Ireland).


Union with Ireland.

The Act of Union with Ireland was finally passed in 1800. Resolutions in
favour of it had been submitted to the Irish Parliament in 1799, and
though supported in the main by the Irish Catholics, they were opposed
by Grattan, Curran and other Irish leaders, and rejected. Pitt was
determined that in the interests of both countries the union must take
place, and, the Irish Parliament having been dissolved, he succeeded by
unlimited bribery in securing a Parliament containing a majority pledged
to vote for the union. This Parliament met in 1800, and the necessary
resolution was passed by a majority of forty-six.


Union with Scotland.

The Parliamentary Union between the two kingdoms was agreed to in 1706,
the terms being settled by commissioners, thirty-one on each side,
appointed for the purpose. The basis of the agreement was that there
should be one kingdom, one Parliament and one Successor. The national
flags were to be combined, and the two countries known as the United
Kingdom. The confirming Act was passed by the Scots Parliament in 1706,
by the English in 1707.


United Brotherhood.

_See_ Clan-na-Gael.


United Colonies of New England.

_See_ Confederation, Treaty of.


United Diet.

A combination of the eight Provincial Assemblies of the Prussian
monarchy, convened by Frederick William IV in 1847. It sat for eleven
weeks only, and was replaced by the Constituent Assembly summoned to
prepare a constitution in 1848.


United Irish League.

A league founded by William O’Brien in the congested districts of the
west of Ireland in 1897. Its ostensible object is to secure an increase
in the size of tenants’ holdings by breaking up grass farms. Its methods
are not free from intimidation.


United Irishmen.

A society founded in 1789 by Wolfe Tone, in the attempt to unite, in
opposition to the Government, the Irish Catholics and the Republican
Protestants of Ulster.


United Provinces.

The name given to the seven provinces of the Netherlands, namely,
Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Friesland, Groningen, Gelderland and
Oberyssel, which formed the Union of Utrecht in 1579.


University Tests Act.

An Act passed in 1871, abolishing all religious tests for admission to
the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and making all graduates of
the Universities eligible for fellowships, whether in Holy Orders or
not.


Unkiar Skelessi, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Turkey, signed in 1833, by which, regardless
of the protests of France and England, Turkey agreed to open the
Bosphorus to the warships of Russia, while the Dardanelles remained
closed to those of every other Power.


Unlearned Parliament.

The Parliament of Henry IV, which met at Coventry in 1404, was so called
because it contained no lawyers.


Unser Fritz.

Frederick, Emperor of Germany, was called Our Fritz by his subjects.


Unspeakable Turk.

A phrase applied to the Ottoman Empire. It was first used by Thomas
Carlyle.


Useless Parliament.

The name given to the first Parliament of Charles I. It met in June
1625, was removed to Oxford in August, and dissolved on the 12th of that
month without having transacted any business.


Uses, Statute of.

By common law, landed property could only be left to the eldest son, and
it had become the custom to saddle property so left with “uses,” or
charges, in favour of the younger children. This had caused inextricable
confusion as to title, and a statute of Henry VIII, passed in 1535,
forbade the practice. It was very soon repealed.


Uti Possidetis.

A term signifying the retention by the parties to a treaty of all such
territories as they may have conquered or become possessed of up to the
signature of the document.


Utraquists.

The name given to a section of the Hussites who stood firm in their
demand that the Communion should be administered in both kinds.


Utrecht, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1713 between Louis XIV and the allies, England and
Holland, the Emperor not being a party to the instrument, at the close
of the War of the Spanish Succession. By its terms the allies recognized
the Bourbon succession to the Spanish throne, with the proviso that the
two crowns should never be united in one person. Louis acknowledged Anne
and the Protestant Succession. England retained Gibraltar, Minorca and
Newfoundland, the latter subject to the fishery rights of France. Spain
again granted England the Asiento, and certain fortified towns were
given to the Dutch as a barrier in the Netherlands. The Emperor signed a
separate treaty at Rastadt in the following year.


Utrecht, Union of.

A union of the various provinces of the Netherlands in 1597, when they
undertook to support each other in opposing the claims of the Spanish
King. The free exercise of the Protestant religion was guaranteed to
Holland and Zeeland. This union may be looked upon as the foundation
stone of the Dutch Republic.


Uxbridge, Treaty of.

An attempt on the part of the Presbyterians in Parliament to come to
terms with Charles I in 1645. Negotiations were opened at Uxbridge, the
Parliamentary demands being the abolition of Episcopacy, the
continuation of the war in Ireland, and the control by Parliament of the
Army and Navy and of appointments to the great offices of State. The
King withdrew from the negotiations, owing to the dissensions in
Parliament between the Independents and Presbyterians, which he
anticipated would eventually enable him to obtain better terms.



V


Vaal, Treaty of the.

A treaty between the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, signed in
1857, after President Pretorius’ abortive invasion of the Free State.
The two countries mutually acknowledged each other’s independence, with
the Vaal as the boundary between them. The Transvaal repudiated the acts
of Pretorius in his attempt to interfere with the internal Government of
the Free State, while the Free State undertook to use every endeavour to
compel Schoeman and Joubert to cease hostilities, and further agreed to
accord to burghers of the Transvaal the same privileges as were granted
to those of Cape Colony and Natal.


Vaccination Act.

An Act passed in 1898, substituting the use of calf-lymph for the old
arm-to-arm system in public vaccination, and permitting parents who had
a conscientious objection, to withhold their children from vaccination,
on satisfying a magistrate of the same.


Vagabonds Act.

An Act passed in 1704, empowering Justices of the Peace to hand over to
the military authorities, as recruits, all able-bodied men who were
without visible means of subsistence.


Valtelline, Massacre of the.

A massacre of the Grisons Protestants in the Valtelline Valley in 1620,
by Robustelli, acting with the connivance of the Austrians and the
Spaniards.


Vassalage.

In the Middle Ages, the condition of feudal dependence, either upon the
Lord Paramount, as in the case of the great territorial nobles, or upon
a vassal of the Lord Paramount.


Vassy, Massacre of.

The massacre, in 1562, of a body of Huguenots who, in accordance with
their strict legal rights, were holding a service outside the town of
Vassy in Champagne. The murderers were the retinue of the Duc de Guise,
and the victims numbered sixty, while over two hundred were wounded.
This atrocity led to the outbreak of the first Huguenot War.


Vatican Council.

The Œcumenical Council held in Rome in 1870, at which the dogma of the
Infallibility of the Pope was promulgated.


Vavassors.

The name given on the Continent to the vassals of the great feudal
lords.


Vehmgerichte.

Secret tribunals established in Germany during the Middle Ages, to try
persons arraigned on capital charges, and to carry out the sentence in
case of conviction. The most famous was that of Westphalia. Any free
born German was eligible as a member, or Freischöffe, and many German
Princes were initiated. The powers of the Vehmgerichte were greatly
curtailed by Maximilian, the original purpose of these tribunals having
been overshadowed by their employment as vehicles of private vengeance,
and they gradually lost all influence, till they were finally dissolved
by Jerome Buonaparte in 1811.


Veishya.

The third, or agricultural, caste among the Hindus.


Vellore, Mutiny of.

A rising of native troops in the Madras Presidency in 1806, caused by a
change in the headdress of the Sepoy, to whom it was suggested by
agitators that he was to be forcibly Christianized. The rising was soon
suppressed.


Venezuela Boundary.

In January 1895 Venezuelan troops crossed the Cuyuni river, part of the
Schomburgk line, into British Guiana, and hoisted the Venezuelan flag
in territory which had been occupied by the British colonists for many
years. Obtaining no redress, Lord Salisbury issued an ultimatum,
whereupon Venezuela appealed to the United States to intervene, in
support of the Monroe doctrine. President Cleveland and Mr. Olney took a
high hand, and went the length of appointing an American Commission to
examine into the boundary question. After long negotiation arbitration
was agreed upon, and a treaty settling the details was signed in
February 1897. The award of the arbitrators was issued in 1899, and
practically confirmed the British claim to the Schomburgk line, but gave
Venezuela Barima Point, at the mouth of the Orinoco, and a tract of
country west of the Wenama river.


Venice, League of.

A league formed in 1495 between Spain, Austria, Milan, Venice and Rome,
the signatories binding themselves to unite for the protection of any
one of the contracting parties that was attacked, and especially for the
preservation of the States of the Church. It is the first example in
history of a coalition for mutual defence.


Venner’s Plot.

A plot of the Fifth Monarchy men in 1660, under Thomas Venner, to
dethrone Charles II. The plan was to seize Whitehall during the King’s
absence, when Venner, a wild fanatic, trusted to Divine help to carry
out the rest of his scheme. The plot failed, and Venner and other
leaders were arrested, but only after a desperate resistance.


Verdun, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 843, after a short conflict, by the three sons of
Charlemagne, Charles the Bald, Louis and Lothair. The eldest son,
Lothair, renounced his right to the paramountcy, and the younger sons
entered into full enjoyment of their territories, the Empire being thus
divided. This treaty marks the division of the Frankish nation into
French and Germans.


Vereeniging Conference.

The conference of Boer leaders held at Vereeniging in May 1902, at which
the terms of surrender were discussed and finally accepted. The terms
provided for the immediate laying down of arms by the Boer commandos,
the acknowledgment of the King as their lawful sovereign, the return of
the Boer prisoners as soon as practicable, freedom of surrendered
burghers from all judicial proceedings except for acts contrary to the
usages of war, the use of the Dutch language in the schools, if
demanded, and in the law courts when necessary, and the establishment in
due course of representative government. The British Government further
agreed to provide £3,000,000 as a free gift, towards the re-settlement
of the country, and a loan of unstated amount, on easy terms, for the
same purpose.


Vernacular Press Act.

An Act passed in India in 1878 to control native newspapers publishing
seditious libels. It gave the Government power to make the editor of a
native newspaper enter into a bond not to print seditious matter, and
also authorized the seizure of plant in the event of non-compliance with
the terms of the bond. The Act was repealed in 1882.


Verona, Congress of.

A Congress of the Powers held in 1822, to consider the situation in
Spain. It resulted in the armed intervention of France in the following
year.


Veronese Vespers.

A rising at Verona in 1797, during the French occupation. It was
promptly put down, but not before the Veronese had murdered four hundred
French sick and wounded, lying in the hospitals of the town.


Versailles, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1783 between Great Britain on the one hand, and
Spain, France and the United States on the other, at the conclusion of
the American War of Independence. France retained Tobago, and Spain,
Florida and Minorca, but all other conquests were restored on both
sides. As between Great Britain and the United States, this treaty
simply confirmed the provisions of the Treaty of Peace of 1782.


Vervins, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1598 between Henri IV of France and Philip II of
Spain, after the recovery by Henri of Amiens, which had fallen into the
hands of the Spaniards. By its terms France recovered all the territory
occupied by Spain during the previous ten years, her frontier being
restored to that settled by the Treaty of Câteau Cambrésis.


Veto.

Under the Swiss Constitution, the right of the people to reject a law
passed by the Assembly, by means of the Referendum.


Veto Act.

An Act passed by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1834,
at the instigation of Dr. Chalmers, declaring it to be a fundamental law
of the Church that no pastor could be imposed on a congregation against
their will.


Victorian Deadlocks.

These were three in number, caused by attempts to tack on to the
Appropriation Bill resolutions of a controversial character. The first
occurred in 1865, when the Legislative Council refused to pass the
Appropriation Bill with certain tariff resolutions of a protective
character appended. The Governor thereupon declined to sign warrants for
payments out of the Treasury, and the business of the country was at a
standstill. The Government, however, got out of the difficulty by having
recourse to the banks. The second or great deadlock arose from the
inclusion in the Appropriation Bill of a grant of £20,000 to Sir Charles
Darling, the retiring Governor, in 1867. This was ended by the refusal
of Sir Charles, in July 1868, to accept the grant. The third arose in
1877 over the question of payment of members, the council again
refusing to pass the Appropriation Bill with this provision tacked on.
The Government thereupon dismissed a large number of civil servants. A
compromise was, however, arrived at, and the officials reinstated. The
day on which the dismissals took place is known as Black Wednesday.


Vienna Congress.

A congress of the Great Powers, held in 1814-15, at which Great Britain,
France, Austria, Prussia and Russia were represented. It confirmed in
its main features the Treaty of Paris of 1815, with the following
additional provisions: one-third of the kingdom of Saxony was
surrendered to Prussia; the Duchy of Posen was retained by Prussia, and
part of Galicia by Austria, while Russia secured the rest of Poland; the
Bourbons were restored in Naples, the Tyrol was given back to Austria,
and certain arrangements made as to the minor German and Italian States.
The Congress further pronounced in favour of the free navigation of
rivers, and of the suppression of the slave trade.


Vienna Conference.

A conference of the four Great Powers, held in 1853, with the object of
mediating between Russia and Turkey. A note was drawn up which was
accepted by Russia, but refused by Turkey, the Sultan declining to admit
that Russia’s championship alone maintained the Greek Church in his
dominions. During the sitting of the conference Turkey declared war. It
being found impossible to bring the antagonists to terms, the conference
was dissolved.


Vienna, Definitive Peace of.

A treaty signed in 1738 by Austria, France, Spain and Sardinia, after
the War of the Polish Succession. By its provisions Lorraine was ceded
to France, the Duke of Lorraine receiving in exchange the Duchy of
Tuscany. Spain retained Naples and Sicily, and Sardinia obtained Novara
and Tortona, and some other frontier towns.


Vienna, Peace of.

A treaty between France and Austria, signed in 1809 after the defeat of
the Austrians at Wagram, by which Austria was despoiled of further
territory for the benefit of France, Russia and Bavaria. Austria also
agreed to recognize Joseph Buonaparte as King of Spain, and to support
the Continental Blockade.


Vienna, Treaty of, 1725.

A treaty between Spain and Austria, by which Spain accepted the
Pragmatic Sanction, and agreed to open her ports to German commerce;
while Austria recognized Don Carlos as the successor to the Duchies of
Parma and Tuscany, and undertook to use her influence with England to
obtain the restoration to Spain of Gibraltar and Minorca. There was,
however, a further secret treaty, binding both countries to assist in
the restoration of the Stuarts, while Austria promised aid in compelling
the return of Gibraltar and Minorca, by force if necessary.


Vienna, Treaty of, 1731.

A treaty between Austria, Spain, Holland and England. The three latter
powers united in guaranteeing the Pragmatic Sanction, while Austria
agreed to the occupation of Parma and Tuscany by Spanish garrisons.


Vienne, Council of.

A council summoned by Pope Clement V in 1312, at which he pronounced the
dissolution of the Order of Knights Templars.


Vieux Renard.

Marshal Soult (1769-1851) was so called by his soldiers.


View of Frankpledge.

The periodical revision by the Hundred Court of the Tythings, or
divisions of ten men, under the system of Frankpledge.


Vigo Galleons.

The name given to an expedition under Sir George Rooke in 1702, when the
English fleet forced an entrance into Vigo Bay, and destroyed the French
fleet, together with the Spanish galleons, which had just arrived with
treasure from America.


Világos, Surrender of.

The surrender of the Magyars at the end of the Hungarian War of
Independence in 1849. It was negotiated between General Görgey and the
Russian General Paskievitch, and it is said on good authority, though
there is no documentary evidence to prove it, that Görgey was induced to
consent to the surrender by the promise that no Hungarian officer should
be given up to the Austrians, and that Russia would undertake to secure
independence for the Magyars under a Russian Prince. The promise, if
ever made, was certainly not kept, and the Austrians tried and executed
many of the Magyar leaders.


Villafranca Treaty.

A treaty between France, Sardinia and Austria, signed in 1859, after the
defeats of the latter Power at Magenta and Solferino. Austria withdrew
entirely from Lombardy, which was made over to Sardinia, in accordance
with the arrangement secretly arrived at between Napoleon III and Victor
Emmanuel.


Villeins.

Under the feudal system in England the serfs or dependents of the feudal
lords were so called. They were bound to the soil and forced to render
various menial services. On the Continent the villeins appear to have
been in a better position than the serfs proper, being bound only to pay
certain tribute, or render certain definite services.


Villers-Cotterets, Ordonnance de.

An edict of Francis I of France, issued in 1539, to reform the
administration of justice, and abbreviate trials. It also provided for
the official registration of baptisms and burials.


Vinland.

The name given to the Viking Colony on the American Continent, probably
a portion of Rhode Island, founded by Leif, son of Eric the Red, about
1000 A.D.


Virgin Queen.

Queen Elizabeth of England was so called.


Virginia, Charter of.

The first Colonial Charter, issued by James I in 1606. A certain
territory was thereby set aside to be colonised by two companies of
adventurers, one from London, the other from the west of England. The
first company only was successful. The land was to be held on a tenure
of homage, and a small royalty payable on all precious metals extracted
from the soil. An English council was formed, to exercise a general
superintendence over the affairs of the colony. All colonists and their
descendants were to retain their rights as British subjects.


Virginia, Declaration of.

A declaration drafted by George Mason, and voted by the Convention of
Virginia, in May 1776. It declared that all power sprang from and was
vested in the people; that all men were free by nature; that government
should be for the common welfare; that no office should be hereditary,
and that there should be no restraint of the free exercise of religion.


Virginian Liberties, Ordinance for the Security of.

An ordinance issued in 1621, giving Virginia a written constitution. It
provided for a Governor and a permanent Council, appointed by the
Virginia Company, and for an elected assembly, with legislative powers,
to meet annually. The acts of this assembly were subject to the
Governor’s veto, and must further be ratified by the Company in London,
while all ordinances issued by the Company equally required the
ratification of the assembly. It was also provided that the procedure of
the colonial courts should be assimilated to the English practice.


Voivodes.

The Princes of Moldavia and Wallachia were so called until 1789, when
these principalities came under the protection of Russia.


Volksraad.

The popular assembly in the Orange Free State and the South African
Republic was so called.


Voortrekkers.

The name given to the Boers who took part in the Great Trek of 1836-7.


Vote of Non-Addresses.

A resolution of the Long Parliament, passed on January 15, 1648,
refusing, in view of the duplicity shown by Charles in the negotiations
at Carisbrook, to receive any message from, or make any application to,
the King.


Vowel’s Plot.

A Royalist conspiracy to assassinate the Protector on his way to Hampton
Court in 1654.


Vox in Excelso, Bull.

A bull of Clement V, issued in 1312, suppressing the Order of the
Knights Templars.



W


Wager of Battle.

A method of trial based on the Norse trial by duel, introduced into
England by William the Conqueror. Any person charged with an offence by
a private individual could challenge him to mortal combat, and if he
were successful, or could escape defeat for a whole day, was acquitted
of the charge. Wager of battle was not legally abolished until 1819.


Wahabis.

A sect of fanatical Mohammedans, whose centre is at Nejd, in Arabia,
though they are spread over the whole Moslem world. As a military power
they were at one time to be feared, but their organization was broken up
by Mehemet Ali and Ibrahim Pasha at the beginning of the nineteenth
century.


Waitangi, Treaty of.

A treaty between the British Government and the Maories in 1840, whereby
the latter acknowledged the English sovereignty over New Zealand, while
they were guaranteed in the undisturbed possession of their lands.


Wai-Wupu.

The new board appointed by the Emperor of China in 1902, to succeed the
Tsung-li-Yamen in the control of Foreign Affairs. It has precedence over
all the other departments of State.


Walcheren Expedition.

An abortive expedition despatched by England to the Island of Walcheren
in 1809, with the object of capturing Antwerp and destroying the French
fleet in the Scheldt. The expedition captured Flushing, but had no
further success, and was withdrawn within the year, the major portion of
the force employed having been incapacitated by fever.


Waldemariana, Constitutio.

The constitution established in Denmark by Waldemar III, surnamed the
Restorer (1340-75).


Waldenses.

A religious sect who seceded from the Church under Peter Waldo, a Lyons
merchant, about 1160. They spread rapidly over France and Germany, but
their chief seat was in the valleys of Savoy and the Pays de Vaud. They
suffered persecution under Philip Augustus (1180-1223), and again under
Francis I in 1540, and finally were almost exterminated by Louvois
between 1687 and 1690.


Wales, Court of.

A court established in the reign of James I, to supersede the ordinary
courts in the counties of Hereford, Shropshire, Worcestershire and
Gloucestershire, which were withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the
common law, on the plea that they were the Welsh Marches.


Wales, Ordinances of.

A series of severely repressive laws against the Welsh, issued by Henry
IV in 1401.


Wales, Statute of.

A statute of Edward I, issued in 1284, on the annexation of Wales. It
applied to the conquered country the laws and institutions of England,
with such exceptions as were deemed advisable to meet the prejudices of
the Welsh. _See_ Rhudlann.


Wallace’s Larder.

The dungeon of Ardrossan into which Wallace threw the bodies of the
slaughtered garrison, when he captured the fortress in the reign of
Edward I.


Wallachia, Capitulation of.

A treaty between Murad I of Turkey, and the Voivode of Wallachia, signed
in 1391, by which the Voivode recognized the suzerainty of Turkey, and
agreed to pay an annual tribute.


Waller’s Plot.

A conspiracy headed by Waller, the poet, who had been won over by the
Royalists in 1643, to collect troops and seize upon London. The plot
miscarried, however, and Waller was forced to make his submission to the
Parliament.


Wallingford, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1153, which ended the civil war of Stephen. Stephen
was accepted as King, while Henry of Anjou was recognized by Stephen as
heir to the throne. It was also agreed that the castles were to be
razed, and all foreign mercenaries dismissed.


Wanderers.

The Covenanters who left their homes to follow their dispossessed
ministers in 1669 were so called.


Wapenshaw.

A gathering of the people in ancient Scottish times, for the purpose of
ascertaining that every man was properly armed, and fit to take the
field if called upon.


Wapentakes.

In the counties settled by the Danes, these correspond to the Saxon
Hundreds.


Wards, Court of.

A court established by Henry VIII in 1540, to enforce the rights of the
Crown over its wards, and secure to the King the full benefit arising
from the exercise of wardship. The court was abolished in 1660.


Wardship.

In early feudal times, in the event of a minor succeeding to a fief, the
overlord claimed to act as guardian, both of the land and of the infant.
This right was restricted by Magna Charta.


Wars.

_See_ Arkansas, Armagnac, Augsburg, Austrian Succession, Barons,
Bavarian Succession, Bien Public, Bread and Cheese, Casenbrotspel,
Douglas, Farthings, Hundred Years, Hungarian, Jenkin’s Ear, King Philip,
Nobles, Opium, Pacific, Polish Succession, Rappenkrieg, Reforma, Seven
Weeks, Seven Years, Spanish Succession, Thirty Years.


Wartburg, Festival of.

An assembly of German students held in 1817, to commemorate the
tercentenary of the Reformation. The occasion was utilised for the
formation of a league of students to promote liberal ideas in politics
and national unity.


Washington, Treaty of.

_See_ Ashburton Treaty.


Washington, Treaty of, 1871.

A treaty between England and the United States, signed in 1871,
providing for the submission to arbitration of the Alabama and the San
Juan questions, and arranging a modus vivendi on the Canadian Fishery
Question. Both the arbitrations went against Great Britain.


Watch and Ward, Statute of.

A statute passed in 1285 (13th Edward I), providing for the policing of
the streets of London.


Waterboer, Treaty with.

The first treaty signed in South Africa with a native chief. Waterboer
was a Griqualand chief, and by this treaty, signed in 1834, he undertook
to maintain order within his territories and protect the colonial border
from marauders passing through his country, in return for which he was
to receive £100 per annum, and two hundred muskets and ammunition.


Wedmore, Treaty of.

A treaty between Alfred and the Danes, concluded after the defeat of the
latter at Edington in 878. By this treaty East Anglia was surrendered to
the Danes, while a line was drawn separating their kingdom from Wessex,
by which a large portion of Mercia was restored to Wessex. It was
further provided that the Danes were to hold their lands as vassals of
the King of Wessex, and to embrace Christianity.


Weregild.

In Anglo-Saxon times, a money compensation paid by a murderer to the
relatives of the murdered man. It varied in amount according to the rank
of the victim.


Werelä, Treaty of.

A treaty between Russia and Sweden, signed in 1790, at the conclusion of
the war entered into by Gustavus of Sweden to support the Turks. No
territorial changes took place.


Westminster Assembly.

An assembly of divines, held between 1643 and 1649, at which
Presbyterianism was made the established religion of England, in
accordance with the Solemn League and Covenant. The assembly also issued
the Directory, as a substitute for the Book of Common Prayer.


Westminster Confession.

The confession of faith issued by the Westminster Assembly in 1643. It
contains thirty-three articles, and is an exposition of the Calvinistic
doctrine.


Westminster, Provisions of.

A series of provisions based on those of Oxford, issued in 1259, and
afterwards embodied in the Statute of Marlborough.


Westminster, Statutes of.

The first Statute of Westminster was passed by the first Parliament of
Edward I in 1275. It was practically a codification of previously
existing laws and statutes which had not been fully enforced. It secured
the Church in its rights, re-enacted the various charters, and reformed
many abuses in the administration of the law. The second Statute of
Westminster is the Statute also known as De Donis Conditionalibus.


Westminster, Synod of.

A synod held in 1102, at which decrees were issued against simony,
marriage of the clergy and other ecclesiastical abuses, and also
against the selling of men into slavery.


Westphalia, Treaty of.

This treaty, signed in 1648 by France, Sweden and the Empire, put an end
to the Thirty Years’ War. It established and recognized Protestantism in
Germany, and made provision for the equal representation of the two
religions in the German Diet. France obtained Alsace, Sweden secured
Bremen, North Pomerania and Stettin, and there were certain changes
among the smaller German States.


Whigamores’ Raid.

A rising of the peasantry of the west of Scotland in 1648, in opposition
to the supporters of the Engagement.


Whigs.

A name first applied to the Covenanters in the west of Scotland, and
afterwards to the anti-Stuart party in England. They later represented
the party of progress and reform, in which sense they were the
predecessors of the Liberals.


Whimsicals.

The name given to the English Tories who supported the House of Hanover
on the accession of George I.


Whip with Six Lashes.

The name given to the Six Articles of Henry VIII, issued in 1539.


Whisky Insurrection.

A serious rising in Western Pennsylvania in 1794, caused by an attempt
of the authorities to suppress illicit distillation, which was rife in
that region. Some six or seven thousand insurgents were in arms, and the
outbreak was only suppressed after the militia of four of the
neighbouring States had been called out.


Whitby, Synod of.

A synod held in 664, at which the Saxon Churches definitely decided to
adhere to the Church of Rome, rather than to the Celtic Church founded
in Ireland by St. Columba.


White Bands, The Parliament of.

The name given to the Parliament of 1321, which banished the Despencers,
owing to the followers of the Barons wearing white favours.


White Capes.

_See_ Chaperons Blancs.


White Clergy.

The parish priests in Russia are so called, as distinguished from the
Black Clergy, or monastic priesthood. They take no part in
ecclesiastical administration, and are permitted to marry.


White Company.

A famous band of mercenaries which served in the French wars, and, after
the Peace of Brétigny, in Italy. Its leader was Sir John Hawkwood.


White Cross Knights.

The Knights Hospitallers were so called.


White Devil of Wallachia.

The nickname given by the Turks to George Castriot (Iskander Beg), the
Albanian hero (1404-67).


White League.

An organization formed in the Southern States, after the American Civil
War, to prevent the exercise of the franchise by the coloured
population.


White Sheep.

The Turcomans who overran Persia in 1468 were so called.


White Ship.

_See_ Blanche Nef.


Whiteboys.

_See_ Levellers.


Whitecaps.

A secret association in Indiana, U.S.A., formed originally as a
vigilance society, which later was guilty of many outrages.


Who Who Ministry.

The ministry formed by Lord Derby in 1852. Many of its members were new
to office, and the story goes that the Duke of Wellington, who was very
deaf, was being told by Lord Derby the names of his colleagues. At each
unfamiliar name, the Duke kept ejaculating, Who? Who?


Wild Geese.

The name given to the Irishmen recruited by France for service in the
Irish Brigade during the eighteenth century.


Wills, Statute of.

A statute passed in 1540, providing that land held in fee simple might
be devised by will. This right had been greatly restricted by the
Plantagenet legislation.


William the Silent.

The sobriquet of William, Prince of Orange (1533-84).


Wilmot Proviso.

An amendment, carried by Mr. David Wilmot, in the United States House of
Representatives, to the Bill for the purchase of Mexican territory in
1846. It provided that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude should
ever exist in the territory to be acquired. The amendment was thrown out
by the Senate.


Winchester, Statute of.

A re-enactment in 1285 of the Assize of Arms of Henry II. It laid upon
the counties the duty of keeping order within their boundaries, and of
suppressing brigandage and highway robbery, and defined their
obligations towards the national defence.


Winter King.

The nickname of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, who was King of Bohemia
during the winter of 1619-20.


Wisbuy, Ordinances of.

A code of maritime laws issued during the fourteenth century, governing
the operations of the Baltic traders. It takes its name from Wisbuy, a
town in Gothland.


Wisliza, Code of.

A code of laws framed by Casimir the Great, in 1347, which remained the
basis of Polish legislation till the end of the eighteenth century.


Witanagemot.

In Saxon times, the central assembly of the nation, presided over by the
King or his representative. In early days it was open to all freemen,
but later came to be composed of the nobles and thegns about the King’s
person. The word signifies the Assembly of the Wise.


Wizard.

John Sobieski, King of Poland (1674-96), was so called by the Turks.


Wolverine State.

The State of Michigan, U.S.A., is so called, because in early days it
was infested with wolverines.


Wonderful Parliament.

A Parliament of Richard II, assembled in 1388. It consisted almost
entirely of partisans of the Duke of Gloucester, and during a session of
122 days was mainly occupied in the removal of his enemies. It is also
known as the Merciless Parliament.


Wood’s Halfpence.

A controversy between the English and Irish Parliaments in 1722, over a
patent granted to an Englishman named Wood, to coin copper money for
issue in Ireland. Dean Swift’s famous “Drapier’s Letters” appeared on
the Irish side of the controversy, and eventually the patent was
withdrawn.


World’s Wonder.

The sobriquet of Frederick II, Emperor of Germany (1215-50).


Worms, Concordat of.

A concordat negotiated at the Synod of Mayence, and proclaimed at Worms
in 1122, by which the Pope agreed to the election of bishops and abbots
by their chapters, throughout the German Empire. The Emperor renounced
the right of investiture with the ring and staff, but it was agreed that
this investiture should not take place till the newly elected prelate
had sworn fealty to the Emperor. This concordat was confirmed by the
first Lateran Council in 1123.


Worms, Diet of.

A Diet held in 1521, to which Luther was summoned, under a safe conduct,
in order that he might have the opportunity of retracting his heresies.
This he declined to do, and but for the assistance of the Elector of
Saxony, he would very probably have met with the fate of John Huss under
similar circumstances.


Worms, Edict of.

An edict issued by the Diet of Worms in 1521, outlawing Luther, and all
those who sheltered or aided him, or who printed, sold or read his
works.


Worms, Treaty of.

An alliance between England, Holland, Austria, Saxony and Sardinia,
signed in 1743, to uphold the Pragmatic Sanction.


Würtzburg, League of.

A league of the Catholic princes of Germany, formed in 1610, under
Maximilian of Bavaria, to oppose the Protestant Union.


Wyandotte Constitution.

The Constitution of Kansas, adopted in 1859, under which Kansas was
admitted to the Union. It abolished slavery throughout the State.


Wyoming Massacre.

During the American War of Independence in 1778, the settlement in the
Valley of Wyoming, Pennsylvania, was attacked by the British, together
with a band of Seneca Indians. Most of the able-bodied men were in the
field under Washington, and only 300 opposed the British force, which
overpowered them, and accepted their surrender. It was, however,
impossible to control the Indians, who later again attacked the
settlement, and massacred a large number of the inhabitants.



X


X Y Z Mission.

An American mission despatched to France in 1797. Attempts were made to
bribe them, the agents employed using, in their correspondence, the
initials X, Y, Z.



Y


Yandabo, Treaty of.

A treaty between Great Britain and Burmah, signed in 1826, at the end of
the Burmah War of 1824, whereby Great Britain acquired Arrakan and
Tenasserim.


Yangtse Agreement.

_See_ Anglo-German Agreement.


Yankee.

The name first applied to the colonists in the New England States by the
British soldiers during the American War of Independence. It is supposed
to be derived from an Indian corruption of English--“Yengies,” or
“Yanghies.”


Year of Corbie.

This name was given by the French during the Thirty Years’ War to the
year 1636, when the Imperial troops penetrated into France to Corbie,
within fifty miles of Paris, and apparently had the capital at their
mercy. They preferred, however, to retire, loaded with booty, but the
imminent danger was long an unpleasant memory to the Parisians.


Young Cub.

Charles James Fox (1749-1806) was so called.


Young Czechs.

The Radical section of the Czech or National Party in Bohemia.


Young England.

The party of young Tories who strongly opposed the repeal of the Corn
Laws from 1839 to 1846, and favoured a return to the manners and customs
of an earlier day. Among its leaders was Lord John Manners.


Young Ireland Party.

A party formed in Ireland in 1847, as a rival association to the
Repealers who followed O’Connell. Their leaders were Smith O’Brien,
Meagher and Mitchel, and they were in favour of physical force rather
than of constitutional agitation. An abortive attempt at a rising under
their auspices in 1848 was easily suppressed, and the society came to an
end immediately afterwards.


Young Italy.

A secret society founded by Mazzini about 1830, to work for the
emancipation of Italy.


Young Pretender.

Charles Edward Stuart, son of James Edward, and grandson of James II,
was so called by the supporters of the Hanoverian succession.


Young Turks.

The Turkish reform party. For obvious reasons they are for the most part
resident beyond the limits of the Turkish Empire.



Z


Zanzibar, Treaty of.

A treaty between Germany and Zanzibar, signed in 1885. The Sultan of
Zanzibar thereby recognized Germany’s rights over Chagga and
Kilimanjaro, and accorded certain trade facilities to the German East
Africa Company.


Zaporovian Commonwealth.

A community of Free Cossacks on the Dnieper. They were not finally
deprived of their independence till the reign of Catherine II, circ.
1780.


Zehngerichtenbund.

_See_ Ten Jurisdictions.


Zelanti.

A body of Cardinals, headed by Cardinal Orsini, who had great influence
in Rome circ. 1700, and whose efforts were directed towards stricter
discipline in the Church.


Zemindars.

Under the Mohammedan rulers of India, the Zemindars were officers who
were charged with the collection of taxes over a certain district. In
1793 these officers were, in Bengal, converted by Lord Cornwallis into
landowners, each in his own district, who alone paid land-tax to the
Government, and recouped themselves by rents received from the peasants
or ryots. This system is known as the Zemindari System.


Zemstvo.

The Russian provincial and district assemblies are so called. The
Zemstvo is elected, in certain fixed proportions, by the landowners, the
village communes and the municipalities. It meets at least once a year,
but has a permanent bureau, always in session, chosen from among its
members for executive purposes. It is charged with the maintenance of
roads and bridges and other public works, and the supervision of
education, sanitation and agriculture. It also elects the local justices
of the peace.


Zollverein.

A union of the German States for commercial purposes, entered into under
the auspices of Prussia in 1833. It provided for free internal trade,
and a uniform system of customs duties for the whole union.


Zurich, Compromise of.

An attempt by Calvin and Farel, in 1549, to amalgamate the different
doctrines of Calvin and Zwingli. It met with little acceptance on the
part of the Protestant Cantons.


Zurich, Treaty of.

A treaty signed in 1859 confirming the Treaty of Villafranca, which
provided for the cession by Austria of Lombardy, to be transferred by
France to Sardinia.



INDEX


Aargau, 231.

Abbaside Khalifs, 23.

Abd-el-Kader, 247.

Abdallah, King of Granada, 1.

Abdul Hamed, Sultan of Turkey, 140.

Abdul Mejid, Sultan of Turkey, 115.

Aboyne, Lord, 42.

Abyssinia, 2, 172.

Acre, 134.

Adams, Samuel, 91, 171.

Adansi, 96.

Addison, Joseph, 139.

Adige (River), 154.

Adjanta Ghât, 235.

Adrian I, Pope, 78.

Adrian IV, Pope, 3.

Adrian VI, Pope, 218.

Adrianople, 3.

Adolphus Frederick of Holstein, 2.

Æthelfled, 95, 141.

Æthelred I, 176.

Æthelred the Unready, 72, 104, 118, 221.

Æthelstan, 117.

Æthelwulf, 193.

Afghanistan, 103, 105, 166, 188, 217, 234.

Afridis, 105, 166.

Agilulf, King of the Lombards, 129.

Ahausen, 204.

Ahmed I, Sultan of Turkey, 174.

Ahmednaggar, 235.

Aix-la-Chapelle, Peace of, 20, 201.

Alabama, 112.

Alabama claims, 275.

Alaska, 11, 26.

Albania, 130, 277.

Albert II, Emperor, 201.

Albert of Brandenburg, 251.

Albuquerque, Alfonso d’, 200.

Alemtejo, 97.

Alençon, 106.

Alençon, Duc d’, 201.

Alexander III, Pope, 3, 48, 190.

Alexander IV, Pope, 150.

Alexander V, Pope, 122, 196, 226.

Alexander VI, Pope, 75, 122, 222.

Alexander I of Russia, 261.

Alexander II of Russia, 174, 230.

Alexander I of Scotland, 232.

Alexander III of Scotland, 156.

Alexandria, 13, 70.

Alfonso I of Aragon, 93.

Alfonso III of Aragon, 13.

Alfonso V of Spain, 102.

Alfonso VI of Spain, 53.

Alfonso the Wise, 234.

Alfred the Great, 79, 141, 160, 170, 276.

Algarves, 97.

Algeria, 233, 247.

Allahabad, 27, 125.

Allen, Cardinal, 3.

Alsace, 99, 163, 191, 277.

Althorp, Lord, 128.

Alva, Duke of, 33, 245.

Amadeus V of Savoy, 12.

Amatongaland, 246.

Amazon (River), 43.

Amboyna, 239.

Amiens, 270.

Amoy, 180.

Amsterdam, 225.

Amurath I, Sultan of Turkey, 131.

Anabaptists, 213.

Anatolia, 14.

Ancona, 256.

Andrassy, Count, 10.

Andres, Last of the Incas, 213.

Andrew II of Hungary, 107.

Anglo-Saxons, 34, 39, 50, 82, 88, 92, 95, 96, 100, 103, 104, 116, 117,
118, 122, 142, 149, 156, 160, 181, 221, 222, 232, 238, 249, 251, 260,
263, 272, 276, 278.

Angola, 63.

Angus, Archibald Sixth Earl of, 18.

Aniello, Tommaso, 161.

Anjou, 1, 38, 101.

Annam, 31, 99, 121, 254.

Anne Boleyn, 244.

Anne de Joyeuse, 217.

Anne of England, 37, 88, 149, 192, 203, 206, 231, 246, 253, 267.

Anne of Austria, 82.

Anne, Regent of France, 112, 124.

Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, 26.

Anspach, 204, 227.

Antigua, 38.

Antrim, 242.

Antwerp, 101, 158, 239, 274.

Appenzell, 144, 252.

Arabi Pasha, 81.

Arabia, 166, 274.

Arad, 122.

Aragon, 13, 135, 167.

Arbitration Tribunal, 113.

Archaicus of Scotland, 253.

Arcis-sur-Aube, 15.

Ardalian, 28.

Ardrossan, 274.

Argentine Republic, 104, 196, 259, 269.

Argyll, Archibald Fifth Earl of, 69.

Argyll, Archibald Eighth Earl of, 124, 213, 214.

Arizona, 103.

Arkansas, 26.

Arlington, Henry Earl of, 42.

Armagnacs, 185, 262.

Armellini, 218.

Armenians, 112, 118.

Arminians, 65, 79, 108, 213.

Armstrong, William, 138.

Arnauld, Antoine, 131, 199.

Arnold of Brescia, 117.

Arracan, 280.

Arteveldt, James van, 39.

Artois, 105, 158, 205.

Ashanti, 96.

Ashbourne, Lord, 128.

Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury, 42.

Assi, 60.

Assumptionists, 18.

Atalanta, 232.

Athens, 78.

Athole, Earl of, 206.

Atterbury, Bishop, 19.

Auckland, Lord, 234.

Auerstadt, Battle of, 31.

Augsburg Confession, 203, 227, 249.

Augsburg, Diet of, 235.

Augsburg, League of, 220.

Augsburg, Religious Peace of, 212.

_Augustinus_, 124, 131.

Augustus II of Poland, 197, 224.

Austerlitz, Battle of, 253.

Australia, 20, 91, 100, 124.

Austrian Succession, War of the, 201.

Auxerre, 15.

Avalos, Ferdinand de, 225.

Avignon, 256.

Azores, 75.

Azov, 140, 204.


Babek, 136.

Bacon, Nathaniel, 21, 109.

Baden, 105, 202, 215.

Bagimont of Vicci, 21.

Baillie of Jerviswood, 132.

Baji Rao II, 25.

Bakunin, Michael, 127.

Balaclava, Battle of, 73.

Balasore, 75.

Baldwin I of Flanders, 37.

Balfour, A. J., 98.

Balfour, Sir James, 69.

Ballard, Father, 21.

Balliol, Edward, 67, 156.

Balliol, John, 256.

Baltic, 239, 251, 278.

Baltimore, Lord, 161.

Banér, Johan Gustafsson, 148.

Bantry Bay, 175.

Baramahal, 230.

Barbaroux, 92.

Barbés, 222.

Barbiano, Count, 221.

Barcelona, 64.

Barclay, Sir George, 16.

Barebone, Praise-God, 23, 176.

Barlaymont, 65.

Barlow, Sir George, 155.

Barneveldt, Jan van Olden, 15.

Baro (River), 2.

Baroda, 23.

Barré, Isaac, 238.

Barrot, Odilon, 61.

Barton, Elizabeth, 177.

Basle, 225, 252.

Bassano, Duc de, 164, 254.

Bassein, 193, 245.

Basutos, 7, 124, 175, 237, 251.

Batapins, 242.

Bates’ Case, 35.

Bath, William, Earl of, 233.

Batman, John, 199.

Batoum, 28.

Bautzen, Battle of, 236.

Bavaria, 19, 25, 103, 105, 150, 215, 221, 235, 271.

Bayard, Seigneur de, 52.

Bayonne, I.

Beaconsfield, Lord, 28.

Beaugé, Battle of, 262.

Bechuanaland, 136, 168, 242.

Becket, Thomas à, 65.

Bedford, John, Duke of, 94.

Bedford, John, Fourth Duke of, 26.

Belesme, 106.

Belfort, 100.

Belgium, 7, 27, 45, 57, 151, 154, 187, 215, 228.

Benedict IX, Pope, 37.

Benedict XII, Pope, 213.

Benedict XIII, Pope, 196.

Bengal, 281.

Benigsen, Baron, 171.

Berar, 75, 198.

Bérenger, Loi, 150.

Berg, 215.

Berghem, 158.

Berlichingen, Götz von, 130, 191.

Berlin, 4, 63, 134.

Berlin Congress, 120, 224.

Bermudez, 88.

Bernadotte, 137.

Bernard, 222.

Berne, 46, 84, 146, 200, 208, 231, 256.

Berri, Duc de, 63.

Berry, Sir Graham, 86.

Bessarabia, 27, 28.

Bessborough, Earl of, 29.

Beza, 58.

Bezuidenhoot, Jan, 236.

Billioray, 60.

Birmingham, 210.

Biron, Baron de, 30.

Biscay, 46.

Bismarck, Otto von, 33, 46, 48, 99, 112, 120, 129, 134, 164, 212, 214.

Black Sea, 5, 27, 32, 47, 136, 188, 220.

Blackburn, 32.

Blackheath, 96.

Blaine, J. G., 35, 185, 248.

Blair, F. P., 139.

Blanche of Castile, 24.

Bland, Mr., 32.

Blanqui, Louis Auguste, 60, 222.

Blennerhassett, Harman, 42.

Bligh, Admiral, 36.

Bloemfontein, 33.

Blount, Sir James, 239.

Blucher, Marshal, 98.

Blue Nile, 2.

Boccold, John, 9.

Boer War, 4, 61, 114, 157, 171, 269.

Bogdan of Moldavia, 166.

Bohemia, 157, 168, 179, 180, 201, 202, 280.

Bolingbroke, Henry, Viscount, 178, 190.

Bolivar, Simon, 109, 147, 255.

Bolivia, 9, 184, 225.

Bologna, 10, 145.

Bombay, 35, 189.

Bond, Sir Robert, 35.

Boniface VIII, Pope, 56, 146, 191, 264.

Bonnivard, François de, 203.

Booth, John Wilkes, 35.

Bordeaux, 1, 182, 196.

Boris of Russia, 75.

Bosnia, 28, 217.

Bosphorus, 188, 266.

Bossuet, 56, 211.

Boston, 36, 69, 211, 249.

Bothwell, 48, 69.

Bouillon, Godefroi de, 56, 146.

Boulanger, General, 36.

Boulogne, 36, 48.

Boulonnais, 15.

Bourbon, Adalbert de, 172.

Bourbon, Cardinal de, 133.

Bourbon, Duc de, 29, 201.

Bourbon, General de, 32.

Bourbons, 46, 276.

Bourges, 190.

Bover, 126.

Boycott, Captain, 37.

Boyens, Adrian, 225.

Brabant, 76, 105, 133, 163.

Bradlaugh, Charles, 203.

Braemar, Hunting of, 122.

Brahminism, 16, 37, 104, 139, 234, 244, 245, 268.

Brazil, 43, 74, 87, 256, 259, 261.

Breda, 38.

Brederode, Count Henry of, 112.

Bregenz, 144.

Bremen, 100, 114, 242, 277.

Brescia, 117.

Bresse, 256.

Brétigny, Peace of, 100, 277.

Bretwalda, 117.

Bridgwater, 138.

Briel, 49.

Bright, John, 3, 39, 101, 120, 260.

Brissot, J.P., 39.

Bristol, 39.

British Columbia, 11, 45.

British Guiana, 180, 227, 269.

British South Africa Company, 131.

Brittany, 18, 38, 106.

Brittany, Duke of, 29, 63.

Brooke, George, 42.

Brown, John, 115.

Brown, Major-General, 1.

Brownists, 125.

Bruce, Robert, 176, 209.

Bruges, 107, 158.

Brunswick, Duke of, 31.

Brussels, 40, 193.

Buccleugh, Lord of, 138.

Bucer, Martin, 251.

Buchanan, Mr., 183.

Buckingham, George Villiers, Duke of, 42.

Bulgaria, 6, 24, 28, 41, 55, 224, 237.

Bundelcund, 207.

Burdett, Sir Francis, 207.

Burgos, 41.

Burgundians, 261.

Burgundy, 15, 110, 155, 163.

Burgundy, Duke of, 29.

Burke, Edward, 2.

Burke, T. H., 127, 195.

Burleigh, Cecil Lord, 50.

Burmah, 71, 119, 280.

Burns, John, 257.

Burr, Aaron, 42.

Burrard, Sir Harry, 54.


Caboche, 43.

Cade, Jack, 60, 198.

Cadiz, 64.

Cadiz, Duke of, 239.

Cadoudal, Georges, 53, 195.

Cahors, 9.

Cairns, Earl, 98, 230.

Calais, 38.

Calcutta, 31.

California, 13, 61, 107, 111, 143, 169.

Calixtus II, Pope, 143.

Callao, 147.

Calvin, John, 44, 63, 116, 199, 281.

Calvinists, 44, 63, 108, 116, 122, 141, 147.

Cambacérès, Jean Jacques de, 58.

Cambray, Peace of, 184.

Cambridge, 266.

Camerata, Count, 218.

Cameron, Richard, 44, 224.

Camissards, 87.

Campbells, 107.

Canada, 16, 45, 56, 81, 92, 95, 96, 113, 114, 121, 191, 206, 209, 216,
261.

Canning, George, 135.

Canning, Lord, 56, 183.

Canning, Sir Stratford, 85, 115.

Canossa, 46.

Canton, 180, 247.

Cape Cod, 162.

Cape Colony, 3, 31, 33, 41, 59, 76, 82, 94, 106, 116, 118, 123, 135,
138, 171, 186, 187, 197, 204, 236, 259, 276.

Cape Verde, 256.

Cappel, 46.

Caraffa, John, 251.

Carbonari, 224.

Cardwell, Lord, 15.

Carelia, 177, 243.

Caribbean Sea, 40, 239.

Carisbrooke, 273.

Carlisle, 138.

Carlists, 28.

Carlos, Don, 46.

Carlowitz, Treaty of, 190.

Carlsbad, 47.

Carlyle, Thomas, 266.

Carmarthen, Lord, 175.

Carmel Mount, 47.

Carnarvon, Lord, 232.

Carnot, Lazare Nicolas, 182.

Carolina, 47, 166.

Caroline Islands, 47.

Carrier, 177.

Carpathians, 248.

Cartwright, Thomas, 3.

Casimir the Great of Poland, 278.

Caspian Sea, 112.

Cassano, Battle of, 150.

Cassilis, Earl of, 18.

Cassini, Count, 48.

Castriot, George, 6, 130, 277.

Castro, Thomas, 55.

Catalonia, 4.

Câteau Cambrésis, Treaty of, 270.

Catesby, Robert, 112.

Catherine of Aragon, 177, 244.

Catherine of France, 261.

Catherine II of Russia, 49, 67, 132, 140, 166, 197, 229, 243, 248, 281.

Cavagnari, Sir Louis, 104.

Cavaignac, General, 18.

Cavendish, Lord Frederick, 127, 195.

Cavour, Count, 130.

Cawnpore, 50.

Cayenne, 38.

Cayugas, 96.

Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, 42.

Cerdagne, 23.

Cellier, Mrs., 162.

Celts, 29, 38, 88.

Central America, 53, 62, 72, 185.

Cevennes, 262.

Ceylon, 9.

Chagga, 281.

Chalmers, Dr., 100, 270.

Chamberlain, Joseph, 58, 120, 219.

Chambord, Comte de, 146.

Chambul (River), 207.

Chang How, 140.

Chantaboon, 99.

Charleroi, 24.

Charlemagne, 78, 119, 185, 269.

Charles of Anjou, 233.

Charles, Archduke of Austria, 239.

Charles of Blois, 252.

Charles, Dauphin of France, 38.

Charles I of England, 15, 25, 28, 33, 50, 84, 87, 95, 106, 124, 152,
155, 161, 174, 176, 194, 211, 213, 219, 224, 233, 238, 244, 260, 266,
267, 273.

Charles II of England, 1, 30, 31, 35, 38, 42, 47, 55, 58, 66, 69, 74,
79, 89, 111, 121, 132, 148, 163, 179, 194, 199, 203, 211, 213, 220,
238, 241, 256, 260, 269.

Charles I of France (the Bold), 40, 163, 178, 269.

Charles III of France (the Simple), 35.

Charles V of France, 25, 60.

Charles VI of France, 14, 181, 262.

Charles VII of France, 15, 99, 200, 201.

Charles VIII of France, 23.

Charles IX of France, 131, 221, 261.

Charles X of France, 134, 182, 215.

Charles IV of Germany, 107, 194.

Charles V of Germany, 23, 44, 47, 48, 93, 105, 107, 119, 125, 127, 135,
153, 155, 184, 190, 210, 212, 218, 225, 228, 256.

Charles VI of Germany, 20, 200.

Charles VII of Germany, 99.

Charles III of Savoy, 12, 239.

Charles II of Spain, 239.

Charles III of Spain, 201.

Charles IV of Spain, 97, 199, 203.

Charles X of Sweden, 217.

Charles XII of Sweden, 6, 39, 155, 204, 207, 224.

Charles the Bold of Burgundy, 193.

Charles the Good of Flanders, 144.

Charleston, 211.

Charolais, Comte de, 63.

Charterhouse, 48.

Chartres, 51, 152.

Chartreuse, Grande, 48.

Chattanooga, Battle of, 50.

Chefoo, 52.

Cherbourg, 43.

Chesnelong, M. de, 265.

Chester, 52, 68.

Chiavenna, 167.

Chicago, 91.

Chihli, 247.

Chile, 9, 168, 184, 192, 225.

Chillon, Castle of, 203.

China, 4, 10, 19, 37, 48, 52, 97, 110, 140, 148, 152, 159, 164, 170,
172, 180, 186, 192, 233, 234, 247, 254, 259, 262, 274.

Chinandega, 53.

Choshiu, 71.

Chotusitz, Battle of, 38.

Chouiski, 27.

Christian (Mate of the _Bounty_), 36.

Christian of Anhalt, 204.

Christian II of Denmark, 33.

Christian III of Denmark, 91, 208.

Christian IV of Denmark, 153.

Christian V of Denmark, 72, 85, 135.

Christian IX of Denmark, 226.

Christian of Schleswig Holstein, 15, 226.

Christian of Spain, 53, 88, 140.

Christina of Sweden, 165, 237.

Churchill, Lord Randolph, 98, 257.

Cinq Mars, 53.

Cis-Alpine Republic, 45.

Ciudad Rodrigo, 256.

Clare, County, 250, 257.

Clare, Richard de, 192, 243.

Clarendon, Lord, 47, 55.

Clay, Henry, 147, 228.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 55, 116.

Clement V, Pope, 21, 249, 251, 272, 273.

Clement VII, Pope, 23, 119, 226.

Clement XIV, Pope, 78, 124.

Cleveland, President, 170, 180, 269.

Clifford, Lord High Treasurer, 42.

Clifford, Mr. (O.P. Riots), 177.

Clovis, 222.

Cluseret, 60.

Cobbett, W., 207.

Cobden, Richard, 12, 101, 159.

Cobham, Lord, 42.

Cochin China, 99.

Cochrane, Earl of Mar, 27.

Cockerton, T. B., 57.

Cognac, 221.

Colbert, J. B., 141.

Coligny, Admiral, 221.

Colley, General, 157.

Collings, Jesse, 253.

Cologne, 114, 228.

Colombia, United States of, 186.

Colorado, 50.

Columbia, District of, 61.

Columbus, Ohio, 141.

Columbus, Christopher, 222.

Combes, M., 18, 33.

Comyn, Alexander, 209.

Condé, Louis, Prince de, 7, 82, 228.

Condé, Henri, Prince de, 184.

Condorcanqui, 213.

Conflans, Treaty of, 29.

Congo Free State, 63, 40, 127.

Conkling, Roscoe, 240.

Connaught, 34, 60, 257.

Connecticut, 34, 62, 101, 113, 153, 173, 177, 252.

Connemara, 121.

Conrad II, Emperor, 190.

Conrad III, Emperor, 112.

Constance, 144.

Constance, Council of, 123, 226.

Constance, Diet of, 259.

Constance, Peace of, 150.

Constantine, Grand Duke of Russia, 73.

Constantinople, 14, 226, 233.

Conway (American Cabal), 43.

Corbie, 280.

Cornwall, 96, 241.

Cornwallis, Lord, 28, 175, 198, 281.

Corsica, 130.

Corsini, Count, 218.

Cortes, Hernando, 175.

Corti, Count, 67.

Cossacks, 281.

Courtrai, Battle of, 240.

Courtray, 4.

Couthon, G., 172.

Covenanters, 144, 207, 224, 245, 261, 275, 277.

Coventry, 266.

Coventry, Sir James, 69.

Cowper-Temple, 69.

Cranborne, Lord, 145.

Craven, Lord, 47.

Crete, 70.

Crichtons of Frendraught, 41.

Crim Tartary, 67, 140.

Crimea, 140, 188, 197, 225.

Croatia, 235.

Croker, John Wilson, 63.

Cromwell, Oliver, 74, 94, 121, 125, 126, 130, 146, 152, 157, 179, 184,
194, 211, 213, 214, 219, 228, 230, 231, 260, 273.

Cromwell, Richard, 38, 206.

Crusades, 7, 222.

Cuba, 8, 206, 209.

Culloden, Battle of, 42, 98, 143.

Cumberland, Duke of, 42, 56, 98.

Cunningham Graham, 257.

Curran, J.P., 265.

Custer, General, 71.

Cuyuni (River), 268.

Cyprus, 71.

Czartoryski, Adam, 261.

Czechs, 201, 280.


D’Alembert, J. le R., 87.

D’Artois, Comte, 195.

D’Avila, Sancho, 239.

D’Enghien, Duc, 195.

D’Este, Marquis, 150.

D’Estrées, Maréchal, 56.

Dalai Lama, 250.

Dalhousie, Lord, 245, 247, 253.

Dalmatia, 45, 130, 181.

Dalrymple, Sir Hew, 54.

Damascus, 145.

Danes, 72, 82, 95, 142, 221, 275, 276.

Dangerfield, 162.

Danton, G. J., 143, 165, 169.

Dantzig, 114, 197.

Danube, 3, 32, 72, 122, 188.

Dardanelles, 188, 266.

Dardanelles, Treaty of, 134.

Darling, Sir Charles, 270.

Darnley, Lord, 48, 220.

Dashkoff, Princess, 49.

Daulat Rao Sindhia, 235.

David I of Scotland, 211.

Davis, Jefferson, 62.

Davitt, Michael, 142.

De l’Hôpital, Chancellor, 169, 182, 218.

De la Marck, William, 26.

De Lesseps, Comte, 186.

De Montfort, Count Simon, 6.

De Montford, Simon, Earl of Leicester, 24, 77, 136, 146.

De Thou, 54.

De Witte, Admiral, 38.

Deccan, 195.

Defoe, D., 145.

Delagoa Bay Railway, 81.

Delaware, 35, 76, 161, 176, 252.

Delaware (River), 95.

Demarcation, Bull of, 256.

Demetrius Ivanovitch of Russia, 75.

Denkera, 96.

Denmark, 33, 35, 38, 40, 72, 82, 85, 91, 114, 135, 137, 139, 151, 153,
208, 216, 217, 226, 239, 255, 265, 274.

Derby, 95.

Derby, Edward, Earl of, 75, 145, 220, 249, 278.

Dermot, King of Leinster, 243.

Derry, 264.

Derwentwater, Lord, 94.

Deshima, 8.

Desmond, Earl of, 162.

Desmoulins, Camille, 143.

Despard, Colonel, 76.

Despencers, The, 277.

Devonshire, William, 1st Duke of, 175.

Devonshire, Spencer, 8th Duke of, 39, 120.

Dhuleep Singh, 141, 205.

Diaz de Vivar, Rodrigo, 53.

Diderot, Denis, 87.

Dindigul, 230.

Dingaan, 76.

Dinizulu, 173.

Disraeli, Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfield, 145, 249.

Dnieper (River), 67, 197, 281.

Dniester (River), 132.

Doab, 141.

Doctrinaires, 180.

Döllinger, Dr., 179.

Dominicans, 126.

Don (River), 67.

Donauwörth, Troubles of, 204.

Donegal, Marquis of, 242.

Dongan, Thomas, 79.

Donis, Statute de, 276.

Donnelly, Ignatius, 199.

Doria, Andrea, 91, 93.

Dorr, Thomas W., 79.

Dorset, Earl of, 175.

Dort, Synod of, 15, 108.

Dost Mahomed, 234.

Dozsa, George, 80, 140.

Douglas, Archibald, Earl of Angus, 27.

Douglas, Sir James, 79.

Douglasses, The, 56.

Dover, 54.

Dow Win Sheou, 186.

Down, County, 242.

Drake, Sir Francis, 127.

Drakensberg, 171.

_Drapier’s Letters_, 279.

Dreyfus, Captain, 80.

Druses, 145.

Drutsch (River), 197.

Du Breuil, Peter, 153.

Du Tremblay, François, 37, 86.

Dublin, 48, 195.

Duclair, 81.

Duguesclin, Bertrand, 82.

Dunbar, 30, 67.

Dunbar, Earl of, 132.

Dunes, Battle of, 205.

Dunois, Jean, 25.

Dunraven, Earl of, 129.

Durham, 68.

Dwina (River), 197.


Eadgar, 82.

East Africa, 118.

East Anglia, 276.

Eastern Question, 5, 10, 21, 22, 24, 28, 32, 41, 48, 67, 70, 71, 72,
81, 115, 118, 132, 140, 145, 151, 188, 194, 205, 217, 220, 224, 225,
234, 235, 266, 271, 280.

Eddystone, 110.

Edinburgh, 199, 265.

Edmund Ironside, 130.

Edward I of England, 16, 38, 39, 51, 54, 56, 59, 62, 67, 79, 114, 149,
152, 156, 163, 172, 188, 192, 207, 215, 247, 274, 275, 276.

Edward II of England, 181, 232, 240.

Edward III of England, 38, 42, 67, 104, 108, 137, 141, 150, 158, 176,
192, 204, 223, 241, 256, 258.

Edward IV of England, 28, 149, 152, 191.

Edward VI of England, 5, 138, 214, 235, 236, 245, 264.

Edward the Black Prince, 32, 90, 98.

Egremont, Lord, 261.

Egypt, 9, 11, 13, 67, 72, 81, 92, 113, 134, 148, 159, 244.

El Dorado, 159.

Elba, 97, 122.

Elbe (River), 255.

Electors (Germany), 107.

Elizabeth of England, 3, 13, 17, 21, 49, 72, 75, 85, 118, 129, 137,
138, 157, 163, 198, 209, 215, 228, 245, 252, 253, 260, 265, 272.

Ellenborough, Lord, 183, 247.

Elmira, 96.

Emery, 255.

Emma of Normandy, 104.

Emmet, Robert, 86.

Engadine, 108.

English Acts and Statutes, 6, 13, 17, 20, 22, 29, 36, 39, 45, 49, 54,
55, 58, 65, 66, 69, 70, 77, 83, 84, 85, 86, 89, 94, 95, 97, 98, 106,
108, 109, 111, 113, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 124, 125, 128, 129, 131,
133, 137, 141, 146, 147, 149, 160, 163, 164, 168, 178, 194, 196, 197,
198, 200, 203, 204, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212, 215, 216, 218, 219, 226,
229, 230, 231, 235, 240, 241, 244, 245, 247, 249, 250, 251, 255, 256,
258, 260, 262, 264, 265, 266, 274, 276, 278.

English Church, 27, 45, 60, 63, 74, 85, 98, 114, 181, 121, 141, 144,
161, 164, 170, 172, 184, 201, 205, 206, 225, 226, 231, 235, 249, 251,
252, 276, 277.

English Civil War, 1, 23, 33, 50, 70, 87, 94, 95, 106, 123, 124, 125,
137, 146, 152, 155, 158, 173, 174, 209, 211, 213, 214, 219, 221, 238,
241, 263, 267, 273, 275.

English Political Parties, 1, 3, 8, 12, 37, 50, 60, 63, 68, 98, 120,
133, 147, 190, 207, 219, 247, 249, 256, 277.

Eperies, 34.

Erastus, 87.

Eric of Norway, 156.

Eric the Red, 8, 272.

Erie Ring, 248.

Eritrea, 2.

Erivan, 257.

Erpingham, Battle of, 152.

Erskine, Thomas, Lord, 102.

Esk (River), 73.

Essex, Lord, 220, 229.

Esthonia, 177.

Eugenius IV, Pope, 24.

Evesham, Battle of, 77.

Eyre, Governor, 168.

Ezzelino of Verona, 150.


Falk, Dr., 90.

Falk Laws, 140.

Falkland, Lord, 109.

Faneuil Hall, 69.

Farel, G., 281.

Faroë Islands, 137.

Fastolfe, Sir John, 118.

Faveau, 161.

Fawkes, Guido, 112.

Fawkner, J.P., 199.

Fécamp, 43.

Ferdinand I, Emperor, 43.

Ferdinand II, Emperor, 153, 214, 252.

Ferdinand III, Emperor, 16, 252.

Ferdinand II of Naples, 35.

Ferdinand I of Spain, 53.

Ferdinand V of Spain, 23, 53, 125, 222.

Ferdinand VII of Spain, 44, 46, 64, 141, 201.

Ferrara, 145.

Ferry, Jules, 180, 256.

Feudalism, 3, 15, 22, 59, 92, 93, 98, 101, 139, 152, 157, 190, 194,
198, 202, 212, 218, 238, 244, 268, 272, 275.

Fifth Monarchy Men, 269.

Fingoes, 242.

Finland, 1, 100, 177.

Fisheries, 99, 101, 113, 187, 192, 267.

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 174.

Fitzgeralds, 105.

Flammock, Thomas, 96.

Flanders, 38, 39, 105, 144, 152, 155, 239, 241.

Flesselles, Prévôt des Marchés, 171.

Flood, Henry, 234.

Florence, 12, 15, 29, 91, 191, 195, 218.

Florida, 112, 149, 187, 192, 270.

Foix, Gaston de, 254.

Fontenay, Battle of, 40, 178.

Foochow, 180.

Forest Cantons, 84.

Forest, Edwin, 18.

Formosa, 97, 233.

Forster, W. E., 84.

Fotheringay, 21.

Fouché, Joseph, 195.

Fouquier-Tinville, 250.

Fourier, Charles, 98.

Fox, Charles James, 164, 280.

Fox, George, 205.

Fraga, 93.

Franche Comté, 4, 174.

Francis I of France, 44, 62, 92, 93, 106, 119, 155, 184, 193, 256, 272,
274.

Francis II of France, 7.

Francis II of Naples, 44, 130.

Francis Joseph of Austria, 62.

Francis, Sir Philip, 134.

Franconia, 19, 116, 191, 236.

Frankfort, 49, 100, 215.

Franks, 7, 51, 170, 171.

Frederick II of Brandenburg, 130.

Frederick VII of Denmark, 226.

Frederick V, Elector Palatine, 252, 278.

Frederick I, Emperor, 64, 150, 190, 218.

Frederick II, Emperor, 22, 154, 279.

Frederick III, Emperor, 14.

Frederick, Emperor of Germany, 266.

Frederick I of Prussia, 31, 70.

Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia, 5, 7, 38, 103, 142, 197, 203, 224,
232.

Frederick Charles, Prince of Prussia, 209.

Frederick William IV of Prussia, 56, 139, 266.

French Acts and Edicts, 18, 25, 28, 51, 97, 100, 131, 150, 162, 164,
169, 172, 174, 181, 182, 202, 206, 210, 236, 245, 272.

French Political Parties, 36, 124, 143, 169, 180, 196, 198, 208, 250,
251, 254.

French Revolution, 8, 17, 22, 25, 38, 39, 42, 43, 53, 54, 66, 75, 76,
77, 86, 87, 93, 95, 100, 103, 115, 117, 119, 124, 126, 132, 133, 139,
143, 165, 167, 169, 172, 177, 182, 195, 216, 224, 229, 243, 245, 250,
252, 260.

Frendaught, 41.

Fribourg, 252.

Friesland, 37, 266.

Frisia, 145.

Friuli, 45.

Frobisher, Martin, 127.

Frost (Chartist), 51.

Fürst of Uri, 111.

Fusen, 220.

Fyrd, 257.


Gaboon, 65.

Gadesden, James, 103.

Gaekwar, The, 198.

Gage, Thomas, 159.

Gaikas, 242.

Galetti, Count, 218.

Galicia, 197, 271.

Gallifet, Marquis de, 60.

Galway, 245.

Gambetta, Léon, 180.

Ganges (River), 235.

Garfield, President, 113, 168, 240.

Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 44, 104, 130.

Garrison, Wm. Lloyd, 12.

Gascony, 1, 38, 98.

Gastein, Treaty of, 227.

Gauden, Bishop of Exeter, 85.

Gaunt, John of, 141.

Gaveston, Piers, 181.

Gilderland, 266.

Geneva, 63, 147, 159, 209, 256.

Genghis Khan, 107, 248.

Genoa, 70, 91, 93, 148, 187, 218.

Gensan, 220.

George, Despot of Servia, 246.

George, Duke, of Saxony, 119, 256.

George I of England, 19, 217, 224, 242, 244, 262, 277.

George II of England, 192.

George III of England, 76, 90, 91, 138, 222.

George IV of England, 3, 95, 102, 193, 202.

Georgia, 86, 104, 252.

Geraldines, 162.

Gerard V, Count of Ravensberg, 221.

German Acts, 1, 46, 47, 90, 134.

German Political Parties, 48, 50, 134, 139, 166.

Gerry, Elbridge, 132.

Ghazi, 28.

Ghent, 51, 135.

Ghent, Convention of, 111.

Ghent, Pacification of, 158, 193.

Ghent, Treaty of, 223.

Ghoorkas, 172.

Gibraltar, 78, 90, 267, 271.

Gironde, 39, 59.

Girondins, 196, 250.

Gladstone, W. E., 12, 21, 57, 103, 106, 109, 120, 128, 138, 147, 248,
263.

Glamorgan, Earl of, 18.

Glarus, 84.

Glencairn, Earl of, 18.

Glenelg, Lord, 204.

Gloucester, Duke of, 279.

Gloucestershire, 274.

Godaveri (River), 235.

Godfrey, Sir Edmundbury, 199.

Godoy, Manuel, 97, 203.

Gohad, 235.

Gold Coast, 10.

Gomarus, 65, 108.

Gonsalvo de Cordova, 109.

Gordon, General Charles, 53, 89, 247.

Gordon, Lord George, 108.

Gordons of Huntly, The, 41.

Görgey, General, 272.

Görlitz, 236.

Gorst, Sir John, 98.

Görz, 130.

Goths, 102.

Gotteshausbund, 249.

Govind Rai, 234.

Gowrie, Lord, 220.

Graaf-Reinet, 236.

Gradenigo, Doge of Venice, 254.

Grafton Ministry, 134.

Grahams, The, 73.

Granada, 1, 160, 168.

Grant, General Ulysses, 147.

Granville, Bishop of Arras, 161.

Grattan, Henry, 110, 234, 265.

Graubund, 249.

Gray, Wilson, 142.

Great Salt Lake, 168.

Greece, 14, 78, 128, 150, 151, 160, 194.

Greeley, Horace, 147.

Greenland, 137.

Gregory VII, Pope, 46, 154.

Gregory X, Pope, 61, 154, 199.

Gregory XI, Pope, 21, 266.

Gregory XII, Pope, 196.

Gregory XIII, Pope, 127.

Gregory XV, Pope, 203.

Grenville, George, 261.

Grenville, William, Lord, 164.

Grey, Earl, 102.

Grey, Sir George, 7.

Griffith, Sir Richard, 111.

Griqualand, 2, 175, 276.

Grisons, 24, 111, 167, 268.

Groningen, 266.

Groote Privilegie, 105.

Grousset, Paschal, 60.

Guadeloupe, 187, 243.

Guatemala, 43, 50.

Guelfs, 29, 194.

Gueux, 38.

Guienne, 38, 51.

Guinegate, Battle of, 240.

Guipuscoa, 189, 190.

Guise, Francis, Duc de, 261, 268.

Guise, Henri, Duc de, 22, 24.

Guises, The, 7, 133, 144, 218, 221.

Guiteau, 240.

Guithelin, 161.

Guizot, F. P. G., 239.

Gussinje, 67.

Gustavus III of Sweden, 11.

Gustavus IV of Sweden, 100.

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, 24, 116, 148, 214, 237, 241, 243.

Gustavus Vasa, 33.

Guyon, Mme., 207.

Gwader, Ralph of, 39.

Gwalior, 235.

Gwyn, Sir Rowland, 191.

Gwynne, Nell, 69.


Hague, The, 1.

Haidar Ali, 155, 222.

Hainau, General, 122.

Hainault, 105, 158.

Hakodaté, 8.

Hakon the Good of Denmark, 102, 112.

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 45.

Halifax, Charles, First Earl of, 134, 171.

Halifax, George, Second Earl of, 261.

Halland, 40.

Hamburg, 100, 114.

_Hamburger Nachrichten_, 212.

Hamilton, Duke of, 124.

Hampden, John, 95, 233.

Hankow, 140.

Hanover, 112, 114, 201, 222, 261.

Hanse League, 48.

Harcourt, Sir W. Vernon, 219.

Hardwicke, Lord, 96.

Haroun-al-Raschid, 23.

Harrowby, Lord, 49.

Haselrig, Sir John, 95.

Hassan-ben-Sabah, 16.

Hastings, Warren, 27, 244.

Hatton, Sir Christopher, 72.

Havana, 187.

Haverfordwest, 192.

Hawkwood, Sir John, 277.

Hay, Secretary, 116.

Hegealand, 40.

Held, Chancellor, 119.

Helsingfors, 1.

Henry III, Emperor, 259.

Henry IV, Emperor, 46.

Henry I of England, 26, 68, 71, 89, 95, 106, 205.

Henry II of England, 3, 17, 38, 65, 71, 72, 90, 105, 227, 275, 278.

Henry III of England, 8, 17, 24, 52, 97, 128, 141, 146, 155, 188, 215,
222, 263.

Henry IV of England, 25, 82, 113, 141, 270, 274.

Henry V of England, 6, 261.

Henry VI of England, 76.

Henry VII of England, 73, 94, 110, 158, 163, 169, 193, 241.

Henry VIII of England, 11, 13, 16, 18, 19, 31, 34, 66, 74, 75, 93, 119,
138, 150, 176, 177, 195, 206, 209, 218, 236, 240, 244, 245, 266, 275,
277.

Henry II of France, 48, 50, 144.

Henry III of France, 9, 24, 51, 84, 133, 164, 172, 217, 221, 265.

Henry IV of France (Henry of Navarre), 9, 30, 90, 96, 163, 175, 184,
208, 257, 261, 266.

Henry, King of Jerusalem, 250.

Henry, King of Poland, 184.

Herat, 188, 234.

Herbert, W., 160.

Hereford, Earl of, 39.

Herefordshire, 274.

Herschel, Sir John, 118.

Herzegovina, 28, 218.

Hesse, 105.

Hesse-Cassel, 201.

Hesse Darmstadt, 215.

Hexhamshire, 68.

Highlands, The, 77, 241, 246, 257.

Hill, Isaac, 139.

Hill, Sir Rowland, 192.

Hindus, 37.

Hoche, General, 175.

Hofmeyr, J. H., 4.

Hohenlinden, Battle of, 154.

Hohenlohe, Count of, 145.

Holkar, 198, 207.

Holland, 4, 9, 10, 17, 24, 29, 38, 49, 95, 105, 109, 114, 116, 121,
151, 152, 154, 174, 187, 189, 220, 222, 232, 239, 245, 260, 261, 266,
267, 272, 279.

Holstein, 137.

Holy Alliance, 167.

Holyrood, 215.

Honan, 247.

Honduras, 50.

Hong Kong, 170, 180.

Honorius II, Pope, 249.

Honorius III, Pope, 47, 78.

_Hopeful, The_, 136.

Horn, Count, 11.

Hottentots, 186.

Howard of Effingham, Lord, 127.

Howard, Sir John, 133.

Howe, Lord, 107, 176.

Hudson (River), 69, 95, 236.

Hudson’s Bay, 45, 209.

Huguenots, 5, 8, 9, 30, 51, 52, 59, 80, 84, 103, 122, 123, 131, 144,
152, 167, 172, 174, 175, 184, 198, 203, 215, 221, 228, 257, 268.

Hullin, General, 158.

Humbert, General, 175.

Hung Hsiu Chwan, 247.

Hungary, 19, 34, 47, 54, 75, 80, 96, 107, 121, 122, 139, 140, 141, 156,
191, 202, 207, 246, 255, 272.

Hungary, Master of, 190.

Hunt, Orator, 159, 207.

Huntly, Marquis of, 69.

Hunyadi Janos, 246.

Huss, John, 64, 122, 279.

Hussites, 16, 44, 60, 122, 168, 195, 246.

Hyderabad, 260.

Hythe, 54.


Ibrahim Pasha, 274.

Iglau, 60.

Ilbert, C. P., 123.

Illinois, 169, 201, 244.

Incas, 213.

India, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, 34, 35, 37, 50, 53, 56, 71, 75, 83, 110,
123, 125, 133, 137, 139, 141, 155, 159, 165, 180, 183, 189, 193, 195,
198, 204, 205, 207, 211, 220, 222, 230, 231, 234, 235, 237, 238, 244,
245, 247, 253, 260, 261, 264, 268, 269, 281.

Indiana, 121, 169, 278.

Indore, 118, 159.

Ingermanland, 243.

Ingolstadt, 123.

Ingria, 177.

Inkerman, Battle of, 238.

Innocent II, Pope, 98, 143.

Innocent III, Pope, 126, 127, 143, 262.

Innocent IV, Pope, 154.

Innocent X, Pope, 265.

Innocent XI, Pope, 211.

Innspruck, 190.

Ionian Islands, 45, 128, 181.

Iowa, 116.

Ireland, Duke of, 152.

Irene, Empress of the East, 174.

Irish Acts, 66, 96, 126, 127, 138, 192, 215, 216, 245, 265.

Irish Land, 37, 58, 70, 74, 111, 121, 128, 138, 142, 146, 154, 162,
166, 168, 173, 177, 189, 196, 242, 263, 266.

Irish Political Parties, 12, 120, 146.

Irish Religious Question, 37, 49, 62, 101, 118, 127, 128, 148, 181,
213, 245.

Iron Gate, 72.

Isabella of France, 223, 232.

Isabella of Spain, 46, 239.

Iskander Beg, 6.

Istria, 45, 130.

Italy, 2, 10, 29, 54, 58, 64, 104, 112, 129, 130, 144, 150, 154, 155,
186, 201, 215, 222, 225, 229.


Jaafar, 23.

Jackson, Andrew, 139, 179.

Jackson, Thomas J., 243.

Jacobins, 93, 196.

Jacobites, 16, 19, 34, 42, 57, 60, 94, 97, 122, 131, 149, 184, 206.

Jaffa, 131.

Jamaica, 40, 131, 160, 168.

James I of Aragon, 183.

James I of England, 2, 24, 25, 35, 38, 42, 50, 59, 73, 91, 95, 108,
109, 110, 124, 129, 132, 145, 150, 164, 178, 194, 200, 220, 227, 240,
257, 273, 274.

James II of England, 18, 19, 74, 118, 206, 220, 229, 231, 250, 253, 280.

James III of Scotland, 27.

James IV of Scotland, 193.

James V of Scotland, 58, 138, 253.

James, Duke of York, 89.

James Edward (the Old Pretender), 19, 179.

James (River), 231.

James, Sir Henry, 120.

Jameson, Dr., 131, 258.

Jämtland, 40.

Jansen, Cornelius, 124, 131.

Jansenists, 124, 199, 265.

Japan, 8, 11, 14, 53, 71, 88, 97, 102, 108, 114, 115, 133, 164, 183,
218, 220, 223, 225, 233.

Jean Sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy, 185.

Jeannin, 23.

Jeffreys, Judge, 34, 118, 139.

Jellachich, General, 122.

Jena, 42.

Jerome Buonaparte, 197, 255, 268.

Jerome of Prague, 44, 123.

Jersey, 68.

Jerusalem, 146.

Jesuits, 78, 253.

Jeypur, 235.

Joan of Arc, 156, 204.

Jodhpur, 235.

Johannesburg, 81, 258.

John of England, 127, 141, 156.

John of France, 38, 252.

John XII, Pope, 37.

John XXIII, Pope, 64, 226.

John IV of Portugal, 200.

John VI of Portugal, 74.

John of Leyden, 9.

John Frederick of Saxony, 227.

John Frederick of Würtemberg, 204.

Johnson, President, 250.

Johnston, Robert, 261.

Jones, Sir William, 104.

Joseph II, Emperor, 103, 133.

Joseph Buonaparte, 52, 134, 255, 271.

Joubert, 267.

Joyce, Myles, 155.

Juarez, B. P., 210.

Julius II, Pope, 119, 144.

Jumna (River), 235.

Junot, General, 54.


Kabul, 217.

Kaffirs, 106, 242, 259.

Kaga, 71.

Kali (River), 172.

Kamenz, 236.

Kanakas, 32, 124, 135.

Kandahar, 217.

Kansas, 104, 136, 165, 175, 240.

Karmath, 136.

Kars, 28, 71, 188.

Kashgar, 19, 140.

Katak, 75.

Keate, R. W., 136.

Keble, John, 184.

Kemble, J. P., 177.

Kendall, Amos, 139.

Kenmure, Lord, 94.

Kent, 68, 104.

Kentucky, 7, 34, 35, 42, 136, 169.

Khartoum, 91, 156.

Khatmandu, 172.

Khyber Pass, 103.

Kilimanjaro, 281.

Killala, 175.

Kimberley, 76, 123, 138.

Kitchener, Lord, 91.

Kiümer (River), 2.

Knights Templars, 167, 272, 273.

Knox, John, 77.

Knut, 82, 104, 121, 252.

Kobe, 8.

Kohinoor, 205.

Kok, Adam, 175.

Koran, 233, 245, 263.

Korea, 4, 11, 220, 255.

Kosciusko, T., 197.

Kossuth, Louis, 89, 122.

Kruger, Paul, 2.

Ku Klux Klan, 97.

Kulturkampf, 46, 50, 90, 134, 140, 264.

Kumasi, 96.

Kuram Valley, 103.

Kurds, 24.

Kutb-ud-Din, 237.

Kutschi-Kraina, 67.

Kutusoff, General, 41.


La Bourdonnaye, 49.

La Charité, 221.

La Rochelle, 5, 103, 167, 174, 221.

Ladislaus IV of Poland, 253.

Lafayette, Marquis de, 52.

Lafone, Abbé, 158.

Lalor, Peter, 89.

Lambert, General, 125, 184.

Lamothe, Mme., 76.

Lamourette, Bishop of Lyons, 22.

Lancashire, 33, 67.

Lancaster, 68.

Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, 39.

Larochejaquelin, 53.

Las Casas, Bartolomeo de, 125, 177.

Laski, 5.

Lateran Council, First, 279.

Lateran Council, Fourth, 108, 181.

Latimer, Lord, 108.

Lauban, 236.

Laud, Archbishop, 245, 246, 253.

Lauderdale, Lord, 42.

Lauenburg, 104, 151.

Lavigerie, Cardinal, 208.

Law, John, 165, 186.

Lazar, Despot of Servia, 230.

League, The, 265.

Ledrin-Rollin, A. A., 89.

Lee, Ann, 169, 232.

Lee, C., 43.

Lee, General, 232.

Lee, J. D., 169.

Leeds, 210.

Lefebvre, Maréchale, 224.

Legations, 21, 256.

Legnago, 205.

Legnano, Battle of, 150.

Leicester, 95.

Leif, 272.

Leinster, 34.

Leinster, Duke of, 219.

Leipsic, Battle of, 171.

Lennox, Earl of, 220.

Lenthall, W., 219.

Leo III, Emperor of the East, 64, 123.

Leo III, Pope, 119.

Leo X, Pope, 62, 73, 74, 89, 119.

Leon, 102.

Leopold I of Belgium, 172.

Leopold I of Austria, 34.

Leopold I, Emperor, 70, 220.

_Lettres Persanes_, 234.

Li Hung Chang, 30.

Liao-tong Peninsula, 233.

Liebler, Thomas, 87.

Lightfoot, Hannah, 90.

Lille, 4, 24.

Limburg, 154.

Limerick, 146, 245.

Limerick, Pacification of, 215.

Limoges, 38.

Lincoln, 95.

Lincoln, Abraham, 35, 85, 114, 179, 207.

Lincoln, Fair of, 141.

Little Big Horn, 71.

Liverpool, 210.

Liverpool, Lord, 49.

Livonia, 177, 243.

Löbau, 236.

Loch, Lord, 2.

Locke, John, 166.

Lodge, 97.

Lodomiria, 197.

Lollards, 113.

Lombard League, 64.

Lombardy, 129.

London, 12, 89, 94, 108, 123, 129, 150, 151, 177, 196, 236, 257, 273,
277.

Long Parliament, 194, 202, 209, 213, 221, 238, 273.

Loo Choo Islands, 97.

Lorne, Marquis of, 232.

Lorraine, 100, 190, 191, 205, 221, 271.

Lorraine, Duke of, 5.

Lothair, Emperor, 40, 153, 178, 269.

Louis IV, Emperor, 194.

Louis I of France, 40, 153, 178, 243.

Louis VI of France, 106.

Louis IX of France, 1, 8, 48, 88, 98, 179, 188, 201, 206, 238.

Louis XI of France, 29, 63, 191, 193.

Louis XII of France, 30, 44, 91, 119.

Louis XIII of France, 23, 24, 54, 82, 167, 203, 217.

Louis XIV of France, 4, 19, 43, 79, 84, 102, 109, 110, 124, 130, 152,
157, 174, 175, 211, 217, 220, 225, 239, 255, 267.

Louis XV of France, 29, 158, 187.

Louis XVI of France, 76, 83, 126, 129, 167, 172, 182, 236.

Louis XVIII of France, 2, 46, 50, 51, 78, 86.

Louis of Nassau, 112.

Louis the Bavarian, 213.

Louis the Dauphin, 141, 148.

Louis the German, 40, 163, 269.

Louis Philippe of France, 90, 93, 134, 170, 197, 215, 217, 239, 254.

Louise of Savoy, 184.

Louisiana, 69, 112, 187, 192.

Louvois, 80, 274.

Lovat, Lord, 206.

Lowe, Robert, 161.

Lowther, Sir John, 175.

Loyola, Ignatius, 132.

Lübeck, 48, 100, 114.

Lübeck, Peace of, 214.

Lucca, 218.

Lucerne, 193, 231.

Ludlow, John, 153.

Lupus, Hugh, 52.

Lusatia, 201.

Luton Moor, 241.

Luther, Martin, 16, 73, 74, 126, 227, 279.

Lutherans, 213, 240.

Luxembourg, 151.

Lyons, 170.

Lyons, Council of, 199.

Lynch, James, 154.

Lytton, Lord, 220.


McCarthy, Justin, 187.

McClellan, General, 231.

Macdermott, “The Great,” 133.

Macdonalds of Glencoe, 107.

Macduff, Clan, 203.

McIntosh, Clan, 219.

Mack, General, 263.

Mackau, Baron de, 265.

McLeod, Clan, 219.

Macmahon, Marshal, 153, 229.

M’Murroughs, 34.

Macready, 18.

Madras, 155.

Madrid, 44.

Magdeburg, 135.

Magenta, Battle of, 272.

Magnus the Good of Denmark, 109.

Maguire, Cornelius, 166.

Mahdists, 91.

Mahidpore, Battle of, 159.

Mahrattas, 25, 75, 118, 159, 193, 196, 198, 205, 222, 230, 235.

Maid of Norway, 39.

Maine, France, 1, 38, 106.

Maine, U.S.A., 154, 157, 196.

Maitland, Lord, 69.

Maitland, Sir Peregrine, 2.

Majuba Hill, 202.

Malabar, 230.

Malcolm IV of Scotland, 156.

Malcolm Canmore, 203.

Malet, General, 158.

Malietoa, 223.

Mallard, 161.

Malta, 130, 187.

Mamelukes, 113.

Man, Isle of, 137, 263.

Manchester, 210.

Manchester, Edward, Earl of, 229.

Manchuria, 10, 48, 140.

Manitoba, 45, 209.

Mankoroane, 136, 142.

Manners, Lord John, 280.

Mantua, 205.

Maories, 274.

Mar, Earl of, 34, 94, 122.

Marat, Jean Paul, 8.

March, Agnes, Countess of, 30.

Marchand, Captain, 91.

Marchiel, M. de, 130.

Marengo, Battle of, 154.

Margaret of Anjou, 191.

Margaret of Denmark, 229, 265.

Margaret of Parma, 65.

Margaret Tudor, 193.

Marguerite de Valois, 175.

Maria of Portugal, 230.

Maria Theresa of Austria, 5, 99, 197, 200.

Marie Antoinette, 53, 75, 76, 167.

Marie Thérèse of France, 12, 182.

Marignano, Battle of, 106.

Marillac, Colonel, 80.

Marlborough, Duke of, 67, 175, 239.

Marlborough, Sarah, Duchess of, 206.

Marlborough, Statute of, 276.

Maronites, 145.

Maroto, General, 28.

Marseillais, 92.

Marseilles, 70.

Martel, Charles, 157.

Martia, 160.

Martin V, Pope, 24, 64, 226.

Martinique, 187.

Marx, 127.

Mary of Burgundy, 105, 111.

Mary of England, 121, 209, 265.

Mary of Modena, 206.

Mary Queen of Scots, 21, 48, 212, 216, 220.

Maryland, 21, 35, 161, 179, 252.

Masaniello, 231.

Mashonaland, 2, 11.

Mason, George, 273.

Massachusetts, 25, 34, 61, 62, 88, 113, 132, 165, 173, 211, 232, 252.

Masséna, Marshal, 87.

Massouw, 242.

Massowah, 10.

Mataafa, 223.

Mathew, Father, 249.

Matilda of Tuscany, 46.

Matthias of Austria, 202.

Matthioli, Count, 130.

Maubeuge, 24.

Maurice of Saxony, 190.

Mauritius, 187.

Maximilian of Bavaria, 119, 279.

Maximilian I, Emperor, 19, 44, 119, 143, 197, 212, 268.

Maximilian of Mexico, 151.

Maxwell, Lord, 18.

Mayence, 228.

Mayence, Synod of, 279.

Mayenne, Duc de, 96.

_Mayflower, The_, 195.

Mazarin, Cardinal, 124, 215.

Mazzini, Giuseppe, 89, 218, 280.

Meagher, 280.

Meath, 34.

Mecca, 42, 136.

Medici, 15, 195.

Medici, Catherine de’, 8, 58, 152, 184, 221.

Medici, Cosmo de’, 91.

Medici, Giovanni de’, 90.

Medici, Giuliano de’, 191.

Medici, Lorenzo de’, 191.

Medici, Marie de’, 82.

Mehemet Ali, 72, 134, 274.

Mekong (River), 10, 99.

Melancthon, 19, 127.

Melbourne, 32, 199.

Melbourne, Lord, 26, 131.

Melchthal of Unterwalden, 111.

Melville, Andrew, 77.

Melville, Lord, 132.

Mercia, 95, 177, 276.

Methuen Treaty, 59.

Metz, 100.

Mexico, 21, 42, 50, 92, 103, 111, 150, 175, 210, 240, 278.

Meyer, Lucas, 173.

Mezzofanti, Cardinal, 192.

Michigan, 141, 279.

Michni Pass, 103.

Middelburg, 158.

Miguel, Don, of Portugal, 89.

Mikado, 233.

Milan, 149, 150, 152, 218, 269.

Milanese, 154, 189, 256.

Millenary Petition, 114.

Minamoto-no-Yoritomo, 233.

Minorca, 79, 90, 267, 270, 271.

Mirabeau, Comte de, 8.

Mirabeau, Marquis de, 8, 167.

Miramon, President, 210.

Miranda, General, 109.

Mississippi, 20, 26, 112.

Missouri, 35.

Missouri Compromise, 136, 240.

Mitchel, John, 280.

Mitton, Chapter of, 51.

Modena, 130.

Mohammed, 44.

Mohammed Ahmed, 156.

Mohammed-es-Senussi, 229.

Mohammedanism, 44, 104, 105, 113, 116, 132, 136, 156, 166, 185, 186,
229, 233, 237, 245, 274.

Mohawks, 96.

Molapo, 124.

Moldavia, 3, 5, 27, 121, 124, 140, 273.

Molina, Fray, 166.

Mongain, 10.

Monk, General, 47, 219.

Monmouth, James Duke of, 31, 34, 138, 203.

Monmouth, Earl of, 175.

Monroe Doctrine, 119, 180.

Monroe, President, 87, 167, 180.

Mont St. Michel, 43.

Montauban, 167, 221.

Montbars the Exterminator, 40.

Montenegro, 28, 67, 81.

Montesquieu, 234.

Montferrat, Conrad of, 16.

Montgomeryshire, 255.

Montigny, Seigneur de, 158.

Montpensier, Duc de, 239.

Montreuil, 38.

Montrose, Earl of, 70.

Montserrat, 38.

Montsioa, 136.

Montt, President, 168.

Moors, 1, 93, 160, 168, 185.

Morea, 47, 190.

Morgan, Sir Henry, 40.

Morley, John, 219.

Mormons, 72, 84, 144, 169.

Morocco, 155, 223.

Mortier, Marshal, 93.

Morton, Douglas, Earl of, 79.

Morton, Cardinal, 169.

Moshesh, 7, 124, 237, 251.

Moukhtar Pacha, 105.

Mounteagle, Lord, 112.

Mourad I of Turkey, 230, 275.

Mulmutius, 161, 170.

Mun, Comte de, 265.

Munster, 216, 234.

Münster, 9.

Münzer, 191.

Murray, James, Earl of, 220.

Mysore, 155, 159, 230, 260.


Nagasaki, 8.

Nakitchevan, 257.

Namur, 24.

Nana Sahib, 50.

Nának, Babu, 234.

Nanking, 247.

Nantes, Edict of, 122, 167, 174.

Naples, 35, 44, 46, 63, 90, 130, 141, 152, 161, 181, 189, 224, 227,
231, 271.

Napoleon, 2, 3, 25, 27, 28, 37, 46, 48, 52, 54, 57, 61, 65, 67, 76, 77,
86, 87, 97, 120, 122, 131, 135, 146, 148, 158, 162, 164, 171, 174, 181,
194, 195, 202, 215, 222, 224, 227, 228, 243, 250, 251, 253, 262.

Napoleon III, 21, 36, 43, 68, 73, 111, 151, 182, 196, 208, 229, 262,
272.

Napoleon, Prince, 197, 202.

Nassau, 201.

Natal, 33, 171, 204, 259.

Navarino, Battle of, 201.

Nebraska, 136, 165, 240.

Nejd, 274.

Nelson, Lord, 118.

Nerbudda (River), 198.

Netherlands, 1, 15, 19, 22, 33, 38, 40, 51, 60, 79, 103, 105, 107, 111,
112, 121, 135, 153, 157, 193, 212, 213, 242, 266.

Neuchâtel, 225, 227.

Nevski Prospekt, 73.

New Brunswick, 45.

New Granada, 147.

New Hampshire, 110, 252.

New Haven, 62, 113, 173, 232.

New Jersey, 38, 252.

New Mexico, 61, 103, 111, 175.

New Orleans, 153, 187.

New South Wales, 20, 36, 92, 100, 136, 142, 207.

New York City, 18, 80, 82, 78, 88, 92, 94, 238, 248, 262.

New York State, 5, 38, 86, 89, 111, 238, 252.

_New York Times_, 248.

New Zealand, 20, 120, 173, 274.

Newfoundland, 35, 45, 95, 99, 101, 114, 187, 191, 267.

Newman, Cardinal, 184.

Ney, Marshal, 37, 148.

Nicaragua, 50.

Nice, 262.

Nicholas II, Pope, 198, 218.

Nicholas V, Pope, 16.

Nicholas I of Russia, 73, 129, 234, 252.

Nimeguen, Peace of, 220.

Ningpo, 180.

Nizam, 261.

Norfolk, Thomas, 4th Duke of, 215, 235.

Norfolk, Earl of, 39.

Normandy, 1, 38, 63, 104.

Norsemen, 7, 8, 28, 35, 55, 81, 102, 109, 112, 117, 118, 132, 136, 149,
176, 178, 181, 183, 221, 226, 252, 253, 272, 273.

North, Lord, 19, 206, 211.

_North Briton_, 177.

North Carolina, 211, 252, 262.

North German Confederation, 41.

Northbrook, Lord, 24.

Northumberland, Duke of, 42.

Norway, 163, 243, 265.

Norwich, Bridal of, 39.

Notarbartolo, Signor, 155.

Nottingham, 95, 153.

Nottingham, Earl of, 175.

Nova Scotia, 2, 38, 45.

Novara, 271.

Novgorod, 51.

Novossiltsof, 261.

Noyon, 44.

Nuremberg, 50, 213.


O’Brien, Smith, 280.

O’Brien, William, 266.

O’Briens, The, 34.

O’Connell, Daniel, 29, 49, 56, 101, 147, 178, 214, 218.

O’Connor, Feargus, 51.

O’Connors, The, 34.

O’Donnell, The, 129.

O’Higgins, General, 109.

O’Lachlans, The, 34.

O’Neill of Ulster, 129.

O’Neills, The, 34.

O’Shea, Captain, 12, 138.

Oates, Titus, 162, 199.

Oberyssel, 266.

Obock, 10.

Ohio, 41, 169.

Oklahoma, 175.

Old Orsova, 235.

Olmütz, Humiliation of, 261.

Olney, Secretary, 167, 180, 269.

Omar, Caliph, 189.

Oneidas, 96.

Onondagas, 96.

Oorah, 27.

Opium War, 170.

Orange Free State, 2, 7, 33, 42, 124, 151, 218, 237, 251, 267, 273.

Orange River, 174, 175, 259.

Oribe, President, 33.

Orinoco (River), 239, 269.

Orkneys, 38, 178, 263.

Orlando, 185.

Orleans, 156.

Orleans, Duke of, 154, 185.

Orleans, Duke of (Egalité), 84, 87, 167.

Orleans, Duke of (Gamelle), 103.

Orloffs, The, 49.

Ormonde, Lord, 19, 260.

Orrery, Lord, 19.

Orsini, Cardinal, 281.

Ortiz de Rosas, 104.

Orton, Arthur, 55.

Osman Pasha, 105.

Ostend, 79.

Oszakov, 132.

Ottawa, 7.

Otto of Bavaria, 150.

Oude, 27, 244, 247.

Overend and Gurney, 31.

Oxenstierna, Chancellor, 116.

Oxford, 36, 266.

Oxford, Earl of, 175.


Paardeberg, 157.

Padilla, Juan de, 225.

Padua, 254.

Paes de Andrade, 87.

Pago Pago, 223.

Pahlen, Count, 184.

Pakington, Sir John, 249.

Palatinate, 239.

Palermo, 155, 233.

Palestine, 120, 249.

Palmerston, Lord, 57, 78, 185, 239.

Pamirs, 218.

Panama, 40, 239.

Panama Canal, 116.

Panda, 171.

Pannonia, 156.

Panslavism, 180, 201.

Papal States, 10, 21, 31, 45, 78, 119, 131, 145, 190, 229, 256.

Paraguay, 156, 196, 261.

Paris, 14, 18, 36, 42, 43, 47, 60, 99, 102, 126, 157, 165, 171, 194,
228, 236, 250, 255, 280.

Paris, Comte de, 202.

Paris, Peace of, 121.

Paris, Treaty of, 216, 220, 260.

Parker, Archbishop, 170.

Parma, 90, 97, 130, 154, 232, 271, 272.

Parma, Duke of, 89.

Parnell, C. S., 12, 120, 138, 187, 189, 264.

Pascal, Blaise, 131, 199.

Paskievitch, General, 272.

Pasquino, 190.

Passau, Treaty of, 214.

Paterson (Darien Scheme), 72.

Paul III, Pope, 75, 211, 259.

Paul IV, Pope, 70, 125.

Paul I of Russia, 184.

Pavia, General, 76.

Peasants’ War, 130.

Pedro IV of Aragon, 13.

Pedro, Don, of Aragon, 233.

Pedro I of Brazil, 43, 74.

Pedro IV of Portugal, 51.

Peel, Sir Robert, 26, 66, 162, 180, 191, 248.

Peking, 152, 254.

Pelagius, Pope, 126.

Pelham, Henry, 40.

Pelucones, 168.

Pembroke, Thomas, 8th Earl of, 175.

Pembrokeshire, 68.

Penn, William, 119.

Pennsylvania, 119, 137, 161, 166, 176, 252, 277, 279.

Pepin of France, 78, 157.

Percy, Henry, 121.

Périgord, 38.

Pernambuco, 87.

Perry, Commodore, 8.

Persia, 112, 188, 189, 234, 257, 258.

Persian Gulf, 188.

Perth, 95, 220.

Peru, 9, 124, 147, 184.

Pescadores, 233.

Peschiera, 205.

Peshwa, The, 25, 198, 245, 261.

Peter, Count of Brittany, 24.

Peter Martyr, 58.

Peter I (the Great) of Russia, 177, 202, 204, 221, 243.

Peter III of Russia, 49.

Peterhof, 49.

Peyronnet, 9.

Phayre, Colonel, 23.

Philadelphia, 139.

Philip, Duke of Anjou, 239.

Philip (the Good) of Burgundy, 107, 110, 158.

Philip, Count of Charolais, 261.

Philip II of France (Philip Augustus), 263, 274.

Philip III of France, 98.

Philip IV of France (the Fair), 19, 51, 146, 188, 219, 232, 242, 264.

Philip II of Spain, 1, 13, 61, 127, 133, 158, 163, 193, 245, 270.

Philip III of Spain, 168.

Philip V of Spain, 90.

Philippines, 8.

Piacenza, 97.

Pichegru, General, 195.

Piedmont, 141, 225, 256.

Piedmont, U.S.A., 154.

Pigott (the Forger), 189.

Pilgrim Fathers, 162.

Pisa, 64, 262.

Pisa, Council of, 144, 226.

Pishin Valley, 103.

Pitcairn Island, 36.

Pitt, William, Earl of Chatham, 37, 53, 190.

Pitt, William, the Younger, 34, 83, 110, 116, 125, 164, 265.

Pius V, Pope, 75, 215.

Pius IX, Pope, 31, 126, 203.

Pizarro, 124.

Pizarro, Gonsalo, 160.

Plava, 67.

Plimsoll, Samuel, 197.

Ploermel, 252.

Plunket, Horace, 128.

Plymouth, 162, 173.

Plymouth, U.S.A., 113, 128.

Podgoritza, 67.

Podolia, 47.

Poissy, Caisse de, 43, 236.

Poitiers, Battle of, 38.

Poitou, 1, 38, 80, 196.

Poland, 22, 41, 47, 59, 62, 75, 147, 149, 161, 182, 184, 185, 197, 217,
224, 238, 248, 251, 253, 271, 278.

Pole, Cardinal, 209.

Pomerania, 27, 201, 277.

Poniatowski, Stanislas Augustus, 22.

Ponthieu, 38.

Poonah, 25, 207.

Porcari, Stefano, 199.

Port Arthur, 233.

Portalis, 58.

Porto Rico, 8, 58, 97.

Portugal, 11, 35, 51, 54, 75, 89, 97, 163, 199, 202, 205, 230, 255, 256.

Posen, 255, 271.

Postma, Mr., 79.

Potemkin, General, 132.

Potchefstroom, 253.

Poyning, Sir Edward, 200.

Prague, 122, 157, 201.

Prague, Treaty of, 131, 176.

Prempeh, 96.

Preston, Battle of, 94.

Prestonpans, Battle of, 98.

Pretoria, 151.

Pretorius, President, 267.

Pride, Colonel, 219.

Priestley, Dr., 30.

Prim, Marshal, 222.

Prince Edward’s Island, 45.

Pritchard, Rev. Mr., 247.

Probyloff Islands, 5, 27.

Provence, 163.

Pruth (River), 41.

Pulteney, William, 190.

Punjaub, 137, 204.

Puritans, 3, 61, 121, 125, 161, 162, 164, 195, 219, 225, 232.

Pusey, Dr., 184.

Puysac, Battle of, 106.

Pyat, Félix, 60.

Pym, John, 15, 95.


_Quarterly Review_, 63.

Quebec, 113.

Queensberry, Lord, 206.

Queensland, 20, 92, 124, 191, 207.

Querini, The, 254.

Quesnay, Dr., 83.


Raghoba, 205, 222, 245.

Rajputs, 159.

Rákóczy, 140, 141, 246.

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 42.

Rammerkins, 49.

Rammohun Roy, 37.

Ranjit Singh, 234, 264.

Rastadt, Treaty of, 267.

Ratisbon, Diet of, 47, 210.

Ravenna, 78.

Raymond, Count of Toulouse, 6, 247.

Red River, 99.

Redmond, John, 189.

Reformation, 9, 15, 16, 19, 38, 50, 74, 77, 78, 83, 98, 105, 115, 116,
119, 121, 126, 127, 150, 153, 157, 161, 167, 190, 212, 214, 215, 235,
250, 259, 268, 275, 279.

Reims, 9.

Reinach, Baron de, 186.

Retz, Cardinal de, 102.

Rhætia, 249.

Rhine (River), 221.

Rhine, Circle of the, 236.

Rhine, Confederation of the, 255.

Rhineland, 163.

Rhode Island, 79, 149, 252, 272.

Rhodes, 158.

Rhodes, Cecil, 131.

Rhodesia, 136.

Ribbing, Count, 11.

Richard I of England, 48, 58, 133.

Richard II of England, 2, 59, 149, 152, 279.

Richard III of England, 28, 94, 117.

Richard, Duke of Normandy, 216.

Richelieu, Cardinal, 37, 53, 82, 86, 217.

Richter, Eugen, 101.

Riel, Louis, 209, 216.

Rienzi, Colas de, 143.

Riet (River), 175.

Riga, 149.

Ritchie, C. T., 149.

River Plate, 196.

Rivera, President, 33.

Rivoli, Battle of, 87.

Robert of Normandy, 43.

Roberts, Lord, 114, 219.

Robespierre, Maximilien, 38, 77, 124, 133, 143, 169, 172, 250, 252, 260.

Robinson, Mrs. Mary, 193, 202.

Robustelli, General, 268.

Rochdale, 66.

Roederer, 58.

Roger of Salisbury, 89.

Rohan, Cardinal de, 76.

Rohillas, 27.

Roland, 185.

Roland, Mme., 54.

Rolf the Ganger, 55.

Romagna, 145.

Rome, 143, 190, 199, 217, 218, 229, 254.

Rome, Church of, 3, 11, 16, 19, 21, 24, 30, 31, 37, 41, 56, 61, 62, 63,
64, 68, 70, 73, 75, 78, 83, 89, 120, 124, 125, 126, 127, 132, 143, 144,
146, 154, 178, 185, 186, 193, 196, 198, 203, 204, 211, 226, 264, 265,
268, 272, 273, 279, 281.

Romney, 54.

Roncesvalles, Battle of, 185.

Rooke, Sir George, 272.

Rosebery, Lord, 147.

Roumania, 28.

Roussillon, 23, 205.

Rudolph I, Emperor, 120.

Rudolph II, Emperor, 19, 157, 202, 261.

Ruel, Treaty of, 102.

Rump, The, 202.

Rupert of Bavaria, 155.

Rupertsland, 121.

Russell, Edward, Earl of Orford, 134.

Russell, Lord John, 57.

Russell, William, Lord, 68, 220.

Rustchuk, 205.

Ruthven, Alexander, 108.

Rye, 54.

Ryssel, 24.

Ryswick, Peace of, 19.


Sadleir, John, 37.

Sadowa, Battle of, 201.

Saez, 134.

Saffi, 218.

St. André, Maréchal de, 261.

St. Bartholomew, Massacre of, 187, 198.

St. Benedict, 27.

St. Bruno, 48.

St. Columba, 277.

St. Cuthbert of Durham, 241.

St. Dominic, 78.

St. Francis d’ Assisi, 98.

St. Francis Xavier, 125.

St. Gall, 144, 231.

St. Just, 172.

St. Kitts, 38.

St. Lucia, 187.

St. Paul’s, 94.

St. Petersburg, 73, 75, 184.

St. Simon, Comte de, 222.

Saintonge, 38, 196.

Salisbury, Cecil, Earl of, 35.

Salisbury, Joan, Countess of, 90.

Salisbury, Marquis of, 180, 232, 269.

Salsette, 205, 245.

Salvador, 50.

Salza, Hermann von, 251.

Samurai, 108, 114, 223.

San Domingo, 25.

San Juan, 275.

Sancho II of Spain, 53.

Sandwich, 54.

Sandys, Sir Thomas, 69.

Sarasvati, Dayânandu, 16.

Sardinia, 160, 188, 198, 262, 271, 272, 279, 281.

Sark (River), 73.

Saskatchewan, 216.

Satsuma, 71.

Savannah, 232.

Savary, General, 158.

Savonarola, 195.

Savoy, 29, 187, 225, 256, 262, 274.

Saxony, 126, 201, 232, 236, 261, 271, 279.

Schaffhausen, 252.

Scheldt (River), 151, 274.

Schleswig Holstein, 104, 151, 201.

Schmalkald, League of, 213.

Schoeman, 267.

Schomburgk, Sir Robert, 227, 268.

Schönbrunn, Treaty of, 202.

Schumla, 205.

Schwyz, 193, 225.

Scott, Dred, 80.

Scottish Acts of Parliament, 55, 87, 164, 214, 229, 265.

Scottish Church, 63, 65, 95, 100, 125, 155, 207, 214, 245.

Scottish Political Parties, 57, 63, 240.

Scribe, Eugene, 52.

Scrooby, 162.

Sebastopol, 188.

Selim, Sultan of Egypt, 159.

Selim I of Turkey, 166.

Selim III of Turkey, 132.

Senecas, 96, 279.

Seoul, 220, 255.

Serrano, Marshal, 76.

Servia, 5, 27, 28, 180, 230, 236.

Seven Bishops, 74.

Seven Years’ War, 187.

Seward, Secretary, 35.

Sforza, Duke of Milan, 119, 149.

Shakers, 169.

Shanghai, 170, 180.

Shannon (River), 230.

Shansi, 247.

Shays, David, 232.

Sherbrooke, Lord, 3.

Sheridan, R. B., 102.

Sheriffmuir, Battle of, 94.

Sherman, General, 232.

Sheyk-ul-Islam, 263.

Shôgun, 8, 14, 71, 102, 115, 145, 164.

Shropshire, 68, 274.

Siam, 10, 99.

Siberia, 73, 172.

Sibi Valley, 103.

Sicily, 109, 152, 155, 189, 190, 225, 233, 271.

Sickingen, Franz von, 175.

Sidney, Algernon, 220.

Sidney, Sir Philip, 96.

Siena, 218.

Sierra Leone, 122.

Siéyès, Abbé, 167.

Sigismund, Emperor, 64, 123, 195.

Sigismund of Poland, 251.

Sikhs, 137, 141, 204.

Sikkim, 172.

Silesia, 5, 38.

Silistria, 3, 205.

Sillery, 23, 167.

Sindhia, 198.

Sixtus IV, Pope, 191.

Slavs, 135.

Slidell, 259.

Smith, Adam, 101.

Smith, Joseph, 168.

Smith, W. H., 179.

Sobat (River), 2, 91.

Sobieski, John, 278.

Socinus, Lælius, 237.

Soleure, 231, 252.

Solferino, Battle of, 272.

Solway Moss, Battle of, 18.

Somers, John, Lord, 134.

Somerset, Edward, Duke of, 214.

Sophia, Electress of Hanover, 231, 244.

Sophia of Russia, 243.

Sorate, 213.

Soudan, 2.

Soudan, French, 91.

Soult, Marshal, 272.

South Africa, 93, 142.

South African Republic, _see_ Transvaal.

South America, 19, 41, 86, 103, 125, 126, 147, 165, 177, 185, 213.

South Australia, 20, 92.

South Carolina, 177, 185, 228, 242, 252.

Spain, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 13, 16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 28, 44, 47, 53, 67, 75,
88, 90, 93, 102, 103, 109, 117, 119, 126, 127, 130, 132, 134, 140, 150,
160, 167, 168, 174, 187, 189, 198, 205, 220, 222, 223, 225, 232, 234,
239, 256, 261, 267, 269, 270, 271, 272.

Spencer, Earl, 165.

Spencer, Henry, Bishop of Norwich, 94.

Spithead, 176.

Stambuloff, 6.

Stamford, 95.

Stamford, Statute of, 205.

Stanton, Secretary, 250.

Stanislas Augustus of Poland, 22, 248.

Stanislas Leszczynski, 197.

Stauffacher of Schwyz, 111.

Steele, Sir Richard, 139.

Stein, Freiherr von, 85.

Stellenbosch, 116, 142.

Stephen of England, 275.

Stephen, Sir George, 142.

Stephens, James, 92.

Stettin, 277.

Stevens, Uriah S., 139.

Stockholm, 33.

Stork, 1.

Strafford, Earl of, 253.

Strasburg, 36, 99, 221.

Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury, 192.

Strode, William, 95.

Strogonof, 261.

Stuart, Charles Edward, 98, 219, 280.

Stuart, Henry, Cardinal York, 143.

Stuart, James Edward, 19, 179.

Suabia, 19, 116, 144, 191, 236.

Sujah-ul-Mulk, Shah, 234.

Sully, Duc de, 145.

Sulu Islands, 8.

Sungari (River), 140.

Sunni, 233.

Surabjah Dowlah, 31.

Surat, 25.

Surat, Treaty of, 205.

Surinam, 38.

Sutlej (River), 264.

Suwarrow, General, 132.

Sweden, 1, 4, 11, 17, 19, 24, 27, 33, 40, 100, 109, 114, 115, 116, 137,
143, 151, 163, 171, 177, 217, 232, 242, 252, 255, 260, 265, 276, 277.

Swift, Dean, 279.

Switzerland, 14, 25, 46, 50, 75, 84, 92, 106, 107, 108, 111, 117, 126,
142, 144, 146, 152, 162, 187, 193, 194, 210, 222, 225, 229, 231, 249,
252, 270.

Syria, 134.

Szatmar, Peace of, 208.

Sze-chuang, 10.

Szell, M., 20.


Taepings, 89.

Taganrog, 140.

Tahiti, 36.

Tamerlane, 94.

Tandy, Napper, 171.

Tarapaca, 9.

Tarras, Earl of, 132.

Tartars, 107.

Tasmania, 20, 92.

Taylor, General Zachary, 179.

Tekes Valley, 140.

Tel-el-Kebir, Battle of, 13.

Tenby, 192.

Tennasserim, 280.

Tenno, 164, 233.

Teschen, Peace of, 103.

Tetzel, 126.

Texas, 61, 112, 151, 175.

Theiss (River), 122.

Thibet, 71, 76, 250.

Thiers, A., 99.

Thistlewood, Arthur, 49.

Thomas, Duke of Genoa, 222.

Thomond, 34.

Thorfinn Karlsefne, 8.

Thorn, 197.

Thurgau, 231.

Tichborne Case, 55.

Ticino, 130.

Tientsin, Treaty of, 192.

Tiflis, 118.

Tilly, General, 153, 156.

_Times, The_, 189, 228.

Tipperary, 173.

Tippu Sahib, 159, 230, 260, 261.

Tobago, 270.

Toggenburg, Counts of, 249.

Tököli, 34, 140, 141.

Toledo, Francisco de, 147.

Tolentino, Treaty of, 21, 145.

Tone, Wolfe, 174, 266.

Tongking, 31, 99.

Tornea (River), 100.

Tortona, 271.

Toulouse, 6.

Touran Shah, 113.

Touraine, 38.

Tournay, 4, 24.

Townsend (Bow Street Runner), 36.

Transvaal, 2, 13, 42, 47, 77, 79. 80, 111, 131, 136, 151, 157, 167,
173, 200, 202, 218, 224, 245, 246, 253, 259, 267, 273.

Trent, Council of, 203.

Tresham, 112.

Trevelyan, Sir George, 219.

Treves, 228.

Trieste, 130.

Trinidad, 9.

Tripoli, 11.

Trivulzio, Marshal, 106.

Tronchet, 58.

Tsung-li-Yamen, 274.

Tugela (River), 171.

Tuileries, 60, 250.

Tunis, 23.

Turcomans, 278.

Turenne, Marshal, 205.

Turgot, 83, 236.

Turkey, 3, 5, 14, 21, 24, 27, 28, 41, 47, 64, 67, 71, 72, 115, 145,
151, 170, 174, 187, 190, 209, 218, 230, 234, 235, 246, 255, 263, 266,
271, 275, 280.

Turriff, Trott of, 261.

Tuscany, 88, 90, 97, 154, 181, 232, 271, 272.

Tuscaroras, 236.

Tutuila, 223.

Tweed, W. M., 262.

Tweeddale, Marquis of, 240.

Tycoon, 233.

Tyler, Wat, 198.

Tynan, 128.

Tyrconel, Earl of, 263.

Tyrol, 130, 271.

Tyrone, 263.


Uganda, 2.

Ukraine, 41, 47.

Ulrich of Würtemburg, 43, 262.

Ulster, 34, 73, 82, 177, 181, 191, 263, 264.

Umzimvubu (River), 171.

Underhill, Edward, 121.

United States, Civil War, 66, 114, 115, 130, 231, 243.

United States Congress, 6, 32, 61, 85, 97, 102, 136, 171, 181, 198,
211, 234, 250, 278.

United States, Political Parties, 2, 5, 47, 56, 66, 88, 91, 92, 94,
101, 113, 115, 134, 147, 149, 170, 177, 179, 199, 214, 238, 240, 248.

United States, War of Independence, 69, 74, 126, 179, 236.

Unterwalden, 193, 225.

Urban II, Pope, 23, 48, 56.

Urban VII, 124.

Urbino, Duke of, 10.

Uri, 193, 225.

Uruguay, 22, 33, 196, 259, 261.

Ushant, 107.

Usher, Bishop, 30.

Usibepu, 173.

Ussuri (River), 4.

Utah, 84, 168, 169.

Utrecht, 266.

Utrecht, Treaty of, 24, 99, 101, 261.

Utrecht, Union of, 266.


Vaal (River), 81, 174, 259.

Valais, 225.

Valencia, 21, 105.

Valtelline, 167.

Van Tromp, Admiral, 121.

Vancouver, 182, 223.

Vane, Sir Harry, 125.

Varas, Secretary, 168.

Varna, 3, 205.

Vatican, 29.

Vatican Council, 186.

Vaud, Pays de, 146, 256, 274.

Vehmgericht, 178.

Vendée, 53, 177.

Venezuela, 147, 180, 227.

Venice, 3, 34, 39, 44, 45, 47, 64, 90, 107, 119, 130, 149, 150, 174,
190, 201, 202, 206, 218, 230, 249, 254, 269.

Verden, Duchy of, 242.

Vermont, 111.

Verona, 205.

Versailles, 99, 105, 126, 178, 187.

Versailles, Treaty of, 191.

Victor II, Pope, 226.

Victor Emmanuel of Italy, 12, 130, 208, 225, 226, 229, 262, 272.

Victoria, 20, 22, 32, 85, 89, 92, 100, 133, 142.

Victoria, Queen, 26, 184.

Vienna, 2, 70, 255.

Vienna Congress, 92, 105, 152.

Vienna, Treaty of, 198, 232.

Viglius, 65.

Vikings, 8, 28, 221.

Villeroy, 23.

Villiers, Charles, 12.

Vimiera, Battle of, 54.

Vinegar Hill, Battle of, 175.

Virginia, 21, 35, 42, 89, 109, 126, 150, 161, 169, 178, 179, 252.

Vogel, Sir Julius, 173.

Voltaire, Arouet de, 5, 87, 224, 229.

Vryheid, 173.


Wade, Sir Thomas, 52, 97.

Wagga Wagga, 55.

Wagram, Battle of, 271.

Waibling, 112.

Walcheren, 49.

Waldemar I of Denmark, 82.

Waldemar II of Denmark, 72, 135.

Waldemar III of Denmark, 274.

Waldo, Peter, 274.

Wales, 110, 208, 215, 255.

Walfisch Bay, 10.

Wallace, Sir William, 114.

Wallachia, 3, 5, 27, 121, 140, 246, 273, 275.

Wallenstein, General, 153.

Waller, Sir William, 229.

Walpole, Horace, 139, 264.

Walpole, Sir Robert, 109, 190.

Walsh, Peter, 12, 213.

Waltheof, Earl of Nottingham, 39.

Wampanoags, 138.

Warbeck, Perkyn, 110.

Ward, Nathaniel, 34.

Wardha (River), 75.

Warren, Sir Charles, 168, 257.

Warsaw, 238, 255.

Warwick, John Dudley, Earl of, 137.

Warwick, Richard Neville, Earl of, 138, 143.

Washington, 45.

Washington, George, 43, 53, 89, 91, 279.

Waterboer, 136.

Waterloo, Battle of, 225.

Waters, Lucy, 31.

_Wealth of Nations_, 101.

Wedmore, Treaty of, 72.

Weinsberg, 112.

Weisshaupt, Adam, 123.

Wekerle, Dr., 54.

Welf, 112.

Wellesley, Marquis of, 28, 244.

Wellington, Duke of, 54, 129, 225, 256, 278.

Wellington, New Zealand, 173.

Wells, Sir Thomas, 152.

Wenama (River), 269.

Wenceslaus of Luxembourg, 133.

Wentworth, Lord, 48, 118, 176.

Wessex, 276.

West, Rev. John, 20.

West Africa, 118.

West Indies, 152, 175.

West Virginia, 169.

Western Australia, 20, 92, 120.

Westminster Abbey, 67.

Westminster, Statute of, 240.

Westphalia, 178, 236, 255, 268.

Westphalia, League of, 204.

Westphalia, Treaty of, 252.

Wetherell, Sir Charles, 39.

Weyler, General, 209.

Wharton, Thomas, Marquis of, 134.

Whitgift, Archbishop, 141.

Wilkes, John, 177.

William I of England, 39, 52, 70, 71, 78, 82, 87, 188, 193, 273.

William II of England, 43.

William III of England, 16, 18, 29, 55, 57, 66, 72, 74, 77, 118, 148,
149, 171, 175, 176, 179, 192, 203, 209, 211, 220, 256.

William IV of England, 234.

William I of Germany, 105.

William, Prince, of England, 32.

William of Orange, 12, 115, 234, 245, 278.

William of Salisbury, 152.

William (the Lyon) of Scotland, 90.

William of Wykeham, 108.

Williams (the Chartist), 51.

Wilmot, Commissary General, 15.

Wilmot, David, 278.

Winburg, 174.

Winchester, Statute of, 257.

Winchilsea, 54.

Windham, William, 165.

Windischgrätz, General, 201.

Windthorst, Dr., 50, 264.

Winter, Thomas, 112.

Wisconsin, 21.

Wiseman, Cardinal, 175.

Wolfe, Sir H. Drummond, 98.

Wolseley, Viscount, 209.

Worcestershire, 104, 274.

Würtemberg, 105, 202, 215, 244.

Wycliffe, John, 150.

Wycliffites, 82.

Wyoming Valley, 279.


Yakoub Beg, 19.

Yap, 47.

Yarkand, 140.

Yoens, Jan, 51.

Yokohama, 8.

Young, Brigham, 168.

Yunnan, 10, 186.


Zankoff, 6.

Zanzibar, 10.

Zaragoza, Agostina, 156.

Zeeland, 79, 105, 245, 266.

Zemindari, 193, 220.

Zisca, John, 16, 44, 123, 246.

Zittau, 236.

Zola, Emile, 80.

Zoroaster, 189.

Zug, 84.

Zululand, 171.

Zurich, 46, 53, 84, 231.

Zurich, Diet of, 92, 152.

Zurich, Treaty of, 130.

Zwingli, 46, 116, 181.

Zwinglists, 213.





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