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Title: The Boston School Atlas - Embracing a compenium of geography
Author: Edmands, B. Franklin
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber’s Notes:

  Underscores “_” before and after a word or phrase indicate _italics_
      in the original text.
  A single underscore after a symbol indicates a subscript.
  Small capitals have been converted to SOLID capitals.
  Old or antiquated spellings have been preserved.
  Typographical errors have been silently corrected but other variations
      in spelling and punctuation remain unaltered.
  The Table of Contents was added by the transcriber, it is not part of
      the original text.



                               THE BOSTON
                             SCHOOL ATLAS,
                  EMBRACING A COMPENDIUM OF GEOGRAPHY.

                        BY B. FRANKLIN EDMANDS.

                          Table of Contents.

              PREFACE.
              ELEMENTAL GEOGRAPHY.                               3
              EXPLANATION OF MAPS.                               5
              GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE EARTH.                     17
              CIVIL AND POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.                    17
              STATE OF SOCIETY.                                 18
              NORTH AMERICA.                                    21
              UNITED STATES.                                    25
              MAINE.                                            26
              NEW HAMPSHIRE.... and ... VERMONT.                31
              MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, AND RHODE ISLAND.     32
              NEW YORK.                                         37
              PENNSYLVANIA, MARYLAND, NEW JERSEY, AND DELAWARE. 38
              WESTERN STATES.                                   43
              UNITED STATES.                                    44
              SOUTH AMERICA.                                    57
              EUROPE.                                           61
              BRITISH ISLES.                                    65
              ASIA.                                             69
              AFRICA.                                           73
              GENERAL QUESTIONS.                                74
              WEST INDIA ISLANDS.                               75
              OCEANICA.                                         75
              ELEMENTAL ASTRONOMY.                              76
              TIDES.                                            77
              QUESTIONS IN REVIEW OF THE COMPENDIUM.            78

                             [Illustration]

                     TWELFTH EDITION; STEREOTYPED,

               CONTAINING THE FOLLOWING MAPS AND CHARTS.

                    1. MAP OF THE WORLD.
                    2. CHART ... MOUNTAINS.
                    3. CHART ... RIVERS.
                    4. NORTH AMERICA.
                    5. UNITED STATES.
                    6. PART OF MAINE.
                    7. VERMONT & N. HAMPSHIRE.
                    8. MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, AND R. ISLAND.
                    9. NEW YORK.
                   10. PENN. MD., N. JER. AND DEL.
                   11. WESTERN STATES.
                   12. CHART ... CANALS, RAIL ROADS.
                   13. CHART ... POLITICAL AND STATISTICAL.
                   14. SOUTH AMERICA.
                   15. EUROPE.
                   16. BRITISH ISLES.
                   17. ASIA.
                   18. AFRICA.

                _Embellished with Instructive Engravings._

                                BOSTON:
                     PUBLISHED BY ROBERT S. DAVIS,
                 SUCCESSOR TO LINCOLN, EDMANDS, & CO.,
                       No. 77, Washington Street.

                                 1840.



PREFACE.


A careful examination of Maps is a sure and at the same time the most
convenient method of acquiring a knowledge of Geography. With a view
of furnishing to young classes an _economical means_ of commencing a
course of geographical study, this work has been prepared; and it is
believed that a thorough acquaintance with its contents will impart
such general ideas, as will prepare them to enter upon a more _minute
investigation_ of the subject, when they shall have arrived at a proper
age.

The use of this work will also obviate the necessity which has
heretofore existed, of furnishing such classes with larger volumes, the
greater part of which is useless to them, till the book is literally
worn out; and although it is adapted to young students, it will be
found that the Atlas exercises are equally proper for more advanced
pupils.

The study of this work should commence with recitations of short
lessons previously explained by the instructer; and after the pupils
are well versed in the elements, the study of the maps should be
commenced. Embodied with the questions on the maps will be occasionally
found questions in _italic_, referring to the elements. These are
intended as a review, and the pupils should be made to understand, that
through the whole of the maps, the instructer will require a similar
review of the Geography. This course cannot fail to be interesting and
advantageous.

The elements of Astronomy are annexed to the work; and it is left
to the discretion of the instructer to determine the proper time to
introduce this pleasing study to his pupils.

BOSTON, AUGUST, 1830.


ADVERTISEMENT TO THE SIXTH (STEREOTYPE) EDITION.

The universal approbation and liberal patronage bestowed upon the
former editions of the Boston School Atlas, have induced the publishers
to make in this edition numerous improvements. The maps have all
been re-engraved on steel, and in pursuance of hints from several
instructers, a concise compendium of descriptive Geography has been
added, while at the same time the text of the preceding edition has
not been so altered as to cause confusion in the use of the two
editions in the same class. Many engravings calculated to instruct,
rather than merely to amuse, have been interspersed, to render the
book more attractive and useful to pupils. The work, in addition to
being stereotyped, has been kept as much as possible free from subjects
liable to changes, in order that it may be a _permanent Geography_,
which may hereafter be used without the inconvenience of variations in
different reprints.

THE INDUCTIVE SYSTEM has deservedly become the most popular method
of imparting instruction to the youthful mind, and may be used with
as much advantage in the study of Geography as of any other science.
To compile treatises of Geography on this plan, with the necessary
arrangement of the maps adapted to every place, would multiply them
indefinitely. The Inductive System, however, can be used with advantage
in the study of this book by pursuing the following course. Let the
Instructer describe to the pupils the town in which they reside, and
require them to become familiar with its boundaries, rivers, ponds,
hills, &c. After this is accomplished, the map of the State should be
laid before them, and the situation of the town should be pointed out,
and they should be told what a State is, and what towns are nearest
them, &c. This plan can be carried to any extent the instructer may
think necessary to enable his pupils to acquire a correct knowledge of
their own State; and, if necessary, he should write for them additional
questions of a local nature, beside those contained in the work. If the
town be not on the map, it should be inserted with a pen on all the
maps used in the class. After the pupils shall have acquired a correct
idea of their own State, they may be taught respecting the adjoining
States, countries, &c. and the plan may be pursued as successfully as
if they possessed an Atlas with maps arranged in particular reference
to their own place of residence.

BOSTON, JUNE 17, 1833.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by LINCOLN AND
EDMANDS, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the District of
Massachusetts.



                         RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE

                          BOSTON SCHOOL ATLAS.


_From R. G. Parker, Author of “Progressive Exercises in English
Composition,” and other popular works._

I have examined a copy of the Boston School Atlas, and have no
hesitation in recommending it as the best introduction to the study of
Geography that I have seen. The compiler has displayed much judgment
in what he has _omitted_, as well as what he has selected; and has
thereby presented to the public a neat manual of the elements of the
science, unencumbered with useless matter and uninteresting detail. The
mechanical execution of the work is neat and creditable, and I doubt
not that its merits will shortly introduce it to general use.

                                        Respectfully yours,
                                                     R. G. PARKER.

_From E. Bailey, Principal of the Young Ladies’ High School, Boston._

I was so well pleased with the plan and execution of the Boston School
Atlas, that I introduced it into my school, soon after the first
edition was published. I regard it as the best work for beginners in
the study of Geography which has yet fallen under my observation; as
such I would recommend it to the notice of parents and teachers.

                                        Very respectfully,
                                                     E. BAILEY.

_From the Preceptors of Leicester Academy._

Among the great variety of school-books which have recently been
published, few are in our opinion more valuable than the Boston School
Atlas. As an introduction to the study of Geography, it is preferable
to any work of the kind with which we are acquainted.

                                                    JOHN RICHARDSON,
                                                    ALBERT SPOONER.

_From the Principal of New Ipswich (N. H.) Academy._

I have with much pleasure examined the copy of the Boston School Atlas,
which you politely sent to me. I think it admirably well calculated
to excite in the young mind a love of the study of Geography, and to
convey correct ideas of the rudiments of that science. I shall be happy
to recommend it wherever I have opportunity. It is, in my opinion, the
very thing that is needed in our primary schools.

                                        Respectfully yours,
                                                     ROBERT A. COFFIN.

_From Mr. Emerson, formerly a Teacher in Boston._

I have examined the Boston School Atlas, and I assure you, I am highly
pleased with it. It appears to me to contain exactly what it should, to
render it an easy and adequate introduction to the study of Geography.

                                        Yours, respectfully,
                                                     F. EMERSON.

_From Rev. Benj. F. Farnsworth, Principal of the New Hampton Literary
and Theological Seminary._

I have long lamented the deficiency of school-books in the elementary
parts of education. A good introduction to the study of Geography has
been much needed. The Boston School Atlas, recently published by you,
appears well; and I think it should be preferred to most other works of
the same class. I know of none that could be used with equal advantage
in its place. I hope you may succeed in making School Committees and
Teachers acquainted with this Introduction to an interesting and
important study of our primary schools; as I doubt not that, in this
case, it may obtain a very desirable patronage.

                                        Yours, respectfully,
                                                   BENJ. F. FARNSWORTH.

_From the United States Literary Advertiser, Boston._

This is one of the most beautiful elementary works of the kind,
which has yet come within the range of our observation. The Maps are
elegantly executed, and finely colored—and the whole work is got up in
a style that cannot fail to insure its general introduction into our
schools, as a most valuable standard book.

_From the Principal of one of the High Schools in Portland._

I have examined the Boston School Atlas, Elements of Geography, &c.,
and think it admirably adapted to beginners in the study of the
several subjects treated on. It is what is wanted in all books for
learners,—_simple_, _philosophical_, _and practical_. I hope it will be
used extensively.

                                        Yours respectfully,
                                                     JAS. FURBISH.

_From Mr. Emerson, Author of the Spelling and Reading Books._

I have perused your Boston School Atlas with much satisfaction. It
seems to me to be what has been needed as an introduction to the study
of Geography, and admirably adapted to that purpose.

                                        Very respectfully, yours, &c.,
                                                     B. D. EMERSON.

_From Rev. Dr. Perry, of E. Bradford._

I received, some months since, the Boston School Atlas, and having
given it a trial among my children, I am free to say, that I think it
very happily adapted to the wants and conveniences of beginners in
Geography, and hope it may get into extensive use.

                                        Respectfully,
                                                     GARDNER B. PERRY.

[Illustration: AN ENGLISHMAN.  A SCOTCHMAN.  A DUTCHMAN. AN ITALIAN.
A SPANIARD.  AN INDIAN.]



ELEMENTAL GEOGRAPHY.


The Earth, on which we live, is _nearly a round body_, the distance
through the centre from north to south, being _twenty-six miles less_,
than the distance through from west to east. That it is a round body
is proved, 1st, _By having been circumnavigated, or sailed round_; 2d,
_From the appearance of a vessel approaching the land_, the top of the
masts being seen first; 3d, _By the shadow of the earth upon the moon_,
during an eclipse of the moon.

[Illustration: A VIEW OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE, VIZ. MOUNTAINS, RIVERS,
OCEAN, ISLAND, &c.

  MINE.  GROTTO.

This cut represents, in a striking manner, the mines and caverns as
they exist under the land and ocean. The mine here exhibited, is a
picture of a salt mine in Poland, Europe. The grotto is under the
island Antiparos in the Mediterranean Sea. A mine is a cavern made by
man, in digging for the articles found in the earth. A grotto is a
cavern formed by nature.]

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, or Geography of the Earth, is a description of the
earth’s structure and surface. The _surface_ consists of two elements,
viz, water and land; only one-third part being land.

CIVIL OR POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY defines the boundaries and extent of the
various countries in possession of the different nations of the earth.
Civil Geography also treats of government, religion, commerce, the
characteristic features of the principal races of men, and various
other subjects.

STATISTICAL GEOGRAPHY is a description of States, Kingdoms, Empires, or
Cities, with reference to their population and resources.


WATER.

Comprises Oceans, Seas, Lakes, Gulfs or Bays, Havens or Harbours,
Straits, Channels, Sounds, and Rivers.

An OCEAN is a large expanse of water not separated by land.

A SEA is a lesser extent of water than an ocean, almost surrounded by
land.

A LAKE is a large collection of water in the interior of a
country;—generally fresh. A salt water lake is called a _Sea_.

A GULF or BAY is a part of the sea extending up into the land.

A HAVEN or HARBOUR is a small portion of water, almost enclosed by
land, where ships may lie safely at anchor.

A STRAIT is a narrow communication between two large collections of
water. If it be so shallow as to be sounded, it is called a _Sound_.

A CHANNEL is the deepest part of a river. A Strait is also sometimes
called a _Channel_.

The _vapours_ which rise from the surface of the earth ascend to the
clouds, whence they fall in dew, snow, or rain, to water the earth, and
supply springs, and small streams or rivers.

A RIVER is an inland stream of water flowing from an elevated portion
of land into some larger stream or body of water. The commencement of a
river is called its SOURCE, or RISE; the direction to which it flows,
its COURSE; and its communication with any other water, its MOUTH.

If the mouth of a river, which flows into an ocean or sea be wide, and
is affected by tides, it is called an ESTUARY or FRITH.

A CATARACT or FALLS is formed by a sudden declivity or precipice in the
course of a river, over which the water falls with great force.

A CANAL is an artificial passage for water, supplied from an elevated
lake or river; and is constructed for the purpose of _inland
navigation_. Canals often pass under mountains and over rivers.

Standing water, and low grounds filled with water, are called MORASSES,
BOGS, and FENS; or, as in the United States, SWAMPS.


LAND.

Is divided into Continents, Islands, Peninsulas, Isthmuses, and Capes;
and is diversified by Plains, Mountains, and Valleys.

A CONTINENT is a large tract of land nowhere entirely separated by
water. There are two continents, viz. the Western and Eastern.

An ISLAND is a portion of land surrounded by water.

A PENINSULA is a portion of land almost surrounded by water.

An ISTHMUS is the neck of land which joins a peninsula to the main land.

A CAPE is a point of land, projecting into the sea. A mountainous Cape
is called a PROMONTORY.

A PLAIN is a large extent of level country. A plain naturally destitute
of trees is called a PRAIRIE; when entirely destitute of vegetation, it
is called a DESERT.

A MOUNTAIN is a lofty elevation of land. If it send forth smoke and
flame, it is called a VOLCANO.

The opening at the top of a volcano, from whence issues the flame,
smoke, &c., is called a CRATER.

If the elevation of a mountain be small, it is then called a HILL.

A VALLEY is a tract of land, bounded by hills, and generally watered by
a river.

A SHORE or COAST is that part of the land which borders upon a body of
water.



EXPLANATION OF MAPS.


A MAP is a picture of the whole, or of a part, of the Earth’s surface,
on a plane or level. Generally the top of a map represents _north_;
the right hand side, _east_; the bottom, _south_; the left hand side,
_west_. West, east, north, and south, are called the Cardinal Points.

Young persons in studying maps, imbibe an idea that the top of a
map represents the _highest part of a country_; but this is a great
mistake, as will be at once seen, by looking at the maps, and finding
many rivers flow north, and recollecting that water cannot flow up
hill. That part of a country is the most elevated, which contains
mountains, and where rivers have their source.

_Cities_ and _towns_ are represented on maps by an o; _rivers_,
by black lines running irregularly; _mountains_, by dark shades;
_deserts_, by clusters of small dots; _boundaries_, by dotted lines.

The AXIS of the earth is an imaginary line passing through its centre
from north to south. The extremities of the Axis are called the POLES.

The EQUATOR or EQUINOX, is an imaginary circle, surrounding the Earth
from west to east, at an equal distance from the poles. See Map of the
World, fig. 2.

A MERIDIAN, or Line of Longitude, is a circle crossing the equator at
right angles, and passing through the poles. See fig. 4.

PARALLELS OF LATITUDE, are lines, drawn across maps, representing
circles equally distant in every part from the equator. See fig. 3.

The TROPICS are two circles parallel to the equator, at about 23
degrees and 28 minutes from it. The northern is called, the _Tropic of
Cancer_; and the southern, the _Tropic of Capricorn_. See fig. 2.

The POLAR CIRCLES are drawn at 23 degrees and 28 minutes from the
poles. The northern, is the _Arctic_, and the southern, the _Antarctic
Circle_. See fig. 2.

A DEGREE is the 360th part of a circle, and contains 69½ English
miles; each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called minutes; and
each minute into 60 equal parts, called seconds. They are marked (°)
degrees, (’) minutes, (”) seconds.

The LONGITUDE of a place, is its distance from any given meridian, as
Washington, London, or Greenwich, and is reckoned in degrees, &c. on
the equator. Longitude is marked in figures, either on the equator, or
at the top and bottom of the map, and can be reckoned only 180 degrees
east or west, that distance being half of a circle. _Longitude, on most
of these maps, is reckoned from the meridian of Greenwich, near London._

The LATITUDE of a place is its distance in degrees, &c. north or south
from the equator, and is expressed in figures on the sides of the map.
Latitude can never exceed 90 degrees.

The ZONES are portions of the Earth’s surface divided by the tropics
and polar circles. There are five zones, viz. one torrid, two
temperate, and two frigid zones. See Map of the World, fig. 1.

The _Torrid Zone_ is included between the tropics, and is distinguished
for extreme heat, and luxuriant vegetation; the climate is generally
unhealthy.

The _Temperate Zones_ are included between the tropics and the polar
circles; they have a healthy climate, and produce the greatest
abundance of the most useful commodities.

The _Frigid Zones_ lie between the polar circles and the poles, and are
remarkable for extreme coldness of climate and general barrenness of
soil.

A HEMISPHERE is half a globe. The map of the world is divided into
the western and eastern Hemispheres; and the equator divides it into
northern and southern Hemispheres.

The DIAMETER of the earth, _that is, the distance through its centre_,
is about eight thousand miles; and its CIRCUMFERENCE, _that is, the
distance round it_, is about twenty-five thousand miles.

_In tracing the relative situation of places_, the pupil must remember
to follow the direction of the parallels and meridians, and not be
governed merely by the apparent direction of one place from another.
Thus, on the map of the world, Iceland appears north from Newfoundland,
but it is northeast. Therefore, the direction towards the top and
bottom of maps is not always _exactly_ north and south; but to go north
you must proceed toward the north pole; and south, toward the south
pole;—following the direction of the lines.

      The preceding principles should be rendered as perfectly
      familiar to the pupil as the letters of the alphabet.
      To secure this object, the learner is required, in
      the following pages, to define a continent, an ocean,
      latitude, longitude, &c. in connexion with the subject
      of questions on the maps. It will also be useful, after
      the pupil has passed the map of the world, frequently to
      require similar definitions to be repeated, when naturally
      suggested by the subject, and thus impress the learner
      with the necessity of being always prepared to answer
      them. This method furnishes a general review of Elemental
      Geography through the whole course of studying the maps,
      and will give variety and pleasure to the exercise.



QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF THE WORLD.

N. B. The Questions in _Italics_ are to be answered by referring to the
preceding elementary principles.

1. _Of what two elements is the surface of the earth composed?_ 2. Of
which is there the greater part?

3. _How is land divided?_ 4. _What is a Continent, and how many are
there?_ 5. Which contains the more land? 6. _By what is the surface
of the land diversified?_ 7. Asia, Europe, Africa, and America, are
called the Grand Divisions of the earth;—which of them is largest? 8.
Which is smallest? 9. How is North America bounded? 10. South America?
11. Europe? 12. Asia? 13. Africa? 14. Which way is South America from
Africa? 15. Europe from North America?

16. _What is an Island?_ 17. What large island lies south from Asia?
18. Where is New Zealand? 19. Which are the principal of the East
India Islands? 20. Of the West India Islands? 21. Of Australasia? 22.
Of Polynesia? 23. Australasia, Polynesia, and the East India Islands,
are sometimes embraced under the general name OCEANICA;—which of these
groups contains the largest islands? 24. Where is Owhyhee, where Capt.
Cook was slain? 25. St. Helena, where Bonaparte ended his life?

26. _What is a Peninsula?_ 27. Which of the divisions of the Eastern
continent is a peninsula? 28. Is South America properly a peninsula or
an island?

29. _What is an Isthmus?_ 30. What isthmus connects Asia with Africa?
31. North with South America?

32. _What is a Cape?_ 33. Which are the principal capes of New Zealand?
34. Where is the Cape of Good Hope? 35. Cape Horn? 36. Which is further
south?

37. _What is a Plain?_ 38. _A Prairie?_ 39. _A Desert?_ 40. _A
Mountain?_ 41. _A Hill?_ 42. _A Volcano?_ 43. _A Crater?_ 44. In which
Grand Division is the Great Desert?

45. _What is a Valley?_ 46. _A Shore or coast?_ 47. What part of the
coast of North America approaches nearest to Asia? 48. What ocean
washes the eastern coast of America? 49. The western? 50. What sea
forms the northern boundary of Africa?

51. _What does Water comprise?_ 52. _What is an Ocean?_ 53. Name the
oceans. 54. Which is the largest? 55. _What is a Sea?_ 56. Where is the
Caspian sea? 57. Yellow sea? 58. Chinese sea? 59. The Sea of Ochotsk?
60. The Mediterranean sea? 61. The Black sea? 62. The Red Sea? 63. The
Caribbean sea? 64. The Aral sea? 65. The Arctic sea, or ocean? 66. The
Antarctic?

67. _What is a Lake?_ 68. Which contains the largest lakes, the western
or eastern hemisphere? 69. Which is the largest lake in the world? 70.
Where is it situated? 71. Which is the largest lake on the eastern
hemisphere? 72. In which of the Grand Divisions is it?

73. _What is a Gulf or bay?_ 74. Where is Hudson’s bay? 75. Baffin’s
bay? 76. Gulf of Mexico?

77. _What is a Haven or harbour?_ 78. _A Strait?_ 79. Where are
Hudson’s straits? 80. Davis’ straits? 81. Straits of Gibraltar?

82. _What is a River?_ 83. Where is Mackenzie’s river? 84. The Amazon
river? 85. The Senegal river? 86. _What is meant by the rise, course,
and mouth of a river?_ 87. _If the mouth of a river be wide, and is
affected by tides, what is it called?_

88. _What is a Cataract?_ 89. _A Morass or Swamp?_

90. _What is the Equator?_ 91. What countries does it intersect? 92.
Which of the East India Islands does it intersect? 93. _Into what does
the equator divide the earth?_

94. What countries does the tropic of Cancer cross? 95. The tropic of
Capricorn?

96. _What is a Hemisphere?_ 97. What islands in the western hemisphere
are under the equator? 98. _What is a Degree, and into how many is the
equator divided?_ 99. How many degrees is the equator from the poles?

100. _What is a Meridian?_ 101. _What is Longitude?_ 102. What is the
longitude of Madagascar? 103. Of the Azores? 104. Of Ireland?

105. _What is Latitude?_ 106. _What are Parallels of latitude?_ 107.
What is the latitude of New York? 108. Of London? 109. Of Canton? 110.
Of Spitzbergen? 111. How many degrees further north is Pekin than
Canton? 112. Boston than Morocco? 113. _What are the Tropics?_ 114.
_What are the Polar circles?_

115. _What are Zones?_ 116. What countries are in the Torrid Zone? 117.
What in the Northern Temperate? 118. What in the Southern Temperate?
119. Has much land been discovered in the Frigid Zones?

120. What oceans, seas, &c. must a ship navigate in sailing from Boston
to Canton? 121. From New York to Rome? 122. From the Island Jamaica to
Otaheite? 123. In which of these voyages would the ship pass the Cape
of Good Hope? 124. In which, Cape Horn?

[Illustration: THE WORLD.]


SURFACE OF THE EARTH.

In a general point of view, the _surface_ of the earth may properly
be considered as one vast ocean, in which are placed a great number
of islands, whose sizes are various. Two of these islands are called
CONTINENTS;—because it has hitherto been impossible to sail round them,
owing to the frozen state of the waters of the Arctic seas. That which
has been for the longer space of time inhabited by civilized nations,
is called the _eastern_, or _old continent_, and contains Asia, Europe,
and Africa. The other comprises America, and is named the _western_,
or _new continent_. New Holland, a large tract of land situated in
the midst of the most extensive mass of waters, is by some called a
continent; but it is more proper to consider it as the largest island
in existence. An island differs from a continent only in size, and the
name _continent_ is given to certain extensive portions of land, for
the sake of convenience in geographical descriptions.

The bottom of the basin of the ocean has irregularities, similar to
those seen on the surface of the land; and, if the waters were dried
up, would present to view, mountains, valleys, and plains. Islands are
therefore, the flattened tops of mountains, situated in the midst of
the sea. Immense masses of rocks are found in many places under the
water, and often rise so near the surface, that they are dangerous
to navigation. Near Marseilles, there is a quarry under the sea,
from which marble is obtained. These facts prove that the sea is not
bottomless, as some people suppose, although there are some places so
deep that no bottom has yet been found. It has been supposed, by many
geographers, that the depth of the abysses of the ocean, are equal to
the heights of mountains on land, and therefore that the ocean is in no
place more than _thirty thousand feet deep_. The greatest depth that
has ever been measured without finding bottom, is _four thousand six
hundred and eighty feet_.

The chief characteristic of the ocean, is the saltness of its waters,
which renders them disagreeable to the taste, and unfit for the use of
man. Thus mariners are often, although surrounded by water, in danger
of perishing from thirst, when their supply of fresh water has been
exhausted, while they are yet at a great distance from land. The cause
of this saltness is not yet ascertained. It is supposed that by the
constant agitation of the waters the ocean preserves its purity.

The Arctic ocean is constantly frozen over, and immense pieces of
ice become detached, and being driven about in the ocean, are often
dangerous to navigators. Some of them are more than a mile long, and
rise to the height of one hundred and fifty feet; others rise but a few
feet above the waves, and form floating fields of ice of great extent.
These fields are often visited by the natives of Greenland, in their
canoes, while pursuing their seal fisheries. Ships are sometimes, while
sailing in these dangerous waters, surrounded and crushed between these
masses of ice.

[Illustration: FLOATING ICE-FIELD AND ISLANDS.]

The form which the shores of the land presents is very irregular;
in consequence of which, the ocean extends towards the interior of
countries, and thus forms inland seas, gulfs, &c. which are in reality
parts of the ocean, detached, but not separated from it. The different
names, as sea, bay, &c. are given for the sake of convenience.

The level of the sea is nearly the same in all parts of the globe,
except in some inland seas, &c. For this reason all the measurements of
the heights of places and mountains are calculated from this level.


GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE OCEAN.

The ocean is subdivided into portions, which are known by different
names, viz. the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic or Northern, and
Antarctic or Southern oceans. The situation of these may be seen by
reference to the map of the world.

The Atlantic ocean varies in extent, from seven hundred to four
thousand miles in breadth from west to east, and is nine thousand miles
in length.

The Pacific ocean extends from north to south about eight thousand
miles, and from west to east about eleven thousand miles,—almost half
round the globe.

The Indian ocean extends from north to south about four thousand miles,
and from west to east varies from twenty-five hundred to six thousand
miles.

The Northern ocean is encircled by the coasts of the two continents.
Its greatest extent in one direction is computed to be three thousand
miles.

The Southern ocean lies south from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian
oceans, and surrounds the south pole.

The most remarkable phenomenon which occurs throughout the extent of
the ocean is the Maelstrom. This is a whirlpool by which a ship or any
thing which comes within the reach of the circling current is swallowed
up.

[Illustration: THE MAELSTROM.]

This whirlpool is in the Atlantic ocean, near the coast of Norway,
Europe.


MOUNTAINS, &c.

Mountains form the principal feature which presents itself on viewing
the surface of the _land_. These immense heights have their descents,
more or less steep, and their exteriors greatly diversified. Some
of them present a surface of naked and rugged rocks piled one upon
another; others show an abrupt and almost perpendicular surface, which
conveys to an observer an idea that the mountain has been cut from top
to bottom, so as to show the interior. Sometimes mountains seem, when
viewed from particular points, to show the form of the head of a tiger,
a bear, a man’s face, &c.

Some are composed of columns of basaltic rock, so regularly formed and
disposed that they seem to have been formed by art. The columns are
five or six sided, and appear to be divided into joints, at intervals
of about thirty feet. The Giant’s Causeway in Ireland, is a remarkable
instance of this natural curiosity.

[Illustration: GIANT’S CAUSEWAY.]

At this place there are ranges of these columns which extend into
the sea several hundred feet, and their tops present an almost level
surface of pavement.

Mountains have often large cavities in their interiors. In Norway,
Europe, there is a remarkable instance of a singular natural formation
of a mountain. Mount Torghat is pierced through with an opening one
hundred and fifty feet high, and three thousand long; at certain
seasons of the year the sun lights up the interior of this passage from
one end to the other.

Defiles or passes are narrow natural openings or roads through a chain
of mountains, and often form the only communication from one part of a
country to the other. There is a famous defile of this kind at the Cape
of Good Hope, Africa, which is called Holland’s Kloffe.

[Illustration: HOLLAND’S KLOFFE.]

This pass is so situated that it forms the _only_ communication from
the country of the Hottentots to the country beyond the mountains. One
hundred men could here successfully oppose the march of an immense army.

A defile sometimes forms the bed of a river, by which means the stream
passes through a chain of mountains. In the United States there is an
instance of this, where the opposite sides of the defile are connected
together at the top by a natural bridge of rock.

[Illustration: NATURAL BRIDGE, VIRGINIA, U.S.]

A PLATEAU is a plain of immense extent, which is formed of an extensive
surface of elevated land. Some plateaus are eight thousand feet above
the level of the sea. Lofty mountains often rise from these plateaus,
many of which are volcanic.

VOLCANO is a word taken from the name which the Romans gave to the
God of Fire. It now designates those mountains which are subject to
eruptions of fire, smoke, stones, and lava. The irruption of a volcano
is a most awful and majestic phenomenon. The earth is shaken, and
rumbling noises are heard, which sound like thunder. Smoke and fire
begin to issue from the top of the mountain.

Suddenly the fire becomes extinguished, and red-hot stones are thrown
out; then the crater is filled with a burning liquid called lava,
which looks like metal in a melted state. At last, the lava overflows
the sides of the crater, and runs down the sides of the mountain,
destroying every thing which lies in its path, and covering cities and
cultivated fields with a sea of burning matter. Sometimes the lava is
too heavy to be elevated to the summit, and bursts out from the side of
the mountain.

[Illustration: CRATER OF MOUNT ETNA.]

The cities Herculaneum and Pompeii, in Italy, were entirely destroyed,
A. D. 79, by an irruption of Vesuvius.

Herculaneum was discovered by digging away the ashes and lava, in the
year 1713. Pompeii was discovered about forty years afterwards.

The _height of mountains_ is measured from the level of the sea.

The highest mountains in the world are the _Himmaleh mountains_, in
Asia.

The second in point of elevation are the _Andes mountains_, in South
America; _Chimborazo_ is the highest peak.

The highest mountain in North America is _Mount Elias_,—in Europe,
_Mont Blanc_,—in Africa, the _Atlas mountains_.

A traveller in South America has lately asserted, that he has
discovered a mountain in Peru, which is higher than the Himmaleh
mountains in Asia. If this be a fact, it will probably soon be
confirmed by the testimony of other travellers.

The highest volcanic mountain in the world is _Cotopaxi_, one of the
Andes, in South America. Other celebrated volcanoes are _Popocatepetl_,
in North America,—_Mount Etna_, _Stromboli_, and _Vesuvius_, in
Europe,—and _Mount Hecla_, in Iceland.

Mountains are sometimes found standing alone; but generally many of
them are united in a _range_, or ridge, which extends many miles, and,
in some instances, through the whole extent of a continent.

In ascending mountains it will be found, that as you proceed towards
the top, the climate grows continually colder; and after passing beyond
the height of about 17,000 feet from the level of the sea, you arrive
at a region where snow and ice cover the ground during the whole year.
This contributes much to the coolness and salubrity of the climate of
countries where such high mountains are found.

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE HEIGHTS OF MOUNTAINS.]

  ───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
               SCALE OF
      FEET.    ENGLISH
                MILES.
  ───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
                  5       Highest Peak, ┐
      26,000              Second Peak,  │ Himmaleh
      25,000              Third Peak,   │ Mountains,
                          Fourth Peak,  ┘_Asia_.
      24,000
      23,000
      22,000
                   4      Chimborazo, _South America_.
      21,000
      20,000              Antisana, _South America_.
      19,000              Mount Elias, _North America_.
                          Cotopaxi, _South America_.
      18,000              Popocatepetl, _North America_.
                          Perpetual snow.
      17,000              Mowna Roa, _Owhyhee_.
      16,000       3      Mont Blanc, Alps, _Europe_.
      15,000
      14,000
                          Atlas, _Africa_.
      13,000              Teneriffe, _Canary Isles_.
                          Rocky Mountains, _N. America_.
      12,000              Mount Ararat, _Asia_.

      11,000       2      Mt. Etna, _Sicily Islands, Europe_.
      10,000              Quito city, _South America_.
      9,000               Pyrenees, _Spain, Europe_.
                          Carpathian, _Austria, Europe_.
      8,000               Apennines, _Italy, Europe_.
      7,000
      6,000               White Mts. _N. Hampshire, U. S._
                   1
      5,000               Mount Hecla, _Iceland_.
                          Green Mountains, _Vermont, U. S._
      4,000
      3,000               Vesuvius, _Italy, Europe_.
                          Alleghany, _Virginia, U. States_.
      2,000
                          Rock of Gibraltar, _Spain, Europe_.
      1,000
                          Mount Tom, _Massachusetts, U. S._
      500                 St. Peter’s Church, _Rome, Italy_.
  ───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
                      LEVEL OF THE SEA.
  ───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE LENGTHS OF RANGES OF MOUNTAINS.]

   ═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════
    Dofrafeld Mountains,   xxxxxxx               COMPARATIVE LENGTHS
    United States range,   xxxxxxxxx                  OF RANGES
    Atlas range,           xxxxxxxxxxx              OF MOUNTAINS.
    Ural range,            xxxxxxxxxx
    Mountains of the Moon, xxxxxxxxxxxx
    Altay range,           xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx✠
    Rocky Mountains, N. A. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx✠
    Andes, South America.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx✠
                                │     │     │     │     │     │     │
  ══════════════════════════════╧═════╧═════╧═════╧═════╧═════╧═════╧═
    MILES.                   1000  2000  3000  4000  5000  6000  7000
               ✠(Whole length of the American range is 11,500 miles.)

Small streams are called _Brooks_, _Rivulets_, and sometimes _Creeks_.
In the study of the maps they are called _branches_ of rivers.

Many small streams, being formed in the mountainous and other elevated
parts of a country, flow together, and form a large current of water
which takes the name of a _river_, and is constantly augmented in its
course, by other _brooks_, &c. and by rain, until it discharges itself
into an ocean, sea, lake, or some other river.

The _length of rivers_ has not been so definitely ascertained as
the height of mountains. The length of the same river varies in the
statements of different geographers, and this difference is owing to
the principles on which their measurements are made, some measuring the
windings of the river, and others only the valleys through which they
flow.

The longest and largest river in the world is the AMAZON, in South
America. It is more than 150 miles wide at its junction with the
Atlantic ocean. The body of water is so great that it constantly flows
into the ocean, and is not affected by tides. The commotion caused by
the meeting of the tide and the current of the river, sometimes renders
navigation dangerous.

The longest rivers in North America are the MISSOURI and MISSISSIPPI.

The longest river in Asia is the KIAN KU. In Europe, the VOLGA. In
Africa, the NILE.

The Missouri flows into the Mississippi about 1300 miles from its
mouth, and is, in fact, the main river. And the length of the Missouri
is given, in the opposite table, from its source to the mouth of the
Mississippi.

The Missouri and Mississippi rivers, taken together, have no rival
in the world, for length of course, the size and number of their
tributaries, and the vast extent of country through which they flow.
The Mississippi is called by the native Indians the ‘Father of Waters,’
and the Missouri, the ‘Mother of Floods.’

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE LENGTHS OF RIVERS, ACCORDING TO THE BEST
AUTHORITIES.]

           COMPARATIVE LENGTHS OF                           │  4,500
            RIVERS, ACCORDING TO                          │ │
            THE BEST AUTHORITIES.                         │ │  4,000
                                                          │ │
                                                          │ │  3,500
                                                      │   │ │
                                                    │ │   │ │  3,000
                                                  │ │ │ │ │ │
                                                │ │ │ │ │ │ │  2,500
                                                │ │ │ │ │ │ │
                                              │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │  2,000
                                          │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
                                        │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │  1,500
                                      │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ├─┘ │
                                    │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │   │  1,000
                                    │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │   │
                                    │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │   │    500
                                  │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │   │
    ──────────────────────────────┼─┼─┼─┼─┼─┼─┼─┼─┼─┼─┼─┼─┬─┤ SCALE OF
                                  │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │  MILES
    Connecticut, _U. States_,   410 │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
    Tennessee,      _do._     1,100 ┘ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
    Ohio,           _do._     1,350 ──┘ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
    Danube, _Europe_,         1,700 ────┘ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
    Orinoco, _S. America_,    1,800 ──────┘ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
    St. Lawrence, _N. Amer._  2,000 ────────┘ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
    Volga, _Europe_,          2,040 ──────────┘ │ │ │ │ │ │ │
    La Plata, _S. America_,   2,600 ────────────┘ │ │ │ │ │ │
    Nile, _Africa_,           2,687 ──────────────┘ │ │ │ │ │
    Hoang Ho, _Asia_,         2,900 ────────────────┘ │ │ │ │
    Kian Ku, _Asia_,          3,330 ──────────────────┘ │ │ │
    Mississippi, _U. States_, 3,000 ────────────────────┘ │ │
    Missouri, _U. States_,    4,400 ──────────────────────┘ │
    Amazon, _S. America_,     4,500 ────────────────────────┘

Rivers are supplied with water principally from springs, and the
melting of snow upon high mountains. Mountains attract clouds around
their tops and sides, and by this means become saturated with water,
which, finding its way through the fissures of the rocks, forms
springs. In this manner probably all springs are formed, whether they
are found on mountains or plains. Heavy rains also augment the quantity
of water, and often after a heavy fall of rain, many rivers are so
swollen that the water overflows their banks, and the flood sweeps away
every thing that is within its reach.

The Mississippi is subject to inundations during the spring, and the
banks of the river being higher than the adjacent country, the water
never returns to the river, but seeks other channels. These inundations
greatly enrich the lands.

The banks or shores of rivers present very different appearances,
according to the formation of the land through which they pass. The
banks of some rivers are but little elevated above their level,
and slope gently down to the water’s edge; others flow through
rocky channels, and are walled on each side with high and almost
perpendicular precipices.

[Illustration: PASSAIC FALLS, NEW JERSEY, U. S.]

Sometimes a precipice occurs immediately across the course of a river,
and the water falling nearly perpendicularly over, forms a cataract or
falls.

They are often obstructed by rapids which render navigation difficult
and sometimes impracticable. A rapid is a gradual descent in the bed of
a river, where the current is swift, and the water shallow.

Some rivers suddenly disappear, by flowing into a chasm, and are lost
in the earth. Some of these again issue from the earth at a great
distance from where they disappeared.

Rivers present obstacles to the route of roads, and many expedients
have been invented by the ingenuity of man to obviate them. In many
places bridges are built of wood, stone or iron; and where the current
is too swift, or the channel too deep to permit a bridge to be built,
the passage is made in boats. But the most astonishing project that has
been undertaken for this purpose is the Tunnel under the river Thames,
at London, England. A road is here dug out _under_ the river, and is
nearly completed. A view of the work is given in the cut.

[Illustration: THAMES TUNNEL.]

The tunnel consists of two brick archways for carriages, and two foot
paths. The passages are divided by a line of arches, between the
pillars of which are placed gas lights. This undertaking was commenced
in the year 1825. The whole length is thirteen hundred feet, and each
archway is about fourteen feet in width. The thickness of the earth
between the bed of the river and the tunnel is about fifteen feet.

A country, possessed of large and navigable rivers, enjoys a great
blessing. They form a means of internal communication, by which the
productions of the inland country are brought to the city and seaport.
Their currents are made use of, by the aid of machinery, to manufacture
many of the necessaries and luxuries of life.

Many rivers whose waters are pure, afford water for the use of the
inhabitants of neighboring cities.

London and Westminster, England, are supplied from the New river;
the water is here brought thirty-eight miles through a canal. The
Schuylkill river in Pennsylvania, United States, supplies the city
Philadelphia with good and wholesome water, for the use of the
inhabitants.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE PHILADELPHIA WATERWORKS.]

      These works are ingeniously constructed at Fair Mount on
      the eastern bank of the river. The water is raised by the
      action of an engine, moved by the water power of the river
      itself, and deposited in large reservoirs, from whence
      it is conveyed by iron pipes to every part of the city.
      The aggregate length of the pipes already laid exceeds
      63 miles. Three reservoirs have already been constructed
      which contain ten millions of gallons, and a fourth has
      been commenced which will contain ten millions more, being
      a quantity sufficient for the use of the city Philadelphia
      ten days.

LAKES.

Lakes are of four distinct classes.

      1. Those which have no streams of water running into nor
      from them. They are generally very small, and of little
      consequence.

      2. Those which have streams flowing from them, but none
      flowing into them. These are mostly supplied with water
      from subterraneous springs. Some of this class form the
      sources of large rivers, and are generally situated on
      elevated land.

      3. Those which have streams flowing both into and from
      them. These, by a continual flow of fresh river water,
      preserve their clearness and sweetness; and often, besides
      the river which seems to flow through them, have sources
      of their own near their shores, or from springs at their
      bottoms.

      4. The fourth class is ranked among the phenomena of
      nature. They have no visible outlet, but receive the
      waters of rivers which flow into them. The Caspian sea, in
      Asia, is an instance of this kind. These lakes probably
      lose the surplus of their waters by evaporation produced
      by the heat of the sun.

The waters of lakes which receive their supply from springs and rivers,
partake of their qualities. There are some lakes whose waters are
exceedingly clear and transparent. Lake Wetter in Europe is so limpid
that a piece of money can be seen at the bottom at 120 feet depth.


CAVERNS.

In many parts of the earth are found caverns, or deep cavities and
grottoes, which are remarkable on account of their great extent, and
for the grand and imposing appearance of the rocks which compose the
sides and roof.

Fingal’s cave, in the island Staffa, one of the western islands of
Scotland, is a noted cave.

[Illustration: FINGAL’S CAVE.]

It is thus described by a celebrated traveller. ‘The mind can hardly
form an idea more magnificent than such a space, supported on each side
by ranges of basaltic columns and roofed by the ends of those which
have been broken off, between the angles of which, a yellow matter has
exuded, which serves to define the angles exactly, and at the same time
vary the color with a great degree of elegance. To render it still more
imposing, the whole is lighted up from without, so that the farthest
extremity is visible, and the air within being agitated by the motion
of the water, is perfectly wholesome, and free from the noxious vapors
with which caverns are usually filled.’

Some caverns are of great depth, descending in some instances, eleven
thousand feet. Others, after a descent, assume a horizontal direction,
and are formed into many grottoes. The most remarkable grotto known,
is the Grotto of the island Antiparos, in the Archipelago sea. The
principal chamber of this cavern is exhibited on page 3.

In many caverns, water is found at a great depth, and this
circumstance, together with the fact that water is obtained by digging
deep wells, seems to prove that there are sheets of water under ground,
which extend to considerable distances.


MINERALS.

The earth contains many mineral substances beneath its surface, which
are useful to man. These substances are dug out, and thus immense mines
are formed. Gold and silver are obtained in great quantities in South
America. Iron, the most useful of metals, is obtained in various parts
of the world. Annexed is a representation of the iron mine at Dalmora,
in Europe. The iron ore is not dug out as in mines of coal, tin, &c.
but is torn up by means of gunpowder.

[Illustration: IRON MINE.]

The descent into this mine is by means of buckets attached to ropes.



GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE EARTH.


The Earth has generally been considered by geographers under four GRAND
DIVISIONS, viz. America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Besides these, there
are four clusters of Islands, which according to some geographers
constitute other divisions, viz. Australasia, Polynesia, the East India
Islands, and the West India Islands.

AMERICA is the largest of the divisions, and was unknown to the
civilized world till the year 1492, when it was discovered by
Christopher Columbus. It however takes its name from Americus
Vesputius, who came to the country about seven years after. The _face
of the country_ is distinguished by lofty mountains and extensive
lakes. Among its rivers are found the largest in the world.

Most of the _metals_, _minerals_, _trees_, _plants_, and _fruits_ found
on the other continent, are produced in abundance here, and many of
them in greater perfection. The climate of America is found to be _ten
degrees cooler_ than the climate of the other continent in the same
latitude.

EUROPE is the smallest of the divisions, but is distinguished above all
the others for its advancement in military power, and in civilisation,
science, and literature.

ASIA is remarkable for having contained the “garden of Eden,” where our
first parents were placed. In this division, the Jewish, the Christian,
and the Mahometan religions had their origin. Its soil is more fertile
than that of any other division, and its inhabitants more numerous.

AFRICA is less known than any of the other divisions. The greater part
of the inhabitants are in a state of barbarism. Nearly three-quarters
of Africa lie in the torrid zone, and the dark complexion and savage
character of the inhabitants, and the ferocity of its wild beasts, seem
in unison with the excessive heat of the sun, and the frightful aspect
of the deserts.

The WEST INDIA ISLANDS lie in the Atlantic Ocean, between North and
South America, in the torrid zone. They belong principally to European
nations.

Australasia, Polynesia, and the East India Islands are sometimes
included under the general name of OCEANICA. These islands present
every variety of surface and climate, and produce many of the luxuries
of life in abundance. They also abound in volcanoes.



CIVIL AND POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.


The principal Political Divisions, are _Empires_, _Kingdoms_, and
_Republics_.

An EMPIRE consists of several large countries, governed by one
sovereign, called an emperor.

A KINGDOM is generally of a lesser extent than an empire, and is
governed by a king.

If the power of an emperor, or of a king, be limited by law, the
government is called a _limited monarchy_; if there be no legal
restraint to the will of the sovereign, it is called an _absolute
monarchy_.

A REPUBLIC is a country, the government of which is confided to persons
elected, by the people, for a limited term. A Republic is generally
composed of a union of States.

States, Provinces, Counties, Cities, Towns, &c. are still smaller
divisions of countries.

The principal Religions professed by the inhabitants of the earth, are
the Jewish, Pagan, Mahometan, and Christian.

There are five principal races of men.

1. The _Asian race_ are of a deep yellow or tawny color; have small
eyes, prominent cheek bones, and an abundance of straight black hair.

2. The _Malay race_ are of a deep brown color; have broad noses and
mouths, projecting foreheads, and black curled hair.

3. The _African_ or _black race_ have thick lips, flat noses, and black
woolly hair; the head is compressed on each side, the forehead very
arched, and the chin drawn in.

4. The _Native American race_ are of a copper color; have exceedingly
high cheek bones, and straight black hair.

5. The _European race_ (which includes the inhabitants of the United
States and all descendants of Europeans in every part of the earth) is
distinguished from the other by the regularity and symmetry of their
features and by their complexion, which is white mingled with red; they
have straight hair. In warm climates the European complexion takes a
swarthy or brown color; but the original color, viz. white and red,
always prevails in the complexion of the infants of this race in every
climate. This race is supposed to have _originated_ in the Caucasian
countries in Western Asia, and is sometimes called the _Caucasian race_.

[Illustration: A VIEW OF THE FEATURES WHICH DISTINGUISH THE FIVE
PRINCIPAL RACES OF MEN.]



STATE OF SOCIETY.


Nations are either Savage, Barbarous, Civilized, or Enlightened.

1. Savages are those who are ignorant of the art of writing, and
whose ideas are confined to objects which strike the senses. They
are inclined to be superstitious, cruel, and revengeful, but are in
general free from the acquired vices of more enlightened people. They
live together in tribes, and have a deadly hatred towards all other
tribes. They delight in war, and are noted for the patient endurance
of fatigue, and contempt of pain. Some of the African tribes, and the
North American Indians are of this class.

2. Barbarous, or half civilized nations, are those which by written
laws, religious ceremonies, or a partial advance in the arts of life,
have evidently emerged from a savage state. Their progress towards
civilisation is slow, and as advance is made, their characteristic
fierceness and barbarity give place to more regular habits. Cruelty to
females is a characteristic of the savage and many of the barbarous
nations.

3. Civilized nations are those which have arranged their knowledge, in
the form of arts and sciences. Females are in such nations treated with
kindness.

4. Enlightened nations have brought the arts, sciences, religion, and
laws, to exert their greatest and best influence on mankind. In these
nations females are educated to be companions of the men, and are
treated with the greatest kindness and respect. The United States and
some parts of Europe are of this class.

[Illustration: NORTH AMERICA

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston.  H. Morse Sc._]



NORTH AMERICA.


1. _By whom and in what year was America discovered?_ 2. _After whom
was it named?_ 3. _What is remarkable in the climate of America?_ 4.
What are the principal divisions of North America? 5. In what part are
the British Possessions? 6. Mexico? 7. The United States? 8. Greenland?
9. The Russian Possessions? 10. Guatimala? 11 to 16. How is each one of
these divisions bounded?

17. What range of mountains extends through the whole length of North
America? 18. What is its course? 19. Near which coast is this range?
20. What range of mountains is in The United States? 21. _Which is the
highest mountain in North America?_

22. Which are the principal lakes? 23. Bays and gulfs? 24. How is Lake
Nicaragua situated? 25. Which is more northwardly, Hudson’s or Baffin’s
bay? 26. Where is Repulse bay? 27. Wager? 28. James’s? 29. Bristol? 30.
Campeachy? 31. Honduras? 32. Where is the Gulf of Darien? 33. Gulf of
Mexico? 34. Gulf of St. Lawrence?

35. What large river flows from the lakes, north from The United
Slates, to the Atlantic Ocean? 36. How is Lake Winnipeg connected
with Hudson’s bay? 37. Slave lake with the Arctic sea? 38. Where is
Columbia river? 39. What is its course? 40. Into what does it flow? 41.
_Which is the largest river in North America?_ 42. What rivers form the
boundary, in part, between Mexico and The United States? 43. What river
flows into the Lake of the Hills? 44. Into the Gulf of Mexico? 45.
Hudson’s bay? 46. Gulf of California?

47. How is America separated from Asia? 48. Newfoundland from New
Britain? 49. How is Baffin’s bay connected with the Atlantic ocean? 50.
Where are Hudson’s straits? 51. How is Nootka sound situated?

52. Is California an isthmus or a peninsula? 53. Where is Cape
Farewell? 54. Cape Mendocino? 55. Icy Cape? 56. What cape is at the
southern extremity of Nova Scotia? 57. How many degrees further north
is Cape Race, than Cape Corrientes?

58. What islands are near the western coast of North America? 59. What
is the latitude of Vancouver’s Island? 60. How are the Bahama Islands
separated from Florida? 61. Where are the West India Islands? 62. Which
of them is largest? 63. _To what nations do they principally belong?_
64. Where is North Georgian Island?

65. In what part of the United States is the Oregon Territory? 66.
The Missouri Territory? 67. In what part of the British Possessions
is Labrador? 68. _Is the direction towards the top of a map always
exactly north, and towards the bottom always exactly south?_ 69.
_What directions are exactly north, and south?_ 70. Which way from
Newfoundland is Cape Farewell? 71. Which way from the northern
extremity of Labrador is Cape Farewell? 72. Which way from the Fox
Islands are Bhering’s straits?

73. On what island is Havanna? 74. Kingston? 75. Where is Quebec? 76.
Montreal? 77. How far south does Florida extend? 78. How is it bounded
on the east and west? 79. Between what parallels of latitude do the
United States principally lie?

80. In what zone does North America principally lie? 81. Does any part
lie in the Northern Frigid Zone? 82. From what meridian is longitude
computed on the map of North America? 83. Which way is St. John’s,
the capital of Newfoundland, from New York? 84. Quebec from Mexico?
85. Halifax from Boston? 86. Which way from the Bermuda islands is
Newfoundland?

NORTH AMERICA is divided into portions belonging to different nations.
It embraces every variety of soil and climate, and its peculiar
features are great ranges of mountains, long rivers, and extensive
lakes. Previously to its discovery by Columbus, it was in possession
of tribes of wandering Indians, most of whom were savages. They were
remarkable for strength, courage, and activity, and showed all the
peculiarities incident to the savage life, in the greatest degree.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE GREAT SQUARE, AT MEXICO.]

_Russian America_ is chiefly valuable on account of its fur trade. It
is an exceedingly cold country, and is still, mostly in possession of
native Indians.

_British America_ comprises Canada, New Wales, and Labrador, New
Brunswick, and the neighboring islands, together with the extent of
country between Hudson’s Bay and the Russian Possessions. Canada and
New Brunswick are the only parts which are settled by any considerable
numbers of civilized people, nine tenths of the country being still
inhabited by Indians.

Furs are the staple article of the commerce and trade of the country.
The Northwest Fur Company have an establishment at Fort Chipawyan,
where the Indians resort to sell their furs.

_Mexico._ The coasts of this country are level and low. Towards the
interior the land gradually rises, until it attains an elevation of
6700 feet above the sea, and then forms an immense plateau. The climate
is hot and unhealthy, except on the plateau, where it is salubrious.
Mexico contains the richest gold and silver mines in the world, and
the pursuit of these treasures led the Spaniards, when they first
discovered the country, to oppress the natives.

The city Mexico is situated in the midst of this plateau, and is
surrounded by mountains. It is one of the most magnificent cities in
the world;—its streets are regular, and its buildings truly elegant.
The churches are adorned with gold and silver.

Above is the view of the great square. In the centre and opposite the
Cathedral, is an equestrian statue of Charles IV. on a pedestal of
marble. This was cast in Mexico, and weighs 40,500 pounds. It is one of
the handsomest monuments in the world.

_Guatimala._ The climate is like that of Mexico. Volcanoes abound, and
not less than twenty are constantly burning. Logwood and mahogany are
obtained here in vast quantities.

[Illustration: UNITED STATES

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston.  G. Boynton Sc._]



UNITED STATES.


NOTE. The pupil must not think that the opposite map gives a view of
the whole extent of the territory of the United States; it represents
only that part which is divided into States, and settled. A view of the
whole is given on the map of North America; and by comparing the two
maps, he will easily understand what part is here represented.

1. _The United States constitute a Republic; how is the government
administered?_ 2. How many States and Territories are in this Republic,
including Oregon Territory? 3. How is Maine bounded? 4 to 30. How are
the other States and Territories severally bounded? 31. What States are
north from the 40th parallel of latitude? 32. What south?

33. There is a range of mountains which extends almost through the
whole of the United States; what is its general course? 34. Through
what part of Virginia does it run? 35. What mountains are in Tennessee?
36. In Alabama? 37. Where are the Lead Hills?

38. _Is the water of lakes generally salt or fresh?_ 39. What lakes
lie between the United States and Canada? 40. How is Lake Michigan
situated? 41. Moose Head Lake? 42. Flambeau Lake? 43. Lake St. Clair?
44. What lakes are near the source of the Mississippi river? 45. _What
is a lake called if its waters be salt?_

46. What bays are located on the south coast of Florida? 47. Where is
Narraganset bay? 48. What large gulf is south from the United States?

49. _What is a Sound?_ 50. Where is Albemarle sound? 51. Pamlico sound?

52. What river rises in the northern part of Maine, and flows
through New Brunswick into the Atlantic? 53. What is the course of
the Mississippi river? 54. Of what States does it form the eastern
boundary? 55. Of what the western? 56. What rivers flow into it from
the east? 57. What from the west?

58. Of what state does the Ohio river form the northern boundary? 59.
Of what states the southern? 60. Where is the Great Kanhawa river? 61.
What is its course?

62. What are the principal rivers of Virginia? 63. North Carolina?
64. South Carolina? 65. Georgia? 66. Alabama? 67. Mississippi? 68.
Tennessee? 69. What large river unites with the Mississippi, near St.
Louis? 70. What rivers flow south into the Ohio? 71. What river flows
through Arkansas territory into the Mississippi?

72. Where is Cape St. Blas? 73. What capes at the mouth of Chesapeake
bay? 74. What capes on the coast south from Cape Hatteras? 75. What
strait connects lakes Huron and Michigan?

76. Which way is Long Island from New Jersey? 77. Where is Mount Desert
Island? 78. Sullivan’s island? 79. Royale Island? 80. What two islands
lie near the mouth of St. Mary’s river?

81. How are the following capitals and chief towns situated, viz.
Richmond?

     82. Norfolk?
     83. Raleigh?
     84. Columbus?
     85. Cincinnati?
     86. Indianapolis?
     87. Vincennes?
     88. Vandalia?
     89. Kaskaskia?
     90. Jefferson city?
     91. Nashville?
     92. St. Louis?
     93. Arkopolis, or Little Rock?
     94. Frankfort?
     95. Lexington?
     96. Knoxville?
     97. Charleston?
     98. Milledgeville?
     99. Tuscaloosa?
    100. Tallahassee?
    101. Natches?
    102. New Orleans?
    103. Mobile?
    104. WASHINGTON?[1]

105. Which way is Maine from New Jersey? 106. Georgia from Ohio? 107.
Michigan from Massachusetts? 108. Indiana from North Carolina?

109. Which way are Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore from Boston?
110. Which is furthest?

_Note._ Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
and Rhode Island, are called THE NEW ENGLAND STATES;—New York,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, and Delaware, THE MIDDLE
STATES;—Virginia, North and South Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama,
Mississippi, and Louisiana, THE SOUTHERN STATES;—Tennessee, Kentucky,
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, THE WESTERN STATES.—111. In what
part of the Union are these sections severally situated?

FOOTNOTES:

[1] The capital of the United States is WASHINGTON, where the President
resides. Congress assembles here to make the laws by which the people
are governed.



MAINE.


This map represents only the southern part of the State of Maine; the
northern part is covered with extensive forests. For the whole shape of
the State, the pupils must refer to the Map of the United States; and
by comparing the two maps, they will easily comprehend what portion of
the State is here represented. This State has many lakes and rivers,
but some of them are not well suited to navigation.

1. How many counties are there in Maine?[2] 2. Which of them lie along
the shore of the Atlantic ocean? 3. Has Kennebeck county any sea-coast?
4. In what part is Oxford county? 5. Which is more eastwardly,
Penobscot or Somerset county? 6. What lake lies in Cumberland county?
7. What lakes in Oxford county? 8. In what part of Somerset county is
Moosehead lake? 9. Where is Sebec lake? 10. What creeks flow into it?
11. In what part of Maine are the Schodic lakes? 12. In what county
are they? 13. What river connects Madybemp lake and Cobscook bay? 14.
Into what county does Penobscot bay extend? 15. At the mouth of what
river is Passamaquoddy bay? 16. Which is more eastwardly, Machias or
Goldsboro’ bay? 17. In what county is Casco bay? 18. On what bay is
Nobleboro’? 19. Which way is New Meadow bay from Casco bay? 20. Where
is Frenchman’s bay? 21. English bay? 22. Into what does Mount Desert
sound extend? 23. Where is Belfast bay? 24. Which is further west,
Prospect harbour or Haycock harbour? 25. Where is Pleasant River bay?

26. What river flows between Maine and New Brunswick? 27. What are the
rivers of Washington county? 28. Which is the largest river in Maine?
29. Into what bay does it flow? 30. What rivers flow into it from
the west? 31. What from the east? 32. Through what counties does the
Kennebeck river flow? 33. With what lake, in Somerset county, does one
of its branches communicate? 34. Where is the Androscoggin river? 35.
Where does it rise? 36. What is its course? 37. What rivers in York
county? 38. Where is Marshall’s Island?

39. Which are the two largest of the numerous islands near the coast
of Maine? 40. Which of them is further east? 41. What islands lie east
from Passamaquoddy and Cobscook bays? 42. Which of them is furthest
north? 43. On which of them is Eastport situated? 44. What island lies
at the entrance of Machias bay? 45. Where is Manhegin island? 46. Boon
island? 47. Which is more eastwardly, Little Menan island or Bowbear
island? 48. Which is more northwardly, Seal rock, or Wooden Ball rock?
49. What is the longitude from Washington, of Mount Desert rock?

50. Where is Gerrish point? 51. Cape Neddock? 52. Which is more
eastwardly, Cape Small Point or Cape Elizabeth? 53. Which way from
Mount Desert rock is Sciodic point? 54. In what part of Maine is Quoddy
head? 55. At the entrance of what bay is Cow point?

56. Is Castine situated on an island or a peninsula? 57. Are there many
peninsulas on the coast of Maine? 58. What town in Cumberland county is
situated on an isthmus?

59. On what river is Augusta, the capital of Maine? 60. In what county
is it? 61. In what county is York? 62. Portland? 63. Wiscasset? 64.
Paris? 65. Norridgewock? 66. Bangor? 67. Castine? 68. Machias?

69. On what bay are Portland, North Yarmouth, and Freeport? 70. Near
the mouth of what rivers is Bath situated?

71. On what river is Prospect? 72. Name some of the towns on
Androscoggin river. 73. On Penobscot river. 74. Which way from Eastport
is Lubec?

75. Which way from Augusta is Hallowell? 76. Which way is Waterville?
77. In what county is it? 78. Which way from Kennebunk is Thomaston?
79. What town is near the junction of the east and west branches of
Pleasant river?

[Illustration: Part of MAINE

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston. G. Boynton Sc._]

FOOTNOTES:

[2] The frequent questions on the counties, are not inserted, with an
intention of requiring pupils to retain in their memories the whole of
them;—but rather that no pupil should omit to learn those of his own
state. This is all that should be required of them on reviewing their
lessons.

[Illustration: VERMONT & NEW HAMPSHIRE.

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston. G. Boynton Sc._]



NEW HAMPSHIRE.... AND ... VERMONT.


1. Which of these States is more eastwardly? 2. Which extends further
north? 3. Which of them has any sea-coast? 4. What state lies east from
New Hampshire? 5. What state south?

6. How many counties are there in New Hampshire? 7. What counties
border upon Massachusetts? 8. What on Maine? 9. What counties lie along
the Connecticut river? 10. What counties in the interior?

11. What mountains are there in this State? 12. In what part of the
State are the Pigwacket mountains? 13. In what county are they?

14. What lake in the northern part of Coos county? 15. What river flows
from Lake Umbagog into the state of Maine? 16. Which is the largest
lake in New Hampshire? 17. How is it situated? 18. Which way from Squam
lake, is Ossipee lake? 19. Which is more eastwardly, Smith’s lake, or
East pond? 20. In what county are Enfield pond, and Newfound lake? 21.
How is Sunapee lake situated?

22. What river bounds New Hampshire on the west? 23. What rivers, in
Coos county, flow into the Connecticut river? 24. What river flows from
East pond, into Great bay? 25. What river flows from Lake Ossipee,
into Saco river? 26. Where does the Merrimack river rise? 27. What is
its course through New Hampshire? 28. What state does it enter after
leaving New Hampshire, and which way flow? 29. Into what does the
Contocook river flow? 30. The Nashua river? 31. The Mascomey river? 32.
The Piscataqua river? 33. At the mouth of what river is Hinsdale?

34. In what county, and on what river, is Concord, the capital of
the state? 35. In what county is Portsmouth? 36. Is Portsmouth a
seaport? 37. In what county is Amherst? 38. Keene? 39. Charlestown? 40.
Haverhill? 41. Lancaster? 42. Dover?

43. On what river are Peterboro’ and Jaffrey? 44. Claremont? 45. Which
way is Keene from Concord? 46. From Amherst to Portsmouth? 47. From
Washington to Jefferson?

48. How many counties are in Vermont? 49. Which of them lie south from
the 44th parallel of latitude? 50. What two are crossed by it? 51.
Which is in the interior? 52. What counties are in the north part?

53. What country lies north from Vermont? 54. What state lies south?
55. What west?

56. What range of mountains runs through the centre of the state? 57.
What is its course?

58. What lakes lie west from Vermont? 59. What north? 60. What lake is
in Addison county? 61. What islands are in Lake Champlain? 62. What is
their general name?

63. What river bounds Vermont on the east? 64. What rivers flow into
the Connecticut river, north from the 44th parallel of latitude? 65.
What south? 66. What two streams flow from Bennington county into the
state of New York?

67. What river flows into Lake Champlain at Whitehall? 68. In what part
of the state is Otter creek? 69. Where does it rise? 70. What is its
course? 71. Through what counties, and into what lake, does it flow?
72. How many branches has White river? 73. What rivers, in the northern
part of the state, flow into Lake Champlain? 74. Into Kilbourn’s lake?

75. In what county, and on what river, is Montpelier, the capital
of the state? 76. In what county is St. Albans? 77. Newfane? 78.
Guildhall? 79. Manchester? 80. Danville? 81. Woodstock? 82. Middlebury?
83. Rutland? 84. Chelsea?

85. Which way from Windsor to Burlington? 86. From Montpelier to
Irasburg? 87. In which corner of the state is Bennington? 88.
Brattleboro’?

89. Which is further north, Montpelier or Concord? 90. Portsmouth or
Bennington? 91. What is the latitude of Middlebury and Haverhill? 92.
Which way from Claremont to Rutland? 93. Which way from Plymouth,
New-Hampshire to Plymouth, Vermont?



MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, AND RHODE ISLAND.


1. Which is the largest of these States? 2. Which is smallest?

3. Into how many counties is Massachusetts divided? 4. What county
is in the western part? 5. Through which does the Connecticut river
flow? 6. Which is the largest county? 7. Which counties lie in the
northeastern part? 8. Which in the southeastern part? 9. Boston and
Chelsea constitute what county?

10. What mountains form the western boundary of Massachusetts? 11.
Where are the Hoosack mountains? 12. In what part, and in what town of
Massachusetts is Mount Tom? 13. Mount Holyoke? 14. Wachusett mountain?
15. Saddle mountain?

16. Where is Massachusetts bay? 17. Barnstable bay? 18. Buzzard’s bay?
19. Vineyard sound? 20. Wellfleet harbor? 21. Holmes’ Hole?

22. What river rises in New Hampshire and runs through the northeastern
part of Massachusetts? 23. What rivers in Massachusetts flow into the
Connecticut river from the east? 24. What from the west? 25. In what
part of Massachusetts is Charles river?

26. _What is a canal?_ 27. What canal runs from Worcester to
Providence? 28. What direct water communication between Merrimack river
and Boston harbor?

29. Where is Cape Ann? 30. Cape Cod? 31. What peninsula lies north from
the entrance to Boston harbor? 32. What island lies off the town of
Ipswich? 33. Which is further east, Nantucket or Martha’s Vineyard? 34.
What county do the Elizabeth Islands and Martha’s Vineyard constitute?

35. Which way is Worcester from Boston? 36. Concord from Worcester? 37.
Which is more northwardly, Springfield or Northampton? 38. Which way
from Taunton to Plymouth?

39. Where are the following celebrated manufacturing towns? viz.
Amesbury? 40. Monson? 41. Ware? 42. Lowell? 43. Pawtucket? 44. Waltham?
45. Leicester? 46. Through what town does the Ware river flow?

47. What counties lie in the western part of Connecticut? 48. In what
part is New Haven county? 49. Through which does the Connecticut river
flow? 50. Which lie east from the Connecticut river?

51. What mountains are in Connecticut?

52. Where is Long Island Sound?

53. What river rises in Massachusetts and flows through the western
part of Connecticut? 54. Through what towns does the Quinebaug river
flow? 55. With what river does it unite, and form the Thames?

56. _For what purpose are canals constructed?_ 57. What canal runs from
the Connecticut river at Northampton to New Haven? 58. Through what
towns does it run?

59. What are the counties of Rhode Island? 60. What large bay in Rhode
Island?

61. What rivers in Rhode Island? 62. Through what towns, does the
Pawtuxet river flow? 63. In what part is Pawtucket river? 64. Where is
Pawcatuck river?

65. To what county of Rhode Island, does Block Island belong? 66. On
what island is Newport? 67. On what island is Jamestown?

68. Where is Point Judith?

69. Which way is Providence from Boston? 70. New London from
Providence? 71. New Haven from Springfield? 72. Providence from
Plymouth? 73. Hartford from Newport? 74. At the head of what bay, are
the city and harbor of Boston situated? 75. Providence? 76. What large
island lies south from Connecticut?

[Illustration: MASSACHUSETTS WITH CONNECTICUT AND _RHODE ISLAND_.

_Morse & Tuttle Sc._]

[Illustration: NEW YORK.

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston. H. Morse Sc._]



NEW YORK.


1. New York is divided into 56 counties; how many of them are on Long
Island? 2. Which lie north from the 44th parallel of latitude? 3.
Through which does the Hudson river flow? 4. What counties border on
the river St. Lawrence? 5. Through what counties does the Delaware and
Hudson canal run?

6. What counties lie west from the meridian of Washington? 7. What are
some of the interior counties? 8. On what island is Richmond county?
9. What counties border on Lake Ontario? 10. On Lake Champlain? 11. On
Lake Erie?

12. Where are the Catskill mountains? 13. Where is Crane’s mountain?

14. What lake lies north from the western part of New York? 15. Which
way from New York is Lake Erie? 16. What lake separates New York from
Vermont?

17. Where is Lake George? 18. What small lakes lie in the northern
counties of New York? 19. Which is more northwardly, Oneida or Otsego
lake?

20. Which is most westwardly, Cayuga, Seneca, or Salt lake? 21. What
lake lies between Ontario and Yates counties? 22. North from what part
of New York state is Long Island sound?

23. Where is Sacket’s harbor? 24. What bays are on the southern shore
of Lake Ontario? 25. Where is Sag Harbor?

26. What rivers divide New York from Canada? 27. What river runs south,
through nearly the whole extent of the eastern part of New York? 28. By
what is it connected with Lake Champlain? 29. What city is at its mouth?

30. Through what part does the Genessee river flow? 31. What river
communicates with the Hudson, near Troy? 32. What with Lake Ontario,
near Brownsville? 33. Where is Tonnewanto creek?

34. What navigable water communication is there between Syracuse and
Oswego? 35. The Grand canal runs through the State, from west to east;
at what place does it commence? 36. At what place does it join the
Hudson river? 37. In what part of the State is the Delaware and Hudson
canal?

38. Where is Montauq point? 39. How is Cape Vincent situated? 40. Where
is Crown point?

41. Where is Galoop island? 42. Which way from New York is Long Island?
43. How is Staten Island situated? 44. Where is Fisher’s island? 45. In
what river is Grand Isle?

46. On what river is Albany, the capital? 47. Which way is it from New
York city? 48. What are the principal towns on the Hudson river? 49. On
what river is Utica?

50. How is Rochester situated? 51. Where is Lockport? 52. Which is
further east, Herkimer or Rome? 53. In what county is Ithaca? 54. On
what river is West Point? 55. Where is Fort Ticonderoga? 56. How is
Fort Erie situated? 57. Which way from Fort Niagara to Fort Erie?

58. Which way from Albany is Northampton in Massachusetts? 59. Which
way from Poughkeepsie to New Haven in Connecticut? 60. In what county
is Saratoga Springs? 61. What navigable water communications are there
between lakes Ontario and Erie? 62. What States lie east from New York?
63. What states lie south?


ENVIRONS OF NEW YORK CITY.

What river divides New York city from New Jersey? What river separates
it from Long Island? Which way from New York is Brooklyn? Which way
from it is Jersey city? In what county is New York city? Which way from
New York city are Manhattanville and Haerlem? Where is Coney island?
What island lies southwest from New York bay? What islands in New York
bay? Where are the Narrows? Where is Fort Lafayette? On what island are
forts Tompkins and Richmond? Which way from New York bay is Newark bay?
What canal joins the Hudson river at Jersey city? In what part of New
York bay is the Quarantine station?



PENNSYLVANIA, MARYLAND, NEW JERSEY, AND DELAWARE.


1. Name some of the counties that lie along the northern boundary of
Pennsylvania? 2. The eastern? 3. The western? 4. The southern? 5. In
the interior?

6. Through what counties does the Monongahela river flow? 7. The
Alleghany river? 8. What county borders on Lake Erie?

9. What range of mountains runs through the State? 10. What other
mountains are in the State?

11. What lake borders on the northwestern corner of Pennsylvania?

12. What river forms the eastern boundary? 13. What river rises in New
York, and flows through Pennsylvania into Chesapeake bay? 14. The city
Philadelphia is situated between two rivers, and extends from one to
the other; what are those rivers called?

15. What rivers unite at Pittsburg and form the Ohio? 16. Through what
part does the Juniata river flow?

17. Where is the Lehigh river, the vicinity of which abounds with coal?
18. The Schuylkill river is also celebrated for the coal mines in its
neighborhood; where does it rise? 19. What is its course? 20. Into what
does it flow?

21. On what river is Harrisburg, the capital of the State? 22. In what
county is Pittsburg? 23. Which is more northwardly, Sunbury or Easton?

24. What town lies on Lake Erie? 25. In what county is Carbondale?
26. Which is more westwardly, Lancaster or Columbia? 27. Which way is
Harrisburg from Philadelphia? 28. From Carlisle to Bethany?

29. What counties in Maryland, are west from Chesapeake bay? 30. What
east?

31. What river divides Maryland from Virginia? 32. Into what does the
Petapsco river flow? 33. Between what counties does the Pawtuxent river
flow?

34. How is Annapolis, the capital, situated? 35. What is its latitude?
36. On what river is Baltimore? 37. At the mouth of what river is Havre
de Grace?

38. How far south does Maryland extend? 39. What State is south
from it? 40. Which is more northwardly, Annapolis or Baltimore? 41.
Cambridge or Chestertown?

42. Into how many counties is New Jersey divided? 43. Which of them are
south from the 40th parallel of latitude? 44. In what part of the State
is Monmouth county? 45. Name some of the northern counties.

46. Which is more northwardly, Great or Little Egg harbor? 47. Where is
Barnegat bay? 48. Where is Sandy Hook? 49. Cape May?

50. On what river is Trenton, the capital? 51. Which way from Trenton
to Bordentown? 52. What bay divides New Jersey from Delaware?

53. What are the counties of Delaware? 54. Which is furthest north? 55.
Which furthest south?

56. In what county is Dover, the capital, situated? 57. At the mouth of
what river is New Castle? 58. Where is Georgetown? 59. Where is Cape
Henlopen?

60. Which way from Harrisburg to Trenton? 61. From Trenton to Dover?
62. From Annapolis to Pittsburg?

63. What States lie east from Pennsylvania? 64. What State north from
New Jersey? 65. How can a person sail from Trenton to Baltimore, and
not pass Capes May and Henlopen?

66. Which is largest, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, or Maryland?
67. Which is smallest? 68. Which of them border on the Atlantic ocean?

69. What cities and towns are in the District of Columbia? 70. What
river runs through it? 71. On which side of the river is Alexandria?
72. What is the latitude of Washington? 73. Of what is Washington the
capital?

ENVIRONS OF PHILADELPHIA.

Between what rivers is Philadelphia situated? In what county is
Philadelphia? What island is in Delaware river, opposite the city? What
county lies north from Philadelphia county? Which way is Germantown
from Philadelphia city? What separates Camden from Philadelphia? Where
is Petty’s island?

[Illustration: PENNSYLVANIA MARYLAND NEW JERSEY & DELAWARE.

_H. Morse Sc._]

[Illustration: WESTERN STATES.

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston. G. Boynton Sc._]



WESTERN STATES.


1. Name the Western States. 2. Which lie north from the Ohio river?
3. Which south? 4. Which west from Mississippi river? 5. Which does
Mississippi river bound on the west? 6. What two large rivers run
through Kentucky and Tennessee?

7. The Territory which lies north and west from Missouri state
extends westward, to the Oregon Territory; what is it called? 8. What
Territory lies south from Missouri state? 9. What States south from
Tennessee?—[_For answer to this question refer to the United States._]
10. What State east? 11. What State lies east from Kentucky? 12. What
State east from Ohio? 13. What Territory lies north from Ohio and
Indiana? 14. What north from Illinois?

15. Of what State is Columbus the capital? 16. Is Ohio a mountainous
state? 17. What lake lies north? 18. What river on the south and
east? 19. On what river is Zanesville? 20. What joins Ohio river at
Portsmouth? 21. What river flows through the northwestern corner of the
State? 22. On what river is Athens?

23. What river flows into Lake Erie at Sandusky? 24. What joins the
Ohio at the southwest corner of the State? 25. What is the course of
the Miami river? 26. Of Ohio river?

27. What water communication is there between Cincinnati and Dayton?
28. What is the general course of the Ohio canal? 29. What towns in the
northern part of the State are near the course of the canal? 30. What
in the southern part? 31. To what town does a branch of the Ohio canal
run? 32. At what place does it communicate with Lake Erie?

33. What towns on Ohio river? 34. On what river is Columbus, and
in what part of the State is it? 35. Which way is Cincinnati from
Columbus? 36. Which is most westerly, Marietta, Cincinnati, or
Gallipolis? 37. Where is Steubenville? 38. On what river, and in what
part of the State, is Fort Defiance? 39. Which way is Jackson from
Jefferson?

40. What State does Lake Michigan bound (in part) on the north? 41.
Where is Fort Wayne? 42. What river forms part of the western boundary
of Indiana? 43. Which of the branches of the Illinois river has its
source in Indiana? 44. What are the branches of the Wabash? 45. How is
Indianapolis, the capital situated? 46. What towns on the Ohio river?
47. Which way is Vincennes from Indianapolis? 48. Connersville from
Vincennes? 49. Which way from Crawfordville is Jacksonboro’?

50. What lake separates Illinois from Michigan? 51. What three rivers
form the western, southern, and (in part) the eastern, boundaries of
Illinois? 52. Which is the largest river in Illinois? 53. What river in
the northwestern part of the State?

54. On what river is Vandalia, the capital? 55. Where is Kaskaskia?
56. Which way is Edwardsville from Vandalia? 57. How is Shawneetown
situated? 58. What town is on Lake Michigan? 59. In what part of the
State is Peoria? 60. Which way is McLeansboro’ from Jacksonville?

61. What mountains are between Kentucky and Virginia? 62. What river
rises in the eastern part of this State, and after passing through
Tennessee, flows north, into the Ohio? 63. Where is Licking river?

64. On what river is Frankfort, the capital? 65. Which way from
Frankfort to Maysville? 66. Which is more westerly, Henderson or
Louisville? 67. What town on Mississippi river? 68. Which is more
northwardly, Madisonville or Barbourville?

69. What mountains are between Tennessee and North Carolina? 70. What
range runs through the State? 71. What lake is in this State? 72. How
is it connected with Mississippi river? 73. Describe the course of the
Tennessee river. 74. What are the branches of the Tennessee river, and
where do they rise?

75. On what river is Nashville, the capital? 76. Which way from it
is Murfreesboro’? 77. In what part is Memphis? 78. Which is more
northwardly, Winchester or Knoxville? 79. Which is furthest north,
Washington, Munroe, or Jackson?

80. Of what state is Jefferson city the capital? 81. What mountains are
in that State? 82. What large river flows through the state? 83. Does
it flow west or east? 84. What river joins the Missouri at 15° long.
west from Washington? 85. What river in Missouri is of the same name as
one in New Hampshire and Massachusetts?

86. What are the principal towns on Mississippi river? 87. Which
is more northwardly, St. Louis or St. Charles? 88. Which is most
westwardly, Franklin, Jefferson, or Jackson?

89. Of what is Detroit the capital? 90. What lakes appear on this map
to border upon Michigan Territory? 91. What are some of the rivers?
_Note. For the whole shape of Michigan and Northwest Territories, the
learner must refer to the map of the United States, as neither of them
is fully exhibited on this map._

92. What is the latitude and longitude of Zanesville? 93. Of Vandalia?
94. How can a person travel by water from Cleveland to Dayton? 95.
Which is further north, Columbus or Indianapolis? 96. Frankfort or
Jefferson city? 97. Which is further east, Nashville or Vincennes? 98.
Which way from the capital of Ohio must you travel in order to pass
in a straight line through the capitals of two other of the western
States? 99. What Territory is north from Illinois? 100. Between what
parallels of latitude do the Western States lie?



UNITED STATES.


The United States of North America are classed into four groups of
States, each group having a distinguishing name. First, New England;
second, the Middle States; third, the Western; fourth, the Southern
States. This division arises from local distinctions, which exist
in the character and pursuits of the inhabitants, or is founded on
physical causes.


NEW ENGLAND.

New England includes the six States lying east from Hudson river
and Lake Champlain. This general name was given to this part of the
country by the first settlers, or, as they are generally called, ‘the
pilgrim fathers,’ who left England, their native country, and landed at
Plymouth, in December, 1620, in order that they might enjoy religious
freedom. This section of the United States is distinguished for the
industry of its inhabitants, and for being the most populous part of
the Union. Great attention is paid to agriculture and commerce.

[Illustration]

The features of New England are mountainous; and the soil is various,
producing in abundance, grass, grain, and a variety of fruits. Its
climate is salubrious.

There is probably no place in the world where education is so widely
spread through all classes of the people; there being schools in each
town, supported at public expense.


MAINE.

Is an uneven and mountainous State. Its soil is peculiarly adapted
to the growth of timber, and for pasturage of cattle. The climate is
healthy, although the cold is severe during the winter months. This
State has an extensive sea-coast, indented with many good harbors, and
commerce is actively pursued by those who reside near the ocean. The
exports are timber and fish. Portland is the largest city, and has
heretofore been the capital; but Augusta has recently been selected for
the metropolis of the State.


NEW HAMPSHIRE.

The climate of this State is similar to that of Maine. The land is
mountainous and fertile. Agriculture is the chief occupation of the
inhabitants. There is but little facility for commerce, as the State
has only sixteen miles of sea-coast. The harbor at Portsmouth is one of
the best on the continent, and contains one of the United States’ naval
stations. The capital of this State is Concord, which is a place of
considerable trade, having a communication with Boston harbor by means
of Middlesex canal.


VERMONT.

Derives its name from the range of the Green Mountains which runs
through the State. These mountains give rise to many rivers which
contribute to the fertility of the soil. The State being entirely
inland, the attention of the inhabitants is directed to agriculture and
manufactures. Mines of iron, copper, and lead, and quarries of marble,
are found in this State. Montpelier, the capital, is a flourishing
town.


MASSACHUSETTS.

Is the oldest State in New England, and is distinguished as having
been the first mover in the struggle for American Independence. It is
the first, except New York, in commerce, wealth, and manufactures. It
is the second commercial State in the Union. The state of society is
enlightened, and the advantages of education are universally enjoyed.

The land is uneven and hilly, and in the western part, mountainous. The
soil is fertile, except in the southeastern part, where it is sandy.

[Illustration: CITY HALL, BOSTON.]

Boston is the capital, and being the largest city in New England,
may properly be considered the metropolis of this whole section of
country. It is built upon a peninsula at the head of Massachusetts bay,
and has a most excellent harbor, capable of accommodating more than
five hundred vessels, while the entrance is so narrow that only two
ships can sail in, abreast. The wharfs are constructed with a degree
of expense and neatness far exceeding those of any other city in the
United States. The harbor is defended by forts, and contains one of
the United States’ naval stations. Boston has communication with the
surrounding country by means of seven bridges, all built of wood, with
the exception of the Western Avenue, which is built of stone and earth.
This city is noted for its literature, and for its many handsome public
and private buildings, among which may be named the State House, Quincy
Market, Tremont House, Masonic Temple, &c. The cut above gives a view
of the City Hall, which contains the Rooms of the Mayor, Aldermen,
and Council, Post Office, and City Treasurer and Clerk’s Offices.
This building was formerly the State House. In this venerated edifice
the _first legislative acts_ on the American revolution were debated
and acted upon. This continued to be the capitol until the year 1800,
when the present State House was built. This city is also celebrated
as containing Faneuil Hall, ‘the cradle of liberty,’ where the _first
popular assemblies_ were held, to discuss the question of Independence.

Salem, the next town in size, is considered the wealthiest town in the
United States.

Charlestown, is noted in the annals of the Revolution, as being the
place where the battle of Bunker Hill was fought.


CONNECTICUT.

Possesses a mild climate and fertile soil which is under a high state
of cultivation. Manufactures of cotton, woollen, linen, iron, wood, and
tin, are carried on with great activity and ingenuity in this State.
General habits of sobriety and industry are the characteristics of the
inhabitants, who are generally well educated, much attention being paid
to schools. Connecticut and Massachusetts have furnished more emigrants
to the western states than any other section of the Republic.

The General Assembly of statesmen, meets alternately at New Haven
and Hartford, on which account both may be considered capitals. Yale
College at New Haven, is one of the most flourishing seminaries in the
Union.


RHODE ISLAND.

Is the smallest State in the Republic; its soil is moderately fertile,
and the climate salubrious and healthy. It has a greater amount of
manufactures in proportion to its population than any other State. Its
commerce is considerable. This State takes its name from an island in
Narraganset bay. On this island is situated Newport, which has one of
the best harbors in the United States.

Rhode Island was founded by Roger Williams, a celebrated advocate for
religious liberty. This State has no written constitution, being still
governed under the charter of the English king, Charles II, in virtue
of which, the people annually elect a Governor, Senate, and House of
Representatives. These constitute the General Assembly, which meets
four times a year. Providence being the largest city may be considered
the capital, although the Assembly meets alternately at Providence,
South Kingston, East Greenwich, and Bristol. Brown University is in
Providence.



MIDDLE STATES.


[Illustration: THE PATTERSON VIADUCT.]

The Middle States are so called from their relative situation. The
distinguishing characteristic of this section of country is the
extensive system of internal improvement by means of canals and
railroads, by which the prosperity of those States is much promoted.
Railroads are laid down on the most level routes between the places to
be connected. They are formed by rails of iron laid on a foundation of
stone or wood. The wheels of the carriages are made to run upon these
rails, which being smooth offer little resistance, and make it easy
for a small force to move an immense weight. All the hills which occur
in the route of these roads are levelled and the valleys filled up.
Railroads pass over rivers by means of bridges, or, as they are more
generally called in these States, _viaducts_. The Baltimore and Ohio
railroad passes over a river, about seven miles from the city, by means
of one of these, called the Patterson viaduct, a view of which is given
in the cut.

The climate of the Middle States embraces almost all the varieties that
are found on the face of the earth; and, with the exception of the
northern part of the State of New York, the soil is more fertile than
that of New England. Wheat is produced in great abundance, and forms
the chief object of agriculture.


NEW YORK.

Ranks first in the United States for commerce, wealth, and population,
and is one of the most extensive in point of territory. The land is
uneven, and in some parts mountainous. The soil is moderately fertile,
and well adapted to agriculture and grazing.

A prominent feature of this State is the great number of lakes in
its interior, which, being connected together by rivers, facilitate
the transportation of produce from place to place. These natural
advantages, together with large rivers and grand canals, have raised
New York to the elevated rank she now holds, and made the city of New
York the first emporium of commerce in the Union.

The Falls of Niagara, between Lakes Erie and Ontario, are partly in
this State. This is the largest cataract in the world, and is a place
of great interest to the thousands of its visiters. The fall here is
one hundred and fifty feet.

Long Island is a part of this State. It is one hundred and sixty miles
long, and from two to fifteen broad, and is well cultivated. The
principal town on this island is Brooklyn, where there is one of the
United States naval stations.

ALBANY is the capital of New York. It is a flourishing city on the
Hudson river, situated at the point where it is joined by the Western
and Champlain canals, which circumstances contribute to make it a place
of considerable trade. Its inhabitants are principally descendants from
the Dutch, who first settled the state.

The city NEW YORK is situated on Manhattan island, at the mouth of the
Hudson river; and from its commodious bay and other natural advantages
for commerce, seems destined to rival all the commercial cities in the
world. This city contains many elegant buildings, and beautiful parks.
Its population embraces some of almost every nation on the earth, who
congregate here in pursuit of wealth. New York city extends over three
miles along its harbor, thus affording ample accommodation to almost
innumerable vessels.

Ballston and Saratoga springs, are the most celebrated mineral springs
in the United States, and are much visited, during the summer months,
on account of the medicinal qualities of the waters.


NEW JERSEY.

The soil of New Jersey is not generally so fertile as that of the
states which have been named, being sandy along the sea-coast, and
hilly in the interior. Although this state has an extensive sea-coast
yet, as there are few very commodious harbors, to vie with that of
New York on the one side and of Philadelphia on the other, it has but
little commerce:—These cities import almost all the foreign articles
and dispose of most of the manufactures and produce of this state.

The farmers raise many cattle, and much fruit, particularly apples,
from which immense quantities of cider are annually made:—for this
article this state is particularly celebrated.

Iron ore is abundant—copper, lead, coal, and freestone are found in
considerable quantities. Manufactures of iron, cotton, and leather, are
carried on to a considerable amount.

Trenton is the capital of the state. It is situated on the Delaware
river, and is on the great route of travel between New York and
Philadelphia. It is celebrated as the scene of one of the most
brilliant battles fought by the Americans during the revolution.
Princeton is also noted for a battle.

Newark contains more inhabitants than any other town in the state, its
population being about 11,000.


PENNSYLVANIA.

William Penn, a benevolent English gentleman, brought out with him,
in the year 1681, a great number of Quakers, and first settled this
state, under a grant from King Charles II. After his name the State is
called, Pennsylvania. This State exhibits a great variety of soil and
climate. The soil is suited to the growth of grain, and husbandry is
said to be better understood in Pennsylvania than in any other State.
Hemp and peaches are cultivated. Wine is made in small quantities, and
commerce flourishes to a great extent.

This State abounds in coal, which forms an article of commerce with
most of the cities of the United States. It is obtained in immense
quantities in the neighborhood of Pittsburg, and from the Schuylkill
and Lehigh mines.

Pennsylvania has engaged more extensively in internal improvements than
any other State.

Harrisburg, the capital, is pleasantly situated on the Susquehanna
River, and contains an elegant State House.

Philadelphia is the most regularly laid out and well built city in the
Union. The streets generally intersect each other at right angles, and
the principal ones are 100 feet wide. The inhabitants are extensively
engaged in manufactures. The commerce of this place is large, and
according to the amount of its exports is the third commercial city in
the Republic.

In this city are many literary, scientific, and benevolent
institutions, and numerous elegant public buildings, among which are
the Bank of the United States, the Almshouse, Mint of the United
States, and many elegant churches. The population of the city is
80,458; and of the suburbs, 87,353; total, 167,811.


DELAWARE.

With the exception of Rhode Island, this state is the smallest in the
Union; it is also the least populous state. Its soil is moderately
fertile, and produces a great variety of grasses, and an abundance of
wheat. Flour is the principal article of manufacture and export. A
considerable quantity of lumber is also exported.

The Chesapeake and Delaware canal intersects this state, and forms an
easy and expeditious communication between Philadelphia and Baltimore.

Dover is the capital. It contains a handsome state house.


MARYLAND.

This is the most irregularly shaped of all the American states. Here
the system of husbandry peculiar to the Southern States generally
commences, it being the first in our progress southward where tobacco
is produced. Wheat, hemp, and flax, are considerably cultivated.

The first settlers of this State were natives of Sweden, and many of
their posterity may still be found who are like their forefathers,
healthy, cheerful, industrious, and hospitable.

This State ranks high in a commercial view. Its commercial city is
Baltimore, where there is an excellent harbor, capable of containing
a great number of vessels. Its inhabitants are celebrated for
hospitality, a spirit of enterprise, and polished manners. It contains
many elegant public structures, viz. the Washington and Battle
Monuments, the Exchange, the Museum, and Hospital. Much attention is
paid to education. Population 80,625.

Annapolis is the capital. It is situated 28 miles southeast from
Baltimore, and is a flourishing place, containing a handsome state
house in its centre, towards which the streets run.

The principal manufacture of this State is flour, which is made in such
quantities as to form the chief article of export. Tobacco, lumber,
iron, glass, and whiskey, are also exported.


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Between Maryland and Virginia, lies the Federal District of Columbia,
comprising a square of ten miles. This district which was given by
these States to the United States, lies on both sides of the river
Potomack, 120 miles from its mouth, and is under the immediate
jurisdiction of the National Congress, which assembles annually at
Washington, for the purpose of legislation. Washington is situated near
the centre of the district, and is laid out in such manner, that the
principal buildings, as the Capitol, President’s house, &c. command a
full view of the city, and at the same time can be seen from every part
of it. Georgetown and Alexandria are also within the district.



WESTERN STATES.


The Western States have all sprung into existence within the period of
the last fifteen years, and their growth has been unparalleled, both in
the increase of population and wealth.

Probably no district of country on earth, possesses so great a
proportion of soil capable of yielding the necessaries and luxuries
of life, in so great abundance. The seasons are regularly divided
into spring, summer, autumn, and winter, and the climate is generally
healthful. Furs, minerals, cotton, indigo, tobacco, hemp, wheat, and
every description of grain and fruit common in the New England States,
flourish here.

Prairies are common in this section of the country, on which immense
herds of buffaloes are often seen grazing.

The remote situation of these states from the ocean, has retarded their
growth as a commercial country; but the introduction of steam-boats,
canals, and railways, is fast overcoming the difficulty, and some of
the western towns are already very large, and are rapidly increasing.

[Illustration: CINCINNATI.]


OHIO.

Takes its name, and derives its greatest facilities for commerce, from
the noble Ohio river. This State was admitted to the Union in the
year 1802, since which time its growth has been rapid; in 1820 its
population was 581,434; and increased in ten years to 937,679.

Although there are no mountains in this State, yet it is diversified
with hills, valleys, and plains, and watered by many fine rivers,
navigable for boats. The soil and climate are excellent, and the state
presents great facilities for agriculture. The land in its natural
state is thickly covered with forests, and the trees attain an immense
size.

The population is composed of emigrants from the other states, the
greater proportion of which are from New England. The inhabitants are
noted for their industrious habits, and enterprising spirit.

Cincinnati (a view of which is given above,) is the largest town in the
State, and with propriety may be considered the commercial capital of
the Western States. It is rapidly increasing in refinement, business,
and population. The number of inhabitants, as given in the returns to
congress in the year 1830, is stated at 24,831; but another census
taken a few months later in the same year states that it is 26,515.
Being advantageously situated on the Ohio river, it seems destined to
become a great city, and may in progress of time rival the older cities
of the _Middle_ and the _Eastern_ States.

Columbus, the capital, is a flourishing place.

Much attention is paid in this State to education. There are many
colleges and academies, and schools are general throughout the State.
Internal improvements are gaining the attention of the people.

Mounds of earth are found in many places, the origin of which cannot be
ascertained. These mounds appear to be forts, and are supposed to have
been built by people who lived in this country before the present race
of Indians.


INDIANA.

This state is nearly similar to Ohio in its climate, soil, productions,
and inhabitants. The northern part of the State is level, the southern
part broken and hilly, and there is much timber land.

The largest town in the State is Vincennes. At this place most of the
trade of the State centres.


ILLINOIS.

The soil of this State is exceedingly rich, and is divided into forest
and prairie lands; and when under cultivation produces in the greatest
abundance, the necessaries and luxuries of life. Grapes are common to
the country, and are abundant. Great quantities of wine might be easily
manufactured. Foreign vines have been cultivated with success. Maize,
wheat, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, rye, tobacco, cotton, hemp,
and flax, peaches, plums, and garden vegetables, and indeed almost all
the productions of the Eastern and Middle States, can be cultivated to
advantage here.

The United States salt works on the Saline river produce annually
200,000 bushels of salt. Coal, iron ore, copper, and lead are found
here.


MISSOURI.

Takes its name from the river which runs through the State. It contains
less woodland than Illinois, but its soil and climate are similar.
Numerous mines of lead are now worked, which yield immense quantities.
Iron ore is found in great abundance, and it is probable that enough of
these two minerals may be obtained from this State to supply the whole
United States.

Jefferson city, the capital, is at present a small place, but is
increasing. St. Louis is the largest town, and is the depot for the
trade of the northwestern territories.


KENTUCKY.

Is one of the most healthful and beautiful States in the Union. The
greater proportion of its land is arable and productive. The failure of
water of most of the rivers of this State during the summer months is
a great obstacle to its prosperity. The Ohio and Mississippi rivers,
however, form an easy communication with the sea. The productions
are wheat, tobacco, maize, rye, and to a small extent, cotton. The
inhabitants consist of the descendants of emigrants from the other
States, and many from Europe. They are brave, frank, and hospitable.

Lexington is the largest town in the State, and has a population of
6,104. Frankfort, the capital, is situated on the Kentucky river, about
60 miles from its mouth, and is a flourishing place.


TENNESSEE.

The description of Kentucky may be also applied to this State,
except that it is intersected by two noble rivers, the Tennessee and
Cumberland, which are rarely frozen, and afford a great extent of boat
navigation. Vegetation commences about six weeks earlier in this State
than in New Hampshire, and continues about six weeks longer.

Nashville, the capital, is the largest town in the State. In this place
is Cumberland College.



SOUTHERN STATES.


[Illustration: Mount Vernon. Seat of General Washington.]

That part of the Southern States near the Atlantic ocean and the gulf
of Mexico is low and sandy. The greater portion of this section of
the country is barren, except the parts near the rivers, which are
exceedingly fertile. After proceeding towards the interior about 75 or
100 miles, the country becomes mountainous and productive.

Tobacco, cotton, rice and sugar are the staple productions. The owners
of the lands where these articles are cultivated are called planters,
and the labor of the plantations is performed by slaves.

The climate of this part of the United States is various. In Virginia
and Maryland the heat of summer is not extreme, and a small quantity of
snow only, falls during the winter. In the most southwardly States snow
is exceedingly rare in winter, and the heat is intense in the summer
months.

The commerce and manufactures of these States are very limited, and to
agriculture, almost the whole attention of the inhabitants is directed.
Their tobacco, cotton, and all their exports are sent out in ships
owned in the Northern States. The reason for this probably is, that the
cultivation of the staple productions is more profitable than commerce.

The inhabitants of the Southern States, residing on large plantations,
are so much separated from one another, that it is impossible to carry
into effect a system of education so extensive as that of the Northern
States, and of course the people generally, are not so well informed.
The higher classes are, however, well educated.


VIRGINIA.

Is the oldest State in the Union, having been first settled in the year
1607, and is celebrated as being the birth-place of General George
Washington, the brightest model of a great and good man and patriot, of
which the world can boast.

The cut on this page presents a view of his residence, situated on the
Potomack river, nine miles below Alexandria, where he spent his time,
when not actively engaged in the service of his country.

This State includes a surface larger than that of England. The soil
of the Eastern coast is sandy and the climate unhealthy; while the
interior parts are fertile and healthy, and inhabited by a race of men,
very vigorous and exceedingly tall. The Virginians are hospitable, and
are noted for cherishing their talented statesmen.

In amount of commerce Virginia, though first in size, ranks only as the
eighth State. Wheat, corn, and tobacco are the most important articles
of export.

Richmond, the capital, is situated at the falls on St. James river. It
is a handsome city.

Norfolk, on Elizabeth river, is the chief commercial town of the State.


NORTH CAROLINA.

Closely resembles Virginia in climate, soil and character of its
inhabitants. The Carolinians in the lower country, are mostly planters,
and in the upper country, farmers. The coast of North Carolina abounds
in sand banks and islands, which render navigation dangerous, and its
commerce is conducted at the seaports of the neighboring States.

The towns of this State are small, Newbern, with a population of 4000,
being the largest.


SOUTH CAROLINA.

Exhibits the characteristics peculiar to the Southern States, in a
greater degree than any other. The planters of this State are the most
wealthy of their class, and require a greater number of slaves to
cultivate their fertile and extensive plantations. In this State only
does the number of slaves exceed the white population. According to the
last census, more than one half of the inhabitants are slaves.

Cotton is the great staple of this state. It is of three kinds.
_Sea Island_ cotton, which grows on the islands and in the low
country;—_Upland_ cotton, which is cultivated in the mountainous
interior country;—and the _Nankin_ cotton, which retains its peculiar
color as long as it can be worn. Of these the Sea Island is the most
esteemed. Rice is extensively cultivated on the shores of the rivers
and bays. Limes, oranges, lemons, figs, &c. are produced.

The commerce of South Carolina exceeds that of all the other Southern
States except Louisiana, the leading articles of export being cotton
and rice, to which may be added pitch, tar, timber, turpentine, indigo
and tobacco.


GEORGIA, MISSISSIPPI, ALABAMA, AND LOUISIANA.

These States nearly resemble each other, and have the same productions
with the other Southern States; and in addition, the sugar cane is
extensively cultivated. Louisiana is the most commercial of the
Southern States, having at New Orleans an excellent harbor, and many
other natural advantages.

New Orleans is the commercial capital of that richest country in the
world, through which the Mississippi and its tributaries flow. This
city is unhealthy during the warm season, but enjoys a most excellent
situation for commerce and trade. The introduction of steam boats
has contributed greatly to the growth of New Orleans, by affording
an expeditious mode of communicating with its back country. Its
inhabitants are a mixed race of French, Americans, Spaniards, and
Germans.



TERRITORIES.


The _Territory of Florida_ has a great similarity to the Southern
States generally. It is well stocked with timber, and furnishes a great
quantity for ship building. Its climate and soil are well adapted to
the growth of sugar cane, coffee, cotton and rice.

_Arkansas Territory_ is in the eastern part flat and swampy—in the
western uneven—and in the middle pleasant and healthful.

The _North West Territory_ has been but little explored; it is chiefly
in possession of the Indians. Green Bay and Prairie du Chien are the
chief settlements. Lead mines are found here.

_Michigan Territory._ The climate is severe, and the winter lasts from
the middle of November to March. The face of the country is level,
and the productions are wheat, maize, oats, barley and potatoes. The
Southern part only is, at present, settled. Detroit the capital has a
large fur trade.

_Missouri Territory_ is an immense tract of land, stretching from the
States and Territories bordering on the western side of the Mississippi
river to the Rocky Mountains; almost the whole of it is in possession
of the Indians, the United States having only two military posts, one
at Council Bluffs, and one on St. Peter’s River. This tract is valuable
to Americans on account of the numerous wild animals found, from which
furs are obtained.

_Oregon Territory_ extends from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific
Ocean. This great region is also chiefly in possession of the Indians,
although there is an American settlement on the Columbia river, called
Astoria. Exertions are now making to induce people to emigrate from
the States to this part of our country, which is said to be a healthy
and fertile region, and to offer superior advantages for commerce and
manufactures.

CHART.

Comparative lengths of the principal CANALS in the United States, which
are in operation to the extent mentioned in the scale. Some of them
will hereafter be continued to a greater length.

                                CANALS.
   ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       Canal                 Length         Extent
                             (Miles)
   ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
   Erie, or Grand Western,    363   Con. Hudson R. and L. Erie.
    Ohio,                     307   Connects Lake Erie and the Ohio
                                      river; also some laterals,
                                      which make the whole length
                                      334 miles.
    Hudson and Delaware,      140   Connects the rivers Hudson and
                                      Delaware, N. Y.
    Schuylkill,               100   For the improvement of navigation
                                      of the Schuylkill river.
    Morris,                    90   Connects the rivers Delaware and
                                      Raritan, Del.
    Farmington,                80   From Northampton to New&-Haven,
                                      Mass. and Conn.
    Union,                     80   Connects the rivers Schuylkill
                                       and Susquehannah, Penn.
    Miami,                     70   Runs from Cincinnati to Dayton,
                                     Ohio.
    Northern, or Champlain,    70   Connects Lake Champlain and Hudson
                                     river, N. Y.
    Baltimore and Ohio,        57   When completed will extend to much
                                     greater length.
    Blackstone,                44   From Providence to Worcester, Mass.
    Lehigh,                    44   To improve navigation of Lehigh
                                     river, Penn.
    Oswego,                    40   Erie Canal with Lake Ontario.
    Lackawaxen,                32   From Rail-Road to Hudson Canal.
    Santee,                    28   To connect Santee and Cooper
                                      rivers, S. C.
    Middlesex,                 27   From Merrimack river to Boston,
                                      Mass.
    Oxford,                    22   From Portland to Lake Sebago,
                                      Maine.
    Dismal Swamp,              22   From Chesapeake Bay to Albemarle
                                      Sound, Va. & N. C.
    Seneca,                    22   Seneca Lake and Erie Canal, N. Y.
    Delaware & Chesapeake,     18   Connects Delaware and Chesapeake
                                      Bays.
    Savannah & Ogeechee.       17   From Savannah City to Ogeechee
                                      river, Geo.
   ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

NOTE. Besides the above-mentioned Canals, there are others in progress,
or on the point of commencement, in the United States, amounting,
probably, to 1500 miles.


RAIL-ROADS.

                                                 Miles.

    Baltimore and Ohio,                          340
    Charleston and Hamburg,      S. C.           135
    Columbia and Philadelphia,   Pa.              81½
    Portsmouth and Roanoke,      Va. & N. C.      80
    Baltimore & Susquehannah,    Md.              76
    Cattskill and Canajoharie,   N. Y.            70
    Lexington and Ohio river,    Ky.              66
    Camden and Amboy,            N. J.            61
    Petersburg and Roanoke,      Va.              60
    Harrisburg & Chambersburg,   Pa.              48
    Boston and Worcester,        Mass.            43½
    Boston and Providence,       Mass.            43
    Alleghany Portage,           Pa.              37
    Baltimore and Washington,                     33
    Ithaca and Oswego,           N. Y.            29
    Philadelphia and Trenton,    Pa. & N. J.      26¾
    Detroit and Pontiac,         Mich. Ter.       25
    Boston and Lowell,           Mass.            25
    Little Schuylkill,           Pa.              23
    Saratoga and Schenectady,    N. Y.            20
    Philadelphia & Norristown,   Pa.              19
    Newcastle and Frenchtown,    Del. & Md.       16½
    Albany and Schenectady,      N. Y.            16
    Lakens Valley,               Pa.              16
    Lackawaxen,                  Pa.              16
    Patterson and Hudson,        N. J.            16
    Manchester,                  Va.              13
    Schuylkill,                  Pa.              13
    Altamaha and Brunswick,      Geo.             12
    Schuylkill Valley,           Pa.              10
      do.        do.   Laterals,                  13
    West Branch,                 Pa.              15
      do.   do.  Laterals,                         5
    Mount Carbon,                Pa.               9
      do.   do.   Laterals,                        4
    Mauch Chunk,                 Pa.               9
      do.   do.  Laterals,                         4½
    Pinegrove,                                     5
    Louisiana,                                     4
    Lake Ponchartrain,           La.               4½
    Mile Creek,                  Pa.               4
      do.  do.  Laterals,                          3
    Quincy,                      Mass.             4
    Providence and Stonington,   R. I. & Ct.      47
    Boston and Salem,            Mass.            14

NOTE. Many others are in progress in various Sections of the United
States.


STATISTICAL AND POLITICAL CHART.

The following Chart, combining much general information, is intended
more for reference than for study; yet the instructer will propose such
questions as may be thought useful; especially in relation to the state
in which the learner may reside.

  ──────────────┬──────────┬─────────┬─────────────────────┬───────────┐
                │          │         │                     │    [3]    │
                │          │         │                     │Electors of│
                │          │         │                     │ President │
                │          │         │                     │ and Vice  │
                │          │         │      Seats of       │Pres. of   │
                │  Total   │ Number  │     Government,     │the United │
     STATES.    │Population│   of    │        with         │  States,  │
                │          │ Slaves. │     Population.     │ chosen in │
                │          │         │                     │    each   │
                │          │         │                     │  state by │
  ──────────────┼──────────┼─────────┼─────────────────────┼───────────┤
  Maine,        │   399,462│     none│Augusta,        3,980│Districts  │
  New Hampshire,│   269,533│     none│Concord,        3,727│Gen. Ticket│
  Vermont,      │   280,679│     none│Montpelier,     1,193│ Do.       │
  Massachusetts,│   610,014│     none│Boston,        61,392│ Do.       │
  Connecticut,  │   297,711│       23│{ New Haven,   10,180│ Do.       │
                │          │         │{ Hartford,     7,076│           │
                │          │         │                     │           │
                │          │         │{ Providence,  16,832│           │
                │          │         │{ Newport,      8,010│           │
  Rhode Island, │    97,210│       14│{ S. Kingston,  3,663│ Do.       │
                │          │         │{ E. Greenwich, 1,591│           │
                │          │         │{ Bristol,      3,054│           │
  New York,     │ 1,913,508│       46│Albany,        24,238│ Do.       │
  New Jersey,   │   320,779│    2,446│Trenton,        3,925│ Do.       │
  Pennsylvania, │ 1,347,672│      386│Harrisburg,     4,311│ Do.       │
  Delaware,     │    76,739│    3,305│Dover,*         1,200│Legislature│
  Maryland,     │   446,913│  102,878│Annapolis,      2,623│Districts. │
  Ohio,         │   937,679│     none│Columbus,       2,437│Gen. Ticket│
  Indiana,      │   341,582│     none│Indianopolis,*  1,200│  Do.      │
  Illinois,     │   157,575│      746│Vandalia,*        600│  Do.      │
  Missouri,     │   140,074│   24,990│Jefferson,*       500│  Do.      │
  Kentucky,     │   688,844│  165,350│Frankfort,      1,680│  Do.      │
  Tennessee,    │   684,822│  142,382│Nashville,      5,566│Legislature│
  Virginia,     │ 1,211,272│  469,724│Richmond,      16,060│Gen. Ticket│
  North         │   738,470│  246,462│Raleigh,        1,700│  Do.      │
    Carolina,   │          │         │                     │           │
  South         │   581,458│  315,665│Columbia,       3,310│Legislature│
    Carolina,   │          │         │                     │           │
  Georgia,      │   516,567│  217,470│Milledgeville,  1,599│Gen. Ticket│
  Alabama,      │   308,997│  117,294│Tuscaloosa,     1,600│  Do.      │
  Mississippi,  │   136,806│   65,659│Jackson,*       1,000│  Do.      │
  Louisiana,    │   215,575│  109,631│New Orleans,   46,310│Legislature│
  Dis. of       │    39,858│    6,050│Washington,    18,827│           │
    Columbia,   │          │         │                     ├───────────┘
  Florida       │    34,723│   15,510│Tallahassee,*   1,000│
    Territ’y,[4]│          │         │                     │
  Michigan do.  │    31,260│       27│Detroit,        2,222│
  Arkansas do.  │    30,383│    4,578│Little Rock,*     600│
                ├──────────┼─────────┤                     │
  Total,        │12,856,165│2,010,436│                     │
  ──────────────┴──────────┴─────────┴─────────────────────┘

The population is given according to the census of 1830, except those
towns marked *, which were not particularized in the returns. The
population of these is therefore taken from other late authorities.

   ──────────────┬────────────────────────┬──────────┬───────────┐
                 │                        │    [5]   │    [6]    │
                 │        Governors.      │          │ Represen- │
                 │                        │ Senators.│  tatives  │
      STATES.    ├────────┬─────┬─────────┼────┬─────┼─────┬─────┤
                 │ Chosen │     │         │    │     │     │     │
                 │ by the │Years│ Salary. │ No.│Years│ No. │Years│
   ──────────────┼────────┼─────┼─────────┼────┼─────┼─────┼─────┤
   Maine,        │ People │  1  │ 1,500   │ 20 │  1  │ 153 │  1  │
   New Hampshire,│   do.  │  1  │ 1,200   │ 12 │  1  │ 229 │  1  │
   Vermont,      │   do.  │  1  │   750   │    │     │ 230 │  1  │
   Massachusetts,│   do.  │  1  │ 3,666⅔  │ 40 │  1  │ 481 │  1  │
   Connecticut,  │   do.  │  1  │ 1,100   │ 21 │  1  │ 208 │  1  │
   Rhode Island, │   do.  │  1  │   400   │ 10 │  1  │  72 │  ½  │
   New York,     │   do.  │  2  │ 4,000   │ 32 │  4  │ 128 │  1  │
   New Jersey,   │ Legis. │  1  │ 2,000   │ 14 │  1  │  50 │  1  │
   Pennsylvania, │ People │  3  │ 4,000   │ 33 │  4  │ 100 │  1  │
   Delaware,     │   do.  │  3  │ 1,333⅓  │  9 │  3  │  21 │  1  │
   Maryland,     │ Legis. │  1  │ 3,500   │ 15 │  5  │  80 │  1  │
   Ohio,         │ People │  2  │ 1,200   │ 36 │  2  │  72 │  1  │
   Indiana,      │   do.  │  3  │ 1,000   │ 23 │  3  │  62 │  1  │
   Illinois,     │   do.  │  4  │ 1,000   │    │  4  │     │  2  │
   Missouri,     │   do.  │  4  │ 1,500   │ 18 │  4  │  49 │  2  │
   Kentucky,     │   do.  │  4  │ 2,000   │ 38 │  4  │ 100 │  1  │
   Tennessee,    │   do.  │  2  │ 2,000   │ 20 │  2  │  60 │  2  │
   Virginia,     │ Legis. │  3  │ 3,333⅓  │ 32 │  4  │ 134 │  1  │
   North         │   do.  │  1  │ 2,000   │ 64 │  1  │ 134 │  1  │
     Carolina,   │        │     │         │    │     │     │     │
   South         │   do.  │  2  │ 3,900   │ 45 │  4  │ 124 │  2  │
     Carolina,   │        │     │         │    │     │     │     │
   Georgia,      │ People │  2  │ 3,000   │ 78 │  1  │ 142 │  1  │
   Alabama,      │   do.  │  2  │ 2,000   │ 22 │  3  │  72 │  1  │
   Mississippi,  │   do.  │  2  │ 2,500   │ 11 │  3  │  36 │  1  │
   Louisiana,    │   do.  │  4  │ 7,500   │ 17 │  4  │  50 │  2  │
   ──────────────┴────────┴─────┴─────────┴────┴─────┴─────┴─────┘

  ──────────────┬────────────┬───────────────
                │   Time of  │
                │   holding  │   Time of
                │  Elections │   Meeting
                │  of State  │ of the State
     STATES.    │  Officers. │ Legislatures.
  ──────────────┼────────────┼───────────────
  Maine,        │ 2d Monday  │ 1st Wednesday
                │  in Sept.  │  in January.
  New Hampshire,│ 2d Tues.   │ 1st Wednesday
                │  in March. │  in June.
  Vermont,      │ 1st Tues.  │ 2d Thursday
                │  in Sept.  │ in October.
  Massachusetts,│ 2d Mond.   │ 1st Wednesday
                │  in Nov.   │  in January.
  Connecticut,  │ 1st Mond.  │ 1st Wed. May,
                │  in April. │    alternately
                │   at Hart. and New Haven.
────────────────┼────────────┬───────────────
                │  Governor  │
                │    and     │ 1st Wed. May;
                │  Senators  │  and in June.
  Rhode Island, │  in April. │
                │ Represen-  │
                │ tatives in │ Last Wed. Oct.
                │  April and │  and in Jan.
                │    Aug.    │
────────────────┼────────────┼───────────────
  New York,     │ October or │ 1st Tuesday
                │  Nov.      │  in January.
  New Jersey,   │ 2d Tues.   │ 4th Tuesday
                │  in Oct.   │  in October.
  Pennsylvania, │ 2d Tues.   │ 1st Tuesday
                │  in Oct.   │  in December.
  Delaware,     │ 1st Tues.  │ 1st Tuesday
                │  in Oct.   │  in January.
  Maryland,     │ 1st Monday │ Last Monday
                │  in Oct.   │  in December.
  Ohio,         │ 2d Tuesday │ 1st Monday
                │  in Oct.   │  in December.
  Indiana,      │ 1st Mond.  │ 1st Monday
                │  in Aug.   │  in December.
  Illinois,     │ 1st Mond.  │ 1st Mon. Dec.
                │  in Aug.   │  every 2d yr.
  Missouri,     │ 1st Mond.  │ 1st Mon. Nov.
                │  in Aug.   │  every 2d yr.
  Kentucky,     │ 1st Mond.  │ 1st Monday
                │  in Aug.   │  in November.
  Tennessee,    │ 1st Thurs. │ 3d Mon. Sept.
                │  in Aug.   │  every 2d yr.
  Virginia,     │ In month   │ 1st Monday
                │  of April. │  in December.
  North         │ Generally  │ 2d Monday
    Carolina,   │  in Aug.   │  in November.
  South         │ 2d Mond.   │ 4th Monday
    Carolina,   │  in Oct.   │  in November.
  Georgia,      │ 1st Mond.  │ 1st Monday
                │  in Oct.   │  in November.
  Alabama,      │ 1st Mond.  │ 4th Monday
                │  in Aug.   │  in October.
  Mississippi,  │ 1st Mond.  │ 1st Monday
                │  in Aug.   │  in November.
  Louisiana,    │ 1st Mond.  │ 1st Monday
                │  in July.  │  in January.
  ──────────────┴────────────┴───────────────

FOOTNOTES:

[3] The Electors are chosen by the people in all the States within the
thirty-four days preceding the first Wednesday in December, in which an
election of President and Vice President takes place. On that day all
the Electors give in their votes. No person can be an Elector who holds
any office under the government of the United States. The PRESIDENT and
VICE PRESIDENT are chosen for the term of four years, commencing on the
fourth day of March.

[4] The Governors of Territories are appointed by the President, with
the consent of the Senate, for the term of three years.

[5] Senators and Representatives are chosen by the people.

[6] Senators and Representatives are chosen by the people.

[Illustration: SOUTH AMERICA

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston.  H. Morse Sc._]



SOUTH AMERICA.


1. _What productions are found in greater perfection in_ AMERICA, _than
in the other parts of the earth?_ 2. What are the principal divisions
of South America? 3. In what part is Amazonia? 4. By what name is the
northeastern part of the Republic of Colombia known? 5. By what name is
the western part distinguished?

6. How is Colombia situated? 7. Peru? 8. Bolivia? 9. Guiana? 10.
Brazil? 11. The United Provinces? 12. Chili? 13. Patagonia? 14 to 21.
How are these countries severally bounded?

22. What range of mountains extends the whole length of South America
from north to south? 23. Near which coast is this range? 24. _What are
the names of the highest peaks?_ 25. In which country is Chimborazo?
26. _What mountains are there in the world higher than Chimborazo?_ 27.
Which way from Chimborazo is Cotopaxi? 28. _Is Cotopaxi a volcano?_ 29.
In what direction is Pichinca from Chimborazo?

30. How is Lake Titicaca situated? 31. Which way from it is Lake
Nicaragua in North America? 32. Where is Lake Parima? 33. Lake
Maracaibo?

34. How is the Bay of Panama situated? 35. Bay St. Joseph? 36. Bay All
Saints? 37. How is Gulf St. George situated? 38. Gulf of Guayaquil? 39.
Gulf of Darien?

40. What large river discharges its waters into the Atlantic, under
the equator? 41. Where does it rise? 42. What is its course? 43. What
rivers flow into it from the south? 44. What from the north? 45. In
what country is the river De la Plata? 46. _Which is the largest river
in the world, and what is remarkable concerning it?_

47. What is the latitude of the mouth of the river St. Francisco? 48.
What is its course? 49. What river runs between Colombia and Guiana?
50. Between Bolivia and Brazil?

51. _Which of the Grand Divisions of the earth is most celebrated for
the magnitude of its lakes and rivers?_

52. Where are the Straits of Magellan? 53. What land do they separate
from Patagonia? 54. With the waters of what oceans do they communicate?

55. What is the northern cape of South America? 56. The eastern cape?
57. The southern cape? 58. The western cape? 59. Where is Cape Pillar?
60. Cape Orange? 61. Cape St. Antonio? 62. What capes are near the
mouth of Parayba river?

63. What Peninsula is situated on the eastern coast of Patagonia? 64.
What on the western coast?

65. Where is the island Trinidad? 66. What is its latitude and
longitude? 67. What islands in the Pacific ocean are near the Equator?
68. What is their longitude? 69. What islands lie east from the
Caribbean sea?

70. What is the situation of the Island Chiloe? 71. Juan Fernandez,
or Robinson Crusoe’s island? 72. What islands are east from Terra del
Fuego? 73. What is the latitude and longitude of the islands Felix and
Ambrose? 74. Where is Sandwich Land?

75. In what country is Cayenne? 76. Carracas? 77. Popayan? 78. La Paz?
79. Valparaiso? 80. Lima? 81. Assumption? 82. At the mouth of what
river is Buenos Ayres? 83. What is the latitude of Quito? 84. What
volcanic mountains are in its vicinity? 85. What town in Bolivia is on
the coast? 86. In what portion of Brazil is Paraibo? 87. Rio Janeiro?
88. What river flows into the Atlantic ocean, half way between Caite
and Seara?

89. In what zone are the United Provinces, Chili, and Patagonia?
90. In what zone does the larger portion of South America lie? 91.
Potosi is celebrated for its silver mines; where is it? 92. Which is
more northwardly, Paraguay or Banda Oriental? 93. Peru or Chili? 94.
Colombia or Bolivia? 95. What would be the course of a ship in sailing
from the Galapago islands to the mouth of the Amazon river?

South America is an exceedingly rich and fertile country, producing in
abundance gold and silver, and the necessaries and luxuries of life.

The most prominent feature of this country is the range of mountains
which extends through the western part from north to south. The region
to the west from this range is an immense plateau, elevated twelve
thousand feet above the level of the sea; owing to this elevation,
this tract enjoys a cool and healthy climate. To the east from these
mountains is an extensive marshy and sandy plain, intersected by
immense rivers.

The Andes mountains are most interesting on account of the
inexhaustible treasures which they contain. One mountain alone has more
than three hundred openings from which silver is obtained.

_Colombia_ is a republic, with a government similar to that of the
United States. The face of the country is greatly diversified with
mountains, valleys, and immense plains. The climate of the plains
and coast is unhealthy; that of the more elevated parts, salubrious.
Cotton, grain, coffee, tobacco, gold, silver, and tropical fruits are
produced.

_Guiana_ is a level and fertile country, with an unhealthful climate.
The productions are sugar, cocoa, coffee, indigo, &c.

_Peru_ possesses a mild and healthy climate and fertile soil, except
along the sea coast, where it is level, barren, and unhealthy. The
east part consists of immense plains, called _pampas_, covered with
grass. These pampas resemble the prairies of the United States. The
productions are gold, silver, sugar, grain, and Jesuit or Peruvian
bark, celebrated for its medicinal qualities.

_Bolivia_ became an independent country in the year 1825, with a
republican government, and was named after Simon Bolivar, the first
President. It was once a part of Peru, and, in its climate, soil, and
productions, resembles that country.

_Chili_, being bounded on the east by the lofty and snow capped Andes
on one side, and the ocean on the other, never feels excessive heat,
though situated nearly in the torrid zone. The climate therefore is
cool and healthy, and the soil is fertile. The seasons in this country
are different from those of the United States. Spring begins in
September, summer in December, autumn in March, and winter in June. The
productions are gold, silver, copper, tin, corn, wine, maize, sugar,
sweet potatoes, and a variety of fruits.

[Illustration: ARAUCANIAN VILLAGE.]

In the southern part of Chili there still exists a tribe of Indians,
which the Spaniards have not yet been able to conquer. These are called
the Araucanian Indians. They are a warlike and brave people, residing
in scattered villages. They possess excellent horses, which are trained
to martial use.

_Patagonia_ is a cold and inhospitable country, of which little is
known. It is inhabited by a race of Indians who are of a gigantic
size. The first discoverers, called them _Pata-gones_ which means
_clumsy-hoofed_. From this circumstance the country derived its name.

The _United Provinces_ abound in pampas, some of which are one hundred
miles in extent, which are inhabited by wild Indians, and afford
pasturage to herds of wild cattle. The climate is salubrious, and most
of the fruits and vegetables of the torrid and temperate zones are
produced.

_Brazil_ is the largest of the countries of South America, and is level
and fertile, producing tobacco, sugar, indigo, coffee, and pepper.
Diamonds are found here. In the interior, vast herds of wild cattle
abound. They are hunted for their hides, which form the chief export
article of the country.

[Illustration: EUROPE

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston.  H. Morse Sc._]



EUROPE.


1. _For what is Europe celebrated?_ 2. What are its principal
divisions? 3. How is Denmark[7] bounded? 4 to 19. How is each of the
other divisions bounded? 20. In what part of Europe is Russia? 21.
Spain? 22. Norway?[8]

23. Where are the Ural mountains? 24. What mountains are in Italy? 25.
In Switzerland? 26. In Austria? 27. Where are the Pyrenees? 23. How are
the Hæmus mountains situated? 29. The Dofrafeld mountains? 30. _What
Volcano is on the island Sicily?_ 31. Where is Mount Hecla, another
volcano?

32. Where is lake Constance? 33. What lakes in Russia lie between the
Gulf of Finland and the White sea? 34. Where is lake Ilmen? 35. Lake
Wener?

36. Between what countries is the Gulf of Bothnia? 37. What bay is
north from Spain? 38. What gulf lies between Italy and Austria? 39. How
is the Gulf of Taranto situated? 40. Gulf of Riga?

41. What seas between Europe and Asia? 42. What sea south from Europe?
43. How is the Baltic situated? 44. The White sea?

45. The Ural river rises in the Ural mountains, and forms, in part, the
eastern boundary of Russia; into what sea does it flow? 46. What rivers
rise in Spain, and flow through Portugal? 47. What other rivers rise
in Spain? 48. What rivers intersect the Netherlands? 49. What river of
France flows south into the Mediterranean?

50. In what country is the Volga river? 51. Into what does it flow? 52.
What city is at its mouth? 53. What rivers in Prussia? 54. What rivers
flow into the White sea? 55. Into the Bay of Biscay?

56. What connects the Mediterranean sea with the Atlantic ocean? 57.
The Sea of Marmora with the Archipelago? 58. With the Black sea? 59.
Where are the Straits of Caffa? 60. Where is Skager Rack?

61. Where is North Cape? 62. Cape La Hogue? 63. Cape Matapan? 64. What
capes of Spain are on the coast of the Mediterranean? 65. Which is more
northwardly, Cape Ortegal or Finisterre? 66. What cape is the southwest
part of Portugal? 67. What is the latitude of the Rock of Lisbon?

68. What islands in the Mediterranean between Italy and Spain? 69.
What island lies south from the Archipelago sea? 70. What island lies
northeast from Greece? 71. Where is the island Cyprus? 72. Where are
Ushant and Bellisle islands?

73. Which way from Ireland is Iceland? 74. What islands on the coast
of Norway? 75. Which way from Spain are the British Isles? 76. What
islands lie in the Baltic sea? 77. Where are the Shetland and Feroe
islands?

78. What peninsula extends from the southern part of Russia into the
Black sea? 79. Where is the peninsula, called The Morea? 80. What
countries in the south of Europe constitute peninsulas? 81. What
countries in the north constitute peninsulas?

82. How is St. Petersburg situated? 83. What is its latitude? 84. New
York is situated about 41 degrees latitude, north; what city of Spain
is in about the same latitude? 85. How can a person go by water from
St. Petersburg to Venice?

86. In what part of Europe is Lapland? 87. Finland? 88. Hungary? 89.
How is Paris situated? 90. Madrid? 91. Rome? 92. Constantinople? 93.
Copenhagen? 94. Bergen? 95. Konigsburg? 96. Amsterdam? 97. Hamburg? 98.
Stockholm? 99. Vienna? 100. Lisbon? 101. Geneva?

102. What direct communication is there between the Bay of Biscay
and the Mediterranean sea? 103. Where is the Maelstrom, a formidable
whirlpool? 104. West from what countries of Europe is England? 105.
What countries of Europe are south from England?

106. In what zone does Europe principally lie? 107. What countries
north from the 50th parallel of latitude? 108. What south? 109.
Which of the countries of Europe has no sea coast? 110. Which of the
countries of Europe is divided into two parts by Germany?[9]

[Illustration: LAPLANDERS. RUSSIANS.]

Europe is peculiarly favored in its natural advantages for commerce,
there being many bays and inland seas extending in such manner into
the interior that there is scarcely a town more than four hundred
miles from some navigable bay or sea. It has also many navigable
rivers. These advantages have contributed to the growth of the inland
cities, which are far in advance of those of our own country in size,
population, and elegance.

The climate is excessively cold in the northern parts, especially in
Lapland and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and Russia. In this
cold region the rein-deer is the principal support of the inhabitants.
Its flesh affords them food; its skin, clothes; and its sinews, twine
and thread. It is used also as horses and oxen are in this country, for
draught and travelling. It is capable of travelling two hundred miles
in a day.

The southern parts of _Norway_ and _Sweden_ have a broken and sandy
soil; the harvests are precarious, and the rearing of cattle is
practised with considerable success. These countries are celebrated for
their forests, which produce vast quantities of pine and fir lumber for
exportation. Tar, pitch, hemp, tobacco, and flax are produced.

_Russia_ is the largest empire in the world. It is a level country. The
climate and soil are necessarily various. The northern parts are cold
and barren, and the southern, peculiarly fertile. Hemp, flax, grain,
iron, tar, and furs, are exported in large quantities.

_Poland_ was formerly a powerful independent nation; but in the year
1772 it was unjustly divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia.
Russian Poland has lately made a brave but unsuccessful attempt to
regain its independence, and is now again under the tyrannical power of
Russia.

The central part of Europe, comprising _Denmark_, _Prussia_, _Germany_,
_The Netherlands_, _Switzerland_, and _Austria_ is a fertile and
healthy country, producing a great variety of the necessaries and
luxuries of life. A large part is adapted to grazing. Grain, wine,
flax, madder, amber, gold, silver, and copper, are produced. Poland has
a noted salt mine, which is represented on page 3.

_Italy_ and _Turkey_, being situated in the southern part of Europe,
possess a warm and healthy climate and fertile soil, producing vines,
grain, olives, wheat, figs, and oil. The former is one of the most
delightful countries in the world, and was once the seat of the arts
and sciences. The latter, comprising Greece, was in ancient times, the
parent of learning and the arts, but is now in a state of servitude to
tyrannical rulers.

_France_ is a fertile and beautiful country. Its productions are
grain, wines, olives, and various fruits. The country is noted for its
manufactures of silk and wool, which form the chief exports of the
nation. Paris, the capital, is esteemed one of the most luxurious and
refined cities in the world, and takes the lead in fashion. France is
honored as being the birth-place of LAFAYETTE, the companion and friend
of Washington.

_Spain_ and _Portugal_ are so favored by nature, that by industry and
good government, they would soon be the most productive countries
in the world; but through the indolence of the inhabitants, and the
government of despotic rulers, they are degraded, weak, and ignorant.
Wheat, rice, silk, hemp, olives, oranges, lemons, figs, &c. are
produced.

FOOTNOTES:

[7] Greenland in North America, and Iceland, belong to Denmark.

[8] Norway is now a province, subject to Sweden.

[9] Germany is a confederation consisting of twenty-eight small States,
the Empire of Austria, and the Kingdom of Prussia. Each of these
States, &c. is governed by its own laws and magistrates. The General
Government is composed of Deputies from each State, called The Diet,
which in some respects resembles the Congress of the United States, of
America.

[Illustration: BRITISH ISLES

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston.  H. Morse Sc._]


BRITISH ISLES.

1. _The British Isles constitute a Kingdom; how is it governed?_

2. Name the countries of the British Isles. 3. How is England bounded?
4. Are there any lofty mountains in England?

5. What sea lies west from the northern part of England? 6. What sea
lies east from England? 7. _What is a Channel?_ 8. At the mouth of
what river is Bristol channel? 9. Where is the Wash? 10. Where is the
British channel? 11. Straits of Dover?

12. What river forms part of the northern boundary of England? 13. In
what part are the rivers Tyne and Tees? 14. Into what do they flow? 15.
What rivers flow into the Humber? 16. Where is Severn river?

17. What rivers flow into the Irish sea? 18. What into the Wash? 19.
What into the British channel?

20. Where is St. Edmands’ point? 21. Start point? 22. What point at the
mouth of the Bristol channel? 23. What point at the southern extremity
of England? 24. What is the southern extremity called?

25. How is the Isle of Wight situated? 26. Near what point is Lundy
Island? 27. What is the latitude and longitude of Walney island? 28.
How is it situated?

29. On what river is London, the capital of the kingdom? 30. On what
river is Liverpool? 31. Oxford, (noted for its university)? 32. Leeds,
(celebrated for woollen goods)? 33. Manchester, (famous for cotton
goods)? 34. Sheffield, (noted for cutlery)? 35. Where is Kidderminster,
(famous for carpets)? 36. How is Gloucester, (celebrated for pins)
situated? 37. Where is Birmingham, (noted for hardware)?

38. Which way is London from Liverpool? 39. Liverpool from Manchester?
40. Kidderminster from Birmingham? 41. Which way from Leeds to
Sheffield? 42. What town is opposite to Calais in France?

43. Between what parallels of latitude is England? 44. From what is
longitude calculated on this map? 45. What is the longitude of Dover?
46. Liverpool?

47. Which way from England is Scotland? 48. How is Scotland bounded?

49. Where is Ben Nevis mountain? 50. Lake Shin?

51. Where is North channel? 52. What waters does it connect? 53. What
countries does it separate?

54. _What is a Frith?_ 55. Where is the Frith of Clyde? 56. What friths
in the northern part of Scotland? 57. What in the eastern?

58. What rivers in the southern part? 59. What rivers between Murray
Frith and Frith of Tay?

60. Where is Cape Wrath? 61. St. Abbe’s Head? 62. Kinnaird’s Head?

63. What islands lie west from Scotland? 64. What are the names of
some of the largest? 65. Which is the most northwardly? 66. Where is
Anan island? 67. What islands lie north from Scotland? 68. Which way
are the Orkney from the Shetland Islands? [_In answering this question
the latitude and longitude marked on the scale of those islands must
be compared with that of the whole map, or the map of Europe must be
referred to._]

69. What water communication is there between the Frith of Forth and
Clyde river?

70. How is Edinburgh, the capital, situated? 71. Glasgow? 72. Dundee?
73. Perth? 74. Aberdeen?

75. How is Wales bounded? 76. What mountains in the northwestern part?
77. Where is Cardigan bay?

78. Milford Haven? 79. St. David’s Head? 80. Anglesea island? 81. What
island is west from Anglesea?

82. How is Cardigan situated? 83. Bangor? 84. Carmarthen? 85.
Montgomery?

86. What ocean bounds Ireland on the north, west, and south? 87. What
sea lies east? 88. How is Ireland separated from Wales? 89. From
Scotland?

90. In what part of Ireland is Lough (or _lake_) Neagh? 91. What Lough
lies in the interior? 92. What Loughs in the western part? 93. Where is
Lough Foyle?

94. What bays are on the western coast? 95. What on the eastern? 96.
Where is Bear Haven?

97. What islands lie north from Ireland? 98. Where is the Isle of Man?
99. What islands in Galway bay?

100. What are the principal rivers of Ireland? 101. On what river is
Limerick? 102. Drogheda? 103. Kinmore?

104. In what part is Cork? 105. Dublin? 106. Galway?

107. Which way from London is Edinburgh? 108. Which way is Cork? 109.
From Cork to Liverpool? 110. Dublin to Manchester? 111. Kidderminster
to Limerick? 112. In what zone are the British Islands?



BRITAIN.


The British Kingdom, besides England and Scotland, Ireland and adjacent
isles, possesses many large colonies in all parts of the world, which
offer great advantages to commerce.

The government is a _limited monarchy_. The Executive Power is confided
to the King, and Legislation to the two houses of Parliament, viz. _The
House of Lords_, composed of clergymen and nobles whose titles are
hereditary, and _The House of Commons_, who are chosen by the people.

[Illustration: ACCURATE VIEW OF A PORTION OF THE LIVERPOOL AND
MANCHESTER RAILWAY.]

_England_ is one of the most beautifully diversified countries in the
world, and possesses a fertile soil, which is cultivated in the most
perfect manner. The climate is moist, and subject to frequent and
sudden changes; but the extremes of heat and cold are not so great as
in New England. Tin, copper, lead, and iron, are found. Her coal mines
are so productive that they supply fuel for the whole country, and
immense quantities for exportation.

The English are brave, intelligent, industrious, enterprising, and are
proud of their country. Commerce and manufactures are carried on with
vigor, the first extending to every part of the world, and the latter
rivalling those of all other countries.

Canals abound and railroads are becoming general. Steam power is much
used in these roads, by which means a great weight can be drawn, and
the speed greatly increased. The cut above shows a coach, drawn on this
road by a locomotive steam engine.

London, the capital of the kingdom, is the most opulent and commercial
city in the world, containing about 1,300,000 inhabitants. There are in
this many splendid buildings, among which are Westminster Abbey, the
Tower, and St. Paul’s Cathedral.

_Scotland_ is greatly diversified. The northern part is mountainous and
bleak, and is called the _Highlands_. The southern part is called the
_Lowlands_, and resembles England.

The Scotch are a hardy, brave, and industrious people. They are great
lovers of learning, and give much for the extension of education.

Edinburgh, the capital, is divided into old and new towns. The former
consists of ancient buildings, placed on the top of an eminence which
overlooks the _new town_, which is well laid out, in a modern style.
The city is celebrated for its university.

_Ireland_ in soil and climate resembles England. The country is
moderately uneven, and is fertile. Potatoes are abundant, and form a
great part of the food of the inhabitants.

The Irish are brave, hospitable, and active, but enjoy very few
advantages for education.

[Illustration: ASIA

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston.  H. Morse Sc._]



ASIA.


1. _For what is Asia remarkable?_ 2. Which of the countries of Asia is
largest? 3. In what part is Arabia? 4. China?

5. What countries lie between Turkey and Hindostan? 6. How is Siberia
bounded? 7. Arabia? 8. Turkey? 9. Persia? 10. Independent Tartary? 11.
Hindostan? 12. Afghanistan? 13. Beloochistan? 14. China? 15. Birman
Empire?[10] 16. Siam? 17. Anam?[11] 18. The Caucasian country, or
Circassia and Georgia? 19. Malaya?

20. What ranges of mountains are on the boundaries of Siberia? 21.
Where are the Caucasus mountains? 22. Where are the Gaut mountains? 23.
In what part of Asia are the _highest mountains in the world, and what
are they called_?

24. Where is Lake Baikal? 25. How is Lake Zaisan situated? 26. What sea
lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Aral?

27. Where is the Red Sea? 28. Sea of Arabia? 29. What bay lies west
from the Birman Empire? 30. How is the Yellow Sea situated? 31. What
sea between Corea and the island Niphon? 32. Where is the Sea of
Ochotsk?

33. How is the Bay of Bengal situated? 34. Which way are the Persian
Gulf and the Gulf of Ormus from Persia? 35. Where is the Gulf Tonquin?
36. Gulf of Siam?

37. Two rivers flow into the Persian Gulf; what are their names? 38.
Where is the Indus river? 39. Where does it rise? 40. Into what does
it flow? 41. What rivers rise in the Himmaleh mountains, and flow into
the northern extremity of the Bay of Bengal? 42. What rivers flow into
the sea of Aral? 43. What are the principal rivers of China? 44. Of
Siberia? 45. Of the Birman Empire?

46. What waters do the Straits of Babelmandel connect? 47. What islands
do the Straits of Sunda separate? 48. Straits of Malacca? 49. What
straits separate Asia from North America?

50. Where is Cape Comorin? 51. Where is Cape Lopatka? 52. What is its
latitude? 53. What cape at the northeastern extremity of Asia?

54. What island lies at the mouth of the Straits of Babelmandel? 55.
Where is Ceylon island? 56. What is its longitude? 57. What islands lie
in the Bay of Bengal? 58. What is the latitude and longitude of Hainan
island?

59. What island is crossed by the tropic of Cancer? 60. What are
crossed by the equator? 61. What are the principal of the Philippine
Isles? 62. The Japan Isles? 63. The Moluccas or Spice islands? 64.
Where is Nova Zembla?[12] 65. Where are the Ladrone and Caroline
islands? 66. The Maldives? 67. The Japan islands and Empire?

68. Where is Mecca? 69. Ispahan? 70. Calcutta? 71. Ava? 72. Bencoolen?
73. Manilla? 74. Jerusalem? 75. Madras? 76. Tobolsk? 77. Pekin? 78.
Canton? 79. Rangoon? 80. Smyrna?

81. Which way from Canton is Mecca? 82. From Tobolsk to Pekin? 83. From
Rangoon to Calcutta? 84. _What is the soil of Asia?_ 85. _China is
an empire; how is it governed?_ 86. Does any part of Asia lie in the
frigid zone? 87. _What is the climate of the frigid zone?_

[Illustration: CHINESE. TURKS.]

Asia was the first inhabited quarter of the world, and is the largest
of the divisions of the Eastern continent. It is distinguished as the
country where man was created; where Christ was born, and achieved the
plan of man’s redemption; and where the Jews received from Jehovah, the
Holy Bible. The northern part of this ancient country is exceedingly
cold and almost entirely covered with snow, while the southern is a
warm region, and with the exception of Arabia, possesses a fertile
soil, watered by numerous rivers. The region between these two
extremes, comprehending Independent and Chinese Tartary, is an immense
desert, except that part called Thibet, where the soil is moderately
fertile, and the climate healthful.

_Arabia_ is almost wholly a desert country, with a hot atmosphere, and
is unfit for the residence of man, except along the coasts of the Red
Sea and Indian Ocean, where the soil is fertile, and yields wheat,
corn, barley, tobacco, dates, and oranges. This country is famous for
producing the best horses in the world.

That portion of _Turkey_ which is in Asia, is beautifully diversified
with fertile plains, mountains, and valleys. The climate is excellent.
Grapes, mulberries, wheat, barley, and tobacco, flourish here. The
population is composed of descendants of various nations; but the Turks
are the most numerous in the cities, and possess the principal wealth
of the country.

In _Persia_, the most remarkable feature is the want of forests
and rivers. There are many desert places, although some spots are
exceedingly fertile. During the summer months the climate is hot, and
the country is subject to a hot wind called the _Samiel_, which is so
poisonous that animals and travellers are killed by it, unless they
perceive its approach, and fall to the ground until it has passed.

_Hindostan_, or India within the Ganges, is nearly as large as the
United States, and must therefore embrace many varieties of soil and
climate. The productions are rice, cotton, oranges, lemons, figs,
pomegranates, sugar cane, opium, indigo, and tobacco. Horses, sheep,
elephants, and the royal tiger, and almost all kinds of ferocious
animals, are found here, except the lion. A great part of this country
is under the dominion of the British East India Company.

Calcutta is the largest city, and is supposed to contain 650,000
inhabitants, a great many of whom are Europeans. It carries on an
extensive commerce with all parts of the world.

The _Birman Empire_, _Malaya_, _Siam_, _Tannasserim_, and _Anam_, have
commonly been comprehended under the general name of India beyond the
Ganges; and the country is little known, except on the coast. In this
country, owing to the influence of heat and moisture, the soil is
exceedingly fertile. The productions are nearly the same as those of
Hindostan.

_China_ is celebrated for its immense population, for the ingenuity
of its numerous manufacturers, for its many canals, for the great
antiquity of its laws, and for its reserve and jealousy of the people
of other nations. The chief productions are cotton, rice, and tea; and
all the necessaries of life are cultivated. Tea and China ware are the
principal exports.

Canton is the chief city, and is the port where American and English
vessels are admitted to trade.

FOOTNOTES:

[10] The Birman Empire formerly embraced Tannasserim, which has
recently been ceded to Great Britain.

[11] Anam comprises the Provinces of Tonquin, Cochin China, Laos, and
Cambodia.

[12] Nova Zembla is an European island.

[Illustration: AFRICA

_Published by Robert S. Davis, Boston.  H. Morse Sc._]



AFRICA.


1. _Is our knowledge of Africa as extensive as of other countries?_ 2.
What countries lie in the northern part? 3. What countries on the coast
of the Red Sea? 4. What countries in the southern part? 5. What in the
interior? 6. What deserts in the northwestern part? 7. In the eastern?
8. Where is Liberia? 9. How is Egypt bounded?

10. What mountains are in the western part of Africa? 11. What
mountains in the interior? 12. Where is Mount Atlas? 13. Table mountain?

14. What Lake lies in the interior of Africa? 15. Where is Lake Moravi?

16. What Sea lies north from Africa? 17. Where is the Red Sea? 18. The
Gulf of Guinea? 19. Lagoa or Lorenzo bay? 20. Table bay? 21. Gulf of
Sidra?

22. Where is Mozambique channel? 23. Straits of Gibraltar? 24. Straits
of Babelmandel?

25. What is the northern cape of Africa? 26. What two capes at the
southern extremity? 27. Where is Cape Guardafui? 28. What capes are on
the coast of Zahara? 29. What are the northern and southern capes of
Madagascar?

30. _By what means are springs and rivers supplied with water?_ 31.
Where does the Nile rise? 32. What is its course? 33. Into what does
it flow? 34. Near the mouth of what river is Cape Verd? 35. In what
part of Africa is Orange river? 36. The Gambia river? 37. Where is the
Niger river? [_The Niger river flows east, but its mouth has not been
discovered._]

38. What islands lie east from Morocco? 39. Where is Madagascar? 40.
What islands west from Madagascar? 41. Where is St. Helena? 42. _For
what is St. Helena remarkable?_ 43. Which way from St. Helena is
Ascension?

44. What cities are situated at the mouth of the Nile? 45. Which way
from Cairo is Monrovia? 46. Where is Cape Town? 47. Through what towns
do the caravans pass in their route between Tombuctoo and Morocco?

48. _What proportion of Africa lies in the torrid zone?_ 49. _By what
is the torrid zone distinguished?_

[Illustration: EGYPTIANS. HOTTENTOTS.]

Little is known of the geography of Africa, and this is owing to the
almost total want of navigable rivers, by which, in other countries,
easy access is obtained to the interior. The desert character of the
country is another obstacle.

Several enterprising travellers have penetrated Africa, to ascertain
the sources of its rivers, and the state of the country; among whom,
Bruce, Park, Denham and Clapperton stand conspicuous.

In no country do desert and fertile lands come in so close a
neighborhood as in Africa. The northern part along the Mediterranean
has a fertile soil, but immediately south is the great desert which is
entirely devoid of vegetation. In other parts of Africa fertile spots
may be found, on the margin of streams, or scattered in the midst of
the almost uninhabitable Desert.

The most numerous class of inhabitants are the negroes, who inhabit
almost the whole central and western parts of the country, except the
Desert of Zahara. The moors inhabit the northern parts, and resemble
in form and physiognomy, the natives of Europe. The Hottentots inhabit
the southern extremity of the country. The wandering Arabs live on the
Desert of Zahara, which they are enabled to traverse by the aid of
the camel. This animal requires little food, and will live many days
without a fresh supply of water.

Egypt was anciently a powerful nation, evidences of which exist in the
ruins of buildings, catacombs and pyramids, which are numerous in the
land. At present it is inhabited partly by barbarous tribes, and seems
to have lost its ancient grandeur.

The climate of Egypt is exceedingly hot, and the air unrefreshed by
rain. The soil is fertile when sufficiently moistened, and produces
wheat, barley, corn, flax, sugar-cane, olives, dates, and oranges in
abundance.

The only river is the Nile, and the possession of this river is an
incalculable blessing to the country, as it serves the double purposes
of internal communication, and watering the country. This river
annually overflows its banks, in consequence of rain in the Abyssinian
mountains, where it rises. It begins to rise about the middle of June,
and spreads a muddy deluge to a great extent, on both sides of its
channel. The waters subside to their natural bed in October, leaving a
rich and wet manure on the surface of the ground. That part of the year
called the winter months, is here the most productive, the ground being
covered with vegetation, and is so fertile during the season that it
yields three crops.

Sierra Leone, so named by the Portuguese because the mountains are
infested with _Lions_, is an English settlement, which was commenced
with a view to extend the benefits of civilisation and Christianity to
the natives, and to afford a refuge for Africans rescued from slave
ships. Freetown is the capital of the colony.

Liberia is the name given to a colony established by the American
Colonization Society, on the western coast of Africa, three hundred
miles southeast from Sierra Leone. Great numbers of the free people of
color have removed from the United States to this settlement. Commerce
and agriculture flourish, and efforts are made to extend the benefits
of education and the christian religion through the colony, and to the
natives. Monrovia is the chief town.



GENERAL QUESTIONS.


1. _What is diameter?_ 2. _What is circumference?_ 3. _How is the earth
proved to be a globe or round body?_ 4. _How many miles is it through
the centre of the earth?_ 5. _How many degrees round it?_ 6. _How many
miles round it?_ 7. If you were to sail from the island Owhyhee sixty
degrees in a westerly direction, at what cluster of islands would you
arrive? 8. _How many degrees east and west is longitude reckoned?_ 9.
What is the longitude of the New Hebrides?

10. Between what islands would a ship pass in sailing directly from
Otaheite to Van Dieman’s land? 11. What direction would a ship take in
sailing by the shortest route from Owhyhee to Canton? 12. Which way
would you sail by the shortest route from Madagascar to the Friendly
Isles? 13. Through what States would you pass in going from Mobile to
Cincinnati? 14. From Charleston to Albany? 15. St. Louis to Boston?

_The word_ ANTIP´ODES _means those people who live on the opposite side
of the earth, and have their feet under ours._ 16. The inhabitants of
what city of Asia are nearly antipodes to the citizens of New Orleans?

17. How many degrees further north latitude is Liverpool than Boston?
18. Madrid than Savannah? 19. Which is further south, Cape Town or Rio
Janeiro? 20. Which is further east, Algiers or St. Petersburg?

_There is a scale of miles attached to each map; thus on the map of
Massachusetts, if you wish to find the distance, in miles, from Boston
to Providence, you must measure the distance and compare it with the
scale, and it will be found to be about forty miles. Another method
is, to find the distance in degrees, and multiply the amount by 69½,
because 69½ English miles make a degree._

21. How many miles is it from Boston to Middletown, Con.? 22. From
Paris to London? 23. From London to Liverpool? 24. From Tombuctoo to
Morocco? 25. From Madagascar to New Holland?



WEST INDIA ISLANDS.


A fertile soil, a hot and unhealthy climate in summer, and a pleasant
and healthful winter, is common to all the West India Islands. Being
situated in the torrid zone, they produce most of the tropical fruits,
spices, &c. viz. indigo, coffee, cinnamon, cocoa, cloves, pine-apples,
pomegranates, oranges, lemons, limes, figs, &c.

Cuba, 700 miles long, is the largest, and belongs to Spain; its
capital, Havanna, is a place of much commerce. St. Domingo, or Hayti,
is next in size. In this island the black population have established
an independent government, and their chief magistrate is called the
President of Hayti. Jamaica is a prominent island, highly cultivated,
belonging to Great Britain; its chief town is Kingston.

Guadaloupe and Barbadoes are the principal of the Caribbee Islands.
Hurricanes are common in these fertile islands.



OCEANICA.


EAST INDIA ISLANDS.

Comprise two groups of islands, viz. the Isles of Sunda and the
Philippine Islands.

BORNEO is the largest of these islands. It has an unhealthy climate,
and a fertile soil. The Ourang Outang, the largest of the monkey
species, is common in this island.

SUMATRA is a mountainous and wild country. Its forests abound with the
elephant, rhinoceros, bear, and wild boar. Bencoolen, the only European
settlement, belongs to England.

JAVA has many volcanic mountains, an unhealthy climate, and fertile
soil. Batavia is the chief town, and was founded by the Dutch.

CELEBES and GILOLO, together with many of the neighboring smaller
isles, are called the Moluccas or Spice islands. All these islands,
from their broken and rocky appearance, seem to have been formed by
volcanic agency. Earthquakes are frequent. These islands belong to the
Dutch.

The PHILIPPINE ISLANDS are very numerous, and abound in marshes, and
are frequently visited by earthquakes. Luzon is the largest of them,
and Manilla is the principal town.

The East India Islands produce in abundance rice, cotton, pepper,
camphor, coffee, sugar, nutmegs, cloves, sago, sandal wood, and
diamonds.


AUSTRALASIA.

Embraces many large islands, lying in the south Pacific Ocean.

NEW HOLLAND is the largest island in the world, having a greater
extent of surface than the United States. It is at present but little
known. Its native inhabitants are said to approach nearer to the brute
creation than any other savages.

VAN DIEMAN’S LAND is a fertile island, belonging to the British. Of NEW
GUINEA little is known.

NEW BRITAIN and NEW IRELAND have a fertile soil, and produce abundance
of nutmegs. The inhabitants resemble those of New Holland in their
characters. They are exceedingly warlike.


POLYNESIA.

This name is given to those islands lying in the Pacific ocean between
Asia, the West India and Australasian islands on the one side, and
America on the other. In this division Owhyhee, one of the Sandwich
islands, is the largest. The inhabitants of the Sandwich, Ladrone and
Navigator’s islands, are notorious thieves. Those of the Friendly, the
Society, the Pelew islands, are hospitable and kind. Otaheite is the
largest of the Society islands, and has a missionary establishment, as
has also, Owhyhee. Many of the people have embraced Christianity.

The climate and soil of these islands are peculiarly adapted to the
production of numerous fruits and necessaries of life. The productions
are bread fruit, sugar, cocoa-nuts, oranges, limes, sandal wood,
plantain, yams, and sweet potatoes.



ELEMENTAL ASTRONOMY,

IN WHICH THE SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED PRINCIPALLY IN ITS RELATION TO THE
EARTH.


[Illustration: THE SEASONS.]

ASTRONOMY is the science which treats of the System of the Universe.

The system of which the Earth is a part, is called the SOLAR SYSTEM;
and is composed of the _Sun_, the _Planets_, _Satellites_, and _Comets_.

The SUN is the source of light and heat to the whole system, and is the
centre of motion, round which all the other bodies revolve from west to
east.

The PLANETS are opaque or dark bodies, which revolve round the Sun at
different distances. There are eleven planets, viz. _Mercury_, _Venus_,
_Earth_, _Mars_, _Jupiter_, _Saturn_, _Herschell_, _Ceres_, _Pallas_,
_Juno_, and _Vesta_.

SATELLITES are opaque bodies moving round the planets, in company with
the planets round the Sun. They are generally called moons. There are
eighteen Satellites, viz. the Earth has _one_, Jupiter _four_, Saturn
_seven_, and Herschell _six_.

COMETS are bright bodies moving round the Sun. Coming from a far
distant part of the universe, they approach very near the Sun, and then
return with equal swiftness. Their nature is but little known.

The paths of the planets and comets round the Sun, and of the
satellites round their planets, are called their ORBITS.

Those stars which always appear in the same situation in relation to
each other are called FIXED STARS. About 1000 can be seen at once by
the naked eye, and by the help of the telescope many millions may be
seen. Their sizes are little known, but probably some of them are _many
million times larger_ than the earth. _They are not considered a part
of our Solar System_, but are supposed to be Suns of other systems,
round which other planets revolve.

A planet _turns on its axis_ (like a wheel upon an axletree,) and each
_turn_ is the cause of day and night. It is _day_ to that half of the
planet which is toward the Sun, and _night_ to the other half. Each
_revolution of a planet round the Sun_ makes its year; but _because the
orbits are not equal_, the years of all the planets are not the same.
Thus Herschell’s year is more than _eighty-three of our years_.

The axis of the earth is not perpendicular while the earth is revolving
round the sun, but slanting, as is seen in the cut above. Whilst the
earth is passing between the points marked March 20, and Sept. 23, the
north pole inclines toward the sun, and then the northern hemisphere
enjoys more of his rays than the southern. Consequently it is the warm
season in the northern, and the cold season in the southern hemisphere;
and from 23d Sept. to 20th March, as the south pole is toward the sun,
it is the warm season in the southern, and the cold season in the
northern hemisphere.

The EARTH is nearly a round body, and revolves on its axis, _once every
twenty-four hours_, _from west to east_, which causes the Sun and stars
to appear to _rise in the east, and set in the west_.

The earth’s surface contains about _two hundred millions of square
miles_, and its orbit is _ninety-six millions of miles from the Sun_.
The time occupied by the earth in its revolution round the Sun, is
about _365 days_, which space of time constitutes its year.

Planets and satellites do not shine with their own light, but merely
_reflect the light of the Sun_; of course only one half can be bright
at a time, which must be that half which is _toward the Sun_.

When the moon is on the side of the earth opposite to the Sun, the
whole bright side of the moon is toward the earth, and it is then _full
moon_; but when the Sun and moon are on the same side of the earth, the
dark side of the moon is toward the earth, and it is _new moon_.

The earth’s satellite or _moon_, revolves round the earth in about
_twenty-nine and a half days_, and this causes the _phases_ or changes
of the moon. It turns on its axis in the same space of time.

[Illustration: PHASES OF THE MOON.]

The inner circle represents the moon in her different positions as
enlightened by the Sun.

The outer circle represents the moon’s appearance in her different
positions as seen from the earth.

An ECLIPSE means a temporary obscuration of the Sun or moon, or a part
of either, from our sight. When the Sun or moon is wholly hid from our
sight, the eclipse is called _total_, and when only a part is obscured,
it is called _partial_.

_An eclipse of the Sun_ is caused by the passage of the moon between
the Sun and the earth, and can never take place except at the time of
_new moon_.

To understand this more fully, observe the cut below, and suppose a
person standing on the earth at a place where the shadow of the moon
falls upon the earth; he cannot see the Sun, because the moon is
between him and the Sun.

[Illustration: ECLIPSE OF THE SUN.]

The moon being an opaque body, does not shine, when by any cause the
rays of the Sun are prevented from reaching her surface. Thus when the
moon arrives in her orbit at a point where the rays of the Sun are
intercepted by the earth, she is in the shadow of the earth, and is not
enlightened by the Sun. Therefore;

_An eclipse of the moon_ is caused by the moon’s passing through the
shadow of the earth. This can never happen except at the time of _full
moon_.

[Illustration: ECLIPSE OF THE MOON.]



TIDES.


TIDES are regular motions or successive rising and falling of the
waters of oceans and seas. They are caused chiefly by the attraction
of the moon, which draws up the waters as seen in _cut_ No. 1. Thus,
as the moon revolves round the earth, its attracting or drawing power
passes with it over the surface of the ocean, and the elevation of
the waters, following that attraction, is drawn along until the shore
or coast of a country stops its progress; this causes, all along the
coast, a rising of the water, and it is then called high tide. The
tides occur twice in twenty-four hours.

The attraction of the moon in producing tides is affected in some
degree by the sun. When the sun and moon attract in unison, the tides
are very high; and when the sun tends to counteract the action of the
moon the tides are not so high. _Cut_ No. 2.

The _highest_ tide is called _spring tide_, and the _lowest_, _neap
tide_. These tides follow each other in regular succession, the daily
tides gradually decreasing during fifteen days, from the _highest_ to
the _lowest_; and during the next fifteen days, increasing from the
_lowest_ to the _highest_.

[Illustration: MOON’S ORBIT.

No. 1.]

[Illustration: MOON’S ORBIT.

No. 2.]



QUESTIONS IN REVIEW OF THE COMPENDIUM.

_Commencing at Page 9._


1. What does the surface of the earth most naturally appear to be?
2. What is the difference between an island and a continent? 3. What
proofs are there that the ocean is not bottomless? 4. What is the chief
characteristic of the waters of the ocean? 5. Why is the height of
places calculated from the level of the sea? 6. What is the extent of
each of the divisions of the ocean? 7. What is the prominent feature
of the surface of the land? 8. What is a Defile?—9. A Plateau? 10.
Whence is the name _Volcano_ derived? 11. What is the longest range of
mountains in the world? 12. At what height does the region of perpetual
snow commence—13. Why do geographers disagree concerning the length of
rivers? 14. For what is the river Amazon remarkable? 15. From whence
are the waters of springs and rivers? 16. How many classes of lakes
are there? 17. Describe the differences in the classes. 18. What
gives rise to the opinion that there are extensive sheets of water
underground? 19. How are mines formed? 20. What is remarkable of the
climate of America in comparison with that of the eastern continent—
21. For what is Europe distinguished? 22. Asia? 23. Africa? 24. To whom
do the West India Islands principally belong? 25. What are Political
divisions? 26. Name their distinguishing traits. 27. What religions are
professed by the inhabitants of the earth? 28. What are characteristic
features of the different races of men? 29. What do you understand by
_Savages_?—30. Barbarians?—31. Civilized nations?—32. Enlightened? 33.
What are the distinguishing features of North America? 34. By whom was
it inhabited before its discovery by Columbus? 35. For what are the
British and Russian Possessions valuable? 36. Describe Mexico? 37.
What are the productions of Guatimala? 38. From what causes are the
United States divided into groups or sections? 39. For what are the
New England States distinguished? 40. Why have Maine and New Hampshire
better advantages for commerce than Vermont? 41. What is said of the
oldest New England State? 42. What buildings in Boston are venerated as
being intimately connected with the history of the American Revolution?
43. What is said of the commercial advantages of Boston? 44. What is
said of Connecticut? 45. What is peculiar in the government of Rhode
Island? 46. What is the characteristic of the Middle States? 47. What
is the staple production? 48. What is said of the rank of New York
State? 49. Which is the most commercial city in the United States?

50. What is said of New Jersey? 51. Whence is the name Pennsylvania,
derived? 52. What is said of the agriculture of this State? 53. What
article is obtained for fuel? 54. What are the productions of Delaware?
55. What is said of the husbandry and productions of Maryland? 56.
What is the chief commercial city, and what are its exports? 57. What
is said of the District of Columbia? 58. What is said of the Western
States?—59. Of the soil, climate and agriculture of Ohio? 60. Of
what is the population composed and what is its character? 61. What
is the commercial capital of the Western States? 62. What is said of
Indiana?—63. Illinois?—64. Missouri?—65. Kentucky?—66. Tennessee? 67.
What are the staple productions of the Southern States? 68. For what is
Virginia distinguished? 69. What is said of North Carolina?—70. South
Carolina and its inhabitants? 71. How many varieties are there of the
staple of South Carolina? 72. What is said of New Orleans? 73. For what
are the mountains of South America valuable? 74. Which of the countries
are republics? 75. What is said of the Araucanian Indians? 76. For
what are the pampas of South America valuable? 77. In which part are
diamonds found? 78. What is said of the climate and productions of
the northern countries of Europe?—79. Of the central part?—80. Of the
southern part? 81. For what is France noted and honored? 82. What is
the face of the country and climate of England?—83. Of Scotland? 84. Of
Ireland?—85. to 87. What is said of the inhabitants of each? 88. What
is said of London?—89. Of Edinburgh? 90. What is the general character
of the soil and climate of Asia? 91. What is said of Arabia?—92. Of
Turkey?—93. Of Persia?—94. Of Hindostan?—95. Of India beyond the
Ganges?—96. Of China? 97. What is said of the soil of Africa?—98.
Of the inhabitants?—99. Of Egypt?—100. Of the Nile?—101. Of Sierra
Leone, and Liberia? 102. What are the soil and climate of the West
India Islands?—103. The productions? 104. Which has established an
independent government? 105. What groups of islands are called East
India Islands? 106. What are some of the peculiarities of these
islands? 107. What is said of New Holland? 108. Of Van Dieman’s Land?
109. Of New Britain and Ireland? 110. What is the character of the
people of the Ladrone and Navigator’s islands? 111. Of the Friendly,
the Society, and the Pelew islands? 112. What is said of the climate
and productions of the Polynesian islands?





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