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Title: The Magic and Science of Jewels and Stones
Author: Kozminsky, Isidore
Language: English
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------------------------------------------------------------------------

                          Transcriber’s Note:

This version of the text cannot represent certain typographical effects.
Italics are delimited with the ‘_’ character as _italic_.

Full page images have been moved slightly to the nearest paragraph
break. They were not included in the pagination of the original.

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see the transcriber’s note at the end of this text for details regarding
the handling of any textual issues encountered during its preparation.

[Illustration:

  The Great Opal “The Flame Queen”
  Kelsey I. Newman Collection
]

                         THE MAGIC AND SCIENCE
                                   OF
                           JEWELS AND STONES

                                   BY

                           ISIDORE KOZMINSKY



                           FULLY ILLUSTRATED

            39 SPECIMENS IN COLOR AND 22 OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS



                          G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS
                          NEW YORK AND LONDON
                    =The Knickerbocker Press=

                                  1922



                          Copyright, 1922, by
                          G. P. Putnam’s Sons

                                  ---

                 _Made in the United States of America_



                            To My Dear Wife
                              This Book is
                        Affectionately Dedicated



                                PREFACE


In these pages a sincere attempt is made to blend modern science with
the ancient and occult philosophy of the precious, semi-precious and
common stones of the earth. It will be shown that many of the seemingly
absurd narratives of old authors are but cunningly concealed truths, the
unravelling of which can be followed with interest and profit along the
lines herein indicated. The ancient masters held that the influences
exerted by the heavenly bodies entered into harmonious relations with
various terrestrial substances. Hence we have the venerable philosophy
of fortunate stones, planetary gems and “stones of power,” which form a
part of the vast department known as talismanic magic. It is the
philosophy of sympathy and antipathy prevailing through nature—atom for
atom, stone for stone, plant for plant, animal for animal, man for man.
This observation was subjected to an orderly scientific arrangement
which for completeness of detail would compare, in some cases, more than
favorably with the most careful synthesis of modern science. In order to
make easily understood the matter treated and to secure pronunciations
as nearly correct as possible, it has been considered advisable to
render _all foreign words_, ancient and modern, in familiar letters.

I have to express my grateful thanks to the friends who have, in various
ways, been helpful to me in regard to this work.

To Mr. Kelsey I. Newman, for the use of his unique collection of opals
and precious stones, including the wonderful opal, “The Flame Queen,”
and especially for his co-operation, without which this book could not
have been published.

Likewise to The Right Honorable the Viscountess Astor, M.P.; Lieutenant
Sir Edward Mackenzie-Mackenzie, Bart., for his original Heraldic
drawings of the horoscopes of royal and notable persons from my charts;
Professor Sir William Ridgeway, Sc.D., LL.D., Litt.D., F.B.A., of
Cambridge University, England; Miss Kathleen Watkins, for her help in
preparing the sheets for the press; Mrs. Beatrix Colquhoun, for her
paintings of the Flame Queen and other gems from Mr. Kelsey I. Newman’s
collection; Mr. and Mrs. C. G. King, Melbourne, Australia; Mr. and Mrs.
Henry T. Seymour, New York City; Mr. William Howat, Melbourne,
Australia; Mrs. S. Kozminsky, Melbourne, Australia; Mrs. Alice Walker,
Melbourne, Australia; Mr. G. S. Brown, Melbourne, Australia; Mr. G. A.
Osboldstone, Melbourne, Australia; Mr. James Mackenzie, Adelaide,
Australia; Mr. M. Susman, Hobart, Tasmania, and to my wife to whom this
book is dedicated.

                                                  ISIDORE KOZMINSKY.

MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA,

January, 1922.



          “_Another, ere she slept, was stringing stones
          To make a necklet—agate, onyx, sard,
          Coral, and moonstone—round her wrist it gleamed
          A coil of splendid colour, while she held
          Unthreaded yet, the bead to close it up—
          Green turkis, carved with golden gods and scripts._”

                             EDWIN ARNOLD—“The Light of Asia.”



                                CONTENTS


    CHAPTER                                                         PAGE

        I.— STUDY OF PRECIOUS STONES IN EARLY TIMES                    3

       II.— THE MOST ANCIENT SCIENCE                                   6

      III.— THE EPHOD OF THE HIGH PRIEST                               9

       IV.— THE BREASTPLATE OF JUDGMENT                               12

        V.— INTERPRETATION OF THE BREASTPLATE ACCORDING TO ANCIENT    18
              PHILOSOPHY

       VI.— THE STONES OF THE BREASTPLATE AND THE ZODIAC              57

      VII.— OLD LEGENDS                                               61

     VIII.— STONES IN VARIOUS MYTHOLOGIES                             72

       IX.— STONES AND THEIR STORIES                                  83

        X.— THE GREATEST CHARMS IN THE WORLD                         104


     PRECIOUS AND SEMI-PRECIOUS GEMS ARRANGED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER

       XI.— AGATE-AMAZONITE                                          111

      XII.— AMBER-AZURITE                                            121

     XIII.— THE BERYL FAMILY                                         137

      XIV.— BALAS-CRYSOCOLLA                                         151

       XV.— CHRYSOLITE-CRYSTAL                                       166

      XVI.— THE DIAMOND                                              184

     XVII.— SOME FAMOUS AND WONDERFUL DIAMONDS AND THEIR STORIES     204

    XVIII.— DICHROITE-IOLITE                                         226

      XIX.— JACINTH-LODESTONE                                        242

       XX.— MALACHITE-NEPHRITE                                       260

      XXI.— OBSIDIAN-ONYX                                            276

     XXII.— THE OPAL                                                 286


                        THE GREAT AUSTRALIAN OPAL

    XXIII.— THE FLAME QUEEN                                          300

     XXIV.— VARIOUS KINDS OF OPAL                                    302

      XXV.— PEARL                                                    307

     XXVI.— PEARL                                                    322

    XXVII.— PERIDOT-RUBY                                             333

   XXVIII.— RUTILE-SAPPHIRE                                          351

     XXIX.— SARDONYX-SUCCINITE                                       362

      XXX.— TITANITE-TOPAZ                                           374

     XXXI.— TOURMALINE-ZIRCON                                        382

    XXXII.— STONES IN SHAKESPEARE’S PLAYS                            396

   XXXIII.— FORMS, COMPOSITIONS, CHARACTERISTICS, ZODIACAL           412
              CLASSIFICATION, AND PLACES OF ORIGIN

    XXXIV.— GEMS IN HERALDRY, MAGICAL SQUARES OF ABRA MELIN THE      420
              MAGE, CHARUBEL’S GEM INFLUENCES, GEMS OF COUNTRIES

     XXXV.— THE INEVITABLE LAW OF TRANSMUTATION                      431



                             ILLUSTRATIONS


                                                                    PAGE

 THE GREAT OPAL—THE FLAME QUEEN (_In colour_)             _Frontispiece_

      Kelsey I. Newman Collection.

 RARE OPALS (_In colour_)                                             40

      Kelsey I. Newman Collection.

 HIEROGLYPHICS                                                        55

 A PERFECT SPECIMEN OF THE ENGLISH GOLD NOBLE (1344)                  96

      In the Kelsey I. Newman Collection. Traditionally
      stated to have been made from Alchemical Gold.

 LARGE SCARAB                                                        106

      William Howat Collection.

 RARE SCARAB OF RAMESES II—A FAMOUS PHARAOH OF THE BIBLE             106

      Mrs. C. G. King’s Collection.

 RARE ANTIQUE SCARAB OF BLACK JASPER                                 106

      Talismanic Charm—Mercury, Guardian of Sailors.

      Mrs. C. G. King’s Collection.

 _TABELLÆ CORELLATÆ_                                                 177

 GAZING CRYSTAL ON DRAGON STAND                                      180

      Presented to the Author by the late Judge Casey of
      Victoria, Australia.

 HOROSCOPE OF KRUGER                                                 198

 HOROSCOPE OF ISABELLA II                                            199

 HOROSCOPE OF NICHOLAS II                                            208

 HOROSCOPE OF JAMES II                                               212

 “INSPIRATION”                                                       262

      Marble group in Central Hall, Art Institute,
      Chicago. Signed—Kathleen Beverly Robinson.
      Memorial to Florence Jane Adams. Presented by
      Friends and Pupils of Mrs. Adams, 1915.

      By Kind Permission of The Art Institute of
      Chicago.

 ANTIQUE MOSS AGATE PATCH BOX                                        268

      Mrs. W. R. Furlong’s Collection.

 MOSS AGATE BASKET                                                   268

      William Howat Collection.

 OLD MAIORI CHARM OF GREENSTONE KNOWN AS HEI TIKI                    274

 VENUS, CUPID, AND THE GRACES—A SARDONYX CAMEO BY CERBARA            284

      Newton Robinson Collection.

      Sold at Christie’s, London, in 1909.

 THE ARGONAUTS CONSULTING HYGIEA                                     284

      Large and Rare Cameo.

      Kelsey I. Newman Collection.

 OPALS OF WONDERFUL COLOUR (_In colour_)                             288

      Kelsey I. Newman Collection.

 HOROSCOPE OF ALFONZO XII                                            297

 OTHER ASPECTS OF THE GREAT OPAL—THE FLAME QUEEN (_In colour_)       300

      Kelsey I. Newman Collection.

 SMALL NECKLET OF PERFECT ORIENTAL PEARLS                            310

      Kelsey I. Newman Collection.

 HOROSCOPE OF MARY OF SCOTLAND                                       318

 HOROSCOPE OF ELIZABETH OF ENGLAND                                   319

 HOROSCOPE OF HENRY VIII OF ENGLAND                                  349

 BEAUTIFUL COLOUR GEMS (_In colour_)                                 360

      Kelsey I. Newman Collection.

 SPECIMEN OF ROUGH TURQUOISE (_In colour_)                           390

      Victoria, Australia

 HOROSCOPE OF SHAKESPEARE                                            402



                         The Magic and Science
                                   of
                           Jewels and Stones



                               CHAPTER I
                      STUDY OF PRECIOUS STONES IN
                              EARLY TIMES

                “_A thing of beauty is a joy forever;
                Its loveliness increases; it will never
                Pass into nothingness._”
                                            KEATS.

INSPIRATION AND KNOWLEDGE: EXPERIMENTS ON SENSITIVES: GEMS AND COLOUR
    ATTRACTIONS: ANCIENT GEM CLASSIFICATION: SCIENCE HERMETIC AMONG
    ANCIENT NATIONS: PUNISHMENT OF THE PEACH TREE: MODERN
    CLASSIFICATION.


The study of the precious and semi-precious stones of the earth has
commanded the attention of man from the mists of ages when, according to
Enoch, the angel Azazzel came to the earth plane to teach him the use of
them. Hence man considered the actual benefit to himself of these stones
until his natural curiosity led him to study more deeply the marvel of
their existence. There can be little doubt that the indicated use was
talismanic, and that the pure wisdom of divine inspiration and a clear
faith rendered man’s intuition so keen that he was quite able to know
the virtue of various stones without chemical analysis. Dr. Ennemoser
has recorded the effects of precious stones on certain psychic subjects,
giving the opinion that “it is not improbable that in the early ages the
belief in the virtues of talismans was induced by similar observations.”
This, no doubt, is true and indicates to us that certain observed
phenomena compelled a closer study. We are then reminded of the
experiments which have been attributed to the schools of Pythagoras and
of the observed effects of certain stones in the hands of sensitives by
Baron Reichenbach in the middle of the nineteenth century and of the
still more recent experiments in the schools at Nancy. There are records
of these experiments being carried out on magnetic somnambulists when
diamonds, emeralds, rubies, loadstones, beryls, jaspers and other stones
were found to produce varied and strange effects. Gems in common with
all manifestations of nature have the power of attracting certain
colours to themselves: and so persistent are these colours that it has
been observed that when they are changed by art they are liable to
revert slowly (for the action of the stone world is slow) to their
original colours. This can be noticed especially with Topaz which may on
this account alone have been identified with the stubborn and
indomitable Mars. The attraction of diverse colours by the various
chemical compounds which are cohesive in the various stones must be a
certain indication of vibratory power. Indeed, the ancients have
indicated that the rates of vibration in the gems differ with the needs
of the chemical entities composing them, and it may as well be
emphasized here that life exists in a gem just as it does in another
form in a plant or an animal. It need scarcely be repeated that colour
is vibration. Colour is crystallized in a gem and immense vibration
defies the material senses of man. A violet amethyst vibrates at the
enormous rate of 750 trillions per second whilst a red ruby vibrates at
460 trillions. Hence we can scientifically demonstrate distinct powers
by the evidence of known vibratory action. The people of antiquity
classified gems in a manner different from that of the people of to-day,
for they regarded colour of primary importance and bracketed stones of
similar shades thus establishing the first points of agreement in the
department of vibratory power. It is inconceivable however, that the
great masters were unacquainted with chemical components, for chemistry
was one of the secret arts, and it is well known that the priests of
Egypt experimented secretly in their temples and that the betrayal of
scientific secrets was followed by the mysterious “punishment of the
peach tree” (supposed to be death from prussic acid). Modern groupings
are arranged with regard to chemical affinities so far as can be traced
by close analytical investigations and experiments.



                               CHAPTER II
                        THE MOST ANCIENT SCIENCE

  “_And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the Heaven to
  divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for
  seasons, and for days, and years._”    Genesis 1:14.

                   ASTROLOGY: COLOURS OF THE HEAVENS.


The old science of Astrology was known amongst the Hebrews as the Wisdom
of Foreknowledge (HOK MAT HA NISSAYON), and with it was included
Astronomy or Star Knowledge (HOK MAT HA HOZZAYON). It is spoken of as of
heavenly origin having been communicated to man by the angels after he
had lost Eden. It was written that:

KOKABEL communicated Astrology, Wisdom of the Stars.

RAKIEL or BARAKEL communicated Astronomy, Star Gazing.

SHEHAKEEL communicated The Wisdom of the Clouds.

ARKIEL communicated The Symbols of the Earth.

SAMSIEL communicated The Symbols of the Sun.

SCURIEL or SAHRIEL communicated The Symbols of the Moon.

From the observed influences of the Sun and Moon the old scholars were
enabled to classify the influence of these orbs in the various parts of
the heavens and to formulate special rules, which extended observation
rendered more convincing and complete. The simple consideration of the
lunar phases brought grains of knowledge, which included the calculation
of tidal action, eclipses, etc. The unity of the forces of Nature was
then demonstrated in the actions and influences of the planets and
stars, and the blending of such influences with their zodiacal positions
and aspects. Universal unity was insisted on and the statements of the
ancient scholars have not been discredited by the revelations of modern
scientific discoveries. The Talmud calls the planets “moving stars” and
sets down that Alexander of Macedon was pictured with a ball in his hand
to symbolize the spherical shape of the Earth. The planets were
indicated as follows:

     Mercury   the Planet of Mind        is _The_ Star
     Venus     the Planet of Beauty      is Splendour
     Mars      the Planet of Contention  is Ruddiness
     Jupiter   the Planet of Prosperity  is Benevolence
     Saturn    the Planet of Restraint   is The Star of Sabbath

Comets are represented as arrows of flame bearing messages to mankind.

                  *       *       *       *       *

The various colours ascribed to the planets are:

 Sun        Yellow, Golden, Orange
 Moon       White, Silvery, pale opalescent Green
 Mercury    Dove Grey
 Venus      Delicate Colour Tints, Shades of Green, pale Blue, etc.
 Mars       Red
 Jupiter    Purple
 Saturn     Black
 Uranus     Mixed Colours
 Neptune    Doubtful

The colours ascribed to the 12 Signs of the Zodiac and the planets
associated with them are:

          Aries      White and Red Mixed            Mars
          Taurus     White and Lemon Mixed          Venus
          Gemini     White and Red Mixed            Mercury
          Cancer     Green or Russet                Moon
          Leo        Red and Green                  Sun
          Virgo      Black and Blue                 Mercury
          Libra      Dark Crimson                   Venus
          Scorpio    Dark Brown                     Mars
          Sagittarius Sanguine Green                 Jupiter
          Capricorn  Black                          Saturn
          Aquarius   Sky Blue                       Uranus
          Pisces     Glistening White               Neptune

The approximate date of the Sun’s entry into the various zodiacal signs
enabled astrologers to select the Solar Talismanic Gem.

 The Sun enters Aries                     about March 21
 The Sun enters Taurus                    about April 21
 The Sun enters Gemini                    about May 22
 The Sun enters Cancer                    about June 22
 The Sun enters Leo                       about July 23
 The Sun enters Virgo                     about August 24
 The Sun enters Libra                     about September 24
 The Sun enters Scorpio                   about October 24
 The Sun enters Sagittarius               about November 23
 The Sun enters Capricorn                 about December 20
 The Sun enters Aquarius                  about January 20
 The Sun enters Pisces                    about February 19

This brief statement of the most ancient science must suffice. It will
enable the reader to understand the philosophy on which the wearing of
talismanic jewels rests and may induce him to delve a little into the
“wisdom of the fathers.”



                              CHAPTER III
                      THE EPHOD OF THE HIGH PRIEST

        “_And yet, as angels in some brighter dreams
        Call to the soul when men doth sleep,
        So may some strange thoughts transcend our wonted themes
        And into glory peep._”
                                              HENRY VAUGHAN.


  THE EPHOD OF THE HIGH PRIEST: THE HEAVENS, THE GATES, THE CAVES: THE
                              FOUR WORLDS.

In the 28th chapter of Exodus we learn that those that are “wise
hearted” and “filled with the spirit of wisdom” were selected to make
for Aaron consecrated garments—a breastplate and an ephod, a broidered
coat, a mitre and a girdle. On the shoulders of the Ephod (Hebrew,
Hepod) which was to be made “of gold, of blue, and of purple, of
scarlet”—these being the colours of divinity—“and fine twined linen,
with cunning work” were to be placed two stones, each to be engraved
after the manner of a signet, with six names of the children of Israel.
Authorities generally agree with the translations in classifying these
two stones as Onyx, and there are very important reasons from an occult
point of view why they should be so identified even though Josephus
accounts them Sardonyx which, he says, represents the sun and the moon.
These onyx stones were to be worn “for stones of memorial unto the
children of Israel.” The ephod was similar to an upper body-garment of
the Greeks (Josephus says it resembled the Epomis) and may be described
as a kind of waistcoat held by straps which passed over the shoulders
and were twined round the waist with the cunningly woven band. The two
large onyx stones were set on the shoulder-straps, and on each stone
were engraved the names of the children of Israel—“Six of their names on
one stone, and the other six names of the rest on the other stone,
according to their birth.” In astrology, to which science perhaps on its
more esoteric side we are impelled, we can quickly recognize the twelve
signs of the Zodiac—six Northern and six Southern—in the twelve tribes
of the children of Israel, more distinctly emphasized on the breastplate
of the High Priest. The engraving on the two onyx stones, one of which
would necessarily be somewhat lighter in colour than the other, can
never be explained in our prosaic terms for they were attuned to the
whisperings of the Heavenly Hosts and typified the eternal wanderings of
the Soul.

In my later remarks on the Onyx I have noted the ancient philosophy
regarding the descent of the Soul through the Gate of Cancer and its
ascent through the Gate of Capricorn. Peter symbolically represented at
the Gate of Heaven, is a veiled allusion to the stone (Petros) gateway
through which the departing spirits of Earth pass on their everlasting
pilgrimage in search of the pearl above price—the hidden knowledge of
perfect truth—a stone so gloriously brilliant that mortal eyes can never
gaze on it.

In earlier Egyptian symbolic lore it is assumed that the Heavens were of
stone, the goddess Hathor being the Lady of the Turquoise Stones and
other deities being represented by stones cut to forms and in their
natural state. In rabbinical allegory the Creator, vibrating through the
rays of sunrise, is reverenced as “The Opener of the Gates,” and
frequent allusions are made to the gates of tears, of prayer, of praise,
and of repentance. There is an old Hebrew tradition that one Messiah
will come through the Gate of Capricorn and another through the Gate of
Cancer. Plato writes of the two gateways—one through which the Soul
descends, the other through which the soul ascends, and Porphyry says
that on this account the Egyptians did not begin the year like the
Romans with Aquarius but with the Moon Sign Cancer.

The Quabalistic Books say that the soul of man passed through the four
celestial worlds in its descent, receiving from Aziluth, the Chaiah,
spiritual animation: from Briah, Neshamah, understanding: from Jezirah,
Ruach, the passions: from Nephesch, material desires. He enters the
world by the Gate of Generation (the Moon), the watery sign, the colour
of which is indicated as green, and he leaves the world of Matter for
the land of the Immortals by the Gate of Material Death (Saturn), the
Earth sign Capricorn, the colour of which is black. The Su’n passage
through the tribal signs expressed on the onyx stones of the Ephod
symbolizes eternally the descent and ascent of immortal man.



                               CHAPTER IV
                      THE BREASTPLATE OF JUDGMENT

  “_The future things and those which are to happen, let them foretell
  unto thee._” Isaiah XLIV. 7.


ATTACHED to the Ephod was the famous HOSHEN-HA-MISHPAT or Breastplate of
Judgment which was of “cunning work,” fashioned like the Ephod “of gold,
of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen.” It
was a square pouch when doubled, a span in length and a span in breadth.
Josephus writes that there were “twelve stones upon the Breastplate,
extraordinary in largeness and beauty: and they were an ornament not to
be purchased by men because of their immense value. The names of all
those sons of Jacob were engraven in these stones, whom we esteem the
heads of our tribes, each in the order according to which they were
born.”

We are told in the 28th chapter of the Book of Exodus that the Urim and
Thummim were put into the Breastplate. Dummelow believes that these were
two jewels or images engraved with distinctive characters employed in
casting lots. Josephus and the Septuagint imply that the gems on the
Breastplate constituted the Urim and Thummim. Gensenius says that the
Urim and Thummim were two little images which were placed between the
folds of the Breastplate. Dr. Chambers indicates the Urim and Thummim as
a mysterious contrivance consisting either of the four rows of precious
stones bearing the tribal signets, or of two images. It is pointed out
that the images of Isis and Osiris, worked in precious stones, hung on
the breast of the Egyptian High Priest to symbolize truth and justice.
The Urim and Thummim may be identical with the Babylonian “Tablets of
Destiny” which were the instruments by which the seers of Babylon
conveyed the “urtu” or answer of the gods to the people. In Babylon the
“Tablets of Destiny” were only effective when on the breast of the god,
while amongst the children of Israel the Urim and Thummim were only
potent when on the breast of the High Priest. Josephus says that the
answer of the Urim and Thummim was revealed by rays of light, and the
Talmudic account is in harmony with this statement.

It was necessary for accuracy that the oracle should only be approached
by one on whom the Shekinah or Radiance rested: one filled with the
splendour of inspiration, naturally gifted in the art of prophecy, and
fitted by the beauty of his thoughts and his life to draw unto himself
the divine Shekinah: he must be “covered with the robe of virtue as the
bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments and as a bride adorneth
herself with her jewels.” The Rabbis identified Urim and Thummim as the
“grand and sacred name of God,” Urim indicating “Those whose words
communicate light” and Thummin, “Those whose words are realised,” while
the Septuagint renders them as “Revelation” and “Truth.” The generally
accepted meaning of Urim and Thummim is “Lights and Perfections.”

The connection of the twelve zodiacal signs with the twelve tribes of
Israel and the twelve stones of the Breastplate is remarked by Josephus,
and the Targum upon Canticles also links them together. Wilson in
“Lights and Shadows of Northern Mythology” draws attention to the
life-sized white marble figure of Aaron robed, wearing the Breastplate
showing a sign of the Zodiac sculptured on each of the twelve precious
stones, which figure is placed on the right side of the High Altar in S.
Pietro, Piazza Bianchi, Genoa.

The Matsebah of Babylon are black pillar stones on which in three
elemental divisions are sculptured the twelve zodiacal signs by which
the twelve Assyrian gods are symbolized, and the twelve lions on either
side of the steps leading to Solomon’s throne represent the Sun in its
progress through the signs of Heaven. Josephus mentions that he had seen
the remains of an ancient pillar of stone on which Seth, foreseeing the
great Flood, had engraved the elements of Astrology which “Adam had
received from the Creator.”

“Moses was willing,” writes Josephus, “that the power of the Breastplate
should be known not only to the Hebrews but to all the world. When God
was present the stone on the right shoulder of the High Priest (the
stone symbolizing the soul’s descent) shone with a brilliancy not
natural to it. This has appeared a wonderful thing to such as have not
so far indulged themselves in philosophy as to despise Divine
Revelation. Yet will I mention what is more wonderful than this: for God
declared beforehand by those twelve stones which the High Priest bare on
his breast and which were inserted into his Breastplate, when they
should be victorious in battle: for so great a splendour shone forth
from them before the army began to march that all the people were
sensible of God’s being present for their assistance. Whence it came to
pass that those Greeks who had a veneration for our laws, because they
could not possibly contradict this called the Breastplate ‘the Oracle.’
Now this Breastplate left off shining 200 years before I composed this
book, God having been displeased at the transgression of the laws.”

Father Kircher in “Oedipus Egyptianus” gives an engraving of the
Tabernacle with the Sun, Moon, and Planets in the centre and Ephraim
with a bull, Menasses with two infants, Benjamin with a Centaur, Dan
with a scorpion, Gad with a ram, Assehr with scales, Simeon with fishes,
Reuben with a water-bearer, Zebulon with a fish-goat, Issachar with a
lobster, and Judah with a lion.

The standards of the twelve tribes were given in the middle ages as
follows:

     Issachar                       Sun or Full Moon
     Reuben                         Man’s Head or Bust
     Judah                          A Lion
     Gad                            An Army of Men
     Zebulon                        A Ship
     Simeon                         A Citadel
     Manassah                       A Unicorn
     Dan                            An Eagle
     Napthali                       Deer
     Benjamin                       A Horse
     Assher                         A Tree

The Rabbinical writers generally favour the following tribal order:
Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Napthali, Gad, Assher, Issachar,
Zebulon, Joseph, Benjamin. Tobias ben Eliezer quotes an old Baraita
which said that Zebulon was followed by Dan. Marbodus places them as
follows:

   1.  Reuben     placed 3rd of the 3rd row in the Breastplate
   2.  Simeon     placed 3rd of the 2nd row in the Breastplate
   3.  Levi       placed 3rd of the 1st row in the Breastplate
   4.  Judah      placed 2nd of the 1st row in the Breastplate
   5.  Zebulon    placed 1st of the 1st row in the Breastplate
   6.  Issachar   placed 1st of the 2nd row in the Breastplate
   7.  Dan        placed 1st of the 3rd row in the Breastplate
   8.  Gad        placed 1st of the 4th row in the Breastplate
   9.  Assher     placed 2nd of the 2nd row in the Breastplate
   10. Napthali   placed 2nd of the 3rd row in the Breastplate
   11. Joseph     placed 2nd of the 4th row in the Breastplate
   12. Benjamin   placed 3rd of the 4th row in the Breastplate

Another old list gives the order as follows:

Reuben, Dan, Judah, Levi, Issachar, Zebulon, Assher, Napthali, Gad,
Simeon, Joseph, Benjamin.

Swedenborg groups the tribes thus:

Judah, Reuben and Gad; Assher, Napthali and Manasseh; Simeon, Levi and
Issachar; Zebulon, Joseph and Benjamin.

It is unnecessary to quote further lists as I believe that the one I am
now producing will be sufficient to redeem the confusion. It is in
complete harmony with the order of Jacob’s blessings (Genesis XLIX) and
the signs of the Zodiac. It will be noted that Taurus with the tribe of
Reuben leads the Zodiac, and it is related that under this sign the
human race came to earth. On ancient zodiacs the Bull as a solar
conception is shown wending his way through the stars.

 1.  Reuben             the Defiler          Taurus
 2.  Simeon and Levi    the Slayers          Gemini
 3.  Levi               “Held to” (_i. e._,  Cancer
                          to the altar)
 4.  Judah              the Lion’s Whelp     Leo
 5.  Zebulon            the Haven            Virgo (Argo, the ship, is
                                               in the constellation
                                               Virgo).
 6.  Issachar           the Bender           Libra
 7.  Dan                the Adder            Scorpio
 8.  Gad                the Victor           Sagittarius
 9.  Assher             the Producer         Capricorn
 10. Naphthali          the Comforter        Aquarius
 11. Joseph             the Redeemer         Pisces
 12. Benjamin           the Devourer         Aries

The sign Cancer is that of the tribe of Levi as servants and guardians
of the Tabernacle, the name indicating “held to,” i. e., held to the
altar.



                               CHAPTER V
                   INTERPRETATION OF THE BREASTPLATE
                    ACCORDING TO ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY


It is apparent that the identification of the stones in the Breastplate
must present many difficulties. Lord Arthur C. Hervey in his Dictionary
of the Bible, says: “Whether the order followed the ages of the sons of
Israel or, as seems most probable, the order of the encampment, may be
doubted; but unless any appropriate distinct symbolism of the different
tribes be found in the names of the precious stones, the question can
scarcely be decided.” Dr. C. Keil in “Biblical Archaeology” says: “The
order of the rows of the precious stones is given in Exodus 28:17-20 and
39:10-13, but owing to the vacillating manner in which the early writers
designate and describe the stones we are at a loss to know how it should
be explained.” Dr. Deane is of the opinion that in many cases it is a
difficult task to identify the Hebrew and Greek names used in these
passages with the names of modern mineralogy. The Rev. J. R. Dummelow
comments on the difficulties of identifying the stones, the meaning of
the Hebrew words being doubtful. Josephus saw the Breastplate frequently
in his day, and in his description the position of certain stones is
changed. The Hebrew Bible translation also presents differences.
Rosenmuller, the Orientalist, argues as to the position of the 6th and
12th stones, placing the 12th in the 6th and the 6th in the 12th. It may
easily be assumed that in its wanderings stones were lost from the
Breastplate and that the replacing of these stones was not always
carried out by men with a knowledge of the quabalistical import of Urim
and Thummim or even of the stones themselves.

To quote from Dr. Deane: “The variation in the order of the stones
prompts the enquiry whether the Breastplate which Josephus repeatedly
saw and which Jerome might have seen in the Temple of Concord was
identical with that of ancient times. If the whole of the original
stones were preserved, the order must have been kept in consequence of
the names engraved upon them. But it is not by any means unlikely that
in the great vicissitudes of the Hebrew nation some of the original
stones may have been lost and have been replaced by others.” More
evidences of this kind would be superfluous.

=The First Stone of the Breastplate=

Now, the first stone of the Breastplate is a Red stone. According to
astrology the Red stone vibrates to the planet Mars and the zodiacal
Aries, therefore its position as the first stone of the Breastplate is
natural. In the mystic philosophy of the Hebrews the Ram “caught in a
thicket by his horns,” the blood of the lamb upon the lintel and
side-posts, etc., and in mystic Christian philosophy the blood of the
Lamb which redeems from worldly sin are expressed symbolically by the
sign Aries, into which the Sun enters in the month of Nisan,
approximately 21st March, the time of the Passover and of Easter. Not
only then must the stone be a red one, it must be red of the colour of
blood. But again one must not lose sight of the fact that the first
stone on the Plate was engraved not with the name of the tribe of
Benjamin, the true Aries tribe, but with the name Reuben, a tribe under
the lordship of the second sign of the Zodiac, Taurus. This may be
explained by the fact that the earlier Breastplate of the two began with
the sign Taurus. Agnes Mary Clerke, writing on the Old Zodiac, says: “So
far as positive records go Aries was always the first sign. But the
arrangement is, on the face of it, a comparatively modern one. None of
the brighter stars of the constellation could be said even roughly to
mark the Equinox much before 1800 B.C.; therefore during a long stretch
of previous time the leading position belongs to the stars of Taurus.
Numerous indications accordingly point to a corresponding primate
zodiac. Setting aside as doubtful, evidence derived from interpretation
of cuniform inscriptions we meet in connection with Mithraic and
Mylittic legends reminiscences of a Zodiac and religious calendar in
which the Bull led the way. Virgil’s “Candidus auratis aperit cum
cornibus anum Taurus” perpetuates the tradition, and the Pleiades
continued within historical memory to be the first asterism of the lunar
zodiac.”

The Egyptian worship of Serapis who is frequently symbolized by the head
of a bull surmounted by a uræus and disc, and whose colour was of a
blood red, may be noted. The worship of this god was introduced into
Egypt by the Ptolemies, but his name is derived from Ausar-Hapi
(Osiris-Apis) and he represents a blending of the older worship of
Osiris with the Bull Apis which, says Herodotus, is a fair and sublime
reflection of the soul of Osiris. In this connection Diodorus says that
the soul of Osiris migrated into Apis and thus revealed himself to men
through the ages. Attention is drawn to this worship to show that in
Egypt a bull god was associated with the colour red, and the “holding a
red rag to a bull” may have its origin in the bull-fights of old, in
which case however it is clear that the Martial Red is the colour of
irritation.

We can see in the placing of Taurus, the Bull—or the tribal name
Reuben—in the first section of the Breastplate a desire to harmonize it
as far as possible with an older one, whilst the gem and its colour
represented the sign Aries—the sign of the Ram—symbolically the tribe of
Benjamin, engraved as of old in the last division of the Plate.

The Hebrew word ODEM, signifying redness, is connected with the Hebrew
word DOM, blood, and the stone to meet these requirements is the Red
Hæmatite, the true bloodstone of antiquity, which is further described
in the section of this book dealing more generally with the scientific
and romantic aspects of precious stones.

The Hæmatite is a true iron stone and in old astrology Iron is a metal
placed directly under the rulership of the planet Mars and the sign
Aries. We have direct evidence of the use of this stone by the ancient
Babylonians, who wore it as an engraved signet cut in cylinder form. We
therefore identify the first stone of the Breastplate as the Red
Hæmatite on which was engraved the name of the first tribe, Reuben.

=The Second Stone of the Breastplate=

The second stone of the Breastplate is given as PITDAH, variously
interpreted as a Topaz, Peridot, Yellowish-green Serpentine, Diamond and
Chrysolite. The Targums agree that a green stone is implied and some
authorities seek to clear the mystery by advancing that the stone was of
a yellowish-green.

The topaz of the ancients is not the topaz of today, but is identified
with the stone known to us as the chrysolite or peridot. Traditionally
the emerald is associated with the second sign of the zodiac, and Apion
who wrote much concerning ancient Egypt and whose story of Androclus and
the Lion echoes through the ages, tells of a gigantic figure of Serapis
seen at Alexandra; this figure, the height of which was about fifteen
feet, was probably composed of glass resembling emerald. The emerald was
sacred to Serapis who—as indicated in the previous chapter—was a Bull
god associated naturally with the zodiacal Taurus. This sign and the
colour green blend truly for green is the symbol of life, of agriculture
and of abundant nature, and amongst nations of antiquity holy festivals
heralded the return of Spring whose praises are sung by the poets in the
magical language of mythology. The many references to “green trees” in
the Bible need only be noticed in passing.

The Veneralia of old was held once a year amidst budding plants and
flowers, in gardens and on green lawns in honour of Venus to welcome
Adonis returning in radiant beauty from the under-world. The ceremony
took place towards the end of April, when the Sun had entered the Earth
sign of Venus, Taurus, and it survives in the later May Day rejoicings.

The gem needed is therefore a green one, and this is traditionally the
correct one for the sign Shor or Taurus in which Nogah or Venus delights
and in which Lavanah or the Moon exalts. The emerald was sacred to this
period of the year. This gem was well-known amongst ancient nations,
especially those of Egypt and Ethiopia where the chief emerald mines
were. The children of Israel must certainly have known of the existence
of the emerald which is mentioned in the Wisdom of Ptah-Hotep who lived
ages before the time of Solomon and more than 1000 years before
Hammurabi, the Wise, of Babylon. “Courtesy in Speech,” says this sage,
“is rarer than the emeralds which slave girls find in the stones.”

It is recorded that the Egyptians employed many women at the emerald
mines on account of the keenness of their vision, and it is highly
probable that Israelitish women were selected for this work with
captives of other nations. Specimens of emeralds collected by Sir G.
Wilkinson from Mount Zabarah in Upper Egypt now lie in the British
Museum. Evidence is not wanting to prove that the ancients knew well how
to engrave on an emerald, Pliny states that Ptolemy offered Lucullus at
Alexandra an emerald with his portrait engraved on it.

The tribe Simeon corresponding to the zodiacal Gemini was engraved on
the second gem of the Breastplate—although it has no connection with
it—for the reason before noted.

It should be understood that by “emerald” is meant the precious emerald
as we know it or its varieties Beryl and Aquamarine. It may be noted
that the Topaz, a gem most generally favoured as the second stone on the
Breastplate, is traditionally assigned to the opposite sign of the
Zodiac, Scorpio.

The hero Gilgames in Babylonian story sees by the gates of the Ocean a
wondrous magical tree which bore as fruit most precious emeralds. The
emerald as a love stone was closely identified with Venus and was
regarded as particularly fortunate for women, bringing happiness in
love, comfort in domestic affairs, and safety in childbirth. The evil
effects of the luminaries afflicted or of malefic planets in the sign
Taurus, the latter degrees especially, have been shown to affect the
sight; hence the employment of the emerald as an eye charm.

Hathor, the Egyptian Venus, who carries in her left hand the potent Crux
Ansata was saluted as “The Lady of the Southern Sycamore,” a tree which
stood for the living body of Hathor on earth and which was called the
Sycamore of the Emerald.

The Rosicrucian John Heydon of the 17th Century describes his meeting
with the spirit Euterpe on the plains of Bulverton Hill one sweet summer
evening. He describes her as “a most exquisite divine beauty of decent
stature; attired, she was in thin loose silks, but so green that I never
saw the like for the colour was not earthly.... Her rings were pure
entire emeralds for she valued no metal.”

Similar legends of green fairies, green fields, and green lights are
connected with the sign of Venus terrestrial, Taurus.

The emerald, then, is the second stone of the Breastplate, and on it was
engraved the name of the tribe of Simeon.

=The Third Stone of the Breastplate=

The third stone of the Breastplate is simply expressed by the word
BAREKETH which has been variously rendered as Emerald, Ruby, Carbuncle,
Amethyst, Rock Crystal, Green Olivine, Green Feldspar. Its true meaning
is “flashing,” which the Targumic translators express as “brilliant.”
The Hebrew BARUK corresponds to an Arabic word meaning “to gleam, to
flash;” the Assyrian word BARAKU and the Aramic BURUK have the same
meaning, with which may be identified the Punic BARCAR, surname of the
Carthaginian general Hamilcar; the Syriac BORKO and the Chaldean BARKAN
can only be rendered “brilliant.” There is a Sanskrit word MARKATA,
meaning “flashing, sparkling,” which corresponds to our word “marble,”
literally, “the sparkling stone,” Latin MARMOR, cognate with the Greek
MARMAROS from MARMAIRO to flash, shine, sparkle. Hence the Flashing
Stone may be identified as marble, and this traditionally answers the
required conditions. In astro-philosophy marble is connected with the
sign of the columns, Gemini—Simeon in association with Levi—and is known
as the Day House of the planet Mercury. The Midrash Bemidbah gives the
colour of this sign as white, and Francis Barrett expresses it as
“glittering.”

The author remembers long ago taking some really glittering specimens of
white marble, unstained by the hand of time, from an Egyptian
mummy-case. Even at the present day pieces of white marble are buried
with the dead body in some countries of the world, and the marble
tombstone is universally used as a monument over the buried ashes which
the ascending man has thrown aside as the serpent throws his old skin.

The shining marble is the emblem of spiritual resurrection which is
symbolized in the sign of the Twins (Gemini). Mercury as the Egyptian
Tehuti or Thoth, or the Greek Hermes, is ever connected with the spirits
of the dead in the Hall of Judgment and, in harmony with the brilliant
flashing white stone, the everlasting uplifting and spiritual progress.
The sign Gemini but lightly veils the peculiar occult meaning associated
with twins and connected names in hermetic philosophy. From Cain and
Abel many may be enumerated including Simeon and Levi whom we find
implicated in the massacre of the defenceless people of Shihem for which
crime they drew upon themselves their father’s curse. Greek legend gives
Amphion, skilled in music and learning, and Zeuthus, who labours and
follows the chase. The latter by hard labour rolled huge boulders
together to build up the walls of Troy, whilst the former but struck the
strings of the lyre given to him by Hermes and the great rocks followed
him—a symbol of the triumph of mind which Hermes promises to his
disciples. Simeon and Levi killed the Shechemites to avenge their sister
Dinah; Amphion and Zeuthus drove Dirce, bound to a bull, to her death to
avenge their mother Antiope. In the legend of the Roman twins, Romulus
kills his brother Remus as Cain killed Abel.

The twin stories are well illustrated in the legend of Castor and
Pollux, the “great twin brethren,” sons of Jupiter and Leda. The former
was mortal, the latter immortal, but so attached were they to each other
that none ever saw them apart.

In these stories the mysterious union of the Soul and the Body is being
continually forced forward, and sleep—which the old masters called a
tenth part of death—is indicated in this legend of the Dioscuri when
Pollux divides his immortality with his brother. Sanchoniatho or
Sanchuniathon—who lived when Gideon judged Israel, says that Thoth of
the Egyptians, Taaut of the Phœnicians, Thoyth of the Alexandrians,
Hermes or Mercurius, was the inventor of letters, and took religion from
the unskilful management of the vulgar forming it into a rational
system; and "when Saturn came from the southern parts of the Earth he
made Taaut, the son of Miser (identified as the Mizraim of the Bible),
King of all Egypt, and the month Thoth began the Egyptian year and
coincides with Tisri or Thishri which began the Jewish year and with
Tisritu which began the Chaldean.

To continue further might lead outside the province of this book, and
the plea for this digression is the endeavour to elucidate the hidden
import of the various departments of the sacred Breastplate by the
searchlight of the philosophical stories of our antique fathers.

Thoth or Hermes engraved all knowledge on two pillars or columns, and
the Hermetic schools say that all knowledge is contained in the words,
letters and continuations engraved on the two tables of stone. This
writing of God graven upon the tables constituted the Commandments, five
of which, and five is the number of Mercury, were written on each stone,
the complete ten indicating the Hidden Power of God—identified in the
Sepher Yetzirah as the Path of Resplendent Intelligence and the Light
which, too intense for the material eye of man, is around the Throne of
the Supreme.

The association of marble with Hermes, the Guide of the Human Race, is
traditional, and evidence favours it as the third stone of the
Breastplate engraved with the name of the tribe of Levi.

=The Fourth Stone of the Breastplate=

Nofek the fourth stone of the Breastplate, has been identified with the
emerald, carbuncle, jasper, red garnet, ruby carbuncle, almandine garnet
and ruby. Two of the Targums classify it as emerald, possibly referring
to a stone similar in colour to the emerald. It is well known that all
green stones were called emeralds by a large section of the ancient
public, just as all red stones were called rubies, etc., hence much
confusion followed. Dr. Emil Hirsch says that Nofek (the correctness of
which word has been doubted in some quarters) must have belonged to the
green stones. In corresponding chrysoprase with “celestial love of
truth” Emanuel Swedenborg draws attention to Exodus XXVIII. 18,
indicating his identification of that gem as the fourth stone of the
Plate. This gem which is of a soft green colour resembles the tender hue
of moonlight. The Midrash Bemidbah gives the colour of Nofek as sky
blue, the Egyptians according to Müller as green, and the astrological,
in considering Cancer the Mansion of the Moon, a moonlight green. The
chrysoprase was anciently translated as “austerity directed against
vice” which harmonizes agreeably with the traditional attitude of chaste
Diana against evil-doers.

The Boat of the Moon in ancient Egypt is pictured as a disc within a
crescent, and the association of the moon (which was said to be in its
Mansion in the watery Cancer) with the waters of the Earth was well
known to the ancients and is referred to frequently in works on magic
and astrology. In this connection may be mentioned the Egyptian story of
a few thousands of years ago which is known as “The Legend of the Green
Jewel” told to the Pharaoh Khufu by the Prince Khafra:

Pharaoh Sneferu, weary and sighing for amusement or relaxation from
affairs of State, was advised by his scribe to go rowing with the
loveliest women of his harem on the lake. “I will go with thee, august
One,” said the scribe, “the green banks with the trees and flowers, the
splash of the water under the oars will charm thine eyes and bring thee
happiness.” For the excursion twenty beautiful young women were selected
(twenty was a number of the negative or female side of the Moon,
quabalistically expressed as “the Awakening”). They rowed the Pharaoh’s
boat with oars of ebony and gold, singing sweetly as they went, and his
heart was glad. But with the turning of the boat the helmswoman’s hair
was touched by her steering oar and a green jewel she wore fell into the
water. She became silent and raised her oar from the water, the other
women doing likewise. “Why cease?” asked the Pharaoh. “Let us continue.”
They answered: “O Pharaoh, the steerer has stopped and her oar is raised
from the water.” “Why is this so?” questioned the Pharaoh. “O Majesty,
my beautiful green jewel has sunk beneath the waters.” “What of that?”
he replied. “Continue. I will present you with a new jewel.” “O
Majesty,” said the girl, “no jewel can replace my own green jewel.” So
the Pharaoh turned to his scribe. “What can we do?” he asked. “This girl
has lost her green jewel and will have no other.” The scribe uttered
magical words over the lake and the waters divided as two walls. Between
these walls the scribe descended and, having found the jewel, came up
again into the boat, gave the green jewel to the helmswoman and spoke to
the waters which closed up again. The Pharaoh was gratified, giving rich
gifts to the scribe at whose power all marvelled.

When the Pharaoh Khufu heard this legend from Prince Khafra he enjoined
that offerings should grace the sepulchres of the Pharaoh Sneferu and
his great scribe, the magician. This allegorical story, like many others
of the kind, is full of hidden meaning and the connection of this boat
with its twenty female rowers, its two (unit of the Moon) Illustrious
Ones, the Pharaoh and the Scribe, the green vegetation on the banks of
the lake, the lake itself, the division of the waters and the green
jewel make the meaning especially clear to students of symbology.

In astrological enumeration from the earliest time the sign Cancer was
said to rule the great oceans, the deep blue of which may have
influenced the Midrash Bemidbah in its allotment of colour, and in
certain hermetic ceremonies connected with the soul’s entry into matter
through the Gate of Cancer from the blue ocean of the incorruptible
Heavens.

The zodiacal Cancer, the Mansion of the Moon, is associated with the
worship of Diana in her varied forms, and Diana—at one time a plebeian
goddess only—was for a long period worshipped by the plebeian
populations who used to hang her image to trees to increase their
growth. Cancer is the sign of the people, and the Moon “which delights
in this sign” represents their varying moods. In the Acts of the
Apostles it is related that Demetrius, a silversmith, and others made
silver shrines of Diana (silver astrologically is the metal of the Moon)
resenting the attempt of Paul to prejudice her worship, with the famous
cry “Great is Diana of the Ephesians.” Diana was worshipped as the
goddess of Light by the Romans and whether as Artemis in her changing
attributes, Selene, Luna, Leucophryne, Petamia, Munychia or Amarynthea,
her influence as a moon deity remains. Her face resembles that of her
twin brother Apollo to a very marked degree, and her hair like his is
caught up in a knot above the forehead indicating the influence exerted
by the Moon in its relation to the Sun, in the movements of the waters
of the Earth.

That chrysoprase as we know it today was used in very early times is
clearly proved by the Egyptian jewellery discovered in excavations. Hard
as the stone is, the ancients knew how to cut it, various intagli of
ancient origin existing today to prove their skill. The apple-green hue
of the chrysoprase is attractive, and it is probable that it was the
stone of which fifty specimens were sent to Ashkalon as part of the
tribute. Its inclusion in this department of the Breastplate is the
result of much research, and it harmonizes with astrological tradition.
This stone was inscribed with the name of the tribe of Judah.

=The Fifth Stone of the Breastplate=

In placing Shoham in the position of Sapir in the fifth division of the
Breastplate, traditional philosophy is harmonized. The fifth zodiacal
sign Leo is not blue. It is the mansion of the Sun, and old almanacs
symbolize it as a raging lion. The Midrash Bemidbah gives the colour as
black but generally authorities agree that it is a shade of red,
especially during sunrise and sunset, and a yellowish-red at noonday.
The eleventh zodiacal sign Aquarius is given as sky blue by most
authorities, and it is generally accepted. It has a mystic connection
with the heavens, and without doubt its gem is the Sapir. In the Zodiac
the signs Leo and Aquarius are exactly opposite, and on the Breastplate
the stone for the former is second of the second row, and for the latter
second of the last row. Accepting this view no difficulty will be
experienced. It might also be considered that the tribe of Judah is the
tribe of the Lion, although for reasons previously stated, the name of
this tribe is engraved on the fourth stone.

Accepting the Shoham then as the fifth stone of the Breastplate we have
yet to identify it. The Hebrew Bible, the Authorized Version, Josephus,
the Vulgate, Marbodus, Dr. Deane all translate it as Onyx, and Dr.
Ginzberg half agrees with them. Dr. Emil A. Braun, the archæologist,
traced Shoham to the Arabic SACHMA, blackness. “Of such a colour,” he
writes, “are the Arabian Sardonyx which have a black ground colour.”
However, this species can hardly be called true Sardonyx defined by
Pliny as “candor in sarda,” graphically rendered by King as “a white
opaque layer superimposed upon a red transparent stratum of the true red
Sard.” The ancient and modern methods of imitating this gem are
identical: A Sard is put upon a red-hot iron block with the result that
the part nearest the heated mass is transmuted into a white hazy layer
upon which the Cameo artist works.

It seems that the name Onyx amongst ancient peoples was indifferently
applied to both Onyx and Sardonyx, but in the case of the fifth stone of
the Breastplate there seems to be no doubt that the Sardonyx is the
Stone. The sign Leo astrologically rules the Heart in the human body,
which in the Grand Man is symbolically the Sun, and the Sard is of the
colour of the Heart. By ancient correspondence then the Heart, Leo, the
Sun, the Sard, the Sardonyx, and the fifth department of the Breastplate
are clearly connected.

The Carnelian, Sard, and Sardonyx were most extensively used by the
Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and other peoples of antiquity, and many
specimens have been found engraved with various devices: finely worked
Egyptian scarabei, antique Intagli and Camei. The Sardonyx has been
called a “royal stone,” and the sign of the Lion is intimately connected
with royalty. The winged, human-headed lions of Nineveh are emblematical
of the Sun, and Daniel describing his vision connects the Winged Lion
with the heart of Man:—(Ch. VII. 4).

In the Egyptian texts frequent allusion is made to the heart or HATI of
Osiris. The HATI represented vitality, warmth, control, and silently
within it were impressed the actions of its owner during his earth-life.
It was to his HATI, lying on the Balance before the “Shining God,” the
attendant deities and the forty and two gods in the great Judgment Hall,
that the shuddering soul cried out of the intense silence: “O heart of
mine, testify not against me,” words frequently impressed on Scarabei
and regarded as magically potent.

A symbolic image constructed by the Magi at the period of the Sun’s
passage through the sign of the Lion, took the form of a crowned king
enthroned, wearing a deep yellow robe, a globe at his feet and a raven
by his heart. The crowned king, his yellow robe, the raven and the globe
symbolize the Sun and its manifestations, and the Heart—the Sun of
Man—symbolizes the Solar sign Leo. Another symbol of the Magi, shows a
crowned woman in a four-horsed chariot (four being the negative or
female side of the Sun), a mirror in her right hand, a staff in her
left, and a burning flame on her head. These emblems were directed to be
engraved in the Hour of the Sun, the Sun being in Leo, on a carnelian
stone. The famous seal of Solomon and David—the Mogan Dovid—was most
potent when engraved on a Sardonyx, a Carnelian or a plate of gold
(metal of the Sun).

All conditions necessary for this stone of the breastplate are fulfilled
in the Sardonyx stone which, engraved with the tribe of Zebulun, filled
the fifth place.

=The Sixth Stone of the Breastplate=

The sixth stone of the Breastplate is, without doubt, the Jashpeh
accepted by the Vulgate, Marbodus, Dr. Emil Hirsch and Dr. G. Deane.
Translated correctly enough as Jasper, it is placed in the twelfth
division in the Hebrew and Authorized Versions.

From an astrological point of view the Yaholom has no claim on the sixth
House whilst Jashpeh undoubtedly has. The latter is the third stone of
the second row of the Breastplate and the former is the third stone of
the fourth row. In astrological science they are opposite in the Zodiac,
the Jashpeh belonging to the celestial Virgo and the Yahalom to the
celestial Pisces. The colours are given in the Midrash Bemidbah as
“Mixed,” and this is more correct than the “black speckled with blue,”
set down sometimes for the sign Virgo, but which scarcely expresses the
aspect of Nature personified in the goddess Ceres. The Jasper stone has
not lost its identity in the march of time, and there is no reason to
doubt that the Aspu of the Assyrians, the Jashpeh of the Hebrews, the
Jaspis of the Greek, or the Yash of the Arabs is any other than the
Jasper, as we know it today. The Panther stone of the Targums of Onkelos
and Jonathan is the well-known and very beautiful Egyptian Mottled
Jasper so greatly esteemed in the ancient world. The Jasper takes a very
brilliant polish and is quite of the crystal brilliance indicated in the
sacred books. It was the gem of the angel Raphael, emblematic of
strength, courage, virtue and wisdom, and it is associated with a
variety called the Graminatias, the markings of which resemble—to a very
marked degree in some specimens—the letters of the Alphabet. Thus, it is
the stone of Hermes or Thoth, the mercurial god who, possessed of
illimitable knowledge, communicated it to the earth-bound spirit known
as Man, by signs in the Heavens, in the air, in the sea, on the earth,
in the flowers and stones of the earth, by omens, by hints and by
incidents, but never—on account of his promise to Apollo—by spoken
words. Jerome calls the Jasper “the stone of spiritual graces,” and from
Hermes to Christ called Son of the Virgin, this stone descends with all
its spiritual attributes. It is associated with the Virgins of Egypt who
provoked the words set down in the eighth chapter of Jeremiah: “The
children gather wood and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women
knead their dough to make cakes to the Queen of Heaven.”

The Jasper was a stone sacred to the Virgin Mary in Christian mysticism,
and to the Son of the Virgin; and symbolically the Virgin of the Skies
is ever immaculate, ever sublime and pure. The association of the sixth
sign of the Zodiac with all virginity is further exemplified in the cult
of the Virgins of Vesta. Corresponding with the sixth sign of the Zodiac
these virgins were six in number, and the age of girls selected for the
service could not be less than six years. The poets tell the story of
the beautiful Astræa, the holy Virgin, who in pity remained with men
after the gods, provoked by man’s wickedness, had departed in anger;
remained with them until she was forbidden to gaze on a world defiled
with crime and misery, and with bandaged eyes was led away to Heaven
where her symbolic form stands eternally, scales in one hand, sword in
the other. One gift she left with man—the gift of Hope which has as its
emblem the unpretentious Jasper stone. The Virgin Astræa is familiar as
the goddess of Justice, and her connection with Mercury—astrologically
known as Lord of the Virgin—is apparent. Her special degree of the
Zodiac is given as the twenty-third (“Zodiacal Symbology,” page 96),
which is a degree of sympathy, and for the correct administration of
justice, deep and generous sympathy is surely necessary.

According to Swedenborg and other mystical writers the Virgin symbolizes
all chaste love, “affection for good, charity towards others, lovers of
truth, spirituality and sympathy, and the kindness of men to one
another, as opposed to the cruel malice of war and destruction which is
likened to false reasonings, lies and opposed to Divine Providence.”

The Zebulon is the Haven into which they “who are weary and heavy laden”
may enter, and it is significant that the Son of the Virgin dwelt in
Capernaum which is upon the sea coast in the borders of Zebulon and
Nephthalim (Matt. 4. 13).

Leah thanks God for “a good dowry,” and saying that now her husband will
dwell with her because of her six sons, called his name Zebulun. In
several ways a good dowry is associated with the sign Virgo, which is
related to learning and commerce, will, patience, persistence and the
reward of honest work. About the constellation of Virgo is the Argo or
Ship of the Heavens, which star-lighted is ever gliding on the blue
waters of the Celestial Harbour. A story of the loss of the Jasper from
the Breastplate is told in the Talmud, and after a long search for
another to replace it one was found in the possession of Dama, son of
Nethinah, and purchased from him for about £60 in our money.

It is quite conceivable that stones were lost from the breastplate, and
it was no doubt the replacing of them that caused so much confusion.
Jasper as the sixth stone of the Breastplate is easily identified and
the tribe of Issachar was inscribed upon it.

=The Seventh Stone of the Breastplate=

The seventh stone of the Breastplate is given as Lesham, variously
rendered as Ligure, Agate, Jacinth, Hyacinth, Amber, Sapphire,
Turquoise, Opal. The gem needed must, according to Dr. E. G. Hirsch, be
“brilliant and of intense lustre.” The Midrash says that the stone was
“white like the colour of antimony.” The colour in the Midrash Bemidbah
is given as sapphire blue, and by astrological authorities generally as
dark crimson or tawny. The sign is the airy home of the planet Venus:
and its colour can be more correctly gauged from the colours identified
with the planet itself, which are given as follows: yellow, lemon yellow
and pale blue, art tints in general, white and purple, white and
shining, white in the morning, reddish in the evening, changeable, etc.,
Gesenius translates LESHAM as Opal, and Dr. M. H. Breslau accepts his
reading as correct. The Opal is given for the seventh stone in
translations from the Hebrew Bible, and this is most probably the
correct one. This beautiful gem was in great repute in ancient times,
and Pliny in lauding its charms tells us that it was found in India,
Egypt, Cyprus, Thasos and other places. It is found recorded on Antique
Clay Tablets whereon is impressed catalogues of treasures taken from
conquered cities. Its softness and delicacy rendered it easy to cut and
carve, and specimens of opal intagli have been found. Mr. King mentions
one in the Praun collection, of mediocre antique Roman work which was
engraved with the heads of Jupiter, Apollo and Diana surrounded by nine
stars. The same author mentions a big opal set in a quabalistically
inscribed ring of gold with astrological symbols. The midrashic “white
like the colour of antimony” may fairly describe a common variety of
opal. Antimony is a brittle flaky metal of bluish-white colour and
crystalline texture. No gem can exhibit “the brilliant and intense
lustres” more than the precious opal which is not only brilliant and
lusterful but beautiful, tender and comprehensive of all the colours of
the rainbow. What gem can answer so to the Talmudic identification of
the qualities of Venus, viz., Splendour? The Venus of Libra is more
ethereal than the Venus of Taurus and is well presented in the charming
statue of the Venus of Medici, that of Taurus being expressed in the
figure known as the Venus of Milo. This ethereal Venus is the immaculate
glorious woman whose absolute beauty the greatest poets, writers,
painters, sculptors and musicians have striven to express in words, in
form, in colour and in sound. Thus is Venus the noble cogency of divine
pure love which has been striving through all the ages to make the world
a paradise and to bring man back again to the Eden he has lost. No blood
sacrifices stained the altars of this lovely goddess, and the ancients
delighted in bringing to her temples sweet blossoms and fragrant spices
for incense. So great was the charm and wonder of this Heavenly One that
Momus, the god of Sarcasm, who spared neither god nor man, died of
vexation because he could find in her nothing to ridicule, nothing to
blame, nothing to jeer at, for before such pure beauty criticism and
ridicule must be mute. As Venus Urania she arises amidst the foam of the
sea (the occult import serving but to intensify the beauty of the
legend) with a blue sky above her head and peaceful sunlit waters at her
feet, a symbol of that eternal love which unites the elements and
spreads the lustre of true harmony wherever are to be found those wise
enough to know it. Socrates wrote that he was uncertain whether there
was one Aphrodite or two, and doubtless the philosopher recognized the
various phases of the goddess when blended with, or corrupted by,
anything less than the conception of pure idealism in all its
expressions. The ancients called the opal “Cupid”—a worthy tribute to
the sublime beauty of his glorious mother. One might compare the opal to
the union of Thaumas (Wonder), the Son of the Earth, with Electra
(Brightness), a daughter of Oceanus, and with their child Iris
(Rainbow).

[Illustration:

  Rare Opals

  Kelsey I. Newman Collection
]

Issachar is the tribe of the Balance, “an ass bending between two
burdens.” The ass in the East today as it was in the days of the Bible
is regarded as an emblem of constancy, patience, endurance and
stolidity, and frequent allusion is made to it in sacred writings:
“Speak, ye that ride on white asses, ye that sit in judgment, and walk
by the way.” (Judges 5. 10.) Josephus replies with vigour to the
assertion of Apion that the Jews worshipped an ass’s head. In the
mythology of the Egyptians the good and evil essences are symbolised by
two wild asses, and mention is made in “The Book of the Dead” of the
duel between the ass and its “eater,” the night serpent. The ass also as
a symbolic animal of Jupiter represented Justice in the ancient world,
hence its association with the Balance becomes clear. The tribe
Issachar, this “servant of tribute,” is symbolic of absolute truth for
“a false balance is abomination to the Lord: but a just weight is his
delight.” (Prov. 11. 1.), and “He that speaketh truth showeth forth
righteousness: but a false witness deceit.” (Prov. 12. 17.) The entry of
the Son of the Virgin into Jerusalem—the city of Virgo—riding on an ass,
as told in that chapter of parables, Matthew 21, is not devoid of
symbolic meaning. Hermes or Thoth is the recorder of the scales in the
Egyptian Hall of Judgment and he may also be said to ride upon the
scales for the sign Libra follows the sign of the Virgin. Libra has been
described as the most sensitive sign of the Zodiac, the opal is its
ideal gem and the opal is the gem for the seventh division of the
Breastplate and on it was engraved the tribe of Dan.

=The Eighth Stone of the Breastplate=

The eighth stone of the Breastplate is Shebo, rendered as Agate by the
Authorised Version, the Vulgate, Marbodus and others.

Gesenius gives the derivation of Shebo from a root which means “to take
prisoner,” and his illustrious pupil, Julius Fürst, connects it with a
root meaning “to glitter.” Dr. Deane derives it from another meaning “to
obscure, to dull,” and expresses the opinion that the problem “cannot be
solved by etymology alone.” He believes SHEBO to be some variety of
crystallised quartz. Dr. Breslau in translating SHEBO as Agate has good
supporters. The variety known as Banded agreeably fits in with the
demands of the planet Mars through the sign of its expression Scorpio,
termed the sign of the Serpent. Its wavy lines typify the undulations of
the serpent, the lines of a fortress or the restless waves of the sea.
The opinion has been expressed that SHEBO may have some connection with
the Indian Serpent of the Underworld—Sesha or Shesha, and the connection
may be further extended to the huge serpent which slays and is slain by
Thor as told in the Song of Vala.

The sign Scorpio is in astrology the sign of death, the dead and all
connected therewith. It is expressed by the Serpent of Eden in that
magical third chapter of Genesis, a chapter that has demanded the
special study of mystical philosophers for ages. The sign Scorpio is
also symbolized in the person of the goddess Serket, pictured as a
human-headed scorpion or as a goddess with scorpion head-dress. She
protected the Canopic Jars which contained the embalmed viscera of the
departed. Aesculapius, the god of medicine, was worshipped under the
form of a serpent at Epidaurus, and in the Vatican statue he is
represented leaning on a staff around which is coiled a serpent; statues
of his daughter Hygieia show her with a serpent in different attitudes.
In those and numerous other serpent stories all associated with the sign
Scorpio to a greater or lesser degree, the majesty and the mystery of
life and death are philosophically implied.

The traditional colour of the sign Scorpio is given as brown, a shade of
brown well describes the agate stone. The Midrash Bemidbah gives gray
which, though not in agreement with other authorities, certainly does
indicate a species of Agate.

Dan is described in the Book of Genesis as “a serpent by the way, an
adder in the path, that biteth the horses’ heels” (the sign following
Scorpio, Sagittarius—the sign of Gad) “so that his rider shall fall
backward.” The tribe was a mystical tribe possessing the knowledge of
white magic and of black (Judges XVIII. 30). The wisdom of the serpent
is symbolized in it—“Dan shall judge his people.”

The eighth stone of the Breastplate was the Banded Agate, and on it was
engraved the tribe of Gad.

=The Ninth Stone of the Breastplate=

The ninth stone of the Breastplate is Achlamah which, with few
exceptions, is identified as the Amethyst—beyond doubt the correct
identification.

The Midrash Bemidbah gives the colour as purple which is the dominant
shade of this beautiful gem. Purple is also one of the chief colours
associated with the planet Jupiter which in astrology is termed the Lord
of Sagittarius, the ninth sign of the Zodiac. This sign is connected
with rulers and people in authority from very early times; Josephus
mentions that Joseph wore “purple and drove in his chariot through all
the land of Egypt.” The Amethyst was a royal stone and purple a royal
colour the right to wear which was bestowed by the King on inspired men
who, like Joseph, were revealers of dreams. In the Book of Daniel also
Belshazzar promises that the man who reads for him the “writing on the
wall” shall be clothed with purple, shall have a chain of gold about his
neck and shall rule as the third in the kingdom. This promise he
fulfills when Daniel, “the prince of astrologers,” told him what he
would know. A similar promise is made by Darius, the son of Hystaspes,
as a reward for the solving of his questions regarding the strength of
Wine, Kings and Women. It is related in the Book of Esther that the same
honour is bestowed on Mordecai by the King Artaxerxes.

In old Hebraic philosophy it was held that whoso honoureth the prophet
honoureth God. Purple is the colour signifying royal dignity and
imperial power: “to be born in the purple” is to be born essentially
fortunate and, under the elevating influence of the planet Jupiter,
Aclamah—according to Dr. Hirsch—seems etymologically to imply the idea
of being strong. Lord Arthur Hervey and several other writers hold that
the Hebrew word is a verbal one from the root HALOM, to dream. In
astrological deductions Sagittarius is the sign of dreams, prophecy and
philosophy, and in its divine aspect it is referred to the wise centaur
Chiron who tended the young hero Achilles. Sagittarius is the sign of
the Horse and of Horsemen, and its connection with the tribe of Gad is
not hard to understand. Aben Ezra writes on Targum authority that
Jupiter is best expressed by the name Gad, and Dr. Alfred Pearce remarks
that in modern Hebrew TZEDEK, justice, was also translated as Jupiter
“because of the just character of persons born under his influence.”
Gad, David’s seer, is mentioned in 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Chronicles, and the
prophetic nature of this son of Jupiter may well stand as a living
symbol. Gad is heralded by Leah thus: “A troop cometh,” and “she called
his name Gad.”

The Amethyst has ever been a gem symbolizing spirituality in its highest
degree, and by the virtue of its power it opposed evils, drunkenness,
and the sin of distorted appetites. Indeed, the Amethyst was considered
a sign of such holiness that evil was always courted by one wearing it
whilst overindulging in eating and drinking. It was cut into sacred
scarabei by the Egyptians and Etruscans and is frequently found
engraved. Pliny writes of its fitness as a sealstone, and Mr. King
mentions a large pale Amethyst, signed, in the Pulsky collection, on
which is engraved the head of a Syrian King.

The Amethyst has been frequently quoted as a stone of the celestial
Aries, even ancient writers commenting on its sympathetic Aries
vibration. The mistake arose from confounding the Babylonian Mars with
the Mars of the Greeks and Romans. The Babylonian Mars of Centaur form
is clearly identified with the sign Sagittarius.

The Amethyst was the ninth stone of the Breastplate, and on it was
engraved the name of the tribe of Asher.

=The Tenth Stone of the Breastplate=

Regarding the tenth stone of the Breastplate there is a general
disagreement amongst authorities, some preferring simply to give its
Hebraic name THARSHISH without attempting its meaning.

The tenth division of the Breastplate is the division of the zodiacal
Capricorn, the colour of which is generally regarded as black, the
colour of the planet Saturn, and which according to Dr. Simmonite,
William Lilly, Madame Blavatsky and others, is, esoterically, green. The
Targums describe the stone Tharshish as of the colour of the Great Sea,
or sea colour. This is found in the Serpentine variety of a translucent
deep green, oily colour capable of receiving a high polish. The colour
of the Egyptian and Arabian Serpentine (or HYDRINUS) is deep and a
little heavy. Many intagli and camei of antique origin are found cut in
Serpentine; these specimens include Egyptian scarabei and Babylonian
cylinders of about 5,000 years ago, clear evidence that the ancients
knew the stone, appreciated it and worked it.

The sign Capricorn is a strange one, symbolizing the Gateway of Heaven
through which men pass when life on earth is done. Hence it expresses
the mystery of the deep seas which were compared with the seas of space
in sacred philosophy. Amongst others, Manilius recognizes Capricorn as a
sailor’s sign:

            _But when receding Capricornus shows
            The star that in his tail’s bright summit glows,
            Then shall the native dare the angry seas,
            A hardy sailor live, spurning inglorious ease._

Rev. Mr. King writes of a cast from a gem engraved with a “double-headed
Capricorn with an owl’s body standing upon and holding in his forefoot a
rudder: in allusion to the doctrine laid down by Manilius that the star
in the sign’s tail is the proper horoscope of mariners and pilots. Or it
may typify the usually fickle temper of one born under the sign. This
sign likewise presided over all the space within tide-mark, the
alternate domain of sea and land; a dominion expressed by the half
terrestrial, half marine composition of the figure. The region
peculiarly under him” (that is, the region astrologically ruled by
Capricorn) “was the West of Europe.” (This is speaking very generally.)
“The owl’s body is given him perhaps as the attribute of Pallas, the
designer of that prototype of navigation, the Argo.”

Godfrey Higgins writes of the “whimsical sign called Capricorn which in
the Indian Zodiac is an entire goat and an entire fish: in the Greek and
the Egyptian the two are united and form one animal.”

The place of dazzling brilliancy, called by the Greeks “The Milky Way”
is the path of the souls, and is referred to by Macrobius, Cicero and
other writers. The author of the “Anacalypsis” writes: "The Milky Way is
placed immediately under that degree of North Latitude which is called
the Tropic of Cancer, and the two tropics of Cancer and Capricorn have
been called by the astrologers “The Gates of Heaven or the Sun,” at each
of which the Sun arrives in his annual progress. The Southern Gate is
called the Tropic of Capricorn, an amphibious animal, half goat, half
fish in our present zodiacs, but in the most ancient zodiacs of India it
is described as two entire beings—a goat and a fish. Here, in this
goat-fish sign Capricorn, are the mermen and mermaids, and the
half-animal, half-fish beings of the sea. Of the tribe of Asher it is
said: “Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal
dainties,” (Gen. 49. 20), a statement very much in agreement with the
sign Capricorn. Again in Deuteronomy (33. 24) we have, according to the
Authorized Version, “Let Asher be blessed with children: let him be
acceptable to his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil”; this
passage, however, may be closer translated as follows: “More than all
the children be Asher blessed: he shall be the most favoured of his
brethren and bathe his feet in oil.”

The tenth Mansion of the Zodiac, the natural “Home” of Capricorn, is the
House of fame, honour, reputation, credit, authority and dignity.

His mother called him Asher because she said, “the daughters will call
me blessed,” Asher being the Hebrew word for “blessed.” A close
translation of verse 17, Chapter 5 Judges, would read: “Asher remained
on the seashore and abode near his bays.”

In all these Biblical allusions to the tribe of Asher there is nothing
out of harmony with the sign Capricorn; in fact, in every line the
connection is clearly marked.

The tenth stone in the Breastplate is the Serpentine and on it was
engraved the tribe Naphtali.

=The Eleventh Stone of the Breastplate=

For reasons stated the Sapir is placed in the eleventh division of the
Breastplate instead of the SHOHAM, and we thus have complete harmony
between the eleventh sign of the zodiac, Aquarius, the eleventh division
of the Breastplate and the Sapir stone which is translated as Sapphire
in the Hebrew Bible, the Authorized Version, the Vulgate; as Lapis
Lazuli or Sapphire by Mr. Wodiska; and as Lapis Lazuli by Dr. Hirsch,
Rev. J. R. Dummelow, and others. The Targums indicate a stone of blue
colour, and that this is the Lapis Lazuli there is no reason to doubt.
In ancient times the Lapis Lazuli was termed SAPPHIRUS; Pliny describes
it accurately as “opaque, sprinkled with specks of gold,” and many
antique intagli in this stone have been found. The Lapis Lazuli was a
very highly esteemed stone amongst the old world peoples, who called it
“The Stone of Heaven,” “The Gem of the Stars,” and the Zemech Stone
connected with all things heavenly. Traditionally it is the stone on
which was engraved the law of Moses. In a quabalistic “Piut” is written:
“O, how dreadful is the place of the heavenly abode; for there the light
dwelleth with him: and above the firmament is a precious stone, as the
appearance of the Sapphire stone which forms the glorious throne, and
thereon He who is clothed with light is seated.” A close translation of
Ezekiel 1. 26, reads: “And above, the vault that was over their head was
like the appearance of a sapphire stone, the likeness of a throne: and
upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a
man above it.” Chapter X. 1, similarly treated, reads: “Then I saw and
behold, on the vault that was above the head of the Cherubim, there
appeared over them something like a sapphire stone, something similar in
appearance to the likeness of a throne.”

The connection of a blue stone with the blue heavens is consistent with
ancient philosophy, and authorities agree in connecting this colour with
the sign of the mighty heavens—Aquarius. According to tradition Moses,
the law-giver, was born under this sign. Akers in his “Introduction to
Biblical Chronology” gives the date of this event as A. M. 3319, Adar
third, year of the Julian period 2987, which answers to Thursday,
February 13th, 1727 B. C. At that time the sun would be in the Celestial
Aquarius. Aquarius is the water-bearer, and the incident of the striking
of the rock from which water gushed forth is mystically associated with
it. In the Mythologies this waterbearer is Ganymedes, son of Tros, King
of Troy, whom the gods, impressed by his beauty, carried away whilst he
was tending the flocks on Mount Ida, in order that the Lord of Olympus
might have a lovely cup-bearer.

In astrological deductions Aquarius is the sign of friendship—“Naphtali
bringeth pleasant words.” It is also the sign of hopes and desires: Of
Naphtali he said, “O Naphtali, satisfied with favour, and full of the
blessing of the Lord, take thou possession of the West and the South.”
(Deut. 33. 23). Then again, in the Septuagint Naphtali is referred to as
“a spreading tree yielding leafy branches” and the tree raising branches
heavenwards is an Aquarian symbol.

The law of Moses is spoken of as the “tree of Life” which contains the
secret of actual and absolute immortality.

Now we are, according to periodic astrological deductions, at the Gate
of the age of Aquarius, all the world is undergoing the process of
change, and finally all the humanitarianism of Aquarius will replace the
accumulation of evil thoughts that lay by the Gateway. Then will
Naphtali prevail, his captivity will be over, and the slaves will hang
up their chains amongst the sacred cypresses, for the Comforter will
come.

The Lapis Lazuli then, is the stone of the eleventh division of the
Breastplate and on it was engraved the name Joseph.

=The Twelfth Stone of the Breastplate=

Regarding the classification which places Jashpeh in the twelfth
division of the Breastplate much controversy has arisen, and the
consensus of opinion is against it.

Dr. Emil Hirsch holds the opinion that Jahalom should replace JASHPEH,
and in this surmise he is by no means alone. Astrologically Jashpeh has
nothing in common with the last sign of the Zodiac—Pisces—the colour of
which is given as “glistening white” by the Midrash Bemidbah. It has
been more minutely described as “a white glistening colour like a fish
just taken out of the water” by William Lilly and Dr. Simmonite. There
is little doubt that the stone was of a white glistening colour. YAHALOM
is rendered as Diamond by the translations of the Hebrew Bible, the
Authorized Version, by Mr. Cattelle, Dr. Ginzberg and others; but
although the Diamond is mentioned by Pliny, it could not have found a
place among the stones of the Breastplate as they were large stones all
engraved with tribal names. To this treatment the diamond is not
adapted. The YAHALOM is without doubt white crystal which is of a
glistening colour and traditionally associated with the twelfth sign of
the Zodiac.

Diodorus writes that an artist named Satyreius cut on a small crystal a
most exquisite and lifelike portrait of Queen Arsinoe, the beauty of the
work amply excusing the miniature stone on which it was engraved. It is
related that Nero, his star falling, in his rage against the world and
mankind, smashed to pieces two costly crystal cyphi or bowls on which
Homeric subjects were wonderfully engraved. Articles in crystal still
exist to demonstrate its extensive use by ancient nations. Fauno, in his
1553 edition of “Roman Antiquities,” mentions that during the building
of a chapel of the King of France in St. Peter’s, the marble coffin of
Maria, wife of the Emperor Honorius, was discovered. Little remained of
the body, but the jewels of the Empress were there, and amongst them
were a talismanic plate of gold engraved with the names of the
Archangels (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel), in Greek letters, about
thirty vases and other articles in crystal, and an exquisite Nautilus
shell lamp of pure crystal mounted on gold—no doubt the special charm of
the Empress. The sign Pisces, the sign of “the fish with the glittering
tails,” is symbolically represented by two fishes, which ancient story
tells us were Venus and Cupid thus metamorphosed to escape the giant
Typhon in his fury. In Babylonian story it is told that the fish-god
Oannes—the Dagon of the Book of Samuel—came out of the Erythraean Sea
“which borders upon Babylonia” to teach men how to live, to make laws,
to worship, to soften their manners and to humanize their lives. Thus,
the fish-god was the teacher of the hidden mysteries, and the sign
Pisces has always been associated with occult science and hidden things.
Mummified fish have been found in the Egyptian tombs, and Clermont
Ganneau describes a pair of fish-gods keeping watch over a mummy. Isis
as the Great Mother is symbolized with a fish on her head. The old
Egyptian town of Esna, nearly 500 miles from Cairo, was called by the
Greeks Latopolis on account of the worship of the Latus fish by the
inhabitants, and an interesting old Zodiac can still be seen there
amongst the famous ruins. The Babylonians accepted the fish as the
symbol of the Resurrection, and the ninth chapter of the Book of Luke
describes how 5000 people were fed by 5 loaves of bread (symbolical of
Virgo) and two small fishes (symbolical of Pisces), a connection clear
enough to the student of the mysteries. The fish was the symbol of the
Messiah, and was adopted by the early Christians as the sign of Christ.
The Roman Catholic church today has its fish days, and the Piscina is
the basin that holds the Holy Water.

The tribe of Joseph is the tribe of the twelfth division of the
Breastplate and the twelfth zodiacal sign, Pisces. Joseph in the Book of
Genesis is the inspired prophet who reads the meaning of the famous
symbolic dreams of The Butler, The Baker and The Pharaoh; who has his
divining cup, and who was named by the Pharaoh, ZAPHENATH-PA’NEACH,
which has been translated as “Saviour of the World” by one writer, but
more nearly as “God, the Living One has spoken” by Dr. Dummelow, and as
“God spake and he came into Life,” by Dr. E. A. Wallis Budge.

[Illustration: hieroglyphs]

According to Talmudic story it was this Pharaoh who said that he saw the
colours of rulership about Joseph. Joseph and his brethren are
symbolical of the complete Zodiac. JOSHUA is the Son of the Fish (NUN
the Hebrew word for “fish” is probably connected with the Egyptian NAR),
and Jesus has his fishermen, “fishers of men.” The sign Pisces is the
sign of hidden secrets and is mystically symbolized by a key. On the
external plane it is the sign of increase, in which is concealed the
mandate “Increase and multiply.”

The connection of the sign Pisces with the twelfth division of the
Breastplate is, as in the previous cases, beyond argument. The stone is
the glistening crystal on which was engraved the name of the tribe of
Benjamin.

In reference to Joseph’s Dream of the Sun, Moon and Eleven Stars which
made obeisance to him, Philo Judaeus says:

“The students of sublime wisdom now say that the Zodiac, the greatest of
all the circles in Heaven, is studded with twelve animals from which it
has derived its name. And that the Sun and the Moon are always revolving
around it and go through each of the animals, not indeed with equal
rapidity, but in unequal numbers and periods, the one doing so in 30
days and the other in as near as may be a twelfth part of that time.
Therefore he who saw this Heaven-sent vision thought that he was being
worshipped by eleven stars, ranking himself among them as the twelfth so
as to complete the whole circle of the Zodiac.”



                               CHAPTER VI
                   THE STONES OF THE BREASTPLATE AND
                               THE ZODIAC

                      “_Heaven’s golden alphabet—
                      And he that runs may read._”
                                           YOUNG.


The foregoing chapter dealing with the identification of the stones of
the Breastplate has necessitated study and research, and the
classification reproduced in the table following rests on a secure base.
Many of the scholars of the past when endeavoring to render Hebrew stone
names into our own language were hampered by a none too technical
knowledge of the gems themselves, whilst many of the later writers were
handicapped by lack of astrological knowledge so essential in a matter
of this kind. This will be sufficient to explain the numerous
contradictions regarding the identification and allotment of the famous
stones by whose agency the psychic priests communicated with the angels
of God.

It has already been explained in Chapter V why the tribal names do not
agree with the signs of the Zodiac and the stones on which they were
engraved. Some remarks of Philo Judaeus may with advantage be re-quoted
here: In reference to the Breastplate he writes: "Then on his chest
there are twelve precious stones of different colours, arranged in four
rows of three stones in each row, being fashioned so as an emblem of the
Zodiac. For the Zodiac also consists of twelve animals and so divides
the four seasons of the year, allotting three animals to each season.
And the whole place is very correctly called the Logeum since everything
in Heaven has been created and arranged in accordance with right reason
and proportion: for there is absolutely nothing there which is devoid of
reason. And on the Logeum he embroiders two woven pieces of cloth,
calling the one Manifestation and the other Truth. And by the one which
he calls Truth he expresses figuratively that it is absolutely
impossible for falsehood to enter any part of Heaven but that it is
entirely banished to the parts around the Earth dwelling amongst the
souls of impious men.

                 THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE BREASTPLATE.

      ──────────────────┬──────────────────┬─────────────────────
        Hebrew Name of  │  Modern Name of  │ Equivalent Sign of
            Stone       │      Stone       │       Zodiac
      ──────────────────┼──────────────────┼─────────────────────
      1.  Odem          │Red Haematite     │Aries
      2.  Pitdah        │Emerald           │Taurus
      3.  Bareketh      │Marble            │Gemini
      4.  Nofek         │Chrysoprase       │Cancer
      5.  Shoham        │Sardonyx          │Leo
      6.  Jashpeh       │Jasper            │Virgo
      7.  Lesham        │Opal              │Libra
      8.  Shebo         │Banded Agate      │Scorpio
      9.  Achlamah      │Amethyst          │Sagittarius
      10. Tharshish     │Serpentine        │Capricorn
      11. Sapir         │Lapis Lazuli      │Aquarius
      12. Jaholom       │Crystal           │Pisces
      ──────────────────┴──────────────────┴─────────────────────

      ──────────────────┬──────────────────┬─────────────────────
       Name Engraved on │      Colour      │ Approximate Date of
            Stone       │                  │Sun’s Entry into the
                        │                  │   Zodiacal Signs
      ──────────────────┼──────────────────┼─────────────────────
      1.  Reuben        │Red               │March 21st
      2.  Simeon        │Green             │April 21st
      3.  Levi          │White             │May 22nd
      4.  Judah         │Green             │June 22nd
      5.  Zebulun       │Red               │July 23rd
      6.  Issacher      │Mixed             │August 24th
      7.  Dan           │White and Purple  │September 24th
      8.  Gad           │Brown             │October 24th
      9.  Asher         │Purple            │November 23rd
      10. Naphtali      │Sea colour        │December 20th
      11. Joseph        │Blue              │January 20th
      12. Benjamin      │Glistening White  │February 19th
      ──────────────────┴──────────────────┴─────────────────────

The Baraita of Samuel deals with astronomical and astrological
philosophies, and in the 6th Chapter there is a detailed account of the
instruction of scholars of Egypt on the original places of the planets
and the zodiacal divisions. This Samuel was a physician and astrologer,
and his remarks on the administration of medicines, the times for
operations, etc., are much the same as those given in the best
astrological treatises of today. He considers the last four days of the
moon as an especially risky period for important operations. This
Baraita of Samuel is a work of the 8th Century.

Talmudic writers say that besides the twelve tribal names, those of the
patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were at the top of the Breastplate,
and at the end the words, “The tribes of Jeshurun.” Others say that the
final words were “The tribes of Israel;” Maimonides says, “The tribes of
God.” The reason given for these additions was that it was necessary for
the entire alphabet to be employed so that the officiating High Priest
could construct words from the letters, names and colours of the stones
of the Breastplate, and reply in this way to all questions asked. Some
of the Rabbis say that six letters were on each stone, made up of the
tribal names, the names Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and the words “Tribes
of Jeshurun.” Thus the whole of the stones contained 72 letters—the
number of Shem Ha Meforash. The number 72 is employed in the mysteries,
and is given in “Numbers, their Magic and Meaning” as the number of the
Angels and of Mercy. In verses 19-21 of 14th Chapter of Exodus the names
of the 72 Angels of the name of God are concealed. It is a martial
talismanic number, lightly cloaking the waxing and waning of the Moon.



                              CHAPTER VII
                              OLD LEGENDS

                    “_Within that awful volume lies
                    The mystery of mysteries._”
                                         SCOTT.

THE LEGEND OF THE SHAMIR: THE RING OF SOLOMON: RABBI LOW BEN BEZALEL:
    AND HIS GOLEM: THE AUTOMATON OF ALBERTUS MAGNUS: DIOCLETIAN AND THE
    OSTRICH: PRECIOUS STONES AS GIFTS: MAGICAL STONES: METEORITES:
    PRECIOUS STONES OF THE BUDDHISTS.


It was forbidden to use metal in the engraving of the stones of the
Breastplate, neither was it permitted to mark them with pigments or
paint. The work was done by the magical Shamir which had the power of
eating into the hardest substances at the will of its holder. In the
evening light of the first Friday this seventh of the ten marvels of
Creation followed closely by the Stylus, the knowledge of writing, and
the two tablets of stone destined to bear the commandments of God, was
given to mankind. It was no larger than a barley grain, yet its power
was intense: iron lying near it was shattered and stones were sliced
like the leaves of a book. Moses, after tracing the tribal names with
his forefinger on the Breastplate, simply held the Shamir over them and
the letters were as by magic cut clearly into the stones without trace
of fracture or flaw. The Shamir disappeared with the earth-death of
Moses, and was not heard of again until the time of Solomon. When the
occasion came to build the temple the priests reminded the King that it
was not lawful to fashion the stones for the Holy Building with
instruments of iron. “What then shall I do?” enquired the King. To this
one of the priests answered: “O, great King, when the world was created
the Shamir was created also, and with it Moses was enabled to fashion
and engrave the stones of the HOSHEN-HA-MISHPAT.” “But how can I obtain
this wonderful Shamir?” asked Solomon. “What is there difficult for thee
who knowest the secrets of Heaven and Earth?” replied the priest, at the
same time asking Solomon to compel two demons, a male and a female, to
come before him. The King, taking this advice, conjured the demons and
bade them declare unto him the hiding-place of the Shamir. This they
were unable to do, and they begged the Master-Magician to release them
and obtain the secret from the Prince of the demons, Ashmadai. Further
they told the King that amongst certain mountain ranges Ashmadai had
sunk a deep hole which he filled with water and screened with a great
stone sealed with his magical seal. In the dawn of each day he raised
himself to Heaven where he learned heavenly wisdom, descending in the
evening as the light faded to learn the wisdom of earth. Then he would
break the seal, drink of the water, rebind the seal and go his way
again.

Having dismissed the demons, Solomon sent his disciple Benaiah (the son
of Jehoiada) with his own magical chain and ring on both of which was
engraved the Divine Name, and some skins full of wine. Benaiah skilfully
released the water from the pit of Ashmadai, leaving the wine in its
place. As evening was falling the Prince of the Demons returned; the
seal being intact, he raised the stone and to his surprise found wine
where water had been. Murmuring, “Is it not set down, ‘Wine is a mocker,
strong drink is noisy; and whosoever indulgeth therein will never be
wise’?”, he drank deeply and fell asleep. Then Benaiah, stealing forth
from his hiding place, bound him with King Solomon’s chain. Ashmadai
awoke and in rage attempted to break the chain; Benaiah called to him:
“Desist, for the holy name of God binds you, and you are compelled to
come with me to Solomon the King.” Brought before Solomon, Ashmadai
asked: “Why have you brought me to you? Is not the whole world big
enough for you that you would have me also?” “Of thee I want nothing,”
answered the King, “but for the building of the Temple I must have the
Shamir.” “Then ask the Prince of the Sea and his servant the Moorfowl,”
came the answer. “And what does the Moorfowl with the Shamir?” asked the
King. “Splits the barren mountain rocklands in order that the seeds of
the trees and plants which he drops into the crevices may mature and
render these places beautiful and agreeable to the wants of man; and
then he brings it back to the Prince of the Sea who trusts his oath.”
Armed with this information a search was made for the moor fowl’s nest,
and this when discovered was found to contain the bird’s young. The
searchers covered the young birds with glass so that the mother-bird
might see but not reach them. The ruse succeeded. The bird flew away and
shortly afterwards returned with the Shamir, placing it on the glass
which split asunder. At that moment the emissary of King Solomon rushed
from his hiding place and took the Shamir from the nest of the
frightened bird, which thereupon killed itself because it had broken its
oath to the Prince of the Sea.

There is another legend which states that the Shamir was brought from
Paradise—where it had rested since the time of Moses—by an eagle, for
Moses specially intended that the Shamir should be employed in the
building of Solomon’s temple. When the building of the temple was
completed Solomon released Ashmadai, having proved his power over him.
Solomon thus acquired authority over the world of Demons, and in the
“Arabian Nights” the “Story of the Fisherman and the Genii” tells of a
demon who was bottled and bound for ages by this Magician King. The
Arabs say that King Solomon received instructions from the archangel
Gabriel regarding the place where the Shamir was hidden. These and other
legends connected with this wonderful Shamir have attracted the
scientific philosopher. The traditional belief that it was a worm can be
accepted if we connect the Greek SMIRIS, the emery of the ancient
glyptic artists, with the Hebrew SHAMIR, for then the worm would be
regarded as minute worms or grains so tough as to be capable of abrading
and polishing hard substances. The word SHAMIR does not imply the common
or garden variety of worm which is expressed in Hebrew by other words.
It is traditionally related that the four angels of Earth, Air, Fire and
Water came to King Solomon, each giving him a jewel, with the
instruction that the jewels be set in a magical ring which would
symbolize and define his power over the elements. The Arabians say that
the metals used in the construction of the magical ring were brass and
iron—metals of Venus and Mars. Solomon summoned the good genii by
tracing his command with the brass or Venus portion of the ring, and he
compelled the evil genii to attend him with the Mars or iron portion.
Astrologically Venus and Mars are the two planetary principles which
control the emotions and passions of all the world. It is further
assumed that the four jewels of the ring were set on the famous double
triangles called the Shield of David and of Solomon, which symbolically
represented things of earth in relation to things of Heaven. When
Solomon went to bathe, it was his custom to give the ring to Amina, one
of his wives, for safe keeping, for it is not permitted to wear the
talisman when washing the body. One day Sakhr, a powerful evil spirit,
appeared in the form of Solomon and thus obtained from Amina the magical
ring. Thereupon Sakhr sat on the throne of Solomon and ruled for forty
days and forty nights while the King wandered about, unknown and
forlorn. However, the evil spirit could not maintain the form of King
Solomon for longer than forty days and forty nights, so he threw the
ring into the sea, thinking as he saw it sink that Solomon was deprived
forever of his power over the elements. But he had forgotten that water
was one of the elements, and the Angel of the Waters caused the ring to
be swallowed by a fish, which was later caught by some fishermen who,
surprised at its exceptional beauty, carried it to King Solomon. The
King, acting on impulse, cut the fish open, and finding the ring,
regained his power over the elements once more.

Passing on to the 16th Century of the Christian era we come to one of
the great masters of the Quabalah—Rabbi Low Ben Bezalel of Prague. He is
spoken of in the ancient capital of Bohemia as the greatest Bal Shem of
his time. Many legends concerning him are extant in Bohemia. He made a
Golem, an automaton figure to which he gave life by the simple act of
placing under the tongue a charm or Kemea which was exactly like the
SHEM HAMPHORASCH engraved on King Solomon’s ring. It was the Rabbi’s
custom to take the Kemea from under the tongue of the Golem every Friday
at sunset. Once he neglected to do this, and the Golem becoming furious
and swelling to a gigantic size, rushed to the old synagogue, spreading
destruction all around. The hymn welcoming the Bride of the Sabbath had
not been sung. The Golem entered the Synagogue, stalked towards the Ark
and was about to destroy it when Rabbi Low Ben Bazalel ran to the figure
and tore the Kemea from beneath the tongue. The Golem trembled, quivered
and fell in atoms to the ground. An automaton similar to that of the
Rabbi was made by Albertus and destroyed in terror by his pupil, Thomas
Aquinas.

It is related that the Roman Emperor, Diocletian, while on a hunting
expedition, came upon a young ostrich. He had it put in a glass case and
taken to his palace. For three days the mother-bird followed, trying in
vain to break the glass and release her young. After many fruitless
attempts she went away and returned with what is described as a THUMARE
(a name easily identified with SHAMIR) or magical worm. This she dropped
on the glass cage which split into fragments in the same way as the
glass which covered the nest holding the young of the moor fowl.

The belief that the gift of a precious stone brought great good to the
receiver was, and still is, a popular Eastern conviction. It echoes from
the Book of Proverbs to the great new age into which the world is now
entering: “As a precious stone appeareth a prize in the eyes of him that
obtaineth it: whithersoever it turneth it prospereth.” (Proverbs XVII.
8.) The blessedness of giving has always been lauded by the masters who
constantly enlarge on the magical power gained by the act, for, say
they, “God gives.”

The gem given should always be carefully considered especially in
accordance with the philosophy laid down in these pages which is held to
be a true presentation of ancient laws. The wish of the giver then, it
is assumed, is translated into the gem which expresses the wish,
translated in concrete form so that whenever the receiver gazes on it,
realizes it, the wish of good fortune begins to bear fruit and
“whithersoever it turneth it prospereth.” The Talmud relates that
Abraham had a magical jewel which he wore suspended about his neck; some
writers state that it was a pearl that would re-appear at the time of
the Messiah; it was however his own natal stone which, when worn,
enabled him by the touch of his hand to heal the sick—a practice which
has endured, naturally with varied success, through the ages.

The gem in the ring of Aaron was said to shine out brilliantly when the
Elohim favoured the nation; and we are told that when the gem and the
wearer were in harmony the brightness or otherwise of the stone would
indicate faithfully the conditions surrounding him. In the writings of
Bishop Epiphanius a fourth century ecclesiastic of Jewish descent, there
is a passage commenting on the Breastplate in which he repeats a still
older belief that the stones all turned red when war and defeat faced
the Children of Israel. Some Quabalistical writers maintain that various
colours indicating answers to the many questions asked were reflected
from the stones over the whole plate; others say that the stone having
reference to the tribe or to the direct question alone, gleamed out its
special colour; thus, for military triumph the symbol would be expressed
by the beaming of the Haematite; for bountiful production of the fruits
of the earth the Emerald would flash its message of comfort; for success
in matters connected with education the Marble would shine; for promise
of a good water supply the sparkle of the Chrysoprase would suffice; for
the well-being of royalty the illumination of the Sardonyx would promise
well; for a good harvest the Jasper would glisten; for success in
negotiations with neighbouring nations the gleaming of the Opal would
augur well; for protection from epidemics the glaring of the agate would
be accepted as a favourable omen; for prophetic truth the radiation of
the Amethyst would stand; for the welfare of cattle the Serpentine would
vibrate; for the realization of hopes the Lapis Lazuli would electrify
like the deep blue of the Heavens in serene weather; for success in
secret negotiations the Crystal would throw off its flashes of light.

According to the legends in the Targumin, Noah lit up the Ark with a
stone of marvellous brilliancy; this is considered by some students to
denote the Sun at noonday, by others it is called a Carbuncle. The Manna
of the wilderness, it is said, fell from Heaven accompanied by a rain of
the most precious and beautiful stones: this is merely an allegorical
expression of the “opening of the Heavens,” although some more material
writers indicate a fall of meteorites. Meteorites were held in especial
reverence and were termed BETHEL or House of God by the old Jews, and
Baetylus by the Greeks and Romans. They were assumed to carry all
glorious influences from the Heavenly spheres and to bear the blessings
of God. Pliny mentions a curious stone which he terms AMIANTHUS and
which is not affected by the action of fire. This substance, he says,
effectually counteracts all noxious spells, especially those wrought by
magicians. It was considered a bad mistake to barter for a talismanic
gem, that being in itself a crystallization of the sublime forces, and
being holy does not admit of barter. Pliny tells of Ismenius the great
fluteplayer of his time, who loved to display numbers of gems: he set
his heart on obtaining a beautiful emerald—his talismanic gem—on which
was engraved a figure of Amymone (one of the Danaides), the gem being
offered for sale in Cyprus for six golden denarii; he sent his messenger
to purchase it for him, and this man on his return informed Ismenius
that the jeweller had agreed to take two golden denarii less than was
originally asked; on learning this the musician exclaimed: “By Hercules,
he has done me a bad turn in this, for the merit of the stone has been
greatly impaired by this reduction in price.”

The seven precious minerals of the Buddhists are stated by Sir
Moiner-Williams K. C. I. E. to be:

    1. Gold.
    2. Silver.
    3. Pearls.
    4. Sapphires or Rubies.
    5. Catseyes.
    6. Diamonds.
    7. Corals.

The list varies and Lapis Lazuli is given instead of pearls by some
authors. There are also seven royal treasures amongst which is the jewel
stone NORBU which throws its rays for several miles on the darkest
nights.

Apollonius of Tyana, described by Barrett as one of the most
extraordinary persons that ever appeared in the world, received during
his travels in India from the sage Iarchus seven rings each of which
contained a jewel symbolical of one of the planets. One of these he wore
every day, according to the planetary order of the days of the week, and
to the virtue of these gems—which Iarchus is stated to have received
from Heaven—Philostratus, the biographer of Apollonius, attributes his
long life, his strength and his attractions. The following were the gems
inset in the rings which Apollonius wore, one on each day of the week:

 Sunday     Day of the Sun  Diamond (In a ring of gold)

 Monday     Day of the Moon Cloudy Crystal (? Moonstone) (In a ring of
                            silver)

 Tuesday    Day of Mars     Hæmatite (In a ring of iron)

 Wednesday  Day of Mercury  Pink Jasper (In a ring of silver)

 Thursday   Day of Jupiter  Carbuncle (In a ring of tin)

 Friday     Day of Venus    Coral (In a ring of bronze)

 Saturday   Day of Saturn   Onyx (In a ring of lead)

Justin Martyr had a deep reverence for this great disciple of Pythagoras
and in his writings he expresses wonder at the potency of the talismans
of Apollonius, which calm the fury of the sea, hold back the winds of
Heaven, cause wild animals to become tame;—“Our Lord’s miracles are held
to us only by tradition, but the miracles of Apollonius are uncountable
almost, and truly were evident enough to charm all those who saw them.”



                              CHAPTER VIII
                     STONES IN VARIOUS MYTHOLOGIES

THE DWELLING PLACE OF INDRA: THE SERPENT KING: THE CHARIOT OF SURYA:
    SURYA’s TEMPLE: RAMA AND THE BRIDGE OF ADAM: THE AVATARAS: THE
    TEMPLE CAVES OF KANHARI: NECKLACE OF THE KING OF MAABAR: JAIPAL’s
    NECKLACE: THE BUDDHIST TWELVE HEAVENLY JEWELS: THE TREASURES: THE
    OFFERINGS OF THE FOUR DEVA SAGAS: THE BLACK STONE OF MECCA: ROLAND
    AND THE JEWEL OF THE FOREST KNIGHT: IRISH CHARM STONES: DENDRITES:
    GARDEN CHARMS.


Meru or the North Pole, the abode of the great Indra who, according to
the Rigveda, “fixed firm the moving Earth, made tranquil the incensed
mountains, who spread the wide firmament, who consolidated the Heavens,”
is symbolically presented as a shining mountain of jewels and precious
metals.

The Lord of Patala (the infernal regions), Seshanaga, known as the King
of the Serpents, is pictured in the Bhagavad-Gita (Revelations) as:

  "Of appearance gorgeous and brilliant. He has a thousand heads and on
  each of them is set a crown of glittering gem stones. His neck is
  black, his body is black and black are his tongues.

  “Like torches gleam his eyes: yellow-coloured are the borders of his
  robe: from each ear hangs a sparkling gem stone: his extended arms are
  adorned with jewelled bracelets: his hands hold the holy shell, the
  radiant weapon, the war mace and the lotus.”

Surya is the great Sun to whose chariot is harnessed seven green horses
driven by the charioteer Arun, the Dawn. In his account of the Temple of
Surya, Hort quotes the following from a very old traveller: “The walls
were of red marble interspersed with streaks of gold. On the pavement
was an image of the radiant Divinity, hardly inferior to himself in
splendour: his rays being imitated by a boundless profusion of rubies,
pearls and diamonds of inestimable value, arranged in a most judicious
manner and diffusing a lustre scarcely endurable by the sight.” The
Hindu work AYEEN AKBERY is also quoted by the same author. In it the
temple of Surya is thus described: “Near to Jaggernaut is the Temple of
the Sun in the erecting of which was expended the whole revenue of
Orissa for twelve years. The wall which surrounds the edifice is one
hundred and fifty cubits high and nineteen cubits thick: having three
entrances. At the Eastern Gate are two very fine figures of elephants,
each with a man upon his trunk. On the West are two surprising figures
of horsemen completely armed, who having killed two elephants are seated
upon them. In front of that gate is an octagonal pillar of black stone
fifty cubits high. Nine flights of steps lead to an extensive enclosure,
in which is a large dome constructed of stone, upon which are carved the
Sun and the Stars: and around them is a border on which is represented a
variety of human figures expressive of different passions: some
kneeling, others prostrate: together with a number of imaginary strange
animals.”

Rama’s monkey army is said to have built a bridge of rocks, called the
Bridge of Adam, from the western point of India to Ceylon. Krishna, the
eighth Avatara or incarnation of Vishnu, is represented in magnificent
dress adorned with garlands of wild flowers and with strings of costly
pearls around his ankles. His complexion is blue, as is also the large
bee usually depicted flying above his head. The Avataras are all adorned
with gems, flowers and loose gauze cloaks interwoven with gold and
silver and colours, while they hold various symbols such as the Holy
Shell, the axe, rings, etc.

The antique Temple Caves of Kanhari at Salsette contain remarkable stone
carvings, some of the statues cut from the main rock being fifteen feet
high. Of these sacred figures some are adorned with helmets, others have
jewelled crowns, others great masses of hair. The famous necklace of the
King of Maabar was composed of rubies, sapphires and emeralds, and the
necklace taken from Jaipal, the Hindu King, by Mahmud (1001 A.D.) was
made up of pearls, rubies and various precious stones, the whole being
valued at over 500,000 dollars. These necklaces were regarded as
religious objects. Buddha was worshipped symbolically as a black square
stone, and the ancient Zodiac of the Buddhist has been known as the
Twelve Heavenly Jewels. This is symbolized as:

An antelope or horse (in the place of Aries)

        A bull
        Twins
        Crab
        Lion
        Virgin
        Scales
        Scorpion
        Bow and arrow (in the place of Sagittarius)
        Elephant (in the place of Capricorn)
        Waterbearer
        Swastika (in the place of Pisces)

  The Zodiacal Treasures of the King are:

     The Elephant                   equalling Capricorn
     The Horse                      equalling Aries
     The Beautiful Jewel            equalling Libra
     The Wife                       equalling Virgo
     Holy Guide of the House        equalling Aquarius
     The General                    equalling Sagittarius
     The Swastika                   equalling Pisces

Mr. Samuel Beal, B.A.R.N., etc., gives the following account of the
offering of the Alms Dish in his “Buddhist Records of the Western
World”: “The four Deva Sagas coming from the four quarters each brought
a golden dish and offered it. The Lord sat silently and accepted not the
offerings on the ground that such a costly dish became not the character
of a hermit. The four Kings casting away the golden dishes offered
silver ones. Afterwards they offered vessels of Po-Chi (crystal), Liu-Li
(Lapis Lazuli), Ma-Nao (Carnelian), Ku-Chi (amber), Chin-Chu (ruby), and
so on. The Lord of the World would accept none of them. The four Kings
then returned to their palaces and brought as an offering stone patras
of a deep blue colour and translucent. On their again presenting these
the Lord to avoid accepting one and rejecting the others joined them all
in one and thus accepted them. Putting them one within the other the
Lord made one vessel of the four. Therefore four borders are to be seen
on the outside of the rim of the dish.”

Black stones have been repeatedly mentioned in the history of man. We
have seen them in the transition of Aglauros, in the Buddhistic
devotion, and in the Biblical narratives. These Matsebah have been found
engraved with the twelve signs of the Zodiac, sometimes symbolized as
the twelve Gods of Assyria. Gramaldi in “Zodiacs and Planispheres”
mentions a black stone which exhibited ten out of the twelve zodiacal
signs and ten decans out of the thirty-six. It was found near the Tigris
in Bagdad, and is perhaps the oldest zodiacal monument extant, its date
being set down at 1320 years before the Christian era. But the most
famous of all black stones is the HAJER-ALASVAD which is now set into
the south-east corner of the KA’BAH. The story of this sacred relic is
told very completely by Hadji Khan and Wilfred Sparrey in “With the
Pilgrims to Mecca”: Having determined to form man in his own image, the
Creator called the angels Gabriel, Michael and Israfil, each at a
different time, requesting that they should bring for his purpose seven
handfuls of earth from seven earth strata, and seven colours. But the
Earth cried out that the anger of God would one day fall on her through
the wickedness and folly of man, and so the angel departed without
accomplishing the work. God then sent the Angel Azrail who, listening to
no appeal, remorselessly carried out his divinely appointed task. God
then made Azrail the Angel of Death, who ever after separated the souls
of men from their useless bodies. The Earth was then set down between
Mecca and Tayef where, having been pressed to a proper degree by the
angels, it was shaped as a man by the Creator. The mass was then left
for 40 years, being visited only by the Angels. But the angel Edris who,
“from being of those that are nearest to God, became the Devil,” grew
furious because he knew that man was designed to be his master. So with
a vow that he would always oppose him, Edris kicked the image of earth
which responded with an empty sound. Then the Creator breathed into the
image His own Spirit and Man arose. He was given Paradise to inhabit,
and out of his left side Eve was taken. When Man fell and was found no
longer worthy of Eden, a peculiar stone fell too and, says the
narrative, “this stone became the most cherished possession of the
Muhammadan world.” The story continues: "It (the stone) was restored to
Paradise at the Deluge, after which it was brought back to earth by
Gabriel and given to Abraham who set it in the south-eastern corner of
the Ka’bah which he is said to have built. There it remained till the
Karmatians overturned the fundamental points of Islam, bearing it away
in triumph to their capital. The citizens of Mecca sought to redeem the
stone by offering no less than 5000 pieces of gold for it. The ransom
was scornfully rejected by the impious sectaries. Some 22 years later,
however, they sent back the stone voluntarily, covering their
discomfiture by declaring it to be a counterfeit. The dismay of the
Meccans was allayed when they discovered that the stone would swim on
water, that being the peculiar quality of the stone they had lost; so
they were satisfied that the true one had been returned to them. At
first the stone was whiter than milk, but it grew to be black by the
sins of mankind. All believers, whatever may be the cause to which they
attribute the change of colour, agree that the defilement is purely
superficial, the inside of the stone being still as white as the driven
snow. The silver box wherein it lies is about twenty inches square and
is raised a little more than five feet from the ground. A round window
having a diameter of some nine inches is kept open to enable the
pilgrims to kiss or touch the treasure within, the treasure being known
as “the right hand of God on Earth.” In colour it is a shining black; in
shape hollow like a saucer, presumably the result of the pressure of
devoted lips. If a pilgrim fails to touch the Stone he must make a
reverential salaam before it and pass on. Special prayers are also said.
The guide accompanying the authors recited the following lines from the
Fortuhul Haremeyn before leaving:

  “Think not that the KA’BAH was made from the earth: in the body of the
  world it took the place of the heart. And the stone you call the Black
  Stone was itself a ball of dazzling light. In ages past the Prophet
  said it shone like the crescent moon until at last the shadows falling
  from the sinful hearts of those that gazed on it turned its surface
  black. Now since the amber gem that came to the earth from Paradise
  with the Holy Ghost, has received such impressions on itself what
  should be the impressions which our hearts receive? Verily, whosoever
  shall touch it being pure of conscience, is like unto him that has
  shaken hands with God.”

Other accounts state that the stone is about seven inches in diameter,
oval and irregular, made up of a number of smaller and variously sized
pieces, which inclines one to the opinion that it was at one time
shattered by some hard blow and afterwards put together again. The most
recent descriptions of the stone of Mecca agree that it is of a dark
reddish-brown colour with a brown border seemingly of pitch and small
sand stones, the whole being set in a band of silver.

The most wonderful thing regarding the history of this relic of Islam is
that one little stone, the Black Stone of Mecca, should have such
powerful attraction for over 222,000,000 of the inhabitants of the
world.

Included in Guerber’s “Myths and Legends of the Middle Ages” is the
following story of Roland and the Jewel:

“Charlemagne learning that the Robber Knight of the Ardennes had a
precious jewel set in his shield called all his bravest noblemen
together and bade them sally forth separately with only a page as escort
in quest of the knight. Once found they were to challenge him in true
knightly fashion, and at the point of the lance win the jewel he wore. A
day was appointed when, successful or not, the courtiers were to return,
and, beginning with the lowest in rank, were to give a truthful account
of their adventures while on the quest. All the knights departed and
scoured the Forest of the Ardennes, each hoping to meet the robber
knight and win the jewel. Among them was Milon, accompanied by his son
Roland, a lad of fifteen, whom he had taken as page and armour-bearer.
Milon had spent many days in vain search for the knight when, exhausted
by his long ride, he dismounted, removed his heavy armour and lay down
under a tree to sleep, bidding Roland keep close watch during his
slumbers. For a while Roland watched faithfully: then, fired by a desire
to distinguish himself he donned his father’s armour, sprang on his
steed and rode off into the forest in search of adventures. He had not
gone very far when he saw a gigantic horseman coming to meet him and by
the dazzling glitter of a large stone set in his shield he recognized
him to be the invincible Knight of the Ardennes. Afraid of nothing,
however, the lad laid his lance in rest when challenged to fight, and
charged so bravely that he unhorsed his opponent. A fearful battle on
foot ensued, each striving hard to accomplish the death of the other.
But at last the fresh young energy of Roland conquered and his terrible
foe fell to the ground in agony. Hastily wrenching the coveted jewel
from the shield of the dead warrior, the boy hid it in his breast. Then
riding rapidly back to his sleeping father he laid aside the armour and
removed all traces of a bloody encounter. Soon after Milon awoke and
resumed the quest, when he came upon the body of the dead knight. He was
disappointed indeed to find that another had won the jewel, and rode
sadly back to court to be present on the appointed day. In much pomp,
Charlemagne ascended his throne amid the deafening sound of trumpets.
Then seating himself he bade the knights appear before him. Each in turn
told of finding the knight slain and the jewel gone. Last of all came
Milon. Gloomily he made his way to the throne to repeat the story that
had already been told so often. But as he went there followed behind him
with a radiant face young Roland, proudly bearing his father’s shield in
the centre of which shone the precious jewel. At the sight of this all
the nobles started and whispered that Milon had done the deed. Then when
he dismally told how he too had found the knight dead, a shout of
incredulity greeted him. Turning his head he saw to his amazement that
his own shield bore the gem. At the sight of it he appeared so amazed
that Charlemagne set himself to question Roland, and thus soon learned
how it had been obtained. In reward for his bravery in this encounter
Roland was knighted and allowed to take his place among the paladins of
the Emperor. Nor was it long before he further distinguished himself,
becoming to his father’s delight the most renowned among all that famous
company.”

The Irish Charm stones used to charm away vermin, are about one inch in
thickness and about four inches long. The Australian natives carried
magical stones which could never be seen by women.

Certain stones known as Dendrites exhibit markings which take the _form
of trees_, grass, moss, etc. (see Moss Agate). The ancients considered
them fortunate for prosperity in farming and in general affairs of life.
Brigadier General Kenneth Mackay mentions in his book, “Across Papua,”
various carved stones which were employed by the natives as garden
charms.



                               CHAPTER IX
                        STONES AND THEIR STORIES


ABRAXAS STONES. These were stones used by the Gnostics or Knowers who
existed in the early ages of Christianity. “Amongst this Christian
philosophic sect,” writes King, “the figure of Abraxas was held in high
esteem. They used it as a teacher in obedience to whom they directed
their own peculiar transcendental inquiries and mystic doctrines: as a
token or password amongst the initiated to show that they belonged to
the same sect: as an amulet and talisman: and lastly as a seal for their
documents.” The figure of Abraxas was composed as follows: Cock’s Head,
Human Body, legs formed like serpents. In one hand he holds the whip of
power, in the other the shield of wisdom. These are the five mystical
emanations symbolically expressed—the Sun, the Inward Feelings, Awakened
Understanding, Dynamis (Force), Sophia (Wisdom). Basilides, the Egyptian
who is supposed to have founded the sect, is criticized in the writings
of Augustine because he “pretended the number of the Heavens to be 365,
the number of days in the year.” Hence he glorified a “sacred name” as
it were, namely the word ABRAXAS, the letters in which name, according
to the Greek methods of enumeration, make up that number. The principal
Abraxas stones were of Jasper, Plasma, Sard, Loadstone and Chalcedony.

ALECTORIUS. The Alectorius or as Camillus Leonardus has it, the
ALECTORIA, is said to be a stone never bigger than a large bean, which
stone is taken from a cock. When this stone becomes perfect, says
Leonardus, the bird will not drink.

The Alectorus is said to be a stone like Crystal, and very bright. It is
related that Milo of Croton, the great wrestler and strong man of the
ancients who lived in the year 520 B. C., carried a specimen with him
always and only lost his strength when he lost the stone. Its virtues
were many: it gave a wife favour in her husband’s eyes; it banished
thirst, bestowed eloquence and persuasive power, brought domestic peace,
harmony, victory and honour. As the stone is attached to the zodiacal
Scorpio it may have been a white topaz but identification is uncertain.

BEZOAR STONES

  “_Everything that frees the body from any ailment is called the Bezoar
  of that ailment._”

                                      LEONARDUS, “Mirror of Stones.”

These stones the name of which is derived from the Persian PAD-ZAHR,
poison-expelling (Zahr, poison; Pad, to dislodge) are concretions found
in the stomach of the stag or goat, and are credited with great
medicinal virtues, being said to dislodge poisons and to remove
poisonous diseases. In India and Persia the belief in the virtue of
Bezoars is very widespread; it is said that those taken from the stomach
of the wild goat of Persia (Caprea Acyagros), especially if large
specimens, are sold for their weight in gold. Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson,
M.D., quotes Garner, an old writer, who gives the following curious
origin of the Bezoar which he obtained from the Arabians: “When the hart
is sick and hath eaten many serpents for his recoverie, he is brought
into so great a heate that he hasteth to the water and there covereth
his body unto the very ears and eyes at which distilleth many tears from
which the stone (the Bezoar) gendered.” These Calculi are composed
chiefly of superphosphate of lime, but concretions of phosphate of
ammonia or magnesia are also found. The Bezoar was highly esteemed as a
remedy for diseases of the bladder and kidneys. Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson
says that the belief in the curative power of these Bezoars “affords an
addition to the many thousand proofs of the influence of mind over body,
and how truly efficacious Imagination may prove in removing disease.”

It was usual to bind the Bezoar to the part affected where that was
possible. In China the MO-SOH or Bezoar was credited with the power of
renewing youth and bestowing beauty, and similar beliefs prevail in
parts of India. The Malays obtain this stone from monkeys and
porcupines, and its magical virtues are held in great esteem. Known as
the GULIGA the Bezoar is exported in great quantities from Sarawak to
Hindustan especially, where it is used as a remedy for asthma. It is
said that the Guliga is procured from a red-coloured monkey of the
Semnopithecus species, and the Guliga Landak which is rarer and more
highly valued from the porcupine. Jean Baptiste Tavernier (Baron
d’Aubonne) during his travels in the East in the 17th century became
acquainted with the Bezoar stone which he describes in his writings.
“Genuine stones,” it is stated, “if placed in the mouth spring up and
attach themselves to the palate, or if placed in water will make the
water boil.”

DRACONITE. The Draconite is described as a white brilliant gem which
must be cut from the head of a living dragon if its lustre and virtue
are to be retained. Philostrates writes that the seekers for the
Draconite weave certain letters in gold into a robe of scarlet and
infuse opiates into the letters. The Dragon lured out of his cave by
musical charm succumbs to the power of the soporific robe. Immediately
he does so the Indians rush on him and cutting off his head take from it
gems of bright hues and indescribable virtues. But a dragon has often
seized the man and his weapons and drawn him into his den. The Draconite
is associated with the zodiacal Scorpio and is partly, if not wholly,
symbolic.

ENHYDROS or HYDROLITE. This is a well-known water stone and within its
crystal cover water can usually be seen clearly. Marbodus says that this
stone “ceaseless tears distils.” The Enhydros is said to be a cure for
gout and affections of the feet, and a charm for bestowing inspiration
and clearness of thought. The water contained within the Enhydros is
said to be highly poisonous if taken internally. The stone is under the
zodiacal Pisces.

GNOSTIC STONES. Besides the figure of the mystic Abraxas the talismanic
stones of the Gnostics were engraved with various devices. A large
loadstone in the King collection is engraved with a figure of Venus
dressing her long hair. Venus stands for the mystic Sophia or Achamoth
and as such represents Truth.

IRIS. The “Iris resplendent with the crystal’s sheen” which the “swarthy
Arabs glean” is now known as Rainbow Quartz. The iridescence is produced
by the reflection of light from the cracks in the stone. The same effect
is produced if the crystal is first subjected to heat and then plunged
quickly into cold water. The Iris obtained its name from the beautiful
companion of Juno, who travelled on the rainbow with wings extended
clothed in glorious colours, radiant lights around her head. She was the
guide and helper of the souls of women released from their bodies.

LAPIS ARMENUS, or Armenian Stone, is a copper carbonite used as a
medicine against infection. It is related in Arab books that a solution
of this substance will retain its power for 10 years. In the East copper
has been long used as a safeguard against cholera, and it has been
observed that workers in copper mines have enjoyed immunity from the
disease. Dr. Richard Hughes notes the value of copper in Asiatic
cholera, adding: “There is now abundant evidence of its efficacy both
among the workers in the metal and in those who have worn a plate of it
next the body during the prevalence of the epidemic.” The Lapis Armenus,
like all copper compositions, is under the rulership of the planet
Venus.

LAPIDES FULMONIS. These Thunder stones which are believed to be formed
by the lightning in the clouds (see Obsidian) are known by the peasants
of Calabria as CUOGNI DI TRUONI. The traditional belief is that they are
plunged by the lightning stroke six feet into the earth and that every
time it thunders they are drawn one foot nearer the surface. After the
sixth or seventh thunder storm it is said that the stones are raised to
the surface. The peasants test them by suspending them above a fire,
attached to a blue thread; if the thread does not burn the stone is
adjudged a true thunder stone and is carefully treasured as a potent
talisman against the lightning stroke.

LAPIS MEMPHITICUS. This stone of Memphis is described as a sparkling
round body of about the size of a hazel-nut. It is mentioned by Pliny as
deadening the pain of surgical operations if taken in wine and water
beforehand. If it be reduced to powder and applied, according to
Dioscorides, as an ointment to that part of the body to which a surgeon
was about to apply either fire or the knife, it produced insensibility
to pain. This is an early instance of the recorded action of a local
anaesthetic.

LUZ or LUEZ. This is said to be a stone or indestructible bone in the
human backbone. Dr. John Lightfoot, a great Hebraic scholar of the 17th
century, details the following legend:

  “How doth a man revive in the world to come?” was asked by the Emperor
  Hadrian of Rabbi Joshua Ben Hananiah. “From Luz in the backbone,” he
  made reply and then went on to demonstrate this to the Emperor. He
  took the bone Luz and put it into water, but the water had no action
  on it. He put it in the fire but the fire consumed it not. He placed
  it in a mill, but could not grind it. He laid it on an anvil, but the
  hammer crushed it not."

MANDARIN’S JEWELS. Each of the nine Khioupings or Mandarins of China
proclaims his rank by a distinctive button of about an inch in diameter
worn at the top of his cap and distinguishing dress and insignia. The
chief officers wear a ruby on the cap. They are divided into civilian
and military sections.

The military wear a robe on which is embroidered a unicorn, the girdle
being adorned with a jade clasp set in rubies. The civilian mandarin is
distinguished by a crane embroidered on both back and front of the robe.

Those of the second order wear a coral button in their caps. The
military are distinguished by an embroidered lion and a gold girdle
clasp inset with rubies, the civilian by a golden pheasant.

Those of the Third Order wear a sapphire in the cap. The Military
display a leopard and a clasp of wrought gold, the Civilian a peacock.

Those of the Fourth Order wear an opaque blue stone in the cap. The
Military display on their robes a tiger and silver button clasp, the
Civilian a wild goose.

Those of the Fifth Order have their caps adorned with a crystal, the
Military their robes with a bear and a plain gold clasp with silver
button, the Civilian a silver pheasant.

Those of the Sixth Order wear on their caps an opaque white shell. The
Military adorn their robes with a tiger-cat and clasp of
mother-of-pearl, the Civilian with an egret.

Those of the Seventh Order wear on their caps a wrought gold button. The
Military robe displays a bear and has a silver clasp, the Civilian a
Mandarin duck.

Those of the Eighth Order wear a plain gold button on their caps. The
Military have on their robes a seal and a horn clasp, the Civilian a
quail.

Those of the Ninth Order wear on their caps a silver button. The
Military are distinguished by a rhinoceros and a clasp of buffalo horn,
the Civilian by a long-tailed jay.

MEDIAN STONE. This is a mysterious gem, possibly symbolic, which is
described as of black colour. Marbodus says “’Tis white to heal us,
black to slay our foes.” It would then be symbolical of Black and White
Magic.

MOLOCHITE. Mr. King is of the opinion that the Molochite is clear green
jade, and so he agrees with Pliny’s description of the stone, “opaque of
hue with the vivid green of the emerald.” Its virtue protected babies
from harm, gave luck and beauty and opposed the spite of witchcraft.

OPHITES. Ophites or Snake Stones are stones of black or grey colour
described by Orpheus as “black, hard, weighty, portentous balls
surrounded by furrowed lines in many a mazy bend.” It is variously
described. There are in India snake charmers called Sampoori who assert
that they can extract the snake stone from the head of a snake, but
these assertions are unfavourably commented upon by some Indian authors.
Still, it has been shown by Sir J. Tennent in his work on “Ceylon” and
by Buckland in “Curiosities of Natural History” that some striking cures
from snake bite have ostensibly been effected by the use of a so-termed
snake stone which is said to absorb the poison if applied to the bite
with a little blood before the poison has had time to invade the system.
Some authentic cures are quoted, notably that of a man bitten by a
Cobra; in this case the man was saved by “two small snake stones the
size of a large pea.” The snake stone, it is said, clings for a short
time to the wound and then drops off. It is reported to be composed of
some vegetable substance; the Cobra stone, according to Farraday, the
distinguished chemist, is but charred bone filled with blood a number of
times and then again charred. In England and Scotland snake stones
strung together used to be given to cattle to chew if bitten by vipers.
The stone was considered to be a very potent charm against the evil
blasts of occult forces. Albertus Magnus carried a stone which guarded
against epidemics, evil magic and the bites of serpents, and by the aid
of which he was able to attract serpents.

ORITE. This stone is described as black and round. If mixed with the oil
of roses it will cure fatal wounds, protect from wild animals and
prevent childbirth.

OVUM ANGUINUM. The Ovum Anguinum is described by Pliny as a Druidic
badge the size of an apple, surrounded by a gristly crust covered with
protuberances like the suckers on the arms of a cuttle fish. The story
goes that at a certain season of the year a crowd of snakes are found
intertwined and bearing above them the magical Ovum, which the hunter
had to catch in some soft material before it tumbled to earth, for if it
did so it would lose its power. As soon as the hunter seized the magic
stone the serpents rushed after him and his fate was sealed if they
reached him before he crossed a flowing stream.

PANDARBES. Philostratus relates how Chariclea escaped unharmed from the
funeral pyre on which she was condemned to perish by the jealous Arsace
by secretly wearing the wonderful ring of King Hydrastes. In this ring
was set a stone called Pandarbes which was engraved as a talismanic
charm against the fury of fire.

PANTHEROS. It is probable from the description, given by old writers,
that it was a mottled brown Egyptian Jasper Opal. It was said to protect
the wearer from enemies, wild animals and fear, which last, according to
the healthy philosophy of the Rosicrucians, is the greatest of the vices
and the gateway of weakness and failure.

PHILOSOPHER’S STONE. The Philosopher’s Stone is also known as Lapis
Philosophorum, the Eye of the Philosophers, the Egg of the Philosophers.
French writers call it “Pierre Philosophale,” and German writers “Der
Stein der Weisen.” In the Rosicrucian mysteries it is known as “The
Stone of the Wise,” “The Sacred Stone,” “The Stone of Wisdom,” etc. In
spite of the assertions made by over-sanguine critics as to the fallacy
of the Philosopher’s Stone on the material plane, scientists—mystic and
material—have never ceased to search for a substance so precious.
Phillips (Transmutation of Metals, 1702) says that “this transmutation
is what the Alchymists call the Grand Operation or Secret of finding the
Philosopher’s Stone which they give out to be so curious an Universal
seed of all metals. If any metal be liquefied in a vessel, and this
‘Power of Perfection’ be thrown into the mass it will transform it into
gold or silver.”

Some of the philosophers call it “The Stone,” Noster Lapis, “The Sublime
Stone,” “Our Stone.” It is related that King Henry VI granted “4
successive Patents and Commissions” to several knights and Mass Priests
to find “The Philosopher’s Stone.” In his recent work on Alchemy, H.
Stanley Redgrove, B.Sc., F.C.S., etc., writes: “We must not assume that
because we know not the method now, real transmutations have never taken
place. Modern research indicates that it may be possible to transmute
other metals (more especially silver) into gold, and consequently we
must admit the possibility that, amongst the many experiments carried
out, a real transmutation was effected.” Timbs (Alchemy and Chemistry)
emphasizes the fact that many of the opinions of the alchemists have
been vindicated. He specially notes the condition of Allotropism or the
quality which certain bodies possess of assuming two marked phases of
chemical and physical existence. “This shatters the opinion,” he writes,
“on which our absolute repudiation of the doctrine of transmutation was
based.” Dr. Colange explains Allotropy as that branch of chemical
science which takes account of the different sets of properties possible
to one and the same body. Organic solids occur under one of the three
conditions, viz., the crystalline, as the diamond; the vitreous, as
glass; the amorphous or shapeless, as clay, chalk, etc. But there are
many bodies any one of which without undergoing a change in chemical
composition may yet appear under one of the above three conditions with
striking changes in physical and even chemical properties while still
retaining, so to speak, its chemical identity. Thus, ordinary white
phosphorus may by the application of heat be converted into a hard
amorphous substance which is its allotrophic form. An excellent paper on
“Allotrophy or Transmutation” was read before the British Association at
Sheffield, England, a few years ago by Dr. Henry M. Howe. In it Dr. Howe
dealt at greater length with what has been previously advanced on the
subject. Since the discovery of Radium and the extensive experiments of
the late Sir William Ramsay, Mr. Cameron and others in the department of
transmutation and disintegration, modern science has projected itself
into the Halls of Alchemy and has joined hands with its parent science
to search for that which the world of a few years back regarded with
ignorant ridicule. In the space at disposal it is impossible to enter
into details of the numerous accounts of successful alchemy recorded. A
number of these will be found in Dr. Franz Hartmann’s works and in the
excellent works on the subject by H. Stanley Redgrove and others.
Perhaps the case noticed by Dr. Franz Hartmann is one of the most
romantic. It came before the court at Leipsig on August 9th, 1715 and is
reported in the acts of the judicial faculty of that town. A gentleman
came late one night to the Castle of Tankerstein where the Countess of
Erbach resided. He said that having accidentally killed a deer which
belonged to the Palatine of Palatia he was being pursued, and therefore
he asked protection. The Countess hesitated, but being impressed with
the stranger’s appearance she ordered that a room be given him. He
remained in the castle several days, and then being granted an interview
with the Countess, he thanked her for her protection in return for which
he offered to transmute all her silver into gold. The lady was
incredulous but, her curiosity overcoming her, she gave the stranger a
silver tankard which he melted and with a stone transmuted into gold.
The Countess sent the gold to a goldsmith in the town, who having tested
it pronounced it to be the purest gold. After this she asked the adept
to transmute all her silver into gold. This he did and receiving the
lady’s thanks as he tendered his own, departed. The Countess’s husband,
a great spendthrift, serving as an officer abroad, hearing that his wife
by some means had suddenly become wealthy returned home quickly. He
demanded the gold for himself but the Countess would not surrender it.
Thereupon the Count brought his wife before the Court, claiming that as
Lord of the territory (Dominus Territorii) on which the Castle belonging
to his wife was built, all treasure found upon the land was his. He
asked that the Court should order the gold to be sold and that after new
silver had been purchased for his wife the balance of the money be paid
to him. The defence urged that as the gold had been artificially
produced it could not come under a law relating to buried treasure;
again that the silver had been transmuted into gold for the sole benefit
of the Countess. The Court was asked to allow the lady to retain the
gold thus obtained and judgment was given in her favour.

[Illustration:

  A Perfect Specimen of the English Gold Noble (1344) in the Kelsey I.
  Newman Collection. Traditionally Stated to have been Made from
    Alchemical Gold]
]

Some years ago a medal was exhibited in the Imperial Treasury in Vienna,
which had been partly transmuted into gold by the stone used by the monk
Wenzel Seiler who had been ennobled by Leopold I with the title
Wenzeslaus Ritter von Reinburg. Recent tragic events make its present
whereabouts doubtful. It is traditionally stated that the true
Philosopher’s Stone was hung in the Ark by Noah to give light to life
and radiance to the world after the Flood-darkness. This legend is a
parable expressing the highest truth, for the Philosopher’s Stone that
carries light into the darkness of materialism is the true Stone of the
Wise. Among the discoveries made in the search for the Philosopher’s
Stone the following are given by Dr. Brewer; the invention of Dresden
porcelain by Botticher, that of gun powder by Roger Bacon, of the
properties of acids and various substances by Prince Geber, of the
nature of gases by Van Helmont, of salts by Dr. Glauber, etc.

POLISH STONES, POLAND STONES, POLES’ STONES. It has frequently been
stated that the Poles originated the wearing of birth stones, but this
practice is a very remote one and was recommended by ancient
philosophers long before the Polani came to Polska. The Poles are
naturally gifted with fine imagination and psychic intuition, therefore
they readily absorbed the spiritual philosophies of the Jewish wanderers
who received asylum in Poland. The fondness of the Poles for beautiful
gems is proverbial and the spread of the knowledge of the occult virtues
found to exist in these beautiful crystallizations was more marked in
Polska than in any other country. It is also not to be wondered at that
so many of the lists given are incorrect. In this book an endeavour is
made to set right the many errors that have so naturally crept in.
Usually the Poland Stones are doubtfully classified as follows:

                      THE MONTHS
 January              Garnet, emblem of constancy.
 February             Amethyst, emblem of sincerity.
 March                Bloodstone, emblem of courage.
 April                Diamond, emblem of innocence.
 May                  Emerald, emblem of love success.
 June                 Agate, emblem of health and longevity.
 July                 Carnelian, emblem of contentment.
 August               Sardonyx, emblem of married happiness.
 September            Chrysolite, emblem of protection from insanity.
 October              Opal, emblem of hope.
 November             Topaz, emblem of fidelity.
 December             Turquoise, emblem of prosperity.

The emblems of the stones are fairly correct.

                            THE PLANETS
            Saturn          Lead            Turquoise
            Jupiter         Tin             Carnelian
            Mars            Iron            Emerald
            Sun             Gold            Diamond
            Venus           Copper          Amethyst
            Mercury         Quicksilver     Loadstone
            Moon            Silver          Crystal

The metals of the planets are correctly given and do not appear ever to
have been disputed. The Turquoise of Saturn is correctly the Odontolite
or Bone Turquoise. The Emerald is a stone of Venus, the Amethyst a stone
of Jupiter, the Loadstone a stone of Mars. The Crystal has often been
admitted as influenced by the Moon although it is more acceptable for
quabalistic considerations to identify it with Neptune.

                               THE ZODIAC
                    1. Aries           Ruby
                    2. Taurus          Topaz
                    3. Gemini          Carbuncle
                    4. Cancer          Emerald
                    5. Leo             Sapphire
                    6. Virgo           Diamond
                    7. Libra           Jacinth
                    8. Scorpio         Agate
                    9. Sagittarius     Amethyst
                   10. Capricorn       Beryl
                   11. Aquarius        Onyx
                   12. Pisces          Jasper

The confusion here is very marked and the reader is referred to the
chapters dealing with the High Priest’s Breastplate.

RINGS BEARING STONES OF INVISIBILITY. Perhaps the most famous of these
rings is the ring of Gyges, the shepherd King of Lydia, described by
Plato and Herodotus. When the stone was turned inwards the wearer was
rendered invisible. By its aid Gyges assassinated King Candaules and
seized his wife and children. It is related that Otnit, King of
Lombardy, wore a ring given him by his mother, which had power similar
to the ring of Gyges, as well as the special virtue of preventing the
wearer from losing his way. Nizami, the poet of Persia in the early 13th
century, tells the story of a shepherd, a story similar to that of King
Gyges. Another ring of invisibility is the ring of Eluned or Sunet in
the old romance of Ywaine and Gawaine.

RING OF POPE INNOCENT III. It is related by Matthew Paris that Pope
Innocent III, well knowing the love that the English King John had for
jewels, sent to him four gold rings set with precious stones. The Pope
comments on the emblematical character of the gift, saying: “The
rotundity of the rings signifies eternity, for we pass through time to
eternity. The number four which is a square number indicates the
firmness of mind which is neither depressed in adversity nor elated in
prosperity. It signifies the four virtues which make up constancy of
mind, viz., justice, fortitude, prudence, temperance. The material
signifies wisdom from on high which is as gold purified in the fire. The
greenness of the Emerald moreover denotes faith; the blueness of the
Sapphire, hope; the redness of the Garnet, charity; the brightness of
the Topaz, good works. In the Emerald, therefore, you have what to
believe, in the Sapphire what to hope for, in the Garnet what to love,
and in the Topaz what to practise. So that you ascend from one virtue to
another until you see the Lord in Zion.”

RING OF REYNARD. In the story of Reynard the Fox, said to have been
written by Hinreck van Alckmer though in reality it was written in the
15th century by Hermann Barkhusan of Rostock, Reynard believes himself
possessed of a famous ring set with stones of red, white and green. The
white stone cured all diseases, the red rendered night as bright as day,
and the green made the wearer invincible. The story introduces Rabbi
Abron of Trent who was wise above men, who spoke every language and knew
the nature of every kind of herb, animal, and precious stone.

RING OF SOLOMON. Solomon, according to Rabbinical tradition, gazed on
the stone of his ring and immediately knew everything concerning worldly
affairs and much concerning heavenly. This ring is the subject of many
legends.

ROCK CRYSTALLIZATIONS. Certain hair-like substances are found enclosed
in crystals. They are also termed “penetrating minerals” and comprise
Rutile, Asbestus, Actinolite and Tourmaline. These acicular crystals are
called in France Flèches d’Amour (Love’s Arrows). They are also known as
Venus’s Hair Stone, Thetis’s Hair Stone, Pencils of Venus, Cupid’s
Arrows, Cupid’s Net, The Goddess’s Tresses, etc. These specimens cut and
polished are interesting and beautiful, and have always been esteemed as
charm stones for ensuring a growth of beautiful hair, for beauty, for
grace, for skill and fascination in dancing, etc.

SAGDA. A mysterious ocean stone which fixes itself to the keels of
ships. A protection against shipwreck, it will cling to the ship so long
as the timbers are not cut. It is said to be of dark green colour,
similar to Prase.

SAKHRAT. The Mohammedans say that the Sakhrat is a marvelous stone of
green colour which reflects the deep blue tints on the crystal vapours
of the heavens. The possession of the merest fragment of this holy stone
bestows on the possessor the knowledge of all the secrets of the
Universe.

SALAMANDER’S WOOL. Asbestos is so termed. It is also known as Mountain
Flax, and is believed by the Tartars to be the root of a tree.

SARCOPHAGUS. The word is derived from the Greek SARX, SARKOS, flesh, and
PHAGO, to eat. A stone found at Assos in Troas. Used by the ancients, it
was said to consume an entire dead human body with the exception of the
teeth in 40 days. It was known as Lapis Assius, and is noted by Pliny.
Sarcophagi were generally employed throughout the ancient world.

SAURITE. The Saurite is said to be a stone cut from a green lizard with
a sharp reed knife.

SCORPION STONE. This may have been a stone of the agate class but its
composition is obscure. It is mentioned by Orpheus who says that if the
hunter Orion had known of its existence he would have given all the
stars to gain this remedy for his fiery pain. It healed the wounds of
arrows, the stings of insects and the bite of the scorpion.

TOAD STONE. That the toad “wears a precious jewel in his head” was a
profound belief in the Middle Ages, and a belief much commented upon in
the works of writers of that period. Francis Barrett states that the
stone of the toad was a cure for toothache. It was also given as an
antidote for poison. In this latter connection it is said that if set in
an open setting and worn on the finger it burnt the skin if poison were
near. According to Fenton, a writer of the 16th century, “There is to be
found in the heads of old and great toads a stone they call Borax or
Stelon, which being used as rings gives forewarning against venom.” The
toad was believed to have a natural fear of man, throwing out poison at
the sight of him. In some parts of the world the stone is said to be
extracted from the head by numerous cunning means. It is generally
described as a species of black pebble. One of the special virtues of
the Toadstone was to protect children from molestation by the fairies.
It was also a cure for diseased kidneys and stomach disorders. According
to Praetorius, the Prince of Alveschleben was given a ring of this land
by a Kobold Brownie or Nixe as a house talisman to safeguard the
fortunes of his family. A large toad is said to have dropped a black
stone on to the bed of the wife of the Elector of Brandenburg after the
birth of her son. Friedrich Wilhelm I ordered his jeweller to set the
stone in a ring, which ring has always been worn by the head of the
House of Hohenzollern as a symbol of prosperity, protection and good
fortune. It was recently stated that the loss of this toadstone during
the war was regarded as an evil omen for the ruling house.

WORLD STONE. The World Stone or Axial Loadstone of the Earth is included
in the philosophic mysteries of the old Rosicrucians.



                               CHAPTER X
                    THE GREATEST CHARMS IN THE WORLD

  “_A deceased King is said to have entered the boat of the Sun in the
  form of the scarab._”

                                                   DR. WALLIS BUDGE.


We will now turn to the ancient land of Egypt and dwell awhile on the
sacred Scarabaeus which was, without doubt, the most popular and
venerated charm of antiquity. The Scarab was a copy in steatite,
faience, obsidian, gold, beryl, crystal, haematite, cornelian, jasper,
amethyst, turquoise, lapis lazuli, granite, serpentine and other stones,
of the large black beetle, scarabaeus sacer. It was known in ancient
Egypt as Khepera (he who turns), and besides symbolizing the eternal
return of the Sun after the passing of the night reign, it represented
the everlasting progress of life and as such was not only inserted in
the position of the heart in the bodies of the dead but was placed in
the tombs also. It was worn by those living on earth as a symbol of
everlasting life and good luck, being specially prepared as a talisman
by the priests of the various temples. The Greeks called it the
Cantharus or Heliocantharus, the Latins the Scarabaeus. Throughout Egypt
this sign of immortality was ever before the people. It was used in
government offices bearing the Pharaoh’s cartouche (oval case in which
his name was inscribed), was carried in battle by soldiers, was worn by
the people generally throughout the land. It entered into their very
lives, reminding them of the power of the deathless spirit, ever
progressive, active and vital, moulding dull matter to its will. Hence
the scarab was the ideal luck charm, the mere sight of which reminded
man of his divine origin, and it was said that the soul of Ra impressed
the seemingly inert matter which made up the scarab, giving it a life
which ages could not destroy.

Generally strange stories connected with scarabs are explained in every
way but the correct one. The ancient Egyptians were until the time of
their decline essentially a religious people, and their knowledge of the
continuity of life may be one reason for their existence as a nation for
so many thousands of years—an existence only terminated by excess of
luxury and the dominance of materialism by which so many great nations
have been destroyed.

Four diverse species of the scarabaeus or Ateuchus Sacer have been
identified in the hieroglyphical inscriptions, viz., 1. Ateuchus
Semipunctatus; 2. Ateuchus Laticollis; 3. Ateuchus Morbillosus; 4.
Ateuchus Puncticollis. Professor Flinders Petrie recognizes other
varieties of beetles. Misses Brodrick and Norton, in their useful and
concise “Dictionary of Egyptian Archaeology,” observe: “The Scarabaeus
is remarkable for the peculiar position and shape of its hind legs which
are placed very far apart and at the extreme end of the body. This is to
enable the insect to roll the ball of refuse containing its eggs into
some place of safety. At first these balls are soft and shapeless, but
as they are pushed along by the scarab’s hind legs they become firm and
round, and increase in size until they are sometimes an inch and a half
in diameter. This insect is looked upon by the Arabs as an emblem of
fertility.”

The Egyptians saw in the number of its toes (thirty) the days of the
month; and the time it took to deposit its ball was compared to a lunar
month. The passage of the ball was compared to the sun and its operation
on the earth. Being regarded as of the male sex only, the scarabaeus
symbolized, according to Horapollo, the self-begotten, the self-created.
The god Khepera is the father of all the gods, the self-created one
identified with the god NEB-ER-TCHER. A hieratic papyrus in the British
Museum is thus translated by Dr. Wallis Budge: “I developed myself from
the primeval matter which I made. My name is Osiris, the germ of
primeval matter. I have worked my will to its full extent in this earth,
I have spread abroad and filled it.... I uttered my name as a word of
power from my own mouth and I straightway developed myself by
evolutions. I evolved myself under the form of the evolutions of the god
Khepera and I developed myself out of the primeval matter which has
evolved multitudes of evolutions from the beginning of time. Nothing
existed in this earth (before me). I made all things. There was none
other who worked with me at that time. I made all evolutions by means of
that soul which I raised up there from inertness out of the watery
matter.”

[Illustration:

  Large Scarab
  William Howat Collection
]

[Illustration:

  Rare Scarab of Rameses II, a Famous Pharaoh of the Bible
  Mrs. C. G. King’s Collection
]

[Illustration:

  Rare Antique Scarab of Black Jasper
  Talismanic Charm—Mercury, Guardian
  of Sailors
  Mrs. C. G. King’s Collection
]

Large numbers of funereal scarabs have been discovered in different
substances, the best being formed from a hard green basalt or a
serpentine. These were suspended on a gold wire from the neck of the
mummy, or attached to a heart on which were the symbols for life,
immovability, preservation.

Ornamental scarabs were very largely worn. Dr. Wallis Budge says of
these: “By an easy transition the custom of placing scarabs on the
bodies of the dead passed to the living, and men and women wore the
scarab probably as a silent act of homage to the Creator of the world
who was not only the god of the dead but of the living also.”

It has been suggested that scarabs were used for exchange or barter, but
Mr. Percy E. Newbury (“Scarabs”) points out that such contention “is not
supported by the inscriptions or by any of the scenes depicted in the
monuments.” He continues: “But we do find that during the Hyksos period
(circa 1700 B.C.) and later under Amenhetep III (circa 1400 B.C.), the
Khetem or ‘seal’ is given as a measure of value, although here it is
probable that it was not the seal itself that is meant but the
_impression_ of it upon another substance. Polyaemus relates that the
Athenian general Timotheus, being in want of money to pay his troops,
issued his own ‘seal’ for coin, this substitute being accepted by the
traders and market people, trusting in his honour. This can only mean
that _impressions_ of his signet on clay or some other substance were
put into circulation as representatives of value and were so received by
the sellers. It is in the impression of a seal or stamp upon a piece of
gold or other metal that we have the origin of coined money.” The
inscriptions, mottoes and symbols on the Egyptian scarabs are diverse
and numerous. A large number have the names of the Kings, Queens,
members of the Royal Household, Public Officers, etc. One rare specimen
in the British Museum is adorned with the name of the very ancient King
NEB-KA-RA; another has the name KHUFU. M. de Morgan describes one of
Lapis Lazuli bearing the name NE-MAAT-RA (Amanemhat III) found at
Dahshur. The Cairo Museum has a beautiful Queen’s scarab, found also at
Dahshur, on which is “The Royal Wife who is joined to the Beauty of the
White Crown.” Many bear the seal of the famous Thothmes III
(MEN-KHEPER-RA), the Rameses, Shashanq, and all the kings of Egypt. The
Queen of Amenhetep is called on the scarabs “The Royal Wife Thyi,” and
“The Great Divine Wife Thyi beloved of Isis.” Amenhetep IV is inscribed
“Lord of the Sweet Wind.” The Queen of Rameses II is immortalized as
“The Royal Wife UR-MAAT-NEFERU-RA, daughter of the Great Chief of the
Kheta.” The horse of Amenhetep II is shown in a scarab of yellow jasper
with his name “Firm of Heart”; this scarab is now in the British Museum.
Many have inscriptions denoting office, such as “The Royal Sealer and
General, SA-NAB,” “The Superintendent of the Meat Department, HOR-ANKH,”
“The Scribe of the Army, NEFER-IU,” “The Director of Stores,
SEHETEP-AB-RA,” “The Chief Secretary of the Great Prison, SA-SEBEK,”
“The Superintendent of the Labour Bureau, ANTEF,” “The Superintendent of
the Royal Temple, AAHMES,” “The Mayor of Heliopolis, BEN son of MA,”
“The Superintendent of the Gold Workers, HAAIU,” “The Superintendent of
the Granary of Amen, AAHMES,” “The Hereditary Mayor and Priest,” “The
Governor of the Royal City,” “The Vezir Paser.”

On some motto and charm scarabs are ANKH NEFER, Life and Beauty; NEFER
MAA, Beauty and Truth; An Eye; Two Fish; A Fish and a Scorpion (perhaps
astrological); The Lotus; Flowers; Monkeys; Uraei, etc. Besides these
there are the famous Heart Scarabs, Mystic Scarabs, and those known as
Hunting and Historical Scarabs. But whatever the Scarab has stood for,
it was primarily a symbol of good fortune, long life and divine
protection. Its universal popularity has made it the greatest charm in
the world. So great was its fame that it travelled beyond the Egyptian
borders to other lands.

Next to Egyptian, the most famous scarabs were those of Phoenicia
(especially in green jasper), those of Greece, and those of the
Etruscans who carved them out of hard stones such as the Sard, Agate and
Carnelian, engraving them with exquisite figures, in fine intaglio
style, usually of the gods and goddesses of ancient Greece, sometimes
accompanied by Etruscan inscriptions or words and encircled with an
engrailed or guilloche margin. When we consider the Egyptian Priests’
practice of speaking “words of power” into these scarabs, we have cause
for additional wonder at the recorded act of the great Law-Giver in
striking the rock instead of speaking to it, as he had been commanded.



                    PRECIOUS AND SEMI-PRECIOUS GEMS
                     ARRANGED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER



                               CHAPTER XI
                            AGATE-AMAZONITE

AGATE

               “_By the rushing fringed bank
               Where grows the willow and the osier dank
               My sliding chariot stays,
               Thick set with agate._”
                                          MILTON.

The name occurs as agath, agget, agot, agat, agett, agott, aggat, aggot,
achate, etc. The great Greek philosopher and scientist, Theophrastus, in
his writings “Of stones,” says that the agate obtained its name from the
river Achates—now known as the Drillo—in Sicily, because near its banks
the first specimens were found. Dr. Bochart derived the name from the
Hebrew word NAKAD, meaning “spotted.” Most authorities agree that this
stone was the eighth stone in the Breastplate of the High Priest and
that it was known in Hebrew as SHEBO. In Rabbinical writings there is an
allegorical story of the discussion in Heaven of the import of the lines
in Isaiah (Chap. 54 v. 12) “And I will make thy windows of agates,” but
it is a matter of considerable doubt if the Hebrew word KADKOD can
correctly be rendered agate. In the controversy between Judah and
Ezekiel, sons of Rabbi Hayya, in the same writings the former calls it a
beryl, the latter a jasper, and the voice of God said “Kadkod will
include both of these,” in allusion to the unity of all things.

The agate is a variegated chalcedonic variety of quartz, formed of
successively attracted coloured layers, and is remarkable for the beauty
and peculiarity of the patterns. Lines or bands run through the stone:
when these are straight or ribbony the agate is called the “ribbon
agate”; when they are zigzag it is known as the “fortification agate”
because of its resemblance to a fortification; when the lines follow the
form of an eye the term “eye agate” is often employed. In this last form
it was considered an excellent instrument for the seer or prophet to
hold, as it symbolized the third eye now known as the Pineal Body.
Clearly the gray tint of the eye of stone approaches in colour the
matter of the human eye. The importance of this peculiar organ, which
lies upon the corpora quadrigemina of the brain in front of the
cerebellum, was held in great respect by ancient scholars who regarded
it as the organ of occult sight, of inner perception and intuition. This
hidden eye is bigger in a child than in an adult, and in the woman it is
bigger than in the man. There is little doubt that the ancients regarded
these markings on the agate stone as symbolic of the faculties of the
high spirit of man, of prosperity in peace, and protection in war. The
ring of Pyrrhus is recorded by Pliny as representing in its natural
colours Apollo with his lyre standing amongst the nine Muses, each with
her correct attribute. The Muses and their attributes as indicated in
their statues are as follows:

      1. Calliope, the muse of epic poetry. A tablet and stylus, or a
        roll of paper.
      2. Clio, the muse of history. An open scroll.
      3. Euterpe, the muse of lyric poetry. A flute.
      4. Melpomene, the muse of tragedy. A tragic mask, the club of
        Hercules or a sword.
      5. Terpsichore, the muse of choral dance and song. A lyre and the
        plectrum.
      6. Erato, the muse of erotic poetry. The lyre.
      7. Polyhymnia, the muse of sublime hymn. Pensive and meditative,
        carries no attribute.
      8. Urania, the muse of astronomy. Staff and globe.
      9. Thalia, the muse of comedy or idyllic poetry. A comic mask, a
        shepherd’s staff or a wreath of ivy.

The Rev. C. W. King mentions that agates are still found “adorned with
designs which one feels the greatest difficulty in admitting to be the
mere fortuitous result of the arrangement of their shaded strata, so
exactly does that result imitate the finished production of art.” He
instances the “Egyptian Pebble” in the British Museum which shows the
head of the poet Chaucer covered with the hood, a faithful portrait even
more remarkable when it is considered that the specimen was just broken
in two pieces and not even polished. A specimen in the Galleria of
Florence shows in the markings of yellow and red a running Cupid. Such
curious markings are continually exhibiting the silent, magical symbols
of Nature by the aid of which the great but humble philosophers of
ancient days read the messages of the Divine. Many and various are the
virtues ascribed to the agate by the ancient masters, and when
considering these it is well to remember their passion for making
meanings obscure in order that the hidden secrets might be successfully
guarded. The “pleasant scent of the agate”—obtainable most truly by
rubbing together two polished specimens—is lauded by Pliny, and Orpheus
recommends that the “changeful agate” be steeped in wine to improve the
flavour. Powdered and bound on wounds, it healed them, and Rabbi Benoni
of 14th century fame advised that an agate be held in the mouth to
quench thirst and soothe fever. It was regarded as a charm against
poisons, which no doubt accounts for its being used to form vases,
bowls, cups, and vessels for holding foodstuffs, specimens of which are
still found in more or less perfect state in the excavations. Mr. King
mentions the Carchesium or two-handled agate cup of Charles the Bold
(presented by that King to the Abbey of St. Denis) which was used to
hold the wine at the ceremony associated with the coronations of the
kings of France. It was stolen in 1804, the year Napoleon Buonaparte was
crowned Emperor at Paris, and was not used, therefore, at his
coronation—a significant circumstance in the career of this man of
Destiny who, with his innate love for the occult must have known long
before this event that the agate was his birthstone. Shortly after the
vase was recovered uninjured, but its jewelled setting had been removed
from it, never to be seen again.

The agate, especially the eye agate, was reputed as a cure for tired
eyes, also bestowing on the wearer strength and health, and inclining
him to grace and eloquence. As one of the seven sea gems, a banded agate
was credited with the power of taking away the terrors of the ocean,
while to dream of one was held to denote a sea journey. Being
astrologically connected with the death sign Scorpio, it was potent in
seeking divine aid in this life and in the life to come. It rendered the
wearer agreeable, gave him the favour of God, if he employed it as a
holy instrument it turned the words of his enemies against themselves,
rendered him—symbolically speaking—invisible, gave him victory and
induced happy dreams. It was a charm against lightning, thunder,
tempests, and all wars of the elements. Albertus Magnus gives it
efficacy against eruptive skin diseases; the Mohammedans engraved on it
the symbols of Hassan and Hussein, the grandsons of the Prophet of
Islam, and placed it round the necks of children to protect them from
falls and accident. They also mixed it, in powdered form, with certain
fruit juices and administered it as a cure for insanity. It was also
prescribed for haemorrhage, the spitting of blood, boils, ulcers, gravel
and affections of the spleen and kidneys. Used as a powder it hardened
tender gums and arrested bleedings. Some Arabian writers advise against
the use of powdered agate as an internal medicine unless carefully
blended with other substances. An agate worn about the neck banished
fear, indigestion and lung troubles. It was recommended by Dioscorides
as a charm against epidemics and pestilential diseases. It protected
from the bites of serpents and insects, and was bound to the horns of
oxen to induce a good harvest. It was said to have been the “fortune
stone” of the Trojan hero Æneas, protecting him in war, voyages and
storms.

The agate is always adorned with a system of bands which exhibit variety
in hue, shade and tint. The Chalcedony (See Chalcedony) is more compact
and regular in colour, the two stones therefore being easily
distinguishable. Swedenborg sets the agate down as the symbol of the
spiritual love of good. It is astrologically attached to the martial
sign Scorpio.

ALABASTER

             “_Why should a man whose blood is warm within,
             Sit like his grandsire, cut in alabaster?_”
                                            SHAKESPEARE.

The Greek ALABASTROS was derived from Alabastron, a town in Upper Egypt
where this beautiful white massive variety of gypsum was found. It was
used by the ancients for fashioning perfume bottles, the vials to hold
oil for anointing kings, priests, initiates into the mysteries, etc.
These articles were commonly called alabastra, and the name continued in
use long after other materials had replaced alabaster in their
manufacture. The quarries of Hat Nub and those near Minieh supplied
ancient Egypt with the material which was compared by ancient masters to
the purity of the soul. No doubt this accounts for its use in holy
works, and in the making of sarcophagi, statues, etc. In the Book of
Matthew we read of the woman having an alabaster box of very precious
ointment. In Mark “she brake the box and poured it (the ointment) on his
head.” In Luke we are told that “a woman in the city brought an
alabaster box of ointment,” etc. “Box” is a mistranslation; the “box”
holding the oil was an alabastrum, and this “oil of holy ointment
compound after the art of the apothecary,” as set down in the Book of
Exodus, was put in the alabaster vases which were sealed in such a way
that the tops had to be broken in order to release the liquid. This was
seemingly done to prevent evaporation. Many of these vases have been
found amongst the ruins, together with other Egyptian vases called
Canopic jars in which were placed the embalmed viscera of the departed.
On the covers of these canopi were drawings of the heads of the genii of
the dead known as the four children of Horus—Kesta, Hapi, Tuamutef, and
Qebhsennuf. A vessel surrounded by receptacles for holding a number of
alabastra was called an ALABASTRO-THECA.

Pure specimens of alabaster were also employed as milk-stone talismans.
Oriental alabaster, known as the Algerian onyx, is a solid crystalline
carbonate of lime, precipitated from water in stalagmitic form. This
Oriental alabaster is considerably harder than true alabaster which is
easily scratched. Pliny writes of columns of alabaster over thirty feet
in height. In ancient times it was regarded as a species of onyx, and
was made into cups, vases and other utensils. Pliny says that it was “of
the colour of honey, opaque and spirally spotted.” There are also
specimens in colour brown mixed with lemon, and others of the colour of
the finger-nail.

Leonardus regards alabaster as the right substance for preserving
unguents, and Dioscorides employed it in medicine. It was used as a
charm against accidents, especially whilst travelling, for securing
public favour, for success in legal affairs, etc.

It may be mentioned that the beautiful sarcophagus of alabaster which
was found by Giovanni Belzoni in 1817 in the tomb of Seti I (circa 1400
B. C.) and purchased by Sir John Soane for £2000 sterling, now rests in
the Soane Museum in Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London. It is adorned with
texts and scenes from the Book of the Gates. In this old Book the names
of the Twelve Gates of the Tuat, or underworld, and of the Guardians of
the Gates are given. The denizens of each section are identified, as
well as their petition to Ra and his responses. The Book of the Gates,
rich in magical formulae, is one of the oldest books in the world.

Alabaster proper and Oriental alabaster are under the zodiacal Cancer.

ALEXANDRITE. The Alexandrite is a variety of the chrysoberyl. This
remarkable gem was discovered about 60 miles from Ekaterinburg, on the
birthday of Czar Alexander II of Russia, from whom it obtains its
name—The Horoscope of that Emperor indicates the stone as a symbol of
misfortune to him.

The alexandrite presents the curious phenomenon of changing its colour
according to the different rays of light to which it is exposed. By
daylight the gem is of a charming olive or emerald green tint, which
changes in artificial light to a columbine or raspberry red. The stone
is favoured by Russians on account of its blend of national colours, red
and green. These mixed colours are distinctly Aquarian. No mention seems
to have been made of this peculiar variety of chrysoberyl in ancient
writings, and it stands as a herald of the new Aquarian Age into which
we are now moving. The Alexandrite has been described as an emblem of
loyal regard, and to dream of it is a symbol of struggle and progress.
It is under the zodiacal Aquarius.

AMAZONITE OR AMAZON STONE. The Amazon Stone is a green variety of
Feldspar. The name is said to have been derived from the Amazon River,
but no specimens have been found there. The meagre evidence available
about this stone certainly does not favour its connection with the
Amazon River in any way. This river was named the Amazon in the 16th
century by the Spanish explorer Orellana in consequence, it is said, of
an encounter he had with a band of women warriors on its banks. He
called the mighty stream the Amazon after the women described by
Herodotus, Diodorus, etc., and the Amazon stone also was named after
them. In a letter to the author (1905) the late Comte de Glenstrae
wrote: "It is to the Amazons led by Myrina (Diodorus Siculus) that we
owe the establishment of the Samothracian mysteries which their Queen
founded after aiding Isis and Horus in the war against Typhon, as the
Amazons of an earlier date had aided Neith (Athene) and Amoun against
the usurpation of Chronos. I have always had a great admiration for the
Amazons, and few again have noticed that the coins of the seven cities
of Asia (Apocalypse) bore generally the figure of an Amazon as each of
those cities was said to have been founded by one of their Queens. There
is much in their symbolism. That story of their breasts being amputated
is nonsense, being refuted by every monument. As Sanchoniathon says,
“the Greeks confused nearly every legend.” It was said that the Amazons
had their right breasts singed off, the better to enable them to draw
their bows; but the word Amazon does not mean “without breast,” nor does
it appear to have any connection with the word “mazos” meaning “a
breast.” There does not seem to be any reason to doubt that the
Circassian word “Maza,” the moon, explains its origin. The Amazons of
Thermodoon in Asia Minor are termed “worshippers of the moon.” The
Amazons were votaries of the “chaste Diana” in one of her attributes,
and no male was allowed to live among them. No matter by what name she
is called, Diana is a moon goddess and a woman’s goddess, and no male
was allowed to offend her modesty. Actaeon who saw her bathing was
charmed into a stag, and fell a victim to his own hunting dogs, while
the hunter Orion, ardent in his passion for Eos, the Morning, was slain
by the “sweet arrows” of Diana.

Thus, the Amazon stone received its name from the romantic Amazons or
worshippers of Maza, the moon. It is under the Zodiacal Cancer.



                              CHAPTER XII
                             AMBER—AZURITE


AMBER

           “_Pretty, in amber to observe the forms
           Of hairs, or straws, or dirt, or grubs, or worms!
           The things, we know, are neither rich nor rare,
           But wonder how the devil they got there._”
                                               POPE.

Amber is a fossil vegetable resin which has undergone change owing to
chemical action. The name is derived from the Arabic word AMBAR. Amber
is also known as Succinum (a word derived from the Greek Succum, juice)
on account of its vegetable origin. At one time it was also known by the
Oriental word Karabe, straw-attractor. Hash-mal was its name in Hebrew
and by the Greeks it was known as ELEKTRON, from which our word
electricity has been derived. That painstaking scholar of the 17th
century, Dr. Philemon Holland, thus translates from the 37th Book of
Pliny: “To come into the properties that amber hath; if it bee well
rubbed and chaufed between the fingers, the potentiall faculty that hath
within is set on work and brought into actuall operation whereby you
shall see it to draw chaffe, strawes, drie leaves, yea and thin rinds of
the Linden or Tillet tree after the same sort as the loadstone draweth
yron.” According to Callistratus it is good as a preventative of
delirium, and as a cure for strangury if taken in drink or attached as
an amulet to the body. This last author gives the name CHRYSELECTRUM to
an amber of golden colour which presents most beautiful tints in the
morning, attracts flame with the greatest rapidity, igniting the moment
it approaches fire. Worn upon the neck, he says, it is a cure for fever
and other diseases, “and the powder of it either taken by itself or with
gum mastick in water is remedial for disease of the stomach.”

The writer has had strong evidence of the efficacy of amber in the cure
of asthma, hay fever, croup and various diseases of the throat, and
knows a number of medical practitioners who are convinced of its
beneficial action. A well-known chemist also assured him that his wife
had suffered from asthma all her life until five years ago, when she
expressed a desire to wear a string of amber; since wearing this she has
not experienced the slightest symptom of her former trouble. The writer
has an amber necklet, the beads of which are mud-coloured and cracked
after having been worn for a few months by a lady suffering from hay
fever. There is no doubt of its curative influence, no doubt that
ancient observation was correct, and the statement in some modern
medical text books that amber has “absolutely no curative value” is
difficult indeed to follow. It is remarkable that distilled amber
yielding a pungent, acrid but not unpleasant oil, known as Oil of Amber
or Oil of Succinite, is recognized as a potent ingredient in various
embrocations. It is, therefore, hard to reconcile the statements that
while amber has “absolutely no curative value,” Oil of Amber has. Mr. C.
W. King says: “Repeated experiments have proved beyond doubt that the
wearing of an amber necklace has been known to prevent attacks of
erysipelas in a person subject to them.” He also writes of its efficacy
“as a defender of the throat against chills.”

Ancient writers said that amber eased stomach pains, cured jaundice and
goitre, and acted against certain poisons, Camillus Leonardus
recommending it as a cure for toothache and affections of the teeth. In
the Middle Ages it was used as a charm against fits, dysentery,
jaundice, scrofula and nervous affections. Thomas Nicols, a 17th century
writer, says: “Amber is esteemed the best for physic use, and is thought
to be of great power and force against many diseases, as against the
vertigo and asthmatic paroxysmes, against catarrhes and anthreticall
pains, against diseases of the stomach and to free it from sufferings
and putrefactions and against diseases of the heart, against plagues,
venoms and contagions. It is used either in powder or in troches, either
in distempers of men or of women, married or unmarried, or in the
distempers of children.” The dose formerly administered for coughs,
hysteria, etc., was from ten to sixty grains.

Amber cut in various magical forms was extensively used as a charm
against the evil eye, witchcraft and sorcery. It was and still is used
as a mouthpiece for cigar and cigarette holders and smoking pipes, etc.
Its employment in this capacity was originally talismanic, for it was
implicitly believed that amber would not only prevent infection, but
would act as a charm against it. Francis Barrett, in his work on Natural
Magic, says that amber attracts all things to it but garden basil or
substances smeared with oil. In China today amber is greatly esteemed,
being used in the making of certain medicines, perfumes, and as an
incense which use dates back to the Bible times. In such esteem is amber
held in the East that the Shah of Persia is said to wear a block of
amber on his neck to protect him against assassination. Perhaps no
legend has been more ridiculed than the one which relates that amber was
the solidified urine of the lynx; but the old writers Sudines and
Metrodorus show that the lynx was not an animal but a tree from which
amber is exuded, and which was known in Etruria as a Lynx. Pliny repeats
from Ovid’s Metamorphoses the tradition among the Greeks that amber was
the tears of the Heliades (Phaethusa, Ægle, Lampetia), the Sun Maidens,
who harnessed the steeds of the Sun to the chariot when their rash
brother Phaethon set forth on his fatal journey. The horses of the Sun
were wild and strong, fire flew from their nostrils, and the youthful
charioteer was not strong enough to keep them to their rightful course.
The chariot, as its speed grew faster, became luminous, electric and
fiery, the hair of the driver caught fire, the earth began to smoke and
burn, Libya was parched into a waste of sand, Africa was afire, rivers
were dried up, vegetation was destroyed, and the heat was so intense
that the inhabitants of the stricken countries changed from white to
black. Gaea, in fear for the earth, called on Jupiter for protection,
who, with a lightning-bolt, struck the chariot, hurling the “stricken
waggoner,” as Shakespeare calls him, lifeless into the River
Eridanus—(the Padus or Po)—at the mouth of which river were found the
Electrides Insulae (Amber Islands). The three sad sisters were
transformed into poplars, and their tears of amber never ceased to flow.
“To these tears,” says Pliny, “was given the name of Electrum, from the
circumstance that the Sun was usually called Elector.” It requires but
little thought to unveil this beautiful allegory which told the exact
truth even while the nature of amber was disturbing the minds of
scholars, its vegetable origin being doubted.

The old story that amber was a concretion formed by the tears of the
birds is a variation of the Phæthon legend which Thomas Moore has so
gracefully rendered in “The Fire Worshippers.”

            “_Around thee shall glisten the loveliest amber
            That ever the sorrowing sea-bird hath wept._”

That amber is found containing the material remains of extinct insects,
etc., is alluded to by Pope in his lines quoted at the head of this
chapter. That it was especially well known and esteemed in the ancient
world can be accepted without the slightest doubt. Amber beads have been
found in the tombs of Egypt as far back as the 6th dynasty (B. C. 3200),
of the ancient Empire, a dynasty which ruled in old Chem long before the
time of Joseph. HASHMAL as the Hebrew for amber has been doubted by some
scholars who take it to signify the metal electrum, a substance
combination of 4 parts of silver and one of gold, used by the Greeks,
and from which some of their coins were struck; but other authorities
accept it as indicating amber which was known long before electrum was
compounded. Delitzsch believes the Hebrew HASHMAL to be derived from the
old Assyrian word ESHMARU, and the connection is a very probable one.
The Rabbis employ other words to express amber, as for example, KEPOS
HAYA-RUDIN, amber of the Jordan. This occurs in a curious passage in
which Rabbi Nathan states that if honey were mixed with the amber of the
Jordan it became “profane.” Honey, according to Porphyry, is a symbol of
death, and hence could not be mixed with amber which is a symbol of
life. This would be as repulsive to the Rabbinical mind as the violation
of the command: “Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk” would
be. Libations of honey could only, according to Porphyry, be offered to
the terrestrial gods. Philo Judæus in Book III explains the matter as
follows: “Moreover it also ordains that every sacrifice shall be offered
up without any leaven or honey, not thinking it fit that either of these
things should be brought to altar. The honey perhaps because the bee
which collects it is not a clean animal, inasmuch as it derives its
birth, as the story goes, from the putrefaction and corruption of dead
oxen, or else this may be forbidden as a figurative declaration that all
superfluous pleasure is unholy, making indeed the things which are eaten
sweet to the taste but inflicting bitter pains difficult to be cured at
a subsequent period, by which the soul must of necessity, be agitated
and thrown in confusion not being able to settle on any resting-place.”
In addition, the lines of Virgil, Georgic IV, may be considered:

          “_His mother’s precepts he performs with care:
          The temple visits, and adores with prayer:
          Four altars, raises: from his herd he culls
          For slaughter, four the fairest of his bulls:
          Four heifers from his female store he took,
          All fair and all unknowing of the yoke.
          Nine mornings thence, with sacrifice and prayers,
          The powers atoned, he to the grave repairs.
          Behold a prodigy! for, from within
          The broken bowels and the bloated skin,
          A buzzing noise of bees his ears alarms:
          Straight issue through the sides assembling swarms.
          Dark as a cloud, they make a wheeling flight,
          Then on a neighboring tree, descending, light:
          Like a large cluster of black grapes they show,
          And make a large dependence from the bough._”
                                    DRYDEN’S TRANSLATION.

We must again look to symbology if we desire to understand the meaning.
Of old the Bee was a symbol of the Soul, and by the laws of Mohammed
bees were admitted to the joys of Heaven. The votaries of Ceres adored
the Moon under the symbol of a bee—a symbol appearing on some of the
Greek coins, notably on those of Ephesus where Diana, goddess of the
Moon, was worshipped and whence the cry, “Great is Diana of the
Ephesians,” reached the ears of Paul (Acts XIX). Porphyry writes: “The
Moon presiding over generation was called a bee and also a bull, and
Taurus is the exaltation of the Moon.” He adds symbolically: “But bees
are oxbegotten, and this appellation is also given to soul proceeding to
generation.” (“Cave of the Nymphs.”) The explanation of the veiled
mystery is that the Moon at the full is the symbol of the soul, the
emblem of which is a bee. It comes from the body of a bull or Taurus,
the second sign of the zodiac, in which as Porphyry observes she is in
her exaltation and powerful; Taurus is the earth sign of the planet
Venus in the guise of the goddess of Generation, and as the soul enters
the world, new born, the waters of the Jordan are needed to purify it
as, when it leaves the body, water was left for it to wash off the
emanations of its deserted covering. Further into the mysteries it is
unnecessary to go. The veil of Isis hides the truth, and only he who
will strive to understand heavenly wisdom can hope to pierce that veil.

Amber has been placed under the sign Leo, the sign of the Sun, by some
of the old masters, while others have allotted it to the sign of Venus
(Taurus), to which it more probably belongs. It is very soft, is easily
cut with a knife, and burns freely. Large quantities are found on the
coast of the Baltic, which the Greeks called in consequence the Amber
Sea. In Oriental story Amberabad (Amber City) was a city of Jinnistan
(Fairy Land).

To dream of amber was said to denote a voyage, and according to the
philosophy of the Quabalah the indication was of some kind of movement
or change.

Amber has been imitated in preparations of Mellite, Copal and Anine,
also by a blending of sulphur and gutta percha at high temperature,
etc., but Mellite is infusible by heat, burning white. Copal catches
fire and falls from the instrument on which it is heated in flat drops,
while the general attracting power of most substitutes falls far short
of the true substance.

AMETHYST

              “_The purple streaming amethyst is thine._”
                                                 TENNYSON.

The amethyst is a species of transparent, violet-coloured quartz, the
name of which is derived from the Greek AMETHYSTOS, from the traditional
belief that this stone possessed the power to oppose the effect of the
fumes of intoxicants, an opinion not entirely shared by Plutarch.
Amongst the Greeks and Persians an amethyst bound on the navel was said
to counteract the evil effects of wine. The amethyst is described by
Trevisa in the 15th century as “purple red in colour medelyd wyth colour
of uyolette,” and in Sir Philip Sidney’s “Arcadia,” we read:

                  “_The bloodie shafts of Cupid’s war
                  With amatists they headed are._”

The stone is found under the names ametist, ametiste, amatites,
amaethist, and it was not until about the middle of the 17th century
that its present form began to be adopted. To enjoy the full vibrations
of the amethyst an old custom recommended that it be worn on the third
finger of the left hand—a practice at one time followed by medical
practitioners—and some form of ancient belief demanded that the amethyst
must come in contact with the left hand before its action could be
appreciated and understood.

It is well known that the magic of the ancient Egyptian temples included
the art of magnetism, and the action of various mineral substances on
the magnetized patient has also been noted by the more modern
investigators including Dr. Babbitt, Baron Reichenbach, Dr. Ennemoser,
Dr. Edmonson and Dr. de Lignieres. Stones of the earth have been
especially employed by these scholars with results of such marked
importance that the contention of the ancients regarding the amethyst as
a charm against drunkenness, deserves respect. To be effective in the
induced magnetic sleep, stones had to be placed in the left hand.
Connected with the ancient belief in the sobering power of the amethyst
is the beautiful allegorical legend telling that Dionysius, enamoured of
a graceful nymph, pressed his love upon her, but Diana intervened,
transforming her into a purple amethyst. In respect for the transformed
nymph Dionysius vowed that whosoever wore the amethyst would be
protected from the evils of intoxicating wines.

The amethyst was worn in ancient Egypt, and a scarab cut from a specimen
was held in great esteem by soldiers who carried it on the field of
battle as a charm against death by the shafts and swords of war. This
practice was carried far into the Middle Ages, and many amethysts were
worn for the same purpose in this last terrible war of nations. When
worn by a Bishop of the Church, the amethyst is a glyptic symbol of
heavenly understanding. Swedenborg likens it to a “spiritual love of
good,” and Dr. Brewer writes of purple shades, indicating “love of truth
even unto martyrdom.” It is stated by Patrick in “Devotions of the Roman
Church,” that the wedding ring of the Virgin Mary and Joseph was of
amethyst or onyx. Mr. King writes that this ring, exhibited in the Abbey
St. Germain des Prés, is engraved “with two nobodies—probably
liberti—whose votive legend: ‘Alpheus with Aretho’ is but too plainly
legible in our Greek-reading times.” The ring, having been saved at the
burning of the Abbey in 1795, was secured by General Hydrow and given to
the Imperial Russian Cabinet.

In what is described by Camillus Leonardus of the 16th century as one of
the magical books of King Solomon, a charm for gaining influence over
princes and nobles is a rider on horseback holding a sceptre, engraved
on an amethyst and set in double its own weight in gold or silver.

The amethyst has always been regarded as symbolical of the pioneer in
thought and action on the philosophical, religious, spiritual and
material planes. The virtues ascribed to this stone are many. It was
regarded as a charm against witchcraft, poison and evil thoughts; it was
an aid to chastity, a power against all forms of over-indulgence and a
strengthener of the mind; it was a charm for securing the favour of
princes, rulers, churchmen, people of wealth, influence and power,
people with prophetic ability, poets, travellers, publishers, etc. It
would strengthen the wisdom, faith and religion of the wearer and aid in
prayer and in dreaming. If bound to the left wrist the amethyst enabled
the wearer to see the future in dreams; to dream of the stone itself
indicated success to a traveller, clergyman, sailor, philosopher,
teacher or mystic, also protection, faith and fruitful thoughts. For
pains in the head (headache, toothache, etc.), it was recommended that
an amethyst be immersed in hot water for a few minutes, taken out, dried
carefully and gently rubbed over the parts affected and the back of the
neck.

Almost all authorities agree in translating the Hebrew ACHLAMAH as
amethyst and in identifying it as the ninth stone of the High Priest’s
Breastplate. It was the seventh precious stone which the sage Iachus
gave to Apollonius of Tyana as an emblem of piety and dignity.

Many writers on the subject of planetary influences have placed this gem
under the celestial Pisces, the fishes, because anciently Pisces was one
of the mansions of Jupiter; but the sign of the Fishes is transparent
and glistening in hue whilst in the nature of kinship a fiery gem
belongs to a fiery zodiacal sign. In this direction the fiery Mars, as
ruler of the sign Aries, has been confused with the Babylonian and
Assyrian MARDUK or MERODACH. Marduk or Merodach represented the planet
Jupiter, and to him Nebuchadnezzar addresses his songs of praise:
“Merodach, the great lord, the senior of the gods, the most ancient has
given all nations and people to my care.” “I supplicate the king of
gods, the lord of lords in Borsippa, the city of his loftiness.” “O, god
Merodach, great lord, lord of the house of the gods, light of the gods,
father, even for thy high honour, which changes not, a temple have I
built,” etc. The “house of the gods” is the ninth celestial house,
naturally the sign Sagittarius, and in the Quabalah the ninth heavenly
sphere is the Primum Mobile, the star-decked Heaven. (See “Numbers,
their Meaning and Magic.”) The name Merodach or Marduk is a corruption
of Mardugga (the sacred son), and because they saw the life-giving orb
rising from the sea, the ancient Chaldean masters accounted Jupiter his
first offshoot, hailing him as “Marduk:”—“Marduk, first born of the
mighty deep, make us pure and prosperous.” The giving of prosperity is
ever an attribute of Jupiter, and the measure and the source of the gift
are shown in the nativity or map of the heavens at a person’s birth.

An effective talisman for the protection of horses and their riders was
a winged horse cut on an amethyst. The ancients connected the amethyst
with the ninth celestial mansion—the mansion of Sagittarius—and there is
no reason for allotting it to any other.

ANATASE. The name is derived from the Latin ANATASES, elevation. It was
so named from the length of its chief axis. This mineral is composed of
Titanic acid which crystallizes in fine, transparent stones of brown,
dark blue or black, of adamantine lustre. The anatase, which equals the
opal in hardness, cannot be traced in ancient writings. It is rarely
used in jewellery. In harmony with the philosophy of gem influence it is
connected with the sign Sagittarius.

ANDALUSITE. This stone, first discovered in Andalusia, derives its name
from that rich mineral province of Spain—the Tarshish of the Bible, the
Tartessus of ancient geography, the Bætica of the Romans. Its colours
are light bottle-green, pearl grey, flesh and pink. It is extremely
dichroic, showing the twin colours red and leaf-green—the red gleaming
from the stone in antithesis to its common hue. The Andalusite is as
hard as the garnet or zircon. Professor Dana moistened specimens with
nitrate of cobalt, after which they assumed a blue colour. This mineral
may have been known to the ancients, but identification is difficult.
Ancient philosophy would connect it with the zodiacal Aquarius.

APATITE. Apatite is a mineral which obtained its name from the Greek
word APATAO, to deceive, because it deceived old students who confounded
it with aquamarine, chrysolite, tourmaline, etc. Abraham Werner (the
author of the Neptunian theory that all mineral substances were once
contained in watery solution), first demonstrated in the 18th century
the true nature of apatite which is a phosphate of lime with fluorite
and chloride of calcium. The lustre varies from transparent to opaque,
and is vitreous to sub-resinous. It is much softer than tourmaline, its
degree of hardness being but 5; for this reason it is but little used in
the manufacture of jewellery. Its colours are pale sea-green, blue-green
(in which colouring it is sometimes called Moroxite), yellowish-green
(in which colouring it is often called Asparagus stone), yellow, violet,
white, grey, brown, red, colourless, and transparent. Professor Judd,
F.R.S., found a concretion specimen of apatite when cutting a mass of
teak wood—a particularly rare find. In agreement with the ancient system
the apatite is astrologically under the zodiacal Pisces.

APOPHYLLITE. Apophyllite is a hydrous silicate of potassium and calcium
which obtains its name from the Greek word APOPHULLIZO, to exfoliate,
because it falls in leaves before the blowpipe. It is extremely soft,
being from between 4 and 5 in Mohs’s scale. The stone is found in a
variety of colours—milk-white, greyish, green, yellow, red, pink. It is
seldom used by jewellers. The apophyllite is under the sign Taurus.

AQUAMARINE. (See BERYL.)

ASBESTOS. The word is derived from the Greek ASBESTOS, inconsumable, and
is identified with the Amianthus (impollutible) of the ancients. It is a
variety of hornblende, of a fine and fibrous texture, of which Marbodus
wrote:

          _“Kindled once it no extinction knows
          But with eternal flame increasing glows.
          Hence with good cause the Greeks Asbestos name,
          Because once kindled nought can quench its flame.”_

The incombustibility and weak heat conducting qualities of asbestos
render it extremely useful as a protection against fire. The ancients
used it for the wicks of their temple lamps, and in order to preserve
the ashes of the departed their dead bodies were laid on asbestos before
being placed on the funeral pyre. Cloths of asbestos were thrown in the
flames for the purpose of cleaning them. So fine and flaxy is the
mineral that gloves have been made of it. Asbestos is under the zodiacal
Gemini.

AVENTURINE. Aventurine or goldstone is a quartz of a brownish,
semi-transparent character, spangled with spots of golden-yellow mica.
This stone is identified with the stone called by Pliny the
“Sandaresus”—“of stars of gold gleaming from within.” The name
Aventurine (_per adventura_, by accident), arose, it is said, from an
accident in a Venetian glass factory, where a workman found that eight
parts of ground glass, one part protoxide of copper and two parts of
oxide of iron well heated and allowed to cool slowly, produced the
peculiar appearance admired in the real gem to even better effect. The
aventurine variety of quartz is under the zodiacal Leo.

AXINITE. The name Axinite is derived from the Greek AXINE, an axe, on
account of the sharp and axe-like form of the crystals. The axinite is
about the same degree of hardness as the Spodumene or the demantoid
garnet (6.5 to 7). It is pyro-electric and highly vitreous. The colours
vary between pearly-grey, clove, brown, honey-yellow, violet, plum-blue.
The axinite is under the zodiacal Sagittarius.

AZURITE. Azurite is a blue copper carbonate obtaining its name from its
colour. It is kindred with malachite, from which it differs but
slightly. Some mineralogists call it blue malachite. It is under the
zodiacal Libra.



                              CHAPTER XIII
                            THE BERYL FAMILY

THE BERYL FAMILY: SOME LARGE SPECIMENS: VAUQUELIN’S DISCOVERY: THE
    CELESTIAL SIGN OF THE BERYL FAMILY: OLD MINES OF KLEOPATRA: WOMEN
    SEARCHERS OF EGYPT: THE CANOPY OF HOLOFERNES: STARS OF THE PLEIADES:
    EMERALD AND THE EYES: POPE JOHN XXI AND HIS ASSERTION: THE SERPENT’S
    GAZE: TAURUS, SCORPIO AND THE STORY OF EDEN: THE TRUE VENUS:
    REPTILES OF OVER-INDULGENCE: CIRCE AND THE SWINE: DIANA, GODDESS OF
    THE MOON: VIRTUES ASCRIBED TO THE EMERALD: ESMERALDA: THE DRAGON OF
    THE EMERALD MINE: PRESCOTT’S STORY: PIZARRO’S LARGEf EMERALD: THE
    TRICK OF PEDRAZA: INDIAN BELIEF: APOLLONIUS OF TYANA AND THE EMERALD
    OF IARCHUS: THE EMERALD IN ROSICRUCIAN PHILOSOPHY: SWEATING
    EMERALDS: EMERALDS IN OLD EXCAVATIONS: ESTEEM OF THE ROMANS: PERSIAN
    BELIEFS: ALBERTUS MAGNUS, CARDANUS AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE
    MASTERS: MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS’ STONE IN BRAZIL: HINDOO BELIEFS: THE
    HEAVEN OF THE MUSLIMS: THE INHABITANTS OF PARADISE: PARACELSUS AND
    THE EMERALD: EARLY CHRISTIAN EMBLEM: BERYL IN MAGICAL RITES: “THE
    TEMPEST”: RECOMMENDATION OF LEONARDUS: WATER DIVINATION: STORY OF
    THE RING OF POLYCRATES: FISH AND RING STORIES: HERODOTUS AND OLD
    WRITERS ON THE RING OF POLYCRATES: PHILIP II AND THE FATAL RING OF
    SPAIN: SPAIN’S DEFEAT BY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE BURIAL
    OF THE ILL-OMENED RING: GIFT OF POPE ADRIAN VIII TO HENRY II:
    EMERALD OF KING ARTHUR: POPE INNOCENT’S PRESENT TO KING JOHN:
    SWEDENBORG’S EMERALD CORRESPONDENCE: THE FALSE AQUAMARINE AMONGST
    THE BRITISH CROWN JEWELS: THE FATAL EMERALD OF RUSSIA.


BERYL

            “_What rings of Eastern price his fingers hold.
            Gold decks the fingers, beryl decks the gold._”
                                                 PARNELL.

The name beryl is derived from the Greek and Latin BERYLLUS; some say
also from the Persian BELUR. Some of the old fashions of writing the
name are included in the following: beril, beryll, berall, birrall,
byral, byrrall, byralle, berial, beryall, bureall, beryl stone.

Dr. Holland’s rendering of Pliny’s remarks on the beryl (Chapter 36) is
interesting: “Many are of the opinion that beryls are of the same nature
that the emeraud, or leastwise verie like: from India they came as from
their native place, for seldom are they to be found elsewhere.”

Beryls are pale green stones coloured by iron. Some very large crystals
have been found. Professor Rutley mentions one specimen found at
Royalston in Massachusetts, which weighed nearly 2½ tons.

EMERALD

             “_As when an emerald green enchas’d
             In flaming gold, from the bright mass acquires
             A nobler hue, more delicate to sight._”
                                               J. PHILIPS.

The name in days of old was variously written: emeraud, emeraude,
emraud, emeroyde, emmorant, emerant, ameraud, emerode, emrade,
hemerauld, smaragdus. The derivation is from the old French word
ESMERALDA, through the modern French EMERAUDE; Greek SMARAGDOS, Latin
SMARAGDUS.

Amongst some large sized emeralds Professor Dana notes one in the
cabinet of the Duke of Devonshire, which specimen is 2¼ inches long by
about 2 inches in diameter; a finer specimen weighing six ounces, once
in the possession of Mr. Harry Thomas Hope; one formerly in the Royal
Russian collection, 4½ in. in length, 12 in. in breadth, 16¾ pounds troy
in weight; another weighing six pounds, which is 7 in. long and 4 in.
broad.

Dr. Holland’s translation of Pliny (Book 37) is as follows:

  “True it is that we take great delight to behold green hearbes and
  leaves of trees but this is nothing to the pleasure we have in looking
  upon the emeraud, for compare it with other things, be they never so
  green, it surpasseth them all in pleasant verdure.”

The Emerald is the beautiful green variety of the beryl family, coloured
by chromium.

AQUAMARINE

 “_One entire stone of a sea-water green known by the name of agmarine._”
                                                        STOW. CHRON.
                                                           1598.

The word is derived from the Latin AQUA, water, and MARE, the sea. It
was known under various forms: aigue marine, ague marine, aque marine,
agmarine, etc. In colour the aquamarine is pale blue, bluish green and
light sea-green.

Here may be mentioned the Golden Emerald—an emerald of charming golden
colour, and the Rose Beryl named Morganite after the late J. Pierpont
Morgan.

The whole beryl family is classified under the sign Taurus. Their
crystalline form is hexagonal (six-sided), and six is the traditional
number of Venus, whose earth house or mansion in astrology is the
heavenly Taurus. Beryllium enters largely into their composition, and
because of the sweetness of its salts this element is also termed
Glucinum (Greek GLYKYS, sweet). Glycina was first discovered by the
great chemist Vauquelin while experimenting with emeralds in 1797. Much
confusion has arisen amongst authors on the subject of gems and the
Heavens, from confounding the beryl with the tourmaline—a distinctly
Mercurial gem. The beryl, aquamarine and emerald present only colour
shade differences. It is more difficult, however, to find really fine
emeralds than it is to find other varieties of the same family. The
emeralds found in the workings of the old Kleopatra mines, whose very
existence was at one time doubted, are of the lighter or beryl variety.
These gems were much sought after in ancient times, the Egyptian women
being esteemed the best searchers “because of their superior eyesight.”
There is no doubt, as before noted, that the sex was considered as well
as the sight, and the selection of women “daughters of Venus” for this
work was not without design.

The splendour of the canopy of purple and gold under which Holofernes,
the Assyrian general, rested was enriched according to the Apochrypha
with emeralds and precious stones (Judith X. 21). This symbol of
Assyrian luxury—considering the accredited virtue of the emerald amongst
the ancients—was of evil import to the leader of the army of
Nabuchodonosor, the “King of all the earth.”

Astrology notes that a person born in the sign Taurus, especially from
the 20° to the 30° amongst the nebulous stars of the Pleiades, or with
violent stars in that sign at birth, has his sight always affected to a
greater or lesser extent, hence the accredited virtues of the emerald as
an eye stone, and no pharmacy of the Middle Ages would have thought of
omitting it from its dispensary. As eye stones the stones of the beryl
family have always been held in high esteem, Pope John XXI affirming
that a diseased eye treated with an emerald became sound again. It was
not claimed that the emerald would restore lost sight, but it was
regarded as extremely potent in eye disease, injury or trouble of any
kind. Sometimes it was sufficient, especially in the case of inflamed
eyes, to bathe the eye in water in which emeralds had been steeped for
six hours; at other times the stone was reduced to the finest powder, an
extremely small quantity of which was placed in the eye at stated
intervals, Tom Moore sings in Lalla Rookh:

                 “_Blinded like serpents when they gaze
                 Upon the emerald’s virgin blaze._”

The tradition that when a serpent fixes its eyes on an emerald it
becomes blind is echoed from Hebrew philosophy, and Ahmed Ben Abdalaziz
in his “Treatise on Jewels” has it that the lustre of emeralds makes
serpents blind. As this ancient statement has occasioned some mirth and
ridicule amongst those swayed by surface considerations it may be as
well to consider the matter from another point of understanding. The
symbolist will at once perceive the hidden parable: in astrology,
serpents have been classed under the Scorpion of the zodiac, and the
Venusian Taurus in the zodiac is opposite to the Scorpion. In the story
of the Garden of Eden it is the Scorpion (snake) who tempts Eve, and her
fall is held by occult students as a symbol to compel Man to exert his
highest strength to enable his triumph over the lowest to be complete.
The zodiacal Scorpio is accursed on its lower expression, and is
symbolical then of the corruption which can menace virgin purity. Man on
the lowest borderlands to which over-indulgence will ever draw him has
been faced by serpents and reptiles whose immaterial lives exist only in
those dark realms. The story of Circe and the Swine finds its parallel
in the power of the pure and beautiful Venus to expel even by her
symbolic emerald lust, envy, malice and grossness, to destroy the
serpent’s gaze and to call the blind and suffering Man back to his
peaceful Heaven again. So, as the Moon in astrological philosophy is
exalted in Taurus, Diana the goddess of the Moon is the friend of chaste
women. In Cutwode’s “Caltha Poetarium, or the Humble Bee,” written in
1599, Diana adorns the heroine with an emerald ring.

It can easily be seen why the emerald is the emblem of true happiness
and the preserver of chastity, and why it was said to fracture if
chastity were violated: to one taking vows of chastity and breaking
them, the emerald could never appear the same again—before his spiritual
vision it would be broken and shattered. Leonardus said that the emerald
protected women in childbirth, and most old writers are impressive in
warning men to wear one as a charm against spiritual and mental
weakness.

The Peruvian goddess Esmeralda was said to reside in an emerald as big
as an ostrich egg, and it was the custom of this little Venus in her
symbolic emerald egg to receive emeralds as offerings from her devotees
who also, it was said, sacrificed their daughters to her.

Stevenson (“Residence in South America”), writing of the emerald mine of
Las Emeraldas, says: “I never visited it owing to the superstitious
dread of the natives who assured me that it was enchanted and guarded by
an enormous dragon who poured forth thunder and lightning on those who
dared to ascend the river.” It is peculiar how the symbols of mankind
coincide: the dragon is another of the zodiacal Scorpio varieties ever
opposite Taurus, and was of old regarded as the agitator of thunders,
lightnings and earth commotions. Prescott, in his “History of Peru,”
tells us how the Spaniards after murdering the trusting Indians raided
their dwellings and seized their ornaments and precious stones, for this
was the region of the esmeraldas or emeralds. One of the jewels that
fell into the hands of Pizarro was as large as a pigeon’s egg. Fra
Reginaldo di Pedraza, one of the Dominican missionaries, told the
Spaniards that the method of proving the genuineness or otherwise of
emeralds was to try if they could be broken with a hammer; Prescott
adding: “The good Father did not subject his own jewels to this wise
experiment, but as the stones in consequence of it fell in value, being
merely regarded as coloured glass, he carried back a considerable store
of them to Panama.” The Indians held that the emerald protected against
poisons and cleansed man from sin.

As an emblem of Eternal Spring, Iarchus included the emerald in the
mystic necklace of Apollonius of Tyana. In Rosicrucian philosophy it is
advised that if an emerald set in a ring of gold be placed on the solar
finger of the left hand when the Sun entered Taurus, the wearer would
attain his cherished aim and be enabled by the sweating of the stone to
detect poisons. Experiment has shown that heat causes the emerald to
lose water but does not affect its colour, hence the reports of the
“sweating” emerald cannot be set aside as mythical. Specimens of the
beryl family have been found in tombs and in old excavations, and there
is little doubt that the stones “of the colour of transparent sea-water”
found by the old Romans at Cyprus belonged to it. The Romans greatly
esteemed the emerald as an eye stone and a natural specific for
ophthalmia, holding that what healed and calmed the spiritual eye would
heal and calm the natural eye. The Persians applied ashes of burnt
emeralds to ulcers with curative effect. They said that the emerald
brought mental tranquility, cured unnatural thirst, stomach troubles,
jaundice, liver troubles, obstructions, gravel, stricture, bodily pains
and epilepsy. Albertus Magnus also recommends it as a cure for epileptic
attacks. Mystics have always regarded the emerald as of the highest
worth. It is spoken of by Cardanus as an ideal gem for divinatory
purposes—no doubt because of its pure spiritual import. Aristotle writes
that an emerald hung from the neck or worn on the finger protects from
the “falling sickness.”

The ancient writers held that all kinds of divination were helped by the
emerald, and when worn during the transaction of honest business it gave
favour to the wearer. In Brazil, medical students on becoming doctors of
medicine wore on their fingers rings of emeralds as an indication that
they had received their diploma. The lighter emerald, or beryl, bound
man and wife together in mutual love, and raised the wearer to success
and honour.

Among the Hindoo philosophers the emerald held its place as a gem of the
zodiacal Taurus, and in the First Heaven of the Muslims the tents of the
faithful are represented as studded with emeralds, pearls and jacinths.

Mr. E. W. Lane (“Modern Egyptians”) writes that the inhabitants of
Paradise are said to be clothed “in the richest silk, chiefly of green,
and all superfluities from their bodies will be carried off by
perspiration which will diffuse an odour like that of musk”—a plant
recognized by old astrologers as belonging to the sign Taurus.
Paracelsus wrote that the emerald was in sympathy with the metal
copper—also recognized as the chief metal of Venus. Mr. King notes a
fine emerald, a quarter inch square, belonging to the earliest Christian
periods, on which is cut a fish, which besides being an early Christian
emblem is symbolical of Venus and later of the Virgin. Venus is exalted
in the Zodiacal sign of the Fishes which enters largely into the
Christian mysteries. The beryl was used in magical rites as an
instrument for foretelling future happenings. For special magical
purposes the stone was held in the mouth when—says Freeman, writing in
the early part of the 18th century—a person may call an elemental and
receive satisfaction for any question he might ask. In this connection
one is tempted to think of the delightful Venusian spirit Ariel in
Shakespeare’s “Tempest.” Again the beryl is recommended by Leonardus as
a charm against diseases of the throat and jaws. In the “water
divination” of the Middle Ages a beryl stone was suspended just to touch
the surface of the water in the bowl, and it answered questions by
automatically striking the edges of the vessel. It was also thrown into
a shallow dish of water, information being gathered from the reflections
seen in sunlight in the water.

Herodotus tells the story of the Thalassokrat (Sea-king) Polycrates of
Samos whose never-failing fortune so alarmed his friend and ally, the
Pharaoh Amasis of Egypt, that he wrote to him begging him to sacrifice
something he valued most highly to propitiate the fateful Nemesis,
goddess of retribution. In obedience to this request Polycrates, with
many regrets, threw from a boat his precious emerald ring into the sea
far from the shore. Some few days afterwards a fisherman caught a fish
so large and shapely that, thinking it a prize for the King, he took it
to the palace of Polycrates. When the cook was preparing the fish for
the King’s table he found within it his master’s emerald ring. Amasis,
when informed of the incident by Polycrates, was greatly concerned as it
foretold to him a fatal end for the Thalassokrat, with whom he broke off
negotiations and alliances. Polycrates, being induced by his crafty
enemy the Persian satrap Oroetes to visit him, was seized and crucified.
The story is discredited by some historians—notably Grote—but this is
not the only story of a fish swallowing a ring or some other article of
value. The legend of Solomon’s ring has been already alluded to. Mr.
King collecting evidence from Herodotus, Pausanius, and other old
writers finds that the ring of Polycrates was a “signet of emerald set
in gold, the work of Theodorus of Samos.” That famous father of the
church, Titus Flavius Clemens, better known as Clemens Alexandrinus,
says that on the emerald ring of Polycrates was engraved “a musical
lyre.” A fine quality emerald bearing a similar device was found about
fifty years ago in a vineyard at Aricia, and that this may have been the
famous ring is not impossible.

In the reign of Philip II, of Spanish Armada repute, there appeared in
Spain a strange ring of gold, in the centre of which was an emerald cut
so as to contain a ruby surrounded by diamonds. This curious ring is
said to have been the symbol of misfortune wherever it came. The church
which received it as a gift from the King was destroyed by fire; the
fatal ring, rescued from the fire, was placed in a museum that was badly
damaged by lightning; whilst again in the possession of the King of
Spain, Spain was defeated in the war with the United States of America.
Then this ring of ill-omen was buried in an iron coffin in a secret
place. Its evil influence can readily be accounted for in the light of
occult philosophy—the ruby is a stone under the Celestial Leo, the
emerald is under Taurus. These signs form the evil square, being counted
in astrological science 90° apart. A square aspect is always accounted
an evil one. The admixture of the beautiful crystal symbols was
unfortunate. Spain again is under the celestial Sagittarius, and would
not hold gems of Taurus. Philip II himself had an evil influence on
Spain. Astrologically neither the emerald nor the ruby would be in
harmony with his nativity and the diamond would be fatal.

John of Salisbury states that Pope Adrian VIII confirmed the right to
hold and govern Ireland on Henry II of England with the gift of a rare
emerald set in a ring of gold, and the Papal bull or seal. The right to
bestow all islands was claimed by the Pope by virtue of the laws of
Constantine. It is curious in connection with this historical
transaction that Ireland and the emerald come under Taurus, and that the
right of Henry II as sovereign of Ireland is confirmed by the Papal
Bull!

Tennyson in “Elaine” says that Arthur, “the glorious King”

            “_Had on his cuirass worn our Lady’s Head,
            Carved of one emerald centred in a sun
            Of silver rays, that lighten’d as he breathed._”

The beryl was the symbol of undying youth, the emerald of
incorruptibility and triumph over sin, the aquamarine of social
uplifting. One of the four rings sent by Pope Innocent III in the year
1205 to King John of England was an emerald which, wrote the donor, is
the emblem of faith. To dream of beryls is said to denote happy news to
come; to dream of aquamarines is interpreted as symbolical of loving
friendships; to dream of emeralds is set down as a sign of worldly
benefit and goodness. The Angel of the beryl family is the inexpressibly
beautiful and tender Anael. Emanuel Swedenborg says that the beryl
signifies “the good of charity and faith or the spiritual love of truth;
the emerald the appearance of the divine sphere of the Lord in the
lowest heavens; the emerald family as indicating the sphere of divine
love and wisdom.”

The wonderful aquamarine which adorned the crown of James II of England
has been recently found to be merely a piece of coloured glass. This
fact was recently communicated by Sir George Younghusband, so well known
as the keeper of the Jewel House in the Tower of London. It is presumed
that the real stone was replaced by this imitation, but how and when is
a matter of speculation. The whole emerald family were regarded as
stones of fortune for King James II.

Before closing this account of the beryl family it may be interesting to
recall the fatal emerald of Russia. This large and beautiful gem was
given to Peter of Holstein-Gottorp (afterwards Peter III), by Empress
Elizabeth Petrovna. Peter was assassinated. Emperor Paul wore it next
and was strangled. Alexander II then had the stone newly set and it fell
from his finger after his assassination. Alexander III would not wear
it, but Nicholas II, allured by its beauty, did. Who now has the fatal
emerald?



                              CHAPTER XIV
                            BALAS—CRYSOCOLLA

BALAS: BLOODSTONE: BONE TURQUOISE: CAIRNGORM, AN ANCIENT CAUTERISER:
    CARBUNCLE: THE PATHWAY OF THE FOURTH HEAVEN ILLUMINATED THE ARK OF
    NOAH: “A BURNING GEM”: THE MAGICIAN OF KING KAJATA: THE LUSTROUS
    CARBUNCLE OF CEYLON: NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE’S STORY: VIRTUES OF THE
    STONE: A CAPTAIN’S TALISMAN AT GALLIPOLI: CARNELIAN AND THE SARD:
    SENSITIVENESS OF THESE STONES: SARD INTAGLI: ALARIC THE GOTH AND HIS
    CARNELIAN: MADAME BLAVATSKY AND THE SHAMANS OF TARTARY: OCCULT
    VIRTUES OF THE CARNELIAN: MEANING IN ROSICRUCIAN MYSTERIES: MOSLEM
    TRADITION. CATSEYE, ITS CURIOUS OPALESCENCE: LORE OF THE CATSEYE:
    RABBI BEN ADOULAH’S ASSERTION: THE EYE OF BELUS: CEYLINITE:
    CHALCEDONY: PERSIAN CYLINDERS: SIGNET OF DARIUS: EARLY
    IDENTIFICATION BY ALBERTUS MAGNUS: PLINY’S DESCRIPTION: STONE OF ST.
    STEPHEN: VIRTUES OF THE CHALCEDONY: CHALCEDONYX: CHERT: CHIASTOLITE:
    STONE OF ST. JAMES: PEDRO THE CRUEL: MIGUEL PEREZ AND THE BLOOD-RED
    CROSS: MARSHAL SOULT’S PLUNDER: THE STONE OF COLUMBUS: CHRYSOBERYL,
    ITS VIRTUES: CRYSOCOLLA, A MUSICAL CHARM.


BALAS. See SPINEL.

BLOODSTONE. See HAEMATITE and JASPER.

BONE TURQUOISE or Odontolite. Bone turquoise is often mistaken for true
turquoise. It is really fossil teeth or bones coloured blue by the
action of phosphate of iron. Its organic difference can easily be seen
under a good glass. ODONTOLITE is under the influence of the zodiacal
Capricorn; it is a degree less in hardness than the true turquoise,
being in this respect equal to apatite and lapis lazuli.

BORT. (See DIAMOND.)

CAIRNGORM or SCOTCH TOPAZ.

                 “_O Caledonia, stern and wild!_”
                                                 SCOTT.

The mountain cairngorm, the name of which comes from the Gaelic
CARNGORM, meaning Blue Cairn, is between the shires of Aberdeen, Banff
and Inverness, and it is there that the cairngorm stones are mostly
found. The stone is a variety of quartz of a fine smoky yellow or brown
colour. It is found in other places than the Cairngorm Mountains, and
has usurped many of the attributes of the true topaz. It is remarkable
for its brilliance and beauty, and was known to the ancients. According
to Pliny, this stone was used by old physicians for cauterizing affected
parts of the body by directing the sun’s rays through it after the
manner of a “burning glass.” It was carried in times of epidemics as a
protective charm, and it was held to bestow a degree of craft and
subtlety on the wearer. As a martial stone in harmony with Scotland, it
was set in the head of dirks and other knives, and adorned the Highland
dress. The Cairngorm was considered a talisman against venereal
diseases, sore throats, etc.

It is under the zodiacal Scorpio.

CARBUNCLE

                  “_The Carbuncle
                  Which from it such a flaming light
                  And radiancy ejecteth
                  That in the very darkest night
                  The eye’s to it directed._”
                                             DRAYTON.

The name Carbuncle is derived from the Latin CARBUNCULUS, diminutive of
CARBO, a coal. During the past centuries it has been written as
charbucle, charbokel, charbokll, cherbukkill, carbokyl, charboncle,
carbunculum, karboncle, carbunacle, carbuncle stone. Of it Dr. Wilkins
writes: “It is believed that a carbuncle does shine in the dark like a
burning coal, from whence it has its name.”

The carbuncle is the Iron Alumina Garnet known as Almandine or
Almandite, which varies in colour shades from red, ruby red, columbine
red to brownish red. The name is said to be derived from the town of
Alabanda in Asia Minor where, according to Pliny, the Carbunculi
Amethystozontes were cut. Dr. Holland’s translation of the passage
relating to the carbuncle in Pliny, Book XXXVII, is as follows: “Amongst
these red gems the rubies otherwise called carbuncles challenge the
principall place and are esteemed richest; they have their name in Greek
of the likenesse unto fire, and yet fire hath no power of them which is
the reason that some call them apyroti.” The apyroti is our pyrope which
indicates “fiery” in Greek. It is a magnesia alumina garnet and was, as
it now is, cut en cabochon. Specimens chosen for this purpose are from
deep to black red.

Almandines form the pathways of the Fourth Heaven (Dar as-Salam) of the
Muhammedans; and the traditional symbol of the Ark illuminated by a
large carbuncle stone occurs in the Rabbinical writings. To students of
the mysteries this must ever appeal as a forceful and subtle symbol of
man’s immortality and sublime power. Leonardus writes of the carbuncle
“brandishing its fiery rays on every side and in the dark appearing like
a fiery coal.” “It is regarded,” he says, “as the first among ‘burning
gems.’” That the carbuncle gave out a glowing light without reflection
is frequently repeated by ancient authors, and the Palace of the
Magician in the Russian story of King Kajata was hewn out of a single
carbuncle which lit up the whole surrounding district. Sir E. Tennant
quotes from a Chinese work a narrative which tells that “early in the
14th century the Emperor sent an officer to Ceylon to purchase a
carbuncle of unusual lustre which was fitted as a ball to the cap of the
Emperor of that country. It was upwards of an ounce in weight and cost
100,000 strings of cash. Each time a grand levee was held at night the
red lustre filled the palace, and hence it was designated the Red Palace
Illuminator.”

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s beautiful story of “The Great Carbuncle” in his
“Twice-told Tales” is based on the Indian tradition which is, he says,
“too wild and too beautiful to be adequately wrought up in prose.”
Nevertheless the author does so with old-world charm: “Some few believe
that this inestimable stone is blazing as of old, and say that they have
caught its radiance like a flash of summer lightning, far down the
valley of the Saco. And be it owned that many a mile from the Crystal
Hills I saw a wondrous light around their summits and was lured by the
faith of poesy to be the last pilgrim of the Great Carbuncle.”

In the Middle Ages the carbuncle was worn as a charm to protect the
wearer against the plague, and it was said to protect travellers on long
voyages by sea from drowning, and by land from accidents. It was also
credited with the power of resisting poisons, of averting evil thoughts
and dreams. It was an up-lifter of the soul and a preserver of the
health of the body. When its lustre changed, the death of the wearer was
indicated. In addition to being the stone of undying hope and the
dispeller of sadness, the Indians and Arabs credit it with protecting
from wounds and harm in the midst of battle. A story was told to the
author by the mother of an Australian Captain born, according to
astrology, with the Sun rising in the sign of the Archer. This officer
wore at the author’s suggestion a ring of carbuncle. At Gallipoli he,
with a few men, was cut off by incessant gunfire which, although
directed their way, did not injure them and from which they were
eventually rescued. During this ordeal the Captain looked often at his
calm, flame-burning ring, the unearthly brightness of which seemed to
him an emblem of salvation.

Emanuel Swedenborg compared the carbuncle with the good of celestial
love, and it was regarded as a heart stimulant by some old medical
writers. It represents the red arterial blood and is connected with the
fiery sign of the zodiac Sagittarius. A great part of Australia is much
influenced by this sign according to astrology and large quantities of
extremely beautiful almandines—which were at one time mistaken for
rubies and termed “Australian rubies”—have been already found.

To dream of the carbuncle was said to indicate acquirement of wisdom.

The carbuncle is under the zodiacal Sagittarius.

CARNELIAN

             “_Let not the Muse the dull Carnelian slight,
             Although it shine with but a feeble light._”
                                                 MARBODUS.

The Carnelian obtains its name from the Latin word Carnis, flesh, which
describes its colour. The Sard (Greek, Sarx, flesh) called by Swedenborg
and the ancients the “sardine Stone,” of a deeper brownish red is said
by Pliny to have been named from Sardis in Asia Minor. Carnelian is also
written cornelian, cornelien, and carnelion. Woodward in his “Natural
History” (1695) alludes to the ancient Roman tradition that the pale red
carnelians were called females and the deeper colours males. The yellow
carnelian was anciently regarded as the female loved by the Sun. These
gems are extremely sensitive, being affected by oils and acids. It has
been demonstrated from olden times that carnelians exposed to the rays
of the sun were brightened and heightened in colour, a result which
could not be obtained by ordinary heat. The carnelian and sard were
greatly used in all ages, and many beads, charms and ornaments have been
found in the old lands. The writer had in his possession two beautiful
Etruscan scarabs of sard—one bearing a portrait of Æsculapius and the
snake, the other portraying Venus disrobing—neither of which had
suffered much from the attacks of time.

Mr. King describes a sard intaglio showing an Ibis stepping out of a
nautilus shell, seizing a snake—a symbol of the eternal war between the
Sun, represented by the Ibis, on the stone of the Sun, and the earth
moistures, represented by the snake. Another from the Rhodes collection
represents Venus showing Cupid how to use the bow, appropriately cut on
a sard or heart stone; another, also cut on sard, shows Cupid riding on
a lion—symbol of the Sun and the heart (organ of the Sun in
astrophilosophy).

Alaric the Goth entered the city of Rome with his victorious army August
27th in the year 410 A. D. His birthday cannot be ascertained with any
degree of certainty, but it may have been somewhere near that time for
he wore on his finger a large carnelian talismanic ring on which was
engraved: “Alaricus Rex Gothorum.”

Madame Blavatsky relates stories of the Shamans of Tartary who carried
carnelians under their left arms, and by employing these stones in
certain ways they were enabled to separate the astral from the physical
body. The carnelian was used by them in certain magical work and was
reputed to be a stone of wonderful power. It is significant that these
Shamans carried the carnelians on their left sides, near the great Sun
of the human body—the heart. Madame Blavatsky herself possessed a
carnelian to which special virtue was attached. She was born when the
Sun was in the sign of the Lion, and the carnelian was therefore one of
her chief talismanic gems. The carnelian was called the Stone of the
Martyrs. It is said to bestow the power to see into the astral plane if,
when placed before a light for about four minutes, it is steadily gazed
upon. Considering the powerful effect the Sun has on the carnelian, it
were best that, if phenomena of this order are to be obtained through
the agency of such an instrument, the stone be first exposed to the rays
of the Sun. It is inadvisable, however, to look directly at the sun with
the naked eye.

The carnelian is said to bring content to the wearer, and Albertus
Magnus said that it made the soul happy, drove away the evil effects of
sorcery, witchcraft, enchantment and fear. It was the stone of the
victor and of victory, and was used as a charm against bad temper—for
bad temper according to the masters is a form of black magic. Black
magic was evilly directed in the light of a waning moon, and it was
detected by the varying sheen of the protective carnelian or sard. Also
in dreams the stone was a symbol that evil thoughts were being directed
against the dreamer. It represented the magical force of Faith and the
weakening folly of scepticism in the Rosicrucian mysteries. Medicinally
the stone was used to stop bleedings, and in the Middle Ages it was
administered in powdered form. At this period it was stated that the
yellow variety was the gem for Dies Solis or Sunday. Both the carnelian
and sard are attached to the zodiacal Leo, the Mansion of the Sun, and
the connection apart from tradition is proven scientifically by the
effect of the solar rays on the stone itself. It is said to promote
coolness in argument and dignity in dispute, and the Muhammedan
tradition tells that Muhammad held that to procure contentment and
blessings, it was necessary with right mind to Allah, to wear a
carnelian.

CATSEYE

 “_The Catseye is one of the jewels of which the Singhalese are
    especially proud._”
                                    TENNENT’S “CEYLON.”

The catseye is a chalcedonic quartz, translucent, of various
colours—yellow-green, yellow-brown, hyacinth-red, grey, green-grey, etc.
It is of a peculiar opalescence, resembling the eye of a cat, when cut
en cabochon, an effect produced by amianthoid asbestos filaments which
run parallel through the stone. The virtues ascribed to the catseye are
many. It was said to put colour into pale faces, to give pleasure to the
mind, to relieve the soul of melancholy, to cure chronic disorders and
wasting diseases, and to keep the wearer from financial distress and
ruin. It is said to have been successfully employed in relieving croup
and asthma. Pressed on to the forehead between the eyes it aided thought
and helped foresight. Carried by those with Capricorn rising in the
horoscope, or with the Sun, Jupiter or Venus in Capricorn, it is
credited with especial value as a charm for success in speculative
ventures. Enwrapped in women’s hair, it was employed as a birth charm,
and if calcined and applied to wounds, said Rabbi Ben Adoulah, it healed
them. Further, it cured inflammations of the eyes, if lightly rubbed on
the closed lids. To dream of a catseye was said to warn of treachery. It
was the Eye of Belus in old Assyria, and a talisman which made the
wearer invisible to his enemies. Old Indian masters advise that the
specimen worn be as perfect as possible, saying that bad stones should
not be worn at all.

The Catseye is attached to the sign Capricorn.

CEYLONITE. (See SPINEL.)

CHALCEDONY

              “_With lustre fair is the Calcedon graced._”
                                                 MARBODUS.

The chalcedony obtains its name from Chalkedon in Asia Minor, and
appears written as calcedony, calsydoyne, calcidoine, chalcedun,
calcideny, chalcidonye, calcedon, calchedonie.

This stone includes a number of varieties such as carnelian, sard,
agate, catseye, prase, plasma, heliotrope, chrysoprase, moss agate,
onyx, sardonyx, hornstone or Chert, and flint. Chalcedony is classed
under the great Silica family. It is translucent, waxy, white, pale
grey, light brown or bluish.

The Blue Chalcedony is identified with the ancient Sapphirine—a stone
confused with our sapphire. Mr. King says that the “finest Persian
cylinder known, engraved with the usual type of the King fighting with
the lion, was formed out of this variety: the signet doubtless that once
graced the wrist of some Darius or Artaxerxes of the latter days of the
Persian monarchy.”

It is said that Albertus Magnus first identified the chalcedony of today
in the 13th century, although according to many authorities this was not
done until the 15th century at the very earliest. The ancient chalcedony
is classed amongst such stones as the Leucachates and Cerachates. Pliny
describes the ancient chalcedony as of “green mixed with blue as the
feathers of the peacock’s tail or of the pigeon’s neck,” and Holme
quoting from Pliny in the Armoury, 1688, says: “The chalcedon or
calchedoine, being well chafed and warmed, will draw a straw or a rush
to it.” The calcedon described by Pliny was not found in his time, but
our chalcedony was greatly used in fine art work in all ages. A
chalcedony showing tiny red and brown spots has been termed the stone of
St. Stephen, in allusion to the martyrdom of that Saint as described in
Chapter 7 of the Acts.

The chalcedony is a symbol of enthusiasm, and is the emblem of Victory
Divine amongst the jewels of the Rosicrucians. It has also been termed
the Mother Stone, and under the name of Leucachate was sacred to Diana.
It protected the voyager on the ocean tracts from tempests and terrors,
drove away evil spirits, banished sadness and melancholy, secured public
favour and protected the wearer in times of political revolutions.

The chalcedony is under the zodiacal Cancer.

CHALCEDONYX. The chalcedonyx is really a chalcedony adorned with lines
of white and grey. It is included in the zodiacal Cancer.

CHIASTOLITE

          “_On her white breast a sparkling cross she wore._”
                                                     POPE.

The Chiastolite obtains its name from the Greek word CHIASTOS, crossed.
It is also known as Macle, from the Latin Macula, a spot. It is a form
of Andalusite found in certain metamorphic rock. During the process of
crystallization certain impurities of a carbonaceous nature are
dispersed across the stone which displays from this cause different
forms of cross, tessellated or lozenge-shaped markings, which show out
curiously when the stone is cut or broken. The hardness of the stone is
not great—specimens sometimes being as low as 3 in Mohs’ scale. The
colour varies from grey to yellow, pink, red, white, and deep brown.

The chiastolite is reported to have been first found in Andalusia in
Spain, at which place legend says St. James suffered martyrdom. A
further amplification of this legend tells that the origin of the
chiastolite dates back to that time when it sprang into being just where
the Apostle laid his hands on the rocks. At the time of Pedro the Cruel
of Spain (14th Century), a peasant, by name Miguel Perez, found a rare
specimen of this stone over an inch in diameter, exhibiting two crosses,
the most marked being of a rich dark red hue. Wishing to obtain this
remarkable gem as a present for his ally Edward the Black Prince (whose
title, be it said, was not bestowed from the colour of his armour but as
Froissart says, “from the terror his arms inspired”), Pedro ordered the
peasant to bring it to him. When Perez was ushered into his presence the
King demanded the gem under pain of death. The terrified peasant, after
faltering for a few moments in nervous fear, at length held out the gem
for the King to take. As Pedro was about to seize it, the blood-red
cross met his gaze and he fell in a swoon on the palace floor. The stone
seems to have disappeared for a long period, and it is believed to have
been discovered in the possession of Philip V of Spain who carried it as
a jewel charm till his death when it was hung about the neck of the
statue of St. James in the St. Jago di Compostella. Marshal Soult,
having plundered the Cathedral during the Peninsular War, gave the
stolen stone to Napoleon Bonaparte, who presented it to Murat.
Astrologically, the chiastolite would not be a fortunate stone for
Pedro, Soult, Napoleon, Murat or the Black Prince—notwithstanding the
latter’s name. It would be a fortunate stone for Philip V.

It is quoted as a fact that when Columbus sailed on his voyage of
discovery to America he wore a charm of chiastolite. The historical
Chiastolite of Spain is said to be at the present time in the possession
of the French family De Bodts.

The chiastolite is a symbol of prudence, faith, caution and sincerity.
To dream of one is a sign of struggle, delay or limitation. It is a
stone of the zodiacal Capricorn. Chiastolite is also written as
chiastolith and chiastolithe. The name was bestowed on it in the year
1800. Some very fine specimens have recently been found in South
Australia.

CHRYSOBERYL

           “_Time will run back and fetch the Age of Gold._”
                                                     MILTON.

The name is derived from CHRYSOS, golden, and BERYLLOS, beryl. Suitable
stones are cut into catseyes of opalescent gleam. The chrysoberyl is
harder than the topaz, and is composed of alumina and glucina. The
colours of the stone are asparagus green, grass green, greenish white.
The Alexandrite variety changes its colours in real and artificial
light.

The chrysoberyl was credited as a charm against evil spirits and a
disordered imagination, against deceit, craft and conspiracy. To dream
of a chrysoberyl was a warning against waste. It is under the zodiacal
Pisces.

CRYSOCOLLA. This hydros copper silicate derives its name from the Greek
CHRYSOS, gold, and KOLLA, cement. It obtained its name from its
resemblance to a gold solder known and used by the ancient Greeks. It is
a very soft, light substance, varying in colour from a blue-green to a
sky or turquoise blue. The texture is enamellike, and the occurrence is
earthy and massive. Chrysocolla is a musical charm, to dream of which
was favourable for musicians, florists and singers. It is under the
zodiacal Taurus.



                               CHAPTER XV
                           CHRYSOLITE—CRYSTAL

CHRYSOLITE: “EVENING EMERALD”: THE ANCIENT AMIANTHUS: BANISHER OF EVIL
    INFLUENCES: STONE OF INSPIRATION: “THE PRECIOUS STONE”: CHRYSOPRASE:
    STONE OF DREAMS AND HAPPINESS: BAD EFFECT OF EXCESSIVE LIGHT:
    CINNAMON STONE: CITRINE OR FALSE TOPAZ: ITS TALISMANIC VIRTUES:
    COAL: BLACK DIAMONDS: “HAULING OVER THE COALS”: TAX ON COAL: FIRST
    COAL LICENCES: PROCLAMATION AGAINST THE USE OF COAL: FIRST COAL
    EXPORTED TO PARIS: THE NATURE OF CORAL: OLD BELIEF: TREVISA ON THE
    CORAL: CORAL SPECIES: PERSEUS AND THE MEDUSA: THE WORK OF THE
    SEA-NYMPHS: THE RISING OF THE LOVE GODDESS: THE EVIL EYE:
    FASCINATION: ROMAN CUSTOM: CORAL AND HEALTH: DISPELLER OF EVIL
    SPIRITS: INCUBI AND SUCCUBI: DR. HARTMANN’S TESTIMONY: BARTHOLOMEUS
    AND THE WYTCHES’ STONE: MYSTICAL PROPERTIES ASCRIBED TO CORAL:
    CUSTOM OF OLD GREEK SAILORS: LEMNIUS AND CORAL: THE GEM OF THE
    GARDEN OF EVERLASTING LIFE: A 17TH CENTURY PRESCRIPTION: THE STONE
    OF THE DANCERS: CORUNDUM: CORDIERITE: CROCIDOLITE: CRYSTAL: EARLY
    USE ON SCARABEI, ETC.: TRIAL OF PSYCHE: THE ETHIOPIAN KING AND THE
    CRYSTAL TOMBS: THE HAPSBURG CRYSTAL VASES: CRYSTAL IN CHINA AND
    JAPAN: THE TALISMAN OF CONCENTRATION: THE MEDICINE INDIANS:
    AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINALS AND THE CRYSTAL: RAIN STONE: THE CORADGEE:
    CRYSTALLOMANCY AMONGST THE NATIVES OF AUSTRALIA: CRYSTAL BALLS AND
    THE SUN’S RAYS: DR. BABBITT’S REMARKS ON THE CONVEX LENS:
    HYDROLITES: THE THIRD EYE: AN ANTIQUE SEAL RING: CRYSTALS IN THE
    HIGHLANDS: SIR WILLIAM RIDGEWAY ON CRYSTALS: SWEDENBORG’S STONE OF
    TRUTH.


CHRYSOLITE

          “_When morning rose, to land
          We haul’d our bark, and moored it on the strand,
          Where in a beauteous grotto’s cool recess
          Dance the green Nereids of the neighboring seas._”
                                  HOMER. (Pope’s Translation.)

The Chrysolite obtains its name from the Greek CHRYSOS, gold, and
LITHOS, a stone. This gem is of a light greeny-yellow; when deep olive
green it is known as a Peridot, when yellowish-green as True Olivine.
Among the ancients the Chrysolite was our topaz. Its name, literally
“Golden Stone,” indicates the beautiful golden topaz so highly esteemed
by gem-lovers, which, we are told, derives its name from that mysterious
Island of the Mists which Pliny calls Topazion. Dr. G. F. Herbert Smith
writes of the variety peridot as bearing the pretty name of “the evening
emerald,” and the most charming specimens resemble the light green of
the sea waters near the shore, illuminated by the setting sun. This gem
appears to be the Amianthus of post-Biblical writers, known as “the gem
of miracles,” which drove away the spirits and influences of evil,
protected against obsession, dissolved enchantments, and the phantoms of
the night, gladdened the heart with hope, strengthened the soul,
inspired thought, banished illusion, despair, madness, aided the
faculties of inspiration and prophecy.

In the History of Monsieur Oufle—quoted by Brand—it is advised: “To
expel phantoms and rid people of folly, take the precious stone
chrysolite, set it in gold, and let them wear it about ’em.” Francis
Barrett says that it is good for the lungs and cures asthmatical
complaints; also that when held under the tongue it cures fevers, aids
prophecy, bestows eloquence and inspiration. The peridot was known as
“_the_” precious stone, and was often valued more than the diamond.

The hardness of the chrysolite is from 6 to 7 on Mohs’ scale. It is
under the zodiacal Pisces.

CHRYSOPRASE

The chrysoprase derives its name from the Greek CHRYSOS, golden, and
PRASON, a leek. It is an apple-green chalcedony, the colour being caused
by oxide of nickel. The chrysoprase was esteemed the perfect stone of
dreams in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. It was believed that if one
condemned for any offence whatever held a chrysoprase in his mouth he
would escape punishment. It was a stone for the voyager on deep seas, a
kindler of the imaginative faculties, a banisher of greed, selfishness
and carelessness. It was the stone of happiness and enterprise,
awakening slumbering faculties. It calmed irritability, the pains of
gout, and, bound to the left arm, it prevented or cured the stone. It
was the stone of prudence, adaptability and versatility, rousing to
action, progress and adventure. To gaze into the chrysoprase was said to
strengthen the eyes, especially when the Moon was passing through Taurus
and Cancer. In many ways the chrysoprase was a religious symbol. In its
Hebrew name of NOFEK it was the fourth stone of the Breastplate, and as
the tenth jewel of the Rosicrucians it was the symbol of strength, moral
and physical, and of invisible power. Swedenborg sees in it “the supreme
heavenly love of truth,” and the Fathers see “triumph over sin.” Its
symbology is reflected to the gateway through which the soul passed when
entering the sphere of earth, and its dream influence was like an
angel’s smile. Light in excess has an unfavourable effect on this stone,
robbing it of its colour. Introduced into England in the reign of Ann,
it was much loved by the Queen. It enjoyed great popularity during the
times of the 3 Georges, and was a favorite gem of Queen Victoria.

The chrysoprase is under the zodiacal Cancer.

CINNAMON STONE. (See ESSONITE.)

CITRINE

Citrine is a clear light yellow quartz crystal, obtaining its name from
its citron tint. It is correctly called False Topaz, and incorrectly
Brazilian Topaz. It presents no cleavage like the topaz. It is also
known as Spanish topaz and Occidental topaz. The citrine was carried as
a protective talisman against miasmatic exhalations, plague epidemics,
eruptive diseases, evil thought forms, alcoholic and other forms of
indulgence. It was also employed as a charm against the bites of snakes,
venomous reptiles and insects, and against scandal, libel and treachery.

The Citrine is under the zodiacal Scorpio.

COAL

  “_A live coal from the altar (Is. VI. 6) signifies divine love from
  which all purification is derived._”

                                                         SWEDENBORG.

Coal derives its name from the Anglo-Saxon word KOL, to kindle. It is a
well-known solid black combustible substance, the remains of old forests
and earth vegetation which chemical action has changed chiefly by the
elimination of oxygen and hydrogen. Many dyes, acids, gases,
flavourings, etc., are obtained from this important product. Amongst
these are tar, coke, creosote, carbolic acid, naphtha, sal-ammoniac,
ammonia, various explosives, drugs, mineral vanilla, etc. Dr. Brewer
explains that to “haul over the coals” is historically and literally
true: “At one time,” he says, “the Jews were ‘bled’ whenever the Kings
or barons wanted money, and one very common torture, if they resisted,
was to haul them over the coals of a slow fire to give them a roasting.”
Sir Walter Scott alludes to this practice in “Ivanhoe.” Professor John
Henry Pepper, writing, on “Coal and Coal Mines,” introduces the
following interesting details: "In olden time, before a cargo of coals
could be discharged from a collier, it was necessary to obtain the
permission of the Lord Mayor who, for a certain consideration, granted
the required permission. This much honoured magistrate and his worthy
coadjutors, the aldermen, with the common councilmen and livery called
the Corporation were permitted to lay a tax upon the “black diamonds”
that amounted to something like £50,000 per annum. In 1830 the heaviest
of the coal duties were abolished: and since that time the trade has
assumed gigantic proportions which have made it the marvel of the
civilized world. The first licences to dig coals were granted to the
burgesses of Newcastle by Henry III and in 1281 a very good trade
existed in that fuel. A proclamation in the reign of King Edward I shows
the introduction of coal as a substitute for wood, and a charter of
Edward II indicates that Derbyshire coal was used in London. In the same
reign coals were first sent from Newcastle for the benefit of those
trades which required fuel: and in 1316 a petition was made from
Parliament to the King praying His Majesty to forbid all use of the new
and pestilent fuel called “coals,” which was acceded to, and a
proclamation made, commanding all use of coals to cease and determine,
and threatening all who burnt coals to be mulcted, and on a second
offence to have their furnaces demolished. In the reign of Queen
Elizabeth the burning of stone coal was again prohibited during the
sitting of Parliament. At a subsequent period, about 1648, coals were
once more placed under a ban.... In 1520 Newcastle coal was first
exported into Paris."

A piece of coal was carried by thieves in the belief that it would
protect them from detection, and help them to escape when pursued. To
dream of coals is indicated as a symbol of disappointment, trouble,
affliction and losses, except if the coals be burning brightly when the
symbol gives promises of uplifting and advancement, for the fire symbol
of Mars is rousing to action the coal symbol of Saturn. Coal is under
the celestial Capricorn.

CORAL

             “_In the pleased infant see its power expand
             When first the coral fills his little hand._”
                                                  SPRAGUE.

Coral is a carbonate of lime effected by gelatinous marine mollusks
known as “polypi.”

For long ages coral was supposed to be a marine plant of which Trevisa
wrote in 1495: “Corall is gendred in the Red See, and is a tree as long
as it is coveryd with water, but as it is drawen out it torneth into
stone,” and Jordan in 1699 tells us that “coral also being a plant and
nourished with this juice, turns to a stone.” The name is derived from
the Greek word Korallion, and is found written as corale, corral,
correil, curalle, curroll, quyral, etc.

The various species have been set down as follows:

                           Pink Coral
                           Red Coral
                           White Coral
                           Black Coral
                           Blue Coral
                           Yellow Coral, etc.

In more modern times species have obtained names from their appearance.
Thus:

                            Brain Coral
                            Cup Coral
                            Mushroom Coral
                            Organpipe Coral
                            Star Coral

The appeal of coral to the poet finds expression in some charming
legends:

Ovid (Metamorphoses) wrote that Perseus, after he had cut the head from
the body of the dreadful Medusa, laid it on the branches of the trees
which grew by the sea shore; but the power never departing, turned these
branches, as it had turned every other living thing, into stone. The sea
nymphs drew these fossils beneath the waves and they became the coral
seeds. A variation of this legend tells that the blood which fell from
the bleeding head on to the shrubs, flowers and trees turned them into
seeds of coral which the sea nymphs drew beneath the waves. It arose
again in flower-like beauty with Venus when she emerged in all her glory
from the sea, symbolical of the exaltation of Venus in the zodiacal
Pisces, and in this connection also concealing a deeper meaning. No gem
has been more employed as a charm for averting the fell spell of the
evil eye than the innocent coral which was credited with the power of
destroying the first stroke of the glance, after which it—like the drawn
fang of the serpent—was rendered incapable of injury. Scot writes in
“Discovery of Witchcraft:” “The coral preserveth such as bear it from
fascination or bewitching and in this respect corals are hanged about
children’s necks.” Pliny mentions that the Romans hung on babies’
cradles and around their necks pieces of red coral as an aid in teething
and an influence against the falling sickness and infantile diseases.
Plato says: “Coral is good to be hanged about children’s necks, as well
to rub their gums as to preserve them from the falling sickness. It hath
also some special sympathy with Nature, for the best coral, being worn
about the neck, will turn pale and wan if the party that wears it be
sick, and comes to its former colour again as they recover health.”
Brand mentions a similar idea in the “Three Ladies of London,” 1584:
“Coral will look pale when you be sick.” Little bells were also attached
in the Middle Ages to children’s coral charms in order to ward off evil
spirits, storms and pestilence, and scare away the Furies; this same
belief exists in Japan, China and other countries. It is a fact that
coral is affected by the health of the wearer; some writers say that it
becomes spotted or stained when the illness is of a serious nature. It
was regarded as a very potent charm for women. In Italy the coral was
also called the Witch Stone, because it was said to protect women from
the wizards and men from the witches. In connection with these
Paracelsus writes: “They are the outgrowths of an intense and sensual
imagination of men and women, and which Rabbinical traditions relate in
an allegorical manner, are connected with Adam (the animal Man), and
Lilith, his first wife. They are afraid of red corals as dogs are afraid
of a whip: but the brown corals attract them. Red corals are
disagreeable to monsters, Incubi, Succubi, Phantasmata and all evil
spirits, but brown corals are not, and they delight in them.” In
commenting on this Dr. Franz Hartmann, a physician of note and
distinguished writer, says that he knew of cases of melancholy,
depression of mind, hypochondria, etc., that had been successfully
treated by the wearing of red corals, while other articles employed for
the same purpose had no effect, the cure therefore not being merely
attributable to the belief of the patient. He concludes: “The ignorant
will find it easier to ridicule such things than to explain them.”

A curious passage in Bartholomeus (“De Proprietatibus Rerum,” 1536) is
of interest: “Wytches tell that this stone withstondeth lyghtnyng,
whirlewynde, tempeste and stormes fro shyppes and houses that it is in.
The Red Corall helpeth ayenst the feudes, gyle and scorne, and ayenst
divers wonderous doyng and multiplieth frute, and spedeth begynnyng and
ending of causes and of nedes.” Oriental mystics warn against the
wearing of dull, dirty or discoloured specimens. The pure coral was
deemed a protection from plague, poison, storm and tempest. In a house
it charmed away disharmony, envy and evil influences. It banished evil
dreams and the “terrors of the night,” wild animals, the lightning
stroke, witchcraft, epilepsy, stomach complaints, night sweats, etc. It
was a cure for sores, diseased gums, whooping cough, disorders of the
spleen, teething troubles, troubles of the feet and toes, madness, etc.

It is interesting to note that natural corals in the form of vegetable
growths were, and in some places still are, tied to fruit trees to
ensure their fertility, and that women of ancient times wore such
specimens as charms against sterility. Thus, “she who hath risen from
the sea foam,” Venus, was regarded as employing the moistures so needed
in perfecting the material dresses of the animal, mineral and vegetable
worlds when entering earth conditions: and the ancient masters held that
such examples of the doctrine of Sympathies, Similitudes, Signatures and
Correspondences guide man to a correct knowledge and understanding of
the mysteries of Nature. The ancient Greeks attached coral to the prows
of their ships to protect them from the onslaughts of sea and storm.
Lemnius says: “Bind corall to the neck, it takes off turbulent dreams
and allays the nightly fears of children.” The gem of the Arabian Garden
of the Everlasting Life—Jannat al Khuld—is the yellow coral.

To dream of red, pink and coral of beautiful lustre is said to denote
recovery to the sick and good health to any one, but ill-conditioned
specimens symbolize the opposite. As a cardiac stimulant, for stopping
hæmorrhages, warding off contagion, etc., the old physician Rulandus
(Medicina Practica, 1564) prescribed half a drachm of powdered coral.

The following 17th century prescription was administered as a cure for
colic, purging and vomiting, and is given here as of especial interest:

[Illustration]

                           Tabellæ Corallatæ:
              ℞   Corallorum rubeorum præparatorum
              ʒij margaritar præparator
              ʒi  boli armeni
              ʒ8  ligni aloes
              ℈i  sacch. albissimi dissoluti in aquâ
                  rosaru cinnamonie tenuioris
                  quantum sufficit: fiat confectes in
                               tabellis.

Amongst the Spaniards it was usual at one time for conjurers and
jugglers especially to wear tight-fitting coral-coloured costumes. Good
specimens of coral are greatly esteemed by dancers. It is especially a
luck gem of the ballet, the sign Pisces of the Zodiac, under which all
corals are placed—ruling the feet.

CORUNDUM. Also written at earlier periods as coriundum, corundon,
corindon. (See under Ruby, Sapphire.)

CORDIERITE. See IOLITE.

CROCIDOLITE. Also written Krokydolite, krocidolite. This stone was named
in the year 1831, from the Greek KROKIS, a variation of KROKUS, the nap
of woollen cloth, and LITHOS, a stone. It is well described as an
asbestiform variety of hornblend of indigo-blue, leek-green or
golden-brown colour—the latter variety being also known as Tiger’s Eye.
When cut en cabochon this stone has a fine chatoyant effect. There is
little doubt that the ancients knew of this stone of the asbestos family
under the zodiacal Gemini. It was regarded as a fortunate stone for
people of literary or mercurial tendencies, and as a nerve and lung
soother. Held against the temple when the Moon is passing through the
sign Gemini, in good aspect to Mercury, it would assist thought and
mental speculation.

CRYSTAL

The crystal obtains its name from the Greek word KRUSTALLOS, ice. It is
a pure and transparent variety of Quartz, so called because of its
resemblance to clear ice. In literature it appears as cristalla,
cristal, crestal, kristall, cristalle, christall, chrystal. Webster
writes that the English spelling was gradually changed to CRYSTAL
between the 15th and 17th centuries. We have evidence of its early use
by man, Egyptian scarabei and Babylonian cylinders having been found,
dating back as far as 1500 B.C. In the trial of Psyche—that beautifully
symbolic legend—Venus gives this graceful lover of Eros the magical vase
of pure crystal with the request that it be filled with the waters from
the Fountain of Forgetfulness. The Fountain waters flowed through a
narrow channel at the summit of a steep mountain, and they murmured: “To
attempt is to perish. Be warned. Be warned. To attempt is to perish; fly
from us.” Psyche saw two caves, one on each side of these icy waters,
and in these caves were two terrible dragons. With the precious vase in
her trembling hands, the faithful lover prayed for help in her perilous
task. Jupiter heard her prayer in pity, for love had been kind to him,
and he sent his eagle to her. The eagle drew the vase from Psyche and,
filling it with the waters, brought it to her. Then she ran to Venus,
thinking that pitying love would exact no more. “Thy witchery has gained
thee these waters,” said the Goddess, “I have another test for thee.”

The King of the Ethiopians showed the messengers of Cambyses amongst
other wonders the tombs of pure crystal in which could be seen the
bodies of the departed, perfect in form and feature. In the imperial
vault of the Hapsburgs in the Church of the Capucins, Vienna, there are
150 crystal vases, gold mounted, with a crown on the top of each, which
contain the hearts of the Royal members of the Family. This practice
dates from Duke Francis who, dying in Switzerland, directed that his
heart should be preserved and sent to Vienna.

In China and Japan the crystal is called SINSHO. The Japanese know it
also as Tama or Jewel of Perfection, and it is used by them for making
crystal balls and beautiful objects of art. It is cut in the shape of a
ball, esteemed in Japan as the Stone of Concentration, and several in a
family will sit round gazing at a specimen in which they see guidance
and help in the path of life. In China it is also known as CHING, and
symbolized as an upright triangle of three suns, it has always been
highly esteemed. It is cut with great patience into figures of deities
and sacred objects. The Chinese regard it as a talisman of concentration
and perseverance; it recalls to them the magnificence and immensity of
what man calls space, this “jewel of perfection” which the Japanese also
term “Breath of the White Dragon.”

The Medicine Indians of South America say that a holy spirit is in the
crystal, and for this reason the sacred stones must not be seen except
by initiates. The aboriginals of Australia and Tasmania regarded the
crystal in a mystic way. It was known by the Murray tribes as Katto and
Maako. The South Australians generally termed large crystals Kanwenmuka,
and smaller specimens Kanyappa. It is the Teyl of the West Australian,
the Leeka and Heka of the Tasmanian and it is called Tendeagh by the
East tribe and Mughramallee by the South. The late Mr. James Bonwick
says that the natives usually wore the crystal in its bag, suspended
from the neck; he gives their song of magic as follows:

                    Kano Kano wimmari    (lizard)
                    Kano Kano Kanwemuka  (crystal)
                    Kano Kano Makkitya   (flint)
                    Kano yeruka Makkitya
                    Makkitya mulyeria.

[Illustration: Gazing Crystal on Dragon Stand. Presented to the Author
by the Late Judge Casey of Victoria, Australia.]

Mr. Bonwick also gives instances of the prevalence of Crystallomancy
amongst the aboriginals, the use of the Rain Stone, the Coradgee Stone
which was wrapped in hair and was not to be seen by a female, “not
always a simple white stone, it was more commonly a quartz crystal.” He
says further “Some men, by proper use of this magical agency (the
crystal) could work wonders.” Thus, the crystal has been employed by
savage and civilized man in all ages. It was said to enclose within its
bright form all the knowledge and secrets that have ever been; if worn
during sleep it banishes evil dreams and spells, and guards the wearer
against sorcery, witchcraft, secret enemies and evil thoughts. It was
said to indicate the presence of poison by clouding or by breaking—hence
its employment in the manufacture of precious goblets by the ancients.
It was employed as a preventive of watery, wasting and infectious
diseases, tumourous complaints, blood impurities, heart, bowel and feet
troubles, renal affections, etc. Pliny recommends it as an external
medicine for women when in the form of fine powder mixed with honey.
With regard to the employment of crystal balls and lenses for medical
purposes, this venerable author says: “I find it asserted by physicians
that when any part of the body requires to be cauterized it cannot be
better done than by means of a crystal ball held against the sun’s
rays”; it is interesting to compare this statement with a more recent
one made by the late Dr. E. D. Babbitt, M.D.:

“Sunlight can lubricate and even vesicate the skin without causing much
pain or without leaving any permanent scars like those formed by
sinapisms, moxas, lancings, etc. Many a tumour which under the old
system is cut out without even reaching the cause, is destroyed by
concentrating the light upon it through a convex lens.”

Many beautiful crystals bearing intagli of a large size have been
discovered. Mr. King mentions two choice specimens of Valerio il
Vicentino and his rival Geo. del Castel Bolognese. Some crystals have
been found encasing drops of water very much like the spirit in the
spirit-level. These are known as Hydrolites or, as Pliny writes them,
Enhydros. They are mentioned by the poet Claudian as—

              “_A stream unfettered pent in crystal round,
              A truant fount by hardened waters bound._”

Mr. King received information that miners in California have died from
drinking the water from a hydrolite, and this circumstance exhibits the
subtle action of some of the stones attached to the sign of the Fishes.
The crystal, wrongly but frequently termed “beryl” stone, is highly
esteemed as an instrument for heightening the imagination and bringing
out the gazing power of the third eye previously mentioned. Mr. William
Jones gives an illustration of the seal of a divination ring from
Licini’s “Antiqua Schemata.” It shows a half nude woman holding a
serpent in her left hand, the head of which is bending towards a crystal
ball held by a nude man, his right leg resting on a wooden stand, his
left stretching towards an altar on which the sacred fire is burning.
The female bends over the male who gazes intently into the crystal ball.
The work is full of expression and force.

In the Highlands of Scotland large pieces of crystal were used for
charms, and cattle were given to drink water which had been poured over
crystals. Similar crystals were employed for the protection of cattle in
Ireland, a fine specimen being still kept by the Tyrone family.

The sign Pisces is the natural 12th celestial House, ruling large
cattle. It is also the sign of occult and mysterious things and of the
elevation of Venus. Thus, all the legends, stories and philosophies
connected with this bright stone of the sign Pisces are easily
understood. Professor Sir William Ridgeway, of Cambridge, England, in
his work, “The Drama and Dramatic Dances of Non-European Races,” draws
attention to the fact that “crystals have always been and are still
regarded as the most amuletic of precious stones, and comedians also are
frequently cut into faceted shapes by the Arabs and others. The diamond
and spinel are both octahedral. The Japanese are especially fond of rock
crystal, one of their favorite amulets being a double gourd cut out of
such a crystal.” Swedenborg recognized in the crystal “Divine Truth in
all its brightness” and truth certainly has its correspondence in the
clear glistening magnetic crystal.



                              CHAPTER XVI
                              THE DIAMOND

ARNOTT’S OBSERVATION: EXTREME HARDNESS: BOYLE AND DU FAY PROVE
    ELECTRICAL QUALITIES: DR. KUNZ AND PHOSPHORESCENCE: SIR WILLIAM
    CROOKS ON RADIUM AND THE DIAMOND: EXPERIMENTS IN ARTIFICIAL
    PRODUCTION BY MARDEN, MOISSAN AND CROOKS: SIR CHARLES PARSONS’
    CONCLUSIONS: “SEARCH FOR THE ABSOLUTE”: DISCOVERY OF A LARGE DIAMOND
    AT JACOB’S FARM ON THE ORANGE RIVER: SIR WILLIAM WODEHOUSE’S
    PURCHASE: DIAMONDS IN MUD BRICKS: AUSTRALIAN DIAMONDS: FIRST DIAMOND
    BROUGHT TO EUROPE: GOLCONDA: BRAZIL: FLORENTINE DEMONSTRATION OF THE
    TRUTH OF BOETIUS’S BELIEF AND NEWTON’S DEDUCTIONS: BOYLE’S
    EXPERIMENTS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE: AVERANI PROVES THE FORCE OF THE
    SUN’S RAYS ON A DIAMOND: EASILY BURNED BUT UNAFFECTED BY ACIDS: THE
    GNOMES OF THE ROSICRUCIANS: GNOME LEGENDS: SIR JOHN MANDEVILLE ON
    THE DIAMOND: RABBI BENONI, BOETIUS DE BOODT AND THE HINDU WRITERS:
    ES-SINDIBAD OF THE SEA AND THE VALLEY OF DIAMONDS: SIMILAR STORIES:
    EL-KAZWEENEE: MARCO POLO: MR. MARSDEN’S OBSERVATIONS: GOLCONDA:
    LITTLE PRINCESS MARY’S DIAMOND MARRIAGE RING: LORD LISLE’S DEATH
    DIAMOND: THE DIAMOND HEART RING OF MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS: QUEEN
    ELIZABETH AND SIR WALTER RALEIGH: DIAMOND SAVES THE LIFE OF QUEEN
    ISABELLA OF SPAIN: EX-PRESIDENT KRUGER’S UNLUCKY DIAMOND: KING
    ARTHUR AND THE DIAMOND JOUSTS: THE AFFAIR OF THE DIAMOND NECKLACE:
    INDIAN DIAMOND CUTTERS: LOUIS VAN BERGHEM: CHARLESMAGNE’S DIAMOND
    CLASP: HERMAN THE LAPIDARY: PERUZZI: CLEMENT BIRAGO AND JACOPO DA
    TREZZO ENTER THE SERVICE OF PHILIP II: POPE HILDEBRAND SENDS A
    DIAMOND RING TO WILLIAM OF NORMANDY: THE DIAMOND SWORD IN THE TALE
    OF THE YELLOW DWARF: THE ZODIACAL SIGNS OF THE DIAMOND: THE DIAMOND
    IN LOVE AND MARRIAGE: BORT.


DIAMOND

            “_The lively diamond drinks thy purest rays._”
                                                   THOMSON.

The diamond derives its name from the Greek ADAMAS, ADAMANTOS, adamant.
It has been written at various times as dyamawnte, dyamamaunt, dyamant,
diamant, diamownde, dyamonde, dyamount, diamonde, diamont, dimond,
dymauntz, and adamant stone. It is but pure crystallized carbon, and
Arnott (Physics, 1830), writes: “The diamond has nearly the greatest
light-bending power of any known substances, and hence comes in part its
brilliancy as a jewel.” It is remarkable also for its extreme hardness
and for its variety of colours—steel, white, blue, yellow, orange, red,
green, pink and black. This “prince of gems” in days of old was
considered the royal stone which only a prince was privileged to wear.
The highly electrical properties ascribed by the ancients to the diamond
were proved in the 17th and 18th centuries by the chemists Boyle and Du
Fay, and Dr. Kunz has demonstrated today that all diamonds “phosphoresce
when exposed to the rays of radium, polonium, or actinum, even when
glass is interposed.” In a paper read to the Royal Society, London,
November 5th, 1914, the late Sir William Crooks said: “Many substances
become coloured by direct exposure to radium, the colour depending on
the substance. Diamond takes a full sage-green, the depth of tint
depending on the time of exposure to the radium. In addition to the
change of colour the diamond also becomes radio-active, continuously
giving off α, β, γ rays. The acquired colour and activity withstand the
action of powerful chemical agents and continue for years with
apparently undiminished activity. Removing the surface by mechanical
means removes both colour and radio-activity. The appearance of an
auto-radiograph made by placing an active diamond crystal on a sensitive
photographic plate and the visual examination of its scintillating
luminosity suggest that there is a special discharge of energy from the
corners and points of the crystal.”

The several experiments for the production of diamonds by artificial
means have since 1880 been conducted by some eminent scientists, notably
Professor Marden, Professor Henri Moissan and Sir William Crooks. For
many years Sir Charles Parsons has been working closely at the problem,
and the main conclusions arrived at by this scholar were communicated to
the Royal Society, London, in 1918. They were as follows:

That graphite cannot be converted into diamond by heat and pressure
alone within the limits reached in the experiments;

That there is no distinct evidence that any of the chemical reactions
under pressure have yielded diamond;

That the only undoubted source of diamond is from iron previously heated
to high temperature and then cooled.

That diamond is not produced by bulk pressure as previously supposed,
but by the action of gases occluded in the metal and condensed into the
centre on quick cooling.

In connection with these experiments it will be found interesting to
read Balzac’s “Search for the Absolute,” in which it is told how after
many ruinous attempts to produce a diamond by artificial means one,
self-formed, is found in the old chemist’s laboratory after his death.
The worth and romance of the old mines of Brazil and India are dwelt on
by many of the writers of the past, and although diamonds were
discovered in South Africa in the 18th Century, yet no important
discoveries were made until 1867, when a large stone was found by
children of a Dutch farmer, Mr. Jacobs, not far from their farm near
Hopetown on the Orange River. Not knowing what the stone really was and
attaching no value to it, Mrs. Jacobs gave it to Mr. Schalk van Niekerk,
a neighbour, who entrusted it to Mr. O’Reilly, a hunter and trader,
asking him to submit it to some mineralogist for an opinion. Mr.
O’Reilly took the stone to Colesberg and showed it to Mr. Boyes, the
acting commissioner for that district, at whose suggestion it was
submitted to Dr. W. G. Atherstone of Graham’s Town. Thanks to his
mineralogical knowledge, Dr. Atherstone proved the stone to be a
diamond. It was exhibited in Paris in March, 1867, as “The First African
Diamond Discovered,” and was purchased by the Cape Governor, Sir Philip
Wodehouse, for £500. Sir Philip sold it to Garrards and it has changed
hands several times since then. The weight of this stone was 21 carats.
The famous Du Toit’s Pan was found through a Boer farmer actually
discovering diamonds in the mud bricks of which his house was built.

As early as 1866, Mr. C. W. King expected that quantities of diamonds
from Australia would reach the world’s markets, and there is no doubt
that this expectation will be realized when those parts of the vast
Commonwealth from which many diamonds have already come, have been
thoroughly tested and proved. In 1885 several companies were working at
Bingera, a township in New South Wales, 350 miles from Sydney, and many
small but pure hard stones were found. The writer has handled some few
specimens of fine blue white from Bingera, ranging from a quarter to
half a carat after cutting. The hardness of the Australian gem—which may
well add another point to Mohs’s scale—has counted against it, but
modern cutters will not consider this a bar especially if sufficient
quantities be submitted for treatment. Gold has also been found at
Bingera and, as Mr. King writes: “The observation made of old by Pliny
that the diamond always accompanies gold has been fully borne out by the
experience of succeeding ages.” The first Australian diamonds were found
in New South Wales, at Reedy Creek, near Bathurst, in 1851. In 1869
during a gold rush near Mudgee some fair diamonds were found by the
miners. Professor Liversidge of Sydney describes the occurrence of
diamonds at Bingera “as being situated in a sort of basin about four
miles long and four miles wide, hemmed in by hills on all sides, save on
the North. An old river-drift, probably an ancient bed of the river
Horton, rests upon rocks of Devonian or Carboniferous age, and is
associated with basalt by which it appears to be overlain. In some
places the materials of the drift are compacted together into a
conglomerate, so that the mode of occurrence of the diamond at Bingera
strikingly resembles that at Mudgee. The minerals composing the gravels
are also generally similar in the two cases, though points of difference
are not wanting. Some of the diamonds are clear and colourless, others
have a pale straw tint. Thousands have been found in this district, as
well as in many other localities of New South Wales.” The gravels
enclosed agate, sapphire, ruby, zircon, jasper, rock crystal, garnets,
grey corundum, ilmenite, tourmaline, gold and tin. Mr. A. R. Pike who,
with his partner, Mr. John O’Donnell, has had much experience with
Australian diamonds at Inverell, New South Wales, writes interestingly
concerning them. “With slates and diorites from the bed-rock, gold is
found in the wash, in addition to its diamond output. Rich yields of
alluvial gold have been won from the Gulgong district. The wash deposit
of this field also carries diamonds and a special class of semi-precious
gems. They embrace sapphires in large numbers and various tints;
cornflower, blue, green, dark blue, straw, yellow, and blood-red are
plentiful. The red sapphires in many cases are true rubies of the
desired pigeon-blood colour. Unfortunately all the sapphires represent
small flat fragments and are too small for cutting purposes.” A few
months ago the writer picked out about a dozen fair but small diamonds
for a “fossicker” from a little bag of different stones that he had
found in Spring Creek, Beechworth, Victoria.

It is recorded that diamonds were first brought to Europe from the first
known of the mines of Golconda, the mine of Sumbulpour, in 1584. The
mines of Brazil were discovered in 1728. Boetius de Boodt asserted in
the year 1609, his belief in the inflammability of the diamond, and in
1694 the Florentine academicians demonstrated the truth of Boetius’
belief and Newton’s deductions—Sir Isaac Newton having based his similar
conclusions on the refracting power of the diamond in 1675. Boyle
discovered in 1673 that when the diamond was submitted to high
temperature it ejected a pungent vapour in which a part of it was
consumed. In 1695 Averani experimenting with the concentrated rays of
the sun on the diamond demonstrated that “it was exhaled in vapour and
entirely disappeared while other precious stones only grew softer.” That
the diamond can be burned is easy of proof, as is also the fact that
acids have no effect upon it.

The gnomes figure in the elemental system of Rosicrucian philosophy,
being described as small people who guard the mines and treasures of the
earth, the precious stones and the metals. They are robust little
fellows of a brown colour, and their sympathy extends to philosophic
minds amongst both miners and scholars. They hate frivolity, for they
are serious little fairies. Comte de Gabalis details an argument with
their Prince who came to the upper earth in respect to the will of the
Irish sage Macnamara. Macnamara has sympathy for the gnomes whom he
calls “the unhappy guardians of treasures,” in the mystical chapters on
“The Irreconcilable.” There are numerous legends of the Gnomes, the
meanings of which are not difficult to interpret if the mind of the
student is filled with the desire to know. It is said that these little
fairies suffer much, and that when they grieve for those they have loved
and lost their tears change into diamonds, which remain as the jewel
emblems of pure and unselfish grief. That great old English traveller of
the 14th Century, Sir John Mandeville—a copy of whose MS., said to date
from the time of the author, is in the Cottonian Library—wrote that the
diamond should always be worn on the left or heart side of the body, and
that it is possible for a diamond to lose its occult virtue after being
handled by evil people: for in the human body there is more potency for
good or ill than is generally understood. There are many stories of
misfortune and discord following the possessors of stolen diamonds.
Ample evidence exists that substances handled by diseased persons are
quite capable of conveying their symptoms to others. The Diamond, ever a
symbol of purity, was regarded as a charm against all evil, but—said the
philosophers—it must not be touched by evil, by lemures, incubi, succubi
or by the formed or formless devils of the material and super-material
spheres. In this philosophy it is advised that a woman about to give
birth to a child should refrain from wearing diamonds. Rabbi Benoni
wrote in the 14th Century that the diamond was capable of producing
somnambulism and spiritual ecstasy, a suggestion which was acted on in
the last century by experimenters at Nancy. According to Boetius de
Boodt, diamonds were of different sexes, and some Hindu writers
classified them as masculine, feminine or neuter.

In the Mani Mali it is stated that:

             an ill-shaped  diamond carries danger
             a dirty        diamond carries grief
             a rough        diamond carries unhappiness
             a black        diamond carries trouble
             a 3-cornered   diamond carries quarrels
             a 4-cornered   diamond carries fear
             a 5-cornered   diamond carries death
             a 6-cornered   diamond carries fortune

However, the three, four and five cornered diamond would not be reckoned
evil in a flawless stone of good colour. It is asserted by some of the
Hindu masters that diamonds, according to their colours and qualities,
appealed to the taste as sweet, sour and salty. Marbodus calls the
diamond a potent magical charm for protecting the sleeper from evil
dreams and the child from the dreaded goblin. The fifth Arabian Heaven,
the Garden of Delights, Jannat al-Naim, is said to be composed of the
purest diamonds.

In the second voyage of Es-Sindibad of the Sea (commonly known as Sinbad
the Sailor) in the “Thousand and One Nights,” E. W. Lane’s translation,
the hero finds himself in the Valley of the Serpents: “Then I arose and
emboldened myself and walked in that valley: and I beheld its ground to
be composed of diamonds, with which they perforate minerals and jewels,
and with which also they perforate porcelain and the onyx: and it is a
stone so hard that neither iron nor rock have any effect upon it, nor
can anyone cut off aught from it or break it, unless by means of the
lead stone.... I then walked along the Valley, and while I was thus
occupied, lo, a great slaughtered animal fell before me, and I found no
one. So I wondered thereat extremely: and I remembered a story that I
had heard long before ... that in the mountains of the diamonds are
experienced great terrors, and that no one can gain access to the
diamonds, but that the merchants who import them know a stratagem by
means of which to obtain them: that they take a sheep and slaughter it,
and skin it, and cut up its flesh which they throw down from the
mountain to the bottom of the Valley: so descending, fresh and moist,
some of these stones stick to it. Then the merchants leave it until
midday, and birds of the large kind of vulture and the aquiline vulture
descend to that meat, and, taking it in their talons, fly up to the top
of the mountain: whereupon the merchants come to them and cry out at
them and they fly away from the meat. The merchants then advance to that
meat, and take from it the stones sticking to it: after which they leave
the meat for the birds and the wild beasts and carry the stones to their
countries. And no one can procure the stones but by means of this
stratagem.” In his notes and comments on this passage, Mr. Lane says:
"Though I believe that there is no known substance with which the
diamond can be cut or ground except its own substance, I think it not
improbable that the Eastern lapidaries may be acquainted with some ore,
really—or supposed by them to be—an ore of lead, by which it may be
broken, and that this is what is here called “the lead stone” or “the
stone of lead.” It is well known that those diamonds unfit for any other
purpose than that of cutting or grinding others, are broken in a steel
“mortar.” In further notes on “The Valley of Diamonds,” Mr. Lane added
the following: “El-Kaz-weenee after describing the diamond, saying ‘It
breaketh all other stones except that of lead (el-usrub, a bad kind of
lead): for if it be struck with this the diamond breaketh,’”—relates as
follows: “To the place in which the diamond is found no one can gain
access. It is a valley in the land of India, the bottom of which the
sight reacheth not: and in it are venomous serpents which no one seeth
but he dieth: and they have a summer abode for six months, and a winter
abode (where they hide themselves) for the like period. El-Iskender
(either Alexander the Great or the first Zu-l-Karneyn) commanded his men
to take some mirrors and to throw them into the Valley that the serpents
might see in them their forms and die in consequence. It is said also
that he watched for the time of their absenting themselves (or retiring
into their winter quarters) and threw down pieces of meat, and diamonds
stuck to these: then the birds came from the sky and took pieces of that
meat, and brought them up out of the valley whereupon El-Iskender
ordered his companions to follow the birds and to pick up what they
easily could of the meat.” The valley or valleys of diamonds we also
find described by other writers, among them Marco Polo, in his account
of the Kingdom of Murphili or Monsul. Mr. Marsden observes: “This is no
other than Muchli-patan or, as it is more commonly named, Masuli-patam:
the name of a principal town by a mistake not unusual, being substituted
for that of the country.... It belongs to what was at one period termed
the Kingdom of Golconda, more anciently named Teligana. Golconda, of
which Masulipatam is the principal seaport, is celebrated for the
production of diamonds.” In the astronomical observations of Mr.
Topping, printed in Dalrymple’s Oriental Repertory, mention is made of
the famous diamond mines of Golconda at a place named Malvellee, not far
from Ellore. Caesar Fredericke who was at Bijanagar in 1567 mentions
that the diamond mines were six days’ journey from that city.
Es-Sindibad’s adventure in the Valley of Diamonds has been amply
illustrated by the learned writer from whom the above remarks are
borrowed, and by Hole. The following is an extract from Marco Polo’s
Travels: “In the mountains of this Kingdom (Murphila) it is that
diamonds are found. During the rainy season the water descends in
violent torrents amongst the rocks and caverns, and when these have
subsided the people go to search for diamonds in the beds of the rivers,
where they find many. In the summer, when the heat is excessive and
there is no rain, they ascend the mountains with great fatigue as well
as with considerable danger from the number of snakes with which they
are infested. Near the summit, it is said, there are deep valleys full
of caverns and surrounded by precipices amongst which the diamonds are
found, and here many eagles and white storks, attracted by the snakes on
which they feed, are accustomed to make their nests. The persons who are
in quest of the diamonds take their stand near the mouths of the caverns
and from thence cast down several pieces of flesh which the eagles and
storks pursue into the valleys and carry off with them to the tops of
the rocks. Thither the men immediately ascend, drive the birds away, and
recovering the pieces of meat frequently find diamonds sticking to
them.” Mr. Marsden transcribes from Hole’s ingenious work part of a
quotation from Epiphanius, upon which he remarks: “Thus it appears
incontrovertibly that, so early as the fourth century of our era, the
tale of the valley of diamonds and the mode of procuring the precious
stones from it was current, divested, it is true, of the extraordinary
incident of the adventurous sailor’s escape, but in conformity with what
was related to Marco Polo—with the exception of the scene being laid in
Scythia or Western Tartary where, in fact, diamonds are not found. The
question of locality,” he adds, “is however determined by another
Oriental navigator Nicoli di Conti, who visited the coast of the
peninsula in the 15th Century....” Hole observes that a story somewhat
resembling this of the Valley of Diamonds is recorded in the travels of
Benjamin of Tudela and that the translator supposes it to have been
borrowed from “The Thousand and One Nights.” “However,” he adds with
better judgment, “I rather suspect that the account of Benjamin of
Tudela and of Es-Sindibad were derived from some common origin.”

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF KRUGER
  Kruger’s Diamond was once in the possession of Chaka, the Zulu chief,
    killed by his brother who was in turn murdered. It is stated that
    this stone changed owners 15 times, tragedy following each
    possessor.
]

Perhaps the smallest diamond ring mentioned was placed by Cardinal
Wolsey on the tiny finger of the little Princess Mary, aged just two
years, daughter of Henry VIII, on October 5th, 1518, on the occasion of
her marriage with the baby Dauphin of France, son of Francis I. The baby
bride’s dress was of cloth of gold and her black velvet cap sparkled
with jewels. Another historical diamond ring was that sent to the
imprisoned Lord Lisle, giving freedom and forgiveness—an act so
unexpected that it caused the unfortunate man to die of joy. The ring
sent by Mary, Queen of Scots, to Queen Elizabeth, is described by Mr.
William Jones, quoting from Aubrey, as “a delicate piece of mechanism
consisting of several joints which, when united, formed the quaint
device of two right hands supporting a heart between them. This heart
was composed of two separate diamonds held together by a central spring
which, when opened, would allow either of the hearts to be detached.
Queen Elizabeth kept one moietie and sent the other as a token of her
constant friendship to Mary, Queen of Scots, but she cut off her head
for all that.” Another story of Elizabeth, quoted by Fairholt, is that
Sir Walter Raleigh wrote on a window with his pointed diamond ring:
“Fain would I rise, but that I fear to fall,” the Queen writing beneath
with her ring: “If thy heart fail thee, do not rise at all.” Very
different was the experience of Queen Isabella who was saved from death
by a diamond. Ex-President Kruger’s diamond had a bad history that did
not change with its different holders. In allusion to the Diamond Jousts
instituted by King Arthur, Dr. Brewer says: “He named them by that name
since a diamond was the prize. Ere he was King he came by accident to a
glen in Lyonnesse, where two brothers had met in combat. Each was slain,
but one had worn a crown of diamonds which Arthur picked up, and when he
became King offered the nine diamonds as the prize of nine several
jousts—‘one every year, a joust for one.’ Lancelot had won eight and
intended to present them all to the Queen when all were won. When the
knight laid them before the Queen, Guinevere in a fit of jealousy flung
them out of the palace window into the river which ran below.”

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF ISABELLA II

  This Queen was saved from assassination when the dagger of her
    would-be murderer glanced off the diamond she wore.
]

The affair of the Diamond Necklace is familiar to readers of history and
romance. It attracted the perceptive mind of Dumas who moulded it into
an interesting story, but of its reality no doubt has ever been
entertained. The Prince Cardinal de Rohan, having entertained a secret
affection for Queen Marie Antoinette, the Countess de Lamotte to forward
her own nefarious designs persuaded him that the Queen reciprocated his
passion. By thus working on the Cardinal’s feelings, Madame de Lamotte
managed to relieve him of some sums of money, and succeeding so well in
this way, she and her husband resolved on a more imposing venture. Louis
XV had had made a wonderful diamond necklace which he intended as a
present for his favorite Madame Du Barry. Before it was finished Louis
had passed away, and his favourite had been driven from court. The
necklace which was made by Boehmer consisted of 500 magnificent
diamonds, the whole when completed being valued at 1,800,000 livres.
Madame de Lamotte represented to the Cardinal the Queen’s desire for
this handsome necklace, asking him as Her Majesty was at the time unable
to pay the amount of the purchase money, which she said amounted to
£700,000 sterling, to become security for her for this amount. This he
gladly consented to do, and added his name to the forged signature of
the Queen. On February 1st, 1786, the Cardinal carried the precious
jewel to Versailles, whence by arrangement a messenger from the Queen
was to take it. The next day, as arranged by Madame de Lamotte’s
husband, an accomplice dressed in the uniform of a court official
entered the Cardinal’s apartments at Versailles and muttering several
times “De par la Reine” (in the Queen’s name) relieved the trusting
Cardinal of the necklace. It was afterwards broken up and disposed of by
these three conspirators, in England it is believed. Some time
afterwards Boehmer, not receiving his payment, applied to Marie
Antoinette for his money. She denied all knowledge of the affair.
Boehmer thereupon brought the case before the Parlement de Paris in
1785, and in May, 1786, after a trial of 9 months, the Cardinal,
Monsieur de Lamotte and his accomplice were acquitted, but Madame de
Lamotte was sent to prison for life, each shoulder being branded with
the letter V (Voleuse, thief).

The Indians were the first to polish a diamond with its own dust, but
their cutting only consisted in burnishing the original facets or
concealing defects by a number of new and smaller ones. Louis van
Berghem is credited with being the first to cut and polish diamonds with
their own dust in 1456, but both Emanuel and King refer to four large
diamonds which adorned the clasp of the Emperor Charlemagne 1373, and to
numerous cut specimens of older date set in church monuments. Emanuel
mentions the skillful Herman who worked in the year 1407. Towards the
end of the 16th Century, Peruzzi invented the double cutting known as
“Brillants recoupes,” and of late years the modern cutters have reached
a high degree of artistic excellence, producing the most beautifully cut
specimens the world has seen. Clement Birago and Jacopo da Trezzo were
the first to engrave upon the diamond, and both “enriched in the service
of Philip II.” In giving the Papal Sacred Banner and Blessing to William
of Normandy when about to invade England after the excommunication of
Harold, Pope Hildebrand sent a diamond ring, said to enclose a hair from
the head of Peter the Apostle. In the Comtesse d’Anois’ pretty fairy
story, “The Yellow Dwarf,” the mermaid gives the captive King an
all-conquering sword made from a single diamond, which rendered
invincible anyone who carried it.

The diamond is astrologically under the sign of the Sun Leo, and has
power especially in Aries and Libra. To dream of diamonds was considered
symbolical of success, wealth, happiness and victory, and its reputed
power of binding man and woman together in happy wedlock has made it a
favourite stone for engagement rings, and in some countries for wedding
rings.

BORT or BOART is the name applied to imperfect greyish or blackish
specimens which are powdered and used for cutting and polishing diamonds
and hard gems, among other purposes.



                              CHAPTER XVII
                   SOME FAMOUS AND WONDERFUL DIAMONDS
                           AND THEIR STORIES

THE KOH-I-NOOR: PITT OR REGENT: THE ORLOFF: THE SANCY: THE BLUE HOPE:
    THE PAUL THE FIRST: THE DRESDEN: THE NIZAM: THE CUMBERLAND: THE
    NAPOLEON: THE EUGENIE: THE POLAR STAR: THE SHAH: THE MOON OF THE
    MOUNTAINS: AKBAR SHAH, OR THE SHEPHERD’S STONE: THE RIVER OF LIGHT:
    THE GRAND MOGUL: THE GRAND TABLE: THE NASSAK: THE PIGOTT: THE PACHA:
    THE TUSCANY: THE STAR OF ESTE: THE WHITE SAXON: THE GREAT WHITE: THE
    MATTAM: THE STAR OF THE SOUTH: THE ENGLISH DRESDEN: THE DE BEERS
    DIAMONDS: THE STAR OF SOUTH AFRICA: THE JUBILEE: THE STAR OF AFRICA
    OR THE CULLINAN: THE BRAGANZA: THE TIFFANY: STAR OF MINAS: THE
    ARABIAN “DEATH”: THE MOONSTONE.

            “_Jewels
            Of rich and exquisite form: their value great._”
                                                SHAKESPEARE.


                             THE KOH-I-NOOR


This famous stone is said by Dr. Brewer to have been found in the
Golconda mine in the year 1550, but Dr. G. F. Herbert Smith states that
it was known as far back as 1304, “when it fell into the hands of the
Mogul emperors, and legend traces it back some four thousand years
previously.” Mr. Emanuel says that the Hindu accounts “deduce it from
the time of the God Krischna,” while Mr. King states that it was turned
up by a peasant when ploughing in a field 40 miles distant from
Golconda, “and was in its rough state fully as large as a hen’s egg.”
The traveller Tavernier saw it amongst the jewels of the great Mogul
King Aurungzebe. This was after it had been badly cut and unskillfully
reduced by Hortensio Borgio from 793 carats to 186-1/16 carats.
According to Tavernier its original weight was 787½ carats. Borgio’s
work so angered Aurungzebe that he deprived the unfortunate cutter of
all his possessions, grudgingly allowing him to escape with his life.
The Koh-i-Noor had an evil reputation amongst the Hindus who held that
it “produced inordinate greed, viciousness and various misfortunes on
the King who possessed it.” In 1739 Nadir Shah sacked Delhi and took the
gem from Mohammed Shah, naming it the “Koh-i-Noor,” or “Mountain of
Light.” Returning victorious to Persia, Nadir Shah was murdered by his
officers. One of these, Ahmed Shah Doorannee, founded the Afghan
kingdom, and the last of his dynasty Shah Sujah was starved into
surrendering the stone to Runjeet Singh. The latter when dying sent it
to the Temple of Juggernaut. His successors, however, would not let it
remain there, and when the British annexed the Punjaub in 1849 it was
presented by Lord Dalhousie on behalf of the East India Company to Queen
Victoria and, writes Mr. King, “within ten years the usual consequences
of its possession were manifested in the Sepoy revolt and the all but
total loss of India to the British Crown in which beams its malignant
lustre, lighting up a very inauspicious future for that region, fated
ever apparently to be disturbed by the measures of ignorant zealots at
home and the plots of discontented and over-powerful allies in the
country itself.” The Koh-i-Noor was recut in 1862 by Mr. Coster of
Amsterdam, losing 80 carats in the cutting. The weight of the stone is
now given as 106-1/16 carats, and its value is estimated at £100,000
sterling, by Dr. G. F. Herbert Smith, and at £120,664 Sterling by Dr.
Brewer. It was believed that all diseases could be cured by the water in
which the Koh-i-Noor had been placed. The stone could never be fortunate
for India according to astro-philosophy because India is a Saturnine
country ruled by the celestial Capricorn. It is more fortunate for
England because England is a martial country ruled by the celestial
Aries.

                         PITT OR REGENT DIAMOND

This famous gem, bought in Golconda from an Indian merchant by William
Pitt, grandfather of the Earl of Chatham, and said to have been
originally stolen, was found at Gani-Puteal, 150 miles from Golconda in
1701. Mr. Pitt gave £20,400 sterling for the gem which weighed 410
carats, and returning to England he had it recut at a cost of £5,000 and
two years’ work. In this process the weight of the stone was reduced to
163⅞ carats, the fragments when sold returning £2,000 over the cost of
cutting. Possession of this gem worried Mr. Pitt who sold it to the Duc
d’Orleans, regent of France, whence it obtained the name “Regent,” for
£135,000 sterling. It was stolen from the Garde-Meuble when the Sun was
in the Diamond sign Leo, August 17th, 1792, and was mysteriously
returned. Napoleon Bonaparte, who had the Sun in the sign Leo—the sign
of France—at his birth, had the Regent set in the pommel of his sword.
It was exhibited at the French Exhibition in 1855, and is now shown in
the Apollo Gallery of the Louvre, Paris. During the attempted advance on
Paris in the late war, it is stated that one of the French ministers
took the Regent with him to Bordeaux whence the danger being passed, it
was afterwards returned to its honoured place in the capital city of
France. Its value is stated at £480,000 sterling.

                           THE ORLOFF DIAMOND

This gem was stolen by a French soldier from a temple near Trichinopoli
in Mysore, where it was set as an eye stone in the statue of Brahma. The
weight of the stone, which is rose cut, is 194¾ carats. The soldier sold
it to an English ship’s captain for £2,000—Mr. Emanuel says £2,800—and
the captain sold it to a London dealer for £12,000 sterling. It was
afterwards sold to Prince Orloff, whence it obtained its name, for
£90,000 sterling, and an annual pension of £4,000. The Prince presented
it to Empress Katherine who had it set as an ornament at the top of the
imperial sceptre. This large diamond was a stone of ill omen for Russia,
a country ruled by the celestial Aquarius and opposed to the diamond
sign Leo. When we reflect, in harmony with celestial philosophy, that
the late Czar Nicholas II, the last of the Romanoffs, had the sign Leo
in the 12th heavenly mansion at birth we can only see in the Orloff
diamond the symbol of sorrow and restraint.

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF NICHOLAS II

  The last of the Czar’s to whom the ancients would consider the diamond
    a symbol of ill omen.
]

                           THE SANCY DIAMOND

Few historical objects surpass the beautiful Sancy Diamond in romance
and importance. Its origin is involved in uncertainty prior to the early
15th Century. The first definite account concerning the famous gem
states that after the battle of Nancy, January 5th, 1477, it was taken
from the dead body of Charles the Bold, by a Swiss soldier. Charles
adorned his dress with many diamonds, the Sancy holding the place of
honour. The soldier not knowing the value of the gem he had stolen sold
it to a minister of religion for a gulden. The minister sold it some
years later to a dealer in Lucerne for 5,000 ducats. King Manoel, known
as the Fortunate, of Portugal, purchased it in 1495, two years before he
dispatched the navigator Vasco da Gama, on his voyage of discovery. Don
Antonio, known as Prince of Crato and King of Portugal in partibus, sold
the gem to Nicolas de Harlai Sieur de Sancy, whence it obtained its
name. As the friend and treasurer of Henry IV of France, the Sieur in
order to aid the King to protect his crown, raised a loan for him on the
security of the stone, from the bankers of Metz. The servant entrusted
with the safe delivery of the diamond being waylaid by robbers,
swallowed his master’s precious gem to protect it; the thieves in fury
at being unable to discover the stone, on the person or in the baggage,
of the loyal servant, murdered him. The Sieur evidently knew what his
messenger would do in an extremity, and he afterwards recovered the gem
from the body of the murdered man. It was next sold to the English Crown
when it was worn by Queen Elizabeth. It remained in possession of the
Crown, and is mentioned in the Tower inventory of March 22nd, 1605,
until the reign of James II, who took it when he fled to France to seek
asylum at the court of the Grand Monarque. James then sold the Sancy to
his sympathetic friend Louis, for £25,000 sterling. Another account
states that the Sancy came into the possession of Cardinal Mazarin who
had it recut and included amongst the twelve famous diamonds in the
Crown of France, known as the Mazarins. Robert de Berquem says that
Queen Henrietta Maria proudly wore it (“Merveilles des Indes,” 1669).
Louis XV it is recorded, wore the Sancy at his coronation in 1715, and
his Queen, Maria Lesczynska, daughter of the dethroned Polish King,
Stanislas, afterwards wore it as a necklace pendant. When Marie
Antoinette became Queen of France she had this royal pendant taken from
the necklace and mounted in brooch form. With the tragic end of the
unhappy Queen some uncertainty follows the wanderings of the Sancy. It
is stated that the widow of Charles IV of Spain gave it to the “Prince
of Peace,” Manuel de Godoi, Duke of Alcudia. One account states that
Godoi sold it to Napoleon, another that Godoi’s son after vainly
endeavouring to induce Louis XVIII to purchase it in 1822, sold it to
Prince Demidoff. The Prince sold it to Monsieur Levrat, Director of the
Society of Mines and Forges of Grisons, Switzerland, for £24,000. A
dispute over the price led to an action at law and a verdict in favour
of the Prince on June 1st, 1832.

The stone was afterwards purchased by Sir Jamisetjee Jeejeebhoy in 1865,
from the family of Prince Demidoff. It was sent from Bombay to London by
Messrs. Forbes & Co., the agents for Sir Jamisetjee Jeejeebhoy, and was
exhibited by M. M. Bapst at the Paris Exposition of 1867. During the
tour of King George (when Prince of Wales) in India, the Sancy is said
to have been worn at the Great Durba by the Marajah of Puttiali. In 1892
the beautiful gem passed into the possession of the Astor family it
having been purchased by the Hon. William Waldorf Astor for his wife,
Mary, daughter of James W. Paul, Esq., of Philadelphia, U. S. A. It now
passes into the hands of the Right Hon. Viscountess Astor who wore it on
taking her seat as the first lady elected as a member of the House of
Commons. The writer is indebted to Lady Astor for her kindly interest in
this book, and for a presentation of a handsome volume on the Sancy
Diamond by William Waldorf Astor, published in 1892. The Sancy Diamond
is described by Dr. Smith as of an almond shape, covered all over with
tiny facets by Indian lapidaries. The weight is given as 53½ to 53¾
carats.

Considered astrologically a diamond would be unfortunate for Charles the
Bold who was born at Dijon 10th November, 1435. It would be considered
fortunate for Henry IV of France in whose horoscope the planet Jupiter
was ascending in the sign Libra. Jupiter being in the 12th Heavenly
Mansion would be considered fortunate for secret negotiations and
diplomacy, and it is worthy of notice that the Sancy Diamond should be
employed as a powerful helper in these very matters. The sign of the
Lion, the sign of France, is also on the Mid Heaven of the King’s
nativity, and Leo is distinctly a diamond and Royal sign. It was a truly
fortunate gem for King James II of England whose horoscope is here shown
with the Royal Lion ascending.

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF JAMES II
  The ancients would consider the diamond a symbol of fortune and
    adventure for this King.
]

                            THE HOPE DIAMOND

Dr. G. F. Herbert Smith says of this gem that it is of “a steely or
greenish blue, not the royal blue colour of the glass models supposed to
represent it.” If the accepted history of the stone be true, it must be
regarded as a strange specimen. It was stated to have been discovered at
the Kollur mines, and to have been purchased by Tavernier in 1642. In
1668, Tavernier interested Louis XIV in the gem so much that he
purchased it. After this the fortunes of the great traveller began to
change. His son defrauded him of a large sum of money, and he was later,
being a Protestant, compelled by the Edict of Nantes (1685) to fly from
France and seek protection in Switzerland. Thence he went to Berlin,
where the Elector of Brandenburg offered him the Directorship in a
projected East India Company. In the endeavor to find a road through
Russia to India, Tavernier left Berlin, but he succumbed to fatigue and
financial worry soon after, dying, it is said, in want, in his 84th year
at Moscow. After wearing this diamond at a Court Ball, Madame de
Montespan lost the favour of her Royal lover. It was a stone of ill
fortune for Marie Antoinette, to whom, however, all diamonds were
unfortunate. After the tragic death of Louis XVI and his Queen, the
stone was stolen with the French regalia. Afterwards it is stated to
have been stolen from Fals, the Dutch gem cutter, by his son. Fals died
a broken-hearted man, and his son, after selling the gem to Francois
Beaulieu, went insane and killed himself. Beaulieu, after selling the
stone to Daniel Eliason, a London dealer, died suddenly the following
day. Mr. Eliason sold it to Mr. Thomas Philip Hope, the banker, in 1830
for £18,000 sterling. Mr. Hope’s grandson, Lord Henry Francis Hope,
married the Australian actress, Miss May Yohe, in 1894. This lady wore
the diamond and misfortune followed her. In 1901 Lord Hope was glad to
sell the stone to Mr. Weil, a London diamond merchant, who, without
waiting for its influence to affect him, sold it immediately to Mr.
Simon Frankel, jeweller, of New York, who suffered financial hardships
consequent on the difficulty of finding a purchaser. At last he sold it
to Mr. Jacques Colot, a French dealer in gems, and with it went his
troubles also. Monsieur Colot quickly sold the gem to the Russian
Prince, Kanitovski, and, it is stated, became insane and died
mysteriously a few weeks afterwards. The Prince lent it to Mademoiselle
Lorens Laduc of the Folies Bergeres, with whom he was in love. As she
wore it one night on the stage the Prince in a mad fit shot her. A few
days later he was himself stabbed to death by some members of a secret
political club. The Blue Terror next came into the possession of the
Greek jeweller, Simon Montharides, who, after having sold it to the
Sultan, Adbul Hamid, was killed by accident with his wife and two
children whilst driving. Abu Sabir, the Sultan’s lapidary, was entrusted
with the polishing of the jewel, and whilst he had it he accidentally
destroyed a large pearl belonging to Abdul Hamid, who ordered him to be
severely flogged and cast into prison. A little later the keeper of the
Sultan’s jewels was found murdered, and his successor was hanged by a
mob in a street of Constantinople. The Sultan’s favourite, Salama
Zubayba, incurred his anger by wearing the blue gem and the infuriated
ruler shot her as Prince Kanitovski had shot Lorens Laduc. All diamonds,
however, would be unfortunate for Abdul Hamid. The diamond then fell
into the hands of the Turkish revolutionary party and was sold by them
to Senor Habib, a rich Spaniard, who was drowned in the wreck of the
French mail steamer, Seyne, off Singapore. The gem was not lost with its
owner, and was later sold to Messrs. Cartier Bros, of Paris and New York
by Monsieur Rosenau, a well-known diamond merchant. In 1911 it was
bought by Mr. Edward McLean, proprietor of the “Washington Post,” for
£52,000 sterling, from Cartier Bros. It is said that both Mr. and Mrs.
McLean were doubtful about the wisdom of purchasing this stone of ill
omen which, according to report, had been previously refused by the
Court of England on account of its evil reputation. Misfortunes quickly
followed the new owners, culminating with the tragic death of little
Vinson Walsh McLean, their only son, who was knocked down and killed by
a motor car close to his father’s estate. After leaving the possession
of the McLean family this stone found a purchaser in Monsieur de
Hautville. Within three months the same peculiar misfortune which had
befallen its previous owners befell them. Madame de Hautville, sharing
the same fate as little Vinson McLean, was killed by a motor car whilst
crossing a street in Paris. Following on this the eldest son, having
taken poison by mistake, died in terrible agony. Mademoiselle de
Hautville was accidentally drowned and the younger son whilst out
shooting was blinded by the explosion of his gun. Quickly the de
Hautvilles parted with this peculiar gem of ill omen. Where will it next
find a home? The weight of the Hope diamond when sold by Tavernier to
Louis XIV was 67 carats; its present weight is 44½ carats. It presents a
curious psychical study and an undeniable evidence of fatal influence
which it would indeed be difficult to explain away.

                           THE PAUL THE FIRST

This diamond is described as a brilliant red, weighing 10 carats. It was
one of the Russian Crown jewels, being purchased by Emperor Paul the
First for 100,000 roubles. It was a stone of ill omen for both Paul and
Russia. He was murdered in 1801, and in his nativity the planet Neptune
was, as in that of Marie Antoinette, in the sign Leo, accompanied by
unfortunate planetary afflictions.

                              THE DRESDEN

The Dresden diamond which is in the Green Vaults at Dresden is described
as of the purest apple-green colour. Authorities differ as to its
weight, which is variously given at 40 and 48½ carats. It is stated that
the gem was purchased by Augustus the Strong in 1743 for 60,000 thalers,
but this Augustus died of an old wound in 1733. It was probably his son
Frederick Augustus III who died at Dresden in 1763.

                               THE NIZAM

This gem which belonged to the Nizam of Hyderabad was, to judge by its
particular native cutting, probably employed in certain sex mysteries.
Its weight is 340 carats, and strangely enough, it fractured just before
the Indian Mutiny. The diamond is not a stone of harmony for India.

                             THE CUMBERLAND

After the battle of Culloden (1746) the city of London presented this
diamond, which weighed 32 carats and cost £10,000, to the Duke of
Cumberland. During Queen Victoria’s reign the stone was claimed by the
City of Hanover, to which place it was sent by the Queen’s command.

                              THE NAPOLEON

This diamond which was bought by Napoleon Buonaparte for £8,000 sterling
was worn by him when he married Josephine in 1796.

                                EUGENIE

This gem was purchased by Katherine II of Russia, who gave it to
Potemkin. It is a very pure gem of 51 carats. Napoleon III gave it to
Eugenie as a wedding gift. Afterwards it came into the possession of the
Gaekwar of Baroda.

                             THE POLAR STAR

This brilliant jewel formed one of the chief ornaments in the Russian
regalia. The weight is given as 40 carats.

                                THE SHAH

The Shah diamond was given to the Czar of Russia by the Persian prince
Chosroes in 1843. It is a flawless, pure gem which originally weighed 95
carats and was engraved with the names of three distinguished Shahs of
Persia. In the recutting this engraving was eliminated and the stone
reduced to 86 carats.

                         MOON OF THE MOUNTAINS

Nadir Shah, having stolen this gem from Delhi, it was after his
assassination taken by a soldier who sold it to Shaffras, an Armenian.
It was included in the Russian Crown jewels. Many diamonds adorned the
regalias of Russia, but they are no more fortunate to Russia than they
are to India.

                      AKBAR SHAH, SHEPHERD’S STONE

This gem belonged to Akbar, the Great Mogul, and was formerly engraved
with Arabic writing. After having been lost for some years it was
identified as the Turkish Shepherd’s Stone. It originally weighed 116
carats, and was reduced by cutting in the elimination of the engraving
to 71 carats. It was purchased by the Gaekwar of Baroda for £23,330
sterling.

                             RIVER OF LIGHT

This beautiful rose diamond of 186 carats was seized by Nadir Shah at
Delhi. It adorns the Persian regalia and is known as the Darya-i-Nor, or
River of Light.

                              GRAND MOGUL

This remarkable diamond was seen by Tavernier amongst the jewels of the
Emperor Auranzeb in 1665, five years after its recorded discovery in the
Golconda mines. Its original weight is given as 787 carats by some
records and as 787½ by others. This was greatly reduced in cutting to a
rose shape by Hortensio Borgio when, it is said on account of numerous
flaws, it lost 547 carats. Tavernier describes it as “rounded rose cut,
taller on one side.” The present whereabouts of the “Grand Mogul” is
unknown.

                            THE GRAND TABLE

This gem is also recorded by Tavernier who saw it at Golconda in 1642.
Its weight is given at somewhat over 242 carats. Where it now is, is not
known.

                               THE NASSAK

This gem which came from the Deccan loot was sold in London in 1837. Mr.
Emanuel, into whose possession it came, sold it later to the Duke of
Westminster for £7,200 sterling. Its original pear-shaped form was
altered to triangular, an operation which left the weight at 78⅝ carats.

                               THE PIGOTT

Lord Pigott obtained this stone in India in 1775, and disposed of it for
£30,000 sterling. The weight is given as 47½ carats. Ali Pacha, the last
owner of the gem, left instructions to destroy it at his death, and his
wishes are said to have been respected.

                               THE PACHA

This brilliant of 40 carats is mentioned as having been acquired by
Ibrahim Pacha for £28,000 sterling. Very little seems to be known about
it.

                              THE TUSCANY

This yellow-tinged stone, of double rose cut and 133¾ carats, was
formerly in the possession of the Dukes of Tuscany. Mr. King states
that, being mistaken for a piece of yellow quartz, it was purchased for
a trifle at a bric-a-bric stall in Florence.

                              STAR OF ESTE

This diamond which weighs 25½ carats is mentioned by Dr. Smith “for its
perfection of form and quality.” It belonged to the ill-starred Archduke
Franz Ferdinand.

                              WHITE SAXON

The White Saxon is a square gem, 48¾ carats in weight, for which
Augustus the Strong is said to have given a million thalers.

                            THE GREAT WHITE

This large, clear diamond is also known as the Imperial or Victoria. Its
weight before cutting is given as 457 carats, and after cutting at 180
carats. The Nizam of Hyderabad purchased it for £20,000 sterling in
1884.

                               THE MATTAM

The Mattam is a pear-shaped diamond of the purest water, recently—and
probably still—in the possession of the Rajah of Mattam. Found in
1760—Dr. Smith says 1787—at Landak, Borneo, it is held responsible for
much worldly trouble. Its weight is stated as 367 carats. Mr. Emanuel
says: “The Dutch Governor of Batavia offered two gun-boats with stores
and ammunition complete and £50,000 sterling for it: but the offer was
refused, the Rajah replying that on its possession depended the fortunes
of his family.” Its genuineness is doubted by Dr. Smith.

                         THE STAR OF THE SOUTH

This most perfect brilliant was discovered at Bagagem in July, 1853. It
is said to be the largest Brazilian diamond yet found. It weighed 254½
carats in the rough, and 125½ carats when cut by Mr. Coster of
Amsterdam. Although not perfectly white, it is regarded as one of the
finest large diamonds of the day. £40,000 sterling was paid for it
before cutting.

                          THE ENGLISH DRESDEN

This brilliant was also found at Bagagem in Brazil four years after the
“Star of the South.” Its weight before cutting was 119½ carats, which
was reduced in cutting to 76½ carats. Its present form is an egg-like
oval drop.

                         THE DE BEERS DIAMONDS

These were discovered in the famous De Beers mine; the first, a pale
yellow, 428½ carats in the rough, 228½ when cut, in 1888; the next 503¼
carats, of similar hue, in 1896. Some others weigh 302, 409 carats, etc.

                        THE STAR OF SOUTH AFRICA

This gem was found in the Vaal River diggings in 1869. Weight before
cutting was 83½ carats, after cutting 46½ carats. It is triangular in
shape, and was bought by the Countess of Dudley for £25,000 sterling.

                              THE JUBILEE

This faultless brilliant was found in the Jagersfontein mine in 1895.
Before cutting, its weight was 634 carats; after cutting, 239 carats.
The Jubilee was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1900.

                           THE STAR OF AFRICA

This remarkable stone was discovered in the Premier mine near Pretoria,
January 25th, 1905. It was named the “Cullinan,” after the chairman of
the Premier Company, Sir T. M. Cullinan. It was renamed the “Star of
Africa,” at the desire of King George V. Dr. Smith writes as follows
with regard to it: “The rough stone weighed 3025¾ carats (about 1⅓
lbs.): it displayed three natural faces and one large cleavage face, and
its shape suggested that it was a portion of an enormous stone more than
double its size: it is transparent, colourless, and has only one small
flaw near the surface. This magnificent diamond was purchased by the
Transvaal Government for £150,000 sterling and presented to King Edward
VII on his birthday, November 9th, 1907. Messrs. I. J. Asscher & Co. of
Amsterdam, cut from this a drop brilliant 516½ carats, a square
brilliant 309-3/16 carats, another drop brilliant 92 carats, a
square-shaped brilliant 62 carats, a heart-shaped stone 18⅜ carats, two
marquises 8-9/16 and 11¼carats, an oblong stone 6⅝ carats, a drop
brilliant 4-9/32 carats, and 96 small brilliants weighing together 7⅜
carats: the total weight of the cut stones amounts to 1036-5/32 carats.”
The large drop brilliant adorns the sceptre, the large square brilliant
the crown. The “Star of Africa” comes from the mine to adorn the regalia
of the British sovereigns. It has no record of evil, no doubtful past,
nor is it tainted with evil desires, violence or sorrow.

                              THE BRAGANZA

This stone, the weight of which is given as 1680 carats, is in the
Portuguese regalia. It is believed, on good grounds, to be a large white
topaz.

                              THE TIFFANY

This orange-tinted brilliant which was found at Kimberley, South Africa,
in 1878, is in the possession of Messrs. Tiffany. Its weight is given as
125⅜ carats.

                             STAR OF MINAS

This stone was discovered at Bagagem in Brazil, in 1911. Its weight in
the rough is given as 174¾ carats.

                           THE ARABIAN DEATH

The first Earl Lytton became possessed of a fine diamond on which were
engraved certain Arabic words, and his death which took place soon after
he had obtained possession of it has been attributed to its malignant
influence. The gem was bequeathed by Earl Lytton to Madame la Comtesse
Greffuhle, who showed it to a learned Indian Prince who was in Paris at
the time. After reading the mysterious Arab words the Prince told the
Comtesse that it was a stone of death, and advised her not to keep it.
The lady, desiring to end the power of the stone for mischief, threw it
into the river Seine from the Pont Neuf.

                             THE MOONSTONE

The famous novel by Mr. Wilkie Collins entitled “The Moonstone,” is
based on the histories of “the magnificent stone which adorns the top of
the Russian imperial sceptre, once the eye of an Indian Idol,” and the
Koh-i-Noor. Some writers confuse this Moonstone with the well-known
orthoclase feld-spar. The following extract from the Prologue of Mr.
Collins’s book states: “The earliest known traditions describe the stone
as having been set in the forehead of the four-handed Indian God who
typifies the Moon. Partly from its peculiar colour, partly from a
superstition which represents it as feeling the influence of the Deity
whom it adorned, and growing and lessening in lustre with the waxing and
waning of the Moon, it first gained the name by which it continues to be
known in India to this day—the name of the Moonstone. A similar
superstition was once prevalent, as I have heard, in ancient Greece and
Rome: not applying, however, as in India to a diamond devoted to the
service of a god, but to a semi-transparent stone of the inferior order
of gems supposed to be affected by the lunar influences—the Moon, in
this latter case also, giving the name by which the stone is still
known. The adventures of the Yellow Diamond began with the 11th century
of the Christian era. At that date the Mohammedan conqueror Mahmoud of
Ghizni crossed India: seized on the holy city of Somnauth and stripped
of its treasures the famous temple ... the Moon God alone escaped the
rapacity of the conquering Mohammedans.... An age followed another until
the first years of the 8th Christian century saw the reign of
Aurungzebe, Emperor of the Moguls. At his command havoc and rapine were
let loose.... The shrine of the four-handed God was polluted ... and the
Moonstone was seized by an officer of rank in the army of Aurungzebe ...
The warrior who had committed the sacrilege perished miserably. The
Diamond fell into the possession of Tippo, Sultan of Seringapatam, who
caused it to be placed as an ornament in the handle of his dagger—and
after, General Baird himself found the dead body of Tippo under a heap
of slain.” (See Koh-i-Noor, Regent, Orloff.)



                             CHAPTER XVIII
                            DICHROITE—IOLITE

DICHROITE: DIOPTASE: DISTHENE: EMERALD: ENSTATITE: EPIDOTE: ESSONITE:
    EUCLASE: FLINT, THE STONE OF EARLY MAN: ITS USE IN ANCIENT EGYPT:
    ETHIOPIAN ARROWS: THE ELF DART: FAIRY STONE: CHIAS, THE FIRST TO
    PROVE THE FLASHING OF STRUCK FLINT: ITS USE IN THE PREVENTION OF
    NIGHTMARE: “HOLEY” STONES: BUTLER AND THE HOLLOW FLINT: THE MARA:
    THE GARNET: PECULIARITIES: DANA’S CLASSIFICATION: SUCCINITE, A
    HARMONY CHARM: GROSSULARITE, A HEALTH CHARM: PYROPE OR BOHEMIAN
    GARNET: LARGE SPECIMEN IN SAXON REGALIA: EMPEROR RUDOLPH’S SPECIMEN:
    A TALISMAN OF FRIENDSHIP: HOPE AND PSYCHIC DEVELOPMENT: SPESSARTITE,
    A PRAYER CHARM: ANDRADITE, A BANISHER OF UNWORTHY THOUGHTS:
    SPECIMENS FOUND ENGRAVED WITH ANGELS’ NAMES: OUVAROVITE: GARNETS
    AFFECT MAGNETIC NEEDLE: GREENSTONE: GROSSULARITE: HAEMATITE:
    SOTACUS’S CLASSIFICATION OF HAEMATITE VARIETIES AND THEIR ACCREDITED
    VIRTUES: DANA’S CLASSIFICATION: PLINY’S RECOMMENDATION: USE IN
    ANCIENT TIMES: MUMMY’S HEAD-REST: ANDREAS BALVANCENSIS’ IDEA: STENCH
    STONE: GALEN’S PRESCRIPTION: HIDDENITE: HORNSTONE: HYACINTH: VIRTUES
    OF THE HYACINTH: THE JACINTH VARIETY: THOMAS DE CANTEMPRE’S
    DESCRIPTION: OPINIONS OF LEONARDUS AND DE BOODT: FRANCIS BARRETT’S
    COMMENTS: OBSERVED CHANGES IN THE STONE: AVICENNA’S COMPARISON: THE
    HYACINTH IN THE GARDEN OF PEACE AND AMONGST THE ROSICRUCIAN JEWELS:
    HYDROPHANE: HYPERSTHENE: IOLITE.

DICHROITE. (See IOLITE.)

DIOPTASE. The name is derived from the Greek DIA, through, and OPTOMAI,
to see. This pretty emerald-green copper silicate was named in 1801 by
Hauy, who found on looking through it cleavage directions. As the
crystals are usually so small Dioptase, which is of about the same
degree of hardness as lapis lazuli, is seldom used in jewellery.
According to ancient philosophy, dioptase would strengthen the sight of
those who gazed upon it, and benefit if worn on the neck in throat
troubles. Astrologically, dioptase is under the celestial Taurus.

DISTHENE. (See KYANITE.)

EMERALD. (See BERYL.)

ENSTATITE. Named from the Greek ENSTATES, an opponent, because of its
infusibility before the blow-pipe and its resisting power against acids.
It occurs in various colours—grey, brown, yellow, colourless, and
chiefly green; hence it has been erroneously called the Green Garnet.
The Enstatite is a silicate of magnesium, and is scarcely as hard as the
opal, yet it is found with the diamond, hardest of stones. It is
esteemed as a talisman in examinations, arguments, debates and all
contests in which the mind is employed. The Enstatite is under the
celestial Gemini.

EPIDOTE. This stone is named from the Greek EPIDOSIS, increase. It was
first used by Hauy (“Mineralogie,” 1801), as “lit qui a recu un
accroissement,” but—writes Dr. Smith—“not on very precise
crystallographical grounds.” There are several varieties, chief among
which is the Pistacite, or true Epidote, of a yellow-green colour like
the nut of the Pistachio. The epidote is nearly as hard as the garnet.
According to ancient philosophy it may be used as a charm for fruit and
cereal growers. The epidote is under the celestial Taurus.

ESSONITE. From the Greek ESSON; also, known as Hessonite and more
familiarly amongst jewellers as Cinnamon Stone. It is a garnet of the
Lime Alumina order, of a reddish brown or cinnamon colour, and granular
structure. This stone is often confounded with the Hyacinth and other
varieties of the Zircon with which it is found. It is regarded amongst
ancient philosophers as a protective talisman for virgins born between
August 24th and September 23rd. The Essonite is a gem under the
celestial Virgo.

EUCLASE. The name is derived from the Greek EU KLASIS, easily fractured.
It is a silicate of aluminium and beryllium and is related to the
emerald. Westropp says: “The euclase is of the same chemical composition
as the emerald.” (“Manual of Precious Stones.”) It is a very rare and
expensive mineral, glassy and extremely brittle. The euclase closely
resembles the aquamarine in its varying shades of pale blue and pale
green. Sometimes it is found quite colourless. It is frequently found
with topaz, and is of the hardness of the beryl. As a love talisman it
is advised that it be worn in the rough. The euclase is under the
celestial Taurus.

FLINT

           “_So stubborn flints their inward heart conceal
           Till art and force th’ unwilling sparks reveal._”
                                       CONGREVE TO DRYDEN.

Flint derives its name from the Greek PLINTHOS, a brick. It has been
written at various times as vlint, vlynt, flent, flend, flynd, flynt,
flynte. Flint is described as an “intermediate between quartz and opal,
consisting almost entirely of silica with a little lime, oxide of iron,
water, carbon and sometimes traces of organic matter.” Mr. G. R. Porter
says that flint is silica “in a state nearly approaching to purity.”
(“Porcelain and Glass,” 1832.) Today it is classed amongst the varieties
of chalcedony and is found in various colours—greyish white, grey,
black, light brown, red and yellow. It is semi-translucent, breaking
with a well-defined shell-like fracture. This mineral was extensively
used by aboriginal man in the making of implements, weapons, magical
instruments, etc., and many fine worked specimens are still found in all
parts of the world. Mystery and magic are associated with the flint
which was used in ancient Egypt for fashioning scarabs and making the
first incision in a dead body, prior to embalming. The Ethiopian Arrows
noted by Herodotus were, as discovery has proved, arrow heads of flint.
The Elf Arrow-head or Elf Dart with a hole drilled through it was
regarded especially in Scotland and Ireland as an effective talisman
against poison, witchcraft, and the evil wishes of enemies. Sir Edward
Mackenzie, Bart. built his charming little story “The Romance of the Elf
Arrow” on these beliefs. Robert Gordon, of Straloch, who wrote in the
year 1654, relates that a friend of his while out riding on horseback
was struck on the top of his riding boot by one of these fairy stones.
In this case there is no doubt that the horse’s hoof caused the
incident, but chance was not admitted by the old masters who would
regard the hoof of the horse as the instrument made use of by the
mischievous fairies.

Pliny relates that Chias being the first to demonstrate the fire
flashing of struck flint, was given the name of Pyrodes. Aubrey states
that it was an old custom to hang on a string a flint with a hole in it
“to hinder the nightmare.” “It is best of all, they say, hung about
their necks, and a flint will do it that hath a hole in it. It is to
prevent the night mare, viz., the Hag, from riding their horses which
will sometimes sweat at night. The flint thus hung does hinder it.”
Another writer, Grose, quoted in Brand’s “Antiquities,” says: “A stone
with a hole in it hung at the bed’s head will prevent the nightmare. It
is therefore called a Hag Stone from that disorder which is occasioned
by a Hag or Witch sitting on the stomach of the party afflicted. It also
prevents witches riding horses: for which purpose it is often tied to a
stable key.”

                “_Hang up Hooks and Sheers to scare
                Hence the Hag that rides the mare._”
                                               HERRICK.

These flints were called Holy or Holey Stones in the North of England,
also Ephialtes stones, Night Mare or Witch Riding Stones, and Butler
mentions the chasing away of evil spirits by hollow flint. The “Mare” of
Night Mare is derived from the Saxon Mara, an incubus, which attacked
during sleep, depriving the victim of movement and speech. The Mara or
Mare is an order of vampires. Hebrew MARIA, an evil spirit against which
the flint is a charm. As a correspondent of flint, Emanuel Swedenborg
gives Truth. Its connection with the ninth heavenly mansion is well
defined. Flint is under the celestial Sagittarius.

GARNET

                “_Without the aid of yonder golden globe
                Lost were the garnet’s lustre._”
                                               SMART.

The garnet derives its name from the Latin GRANATUS, grain-like. Mr.
King gives Granatici, from its resemblance to the scarlet pomegranate
blossom. It is found written as garnet, gernet, garnette, garnat, garnet
or garnat stone.

The mineral group passing under the general name of garnet exhibits some
distinct peculiarities which, adopting the classification given by
Professor James Dana, can be considered under three heads, as follows:

        Alumina Garnet         Iron Garnet         Chrome Garnet

                             ALUMINA GARNET

The sesquioxide base is chiefly aluminium.

                       (_a_) IRON ALUMINA GARNET

Shades of colour: Red, ruby red, hyacinth red, columbine red, brownish
red. Precious garnet is translucent, common is not. Example, Almandine
or Carbuncle. Astrologically classed under the celestial Sagittarius.

                       (_b_) LIME ALUMINA GARNET

Shades of colour: Pale green, cinnamon, amber. Example: Essonite or
Cinnamon Stone is cinnamon coloured; Grossularite (Latin GROSSULARIA, a
gooseberry), is pale green; Succinite (Latin SUCCINUM, amber), is of the
colour of amber. The Grossularite is a health talisman, the Succinite a
charm for securing harmony and success in dealing with employees. They
are both under the Celestial Virgo.

                     (_c_) MAGNESIA ALUMINA GARNET

Shades of colour: Deep red changing to black and green. Example: Pyrope.
Under the celestial Aquarius.

The Pyrope or Bohemian Garnet derives its name from the Greek word
PUROPOS, fiery, and is known to Pliny as Apyroti. It is a stone of the
same hardness as the beryl and is commonly called the “Cape Ruby,” or
the “Arizona Ruby.” In the regalia of Saxony, set in the Order of the
Golden Fleece, is a large pyrope, 468½ carats in weight, and that
strange Emperor Rudolph II under whose patronage Tycho and Kepler worked
at the Rudolphine (Astronomical) Tables, is said by De Boodt to have
possessed a specimen worth 45,000 thalers. One as big as the egg of a
pigeon lies in the Green Vaults at Dresden. Large pyropes are, however,
rare. Swedenborg corresponds Pyrope to “good,” and it is regarded as a
talisman of faithfulness and stability, of hope, of happiness and true
friendship. Its influence is said to aid psychic development and occult
understanding. It is a health stone, and in the East is regarded as a
banisher of plagues and poison, changing colour, it is said, when danger
or mishap of any kind threaten the wearer.

                     (_d_) MANGANESE ALUMINA GARNET

Shades of colour: Red, brownish red, hyacinth red. Example: Spessartite
or Spessatine. Under the celestial Virgo.

The Spessartite obtains its name from SPESSART in Germany. It is
sometimes called the Brown Garnet, but is little used in jewellery. The
Spessartite is a prayer charm for the uplifted soul.

IRON GARNET

The sesquioxide base is chiefly iron.

                            LIME IRON GARNET

Shades of colour: Various.

Example: Andradite, named after the Portuguese mineralogist D’Andrada.
In the variety called Topazolite (so named after the topaz), the colour
is wine yellow, in Jelletite it is green, and in Melinite and Pyreneite
it is black or grey-black. The Aplome (named by Hauy after the Greek
word APLOOS, simple), is red. The Kolophonite, named after Kolophon in
Ionia, is coarse, granular, resinous and frequently iridescent. Green
Andradite has been termed the “Uralian Emerald” and the Olivine (wrongly
so-called under this head). Brilliant specimens have been named by
jewellers DEMANTOID. A dark, almost black, andradite showing a gleam of
red was much used in mourning jewellery. This is the stone which
Leonardus said drove away pestilential airs and banished unworthy
thoughts. It was a binding charm for friends. It protected from
epidemics and the lightning-stroke, and lent favour to the desires of
the native. Specimens have been found engraved with the names of angels
in Chaldaic, Hebrew, Greek and other ancient languages. It is under the
celestial Aquarius.

CHROME GARNET

The sesquioxide base is chiefly Chromium.

Shades of colour: Emerald green.

Example: Ouvarovite, Uvarovite or Uwarowite, after the Professor of that
name of the late Russian Imperial Academy at Petrograd. This variety
will not, like other varieties, yield to the blow-pipe. It is a hard
stone and few specimens large enough for cutting have been discovered.
It is under the celestial Aquarius.

Many specimens of ancient engraved garnets have been found. Friction
produces in the stone a positive order of electricity which has a
perceptible effect on the magnetic needle.

GREENSTONE. (See JADE.)

GROSSULARITE. (See GARNET.)

HAEMATITE

            “_The Haematite, named by the Greeks from blood,
            Benignant Nature formed for mortals’ good._”
                                                 MARBODUS.

The Haematite obtains its name from the Greek HAIMATITES, blood-like. It
is a specular iron ore of reddish, brown, steely gray, and iron black
colours. Commercially it is spelt Hematite, though it is also written as
Ematite, Emathites, Emathitis.

Sotacus, described by Pliny as one of the most ancient writers,
classified five varieties of haematite, as follows:

1. _Ethiopic_, which he said was a remedy for burns and inflamed eyes.
It is probable that this is the Ethiopian Stone, a hard species of
flint. (See under FLINT.)

2. Androdamus, or Conquerer of Man, which is given as a remedy for
bilious attacks. This stone is described by Sotacus as “very black and
heavy,” and by Marbodus as “silvery white with the hardness of a
diamond.” It would seem that each writer is describing a different
stone. Sotacus’ description would imply a species of iron stone, that of
Marbodus may stand for a corundum or even a diamond, and man may be
subdued by either the iron stone or the diamond.

3. Arabian, recommended for stomach troubles and burns.

4. Elatite, or when burned Melitite.

5. Mixed stone for eye troubles.

The varieties given by Professor James D. Dana are:

1. Specular Iron. Lustre perfectly metallic.

2. Micaceous Iron. Structure foliated.

3. Red Hematite. Submetallic or unmetallic brownish red.

4. Red Ochre. Soft and earthy and often containing clay.

5. Red Chalk. Firmer and more compact than red ochre and of fine
texture.

6. Jaspery Clay Iron. A hard, impure, siliceous, clayey ore, having a
brownish-red jaspery look and compactness.

7. Clay Iron Stone. The same as the last, the colour and appearance less
like jasper.

8. Lenticular Argillaceous Ore. An oolitic red ore consisting of small
flattened grains.

9. Martite. Martite is hematite in octahedrons, derived, it is supposed,
from the oxidation of magnetite.

Pliny says that Haematites are found in mines and when burned have the
colour of Minium. (Minium of today is our red lead of commerce, Red
Oxide of Lead). He recommends it for affections of the bladder and for
the healing of dangerous wounds, bites of serpents and as a check to
female disorders. It seems probable in these enumerations that he refers
to Loadstone (q.v.), for he says “the sanguine Loadstone called
Haematite.” The Haematite and the Loadstone were used in Babylon,
Assyria and other ancient lands as far back as 2000 B.C. Amongst the
specimens handled by the author was one notable Haematite intaglio
cylinder of very fine workmanship—an old magistrate’s seal of great
antiquity. The ancient Egyptians generally selected Haematite as a
fitting pillow (Urs) for the head of the Mummy to rest upon. On it were
often cut verses from Chap. CLXVI of the “Book of the Dead”—the Per em
Hru or Coming forth by Day.

An old 17th century writer, Andreas Balvacensis, advances the curious
idea that the Haematite was made of “dragon’s bloud,” and Holme in his
“Armoury” says that it is called a Stench stone, for its accredited
virtue of stopping the flow of blood. Generally the old writers of the
Middle and later ages followed Galen in prescribing Haematite for
inflamed eyes and headaches, and he was undoubtedly learned in the
wisdom of the Egyptians and the old medical philosophies mentioned by
Sotacus. Several modes of use are mentioned; one was to mix the powdered
stone with honey and apply it to the eyelids, another was to rub the
smoothed stone lightly over the lids. The Kidney Ore Haematite which has
a strong metallic silky lustre and is formed somewhat like a kidney, was
recommended for external application over the region of that organ when
ill conditions prevailed. This application of a Mars substance for the
cure of a Venus affection is technically dealt with in works devoted to
medical astrology, ancient and modern. The Haematite is under the
celestial Aries.

HIDDENITE. (See Spodumene.)

HORNSTONE. Hornstone obtains its name from the Anglo-Saxon STAN. It is a
fragile variety of flint, and is known in its more impure state as
Chert. It had some reputation as an eye stone in certain parts, and is
regarded as under the celestial Taurus.

HYACINTH

  “_The island of Sandareeb ... containeth varieties of jacinths and
  different kinds of minerals._”

  __The 6th Voyage of Es-Sindabad of the Sea.__

The name of this stone is derived from the youth Hyakinthos. It has been
written at various times as hiacinth, hiacinthe, hyacint, hiacynth,
hyacinthe, hiacint, etc. The true hyacinth, which is not to be
confounded with the sapphire, the hyacinthus of the ancients, is a
brilliant zircon (q.v.) of a transparent red or ruddy cinnamon colour.
It is found with a garnet of similar hue which is also called hyacinth
but which shows structural differences and is classified under the name
ESSONITE (q.v.). The peculiar granular nature of this hyacinth can be
seen, even when cut, under an ordinary lens. It is said in ancient story
that Apollo caused the death of the lovely and beloved youth Hyakinthos
when throwing his disc, and that from the blood which fell to the ground
a lovely flower sprang. The myth symbolizes the fertility of Nature and
was celebrated by the festival Hyakinthia, which expresses the grief of
Apollo over the precious life he had taken and the subsequent joy when
the flower gave promise of the return of the slain one in harmony with
Nature’s immortal moods. The gem hyacinth was considered a charm against
bowel disorders, as a mental tonic and a strengthener of the mind
against all kinds of temptation. It promised bountiful harvests to the
farmer and filled the Cornu Copia of the Virgin Goddess. The name
JACINTH, usually applied to the yellow variety of the gem, is a
contraction of hyacinth, and appears as Iacincte, Iacynkte, Iassink,
Jacounce, Jagounce, Jacincte, Jacynct, Jacynth, etc. Like all the Zircon
family these stones are electric and attract fluff and exhibit
phosphorescence. Thomas de Cantempre describes the jacinth as a stone of
yellow colour which protected the wearer from melancholy and poison,
drawing to him the love of God and man. Leonardus said that it brought
sleep to the tired brain and gave wisdom and protection in times of
pestilence. De Boodt also recommends the gem as a cure for insomnia,
advising that it be worn enclosed in a small bag of brown material
suspended just over the solar plexus. Francis Barrett in the section of
his book devoted to Natural Magic says: “The jacinth also possesses
virtue from the sun against poisons, pestilences and pestiferous
vapours: likewise it renders the wearer pleasant and acceptable:
conduces also to gain money: being simply held in the mouth it
wonderfully cheers the heart and strengthens the mind.”

So in ancient astrology these stones which are under the celestial Virgo
have these powers: Wisdom and Prudence, Worldly Gain, Wealth. It is said
that so powerful were these gems of the zircon family that one wearing
them could pass unharmed through places infected with fever and
pestilence. Mystic authors wrote that the jacinth grew dull when stormy
weather was approaching, and bright with the promise of fine weather;
similarly it indicated the degrees of health of the wearer (Virgo is a
sign of health and sickness). Cardanus says that in tempestuous weather
the hyacinth assumes “the ruddy tint of a glowing coal.” As an amulet
against plague it was said to change colour when touched by affected
persons. Avicenna (Ibn Sina), the famous Arabian philosopher of the 10th
century compared the action of the jacinth with that of the magnet.
Paracelsus says that it is distinctly under the government of the planet
Mercury. In old Polish pharmacies a jacinth was kept set in a mount of
silver, ready to be used to avert mortification in cases of accident.
Held against the forehead it was reputed to give clearness of thought
and calmness of mind. Swedenborg corresponds it to “intelligence from
spiritual love and in an opposite sense, intelligence from infernal love
which is self-derived intelligence.” To dream of the hyacinth is
interpreted as protection in approaching worries; to dream of the
jacinth indicates triumph. Jacinths are placed with almandines in the
Dar as Salam, the Arabian Garden of Peace, and amongst the Rosicrucian
jewels the hyacinth represents the true knowledge of absolute love and
the triumph over the crude elements of earthly understanding. These two
zircon varieties are under the celestial Virgo.

HYDROPHANE. (See OPAL.)

HYPERSTHENE. The name is derived from the Greek HYPER, over, and
STHENOS, strength. It is also written as Hyperstene. It is a stone of
the Pyroxene group, a silicate of magnesium and iron. Its colours are
brown-green, grey or green-black, pinchbeck brown. Its hardness is about
the hardness of lapis lazuli. The hypersthene is under the celestial
Scorpio.

IOLITE. The iolite derives its name from the Greek ION, violet and
LITHOS, a stone. Hauy named it the DICHROITE (DIO, twice, CHROA,
colour). It was known also as the Cordierite, and more familiarly as the
water sapphire. It is a silicate of alumina magnesia and protoxide of
iron. It possesses extraordinary dichroism, the smoky blue and
yellowish-grey being easily seen with the naked eye. This circumstance
induced Hauy to name it DICHROITE. Viewed in two directions it presented
different colours. These colours are shown to advantage in stones cut
for ornament. In 1758, Sir James Hill wrote a “History of the Iolithos
or Violet Stone,” a work now most difficult to obtain. The iolite is a
stone of friendship and friendly help. It benefits the eyesight and is
an aid to high thoughts. It was also written as yolite, iolithe. It is
of about the hardness of quartz. The iolite is under the celestial
Aquarius.



                              CHAPTER XIX
                           JACINTH—LODESTONE

JACINTH: JADE: JARGOON: MATURAN DIAMOND: JASPER: THE LYDIAN STONE OF THE
    ANCIENTS: THE HELIOTROPE OR BLOODSTONE VARIETY: THOMAS NICOLS AND
    ARTIFICIAL INFUSIONS: ST. ISIDORE ON THE JASPER: LEGEND OF THE
    CROSS: NUMBER FIVE AND THE STONE OF THE VIRGIN: RARE WORKS IN
    JASPER: GALENUS ON ITS VIRTUES: THE ANODYNE NECKLACE: THE JASPER
    AMULET OF NECHEPSOS: THE WHEEL OF EZEKIEL: JASPER SIGILS: TRALLIANUS
    AND THE JASPER: MOTTLED JASPER, A CHARM TO PROTECT FROM DROWNING:
    ZODIACAL REFLECTIONS: THE STONE OF VICTORY: VAN HELMONT’S
    EXPERIMENTS: THE JASPER AMONGST THE JEWELS OF THE ROSICRUCIANS: JET:
    KAURI GUM: KOLOPHONITE: KUNZITE: KYANITE: LABRADORITE: LAPIS LAZULI:
    COLOURS AND NAMES: PERSIAN LAJWARD, ITS VIRTUES: ITS PLACE IN THE
    BOOK OF THE DEAD: COMMANDMENT STONES: LAPIS LAZULI IN CHINA:
    KATHERINE II AND HER PALACE ROOM: A STONE OF THE ALCHEMISTS:
    LIMONITE: LODESTONE: PLINY’S STORY OF ITS DISCOVERY: HOW TERMED BY
    TITUS CARUS LUCRETIUS: THE STONE OF HERCULES: LEGEND OF THE
    PHOENICIANS: THE AGE OF THE MARINER’S COMPASS: CONSTRUCTION OF ONE
    BY THE CHINESE EMPEROR HOUANGTI: PAUSANIAS AND THE STONE IMAGE OF
    HERCULES: A CRAMP STONE: A DIVINATORY INSTRUMENT: THE PLAN OF
    PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS: PROFESSOR NOAD AND THE POWER OF THE LODESTONE:
    BARRETT’S “ANTIPATHIES”: STORY OF CLAUDIANUS: MAGNET AND THE ONION.


JACINTH. (See HYACINTH.)

JADE. See (NEPHRITE.)

JARGOON. The Jargoon or Jargon, by which name it is known in France, is
derived from the Italian GIACONE. It is a greyish or smoky variety of
the zircon (q.v.), which so closely resembles the diamond that it is
often sold by unscrupulous dealers for the more precious gem. In
allusion to this, Sir A. H. Church in his work on “Precious Stones”
says: “The diamond and the jargoon do not improve or bring out each
other’s qualities for they have too many points in common.” The jargoon,
however, is nearly three degrees softer than the diamond and more easily
injured. It is usually brilliant and rose-cut. At Matura in Ceylon where
it is found in fair quantities it is frequently termed the “Maturan
Diamond.” The jargoon is frequently used set as a talismanic charm
against plagues and disease, for which purpose it was esteemed greatly
in the Middle Ages in the East and in Europe. Worn on the little finger,
set in a ring of silver, it was reputed to help the physician to correct
diagnoses especially if, when in doubt, he held the stone against his
forehead, at a point between the eyes. The jargoon is under the
celestial Virgo.

JASPER.

  “_Jasper stone signifies the divine truth of the Word in its literal
  sense, translucent from the divine truth in its spiritual sense._”

                                                         SWEDENBORG.

Jasper derives its name from the Hebrew YASHPHEH, Greek IASPIS, Arabic
YASB. It is found written as jasp, jaspre, iaspere, iaspar. It is a hard
siliceous mineral of dark, dull colours, chiefly red, green, yellow and
black. In the variety termed RIBAND the mixed and striped colours form
in concentric irregular zones. Ruin Jasper occurs in darker shades of
browns and yellows, giving the appearance of venerable ruins. The lapis
Lydius or Lydian Stone of the ancients—our basanite, commonly known as
Touchstone—is a velvety black flinty jasper, used as much today as ever
it was, for ascertaining the fineness and quality of gold and precious
metals, and says Bacon, “Gold is tried by the touchstone and men by
gold.” Its connection with Mercury is shown in the Greek story of the
transformation of the betrayer Battus into Touchstone by the God. The
Heliotrope or so-called Bloodstone variety is green with spots of red.
Pliny enumerates ten varieties, giving preference to the purple and
rose-coloured. Marbodus in the Lapidarium writes of seventeen species
all differing in colour, the best of all being the bright translucent
green. The jasper was held in high favour by the ancients and Babylonian
seals as old as 1,000 years before the Christian era have been found.
The THET or Buckle of Isis was made chiefly of jasper. In those times
the stone was found in quantities in the vicinity of the historic town
of On or Heliopolis. Thomas Nicols, writing in the 17th century,
protests that the Egyptians knew how to infuse artificial colours into
this gem: “It is ascribed by way of glory to the King of Egypt that the
first adulteration of jasper by tincture was from him, but the glory of
this praise, if I be not mistaken, doth even become his shame.” St.
Isidore of Seville (16th century) writes of the green jasper as “shining
with the greenness of glory,” and this variety—commonly known as
bloodstone because it is spotted with red specks resembling drops of
blood—is regarded as an essentially religious substance, and is
associated with the old Easter ceremonies. There is an old legend,
frequently retold, that the green jasper lying at the foot of the Cross
at the Crucifixion received the blood drops from the five wounds of the
dying Christ, which drops were forever impregnated in the stone. Five is
the number which in mystic writings is identified with the planet
Mercury, and the significance of the blood of the Son of the Virgin in
the stone of the Virgin will be understood by those who search for truth
beneath the mantle of parable. Mr. William Jones in “Finger Ring Lore”
gives an illustration of a Christian octagonal-shaped ring of the 3rd or
4th century, set with a red jasper in which is cut in intaglio a
shepherd and his flocks: the import of this is clear enough. A jasper
bust of Christ in which the red spots are so manipulated by the skilful
artist as to represent drops of blood is mentioned by Professor James
Dana as being in the royal collection at Paris. “Some indeed assert,”
writes Claudius Galenus, the famous physician of the second Christian
century, “that a virtue such as is possessed by the green jasper which
benefits the chest and mouth of the stomach if tied upon it, is inherent
in precious stones.... I have had ample experience having made a
necklace out of such gems (jaspers), and hung it round the neck,
descending so low that the stones might touch the mouth of the stomach,
and they appeared to be of no less service than if they had been
engraved in the way laid down by King Nechepsos.” This is the famous
anodyne necklace so valued, especially in England, and the source of
which the distinguished physician Dr. William Cullen ascribes to
Galenus. Several books are credited to King Nechepsos (circa 600 B. C.).
Galenus alludes to this King’s jasper amulet which took the form of a
rayed dragon. This dragon form symbolizes the mystery of the three
zodiacal signs—Virgo, Libra and Scorpio—known to students of Rosicrucian
philosophy as the Wheel of Ezekiel, and personified in Pallas Athene or
Minerva, the embodiment of wisdom, sympathy and strength. Galenus
carried as his talismanic gem a jasper engraved with a man carrying a
bundle of herbs, as an aid to his judgment in indicating various
diseases—a power long ascribed to stones under the celestial Virgo. A
similar sigil is given by the ancient Israelitish Rabbi Chael: “A man
with broad shoulders and thick loins, standing and holding in his right
hand a bundle of herbs engraved on a green jasper is good against fevers
and if a physician carries it about with him it will give him skill in
distinguishing diseases and knowing the proper remedies. It is also good
for hæmorrhoids and quickly stops the flow of blood.” The same authority
recommends for good luck in buying and selling “Aquarius cut on a green
jasper,” which is also termed “a stone of good counsel for traders” (all
trade is under Mercury, the ruler in astrology of the signs Gemini and
Virgo). A man’s head facing and a bird holding a leaf in its beak, cut
in jasper, was held to give riches and favour; a hare cut in jasper
protected from evil spiritual forces. The green jasper, as before
stated, was also known as the Heliotropion (Heliotrope), a word derived
from Greek HELIOS, the sun, and TROPOS, a turn—probably in allusion to
the planet Mercury which turns nearest the Sun. It is stated that if
this stone were placed in water it would reflect the blood-red disc of
the sun, and if held before the eyes it would assist in the observation
of the Solar and Lunar eclipses. Trallianus, a 6th century philosopher,
recommends the jasper for pains of an acute nature in the stomach or
bowels—a use for which it was especially esteemed by all ancient
scholars. Mottled jasper was worn to protect from death by drowning, or
from death whilst on or near the water, and this presents one of the
many instances of what astrologers term “sign reflection,” for the water
sign of the Fishes (Pisces) is opposite to the earthy sign Virgo and
serves as an apt illustration of antipathetic action. Another virtue
ascribed to jasper was the calming of uneasy minds and the securing of
victory in battle. In this latter connection, Cardanus, physician,
philosopher and astrologer of the 16th century, says that it has action
on the feelings, causing something akin to timidity which induces
caution and the evading of needless risks—a distinctly Mercurial
attribute. De Boodt advises the wearing of jasper to check hæmorrhage
and relieve stomach pains. The stomach was regarded as the seat of the
soul by the remarkable Baptista van Helmont. Deleuze credits him with
“creating epochs in the histories of medicine and physiology, and of
first giving the name of ‘gas’ to aerial fluids,” adding that without
him, “it is probable that steel would have given no new impulse to
science.” Van Helmont writes: “In the pit of the stomach there is a more
powerful sensation than even in the eye or in the fingers. The stomach
often will not tolerate a hand to be laid upon it because there is there
the most acute and positive feeling which at other times is only
perceived in the fingers.” For purposes of experiment Van Helmont
touched a root of aconite with the tip of his tongue—a risky
action—taking care, however, not to swallow any of it. “Immediately,” he
says, “my head seemed tied tightly with a string and soon after there
happened to me a singular circumstance such as I had never before
experienced. I observed with astonishment that I no longer felt and
thought with the head but with the _region of the stomach_, as if
consciousness had now taken up its seat there. Terrified by this unusual
phenomenon, I asked myself and enquired unto myself carefully, but I
only became the more convinced that my power of perception had become
greater and more comprehensive. This intellectual clearness was
associated with great pleasure. I did not sleep, nor did I dream.... I
had occasionally had ecstasies but these had nothing in common with this
condition of the stomach in which it thought and felt and almost
excluded all co-operation of the head. This state continued for two
hours after which I had some dizziness.” Van Helmont writes of the “Sun
tissue” in the region of the stomach which from the earliest recorded
times has been identified with the zodiacal Virgo around which so many
myths, parables and legends cluster. Jasper is associated with this part
of the body of man, and to dream of it is said to symbolise love’s
faithfulness known to the mind before the heart:

           “_Love looks not with the eyes but with the mind,
           And therefore is Dan Cupid painted blind._”

Amongst the symbolic jewels of the Rosicrucians this stone was regarded
as the centre stone of the vibrations of light and of its penetrating
diffusions. All varieties of jasper are under the celestial Virgo.

JET

 “_Your lustre too ’ll draw courtship to you as a iet (jet) doth
    straws._”
                                                             BEN JONSON.

The name jet is derived from the Greek GAGATES, from GAGAS, a river in
Syria. It is also written as jesstone, and jeetstone. Dr. Murray gives
the following forms gete, geet, get, geete, geyte, geitt, gett, gette,
geytt, gate, giette, geate, ieet, iete, ieit, ieate, iet, jeat, jett,
jette. It is a variety of coal resembling cannel coal, but harder, of
deeper colour and with a higher degree of lustre. Pliny writes that
“Gagates is a stone so-called from Gages, the name of a town and river
in Lycia.” When burnt it gives out a sulphureous smell which, according
to the Venerable Bede (7th century), drove away serpents. Its virtue was
esteemed in cases of hysteria, in detecting epileptic tendencies and in
loss of virginity. A decoction of jet in wine was esteemed as a cure for
toothache, and in combination with wax it was used in cases of scrofula.
Magicians, it is said, make use of Gagates in the practice of what is
known as “Axinomancy”—a form of magic in which a piece of jet is placed
on a red-hot axe—prophesying events according to the burning of the
substance. Jet is highly electrical and will attract fluff in the same
way as amber does, hence it was known as Black Amber, especially in the
16th century, by the people of the Baltic coast. It was much used in
magical ceremonies, especially those in connection with the dead, as a
charm against evil magic, spells and envy, and as a cure for dropsy,
colds, chills and loss of hair. The fumes from burning jet are no doubt
very relieving in what is commonly known as cold in the head, the action
being homœopathic in this case, as such discomforts are Saturnine and
the employment of jet is the employment of a saturnine substance for the
removing of a saturnine affliction. The use of jet for rosaries is noted
by Cardan: it cooled the passions and protected the wearer against evil
influences. Its fumes were considered potent in female disorders.
Boetius says that it protected the wearer against nightmares and night
terrors. Mr. King mentions the discovery of a number of jet ornaments at
Cologne in 1846 which were believed to have belonged to the ancient
priestesses of Cybele or Rhea, the goddess of the mountain-forests and
caves of the earth. Her worship was wild and weird, her votaries with
torches ablaze rushing through the trees in the darkness of the night,
fighting and wounding each other to the accompaniment of the screeching
of the pipes, the clashing of cymbals and the mad uproar of drunken
song. Cybele was associated as a mountain goddess with the forest-god
Pan, the goat-god, who is identified with the Zodiacal Capricornus, and
jet was used in her worship. It was regarded as a banisher of
melancholia and a protective badge for travellers. To dream of it was
said to signify sadness. In the form of a shield against the bites of
serpents it was advised that powdered jet be taken and mixed with the
marrow of a stag. To many writers this has seemed ridiculous but beneath
the surface the true meaning may be detected. Astrologically jet is
under the zodiacal Capricorn and the planet Saturn, the stag is under
Gemini and the planet Mercury, the marrow of the stag is ruled by Venus
and in this case signifies the essence supreme, the serpent is under the
planet Mars. Interpreted, this symbolic passage would read: Use wisdom
and caution (Jet) knowledge (stag) and love (marrow) then wilt thou
overcome, subdue and defeat the lower self (serpent) and the sting of
sin. Crypts of this kind were very frequently employed by Hermetic
brotherhoods for conveying their teachings to each other. The use of
parables, secret signs, tokens and symbols was the real method of
conveying truths employed by the ancient masters. By this means
concentration was impelled and the soul prepared to receive great
truths.

KAURI GUM

             “_As some tall Kauri soars in lonely pride._”
                                                   RENWICK.

Kauri obtains its name from the Maoris and appears in various forms:
kowrie, cowry, courie, coudie. It is gum of a light amber colour which
has exuded from the Kauri pine (Dammara Australis) a species of Dammar
growing in New Zealand. The gum is obtained by digging over spots where
the trees once grew, and it is found sometimes in lumps the size of a
football. Kauri gum is electric and much softer and less durable than
amber. It has been suggested as a useful substitute for amber in throat
troubles, asthma, hay fever and glandular swellings. It is under the
celestial Taurus.

KOLOPHONITE. (See GARNET.)

KUNZITE. (See SPODUMENE.)

KYANITE. Kyanite derives its name from the Greek KUANOS, blue. It is
also written as Cyanite and, because of its unequal hardness, Disthene
(twice strong). White specimens are termed RHOETIZITE. Chemically
kyanite harmonizes with andalusite (q. v.) for both are silicates of
aluminium, but as Dr. Smith writes, “points of difference show how large
a share the molecular grouping has in determining the aspect of
crystallized substances.” Usually kyanite is found in long, thin
blade-like crystals and more rarely in short, full crystals. Its colours
are light blue, blue and white, white, grey-green and, more rarely,
black. Its hardness varies from 5 to a little over 7 in Mohs’ scale.
When cut the blue variety resembles the light sapphire although it
cannot display the same brilliancy. The stone is, however, very little
employed in jewellery. The peculiarities of kyanite place it under the
celestial Aquarius.

LABRADORITE

   “_The beautiful opalised kind of felspar called Labrador stone._”
                                                      PINKERTON.

Also written Labrador, is an opalescent grey-blue felspar of
extraordinary gleam, often reflecting green, yellow and red. It obtains
its name from the place of its origin, as it was first found by Moravian
missionaries in 1770 at St. Paul Island off the coast of Labrador.
Specimens have also been found in stones of meteoric origin. The stone
is effective and might with advantage be more extensively used in
jewellery. Its hardness is the same as the opal. Labradorite is under
the celestial Aquarius.

LAPIS LAZULI

  “_The appearance of the Lord’s divine sphere in the spiritual
  Heavens._”

                                                         SWEDENBORG.

LAPIS LAZULI derives its name from the Latin word Lapis, a stone, and
the Arabic Azul, blue. It has been variously written as Zumemo Lazuli,
Zemech Lazarilli, Stellatus, Lapis Lazary, Lapis Coelestus, the Azure
Gem, the Armenian Stone, Lapis Lazari. Its composition includes for the
greater part silica and alumina, with soda, lime, iron, sulphuric acid,
sulphur, chlorine and water. It is assumed to be a product of contact
metamorphism, and is described by Pliny as “opaque and sprinkled with
specks of gold” (yellow pyrites). It is found in Persia, Tartary, China,
Thibet and Siberia. Badakhshan or Budukhshan in Central Asia is famous
for its Lapis Lazuli mines in which, it is recorded, the rock is split
with the help of fire. The stone is often found in tints of green, red,
violet, or colourless, but these may be termed varieties. The miners of
Budukhshan call the blue Lapis “Nili,” the sky-blue “Asmani,” and the
blue-green tints “Sabzi.” Some of the finest lajward (lapis lazuli) is
sent from the Persian markets whence formerly specimens of rare beauty
were exposed for sale at the fairs of Nijni-Novgorod. From very remote
times Persia supplied the ancient world with the greatest quantities of
lajward. The “sapphirus” of old is the Lapis Lazuli of today, and it is
recommended that the 26th chapter of The Book of the Dead should be
recited before a deific figure cut from this stone. As early as 1500
years before Christ we have a record that the Lapis Lazuli placed on the
neck of a sick child reduced fever. Many of the Egyptian priests wore
images formed from the stone which was regarded as an emblem of the
heavens. Epiphanius, Bishop of Constantia in Cyprus, at the latter part
of the 4th century, quotes from older sources the tradition that the
tables of the Law of Moses were written on two blocks of Lapis Lazuli,
which is identified as the eleventh stone of the magic Breastplate. In
the ceremonies of the Temple of Heaven in China, ornaments of LIU-LI
(Lapis Lazuli) were used, and the Chinese sacred writings record how at
one time the priest-kings bore it as an offering to the Lord of the
Universe. In accordance with the desire of Catherine II of Russia her
favourite room in the Zarskoe Selo palace was adorned with lapis lazuli,
symbolic of the country she governed, and amber, as a symbol of herself.
The ancient Greeks and Romans considered a piece of Lapis Lazuli—the
stone of Heaven—as the most fitting distinction to bestow for personal
bravery. It was regarded as a true stone of friendship and of the
affection arising from friendship. Ancient physicians regarded this gem
as of potent value in eye troubles, one old prescription advising that a
specimen be placed in a bowl of water, warm but not hot, for the space
of some few minutes, and then that the eye affected be bathed in the
water which must be as pure as can be obtained. The stone was also
valued if placed, just warm, on swellings or seats of pain. It was also
regarded as a cure for ague, melancholia, disorders of the blood,
neuralgic affections and spasmodic action. As a talisman it was worn to
protect against injuries, especially to the ankles, to attract friends,
gain favours and realize hopes. Lapis Lazuli was used by many of the old
alchemists in special work of an esoteric nature and is frequently
alluded to as the Stone of Heaven in which the stars are held. It is
under the zodiacal Aquarius.

LIMONITE. This stone was named Limonite by Professor Hausmann in 1813
from the Greek word LEIMON, a meadow. It is a species of brown haematite
(scarcely as hard as the opal) which according to Professor Dana appears
to have been the result in all cases of the decomposition of other
iron-bearing rocks or minerals. It is under the celestial Aries.

LODESTONE

           “_The magnet weds the steel, the secret rites
           Nature attends and th’ heavenly pair unites._”
                                  (CLAUDIANUS OF ALEXANDRA.)

The lodestone, which is also written though not so correctly, Loadstone,
obtains its name from the Anglo-Saxon LAD, a course, LITHAN, to lead,
and STAN. Another form is Lodysshestone, the stone that shows the way.
It is also known as Magnetite or the ancient Magnet, from the Greek
MAGNES. The lodestone or magnetite is a black iron ore of high magnetic
quality, and this peculiar attracting force is said to have first
indicated what we now term magnetism. According to Pliny a Greek
shepherd—Magnes, by name—whilst tending his sheep on Mount Ida, found
pieces of lodestone clinging to the ferrule of his shepherd’s staff.
Titus Carus Lucretius, in his great philosophical work “De Rerum Natura”
(about 55 B. C.), calls the Magnetite the Magnesium Stone, which he said
obtained its name from Magnesia, a town in Thessaly. Another name
applied to this stone is SIDERIT, but its best-known appellation in the
ancient world was HERACLION, or stone of Hercules. It is interesting to
recall the legend of the old Phoenician mariners, which tells that
Hercules, admiring their daring and skill, desired to help them in the
science of navigation. For this purpose he obtained from Helios a cup of
Heraclion which always turned to the North. This seems to indicate that
the mariners’ compass is of older date than the 11th century; indeed the
Chinese assert that in the year 2634 B.C. the Emperor Houangti first
constructed a magnetic compass. The Greek traveller and historian
Pausanias in his “Helbados Periegesis” published in the second century,
writes of the rough stone image of Hercules in the Temple at Hyettos,
which the sick came but to touch in order to be healed of their
disorders. As a stone of healing the lodestone was highly esteemed as a
cure for gout, rheumatism, cramp, disorders which frequently yield to
treatment wherein iron is employed. It was used during childbirth and in
diseases of the generative organs. Finely powdered and mixed with oil or
grease it was regarded by ancient writers as a preventive of or cure for
baldness. In the Orphic Lythica it is stated that holding this stone to
the head, the voices of the gods could be heard, heavenly knowledge
gained and divine things seen. It is here advised that one should sit
alone in earnest meditation asking the celestial powers for guidance or
help in some particular trouble, when the reply flowing through the
stone would be quickly sensed and understood by the sincere petitioner.
A woman’s moral character was said to be betrayed by the lodestone which
endowed strength, will and the ability to look into the future. It was
also carried as a charm to protect against shipwreck. It is related that
after the death of his sister-wife Arsinoe, Ptolemy II (Philadelphus)
planned with his architect Dinochares a temple to be built of lodestone
in order that her iron statue would be held for ever in suspension,
seemingly in space, but death defeated the plan. In referring to the
power of lodestones Professor Noad (“Electricity”) states: “The smallest
stones have greater attractive force in proportion to their size than
larger ones.” Francis Barrett under the heading of “Antipathies” writes
that a diamond disagrees with a lodestone and being present suffers no
iron to be drawn to it. However, it is as a lovers’ token that the
lodestone is most extolled; it is often found set in lovers’ rings of
the Middle Ages. Claudianus in his “Idyl” published in the latter part
of the 4th century gives a record of a temple wherein was a statue of
Venus in lodestone, and another of Mars in iron—symbols of the
attraction of the wife for the husband and of the husband for the wife.
There is an old belief that the magnet was affected by the onion, and in
this connection the following extract from “Notes and Queries,”
December, 1917, is interesting: “The notorious Count de Benyowsky at the
end of Chapter III of his ‘Memoirs and Travels’ mentions the stratagem
which he tried at sea to falsify the compass by the use of iron and
garlic. I now find that in the 17th century the belief actually
prevailed in England that an onion would destroy the power of the
magnet. Thus Sir John Pettus of Suffolk, Kt., after describing his visit
as a youth to the lead mines of Derbyshire in company with Sir Thomas
Bendish says that having magnetized the blade of his knife and hearing
that contact with an onion would utterly destroy that power, he
preferred to believe rather than risk losing his magnet. The passage
occurs in a rambling note on ‘Mineralls’ in the second part of his
‘Fleta Minor.’” It might be considered in connection with such stories
that the onion as well as the lodestone is of the zodiacal Scorpio. To
dream of the lodestone warns of subtle dealings and contentions. It is
under the celestial Scorpion.



                               CHAPTER XX
                           MALACHITE—NEPHRITE

MALACHITE: ROSICRUCIAN SYMBOL OF ETERNAL SPRING: USED IN ANTIQUE CAMEI
    AND INTAGLI: VIRTUES: A SLEEP STONE: MARBLE, THE STONE OF STATUES:
    VARIETIES: EMBLEM OF IMMORTALITY: THE SYMBOL OF MERCURY: THE IMAGE
    OF SILENUS: MEERSCHAUM: KAVOL KOWATES MAKES A MEERSCHAUM PIPE:
    MELANITE: MOONSTONE OR CEYLON OPAL: INDIAN BELIEFS: STONE OF
    PROPHECY AND LOVE: SPECIMEN OF POPE LEO X: MOSS AGATE: AN EMBLEM OF
    RESURRECTION: ORPHEUS’S ADVICE: MOTHER OF EMERALD: MOTHER OF PEARL:
    NACRE: EMBLEM OF WOMEN: CUSTOM OF THE WEST AUSTRALIAN NATIVE:
    NEPHRITE: LAPIS NEPHRITICUS OR KIDNEY STONE: SIR WALTER RALEIGH’S
    DESCRIPTION: JADE AND JADEITE: CAMPHOR JADE: BURMESE JADE: NEPHRITE
    CHARMS: CHINESE AND JADE: FIND NEAR PEKING: THE NINE ACCOMPLISHMENTS
    AND THE FIVE CARDINAL VIRTUES: JADE AS A PREVENTIVE OF DECAY:
    MUSICAL JADE STONES: THE LUNAR FESTIVALS: JADE OF THE NORTH, SOUTH,
    EAST AND WEST: ITS HEALING VIRTUES: BUDDHA’S FOOTMARK: SYMBOL OF
    RULERSHIP: ADADU-NEPHROS OR KIDNEY OF ADONIS: THE 6 VARIETIES OF THE
    MAORIS: THE HEI TIKI: THE TAHUNGA STONE AND THE MERE OR PATTOO
    PATTOO: DAMOUR’S CHLOROMELANITE: PÂTÉ DE RIZ: PINK JADE: IONAN JADE:
    THE HYSTERIA STONE AT THE NEW YORK MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY.


MALACHITE

  “_Melochites is a grene stone lyke to Smaragdus and hath that name of
  the colour of Malawes._”

                                                            TREVISA.


The Malachite derives its name from the Greek MALACHE, marsh mallow,
from its resemblance to the soft green leaves of this plant. It is
variously written as melochite, malachquite, etc. It is a green
carbonate of copper which comes to us through the ages as a symbol of
children and of the child of the year—eternal Spring. It has been
confused with the Molochite of Pliny, but it is more likely the
smaragdus medicus, as identified by Mr. King, and the chrysocolla of
Theophrastus. In Rosicrucian philosophy it was the symbol of the vernal
equinox and the arising of the spiritual man. Malachite and azurite
(q.v.) have been found together in single specimens. Malachite is much
employed for decorative purposes by the Russians, who have produced some
excellent works of art in this material. It was greatly favoured by the
Egyptians and antique camei and intagli have been frequently found
patinated by the hard hand of age. The virtues ascribed to this stone
are many. It strengthened the stomach, head and kidneys, prevented
vertigo and rupture and saved the wearer from evil magic, seduction,
falls and accidents. The Egyptians held it to be efficacious in cholera
and rheumatism. It was said to bestow strength on children, to aid them
during dentition, to ward off convulsions, all harm, witchcraft and the
evil eye. Some old writers give directions for swallowing powdered
malachite, especially for cardiac affections—a practice dangerous and
undesirable. The action of stones and gems is subtle and the intense
vibratory action is so gentle as to be usually quite unfelt by the
material senses. Powdering a specimen disturbs the cohesive molecules
and deprives them of their insidious action. A stone multiplies from
without and by the laws of correspondence its action on man is always
from external to internal. The Malachite was also called the Sleep Stone
from its reputation of charming the wearer to sleep. It was also
regarded as a protection from lightning. Massive malachite bears a close
resemblance to the kidneys in the human body. It is under the zodiacal
Libra.

[Illustration:

  “Inspiration”

  Marble Group in Central Hall, Art Institute, Chicago. Signed—Kathleen
    Beverly Robinson. Memorial to Florence Jane Adams. Presented by
    Friends and Pupils of Mrs. Adams, 1915

  By kind permission of The Art Institute of Chicago
]

MARBLE

            “_And the cold marble leapt to life, a god._”
                                                    MILMAN.

Marble derives its name from the Latin MARMOR, cognate with the Greek
MARMOROS, from MARMAIRO to sparkle. It has been variously written in
England as marbre, marbyr, marbel, marbal, marboll, marbelle, merbyl,
marbill, marbyll, marbull, marbell, etc. It is carbonate of lime, pure
when the colour is white and of various shades of colour when combined
with oxide of iron and other substances. The marble favoured by the
ancients was the Parian which is finely granular, waxy when polished,
and lasting. The beautiful Venus de Medici and other exquisite Greek
statues were formed of Parian. Another favourite variety was the more
finely grained and whiter marble of Pentelicus from which the Parthenon
was built. The Pyramid of Cheops and other famous structures of the kind
were built of a variety known as nummilitic limestone, which is composed
of numerous disk-shaped fossils known as nummilites. Portor is a deep
black Genoese marble with yellow veinings. The deep black marble of
antiquity is known as Nero-antico; Rosso antico is a deep blood-red
besprinkled with white minute marks; Verde antico is a misty green;
Giallo antico a deep yellow with yellow or black rings. Carrara marble
is greatly used by modern sculptors and was well-known to the ancients;
it is a fine-grained pure white marble traversed by grey veins. Pure
white marble was an emblem of purity and as such has always been
regarded as fitting for tombstones and other sepulchral monuments. As an
emblem of immortality it is expressed by the triform symbol of the
planet Mercury (the cross, the circle and the crescent), with which is
associated the Christ resurrection in Christian mysticism. Amongst
Rosicrucian students the cross is symbolical of the pain of matter, for
on it matter is fixed;—the circle the ascent of the soul which is above
matter and never ending; the semi-circle which surmounts the whole, the
spirit which is over all everlastingly. Evidences of the old
custom—still followed in many countries—of placing pieces of white
marble in the grave with dead bodies was some few years ago brought to
light in Ireland. Dr. Holland’s translations from Pliny record “a
strange thing of the quarries of the island Paros, namely, that in one
quarter thereof there was a vein of marble found which when it was
cloven in twaine with wedges shewed naturally within the true image and
perfect portraiture of Silenus imprinted on it.” All marble is under the
celestial Gemini.

MARCASITE. See PYRITE.

MEERSCHAUM

 “_A meerschaum pipe nearly black with smoking is considered a
    treasure._”
                                       J. NOTT. DEKKER’S GULL’S HORN
                                          BOOK.

Meerschaum obtains its name from the German Meer, sea, and Schaum, foam,
which is, according to Dr. Murray, a literal translation of the Persian
KEF-I-DARYA (foam of the sea). It is also called keffekill and
kiffekiefe, which has been credited with meaning the “earth of the town
of Keffe or Kaffe,” the Crimean town whence it is exported. Its
technical name is Sepiolite, and its various forms are given as myrsen,
meershaum, meerchum, mereschaum, merschaum, meerschaum. It is a hydrous
silicate of magnesia, extremely soft and light, smooth to the touch and
in colour of white, grey-white, yellow and sometimes pinkish. Kirwan,
the mineralogist, writing in the latter part of the 18th century says,
“Kefferkill or Myrsen is said, when recently dug, to be of a yellow
colour and as tenacious as cheese or wax.” It is well-known that the
Tartars use newly dug meerschaum as we use soap, on account of its
excellent lather. The peasantry at one time really believed it to be the
petrified foam of the sea. The Meerschaum is included amongst the
Galactites or Milk Stones. On account of its lightness it was first
fashioned into a smoking pipe by a Hungarian shoemaker, Kavol Kowates,
skilled in wood carving and metal work, in the old town of Pesth, in the
museum of which town it now rests. The piece of meerschaum from which
Kowates made his pipe was brought to Hungary by his patron Count
Andrassy on his return from a diplomatic mission to Turkey. The
Meerschaum is under the celestial Gemini.

MELANITE. See GARNET.

MOONSTONE

                 “_Soon as the evening shades prevail,
                 The Moon takes up the wondrous tale.
                 And nightly to the listening earth
                 Repeats the story of her birth._”
                                             ADDISON.

The Moonstone is an orthoclase feldspar of the opalescent variety of
Adularia, of a pearly moon-like lustre—hence the name Stone of the Moon.
It appears under the forms of moona, mone, mon, mowne, moone, moyne,
mione, mune and muni; it is known in France as Pierre de la Lune. Its
abundance in Ceylon has earned for it the name of “Ceylon Opal.” The
Indians call it “Chandra Kanta,” and according to them it grows under
the rays of the moon and absorbs in the process of formation an
atmospheric ether which impregnates it with peculiar occult and magical
properties. These properties once infused into the stone never leave it.
They are said to have a remarkable effect on the psychic nature of man,
enabling him to prophesy—according to Leonardus—in the waning of the
moon and to love in the waxing. The natives of Ceylon have a story that
every third seventh year moonstones of opalescent blue are, by the
influence of the moon, hurled on the island shore by the waves. Pliny
says that in the stone an image of the moon is impressed, which waxes
and wanes in harmony with the luminary. It is related that Pope Leo X
possessed a wonderful specimen which, obscure and dull when the moon was
old, increased in brilliance as that orb grew from new to full. It is
recommended that in order to know the future and to obtain spiritual
guidance a moonstone be held in the mouth, under a waning moon. It is
also necessary to be quite alone and to send out a mental prayer to the
angel Gabriel (angel of the Moon) asking help by God’s grace. The
Moonstone was considered as a charm against cancer, dropsy and
affections of a watery nature. In fever, if applied to the temples it
reduced the temperature and protected the patient. It also cooled heated
imaginations and protected against moonstrokes and lunacy. The moonstone
is said to protect the wearer from danger on the ocean and to give good
fortune whilst travelling. As a symbol it signifies Hope, and as a dream
symbol it indicates travelling and health—good when the stone is bright
and clear, and bad when it is dark and lustreless. It is under the
celestial Cancer.

MOSS AGATE or MOCHA STONE

            “_Whilst on that agate which dark Indians praise
            The woods arise, the sylvan monster strays._”
                                                   MARBODUS.

The Mocha stone is said to have obtained its name from the Arabian city
of Mocha whence it was exported. It has been written in various ways:
mocus, mocoe, mocoa, mochoe, mochoa, mocha, mocho. It is called Piedra
de Moca in Spain, Pierre de Mocka in France, and Mokkastein in Germany.
The Mocha stone is called Dendritic because of the plant and moss-like
infiltrations exhibited. These are like frost crystals often formed by
the magic hand of Nature, and often also by plants held in hollows
wherein the siliceous mineral was composed. The Mocha Stone besides
being called Moss Agate is also called Tree Agate in common with
silicified trees in which the original structural details are accurately
preserved. Remarkable pictures formed by Nature in the Agate have
already been noticed. Pliny hints at the employment of artifice in the
production of many of these stones, and the secret was long a cherished
knowledge of the Italian workers in gems. Early in the 19th century,
however, some German scientists obtained possession of the secret and
within the past few years artificial productions from Oberstein have
reached the gem markets. The Mocha stone was accounted a most fortunate
stone. It is associated with the influences of the planet Venus and was
always noted as a sign of fertility. For this reason farmers tied
specimens to their fruit trees, to the harness of their horses and to
the horns of their cattle. In the early 19th century it was highly
esteemed in Europe, and in England especially it was used for luck
rings, oftentimes surrounded with rubies (stones of the sun). It was
also used for mourning jewellery as an emblem of the resurrection and of
the eternal life which alone is permanently manifest throughout Nature.
Orpheus advises that to secure the smiles of the gods a piece of the
stone should be worn, also that the ploughman carrying it would receive
heavenly bounty. It was greatly esteemed by physicians and apothecaries
as a base on which to prepare their medicines. As a symbol it stood for
good health and long life and to dream of it, increase of possessions.
It is under the celestial Taurus.

MOTHER OF EMERALD. See PLASMA.

MOTHER OF PEARL. See NACRE.

[Illustration:

  Antique Moss Agate Patch Box

  Mrs. W. R. Furlong’s Collection
]

[Illustration:

  Moss Agate Basket

  William Howat Collection
]

NACRE

            “_’Tis a valley paved with golden sands,
            With pearls and nacre shells._”
                         SYLVESTER (1605) Trans. Du Bartas.

Nacre or Mother of Pearl is the inner layer of various molluscs and is
more particularly applied to the Meleagrina Margaritifera or large
oyster shell in which the precious pearl is formed. The French call it
Mère Perle, and it is found written as Moder Perl, Mother Perle, Mother
Pearle. Nacre is said to have derived its name from the Persian word
NIGAR, painting, because of the iridescent colours displayed, but Dr.
Murray, although remarking on its probable Oriental origin, regards its
derivation as uncertain. Various forms are noted, as: nackre, nacker,
nakre, naker, and there is no doubt of its antique application. Hoole in
1658 wrote that “the oyster affordeth sweet meat—the nacre pearls.”
Mythologically the Mother of Pearl shell is symbolical of Latona or Leto
“goddess of the dark night,” mother of the Sun god Apollo and the Moon
goddess Artemis or Diana. She, as ancient story tells, whilst fleeing
from the fury of Hera, Queen of Heaven, reached an island rock, driven
about by the restless waves, which when solidly fixed by Neptune became
the famous island of the Ægean Sea—Delos. Here were born the radiant
twins Apollo and Artemis in a flood of golden light whilst the sacred
swans encircled the island seven times. The golden light, so powerful at
this event, is the light which at conjunction (new moon) blends with the
silvery light of the night orb. The Pearl Shell like its child, the
pearl, is always associated with female life which in astro-philosophy
is moon-ruled. The natives of Western Australia, hidden in the bushes,
charmed women by the aid of the reflected light from the shell of the
mother of pearl. These big shells are thick, flat and roundish, in size
often as much as a foot in diameter. The two varieties are known as
black-lipped and silver-lipped, and within them rests the protected
pearl. The pearl shell is greatly in demand for the manufacture of many
and varied articles of commerce. It is under the celestial Cancer—the
mansion of the moon and the sign of the deep ocean.

NEPHRITE

  “_Many of the Indians wore pieces of Greenstone round their necks
  which were transparent and resembled an emerald. These being examined,
  appeared to be a species of nephrite stone._”

                                               COOK’S VOYAGES, 1790.

In ancient times the minerals comprising or included in this important
group were commonly known by the name Lapis Nephriticus or Kidney Stone,
and from this name in the 18th century Dr. A. G. Werner suggested the
term Nephrite. To the Nephrite varieties the general term Jade is
universally applied. The name occurs in old writings as jad and jadde,
and is derived from the Spanish Hijada, kidney. Sir Walter Raleigh in
1595 wrote of this “kinde of stones which the Spaniards call Piedras
Hijadas and we use for spleene stones.” Chemically the species included
under the name “jade” are not the same, the nephrite jade being a
silicate of lime and magnesia and the jadeite a silicate of sodium and
alumina, but the modern scientist in common with the ancient scientist
binds them together under the one denomination—kidney stone. In the 19th
century Professor A. Damour demonstrated the chemical difference between
jade and jadeite. The well-known Camphor Jade of China is a white
jadeite, some specimens containing certain percentages of Chromium
exhibiting those apple-green patches so highly praised by gem
collectors. Burmese Jade, known as Chauk-Sen, (which since the 13th
century has been principally exported to China) is chiefly jadeite, and
the Imperial Jade of charming pale or apple-green colour, known as
Feitsui and set down by some writers as chrysoprase, is more properly
Prehnite. The nephrite charms—Piedras Hijadas—known in Mexico as
Chalchihuith when the Spanish invaded that country were probably
jadeites. The Chinese have held the jade family in the highest esteem
and reverence for many centuries, and it poetically expresses to them
all the virtues of many precious stones blended together. It is said
that most of the nephrite used by them came from the Kuen-lun mountains
in Turkestan, but the discovery of the mineral at no great distance from
Peking in 1891 helped to make that city a great working centre. The
Chinese word for jade is YU, expressed in their hieroglyph as a cross
over a kind of semi-circle. Jade stone they know as YU-CHI, and precious
objects of jade as OUAN YU. The words KHITCHINJOU-YU indicates a gem
rare as jade, and the Imperial Academy was known as Jade Hall. The
Turkestan name for jade closely resembles the Chinese YU in its form
YASHM, YUSHM or YESHM.

Ages before the Christian era the jade was said to indicate the nine
accomplishments, Charity, Goodness, Virtue, Knowledge, Skill, Morality,
Divination, Rectitude, Harmony. YU may also be rendered “courage,” and
in its connection with the jade stone or YU-CHI it included the five
cardinal virtues—YU, bravery, JIU charity, JI modesty, KETSU equity, CHI
discrimination. In her “Wanderings in China” Mrs. C. F. Gordon Cummings
says: “The Chinese name for jade is YU-SHEK—(it may also be written
YU-CHI) and that by which we call it is said to be a corruption of a
Spanish word referring to a superstition of the Mexican Indians who
deemed that to wear a bracelet of this stone was the surest protection
against all diseases of the loins: hence the Spanish named the mineral
Piedra di Hijada (stone of the loins) by which name it became known in
Europe.” Jade is the concentrated element of love which protected the
infant and the adult and preserved the bodies of the dead from decay.
Dr. Kunz quotes the Chinese mystical writer Ko Kei who asserted that the
body of a man who had consumed 5 pounds weight of jade powdered did not
change colour when he died, and that when several years later it was
exhumed no evidences of change or decay were visible. When vibrated this
stone produces musical notes, and it was regarded as expressive of music
and harmony, poets singing its praises. It was the emblem of love,
beauty, protection and charm, and it graced the holy altars. For the
altar of earth the symbolic jade stone was of yellowish hue, whilst
during lunar festivals white jade was employed. Black—mentioned, but
doubtful indeed—was the North Jade, and red the South. White was the
West and green the East. It was said that in sickness the heat of the
body drew out virtues from the jade, healing virtues soothing and life
protecting. In “Buddhist Records of the Western World” Mr. Samuel Beal
writes that “in the kingdom of Kuichi or Kuche in the Eastern Convent
known as the Buddha Pavilion, there is a large yellowish-white jade
stone shaped like a sea shell which bears on its surface what is said to
be Buddha’s footmark. This footmark is one foot 8 inches long and 8
inches in breadth. It is said that the relic emits a bright sparkling
light at the conclusion of each fast day.” Professor E. H. Parkes, M.A.
in “Ancient China Simplified” mentions a custom of burying a jade symbol
of rulership in the ancestral temple to protect the fortunes of the
family, and jade symbols adorned private family insignia. Strangely
enough the world’s people have always reverenced the nephrite as the
kidney stone—the use of it goes further back than the knowledge of man.
It was used in old Egypt as in old China, and Pliny mentions the
Adadu-nephros or kidney of Adonis. This is an early identification of
jade with the Venusian Adonis and the parts of the body over which Venus
astrologically presides. The Indians call it the Divine Stone which is
credited with being a cure for gravel and epilepsy and as a charm
against the bites of animals and poisonous reptiles. It was also said to
remove thirst and hunger, to cure heartburn and asthma and to affect
favourably the voice, organs of the throat, the liver and the blood. Its
greasy surface led to its employment as a hair improver, but its chief
excellence was in nephritic disorders and specimens worn over the region
of the kidneys or on the arm are said to have acted in a wonderful and
unexpected manner in the banishing of these troubles. It is claimed also
as a power for the removal of gravel. The Maoris of New Zealand
according to the best authorities noted six varieties of jade. Punamu is
their name for the whole species termed by authors of the last decade
“green talc of the Maoris.” The well-known greenstone variety is termed
Kawakawa by the Maoris, the paler and more precious Kahurangi, the
greyish Inanga. The Tangiwai stone is a pellucid serpentine or variety
of Bowenite. The Nephrite is a sacred stone to these sturdy New
Zealanders who use it in the construction of their offensive and
defensive weapons and sacred objects. These greenstone weapons are
amongst the finest of known stone tools. The sacred and curiously formed
charm, the Hei Tiki, is an esoteric symbol which is worn as a precious
emblem and never parted with except for very weighty reasons. For
example, a Hei Tiki recently handled by the author was given by an old
chief on his deathbed to an English officer who had saved his life in
the Maori war. The Tahunga stone—the stone of the magicians by the aid
of which the flashes of light were directed by the Medicine Man to
bewildered eyes, was usually formed from a Kahurangi type of greenstone,
and the Mere or Pattoo Pattoo, a club of dark Punamu, was said to send
its victims to the world of Spirits.

[Illustration: Old Maori Charm of Greenstone Known as “Hei Tiki”]

A variety of jade of dark green colour, discovered in the Swiss Lake
dwellings and the dolmens of France usually in the form of Celts was
termed Chloromelanite by Professor Damour. This Nephrite has also been
discovered in New Guinea where it was fashioned by the natives into
clubs and other implements. Other Nephrites have been termed Fibrolite
or Sillimanite. The Pâté de Riz is merely a fine white glass, and Pink
Jade is usually a piece of quartz. Some beautiful specimens of
translucent green jade are collected by children on the Island of Iona
and many specimens have been unearthed in various parts of Europe.
Professor Max Muller discovered in old Egypt a remarkable green stone
used as a charm against hysteria; this interesting specimen is now in
the Museum of Natural History, New York.

The Nephrite family is under the celestial Libra.



                              CHAPTER XXI
                             OBSIDIAN—ONYX

OBSIDIAN, A NATURAL VOLCANIC GLASS: ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CUSTOMS: MEXICAN
    ITZTLI: STATUES IN OBSIDIAN: USED BY GREEKS AND ROMANS: “OBSIDIANS”:
    OBSIDIAN “BOMBS”: BOTTLE STONE: MR. R. H. WALCOTT AND HIS TERM
    OBSIDIANITES: AUSTRALITES: BILLITONITES: MR. F. CHAPMAN’S THEORY:
    SUPERSTITIONS OF THE NATIVES: OLIVINE: DERIVATION: LEGEND OF THE
    SLEEPING VENUS: THE GATES: THE ONYX STONES OF THE HIGH PRIEST: LIFE
    AND EARTH DEATH: ANTIQUE BELIEF NOTED BY MR. PHILLIPS AND ITS
    MEANING: RABBI BENONI AND THE MASTER RAGIEL: EYE STONES: A CHARM OF
    BEAUTY: CASTOR AT THE TOMB OF APHAREUS: NICOLO THE ÆGYPTILLA OF THE
    ANCIENTS: GIBRALTAR STONE: THE MANTUAN VASE: EL JAZA OR STONE OF
    SADNESS: 5 TYPES OF ONYX: AN ONYX STAIRCASE: SYMBOLICAL MEANING OF
    THE STRATA: AS ROSICRUCIAN STONES: THE SAINTE CHAPELLE OR GRAND
    CAMAHIEU KNOWN AS THE “APOTHEOSIS OF AUGUSTUS”: PEIRESC CORRECTS A
    FALSE BELIEF: THE CARPEGNA CAMEO: THE CORONATION CAMEO OF AUGUSTUS:
    TRUE MEANING AND DERIVATION OF THE WORD CAMEO.


OBSIDIAN

  “_There may be ranged among the kinds of glasses those which they call
  obsidiana for that they carry some resemblance of that stone which one
  Obsidius found in Æthyopia._”

                                                    HOLLAND’S PLINY.

This natural volcanic glass obtains its name, according to Pliny, from
Obsidius or, as he is sometimes called, Obsius, who discovered it in
Ethiopia. It is very hard, brittle and remarkably vitreous, and is
variously coloured black, pink, green, grey, striped and spotted. It was
early discovered to be a useful material from which to fashion knives,
mirrors and other objects of ornament and use. An ancient Egyptian
custom of cutting the dead bodies of their kings and priests with knives
of obsidian was followed by the Guanchos of the Canary Islands. The
ancient Mexicans used ITZTLI as they called it very generally in the
manufacture of various implements. They quarried it from the Cerro de
les Navajas or Hill of the Knives not far from Timapau. Pliny, noting
that genuine gem stones could not be cut or scratched with obsidian,
recommended the use of splinters of the substance for testing purposes.
The same author, attesting the report that statues were made of
obsidian, says: “I myself have seen solid statues in the material of the
late Emperor Augustus of very considerable thickness.” The Greeks and
Romans found it an easy material for fashioning into camei and intagli
which later were copied in glass. In the 18th century connoisseurs
applied the term “obsidians” to all antique pastes. The so-called
“Obsidian Bomb” has been much discussed and written about. Professor F.
W. Rudley says: “It was believed for a long time to be a variety of
obsidian but its different fusibility and its chemical composition are
rather against its volcanic origin.” It is known as Moldavite, so-called
by Mr. A. Dufrenoy from Moldanthein in Bohemia, where quantities have
been found. On account of its olive-like or bottle-green colour it is
also called Bottle Stone or Bouteillenstein. Dr. F. G. Suess suggested
Tectite from the Greek TEKTOS, melted. Mr. R. H. Walcott called them
obsidianites. They have also been termed Australites, Billitonites (from
Billiton Island) etc. They were highly regarded by the Australian
aboriginal as charm stones in sickness and trouble. Mr. W. F. Chapman,
A. L. S., of the Melbourne Museum agrees with Professor Rutley as to the
non-volcanic origin of the Obsidianite, and indicates the action of
lightning in their formation. In this he would have the support of the
ancient student who connects the obsidian with the heavenly Aquarius,
the “sign of air.”

OLIVINE. So-called by Werner in 1790. (See CHRYSOLITE.)

ONYX

           “_Called by the onyx round the sleeper stand
           Black dreams; and phantoms rise, a grisly band._”
                                                  MARBODUS.

The onyx derives its name from the Greek ONYX, ONYCHOS a finger-nail,
and is as previously stated a variety of chalcedony. It has been
variously written as onyx stone, onyx, onix, oniche, onice, onyse. The
name of the stone is said to have sprung from the legend which tells
that Cupid, finding Venus asleep on the river bank, cut her nails with
the sharp point of his arrow. In this story is enwrapped the mystery of
earth birth which through love enters the gate of Cancer and with the
aid of the moistures, materializes. The same parallel is expressed in
the Book of Genesis where it is written that previous to the birth of
the world the “Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” This
occult philosophy is stressed by the Platonist Macrobius who writes that
the soul, descending to the sphere of its spiritual death, the Earth,
passes through Cancer, the Gate of Man, and enters under the planetary
conditions that influence earth matters, receiving on the way the souls
of the planets to whose influence it is exposed whilst manifesting in an
earth body. As the soul descends it gathers sensation and earthy
feelings from the celestial Leo, and long before its absolutely material
birth obtains its first breath of matter. Herein is the mystery of the
“two onyx stones enclosed in mountings of gold graven with the names of
the twelve tribes of Israel which he put on the shoulders of the ephod
that they should be stones for a memorial to the children of Israel, as
the Lord commanded Moses.” As previously noted, on one onyx the names of
six tribes were engraved, on the other the names of the remaining six,
and each tribe was symbolized by a sign of the zodiac. The two onyx
stones are the material emblems of the two Gates—the Gate of Cancer and
the Gate of Capricorn—through which the self or soul enters and leaves
the earth sphere, gathering first and throwing off afterwards, the earth
elements from ethereal to gross, from gross to ethereal, as described by
Macrobius. Many of the writers of the Middle Ages place the onyx under
the signs Cancer and Capricorn and there is no reason to oppose them.
The onyx of Cancer is white and light-coloured whilst that of Capricorn
is black, the birth of the child is white and bright, and with black and
sombre colours those on earth mourn for the earth loss of the departed.
So the “coming in” and the “going out” symbolized by the two stones of
onyx set in gold, the metal of the Sun, in true talismanic style was the
memorial to the children of Israel, as it is to the world’s children
forever. Phillips, an author of the middle 17th century, notes an old
belief that the onyx is the congealed juice of a tree called Onycha,
which is commanded to be used in a sacred way in the 34th verse of the
30th chapter of Exodus, and which Emanuel Swedenborg corresponds to
“interior natural truth.” The statement, then, that the onyx is the
congealed juice of the onycha is but a cryptic way of expressing the
congealing of the waters of generation—a method followed by the occult
masters through the ages. Old Rabbi Benoni sees in the onyx a bound
spirit which, wakeful by night only, disturbs the wearer in sleep, and
the master Ragiel in his “Book of Wings” recommends that a camel’s head
or the heads of two goats among myrtles be cut on an onyx to control and
constrain demons and to make the wearer see the terrors of the night
during sleeping hours. This refers to the dark or Saturnine onyx which
is also recommended to be enclosed in a setting of lead (metal of
Saturn) and engraved with the figure of a king crowned or a witch seated
on a dragon especially in the practice of dark or doubtful occult
things. Certain varieties of onyx presenting the appearance of an eye
were largely employed as eye stones and it was recommended that such
specimens be lightly rubbed over the closed eyelids after work wherein
the eyes have been employed. Leonardus of the 16th century says that
this onyx enters the eye of its own accord and if it find anything
within that is noxious it drives it out and tempers the hurtful and
contrary humours. As a higher Saturnine stone the onyx aids spiritual
inspirations and helps the wearer to restrain excessive passion. In the
writer’s book on “Zodiacal Symbology and its Planetary Power” the first
degree of the sign Cancer is symbolized as “a curious ring set with a
large heart of white onyx.” The 1st, 2nd, 10th, 11th, 12th, 28th, 29th
degrees of Cancer are much influenced by the planet Venus and to these
degrees especially applied the white onyx engraved with a figure of
Venus, a charm recommended by old masters as a talisman of beauty and
strength. It was considered ideal for a baby girl born under those
degrees of Cancer according to astro-philosophy. Mr. King mentions a
beautifully executed onyx intaglio showing Castor naked, in his hand a
large broadsword, weeping over the tomb of Aphareus. The onyx in this
case would be of a more sombre hue and would be classed amongst the
Saturnine or mourning varieties. The famous Nicolo—known as Ægyptilla by
the ancient Romans—was obtained by cutting a blue section surrounded by
black out of the stone which then presented a fine turquoise blue with a
deep black base. On this stone some of the finest ancient work is found.
It is supposed to have obtained its name from the Greek word NIKOLAUS:
“Its strange derivation,” wrote Mr. King, "from the Greek was to suit
the virtue ascribed to it, as if it meant Victor of Nations. Its modern
derivation is from ONICOLO, an Italian word signifying a little onyx. A
variety of onyx marble with bands of brown found in the cavern limestone
of Gibraltar is known as Gibraltar Stone. Professor Dana mentions the
famous Mantuan vase at Brunswick which, cut from a single stone 7 inches
high by 2½ broad, takes the form of a cream pot. The colour is brown on
which are raised figures of white and yellow, illustrating Ceres and
Triptolemus searching for the lost Proserpine. The Saturn side of the
onyx is taken by the Arabs who call it El Jaza or Sadness, but the
colour was always considered and the varieties were thus identified:—

1. Those resembling the human finger nail, under Cancer.

2. White striped with red, under Cancer.

3. White striped with black, under Capricorn.

4. Black, unstriped, under Capricorn (probably the true El Jaza).

5. Black with white stripes, under Capricorn.

One of the most remarkable pieces of modern work in onyx is said to be
the staircase of a New York millionaire. The cost of this is set down as
300,000 dollars.

The sardonyx or Sardian onyx as it is sometimes called was written at
various periods as sardonyse, sardony, sardonix, sardonice, sardonyches,
sarderyk, sardonique, sardonick. Swedenborg corresponds it to Love of
Good and Light. It exhibits sard and white chalcedony in layers, but
some ancient authors account as fine only those specimens which exhibit
three layers at least, a black base, a white zone and a layer of red or
brown—the black symbolizing humility, the white virtue, and the red
fearlessness. The sardonyx is under the heavenly Leo, the sign of
sensation, feeling, “the first aspect of its (the soul’s) future
condition here below.” In the Rosicrucian jewels the sardonyx appears as
the gem of victorious ecstasy and rapture which flow from the eternal
font of delight, banishing grief and woe. It was said to give
self-control, conjugal happiness and good fortune, and it is said that
if the woman whose talismanic stone it is neglects to wear it she will
never marry. It was frequently engraved with an eagle or a hawk as a
talisman of fortune and it is under the celestial Leo. The “Sainte
Chapelle,” the second largest cameo known, is stated by Sir William
Smith and others to measure 12 × 10½ inches. Mr. C. W. King gives the
measurements as about 13 × 11 inches and states that it is a sardonyx of
five layers. The central carving of this “Grand Camahieu,” as it was
called, represents the return of Germanicus from Germany in the year 17
A.D., Tiberius and Livia enthroned receiving him. In exergue, the
grief-stricken captives are shown. Above is the apotheosis of Augustus
by which the whole work is now known. This remarkable cameo was for a
long time believed to typify “the triumph of Joseph in Egypt,” and was
regarded as a sacred relic. The learned Nicholas Claude Fabri de
Peiresc, the great antiquary of France, proved in 1619 the falsity of
this inconceivable belief, and was the first to classify correctly the
subject of this massive gem. By pawning this sardonyx to Louis X of
France for 10,000 silver marks the unfortunate Baldwin II, Emperor of
Constantinople, was able to save his throne a little longer. This cameo
is in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. Another five strata sardonyx
cameo—the largest known—is the Carpegna cameo, formerly in the
possession of Cardinal Carpegna and now in the Vatican. This large
specimen is 16 inches long by 12 inches. “The subject,” writes Mr. King,
“is the Pompa di Bacco, or Bacchus and Ceres,” Virgil’s “duo clarissima
mundi lumina,” as symbolizing the Sun and Moon, standing upon a
magnificent car: the god holding a vase and a thyrsus, the goddess her
bunch of wheat ears. On his right stands winged Comus. The car is drawn
by 4 centaurs, two male and two female: the first bears a rhyton and a
thyrsus, the second a torch whilst he snaps the fingers of his right
hand: one female centaur plays the double flute, the other a tambourine.
On the ground lie the mystic basket and two huge vases. The large cameo,
9 × 8 inches, known as the “Coronation of Augustus” shows that Emperor
enthroned, holding a sceptre in his right hand with Livia by his side as
Roma, etc. Between Augustus and Livia is the zodiacal sign Capricorn,
under the third degree of which Augustus was born according to Firmicus.
Beneath the various figures (Neptune, Cybele, Drusus, Tiberius, Victory,
Antonia, wife of Drusus as Abundantia, and her children Germanicus and
Claudius), are Roman soldiers erecting trophies, their unhappy captives
in the foreground.

[Illustration:

  Venus, Cupid and the Graces
  A Sardonyx Cameo by Cerbara

  Newton Robinson Collection
  Sold at Christie’s, London, in 1909
]

[Illustration:

  Large and Rare Cameo. The Argonauts Consulting Hygiea

  Kelsey I. Newman Collection
]

The word “cameo” is said to be of unknown derivation. Dr. Brewer says it
means “onyx” and there seems evidence enough to indicate that on account
of the great use of onyx and sardonyx for cutting symbolic figures in
relief, the term onyx was usually accepted as indicating the completed
work. The derivation from the Arabic CHEMEIA, a charm, is noted by Mr.
King who draws attention to the light in which such relics were
universally considered in those ages by Orientals and Europeans alike.
The Arabic word has affinity with the Talmudical Hebrew word KHEMEIA, an
amulet, and there seems little reason to doubt that Chemeia or Khemeia
is the parent of our word “cameo,” known in the ancient world as an
onyx, meaning a charm, an amulet or a talisman.



                              CHAPTER XXII
                                THE OPAL

THE OPAL IN ASTRO-PHILOSOPHY: PETRUS ARLENSIS DESCRIBES THE OPAL:
    PLINY’S POETICAL OPINION: THE PAEDEROS CHILD BEAUTIFUL AS LOVE: THE
    ORPHAN: ROMAN SENATOR AND HIS OPAL: OPHTHALMIOS THE EYE STONE:
    OPINION OF MEDIAEVAL WRITERS: THE BAY TREE: ALBERTUS MAGNUS AND THE
    OPALS THAT SPARKLED IN DARKNESS: THE ZODIACAL SIGN OF ROYALTY AND
    THE OPAL: KERAUNIOS OR THE THUNDER STONE: THE BEAUTY STONE: THE
    STONE OF HOPE, ACHIEVEMENT AND LOVE: THE LARGE HUNGARIAN OPAL:
    AUSTRALIAN OPAL FIELDS: SIR DAVID BREWSTER’S THEORY OF COLOURS IN
    OPALS: DR. G. F. H. SMITH’S EXPLANATION: SENSITIVENESS OF THE OPAL:
    SUPERSTITION AGAINST OPAL: THE PLAGUE AT VENICE: THE “BURNING OF
    TROY”: THE CRIMEAN WAR: SCOTT’S ANNE OF GEIERSTEIN: COMBINATIONS OF
    DIAMONDS AND OPALS: DESTRUCTION OF THE VANITIES AT FLORENCE: STORY
    OF THE OPAL OF ALFONZO XII OF SPAIN: A CHOLERA STONE FATAL TO THE
    KING AND TO ALL WHO RECEIVED IT FROM HIM ACCORDING TO ASTROLOGICAL
    SCIENCE: THE BARON’S OPAL OF FORTUNE.


OPAL

  “_Everyone knows how capriciously the colours of a fine opal vary from
  day to day and how rare the lights are which fully bring them out._”

                                                             RUSKIN.

The word “opal” is derived from the Latin OPALUS, and is identified with
the Sanscrit UPALA, a precious stone. It appears under the forms opale,
opall, opalle, opalis, ophal.

This beautiful inimitable gem is a hydrous silica, and is allied to the
non-metallic minerals of the agate family from which, however, it
differs in brilliancy, lustre and degree of hardness. It is sensitive to
the action of strong chemicals and does not present, like other
minerals, crystalline form. As a gem of the Sun it exhibits flows of
fire like the sun at midsummer—as a gem of Venus its delicate beauty
radiates her colourful charms, and as a gem of Uranus its refusal to
submit to the all-embracing law of mineral structure harmonizes with the
iconoclastic character of that planet according to astro-philosophy.
Ancient and modern poets unite in singing the praises of the opal.
Onomacritus, known as the religious poet of the ancient Greeks, over
2,400 years ago wrote that “the delicate colour and tenderness of the
opal reminded him of a loving and beautiful child.” Joshua Sylvester
(16th century) writes of “the opal-coloured morn,” and the poet Campbell
of a time when “the opal morn just flushed the sky,” thus echoing
William Drummond of Hawthornden’s:

         “_Aurora ... with her opal light
         Night’s horrours checketh, putting stars to flight._”

Emerson writes of the “opal-coloured days,” and Poe with true poetic
fancy sees even the air opal tinted:

             “_A wreath that twined each starry form around
             And all the opal’d air in colour bound._”

Shakespeare in “Twelfth Night” links the mind of the Duke with the opal
(written “opall” in early editions). Boetius, Cardanus and a host of
writers pay their tributes to the “orphan” of the Greeks, and Petrus
Arlensis writes: “The various colours in the opal tend greatly to the
delectation of the sight; nay, more, they have the greatest efficacy in
cheering the heart, and the inward parts especially rejoice the eyes of
the beholders. One in particular came into my hands in which such
beauty, loveliness and grace shone forth that it could truly boast that
it forcibly drew all other gems to itself, while it surprised,
astonished and held captive without escape or intermission the hearts of
all who beheld it. It was of the size of a filbert and clasped in the
claws of a golden eagle wrought with wonderful art; and had such vivid
and various colours that all the beauties of the heavens might be viewed
within it. Grace went out from it, majesty shot forth from its almost
divine splendour. It sent forth such bright and piercing rays that it
struck terror into all beholders. In a word it bestowed upon the wearer
the qualities granted by Nature to itself, for by an invisible dart it
penetrated the souls and dazzled the eyes of all who saw it: appalled
all hearts, however bold and courageous: in fine, it filled with
trembling the bodies of the bystanders and forced them by a fatal
impulse to love, honour and worship it. I have seen, I have felt, I call
God to witness: of a truth such a stone is to be valued at an
inestimable amount.”

[Illustration:

  Opals of Wonderful Colour

  Kelsey I. Newman Collection
]

Turning back again, we read Pliny’s poetical opinion that “the opal is
made up of the glories of the most precious gems which make description
so difficult. For amongst them is the gentler fire of the ruby, the rich
purple of the amethyst, the sea-green of the emerald, glittering
together in union indescribable. Others by the intensity of their hues
equal all the painter’s colours, others the flame of burning brimstone
or of fire quickened by oil.” In admiration the Romans called the gem
Cupid-Paederos, child beautiful as love, and it was also known as
Orphanus, the orphan, because of its isolated glory. Leonardus wrote
that it partook of all the virtues of those stones whose colours it
showed, and Porta said that it not only drove away despondency but
malignant affections also. So highly valued was the stone in the ancient
world that the Roman Senator Nonius, who wore an opal ring worth 20,000
sesterces, preferred to be exiled by Marcus Antonius, who wished to
purchase it to present to the Egyptian Queen Kleopatra, to giving it up.
This famous ring was some few years back discovered in the tomb of the
firm-willed senator of old Rome.

Opal was called OPTHALMIOS or Eye Stone in the Middle Ages, and in the
time of Queen Elizabeth it was written ophal and opall. Our “Rare” Ben
Jonson writes of an opal “wrapped in a bay leaf in my left fist to charm
their eyes with.” The opal—ophthalmis lapis—was famous as an eyestone,
taking precedence over the emerald and all gems credited with such
virtue. It was advised by mediaeval writers that it be wrapped in a bay
leaf to sharpen the sight of the owner and to blunt that of others with
whom he came in contact: hence also its reputed virtue of bestowing the
gift of invisibility which earned it the name “Patronus furum,” the
patron of thieves.

The Bay tree is identified in astro-philosophy as a tree of the Sun and
the zodiacal Leo (House of the Sun), and is an ancient recognized charm
against evil forces, thunder, lightning and the afflictions of Saturn
which is the heavenly symbol of darkness, as the Sun is the heavenly
symbol of light. Albertus Magnus, regarding the opal as a symbol of the
loveliness of light, says that “at one time, but not in our age, it
sparkled in the dark.” The zodiacal Leo or Lion is the ancient
recognized sign of royalty and old writers say that kingly government
was established on the earth in the Leonine age. Alluding to the great
translucent opal in the Crown of the Holy Roman Empire, Albertus said
that it safeguarded the honour of the kings. The stone was always
considered to protect the wearer from cholera, kidney troubles, and
similar diseases, to soothe the heart, the eyes and the nerves, and to
protect from the lightning stroke. The belief in its power to ward off
lightning was universal in the ancient world when amongst the people it
was believed to have fallen from the heavens during thunder storms—hence
its old name, KERAUNIOS, Thunder Stone, amongst the Greeks, and
CERAUNIUM amongst the Romans. The opal was essentially the stone of
beauty, which coveted gift it bestowed upon the wearer who, however,
must have entered earth life with the Sun in Leo (approximately between
July 24th and August 24th), Libra (September 24th to October 24th) or
Aquarius (January 21st to February 19th). It favoured children, the
theatre, amusements, friendships, and the feelings. Held between the
eyes it gave proper direction to the thoughts. Held in the left hand and
gazed upon it favoured the desires. It is the stone of hope and
achievement and has been truly described as the “gem of the gods.” Above
all, it is a stone of love, but if the lover be false its influence is
reversed, and the opal proves a sorry gem for faithless lovers. Mr.
Emanuel comments on the two fine opals which were amongst the imperial
jewels of France, one of which was set in the clasp of the royal cloak.
The opal, astrologically considered, is one of the fortunate gems for
France. A beautiful uncut opal discovered at Czernovitza in Hungary has
been valued at over £50,000 sterling; this specimen, in length 5 inches
by 2½ and weighing 3,000 carats, was placed in the Museum of Natural
History at Vienna. The mines at Czernovitza are known to have been
worked over 500 years ago, and at a more remote period they no doubt
supplied the ancient world. There is little doubt, however, that the
wonderful opals from Australia’s fields have eclipsed anything yet
found. The White Cliffs, the Lightning Ridge, and the newer field out
North West are responsible for some of the most beautiful gems that have
ever been unearthed. A kangaroo hunter accidentally discovered the White
Cliffs field in New South Wales over 40 years ago whilst following the
trail of a kangaroo. Rich “blacks” were discovered later in the iron
sandstone of Lightning Ridge (New South Wales) and the new fields North
West of Tarcoola are yielding white and light varieties. Opal country is
dry and dreary and the diggers deserve all they find. Sir David
Brewster’s theory of the colour blends which flash from an opal is that
“the stone is internally traversed with undulating fissures of
microscopic minuteness upon which refraction and decomposition of light
takes place. The variations in the nature of these minute cavities cause
the appearance of the opal to vary considerably, and the different
effects of colour thus produced are technically known as the pattern of
the gem.” Hauy held that colour in the opal is caused by thin films of
air which fill the interior cavities. Dr. G. F. Herbert Smith writes
“that the colouration is not due to ordinary absorption but to the
action of cracks in the stone. This is shown by the fact that the
transmitted light is complementary to the reflected light; the blue
opal, for instance, is a yellow when held up so that light has passed
through it.... Opal differs,” he says, “from the rest of the principal
gem stones in being not a crystalline body but a solidified jelly, and
it depends for its attractiveness upon the characteristic play of colour
known, in consequence, as opalescence which arises from a peculiarity in
the structure. Opal is mainly silica (SiO_{2}) in composition, but it
contains in addition an amount of water, thereby differing slightly in
refractivity from the original substance. The structure not being quite
homogeneous, each crack has the same action upon light as a soap-film
and gives rise to precisely similar phenomena: the thinner and more
uniform the cracks, the greater the splendour of the chromatic display,
the particular tint depending upon the direction in which the stone is
viewed. The cracks in certain opals are not filled up, and therefore
contain air.” The opal is a very sensitive gem and should not be put
near strong acids nor greasy substances. The heat of the body improves
its lustre for the opal is essentially a stone to be worn, but it is
unsafe to put these gems near liquids or to submit them to fire.

  “_Truth is as impossible to be soiled by any outward touch as the
  sunbeam._”

                                                             MILTON.

Perhaps against no other gem has the bigotry of superstitious ignorance
so prevailed as against the wonderful opal. The reason for it dates no
further back apparently than the 14th century. It was at this time that
the dreaded “Black Death” was carrying off thousands of people in
Europe. The year 1348, an astrological Martial sub-cycle, saw Venice
assailed by destructive earthquakes, tidal waves and the Plague. The
epidemic in a few months carried off two-fifths of the population of the
city, sparing neither rich nor poor, young nor old. It is said that at
this time the opal was a favourite gem with Italian jewellers, being
much used in their work. It is further said that opals worn by those
stricken became suddenly brilliant and that the lustre entirely departed
with the death of the wearer. Story further tells that the opal then
became an object of dread and was associated with the death of the
victim. On the astrological side it might be considered that the city of
Venice comes under the watery Cancer, and can not, therefore, claim the
opal as its jewel. But, admitting that under special and rare conditions
certain diseases can influence the opal if worn on the body, the truth
of the Venice story can be reasonably doubted. Another theory of the
origin of the superstition is traced to the rigorous order of Jerome
Savonarola for the destruction of the vanities in the year 1497. This
remarkable ascetic caused great bonfires to be lighted in various parts
of the city of Florence, the largest in the Piazza Signoria. Into these
bonfires were thrown works of art and beauty, pictures, statues, jewels
and beautiful raiment. The fanatical spirit so gained ground owing to
the impassioned preaching of Savonarola that women threw into the flames
their costliest jewels, authors their books, students their manuscripts
and poets their love songs. It is assumed that the opal, the gem and
symbol of the beauties of Venus came under the ban and history relates
that the most direct onslaughts were made on the pictures and statues of
the goddess. Astrologers show that the year 1497 was dominated by the
planet of war and destruction, Mars, and it is deplorable that so many
wonderful works were sacrificed during that unhappy period. The artist
F. W. W. Topham, R. I., has illustrated this event in his well-known
painting “Renouncing the Vanities by Order of Savonarola,” which picture
now hangs in the Art Gallery of New South Wales. There is also a story
which tells that during the Crimean War the gem was popular with the
English army and navy and that it was found in quantities on the bodies
of the slain. Sir Walter Scott’s romantic story “Anne of Geierstein,”
was a powerful influence in advancing the superstition against the opal,
although Sir Walter alluded to the Mexican Opal known as Girasol and not
to the better known precious opal. Even whilst these superstitions were
growing, to dream of an opal was regarded as an indication of great
possessions, of the favour of ladies and people of influence, and—if the
stone be dark—of sudden happenings of a beneficial nature. Another
modern superstition says that it is not fortunate to set opals and
diamonds together in jewels. Quabalistically, opals and diamonds are set
down as particularly harmonious stones which, in combination, have a
fortunate and positive-negative influence. Astrologically the diamond is
attached to the zodiacal signs Aries, Leo and Libra, and the opal to
Leo, Libra and Aquarius, and astrology is absolutely the special guide
to talismanic construction. The fine fiery opal known as the “Burning of
Troy” given by Napoleon to Josephine, is sometimes quoted as evidence of
the evil power of opals. It rather provides peculiar testimony in favour
of old talismanic lore. This opal was lost and has never since been
found—opals would be regarded as unfavourable for Josephine. Passing
over trivial superstitions containing neither truth nor interest, we may
conclude this section with the story of the Grand Opal of Spain which is
said to have brought disaster to the Royal House:

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF ALFONZO XII

  Astrologically the opal would be accounted unfortunate for this King.
]

When Alfonzo XII of Spain was a wanderer he was deeply attracted by, and
fell in love with the Comtesse de Castiglione, then a reigning beauty.
Immediately Alfonzo became King the Comtesse hastened to greet him with
the fond desire to become his queen. However, when she found that he had
set her aside and married the Princess Mercedes her anger knew no
bounds. Resolving on revenge, she sent Alfonzo “in memory of the old
friendship” a wedding present of a magnificent opal set in a filagree
ring of gold—a style of mounting in great favour with the jewellers of
Spain. The delicacy of the jewel so attracted Queen Mercedes that she
asked the King to grace her finger with it. A few months afterwards she
died of a mysterious illness and Alfonzo gave the ring so admired by her
to Queen Christina, his grandmother, whose death shortly followed. The
King then presented the ring to his sister the Infanta Maria del Pilar,
who was in turn carried off by the same mysterious illness. A few weeks
afterwards the King’s sister-in-law, the youngest daughter of the Duc
and Duchesse de Montpensier, who had asked the King for the ring also
died. The King then placed it on his own finger and in a little time the
same illness which had affected his wife and kindred ended his troubled
earth-life. After these calamities Queen Christina attached the ring to
a chain of gold and set it about the neck of the patron saint of Madrid,
the Virgin of Alumdena. Ancient philosophy would have depreciated the
wearing or giving of an opal by Alfonzo XII of Spain. At this time it
must be remembered that cholera was raging throughout Spain—over 100,000
people died of it during the summer and autumn of 1885. It attacked all
classes from the palace of the King to the hut of the peasant, some
accounts giving the death estimate at 50% of the population. It would be
as obviously ridiculous to hold the opal responsible for this scourge as
it was to do so in the case of the previously noted plague at Venice.
All that may be said is that in this case the opal was not a talisman of
good for King Alfonzo XII of Spain and to those who received it from his
hand, and that in the philosophy of sympathetic attraction and apathetic
repulsion man, stones, metals and all natural objects come under the
same law. We may wonder why the King gave this opal from one of his
relatives to another, but the reputation of the opal as a charm against
cholera (noted in the previous chapter) must have reached the King who,
in the intensity of his worry, used a charm which according to the
ancients would act in his hands fatally instead of beneficially.

In the month of October, 1908, a French Baron sitting in the stalls of
the London Pavilion during Mr. and Mrs. Marriott’s thought-reading
exhibition, handed an opal of uncommon form to Mr. Marriott. Mrs.
Marriott seated on the stage with bandaged eyes gave an accurate
description of it, saying further that it was a stone of fortune to the
owner who was about to become the possessor of over half a million of
money. The Baron, who resided in London for the past 18 years, when
interviewed by a representative of the “Evening News” on the following
day, communicated the fact that a few days before, he had, through the
death of a relative in Mexico become heir to property worth over
£500,000, yielding an income of £25,000 per annum. The Baron who
cherished the opal as his sympathetic luck stone, told the newspaper man
that:

  "It is an uncut stone which has been in the possession of my family
  since the twelfth century. We have always had the tradition that it
  will bring good fortune to any direct descendant of the family in the
  male line who holds it.

  "A curious stipulation, however, of the tradition is that the person
  who has it must possess qualities which have a sympathetic attraction
  to the stone in order that its beneficent effect may be felt. On a
  flat surface of the opal is a word in old Spanish, now only dimly
  seen, which means in English ‘good luck.’

  "I have treasured the gem as an heirloom, but have thought little of
  the tradition until lately, when a member of the cadet branch of the
  family died and left me the immense fortune I have mentioned to you. I
  can hardly realize all that it means to me as yet. Up to now my income
  has not been much more than £500, and to suddenly find £25,000 a year
  at one’s disposal is a little staggering.

  “There have been one or two previous instances where my ancestors
  while holding the opal have experienced exceptionally good luck, but,
  personally, I have not ever paid much regard to the old tradition. You
  may imagine, however, that the gem will be most carefully preserved by
  me.”



                       THE GREAT AUSTRALIAN OPAL

                             CHAPTER XXIII
                            THE FLAME QUEEN

                “_But who can paint
                Like Nature? Can imagination boast
                Amid its gay creation hues like hers?_”
                                               THOMSON.


The Flame Queen, the rarest stone yet won from the barren sun-baked opal
fields of Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, near the borders of
Queensland, Australia—takes its place amongst the famous gems of the
world.

It is a large oval-shaped stone measuring 2.8 inches by 2.3 inches and
weighing 253 carats. In structure and colour phenomena it is unique—the
centre slightly in relief whilst the surrounding border stands out
boldly as a frame to a picture. Looking directly on to the stone the
inspiration of the name becomes manifest. The centre, a deep flame,
burns scarlet, and two slight depressions almost parallel to each other
give the impression of fire mountains in eruptive action, the lower of
which flings two triangular shafts towards the enclosing green frame.
Viewed from another angle the burning centre yields as if by magic to a
field of cool yet vivid emerald, and the frame to a royal blue. Another
angle shows a bronze centre touched with points of darker hue within a
frame of changing blue and amethyst. The stone is chameleon-like,
bewildering in its living beauty.

[Illustration:

  Other Aspects of the Great Opal “The Flame Queen”

  Kelsey I. Newman Collection
  _See also Frontispiece_
]

This stone is the choicest gem in the Kelsey I. Newman collection of
rare opals and precious stones. On the 6th of March, 1916, Mr. Allan
Harris of Brisbane submitted the gem to the Queensland Geological
Survey. In the course of his report Mr. B. Dunstan, the chief Government
Geologist, mentions that the back of the stone “is impressed with what
appears to be a fossil plant called GINKO, which occurs in the Jurassic
ricks of Queensland but not in association with any opal deposits. The
stone is a wonderful specimen and much the largest gem of its class that
has ever come under my notice.” This beautiful opal—unlike some other
famous gems mentioned in this book—is said to have brought good fortune
to all who have been associated with it.



                              CHAPTER XXIV
                         VARIOUS KINDS OF OPAL

CACHOLONG, THE OPAL OF FRIENDSHIP: FLOAT STONE, THE LOVERS’ OPAL:
    GIRASOL, THE FIRE OPAL: HYALITE, THE EYE OPAL: HYDROPHANE, THE MAGIC
    OPAL: MENILITE, THE LIVER OPAL: OPAL JASPER: ROSE OPAL: SEMI-OPAL,
    THE FOREST OPAL: TABASHEER: MARCO POLO’S ACCOUNT OF THE EXPEDITION
    OF THE GREAT KAAN: THE OPAL OF INVULNERABILITY AND REMOVER OF DREAD:
    THE MARVEL OF TRANSFORMATION.

           “_Grey years ago a man lived in the east,
           Who did possess a ring of worth immense,
           From a beloved hand. Opal the stone,
           Which flashed a hundred bright and beauteous hues,
           And had the secret power to make beloved
           Of God and man the blessed and fortunate
           Who wore it in this faith and confidence._”
                         “NATHAN THE WISE,” LESSING.


CACHOLONG. An opaque white or bluish-white variety of opal which obtains
its name from the river Cach in Bokhara, according to some authorities
and from the Tartars according to others. The Easterns set a high value
on the stone which glistens with the opalescent gleam of Mother of
Pearl. It is associated with chalcedony and being of a porous nature
sticks to the tongue when touched by it. The Cacholong is a stone of
pure friendship, sincerity and truth.

FLOAT STONE. A porous opal of a fibrous type which floats on water. It
occurs in concretionary masses and is esteemed as a stone over which the
most sacred promises may be made. Lovers join hands over a Float Stone
floating on a vessel of water and pledge their troth with the utmost
solemnity, misfortune being bound to dog the footsteps of the faithless
one.

GIRASOL. The Girasol is the Mexican Fire Opal which reflects hyacinth
and yellow colours. Good specimens are attractive and fairly popular.
This is the opal indicated in Scott’s “Anne of Geierstein.”

HYALITE. The name is derived from the Greek word for glass, and the
stone—a transparent glass-like opal—has been called Muller’s Glass by
Dr. A. G. Werner who is said to have discovered it. It is very like
clear gum arabic and is probably one of the esteemed eye stones of the
old writers.

HYDROPHANE. This variety of opal is very porous and beautifully
translucent and opalescent after being left for a little time in water.
It is otherwise of an opaque white or yellow and not very attractive. In
the United States it has been termed Magic Stone.

MENILITE. This variety is found in slate not far from the French
capital. It is termed also Liver Opal and is said to have talismanic
action on that organ. It is a concretionary opal, brown or
liver-coloured.

OPAL JASPER. Opal Jasper is a jasper-like resinous, dark red,
ferruginous variety of opal, identified as the opal of beautiful wisdom.

ROSE OPAL. A beautiful rose-coloured opal found at Quincy in France.
This is the opal of the baby Cupid and is termed the Opal of Childhood.

SEMI-OPAL. A silicified wood-opal of waxy lustre, transparent to opaque.
It is found in various colours—white, brown, grey, red, blue, green. It
has the appearance of petrified wood. It is a tree-growing charm and is
no doubt the Forest Opal.

TABASHEER. Corrupted from Tabixir, is a siliceous aggregation found in
the joints of certain bamboo known in the Malay as the Mali Mali, Rotan
jer’ nauf (blood of the dragon Rattan) and Buluh Kasap (rough bamboo).
In appearance it is generally like clear gum arabic, although sometimes
opaque, and is the sap transformed by evaporation. Under reflective
light it is a kind of blue and under transmitted light it is either
light yellow or amber-red. It is extremely absorptive. In Marco Polo’s
account of the expedition of the Great Kaan against Chipangu, we are
told that “when the people of the Kaan had landed on the great Island
they stormed a tower belonging to some of the islanders who refused to
surrender. Resistance being overcome, the Kaan’s soldiers cut off the
heads of all the garrison except eight. On these eight they found it
impossible to inflict any wound. Now this was by virtue of certain
stones which they had in their arms inserted between the skin and flesh
with such skill as not to show at all externally. And the charm and
virtue of the stones were such that those who wore them would never
perish by steel. So when the Kaan’s generals heard this they ordered
that the prisoners be beaten to death with clubs. After their death the
stones were extracted from their bodies and were greatly prized.” Friar
Odoric says that these Stones of Invulnerability were Tabashir specimens
which were used by the natives of the Indian Islands where their virtue
was esteemed. According to Avicenna the Tabashir was a powerful eye
stone and remover of past fears, present dreads and future anxieties.

PSEUDOMORPHIC OPAL. Opalized shells, bones, etc., are found in
quantities in opal country. These specimens are unique and of much
curious interest. A number of shells from the new fields 150 miles North
West of Tarcoola (on the East-West Railway, over 250 miles from Port
Augusta) were submitted to the author. In these the silica slowly and
progressively took the place of the primary substance until it was
completely opalized, the old form of the material being only retained.
It is remarkable to contemplate the change of conditions which placed
the former substance so completely at the mercy of the consuming opal.
Such transformation is continual in Nature, manifesting variously in the
mineral world, proving that eternal progress is eternal change. It was
the observation of similar material phenomena that led ancient
scientists to the conclusion that transformations could be accomplished
by the skill, knowledge and wisdom of sincere and gifted men who
undaunted by superficial criticism persevered, and the triumphs of the
chemist served to indicate how much more could be done by those brave
enough to prove the immortality of man by reducing the unknown to terms
of the known.

The word PSEUDOMORPH is derived from the Greek PSEUDO and MORPHES,
disguising one’s form.



                              CHAPTER XXV
                                 PEARL

PEARL: HOW PRODUCED: SYMBOLIC STORIES OF THE ANCIENTS: BOETHIUS AND THE
    RIVER PEARLS: VISHNU CREATES PEARLS: PEARLS ON THE RAMAYANA:
    SANDIUS’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON IN 1673: SIR
    EVERARD HOME AND DARWIN ON THE FORMATION OF PEARLS: MR. KELAART’S
    REPORTS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF CEYLON: RESEARCHES OF PROFESSORS
    HERDMANN, HORNEL AND SEURAT: THE TIME OF PEARL MATURITY: HOME ON THE
    LUSTER OF THE PEARL: THE FORM OF A PEARL: THE PROCESS OF “SKINNING”:
    JEROME AND THE STORY OF THE DOVES: THE PEARL OF PRINCE IMENHEIT: THE
    GREAT PERSIAN PEARL: THE HOPE PEARL: THE AUSTRIAN IMPERIAL PEARL: LA
    PELLEGRINA: THE GREAT SOUTHERN CROSS: THE PEARL OF PHILLIP II OF
    SPAIN: THE PEARL OF THE KING OF MAABAR: THE TIBETAN PRAYER OF
    VICTORY: KING JAIPAL’S NECKLACE: THE FAMINE IN EGYPT: EBU HESHAM’S
    ACCOUNT OF THE TOMB OF PRINCESS TAJAH: BENVENUTO CELLINI AND THE
    PEARL NECKLACE OF THE DUCHESS OF FLORENCE: THE PEARL ROPE OF MARIE
    ALEXANDROVNA: PINK PEARLS: RED PEARLS: A DEATH RITE MENTIONED BY
    MARCO POLO: PEARLS USED IN BUDDHIST CEREMONIES: JULIUS CÆSAR, AN
    EXPERT IN PEARLS: THE BREASTPLATE OF VENUS GENETRIX: CÆSAR’S GIFT TO
    SERVILLA: PEARLS IN THE TIMES OF THE CÆSARS: SENECA’S CYNICISM:
    KLEOPATRA’S PEARLS: OTHER PEARL SWALLOWERS: PEARLS AND JEWELS OF
    MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND: PEARLS IN HEBRAIC AND ARABIAN LEGEND: THE
    PEARL IN CHINA: THE PEARL IN MEDICINE: THE ANGEL GABRIEL AND THE
    PEARL: THE PEARL OF PARADISE.


PEARL

             “_Searching the wave I won therefrom a pearl
             Moonlike and glorious, such as kings might buy
             Emptying their treasury._”
                                             ARNOLD.

The name “pearl” is derived from the Latin Pilula, diminutive of Pila, a
ball, and some of the forms of the word noted are perle, peerle, perl,
perll, perill, pearel, peirle, pearle. The pearl is a product of certain
salt and fresh water shell-fish of the Aviculidae family. It is formed
by the efforts of the mollusc to rid itself of irritating substances by
the iridescent fluid secretion with which he lines his shell. The effect
of this irritation is shown in a number of irregular tubercules inside
the shell, and within these coverings is the securely protected pearl.
Frequently pearls of most beautiful lustre and form are found detached
from the shell in the fleshy folds of the oyster, and these are said to
be the most perfect. It is now quite certain that disease is not the
cause, as has so generally been believed. Amongst the ancient writers so
much of the purely symbolic was set down in perfectly plain,
matter-of-fact language that it is difficult to make assertions as to
what was really known of the material truth. Both Pliny and Discorides
poetically state that dew or rain from Heaven fell into the open pearl
shells and were transformed by the secretions of the oyster into
precious pearls. There is an old legend which tells that the tears of
joy shed by the angels for the ultimate destiny of man were the tears
that fell into the pearl oyster shell to be transformed into beautiful
pearls. Moore delightfully refers to this story:

           “_Precious the tear as that rain from the sky
           Which turns into pearls as it falls in the sea._”

The philosopher Anicius Boethius, of the 5th and 6th centuries, A.D.,
writes that the fresh water pearl mussels of the Scotch rivers, the sky
being clear and the weather temperate, open their mouths just a little
above water to catch the heavenly dews, which, when swallowed, cause the
breeding of pearls. These mussels, continues the philosopher, are so
sensitive that the slightest noise causes them to sink to the bottom of
the river. He credits them with “knowing well in what estimation the
fruit of their womb is to all people.” Vishnu, according to Indian
mythology, created pearls MOTI by his word, and consequently these gems
are foremost in the adornment of Indian deities. The Ramayana, perhaps
the greatest poem of ancient India, narrates the story of the death of
Maha Bali, telling that pearls sprung from the teeth of the slain god.

In the winter of 1673 the naturalist Sandius sent—on the authority of
“Henricus Arnoldi, an ingenious Dane”—a letter from which the following
is extracted to the newly formed Royal Society of London:

“Pearl shells in Norway do breed in sweet waters: their shells are like
mussels but larger: the fish is like an oyster, it produces clusters of
eggs: these, when ripe, are cast out and become like those that cast
them: but sometimes it appears that one or two of these eggs stick fast
to the side of the matrix and are not voided with the rest. These are
fed by the oyster against her will, and they do grow, according to the
length of time, into pearls of different bigness, and do imprint a mark
both on fish and shell by the situation conform to its figure.”

The eminent surgeon, Sir Everard Home, unaware of the letter of Sandius,
arrived at the same conclusion independently. He writes that this, “the
richest jewel in a monarch’s crown which cannot be imitated by any art
of man, either in beauty of form or brilliancy of lustre is the abortive
egg of an oyster enveloped in its own nacre.”

Darwin (Economy of Vegetation) writes that pearls are formed “like those
calcareous productions of crabs known by the name of ‘crabs’ eyes’ which
are always near the stomach of the creature. In both cases the substance
is probably a natural provision either for the reparation or enlargement
of the shell.”

[Illustration:

  Small Necklet of Perfect Oriental Pearls

  Kelsey I. Newman Collection
]

Mr. Kelaart in his reports to the Government of Ceylon (1857-1859),
seems to be the first to allude to the part played by parasites in the
production of pearls in tropical seas. The researches of Professors
Herdman and Hornel confirmed the deductions of Kelaart that the larva of
a Cestoid was the identified pearl parasite. Monsieur Seurat, the French
naturalist, who made a long study of the pearl oyster of the Pacific,
was also convinced that pearl formation was caused by a parasite.
Whatever the cause of the irritability which brings into action the
nacreous secretion of the tortured oyster, it is evident that the
protective process is a long one. The pearl culture industry of the
Chinese and Japanese has shown that it takes twelve months for the
irritant to be covered with a coat of a tenth of a millimetre. A new
layer is formed over the old one about once a year. Pearlers say that an
oyster must be at least four years old before pearls begin to form
properly, and that it does not mature for from 7 to 9 years. The
beautiful lustre of the pearl Sir Everard Home held to arise from a
central cell of bright nacre, the diaphanous substance admitting the
light rays. “Upon taking a split pearl,” he writes, “and putting a
candle behind the cell, the surface of the pearl became immediately
illuminated; and upon mounting one with coloured foil behind the cell,
and by putting a candle behind the foil, the outer convex surface became
universally of a beautiful pink colour.” The examination of a half pearl
will show the concentric formation which is like an onion, and the
process called “skinning” is often resorted to in the endeavour to gain
a more lustrous jewel by removing the outer layer. The translucency of
the perfect pearl has not been correctly reproduced by any artificial
production. A curious passage in Jerome Cardan’s “De Rerum Varietate”
(16th century), repeats an old saying that the lustre and polish on
pearls arises from doves playing with them. To understand this seemingly
absurd story it is necessary to carry our minds far back to the famous
Greek oracle at Dodona in Epirus. According to Herodotus the
Phœnicians carried off the sacred women from Thebes in Egypt to the
Libian oracle of Zeus Ammon and to Dodona—the legend at Dodona saying
that they came in the form of two doves. The Greek word for “doves” is
the same as that for “priestesses,” namely, PELEIAI. The connection can
be carried further, if necessary, but it is sufficient to establish the
tie between women and the doves. The word PELEIAI was freely used for
both and came to be employed as an endearing term for wise women just as
we today call a woman of talent “Diva.” It is a proven fact and an
extremely ancient one that pearls worn near the skin of a
woman—especially, according to ancient philosophy, near one in whose
horoscope the moon was powerfully placed at birth—are improved in lustre
and tone. So let the “Doves” (peleiai) be wise and play with their
pearls.

Tavernier writes of “the most beautiful pearl in the world” which
belonged to Imenheit, Prince of Muscat. After a lavish entertainment
which the Khan of Ormus gave in honor of the Prince, the latter took off
a chain which he wore round his neck and to which was attached a small
bag. From the bag he drew forth this wonderful pearl of perfect
sphericity, so translucent that the light could almost be seen through
it. The weight of this gem was 12 carats and so high a value did Prince
Imenheit place on it that he refused 2000 tomans for it from his host,
the Khan of Ormus, who coveted it as a present for the King of Persia,
and 40,000 crowns with which he was later tempted by an agent of the
Grand Mogul. This pearl was discovered off the Persian coast. Another
great pearl which, according to Tavernier, was the most perfect ever
discovered, was found at Catifa, a famous fishery in Pliny’s time. The
great traveller says that the King of Persia obtained it from an Arabian
merchant in 1633. It was a pearl of great size and a “pearl of great
price,” the King giving 1,400,000 livres (about $550,000) for it. It was
pear-shaped, and of perfect colour and symmetry. The weight is not
stated, but it was said to be about 1½ inches in length and 63 inches in
diameter at its greatest part. The “Hope” pearl of cylindrical form
weighs 454 carats. This gem belonged to Mr. Henry Thomas Hope, so
well-known in connection with the “Hope” diamond. Another famous pearl
of 300 carats once adorned the Imperial crown of Austria. “La
Pellegrina,” an Indian white circular pearl of 28 carats, said to be the
most perfect specimen in the world today, was in the Zosima Museum,
Moscow. Nine large pearls interlinked so as to naturally form a true
representation of the Southern Cross were discovered in a pearl oyster
off the West Australian Coast by Mr. Kelly, of Roeburn, who was
familiarly known as “Shiner” Kelly. The crew of his lugger viewed it
with superstitious fear and it was buried for some years. It was
afterwards resurrected and exhibited at the Colonial and Indian
exhibition, London, in 1886, where it caused some sensation. The pearls
which formed the cross were at first thought by many to be joined
together by craft, but experts with powerful magnifying glasses speedily
dispelled this illusion and proved that nature, not man, was the artist
who reproduced the Star Cross of the Heavens—the Cross of Australian
Unity—in pearls in a sea oyster.

In the year 1579 a pearl of 250 carats was obtained amongst others by
the agents of Philip II, of Spain, from the Island of Margarita in the
West Indies. It was said to be worth 150,000 dollars. Marco Polo writes
that the King of Maabar wears pearls and gems worth more than a city’s
ransom. “Nobody is permitted to take out of his kingdom a pearl weighing
more than half a saggio (a Venetian weight, the sixth of an onze),
unless he manages to do it secretly. The King every year proclaims
through the realm that if anyone possesses a pearl of great worth and
will bring it to him, he (the King), will pay three times as much as its
value. Everybody is glad to do this and thus the King gets all into his
own hands, giving every man his price.” This King wore a necklace on
which 104 pearls and rubies of great size were strung on fine silk, and
every day, following the custom of his ancestors, he had to say 104
prayers to the gods. The number is disputed but in an occult sense the
Tibetan prayer of Victory over the 104 devils seems to confirm it. The
pearl necklace which Muhammed forced the Hindu King Jaipal to surrender
to him (1001 A. D.), is said to have been made of great pearls. It was
valued at 20,000 dinars (more than 500,000 dollars). We read in the Book
of Genesis of the terrible famine which affected the peoples of the
earth and drove them to seek corn in the land of Egypt where doubtless,
owing to the great pull on her stocks, some anxiety was beginning to be
felt. The Arabian writer, Ebn Hesham, describes a sepulchre in Yemen
which had been discovered after some heavy floods. In this sepulchre lay
the embalmed body of an Arabian princess around whose neck were 7
strands of pearls, age-stained and lustreless. There were rings set with
precious stones on her fingers and toes, 7 jewelled armlets on each of
her arms and 7 jewelled anklets about each ankle. In the tomb treasure
was found, and on a tablet at her head she had caused to be written the
following inscription, the translation of which by Mr. Forster is
reproduced by Mr. William Jones, F.S.A.:

  “_In thy name, O God, the God of Himyar,
  I, Tajah, the daughter of Dzu Shefarr, sent my servant to Joseph,
  And he, delaying to return to me, I sent my handmaid,
  With a measure of silver, to bring me back a measure of flour:
  And not being able to procure it, I sent her with a measure of gold:
  And not being able to procure it, I commanded them to the ground:
  And finding no profit in them, I am shut up here.
  Whosoever may hear of it, let him pity me:
  And should any woman adorn herself with an ornament
  From my ornaments, may she die with no other than my death._”

It would be very unlikely that after understanding these last words of
the Princess Tajah (a name which quabalistically would imply “the
Sacrifice”) any woman would be bold enough to attempt to put on the
seven ropes of dead pearls and the other jewels that adorned the mortal
remains of the famine-stricken princess.

Turning to later times Benvenuto Cellini tells in his interesting
memoirs rather an amusing story of a string of pearls which the Duke of
Florence purchased for the Duchess from “that scoundrel Bernardini” for
several thousand crowns. Princess Catherine Radziwill whose intimacy
with the old Courts of Europe is well known, tells of the love of the
Russian Empress Marie Alexandrovna (grandmother of the unfortunate
Nicholas II), for pearls which she never tired of buying. She wore ropes
of from 25 to 30 which, being of varied lengths, would when worn extend
from the top to the hem of her dress. She was reputed to have had some
of the largest pear-shaped pearls in the world. James Bruce, the famous
traveller (“Travels to discover the Sources of the Nile,” 1768-1773),
writes that the pinna or wing shell mentioned by Pliny which is found
with its fibre-like rope on the bed of the Red Sea yields the beautiful
pink-tinted pearl so highly prized in ancient and modern times. Red or
rose coloured pearls are termed by the natives SOHIT-AMUKTI. Marco Polo
mentions that they are found off the island of Chipangu, “big, round and
rosy, and quite as valuable as white ones.” He also writes that when a
dead body is burnt one of these pearls is always put in the mouth, “for
such is their custom.” Pearls of this tint are accounted as precious
objects and were used in Buddhist ceremonial and worship. Julius Cæsar
was extremely fond of pearls. Caius Suetonius (“Lives of the Cæsars”),
tells us that he was a great expert and knew so much about them that he
could estimate their exact weights “by his hand alone.” The same writer
tells us that Cæsar’s love of pearls was the cause of his expedition
against Britain, the pearls he obtained there being, greatly to his
chagrin, of poor quality and little lustre. Nevertheless, we are told he
consecrated a breastplate set with British pearls to the temple of Venus
Genetrix. It is recorded that Cæsar gave Servilia, the mother of Brutus,
a pearl worth nearly £50,000 sterling. Pearls in the time of the Cæsars
were the rage in Rome and women adorned themselves lavishly with them, a
custom which drew violent protests from the philosopher Seneca who,
alluding to a lady who wore several pearls dangling from each ear, told
her husband that his wife “carried all the wealth of his house in her
ears.”

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF MARY OF SCOTLAND

  Pearls would be considered unfortunate for these rival Queens.
]

In the extravagant intoxication of the rich banquet which Kleopatra VII
(Tryphena the Great) gave to the honour of Mark Anthony, it is related
that this queen—the last of the Ptolemies—throwing one of her valuable
pearls into a vinegar solution, swallowed it. The value of this gem is
set down as £80,729 sterling. Its companion afterwards graced the statue
of the Pantheon Venus at Rome. Kleopatra was not alone in this act of
folly for we are informed that Clodius, son of Æsopus the actor,
swallowed a pearl valued at £8072 sterling. Caligual, the Roman Emperor,
added this act also to his many acts of stupidity. He too enjoyed the
reputation of a “pearl swallower,” which title in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth was also coveted by Sir Thomas Gresham who quaffed off a large
pearl at a banquet which the Queen attended after visiting the Royal
Exchange. The poet Hey wood alludes to this act in the lines:

               “_Here £15,000 at one clap goes
               Instead of sugar: Gresham drinks the pearl
               Unto his Queen and mistress._”

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF ELIZABETH OF ENGLAND

  Pearls would be considered unfortunate for these rival Queens.
]

Neither pearls nor diamonds were fortunate for Mary Queen of Scots, yet
she wore both in profusion. Her wedding dress at her marriage with
Philip of Spain is described as being “richly bordered with great pearls
and diamonds,” whilst she wore the great diamond which Philip had sent
to her by the Marquis de las Traves. Mary’s nativity favours few jewels
but none less than diamonds, pearls and rubies. History relates that,
when in the days of her sorrows the Scottish Queen was held captive by
the rapacious Earl of Moray, this man who owed her so much sent her
exquisite parure of pearls with other costly jewels by his agent, Sir
Nicholas Elphinstone to Queen Elizabeth at London.

Madame de Barrera gives the following extract, copy from a letter of
Bodutel la Forrest, French ambassador at the English court, describing
the pearl parure: “There are six cordons of large pearls strung as pater
nosters: but there are five and twenty separate from the rest, much
finer and larger than those which are strung: these are for the most
part like black muscades.” Elizabeth, after obtaining various expert
opinions as to the value of this ornament, eventually purchased it at
her own price. But if pearls, fortunate for Scotland, were unfortunate
for Mary (for whom Scotland itself was unfortunate), they were doubly so
for Elizabeth who had the dark planet Saturn and the subtle Uranus in
the sign Cancer at her birth. The two famous diamond rings of Mary and
Elizabeth and Elizabeth and Essex are stated to have been the indirect
cause of the death of both Mary and Elizabeth.

Old Hebraic legend tells that the manna fell from Heaven, accompanied by
showers of pearls and precious stones, and in ancient Judaea it was
believed that a pearl wrapped in a bag of leather and tied round the
neck of oxen would benefit them and increase their fruitfulness. The
Arabs sang that “Nisan’s Ram (Sun in Aries) brings pearls to the sea and
wheat to the land.” In China the pearl was regarded as the true symbol
of ability and so the Chinese character for Pearl (Tchm) was placed on
the vases used by artists, poets, scientists and writers, and the term
TCHM ONAN is translated as indicating a rare pearl object. Great virtues
were ascribed to the pearl by the Chinese and it was, and still is, used
medicinally by them chiefly as a remedy for blood disorders, swooning,
heart troubles, digestive irregularities and stomach complaints. The
ancients used pearls, we are told, as absorbents or antacids and they
were given to the weak-minded Charles VI of France in distilled water to
cure his insanity. Dissolved in acids they were taken as an absorbent
medicine and, as one writer puts it, “for the purpose of displaying the
careless opulence and luxury of their possessors.”

The Pearl was sacred to the angel Gabriel in the East, and amongst the
Mohammedans a great white pearl—the pearl of Paradise—reached from East
to West, from Heaven to Earth. This is the Eternal Table of the Koran on
which Allah has written all that has been, all that is, and all that is
to come. The Arabian Heavenly Home of Glory and the Everlasting Eden of
Wonder is, it is related, rich with red pearls.



                              CHAPTER XXVI
                                 PEARL

THE BISHOP OF CHIAPA CHAMPIONS THE INDIAN PEARL DIVERS: SIZE OF THE OLD
    PEARL FIELDS: VALUE OF EXPORTS TO EUROPE IN 16TH CENTURY: THE
    PERSIAN GULF: THE CEYLON FISHERIES: THE “BINDER OF SHARKS”: THE
    PEARL CHARM OF THE DIVERS: CLASSIFICATION OF PEARLS IN CEYLON: THE
    RED SEA FISHERIES, THE SOURCE OF KLEOPATRA’S PEARLS: THE AUSTRALIAN
    FISHERIES: NEED FOR THEIR PROTECTION: OTHER FISHERIES: STORY OF THE
    DISCOVERY OF NEW GUINEA PEARLS: TOWN OF THE NYMPHS: RIVER FISHERIES:
    A RIVER PEARL IN THE BRITISH CROWN: “SHELLS OF THE FLOOD”: DIVERS
    BENEATH THE SEA: THE FOLK LORE OF THE PEARL: VISHNU’S NECKLACE OF 5
    PRECIOUS STONES: EMBLEMS OF PEARLS: PEARLS AND PERSONS: PEARLS AND
    LUNAR NUMBERS: A MADAGASCAR BIRTH CUSTOM: THE ANGEL, DAY, SIGN AND
    PLANET OF THE PEARL: AS A DREAM SYMBOL: PREJUDICE AND ITS VALUE: THE
    PEARLS OF LINNAEUS: CHINESE AND JAPANESE CULTURE PEARLS: PEARL
    “FAKING”: COCOANUT PEARLS.

            “_Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand
            Showers on her Kings barbaric pearl and gold._”
                                                   MILTON.


The benevolent Bishop of Chiapa, Mexico, Bartolome de las Casas, came
forth as the protector of the Indians in the cruel times of their
oppression. On their behalf he crossed the Atlantic sixteen times, and
he tells of the hellish tortures to which they were subjected by their
Spanish conquerors: “Nothing,” says this good man, “nothing could be
more cruel and more detestable.” (“Brevissima Relacion de la Destruccion
de las Indias,”1539). The story he writes of the Indian pearl divers is
a sad one; as soon as the diver came up from the depths the brutal
overseer, scarcely allowing him time to breathe the pure air, beat him
savagely and compelled him to go down again. His food was poor and
scanty, and Mother Earth his bed; his glossy black hair turned
prematurely gray, his lungs became diseased, he spat blood freely and
the ravenous shark ended his tragic life on earth. The natural result of
greed and oppression practically exhausted these fisheries from the
neighborhood of which the ancient kings of Mexico drew so much wealth.
Indeed, it was the sight of the poor natives adorned with ropes of
pearls which excited the cupidity of the first Spaniards who adventured
to their shores. There being no provision made for the protection of the
oysters in this fishery, it “gave out” almost entirely towards the end
of the 17th century. An idea of the magnitude of these fisheries (which
included the ancient grounds between Acapulco and the Gulf of
Tehuantepec on the West Mexican coast, and the Caribbean Sea by the
islands of Coche, Cubagua, and Margarita) can be gathered from the value
of the export to Europe up to the first half of the 16th century. The
annual value exported was stated to exceed 800,000 Spanish dollars,
those famous “Pieces of Eight” which bring us back to the time of
“Treasure Island” and the buccaneers of the Spanish Main. As much as 700
lbs. weight of pearls was sent to Seville in the year 1587, amongst
them, it is stated, being specimens of rare worth and beauty. Fine
quality pearls are still found at Panama and the Gulf of Mexico. The
poor progress of these fisheries is said to be due to the wretched pay
offered to the Indian and negro divers in the past. It is a strange fact
that progress and prosperity are gained only by the pursuance of an
enlightened policy towards employees, and this is nowhere so clearly
indicated as in the history of the pearl.

Pearls from the Persian Gulf are amongst the most esteemed of the
present day. The fisheries of the Great Pearl Bank extend along the West
from Ras Hassan half way up the Gulf. To the Eastern no pearl is so
beautiful and full of colour as the pearl from the Persian Gulf. The
colour is very enduring and improves by being worn next the
skin—especially of a person whose jewel it is. The Ceylon fisheries have
not been yielding so well of late years, but with wisdom will no doubt
regain their old place. The main oyster bank is near Condatchy, about
twenty miles from the shore. Twenty men, ten of whom are divers, under a
tindal or captain, comprise the crew of each boat. The divers are quick
and expert at their work, and although remaining under water seldom more
than a minute, have been known to bring to the surface as many as 150
shells. The pearl diver’s greatest dread is the ground shark, and all
the time the boats are out the conjurer, termed the “Binder of Sharks”
or “Pillal Harras,” stands on the shore muttering prayers and
conjurations. The divers wear also a pearl about their bodies as a charm
against their dreaded enemy. The beautiful island of Ceylon—the
Taprobane of the old Greeks and Romans and the Serendib of the Arabian
Nights—is itself shaped like a great drop pearl and is believed by the
Indians to be a “part of Paradise.”

Perfectly round and fine lustre pearls are called by the Ceylonese
“Annees,” next in grade are called “Annadaree.” Irregular pearls of
lesser lustre are called “Kayarel,” generally known amongst us as
“Baroques.” Pearl-shaped inferior specimens are called “Samadiem,” those
duller and irregular are termed “Kallipoo,” a poorer grade again is
known as “Koorwell,” and the lowest type is “Pesul.” Small seed pearls
are known as “Tool.”

Kleopatra’s famous pearls no doubt came from the Red Sea fisheries which
are believed to have been the property of the Egyptian rulers. The
Western Australian fisheries, especially those at Broome and Shark’s
Bay, are yearly becoming of greater importance and value, although
judicious and scientific means should be taken to prevent these valuable
fields from sharing the fate of some of the older ones. The fisheries at
Thursday Island and Northern Australia are important and the author was
told that pearls were discovered in New Guinea through a sailors’ row
with the natives, who pelted the offending lugger with pearl-bearing
shells which, when broken on the decks of the vessel, revealed their
precious prizes. The remarkable Town of the Nymphs near the Japanese
city of Ishinomonsky on the Pacific coast, obtains its name from the
women who support their families by diving for pearls. It is a place of
many centuries old and the nymphs begin their strenuous work at the age
of 14, continuing until they are 40. Pearl shells abound in Sebiam Bay
and the work of the nymphs occupy 10 hours a day in summer time. The
length of each immersion is from 2 to 3 minutes. When the baby girl is
four years of age she is taken to the sea and taught to swim and dive.
These lessons continue until the time comes for the serious practice of
the pearl seekers’ profession. This work is all done by women whilst the
men attend to the training of the children and the duties of the
household.

Mention may also be made of the River fisheries of England, Scotland,
Wales, Ireland and various parts of Europe where the pearls found are as
a rule not of great importance, although it is stated that Sir Richard
Wynn of Gwydyr, Chamberlain to Catherine, wife of Charles II, sent a
pearl from the river Conway in North Wales as a present to the Queen,
which pearl is today in the King of England’s crown. In Wales these
river pearl shells are called by the poetic name Cregin y Dylu, shells
of the Flood.

The gradual replacement of naked divers by those in diving dress may
tend to make the yields more effective, but the work is not without its
dangers, the toiler beneath the sea having still to meet the challenge
of its denizens—the shark, the diamond fish and the deadly octopus.

  “_The Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a merchantman seeking goodly
  pearls._”

                                                    BOOK OF MATTHEW.

The pearl was esteemed as the emblem of purity, innocence and peace, and
was sacred to the Moon and Diana. For this reason in ancient times it
was worn by young girls and virgins on whom the protection of “chaste
Diana” was invoked. Generally as an emblem of chastity the pearl was
worn on the neck. As a cure for irritability it was ground to a fine
powder and a quantity, seldom more than a grain, was drunk in new milk.
In doses of the same quantity mixed with sugar it was recommended to be
taken as a charm against the pestilence.

The Hindus included the pearl amongst the five precious stones in the
magical necklace of Vishnu, the other four being the diamond, ruby,
emerald, and sapphire.

The golden pearl was the emblem of wealth, the white of idealism, the
black of philosophy, the pink of beauty, the red of health and energy,
the grey of thought. Lustreless pearls are considered unfortunate, as
also are pearls that have lost their sheen when on a dying person’s
finger, as sometimes happens. It is curious how pearls improve in lustre
when worn by some persons and how they deteriorate when worn by others.
A recent writer commenting on this advised that if “pearls turned colour
temporarily when worn by certain persons they should be put away for a
few days and the detrimental effects of constitutional acids will be
found to have entirely disappeared.” To an extent this is correct, but
it is equally certain that if the person by whom the pearls were
affected were to continue wearing them they would be destroyed
altogether. This is quite in accord with the occult philosophy of the
ancient masters who held that only people who had favourable planets in
Cancer—the Celestial sign of the Ocean—or in whose nativities the lunar
aspects were favourable could wear pearls. The Moon, however, in the
sign Capricorn was not considered favourable for wearing pearls, and
some writers also include the sign Scorpio. A half-moon shaped whitish
stone of about 25 lbs. weight was oftentimes used by the Ceylonese pearl
divers, tied around their waists, when making the plunge for the pearl
oyster, and the crew of 20—a lunar number—which made up the Ceylon
pearling boat company may have traditional authority, and may be
something more than mere coincidence.

The Princess of Yemen, previously mentioned, wore seven strands of
pearls. Seven is the positive number of the Moon or the Moon’s number
when going from new to full. This was recognized by ancient nations and
it may be well assumed that the symbolic meaning was understood by the
advisers to the Princess.

A custom exists in Madagascar which finds a parallel amongst the
ancients: it is believed that if at an afflicted birth pearls be buried
good will come to the child and will continue to come unless the pearls
be unearthed.

The Pearl was sacred to the angel Gabriel and Monday was its special day
of the week, the Moon was its planet and the zodiacal Cancer its sign.
To dream of pearls is considered a favourable omen, being held to
indicate wealth and honour gained by personal exertion. To the poor the
pearl denotes riches. It is the symbol of happy marriage and popularity.
That pearls are unfortunate is as untrue as that opals or any other gems
are. That they are unfavourable to some is as true as that they are
favourable to others, but prejudice being narrow and self-centred is
hard to kill. A young lady of good family actually told the author that
she would never wear pearls because she was unfortunate whenever she
wore her necklace. Upon examining this terrible necklace the author saw
that the alleged pearls were merely imitation! As imitation pearls
scarcely come within the province of this book it may be sufficient to
mention that in the year 1748 Linnaeus wrote to Dr. Haller, the
physiologist, telling him that he had ascertained how pearls grow in
shells. “I am able to produce in any mother of pearl shell that can be
held in the hand, in the course of 4 or 5 years, a pearl as large as the
seed of a common vetch.” This discovery by the great naturalist was
regarded as of such importance by the Swedish Government that they
ennobled Linnaeus, rewarded him with a gift of £450, and began to
manufacture pearls under his direction with great secrecy. Linnaeus’
method had long been anticipated by the Chinese who used to throw pieces
of mother of pearl, grit, etc., into the live oyster. It is said that in
a year the coating over a piece of mother of pearl would be sufficient.
Of late years the Japanese have acted on these practices with
considerable skill, producing by mechanical means some beautiful
specimens. Still, beautiful as they are, they are not _real_ pearls.

A good deal of pearl “faking” is practised, and a short time ago a pearl
broker in Paris was sentenced to imprisonment for tampering with the
colour of a pearl. But whenever chemical means are employed in tinting a
pearl the false colours invariably fade and leave the specimen worse off
than before, more especially if a lady with a “good pearl skin” wears
it.

In his book on “Malay Magic,” Mr. W. W. Satek gives the following
interesting account of Cocoa Nut Pearls, quoting from Dr. Deny’s
“Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya,” with acknowledgments to
“Nature”:—

“During my recent travels,” Dr. Sidney Hickson writes to a scientific
contemporary, “I was frequently asked by Dutch planters and others if I
had ever seen a ‘cocoanut stone.’ These stones are said to be rarely
found (one in two thousand or more) in the perisperm of the cocoanut,
and when found are kept by the natives as a charm against disease and
evil spirits. This story of the cocoanut stone was so constantly told
me, and in every case without variations in its details, that I made
every effort before leaving to obtain some specimens and eventually
succeeded in obtaining two. One of these is nearly a perfect sphere, 14
mm. in diameter, and the other, rather smaller in size, is irregularly
pear-shaped. In both specimens the surface is worn nearly smooth by
friction. The spherical one I have had cut into two halves but I can
find no concentric or other markings on the polished cut surface. Dr.
Kimmins has kindly submitted a half to a careful chemical analysis and
finds that it consists of pure carbonate of lime without any trace of
other salts or vegetable tissue.” On this letter Mr. Thistleton Dyer
remarks:—

“Dr. Hickson’s account of the calcareous concretions occasionally found
in the central hollow—filled with fluid—of the endosperm of the seed of
the cocoanut is extremely interesting. The circumstances of the
occurrence of these stones or pearls are in many respects parallel to
those which attend the formation of tabasheer. In both cases mineral
matter in palpable masses is withdrawn from solution in considerable
volumes of flint contained in tolerably large cavities in living plants
and in both instances they are monocotyledons. In the case of cocoanut
pearls the material is calcium carbonate and this is well known to
concrete in a peculiar manner from solutions in which organic matter is
also present. In my note on Tabasheer I referred to the reported
occurrence of mineral concretions in the wood of various tropical
dicotyledonous trees. Tabasheer is too well known to be pooh-poohed, but
some of my scientific friends express a polite incredulity in the other
cases.” The specimen presented by Mr. Skeat to the Cambridge
Ethnological Museum is encircled by a black ring which is caused, it is
said, by its adherence to the shell of the cocoanut. These cocoanut
pearls are of much interest and may perhaps be included amongst the
mineral curiosities which comprehend tabasheer, apatite, etc. Ancient
philosophy would probably associate them with the sign Cancer as is the
case with pearls found in seas and rivers. Swedenborg writes that pearls
are Truth and the knowledge of Truth, celestial and spiritual knowledge,
faith and charity.



                             CHAPTER XXVII
                              PERIDOT—RUBY

PERIDOT: PLASMA: THE REWARDING HERMES: PORPHYRY, ITS INTRODUCTION INTO
    ROME BY VITRASIUS POLLIO: PRASE OR MOTHER OF EMERALD: PYRITE: THE
    PYRITES LITHOS OF ISIDORE OF SEVILLE: A PRIMITIVE FIRESTONE: USED
    FOR FIREARMS: THE “SEED OF MINERALS”: MUNDIC OF THE MINERS: ITS
    CHANGE TO VITRIOL IN MINING DISTRICTS: SPINON OF THEOPHRASTUS:
    FRENCH “PIERRE DE SANTÉ”: MARCASITE USED AS A JEWEL ORNAMENT: EDEN’S
    FLOWERS OF METALS: PYROPE: QUARTZ: RUBELLITE: RUBICELLE: RUBY, THE
    CORUNDUM FAMILY: THE TERM “ORIENTAL”: THE MOGOK MINES: “LORD OF THE
    RUBIES”: THE MINE EATERS: “THE DRAGON LORD”: THE KING OF SCILAN’S
    RUBY: COSMAS INDICOPLEUSTES: A CORONATION CUSTOM DESCRIBED BY
    HATYON: TEARS OF BUDDHA: THE RUBY BOWL OF ARYA CHAKRAVARTI: COLONEL
    ALEXANDER GARDENER AND THE FAKIR’S RUBY: THE KING OF VISHAPOOR’S
    RUBY: RUBIES PLACED UNDER THE FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS: RUBIES IN
    THE CHO KENG SU: PLINY’S ACAUSTI: PRACTICE OF THE ETHIOPIANS:
    ANTHRAX OF THEOPHRASTUS: DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE’S RUBY: RUBIES MENTIONED
    BY MR. C. W. KING: RABBI RAGIEL’S TALISMAN: DRAGONS GUARDIANS OF
    RUBY MINES: M. ROCHEFORT’S STORY AND THE RUBY IN THE DRAGON’S HEAD:
    ST. MARGARET AND THE DRAGON: SHEIKH EL MOHDY AND THE RUBY-JEWELLED
    DRAGON: BARTHOVERI AND THE SERPENT: DIEUDONNÉ OF GOZON AND THE
    DRAGON OF RHODES: THE IMPORT OF THESE LEGENDS: ST. GEORGE AND ST.
    MICHAEL AND THE DRAGONS: SHRINE OF THE MAGI IN COLOGNE CATHEDRAL:
    THE SUN AND CHRISTIANITY: THE NAMES OF THE MAGI: THE ROSICRUCIAN
    CLASSIFICATION: THE “RÉGALE” OF FRANCE, FROM THE TOMB OF ST. THOMAS
    A’BECKET, WORN BY HENRY VIII: VOW OF LOUIS VII OF FRANCE AND ITS
    FULFILMENT AT CANTERBURY: SWEDENBORG’S CORRESPONDENCE OF THE RUBY:
    COMTESSE D’ANOIS’ STORY OF THE RUBY SINGING APPLE: THE ARABS AND THE
    ANGEL OF THE WORLD: PERSIAN CHARM AGAINST THE FORCES OF EVIL: THE
    4TH STONE OF THE NAO-RATTAN: BURMESE SYMBOL OF REINCARNATION: A RUBY
    WHICH NEARLY DESTROYED A NATIVE STATE IN INDIA: JEWELLED RINGS ON
    THE STATUE OF ST. LAMBERT AT LIÈGE CATHEDRAL: CATHARINE OF ARAGON
    READS MISFORTUNE IN HER RUBY’S CHANGE OF COLOUR: OCCULT VIRTUES OF
    THE RUBY: SYMBOL OF THE RUBY IN DREAMS: COLOUR PHENOMENA DISPLAYED
    BY A RUBY: THE STAR RUBY: THE HUNTER AND THE RUBY.


PERIDOT. (See CHRYSOLITE.)

PLASMA. This variety of leek-green jasper is derived from the Greek word
PLASMA, an image. It was a favourite stone among the ancients who
employed it in gem engraving and for important talismans. In the Rhodes
collection there is a beautiful oval specimen on which is engraved a
nude figure of Hermes holding a caduceus in his left hand, whilst on his
right above a purse is perched a cock; a scorpion is on his left side, a
little above his knee. He wears the winged cap on his head. Mr. King
classes this piece as astrological. It symbolizes the wisdom and rewards
of the well-starred subject of Mercury. Plasma was largely used in
Abraxes charms by the Gnostics who employed the substance always for
special talismans. Astrologically Plasma is under the zodiacal Virgin.

PORPHYRY. The name is derived from the Greek word for
purple—PORPHYRA—and we find it written at various periods in many ways,
for example: porfurie, porphurye, purphire, porpherie, porphiry. It is a
hard purple and white stone, said to have been introduced into Rome by
Vitrasisus Pollio in the form of statues of Claudius. The quarries
whence the ancients obtained their supplies of porphyry were found at
Gebel Dokhan, near the Red Sea, by Wilkinson and Burton. It has always
been a favourite stone with sculptors, glyptic artists, and architects,
and was chiefly esteemed in the forming of columns. Porphyry was
regarded as a stone to promote eloquence in speaking. Astrologically it
was placed under “the sign of the Columns”—Gemini.

PRASE. The name is derived from the Greek PRASON, a leek. Leonardus
calls it Prassius, and he says it is so termed from a herb of its own
name. It is also written as prasius, prasium. It is thus described by
Marbodus:

         “_Midst precious stones a place the Prase may claim,
         Of value small, content with beauty’s fame.
         No virtue has it: but it brightly gleams
         With emerald green, and well the gold beseems;
         Or blood-red spots diversify its green,
         Or crossed with three white lines its face is seen._”

Other authors, however, endow the prase with a virtue. It was regarded
by some as a beauty charm for married women and for the mothers of
brides. It resembles the beryl in its clear form, but it is duller. It
is translucent and, as its name indicates, leek-green in colour. At one
time it was believed to be the matrix of the emerald, whence it was
called “Mother of Emerald.” It is under the zodiacal Taurus.

PYRITE

           “_Named from the fire the yellow pyrite spurns
           The touch of man, and to be handled scorns:
           Touch it with trembling hand and cautious arm
           For, tightly grasped, it burns the closed palm._”

The word is found also as pyrit, pirrite, and old writers of the 16th
century were especially fond of using pyrit stone. It is derived from
the Greek PUR, fire, and is allied to the fire stone family (Pyrites
Lithos) noted by Isidore of Seville (6th and 7th centuries) in his
philosophical fragments from the more ancient writers. He identifies the
black pyrites of Pliny in a black Persian stone which, if fractured, and
held in the hand, burns. It is assumed from the frequent occurrence of
pieces of pyrites in prehistoric mounds that primitive man used the
substance for kindling fires. Later we find it employed before the
introduction of flint in wheel lock fire arms when, in the same manner,
it threw out sparks of fire when energetically struck on steel. The
ancients had a theory that pyrite was the seed or original matter of
minerals, and we find it in rocks of every age. To mining people it is
known as Mundic. Auriferous pyrite which occurs in auriferous countries
contains certain quantities of gold, sometimes worth winning, and was
known as King of the Pyrites. The action of water and air makes it
troublesome in coal-mining districts. It is then changed into sulphate
of iron (vitriol) and fires the mines. Chambers (1866) mentions that “at
Quarreltown in Renfrewshire a deep hollow may still be seen where about
a century ago the ground fell in in consequence of a subterranean fire
thus kindled.” Theophrastus, the great Greek naturalist and philosopher
of the 3rd century, before the Christian era, mentions in his work on
stones the burning pyrite under the name Spinon which, he says, is
contained in certain mines and which, if crushed, watered and exposed to
the rays of the sun, bursts into flame. The French call this stone
Pierre de Santé (Stone of Health), because it was said that it is
affected by the health of the wearer. The white iron pyrites, known as
Marcasite, is of similar composition to the ordinary pyrite (Iron
Disulphide) but it takes on the orthorhombic form of crystallization
instead of the usual cube form. This word is also found written as
markasit, marquesite. The stone was largely used for jewel
ornamentation. Oliver Goldsmith, in “She Stoops to Conquer,” says: “Half
the ladies of our acquaintance carry their jewels to town and bring
nothing but paste and marcasites back.” Eden in 1555 wrote that
“Marchasites are flowers of metals by the colours whereof the kyndes of
metals are known.” Mr. William Jones mentions a ring in the possession
of a clergyman which is made of two hearts surmounted by a crown set
with marcasites. Rabbi Chael says that a man on horseback holding a
bridle and bent bow engraved on pyrites makes the wearer irresistible in
war. These stones are martial according to astrology and are attached to
the zodiacal Scorpio.

PYROPE. (See GARNET.)

QUARTZ. In 1772 Cronstedt wrote in his work on Mineralogy: “I shall
adopt the name of Quartz in English as it has already general access in
other European Languages.” There seems to be little doubt regarding the
origin of the word which comes from the German QUARZ. Professor James D.
Dana gives the Quartz varieties under the following heads:—

1. _Vitreous._ Distinguished by their glassy fracture.

2. _Chalcedonic._ Having a sub-vitreous or a waxy lustre and generally
translucent.

3. _Jaspery Cryptocrystalline._ Having barely a glimmering lustre or
none, and opaque.

To the first belong: Amethyst, Aventurine Quartz, Cairngorm, Citrine,
Ferruginous Quartz, False or Spanish Topaz, Milk Quartz, Prase, Rock
Crystal, Rose Quartz, Smoky Quartz.

To the second belong: Chalcedony, Chrysoprase, Sard, Carnelian, Agate,
Onyx, Cat’s Eye, Flint, Hornstone, Chert, Plasma.

To the third belong: Jasper, Heliotrope or Bloodstone, Lydian Stone,
Touchstone, Basanite, Silicified Wood, Pseudomorphous Quartz, etc.

Opal is a near ally to Quartz which is a most useful as well as an
ornamental substance.

RUBELLITE. (See TOURMALINE.)

RUBICELLE. (See SPINEL.)

RUBY

              “_He that has once the flower of the Sunne
              The perfect ruby which we call elixir._”
                                              BEN JOHNSON.

The ruby derives its name from the Latin RUBER, red, and some of its
forms at various periods are given by Dr. Murray as rubye, rubie, rubey,
roby, rooby, rube, rubu, rybe, rybee, rybwe, ribe, riby. The stone is of
the corundum family which includes the sapphire, oriental amethyst,
oriental topaz, oriental chrysoberyl, oriental emerald, oriental
cats-eye, oriental moonstone, adamantine spar of hair-brown colour and
the well-known emery. The term “oriental” is also applied to the ruby
and serves to distinguish it from the spinel, ruby garnet and a number
of other red stones. The definition “oriental” is applied only to the
corundum family and was, according to Dr. G. F. H. Smith, attached to
these hard coloured stones which in early days reached Europe by way of
the East. The name CORUNDUM is derived from a Sanscrit word of doubtful
meaning, and the minerals included in it come next in hardness to the
diamond. The ruby therefore is a red sapphire, and the sapphire a blue
ruby, and it is no infrequent thing to find the two stones combined in
one specimen. Mr. Emanuel has drawn attention to the fact that rubies
and sapphires are always found in gold-bearing country. It has been
stated that whilst sapphires have been found in Australia the red
sapphire or ruby has not. This is incorrect. At the Anakie sapphire
fields in Central Queensland rubies are also found, and some specimens
exhibit blended colours. It is true, however, that rubies have not up to
the present been found in Australia in great quantities. The most
celebrated ruby mines in the world are the Mogok mines in Upper Burma.
Here the stones are found in Calcite deposits occurring in granular
limestone on the hill sides and in the clayey alluvial deposits of the
river beds. These workings are of very great age and until 1885 were the
monopoly of the Burmese Crown, the King being known as Lord of the
Rubies. In this country the ruby fields are called “Byon,” and the
miners “Twin-tsas” (mine eaters). These Twin-tsas were forced to
surrender to the monarch all big stones found by them, which stones were
carefully guarded in the Royal Treasure House. One of the mine eaters
found a large and beautiful gem which, in order to escape the selfish
conditions imposed, he divided into two parts; one of these he handed
over to the officers of the King, the other he endeavoured to conceal.
The plot it seems failed, with what result to the unfortunate “Eater” is
not told. The weight of these two sections after the cutter had exerted
his skill on them was 98 and 74 carats. A fine Burma ruby called “Gnaga
Boh,” or the Dragon Lord (the folklore of the East connects rubies and
dragons)—weighed when found over 40 carats, losing about half in the
cutting. The uncut part of the Great Burmese Ruby (a stone that weighed
400 carats and was split into three parts, two of which were cut) was
sold in Calcutta for 7 lakhs of rupees (at the exchange rate of two
shillings English for the rupee a lakh would equal £10,000). Marco Polo
writes of the great ruby possessed by the King of the Island of Seilan
(Ceylon), “The finest and biggest in the world”: “It is about a palm in
length and as thick as a man’s arm: to look at, it is the most
resplendent object upon earth: it is quite free from flaw and is as red
as fire. Its value is so great that a price for it in money could not be
named. The great Kaan sent an embassy and begged the King as a favour to
sell this to him offering to give for it the ransom of a city or, in
fact, what the King would. But the King replied that on no account
whatever would he sell it for it had come to him from his ancestors.”

The great merchant-traveller Cosmas Indicopleustes, of Alexandria,
writes in his “Voyages” (1666) of this stone, which “they say is of
great size and brilliant ruddy hue, as large as a giant pine cone. When
seen flashing from afar—especially if the Sun’s rays flood upon it—it is
a sight both marvellous and unequalled.” Hayton, his contemporary, also
writes of this wonderful stone: “At the King of the Island of Ceylon’s
coronation he places this ruby in his left hand and rides thus with it
throughout his city, after which all know him as their King and obey him
as such.” The Chinese writer Hyuen Tsang also writes of this great
stone, as does Odoric. Friar Jordamus discourses not only of this but of
the great and wonderful rubies in the possession of the Island King.
Andrea Corsali (1515) also writes of the King of Sylen’s (Ceylon) two
great rubies—“so shining and sparkling as to seem like flames of fire.”
In the Ceylon river beds fine rubies are discovered, and old writers say
that many are washed down from the mountain “which they call Adam’s
Peak.” There was superstitious belief in the beautiful Island of Ceylon
that rubies are the consolidated tears of Buddha. One of the great
mediaeval Tamul chiefs, Arya Chakravarti, had, it is said, a ruby bowl
the size of the palm of a man’s hand, which was remarkable for its
brilliant colour. Colonel Alexander Gardner, Colonel of Artillery in the
service of Maharaja Ranyit Singh, describes a visit he made with the Bai
or Baron of the Kirghiz to a venerable aged fakir whose worldly
possessions seemed to consist of earthen pots of grain placed in a hole
in the middle of his hut. The old philosopher was the reputed possessor
of a rare and beautiful ruby. For this the Bai entreated the silent and
unmoved fakir, declaring that with it alone could he induce the robber
chief he was travelling to see to spare “the lives, property and honour
of all the innocent families around.” At last the fakir quietly arose,
and after a little fumbling produced the gem which, with a dignified
gesture, he placed softly in the Bai’s hands, giving him his blessing
and expressing the hope that the offering might have the desired result,
after which he relapsed into silent reverie. He declined money for the
gem, asking only that some grain might be sent him so “that he might be
able to relieve way-worn and destitute travellers.” The Colonel examined
the gem and found cut in high relief on the centre of the oblong face of
the stone a small Zoroastrian altar. Round this altar were double
cordons of letters similar to those appearing on the Scytho Bactrian
coins. The Colonel describes the gem as pure and lustrous, of great
value, and from 150 to 200 carats in weight. This rare gem was
discovered at the time of Timur by an ancestor of the fakir in a cave
near the famous shrine of the city of Esh or Oosh on the Bolor Ranges.

A fine ruby of 50 carats which belonged to the King of Vishapoor is
mentioned by Tavernier. In China the ruby has always been esteemed and
its primary importance as a distinguishing emblem in the cap of the
Chief Mandarin had already been noted. A specimen was also placed under
the foundations of a building of importance “to give it a good destiny.”
In the Chinese work CHO KENG LU which relates to various affairs up to
the Mongol dynasty, deep red rubies are termed “Si-la-ni”; scholars
translate this word as “from Ceylon.” They are also known as “Hung Pao
Shi” (precious red stone) and “Chin Chu.” It has a sacred meaning and
talismanic virtue and is attached to the dress set in rare jade and
employed as a precious ornament. Pliny calls rubies “Acausti” and says
that they are not injured by fire. He relates a practice of the
merchants of Ethiopia of placing a ruby in a vinegar solution for two
weeks to improve its lustre. The effect was, it is said, good for a
short period of time but ultimately the stones became soft and fragile.
The ANTHRAX or “glowing coals” of Theophrastus is identified as the ruby
as we know it today. He gives us an idea of the money value of this
stone by stating that a very small specimen would sell for forty golden
staters (a gold stater is worth about a 5-dollar gold piece of the
United States). Amongst the gems collected in the 18th century by
William, third Duke of Devonshire, there is a ruby of about three carats
weight, described by Mr. King as of “the most delicious cerise colour”
on which are cut deeply the figures of Venus and Cupid. The work is of
the middle Roman Period and Mr. King deplores the fact that the great
value of the gem was in his opinion injured by the inferiority of the
workmanship. A Faun’s Head on an inferior ruby in the same collection is
superior from an art point of view and of greater age. Mr. King mentions
a beautiful rose-coloured ruby of irregular form on which is a
magnificent head of Thetis wearing a crab’s shell helmet of most
exquisite Greek work. Rabbi Ragiel (“Book of Wings”) writes that the
figure of a dragon cut on a ruby increases the worldly possessions of
the wearer, giving happiness and ease. Old legends say that the ruby
mines as well as the emerald mines were guarded by dragons and the
symbolic connection between the dragon and the ruby has the virtue of
far-reaching antiquity. M. Rochefort in his “Natural History of the
Antilles,” says that the Caribbees of Dominica speak of a dragon which
lives in a declivity of the rocks and in whose head is a giant ruby so
brilliant that the surrounding country is illuminated by it. These
people believed that the Son of God came out of the heavens to slay the
dragon. St. Margaret is said to have subdued a dragon and to have taken
a wonderful ruby from its head. The Arabian writer Sheikh El Mohdy has
amongst his stories one telling of a terrible dragon which inhabited the
island of Ceylon and carried in his head a large ruby which shone for
many miles amidst the darkness of night. The Indian philosopher
Barthoveri said that “the serpent is malefic although it carries a ruby
in its head.” Dieudonné of Goyon is said to have killed a terrible
dragon at Rhodes and to have drawn from its head a wonderful iridescent
stone the size of an olive. Some few writers substitute the diamond for
the ruby, but whether we take the many-coloured stone of Dieudonné
(which it has been said was a diamond) or the stones of the Sun, the
ruby and the diamond, the import of the legends are similar. The dragon
as the symbol of the lower forces whether as the poisonous emanations of
stagnant waters or as the Serpent of Eden—the planet Mars and one of his
heavenly Houses, Scorpio, or the planet Saturn and his heavenly House,
Capricorn—is continually exposed to the benefic rays of the Sun. These
rays are personified by the contests between the Sun-Angel Michael and
the Dragon and our well-known St. George.

The three skulls, said to be the skulls of the “Three Kings” in the
jewelled “Shrine of the Magi” in Cologne Cathedral, have their names
Melchior, Gaspar and Balthazar worked on them in rubies, perhaps because
the Sun, planet of the ruby, was the accredited planet of Christianity
as noted by Albertus Magnus and the Cardinal Dailly. The names of the
Magi have also been given as Megalath, Galgalath and Sarasin—Apellius,
Amerus and Damascus—Ator, Sator and Peratoras. In their allegories the
Rosicrucians follow very nearly the names on the skulls in the 12th
century Shrine at Cologne, viz.:

        _Jasper or Gaspar, the white lord with a diamond
        Melchior, the bright lord with a diamond
        Belshazzar or Balthazar, the treasure lord with a ruby._

It is said that Henry VIII wore on his thumb a ring in which was set a
ruby—some say a diamond—from the tomb of St. Thomas A’Becket. This ruby,
known as the “Régale of France,” was the talismanic gem of the French
King Louis VII who, in accordance with a battle-vow, visited the tomb at
Canterbury in the year 1179. Whilst offering his devotions he was asked
by the priests at the shrine to give as an offering this beautiful
jewel. Being loath to part with his talisman, the King agreed to give
one hundred thousand florins in its stead, to which generous
substitution the Canterbury fathers humbly agreed. But the precious ruby
which dazzled all with its brightness, turning night into day, refused
to be thus protected and, flying from the setting of the ring on the
King’s finger, fixed itself on the Saint’s tomb.

Swedenborg recognizes in the ruby a gem of passionate devotion and
likens it to the appearance of the Lord’s Divine Sphere represented in
the celestial Heavens.

In Comtesse d’Anois’ fairy story “Chery and Fairstar” there is a
narrative of a ruby apple on an amber stem which is known as the
“Singing Apple.” This apple gave forth a perfume so weirdly sweet that
it caused people to laugh or to cry, to write poems or to sing songs;
but when it sang itself the hearers were transported with ecstasy.
Guarded by a great three-headed dragon with twelve feet, the apple
rested in the Libyan desert whence it was secured by Prince Chery in his
glass armour, the reflections of which drove the terrified dragon into a
cave, the entrance to which was securely shut up by the victor.

The Arabs say that the Angel Bearer of the World stands on a rock of
pure ruby, and amongst the Persians the gem was used in magical rites as
a charm against the Black Forces. It was the fourth stone of the
Nao-Rattan which Iarchus gave to Apollonius, representing Benevolence,
Charity, Divine Power, and Dignity. The Burmese value the ruby as an
especially sacred stone which to them is a symbol of the last
incarnation which precedes the final embrace of Divinity. The beautiful
ruby is likened to rich ripe fruit, and its magical power is matured. It
has been stated that the ruby is unfortunate for India—a country under
the Celestial Capricorn—and one great specimen nearly destroyed a native
state, after which event it was buried with solemn ceremonies in the
heart of the Himalayas.

It was an ancient custom to adorn sacred statues with precious stones
and the practice has survived into Christian times. Mr. William Jones
describes a large shrine in the Liège Cathedral whereon was a figure,
more than life size, of St. Lambert. On each hand were three jewelled
rings, the most brilliant of which was set with a rare 10-carat ruby.
The shrine was of the latter 15th and early 16th centuries. Many similar
votive offerings are recorded.

For a ruby to change its colour was regarded as a forerunner of
misfortune, and it is said that the unhappy wife of Henry VIII,
Catharine of Aragon, observing a change in her ruby ring, foretold her
own fall. After danger has passed, old writers say, the ruby returns to
its colour again, if it is the true gem of the wearer.

The ruby is an emblem of passion, affection, power and majesty. It had
the reputation of attracting and retaining material love. It was
probably for this reason that the amorous Henry VIII of England wore the
“Régale of France.” It removed obstacles, gave victory, and revealed the
hidden places of stolen treasure. It signified vitality, life and
happiness, and was an amulet against plagues, poison, sorrow and evil
spirits, who dreaded the flashing of the stone from the hand of a good
person.

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF HENRY VIII OF ENGLAND
  The Ruby was considered the fortunate gem for this King.
]

To dream of a ruby indicated to the business man rich patronage and
success in trade, to the farmer a successful harvest and to the
professional man elevation or fame and success in different degrees. It
was always considered more fortunate to wear the ruby on the left hand
or left side of the body. The colours of the gem vary from a light rose
to a deep red, the most expensive colour being that nearest to pigeon’s
blood. Submitted to a high temperature it turns green but when cooling
returns to its original colour. A particularly fortunate and rare
variety is the Star or Asteriated ruby which exhibits a perfect star on
its beautifully rounded cabochon surface, coming as it were from a
chatoyant interior. Messrs. Jerningham and Bettany in their Bargain Book
relate how a traveller in Amazonia found in the crop of a bird which he
had shot, a large and handsome ruby which he had cut and set in a ring
as a souvenir of this uncommon event.

The ruby is under the Celestial sign Leo.



                             CHAPTER XXVIII
                            RUTILE—SAPPHIRE

RUTILE, VENERIS CRINIS OR HAIR OF VENUS, NET OF THETIS, FLÉCHES D’AMOUR
    OR LOVE’S ARROWS: ITS COMPOSITION AND PLACE IN THE ZODIAC: SAPPHIRE:
    ITS ANCIENT NAME: MALE AND FEMALE: FAVOURED COLOURS: THE SAPPHIRE
    FIELDS: MESSRS. RAND AND DUNSTAN ON THE CENTRAL QUEENSLAND FIELDS AT
    ANAKIE: MINERALS FOUND ASSOCIATED WITH SAPPHIRE: DISHONEST TRADE
    CLASSIFICATION: LARGE SAPPHIRES: A HOLY GEM: SACRED TO PH[OE]BUS:
    SOLINUS AND THE SIGN AQUARIUS: THE SAPPHIRE AND THE EYES: MEDICINE
    ADMINISTERED ASTROLOGICALLY: PORTA ON THE SAPPHIRE: BOETIUS AND THE
    PRIESTLY STONE: POPE INNOCENT III RECOMMENDS IT AS A BISHOP’S STONE:
    INTAGLIO OF POPE PAUL III: ST. JEROME ON THE SAPPHIRE: A STONE OF
    THE PEOPLE WORN BY THE KING: KING SOLOMON’S SAPPHIRE: SAVED FROM THE
    SACK OF JERUSALEM: THE STONE OF MOSES: CONSTANTINE’S SAPPHIRE:
    BUDDHISTS AND THE SAPPHIRE: ITS PLACE IN THE NAO-RATTAN AND THE
    NECKLACE OF VISHNU: FALLS FROM THE DEAD EYES OF MAHA BALI: LADY
    SCROOPE THROWS THE SAPPHIRE RING FROM THE WINDOW OF QUEEN
    ELIZABETH’S DEATH CHAMBER: THE SEPHER OF SOLOMON: THE BOOK OF WINGS:
    TALISMANIC SAPPHIRES: THE SAPPHIRE DREAM: THE ASTERIATED SAPPHIRE:
    THE SAPPHIRE AND THE ZODIAC.


RUTILE

              “_Fair tresses man’s imperial race ensnare,
              And beauty draws us with a single hair._”
                                                    POPE.

The name Rutile is derived from the Latin RUTILUS, red, and it appeared
under the form RUTIL in 1803 when it was first applied to the mineral by
Dr. A. G. Werner. The mineral occurs in brown, red, yellow and black
colours and is composed of oxygen and Titanium. In hardness it is about
the same as a peridot. The name Veneris Crinis (Hair of Venus) was first
given to fibrillous rutile in quartz crystal known as Sagenite, from a
Greek word meaning “a net.” The Hair of Venus was suggested by the
beautiful hair-like effect which in good specimens is truly Titian. It
is also known as The Net of Thetis and the Hair of Thetis. The French
call it “Fléches d’Amour” (Love’s Arrows). The Veneris Crinis was worn
by the ancients as a charm to favour the growth of hair and to give
foreknowledge. Rutile is under the celestial Sagittarius.

SAPPHIRE

               “_The living throne, the sapphire blaze,
               Where angels tremble while they gaze._”
                                                   GRAY.

The Sapphire derives its name from the Greek SAPPHEIROS and the
following are some of the many forms of the word: saphyr, saphir, safir,
safire, zaphire, safere, saffere, safyre, sapher, saphyre, saphire,
saffyr, saffre, safeur, safour, safur, sapheir, saphere, safure,
saffure, saffoure, saufir, sapphier, saiffer, sapphyr.

The sapphire which may be said to lead the Corundum family is slightly
harder than the ruby. The name, which varies but little in ancient
languages, was without doubt applied to the blue lapis lazuli—the
Hyacinthus of the ancients being the true sapphire of our days. Sapphire
is the name given to the blue corundum, and the shades of colour vary
from very light to very dark, the light specimens being anciently termed
female, the dark, male. This blue tinge will, however, be detected in
several light varieties of the corundum family. The velvety blue
sapphire termed the “bleu du roi” has held its popularity for ages and
is likely to continue to do so, although the pretty light specimens
known as “cornflower blue” are fast coming into favour. Sapphires are
found in Ceylon, India and Siam in considerable quantity and some good
stones have been found in the United States. Large specimens come from
Newton, New Jersey and also from the rich country round Montana. The
sapphire fields at Anakie, Central Queensland, bid fair to become one of
the biggest in the world, and in a highly instructive report, Messrs.
William Rands and B. Dunstan, Government Geologists of Queensland, give
a detailed account of the fields. The authors of the report give the
following list of minerals found in the sapphire deposits:

      Diamonds
      Sapphire (blue)
      Oriental Ruby (red)
      Oriental Topaz (yellow)
      Oriental Peridot (green)
      Oriental Chrysoberyl (yellowish green)
      Oriental Amethyst (purple)
      Cats’ Eye (smoky, etc.)
      Oriental Moonstone (pearly)
      Spinel varieties
      Spinel Ruby
      Pleonaste
      Garnet Pyrope
      Zircon varieties
      Jargoon (white and yellow)
      Hyacinth (brown and red)
      Quartz varieties
      Rock Crystal (colourless)
      Amethyst (purple)
      Cairngorm (smoky)
      Chalcedony varieties
      Carnelian (red and yellow)
      Jasper varieties: Black (Lydian Stone), red and brown
      Rutile (in quartz pebbles)
      Topaz (white)
      Magnetite
      Titanic Iron
      Magnesite
      Tourmaline
      Hornblende

The report emphasises the facts that “the field is a large one, that the
extent of sapphire wash is second to none in the world and that a
constant supply of stones could be maintained.” It seems that these
Australian gems have not met with the fair treatment so necessary in the
development of the fields, and in their report Messrs. Rands and Dunstan
submit an extract from a letter received from an important firm of
lapidaries and gem merchants in Geneva: “Fine sapphires equal to those
from Burma have been found amongst the Australian gem stones. Most of
these are sent to Germany by dealers where they are sorted. The best
gems are afterwards sold separately under another name, and the inferior
lots sold as Australian.”

Large sapphires are more frequently found than large rubies and Dr.
Chambers mentions one discovered in 1853 in the alluvium a few miles
from Ratnapoora, which was valued at over £4000 sterling. A large
specimen, three inches long, is mentioned by Professor J. D. Dana as
being in the possession of Sir Abram Hume. In the Green Vaults at
Dresden several great specimens are shown. The large “Saphir
merveilleux” which Mr. Hope exhibited at the London Exhibition in
1851—known as the “Hope Sapphire”—was blue by day-light and amethyst
colour by nightlight. This gem was last said to be in the Russian
Treasury. This sapphire has nothing in common with the blue
cobalt-coloured artificial spinels known as “Hope Sapphires.” Dr. G. F.
H. Smith mentions several large stones, the most notable being one of
950 carats which was reported to be in the King of Ava’s treasury in
1827. The weight of the Rospoli rough sapphire in the Jardin des Plantes
is 132 carats. The Duke of Devonshire has a fine sapphire of 100 carats,
brilliant cut above the girdle of the stone, and step cut below. From
the earliest times the sapphire had the reputation of a holy gem.
Solinus says that “it feels the air and sympathizes with the heavens,
shining not the same if the sky be bright or obscured.” The ancients
held the gem sacred to Phœbus, not as a personification of the Sun,
but rather as explained by Dr. Alexander S. Murray (Department of Greek
and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum) as follows:

“From the sun comes our physical light, but that light is at the same
time an emblem of mental illumination, of knowledge, truth and right, of
all moral purity: and in this respect a distinction was made between it
as a mental and a physical phenomenon—a distinction which placed
Phœbus Apollo on one side and Helios on the other. Accordingly
Phœbus Apollo is the oracular god who throws light on the dark ways
of the future, who slays the Python—that monster of darkness which made
the oracle at Delphi inaccessible. He is the god of music and song which
are only heard where light and security reign and the possession of
herds is free from danger.” This is the ideal of the sign Aquarius,
astrologically considered, and students of the old science well know
what Solinus implies when he says that the gem of the sign Aquarius
“feels the air and sympathizes with the heavens” for this sign of “air,”
of fine ethereal forces, of “outer airs,” of fine subtle substances,
etc., is also the sign of Heaven and the Heavens.

The great physician Galen used the sapphire “for expelling the hot
humours of the body,” which unfavourable health condition is included in
astrological philosophy on the evils of the sign Aquarius. The sign
also, as the astrologer Raphael says, “has particular rule over the
eyesight, and the Sun conjoined with Saturn therein is a sure sign of
blindness.” Ancient writers say that he who gazes into a sapphire will
charm away all threatened injury to his eyes, and Marbodus recommends
that a sapphire “dissolved in milk” takes the sting from “dimmed eyes.”
For removing foreign bodies from the eye, specks of dust, sand, etc., it
was recommended that a sapphire be held a while on the closed eyelid and
then drawn gently and slowly several times across from the nose to the
corner of the eye. It is one of the old principles in medicine,
astrologically administered, that the cause of the disease can also be
used as a cure, whilst another rule advises the virtue of opposites. In
this latter connection it was said that a sapphire placed near the heart
would fortify that organ—the sign of Heaven “ruling” the heart is Leo,
and Aquarius is exactly opposite to Leo in the Zodiac. In homœopathic
medicine aconite in proper proportion is administered to reduce fevers
and inflamed conditions. Astrologically, aconite is a herb of Saturn.
Saturn is, like the herb, cold and contracting whilst Mars is warm and
expanding. The blood and mental faculties are liable to disorder in
certain people born with Aquarius rising at birth or with the Sun
therein: and the sapphire was the panacea which also, it was said,
stopped bleeding of the nose if held against the temples. In old
pharmacies the sapphire held a place of importance and its reputed
curative virtue led to its employment as a charm against swellings,
boils, ruptures, profuse perspirations, poisons, melancholy, flatulence
and other bodily inharmonies. It was also employed as a charm against
enchantment, danger, treachery, quarrels between friends, evil
suggestions and undue influence. Porta in his work on “Natural Magic,”
1561, writes of the value of the sapphire in all magical and religious
ceremonies, protecting the wearer from the Larvae of the lower spiritual
world and from the snakes and poisonous reptiles of the world of matter.
It was considered intensely powerful as a destroyer of poisonous insects
which it was said to kill if placed at the mouth of a vessel in which
they were imprisoned. Boetius (“De Natura Gemmarum”) writes that the
sapphire was worn by priests as an emblem of chastity, for none of evil
thoughts, bad minds or vicious habits dare wear this gem of pure
heavenly love which was used of old by those consulting the sacred
oracles. In his messages to the Bishops of the 12th century Pope
Innocent III asked that they should have their pure gold rings set with
“that stone which is the true seal of secrecy.” When the Roman Catholic
church received her novices into the Sisterhood a sapphire ring blessed
by a Bishop was given as a holy symbol of the mystical marriage. In the
famous Pulsky Collection—mentioned by Mr. C. W. King—there is a
wonderful intaglio on a fine sapphire of Pope Paul III by the great
Alessandro Cesati, three-quarters of an inch square. St. Jerome (4th and
5th centuries) wrote that the sapphire saved its wearer from captivity
and pacified his enemies, also that it gained the favour of princes.
Some old authors recommend the sapphire as a stone for the hands of
Kings. It is a stone rather of Democracy. Perhaps, however, the symbolic
idea was that the King as the servant of the people could adorn his hand
with no more fitting emblem. It is traditionally reported that the ring
of King Solomon was a sapphire, which stone was believed by some of the
masters to be the special talisman of the Jews. One kept in the Holy of
Holies as a holy emblem is said to have been saved and concealed for the
people of Israel when Titus sacked Jerusalem. Moses was born with the
Sun rising in the ascending Aquarius, hence the adoption of either the
sapphire as we know it today or the lapis lazuli as national gems is
perfectly natural. The sapphire in the signet of Constantine, weighing
53 carats, which now lies amongst the treasures in the Rinuccini Cabinet
at Florence, is cut in intaglio with a portrait of the Emperor in the
guise of Nimrod attacking a great boar with his spear in the Cæsarean
plains. As a gem of heavenly and beautiful thoughts the sapphire was
regarded as a scare against devils, evil forces, witchcraft, sorcery and
all forms of villainy. The Buddhists symbolically say that a sapphire
opens a closed door, brings prayerful feelings and sounds the sweet
bells of peace. It is a stone of truth, constancy, friendship, goodness
and angelic help; it warns against hidden dangers and heightens the
imagination and psychic forces. It rebels against intoxication and
refuses to adorn the hand of a drunkard; it helps hopes and wishes that
are truly just and right. It was the third stone of the Nao-rattan and
the fourth of the seven rings which Iarchus brought down from the
angelic spheres as a gift to Apollonius of Tyana. It was the fourth
stone of the magical necklace of Vishnu, and according to the Ramayana
sapphires fell from the eyes of the slain god Maha Bali.

An Irish Countess lent for exhibition to the South Kensington Loan
Collection in 1872 the sapphire ring which Lady Scroope threw from the
window of the death chamber of Queen Elizabeth to Sir Robert Carey who
was waiting below for this signal of the Queen’s passing in order to
convey the news post haste to James. In the Sepher of Solomon “which was
set together in the desert by the Children of Israel in the Holy Name of
God, following the influences of the stars,” a charm for favouring
desires, for procuring invisibility, and certain benefits was a light
coloured sapphire on which was engraved a mermaid holding a twig in one
hand and a mirror in the other. The times for the construction of this
talisman (which was to be set in a ring and worn inwards for escaping
the eyes of others) was when the moon well aspected, was passing through
the 5th, 6th and 7th degrees of the sign Aquarius. Another charm from
the same source is the figure of a young man crowned, a circle round his
neck, his hands raised in prayer, seated on a four-legged throne
supported on the back of their necks by four men standing. The charm is
to be cut on a “cornflower” sapphire for purifying the mind and
obtaining favours from rulers, scholars, priests and people of wisdom,
when the well-aspected moon was passing through the 1st, 2nd, 28th and
29th degrees of Aquarius. In the “Book of Wings,” a charm advised for
gaining wealth and prophetic foresight is an astrolabe cut on a
sapphire, especially when the moon, well aspected, passes through the
1st, 2nd, 28th and 29th degrees of Aquarius. Another for health,
protection from poison, poisonous airs, and tyranny was the Bearded Head
of a man or a ram engraved on a sapphire, constructed when the
well-aspected moon was passing through 8th, 9th, 25th and 26th degrees
of Aquarius. Dreaming of sapphires is said to denote protection, social
success, and favour generally.

[Illustration:

  Beautiful Colour Gems
  Kelsey I. Newman Collection

  .in 2
  .ta r:3 r:2
   1. | |BERYL | | 17¼ carats
   2. | |AQUAMARINE | | 59⅛  "
   3. | |PINK SAPPHIRE | | 3½  "
   4. | |AMETHYST | | 28  "
   5. |{| |}| 14  "
   6. |{| ORANGE SAPPHIRES |}| 4  "
   7. |}| |{| 20  "
   8. |}| GOLDEN SAPPHIRES |{| ¾  "
   9. |}| |{| 2½  "
  10. | | SUNLIGHT SAPPHIRE| | 44-1/16  "
  .ta-
  .in
]

The Asteriated or Star Sapphire, displaying like the Star Ruby, an
opalescent star, is a valued charm for procuring the love of friends,
for constancy and harmony.

All shades of blue and green sapphires are under the zodiacal Aquarius.
White sapphires (called Leucos sapphires) are under the sign Pisces.
Yellow sapphires are under the sign Leo. Amethyst sapphires are under
the sign Sagittarius.



                              CHAPTER XXIX
                           SARDONYX—SUCCINITE

SARDONYX: SCHORL: SELENITE: COMPARISONS BY MARBODUS AND MALPLEAT:
    PLINY’S ACCOUNT: ANCIENT USE OF SELENITE: USED IN THE PALACE AT
    PEKIN: DR. JOHN GOAD AND THE SELENITE OF POPE CLEMENT VIII: SELENITE
    AMONGST THE GREEKS: TREVISA’S NARRATIVE: SELENITES OR LUNARY MEN: A
    LOVE ATTRACTOR: A CURIOUS TALISMAN: SELENITE AND PEARLS: SERPENTINE
    OR HYDRINUS: IDENTIFIED WITH THE TARSHISH STONE: THE OPHITE STONE OF
    DIOSCORIDES AND PLINY: AGRICOLA KNOWS IT AS LAPIS SERPENTIUS: THE
    RANOCHIA OF ITALIAN ARTISTS: A CURE FOR RHEUMATIC AFFECTIONS, ETC.:
    USED BY THE ANCIENTS FOR FASHIONING ORNAMENTS AND CHARMS: A TALISMAN
    OF CAPRICORN: USED IN THE MAKING OF SCARABS AND CYLINDERS: SOAPSTONE
    OR STEATITE: ITS EXTENSIVE USE IN ANCIENT EGYPT: PINITE: THE
    AGALMATOLITE OR PAGODITE CALLED BY THE CHINESE HAO-CHI: LUCKY
    FIGURES AND EMBLEMS: A SAVAGE FOOD: SPHENE OR TITANITE SPINEL OR
    BALAS RUBY: VARIETIES: PHENOMENA OF THE SPINEL: ALBERTUS MAGNUS:
    ANDREA BACCI: THE PALACE OF THE RUBY: MARCO POLO’S STORY: LAL RUMANI
    OF THE INDIANS: THE KING OF OUDE’S SPECIMEN: THE LAL-I-JALADI: THE
    BLACK PRINCE’S RUBY AND ITS STORY: SIR JAMES MELVILLE AND QUEEN
    ELIZABETH’S “FAIR, GREAT RUBY”: LOVE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH FOR SPINELS:
    ROBERT DE BERQUEN AT THE COURT OF THE KING OF PERSIA: SPINELS AND
    CORUNDUMS IN RIVER GRAVELS: ELIANUS AND THE STORY OF THE STORK: ITS
    SYMBOLIC IMPORT: AN ANCIENT MEDICAL CUSTOM: A HEALTH STONE: A GARDEN
    CHARM: SPODUMENE: HIDDENITE: KUNZITE: RADIUM INFLUENCE ON SPODUMENE
    AND KUNZITE: SUCCINITE.


SARDONYX. (See ONYX.)

SCHORL. (See TOURMALINE.)

SELENITE

          “_This stone, a remedy for human ills,
          Springs, as they tell, from famous Persia’s hills._”
                                                    MARBODUS.

The word SELENITE is derived from the Greek SELENE, the moon, and is
found also written as silenite, silonite, silenitis. The stone which is
a crystallized variety of gypsum is in pearly white, green, yellow and
gray colours. Marbodus compares it with soft grass or verdant jasper,
and Malpleat, in 1567, says it is like a fresh and flourishing green
herb. The moon-like lustres whether in pearl-white or light green are
the most esteemed, and Pliny writes that it is frequently employed in
the construction of beehives to enable the curious to watch the little
insects at their wonderful work. The ancients employed it in much the
same way as we do glass, and it formed an item of considerable trade
importance between Rome, Spain, Cyprus, Africa, Cappadocia and other
parts of the ancient world. Slightly coarser varieties were used by
Tiberius to cover his hot-houses, for it is susceptible of being split
into comparatively thin sheets. A finer variety of very great value was
at one time to be seen in the palace at Pekin. Dr. John Goad, who wrote
the Astro-Meteorologia, a book on the natures and influences of the
celestial bodies, mentions the Selenite which Pope Clement VIII had
amongst his treasures. It was a natural moon dial, of which Cocheram
said in 1623, “it decreaseth and encreaseth as the moon groweth.” This
Dr. Goad was a famous scholar who, wrote Cooper, “gained a reputation
for his astrological knowledge founded on reason and experiment.” The
Greeks called the stone Selenitis Lithos, because they said it waxed and
waned with the moon, a belief quaintly expressed by Trevisa in 1398 as
follows: “Selenites is a stone of Perse, grene as grasse. It shineth
with a white specke and foloweth the moon and waxyth and waneth as the
moon doeth.” Some old stories tell of a belief that little Moon men
which Howell, a 17th century writer, calls “Selenites or Lunary Men,”
flung these stones deep in the earth. The Selenite was regarded as a
love attractor and a stone to restore harmony between quarrelsome
lovers. If engraved with a figure of Diana with bow and arrow when the
moon was passing through the 3rd, 16th and 17th degrees of Cancer it
increased, say old writers, the power of imagination and helped the
wearer to realize future movements. If the Selenite be burned and
carefully powdered it is said to be of great use in cleaning pearls
(which also are moon-ruled according to astrology). The Selenite is
under the sign Cancer like the moonstone, with which it is frequently
confounded.

SERPENTINE OR HYDRINUS

The name Serpentine appears at different periods as serpentyn,
serpentyne, sarpentene, sarpentin, scharpentyn. It is derived from the
Latin SERPENS, and its more ancient term HYDRINUS indicates exactly the
Sea Serpent family (Hydridæ), so well known to ancient and modern
writers. Precious serpentine is translucent—or about so—and of a rich
oily green colour. Common serpentine is opaque. The precious serpentine
is called “noble,” the impure “common.” The colours are dark oily green,
light green, olive green, black green, brown yellow, green yellow,
sometimes almost white. The Serpentine is identified with the Tarshish
stone, the 10th stone of the High Priest’s Breastplate. It was known as
“Ophite Stone” by Dioscorides and Pliny, and Agricola writing in the 16
th century calls it “Lapis Serpentinus.” Other writers called it
“Serpentinum,” hence the modern name “Serpentine.” In Italy, especially
amongst artists, some specimens of the stone are known as “Ranochia,”
because of its similarity to a frog’s skin.

It was recommended of old as a cure for rheumatism and rheumatic pains
in the limbs, and for that purpose specimens were carried on the body
next the skin, attached to the arms or legs. It was believed to cure
dropsy and all moist complaints, especially if the sufferer held a
specimen in each hand whilst resting in the sunlight. The wearer was
also warned not to overdo this sun-bathing with Serpentine in his hands
because of its affinity with all natural bodily fluids. It was said to
be a charm against serpent bites or stings and to scare away poisonous
insects and reptiles of the sea and land. Serpentine was much esteemed
by the ancients for its healing virtues and peculiar beauty. They
effectively employed it in the manufacture of vases, pillars, boxes,
etc., and for the making of special charms and talismans. The figure of
a goat with a fish’s tail cut on a serpentine when the moon, well
aspected, was passing through the 3rd and 4th degrees of the sign
Capricorn, was a charm against rheumatism, skin troubles, gout, stiff
limbs, accidents to the limbs, falls or hurts.

The Serpentine was largely used by the ancient Egyptians in the making
of sacred scarabs, and the Persians favoured it especially for shaping
into cylinders of authority, one of which is described by Mr. C. W.
King, as follows:

“A King contending with two andro-sphinxes, Ormuzd hovering above on the
Tree of Life”—a very symbolic cylinder.

The Serpentine or Hydrinus is under the celestial Capricorn.

SOAPSTONE OR STEATITE

Steatite derives its name from the Greek word STEAR, fat, which well
describes the greasy feel of this soft magnesian rock—a massive variety
of talc. It was extensively used by the ancient Egyptians who cut it
into scarabs which in many cases they first burnt and then coated with a
vitreous blue or green glaze. The substance is extremely soft and can
easily be cut with a knife. Soapstone figures are cut from a variety
known as PINITE—the Agalmatolite or Pagodite of China, called by them
Hoa-chi. Many of these are very beautifully cut, a number being lucky
figures presented in the guise of gods and goddesses, flowers, fruits,
etc. This custom reminds of the “Household gods” of the ancients. A kind
of soft steatite earth is still eaten by the savages of New Caledonia
and other places.

All varieties of Steatite are under the zodiacal Taurus.

SPHENE OR TITANITE

Sphene derives its name from the Greek SPHEN, a wedge. As the name
indicates the form of the crystals is wedge-shaped. The lustre is very
brilliant but the stone is scarcely as hard as the opal and therefore is
little used in jewellery.

Sphene is under the zodiacal Sagittarius.

SPINEL OR BALAS RUBY

Spinel, which derives its name from the Greek word SPINOS, a spark, is
found written in a variety of ways, chief amongst which are spinell,
spinele, spinel. Its colours are red, brown, green, yellow and blue. The
red varieties are clear and glittering and the dark generally more dense
or opaque.

 The name Spinel is applied to those of                   bright red colour
 The name Balas is applied to those of                             rose red
 The name Rubicelle is applied to those of                       orange red
 The name Almandine Ruby is applied to those of                      violet
 The name Chloro Spinel is applied to those of                        green
 The name Ceylonite or Pleonaste is applied to those of               black
 The name Sapphirine is applied to those of                            blue

Spinel and Balas are often intermixed and both terms are accepted as
denoting this Aluminate of Magnesium, whose hardness is just a little
inferior to the Corundum and whose crystalline form is isometric, like
the diamond. The spinel, however, is non-electric, no matter if
submitted to heat or friction, whilst the ruby (Corundum), and garnet
are highly so. Hence it is not a difficult matter to distinguish these
stones from each other even if their outward similarities tend to
confuse the eye. The spinel, submitted to trial by heat, first changes
from red to brown; if left to cool it becomes dark; then it changes to
green; then, as if exhausted, it seems to lose its colour which,
however, slowly reappears in its red expression.

The word BALAS has been written as balace, baless, balays, balais,
balass. It is derived from the Arabic BALAKHSH which, says Albertus
Magnus, is the female of the real ruby “and some say it is his house.”
That prolific writer on precious stones, Andrea Bacci (16th and 17th
centuries), echoes older thought also when he writes that “Balas is
derived from PALATIUS, a palace, which is the palace where the ruby
lives.” He echoes the symbolic ideas of the old Greek writers who said
that the true ruby resided in a palace—clearly showing that they knew
the difference between rubies and spinels. Marco Polo’s remarks are as
follows: “In this Provence (Badachschan), those fine and valuable gems
the Balas rubies are found. They are got in certain rocks among the
mountains and in the search for them the people dig great caves beneath
the earth just as is done by miners for silver. There is but one special
mountain that produces them and it is called Syghinan. The stones are
dug on the King’s account and no one else dares dig on pain of death as
well as of seizure of worldly possessions, nor may any take the gems out
of the Kingdom. The King collects them all and sends them to other kings
as tribute or as presents. He so acts in order to keep the Balas at a
great value for if he allowed all persons to mine for them the world
would be filled with them and they would be valueless.” In Persia there
is a story which tells that they were found in a destroyed mountain
after an earthquake. The Indians know the stone as the “Pomegranate
Ruby” (Lal Rumani), and the King of Oude is said to have had a
remarkable and beautiful specimen as big as the egg of a pigeon, which
was known as “Lal-i-jaladi.” The beautiful heart-shaped Balass which is
set in the British Crown under the Black Cross known as the “Black
Prince’s Ruby,” is said to have been obtained in Spain by Prince Edward
when he was aiding Don Pedro of Castillo to hold his throne. It is
reported that this was the gem worn by King Henry V at the Battle of
Agincourt. This may have been the “fair great ruby” which Sir James
Melville says Queen Elizabeth valued so highly. Elizabeth was very fond
of spinels of which she possessed some splendid specimens, as shown in
the still extant inventories of the personal effects of the Queen. An
inspection of her nativity will show that they were gems of good omen
for her. Madame de Barrera gives an extract from Robert de Berquen’s
“Merveilles des Indes Orientales et Occidentales” wherein it is stated
that “Josephus Barbaro, a Venetian gentleman, says in a report made to
the Signori of Venice that when he was ambassador for the Republic at
the court of Yussum Cassan, King of Persia, on a certain day of the year
1472 when he was received in solemn audience, that prince showed him a
handkerchief filled with the rarest and most inestimable precious
stones. Among others there was a table-cut Balass ruby, of a beautiful
shape, of at least a finger’s breadth, weighing two ounces and a half,
and of a most peerless colour: in fact, it was a most perfect paragon,
so exquisite that when the King asked what he valued it at, he replied
that he thought a city or even a kingdom would scarcely pay for it.”

Spinels and corundum are always found together, and Dr. G. F. H. Smith
comments on the fact that although harder stones, rubies in the river
gravels are usually waterworn whilst spinels are found in perfect
crystals. The ancient Zoologist Elianus repeats an old story that a
stork brought a spinel as a present to the woman-nurse Heraclis for
healing his wounded leg. Here again it is necessary to look beneath the
fable for true understanding of it. The stork is one of the birds of
Jupiter and its legs are astrologically under the zodiacal Sagittarius
(the house or mansion of Jupiter). The woman symbolizes the moon and in
her name the afternoon sun is concealed. The nurse is under Virgo, the
sign to which the Spinel is attached. The 4 toes of the stork symbolize
the negative or afternoon sun, the 3 front toes webbed to the first
joint, Jupiter. Again, the stork has no voice and tells no secrets.
Hence we have a cryptic prescription illustrating the method employed by
the ancient medical brethren to convey their meaning to each other. The
spinel is here an active mineral employed in the treatment, together
with the moon and negative or afternoon sun, of certain afflictions of
the legs. Even today it is a custom amongst medical men to preface their
prescriptions with the symbol of Jupiter. The stork is also greatly
esteemed as a bird of good fortune and happy omen, and in many countries
it is protected against destruction.

The spinel was esteemed as a perfect health stone and was especially
valued as a charm to be worn over the solar plexus. It was a fortunate
gem for doctors of medicine, scholars, writers, clerks, secretaries,
manufacturers, business people, hospital attendants, nurses, etc. It
raised the thoughts and purified the imagination. A specimen placed at
each corner of a house was considered a protection against calamity, and
rough pieces placed at the 4 angles of a garden, orchard or corn field
were said not only to protect the products from storms and lightning,
but also to carry the symbolic influence of rich returns for the farmer.

The spinel or balas, rubicelle, almandine ruby and the Sapphirine are
under the Zodiacal Virgo. The Chloro-spinel and the pleonaste are under
the zodiacal Capricorn.

SPODUMENE

Spodumene derives its name from the Greek word SPODIOS, ash-coloured. It
is a stone resembling Feldspar, but has a lustre more pearl-like. In
general appearance spodumene is of a pale yellow tint, sometimes gray or
as its name suggests, ash-coloured. It is about the hardness of quartz.
The emerald green variety which is exceedingly rare, is called
Hiddenite, after its discoverer, Mr. M. G. Hidden, and it is said by
Professor Dana to rival the emerald as a gem. It was discovered in 1881
in North Carolina, which seems to be the only place of its occurrence.
Comparatively few specimens have been distributed and amongst them no
stones of any considerable size. A pretty example of 2½ carats is in the
Natural History section of the British Museum. Perhaps the most
beautiful examples of this mineral were discovered in the San Diego
district of California in 1903 and named Kunzite, after Dr. G. F. Kunz.
These stones range in colour from pale violet to deep lilac and large
specimens have already been unearthed, that in the British Museum
weighing 60 carats. Dr. G. F. H. Smith remarks that under the influence
of Radium Kunzite is phosphorescent, thus presenting some difference
from spodumene in general. In analysis it is shown that spodumene
contains 7.5 per cent of lithia. It would be, in harmony with ancient
philosophy, under the zodiacal Libra, although the variety Hiddenite may
be connected with the zodiacal Taurus. All varieties of spodumene would
be regarded as powerful eye charms and as beneficial to the kidneys and
lumbar regions.

SUCCINITE (See GARNET.)



                              CHAPTER XXX
                             TITANITE—TOPAZ

TITANITE: TOPAZ: THE MYSTERY OF THE “ISLAND OF THE MISTS”: THE RING OF
    THOMAS A’ BECKET CALLED A PERITOT BY THE ABBOT OF GLASTONBURY: THE
    MEANING OF THE WORD TOPAZ: TOPAZ REMARKABLE FOR ITS CLEAVAGE: ITS
    USE IN ANCIENT AND MODERN MEDICINE: TOPAZ RHOMBICUS OF THE
    MINERALOGISTS: M. DUMELLE DISCOVERS HOW TO CHANGE THE COLOUR OF A
    TOPAZ: “PINGOS D’AGOA,” “GOUTTES D’EAU,” “MINAS NOVAS”: “DIAMOND OF
    SLAVES”: 12 LBS. OF TOPAZ FOR THREE SHILLINGS: HOW QUEEN MARY’S
    GREAT BLUE TOPAZ WAS FOUND: THE TOPAZION STATUE OF PTOLEMY
    PHILADELPHUS: THE PTOLEMAIC BADGE: HADRIAN’S TOPAZ: TOPAZ OF THE
    GRAND MOGUL AND RUNYEET SINGH: A GIANT EMPEROR’S PLEASURE: SOME OLD
    INTAGLI: PLINY’S STONE OF STRENGTH: A STONE AGAINST DEATH AND
    TERROR: SYMBOL OF BOILING WATER: A CHARM AGAINST DROWNING: A MODERN
    ILLUSTRATION: RABBI BENONI: “BOOK OF WINDS”: TOPAZ CHARMS.


TITANITE. (See SPHENE.)

TOPAZ

              “_The flaming topaz with its golden beam._”
                                                  GLOVER.

At various times the word has been rendered tupase, tupace, topace,
topas, thopas, topaze, topasie, topazius, topasius. In the traditional
derivation of the word a mystery is concealed. Pliny says that the stone
was found in an island difficult for mariners to locate on account of
the fogs and mists surrounding it, and Marbodus seems to indicate the
true topaz when he says:

              “_From seas remote the yellow topaz came,
              Found in the island of the self-same name._”

The Island was known as Topazios, which owes its origin to the Greek
word meaning “to divine, guess, conjecture.” The misty island is the
celestial Scorpio which is accounted in astro-philosophy the death sign
and the sign of the serpent, the wounder of the heel of man. It also
concerns the goods of the departed, their abode in the world to come,
etc., hence the Island of the Mists, the place of guess, conjecture or
philosophical speculation which the traveller in the flesh can dimly see
through the strange cloudy lights of the spirit. The name was originally
given to the stone known to us as the Chrysolite which gem is now
identified with the occult sign of the Fishes employed in the mysteries
in ancient and modern times. The classification as we at present know
it, is of very ancient date, and specimens of the modern topaz have been
found adorned with various intagli of proven antiquity. Although it has
been stated that Thomas A’ Becket wore a topaz ring, there is no doubt
that Adam Sodbury, Abbot of Glastonbury, was correct when he says it was
a peridot, for the peridot or chrysolite was the stone of the Churchmen
and intimately associated with the mystic sign of Christianity—Pisces,
the Fishes. The old Abbot wrote that “a gold ring in which was set the
stone peritot (an old form of peridot) encircled the finger of our
Martyr St. Thomas when he was killed by the swords of evil men.” At that
time it is certain that the topaz and the peridot were the stones known
as such today and as such they had been known for many centuries before.

The Sanscrit word TOPAS, meaning heat, may well describe the topaz, the
colour of which can be changed readily by heat, and which, under heat
pressure and friction, exhibits strong electric phenomena.

Scorpio, as before remarked, is the sign of the snake or serpent so
intimately connected with the mysteries of life and death, and the topaz
is remarkable for its cleavage, for when struck with a hammer it breaks
into flakes like the backbone of a serpent. The topaz was considered as
of wonderful potency in the treatment of sexual disorders, which
astrologically are considered as disorders of the sign Scorpio. It
contains from 55 to 58 per cent of Alumina, which substance has been
used in modern times by Dr. Richard Hughes, Dr. Teste, Dr. Peters, Dr.
Marcy and others in troubles of the sexual system and the mucous
membranes. The drug has been used homœopathically in such morbid
conditions and in chronic pharyngitis and diseases of the nose and
throat. The nose is ruled by Scorpio in astrological deductions, and the
throat by Taurus, its opposite sign. Alumina is most strongly expressed
in Corundums, which include the Oriental Topaz, next the chrysoberyl,
next the spinel, and next the topaz, but there are certain
characteristics of the Topaz which in some way render it distinct from
other gems, and these would have been considered by the hermetic schools
whence such philosophy originated. Amongst mineralogists the topaz is
known as Topaz Rhombicus. It is found in colours golden, yellow,
reddish, white, greenish, wine colour and blue. A charming pink is
produced artificially by subjecting the real stone to heat, the best
results being procured from a golden-brown variety. This process was
first discovered by M. Dumelle, a Paris jeweller, in the year 1750. The
colour thus obtained is doubtless permanent, the shade being manifest
when the stone cools. Great care must be observed in this simple
experiment because the stone is so sensitive that unless properly
handled it is likely to split under the various degrees of heat and
cold.

Translucent achromatic topaz is called Pingos d’Agoa (drops of water) by
the Brazilians, and Gouttes d’Eau by the French. In England the variety
is called Minas Novas, after the Minas Novas in the State of Minas
Geraes in Brazil where it is extensively found. In Portugal this type of
topaz is called the “Diamond of Slaves.” The large British Museum
specimen of this White Topaz which, according to Mr. Emanuel, weighs
over 12 lbs. (avoirdupois), was sold for three shillings by a marine
store dealer who used it to hold open his door. The great blue
Queensland topaz in the possession of Queen Mary of Great Britain is
said to have been discovered by a shepherd who, thinking it was a common
stone, threw it at a howling dog during the night and wakened in the
morning to discover the precious nature of his missile. The Topazion
Statue of 4 cubits high which Pliny mentions as having been made by the
order of Ptolemy Philadelphus to the memory of his sister-wife Arsinoe,
has puzzled investigators. It has been set down as indicating a statue
of jasper, agate, prase, chrysoprase or rock crystal of the Citrine or
the Smoky Quartz varieties. Probably this latter suggestion is right but
the real meaning will no doubt lie in the sign Scorpio, which was known
in old Egypt as the Eagle—(the symbolic badge of the Ptolemaic
dynasty)—and was the sign of material death and spiritual life. The
Emperor Hadrian is said to have had a large topaz ring on which was
engraved:

                          “_Natura deficit,
                          Fortuna mutatur,
                          Deus omnia cernit._”

Tavernier writes of a great topaz in the possession of the Grand Mogul
weighing 157 carats and worth about 100,000 dollars. Runyeet Singh’s
topaz, half the size of a billiard ball, was worth 200,000 rupees. The
Great Braganza, 1680 carats, which adorned the crown of Portugal and was
supposed to be a diamond, is a white topaz. One of the pleasures of the
giant Emperor Maximilian, of whose strength so many stories are told,
was to crush topazes to powder in his fingers. Why he indulged in this
form of sport is unknown; probably he found it recreation after killing
an ox at a blow or knocking out the teeth of an unfortunate horse. Mr.
King mentions a Head of Mæcenas on topaz attributed to Solon at
Florence, and another—wrongly attributed to Dioscorides—of a girl’s head
in the Marlborough collection. The Topaz was called “Stone of Strength”
by Pliny for the martial Scorpio is the wrestler’s sign and the sign of
strong people. The power of the topaz was said to increase as the moon
increased, especially if the night orb was at new or full in the sign
Scorpio. It banished the terrors of the night, protected the wearer
during epidemics, soothed the wild passions and gave a glimpse of the
beyond. It banished the fear of death and secured a painless passing
from this life to the next; it gave strength to the intellect and
enabled the wearer to receive impressions from astral sources. It
preserved from miasmatic conditions and lost its colour when in the
presence of poisons. The power attributed to it of quenching boiling
water is symbolic of the fiery Mars, planet of power in the watery
Scorpio. It was also said by the old masters that the topaz preserved
against drowning, and a curious illustration of this belief came
recently under the writer’s notice. He advised the wife of a well-known
Australian to purchase a very beautiful topaz, which was mounted under
his direction as a charm of the sign Scorpio. During the late war this
lady and her daughter had need to travel to England. The voyage was
about half accomplished when the vessel was submarined. The boat in
which the lady and her daughter were, capsized and all the struggling
passengers were thrown into the sea. She seized a piece of wreckage and
supported her daughter and herself until they were both dragged into a
boat some considerable time after. The lady had clutched the topaz charm
from her neck and was holding it tightly in her hand while struggling in
the water. Just as they got into the boat she felt someone give a heavy
blow on her hand and take the gem from her. She grieved for the loss of
her beautiful topaz charm which she regarded as the symbol of her own
and her daughter’s salvation.

Leonardus said that the topaz was a charm against asthma and Rabbi
Benoni calls it the emblem of strength and the easer of hæmorrhage. In
the “Book of Wings” it is recommended that to secure favour with kings,
princes, nobles and important personages a topaz engraved with the
figure of a flying falcon should be worn. This charm was to be
constructed as a charm of power when the well aspected moon was passing
through the 5th, 6th and 7th degrees of the heavenly Scorpion. Another
topaz charm given is for acquiring riches: this takes the form of a man
holding a lamp. It had to be mounted in gold and constructed when the
increasing moon, in good aspect to the direct Jupiter and the Sun, was
passing through the 5th, 6th, 7th, 26th and 27th degrees of Scorpio.

In a dream the topaz is a symbol of movement, protection from harm,
poisons, etc. The symbolic dream introducing this stone is a symbolic
message from the departed.

The topaz and its varieties are under the celestial Scorpio.



                              CHAPTER XXXI
                           TOURMALINE—ZIRCON

TOURMALINE: ARRIVAL OF SPECIMENS IN LONDON: THE ASH ATTRACTOR: THE
    “ELECTRIC STONE” OF LINNÆUS: THE “MAGNETIC” OF LEMERY: EXPERIMENTS
    OF ÆPINUS AND LEHMANN: PROFESSOR GOODCHILD’S EXPERIMENT: SUSPECTED
    CONNECTION OF THE TOURMALINE WITH ORIENTAL ALCHEMY: COLOURS OF THE
    TOURMALINE: THE TOURMALINE AND THE TOPAZ IN METHYLENE IODIDE:
    IDENTIFICATION SUGGESTIONS: PLINY’S LYCHNIS: THE CADUCEUS OF HERMES:
    TURQUOISE: SAXO AND ALBERTUS MAGNUS ON ITS VIRTUES: THE PIRUZEH OF
    THE ARABIANS: THE CHALCHIHUITL OF THE MEXICANS: IDENTIFIED WITH
    PLINY’S CALLAIS: A FAVOURITE ORIENTAL CHARM STONE: A SYMBOLIC THEORY
    OF ORIGIN: STONE OF THE HORSE AND RIDER: A RELIGIOUS GEM OF JUPITER:
    A CHARM AGAINST THE EVIL EYE: A SENSITIVE STONE: MISTAKES OF
    WRITERS: MEDICINAL VALUES: TURQUOISE SET IN STATUES OF BUDDHA: THE
    GOLDEN BOW AND TURQUOISE ARROW: GEM OF THE GODS: COLOUR CHANGES IN
    TURQUOISE: TURQUOISE AND THE WEATHER: INDIAN RAIN-STONE: KING
    TOHESER AND THE TURQUOISE MINES: MAJOR C. MAC DONALD AND PROFESSOR
    FLINDERS PETRIE DISCOVER THE OLD TURQUOISE WORKINGS: LOVE OF THE
    TURQUOISE IN OLD EGYPT: SOME UNIQUE STONES: THE GEM IN PERSIA: THE
    KHORASSAN MINES: STONE OF FASHION IN 17TH CENTURY EUROPE: DEATH
    STONE OF JAMES IV OF SCOTLAND: HENRY VIII SENDS A LAST GIFT TO
    CARDINAL WOLSEY: MARBODUS’S TURQUOISE TALISMAN OF FREEDOM:
    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN “DE VIELLE ROCHE” AND “DE NOUVELLE ROCHE”:
    VARISCITE: IDENTIFIED AS THE CALLAINA OF PLINY: MANÉ ER H’ROCK OR
    FAIRY ROCK OF BRITTANY: ZIRCON: STONE OF THE MOON’S NODES: THE
    SNAKES OF THE CADUCEUS.


TOURMALINE

  “_This black thing, one of the prettiest of the very few pretty black
  things in the world, is called Tourmaline._”

                                                             RUSKIN.


The Tourmaline, written in the 18th century in England as Tumalin, is
derived from the Ceylonese TURMALI or TORAMALLI. The first specimens to
arrive in London were known as “Brazilian Emeralds,” and they came from
Brazil in the 17th century only to meet with an unfavorable reception.
In the beginning of the 18th century Dutch merchants began to bring from
Amsterdam specimens obtained by them from Ceylon. The Dutch cutters,
observing how straw and other particles were attracted to specimens
which had been lying in the sunlight, called the stone in consequence
Aschentrekker (ash attractor). The Germans called it Azchenzieher, and
the French Tire-cendre.

The Swedish scholar Linnæus experimented with the Tourmaline, calling it
the “Electric Stone.” M. Lemery, the French Professor, called it the
“Magnetic.” The experiments of Æpinus and Lehmann were concerned with
the positive and negative energies exhibited by the Tourmaline. These
18th century scholars held that its power of repulsion exceeded its
power of attraction. This sensitive stone is affected by weather
changes, and it exhibits considerable power when heated—the electricity
then developed being termed pyro-electric. Professor W. Goodchild, M.B.,
etc., details an interesting experiment in dealing with the Physical
Properties of Gem Stones:

"A crystal of tourmaline, in heating to 150° C., becomes positively
electrified at one terminature and negatively at the other. If now it be
suspended by a non-conducting thread it will act as a magnet: on
cooling, the charges on the poles reverse, positive becoming negative.
If a crystal with such a charge be dusted with a fine mixture of sulphur
and red lead, the yellow sulphur will be attracted to the portions
charged with positive electricity, while the red lead goes to the
negatively charged portions."

This experiment serves to illustrate the attraction of the mind
(represented by yellow sulphur), towards the positive pole, and matter
(represented by red lead), towards the negative pole, as noted in the
philosophical researches of the old alchemists. If in a heated state,
the tourmaline be shattered all the little pieces will exhibit the
forces of attraction and repulsion so marked in this strange stone. It
has been suspected, not without reason, that tourmaline specimens were
used by some of the Eastern students of alchemy who held primarily that
the substance of the Philosopher’s Stone is Mercurial and that it should
be treated with heat, for by that means alone would its use be shown,
warmth coming from the Heavens to bless Man, Nature, and the Kingdoms of
Nature.

The tourmaline is remarkable also for the variety of its colours,
indicated by various and not always appropriate names. SCHORL, the black
variety spoken of by Ruskin, was so called according to De Costa (1761)
by the German miners. The same writer says “our English miners call them
‘bockle’ and ‘ball’.” The name appears as shirl, schirl (so spelt by De
Costa), schoerl, shorl. In the 16th century it was known in Germany as
SCHRUL, but later in the 18th century it appears as SCHORL. The name is
now becoming unpopular, the simple term Black Tourmaline being
preferred. The colourless variety is termed ACHROITE, from a Greek word
meaning colourless; pink and rosy red are termed RUBELLITE; indigo blue,
INDICOLITE; blue, BRAZILIAN SAPPHIRE; green, BRAZILIAN EMERALD;
yellow-green, BRAZILIAN PERIDOT; honey-yellow, CEYLON PERIDOT; red
violet, SIBERITE. The brown variety is usually known as Brown
Tourmaline, although it has been known and still is known as Brazilian
Topaz or Ceylonese Topaz. It is not so hard as the topaz, however,
ranging in the scale somewhere between quartz and zircon. The refractive
powers are likewise not in agreement, and in Methylene Dioxide the topaz
(stone of Mars) sinks, whilst the Tourmaline (stone of Mercury) floats.
There are also amber-coloured, cinnamon, lilac, grey, blue-grey,
water-green and many beautiful parti-coloured specimens.

It is believed by some students that this gem was known to the ancients
by the name LYNCURIUM, which Mr. King believes to be a species of
jacinth, Dr. Brotero an orange-coloured hyacinth. Professor Ajasson,
believing the name to refer to Tourmaline, suggests that LYN may be
derived from the Sanscrit word LANKA, the name of Ceylon, a place where
the stone is plentifully found. The general opinion now is that the
stone described by Pliny under the name of LYCHNIS is our tourmaline.
Pliny writes in his 37th Book on Natural History of the power of the
LYCHNIS of drawing straws and fluff towards it when heated by the sun or
by the friction of the hand.

The peculiar attractive and repulsive properties of the tourmaline may
be compared with the mysteries contained in the caduceus of the wise and
ever-restless Hermes. The symbolical snakes which adorn the rod
represent knowledge received and knowledge imparted in the hermetic
scheme of the Rosicrucians. The tourmaline is symbolical of wisdom,
strength of mind, eloquence, learning and the power of knowledge. It is
the stone for the author, poet, editor, and teacher. To dream of it
means—in harmony with ancient philosophy—success through knowledge in
all walks of life.

The tourmaline in all colours is under the zodiacal Gemini.

TURQUOISE

               “_The fair Queen of France
               Sent him a turquoise ring and glove,
               And charged him as her knight and love
               For her to break a lance._”
                                        SIR WALTER SCOTT.

“Turquoise” has been written in a remarkable number of ways, amongst
them being turky, torkey, turquay, turkey stone, turkie, turkeis,
turkese, turkise, turkes, turkas, turkis (as used by Tennyson),
turkoise, turkez, turqueis, turques, turchis, turquesse, torchas,
turcasse, turquez, toorkes, turkesse. The Venetians call it turchesa,
the French turquoise, the Germans turkis. Andrea Bacci (“De Gemmis et
Lapidibus pretiosis,” etc., 1605) says that this stone is called
Turcicus, “Either on account of its admirable loveliness or for the
reason that it is obtained from the Turks.” The name as we have it does
not seem to go further back than the 13th century when Saxo, agreeing
with Albertus Magnus, writes of it and praises its virtues as a
preventive of accidents to the eye. The old Persians called it PIRUZEH,
the Triumphant, and the Arabians, whose special luck stone the turquoise
is, engrave on specimens the name “Allah” with a verse from the Koran,
or with some magical sign inserted in pure gold. It is known to the
Mexicans as CHALCHIHUITL. This stone is identified with the Callais of
Pliny, who relates symbolically that it was shot down by means of slings
from unapproachable rock lands. The symbol has relation to the power of
this stone of the Heavenly Archer over seemingly terrifying obstacles
when firmly directed by the compelling will.

The turquoise is favoured by Eastern occult students who employ it
largely in the composition of amulets and charms. It was said to have
sprung up like an eye from its matrix, and is identified with the
Antares in the Archer of the Heavens. These stars were indicated as
affecting the eyes in the same degree as the Pleiades and the Asselli of
Taurus and Leo. In modern Egypt a turquoise is applied to the eye as a
remedy for cataract and other ophthalmic troubles, specimens thus
employed being usually engraved with the sacred name of Allah. The
turquoise is especially the stone of horses, mules and camels, and from
most ancient times specimens have adorned their trappings. Leonardus
said that so long as a horseman carried a piece of turquoise with him
whilst riding he would never have an accident, nor would his horse be
fatigued, for it was believed that the stone would draw the pain of the
accident to itself. Boetius de Boodt says that when riding to his house
along an uncertain road on a dark night he fell with his horse down a
declivity but neither he nor his animal suffered hurt. His turquoise,
however, was shattered. The stone was carried by jockeys, huntsmen and
horsemen generally as a symbol of the special protection of Jupiter. In
the Middle Ages the turquoise was much worn by young girls who regarded
it as a religious jewel for the protection of their virtue and for the
uplifting of their thoughts. In the most ancient science the sign
Sagittarius—the house or mansion of the planet Jupiter—is the sign of
sport, horses, dreams, high philosophy, religion (not in the sense of
creed), the true lamp of life, long voyages, publications (not
newspapers), etc. Thus the turquoise—as the stone of Sagittarius—was a
stone of dreams, the horse, philosophy, religion, etc., and its grand
symbolic purpose was to help the spiritual person to resist the
weakness, evils and temptations so intermixed with material life. The
turquoise was said to be a charm against the evil eye and evil thoughts.
The Arabs say that the stone is sensitive to weather changes and that
its colour is affected by the state of the atmosphere. They knew Jupiter
as the “Cloud Gatherer,” “The Thunderer,” “The God of the Murky Cloud,”
etc., and they connected the turquoise with his powerful works. The
planet Jupiter strong at birth is held to indicate riches and worldly
advantage. The old Arabian writers note a form of magic for inducing
wealth and monetary advantages, performed in the hour of Jupiter. During
this ceremony a turquoise was held in the right hand and the desires
spoken into the stone at which a steady gaze was directed.

Carelessness has led to error amongst writers. A 16th century author
confuses the topaz with the turquoise, describing the latter as a “gem
of yellow colour” and recommending it as a charm against the bites of
reptiles and stings of insects—qualities ascribed by the old masters to
the topaz, gem of the sign of the Scorpion. Another writer repeats the
error, saying that “this yellow stone reduced to a powder is helpful in
case of stings from scorpions and fearful and venomous reptiles.” The
turquoise was held in esteem for diseases of the hip—a part of the body
astrologically under the sway of Sagittarius. In this connection the
stone was reduced to a paste and bound flat to the part affected, whole
specimens being bound above and below the seat of the trouble. The
turquoise contains a high percentage of Phosphoric Acid, which is
employed in modern homœopathy for affections of the lungs,
astrologically under the sign Gemini and therefore opposite to the sign
Sagittarius. The ancients advised the turquoise as a lung medicine, not
to be taken internally. The sign Sagittarius is also the sign of
prophecy, and the turquoise set in the foreheads of the statues of
Buddha and other images symbolizes the knowledge of things to come. The
golden bow and the turquoise arrow of the Tibetan legend has especial
reference to the Sun in the sign Sagittarius. Dr. Kunz, quoting from Dr.
Berthold Laufer of the Field Museum, Chicago, refers to this legend as
follows:

“A powerful saint touching the bow and arrow of a blacksmith transforms
the bow into gold and the arrow into turquoise.” The bow represents the
solar rays and the arrow the Heavens, hence it is little wonder that the
turquoise was termed the “gem of the Gods.” The turquoise was also
recommended for diseases of the throat and heart—as phosphoric acid is
today in Homœopathy. In harmony with an ancient astro-philosophy
known as “Planetary Interchanges,” the turquoise was considered an ideal
lovers’ gift—unless the stone was otherwise than fortunate in the
horoscope of the recipient—and a gift of friendship.

[Illustration: Specimen of Rough Turquoise, Victoria, Australia]

The changes of colour in a turquoise have been long noted, and the lines
of the poet Donne are frequently quoted:

             “_As a compassionate turquoise that doth tell
             By looking pale the wearer is not well._”

Boetius tells a story of a wonderful turquoise possessed by a Spanish
gentleman which so lost its colour after his death that it appeared
“more like a malachite than a turkois.” Boetius then says that his
father bought it for very little at the sale of the Spaniard’s effects
and gave it to him. He relates that he had hardly worn it for a month
when “it resumed its pristine beauty and daily appeared to increase in
splendour.” Mr. Harry Emanuel gives a somewhat similar story concerning
a turquoise that lost its lustre with the death of its owner “as if
mourning for its master,” regaining it in its “former exquisite
freshness” when worn by its new owner. A case of this kind came under
the writer’s notice: The wife of a well-known pastoralist of New South
Wales had a bangle of turquoises cut into the shape of Egyptian scarabs.
While travelling in Japan she became ill and the stones changed from a
soft blue to a dull green, regaining their former beauty when the lady
regained her health. One of the oldest firms of jewellers in the city of
Melbourne, Australia, was worried to find that an exquisite Persian
turquoise entrusted to them to mount in a tiara with diamonds was
changing colour whilst in the hands of their chief “setter.” This
craftsman had been complaining for some days of indisposition. Strangely
enough, the gem regained its beautiful colour on being entrusted to
another and healthier workman.

The connection of the turquoise with weather changes is not confined
merely to Oriental peoples. The Pueblo and Apache Indians employ it as a
rainstone, which they say is always found concealed at the foot of the
rainbow. They place pieces of turquoise on their bows and fire arms as
directing charms for trueness of aim.

This stone is also called the “gem of liberty and benevolence,” and an
old Eastern proverb says: “A turquoise given with the hand of love
carries with it true fortune and sweet happiness.” Another Eastern
belief runs that the turquoise turns pale when danger threatens the
giver. Felton in his “Secrete Wonders of Nature,” 1569, states that “the
turkeys does move when there is any peril prepared to him that weareth
it.” Dr. E. A. Wallis Budge identifies Tcheser of the 3rd dynasty (3900
B.C.) who built the “Step Pyramid” at Sakkarah as the Memphian King who
worked the turquoise mines of Sinai. His name is still perpetuated on a
rock at Wadi Magharah. It was at this place that Major C. MacDonald
found turquoise in 1849, and Professor Flinders Petrie in 1905.
Professor Petrie also discovered evidences here of very ancient mining
operations. Archaic specimens of worked turquoise are still being found
in Egypt. The colour appealed to the sons and daughters of Khem who
imitated it to a very great extent in their scarabs, beads, ornaments
and other articles of adornment. In the Vatican collection there are
valuable intaglios and cameos cut in this stone which in some instances
retain their heaven-blue colour to this day. Mr. King mentions a
laureated head of Augustus and the Head of a Gorgon in the Fould
collection, “the original azure converted into a dull green by the
action of the earth.” In Persia the stone was always highly esteemed and
the most perfect specimens are held by the Royal House. The Khorassan
mines near Nishapur are still famous for the remarkable beauty of the
stones won from them. So fashionable was the gem in Europe in the 17th
century that no true gentleman would consider his dress complete unless
his hand was adorned with a ring of Turquoise, for it was (as a true
stone of the Archer) symbolic of the fairness and high sense of justice
of the wearer. The famous turquoises in the Royal Jewels of Spain were
brought from New Mexico somewhere about this period also. Sir Walter
Scott in “Marmion” sings of the turquoise ring and glove which the
French Queen sent to the Scottish King James IV, with 14,000 crowns of
France, begging him for the love she had for him to raise an army for
her sake. It is a curious fact that the turquoise was the death stone of
James IV who was killed at Flodden Field by an arrow from an _archer’s_
bow. The turquoise was to him a symbol of error and fatality. Henry VIII
sent the dying Cardinal Wolsey a ring of turquoise by Sir John Russel,
bidding him say to his fallen favourite that he, the King, “loved him as
well as ever he did and grieved for his illness.” For a talisman of
liberty and freedom Marbodus advises that a perfect turquoise be
engraved with a man standing under a beetle. It should be then set in a
brooch of gold and blessed and consecrated; “then the glory which God
hath bestowed shall manifest.” An astrological charm for wealth and
prosperity takes the form of a centaur firing an arrow upwards, to be
engraved on a turquoise, preferably in the hour of Jupiter with the Moon
in good aspect to Jupiter passing the 3rd and 4th degrees of
Sagittarius.

True turquoise, termed “de vieille roche,” or Oriental Turquoise,
differs from the fossil turquoise or Odontolite, called “de nouvelle
roche,” or occidental turquoise. Fossil turquoise can be easily marked
by a steel instrument, while true turquoise acts as flint to steel. A
drop of Hydrochloric acid causes effervescence in fossil turquoise,
which when submitted to fire gives out an animal odour. Fine turquoises
are of that heavenly blue colour known as “turquoise blue,” and they
present a waxy appearance. The variety known as Variscite, supposed to
be the Callaina of Pliny, is a soft green stone found in various forms
in prehistoric graves near Mane er H’rock or Fairy Rock in Brittany, in
the State of Utah in the United States of America, and other places.

The turquoise is under the zodiacal Sagittarius.

ZIRCON. The name zircon is said to be derived from the Arabic ZIRK, a
jewel. It was known in the Sanskrit as RAHURATNA or stone of the Nodes
of the Moon (Caput draconis and Cauda draconis), called the dragons of
Solar and Lunar eclipses. These dragons were controlled by the magical
power of Mercury and may also be compared to the snakes of the Caduceus.
The Zircon is a transparent to opaque stone and has been noticed more
fully under the names JARGOON and HYACINTH.

The Zircon is under the zodiacal Virgo.



                             CHAPTER XXXII
                     STONES IN SHAKESPEARE’S PLAYS

            “_It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night
            Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope’s ear._”
                                           ROMEO AND JULIET.


Those who labour for the world belong to the world, no matter which
little part of it may be claimed as their birthplace. This applies to
the humblest as well as to the greatest, as in a play the excellence of
individual players contributes to the artistic harmony and influence of
the entire production. So it is that William Shakespeare, the inspired
master of the “spacious times of great Elizabeth,” breaks through the
narrow limits of sea-girt England and encompasses the whole world of
women and men, detaches his unmaterial self from the period of his earth
life and endures—a perpetual source of pleasure, philosophy, wisdom and
music. Throughout his works William Shakespeare mentions seventeen
distinct stones of adornment, viz.: agate, amber, carbuncle, chrysolite,
coral, crystal, diamond, emerald, flint, jet, lapis lazuli, marble,
opal, pearl, ruby, sapphire, turquoise.

AGATE

In Act I, Scene 4 of “Romeo and Juliet,” Mercutio tells of Queen Mab—

              “_She is the fairies’ midwife, and she comes
              In shape no bigger than an agate stone
              On the forefinger of an alderman._”

In Act 3, Scene 1 of “Much Ado about Nothing,” Hero says that

                “_Nature never framed a woman’s heart
                Of prouder stuff than that of Beatrice_”

who would swear that if a man were tall he would be like

                  “_A lance illheaded;
                  “If low, an agate very vilely cut._”

In Act 2, Scene 1 of “Love’s Labours Lost,” Boyet tells the Princess of
France that Navarre’s heart is

             “_Like an agate, with your print impressed._”

In King Henry IV, Part I, Act 2, Scene 4, Prince Hal says to Francis:

  “_Wilt thou rob this leathern jerkin, crystal button, knott-pated,
  agate-ring, puke-stocking, caddis-garter, smooth tongue,
  Spanish-pouch,..._”

Falstaff in Part 2, Act 1, Scene 2, of the same play complains to his
page that he was never “manned with an agate till now.”

(These quotations all serve to show how popular the agate was as a ring
stone in Shakespeare’s time.)

AMBER

Hamlet, in answer to a question, tells Polonius that the “satirical
rogue” whose book he is reading says that old men’s eyes are “purging
thick amber and plum-tree gum” (Act 2, Scene 2), a thought no doubt
suggested by the ancient myth of the “weeping sisters.”

Petruchio asks his “Mistress Kate”:

 “_Will we return unto thy father’s house
 ... With amber bracelets, beads, and all this knavery?_”
                                 (“Taming of the Shrew,” Act 4, Sc. 3.)

Says Dumain in “Love’s Labours Lost” (Act 4, Scene 3):

             “_Her amber hair for foul hath amber quoted_”

and Biron—

              “_An amber-coloured raven was well noted._”

CARBUNCLE

Dromio of Syracuse in Act 3, Scene 2, of the “Comedy of Errors,” speaks
of

 “_Her nose all o’er embellished with rubies, carbuncles, sapphires._”

Titus Lartius says of Marcius:

          “_Thou art lost, Marcius;
          A carbuncle entire, as big as thou art,
          Were not so rich a jewel._”
                                   “Coriolanus,” Act 1, Sc. 4.

Iachimo, the soothsayer, (Cymbeline, Act 5, Scene 5) tells that—

             “_He, true knight,
             No lesser of her honour confident
             Than I did truly find her, stakes this ring:
             And would so, had it been a carbuncle
             Of Phoebus’ wheel, and might so safely, had it
             Been all the worth of’s car._”

Hamlet speaks to the Players (Act 2, Scene 2) of Pyrrhus:

            “_With eyes like carbuncles, the hellish Pyrrhus
            Old grandsire Priam seeks._”

Again the poet uses the “carbuncle of Phoebus’ wheel” in “Antony and
Cleopatra,” Act 4, Scene 8:

                “_He has deserved it, were it carbuncled
                Like holy Phoebus’ car._”

CHRYSOLITE

The fated Moor says of his poor murdered Desdemona in the last scene of
the last act of “Othello”:

               “_Nay, had she been true,
               If Heaven would make me such another world
               Of one entire and perfect chrysolite
               ’I not have sold her for it._”

                                 CORAL

Says Lucentio in Act 1, Scene 1, of the “Taming of the Shrew”:

              “_I saw her coral lips to move
              And with her breath she did perfume the air:
              Sacred and sweet was all I saw in her._”

The charming Ariel in “The Tempest,” (Act 1, Scene 2) sings:

                  “_Full fathom five thy father lies:
                  Of his bones are coral made:
                  Those are pearls that were his eyes:
                  Nothing of him that doth fade
                  But doth suffer a sea-change
                  Into something rich and strange._”

                                CRYSTAL

           “_But in that crystal scales let there be weighed
           Your lady’s love against some other maid,_”

says Benvolio to Romeo.

                  (“Romeo and Juliet,” Act 1, Sc. 2.)

In “Love’s Labours Lost” (Act 2, Scene 1) Boyet tells the Princess of
France:

           “_Methought all his senses were locked in his eye,
           As jewels in crystal for some prince to buy._”

In Act 4, Scene 3, of the same play, the King says:

         “_‘Ay, me!’ says one: ‘O, Jove!’ the other cries:
         One, her hairs were gold, crystal the other’s eyes._”

In Act 3, Scene 2 of “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” the awakening
Demetrius sings Helen’s praises:

             “_O Helen, goddess, nymph, perfect, divine!
             To what, my love, shall I compare thine eyne?
             Crystal is muddy._”

In Act 2, Scene 1, of “King John,” Queen Eleanor says of the sad
sensitive Arthur:

           “_His mother shames him so, poor boy, he weeps,_”

Constance retorting:

          “_Now shame upon you whether she does or no!
          His grandam’s wrongs, and not his mother’s shames,
          Draws those heaven-moving pearls from his poor eyes,
          Which Heaven shall take in nature of a fee:
          Ay, with these crystal beads Heaven shall be bribed
          To do him justice and revenge on you._”

Bolingbroke in “Richard II” (Act 1, Scene 1) says:

             “_Since the more fair and crystal is the sky,
             The uglier seem the clouds that in it fly._”

Says Bardolph in “Henry V” (Act 2, Scene 3):

                       “_Go clear thy crystals._”

At the opening of “King Henry VI,” Bedford has the famous lines:

         “_Hung be the heavens with black, yield day to night,
         Comets, importing change of times and states,
         Brandish your crystal tresses in the sky._”

In Act 5, Scene 4, of “Cymbeline,” the ghost father Sicilius says:

                 “_Thy crystal window ope: look out._”

“Two Gentlemen of Verona,” Act. 2, Scene 4:

            “_But that his mistress
            Did hold his eyes locked in his crystal looks._”

The poetic use of crystal has its basis in ancient mystical philosophy,
which is partly noticed in the section under CRYSTAL.

                                DIAMOND

Shakespeare alludes to the diamond twenty-one times, most of all in
“Cymbeline.”

Imogen gives Posthumus as a pledge of affection her diamond ring:

           “_This diamond was my mother’s: take it, heart._”

The diamond is mentioned four times as an important part of the plot in
the bargain between Posthumus and Iachimo:

 “_If she went before others I have seen, as that diamond outlustres many
 I have beheld, I could not but believe that she excelled many: but I
    have not
 seen the most precious diamond that is, nor you the lady._”

 POSTHUMUS: “_I praised her as I rated her: so do I my stone._”
            “_I shall but lend my diamond till you return._”
 IACHIMO: “_My ten thousand ducats are yours: so is your diamond too: if
    I come off._”

In Act 2, Scene 4, poor Posthumus says:

                 “_All is well yet,
                 Sparkles this stone as it was wont?_”

alluding to the ancient belief that the diamond turned dull when lovers
proved unfaithful.

 “_... The stone’s too hard to come by._”
 IACHIMO: “_I beg but leave to air this jewel: see! it must be married
           To that your diamond._”

In Act 5, Scene 5, Cymbeline asks Iachimo:

                  “_That diamond upon your finger—say,
                  How came it yours?_”

The diamond is mentioned three times in Pericles:

  MAISA: “_To me he seems like diamond to glass._”   (Act II, Sc. 3.)
  HELICANUS: “_Whom if you find, and win unto return,
            You shall like diamonds sit about his crown._”
  CERIMON: “_She is alive: behold
           Her eyelids, cases to those heavenly jewels
           Which Pericles hath lost,
           Begin to part their fringes of bright gold:
           The diamonds of a most praised water
           Do appear, to make the world twice rich._”

The diamond is mentioned three times in King Henry VI:

 “To me he seems like diamond to glass.”
                                               Pericles, Act II, Sc. 3.
 SUFFOLK: “_So farewell Reignier: set this diamond safe
           In golden palaces, as it becomes._”
                                                (Part 1, Act V, Sc. 8.)
 THE QUEEN: “_I took a costly jewel from my neck,
             A heart it was, bound in with diamonds,
             And threw it towards thy land._”
                                              (Part 2, Act III, Sc. 2.)

[Illustration:

  HOROSCOPE OF SHAKESPEARE
]

 KING HENRY: “_My crown is in my heart not on my head:
              Not decked with diamonds and Indian stones
              Nor to be seen: my crown is called content
              A crown it is that seldom kings enjoy._”
                                              (Part 3, Act III, Sc. 1.)

In the “Comedy of Errors,” the diamond is twice mentioned:

 THE COURTEZAN: “_Give me the ring of mine you had at dinner,
                 Or for my diamond, the chain you promised._”
                                                       (Act IV, Sc. 3.)
 THE COURTEZAN: “_Sir, I must have that diamond from you._”
                                                        (Act V, Sc. 1.)

In Act 3, Scene 3, in “The Merry Wives of Windsor,” Falstaff says to
Mistress Ford:

           “_I see how thine eye would emulate the diamond._”

The Princess in “Love’s Labours Lost,” Act 5, Scene 2, speaks of a

                  “_Lady walled about with diamonds._”

In “Timon of Athens,” Act 3, Scene 6, the Fourth Lord says:

           “_One day he gives us diamonds, next dry stones._”

In “The Merchant of Venice,” Act 3, Scene 1, Shylock exclaims,

     “_A diamond gone, cost me two thousand ducats in Frankfort._”

In “Macbeth,” Act 2, Scene 1, Banquo presents the King’s diamond with
the words:

              “_This diamond he greets your wife withal._”

In “King Lear,” Act 4, Scene 3, the gentleman tells Kent:

                                           “_You have seen
           Sunshine and rain at once: her smiles and tears
           Were like a better way: those happy smilets,
           That played on her ripe lip, seemed not to know
           What guests were in her eyes: which parted thence
           As pearls from diamonds dropped._”

                                EMERALD

Emerald is mentioned but once—in Act 5, Scene 5, of “The Merry Wives of
Windsor,” when Mistress Quickly says:

           “_And ‘Honi soit qui mal y pense,’ write
           In emerald tufts, flowers purple, blue and white:
           Like sapphire, pearl and rich embroidery
           Buckled below fair knighthood’s bending knee._”

                                 FLINT

TALBOT: “_God is our fortress in whose conquering name
         Let us resolve to scale their flinty bulwarks._”
                              (“King Henry VI,” Part 1, Act II, Sc. 1.)
GLOUCESTER: “_Uneath may she endure the flinty streets._”
DUCHESS OF GLOUCESTER: “_The ruthless flint doth cut my tender feet._”
                                     (Henry VI, Part 2, Act II, Sc. 4.)
QUEEN MARGARET: “_Because thy flinty heart more hard than they...._”
                                    (Henry VI, Part 2, Act III, Sc. 2.)
YORK: (aside): “_Scarce can I speak my choler is so great:
                Oh, I could hew up rocks and fight with flint
                I am so angry at these abject terms._”
                                      (Henry VI, Part 2, Act V, Sc. 1.)
YORK: “_Women are soft, mild, pitiful and flexible:
       Thou stern, obdurate, flinty, rough, remorseless._”
                                      (Henry VI, Part 3, Act I, Sc. 4.)
RICHARD: “_Then Clifford were thy heart as hard as steel
          As thou hast shown it flinty by thy deeds
          I come to pierce it or to give thee mine._”
                                     (Henry VI, Part 3, Act II, Sc. 1.)
LUCIUS: “_Searching the window for a flint I found
         This paper, thus sealed up._”
                                        (Julius Caesar, Act II, Sc. 3.)
BRUTUS: “_O Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb
         That carries anger as the flint bears fire._”
                                        (Julius Caesar, Act IV, Sc. 3.)
ENOBARBUS: “_Throw my heart
            Against the flint and hardness of my fault._”
                                 (Antony and Cleopatra, Act IV, Sc. 9.)
THERSITES: “_There were wit in this head, an ’twould out: and so
              there is, but it lies a coldly in him as fire in a flint,
              which will not show without knocking._”
                                (Troilus and Cressida, Act III, Sc. 3.)
DEMETRIUS: “_But be your heart to them
            As unrelenting flint to drops of rain._”
                                     (Titus Andronicus, Act II, Sc. 3.)
MARCUS: “_My heart is not compact of flint nor steel._”
                                      (Titus Andronicus, Act V, Sc. 3.)
GOWER: “_Make raging battery upon shores of flint._”
                                             (Pericles, Act IV, Sc. 4.)
POET: “_The fire i’ the flint shows not till it be struck._”
                                       (Timon of Athens, Act I, Sc. 1.)
TIMON: “_What, dost thou weep? Come nearer. Then I love thee.
        Because thou art a woman and disclaim’st
        Flinty Mankind._”
                                      (Timon of Athens, Act IV, Sc. 3.)
FRIAR LAWRENCE: “_Here comes the lady: oh, so light a foot
                 Will ne’er wear out the everlasting flint._”
                                     (Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Sc. 6.)
GLOUCESTER: “_I would to God my heart were flint, like Edward’s._”
                                           (Richard III, Act I, Sc. 3.)
BELARIUS: “_... Weariness
           Can snore upon the flint, when resty sloth
           Finds the down pillow hard._”
                                           (Cymbeline, Act III, Sc. 6.)
FIRST PRIEST: “_... For charitable prayers,
              Shards, flints and pebbles should be thrown on her._”
                                                (Hamlet, Act V, Sc. 1.)
BASTARD: “_Till their soul-fearing clamours have brawled down
          The flinty ribs of this contemptuous city._”
                                            (King John, Act II, Sc. 2.)
KING RICHARD: “_Go to Flint castle: there ’Il pine away;
               A King, woe’s slave, shall kingly woe obey._”
                                          (Richard II, Act III, Sc. 2.)
QUEEN: “_This is the way
        To Julius Caesar’s ill-erected tower,
        To whose flint bosom my condemned lord
        Is doomed a prisoner by proud Bolingbroke._”
                                            (Richard II, Act V, Sc. 2.)
KING RICHARD: “_How these vain weak nails
               May tear a passage through the flinty ribs
               Of this hard world._”
                                             (Richard 2, Act V, Sc. 5.)
KING HENRY: “_He hath a tear for pity and a hand
             Open as day for melting charity:
             Yet notwithstanding, being incens’d, he’s flint._”
                                     (Henry IV, Part 2, Act IV, Sc. 4.)
OTHELLO:  “_The tyrant custom, most grave senators,
          Hath made the flinty and steel couch of war
          My thrice-driven bed of down._”
                                               (Othello, Act I, Sc. 3.)
HELENA:  “_Which gratitude
         Through flinty Tartar’s bosom would peep forth,
         And answer ‘Thanks.’_”
                            (All’s Well that Ends Well, Act IV, Sc. 4.)
DUKE:  “_Pluck commiseration of his state
       From brassy bosoms and rough hearts of flint._”
                                   (Merchant of Venice, Act IV, Sc. 1.)
VIOLA:  “_My master, not myself, lacks recompense,
        Love make his heart of flint that you shall love;
        And let your fervour like my master’s, be
        Placed in contempt! Farewell, fair cruelty._”
                                         (Twelfth Night, Act I, Sc. 5.)
HOLOFERNES: “_Fire enough for a flint, pearl enough for a swine._”
                                  (Love’s Labours Lost, Act IV, Sc. 2.)
VOLUMNIA:  “_Oh, stand up blest,
           Whilst, with no softer cushion than the flint,
           I kneel before thee._”
                                            (Coriolanus, Act V, Sc. 3.)

                                  JET

GLOUCESTER: “_What colour is my gown of?_”
SIMPCOX: “_Black, forsooth: coal black as jet._”
KING: “_Why then, thou know’st what colour jet is of?_”
SUFFOLK: “_And yet, I think, jet did he never see._”
                     (Henry VI, Part 2, Act II, Sc. 1.)
TITUS:  “_Provide two proper palfreys, black as jet,
        To hale thy vengeful waggon swift away._”
                      (Titus Andronicus, Act V, Sc. 2.)

SALARINO: “_There is more difference between thy flesh and hers than
          between jet and ivory._”

                                   (Merchant of Venice, Act III, Sc. 1.)

                                   LAPIS LAZULI

EVANS: “_What is ‘lapis,’ William?_”
WILLIAM: “_A stone._”
EVANS: “_And what is a ‘stone,’ William?_”
WILLIAM: “_A pebble._”
EVANS: “_No, it is ‘lapis’: I pray you, remember in your prain._”
WILLIAM: “_Lapis._”
EVANS: “_That is a good William._”
                     (The Merry Wives of Windsor, Act IV, Sc. 1.)

                                 MARBLE

CARD. WOLSEY:  “_When I am forgotten, as I shall be:
               And sleep in dull, cold marble._”
                                           (Henry VIII, Act III, Sc. 2.)
KING HENRY: “_Her tears will pierce into a marble heart._”
                                     (Henry VI, Part 3, Act III, Sc. 2.)
GLOSTER: “_He plies her hard: and much rain wears the marble._”
                                     (Henry VI, Part 3, Act III, Sc. 2.)
SICILIUS: “_Peep through thy marble mansion._”
SICILIUS: “_The marble pavement closes._”
                                              (Cymbeline, Act V, Sc. 4.)
LAVINIA: “_The milk from her did turn to marble._”
                                      (Titus Andronicus, Act II, Sc. 3.)
OTHELLO:  “_Now by yond marble heaven,
          In the due reverence of a sacred vow
          I here engage my words._”
                                              (Othello, Act III, Sc. 3.)
HAMLET:  “_O, answer me! why the sepulchre
         Wherein we saw thee quietly inurn’d,
         Hath oped his ponderous and marble jaws,
         To cast thee up again._”
                                                 (Hamlet, Act I, Sc. 4.)
DUKE: “_And he, a marble to her tears, is washed with them, but relents
   not._”
                                  (Measure for Measure, Act III, Sc. 1.)
MARIANA:  “_Let me in safety raise me from my knees:
          Or else forever be confixed here,
          A marble monument!_”
                                    (Measure for Measure, Act V, Sc. 1.)
MACBETH:  “_I had else been perfect,
          Whole as the marble._”
                                              (Macbeth, Act III, Sc. 4.)
3RD GENTLEMAN: “_Who was most marble there, changed colour._”
                                      (The Winter’s Tale, Act V, Sc. 2.)
ANDRIANA:  “_If voluble and sharp discourse be marred,
           Unkindness blunts it more than marble hard._”
                                      (Comedy of Errors, Act II, Sc. 1.)

                                  OPAL

CLOWN: “_Now, the melancholy god protect thee: and the tailor make thy
        doublet of changeable taffeta, for thy mind is a very opal._”

                                         (Twelfth Night, Act II, Sc. 4.)

                                 PEARL

ARIEL: “_Those are pearls that were his eyes._” (See CORAL.)
                                             (Tempest, Act I, Sc. 1.)
MACDUFF: “_I see thee encompass’d with thy kingdom’s pearl
          That speak my salutation in their minds._”
                                             (Macbeth, Act V, Sc. 8.)
CONSTANCE: “_Those heaven-moving pearls._” (See CRYSTAL.)
                                          (King John, Act II, Sc. 1.)
OTHELLO: ... “_Of one whose hand,
         Like the base Indian, threw a pearl away
         Richer than all his tribe._”
                                             (Othello, Act V, Sc. 2.)
KING: “_Hamlet, this pearl is thine:
       Here’s to thy health._”
                                              (Hamlet, Act V, Sc. 2.)
LEAR: “_As pearls from diamonds dropped._” (See #DIAMOND:DIAMOND.)
                                          (King Lear, Act IV, Sc. 3.)
QUICKLY: “_Like sapphire, pearl and rich embroidery._” (See EMERALD.)
                              (Merry Wives of Windsor, Act V, Sc. 5.)
VALENTINE: “_And I, as rich in having such a jewel
            As twenty seas, if all their sand were pearl,
            The water nectar and the rocks pure gold._”
                            (Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act II, Sc. 4.)
PROTEUS: “_A sea of melting pearl which some call tears._”
                           (Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act III, Sc. 1.)
PROTEUS: “_But pearls are fair: and the old saying is,
          Black men are pearls in beauteous ladies’ eyes._”
JULIA (aside): “_’Tis true: such pearls as put out ladies’ eyes:
            For I had rather wink than look on them._”
                             (Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act V, Sc. 2.)
LORD: “_Or wilt thou ride? thy horses shall be trapped,
       Their harness studded all with gold and pearl._”
                             (Taming of the Shrew, Induction, Sc. 2.)
GREMIO: “_In ivory coffers I have stuffed my crowns:
         .... Fine linen, Turkey cushions bossed with pearl._”
                                (Taming of the Shrew, Act II, Sc. 1.)
TRANIO: “_Why, sir, what ’cerns it you if I wear pearl and gold?_”
                                 (Taming of the Shrew, Act V, Sc. 1.)
TOUCHSTONE: “_Rich honesty dwells like a miser, sir, in a rich house:
             as your pearl in your foul oyster._”
                                      (As You Like It, Act V, Sc. 4.)

MARGARET: “_I saw the Duchess of Milan’s gown that they praise so By my
           troth’s but a night-gown in respect of yours: cloth o’ gold,
           and cuts, and laced with silver, set with pearls, down
           sleeves, side sleeves, and skirts, round underbone with a
           bluish tinsel._”

                             (Much Ado About Nothing, Act III, Sc. 4.)

HOLOFERNES: “_Pearl enough for a swine._” (See FLINT.)
                                 (Love’s Labours Lost, Act IV, Sc. 2.)
MARIA: “_This and these pearls to me sent Longaville._”
PRINCESS: “_What, will you have me or your pearl again?_”
                                  (Love’s Labours Lost, Act V, Sc. 2.)
LYSANDER: “_Tomorrow night when Phoebe doth behold
           Her silver visage in the watery glass,
           Decking with liquid pearl the bladed glass
           A time that lovers’ flights doth still conceal,
           Through Athens’ gates have we devised to steal._”
                            (A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act I, Sc. 1.)
FAIRY: “_I must go seek some dewdrops here
        And hang a pearl in every cowslip’s ear._”
                                                      (Act II, Sc. 1.)
OBERON: “_And that same dew which sometime on the buds
         Was wont to swell like round and orient pearls,
         Stood now within the pretty flowerets’ eyes._”
                                                      (Act IV, Sc. 1.)
SEBASTIAN: “_This is the air: that is the glorious sun:
            This pearl she gave me, I do feel’t and see’t
            And though ’tis wonder that enwraps me thus,
            Yet ’tis not madness._”
                                       (Twelfth Night, Act IV, Sc. 3.)
FALSTAFF: “_Your brooches, pearls and ouches._”
                                    (Henry IV, Part 2, Act II, Sc. 4.)
KING HENRY: “_I am a king that find thee, and I know
             ’Tis not the balm, the sceptre, and the ball,
             The sword, the mace, the crown imperial,
             The intertissued robe of gold and pearl,
             The farced title running ’fore the King,
             The throne he sits on nor the tide of pomp
             That beats upon the high shore of the world._”
                                             (Henry V, Act IV, Sc. 1.)
CLARENCE: “_Methought I saw a thousand fearful wrecks:
           Ten thousand men that fishes gnawed upon:
           Wedges of gold, great anchors, heaps of pearl,
           Inestimable stones, unvalued jewels,
           All scattered in the bottom of the sea:
           Some lay in dead men’s skulls: and, in those holes
           Where eyes did once inhabit, there were crept
           As ’twere in scorn of eyes, reflecting gems._”
                                     (King Richard III, Act I, Sc. 4.)
KING RICHARD: “_The liquid drops of tears that you have shed
               Shall come again, transformed to orient pearl._”
                                                      (Act IV, Sc. 4.)
CLEOPATRA: “_How goes it with my brave Mark Antony?_
ALEXAS: “ _Last thing he did, dear Queen,
         He kissed—the last of many doubled kisses—
         The orient pearl. His speech sticks in my heart._”
CLEOPATRA: “_Mine ears must pluck it thence._”
ALEXAS: “_‘Good friend,’ quote he,
         ‘Say the firm Roman to great Egypt sends
         This treasure of an oyster.’_”
                                 (Antony and Cleopatra, Act I, Sc. 5.)
CLEOPATRA: “_’Il set thee in a shower of gold and hail
            Rich pearls upon thee._”
                                                      (Act II, Sc. 2.)
TROILUS: “_Her bed is India: there she lies, a pearl._”
                                 (Troilus and Cressida, Act I, Sc. 1.)
TROILUS: “_Why, she is a pearl,
          Whose price hath launched above a thousand ships,
          And turned crowned kings to merchants._”
                                                      (Act II, Sc. 2.)
AARON: “_I will be bright and shine in pearl and gold,
        To wait upon this new-made empress._”
                                    (Titus Andronicus. Act II, Sc. 1.)
LUCIUS: “_This is the pearl that pleased your empress’ eye,
         And here’s the base fruit of his burning lust._”
                                                       (Act V, Sc. 1.)

                                  RUBY

FAIRY: “_The cowslips tall her pensioners be:
        In their gold coats spots you see:
        Those be rubies, fairy favours,
        In those freckles live their savours._”
                           (A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act II, Sc. 1.)
MACBETH: “_You make me strange
          When now I think you can behold such sights,
          And keep the natural ruby of your cheeks,
          When mine is blanched with fear._”
                                            (Macbeth, Act III, Sc. 4.)
MARK ANTONY: “_Over thy wounds now do I prophesy—
              Which like dumb mouths do ope their ruby lips,
              To beg the voice and utterance of my tongue._”
                                      (Julius Caesar. Act III. Sc. 1.)
DROMIO: “_Embellished with rubies, carbuncles, sapphires._”
                                            (See CARBUNCLE.)
                                 (Comedy of Errors.  Act III.  Sc. 2.)

                                SAPPHIRE

MISTRESS QUICKLY: “_Like sapphire, pearl and rich embroidery._”
                                    (See EMERALD.)
                       Merry Wives of Windsor.[ Act V., Sc. 5.)
DROMIO: “_Embellished with rubies, carbuncles, sapphires._”
                                (See CARBUNCLE.)
                            (Comedy of Errors, Act III, Sc. 2.)

                               TURQUOISE

SHYLOCK: “_Thou torturest me, Tubal: it was my turquoise:
          I had it of Leah when I was a bachelor: I would
          not have given it for a wilderness of monkeys._”
                     (Merchant of Venice, Act III, Sc. 1.)

                                 UNION

In Hamlet, Shakespeare mentions the pearl twice under the name UNION.

KING: “_The King shall drink to Hamlet’s better breath;
      And in the cup an union shall he throw,
      Richer than that which four successive kings
      In Denmark’s crown have worn._”
HAMLET: “_Drink of this potion. Is thy union here?_”
                                       (Act. V, Sc. 2.)



                             CHAPTER XXXIII
                 FORMS, COMPOSITIONS, CHARACTERISTICS,
                      ZODIACAL CLASSIFICATION, AND
                            PLACES OF ORIGIN


                                 AMBER

 _Hardness_: 2-2.5.
 _Lustre_: Resinous.
 _Chemical Composition_: Carbon 78.96. Hydrogen 10.51. Oxygen 10.52.
 _Specific Gravity_: 1.10-1.13.
 _Properties_: Becomes highly electric by friction. When submitted to
   heat, organic compounds escape and leave a black residue.
 _In the Zodiac_: Amber is under the heavenly Taurus.
 _Where found_: Chiefly on the Baltic coast. On the Danish coast. Parts
   of Asia, etc.

                                 BERYL
                           EMERALD—AQUAMARINE

 _Crystalline System_: Hexagonal.
 _Hardness_: 7.5-8.
 _Lustre_: Vitreous or Resinous. Transparent to translucent.
 _Refraction_: Weakly double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Silicate of Aluminium and Beryllium.
 _Chemical Symbol_: Be_{3 Al_{2 (SiO_{3})C.
 _Specific Gravity_: 2.63-2.75.
 _Dichroism_: Distinct.
 _Properties_: Exhibits frictional electricity. The emerald clouds
   before the blowpipe flame without fusing but under intensified heat
   the edges curve. With Borax the stone melts into a pale green bead.
   It resists acids but is affected by microcosmic salt. The stone is so
   fragile when taken out of the mine that friction crumbles it.
 _In the Zodiac_: All varieties of Beryls are under the Heavenly Taurus.
 _Where found_: Generally all over the world. Chiefly in Ekaterinburg,
   Brazil, India, United States, Australia.

                              CHRYSOBERYL
    ALEXANDRITE—ORIENTAL CHRYSOLITE—CYMOPHANE OR CHRYSOBERYL—CATSEYE

 _Crystalline System_: Orthorhombic.
 _Hardness_: 8.5.
 _Lustre_: Vitreous. Transparent to translucent.
 _Refraction_: Double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Alumina 80.2. Glucina 19.8.
 _Chemical Symbol_: BeAl_{2}O_{4}.
 _Specific Gravity_: 3.7-3.86.
 _Dichroism_: Strong in Alexandrite. Distinct in Chrysoberyl.
 _Properties_: Crystals exhibit remarkable twinning at times.
   Chrysoberyl is highly electric and when submitted to frictional
   agitation holds electricity for a long time. Not affected by acids.
   Under the blowpipe it is unaltered and infusible, but it fuses
   tardily with borax or microcosmic salt. The Alexandrite variety
   which, as Professor J. G. Dana says, bears the same relation to
   ordinary Chrysoberyl as Emerald to Beryl, displays curious changes of
   colour from leafy green to raspberry red in real and artificial
   lights.
 _In the Zodiac_: Chrysoberyl is under the Heavenly Pisces; Alexandrite
   is under the Heavenly Aquarius.
 _Where found_: Ceylon, Brazil, Russia, Ireland, Australia, etc.

                                CORUNDUM
       SAPPHIRE, RUBY, ORIENTAL AMETHYST, ORIENTAL EMERALD, ETC.

 _Crystalline System_: Rhombohedral.
 _Hardness_: 9.
 _Lustre_: Transparent to translucent.
 _Refraction_: Moderately double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Aluminium 53-53.2. Oxygen 46.8.
 _Chemical Symbol_: Al_{2}O_{3}.
 _Specific Gravity_: 3.90-4.16.
 _Dichroism_: Strong.
 _Properties_: Submitted to friction exhibits electrical properties
   which withdraw very slowly. Acids do not affect Corundum, but under
   the blowpipe in borax or microcosmic salt it gradually melts to a
   transparent globule. Radium influences the colour strongly, so much
   indeed as to impart it in achromatic specimens. The stone is
   variously affected by heat. Treated by Sir William Crooks by exposure
   to high tension electric currents in a similar way to the diamond the
   ruby phosphoresced with an intense red light, and the sapphire with
   an intense blue. Dr. T. Coke Squance of Sunderland, well-known in
   connection with radio-therapeutical research, has succeeded in
   transforming a faint pink sapphire into a fine ruby. During the
   process of transformation the lustre of the stone was so intensified
   that it nearly assumed the brilliancy of a diamond. Dr. Squance
   observed that both radium and X-rays cause a diamond to glow with a
   green light. “Besides the diamond,” he says, "a mineral called
   Kunzite glows with a lovely red hue. I submitted a sapphire to the
   Radium rays for a long period and it turned to a glorious red. In
   fact, it had become a ruby. I have similarly transformed other
   stones, a faint green sapphire, for instance, turning into an
   oriental emerald." Sir William Crooks noted the sage-green colour of
   the diamond under Radium, but found that the colour could easily be
   removed by mechanical means.
 _In the Zodiac_: Blue and green sapphires are under the Heavenly
   Aquarius; white are under the Heavenly Pisces; yellow or Oriental
   Topaz and Rubies are under the Heavenly Leo. Oriental Amethyst is
   under the Heavenly Sagittarius.
 _Where found_: Ceylon, China, Burma, Russia, East Indies, United States
   of America, Australia (chiefly Queensland), etc.

                                DIAMOND
                             DIAMOND—BOART

 _Crystalline System_: Isometric.
 _Forms_: Octahedron, dodecahedron. Crystals frequently twinned.
 _Hardness_: 10. Scratches every other stone.
 _Lustre_: Adamantine. Transparent and when dark, translucent.
 _Refraction_: Single.
 _Chemical Composition_: Pure Carbon.
 _Chemical Symbol_: C.
 _Specific Gravity_: 3.50-3.55.
 _Properties_: Exhibits positive electricity when rubbed, but is itself
   a non-conductor of electricity. When intensely heated it burns,
   yielding Carbonic Anhydride. When heated so as to exclude chemical
   combination it dilates and forms into a black concretion. It displays
   phosphorescence under Radium, when submitted to strong sunlight and,
   when put in a vacuum tube, to a high tension electric current. Dr. G.
   F. Herbert Smith found that "some diamonds fluoresce in sunlight,
   turning milky, and a few emit light when rubbed." Dr. Kunz proved
   that diamonds phosphoresce when exposed to the rays of Radium,
   Polonium, or Actinium, even when glass is interposed. These phenomena
   formed special object of experiment with the late Sir William Crooks,
   who showed that exposed to high tension electric currents in greatly
   rarified atmosphere, the diamond phosphoresced with an intense green
   light. Prismatic colours are radiated by this gem.
 _In the Zodiac_: The Diamond is under the Heavenly Aries, Leo and
   Libra.
 _Where found_: India, Borneo, Brazil, South Africa, Siberia, Australia,
   United States of America.

                                 GARNET
       ALMANDINE, PYROPE, HESSONITE, (GARNET HYACINTH), UVAROVITE

 _Crystalline Form_: Isometric.
 _Hardness_: 6.5-7.5.
 _Lustre_: Vitreous.
 _Refraction_: Single.
 _Chemical Composition_: Silica Alumina, Red Iron Oxide, Lime Magnesia,
   Manganese, Protoxide.
 _Chemical Symbol_: Dr. Smith has the following formulae:
 Hessonite Ca_{3} Al_{2}(SiO_{4})_{3}.
 Pyrope Mg_{3} Al_{2}(SiO_{4})_{3}.
 Almandine Fe_{3}Al_{2}(SiO_{4}O)_{3}.
 Andradite Ca_{3}Fe_{2}(SiO_{4}O)_{3}.

 _Specific Gravity_: 3.4-4.3.
 _Properties_: Exhibits positive electricity by friction. With the
   exception of Uvarovite, all varieties of Garnets fuse before the
   blowpipe flame. The stone generally does not contain water.
 _In the Zodiac_: The Almandine is under the Heavenly Sagittarius; the
   Pyrope, Aquarius; Hessonite, Virgo; Uvarovite, Aquarius.
 _Where found_: Generally all over the world.

                                  OPAL

 _Crystalline System_: None.
 _Form_: Amorphous.
 _Hardness_: 5.5-6.5.
 _Lustre_: Waxy to subvitreous.
 _Refraction_: Single.
 _Chemical Composition_: Silica 91.32. Water 8.68.
 _Chemical Symbol_: SiO_{2}, n=SiO_{2}nH_{2}O.
 _Specific Gravity_: 1.9-2.3.
 _Properties_: No electrical properties. Opal exhibits characteristic
   colour reflections known as Opalescence. It is susceptible to heat
   and weather changes, exhibiting greater brilliancy on hot than on
   cold days. The opal has never yet been successfully imitated, and
   certain peculiar properties yet remain to be investigated. Professor
   Frank Rutley F. G. S., emphasises the fact that "the nature of the
   Silica (Hydrous Silica) is not yet definitely determined." It is
   infusible before the blowpipe, but turns opaque.
 _In the Zodiac_: The Opal is under the Heavenly Leo, Libra and
   Aquarius. Leo favours red and fire opal; Libra, light translucent,
   pure colours, etc.; Aquarius, dark, black Opal, etc.
 _Where found_: Hungary, Honduras, Mexico, United States. The finest
   opal is now found in Australia, principally at Lightning Ridge, White
   Cliffs, Stuart’s Range, Charleville, etc. (Mr. Conrad H. Sayce gives
   (“Australasian,” March issue, 1920) an analysis of Stuart’s Range
   opal, bearing earth which contains about 35 per cent each of Alumina
   and Sulphur trioxide. He opines that this may account for the harmful
   effect it has on the men’s eyes and lungs.)

                                 PEARL

 _Hardness_: 3.5-4.
 _Lustre_: Translucent.
 _Chemical Composition_: Carbonate of Lime and Organic matter.
 _Specific Gravity_: 2.65-2.89.
 _Properties_: Affected by acids. Benefitted by some skins, adversely
   affected by others. Destroyed by fire.
 _Where found_: Persian Gulf, Ceylon, Red Sea, South America, New
   Guinea, Thursday Island, Australia, etc.
 _In the Zodiac_: Pearls are under the Heavenly Cancer.

                                PERIDOT
                           CHRYSOLITE—OLIVINE

 _Crystalline System_: Orthorhombic.
 _Hardness_: 6-7.
 _Lustre_: Vitreous. Transparent to translucent.
 _Refraction_: Double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Silicate of Magnesium and Iron.
 _Chemical Symbol_: (Mg,Fe)_{2}SiO_{4}.
 _Specific Gravity_: 3.3-3.5.
 _Dichroism_: Distinct.
 _Properties_: Friction induces electricity in the stone which is
   infusible before the blowpipe, but is affected, whitening and forming
   with Borax, a yellow bead. Decomposes in Hydrochloric acid.
 _In the Zodiac_: The Peridot is under the Heavenly Pisces.
 _Where found_: United States, Ireland, Australia, (Queensland
   particularly), etc. A large number of Meteorites contain Peridots.

                                  QUARTZ
 ROCK CRYSTAL, AMETHYST, CAIRNGORM, CHRYSOPRASE, CATSEYE, PLASMA, JASPER,
               CARNELIAN, AGATE, ONYX, SARDONYX, MOSS AGATE

 _Crystalline System_: Rhombohedral.
 _Hardness_: 7.
 _Lustre_: Vitreous. Splendent to dull and resinous.
 _Refraction_: Double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Silicon 46.67. Oxygen 53.33.
 _Chemical Symbol_: SiO_{2}.
 _Specific Gravity_: 2.5-2.8. In pure crystals 2.65.
 _Dichroism_: Distinct.
 _Properties_: Generates positive electricity by friction. It is
   infusible under the blowpipe, but effervesces with Carbonate of Soda.
   Although it resists the common acids it may be dissolved in
   Hydrofluoric.
 _In the Zodiac_: Rock Crystal is under the Heavenly Pisces; Amethyst is
   under the Heavenly Aries; Cairngorm under the Heavenly Scorpio;
   Chrysoprase under the Heavenly Cancer; Catseye under the Heavenly
   Capricorn; Plasma under the Heavenly Virgo; Jasper under the Heavenly
   Virgo; Bloodstone under the Heavenly Leo; Camelian under the Heavenly
   Leo; Agate under the Heavenly Scorpio; Onyx under the Heavenly
   Capricorn; Sardonyx under the Heavenly Leo; Moss Agate under the
   Heavenly Taurus.
 _Where found_: Distributed plentifully about the world. Rock Amethyst
   is found in the United States, Brazil, India, Ceylon, Ekaterinburg,
   Australia, etc. Mr. R. J. Dunn, late Victorian Geologist, discovered
   large quantities of Rose Quartz in South Africa. It is also found in
   the United States, Russia, Australia and other places. Catseyes are
   found in Ceylon and India. Cairngorm is found in Scotland, United
   States, Australia, etc. Chrysoprase is found in the United States and
   other places.

                                 SPINEL
       SPINEL RUBY, BALAS RUBY, RUBICELLE, PLEONASTE OR CEYLONITE

 _Crystalline System_: Isometric.
 _Hardness_: 8-8½.
 _Lustre_: Vitreous.
 _Refraction_: Single.
 _Chemical Composition_: Alumina 72. Magnesia 28.
 _Chemical Symbol_: MgAl_{2}O_{4}.
 _Specific Gravity_: 3.5-4.0.
 _Dichroism_: None.
 _Properties_: Does not display electricity when submitted to friction
   or heat, but under heat the red spinel changes to brown. On cooling
   it becomes green, after which it is nearly colourless; then it
   resumes its pristine hue. Spinel crystals also change into
   Hydrotalcite, a soft pearl-like stone of similar chemical
   composition. Infusible alone under the blowpipe but yields slowly
   with Borax. It is soluble in concentrated Sulphuric Acid.
 _In the Zodiac_: Spinel, Balas, Almandine, Ruby and Sapphirine are
   under the Heavenly Virgo. The Chloro-Spinel and the Pleonaste are
   under the Heavenly Capricorn.
 _Where found_: United States, Canada, Burma, Siam, Ceylon, Australia,
   etc. It is discovered in granular limestone, in gneiss and rocks of
   volcanic origin.

                               SPODUMENE
                           KUNZITE—HIDDENITE

 _Crystalline Form_: Monoclinic.
 _Hardness_: 6.5-7.
 _Lustre_: Pearly. Translucent to subtranslucent.
 _Refraction_: Double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Silicate of Aluminium and Lithium.
 _Chemical Symbol_: Li A1 (Si O_{3})_{2}.
 _Specific Gravity_: 3.5-3.20.
 _Dichroism_: Strong.
 _Properties_: Electrical. Unaffected by acids. Under the blowpipe flame
   expands and melts into a clear or opaque glass, indicating lithia by
   colouring the flame red. Kunzite exhibits phosphorescence under
   Radium.
 _In the Zodiac_: Spodumene and Kunzite are under the Heavenly Libra.
   Hiddenite may be under the zodiacal Taurus.
 _Where found_: United States of America, Madagascar, Brazil, Sweden,
   etc.

                                 TOPAZ

 _Crystalline Form_: Orthorhombic.
 _Hardness_: 8.
 _Lustre_: Vitreous. Transparent to translucent.
 _Refraction_: Slightly double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Silicate of Aluminium.
 _Chemical Symbol_: [A1(F,OH)]_{2}SiO_{4}. (Penfold and Minor.)
 _Specific Gravity_: 3.4-3.65.
 _Dichroism_: Distinct.
 _Properties_: Becomes strongly electric by friction, heat and pressure.
   Infusible alone before the blowpipe flame, but with Borax melts into
   a bead. Changes colour when heated.
 _In the Zodiac_: The Topaz is under the Heavenly Scorpio.
 _Where found_: Brazil, Ceylon, Mexico, United States, Australia, etc.

                               TOURMALINE

 _Crystalline Form_: Rhombohedral.
 _Hardness_: 7-7.5.
 _Lustre_: Vitreous.
 _Refraction_: Double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Varied, but all varieties include silicate of
   alumina, boracic acid, iron, magnesia, lime and soda, sometimes
   lithia in small quantity, with fluorine and trace of phosphoric acid.
 _Chemical Symbol_: Professors Penford and Foote refer all
   varieties of Tourmaline to
   (H_{6}Na_{6}Mg_{3}Al_{2})_{3}(Al,Fe)_{6}(B,OH)_{4}Si_{8}O_{38},
 _Specific Gravity_: 2.39-3.3.
 _Dichroism_: Strong.
 _Properties_: Becomes charged by heat and friction with positive and
   negative electricity. Before the blowpipe flame the darker varieties
   fuse easily but the lighter more tardily.
 _In the Zodiac_: The Tourmaline family is under the Heavenly Gemini.
 _Where found_: Brazil, Russia, California and other parts of the United
   States, Ceylon, Australia, etc.

                               TURQUOISE

 _Crystalline Form_: None.
 _Hardness_: 6.
 _Lustre_: Waxy.
 _Chemical Composition_: Dr. Smith gives the composition as a complex
   phosphate of Aluminium, iron and copper.
 _Chemical Symbol_: Dr. Smith gives Penfold’s formula as
   [Al(OH)_{2}Fe(OH)_{2},Cu(OH),H]_{3}PO_{4},

 approaching nearly to H_{5}Al_{2}PO_{8}.

 _Specific Gravity_: 2.6-2.8.
 _Properties_: Infusible before the blowpipe flame, but changes its
   colour to brown. Dissolves in Hydrochloric acid. Is affected by
   acids, oils, the health of the wearer, etc.
 _In the Zodiac_: Turquoise is under the zodiacal Sagittarius.
 _Where found_: Chiefly in Persia where the best specimens are found.
   Also found in Mexico, Russia, United States, Australia, etc.

                                 ZIRCON
                  ZIRCON, JARGOON, HYACINTH OR JACINTH

 _Crystalline System_: Tetragonal.
 _Hardness_: 7.5.
 _Lustre_: Adamantine. Transparent to opaque.
 _Refraction_: Strongly double.
 _Chemical Composition_: Silica 33. Zirconia 67.
 _Chemical Symbol_: ZR SiO_{4}.
 _Specific Gravity_: 4.6-4.86.
 _Properties_: Exhibits frictional electricity. The Zircon is infusible
   before the blowpipe flame but coloured specimens lose their colours.
   With borax Zircon melts under the blowpipe into a transparent bead.
   Heated with lime the Zircon is transformed into a straw-coloured
   stone which so closely resembles the yellow diamond that it is sold
   to travellers by some unscrupulous Eastern dealers as the more costly
   gem. Scientists have not yet been able to explain the constitution
   and distinct characters of the Zircon satisfactorily. Professor Sir
   A. H. Church has made a technical study of the zircon for over half a
   century, and is universally accepted as its most authoritative
   student. In his researches he found that in certain varieties of
   zircon the green and yellow stones, ground on copper wheel with
   diamond dust, exhibit a sparkling orange light, and the intermediate
   golden types radiate orange tints in the flame of a Bunsen burner.
   Students are seeking for the unknown element which, blended with
   zirconium, defies detection. The Zircon is very little affected by
   acids, except sulphuric acid after very long steeping. It is also
   peculiar that when first heated the stone exhibits strong
   phosphorescence, but as its colour leaves it, its specific gravity is
   magnified and it will not again phosphoresce when reheated after
   cooling.
 _In the Zodiac_: All varieties of Zircon are under Heavenly Virgo.
 _Where found_: In almost every part of the world.



                             CHAPTER XXXIV
                  GEMS IN HERALDRY, MAGICAL SQUARES OF
                    ABRA MELIN THE MAGE, CHARUBEL’S
                        GEM INFLUENCES, GEMS OF
                               COUNTRIES

                            GEMS IN HERALDRY

           “_Sweet mercy is nobility’s true badge._”
                                          “TITUS ANDRONICUS.”


Without doubt the science of Heraldry was evolved from ancient
astrological philosophy.

Various distinctive badges, shields and tokens were employed by the
peoples of the past, but the system as known today did not properly
evolve much before the 13th Century. In the present book, that section
of Heraldry known as Blazoning by Planets and Precious Stones deserves
some passing notice. By Blazoning the Sovereigns and Peers were
distinguished, the former by the Planets and the latter by precious
stones, as shown in the following table:

      _Tincture_         _Planet_               _Precious Stone_

      Or                 Sun                    Topaz

      Argent             Moon                   Pearl

      Sable              Saturn                 Diamond

      Gules              Mars                   Ruby

      Azure              Jupiter                Sapphire

      Vert               Venus                  Emerald

      Pupure             Mercury                Amethyst

      Tenny              Caput Draconis (Moon’s Jacinth
                           North Node)

      Sanguine           Cauda Draconis (Moon’s Sardonyx
                           South Node)

The planetary gem grouping is not quite accurate according to
astrological science, and the errors can be referred to the early
chroniclers. For example, the ruby is given to Mars and the topaz to the
Sun, whereas the ruby is a stone of the Sun and the topaz a stone of
Mars. Mars is termed Warlike and Violent in old works, whilst the Sun is
the emblem of Faithfulness and Constancy. At the coronation of a British
Sovereign a ruby ring emblematical of Faithfulness and Constancy is
placed on his finger.

Thus it is in harmony with the royal sign Leo—the sign of the Sun—and
the Monarch who is astrologically ruled by the Sun. The pearl is correct
for the Moon; the diamond is not a stone of Saturn; the sapphire is not
a stone of Jupiter; the emerald is correct for Venus; the amethyst is
not a stone of Mercury. The assigning of jacinth and sardonyx to the
North and the South Nodes of the Moon has not the support of
astrological science.

                 MAGICAL SQUARES OF ABRA MELIN THE MAGE

  “_The Wisdom of the Lord is an inexhaustible fountain, neither hath
  there ever been a man born who could penetrate its veritable origin
  and foundation._”

                              “The Second Book of the Sacred Magic.”

In that remarkable ancient magical work, “The Book of the Sacred Magic
of Abra Melin the Mage,” skillfully translated by a past Rosicrucian
adept, Monsieur le Comte Macgregor de Glenstrae, are a number of
symbolic Name Squares which were variously employed by the old masters
who so well knew the use of them. For the finding of certain treasures
which are not “magically guarded” (“magically” may here be accepted in a
wide sense) the following symbolic power figures were employed:


For JEWELS:

                       ┌───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┐
                       │ B │ E │ L │ I │ A │ L │
                       ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                       │ E │ B │ O │ R │ U │ A │
                       ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                       │ L │ O │ V │ A │ R │ I │
                       ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                       │ I │ R │ A │ V │ O │ L │
                       ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                       │ A │ V │ R │ O │ B │ E │
                       ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                       │ L │ A │ I │ L │ E │ B │
                       └───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┘

This square, the Comte notes, is a square of 36 squares, and the name
BELIAL that of one of the four great chiefs of the Evil Spirits.


For PEARLS:

                           ┌───┬───┬───┬───┐
                           │ I │ A │ N │ A │
                           ├───┼───┼───┼───┤
                           │ A │ M │ E │ N │
                           ├───┼───┼───┼───┤
                           │ N │ E │ M │ A │
                           ├───┼───┼───┼───┤
                           │ A │ N │ A │ I │
                           └───┴───┴───┴───┘

A square of 16 squares.


For DIAMONDS:

                     ┌───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┐
                     │ B │ I │ C │ E │ L │ O │ N │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ I │ R │ O │ L │ A │ T │ O │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ C │ O │ R │ A │ M │ A │ L │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ E │ L │ A │ M │ A │ L │ E │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ L │ A │ M │ A │ R │ O │ C │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ O │ T │ A │ L │ O │ R │ I │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ N │ O │ L │ E │ C │ I │ B │
                     └───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┘

A square of 49 squares.


For RUBIES:

                        ┌───┬───┬───┬───┬───┐
                        │ S │ E │ G │ O │ R │
                        ├───┼───┴───┴───┼───┤
                        │ E │           │   │
                        ├───┤           │   │
                        │ G │           │   │
                        ├───┤           ├───┤
                        │ O │           │ E │
                        ├───┼───┬───┬───┼───│
                        │ R │   │   │ B │ S │
                        └───┴───┴───┴───┴───┘

A border of 12 squares from a square of 25 squares.

The Comte translates SEGOR as “to break forth” or “to shut in,”
according as the root begins with S or SH.


For BALASSIUS RUBIES:

                    ┌───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┐
                    │ H │ E │ T │ I │ S │ E │ R │
                    ├───┼───┴───┴───┴───┴───┼───┤
                    │ E │                   │   │
                    ├───┤                   │   │
                    │ T │                   │   │
                    ├───┤                   │   │
                    │ I │                   │   │
                    ├───┤                   │   │
                    │ S │                   │   │
                    ├───┼───┬───┬───┬───┬───┼───┤
                    │ E │ C │ I │ N │ E │ S │ E │
                    ├───┼───┴───┴───┴───┴───┼───┤
                    │ R │                   │ H │
                    └───┴───────────────────┴───┘

Twenty squares from a square of 49.


For EMERALDS:

                     ┌───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┐
                     │ A │ S │ T │ A │ R │ O │ T │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ S │ A │ L │ I │ S │ T │ O │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ T │ L │ A │ N │ B │ S │ R │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ A │ I │ N │ O │ N │ I │ A │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ R │ S │ B │ N │ A │ L │ T │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ O │ T │ S │ I │ L │ A │ S │
                     ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                     │ T │ O │ R │ A │ T │ S │ A │
                     └───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┘

A square of 49 squares. ASTAROT is set down in the Comte’s notes as one
of the 8 Sub Princes of the Evil Spirits.


To find stolen jewels, the following is given:

                    ┌───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┐
                    │ K │ I │ X │ A │ L │ I │ S │
                    ├───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┼───┤
                    │ I │ R │ I │ N │ E │ Q │ I │
                    ├───┼───┴───┴───┴───┴───┼───┤
                    │ X │                   │   │
                    ├───┤                   │   │
                    │ A │                   │   │
                    ├───┤           ┌───┐   │   │
                    │ L │           │ M │   │   │
                    ├───┼───┐       └───┘   │   │
                    │ I │ Q │               │   │
                    ├───┼───┘               ├───┤
                    │ S │                   │ K │
                    └───┴───────────────────┴───┘

The square consists of 22 squares taken from a square of 49 squares.

These and many similar figures were used by the Hermetic philosophers in
their occult scientific practices.

They can be nothing but interesting curiosities to the majority who are
ignorant of the trials, sufferings and disappointments of those brave
and faithful Fraters and Sorores who regarded no sin so great as
ingratitude and no tendency so foolish as incredulity. “For,” says Abra
Melin, “you must have Faith. Neither should you dispute concerning that
which you understand not. God out of nothingness hath created all
things, and all things have their being in Him. Watch, labour and you
will see.”

          “PSYCHOLOGY OF BOTANY, MINERALS AND PRECIOUS STONES”

In the year 1907, a remarkable book bearing the above title, written by
a gifted student who preferred to veil his identity under the pen name
of “Charubel,” was published by R. Welch, Esq., 92 Shuttle St.,
Tyldesley, England. This work is now difficult to obtain. The author
insists on a direct sympathy between the human soul and surrounding
nature, and his work illustrates his method of linking together these
eternal immortal powers so that the human can draw from these elements
exactly that force he needs. The “Psychological Properties of Precious
Stones,” includes his occult researches into hidden properties which he
presents in certain order. The stones mentioned are the topaz, amethyst,
coral, rock crystal, emerald, diamond, ruby, turquoise, sapphire, red
garnet, carbuncle. “The realm of precious stones,” he writes, “abounds
with wonders which transcend everything I may have hitherto been made
conversant with. Hence, I am very much fascinated with these lustrous
specimens of a chemistry which transcends the skill of the ingenious to
identify or to produce the same. It is true that so far as appearance
goes, modern skill can produce from a kind of paste what resembles the
genuine stone, but he can no more produce a living stone than he can
make a living tree. The true stone has a life and it is in this life
that its true virtue consists.”

The virtues of the topaz, writes Charubel, are to be appreciated by
“fair people with weak or fragile constitutions, inclined to become
despondent, of cold habits. A help to those who are out of sight or in
the shade. It begets hopefulness in the hopeless. Strengthens and
fortifies the soul against evil, wicked persons.” The seal of the topaz
is according to our author—[Symbol: topaz]

and the sacred name by which it is invoked is
SOO-MAH-THU-EL-DI-VOO-MATH-EL.

                                -------

The virtues of the amethyst are set down as a cure for false vision, bad
memory, colour-blindness, intoxication, etc. The seal is given
as—[Symbol: amethyst]

and the sacred name by which the life of the amethyst is invoked is
given as AVRUTHEL.

                                -------

The virtues of the coral, according to Charubel, benefit decrepit
persons and those prematurely old. It quickens the senses, is good in
defect of the eyesight from gradual loss of energy in the optic nerve,
and it strengthens the mental faculties.

The seal is given as—[Symbol: coral]

and the sacred name of invocation AG-ATH-EL.

                                -------

The virtues of the Rock Crystal include, writes Charubel, safeguard
against deception or imposition. “It is for the pure in heart and those
who think of a better life.”

The seal is given as—[Symbol: crystal]

and the sacred name of invocation EV-AG-EL.

                                -------

The virtues of the emerald are for those “who aspire to wisdom and seek
enlightenment, and for those who seek the good of life,” etc.

The seal is given as—[Symbol: emerald]

and the sacred name of invocation AM-VRADEL.

                                -------

The diamond is for “Kings, Monarchs, Presidents and people of high
standing, etc., State Authorities and the advanced Occultists. The
diamond is a gem by the virtue of its homogeneity and belongs to the
domain of the true life. The diamond is _sacred_: one of the most
_sacred_: yes, the most _sacred_ of all gems. I am not allowed to give
word and seal for this gem.”

                                -------

Charubel hails the ruby as “the most precious of gems, a balm in the
hour of trial, grief, bereavement, disappointment, a soother of
agitation and disburdener of the oppressed soul.”

The seal of the ruby is given as—[Symbol: ruby]

and the sacred word of invocation as DER-GAB-EL.

                                -------

The turquoise is set down as the “Sympathetic Stone, an invaluable
treasure to the thoughtful and meditative, a connector of souls, a
developer of Inner Powers.”

The seal is given as—[Symbol: turquoise]

and the sacred word of invocation HAR-VAL-AM.

                                -------

The sapphire is written down as “a cure for doubt and despondency, a
reviver of blighted hopes, which robs the future of its dread and
renders the Valley of Death redolent with sunshine.”

The seal is given as—[Symbol: sapphire]

and the sacred word of invocation TROO-AV-AL.

                                -------

The red garnet is hailed as the stone of inspiration and a remedy for
diabolical influences, etc.

The seal is given as—[Symbol: garnet]

and the sacred word of invocation as AR-HU-GAL.

                                -------

The carbuncle “physically strengthens and vivifies the vital and
generative forces in human nature, those that lack energy, sufferers
from anaemia, and those wanting in animal courage. It sharpens business
propensities and is invaluable to the dull, lethargic, sluggish,
lymphatic, and people of cold habits.”

The seal is given as—[Symbol: carbuncle]

and the sacred word of invocation APH-RU-EL.


                           GEMS OF COUNTRIES

Old philosophy allots a particular talismanic gem to every country in
the world. Those of the following countries are:

               Abyssinia       Lapis Lazuli
               Afghanistan     Catseye
               Albania         Dark Onyx
               Algeria         Banded Agate
               Arabia          Flint
               Argentina       Spodumene
               Australia       Opal
               Austria         Opal
               Bavaria         Topaz
               Belgium         Marble
               Brazil          Jasper Bloodstone
               Bulgaria        Striped Onyx
               Burma           Malachite
               China           Pearl
               Denmark         Hematite
               Egypt           Jasper Opal
               England         Diamond
               France          Ruby
               Germany         Hematite
               Greece          Dark Onyx
               Holland         Pearl
               Hungary         Carbuncle
               India           Catseye
               Ireland         Emerald
               Italy           Sardonyx
               Japan           Jade
               Judea           Topaz
               Mexico          Onyx
               Morocco         Banded Agate
               New Zealand     Nacre
               Norway          Topaz
               Nubia           Crystal
               Palestine       Limonite
               Persia          Mocha Stone
               Poland          Emerald
               Portugal        Chrysolite
               Prussia         Sapphire
               Rumania         Lapis Lazuli
               Russia          Chrysoberyl-Alexandrite
               Scotland        Chalcedony
               Sicily          Carnelian
               South Africa    Pearl
               Spain           Turquoise
               Syria           Limonite
               Sweden          Sapphire
               Switzerland     Jasper
               Turkey          Jacinth
               Transvaal       Cairngorm
               USA             Tourmaline
               Wales           Marble



                              CHAPTER XXXV
                  THE INEVITABLE LAW OF TRANSMUTATION

CHAMPIONS OF PROGRESS, XENOPHANES, PLATO, ARISTOTLE, ZENO, LEONARDI DA
    VINCI AND THEIR SPECULATIONS: THE HARNESSING OF INVISIBLE AGENCIES:
    THE WAY OF THE SPIRIT: DESTINY, THE LAW: POINT OF UNION OF FORCES
    KNOWN TO THE HERMETIC PHILOSOPHERS: UNIVERSAL ORDER AND HARMONY.

             “_Each change of many colour’d life he drew,
             Exhausted worlds and then imagin’d new._”
                                                   JONSON.


Transformation, under the various forms of transfiguration,
transmutation and change, forms the subject of many fascinating stories
which adorn the pages of romance, mythology, science and symbology. It
may be said to exhibit itself as the dominant force in the world of
matter—the changeful, restless world with which we change and to which,
while dressed in its elements, we are held. The disobedience of Lot’s
wife changed her material form into a pillar of salt; the fated Niobe
was transformed into a rugged rock which forever was bathed by her
tears; the glance of Medusa turned her victims into stone, her blood
turned trees into coral; the stone which Rhea duped Cronus into
swallowing in the belief that it was one of his children—indeed, the
whole legend concerning the devouring of his offspring by the old god,
is illustrative of the process of nature which forever consumes that
which it produces. Nature is a veritable alchemist, a royal transmuter,
turning the precious into the base and the base into the precious,
regardless of dignity, rank or name. Parable and symbol have ever been
the ornate coverings beneath which lie securely hidden from the
superficial gaze the secrets with which searching man has played for
ages. The work of these intrepid scientists had, at certain periods of
the world’s history, to be carefully concealed from the vulgar and
intolerant mind which was continually endeavouring to bind the thoughts
of men within the slavery of a fixed dogma. The true meaning of this
dogma was indeed far better known and understood by the faithful
searchers into the mysteries of nature than by all the narrow agents
seeking to suppress them. But they were compelled to wait till the
champions of liberty in the material world had swept back the devils of
intolerance which darkened the way to spiritual and material freedom.
The waiting for the right time to present their discoveries to the
people did not suspend their researches—it rather advanced them. Nearly
600 years before the Christian era the poetical philosopher Xenophanes
wrote of fossil fishes, shells and other petrifaction found on high
mountains and in quarries, which he instanced as indicating changes on
the earth’s surface, certain lands sinking beneath the sea and certain
lands rising out of it. The earlier examinations of these remains were
considered as evidence of a subtle tractable power inherent in the
earth. Plato, Aristotle, and Zeno taught that God entered His Spirit
into eternal matter, producing the earth, thus eternally filled with the
potential Spirit.

That many-sided genius of the 15th and 16th centuries, Leonardo da Vinci
was rightly regarded by Dmitri Merejkowski as “The Forerunner,” in his
historical story of that name. Leonardo was most precise in his
remarkable deductions on fossilization, which, he wrote, occurred from
the accumulation of mud in the cavities of shells discovered in rivers
which were at an ancient period beneath the sea near the coast. Nature’s
wonderful workings are exhibited in the metamorphoses of the various
stones. This process is noticed in the silification of wood, shells,
coral, etc. It is observed in the incrustation of one substance on
another, the expulsion of one mineral matter by some chemical agency, by
the gradual yielding of original substance to new and foreign invaders
and by the occurrence of one mineral in the form of another, etc. So far
as is considered necessary this subject has been already dealt with. And
so Nature is continually proving to man that all is change and that
dissolution is impossible. Continually, lower forms are giving place to
higher, and the work of the world goes on with the persistent regularity
of a huge machine. “Nothing is lost,” says chemistry, and even the voice
of man, the cries of animals, sounds of breaking rocks, the restless
sea, the moaning of the winds amongst the trees, etc., can now be easily
impressed on the modern phonograph plates which provide a material
working body. Every action can be recorded and reproduced by the
photographic camera; even the air can be harnessed to convey a desire.
Everything in the Universe, from the stars of Heaven to the atom, or to
the minutest subdivision of the atom, is mathematical, law abiding, and
under the mysterious and controlling Force which we reverence as God the
Infinite.

Nature claims her own, the material goes to the material, “dust to
dust,” and earth processes turn the visible parts of animals and plants,
etc., into its identical crystal form. And the controlling powers about
which these perceptible forms materialize, seek the realms of finer
forces to which they truly belong. Rightly say the venerable
philosophers whose inspired utterances have taught us so much, “The
Spirit strips itself to go up and clothes itself to go down.” The writer
has tried to make this palpable truth clear in these pages, and trusts
that the links in the ancient chain are now left in a little better
repair than they were, and that the power within the stone will be
better appreciated and better understood. The order of the Infinite
Universe is exact and sincere. From its inception the work, trials and
struggles of the smallest atom are determined and Mind is compelled to
express itself. The exact point of union between the visible and the
invisible forces has been long known to the hermetic scientists and
philosophers whose thoughts are echoed by Wilks, the English poet of
Geology, in the following lines:

             “_God is a God of order, though to scan
             His works may pose the feeble powers of man._”

                                 FINIS

------------------------------------------------------------------------

                           Transcriber’s Note

Errors deemed most likely to be the printer’s have been corrected, and
are noted here. The references are to the page and line in the original.

  vi.8     Sir Edward Mackenzie-Mackenzie, Bart[.], for   Inserted.
           his original

  14.10    wearing the Breas[t]plate                      Inserted.

  19.30    redeems from wor[l]dly sin                     Inserted.

  34.2     upon which the Cameo artist works[.]           Added.

  81.16    Milon had done the deed[.]                     Added.

  215.31   Mad[a/e]moiselle de Hautville                  Replaced.

  247.5    “a stone of good counsel for traders[”]        Added.

  264.7    All marble is under the celest[r]ial Gemini.   Removed.

  307.27   JULIUS C[AE/Æ]SAR,                             Replaced,
                                                          for
                                                          consistency

  334.21   LI[É/È]GE CATHEDRAL                            Replaced.

  340.21   These workings are of ver[y] great age         Restored.

  384.32   that tourmaline specimens [w]ere used by       Restored.

  396.16   a perpetual source of pleasure[,] philosophy   Added.

  408.4    with thy k[ni/in]gdom’s pearl                  Transposed.

  410.5    ALEXAS: [“]_Last thing he did,_                Added.

  410.9    ALEXAS: [“]_‘Good friend,’ quote he,_          Added.

  418.44   C[U/u](OH)>,H]_{3}PO_{4}                       Copper, not
                                                          ‘CU’





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