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Title: The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, (Vol. 7 of 13) - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the - houses of Orleans and Burgundy
Author: Monstrelet, Enguerrand de
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, (Vol. 7 of 13) - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the - houses of Orleans and Burgundy" ***

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_H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge Street, Blackfriars, London._















 _Beginning at the Year_ MCCCC. _where that of Sir JOHN FROISSART
 finishes, and ending at the Year_ MCCCCLXVII. _and continued by
 others to the Year_ MDXVI.











  CHAP. I.

  Some captains attached to sir John de Luxembourg
  surprise the castle of St Martin,
  wherein they are all taken and slain                       1


  Poton de Saintrailles and sir Louis de Vaucourt
  are made prisoners by the English                          4


  Maillotin de Bours and sir Hector de Flavy
  fight together in the town of Arras                        5


  Some of king Charles's captains make an
  attempt on Corbie                                         12

  CHAP. V.

  The lord de Barbasan lays siege to the castle
  of Anglure, held by the Burgundians                       13


  The maid of Orleans is condemned to be
  put to death and burnt at Rouen                           15


  The general council is continued at Basil, by
  the solicitations of the emperor                          22


  The duke of Bar enters the county of Vaudemont
  to conquer it by force                                    29


  The duke of Bar is combated by the count
  de Vaudemont and defeated                                 35

  CHAP. X.

  The young king Henry comes from England,
  with a grand attendance, to Paris,
  to be crowned king of France                              44


  The detachment the duke of Bar had left to
  blockade Vaudemont march away on
  hearing of the ill success of the battle                  51


  Sir John de Luxembourg assembles men at
  arms and marches into Champagne against
  the French, from whom he conquers several
  castles. Other matters                                    53


  The duke d'Alençon makes the chancellor
  of Brittany prisoner                                      57


  The French are near taking the castle of
  Rouen                                                     59


  The French take the castle of Dommart in
  Ponthieu, and carry off the lord de Dommart
  prisoner                                                  64


  Sir Thomas Kiriel, an Englishman, is appointed
  governor of the castle of Clermont in
  the Beauvoisis                                            66


  The inhabitants of Chauny-sur-Oise destroy
  the castle of their town                                  68


  The city of Chartres is conquered by king
  Charles's party                                           70


  The cardinal of Santa Croce is sent by the
  pope to France, to endeavour to make
  peace between the contending parties                      76


  The English conquer the bulwark at Lagny-sur-Marne        78


  Philibert de Vaudray, governor of Tonnerre,
  and the lord d'Amont wait on the duke
  of Bedford to serve him                                   81


  The duke of Bedford marches a large force
  to Lagny-sur-Marne, to support the English
  and Burgundians who had remained
  there, but retires without making any
  conquest                                                  83


  The commonalty of Ghent rise against their
  magistrates                                               89


  Sir John bastard of St Pol and the lord de
  Humieres are taken prisoners by the
  French                                                    91


  Great disorders are committed by the
  French in the Amiennois, Santerre and
  Vimeu                                                     92


  The heir of Commercy takes the town of
  Ligny in the Barrois, belonging to sir
  John de Luxembourg                                        94


  The Burgundians, under pretence of being
  English, gain the castle of La Boue, near
  to Laon. Other matters                                    96


  Friar Thomas goes to Rome.--He is burnt
  there                                                     98


  The death of the duchess of Bedford                      100


  Some of the French captains cross the river
  Somme and overrun Artois                                 101


  A benedictine monk attempts to gain the
  castle of St Angelo at Rome                              102


  A peace is concluded between the duke of
  Bar and the count de Vaudemont                           105


  The duchess of Burgundy is brought to bed
  of a son in the town of Ghent                             106


  A peace concluded between the duke of
  Bar and the counts de St Pol and de
  Ligny                                                    107


  A war takes place between sir John and sir
  Anthony du Vergy and the lord de Chasteau-Vilain         109


  A treaty of peace is concluded between the
  duke of Burgundy and the Liegeois                        112


  The duke of Bedford, who styled himself
  regent of France, marries the daughter of
  the count de St Pol                                      113


  The town of St Valery, in Ponthieu, is won
  by the French                                            115


  The dukes of Bedford and of Burgundy go
  to Saint Omer                                            116


  The death of John de Toisy bishop of Tournay.
  Great dissentions respecting the
  promotion to the vacant bishoprick                       118


  The French make many conquests on the
  confines of Burgundy                                     123


  The duke of Burgundy reconquers several
  places which the French had won in
  Burgundy                                                 128


  Gilles de Postelles is accused of treason to
  the duke of Burgundy, and beheaded                      129


  The French win by scalado the town of
  Crespy in the Valois. Other matters                      130


  The duke of Burgundy keeps his appointment
  before Passy. He besieges the
  town and castle of Avalon                                132


  Pierre de Luxembourg, count de St Pol,
  besieges the town of St Valery. The
  death of the count de St Pol                             134


  The lord de la Trimouille is arrested in the
  king's palace, and made to surrender his
  prisoner the viscount de Thouars                         137


  William de Coroam puts to flight John
  Beaurain. Sir John de Luxembourg reconquers
  the castle of Haphincourt      139


  The counts de Ligny and de St Pol keep
  the appointed day at Villiers le Carbonel,
  and afterward defeat the French from
  the Garrison of Laon                                     141

  CHAP. L.

  La Hire and other French captains overrun
  Artois and Cambresis                                     145


  The duke of Burgundy holds the anniversary
  feast of the golden fleece in the city
  of Dijon. He attends the marriage of
  the duke of Savoy's son                                  148


  A general council is held at Basil                       150


  The town and castle of Provins in Brie are
  won by the English and Burgundians.
  The French reconquer the town and
  castle of St Valery                                      152


  The duke of Burgundy returns from Burgundy
  to Flanders and Artois, having
  with him John son to the count de
  Nevers. Other matters                                    154


  John de Nevers is ordered to lay siege to
  Moreuil. He has the county of Estampes
  given to him                                             156


  A quarrel between the Romans and pope
  Eugenius, whom they wanted to detain
  at Rome against his will                                 158


  The abbey of St Vincent near Laon is demolished.
  Many castles are conquered
  by the Burgundians                                       159


  The lord Talbot returns to France, and conquers
  many towns and castles                                   161


  The count d'Estampes reconquers the town
  of St Valery                                             164


  The French gain the town of Hamme on
  the Somme, in the Vermandois                             166


  The town and castle of Chasteau-Vilain submits
  to the obedience of the duke of
  Burgundy                                                 168


  Heavy taxes laid on the countries of Artois
  and those adjoining, on account of this
  war                                                      169


  The duke of Burgundy's captains appear
  before Villefranche, wherein was the
  duke of Bourbon. They afterward besiege
  Belleville, which surrenders to them                     171


  The lord Willoughby and Mathagon lay
  siege to St Severin, where the English
  are at first victorious, but are afterwards
  defeated by the French                                   174


  La Hire treacherously makes the lord
  d'Auffemont a prisoner                                   177


  The common people of Normandy rise
  against the English garrisons                            178


  La Hire gains the castle of Breteuil, in
  Beauvoisis, by storm                                     180


  The dukes of Burgundy and of Bourbon
  meet in the city of Nevers, and agree on
  terms for a peace                                        181


  Amadeus duke of Savoy turns hermit, and
  resides at Ripaille                                      187


  The common people of Normandy assemble
  in large bodies before Caen                              191


  The duke and duchess of Burgundy return
  from that country to Flanders and Artois                 193


  The French gain the town of Rue from the
  English                                                  195


  La Hire, Poton, Philip de la Tour, and the
  lord de Fontaines, defeat the earl of
  Arundel before the castle of Gerberoy                    197


  The duke of Burgundy is displeased with
  the inhabitants of Antwerp                               203


  The French conquer the towns of St Denis
  from the English                                         205


  The French, after having agreed to a truce
  with the Burgundians on the frontiers of
  the Beauvoisis, overrun the Boulonnois
  and other parts                                          208


  The cardinals of Santa Croce and of Cyprus
  come to Arras, to attend the convention                  211


  Louis de Luxembourg, count of St Pol,
  espouses Joan of Bar, countess of Marle
  and of Soissons                                          213


  The French are defeated near to Rethel, by
  the bastard de Humieres                                  214


  Ambassadors from the king of England arrive
  at Arras to attend the convention                        215


  Ambassadors from France arrive at Arras to
  attend this convention                                   217


  Sir John de Mello, a knight of Spain, and
  the lord de Chargny, combat each other
  in the presence of the duke of Burgundy
  at Arras                                                 223


  The French and Burgundians are on very
  amicable terms in Arras                                  230


  The cardinal of Winchester comes to Arras
  to attend the convention                                 232


  During the meeting of the convention at
  Arras, La Hire and Poton overrun and
  forage the country of the duke of Burgundy               234


  The kings of Arragon and Navarre are defeated,
  and made prisoners, before
  Gaieta, by the army of the duke of Milan                 237


  The cardinal of Winchester and the whole
  of the English embassy leave Arras.
  Other ambassadors arrive there                           240


  A peace is concluded between Charles king
  of France and the duke of Burgundy, in
  the city of Arras                                        241


  The English lay siege to the town of St Denis,
  which in the end surrenders to them
  by capitulation                                          280


  Isabella, queen of France, dies in the city
  of Paris                                                 285


  The cardinals, and the ambassadors from
  the council, leave Arras. The duke of
  Burgundy appoints different officers to
  the towns and fortresses that had been
  conceded to him by the peace                             286


  In consequence of the peace of Arras, the
  duke of Burgundy sends some of his
  council, and heralds, to the king of England,
  to remonstrate and explain the
  causes of the peace he had concluded
  with the king of France                                  288


  The populace of Amiens rise against the
  levying of some taxes which were intended
  to be laid on them                                       294


  The French overrun and pillage the country
  of the duke of Burgundy after the peace
  of Arras. The marshal de Rieux takes
  many towns and castles from the English
  in Normandy                                              300


  The English suspect the Burgundians who
  are waging war with them against the
  king of France: they no longer converse
  or keep company with them. Other matters
  briefly spoken of                                        306


  King Henry sends letters to the Hollanders,
  to draw them to his party. A copy of
  these letters                                            310


  The duke of Burgundy determines to make
  war on the English                                       313


  The duke of Burgundy, by the advice of
  his privy counsellors, resolves to make
  an attempt to conquer Calais                             318


  The city of Paris is reduced to the obedience
  of Charles king of France                                324

  CHAP. C.

  Arthur count de Richemont, constable of
  France, makes war on the heir of Commercy                330


  The bishop of Liege and the Liegeois destroy
  Bousseuvre, and other forts that had
  made war against them                                    334


  The town and castle of Orchimont are destroyed
  by Everard de la Marche                                  340


  The English make excursions from Calais
  toward Boulogne and Gravelines. La
  Hire conquers Gisors, and loses it soon
  afterwards                                               342


  The men of Ghent, and the Flemings,
  make great preparations for the siege of
  Calais                                                   344


  Sir John de Croy, bailiff of Hainault, in
  conjunction with other captains, attack
  the English and are discomfited by them                  348


  The Flemings march to the siege of Calais--and
  march back again                                         352


  Sir Florimont de Brimeu, seneschal of Ponthieu,
  conquers the town of Crotoy                              382


  Humphry duke of Glocester arrives at Calais
  with a large armament. He enters
  Flanders, Artois, and other territories of
  the duke of Burgundy, and does much
  damage to them                                           385


  The Flemings again take up arms, after
  their retreat from Calais to their towns                 388


  La Hire conquers the town and castle of
  Soissons. Other matters                                  395


  The duchess of Bedford, sister to the count
  de St Pol, re-marries of her own free
  will. The king of Sicily negotiates with
  the duke of Burgundy for his liberty.
  The English recover the town of Pontoise                 397







[A.D. 1431.]



At the commencement of this year, some of the captains attached to
sir John de Luxembourg, such as sir Simon de Lalain, Bertrand de
Manicain, Enguerrand de Crequi, Enguerrand de Gribauval marched
from the borders of the Laonnois with four hundred combatants to
the abbey of St Vincent, near Laon, wherein were a body of French.
They gained it by surprise, and on their entrance they set up a loud
shout, which awakened part of the enemy within a strong gateway, who
instantly defended themselves with vigour; and, during this, the lord
de Pennesac, then in Laon, was told what had happened. He immediately
collected a force to succour those in the gate, who were gallantly
defending themselves; and his men at arms, enraged to find the enemy so
near, lost no time in putting on their armour.

They soon marched out of Laon to the assistance of their friends then
fighting; but a part of the Burgundians, without finishing their
enterprise, or providing for what might happen, had quitted the combat
to plunder the abbey. They were, therefore, unexpectedly attacked
by these men at arms, and with such vigour that they were totally
defeated, and sixty of the principal were left dead on the spot: in the
number were Bertrand de Manicain and Enguerrand de Gribauval. The last
offered a large ransom for his life; but it was refused, by reason of
the great hatred the common people bore him for the very many mischiefs
he had long before done them.

Sir Simon de Lalain was made prisoner, and had his life spared through
the means of a gallant youth of the garrison named Archanciel, who
was much beloved by the commonalty. Enguerrand de Crequi was taken
at the same time with sir Simon and a few others; but the remainder,
witnessing their ill success, retreated to the places whence they had

Sir John de Luxembourg was much afflicted at this event, and not
without cause, for he had lost in the affair some of his ablest
captains. The brother of the lord de Pennesac, called James, was killed.

At the same time, the castle of Rambures, belonging to the lord de
Rambures, then a prisoner in England, was won by the French, under the
command of Charles des Marests, who took it by scalado. Ferry de Mailly
was the governor of it for king Henry. The French, by this capture,
opened a free communication with the country of Vimeu and those
adjoining, as shall hereafter be shewn.



In this year, the marshal de Bousac, Poton de Saintrailles, sir Louis
de Vaucourt, and others of king Charles's captains, set out from
Beauvais with about eight hundred combatants to seek adventures, and
to forage the country near to Gournay. With them was a very young
shepherd's boy, who was desirous to raise his name in the same way that
the Maid had done.

The earl of Warwick had notice of their march, and collected with all
haste about six hundred fighting men, whom he led toward Beauvais to
meet the enemy. He came up with them, unexpectedly, near to Gournay,
and commenced a sharp conflict, in which so little resistance was
made by the French that they were soon put to the rout, and Poton de
Saintrailles, sir Louis de Vaucourt, and about sixty combatants, were
made prisoners. The rest, with the exception of eight or ten who were
slain, made their escape with the marshal to Beauvais.

The English pursued them to the walls of that town, when the earl of
Warwick, assembling his men, returned to Gournay, happy at his good
success; and thence he went to the duke of Bedford in Rouen, by whom he
was joyfully congratulated on his victory.



On the 20th day of June in this year, a combat took place in the
town of Arras, and in the presence of the duke of Burgundy, between
Maillotin de Bours, appellant, and sir Hector de Flavy, defendant.
Maillotin had charged sir Hector, before the duke of Burgundy, with
having said, that he was desirous of becoming the duke's enemy, and of
turning to the party of king Charles; and also, that he had required
of him to accompany him in his flight, and to seize Guy Guillebaut,
the duke's treasurer, or some other wealthy prisoner, to pay for their

The duke, on this charge, had ordered Maillotin to arrest sir Hector,
and bring him prisoner to Arras, which he did in the following manner.
Having received this order, he went, accompanied by a competent number
of men, to a village near Corbie called Bonnay, and thence sent to sir
Hector to come to him. Sir Hector, not knowing that any accusations
had been made against him, came thither with a very few attendants,
for Maillotin had pretended that he wanted only to speak with him; but
no sooner did he appear than he laid hands on him, and carried him
prisoner to Arras, where he remained in confinement a considerable
time. However, by the exertions of his friends, he was conducted to the
presence of the duke in Hesdin,--when he ably defended himself against
the charges brought against him, and declared that it was Maillotin
himself who made the proposals that he had mentioned. Words at last
ran so high that Maillotin threw down his glove, which sir Hector, by
leave of the prince, took up. The 20th day of June was fixed on for the
combat, and there might be forty days before its arrival. Sufficient
pledges were mutually given for their due appearance in person on the
appointed day.

The duke of Burgundy came from his palace in Arras about ten o'clock
of the 20th of June, grandly attended by his nobles and chivalry, to
the seat which had been prepared for him in the centre of the lists, in
the great market-square, the usual place for tournaments. The counts
de St Pol, de Ligny, and others of rank, entered the seat with the
duke. Two handsome tents were pitched at each end of the lists, and
without them were two great chairs of wood for the champions to repose
in. That of Maillotin, as appellant, was on the right hand of the
duke, and sir Hector's on the left. Sir Hector's tent was very richly
ornamented with sixteen emblazoned quarterings of his arms, and of
those of his ancestors, on each side. There was also a representation
of a sepulchre, because sir Hector had been made a knight at the holy
sepulchre of Jerusalem.

Shortly afterward, Maillotin was summoned by the king at arms to appear
in person and fulfil his engagements. About eleven o'clock, he left
his mansion, accompanied by the lord de Chargny, the lord de Humieres,
sir Peter Quierel lord de Ramencourt, and many other gentlemen, his
relations and friends. He was mounted on a horse covered with the
emblazonments of his arms, having on plain armour, his helmet on and
his vizor closed, holding in one hand his lance and in the other one
of his two swords; for he was provided with two, and a large dagger
hanging by his side. His horse was led by the bridle by two knights
on foot; and on his arrival at the barriers, he made the usual oaths
in the hands of sir James de Brimeu, who had been appointed for the
purpose. This done, the barriers were thrown open, and he entered with
his companions on foot, who then presented themselves before the duke
of Burgundy. After this, he rode to his chair, where he dismounted,
and entered his pavilion to repose himself and wait his adversary.
The lord de Chargny, who was his manager to instruct him how to act,
entered the tent with him, as did a few of his confidential friends.

Artois, king at arms, now summoned sir Hector de Flavy in the same
manner as he had done the other; and within a quarter of an hour sir
Hector left his house and came to the barriers on horseback, fully
armed like his opponent, grandly accompanied by gentlemen, among whom
were the two sons of the count de St Pol, Louis and Thibault, who led
sir Hector's horse by the bridle. The other lords followed behind on
foot, namely, the lord d'Antoing, the vidame of Amiens, John de Flavy,
brother to sir Hector, Hugh de Launoy, the lord de Chargny, the lord de
Saveuses, sir John de Fosseux, the lord de Crevecoeur, and many more
nobles and esquires of rank. On sir Hector's arrival at the barriers,
he took the oath, and then presented himself to the duke. He went to
his chair, dismounted, and entered his pavilion. Soon after, they both
advanced on foot before the duke, and swore on the evangelists that
their quarrel was good, and that they would combat fairly, and then
returned again to their pavilions.

Proclamation was now made by the king at arms for all persons, under
pain of death, to quit the lists, excepting such as had been charged
to guard them. The prince had ordered that eight persons on each side,
relations or friends of the champions, should remain within the lists
unarmed, in addition to the eight that had been before appointed to
raise them, or put an end to the combat, according to the prince's

The chairs being removed, proclamation was again made for the champions
to advance and do their duty. On hearing this, Maillotin de Bours, as
appellant, first stepped forth, and then sir Hector, each grasping
their lances handsomely. On their approach, they threw them, but
without either hitting. They then, with great signs of courage, drew
nearer, and began the combat with swords. Sir Hector, more than once,
raised the vizor of his adversary's helmet by his blows, so that his
face was plainly seen, which caused the spectators to believe sir
Hector had the best of the combat. Maillotin, however, without being
any way discouraged, soon closed it, by striking it down with the
pummel of his sword, and retreating a few paces.

The two champions shewed the utmost valour; but at this moment, before
any blood had been drawn, the duke ordered further proceedings to be
stopped, which was instantly done by those who had been commissioned
for the purpose. They were commanded to withdraw to their lodgings,
which they obeyed, by quitting the lists at opposite ends; and on
the morrow they dined at the duke's table, sir Hector sitting on his
right hand. When dinner was over, the duke ordered them, under pain
of capital punishment, to attempt nothing further against each other,
their friends or allies, and to lay aside all the malice and hatred
that was between them. In confirmation of which, he made them shake



About this time, some of king Charles's captains, namely, the lord de
Longueval, Anthony de Chabannes, Blanchefort, Alain Guion, and others,
advanced to the town of Corbie, thinking to take it by surprise. By the
activity of the abbot, the place was well defended; and it was also
succoured by John de Humieres, Enguerrand de Gribauval, with some more
gentlemen in their company, so that the French were repulsed with the
loss of many of their men. Alain Guion was so badly wounded that he was
in great peril of death. They caused, however, a very handsome suburb
toward Fouilloy to be burnt. They retreated to forage the countries on
the banks of the Somme, where they took the castles of Morcourt and
Lyon belonging to the lord de Longueval, committing also much damage to
the lands.

They soon quitted these castles, for fear of being besieged in
them, and returned to the places they had come from; but the duke of
Burgundy, on their departure, had them razed to the ground.



In this year, the lord de Barbasan, who had resided a considerable time
with the duke of Bar on the borders of Champagne, laid siege to the
Burgundians in the castle of Anglure,[1]--and he had approached so near
as to batter the walls with his cannon and other artillery. The duke
of Bedford, on hearing this, sent to their relief the earl of Arundel,
with the eldest son of the earl of Warwick, the lord de l'Isle-Adam,
the lord de Châtillon, the lord de Bonneul, and other captains, with
sixteen hundred men. After some days march, they came to Anglure,
and found that the lord de Barbasan, having had intelligence of their
motions, had retreated to a strong post, which he had also strengthened
by outworks.

Some skirmishes took place, in which from sixteen to twenty men were
killed on both sides, and the lord de l'Isle-Adam was wounded. The
English and Burgundians, seeing that they could not force the enemy to
battle without great disadvantage to themselves, withdrew the garrison,
with the lady of the castle, and set fire to it; after which, they
returned to Paris, and to the other parts whence they had come.

The lord de Barbasan had been constituted by king Charles governor
of the countries of Brie, the Laonnois and Champagne. Before he laid
siege to Anglure, he had conquered Noeville in the Laonnois, Voisines
and other places. He had remained about a month before this castle of
Anglure, having with him the lord de Conflans, sir John bastard de
Dampierre, and a great number of common people.

When the English and Burgundians were on their march to raise this
siege, in one of the many skirmishes, the French gained possession
of the outworks of the castle,--but were soon driven thence by the
English, who in consequence set the castle on fire, as has been related.


[Footnote 1: Anglure, eight leagues to the north of Troyes.]



Joan the Maid had sentence of death passed on her in the city of Rouen,
information of which was sent by the king of England to the duke of
Burgundy, a copy of whose letter now follows:

'Most dear and well beloved uncle, the very fervent love we know you
to bear, as a true Catholic, to our holy mother the church, and your
zeal for the exaltation of the faith, induces us to signify to you by
writing, that in honour of the above, an act has lately taken place
at Rouen, which will tend, as we hope, to the strengthening of the
catholic faith, and the extirpation of pestilential heresies.

'It is well known, from common report, and otherwise, that the woman,
erroneously called the Maid, has, for upward of two years, contrary to
the divine law, and to the decency becoming her sex, worn the dress
of a man, a thing abominable before God; and in this state she joined
our adversary and yours, giving him, as well as those of his party,
churchmen and nobles, to understand that she was sent as a messenger
from Heaven,--and presumptuously vaunting that she had personal and
visible communications with St Michael, and with a multitude of angels
and saints in paradise, such as St Catherine and St Margaret. By these
falsehoods, and by promising future victories, she has estranged the
minds of persons of both sexes from the truth, and induced them to the
belief of dangerous errors.

'She clothed herself in armour also, assisted by knights and esquires,
and raised a banner, on which, through excess of pride and presumption,
she demanded to bear the noble and excellent arms of France, which in
part she obtained. These she displayed at many conflicts and sieges;
and they consisted of a shield having two flower de luces or on a
field azure, with a pointed sword surmounted with a crown proper.

'In this state she took the field with large companies of men at arms
and archers, to exercise her inhuman cruelties by shedding Christian
blood, and stirring up seditions and rebellions of the common people.
She encouraged perjuries, superstitions and false doctrines, by
permitting herself to be reverenced and honoured as a holy woman, and
in various other manners that would be too long to detail, but which
have greatly scandalized all Christendom wherever they have been known.

'But divine Mercy having taken pity on a loyal people, and being no
longer willing to suffer them to remain under such vain errors and
credulities, permitted that this woman should be made prisoner by your
army when besieging Compiègne, and through your affection she was
transferred to our power.

'On this being known, she was claimed by the bishop in whose diocese
she had been taken; and as she had been guilty of the highest treason
to the Divine Majesty, we delivered her up to be tried and punished
by the usual ecclesiastical judges, not only from respect to our holy
mother the church, whose ordinances we shall ever prefer to our own,
but also for the exaltation of our faith.

'We were unwilling that the officers of our secular justice should take
cognizance of the crime, although it was perfectly lawful for us so to
do, considering the great mischiefs, murders, and detestable cruelties,
she has committed against our sovereignty, and on a loyal obedient

'The bishop having called to his aid in this matter the vicar of the
inquisitor of errors and heresies in the faith, with many able doctors
in theology and in the canon law, commenced with much solemnity and
gravity the trial of the said Joan. After these judges had for several
days interrogated her on her crimes, and had maturely considered her
confessions and answers, they sent them for the opinion of our beloved
daughter the university of Paris, when they all determined that this
Joan was superstitious, a sorceress of the devil, a blasphemer of God
and of his saints, a schismatic, and guilty of many errors against the
faith of Jesus Christ.

'To recal her to the universal faith of our holy church, to purge
her from her pernicious errors, and to save her soul from perpetual
damnation, and to induce her to return to the way of truth, she was
long and frequently charitably preached to; but that dangerous and
obstinate spirit of pride and presumption, which is alway endeavouring
to prevent the unity and safety of Christians, held the said Joan so
fast bound that no arguments nor exhortations could soften the hardness
of her heart, so that she boasted that all which she had done was
meritorious, and that it had been done by the command of God and the
aforesaid holy virgins, who had personally appeared to her. But what
was worse, she refused to acknowledge any power on earth but God and
his saints, denying the authority of our holy father the pope, and of
the general councils of the universal church militant.

'The ecclesiastical judges, witnessing her obstinacy and hardness of
heart, had her brought forth before the people, who, with the clergy,
were assembled in great numbers, when she was again preached to by
an able divine. Having been plainly warned of the doctrines of our
holy religion, and the consequences of heresies and erroneous opinions
concerning it to the welfare of mankind, she was charitably admonished
to make her peace with the church, and renounce her errors, but she
remained as obstinate as before.

'The judges, having considered her conduct, proceeded to pronounce
sentence upon her, according to the heinousness of her crimes; but
before it was read her courage seemed to fail her, and she said she was
willing to return to the church. This was heard with pleasure by the
judges, clergy and spectators, who received her kindly, hoping by this
means to preserve her soul from perdition.

'She now submitted herself to the ordinances of the church, and
publicly renounced and abjured her detestable crimes, signing with
her own hand the schedule of her recantation and abjuration. Thus was
our merciful mother the church rejoiced at the sinner doing penance,
anxious to recover the lost sheep that had wandered in the desert. Joan
was ordered to perform her penance in close confinement.

'But these good dispositions did not last long; for her presumptuous
pride seemed to have acquired greater force than before,--and she
relapsed, with the utmost obstinacy, into all those errors which
she had publicly renounced. For this cause, and that she might not
contaminate the sound members of our holy communion, she was again
publicly preached to; and, proving obstinate, she was delivered over to
the secular arm, who instantly condemned her to be burnt. Seeing her
end approach, she fully acknowledged and confessed that the spirits
which had appeared to her were often lying and wicked ones; that the
promises they had made to set her at liberty were false,--and that she
had been deceived and mocked by them.

'She was publicly led to the old market-place in Rouen, and there burnt
in the presence of the people!'

This notice of her sentence and execution was sent by the king of
England to the duke of Burgundy, that it might be published by him for
the information of his subjects, that all may henceforward be advised
not to put faith in such or similar errors as had governed the heart of
the Maid.



In this year, a general council of the holy church, which had been
moved for during the pontificate of pope Martin, was ordered by the
pope to be held in the city of Basil. Basil is a handsome city,
abounding in wealth, and seated on the banks of the Rhine; whither
came crowds from all parts to attend the council, more especially many
notable clerks from the university of Paris, and numberless ambassadors
from the emperor of Germany, different kings, princes and prelates.

Pope Eugenius, however, was desirous of deferring this council for
a year and a half, and wished to have it transferred to Bologna la
Grassa, for the accommodation of the Greeks, who he was in hopes would
attend it. The emperor, when he heard of this, wrote letters to the
pope, containing in substance as follows.

In the first place, he was unwilling that the council should be
transferred from Basil, or any way delayed on account of the Greeks;
for as much pains had been taken in vain to unite them with the holy
church, it would be better to extirpate reigning heresies.

Item, the members of the council had written to those of Prague called
Hussites to attend this council,--and he, the emperor, had likewise
written to them, and sent them passports for their coming and return.
The Hussites had shewn intentions of compliance with these requests,
for they had suffered great losses in Hungary, having been twice
defeated by the duke of Austria.

Item, as the Hussites knew that this council was chiefly held for the
abolition of their heresies, could it be expected that any sincere
conversions would take effect, without the points of the disputed
doctrines having been fully and publicly argued?

Item, should it happen that they be converted by force of reason,
as the members of the council are from various countries, they will
admonish their countrymen when returned to destroy these Hussites.

Item, because the Hussites declare their sect to be founded on the Holy
Scriptures, should the council be delayed, they will naturally conclude
that this is done through a consciousness of inability to controvert
their doctrines, and will become more hardened and obstinate in their

Item, because common report has bruited it abroad that this council was
assembled for the reformation of public manners and the state of the
church, it is to be feared that many who have loudly spoken of these
matters will say, if the council be adjourned, that it is a mockery and
farce, and will end as unprofitably to the church as those of Pisa and
of Constance.

Item, since this council has been called to appease dissentions
that have arisen between the clergy and laity in many towns of
Christendom,--and since the members have summoned the attendance
of several of the chief inhabitants of different towns in Saxony,
particularly of Magdebourg, who had expelled the bishop and his clergy
from their town, and of others who had rebelled against their bishops
because they leaned to the doctrines of the Hussites,--it is to be
feared, should the council be deferred, that they will form such strong
connexions with the Hussites that it will be no longer possible to
remedy the mischief.

Item, although several towns and princes situated amidst these heretics
have made truces with them, nevertheless the majority of them are
firmly united with the Hussites, in hopes that the council will decide
on their doctrines; but should they find it is adjourned for so long a
time as a year and a half, they will be for ever lost to the church.

Item, it was hoped that this council would employ itself in the
pacification of many kings and princes now waging war against each
other, and in taking proper measures for a secure and lasting peace.
Should it now separate, these princes would continue a cruel warfare,
and no hope remain of again assembling it for the prevention of
seditions and heresies, and thus very many things profitable to the
Christian church will be delayed, if not totally obstructed; and
greater slanders and mischiefs will arise than he was willing to write.

These arguments having been adduced in the letters from the emperor, he
thus concludes:

'We therefore require of your holiness, that you instantly write to the
president and members of the council, that they do not on any account
separate, but that they do accomplish that which they have begun, and
for which they have been assembled in the name of the Lord,--and that
you do recal and annul whatever you may have written to the contrary.
Have the goodness to consider also that the heretics are increasing
in arms, and that if you do not disband them by clerical measures,
and replace them in their primitive state, there will not be left a
possibility of doing it by any other means whatever.

'Those who have advised you to adjourn the council have not assuredly
understood the grievous evils that may result from that measure. Would
to God they were sensible of the dangerous consequences at this moment
arising from delay! Should they fear that laics would usurp power
belonging to the church, they would deceive themselves,--for this is
only a subtlety to retard the council; which measure, if carried into
effect, would indeed force the laics to act against the church.

'This can only be prevented by continuing the sittings of the council;
for then the laics will be effectually restrained, when they shall see
the clergy abstain from all considerations of personal profit. You
should also consider, that perhaps the holy council will not consent
to adjourn itself, and that in this it will be followed by the kings,
princes and common people; and your holiness, who has hitherto been
held in respect, and considered as spotless by the members of the
Christian church, will fall under suspicion, and your mandates be
disregarded. For this adjournment, without any essential cause, will
stain your innocence; and it may be said that you nourish heresies
among Christians, a perseverance in wickedness and in the sins of the
people. Disobedience may therefore be consequently expected to the
church of God; for there are some who will not scruple to publish that
you have been the cause of these evils,--and many more than you are
aware of will agree with them.

'It would be very useful and good, if your holiness would attend
the council in person; but if that cannot be, send your immediate
commands for it to continue its sittings in the manner in which it has
commenced; for there are measures before it affecting the very vitals
of Christianity that can not, and ought not, to suffer a moment's delay.

'Should your holiness require, in future, any measures to be discussed
that do not demand such haste, such as touching an union with the Greek
church, another council may be called better inclined towards it; for
should this council be now dissolved, it is to be doubted whether
another can be assembled within the eighteen months, from events that
may arise.

'Your holiness will be pleased to weigh maturely all that we have
written to you, and give directions for the continuation of this
council; and have the goodness to receive our admonitions paternally
and kindly, for it has been our conscience, and the great difficulties
into which the church of God has fallen, and also our anxiety that your
character may not be liable to the least suspicion, that have urged
us to make them. This we will more clearly demonstrate to you when we
shall be in your presence, which we hope will shortly happen.'

This remonstrance had its due effect on the holy father, who
re-established the council at Basil, which was attended by great
multitudes of ecclesiastical and secular lords, ambassadors, princes
and prelates, and common people out of number.



I have before mentioned that a serious quarrel[2] had taken place
between René duke of Bar and Anthony de Lorraine count de Vaudemont.
In consequence thereof, the duke of Bar had collected a great body of
men at arms, as well from his own duchy as from other parts of Germany,
to the amount of six thousand men. The principal leaders were the
counts de Salmes, de Salivines and de Linanges, the bishop of Metz,
sir Thibaut de Barbey, and other noble men of high rank. The duke had
also with him that gallant and renowned knight the lord de Barbasan,
by whose advice he ordered his army,--for he had great knowledge and
experience in war.

Having provided a sufficiency of artillery, provision and stores, the
duke marched his army before Vaudemont[3], the capital of that country,
which was naturally strong, and had been repaired with additional
fortifications, by the count, who had likewise well victualled and
garrisoned it, knowing that it was intended to be attacked by his

He had appointed, as governors in his absence, Gerard de Passenchault,
bailiff of the county, and Henry de Fouquencourt, who made great
exertions to put the place in a proper state of defence. They were,
however, in spite of their efforts, soon besieged on all sides, by
reason of the superior numbers of their enemies.

The besiegers also overran and destroyed by fire and sword most part of
the county of Vaudemont, which, although very vexatious to the count,
he could no way resist for the present. He garrisoned all his strong
places as well as he could, and resolved to wait on duke Philip of
Burgundy, whose party he had alway supported, and humbly request aid
from him to deliver his country from his enemies.

He found the duke in Flanders, to whom having told his distress, the
duke replied, that he would willingly lay the case before his council,
and give him a speedy answer, and the best assistance he could afford.
A short time before the count's arrival, sir Anthony de Toulongeon,
the marshal of Burgundy, and other noble persons from that country,
had come to remonstrate with the duke on the state of affairs in that
duchy, and on the devastations there done by his enemies the French and
Bourbonnois, who were daily committing murders and mischiefs by fire
and sword, having already conquered some of his towns and castles, and
intending further inroads unless they were checked.

They earnestly solicited that he would, for the salvation of the
country, send thither some of his Picard-captains, accompanied by a
certain number of men at arms, more particularly archers, of whom, they
said, they were in much need.

The duke held several councils on these two demands, and on the means
of complying with them. They caused many debates,--and his ministers
urged the necessity of non-compliance, saying that the French were on
the borders of Picardy, eager to make an inroad on Artois, and the
moment they should know that his Picards had left their country, they
might do him very great mischief. Notwithstanding all the dangers that
might ensue, it was resolved, as a matter of necessity, that a thousand
or twelve hundred combatants should be given to the marshal, who
should have the chief command, with the Picardy-captains under him; and
when they were arrived in Burgundy, they should afford the count de
Vaudemont the strongest support they could.

When this had been resolved upon, it was necessary to seek for captains
to conduct the expedition; for there were few of any rank willing to
undertake it, because it was to a distant country, where the enemy was
in great force,--and they did not expect to be well paid, according to
the custom in those parts. However, the duke of Burgundy, the count of
Vaudemont, and others of weight in Picardy, determined to accept of
such as they could find willing to go; and they sounded Matthieu de
Humieres, Robinet de Huchechien, the bastard de Fosseux, the bastard
de Neufville, Gerard bastard de Brimeu, and some other gentlemen and
men at arms of the middle ranks, who had no great properties in their
own country, to know if they were inclined to assemble men at arms,
and to follow their leader whither he pleased to seek adventures. Some
presents and greater promises being added to this proposal, they
agreed to accept of the offers.

They collected, therefore, about the beginning of May, as many men
at arms as they could, in various parts, to the amount of a thousand
or twelve hundred, and had the duke of Burgundy's commands to keep
them on foot for a certain time: the most of them were poor soldiers,
accustomed to support themselves by living on their neighbours, when
they could not find wherewithal in their own countries, but strong,
healthy and vigorous, and accustomed to war.

When they were assembled in companies, they marched for the Cambresis,
and were mustered in a large village called Solames, belonging to the
abbot of St Denis in France. They thence advanced under the command of
the marshal, and other burgundian lords, to Rethel, where they received
a proportion of their pay, and thence returned through St Menehould
to Burgundy, where they remained some little time, waiting until the
burgundian forces were ready.

In the mean time, while these preparations were going forward,
the duke of Bar was besieging, with his numerous army, the town of
Vaudemont. He had remained before it for three complete months, and had
greatly damaged the walls by his cannon and other engines. The besieged
were in the utmost distress; but, as they had hopes of being speedily
relieved by the count, from whom they had secret messages, they bore
all with much patience. Their two governors made great exertions to
defend the place, that their lord might not reproach them with having
any way neglected their duty.


[Footnote 2: The duchy of Bar having passed to the house of Anjou,
Réné, in the year 1431, sent his bailiffs from Bar and St Michel to
receive from Anthony of Lorraine count de Vaudemont, his acknowledgment
of him as lord paramount. The duke insisted on having full obedience of
all places within the county that had been held as fiefs from the dukes
of Bar, under pain of confiscation. _Dict. de Martiniere._ This was
probably the cause of quarrel.]

[Footnote 3: Vaudemont,--a small town in Lorraine. It had been the
capital of the county, but had given up that honour to the little town
of Vezelize.]



When the marshal of Burgundy had assembled all his men, he marched
them toward Langres; and thence the Burgundians and Picards advanced
toward the Barrois, where they were joined by the count de Vaudemont
with all the forces he could collect. When united, they might amount
to about four thousand combatants; and their chief captains were the
said Anthony de Toulongeon marshal of Burgundy, the count de Vaudemont,
the lord d'Antoing, Gerard de Marigny, the count de Fribourg, the lord
de Mirabeau, the lord de Sez, the lord de Roland, sir Imbert Marechal,
a Savoyard, the bastard du Vergy, Matthieu de Humieres, nephew to
the above-mentioned lord d'Antoing, sir John de Cardonne lord de
Bichancourt, Boort de Bazentin, a gallant english knight called sir
John Ladan, and sir Thomas Gergeras.

Sir John Ladan was governor of Montigny-le-Roi, and had with him six
score combatants at the least, with many notable gentlemen renowned
and expert in war. They advanced in handsome array into the Barrois,
followed by sixteen or twenty carts laden with stores and provision.

They announced their entrance into the Barrois by setting fire to
different parts of that country; and thus they advanced to a large
village called Sandacourt, within seven leagues of their adversaries,
where they arrived on a Saturday night. On the morrow, Sunday, they
expected an attack from the enemy, and, consequently, they formed
their men in order of battle, and remained in this state the most
part of that day, having their archers posted behind sharp stakes to
prevent the charge of the cavalry. As the enemy did not appear, they
retired, about vespers, to the village to refresh themselves, and
called a council to consider how they should act. It was resolved, that
since from the badness of the roads, and from the country being so
intersected with hedges, they could not, without danger, march to meet
the enemy, who were superior to them in numbers, they should return
through the Barrois to Burgundy, destroy the country they marched
through, and reinforce themselves with men and every thing necessary to
enable them to combat the enemy.

This resolution was very displeasing to the count de Vaudemont, but
he was, through necessity, forced to abide by it. The captains then
ordered all things to be packed and ready for the march on the ensuing
day, Monday, the feast of St Martin in the summer; but the duke of Bar,
having heard of their arrival, quitted the siege of Vaudemont, leaving
a sufficient body to blockade it until his return, and marched his army
to offer them battle before they were reinforced.

His strength consisted of about six thousand combatants, under some of
the highest rank in Bar, Lorraine and Germany, and advanced in handsome
array. The scouts of the marshal of Burgundy fell in with those of
the duke of Bar, attacked and conquered them; and this was the first
intelligence the marshal had of their intentions.

He gave instant notice of the coming of the enemy to his captains, who
drew up their men in good order, chiefly under the directions of the
english knight. The archers were posted in front, and on the wings,
with their stakes before them. The burgundian men at arms wanted to
remain on horseback, but the Picards and English would not suffer them;
and at last it was ordered, that every man, whatever might be his rank,
should dismount,--and all who should disobey should be put to death.
The horses and carriages were placed in the rear, in such wise as to
prevent the enemy from making any attack on that quarter.

While this was passing, the duke of Bar had advanced his army to within
half a quarter of a league of them, and thence sent his heralds and
trumpets to announce to them his approach, and to say, that if they
would wait for him, he would offer them battle. The burgundian captains
sent for answer, that they were ready to receive him, and wished for
nothing better than what he had proposed.

The heralds returned with this answer to the duke, who then advanced
to within cross-bow shot of his enemies, although the lord de Barbasan
had frequently advised him to avoid an open combat, but to force them
to retreat from his country by famine and other means. He added many
arguments in support of his advice; but the duke would not listen to
them, trusting to superiority of numbers, notwithstanding the greater
part of his men had not been accustomed nor experienced in war like to
his adversaries, the Burgundians, Picards, and English.

The duke, partly by the advice of the lord de Barbasan, drew up his
army handsomely; for he had a great desire for the combat, though he
had with him but very few archers. When this was done, many new knights
were created on his side.

Preparatory to the battle, the marshal of Burgundy and the count de
Vaudemont had two tuns of wine brought to the front of their line,
which, with bread and other victual, were delivered out to their men
in what quantity they pleased; and all who had any hatreds made peace
with each other. They had also some cannon and culverines on the two
wings and in the center of their army, and they remained for two hours
fronting each other.

While they were thus situated, a stag, as I was informed, came between
their battalions, and, stamping thrice with his feet on the ground,
paced along the burgundian line,--and then, returning, dashed through
that of the Barrois, when great shoutings were made after it.

Some new knights were now created by the Burgundians and Picards, such
as Matthieu de Humieres, Gerard de Marigny, his son, and others. The
count de Vaudemont during this ceremony rode on a small hackney along
the line, entreating the men 'to combat bravely, assuring them, on the
damnation of his soul, that his cause was good and just,--that the duke
of Bar wanted to disinherit him,--and that he had ever been strongly
attached to the party of duke John and duke Philip of Burgundy.'

The Burgundians and Picards were well pleased with this address, and
determined to remain as they were, and not advance on the enemy. On
the other hand, the duke of Bar, having finished his preparations, and
drawn up his army mostly on foot, observing that the enemy did not
move, resolved to begin the combat, and marched toward them, who still
remained in their position.

When the Barrois were advanced to within twelve or sixteen diestres[4]
of their line, they discharged the cannons and culverines before
mentioned, and set up a loud shout. This caused such an alarm among
the Barrois that they flung themselves on the ground, and were greatly
frightened. Shortly after, the battle raged on all sides, and it might
then be about eleven o'clock. The Picard-archers made excellent use of
their bows, and killed and wounded numbers with their arrows.

The violence of the combat lasted about a quarter of an hour, and the
two parties were engaged in different quarters; but at length that of
the duke began to give way, and to fly in various directions,--which
being observed by the enemy, it renewed their courage, and they made
fiercer attacks than before. The Picard-archers especially killed and
wounded an incredible number, so that the disorder and defeat very soon
became general on the side of the Barrois.

The duke of Bar was made prisoner by one named Martin Fouars, belonging
to the count de Conversan, lord d'Enghien, who had all the honour and
profit of such a prize, although some said he was not taken with his
own hand. Together with the duke were made prisoners, the bishop of
Metz, John de Rodemaque, sir Everard de Salebery, the viscount d'Arcy,
the lord of Rodemaque, sir Colard de Sausy, sir Vilin de la Tour, and
others, to the amount of more than two hundred.

There remained dead on the field of battle, and including those slain
in the pursuit, which lasted for two good leagues, from five and twenty
hundred to three thousand men. The principal among them were the counts
de Salmes and de Salme-Salmes, de Linanges, Germans,--the lord de
Barbasan, sir Thibault de Barbey, two brothers to the bishop of Metz,
George de Banastre and his two brothers, and others, to the amount
aforesaid, the greater part of whom were gentlemen.

This defeat and pursuit lasted two or three hours; and when all were
re-assembled, the burgundian lords, with the count de Vaudemont,
returned their most humble thanksgiving to their Creator for the great
victory they had obtained through his means. They did not lose more in
killed than forty men, the chief of whom was sir Gerard de Marigny.
They remained that night on the field of battle. The marshal of
Burgundy was slightly wounded in the face, and the duke of Bar above
the nose. On the morrow, they marched away for Burgundy, carrying with
them their prisoners.


[Footnote 4: Diestres. See Du Cange, Supplement, _Dextri_.]



About the end of November, in this year, the young king Henry came from
Pontoise to St Denis, with the intent of proceeding to Paris, to be
anointed and crowned king of France. He was accompanied from England
by his uncles the cardinals of Winchester and of York, the duke of
Bedford, the rich duke of York, the earls of Warwick, Salisbury and
Suffolk. He was likewise attended by many of the great lords of France,
such as sir Louis de Luxembourg bishop of Therouenne, master Peter
Cauchon, bishop of Beauvais, master John de Mailly, bishop of Noyon,
the bishops of Paris and of Evreux, sir John bastard de St Pol, sir
Guy le Bouteiller, the lord de Courcelles, sir Gilles de Clamecy, sir
James de Painel, sir John de Pressi, the lord de Passy, the bastard de
Thian, and several more.

King Henry was escorted by about two or three thousand combatants, as
well from England as from the country round St Denis, for the security
of his person. He left that town for Paris about nine o'clock in the
morning, and was met at la Chapelle, half way between Paris and Saint
Denis, by sir Simon Morier, provost of Paris, with a numerous company
of the burghers dressed in crimson-satin doublets with blue hoods, to
do him honour and respect: there were also very many of the inhabitants
dressed in scarlet.

When the provost and his company had made their obeisances, the
king was next saluted by persons on horseback representing the
nine worthies[5], armed each according to his manner. Then by the
commandant of the watch, the provost of merchants, with the officers of
the court, dressed in silk and crimson hoods.

At a small distance came master Philip de Morvillers, first president
of the parliament, in his robes of ceremony, followed by all the lords
of the parliament in flowing robes of vermilion. Then came the members
of the chamber of accounts, the directors of the finances, the masters
of requests, the secretaries, in robes of the same colour. As they
advanced, they made their reverences to the king, each according to his
rank, and to the lords who accompanied him. With regard to the common
people, they were numberless.

When the king arrived at the entrance of the gate of St Denis, the arms
of the town were on so large a scale that in the body of them were
inclosed six men, one to represent a bishop, another the university,
and a third the burghers: the others personated sergeants. The king was
presented, on his passing the gate, with three crimson hearts: in one
were two doves; in another, small birds, which were let fly over the
king's head; and in the third, violets and other flowers, which were
thrown over the lords who accompanied him.

The provost of merchants and the sheriffs now brought a handsome
azure-coloured canopy besprinkled with flowers de luce, which they
bore over the king's head as he passed through the streets. When he
approached the little bridge of St Denis, a pageant of three savages
and a woman continued fighting, in a sort of forest that had been
formed there, until he had passed. Underneath the scaffold was a
fountain of Hippocras, with three mermaids swimming round it, and which
ran perpetually for all who chose to drink thereat. On advancing to
the second gate of the street of St Denis, there were pageants that
represented in dumb show the nativity of the holy Virgin, her marriage,
the adoration of the three kings, the massacre of the innocents, and a
good man sowing his corn, which characters were specially well acted.
Over the gate was performed the legendary history of St Denis, which
was much admired by the English.

In front of the church des Innocents was formed a sort of forest in
the street, in which was a living stag: when the king came near, the
stag was hunted by dogs and huntsmen,--and, after a long chace, it took
refuge near the feet of the king's horse, when his majesty saved its

At the entrance of the gate of the Châtelet was another scaffold, on
which was a representation of king Henry clothed in a robe of flower
de luces, and having two crowns on his head. On his right hand were
figures to personate the duke of Burgundy and the count de Nevers
presenting him with the shield of France: on his left, were his uncle
the duke of Bedford, the earls of Warwick and Salisbury presenting him
with the shield of England. Each person was dressed in his own proper
tabard of arms.

The king thence went to the palace, where the holy relics were
displayed to him and to his company, and was then conducted to the
hôtel des Tournelles to partake of a repast. When he had dined, he
went to visit the queen his grandmother at the hôtel de St Pol. On the
morrow, he was carried to the castle of Vincennes, where he remained
until the 15th day of December, when he returned to the palace.

On the 17th of that month, he went from the palace in great pomp, and
attended by a numerous body of nobles and ecclesiastics, to the church
of Nôtre Dame for his coronation. In the nave of the church had been
erected a scaffold eight score feet long, and of a proper height, which
was ascended from the nave, and led to the entrance of the choir.

The king was crowned by the cardinal of Winchester, who also chaunted
the mass, to the great displeasure of the bishop of Paris, who said
that that office belonged to him. At the offertory, the king made an
offering of bread and wine in the usual manner. The wine was in a
large pot of silver gilt, which was seized on by the king's officers,
to the discontent of the canons of the cathedral, who claimed it as
their perquisite; and they urged their complaints before the king and
council, who, after it had cost them much in this claim, caused it to
be returned to them.

All the other ceremonies usual at coronations were this day performed,
but more after the english than the french mode; and the lords before
named were about the person of the king, and serving him while in the
church according to their several offices.

When mass was over, the king returned to the palace, and dined at
the table of marble in the midst of the hall. On one side of him
were seated the cardinal of Winchester, master Peter Cauchon, bishop
of Beauvais, master John de Mailly, bishop of Noyon; and on the
opposite side were the earls of Stafford, Mortimer and Salisbury, as
representing the peers of France. Sir John, bastard de St Pol, was
grand master of the household; and with him, preceding the meats, were
sir Gilles de Clamecy, sir Guy le Bouteiller, and sir John de Pressy.
The lord de Courcelles was on that day grand butler, and sir James de
Painel grand pantler: an english knight, called sir Walter Hungerford,
carved before the king.

During the dinner, four pageants were introduced: the first was a
figure of our Lady, with an infant king crowned by her side; the
second, a flower de luce, surmounted with a crown of gold, and
supported by two angels; the third, a lady and peacock; the fourth, a
lady and swan. It would be tiresome was I to relate all the various
meats and wines, for they were beyond number. Many pieces of music were
played on divers instruments; and on the morrow a gallant tournament
was held at the hôtel de St Pol, where the earl of Arundel and the
bastard de St Pol won the prizes, and gained the applause of the ladies
for being the best tilters. King Henry, having made some days' stay at
Paris, departed, and went to Rouen.


[Footnote 5: _Nine worthies._ According to the Encyclopedie, vol. iv.
supplement, the _neuf-preux_ were named Joshua, Gideon, Samson, David,
Judas Macchabeus, Alexander, Julius Cæsar, Charlemagne and Godefroy de
Bouillon. For further particulars, I refer to the Encyclopedie, where
mention is made of this procession to meet Henry VI.]



Very soon after the defeat of the duke of Bar and his army, news of it
was carried to the French before Vaudemont by those who had escaped;
and it caused such an alarm among them that they instantly took to
flight in a most disorderly manner, each man imagining the enemy at his
heels, and leaving behind the artillery, stores and provision, that had
been intrusted to their guard, and which were in great abundance.

The garrison, observing the confusion and disorder in the camp of the
besiegers, concluded that the duke of Bar had been conquered, and
instantly sallying out on horseback and on foot made a great slaughter,
and took many prisoners. They gained so much that they were all

Intelligence of this defeat was spread throughout the countries of Bar
and Lorraine, and that their lord had been made prisoner, which caused
the severest grief to all attached to him. The place where this battle
had been fought was called Villeman; and from that day it bore the name
of the Battle of Villeman.

The count de Vaudemont was lavish in his thanks and praises to the
marshal of Burgundy and the other lords and gentlemen who had so
essentially aided him. He then returned to his country, and the
marshal, with his Burgundians and Picards, to Burgundy, carrying with
him the duke of Bar, whom he placed under a good guard at Dijon.



In the month of July, of this year, sir John de Luxembourg, count de
Ligny, assembled, by orders from king Henry and the duke of Burgundy,
about a thousand combatants, whom he led into the countries of
Champagne and the Rethelois, to conquer some castles held by the troops
of king Charles, which had much harrassed those parts.

Sir John was accompanied by the lord de Ternant and the Rethelois;
and his first attack was on the castle of Guetron, in which were
from sixty to four score of king Charles's men, who, perceiving the
superiority of the enemy, were so much frightened that they permitted
them to gain the lower court without offering any resistance; and,
shortly after, they opened a parley, and proposed to surrender the
place on having their lives and fortunes spared. This offer was
refused,--and they were told they must surrender at discretion. In the
end, however, it was agreed to by the governor, that from four to six
of his men should be spared by sir John.

When this agreement had been settled, and pledges given for its
performance, the governor re-entered the castle, and was careful
not to tell his companions the whole that had passed at the
conference,--giving them to understand in general, that they were to
march away in safety; but when the castle was surrendered, all within
it were made prisoners. On the morrow, by orders from sir John de
Luxembourg, they were all strangled, and hung on trees hard by, except
the four or six before mentioned,--one of their companions serving for
the executioner.

An accident befel one of them, which is worth relating. The hangman was
in such haste that the cord, as he was turned off the ladder, hitched
under his chin, and thus suspended him, while the executioner went on
to complete the sentence on others. Some of the gentlemen standing
by took compassion on him,--and one of them, with a guisarme, cut
the cord: he fell to the ground and soon recovered his senses. The
spectators then entreated sir John to have pity on him for the love
of God, and to spare his life, which request was at length complied
with,--and he went away in safety.

Sir John de Luxembourg, having executed justice on these marauders,
marched away with his army, but not before he had demolished the castle
of Guetron, to the castle of Tours en Porcien.[6] He remained before it
some days, during which the captain capitulated to deliver it up, with
the exception of the cannon, on being allowed to march off unmolested,
but without any baggage. Some, who had formerly taken the oaths to
king Henry, were hung, and the castle was razed to the ground.

Thence sir John marched to a castle called Bahin: the captain thereof
was one Barete, who soon offered to surrender, on condition that he
himself and his garrison might have their lives spared, and be allowed
to depart with their baggage, which terms were accepted.

At this time, the earl of Warwick's son joined sir John, with sir
Gilles de Clamecy and four hundred combatants, to assist him should
there be occasion; but as the French were not in sufficient force in
Champagne and those parts to resist, they returned shortly after to
Meaux in Brie, and to the other garrisons whence they had come.

Sir John reduced to obedience many other places and towns that had been
held for king Charles,--some by treaty, others by force of arms.

At this period, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, who was decorated with the
duke of Burgundy's order of the Golden Fleece, was appointed, by the
king of England and his council, marshal of France. He assembled about
six hundred fighting men, part of whom were English; and in conjunction
with the bastard de St. Pol, and one of his own brothers, he led them
to the town of Lagny sur Marne, then possessed by king Charles's party,
thinking to conquer it by surprise,--but it was too well defended by
those to whose guard it had been intrusted.


[Footnote 6: Porcien,--a principality in Champagne.]



This year, the duke d'Alençon made his uncle's chancellor of Brittany
prisoner, because he would not assist him with money according to
his pleasure, for his ransom when captured at the battle of Vermeuil
in Perche, which he looked to obtain from the chancellor. He carried
him prisoner to his town of Poussay. But in a short time, the duke of
Brittany, being much exasperated at such conduct, assembled his barons
and a large force of men at arms, whom, with some english captains,
he marched to the town of Poussay, and besieged it all round,--but
the duke d'Alençon had quitted it from fear of his enemies: he had,
however, left there his duchess, daughter to the duke of Orleans, then
a prisoner in England, who was ill in child-bed, and sorely vexed at
these matters.

The siege was carried on for some time; but at length, the duke of
Alençon, on account of the situation of the duchess, and to prevent
his town and subjects being further harrassed, made peace with his
uncle, and restored to him his chancellor and the others whom he had
made prisoners. Thus was the siege broken up. The duke had taken the
chancellor prisoner at a country-seat which he had near to Nantes,--and
his object was to get paid a certain sum of money that his uncle, the
duke of Brittany, was indebted to him.



On the 3d day of February in this year, at the solicitations of the
marshal de Bousac, the lord de Fontaines, sir John Foulquet, the lord
de Mouy, and other captains assembled a force of about six hundred
fighting men in the city of Beauvais. They marched thence to within a
league of Rouen, and posted themselves in ambush in a wood.

Thence the marshal sent off secretly a gentleman called Richarville
with a hundred or six score combatants, all on foot, except four or
five who were mounted on small horses, to the castle of Rouen, in which
the marshal had for some time kept up a correspondence with a marauder
on the part of the English named Pierre Audeboeuf, a Béarn man, who had
promised to deliver up the castle to him.

When Richarville and his detachment approached the castle, he found the
Béarnman ready to perform his promise; and they all entered, except a
few who were left to guard the horses. They instantly made themselves
masters of the greater part of the castle, and particularly the great
tower, which was well supplied with stores.

The earl of Arundel and many English were in bed in the castle, most
part of whom saved themselves as well as they could over the walls: the
others retired within the town, but not without leaving several killed
and wounded by the French.

When this was done, Richarville mounted his horse, and hastened back
with all speed to where he had left the marshal, and told him the
success of his enterprise, requiring him, at the same time, to advance
quickly to the support of his men, when, without doubt, the whole of
the castle would be won. But, to make short of the matter,--for all
that he could say, and notwithstanding the urgency of the case which
he stated to the commanders, he could not prevail on them to march,
although the marshal and the principal captains had most faithfully
promised to support him, if he should succeed in making a lodgement
within the castle: now he had succeeded, they would not fulfil their
engagements; and when within one league, as I have said, of Rouen, they
began to quarrel among themselves about the division of the plunder,
which had not as yet been won.

These disputes caused them to march back without proceeding further,
and leave part of their men in the utmost danger. Richarville seeing
this, and knowing that he had successfully done his duty, abused them
in the coarsest terms, which they very patiently suffered, and hastened
their departure.

They returned to Beauvais and the other places whence they had come, to
the great vexation of Richarville, who had flattered himself that he
should conquer the castle of Rouen. He remonstrated with several who
had friends and relatives within the town of Rouen, but in vain: they
marched away with the others to Beauvais.

While this was passing, the French were exerting themselves to drive
the English without the gates of the castle, which they had gained
possession of; but when day appeared, and they heard nothing of their
army, they began to fear they should not be supported, and that
they had been deceived in the promises made them. They were much
surprised and cast down; and, on the other hand, the English were
hourly increasing, and attacking them with great courage. They were
accompanied by many of the townsmen, for fear they might be suspected
of favouring the French.

The French, finding they were not in sufficient force to defend all
they had conquered, with one accord retired to the great tower, with
all the provision they could lay hands on, and determined to hold out
until death. They were, however, soon attacked on all sides, by the
cannon and engines the English brought against it, which damaged it
in many places. Those within were in a few days much straitened for
provision and other things, which forced them, having now no hopes of
relief, to surrender at discretion to king Henry and his council, after
having held out for twelve days.

Before they were conquered, they had done much mischief to the English
by the artillery they found within the tower, and that which they had
transported thither. They were all made prisoners, and put under a
good guard; and shortly after, one hundred and fifty were beheaded in
Rouen,--and Pierre Audeboeuf was quartered, and his body affixed at the
usual places.

About this period, the duke of Burgundy marched a thousand combatants
from his country of Artois to Burgundy, where he remained three days
to visit those parts that had been much harrassed by the enemy. While
there, he was waited on by the archbishop of Rheims and other notable
ambassadors from king Charles, to treat of a peace between them; but as
they could not conclude on terms, they returned to the king. When the
duke of Burgundy had ordered proper measures for the government of that
country he returned to Artois, Flanders and Brabant.



In the month of February, a party of king Charles's men, to the amount
of fourscore combatants, under the command of a noble knight called sir
Regnault de Verseilles, collected from Beauvais, Breteuil, and other
places, crossed the river Somme in small boats near to Pequigny, and
were thence conducted to the castle of Dommart in Ponthieu, to the
walls of which, without being perceived by the guard, they fastened
their ladders and gained an entrance.

They instantly shouted, 'The castle is won!' and began to batter down
doors and windows. This noise awakened the inhabitants, and especially
the lord, sir James de Craon, who was in bed with his wife. He suddenly
arose, thinking to put an end to it, but it was in vain; for his
enemies were too powerful, and his men, who were not very numerous,
could not collect together. He and the greater part of them were made
prisoners: the rest escaped over the walls.

The French, after having gained possession, packed up all the moveables
they could find within the castle, such as gold and silver plate,
furs, clothes, linen, and other things, which, after having refreshed
themselves, they carried away, with their prisoners, by the way they
had come, leaving the castle in the same outward state as they had
found it.

In the mean time, the inhabitants of the town of Dommart, hearing the
noise in the castle, collected together, and sent notice of what had
passed to Pequigny and to other places. It was not long, before nearly
two hundred men of all sorts were assembled, who pursued the French
with such haste, that they overtook them at the place where they had
before passed the Somme, and instantly attacked them. They were soon
defeated: part were made prisoners or killed, and the others were
drowned in attempting to cross the river. However, sir Regnault had
crossed the Somme before they came up with them, with his prisoner sir
James de Craon, and carried him, without any opposition, to Beauvais,
whence he afterward obtained his liberty by paying a large sum of money.



This year, through the intrigues of sir John de Luxembourg, the strong
castle of Beauvoisis was given to the command of sir Thomas Kiriel, an
Englishman,--which castle had been long held by the lord de Crevecoeur,
under the duke of Burgundy. The duke had consented to this appointment,
on sir Thomas giving sir John de Luxembourg a promise, under his hand
and seal, that he would yield it up whenever required.

Sir Thomas soon collected a large company of English, whom he placed
in this castle, and carried on a severe warfare against the towns on
the French frontier, such as Creil, Beauvais, Compiègne and others. In
like manner, did they act in regard to the castlewicks of Mondidier and
other places under the obedience of the duke of Burgundy.

In truth, during these tribulations, they made many prisoners, and
even carried off women, as well noble as not, whom they kept in close
confinement until they ransomed themselves. Several of them who were
with child were brought to bed in their prison. The duke of Burgundy
was very angry at such things being done to those under his obedience,
but could not obtain redress; for when he demanded the restitution of
the castle according to sir Thomas's promise and agreement, he put
off the matter with different reasons for delay, such as soldiers
readily find, who often, on certain occasions, follow their own will.
In short, after many delays, the duke of Bedford, in compliment to his
brother-in-law the duke of Burgundy, ordered sir Thomas to deliver up
the castle of Clermont to the lord d'Auffremont.



About the same time, sir Colart de Mailly, bailiff for king Henry in
the Vermandois, and sir Ferry de Mailly, resided at the castle of
Chauny sur Oise, the lawful inheritance of Charles duke of Orleans, a
prisoner in England. Sir Ferry happened to say some things not very
respectful, in regard to the townsmen, which alarmed them lest he might
introduce a stronger garrison of English into the castle by the back
gate than would be agreeable to them, and reduce them the more under
his subjection.

They, consequently, held some secret meetings of the principal
inhabitants, namely, John de Longueval, Matthew de Longueval his
brother, Pierre Piat and others, who bound themselves by a solemn oath
to gain possession of the castle, and demolish it, the first day that
sir Colart and sir Ferry de Mailly should be in the town.

Having arranged their plan, they posted some few of their accomplices
near to the gate of the castle, properly instructed how to act. When
they saw the two knights, with their attendants, quit the castle to
amuse themselves in the town, as was their usual custom, they crossed
the drawbridge, the guard having no suspicion of them, and instantly
raised it and gained possession of the place. The guard was greatly
vexed, but there was no remedy; and those in the secret within the
town, instantly on hearing what had passed, rang the alarm bell,
and, arming themselves with staves and what weapons they could find,
hastened to the castle, wherein they were instantly admitted.

Some of the principal inhabitants waited on the two knights to assure
them they needed not be under any apprehension for their persons or
property; that all their effects should be strictly restored to them,
for what they were about was for the good and security of the town. The
knights, seeing there was no alternative, replied, that since it could
not be otherwise, they would act according to their pleasure; and, much
discontented with what was passing, they retired with their friends to
a house in the town, where all their property was delivered to them.

The inhabitants, with one accord, followed up the destruction of the
castle, so that within a very few days it was demolished from top to

Shortly after, the bailiff of the Vermandois and his brother quitted
the town of Chauny,--and in their stead sir John de Luxembourg first
sent sir Hector de Flavy to govern them, and then Waleran de Moreul;
but, after what the inhabitants had done, they found them more inclined
to disobedience than before the castle was demolished.



On the 20th day of April, in this year, was won the noble city of
Chartres by the arms of king Charles. This city had followed the party
of dukes John and Philip of Burgundy since the year 1417, when she
first attached herself to duke John, and afterward to the English party.

The taking of it was owing to two of the inhabitants, named Jean
Conseil and le Petit Guillemin, who had formerly been prisoners to
the French, with whom they had resided a long time, and had been so
well treated by them that they had turned to their side. They had made
frequent journeys, with passports from the French, to Blois, Orleans,
and other places under their obedience, with different merchandise,
bringing back to Chartres other articles in exchange.

There was also within Chartres a jacobin doctor of divinity, called
Friar Jean Sarragin, of their way of thinking, who was the principal
director of their machinations, and to whom they always had recourse.
Having formed their plan, when the day arrived for its execution, the
French collected in different parts a force amounting in the whole to
four thousand men, the principal leaders of which were the lord de
Gaucourt, the bastard of Orleans, Blanchet d'Estouteville, sir Florent
de Lers, La Hire, Girard de Felins, and other chiefs of inferior rank.

They began their march toward Chartres, and, when within a quarter
of a league, they formed an ambuscade of the greater number of their
men. Others, to the amount of forty or fifty, advanced still nearer
the town; and the two men before named, who were the plotters of this
mischief, were driving carriages laden with wine and other things,
especially a great quantity of shad fish. Some expert and determined
men at arms were dressed as drivers of these carriages, having their
arms concealed under their frocks.

So soon as the gate leading to Blois was opened, these carriages
advanced to enter, led on by Jean Conseil and Petit Guillemin. The
porters at the gate, knowing them well, asked what news. They said they
knew none but what was good,--on which the porters bade them welcome.
Then, the better to deceive them, Jean Conseil took a pair of shad,
and, giving them to the porters, said, 'There's for your dinner: accept
of them with our thanks,--for we often make you and others wait for us
to shut and open the gates and barriers.'

While this conversation was passing, those disguised as carters
suddenly armed themselves and fell on the porters, killed part of them,
and gained possession of the gate. Then making the signal that had been
agreed on, the whole army that was in ambuscade quickly advanced, and
began their march into the town in handsome order, completely armed,
and with displayed banners before them.

Those of the porters who had escaped into the town gave the alarm to
the inhabitants, who instantly, and in many places, cried 'To arms!'
The burghers and commonalty immediately assembled; but unfortunately
the said jacobin friar had been preaching to them in a very popular
strain some days before; and had requested that they would hear a
sermon of his, which would greatly profit their souls if attended to;
and he had fixed on this very morning to preach it, at a remote part of
the town, the most distant from the gate where the attempt was to be

At the moment when the alarm was given, the majority of the inhabitants
were attending to the friar's sermon; but on hearing the cries, 'To
arms!' often repeated, they were greatly frightened, and hastened to
their homes as speedily as they could. Very many of them armed, and
with staves joined their bishop and their governor, who led them to
where the French were, intending to drive them out of the town; but it
was too late, for the French were much superior in numbers, well armed,
and accustomed to war. They were beside far advanced within the town
when the inhabitants met them,--and the French, the more to deceive
them, shouted out, 'Peace! peace!' as they pushed forward in handsome
array, discharging their arrows. Some shot passed on each side; but
it lasted not long, for, to complete their misfortune, William de
Villeneuve, captain of the garrison, instead of leading them to battle,
perceiving the business was so far advanced, mounted his horse, and,
with about a hundred of his men, fled in haste through the opposite
gate, and multitudes of people with him. Those who remained were soon
defeated, without offering further resistance.

The French having advanced to the market-place, and seeing none to
oppose them, held a council, and detached parties through the streets,
to discover if any of the enemy were preparing for resistance; but
every one fled before them, and saved himself as well he could.

In consequence of this attack, about sixty or four score of the
townsmen lost their lives,--the principal person of whom was master
Jean de Festigny, a native of Burgundy, the bishop. From five to
six hundred were made prisoners: the chief was master Gilles de
l'Aubespine, who governed the town for the English.

All who were taken, churchmen or burghers, were forced to pay heavy
ransoms,--and every thing that could be turned into money was seized.

In regard to rapes and other extraordinary acts, they were committed
according to military usage on a conquered town.

On the morrow, several who had been partisans of the English were
publicly beheaded; and new magistrates were appointed in the name of
the king of France, together with a very strong garrison to defend the
frontier against the English. The commander in chief within the town,
and of this force, was the bastard of Orleans.



At this time, our holy father the pope sent to France the cardinal of
Santa Croce to appease the quarrel between the king of France on the
one part, and Henry king of England and the duke of Burgundy on the
other. The cardinal made great exertions to procure a peace, but in
vain: however, he did succeed by his diligence in establishing a truce
between the king of France and the duke of Burgundy for six years,--and
they mutually exchanged assurances of this truce under their hands and
seals, drawn up in the strongest manner.

The people fondly hoped that this truce would be lasting, and in
consequence returned to their agricultural labours, restocking their
farms with cattle and other things: but their joy did not long
continue, for within the first half year, so bitter were the parties
against each other, the war recommenced with greater fury than before.

The principal reason for this renewal of war was owing to the French
seizing some of the burgundian party with the English; and in like
manner, some poor adventurers among the Burgundians having joined the
English, and wearing a red cross, made war on the French,--so that by
these means the truce was broken. Justice was no where attended to, and
numberless plunderings were daily practised against the lower orders
of the people and the clergy; for notwithstanding they paid very large
sums to the leaders of the two parties, according to the country they
lived in, to enjoy security, and had received from them sealed papers
as assurances of not being disturbed, no attention was paid to them,
and thus they had none other resource than to offer up their prayers to
God for vengeance on their oppressors.



During the month of March of this year, the duke of Bedford, in
conjunction with the council of king Henry then at Paris, ordered a
body of men at arms to march and subject to the king's obedience some
castles held by the French on the borders of the Isle of France, such
as Mongay, Gournay, and others. They were also commanded to destroy the
bridge of Lagny sur Marne.

The chief commanders of this force were the earl of Arundel, the
eldest son of the earl of Warwick, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, marshal of
France to king Henry, sir John bastard de St Pol, sir Galois d'Aunay
lord d'Orville, and others. When they left Paris, they were about
twelve hundred fighting men, having with them abundance of carts and
carriages, with cannon and other artillery. In a few days, they came
before the above mentioned castles, which were soon constrained to
submit. Some of the garrisons marched away in safety, and with part
of their baggage; while others remained at the discretion of the
English,--many of whom were executed, and others ransomed.

After these surrenders, the English took the road toward Lagny sur
Marne; and on their arrival before it, the earl of Arundel had a large
bombard pointed against the arch of the drawbridge leading to the town,
which broke it down at the first discharge, so that all communication
with the bulwark at the opposite end of the bridge was cut off.

The earl now made a fierce attack on this bulwark, and won it,
notwithstanding the few within defended it with much courage and
obstinacy. John of Luxembourg, one of the bastards of St Pol, was
killed at this attack, and others wounded. The English broke down the
bridge in many places, and, having set the bulwark on fire, retired to
their quarters.

The English having determined to make an attempt, within a few days,
on the town of Lagny on different parts at the same time, the earl
of Arundel remained with a certain number of men for that purpose.
When the day arrived, and as the marshal and the other captains were
marching to the assault, sir John de Luxembourg bastard of St Pol, who
bore for his device, and on his banner, a brilliant sun, said aloud,
in the hearing of many, that he made a vow to God, that if the sun
entered the town, he would do the same,--which expression was diversely
construed by those who heard it.

They advanced gallantly to storm the place; but by the vigilance and
intrepidity of Huçon Queue, a Scotsman, sir John Foucault, and the
other captains in the town, they were boldly received, and very many
of the assailants were killed or severely wounded. They lost also four
or five of their banners and pennons, which were, by force of arms,
drawn into the town by their two ends: one was the banner of the lord
de l'Isle-Adam, and another, having the sun on it, that of the bastard
de St Pol, who had vowed to enter the place if the sun did. They were
forced to retreat to their quarters with shame and disgrace.

At the end of three days, the greater part of the men disbanded without
leave of their captains,--saying that they were losing their time by a
longer stay, for that they ran a greater risk of loss than gain,--and
returned to the duke of Bedford at Paris. These English and Burgundians
had been eight days before Lagny, battering the walls with their
artillery, before they made this attack.



In these days, Philibert de Vaudray and the lord d'Amont left Burgundy
with about five hundred men at arms, by command of their lord the duke
of Burgundy, to aid his brother-in-law the duke of Bedford. They took
the road through Champagne to gain Picardy; but the French, hearing
of their intentions, had assembled from seven to eight hundred
combatants, on their line of march, to combat and to conquer them. They
were commanded by Yvon de Puys, the bastard de Dampierre, the borgne
de Remon, and some others, who drew themselves up in battle-array on
the approach of the Burgundians. These last immediately dismounted to
defend themselves; but when they were on the point of commencing the
engagement, the French, who for the greater part had not dismounted,
suddenly wheeled about in great confusion and fled, but not without
having some few killed and wounded.

The Burgundians now continued their route unmolested to Picardy, where
they remained for some time pillaging and devouring the country. They
thence marched to join the duke of Bedford at Paris.

About this time, the king of Cyprus, in consequence of a long illness
that had succeeded to his imprisonment by the Saracens, departed
this life, after having most devoutly received all the sacraments of
the holy church. With the unanimous consent of the estates of that
kingdom, he was succeeded by John de Lusignan, his only son by his
queen Charlotte de Bourbon, who was crowned in the cathedral church of

[A.D. 1432.]



At the beginning of this year, the duke of Bedford, styling himself
regent of France, collected about six thousand combatants from
different parts under his obedience, whom he marched against the town
of Lagny sur Marne, held by the supporters of king Charles. There might
be in that place from eight hundred to a thousand picked and well tried
men under the orders of a scots captain, called sir Ambrose Love, and
sir John de Foucault, who valiantly conducted those under their banners.

With the duke of Bedford were the lord de l'Isle-Adam, marshal,
sir John bastard de St Pol, the bastard d'Aunay, knight and lord of
Orville, Philibert de Vaudray, the lord d'Amont, and many others of
notable estate, who had long laid siege to the town, to reduce it to
the obedience of king Henry.

There were numerous pieces of artillery pointed against the gates and
walls, which they damaged in many places, and caused the greatest alarm
to those of the garrison,--for in addition, they were much straitened
for provisions. The duke of Bedford had them frequently summoned to
surrender, but they would never listen to it,--for they never lost
hopes of being relieved by their party, as in fact they afterward were.

The besieged had thrown a bridge of boats over the Marne, for their
convenience of passing and repassing, and had erected a bulwark at each
end, the command of which was intrusted to a certain number of men at

While these things were passing, the king of France assembled about
eight hundred combatants, whom he dispatched to Orleans, under the
command of the marshal de Bousac, the bastard of Orleans, the lord de
Gaucourt, Rodrique de Villandras, the lord de Saintrailles, and other
captains of renown, to throw succours into the town of Lagny.

They advanced in a body to Melun, where they crossed the Seine, and
thence, through Brie, toward Lagny, being daily joined by forces from
their adjoining garrisons. In the mean time, the duke had so hardly
pressed the garrison that they had offered to capitulate when the
French forces arrived.

The duke prepared with diligence to offer battle to the French, and
sent for reinforcements from all quarters. He ordered his heralds
at arms to signify to the French his willingness to combat them and
their allies, if they would fix on the time and place. To this they
returned no other answer than that, under the pleasure of God and of
our blessed Saviour, they would not engage in battle but when it should
be agreeable to themselves, and that they would bring their present
enterprise to a happy conclusion.

The French advanced in handsome array, in three divisions, to a small
river within a quarter of a league of the town; and the duke of
Bedford, having drawn up his army in three divisions also, marched
thither to defend the passage. When the two armies were near, several
severe skirmishes took place at different parts: especially on the
quarter where the heir of Warwick and the lord de l'Isle-Adam were
posted, a sharp attack was made by Rodrique de Villandras, the lord
de Saintrailles, and other captains, who were escorting a convoy of
provision for the town.

In spite of their adversaries, they forced a passage for part of their
convoy to the very gates, and drove in from twenty to thirty bullocks,
a number of sacks of flour, and a reinforcement to the garrison of
about four score men at arms; but this was not effected without great
effusion of blood, for very many were killed and wounded on both sides.

On the part of the French was killed the lord de Saintrailles, eldest
brother to Poton de Saintrailles. In another quarter, where sir Thomas
Kiriel, sir John bastard of St Pol, the lord d'Amont, and Philibert de
Vaudroy were posted, many gallant deeds were done, and several killed
and wounded on both sides. The English lost there a gentleman called
Odart de Remy.

These skirmishes lasted nearly till vespers,--and as it was St
Laurence's day in August, and very hot, the two armies suffered greatly
from it. The french captains, perceiving that they could not gain
any advantage, for the English and Burgundians were strongly posted,
retreated with their army to Cressy in Brie, where they halted for the
night, and thence marched to Château Thierry and to Vitry-le-François,
where they staid four days.

The duke of Bedford, knowing that the French intended entering the Isle
of France, and fearing they might conquer some of his towns, decamped
in no very orderly manner from before Lagny, for many things were left
behind by him, and advanced towards Paris. Having collected his men,
he followed the French to offer them battle again; but they sent for
answer, that they had gained what they had come for.

The lord de Gaucourt was of infinite service to the French by his
wisdom and prudence. The French now left Vitry and returned toward
Lagny, where the lord de Gaucourt remained: the other captains led
their men to the garrisons whence they had come. The besieged were
much rejoiced, and not without cause, at the departure of their
enemies,--for the siege had lasted upwards of four months, in which
time they had suffered very great hardships from want of provision and
other distresses.

At this period, the English lost the castle of Monchas in Normandy,
belonging to the count d'Eu, prisoner in England, and which they had
held for a long time. The captain of it was called Brunclay[7], but he
was at the time with the duke of Bedford at the siege of Lagny. The
French delivered all of their party confined in the prisons, and sent
in haste to offer its government to sir Regnault de Fontaines, then
at Beauvais, who immediately accepted of it, and marched thither with
about eighty combatants. By means of this castle, a sharp warfare was
carried on in Vimeu, and the adjacent parts, against all who supported
the party of king Henry and of the duke of Burgundy.


[Footnote 7: Brunclay. Q. Brownlow.]



At this season, the commonalty of Ghent rose in arms, to the amount of
fifty thousand, against their magistrates. Having assembled about ten
o'clock in the morning, they went to the square of the market-place,
and drew up in front of the hall where the magistrates were. They were
obliged instantly to speak with them, or they would have forced an
entrance through the doors and windows.

When the magistrates appeared, they immediately put to death the deacon
of small trades, called John Boëlle, one of the sheriffs, named Jean
Daniel van Zenere, with one of the counsellors called Jason Habit. The
other magistrates were in fear of their lives from the cruelties they
saw committed before their eyes; the mob, however, were contented with
what they had done.

The commonalty then marched away in a body for the abbey of Saint
Pierre, to destroy a wood that was hard by: from thence they went to St
Barron, to recover some hereditary rents they had paid the church; but
the abbot, by his prudent conduct and kind words, pacified them, and
prevented further mischief. He complied with all their requests, and
gave them abundantly to eat from the provisions of the monastery.

They went away well pleased with the abbot, and then broke into three
or four houses of the principal burghers, carrying away all they
thought proper, and destroying the rest of the furniture. They threw
open the gates of all the prisons of the duke, setting those confined
at liberty,--more especially one called George Goscath, who was a
strong partisan of theirs against the magistrates.

After they had thus acted for two days, by the interference of several
of the chief men in Ghent, they were appeased, and returned quietly to
their former occupations. During these riots, the duke's officers left
the town, fearful that the mob would put them death, as they had done
others; and the duke of Burgundy, by reason of the many weighty affairs
he had on his hands, was advised to act mercifully toward them. They
entreated forgiveness of the duke's council, who, on their paying a
fine, pardoned them, and they afterward remained peaceable.



While these things were passing at Ghent, sir John bastard de St
Pol and the lord de Humieres marched from Artois, with about sixty
combatants, to join the duke of Bedford in Paris. They went to
Mondidier and to l'Isle-Adam, thinking to proceed thence in safety to
Paris; but they were met by a detachment from the garrison of Creil,
who had received notice of their intended march, and were instantly
attacked with such vigour that, in spite of their resistance, they were
both made prisoners, with the greater part of their men, and carried to

A few saved themselves by flight; and the two knights, after some
little time, ransomed themselves by paying a large sum of money to
those who had taken them.



At this time, Blanchefort, who held the castle of Breteuil for king
Charles of France, did infinite mischief to the countries of Amiens,
Santerre and Vimeu, by fire, sword and pillaging,--insomuch that most
of the inhabitants had deserted the country, and retired within the
fortified towns; for they were by these means deprived of the power of
paying the tributes levied on them for forbearance.

This party had also repaired some of the castles in Vimeu such as
Araines, Hornoy and others, in which they posted garrisons, who much
annoyed the adjacent parts. They were likewise harassed by those of
the Burgundy-faction. The poor labourers knew not whither to fly, for
they were not defended by the lords of either party; and what added to
their distress, sir Philibert de Vaudray and the lord d'Amont, on their
return from serving the duke of Bedford, took possession of Pont de
Remy, by driving away the lord de Saveuses' men, who had the guard of

The lord de Saveuses was very indignant at this conduct, and assembled
his friends and dependants to expel them thence; but as he found they
were superior to him in numbers, he gave up the attempt,--and they
remained in the quiet possession of the post, to the great annoyance of
the country round.



In the month of September of this year, the heir of Commercy, who had
a long standing enmity against sir John de Luxembourg, as well for
his detaining from him the castle of Montague as for other matters of
quarrel between them, assembled from divers parts four or five hundred
combatants, whom he led secretly to Ligny in the Barrois, and, through
neglect of the guard, took it by scalado.

The town was instantly alarmed, and the majority of the inhabitants
precipitately withdrew into the castle, which had not been
conquered,--whence they defended themselves gallantly against the
enemy, who summoned them repeatedly to surrender. They would never
listen to the summons, but dispatched messengers in all speed to inform
sir John de Luxembourg of their distress, and to require his aid.
Sir John, on hearing this, immediately set clerks to write letters to
all his friends and relations, to press them most earnestly, from the
affection they bore him, now to hasten to the succour of his town of
Ligny. Many of the nobles and gentlemen to whom he had applied made
instant preparations to attend him, and would have joined him in great
numbers; but, in the mean time, the young lord of Commercy perceiving
he could not win the castle, and fearing the great force sir John de
Luxembourg would march against him, whose power and inclinations he
well knew, concluded with those in whom he had the greatest confidence
to return whence they had come. Having thus determined, they packed up
all the moveables they found in the town that were portable: they set
the houses on fire, to the grief and dismay of the inhabitants, and
then marched away with their prisoners to Commercy.

Intelligence of this was instantly sent to sir John de Luxembourg, who
was grieved at heart on hearing it; and as his plans were now at an
end, he sent letters to countermand the coming of his friends, and gave
up his intended expedition.



At this same period, the men of the lord de Ternant, who resided in
Rethel, dressed themselves with the red cross, to counterfeit being
English, and, on a certain day, won by stratagem the castle of la Boue,
within two leagues of Laon. They were under the command of a man at
arms called Nicholas Chevalier; and, by means of this capture, those of
Laon, and other places under the obedience of king Charles, suffered

The reason why they put on the red cross was on account of the truce
between king Charles and the duke of Burgundy, which was not then
expired. They had always been of the duke's party; and very many
mischiefs were done to the poor countrymen by English, French, and

The count de Vaudemont, at this time also, assembled three or four
hundred combatants in Picardy, whom he conducted to his town of
Vezelize: one of his captains was the bastard de Humieres: and on their
arrival, they commenced a severe warfare on the Barrois and Lorrainers,
to whom they did much mischief by fire, sword and plunder.

In the month of October, the duke and duchess of Burgundy went to
Holland, escorted by about six hundred combatants from Picardy. The
duke staid there about a month to examine the country,--and during that
time, a treaty was concluded between his counsellors and those of the
duchess of Bavaria, by which it was settled that the duke of Burgundy
should from the present enjoy all the honours, profits, and emoluments
of the countries of Hainault, Holland, Zealand and Frizeland, with
their dependancies, as his own hereditary right; but that, should the
duke die before the said duchess, all these territories were to return
to her as the legal heiress of them.

Many noble lordships and rich estates were at the same time allotted
her together with the county of Ostrevant, of which county alone she
was now to style herself countess, laying aside all the titles of the
above-named places. When these matters had been finally concluded, the
duke consented that his cousin the duchess should marry sir François de
Borselle, which had been secretly treated of between the parties. The
duke of Burgundy henceforward styled himself, in addition to his former
titles, Count of Hainault, Holland and Zealand, and lord of Frizeland.
On the conclusion of this treaty, he returned to Flanders.



In this year, friar Thomas Conette, of the order of Carmelites, whom
we have before noticed in this history, made many preachings in divers
parts of Champagne, the which had induced numbers of ladies of high
rank to lay aside their ridiculous dresses.

He thence journeyed to Rome, during the popedom of Eugenius IV. and
arrived there with the venetian ambassadors. He was lodged at Saint
Paul's, whence the pope ordered him to come before him, not with any
evil intentions toward him, but for him to preach, for he had heard
much of his renown. He refused twice to attend the holy father, under
pretence of being ill; and the third time, the pope sent his treasurer
to bring him.

Friar Thomas, seeing the treasurer enter the house, instantly leaped
out of the window to escape,--but, being directly pursued, was taken
and carried before the pope in his palace. The cardinals of Rouen and
of Navarre were charged to examine him and his doctrines, who, finding
him guilty of heresy, and of death, he was in consequence sentenced to
be publicly burnt in the city of Rome.



In these days, Anne duchess of Bedford and sister to the duke of
Burgundy lay ill, at the hôtel of the Tournelles in Paris, of a
lingering disorder, which in spite of all the care of her physicians,
of whom she had many, carried her off from this life. She was buried in
the same chapel of the Celestins where Louis, late duke of Orleans, had
been interred.

The duke of Bedford was sorely afflicted at her death; as were many of
his party; for they feared that the connexion which had been continued
by her means with her brother the duke of Burgundy would thereby be

When she died, ambassadors from the three parties, namely, king
Charles, king Henry, and the duke of Burgundy, were assembled at
Auxerre, and at Melun, to treat of a peace; but as they could not agree
upon terms, they separated and returned to their lords.



In the beginning of December, captain Blanchefort, sir Anthony de
Chabannes, the lord de Longueval, sir Carados Desquesnes, and others
of king Charles's party, assembled about eight hundred or a thousand
combatants near Breteuil, and thence marched to cross the river Somme
at Capy. They advanced during the night for Dourlens, whither they had
sent spies to learn if they could not win it by scalado: but the lord
de Humieres, having had notice of their intentions, sent in all haste
to inform the mayor and magistrates, that the French were marching to
attack their town.

Upon this, they made every preparation for a good defence, and sent a
messenger to the castle of Beauval, to make the garrison acquainted
with the above intelligence. The messenger was met just before
day-break, a quarter of a league from the town by the french scouts,
by whom he was taken and examined, and they soon learned from him his
errand. They returned to their main body, which was close in the rear,
who, hearing what the messenger had said, found their enterprise had
failed, and returned to the town of Beauquesne. When they had fully
refreshed themselves, they re-crossed the Somme, and marched back to
their garrisons with great numbers of prisoners and a rich pillage.



While all these things were passing, a Benedictine, surnamed The Little
Monk, who had been a great favourite of Pope Martin, and had much
power during his reign, attached himself, after his decease, to his
successor, pope Eugenius, and gained the same power under him as he had
enjoyed before.

Notwithstanding the favour he was in with the pope, he conceived the
design of betraying him, through the temptations of the devil, as it
may be supposed, and had connected himself with the prince of Salerno,
promising to put him in possession of the castle of St Angelo, and
even of the city of Rome. To effect this, he one day waited on the
pope to take his leave, saying, that he was going to Avignon to fix
his residence there for some time. He then requested of the governor
of the castle of St Angelo to take charge of his coffers, containing
his wealth, until his return, which the governor assented to, not
suspecting his treachery.

He ordered twelve cases to be made, capable of holding twelve men,
which were to be intrusted to the care of two men to each case. When
all things were ready, the better to succeed in his enterprise, he sent
a page, who was his own nephew, with letters to one of the prisoners
confined in the castle of St Angelo, which fortunately fell into the
hands of the governor, and thus made him acquainted with the whole
of the plot. He instantly carried them to the pope, who ordered the
monk to be delivered to the secular power, by whom he was put to the
torture, and confessed his guilt. He was then condemned to death, and
hanged on a gibbet and quartered in the principal market-place of Rome.

The prince of Salerno, having failed in his attempt, did not however
refrain from making open war on the pope within a short time after this

In these days, an adventurer called Thomelaire, provost of Laon
for king Charles, won the castle of Passavant, by means of certain
intelligence with those within it. This was very displeasing to the
duke of Burgundy, for he was afraid that it would lay open his country
to the enemy; and he had the place so strongly besieged that those
who had taken it were forced to surrender at discretion. The said
Thomelaire and some others were put to death, and the castle razed to
the ground.



In this year, a peace was concluded, through the mediation of the duke
of Burgundy, between the duke of Bar and the count de Vaudemont.

Each promised to restore to the other whatever castles or towns they
had won; and it was also agreed, that the eldest son of the count
should marry the duke's eldest daughter, who was to give her annually
six thousand francs, and a certain sum in ready money on the day of her

This treaty having been drawn up by their most able counsellors, was
signed by them, and then they mutually pardoned each other for whatever
they might have done amiss. The young lady was delivered into the hands
of the count, and all the articles of the treaty were duly observed,
to the great joy of their subjects, who now found themselves free from
all the vexations they had suffered in consequence of the late warfare
between their lords.



On the 14th of April in this year, the duchess of Burgundy was brought
to bed of a son in the town of Ghent. His godfathers were, the cardinal
of Winchester, and the counts de St Pol and de Ligny, brothers,--and
the countess de Meaux was the godmother. He was christened Josse,
although neither of the godfathers bore that name, but it had been so
ordered by the duke and duchess. They all presented very rich gifts to
the child.

This year, the duke, with the consent of the estates, renewed the
coin; and golden money was struck, called Riddes[8], of the value of
twenty-four sols in silver coin called Virelans[9]. All the old money
was called in at a fourth or fifth part of its value, and recoined. At
this time, there were great quarrels between the towns of Brussels and
Mechlin, insomuch that a severe war took place between them. In like
manner, there was much dissention among the Ghent-men, so that several
officers were banished from the town.



A treaty of peace now took place between the duke of Bar and the two
brothers, the counts de St Pol and de Ligny, who had for some time been
at war,--by which the whole country of Guise, parts of which had been
conquered by sir John de Luxembourg, count de Ligny, and which was the
hereditary inheritance of the duke of Bar, was given up to the said sir
John de Luxembourg, in perpetuity to him and his heirs.

For the greater security of the above, the duke freely gave up the
castle of Bohain, in the presence of many of his nobles and officers
of the county of Guise, whom he had ordered thither for the purpose of
witnessing it, as well as several imperial and apostolical notaries.

There were likewise some discussions relative to Joan de Bar, daughter
of sir Robert de Bar, count of Marle, and the portion of property she
was to have in the duchy of Bar, in right of her said father. There
were also some proposals for a marriage between the second son of the
count de Saint Pol and one of the youngest daughters of the duke of
Bar: but these two articles were deferred to the next time of meeting.
When this negotiation had lasted some days, and the duke had been most
honourably and grandly feasted by the two brothers in the castle of
Bohain, he departed thence, according to appearances, highly pleased
with them, and returned to his duchy.


[Footnote 8: Riddes,--of the value of five shillings.--Cotgrave.]

[Footnote 9: Virelans. Q.]



In this same year, a great discord arose between sir John and sir
Anthony du Vergy, burgundian knights, and the lord de Château-Vilain,
which ended in an open war. The lord de Château-Vilain, the more to
annoy his enemies, turned to the party of the king of France, together
with sir Legier d'Estouteville, Jean de Verpelleurs, and some other
gentlemen, who had long been his allies and wellwishers. By this
conduct they broke their oaths to the duke of Burgundy, their natural
lord, with whom the lord de Château-Vilain had been on the most
intimate terms.

This lord also returned the badge of the duke of Bedford which he
had long worn, which made the duke very indignant; and he blamed him
greatly in the presence of the person who had brought the badge, saying
that he had thus falsified the oath he had made him.

The duke of Burgundy was likewise very much displeased when it came
to his knowledge, and he sent pressing orders to all his captains in
Burgundy to exert themselves to the utmost in harrassing the lord
de Château-Vilain. In obeying these orders, the country of Burgundy
suffered much,--for the lord de Château-Vilain had many castles in
different parts of it, which he garrisoned with his friends.

By the forces of the duke, assisted by the lords du Vergy and others
of the nobles of Burgundy, he was so hardly pushed that the greater
part of his castles were conquered and demolished, namely, Graussy,
Flongy, Challancy, Villiers le Magnet, Nully, the castle of St Urban,
Blaise, Saint Vorge, Esclaron, Varville, Cussay, Romay, Vaudemont, and

The siege of Graussy lasted more than three months under the command
of Jean du Vergy, the principal in this quarrel, having with him sir
William de Baufremont, William de Vienne, sir Charles du Vergy, and
twelve hundred combatants. The lord de Château-Vilain, with the heir of
Commercy and Robert de Vaudricourt, and sixteen hundred fighting men,
marched to raise the siege, when a grand skirmish took place, but only
one man was killed.

The lord de Château-Vilain, however, finding that he could not attempt
to raise the siege without very great danger from the strength of his
enemies, retreated to the place whence he had come; and shortly after,
sir Denis de Sainct-Flour, who commanded within the castle, capitulated
to surrender the place, on the garrison being allowed to march away in
safety with their lives and baggage.

Having concluded this treaty, sir Denis went to the king of France, who
had him beheaded for several charges that had been made against him,
and also for having put his wife to death.

At this time, some captains of the duke of Burgundy took by storm and
by scalado the town of Epernai, belonging to Charles duke of Orleans,
a prisoner in England, in which every disorder was committed as in a
conquered town.



At the end of this year, a peace was concluded between the duke of
Burgundy and the Liegeois. Many meetings had been held before the two
parties could agree on terms: at last, it was settled that the Liegeois
should pay the duke one hundred and fifty thousand nobles by way of
compensation for the damages they had done to his country of Namur by
demolishing his castles, and other mischiefs. They also consented to
raze to the ground the tower of Mont-Orgueil, near to Bovines, which
they held, and which indeed had been the chief cause of the war.

They completely fulfilled all the articles of the treaty; and the
pledges for their future good conduct were John de Hingsbergh their
bishop, Jacques de Fosseux, and other nobles of the country of Liege.
For the more effectual security of this treaty, reciprocal engagements
were interchanged between the parties; and thus the Liegeois who had
been in very great alarms and fear, were much rejoiced to have peace
firmly established throughout their territories.

[A.D. 1433.]



At the commencement of this year, John duke of Bedford espoused, in
the town of Therouenne, Jacquilina, eldest daughter to Pierre de
Luxembourg count de St Pol, and niece to Louis de Luxembourg bishop of
Therouenne, chancellor of France for king Henry, and also to sir John
de Luxembourg.

This marriage had been long negociated by the bishop, who was very
eager to bring it about, and he was at that time the principal minister
and adviser of the said duke. The duke of Burgundy was not in that
country when it was solemnized,--but hearing of it on his return, he
was displeased with the count de St Pol for having thus, without his
knowledge or advice, disposed of his daughter.

The wedding-feasts were celebrated in the episcopal palace of
Therouenne; and for the joy and happiness the duke felt in this match
(for the damsel was handsome, well made and lively), and that it might
be long had in remembrance, he presented to the church of Therouenne
two magnificent bells of great value, which he had sent thither from
England at his own cost.

Some days after the feasts were over, he departed from Therouenne.



At this time, sir Louis de Vaucourt and sir Regnault de Versailles,
attached to king Charles, accompanied by about three hundred
combatants, surprised about day-break, and took by scalado the town of
St Valery in Ponthieu. The town was governed for the duke of Burgundy
by Jean de Brimeu, and great mischiefs were done there by the French
according to their custom of dealing with conquered towns.

The capture of this place alarmed the whole country round, and not
without cause; for within a few days they greatly reinforced themselves
with men at arms, and commenced a severe war on all attached to the
English or Burgundians. The most part of those in the neighbourhood
entered into an agreement for security with them, for which they paid
heavy sums of money.

At this time also, by means of Perrinet Crasset, governor of la
Charité on the Loire for king Henry, was that town and castle given up.
It was strongly situated, and had not been conquered during the whole
of the war.



Toward the end of May in this year, the dukes of Bedford and of
Burgundy went to St Omer to confer together on several public matters,
and to consider on certain angry expressions that had been used and
reported on both sides. The cardinal of England was with the duke
of Bedford, and very desirous to bring these two dukes to a right
understanding with each other. However, though these two noble princes
were come to Saint Omer for this purpose, and though it had been
settled that they were to meet at an appointed time without either
being found to wait on the other; nevertheless, the duke of Bedford
expected that the duke of Burgundy should come to him at his lodgings,
which he would not do. Many of their lords went from the one to the
other to endeavour to settle this matter of ceremony, but in vain.

At length, the cardinal waited on the duke of Burgundy, and, drawing
him aside, said in an amicable manner, 'How is this, fair nephew, that
you refuse to compliment a prince who is son and brother to a king, by
calling on him, when he has taken so much trouble to meet you in one
of your own towns, and that you will neither visit nor speak to him?'
The duke replied, that he was ready to meet him at the place appointed.
After a few more words, the cardinal returned to the duke of Bedford;
and within a short time, the two dukes departed from St Omer without
any thing further being done, but more discontented with each other
than before.



In this year, died in the town of Lille, at a very advanced age,
master John de Toisy bishop of Tournay, and president of the duke of
Burgundy's council. John de Harcourt, bishop of Amiens, was nominated
by the holy father the pope to succeed him, which much displeased the
duke of Burgundy, for he was desirous to have promoted to it one of
his counsellors, called master John Chevrot, archdeacon of the Vexin
under the church of Rouen. The duke had spoken on this subject to the
bishop of Amiens, that when it should become vacant he might not apply
for it; and it was reported, that de Harcourt had promised not to
accept thereof. However, when he had been translated to Tournay, the
duke ordered all his subjects, in Flanders and elsewhere, not to pay
him any obedience; and in addition, the whole, or greater part of the
revenues of the bishoprick were transferred to the duke, to the great
sorrow of the bishop. Hoping, nevertheless, to devise some means for a
reconcilement, he resided a long time in Tournay as a private person,
where he was obeyed, and much beloved by the burghers and inhabitants.

During this interval, the archbishoprick of Narbonne became vacant,
and, through the solicitations of the duke of Burgundy, it was given
to John de Harcourt by the pope, and the bishoprick of Tournay to the
before-mentioned Jean de Chevrot. This translation was made by the holy
father to please all parties, more especially the duke of Burgundy;
but it was very unsatisfactory to Jean de Harcourt, who refused to be
translated, saying, that the pope had only done it to deprive him of
his bishoprick of Tournay.

The duke, seeing that he would not comply, was more angered against
him and the townsmen of Tournay than before, and in consequence,
forbade his subjects to carry any provisions to Tournay, under pain
of confiscation and corporal punishment. He had it also proclaimed,
that all persons should give to his officers information where any
property lay belonging to the burghers of that town, that it might be

Very many mischiefs were done for the space of four or five years, on
account of this discord. During which time, the count d'Estampes was
sent into Tournay with a large company of knights and esquires, to take
possession of the bishoprick for Jean de Chevrot, although John de
Harcourt was in the town. It happened therefore, that when the count
d'Estampes had ordered master Stephen Vivien to take possession of the
cathedral, the greater part of the townsmen, to shew their discontent
at the proceeding, rose in rebellion, and advanced to the cathedral,
where Vivien, seated on the episcopal throne, was going through all the
ceremonies and acts that he had been ordered to do in the name of Jean
Chevrot, in taking possession of the bishoprick.

The populace no sooner witnessed what he was about than they rudely
pushed him from the throne, and tore his surplice and other parts of
his dress. Many, in their rage, would have put him to death if the
officers of justice had not laid hands on him and carried him off
as their prisoner, giving the crowd to understand that he should be
judicially punished to their satisfaction.

John de Harcourt, on whose account this riot had been raised,
restrained them as much as he could by gentle remonstrances, and
begging of them to return to their houses, for that all would end well,
and he would legally keep possession of his bishoprick. After some
little time, the commonalty retired, and the magistrates and principal
inhabitants made the best excuses they could to the count d'Estampes
for this riot,--for they were afraid they should fare the worse for it
in times to come. The count d'Estampes, finding nothing effectual could
be done, departed, and returned to the duke of Burgundy at Arras, and
told him all that had passed in Tournay. He was much vexed thereat,
and issued stricter orders than before to distress the town, so that
from this quarrel respecting the two bishops very many persons suffered
great tribulations.

Even after the peace was concluded between king Charles and the duke
of Burgundy, the king was much displeased at the conduct of the duke
respecting Tournay, and was desirous of supporting the claim of John de

John de Harcourt perceiving that the duke was obstinately bent on
having Jean de Chevrot bishop of Tournay, and that he should not be
allowed to enjoy peaceably the revenues of the bishoprick, and that
withal his lands in Hainault had been seized on and confiscated by the
duke, departed from Tournay, and went with a few attendants to the
king, who gave him a most gracious reception, and he then continued his
journey to his archbishoprick of Narbonne. Thus did Jean de Chevrot
gain the bishoprick of Tournay, who sent thither, to take possession,
a canon of Cambray, named master Robert d'Auclair. He was at this time
very courteously received there, and obeyed as his procurator.



About this time, ambassadors were sent from the three estates of the
duchy and county of Burgundy to the duke, to remonstrate with him on
the great damages the partisans of king Charles were doing to his
country by fire and sword, more especially his brother-in-law the
duke of Bourbon. They told him, that they had already taken by force
many towns and castles, and were daily making further inroads into
the country, which must be totally destroyed unless a speedy remedy
was applied. They concluded by requesting most humbly, that he would,
out of his grace, raise a sufficient body of men, and that he would
personally march to their assistance.

The duke, having heard their harangue, assembled his council, and then
determined to collect men at arms from all his dependancies in Brabant,
Flanders, Artois, Hainault and other parts. Clerks were instantly
employed to write letters to the different lords, knights and esquires,
who had usually served him in his wars, to assemble as many men at arms
and archers as they could raise, and be ready to march with him at the
beginning of the month of May, whither he might be pleased to lead
them. The captains, on receiving these orders from their prince, made
every diligence to obey them; and several soon brought their men into
the field, which harrassed much the countries of Picardy, Ponthieu,
Artois, Tournesis, Ostrevant, Cambresis, Vermandois and the adjoining
parts, for the duke had not been equally diligent in completing
his preparations, so that these men remained wasting the countries
aforesaid for upwards of a month.

At the end of May, the duke having assembled, from divers parts,
a great quantity of carriages, stores and artillery, set out from
the town of Arras on the 20th day of June, attended by many of his
captains. He was also accompanied by his duchess, who had a numerous
attendance of ladies and damsels, to the amount of more than forty; and
they were lodged in Cambray, where sir John de Luxembourg met him, and
requested that he would come to his castle of Bohain, to which the duke

On the morrow, when the duke and duchess had heard mass in the church
of our Lady at Cambray, and afterward taken some refreshment, they set
out for the castle of Bohain, where they were joyfully and honourably
received by sir John de Luxembourg, count de Ligny, and the countess
his lady. They and their attendants were plentifully and nobly served
with all sorts of provisions that were in season; and they remained
there for two days, taking their pleasures in the chace and other

In the mean time, the captains and men at arms advanced into the
Rhetelois. The duke and duchess, on leaving Bohain, went to Peronne,
and thence through Champagne, passing near to Rheims. There were with
him full six thousand combatants, as well men at arms as archers, the
principal leaders of whom were the lord de Croy, sir John de Croy his
brother, sir John de Hornes seneschal of Brabant, the lord de Crequi
and his brother, sir John bastard de St Pol, his brother Louis, the
lord de Humieres, sir Baudo de Noyelle, the lord de Crevecoeur, Robert
de Neufville, Lancelot de Dours, Harpin de Richammes, and many other
nobles, as well knights as esquires. When the duke marched through
Champagne, he formed his troops into a van guard, a main body, and a
rear guard.

Sir John de Croy commanded the first under his brother,--and he had
with him Harpin de Richammes. During the march, all the baggage was
placed between the van and main body; and the duchess, then far gone
with child, was there also, with her women, and near to the duke.

The army marched in this array before the town of Troyes, that was held
by the French, and advanced to Cappes on the line to Burgundy. Many
of the burgundian lords now joined him, to whom he gave a gracious
reception,--and having called a council of war, resolved on their
future proceedings.

It was settled that the duchess should fix her residence with her
attendants at Châtillon-sur-Seine, while the duke marched to lay siege
to Mussi-l'Evêque, in the possession of the French. Great preparations
were made, and many pieces of artillery were pointed against the gates
and walls. The garrison once intended making an obstinate defence; but
when they saw how numerous and well appointed were the duke's forces,
and found they had no hope of succour, after eight days siege, they
capitulated to surrender the place on having their lives and fortunes
spared. On the conclusion of this treaty, they marched away under the
duke's passports for St Florentin.

When the duke had appointed a new garrison, he went to the duchess at
Châtillon, and his men at arms advanced toward the county of Tonnerre.



When the duke of Burgundy had sojourned some days at Châtillon, he
ordered the duchess to go to Dijon, where she was most honourably
received, and he himself went after his army. He had Lussigines and
Passy besieged; and the first was so hard pressed that the garrison
surrendered on having their lives spared, but giving up their effects.
Those of Passy also gave hostages to surrender on the first day of
September following, unless the duke and his army should be fought
withal and beaten by his adversaries before that time.

Many other castles and forts held by the French, who were much alarmed
at the great power of the duke of Burgundy, were yielded up to him,
namely, Danlermoine, Herny, Coursaint, Scealefloug, Maligny, Saint
Phalle, Sicry, Sabelly and others, to the amount of twenty-four. After
these surrenders, the duke went to Dijon, and his captains and men
at arms were quartered over the country. Sir John de Croy was the
commander in chief at all these sieges of places that submitted to the
obedience of the duke of Burgundy.



In this year, a gentleman of Hainault was accused of treason against
the duke of Burgundy. His name was Gilles de Postelles, who had been
brought up as a dependant on the dowager-countess of Hainault, aunt to
the said duke. He was charged with having practised with divers of the
nobles of that country to put the duke to death by shooting him with an
arrow, or by some other means, while hunting in the forest, whither he
would accompany him.

For this cause, he was arrested in the mansion of the countess, at
Quesnoy, by sir Willian de Lalain bailiff of Hainault. When he had
been strictly examined and tortured, he was beheaded and quartered
in the market-place of Mons, and his quarters were sent to be placed
in the four principal towns of that country. One of his servants was
beheaded with him; but John de Vendeges, to whom he had discovered his
plot, fled the country, and afterward, by means of different excuses,
and through the interest of his friends, was pardoned by the duke. The
countess of Hainault was strongly suspected of being implicated in this
affair, but nothing was clearly proved against her.



While these things were passing, a party of king Charles's adherents
won by scalado at day-break, the town of Crespy in the Valois from
the English. The bastard de Thian was governor; and he, with part of
the garrison, and the inhabitants, were made prisoners: innumerable
mischiefs were done to the town, for the French treated it in their
usual manner to a conquered place.

On the eve of the feast of the Ascension, in this year, the commonalty
of Ghent rebelled against the duke's officers and the magistrates. But
the principal sheriff posted himself with the banner of the counts
of Flanders in the market-place well accompanied, before the rebels
had time to collect together, who, perceiving that they could not now
carry their intentions into effect, fled from the town: some of them,
however, were taken, and punished by the magistrates of Ghent.

In these days, the town of Bruyeres, in the Laonnois, was won from
king Charles by sir John de Luxembourg's men, commanded by Villemet de
Hainau, governor of Montagu. This capture caused great alarm in the
adjoining places, for they expected a strong garrison would be posted
therein to attack them; and they, consequently, reinforced themselves
as much as they could, to be enabled to resist them.



When the first day of September was come, the duke of Burgundy (having
previously sent his orders to all those who had been accustomed to
serve under him) made his appearance before Passy, according to the
terms of the capitulation.

He was there joined, by orders of king Henry, by the lord de
l'Isle-Adam, marshal of France, and sir John Talbot, with sixteen
hundred combatants. The duke received them joyfully, and made very
handsome presents to these lords and to their men. The French, however,
did not appear; and the garrison, in consequence, surrendered the place
to the duke of Burgundy, and marched away under his passports.

The duke then sent a detachment to surround Avalon, of which was
captain one called Fort Espice, having under him two hundred men
at arms, the flower of the army and renowned in war. They made an
obstinate defence.

The principal burgundian lords among the besiegers were the lord de
Charny, Philibert de Vaudray, and others,--from Picardy were sir
John bastard de St Pol, the lord de Humieres, and many noblemen, who
advanced with great courage and encamped near to the ditches. Several
engines were pointed against the gates and walls, and damaged them
greatly, breaches being made in divers parts.

The besiegers now thought to take the place by storm, and made a
vigorous attack, but were gallantly repulsed. However, the garrison,
foreseeing that they could not hold out longer, and having no hopes of
succour, they fled by night in much disorder, through a postern that
had been neglected by the enemy. Their flight was soon known, and the
Burgundians lost no time in arming and pursuing them, so that falling
courageously upon them, they took and slew many. Fort Espice and some
others saved themselves by flight. The town was now suddenly attacked,
and won without resistance. The wife of Fort Espice was made prisoner,
with many of his men and some peasants,--and every thing that was found
in the place was plundered and carried away.



In the month of July of this year, Pierre de Luxembourg, count de Saint
Pol, accompanied by lord Willoughby, an Englishman, and twelve hundred
combatants of the two nations, laid siege to the town of Saint Valery;
in which were, on the part of king Charles, sir Louis de Vaucourt,
Philip de la Tour and sir Regnault de Versailles, with a garrison of
three hundred men.

They pointed artillery against the walls and gates; and after the
siege had lasted for three weeks, the before-named knights entered
into treaty with Robert de Saveuses, who had been commissioned by the
count de St Pol for the purpose, and agreed that they would surrender
the place at a fixed day, should they not be relieved before then, on
receiving a sum of money, and liberty to depart in safety with their
prisoners and baggage. As no one appeared to their succour, they
marched away, under passports, to Beauvais.

Shortly after, sir Louis de Vaucourt and sir Regnault de Versailles
were met by one called Le Petit Roland, on the road to Senlis, who,
though of the same party, from a private quarrel, attacked them with
the men he was leading to Chantilly; and in the end he defeated and
robbed them, making sir Regnault his prisoner.

The count de St Pol, having re-garrisoned St Valery, gave the command
of it to sir Robert de Saveuses. On marching thence, he fixed his
quarters at a large village called Blangy, in the county of Eu, with
the intent to besiege the castle of Monchas, held by sir Regnault de
Fontaines for king Charles. Sir Regnault, not wishing to wait the
event of a siege, capitulated with the commissioners of the count to
surrender the place on the 15th day of next October, provided that
neither king Charles nor any of his partisans should be in sufficient
force to offer him combat on that day before the castle of Monchas,
or on the plains of Santhois near to Villiers-le-Carbonel, one league
distant from Haplaincourt. This treaty was confirmed, the 26th day
of August, by the count, and hostages given on each side for its due

On the last day of this month of August, while the count was encamped
near to Blangy, and giving his orders for besieging the castle of
Rambures, he was taken suddenly ill, and died almost instantly.

His men and all the English captains were grieved at heart for his
loss, and retired to the garrisons whence they had come. His household
had the body transported to St Pol, where it was interred in front of
the great altar of the abbey-church of Cercamps, of which his ancestors
had been the founders. His eldest son, Louis de Luxembourg, then about
fifteen years of age, took possession of all his estates and lordships,
and thenceforth was styled the Count de St Pol.



While these things were passing, king Charles resided chiefly at
the castle of Chinon, and with him was the lord de la Trimouille,
his principal adviser, but who conducted public affairs much to the
dissatisfaction of Charles d'Anjou, and many other great lords.

They also hated him from their friendship to the lord d'Amboise
viscount de Thouars, whom he had detained in prison from the time the
lord de Lessay and Anthony de Vivonne had been beheaded through his
means at Poitiers, and also because the constable, by reason of his
interference, could not regain the good graces of the king.

Having therefore formed their plan, the lord de Bueil, sir Peter
de Verseil, Pregent de Coetivy and other barons, to the number of
sixteen, entered the castle of Chinon, and went to the chamber of the
lord de la Trimouille, whom they found in bed. They made him prisoner,
and carried him away, taking from him the government of the king. He
afterward, by treaty, surrendered to them the lord d'Amboise, and
promised never to return to the king, yielding up many forts that he
held as security for keeping the said treaty.

Shortly after, the constable was restored to the good graces of his
monarch, who was well satisfied to receive him, although he was much
vexed at the conduct that had been held to the lord de la Trimouille:
nevertheless, new ministers were appointed for the management of his

At this time, Philip lord de Saveuses resided in Mondidier with a
sufficient garrison to oppose the French in Compiègne, Ressons,
Mortemer, Bretueil, and other places. These had made an excursion to
the amount of about one hundred and fifty combatants into the country
of Santhois, where they were met by the lord de Saveuses, who slew or
made prisoners the greater part: the rest saved themselves by flight.

In this year, died in his town of Avesnes, in Hainault, the count de
Penthievre, who had been deprived of the duchy of Brittany, as has
been elsewhere fully related. A great mortality took place throughout
almost all France, as well in large towns as in the country; and there
prevailed also great divisions between the nobles and gentlemen against
each other, so that neither God, his church, nor justice, were obeyed
or feared, and the poor people were grievously oppressed in various



About this period, William de Coroam, an Englishman, in company with
Villemer de Hainault, and some others of sir John de Luxembourg's
captains, with three or four hundred combatants, overthrew and
plundered near to Ivoy, between the Ardennes and Champagne, from five
to six hundred men, whom John de Beaurain, and divers captains, had
assembled in hopes of conquering them. John de Beaurain, however, and
others, saved themselves by the fleetness of their horses.

In the month of September, the castle of Haphincourt, seated on the
river Somme, two leagues distant from Peronne, was taken by a partisan
of king Charles, called Martin le Lombard, and his accomplices. Within
the castle was sir Pierre de Beausault, a noble and ancient knight,
with his lady, the mother to sir Karados de Quesnes.

The whole of the country of Vermandois was much alarmed at this
conquest, for the inhabitants feared it would open an easy entrance
for the enemy into those parts. They, however, lost no time in
sending notice of it to sir John de Luxembourg, who, in a few days,
assembled eight hundred Picards, and marched them, in company with
his nephew the young count de St Pol, sir Simon de Lalain, the lord
de Saveuses, and other noble captains, to the castle of Haphincourt,
and had his artillery instantly pointed against the walls. His attacks
were so severe on the garrison that they were forced to surrender at
discretion, when some were hanged and others strangled. As for Martin,
Jacotin and Clamas, they obtained their liberty on paying a heavy
ransom. The castle was delivered into the hands of Jean de Haphincourt,
and the knight and lady sent away. After this exploit, sir John de
Luxembourg returned with his nephew, and the other captains, to the
places whence they had come.



On the 15th day of October, the young count de St Pol, sir John de
Luxembourg, count de Ligny, with from four to five thousand combatants,
whom they had summoned from Picardy and Hainault, under the command of
sir William de Lalain, sir Simon his brother, the lord de Mailly, sir
Colart de Mailly his brother, the lord de Saveuses, Valleran de Moruel,
Guy de Roye, and others expert in arms, marched to keep the appointment
at Villiers le Carbonel, according to the capitulation signed at the
castle of Monchas in Normandy. They were also joined by twelve hundred
English, under the orders of the lord Willoughby and sir Thomas Kiriel.

Neither sir Regnault de Fontaines, governor of Monchas, nor any
others on the part of king Charles made their appearance at Villiers
le Carbonel; and thus their hostages were left in very great danger.
The two counts, however, remained all that day in battle-array on the
plain, and toward evening quartered themselves and their men in the
adjoining villages, seeing there was not a probability of an enemy
shewing himself. On the morrow, they returned, by a short march, to the
place whence they had come.

Within a few days after this, when the two counts were at Guise, news
was brought them, that the lord de Penesach, governor of Laon, had
made an excursion, with four or five hundred combatants from different
garrisons into the country of Marle, and had nearly taken Vervins, the
hereditary inheritance of Joan de Bar, sir John's daughter-in-law, and
had set fire to the suburbs of Marle.

Sir John was much troubled on receiving this intelligence, and
instantly mounted his horse, together with the count de St Pol, sir
Simon de Lalain, and those of his household. He sent in haste for
reinforcements from all his garrisons that were near, and sir Simon
ordered his men, who were quartered in a village hard by, to follow
without delay; so that he had very soon upwards of three hundred
fighting men, whom he boldly marched to meet the enemy.

He overtook them on their retreat at Disy, not far from Laon; and
although they were very superior in numbers, he no sooner saw them than
without waiting for the whole of his men to come up, he most gallantly
charged them, and did wonders by his personal courage. The French
took to flight, even under the eyes of their commander, excepting a
few, who were defeated, and the most part put to death, to the number
of eight score. The principals were, Gaillart de Lille, Anthony de
Bellegarde, de Mony, le borgne de Vy, Henry Quenof from Brabant, and
others, to the number aforestated. From sixty to eighty were made
prisoners, the greater part of whom were on the morrow hanged; among
them was one named Rousselet, provost of Laon. A gentleman of arms,
called L'Archenciel was taken in the engagement, but given up to sir
Simon de Lalain, whose life he had formerly saved at St Vincent, as has
been related.

In return, sir Simon was desirous of saving his; but he could not
succeed, for sir John de Luxembourg caused him to be put to death,
which angered greatly sir Simon, but he could not remedy himself. The
French were pursued as far as Laon, and many killed and taken. On this
day, the young count de St Pol was entered a warrior,--for his uncle
made him slay several, in which he took much delight. After the defeat,
they all returned to Guise in high spirits on account of their happy



In the month of September, of this year, La Hire, with others of king
Charles's captains, such as Anthony de Chabannes, Blanchefort, Charles
de Flavy, Regnault de Longueval, and full fifteen hundred combatants,
whom they had assembled in Beauvais, crossed the Somme at Cappy into
Artois, and made a number of peasants prisoners, who were unsuspicious
of such an inroad, and returned with them and their plunder to
Beauvais, where they were all quartered. They also made great seizures
of men and cattle in the Cambresis, by whose ransoms they acquired
large sums of money.

They again took the field, but after some little time they divided;
and Anthony de Chabannes with Blanchefort and their men went toward
Cambray, and, passing by it, they took the straight road to Haspres, as
a free fair had been held the preceding day at the town of Ivoy; and
because the townsmen would not compound according to their pleasure,
they burnt most part of the town and the church.

They then advanced to Haspres, which was full of people and
merchandize, and entered it by surprise. They made many prisoners, but
several retired with some monks into a strong tower, which was long
attacked in vain by the French. In revenge for not being able to gain
it, they plundered all they could lay hands on in the town, and then
set it on fire, by which several houses were destroyed, with the church
and abbey of St Akaire. They also committed other enormous mischiefs.

Having packed up their plunder, they departed, and, traversing the
Cambresis, took many prisoners, and burnt numbers of houses, and went
to lodge at Mont St Martin[10], where La Hire was waiting for them.
On this same day, La Hire had set fire to the town of Beaurevoir, the
mill, and a very handsome country-seat called La Mothe, situated near
to the town, and belonging to the countess de Ligny. Many detachments
scoured the country, committing numberless mischiefs without
opposition; for sir John de Luxembourg was absent with his nephew the
young count de St Pol on business relative to matters that had happened
in consequence of the death of sir Peter de Luxembourg his father.

This was the cause why the French met with no resistance on this
expedition wherever they went. From Mont St Martin they took the road
toward Laon, carrying with them multitudes of prisoners and great herds
of cattle. They halted at Cressy-sur-Serre, and thence, without any
loss, returned to Laon, where they divided their spoils, and went to
the different garrisons whence they had come.

About this period, the lords de Croy and de Humieres returned, with
about two thousand horse, from Burgundy, where they had been for a
considerable time under duke Philip, assisting him in his various
conquests from the French.

The duchess of Burgundy was delivered of a son at Dijon, who was
knighted at the font: his godfathers were Charles count de Nevers, who
gave him his own name, and the lord de Croy. He was also made a knight
of the order of the Golden Fleece, and in addition the duke his father
gave him the county of Charolois.


[Footnote 10: Mont St Martin. Q. If not Thun-St-Martin?]



At this time, the duke of Burgundy held the feast of the Golden Fleece
in the city of Dijon; and, shortly after, messengers arrived from the
duke of Savoy to request that he would come to the wedding of his son
the count of Geneva, about to marry the daughter of the king of Cyprus,
which wedding was to be celebrated in the town of Chambery in Savoy.
The duke of Burgundy complied with the request; and, having arranged
all his affairs about Candlemas, he left the duchess at Chalons in
Burgundy, with his army in that neighbourhood, and departed for Savoy,
attended by about two hundred knights and esquires.

After some days travelling, he arrived at Chambery, and was met by the
duke of Savoy and the count de Geneva, who received him with every
respect. On the day after his arrival, the wedding was celebrated, and
the feast was most plentifully served. On the right of the great table
were seated the cardinal of Cyprus, uncle to the bride, the queen of
Sicily, consort to king Louis and daughter to the duke of Savoy, and
the duke of Burgundy: in the center was the bride, and then the duke of
Bar, the count de Nevers and the heir of Cleves.

At the second table were placed the duke of Savoy, the count de
Fribourg, the marquis de Fribourg, the prince of Orange, the chancellor
of Savoy, with several noble men and ladies. At other tables were many
knights, esquires, ladies and damsels, from various countries, all most
richly dressed; and every table was abundantly and properly served
according to the rank of the guests.

This feast lasted for several days, in which the company amused
themselves with dancings, and in divers sports and pastimes. The
duke of Burgundy, after staying three days, presented the bride
with a magnificent clasp of the value of three thousand francs,--on
which occasion, he was heartily thanked by the duke of Savoy and his
son,--and, taking leave of the company, returned to Burgundy.



In the course of this year a general council was held at Basil with
great pomp. The emperor of Germany, and many great lords, as well
secular as ecclesiastic, from different countries, were present at
the opening thereof. Their first object was to send ambassadors to
endeavour to appease the quarrels between the king of France on the one
hand, and the king of England and the duke of Burgundy on the other.

During the sitting of this council, the very agreeable intelligence was
brought thither, that the men of Prague had been defeated, and from
eight to ten thousand killed, by the nobles of Bohemia, assisted by six
hundred men at arms, whom the members of the council had sent to their

Shortly after, two priests, the leaders of the Hussite-heretics, were
slain; one named Protestus du Tabouret, and the other Lupus, together
with six thousand of their sect. The rich city of Prague was conquered,
and purged of heretics, as well as the greater part of the country. The
Bohemians sent an embassy to the council to receive absolution, and a
confirmation in the catholic faith.

The council laid a tax on the clergy of one-tenth.

Ambassadors arrived at Basil in great state from the king of Castille
and the Spaniards: these were attended by full four hundred persons,
and two hundred mules. The cardinals de Santa Croce and de San Pietro
were sent by the council to Philip Maria duke of Milan, to recover the
lands of the church which he had seized, but their labour was in vain.



About this time, the town and castle of Provins in Brie was won by
scalado, from the French, by the English and Burgundians. Their
principal captains on this expedition were sir John Raillart, Mando
de Lussach, Thomas Girard, governor of Montereau-faut-Yonne, Richard
Huçon, and others, with about four hundred combatants. The leader of
the scalers was one called Grosse-tête.

The castle was gained at five o'clock in the morning, although the
governor de Gueraines, with five hundred fighting men, defended
themselves most valiantly for the space of eight hours, to the great
loss of the assailants, who had six score or more killed, and in the
number was a gallant english man at arms called Henry de Hungerford.
The town and castle were, however, conquered and pillaged, and the
greater part of the French put to death. The governor, perceiving all
hopes of success were vain, escaped with some others. The command of
the place was afterward given to the lord de la Grange.

In the beginning of the month of January, the partisans of king Charles
regained the town and castle of St Valery, under the command of Charlot
du Marests, governor of Rambures, through the negligence of the guards.
It had been intrusted to the care of Robert de Saveuses, but he was
then absent,--and there was such a mortality in the town that few
ventured to reside therein: the bastard de Fiennes, his lieutenant,
with others were made prisoners, and the whole country of Ponthieu was
in great alarm at this event. Philip de la Tour was also a principal
commander on this expedition with Charlot du Marests.

[A.D. 1434]



In the beginning of this year, Philip duke of Burgundy returned from
Burgundy to his territories of Flanders, Artois, and other parts,
escorted by about six hundred combatants. He left his duchess and young
son behind him in Burgundy, and all his castles well garrisoned with
men at arms. He carried with him John son to the count de Nevers, his
cousin-german, on his visits to the principal towns, where he sought
for succours in men and money to take back with him to Burgundy.

During this time, sir John de Luxembourg, who had posted himself on the
frontiers of the Laonnois, conquered the strong abbey of St Vincent
lez Laon from king Charles's garrison, and made prisoner a notable
gentleman called Anthony de Cramailles, whom sir John caused to be
beheaded and his body quartered at Ripelmonde. At this attack on the
abbey of St Vincent, Jarnet de Pennesach, and Eustache Vaude lost their
lives. Sir John re-garrisoned this place, which caused great fears in
the town of Laon; and to be enabled to resist any attacks from thence,
they had strong reinforcements quartered among them of well tried men
at arms.

In consequence, daily skirmishes took place between them, when many
of each party were killed or wounded; and on the side of sir John de
Luxembourg, a valiant knight, called Colart de Forges, was slain by a
shot from a bow, which passed through his leg.



When the duke of Burgundy was returned to Picardy with John, son to the
count de Nevers, the duke gave him the county of Estampes, which title
he bore for a long time after, and was likewise appointed governor of
Picardy, to take on him the charge of guarding the frontiers.

He assembled men at arms to lay siege to the castle of Moreuil[11],
in possession of the French, and was joined by the lord d'Antoing,
sir John de Croy, the vidame of Amiens, Valeran de Moreuil, the lord
de Humieres, the lord de Saveuses, the lord de Neufville, sir Baudo
de Noyelle governor of Peronne, and the governors of Mondidier and
Roye. His force consisted of one thousand combatants, whom the count
d'Estampes led to the castle of Moreuil, and quartered them before it.
Not more than one hundred fighting men were in the castle, who were,
within eight days, so hardly pressed that they were forced to surrender
the place on having their lives spared, leaving their baggage and
effects at the disposal of the count d'Estampes and his commissaries.

On the treaty being signed, the French marched away under passports
from the count, and the command of the place was given to Valeran de
Moreuil. The count d'Estampes conducted his army then to the castle
of Mortemer, near Ressons-sur-mer, which was soon surrendered, and
completely demolished. After which the count marched back with his men
to the places whence they had come.


[Footnote 11: Moreuil,--a town in Picardy, situated between Corbie and



At this period, pope Eugenius, who resided at Rome, had an inclination
to fix his abode at Florence, which, when known to the Romans, troubled
them much. They assembled in great multitudes, and went to the pope to
say that he should not depart thence, for that he could be no where
better than in Rome, the fountain of Christianity.

The pope and cardinals, perceiving the madness and obstinacy of the
people, pretended to give up their intentions of removing: nevertheless
the Romans established sufficient guards at all the gates, that they
might not depart without their knowledge. However, by means of the
beautiful queen of Sicily, who sent the pope some gallies and other
vessels, he secretly quitted Rome and went to Florence, to the great
vexation of the Romans, who instantly arrested all whom the pope
had left behind; and in the number was his nephew, the cardinal of
Venice. He afterward escaped, disguised like a monk, and thus equipped
travelled alone.



The duke of Burgundy now departed from Picardy, on his return to
Burgundy, attended by about two thousand fighting men, and sir Simon de
Lalain and Robert de Saveuses. He took his march through the Cambresis,
and thence to Cressy-sur-Serre, and to Provins.

The French were, at this time, assembled in great force at Laon, with
the intent to besiege the abbey of St Vincent, which was garrisoned,
as has been before said, by sir John de Luxembourg. Sir John sent
messengers to the duke at Vervins to inform him of his situation, and
to request that he would march back to Cressy-sur-Serre, and remain
there for three or four days, in order that the French in Laon, hearing
of his being so near, might give up their intentions of besieging him.

The duke complied with the request, and returned to Cressy; and in the
mean time a treaty was commenced between the count de Ligny and the
French in Laon, when it was agreed that the garrison should march from
St Vincent with their baggage and other effects, but that the place
should be demolished.

This being done, the duke continued his march through Champagne to
Burgundy; and while there he greatly reinforced himself with troops
from Burgundy and Picardy. He thence detached a party to besiege the
town and castle of Chaumont in the Charolois, held by the French: the
garrison was soon so hardly pressed that it surrendered at discretion
to the duke of Burgundy, who had upwards of one hundred of them hanged.
Sir John bastard de St Pol commanded the Picards in the duke's absence.
Among those who were hanged was the son of Rodrigue da Vilandras.
Those in the castle surrendered themselves to the duke, and were
treated in like manner as the townsmen.

This detachment afterward besieged Beuam, which also surrendered, but
on condition that the garrison should have free liberty to depart with
staves in their hands. Thus by laying siege to several castles and
smaller forts they reduced a great many to the obedience of the duke of



In this same year, the lord Talbot returned from England to France,
bringing with him eight hundred combatants, whom he landed at Rouen.
Marching thence toward Paris, he reconquered the fort of Jouy, situated
between Beauvais and Gisors, and hanged all the French found within
it. He continued his march to Paris, where it was determined, by
king Henry's council, that he should, in company with the lord de
l'Isle-Adam, marshal of France, sir Galois d'Aunay lord of Arville, and
the bishop of Therouenne, chancellor of France for king Henry, march
with all their troops to lay siege to the castle of Beaumont-sur-Oise,
which had been much strengthened by Amadour de Vignolles, brother to La

These three knights marched from Paris with full sixteen hundred well
tried combatants; but when they came before the castle of Beaumont they
found it deserted; for Amadour de Vignolles, having heard of their
intentions, had abandoned it, and retreated with his men and baggage to
the town of Creil.

The English, having destroyed the fortifications of Beaumont, hastened
to follow them; and having surrounded Creil on all sides, many severe
skirmishes took place, in which the besieged made a gallant defence:
but in one of them, Amadour was mortally wounded by an arrow, which
greatly disheartened his men, for they held him to be a courageous and
expert man at arms.

During this siege, the bishop of Therouenne joined the besiegers;
and at the end of six weeks, the garrison surrendered, on condition
of being allowed to depart with their baggage and effects. After the
English had re-garrisoned the town and castle of Creil, they advanced
to lay siege to the Pont de St Maixence, held by Guillon de Ferrieres,
nephew to St Trailles, who surrendered it on conditions similar to
those granted at Creil.

The English thence marched to Neufville en Esmoy and to La Rouge
Maison, and then to Crespy in Valois, which was taken by storm. There
were full thirty French within it, under the command of Pothon le
Bourguignon. They then returned to Clermont in the Beauvoisis, held by
the bourg de Vignolles, who submitted to them, and thence to Beauvais;
but perceiving they could not gain any thing further, they retreated to
Paris and to the other garrisons whence they had come.



At the same time with the foregoing expedition, the count d'Estampes,
accompanied by the lord d'Antoing, sir John de Croy, the vidame of
Amiens, and most of the lords who had been with him at Moreiul, marched
to lay siege to St Valery, where they remained about one month.

At length, Charles du Marests and Philip de la Tour, who had gained the
town by surprise, entered into a capitulation to evacuate it within
eight days, should they not before then be relieved, on receiving a
certain sum of money, and on being allowed to depart in safety with
their baggage and effects.

On the appointed day, no french forces appeared to offer combat to the
count d'Estampes; but on the contrary, Louis de Luxembourg, chancellor
of France, came thither to the support of the count, with five hundred
English, commanded by the lord Willoughby, sir Guy le Bouteiller,
and Brunclay governor of Eu. The chancellor and his companions were
joyfully received by the count d'Estampes and the other lords.

The French marched away, according to the terms of their treaty from
St Valery to Rambures, whither they were led by Charles du Marests.
On their departure, a barge arrived at the port from St Malo, laden
with wines for the French, which was instantly seized by the sailors
attached to the english party.

The chancellor and the English returned to their former quarters at Eu,
and the count d'Estampes was lodged that night in St Valery. On the
morrow, he began his retreat to Artois, having appointed John de Brimeu
governor of the town and castle, where he disbanded his forces.

From the town of Eu the chancellor marched the English to lay siege
to the castle of Monchas, which in a few days surrendered by means of
a sum of money given to sir Regnault de Fontaines, the governor. The
whole of this castle was destroyed, although it was the finest castle
in the county of Eu. During this time, the earl of Arundel resided
mostly at Mantes, and in the district of Chartres, and reconquered many
forts from the French in those parts, as well as in Perche. The duke
of Bedford was now returned from England to Rouen, and thence went to
Paris, where he resided a considerable time.



In the month of August of this year, a party of French won the town of
Hamme, which had been held by the count de Ligny's men. The townsmen
instantly surrendered on the French appearing before it, for the
garrison had abandoned the place.

The count de Richemont, constable of France, the bastard of Orleans,
La Hire, and many other captains came thither with a large body of

The countries of the Vermandois, Artois, and Cambresis were greatly
alarmed at the conquest of Hamme, which was a strong situation, and
gave them the passage of the river Somme, and also because their prince
was absent in Burgundy. However, the counts de St Pol, d'Estampes,
and de Ligny used all diligence to collect a sufficiency of troops to
oppose any further incursions of the French. A treaty was at the same
time set on foot, and the French agreed to restore the town of Hamme
to its owner, sir John de Luxembourg, on receiving the sum of forty
thousand crowns.

The reason of this treaty being made on such easy terms was the
expectation of a speedy peace being concluded between king Charles and
the duke of Burgundy, for negotiations on this subject had already
commenced. With the town of Hamme the fort of Breteuil was also
given up to the count d'Estampes, which Blanchefort had held for a
considerable time.

At this period, the duke of Burgundy caused Coulogne-les-Vigneuses to
be besieged by sir William de Rochefort and Philibert de Vaudrey, with
eight hundred combatants. They posted themselves in a block-house,--and
at the end of three months, the garrison surrendered, on having their
lives and baggage spared.



On the duke of Burgundy's return to that country, he advanced to
Grantsy, which had for some time been besieged by sir John de Vergy
and his allies. The inhabitants, seeing no hope of being succoured,
concluded a treaty to surrender it to the duke, when the castle was
not destroyed, but given to the lord de Thil, brother to the lord de

When this had been done, the duke ordered sir John de Vergy, and the
other captains as well from Burgundy as from Picardy, to advance
before the city of Langres, and summon the garrison to submit to his
obedience. This they not only refused to do but detained the herald,
called Germole, who had brought the message. The Burgundians, finding
themselves unable to take the place, returned with the army to the duke.



In these days, very heavy taxes were laid on the countries of Artois,
Vermandois, Ponthieu, Amiennois, and others adjoining, to pay the
composition-money to the constable of France, which had been agreed to
for the surrender of Hamme. The poorer ranks were sorely oppressed by
them, and began to murmur and be very much discontented with the rulers
and ministers to whom the duke of Burgundy had intrusted the government
of these countries in his absence, but it availed them nothing: for
those who refused to pay were arrested, and their effects seized
without regard to justice, until their quotas were duly paid.

During this time, the lord de Saveuses had been ordered by the count
d'Estampes to demolish the town and castle of Breteuil in Beauvoisis,
which, as has been said, was given up to him by Blanchefort, the late
governor thereof. The lord de Saveuses had brought a number of workmen
and labourers from Amiens, Corbie, and other places, who soon destroyed
the whole, excepting a strong gate of the castle that had been well
fortified, and which the lord de Saveuses filled with provisions and
artillery, leaving within it from twenty to thirty of his men, to guard
it. In like manner were demolished the tower of Vendueil, and some
other smaller forts in the country round about.



About this time the duke of Burgundy sent the greater part of his
captains, with a large body of men at arms, to overrun the country
as far as Villefranche, wherein was Charles duke of Bourbon. This
detachment was commanded by the lord de Chargny, sir Simon de Lalain,
sir Baudo de Noyelle, the lord d'Auxi, Robert de Saveuses, Lancelot
de Dours, Harpin de Richammes, and consisted of about sixteen hundred
combatants, who marched in handsome array toward the parts whither they
had been ordered.

Toward evening, on one of their marches, they fell in with about
six hundred of the enemy, who instantly fled to their lord the duke
of Bourbon; some of the worst mounted were made prisoners by the
Burgundians and Picards.

On their arrival before Villefranche, they drew up in battle-array, and
sent a pursuivant to inform the duke of Bourbon of their coming, and to
offer him battle. The duke, ignorant of their force, was not inclined
to accept their challenge,--but made answer, that since the duke of
Burgundy was not present on the field, he would not fight them. He
dispatched, however, many on horseback and on foot, from his town, to
skirmish with them. The duke himself even made a sally, mounted on his
excellent war horse, but without arms, and dressed in a long robe, with
a wand in his hand, to make his men keep up a steady countenance at the
barriers; during which a considerable skirmish took place, but without
any great losses on either side.

After the Burgundians and Picards had remained four hours in battle
array, seeing that no advantages were to be gained, they retreated
in good order, posting their most expert men in their rear by way of
guard, and thus returned to their lord the duke of Burgundy.

The duke ordered them afterward to lay siege to Belleville,--in
which place the duke of Bourbon had put sir James de Chabannes and
the bailiff of Beauvais, with three hundred men, who made instant
preparations for defence. Nevertheless, the besiegers so pressed them
with their engines and continued attacks that, at the end of a month,
they surrendered, on having their lives spared, and marched off without
arms and baggage, on foot and with staves in their hands, to their lord
the duke of Bourbon. He was much mortified to receive them in that
condition, but he could not amend it.

The duke of Burgundy placed several of his Picardy captains as a
garrison in that town, whence they committed innumerable mischiefs
all over that part of the Bourbonnois. On the other hand, the duke of
Burgundy sent a detachment from his army in Burgundy to Dombes, and
to the neighbourhood of Lyon on the Rhône, who took many castles, and
wasted the country with fire and sword, carrying back with them a very
large booty in plunder. The leaders of this last expedition were, the
count de Fribourg, the bastard de St Pol, the lord de Vaurin, and some



In this same year of 1434, the lord Willoughby, accompanied by
Mathagon and some other captains, and from eight hundred to a thousand
combatants, laid siege to a very strong place in the country of Maine
called St Severin, about two leagues distant from Alençon, which was
held by the French. The governor was a gallant knight, named sir
Anthony de Loreuil, who, on the arrival of the enemy, made a vigorous
defence: nevertheless, the English surrounded the place on all sides,
and remained there about six weeks.

While this was going forward, the lord de Bueil, sir William Blesset,
the lord de la Varenne, and other French captains, assembled about
fourteen hundred fighting men, with the intent to force the enemy to
raise their siege. They remained for some days at Beaumont le Vicomte,
where part of them were quartered, and the remainder at Vivien, four
leagues distant from St Severin. While at Beaumont, they called a
council of all the chief captains, to consider how they should act;
when, after much noise and debating, they considered themselves not
strong enough to fight the English in their present situation, and
determined to attempt withdrawing the besieged the back way out of the

The captains now returned to their different quarters, and established
good guards around them during the night, both of horse and foot. The
lord de Bueil was, on this expedition, lieutenant for the lord Charles
d'Anjou, and had the charge of his banner.

This same night, a detachment of the English, having had intelligence
of the advance of the French, took the field, and marched in silence
until they came near to the town of Vivien, whither they sent scouts to
reconnoitre the state of the French, who, having twice entered Vivien,
brought word they were in tolerable good order. The English then made
an attack on their quarters about day-break, and easily defeated them
without much loss. Many were taken and killed: among the last was a
valiant man from Amiens, but originally from Auvergne, called John de

When the business was over, the English took the field with their
prisoners; but the lords de Bueil and de la Varenne, who were in
Beaumont, hearing of this discomfiture from the runaways, made instant
preparations to pursue the English, who no sooner saw them than they
rejoiced, thinking to defeat them as they had done the others,--and
each party met gallantly. Many valorous acts were done on both sides;
but, in the end, the English lost the day, partly from the prisoners
whom they had taken at Vivien joining the French. A valiant knight
named Arthur, was slain, and Mathagon made prisoner,--but the bastard
of Salisbury fled. Four hundred, or more, of the English were killed or
taken, and the French left masters of the field, very joyful for their
victory. When the English who had remained at the siege of St Severin
heard of the ill success of their companions, they raised the siege,
and retreated to the garrisons whence they had come.



During these tribulations, La Hire, accompanied by Anthony de
Chabannes, the bourg de Vignolles his brother, and about two hundred
combatants, passed one day near to the castle of Clermont in the
Beauvoisis, of which the lord d'Auffemont was governor. He was no way
alarmed at their appearance; and, as a mark of his good will, ordered
wine to be drawn, and carried without the postern of the great tower,
for them to drink.

The lord d'Auffemont came also out of the castle, with only three
or four of his attendants, to converse with them, and showed great
courtesy to La Hire and his companions, not having the smallest
distrust of their treacherous intentions, which they very soon made
apparent; for during the conversation, La Hire laid hands on him, and
forced him to surrender the castle, putting him withal in irons and in
confinement. In this state, he kept him upwards of a month, insomuch
that his limbs were greatly bruised and benumbed, and he was covered
with lice and all sorts of vermin.

At length, he obtained his liberty, and paid for his ransom fourteen
thousand saluts d'or, and a horse of the value of twenty tons of wine,
notwithstanding king Charles wrote several times to La Hire to set him
at liberty without ransom, for that he was well satisfied with his
services,--but it was all in vain.



In this year, the common people in Normandy, especially those in the
country of Caux, rebelled against the English. There were upward
of two thousand in one company, who had risen in their own defence,
because, contrary to the royal edicts, the English had plundered the
poorer ranks. The bailiff and other officers in that country had before
advised them (each according to his state) to provide themselves with
arms and staves, to enable them to oppose all who should attempt to
pillage or oppress them by seizing their effects by force.

In obedience to these commands, the peasants had risen and driven
back many parties of marauders to their garrisons, having killed and
taken captive several, to the great displeasure of their captains.
They, however, did not let this appear, but concluded a treaty with
the peasants, who foolishly began their retreat in a very disorderly
manner, not suspecting the malice of the English, who secretly followed
them to St Pierre sur Dive, near to Tancarville, when they attacked
them, and slew from a thousand to twelve hundred: the rest saved
themselves as well as they could in the woods, and by flight.

Great complaints were made of this conduct at Rouen, and many were
banished that had been of this enterprise: but shortly after, it was
hushed up, on account of more serious matters that fell out in that



When La Hire had conquered the castle of Clermont, as has been related,
he assembled about five hundred combatants from the garrisons in the
Beauvoisis, and marched them to the castle of Breteuil, which was in
the possession of Saveuses' men. He made a sharp attack on it,--but it
was well defended, and several of the assailants were killed.

The garrison, however, from the repeated attacks, finding they had
lost many men in killed and wounded, and that the fortifications were
much damaged, surrendered to La Hire at discretion. He had some of
them hanged, and sent the rest prisoners to Clermont,--and, having
re-garrisoned the place, committed numberless mischiefs throughout the
adjacent parts in Santerre, and toward Amiens, Corbie, Mondidier, and



A murderous war having been continued for a long time between the
duke of Burgundy and his brother-in-law, the duke of Bourbon, secret
negotiations were set on foot, in the hope of pacifying them. They
were begun by commissioners from each side meeting in the town of
Mâcon, where they remained several days. At the commencement, some
difficulties arose respecting the precedency of these two dukes, and
which should have the honour of being named first. After some dispute,
it was settled that the duke of Burgundy should be first named, and
take the precedency of the duke of Bourbon in every instance.

When this matter had been determined, they then discussed various
proposals for bringing about a peace between them, and appointed
another meeting, when the two dukes might have an interview, either at
Douzy[12] or in the city of Nevers, in the ensuing month of January.

This being settled, the commissioners separated, and returned to their
respective lords. While these negotiations were passing, the duke of
Burgundy celebrated the festivals of Christmas and Twelfth-day, in his
town of Dijon, in a most magnificent manner; and when the feasts were
over, he departed thence grandly attended by the count de Nevers, the
marquis de Rothelin, his nephew of Cleves, with many other knights and
esquires of note, and a numerous body of men at arms. He journeyed
to Douzy, and thence to Nevers, where he was lodged at the bishop's
palace, and waited some days for the arrival of the duke of Bourbon and
his sister the duchess.

At length the duchess came, accompanied by her two sons and a brilliant
attendance of knights, esquires, ladies and damsels. The duke of
Burgundy went out of the palace to meet her, and received her with much
affection and joy, for he had not seen his sister for a long time, and
showed the same love to his nephews, although they were very young. The
duchess, on quitting her carriage, was handed by the duke as far as
her lodgings, where he took his leave, and left her to repose for the
night. On the morrow, the duchess waited on her brother at the palace:
she was received most kindly, and partook of a variety of amusements.
There was much dancing, and a numerous party of masqueraders on the
part of the duke of Burgundy: when wines and spiced had been brought,
the company retired to their lodgings.

On the next day a council was held, when it was determined that Arthur
of Brittany, constable of France, and the archbishop of Rheims, should
be sent for. Within a few days, the duke of Bourbon arrived at Nevers,
attended by sir Christopher de Harcourt, the lord de la Fayette marshal
of France, and many other knights and esquires of renown. The duke
of Burgundy sent out the lords of his household to meet him; and when
he was approaching the duke of Burgundy, without the town, he pressed
forward,--and the two dukes, on their meeting, shewed the greatest
respect and brotherly affection to each other.

A knight of Burgundy, observing this, said aloud, 'We are very foolish
to risk our bodies and souls at the will of princes and great lords,
who, when they please, make up their quarrels, while we oftentimes
remain poor and in distress.' This speech was noticed by many on each
side, for there was much truth in it,--and thus it very frequently

After this meeting, the duke of Burgundy escorted his brother-in-law
to his lodgings, and then went to his own. Shortly after, the duke
and duchess of Bourbon visited the duke of Burgundy, when there were
again great feastings and pastimes. On the morrow, the two dukes and
the duchess heard mass in an oratory; and after dinner a grand council
was held at the lodgings of the count de Nevers, when a peace was
finally concluded between these two dukes on terms that were mutually
agreeable; and the utmost satisfaction was now shown on all sides by
the principals and their friends and dependants.

The whole of the expense of these feasts, or at least the greater
part, was defrayed by the duke of Burgundy, for he would have it so.
As soon as this business was concluded, the constable of France (who
had married a sister to the duke of Burgundy) and Regnault de Chartres,
archbishop and duke of Rheims, chancellor of France, accompanied by
some of the principal members of king Charles's council, and numbers of
knights and esquires, arrived at Nevers.

The two dukes went out to meet them; and the greatest respects having
been paid on each side, they all together returned to the town, where
they were lodged in the best manner possible, each according to his
rank. Within a few days many councils were held respecting a peace
between the king of France and the duke of Burgundy; and various
proposals were made to the duke concerning the murder of the late
duke John that were agreeable to him, insomuch that preliminaries were
agreed on, and a day appointed for a convention at Arras to put a final
conclusion to it.

When this was done, they separated most amicably; and news of this
event was published throughout the realm, and other countries: notice
of it was sent to the pope and the council at Basil, that all persons
who chose might order ambassadors to attend the convention at Arras.

The duke of Burgundy now returned to Dijon, and made his preparations
for going to Artois, to be ready for the meeting at Arras; and from
this day forward, the borders of Burgundy enjoyed more peace than they
had done for a long time before.

In these times, the young heir of Richmond, with seven or eight hundred
English and Picards, whom sir John de Luxembourg had sent him, made
an inroad on the country of Ardennes, sacking many towns belonging to
Everard de la Marche; and having done great mischiefs there with fire
and sword, returned in safety with a very large booty.

In this year, Renè duke of Bar caused the town of Commerci[13] to be
besieged, to reduce it to his obedience, on account of the failure of
some dues that he claimed from its lord; but through the interference
of the constable of France, who was then in the adjoining country,
peace was made between the parties, on the lord de Commerci promising
to pay obedience to the duke of Bar. Thus was the siege broken up; and
during this time the constable reduced many castles in Champagne, by
capitulation or by storm.


[Footnote 12: Douzy,--a small town in Champagne, on the borders of



It was now that Amadeus duke of Savoy, who was about fifty-six years of
age, turned hermit, and fixed his residence at Ripaille, about half a
league from Thonon,[15] where he had been accustomed to hold his court.
This mansion he had greatly improved; and there was adjoining an abbey
and priory of the order of Saint Maurice, which had been founded many
years ago by the duke's ancestors.

Ten years before, the duke had a desire to become a hermit, in the
manner he had now done, and had asked two of his most confidential
servants if they were willing to follow his example and accompany him
so long as he should please to remain a hermit, when they, having
considered that he might change his mind, consented. One was sir Claude
de Sexte: the other a valiant esquire named Henry de Colombieres.

The duke having, as I said, improved and properly altered the mansion
of Ripaille for himself and his companions, left his palace at Thonon
during the night with few attendants, and went to Ripaille, where he
put on the dress of a hermit, according to the order of St Maurice. It
consisted of a grey robe, a long mantle with a grey hood, and a tippet
of about a foot long,--a crimson bonnet over the hood, with a golden
girdle above the robe, and on the mantle a cross of gold, similar to
what the emperors of Germany wear.

The two noble men joined him within a few days, and remonstrated with
him on his manner of quitting Thonon, as it was not becoming his rank,
and might be disagreeable to the three estates of his country, whom
he had not summoned, to declare to them his intentions of becoming a
hermit. He replied, that as he was not weakened in understanding or
power, he would provide sufficient remedies for their dislike, and that
their business was to keep the promises they had made to reside with
him and keep him company. On this, seeing nothing better could be done,
they were contented, and quickly clothed in similar dresses to what he

The duke then summoned the three estates and his son the count of
Geneva, whom he created prince of Piedmont, and surrendered up to
him, in the presence of the estates, the government of his country,
reserving, however, to himself a power of taking it from him, and
bestowing it on whomever he pleased, should he behave ill. He created
his second son count of Geneva. But although the duke had put on the
religious habit, and surrendered up the administration of affairs to
his son, nothing of importance was done without his knowledge and

With regard to his personal attendance, he retained about twenty of
his servants to wait on him,--and his companions selected also a
sufficiency to attend them according to their different ranks; but
instead of roots and water, they were served with the choicest wines
and most delicate food that could be procured[16].


[Footnote 13: Commerci,--on the Meuse, five leagues to the westward of

[Footnote 14: Ripaille,--a burgh of Savoy, in the Chablais, and
principal commandery of the order of St Maurice, founded by Amadeus
VIII. He built there a mansion for six knights-hermits, to keep him
company in this solitude, whither he retired in 1434, being a widower
of Mary of Burgundy, and resigned the government of his duchy, &c. to
his son.--_La Martiniere._

This retirement was supposed to arise from ambition, and the hope of
being chosen pope, to which he was elected in 1440, and took the name
of Felix V. He afterward resigned the popedom, and returned to his

[Footnote 15: Thonon,--the capital of a small country of the Chablais.]

[Footnote 16: Hence, probably, came the french proverb, _faire
ripaille_, to make good cheer.]



The commonalty of Normandy had not forgotten the ungenerous conduct of
the English when they had last risen in rebellion. They again assembled
by the exhortations of the lord de Merville and other gentlemen, who
offered to lead them to battle, to the amount of about twelve thousand,
in the country near to Bayeux,--whence their leaders marched them
toward Caen, with the intent of taking that town by surprise, but it
was well defended by the garrison and inhabitants.

When they found they could not succeed, they departed thence, making
great mockeries of their enemies, and marched to Avranches, before
which place they remained eight days, in hopes that the duke of Alençon
would come to their support with a strong force of men at arms,--but in
this they were disappointed.

The English, in the mean time, collected numbers of men to offer
them battle; but their intention being known to the leaders of this
commonalty, they marched away toward Brittany and Fougeres,--and soon
after they separated without having done any thing worthy of notice.
For this conduct, their captains were banished, and their estates and
effects confiscated, together with those of all their accomplices and
adherents: but afterward some exceptions were made in regard to several
of the commonalty.

About this time, William Coraon, the English governor of Meure, made
an excursion as far as Yvis, in the country of Ligny, with only three
hundred combatants,--and was followed by Jean de Beaurain, with a
company of six hundred, to give him battle, when he was defeated, and
the greater part of his men taken or slain.

La Hire now took by storm the old fort of Amiens, wherein he remained
eight or ten days. When he had pillaged it of all it contained, he
returned to Breteuil, whence he had come.

[A.D. 1435.]



At the beginning of this year, when the duke of Burgundy had with much
labour freed his country from enemies, and concluded a peace between
himself and the duke of Bourbon, he made preparations for his and the
duchess's return from Burgundy to his territories of Flanders and
Artois, that he might be ready to meet the ambassadors from the king
of France at the convention at Arras. This convention was appointed to
assemble on the 2d day of July, in the city of Arras.

The duke left Dijon with his whole army, having appointed sir John de
Vergy governor of Burgundy, and advanced toward Euchoire[17], where he
was met by a thousand Picards, whom he had ordered thither to accompany
him on his return. They were under the command of sir John de Croy,
bailiff of Hainault, the lord de Saveuses, sir James de Brimeu, John de
Brimeu, and other lords.

Thence the duke marched toward Paris, crossing the river Seine at
Montereau-faut-Yonne: he was joyfully received by the Parisians, who
made very rich presents to him and to his duchess. Having staid there
some days, he continued his march slowly to Arras, and dismissed all
his men at arms so soon as he had crossed the Somme.

He went soon after to visit his countries of Flanders and Brabant,
where he consulted with his ministers on convoking all the nobles and
gentlemen of those districts to the convention at Arras. He then sent
an embassy to England, to inform the king and his council of this
convention, and that it was purposely to treat of a general peace
between France and England. The principal persons of this embassy were
sir Hugh de Launoy, the lord de Crevecoeur, and master Quentin Mainart,
provost of St Omer.

The king of England and his ministers gave them a handsome reception;
and they were told that the king would send ambassadors to the
convention. On receiving this answer, they returned to their lord the
duke of Burgundy.


[Footnote 17: Euchoire. Q. Not in Martiniere.]



In the beginning of the month of May, sir John de Bressay, lieutenant
to the marshal de Rieux, Bertrand Martel, William Braquemont, the lord
de Longueval, Charles de Marêts, and others of king Charles's party,
assembled a body of well tried men at arms, amounting to about three
hundred. They crossed the Somme during the night at Blanchetaque, and
advanced to the town of Rue, which they entered by scalado, and gained
complete possession without meeting with much resistance.

The noise they made awakened the garrison; and seven or eight
Englishmen retreated to a bulwark which they defended for some
time,--but in the end it was taken by storm, and part of the defenders
were put to death: the rest saved their lives on paying a large
ransom. Many of the inhabitants were made prisoners, and others escaped
over the walls.

The town was completely plundered; and the countries of Ponthieu,
Artois, Boulogne, and others in that neighbourhood, were in great
alarms, when they learnt that the enemy was so near them, and so well
supplied with all sorts of stores and provision. These alarms were
well founded, for, shortly after, having increased their numbers, they
overran all those parts, committing infinite mischiefs by fire and
sword. They even one day made an excursion toward Boulogne, so far as
Samer-au-bois, when they took many prisoners, and great numbers of
horses and cattle.

On their return, they burnt the town of Estaples, wherein were many
handsome houses,--and continued these excursions from Rue, doing every
sort of mischief to the farmers of those countries. However, in one of
the expeditions near to Montrieul, sir John de Bressay, Harpin, and
de Richammes, were made prisoners; and at another time were taken the
little Blanchefort and one of the bastards de Reully,--and on these
accounts the country suffered the more.



The duke of Bedford was at Rouen when he heard of the capture of Rue.
He was remonstrated with on the great prejudice this would be to those
of his party, more particularly to the town and castle of Crotoy. To
provide a remedy, he wrote to the earl of Arundel, then quartered near
to Mantes, ordering him to collect all his men and to march them to
Gournay in Normandy, thence to Neuf-châtel d'Azincourt, to Abbeville
and to Ponthieu, instantly to besiege the town of Rue.

The earl partly obeyed the orders of the duke, and marched eight
hundred of his men to Gournay, with the intent of continuing the
line of march prescribed to him. But from the representations of the
inhabitants of Gournay, Gisors and other places, he changed his mind;
for having heard at Gournay that the French were repairing an old
fortress called Gerberoy, between Beauvais and Gournay, he judged it
would be very prejudicial to the english interests were they suffered
to finish the works they had begun. In consequence, therefore, of the
representations of the towns of the english party that were near to it,
he determined to attack the French at Gerberoy, and take the fort by

He caused a sufficiency of provision and artillery to be collected at
Gournay, and marched from thence about midnight, accompanied by some of
the garrison. At eight o'clock in the morning his van came in sight of
Gerberoy, and the rest followed with the baggage, not aware indeed that
the French were so numerous, or under such captains.

The earl posted his men in a field inclosed with hedges, and detached
a hundred, or six score, toward the barriers of the castle, that the
garrison might not sally forth and surprise them.

While this was going forward, Poton, La Hire, sir Regnault de
Fontaines, Philip de la Tour, and other valiant captains who had
arrived there the preceding night with five or six hundred combatants,
held a council how they should act, and whether they should wait or
not for the enemy to attack them. This question was long debated by
some, who strongly urged their being badly provided with provision and
warlike stores, and that if they allowed themselves to be shut up in
the castle, they would run great risks: others declared they would not
wait a siege, and therefore advised to attack them on their arrival. It
was at length unanimously concluded for an immediate attack; and that
the three principal captains, namely, Poton, La Hire, and Regnault de
Fontaines, should be on horseback, with sixty of the best mounted and
most expert lances, and that all the remainder, men at arms, archers
and guisarmes, should be on foot, excepting a few that were to remain
behind to guard the fort. They likewise ordered that when the enemy
should advance, but few should at the first appear, in order that their
numbers might not be known. Having thus arranged their plan, they
armed themselves, and made preparations for the combat.

When the earl of Arundel had properly posted his six score men by way
of advanced guard, the remainder were encamping themselves to wait for
the arrival of the main body and rear of their army. During this time,
the watch the French had placed on the castle observed a very large
and thick body of English advancing, by far more considerable than the
first, and followed by a long train of waggons.

They instantly informed their captains of what they had seen, who now,
thinking it a fit opportunity for them to make their attack before the
two bodies joined, ordered their infantry to sally out of the castle
as quietly as they could, and fall on the English, whom they half
surprised, and shortly defeated, putting the greater part to death.
Then those on horseback (who had sallied out to prevent the earl from
assisting his men whom he had posted near the barriers) advanced toward
the main body of the English, who were near at hand, and careless of
the enemy because their commander was before them, and immediately
threw them into confusion, and repeated their charges so vigorously
that they could not recover themselves; great part retreated to
Gournay, or fled to other places, while the rest were either slain or
taken. La Hire chaced the runaways full two leagues, when many were
killed and made prisoners.

The infantry had approached the earl of Arundel, who, with the remnant
of his men, had retired to a corner of the field, having his rear to
a thick hedge, and his front guarded by pointed stakes,--so that this
fortification could not be forced by the French. Seeing this, they had
a culverine brought from their fort,--and, at the second shot, hit
the earl near the ancle, so that he was grievously wounded and could
scarcely support himself.

When La Hire was returning from the pursuit, with the many prisoners
he had made, he observed this body of English under the earl quite
entire: collecting more forces, he began to combat them,--and they
were soon reduced to a similar state with their companions, the whole
of them being killed or taken. Among the last, those of name were the
earl of Arundel, sir Richard de Dondeville[18], Mondo Domonferrant,
Restandif[19], and others, to the amount of six score, that remained
prisoners in the hands of the French. Upward of twelve score were
slain,--and the remainder saved themselves by flight where they could.

When the business was over, the French collected their men, and found
that they had not lost more than twenty. They were very joyful for this
signal victory,--and, having devoutly returned thanks for it to their
Creator, they returned to their castle. The earl of Arundel was removed
thence to Beauvais, where he died of his wound, and was buried in the
church of the cordelier-friars. The other English prisoners redeemed
themselves by ransoms; and thus those in Rue remained unmolested. They
daily increased their strength, and made excursions over the countries
far and near.


[Footnote 18: Woodville.]

[Footnote 19: Dondo Domonferrant, Restandif. Q.]



In these days, while the duke of Burgundy was in Brabant, he collected
a large force of men at arms from Picardy and other countries under
his obedience, whom he intended to march into Antwerp, by means of
certain connexions which he had established in that town, to punish the
magistrates and inhabitants, who had incurred his displeasure.

The cause of his anger was, that a long time before, they had seized
by force a large vessel belonging to the duke, and filled with his
men,--which vessel he had stationed at the mouth of their harbour,
so that all vessels trafficking to Antwerp must pass close to it, on
whom the duke's men laid several taxes that were, as they said, highly
prejudicial to their commerce, and contrary to the oaths which the late
dukes of Brabant had always made on taking possession of the dukedom,
and which the duke of Burgundy himself had also taken.

On this account, the townsmen of Antwerp, without giving any notice to
the duke, had seized the vessel, and confined those found within it in
prison. The duke was so much displeased with their conduct that he had
collected the force before mentioned to punish them.--In the mean time,
his intentions were known to the men of Antwerp, who, though greatly
surprised thereat, lost no time in providing men at arms to defend
their town, should it be attacked.

They went in a body to the abbey of St Michael, where the duke was
lodged whenever he visited Antwerp, having suspicions that some of
their enemies were in it; but alter searching every part both above and
below, and finding no one, they broke down the walls, to prevent them
becoming places of defence. After this, they retired to continue their
warlike preparations.

When the duke of Burgundy found that they had discovered his purposes,
and were preparing to resist them, he disbanded his men at arms. At the
same time, he caused it to be proclaimed through the principal towns
in Flanders, Brabant, and his other dependances, that no one, under
pain of being capitally punished, should carry provision or stores of
any kind to Antwerp, nor give to the inhabitants any counsel or aid
whatever. The Antwerpers were in great distress and dismay on hearing
of these proclamations,--but they carefully guarded their town, and
remained a considerable time in this situation. However, at length a
treaty was entered into between them, by which the duke received a very
large sum of money, and the magistrates recovered his good graces.



While these things were passing in Brabant, the French won the town
of St Denis from the English by storm. They were about twelve hundred
combatants, under the command of sir John Foulcault, sir Louis de
Vaucourt, sir Regnault de St Jean, and other captains, who put to
death some of the English whom they found in the town. The Parisians
began to be alarmed by this conquest, as it was so near, and would
probably cut off all provision coming to Paris,--for the French made
frequent excursions to their walls.

To prevent any supplies being delayed from Normandy, they sent
deputations to the duke of Bedford at Rouen, and to Louis de Luxembourg
bishop of Therouenne, and chancellor of France for king Henry, to
request that a sufficiency of men at arms might be ordered to Paris, to
defend them against the enemy.

By the advice of the chancellor, sir John bastard of St Pol, Louis his
brother, Waleran de Moreul, sir Ferry de Mailly, Robert de Neufville,
and some other gentlemen, with five hundred men, were sent to them from
the frontiers of Picardy. They took the road from Rouen, and safely
arrived in Paris, where they were most joyously received; and, with the
counsels and aid of the lord de l'Isle-Adam, governor of Paris for king
Henry, they commenced a sharp warfare with the French in St Denis.

The French, notwithstanding the resistance they experienced, frequently
advanced near to Paris,--and many severe conflicts took place between
that town and Saint Denis. They also gained the castle of Escouen,
near Montmorency, from the English, and put to death about thirty whom
they found in it. They then marched to the castle of Orville, near to
Louvres, belonging to Anglois d'Aunay, knight, attached to the party of
Henry of Lancaster. When they had been before it two days, a treaty was
concluded for its surrender on a certain day, unless the English should
appear there in force to offer the French battle.

Before the term expired, the lords Talbot, Scales, and Warwick, with
George de Richammes, the bastard de Thian, sir François l'Arragonois,
and others, to the amount of three thousand combatants, assembled, and
marched to join the lord de l'Isle-Adam in Paris; and, when united,
they all came to the castle of Orville to keep the appointment made
with the French for its surrender; but the French neither appeared
nor sent any message, so that this castle remained in the peaceful
possession of its lord. Henceforward, the English were superior in the
field to their enemies in the Isle de France, and subjected the whole
of the open country to their obedience, reconquering several castles
held by the French.



At this time, a truce was concluded by the partisans of the duke of
Burgundy on the frontiers of Santerre and Mondidier, with La Hire and
his men. The last engaged, for a large sum of money paid down, to
demolish the strong castle of Bretueil in the Beauvoisis, which was

On the conclusion of this truce, the great and little Blanchefort,[20]
Poton the Burgundian, and about six hundred combatants, marched away
from the country of Beauvais to the town of Rue. They had not been
long there when they made an excursion, together with the garrison,
into the country of the Boulonnois. They marched silently by the town
of Estaples, not to alarm it, and advanced to Deure, and thence to

The inhabitants of this part of the country were totally unsuspecting
of any attack likely to be made on them, and were therefore a
defenceless prey to the enemy, who made prisoners of the greater
part, bound them, and carried them away with all their most valuable
furniture and stock. They ransomed the town of Samer for a considerable
sum of money,--and on their return spread themselves over the country,
destroying every thing with fire and sword without meeting any

Having burnt many houses in the town of Fresnes, and done unnumbered
mischiefs to the Boulonnois, they returned with a multitude of
prisoners to Estaples, where they halted and refreshed themselves for
some time; and because the inhabitants had retreated within the castle,
and would not ransom their town, they set it on fire, and committed
every damage on their departure, which was a grievous loss, for it was
well built and very populous. They made their retreat good to the town
of Rue, notwithstanding that sir John de Croy, the lord de Crequi, the
lord de Humieres, and others of the country, had assembled, to the
amount of three hundred combatants, in the hopes of cutting off their
retreat. It was in vain, for the French rode in such compact order that
no advantage could be taken of them,--and they arrived safely at the
places whence they had come.

When the French had remained some days at Rue, and divided their
plunder, they made another excursion toward Dourlens and Hêdin, burning
and destroying the countries they traversed, and bringing home many
prisoners and great pillage of every thing that was portable. They
returned by La Broi, and made an attack on the castle; but it was so
well defended, by those whom the vidame of Amiens had placed therein,
that several of the assailants were wounded. Perceiving that they were
losing time, they retreated to Rue with their plunder.

They continued these inroads on the territories of the duke of
Burgundy; but in one of them Harpin de Richammes made prisoner sir John
de Bressay, near Montrueil. At another time, the little Blanchefort was
taken by one of the bastards of Renty. In this manner did the French
destroy those parts that were near to Rue: they even burnt the town of
Cressi on the Authie, which was part of the proper domain of the king.


[Footnote 20: Little Blanchefort was made prisoner in the lxxiid



In the month of July, two cardinals, sent by the pope and the council
of Basil, with many ambassadors of note from divers nations, arrived
at Arras, to be present at the ensuing convention for establishing a
general peace. On the part of the holy father, came the cardinal of
Santa Croce, archdeacon of Metz, attended by some theologians. On that
of the council, the cardinal of Cyprus, accompanied by the bishop of
Ache, and a doctor called Nicholas, ambassador from the king of Poland;
and the bishop of Alba in the same capacity, from the duke of Milan.
With them came also the bishop of Uzes and the abbot de Vezelay, and
other envoys from various lords in distant countries.

They might amount, in the whole, to about eight score masters, and
were handsomely received by the bishop of Arras, his clergy, and the
inhabitants, as well as by the attendants of the duke of Burgundy, from
whom they had had orders to that effect.

The whole of the town went out to meet them on their arrival, with
great crowds of people, who escorted them with cries of joy to their
hôtels, where many rich presents were made them.



On Sunday the 16th day of July, in this year, Louis de Luxembourg,
count of St Pol, of Conversan, of Braine, and lord of Anghien, espoused
Joan of Bar, only daughter to sir Robert de Bar, countess of Marle and
of Soissons, lady of Dunkirk, of Varneston, and of many other valuable
places, niece to sir John de Luxembourg, count of Ligny, uncle to the
said count of St Pol.

The marriage was celebrated in the castle of Bohaim, and attended by
at least one hundred knights and esquires, relatives or friends of the
parties, but not one prince of the royal blood of France, to which the
countess was very nearly connected. At this feast were the dowager
countess of St Pol, mother to count Louis, with several of her children.

The count de Ligny was reported to have paid all the expenses of this
feast, which was most, abundantly served with every delicacy in food
and liquors,--to which were added justings and all kinds of pastimes.



At this period, some of king Charles's captains guarding the frontiers
near Rheims assembled about four hundred combatants to make an inroad
toward Rethel, and other parts attached to the duke of Burgundy,--and
in fact collected a great number of peasants, cows, horses, and other
plunder, which they proposed to carry back with them in safety to their
garrisons. The chief of this expedition was Yvon du Puys.

News of it, however, came to the bastard de Humieres, governor of
Herquery, who instantly called out his men at arms, and pursued the
French so rapidly that he overtook them, and a combat ensued, in which
these marauders were completely defeated, leaving forty dead on the
field; the rest saving themselves by flight in the best manner they
could. On the part of the bastard, his loss did not amount to more than
ten men.



At this time, the ambassadors from the king of England arrived at
Arras, to attend the convention with the council of the duke of
Burgundy. They were about two hundred knights, the principal of whom
were the archbishop of York, the earl of Suffolk, the bishop of St
David's, sir John Radcliffe, keeper of the king's privy seal, the
lord Hungerford, master Raoul le Saige, official to the archbishop of
Canterbury, and some other theologians.

They were lodged within the city of Arras, and cheerfully attended
to in whatever they might be in want of by the servants of the duke
of Burgundy. At the same time, there came from divers nations other
ambassadors and mediators. The duke of Gueldres, the count Nassau, the
bishop of Cambray, the count de Vernambourg, the bishop of Liege, the
count de Vaudemont, the count de Nevers, the count de Salines, the duke
of Bar, and in general all the higher nobility of the countries of the
duke of Burgundy, came thither to support his claims and pretensions.
They were all grandly dressed,--and soon after the counts of St Pol and
of Ligny arrived with a handsome retinue.

On the 28th day of July, the duke of Burgundy entered Arras: he had
lain the preceding night at his town of Lens in Artois. The whole
company in Arras, attached to the embassy from England, went out a
league beyond the walls to meet him,--as did the attendants of the two
cardinals,--and when they met the duke, every one was most honourably
received by him.

The duke's entrance into Arras was well ordered, he having the archers
of his body-guard, all dressed in a rich uniform, to precede him,--and
wherever he passed, the people sang carols for his arrival. In this
state, he went to pay his compliments to the cardinal de Santa Croce,
and then to the cardinal of Cyprus, whence he retired to his lodgings
in his hôtel at La Cour-le-Comte.



On the Sunday following, the last day of July, the embassy from king
Charles of France arrived at Arras. The ambassadors had come from
Rheims, through Laon to St Quentin in the Vermandois, where they had
been joyfully received by the magistrates and townsmen; and to this
place the duke of Burgundy had sent the count d'Estampes, attended by
many knights and esquires, to meet and to conduct them to Arras.

After a few days stay at St Quentin, they all departed together for
Cambray, and thence they journeyed until they came to the wood of
Mouf-laine, within half a league of Arras. The principal persons
in this embassy were the duke of Bourbon, the count de Richemont,
constable of France, who had each married a sister of the duke of
Burgundy, the count de Vendôme, the archbishop and duke of Rheims
chancellor of France, sir Christopher de Harcourt, sir Theolde de
Valperge, the lord de la Fayette marshal of France, the lords de St
Pierre and du Châtel, sir James du Bois, sir John de Châtillon bastard
de Dampierre, sir Paillaird du Fiè, the lord de Raillieq, the lord de
Rommet, the lord de Courselles, master Adam de Cambray first president
of the parliament, the dean of Paris, named master John Tudart, the
treasurer of Anjou, the borgne Blesset, master John Chanetier, the lord
de Cletel, the lord de la Motte, master Adam le Queux, master John de
Taisè, with many other able men, as well noble as not, accompanied by
four or five hundred horsemen, including those who had gone before to
prepare their lodgings.

The duke of Burgundy, attended by his household, the duke of Gueldres,
and the other princes and nobles in Arras, with the exception of the
English, went out to meet them. He joined them about a quarter of a
league from the town, when great marks of friendship and affection were
mutually displayed on both sides, more especially between the duke
and his two brothers-in-law, who frequently embraced each other. When
the compliments of meeting were over, they all proceeded, in handsome
array, at a slow pace, toward Arras,--the three dukes, of Burgundy,
Bourbon, and Gueldres, riding abreast at the head of the line. They
were preceded by six trumpets and clarions, sounding most melodiously,
and by numbers of kings at arms, heralds and pursuivants, dressed in
tabards, with the arms of the different princes then at Arras, among
whom Montjoye, king at arms for king Charles of France, took the lead.

Next to them, but a few paces before the dukes, rode the constable,
the counts de Vendôme and d'Estampes, and the damoisel de Cleves, with
a few more of the higher nobility: the remainder of the knights,
lords and esquires followed close behind the dukes; and in this order
they advanced in front of the town-house, to the small market-place,
multitudes of people shouting and singing carols wherever they passed.

The duke of Burgundy now separated from them, and returned with his
household to his lodgings: he would have attended his brothers-in-law
to their hôtels, but they insisted he should return, while they made a
visit to the two cardinals. Having done this, they went to the lodgings
that had been prepared for them, and received many rich presents from
churchmen as well as from seculars.

On the third day afterward, the duchess of Burgundy arrived at Arras,
and the French and English ambassadors went out to meet her, as did all
the nobles, and the attendants of the cardinals, most richly clothed.
She was carried in an ornamented litter, dressed in cloth of gold, and
a variety of precious stones; behind her rode on palfreys six of her
ladies and damsels, elegantly and nobly habited, with robes and hood
decorated, and covered with wrought silver and gold. Next came three
three handsome cars, in which were the countess de Namur and others of
the duchess's ladies and damsels, dressed in similar robes and hoods to
the others.

Near to the litter were the dukes de Bourbon and de Gueldres, the
constable of France, and the count de Vendôme,--and the rest of the
nobility rode either before or behind the duchess, excepting the
English, who had taken their leave of her while in the open country,
and were returned to their lodgings in Arras.

The duchess, thus attended, went to pay her respects to the cardinals;
after which she went to the hôtel of her lord the duke of Burgundy,
who received her most joyfully and honourably, and gave a handsome
entertainment to the two dukes and the other nobles who had accompanied

Among the numerous ambassadors that came from divers parts, were those
from the city of Paris, namely, the abbot of Mont St Catherine de
Rouen, master William Breton, master John le Monstardier, master Thomas
de Courselles, master Robert Poitevin. There were likewise others from
the kings of Sicily, Spain, Navarre, Poland, Asia, Romania, and from
the principal towns of Holland, Zealand, Flanders, Brabant, Hainault,
Namur, Burgundy, whose names it would be tedious to relate: each of
them were handsomely lodged by the purveyors of the duke, who, with
others, had been especially ordered for this purpose. They were all
abundantly supplied with any sort of provision they inclined to buy
during the three months they staid in Arras. No accident happened
during this time,--but there was much alarm, that mischief would have
happened from the heat with which disputes were carried on, while the
matter of peace was debating. Commissaries were appointed to patrole
the town night and day to see that no disorders arose, and that no
extortions were practised in the markets.

The duke had ordered about one hundred gentlemen and two hundred
archers to be always armed, under the command of some of the lords of
his household, such as the lord de Croy, sir John de Horne, the lord
de Crevecoeur, the lord de Chargny, John de Brimeu and others, as well
for his own personal security as to be ready, should occasion require
it, to put an end to any affrays. The duke was always attended by fifty



On the 11th day of August in this year, a combat at arms took place at
Arras, in the presence of the duke of Burgundy as judge of the lists.
A handsome scaffold was erected for him in the great market-place, on
which were seated behind him the dukes of Bourbon and of Gueldres, the
counts de Richemont constable, de Vendôme, d'Estampes, and many other
great lords.

The combat was between sir John de Mello, a very renowned knight
banneret of Spain, appellant, without any defamatory quarrel, but
solely to acquire honour, against Pierre de Bauffremont lord of
Chargny, knight banneret also, a native of Burgundy, and knight of the
Golden Fleece. The terms were to break three lances only.

When the lord de Chargny had acceded to this request, he in his turn
demanded from the Spanish knight a combat on foot with battle-axes,
swords and daggers, until one of them should lose his arms, or place
his hands on his knees or on the ground,--subject, however, in all
cases, to the decisions of the judge of the field.

These proposals having been for some time agreed to by the two knights,
on Thursday morning, about ten o'clock, the Spanish knight appeared
in the lists, attended by four others, whom the duke of Burgundy had
ordered to accompany him,--namely, the lord de l'Or, governor of the
Rethelois, the lord de Ligny, the lord de Saveuses, and the lord de
Sainzelles, with four or five of his attendants, one of whom bore on
the end of a lance a small banner emblazoned with his arms. The other
knights carried his lances; and thus, without more pomp, he made his
obeisance to the duke of Burgundy, and retired from the lists, by the
way he had come, on the left hand of the duke.

He waited a considerable time for his adversary, who at length appeared
grandly accompanied by the counts d'Estampes, de St Pol, and de Ligny,
together with the earl of Suffolk, all bearing his lances. Behind him
were four coursers, richly caparisoned with his arms and devices, with
pages covered with robes of wrought silver,--and the procession was
closed by the greater part of the knights and esquires of the duke of
Burgundy's household. Having made his bow to the duke, as the Spanish
knight had done, he withdrew to the right of the lists.

When they were ready, they ran some tilts with lances, without any
injury on either side. Then the Spaniard mounted a courser which the
duke of Bourbon had lent him, for his own shied at a lance. They broke
their lances with great courage against each other, until the number
agreed on had been performed. Neither were wounded, although the helmet
of don Mello was a little broken. They then quitted the lists, with
the assent of the duke of Burgundy, and returned to their lodgings
accompanied as before.

The Spaniard wore over his armour a vermillion-coloured mantle, with
a white cross on it, like to the badge of the French, which created
a disgust in some of the burgundian lords, as it seemed to mark a
partiality for their enemies. When he was informed of this, he excused
himself by saying, that in consequence of the strict alliance which had
so long continued between the kingdoms of France and Spain, he could
not with propriety wear any other badge.

On the morrow, which was a Friday, the duke of Burgundy proceeded to
the lists, between eight and nine o'clock in the morning, grandly
attended by his chivalry, and with him came the princes who had
accompanied him the preceding day. Shortly after, the lord de Chargny,
the appellant, appeared with the same persons as on the first day, who
carried the weapons he was to combat with. He was mounted on a courser
covered with housings of his arms, and followed by four pages mounted
in like manner, and by the greater part of the knights and esquires of
the duke of Burgundy's household, with some other nobles.

Having thus entered the lists, he went to dismount at his pavilion,
and thence on foot to make his obeisance to the duke; after which he
retired to a seat, where he waited a full hour for his adversary.
When he arrived, he was accompanied as on the preceding day,--and the
knights and esquires whom the duke of Burgundy had appointed to attend
him bore his weapons for the combat. Behind him were his servants, one
of them carrying a small banner at the end of a lance. On his entering
the lists, he saluted the duke, and withdrew to his pavilion.

While he remained there, he was frequently admonished by the knights
that attended him, who gave him the best advice in their power for the
success of his combat,--but he paid not any attention to what they
said, nor would discover to them his plans, telling them not to be any
way concerned about him, for that, with God's good pleasure, he would
do his duty.

Every thing being ready, the king at arms, called Golden Fleece,
proclaimed, in three different parts of the lists, that all who had
not been otherwise ordered should quit the lists, and that no one
should give any hinderance to the two champions under pain of being
punished by the duke of Burgundy with death. Eight gentlemen armed were
appointed to stop or raise up either of the champions, as the judge
of the field should direct. When the proclamation was made, the lord
de Chargny issued out of his pavilion, holding his battle-axe by the
middle in his right hand, the iron part toward his adversary, and thus
advanced a little forward.

The Spanish knight advanced at the same time from his pavilion, having
a kerchief thrown over his helmet that covered his vizor, which was
half raised,--but this kerchief was taken away, when he was advancing,
by his servants. They made for each other with vigorous strides,
brandishing their lances; but the Spaniard all this time had his vizor

The lord de Chargny, without waiting for his adversary, threw his lance
at him as he approached, while the Spaniard advanced to throw his,
and hit him on the side, where he was wounded, as well as in the arm,
for the lance hung in the vambraces of his his armour, whence the
lord de Chargny soon shook it off on the ground. The two champions now
approached with great courage, and handled their weapons very nobly;
but the lord de Chargny was much displeased that his adversary did not
close his vizor.

While they were thus combating, the duke of Burgundy gave his signal
for the battle to cease, and ordered the champions to be brought before
him, who seemed very much vexed that an end had been put so soon to
their combat,--more especially the Spaniard, who twice declared aloud
that he was far from being pleased that so little had been done; for
that he had come at a great expense, and with much fatigue by sea and
land, from a far country, to acquire honour and renown.

The duke told him, that he had most honourably done his duty and
accomplished his challenge. After this, they were escorted back to
their lodgings in the same manner as before. The Spanish knight was
much noticed by very many of the nobles present, who greatly praised
him for his courage, in thus having fought with his vizor raised,--for
the like had not been before seen.

When this combat was over, the duke of Burgundy paid great respect and
attention to the Spanish knight, by feasting him at his hôtel on the
Sunday and following days,--presenting him, at the same time, with many
rich presents, to reimburse him for all the expenses he had been at.
The knight soon afterward took leave of the duke and his company, and
departed from Arras on his return to his own country.



On the Monday, which was the feast of our Lady of the middle of
August, the dukes of Burgundy, of Bourbon, and of Gueldres, the counts
d'Estampes, de Richemont, de Vendôme, de St Pol, de Ligny, de Meurs
and de Nassau, with the greater part of their attendant knights and
esquires, went on horseback in great concord from the hôtel of the
duke of Burgundy, to hear the mass of our Lady in the city, richly
dressed in most splendid habiliments. The poor people, who were there
in crowds, were very much rejoiced to see this, as they hoped it would
be the forerunner of a general peace that was so much wanted and wished
for. After the mass, most part of them returned to the apartments of
the duke of Burgundy and dined, and were sumptuously served with an
abundance and variety of dishes.

The English ambassadors were not well pleased at these entertainments;
and from the frequent intercourse that took place between the French
and the duke, they suspected some treaties were in agitation that would
not be for the advantage of their country.



The cardinal of Winchester arrived at Arras on the 19th day of August,
to be present at the convention, attended by the earl of Huntingdon
and other noble knights and esquires from England, to the amount of
three hundred horsemen. The dukes of Burgundy and of Gueldres, with
the counts de St Pol, de Ligny, de Meurs, and the greater part of the
duke of Burgundy's nobles, went out of Arras to meet him. The duke and
cardinal mutually paid each other the greatest respect, as did the
other lords; and they returned together to the gate of Arras, where
they separated, and the cardinal and his attendants went to lodge at
the palace of the bishop.

Ambassadors daily arrived from various nations. The place of meeting
for this convention was fixed at the abbey of St Vaast, where
there were apartments sufficiently spacious and numerous for the
purpose,--and there the three parties assembled, in the presence of
the two cardinals who had first come thither. The cardinal de Santa
Croce harangued them most eloquently on the great inconveniences all
Christendom had laboured under from the severity and long continuance
of the war,--admonishing them, at the same time, with much feeling,
that, from their love to God, they would not separate without
concluding a peace, and that they would not insist on any terms but
such as each might mutually concede to the other.

After this harangue, the convention met on several different
days,--and many proposals for a treaty were brought forward, so
contradictory that it was difficult to reconcile them. Among others,
king Charles's ministers required that king Henry of England should
desist from styling himself king of France, on condition of having the
sovereignties of Guyenne and Normandy given up to him,--but to this the
English ministers would not agree.



On the 20th day of this month of August, while the convention was
sitting at Arras, La Hire and Poton de Saintrailles, with six hundred
combatants, six score being lance-men, whom they had assembled on the
frontiers of Beauvais, rode during the night for the river Somme, which
they crossed at Cappy; thence they retreated, and fell back on Dourlens
and Beauquesne, to forage the country. They divided into smaller
bodies, and collected a great booty of peasants, cattle, horses, sheep,
and other things, with which they marched back the way they had come to
recross the Somme.

Intelligence was brought of this, by the lord de Saveuses, to the duke
of Burgundy, who was much troubled thereat, as he feared the matters
that were then under discussion in the convention would be greatly
retarded. To provide a remedy, he ordered the counts d'Estampes, de St
Pol, de Ligny, with the greater part of his chivalry, to mount their
horses, and repel the French. With them went some of the English lords,
to the amount of about three hundred horsemen,--so that they were in
the whole full sixteen hundred, but most of them were without armour.

They hastened toward Mailly and Attinghen, having sent forward the lord
de Saveuses, with some scouts, to collect intelligence of the enemy.
They soon learnt the line of march the French were following with their
plunder to cross the water, and pressed forward with so much diligence
that they overtook them near to Corbie, at a town called Boumay, on the
water of Helly.

The French, hearing of this pursuit, detached a party of their men at
arms to guard the passage of this river, and marched to draw up in
battle-array on a hill between Corbie and Helly. In the mean time, sir
John de Croy was dispatched, with a certain number of men at arms, to
gain this passage,--but he was defeated and made prisoner: ten or
twelve of the French were slain, but the rest retreated to their main
body on the hill.

The Burgundians and English, having crossed the river, advanced and
drew up in order of battle at the foot of the hill, where they remained
for a good half-hour, without any intention of combating the French,
for they were too slightly armed.

While this was passing, the duke of Bourbon, and the constable of
France, sent from Arras messengers to the French, to order them to
retreat, and restore the plunder they had taken; so that when the two
parties had been for some time drawn up in battle against each other,
they separated without coming to action, and returned the way they had
come; for the French, in obedience to the orders they had received
from their ambassadors at the convention, restored the greater part of
their prisoners, and the pillage they had collected,--but it was sorely
against their will. They lost about twenty men in killed and prisoners.



On the 16th day of August, in this year, the kings of Arragon and of
Navarre, the grand master of the order of St James, their brother, the
duke of Sessia, and his son the count de Fondi, the prince of Tarentum,
his son sir Christopher Garganeymè,[21] surnamed the Eagle, the viceroy
of Sicily, and four hundred knights and esquires, were made prisoners
before the town of Gaieta, and their army, of four thousand soldiers,

They had been employed in besieging the town of Gaieta by sea and
land, to the great displeasure of Philip Maria Visconti duke of Milan,
who had prepared an army and stores in Genoa to raise the siege and
revictual the place. The commander of this army for the duke of Milan
was the admiral of Genoa, who attempted to enter the port and throw in
succours; but the besiegers marched to the shore to combat him,--and
though they were far more numerous than he was, fortune favoured him,
and he completely routed the arragonian and neapolitan forces.

The kings and princes before mentioned were carried by the admiral
prisoners to Genoa, then under the protection of the duke of Milan,
and were soon after delivered up to him on certain terms agreed upon
between him and the Genoese, and also on his promising not to give them
their liberty without their consent.

This promise, however, he did not keep; for, after he had handsomely
entertained them in his town of Milan, he gave them their liberty
without ransom, or insisting on any terms, and even made them, on their
departure, many rich gifts. When this came to the knowledge of the
Genoese, they were very indignant thereat, and not without reason, for
they were their inveterate enemies; and they now withdrew themselves
from the obedience and protection of the duke of Milan.[22]


[Footnote 21: Garganeymè. Q.]

[Footnote 22: 'In the year 1435, the town of Gaieta, in the kingdom
of Naples, offered to submit itself to the protection of the Genoese,
to avoid falling into the hands of Alphonso king of Arragon. In
consequence, Francisco Spinola and Ottolino Zoppo are sent with a good
garrison to defend the place. Alphonso hastens to besiege it,--and
Gaieta, ill provided with provision, is reduced to great distress.

'The Genoese, informed of the situation of the garrison, send thither,
on the 22d July, a fleet under the command of Luca Aseréto, a famous
captain, to their relief. Alphonso, hearing of this, embarks on board
his own fleet, with all the nobility and eleven thousand combatants.
The fleets meet near to the island of Ponza on the 5th August, and the
battle lasts from sun-rise to night, but victory is on the side of the
Genoese. It could not be more complete: the king of Arragon, his two
brothers, John king of Navarre, the infant don Henry, with a quantity
of nobles, are made prisoners; and of fourteen vessels, only one

'The besieged, on learning this event, make a sally, drive the enemy
from their lines, and deliver the place. The prisoners are carried from
on board the fleet to Milan, where the duke entertains the king of
Arragon magnificently, enters into a league with him, and gives him and
his companions their liberty without ransom. This generosity causes the
Genoese to lose the fruit of their victory, and enrages them against
the duke of Milan. On the 12th December, they rise in arms, kill the
governor, drive away the Milanese, and shake off the yoke of the duke.'

 _Art de Verifier les Dates._]



The cardinal of Winchester, and the English embassy, left Arras on
the 6th day of September for England, without concluding on any terms
with the French, although there had been conferences for several days
between them for this purpose, and although the duke of Burgundy had
interfered with his council as much as possible to accommodate their

The English, notwithstanding, departed for Calais, and thence to
England, suspecting greatly, what happened soon after, that Charles
king of France and the duke of Burgundy would make peace; for they had
perceived, while at Arras, that great cordiality existed between the
duke and the French, which was far from pleasing to them.

Ambassadors continued to arrive at Arras from the kings of Navarre,
of Dacia, of Spain, of Cyprus, of Portugal, the constable duke of la
Puglia, the duke of Milan, the king of Sicily, the king of Norway, and
the duke of Brittany. The archbishop of Auch came thither, as did the
bishops of Alby, of Usez, of Auxerre, of Alba, of Vicenza, the abbot of
Vezelay, the archdeacon of Metz in Lorraine, procurator for the holy
council of Basil, the archdeacon of la Puglia, with numbers of others
of note and of authority.



When the ambassadors from king Henry had quitted the city of Arras,
without agreeing to any preliminaries for a peace, the two remaining
parties, of the king of France and duke of Burgundy, met for some
few days at the accustomed place, when, by the exhortations and
interference of the cardinals de Santa Croce and of Cyprus, and other
prelates and nobles, a peace was finally concluded between them on the
following terms.

'We Philip, by the grace of God, duke of Burgundy, Austria, Brabant and
Limbourg, count of Flanders, Artois, Burgundy, palatine of Hainault,
Holland, Zealand and Namur, marquis of the holy empire, lord of
Frizeland, Salins and Mechlin, make known to all to whom these presents
shall come, that many assemblies and conventions have been holden for
the procuring of a general peace, as well in the cities of Auxerre and
Corbeil as latterly in our city of Arras for this desirable purpose.

'To this place our very-redoubted lord, king Charles, has sent our
most dear and well beloved brothers and cousins, the duke of Bourbon
and Auvergne, the count de Richemont, constable of France, the count
de Vendôme, grand master of the household, the very reverend father
in God the archbishop and duke of Rheims, chancellor of France,
Christopher de Harcourt, Gilbert lord de la Fayette, marshal of France,
master Adam de Cambray, first president of the parliament, master John
Tudart, dean of Paris and master of requests of the king's household,
William Charetier, Stephen Moreau, counsellors of the parliament, John
Chastignier and Robert Marlier, secretaries to the said king, as his

'On the part of our very dear lord and cousin, the king of England,
there came the most reverend fathers in God the cardinal of Winchester
and the archbishop of York, our well beloved cousins the earls of
Huntingdon and Suffolk, the reverend fathers in God the bishops of
Norwich, St David's, and Lisieux, and many other churchmen, as his

'We also came thither in person, attended by many of our blood, and
great numbers of our faithful and loyal subjects. Our holy father the
pope sent also to this convention the most reverend father in God,
and our especial friend, the cardinal de Santa Croce, invested with
sufficient powers from him. In like manner, the sacred council at
Basil sent thither, as its ambassadors, the most reverend father in
God, our dear and well beloved cousin the cardinal of Cyprus, the
very reverend fathers in God the bishops of Verona, of Alby, Nicholas
provost of Cracovia, Hugh archdeacon of Metz.

'In the presence of the above ambassadors from our holy father the
pope, and from the sacred council at Basil, we, as well as the
ambassadors from France and England, have appeared as often as it was
thought expedient, and have mutually made overtures and presents to
each other. And although the ambassadors from the king of France made
great and handsome proposals for the conclusion of a general peace,
and such as were thought by the cardinals and prelates to be just and
reasonable, and which ought not to have been refused,--and although
the cardinals de Santa Croce and of Cyprus, together with the other
envoys from the pope and council, even pressed the English ambassadors
to accede to these terms, remonstrating with them, that in case they
would not listen to the conclusion of a general peace, they had been
charged by their holy father, and by the sacred council, to summon us
to conclude a private peace with our lord the king, in so far as the
whole of our personal interests were concerned.

'Nevertheless, the English ambassadors, continuing obstinate, in
refusing the terms offered them, quitted our city of Arras without
coming to any conclusion, or fixing any period for their return
thither. For this cause, the cardinal legates, and the other ministers
from the pope and council, exhorted and required of us to conclude a
private peace with our said lord the king, provided that satisfactory
proposals should be made touching the death of our very dear lord and
father, whose soul may God pardon! by the ambassadors from him, and in
his name, so that we should be contented therewith.

'The following proposals from our said lord the king were delivered in
a written roll to the said cardinal legates, and other ambassadors from
our holy father the pope and sacred council, and by them given to us.

'These are the offers made by us Charles duke of Bourbon and of
Auvergne, Arthur count de Richemont constable of France, Louis de
Bourbon count de Vendôme, Regnault de Chartres archbishop and duke of
Rheims, great chancellor of France, Gilbert lord de la Fayette marshal
of France, Adam de Cambrai first president of the parliament, John
Tudart dean of Paris, counsellor and master of the requests of the
king's household, William Chartier and Stephen Moreau counsellors,
John Chastignier and Robert Morlier secretaries, ambassadors from
Charles king of France, now in the city of Arras, for and in the name
of our sovereign lord king Charles, to my lord the duke of Burgundy and
Brabant, respecting the death of the late lord John duke of Burgundy,
his father, and likewise touching other matters, that a treaty of peace
and concord may be concluded between them.

'In the first place, the king will declare, or others sufficiently
authorised by him shall declare, to the said lord the duke of Burgundy,
that the death of the late lord John duke of Burgundy, his father,
(whose soul may God pardon!) was iniquitously and treacherously caused
by those who perpetrated the deed, and through wicked counsel, which
was alway displeasing to him, and continues to be so in the sincerity
of his heart. That if he had been aware of the consequences, and of an
age to have judged of them, he would have prevented it; but at the time
he was very young, having little knowledge, and inconsiderately did not
prevent it. He shall entreat my lord the duke of Burgundy that what
hatred and rancour he may have conceived against him for this cause may
cease, and that henceforward good faith and peace may exist between
them,--express mention of which shall be made in the articles that
shall be drawn up in consequence.

'Item, the king will deliver up all who may have perpetrated the said
wicked deed, or were consenting thereto, and will use all diligence
to have them apprehended wherever they may be found, so that they
may be punished in body and goods. Should they not be discovered, he
will irrevocably banish them the realm of France and Dauphiny, with
confiscation of effects, and exemption from profiting by any treaty.

'Item, the king will not permit any of them to be received or favoured
in any place under his obedience; and will cause it to be proclaimed in
all parts of France and Dauphiny, where proclamations have been usually
made, that no persons do receive or favour them, under pain of corporal
punishment and confiscation of effects.

'Item, the aforesaid lord, the duke of Burgundy, shall, so soon as he
conveniently can after the signing of the treaty, name those who he
has been informed perpetrated the said wicked deed, or were consenting
thereto, that they may be proceeded against with diligence on the part
of our said lord the king. And whereas the said duke of Burgundy may
not at this present moment be sufficiently acquainted with the names of
all who were concerned in, or who actually perpetrated, the aforesaid
wicked act, at all times, that he may receive additional information,
he may signify the names of such persons, by his letters patent, or
otherwise, to the king, who shall be bound to pursue them, in his royal
courts of justice, in the most summary manner.

'Item, the following edifices and religious foundations shall be made
for the repose of the souls of the late John duke of Burgundy, of the
late sir Archambault de Foix, count de Noailles, who was put to death
with him, and for those of others who have been slain on this occasion,
or in the wars that took place in consequence of this event,--namely,
in the church of Montereau, where the body of the late duke John of
Burgundy was first buried, shall be founded a chapel and chapelry, in
which a low mass of requiem shall be daily chaunted; which chapel shall
be endowed with an annual income of sixty livres parisis in mortmain,
and furnished with a chalice, and all other ornaments sufficiently
handsome, at the sole expense of the king. The presentation to this
chapel shall be vested in my lord of Burgundy, and in his successors
the dukes of Burgundy, for ever.

'Item, within the said town of Montereau, or as near to it as well may
be, shall be constructed and endowed by the king, and at his expense,
a church, with a convent of Carthusians, to consist of a prior and
twelve monks, with cloisters, halls, refectories, granges and all
other necessary buildings. This monastery, consisting of a prior and
twelve religious, shall be founded by the king with well secured rents
in mortmain, to the amount of eight hundred livres parisis, for the
maintenance of the monks, the keeping up religious worship, and for the
repairs of the convent, church and buildings, according to the advice
of the reverend father in God the lord cardinal de Santa Croce, or
whomsoever he may nominate in his stead.

'Item, on the bridge of Montereau, where this murder was committed,
shall be erected a handsomely-sculptured cross, according to the device
of the said lord cardinal or those commissioned by him, at the king's
expense, and kept continually in perfect repair by his majesty.

'Item, in the church of the Carthusians at Dijon, where at present
reposes the body of the said duke John of Burgundy, shall be founded
by the king, and at his expense, a high mass of requiem, which shall
be daily chaunted for ever at the high altar of this church, at such
an hour as may hereafter be determined upon. And this foundation shall
have secured to it good annual rents, in mortmain, of one hundred
livres parisis, and shall be provided with chalices and other suitable

'Item, these said buildings and foundations shall be begun upon, and
take effect, so soon as conveniently may be,--and the masses shall
particularly commence the instant the treaty shall be signed. But with
regard to the intended buildings at Montereau, they shall be begun
three months after that town shall be reduced to the king's obedience,
and diligently continued without interruption until the whole of them
be perfectly completed within the term of five years.

'In respect to the said foundations, proper measures shall be taken
concerning them so soon as conveniently may be; and the moment the
treaties shall be signed, the high mass in the carthusian convent
at Dijon, before mentioned, shall commence,--and the monks shall be
provided with books, chalices, and all other necessary articles. And
when the town of Montereau shall be reduced to the king's obedience,
the daily low mass shall be sung, at the sole expense of the king of
France. Within three days after this town shall have submitted itself,
a sufficient sum of money shall be paid to the lord cardinal de Santa
Croce, or to whomsoever he may appoint to receive the same for the
commencement of the said edifices, and to purchase chalices, books, and
every other necessary article. And at the same time the annual income,
before declared, of eight hundred and sixty livres parisis, shall
be firmly established on lands, in mortmain, as near to the town of
Montereau as possible. This income, however, does not include the rent
of a hundred livres parisis allotted for the foundation of a high mass
at the carthusian convent at Dijon.

'Item, as a compensation for the jewels, and other personalities that
were either stolen or lost at the time of the decease of our late lord
John duke of Burgundy, and for the purchase of others, the king of
France consents, well and truly, to pay to the duke of Burgundy the
sum of fifty thousand golden crowns, old weight, of sixty-four to the
marc of Troyes, eight ounces to the marc, having twenty-four karats
of aloy, or other current money, by instalments, as follow: namely,
fifteen thousand on Easter-day twelvemonth, which will begin the year
1437; fifteen thousand on the Easter-day in the following year,--and
the balance of twenty thousand on Easter-day in the year 1439. The
duke of Burgundy shall not be prevented by this from persevering in
his researches after the rich collar of his late lord and father, nor
in his suits against those he may suspect to have it, as well as other
valuable jewels, in order to recover them, over and above this said sum
of fifty thousand crowns.

'Item, the king, from affection to the duke of Burgundy, agrees that
the following lands and lordships shall be firmly settled on the said
duke, his direct heirs and successors, whether male or female, namely,
the city and county of Mâcon and St Jangon, as far as the boundaries
thereof, with all the towns, villages, lands and revenues thereto
belonging, which at this moment appertain to and are dependant on the
domain of the crown of France, without any reservation, excepting the
homage due from these fiefs to the crown, and the patronage of the
churches and royal foundations, included in the droit de regale,
and all other royal prerogatives which may belong from ancient times
in this bailiwick to the crown of France. In all other respects the
said duke of Burgundy shall hold the county of Mâcon, with its towns,
villages, and dependances, and his heirs and successors, for ever, on
paying the usual homage to the king and crown of France, as a peerage
under the jurisdiction of the king and his court of parliament in a
similar manner, and with all the rights and prerogatives attached to
the peerage of France.

'Item, on the part of the king shall be yielded up to the duke of
Burgundy and to his heirs and successors, to whom, after his decease,
shall devolve this county of Mâcon, all profits and emoluments
whatever that shall become due from the royal towns of Mâcon and St
Jangon, whether from rights attached to royalty or from bailiwicks
in compensation for protection, or by confiscations, fines, profits
from the coinage; and all rights of every other description, shall
be enjoyed by the said duke and his heirs, during their respective
lives, on the terms and conditions following,--that is to say, on the
nomination of the said duke of Burgundy, and his heirs after him, of a
bailiff of Mâcon, the king shall appoint the same as his royal judge
and commissary, to take cognisance of all crimes and suits appertaining
to his sovereign jurisdiction throughout the county of Mâcon and its
dependances, according to the usual form and manner in which the royal
bailiffs of Mâcon and Saint Jangon have acted in former times,--but
henceforth the bailiwick of St Jangon shall be abolished. And in like
manner, on the recommendation of the said duke and his heirs, shall the
king appoint all officers necessary for the good government of this
county, such as governor, castellan, provosts and receivers, who shall
exercise such appointments in the king's name, but to the profit of the
said duke of Burgundy and his heirs.

'Item, in like manner, all profits from taxes shall be transferred
from the king to the said duke, together with the duties on salt, on
wines sold by retail, and every other imposition that may have been
established in the elections of Mâcon, Chalons, Autun, and Langres,
so far as these elections may extend into Burgundy or the county of
Charolois, and throughout the whole county of the Mâconnois, included
within the boundaries of the aforesaid duchy or county, to be enjoyed
by him and his heirs for ever.

'The recommendation of all officers necessary for the government of the
county of Mâcon and its dependances shall belong to the said duke of
Burgundy and his heirs, but the commission and institution shall remain
with the king of France.

'Item, in like manner shall the king of France transfer to the duke
of Burgundy and to his heirs, whether male or female, for ever, as
a perpetual inheritance, and as held in chief, the city and county
of Auxerre, with all its dependances and appurtenances whatever, in
regard to the administration of justice, domains, fiefs, patronage
of churches, collations to benefices, as held by the king of France
and his court of parliament, with the same rights, franchises, and
prerogatives, as the other peers of France.

'Item, and together with this cession the king of France shall transfer
to the said duke of Burgundy, and his heirs for ever, all revenues
payable by the city of Auxerre and its dependances, in as ample manner
as has been before stated when speaking of the county of Mâcon, as has
been already declared. And also, that on the nomination of the duke of
Burgundy and his heirs, of persons to fill up the various offices that
may become vacant, the king of France shall confirm their nominations,
and issue sufficient commissions and authorities accordingly; so that
the bailiff of Auxerre nominated by the duke of Burgundy shall have a
royal commission to judge and decide on all actions competent to his
tribunal within the city of Auxerre and its dependances, in the same
form and manner as has been heretofore done by the bailiff of Sens
instead of Auxerre; which bailiff of Sens shall not any more interfere
in these matters during the lives of the said duke of Burgundy, his
legal heirs and successors, but shall refer the same to the bailiff
of Auxerre, he having a royal commission for his authority. All the
revenues of taxes, and of every sort of imposition shall be transferred
to the said duke of Burgundy in a manner similar to what has been
before declared in the article relative to the cession of the same in
the county of Mâcon and its dependances.

'Item, in like manner shall the king of France cede to the duke of
Burgundy and to his heirs, whether male or female, descending in a
direct line for ever, as a perpetual inheritance, the castle, town,
and castlewick of Bar-sur-Seine, with all its domains, jurisdictions,
fiefs, patronage of churches, with all other rights and emoluments, for
him the duke to hold them under the king as a peerage of France, under
the royal sovereignty and jurisdiction of the parliament, on his fealty
and immediate homage to the king of France. The king shall likewise
transfer to the said duke and his heirs all profit from taxes and other
impositions, to be received by him from the receivers, who, having been
nominated by the said duke, shall be confirmed in their offices by the

'Item, the king of France shall yield up to the duke of Burgundy and
his heirs the county of Burgundy, as a perpetual inheritance to be
enjoyed by him and them for ever, together with the patronage of
the church and abbey of Luxeuil, with all profits arising therefrom,
which the count of Champagne claims as belonging to him, (although the
counts of Burgundy, predecessors to the present duke of Burgundy, have
pretended the contrary as a cause of quarrel) saying and declaring that
this abbey, which is without the kingdom of France and the limits of
the county of Burgundy, ought to be under his patronage and protection.
To obviate, therefore, all future cause of quarrel, and for the public
welfare, the king of France now consents that the patronage of this
abbey shall remain wholly with the duke of Burgundy and his heirs.

'Item, the king of France shall cede to the duke of Burgundy, and to
his legal heirs, whether male or female, in perpetuity, the castles,
towns, castlewicks, provostships of fairs, of Peronne, Mondidier and
Roye, with all their domains, rights, and jurisdictions whatever,
with every dependance and appurtenance, to hold them from the king of
France as a peerage within his sovereign jurisdiction and that of his
parliament, on doing him immediate homage. The king shall also yield
up to the said duke of Burgundy, and his heirs, all right to the taxes
and other impositions, together with every other claim of profit, in as
ample a manner as has been before declared in the preceding articles
respecting the counties of Mâcon and Auxerre.

'Item, the king of France shall yield up to the duke of Burgundy, and
to the person whom after his decease the said duke shall have declared
his heir to the county of Artois, the collection of taxes from the
said county of Artois and its dependances, amounting at this time to
fourteen thousand francs of annual revenue or thereabout, without
hinderance to the said duke or his heir from receiving any further
gratuities from the said king or his successors. The duke of Burgundy
and his heir shall have the power of nominating such officers for the
due gathering of these taxes, as shall be agreeable to them,--and when
thus appointed, the king shall grant them letters in confirmation of
the same.

'Item, the king shall transfer to the said duke of Burgundy and to
his heirs, for ever, all the cities, towns, castles, forts, lands
and lordships now belonging to the crown of France, above and on each
side the river Somme, namely, St Quentin, Corbie, Amiens, Abbeville
and others,--the whole of the county of Ponthieu, on both sides of
the said river Somme,--the towns of Dourlens, St Riquier, Crevecoeur,
Arleux, Mortaigne, with all their dependances whatever. And all the
lands now belonging to the crown of France, from the said river Somme
inclusively, comprehending the whole of the towns, as well on the
frontiers of Artois, Flanders and Hainault, as on those of the realm of
France and of the empire of Germany, the duke of Burgundy and his heirs
to have them in possession for ever, and to receive all the profits of
taxes, rights, privileges and honours attached to them, without the
king retaining any thing, saving and except the fealty and homage due
to him as their sovereign lord, or until this grant shall be bought by
the crown of France, on payment of the sum of four hundred thousand
crowns of gold, old coin, at the weight of sixty-four to the marc of
Troyes, eight ounces to the marc, with twenty-four karats of alloy and
one karat for waste, or in any other current coin of equal value.

'The duke of Burgundy shall give sufficient securities for himself and
heirs, that they will abide by the terms of this grant, and be ready
and willing to receive the said sum for the release of the said cities,
towns, &c. whenever it may please the king of France to make an offer
of the same, and surrender to the king, or to such as he may commission
for the purpose, all the said cities, towns, castles, forts, lands and
lordships specified in the said grant. And also the duke of Burgundy
shall acknowledge, for himself and heirs, his willingness to receive
the said sum at two instalments,--that is to say, two hundred thousand
crowns at each payment; but nevertheless he shall not be bound to
surrender to the king any of the said cities, &c. until the last of the
four hundred thousand golden crowns be paid.

'During the whole time these said cities, towns, lands, &c. shall be
in the possession of the duke of Burgundy or his heirs, he and they
shall receive the taxes, and enjoy every right and privilege attached
to them, without the smallest deduction or abatement whatever. Be
it understood, however, that in this grant of the king, the city
and county of Tournay and the Tournesis, and of St Amand, are not
included, but are to remain under the jurisdiction of the king,--with
the exception of Mortaigne, which is to be placed in the hands of the
duke of Burgundy, as has been before said.--But although the city of
Tournay is not to be given to the duke of Burgundy, the sums of money
that had been before agreed to be paid, according to the terms of a
treaty between him and the inhabitants for a certain number of years,
shall be duly reserved,--and these sums the inhabitants shall be bound
punctually to pay him.

'Item, forasmuch as the said duke of Burgundy pretends to have a claim
on the county of Boulogne-sur-mer, which he has the possession of, the
king of France consents, that for the sake of peace, and for the public
good, it shall remain to him and his heirs-male only, lawfully begotten
by him, with the full and free enjoyment of all its revenues, rights
and emoluments whatever. But in default of this issue male, the county
shall devolve to him who shall have the just right thereto. The king
shall engage to satisfy all claimants on this said county, in such wise
that they shall not cause any trouble to the duke of Burgundy, or to
his heirs, respecting it.

'Item, in regard to the town, castle, county and lordship of Gien sur
Loire, together with the lordships of Dourdan, which, as it is said,
have been transferred with the county of Estampes by the late duke of
Berry and the late duke John of Burgundy, they shall, _bona fide_, be
placed by the king of France in the hands of the duke of Bourbonnois
and Auvergne, for their government during the space of one whole year,
and until John of Burgundy count d'Estampes, or the present duke of
Burgundy for him, shall have laid before the king or his council a copy
or copies of this grant from our late lords of Berry and of Burgundy.
When after due examination, should this grant be found good, we duke
of Bourbonnois and Auvergne bind ourself to restore the said town,
castle and lands of Gien-sur-Loire, without other form of law, to the
count d'Estampes or to the duke of Burgundy, for him as his legal right
from the grant of the late dukes of Berry and of Burgundy, without the
king alleging any thing to the contrary, or any prescriptive right
from the lapse of time since the decease of the said duke of Berry,
and notwithstanding any opposition from others who may lay claim to
the county of Gien, if any such there be, whose right to pursue their
claims by legal means shall be reserved to them, against the count

'Item, the king shall restoration make and pay to the said count
d'Estampes, and to the count de Nevers his brother, the sum of
thirty-two thousand two hundred crowns of gold, which the lately
deceased king Charles is said to have taken from the church of Rouen,
wherein this sum was deposited, as the marriage-portion of the late
lady Bona of Artois, mother to these noblemen, unless it shall clearly
appear that the above sum has been accounted for, and allowed in the
expenditure of the late king and for his profit; otherwise these
thirty-two thousand two hundred golden crowns shall be paid at such
terms as shall be agreed on, after payment has been made of the fifty
thousand crowns before mentioned to the duke of Burgundy.

'Item, in respect to the debts which the duke of Burgundy says and
maintains are due to him from the late king Charles, whether from
pensions unpaid, or from gifts and monies advanced by him for the
king's use, the said duke shall have free liberty to sue for the
recovery of the same in any of the courts of justice.

'Item, the said duke of Burgundy shall not be bound to do homage nor
service to the king for the lands he now holds in France, nor for
any others that may fall to him by right of succession; but shall
remain during his life personally free from all subjection, homage and
obedience, to the crown of France. After the decease of the present
monarch, the said duke of Burgundy shall do the usual homages and
services to the king's sons and successors to the crown of France, as
belong to them of right; and should the said duke of Burgundy depart
this life before the present king, his heirs, after showing cause,
shall do the usual homages and services to the crown of France.

'Item, notwithstanding the duke of Burgundy shall have acknowledged,
by writing and speaking, the king as his sovereign, and received the
before named ambassadors from the king, this shall not be of the
smallest prejudice to the personal exemption before stated of the said
duke during his life. This said exemption shall remain in full force,
as contained in the above article, and shall extend to all lands now in
the possession of the said duke within the realm of France.

'Item, with regard to the vassals and subjects of the duke of Burgundy,
in the lordships he now holds and will possess by this treaty, and
of those that may fall to him by succession in the kingdom of France
during the king's life and his own, they shall not be constrained to
bear arms by orders from the king or his officers, supposing that they
may hold lands from the king together with those of the duke. But the
king is contented that whenever it may please the duke of Burgundy to
order his vassals to arm, whether for internal or external wars, they
do obey his commands without attending to any summonses from the king,
should he at the time issue such. And in like manner shall all the
officers of the said duke's household, and his familiars, be exempted,
even should they not be his subjects or vassals.

'Item, should it happen that the English shall make war on the said
duke of Burgundy, his subjects or allies, on account of the present
treaty or otherwise, either by sea or by land, the king of France
engages to march to his succour with a sufficient force, and to act as
if it were his own proper cause.

'Item, the king declares, for himself and his successors, that neither
he nor they, nor any princes of his blood, shall enter into any treaty
of peace with his adversary of England, without having first informed
thereof the said duke of Burgundy and his immediate heir, nor without
their express consent thereto and comprehension therein, provided they
may wish to be comprehended,--provided always, that similar promises
shall be made to the king of France by the duke of Burgundy and his
heir apparent, touching war and peace with England.

'Item, whereas the said duke of Burgundy and his faithful vassals have
heretofore borne a cross of St Andrew as their badge, they shall not
be constrained to bear any other badge, whatever army they may be in,
whether within or without the realm, or in the presence of the king or
of his constable, whether in the royal pay, as soldiers, or otherwise.

'Item, the king shall make all reasonable restitution for whatever
losses such as may have been made prisoners on the day of the death of
duke John, whose soul may God pardon! have suffered, as well as the
repayment of their ransoms.

'Item, a general oblivion shall take place of all acts done and
committed in consequence of the divisions in the realm, excepting what
regards those who perpetrated the said murder of duke John of Burgundy,
or were consenting thereto,--for they shall ever remain excepted in
whatever treaties may be concluded. Henceforth all persons shall return
to their different homes,--namely, churchmen to their churches and
benefices, and seculars to their houses and possessions within the
realm, excepting such lands and lordships as may be within the county
of Burgundy, and which are held by the present lord of Burgundy, or
have been in the possession of the late duke, or such as may have
been given by either of them to others as confiscations arising
from the intestine divisions within the kingdom; for these lands,
notwithstanding the present treaty, shall remain in the possession of
those who now hold them. But in every other instance, all persons shall
return to their houses and lordships, without being called upon by any
person or persons for any damages or repairs whatever,--and each shall
be held acquitted of all rents from the time he ceased to enjoy them;
and in regard to any furniture that may have been taken and carried
away by either party, all pursuit after it and any quarrels on the
subject are absolutely forbidden.

'Item, it is ordained by this present treaty that all quarrels and
rancour, which may have arisen in consequence of the troubles that
afflicted the realm, do now absolutely cease; and all private wars
are strictly forbidden, without reproach to either party, under pain
of being punished as transgressors of this article, according to the
heinousness of the offence.

'Item, in this present treaty shall be included, on the part of the
said duke of Burgundy, all churchmen, the inhabitants of the principal
towns, and others, whatever may be their rank, who have followed his
party, or that of the late lord his father; and they shall enjoy the
benefit of this said treaty, as well in regard to the general oblivion
of all acts done and committed within the realm of France as in the
peaceable enjoyment of whatever possessions, moveable and immoveable,
they may have within the kingdom or in Dauphiny, which are now withheld
from them by these said troubles, provided they be willing to accept of
the terms contained in the said treaty, and loyally fulfil them.

'Item, the king will renounce the alliance he had formed with the
emperor against the duke of Burgundy, as well as all others with
different princes and lords to the same effect, provided the duke of
Burgundy shall do the same with his alliances; and the king will also
hold himself bounden, and will promise the duke of Burgundy to assist
and support him against all who may be inclined to make war against him
or otherwise injure him. And in like manner shall the duke of Burgundy
engage his promise, saving, however, the exemption of his personal
service as has been before declared.

'Item, the king consents to grant letters, that in case he shall
violate the articles of the present treaty, his vassals and subjects
shall be no longer bound to obey and serve him, but shall be obliged
to serve and assist the duke of Burgundy and his successors against
him. In this case, all his subjects shall be absolved from their oaths
of fidelity toward king Charles, Without at any time hereafter being
called to account for so doing; and from this moment king Charles
absolves them from all fidelity to him, in case such violation of the
treaty shall take place,--and that the duke of Burgundy shall do the
same in regard to his vassals and subjects.

'Item, all these promises, obligations, and submissions, of king
Charles, respecting the due fulfilment of this treaty, shall be made
before the lord cardinal of Santa Croce, legate from the holy father
the pope, the lord cardinal of Cyprus, and the other ambassadors
from the holy council of Basil, in the most ample manner that can be
devised, and on pain of excommunications, interdicts, and all the most
weighty punishments of the church, to the utmost power which the said
lords cardinals may possess from the pope, provided that the duke of
Burgundy shall act in a similar manner.

'Item, the king will give to the duke of Burgundy not only his own
declaration, sealed with his seal, but the declarations and seals
of the princes of his blood and under his obedience,--namely, the
seals of the duke of Anjou, his brother the lord Charles, the duke of
Bourbon, the count of Richemont, the count of Vendôme, the count of
Foix, the count of Auvergne, the count of Perdiac, and others,--which
declarations of the princes shall be incorporated with that of the
king, who shall with them promise faithfully to maintain the contents
of the said declarations; and should they be infringed on the part of
the king, they do severally promise to aid and assist the said duke
of Burgundy and his friends against the king. In like manner shall the
duke of Burgundy deliver in his declarations.

'Item, the king shall also cause to be given to the duke of Burgundy
similar declarations under the seals of such churchmen, nobles, and
principal towns of the realm under the king's obedience as the duke of
Burgundy shall name, under penalties both corporal and pecuniary on
failure, together with such securities for the due performance of their
engagements as the lords cardinals and prelates commissioned by the
pope may think proper and advisable.

'Item, should it happen hereafter that omissions, infractions,
or attempts to infringe any of the said articles should arise,
notwithstanding the present treaty, they shall remain in full force and
vigour, and the peace shall not be considered as broken or annulled;
but such omissions, infractions and attempts, shall be instantly
amended and corrected, according to the virtual meaning of what has
been before declared,--and the guarantees thereof shall see that it be

'Item, as we have been again earnestly exhorted and pressed by the said
cardinals, and by the ambassadors from the holy council, to incline our
ears and attend to the proposals made to us respecting a peace,--which
proposals they think just and reasonable, and such as ought not to be
refused by us,--remonstrating also with us, that we should make peace
with king Charles of France from our love to God, and according to
reason and honour, notwithstanding any alliances, oaths or engagements
entered into with our very beloved and dear lord the king of England
lately deceased,--the said cardinals and others, ambassadors from the
holy council of Basil, urging us to a compliance by many reasons and

'We, therefore, principally through reverence to God, and from the
pity and compassion we feel for the poor people of France, who have
been such great sufferers in these troubles and divisions within that
realm, and in compliance with the admonitions and urgent entreaties of
the said cardinals, and the ambassadors from our holy father the pope
and the council, which we consider as commands to a catholic prince and
obedient son of the church, have, after calling to our aid and council
the highest lords of our blood and lineage, with others of our most
faithful vassals and counsellors, made for ourselves and our successors
a firm, loyal, and solid peace and re-union with our lord the king and
his successors, according to the tenour of the articles above recited,
which, on the part of the said king, he and his successors are bounden
to fulfil toward us.

'The whole of these articles, so far as they regard us, we approve
of and accept; and from this moment consent to and make all the
renunciations, promises, submissions, and every other concession
demanded from us in the above articles; and we acknowledge our
aforesaid lord king Charles of France as our sovereign lord, in as much
as regards the lands and lordships we hold in that kingdom, promising
for ourself and our heirs on our faith and bodily oath, on the word of
a prince, on our honour, and on the loss of our expectations in this
world and in that to come, to hold inviolate this treaty of peace,
and the whole of the articles contained in the said treaty, without
attempting to invalidate the same either by word or deed, openly or

'For the further maintenance of this peace by ourself, and by all
others, we submit ourself and them to whatever regulations and
ordinances it may please our holy father the pope, and the holy
council now assembled at Basil, to promulgate by the lords cardinals
and the ambassadors from the said council now present; and we are
willing to suffer any censures from the church, should we fail in
the due fulfilment of all the articles contained in the said treaty.
We renounce all exemptions, whatever may be alleged to the contrary,
more particularly to that rule in law which declares that a general
renunciation is not equally valid with an especial one, the whole to be
fulfilled without fraud, deceit, or any chicanery whatever.

'That this treaty may have every due formality, and be perfectly
stable, we have caused our signet to be affixed to these presents.
Given at our town of Arras the 21st day of September, in the year
1435.' It was also signed by the duke of Burgundy, in the presence of
his council.

When the two parties had finally concluded a peace with each other, and
when every formality of signing and sealing was finished, the peace
was proclaimed with great solemnity through the town of Arras. We need
not inquire if this caused the utmost joy, and spread happiness among
the people. In general, the clergy, nobles, citizens, and a multitude
of peasants who had entered the town, were not content with one day's
rejoicing, but made many, shouting and singing carols through the

Very grand entertainments were given at the palace of the duke of
Burgundy to the knights, esquires, the ladies and damsels of both
parties, as well in eating and drinking as in dancings and other
amusements. In the apartment where this business had been concluded,
the cardinal of Santa Croce, having placed the holy sacrament on an
altar and a cross of gold on a cushion, made the duke of Burgundy swear
thereon, that he would never more call to his remembrance the death of
his late father, and that he would evermore maintain peace with king
Charles of France, his sovereign lord, and his allies. After which, the
duke of Bourbon and the constable of France, touching the cross with
their hands, begged pardon, in the king's name, of the duke of Burgundy
for the death of his said father, who gave them his pardon for the love
of God. Then the two cardinals, having laid their hands on the duke,
absolved him from the oath he had made to the English. In like manner
were absolved many great lords of his party, who, with others of the
duke's alliance, swore to be on friendship with king Charles and with
his allies. In the number was the lord de Launoy, who said aloud, 'Here
I am who have heretofore taken oaths for the preservation of peace five
times during this war, not one of which has been observed,--but I now
make promise to God, that this shall be kept on my part, and that I
will not in any degree infringe it.'



During the time the English and their allies were in the Isle de
France, they besieged the town of St Denis with a very powerful
force. The principal commanders of this enterprise were the marshal
de l'Isle-Adam, the lords Talbot, Willoughby, and Scales, George de
Richammes, Waleran de Moreul, sir John bastard of St Pol, his brother
Louis de Luxembourg, sir Ferry de Mailly, Robert de Neufville, the
bastard de Thian a french knight, the Arragonian, with other notable
and expert men at arms of France and England, having under them about
six hundred combatants. They carried on their attacks with great
diligence, and pointed many cannons against the walls and gates to
batter them down.

They were frequently visited by Louis de Luxembourg, bishop of
Therounne, chancellor of France for king Henry, and governor of Paris
and the surrounding country, who was their chief adviser, and urged
them on to the completion of the business.

Within the town, on the part of the king of France, were the marshal de
Rieux, sir John Foucault, sir Louis de Vaucourt, sir Regnault de Saint
Jean, Artus de la Tour, and many more valiant men at arms, together
with six hundred combatants. On the approach of their enemies, they
made every preparation for resistance; and the greater part lodged
themselves on the walls, where they remained day and night, to be
always ready for their defence.

The walls and gates, however, were greatly damaged by the cannon of
the English in so many places that their captains resolved to make
several attacks on the town at the same time, with the hope of gaining
it by storm. In consequence, having armed their men, they formed
several divisions, and marched, with scaling ladders and other warlike
instruments, to the ditches, which were filled with water. These the
men at arms crossed, though the water was up to their necks, and,
carrying their ladders with them, placed them against the walls, which
they ascended without sign of fear. The besieged seeing this, and
considering that if the place were taken by storm, they should not only
lose the town but their lives also, began to prepare for a vigorous

The marshal de Rieux had posted on different parts of the ramparts
detachments under captains, with orders not to quit their posts
whatever they might see or hear,--and he had a body of men at arms
ready to succour such places as should be distressed. The attack was
very fierce and bloody, and lasted for two hours, when many gallant
acts were done on both sides.

The new knights created on this occasion were Louis de Luxembourg,
bastard of St Pol, who behaved excellently well, Jean de Humieres,
Robert de Neufville, and some others. When the assailants had had about
four score men, or more, slain in the ditches and under the walls, they
perceived they could not carry their point without too serious a loss,
and their captains sounded a retreat, carrying off their dead and
wounded. The besieged suffered also greatly, and were much alarmed lest
the enemy, by continuing the attack, should constrain them more. They
nevertheless, in hopes of succour from the constable of France, who was
attending the convention at Arras, with many of his officers, repaired
the walls and gates, that had been broken, and prepared to defend
themselves as well as circumstances would permit.

The constable, on the conclusion of the peace at Arras, departed
thence, accompanied by numbers of the nobility, and went to Senlis.
He was anxious to collect a sufficient force to raise the siege of St
Denis; but when he examined his powers, he found that he was unable to
do so.

The marshal de Rieux, therefore, knowing that the constable was unable
to afford him relief, entered into negotiations with the English that
he and his captains would surrender the place, on having their lives
and fortunes spared, and would also give up the prisoners they had
made, among whom was the new knight sir Jean de Humieres. This offer
was acceded to,--and the French marched off, escorted by about sixteen
hundred cavalry.

The english army likewise broke up, and returned to different towns
under their obedience, leaving behind such of their captains and
men as had been killed in St Denis. Among the first were sir Louis
de Vaucourt, sir Regnault de St Jean, Artus de la Tour, one called
Josselin, and others, whose deaths caused great grief. The town of St
Denis was now under the government of king Henry.

Shortly after this event, the Picards, who had been informed of the
peace concluded between the duke of Burgundy and king Charles, took
leave of the english captains as soon as they could, and returned
without loss to their own country. At the same time, the French took by
storm the bridge of Meulan, and put to death about twenty English who
guarded it. This success much vexed the Parisians, because it cut off
the communication with Normandy, and would prevent them from receiving
hence any provisions.



In the month of September of this year, Isabella queen of France, and
mother to king Charles then on the throne, was taken grievously ill
at her apartments in the king's hôtel of St Pol. She had for some
time lived in great poverty, owing to the distresses and troubles
of the war,--and her disorder increased so much that it caused her
death. She was buried in the church of St Denis, but not with the
solemnity and state usual at the funerals of queens of France. When
the duke of Burgundy heard of her decease, he had a grand and solemn
service performed for her in the church of St Waast at Arras, which he
personally attended, dressed in mourning. The duke was supported by the
count d'Estampes, the count de Vendôme, the heir of Cleves, and many
other ecclesiastical and secular lords in mourning. The service was
performed by the bishop of Arras.



Soon after peace had been proclaimed in Arras, the cardinals, and those
who had accompanied them, departed thence, after having been most
honourably entertained by duke Philip. In like manner did all those who
had come thither as ambassadors from the holy council and from king

The duke now, while in Arras, appointed many new officers to the towns
and castles on the river Somme and to those within Picardy, which had
long appertained to the crown of France, but had been yielded to him by
king Charles, according to the articles of the treaty lately concluded.
Prior to this peace, Arras was in the hands of king Henry; but now
the duke appointed other officers, displacing those of king Henry at
his pleasure, laying hands on all the public money, nominating new
receivers, and causing the inhabitants to swear allegiance to him.

The english officers were much surprised at these proceedings of
the duke, for it was through his means that king Henry had obtained
possession of the town, and he had lately acknowledged him for his
legal and sovereign lord. Seeing that they could no way prevent it,
they suffered patiently all that was done.

Among others, master Robert le Jeune, who had for a long time been
bailiff of Amiens, and had ruled with a high hand all Picardy in favour
of the English, and had even been their council at the convention
of Arras, and their chief adviser, finding that the tide was now
turning against them (through means procured by money) managed so well
that he continued in favour with the duke of Burgundy, who made him
governor of Arras in the room of sir David de Brimeu, who had held that

Thus in a few days was a total change made in the public affairs of
France and England, and just contrary to what had before been.



On the conclusion of the peace at Arras, the duke of Burgundy sent his
king at arms of the order of the Golden Fleece, with another of his
heralds called Franche-comté, to England with letters from the duke to
king Henry. These letters contained strong remonstrances to induce the
king and his council to conclude a peace with the king of France,--and
were also explanatory of the causes which had induced the duke, by the
exhortations of the legates from the holy see and from the council
of Basil, in conjunction with the three estates of his dominions, to
make a peace with king Charles his sovereign lord, and to renounce the
alliance he had formerly concluded with the late king Henry of England.

They were accompanied by a mendicant friar, a doctor of divinity, who
had been charged by the two cardinal-legates to remonstrate publicly
with the king of England and his council on the infinite cruelty of
prolonging so bloody a war, which laid waste Christendom, and to
harangue on the blessings that would ensue if a lasting peace could be
concluded between the two kings.

They all three travelled together as far as Calais, and crossed the sea
to Dover; but there they received orders from king Henry, forbidding
them to proceed further. Their letters were demanded, given up, and
carried to the king at London,--and soon after they were conducted
thither. They were met on the road by a herald and a secretary to the
lord treasurer, who escorted them to their lodgings in London, at the
house of a shoemaker, where they remained, and only went to hear mass,
under the care of some heralds and pursuivants at arms, who visited
them often; for they were forbidden to stir out of their lodgings
without a licence or permission. They were therefore very much alarmed
lest they might personally suffer for the disagreeable news they had

Notwithstanding the mendicant friar and the two heralds had made many
requests to those who attended on them, that they might be permitted
to address the king and council on the subjects they had been charged
with by the two cardinals and their lord, they never could obtain an

The lord treasurer of England, however, to whom the letters from the
duke of Burgundy had been given, assembled, in the presence of the
king, the cardinal of Winchester, the duke of Glocester, with many
other princes and prelates, members of the council, so that the meeting
was numerously attended, and laid before them the letters which the
duke of Burgundy had written to the king and his council,--but their
address and superscription were not in the style he was wont to
use. In this, he simply styled him king of England--high and mighty
prince--his very dear lord and cousin; but forbore to acknowledge him
as his sovereign lord, as he heretofore always had done in the numerous
letters he had sent him.

All present were very much surprised on hearing them read; and even
the young king Henry was so much hurt at their contents that his eyes
were filled with tears, which ran down his cheeks. He said to some of
the privy counsellors nearest to him, that he plainly perceived since
the duke of Burgundy had acted thus disloyally toward him, and was
reconciled to his enemy king Charles, that his dominions in France
would fare the worse for it. The cardinal of Winchester and the duke
of Glocester abruptly left the council much confused and vexed, as did
several others, without coming to any determination. They collected in
small knots and abused each other as well as the duke of Burgundy and
the leading members of his council.

This news was soon made public throughout London; and no one who was
well bred was sparing of the grossest abuse against the duke of
Burgundy and his country. Many of the common people collected together
and went to different parts of the town to search for Flemings,
Dutchmen, Brabanters, Picards, Hainaulters, and other foreigners, to
use them ill, who were unsuspicious of deserving it. Several were
seized in the heat of their rage and murdered; but, shortly after, king
Henry put an end to this tumult, and the ringleaders were delivered up
to justice.

Some days after, the king and his council assembled to consider on the
answers they should send to the duke of Burgundy's letters, when their
opinions were divided: some would have war declared instantly against
the duke, while others would have him regularly summoned, by letter or
otherwise, to answer for his conduct. While this was under discussion,
news was brought to the king, that in consequence of the pacification
between the duke and king Charles, the duke was to have given up to
him the towns, lordships, castles and forts, of St Quentin, Corbie,
Amiens, St Riquier, Abbeville, Dourlens and Montrieul, which had been
in the possession, and under the obedience of king Henry, who had
received their oaths of fidelity, and had appointed officers for their

This intelligence made bad worse, and the council determined not to
send any answer. Upon which, the lord treasurer went to the three
messengers at their lodgings, and told the heralds, Toison and
Franche-comté, that the king, with the princes of his blood and his
council, had seen and examined the letters they had brought,--and that
they had been equally surprised at their contents as at the conduct of
the duke, for which, if it pleased God, the king would provide a remedy.

The messengers were very anxious to have an answer in writing,--but
could not obtain one, although they frequently made this request. They
were told, they might return to their own country,--and finding they
could not do more, re-crossed the sea, and reported verbally to their
lord the duke every thing that had passed.

The mendicant doctor went to those who had sent him, without having had
an opportunity of employing his talents. The messengers were very much
afraid they should have been ill treated,--for on their journey home,
they heard in several places their lord much and loudly abused by the
common people, who did not receive them with that civility they used
formerly to do.



At this period, the inhabitants of Amiens deputed an advocate, called
master Tristan de Fontaines, to the duke of Burgundy, to endeavour to
obtain the remission of a sum of money which the town owed to the duke,
or to some of his partisans,--but he was unsuccessful. King Charles and
the duke issued new ordinances, ordering that the taxes and subsidies
which that place had before paid should be continued on the same
footing as formerly.

Master Tristan, on his return to Amiens, had these ordinances
proclaimed at the usual places,--when a large body of butchers and
others of the populace, being discontented thereat, suddenly collected
together, with arms and staves according to their condition.

They went thus armed to their mayor, and plainly told him, that they
were determined not to pay these taxes, for he well knew that good king
Charles would not that they should pay more than other towns under his
obedience. The mayor, seeing their rude and bold behaviour, assented
to all they said, appeasing them by gentle words; and as they were the
masters, he agreed to go with them wherever they pleased through the

They made captain over them one Honoré Cokin, and went first to the
house of master Tristan, with the intent to put him to death; but
he, having had from his friends intelligence of this, had escaped.
They broke, however, many doors and windows in search of him,--and
thence went to the house of one called Pierre le Clerc, provost of
the Beauvoisis, who, during the time that master Robert le Jeune was
bailiff of Amiens, had enjoyed great power, committed many extortions,
and ill treated several of the inhabitants of that place and the
country about, which had caused him to be much hated. They sought him
every where, but in vain,--for, having heard of the tumult, he had
hidden himself. They demolished his house and furniture, and drank in
one night eighteen pipes of wine which he had in his cellars. They also
made his nephew their prisoner, and confined him in the belfry.

They committed numerous disorders in the town; and went in large bodies
to the houses of the rich, who were forced to give them great sums of
money, but more particularly meat and wine. Pierre le Clerc was all
this time hidden in the hen-roost belonging to a poor man; but he was
discovered to the mob, who went in great solemnity to seek him, and
confined him in the town prison, whence they soon after dragged him
to the market-place and cut his throat: his nephew suffered the like
death. There was not a man now in Amiens who dared to oppose their will
and pleasure.

News of these proceedings were carried to the duke of Burgundy, who
sent to Amiens John de Brimeu, the new bailiff, and shortly after the
lord de Saveuses, who had been lately appointed the governor, with
orders to inquire into and correct these abuses. They were followed
by the count d'Estampes, with many knights, esquires and cross-bows;
and again the lord de Croy was sent thither with a large force: he
also carried with him the archers of the duke's household. Forces from
different parts drew toward Amiens, and all the principal lords of
Picardy, under pretence of besieging the castle of Bonnes, whither had
retreated a body of pillagers.

Honoré Cokin did not securely rely upon his companions, and was
doubtful if they would not play him false, notwithstanding that they
had been with the count d'Estampes, the governor and bailiff, to excuse
themselves and him for what had passed. They had received courteous
answers, and promises, that if they would behave well for the future,
they should obtain their pardon.

The lords having deliberated on the business, and taken possession of
the belfry, with a sufficient guard, (who were to ring the alarm bell
on the first sign of tumult, when all the commonalty were to assemble
and join them) advanced to the market-place, having sent detachments
to various parts of the town well armed, to prevent any disorders in

The lord de Saveuses and the bailiff were then ordered to scour the
streets with the troops, and to arrest all who refused to retire
to their homes. When these regulations had been made, the count
d'Estampes, attended by many noble lords and knights, remained in the
market-place, which was filled with multitudes of people, and caused
a new ordinance to be proclaimed in the names of king Charles and
the duke of Burgundy, ordering the late subsidies and taxes to be
continued, and, at the same time, pardoning all past offences, with the
reserve of some few of the ringleaders, who would be named and punished.

When this proclamation was made, Perrinet Chalons, one of the
principal rioters, was present, and, hearing its contents, took to his
heels,--but orders were instantly given to seize him. He was pursued
into the church of Saint Germain, and found kneeling beside a priest
saying mass; but, notwithstanding this, he was taken and carried to
the belfry. On the other hand, Honoré Cokin, knowing of this meeting,
had armed himself, with some of his associates, to attend it; but he
was met by the governor and the bailiff, who instantly arrested him
and sent him also to the belfry. Twenty or thirty other rebels were
made prisoners, in different parts of the town; and this same day
Honoré with seven others, his companions, had their heads cut off
with a cooper's adze. Perrinet Chalons and two others were hanged and
quartered on a gibbet: one was drowned, and about fifty banished the
town. There were, afterward, several executed, for the same cause, at
different times; and among them a celebrated pillager, who had been
very active in his occupation. These executions brought the inhabitants
of Amiens under the most perfect obedience.



When the French ambassadors were returned to king Charles, and had
shown him the treaty they had concluded at Arras with the duke of
Burgundy, by which, among other articles, the duke acknowledged the
king as his sovereign lord, he was much pleased, and ordered peace to
be proclaimed in all the usual places.

Soon after, the French in the town of Rue marched away,--and the
government of it was given up to the commissaries of the duke of
Burgundy. Another party of French, however, collected in Santerre,
and in the Amiennois, where they plundered many places belonging to
the duke of Burgundy and his friends: they even robbed all they met
in those parts, nobles and others. The duke, therefore, ordered some
troops to march against these marauders, who, hearing of it, retreated
from that country.

The English at this period laid siege to the bridge of Meulan, which
the French had lately won, but, from some obstacles that arose, gave
it up. In another quarter, the marshal de Rieux and Charles des
Marêts gained the town of Dieppe, and some others in Normandy, in the
following manner.

Soon after the conclusion of the peace at Arras, several valiant French
captains, such as the marshal de Rieux, Gaucher de Boussach, the lord
de Longueval, and others, having with them from three to four hundred
tried soldiers, marched, by the invitation of Charles des Marêts, on
the Friday preceding All-saints-day, to escalade the strong town of
Dieppe, seated on the sea-coast, and in the plentiful country of Caux.
Charles des Marêts entered the town secretly, with about six hundred
combatants, on the side toward the harbour, and thence hastened to
destroy the gate leading toward Rouen,--by which the marshal watered
with his men at arms on foot, and with displayed banners.

It was about day-break when they arrived at the market-place, shouting
out, 'Town won!' which cry greatly surprised the inhabitants, who began
to shoot and to throw stones from the house-tops. As there were many in
the town and on board of the vessels in the harbour, the French waited
until nine or ten o'clock before they began to attack the houses,--but
they were all won, with little loss to the French.

The lieutenant-governor, Mortimer, fled with many others of the
English, but the lord de Bloseville was taken. At the first onset,
only three or four of the English garrison were killed,--but several
were made prisoners, with all those who had supported their party. The
property of the inhabitants was confiscated, excepting, however, those
willing to take the oaths of fidelity and allegiance to king Charles.

There were in the harbour numbers of vessels, the greater part of
which fell into the hands of the French. The day the town was taken,
proclamation was made for all foreigners to leave it, except such as
were willing to take the oaths,--and Charles des Marêts was unanimously
appointed governor for the king of France.

The whole of the English throughout Normandy were greatly troubled and
vexed at this capture, and not without cause, for the town of Dieppe
was wonderous strong and excellently situated in one of the most
fertile parts of that country.

Shortly after, a body of French cavalry, to the amount of from three to
four thousand, arrived at Dieppe and in the neighbourhood, under the
command of Anthony de Chabannes, Blanchefort, Poton le Bourguignon,
Pierre Regnault and other captains. They were soon joined by Poton de
Saintrailles, John d'Estouteville, Robinet his brother, the lord de
Montrieul Bellay, with other noble lords and commanders. To them came
also a leader of the common people, called Le Kirennier, with about
four thousand of the norman peasantry, who united themselves with the
French forces, and took oaths, in the presence of the marshal de Rieux,
to wage a perpetual warfare against the English.

When these troops had been properly arranged, they took the field in
good array on Christmas-eve, and marched to Fécamp,[23] which by means
of the lord de Milleville was surrendered to the marshal, on promise of
remaining unmolested. John d'Estouteville was made governor thereof;
and on the morrow of Christmas-day the army advanced to Monstier
Villiers, which was also surrendered by a Gascon called Jean du Puys,
who had been placed there by the English. The marshal made a person
called Courbenton its governor.

The successes were now increasing on all sides in Normandy,--and many
of the nobles took the oaths of fidelity to the marshal. The army was
now marched to Harfleur, and made on it a vigorous assault; but they
were repulsed by the garrison, with the loss of forty of their men
killed,--the principal of whom were the lord de Monstrieul-Bellay and
the bastard de Langle.

The marshal had determined to renew the attack on the morrow; but the
townsmen concluded a treaty to surrender, on condition that the four
hundred English in the place should depart in safety with their baggage
and property. The English captain, called William Minors, conducted his
men and baggage out of the town,--and the inhabitants took the oaths of

At the same time, the following towns surrendered to the king's
obedience, Le Bec Crespin, Tancarville, Gomerville, Les Loges, Valmont,
Grasville, Longueville, Lambreville, and very many forts, with little
loss to the French.

The count de Richemont, constable of France, now joined this army,
to whom, on his arrival, the towns and castles of Charles-Maisnil,
Aumarle, St Germain sur Cailly, Fontaines le bourg, Préaux, Blainville
and others, surrendered, in all of which garrisons were placed; and
thus, at this season, was the greater part of the country of Caux
conquered by the French. It is true, that they were forced from want
of provision to leave these parts,--but their captains, before they
departed, posted strong garrisons along the frontier.

Charles des Marêts and Richarville were present at all these
conquests: they took the field from Dieppe, and joined the marshal de
Rieux, the lord de Torsy, Poton le Bourguignon, Broussart, Blanchefort,
John d'Estouteville, and other captains renowned in war. To them,
likewise, attached himself Le Kerennier with six thousand of the
peasantry, to accomplish their work of driving the English out of the


[Footnote 23: Fécamp,--a city of Normandy by the sea, diocese of Rouen.]



When the English in France were perfectly assured that a treaty had
taken place between the duke of Burgundy and king Charles, they became
very suspicious of the Burgundians, and guarded as much against them as
they had done before against the French. Notwithstanding they had been
on the greatest intimacy together, they had no longer confidence in
each other,--and although there was no open warfare between them, the
English and Burgundians were mutually taking measures in secret to gain
advantages over each other.

The English guarding the frontier toward Calais even attempted to take
the town of Ardres by surprise,--and the Burgundians in Ponthieu made
a similar attempt in regard to the castle of Crotoy, keeping outwardly
fair appearances. Each were, however, much displeased at these
attempts, and made preparations for open war.

During this time, La Hire was quartered at Gerberoy;[24] and, in
conjunction with Poton de Saintrailles and sir Regnault de Fontaines,
collected about six hundred combatants, whom they led toward Rouen,
in the hope of entering that town by means of friends within it,--but
they failed in their enterprise. They and their men, being much tired,
retreated to a large village, called Le Bois, to refresh themselves,
but not without sir Thomas Kiriel, and the other English captains in
Rouen, gaining intelligence thereof. He and his companions therefore
speedily armed, and fell on the French at this village unexpectedly,
with about a thousand combatants, who soon put them to the rout;
for the French had not time to mount their horses, nor draw up in

The greater part fled the way they had come,--but a few of their
leaders, attempting to rally them, were conquered by the English.
Among the prisoners were the lords de Fontaines, Alain Geron, Alardin
de Monssay, Jean de Bordes, Garnarde and many others, to the amount
of upward of sixty. Eight or ten only were killed: the rest saved
themselves by flight. La Hire was wounded, and lost his equipage.
The English gained almost all their horses,--for the greater part
dismounted, and escaped into a wood hard by.

At this time, king Henry of England sent an embassy to the emperor of
Germany; but the ambassadors, passing through Brabant, were arrested
by the officers of the duke of Burgundy: they were, however, as I was
informed, soon set at liberty, because the king of England and the duke
had not declared war against each other. About this time also, by the
exertions of sir John de Vergy, and some French captains under him, the
English were driven out of the two strong towns they held in Champagne,
on the frontiers of Bar, namely, Nogent le Roi and Montigny.

In like manner, those of Pontoise surrendered their town into the hands
of the lord de l'Isle-Adam, which had before been under the command of
the English; for though this lord de l'Isle-Adam had carried on the
war for the English, and had even been made marshal of France by king
Henry, within a short time he had turned against him. The English lost
also the castle of Vincennes, and other places they held in the Isle de
France, and now began to perceive how much they suffered from the duke
of Burgundy having quitted them, and from his union with France. They
therefore conceived a greater hatred against him and his friends than
against their ancient enemies the French.


[Footnote 24: Gerberoy,--in the Isle de France, four leagues from



In this year, king Henry of England sent letters, sealed with his seal,
to the mayor, sheriffs, counsellors, burghers and commonalty of the
town of Ziric-zee, to entice them over to his party against the duke of
Burgundy, a copy of which follows.

'Henry, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, to our
very dear and great friends the burgomasters, sheriffs, counsellors and
commonalty of the town of Ziric-zee, health, and perpetual love and
affection. Very dear and great friends, how much advantage and profit
arises to kingdoms from an uninterrupted alliance and confederation
between kingdoms and great lords their prosperity fully evinces,
and of which you have had experience. In recalling to mind the very
ancient friendship and alliance that has so long subsisted between our
predecessors the kings of this realm and the princes who have ruled
over Holland, Zealand and Frizeland, we have observed that commerce
has flourished and public tranquillity been preserved through means of
this friendship, to the overthrow of hatreds, jealousies, and internal

'Being most heartily desirous that such an alliance and friendship
may continue, we shall pursue the steps of our predecessors, as well
through affinity of blood as from old attachment to those princes of
Zealand, who have worn our order of the Garter in the same manner that
emperors and other royal persons, through affection to us, have done.

'Having taken this opportunity of notifying to you that our friendship
and love continue the same, and which we shall ever cultivate,
preferring old friends to the making of new ones, as being far more
honourable as well as profitable,--we frankly inform you, that we
understand that, under pretence of a peace, divers novelties and
changes have taken place in our kingdom of France, to the great
prejudice of us and of our state, by infringing the general peace
of the two realms, so loyally and faithfully concluded between our
late very dear lords, our father and grandfather, the kings Henry and
Charles lately deceased, whose souls may God pardon! and between the
greatest nobles of the two kingdoms, as we have in full remembrance.

'From this cause, various rumours are abroad, as if some countries were
about to break off their confederations and alliances with us, but for
which we know not of any reasons that should induce them so to do. We
are anxious, therefore, for our satisfaction, to learn your intentions
on this subject, as we make known ours to you,--and most affectionately
entreat you to accept of our wish that our former friendship may be
preserved, and that you will inform us of your intentions by the bearer
of these presents, whom we send purposely to you; or should you be
willing to send any envoys to notify to us your inclinations, we shall
attend to them with a hearty good will. Very dear and great friends,
may the Holy Spirit have you under his protection.

'Given under our privy seal, at our palace of Westminster, the 14th day
of December, in the year of Grace 1435, and of our reign the 14th.'

The address on the letter was, 'To our very dear and great friends
the burgomasters, sheriffs, counsellors and commonalty of the town of

On the receipt of this letter, the only answer the burgomasters gave
the messenger was, that they would consider of it,--and then they
sent it to the duke of Burgundy and his council, who were very much
displeased at the conduct of the English toward him and his country, in
this as well as in other matters.



While affairs were growing worse every day between the English and
Burgundians, the duke and some of his most able counsellors thought
that it would be more advisable to consider on some private means to
prevent the two countries going to war,--for that it would be better
for all parties the duke should remain in peace, and neuter as to the
war with France. To accomplish this, sir John de Luxembourg count de
Ligny, who had not as yet taken the oaths of fidelity to king Charles,
was sent for to the duke. At his request, sir John offered to write
to his brother the archbishop of Rouen, who was one of the principal
advisers of king Henry, and his chancellor for the kingdom of France.

The business was immediately commenced, and the archbishop dispatched
to king Henry in England. It was there resolved, that for the welfare
of the two countries, they would remain in peace; and the archbishop
sent word to his brother, that his request would be complied with,--and
that England would give good security not to undertake any enterprise
against the territories of the duke of Burgundy, provided the duke
would give similar security to king Henry.

Sir John de Luxembourg, on receiving this information in writing,
sent it to the duke of Burgundy, and desired to know by the messenger
whether he were willing to proceed further in the matter. The duke
made answer, by the bishop of Tournay, that he would not; for that the
English had of late behaved in a very hostile manner toward him and his
subjects, and in various parts had defamed his person and his honour.
They had overthrown from four to five hundred of his combatants on the
borders of Flanders, and had also attempted to gain the town of Ardres
by surprise. This had been confessed by four of the party who had been
beheaded for it in that town. They had also done many other acts of
hostility, which could not longer be passed over in silence.

When the bishop of Tournay had given this answer to the messengers from
the count de Ligny, they requested of the duke to have it in writing,
which he complied with, and signed it with his own hand; but before the
messengers were departed, the duke was strongly exhorted, by several
of his council, to make preparations for a war against the English, in
defence of his honour.

In consequence, he shortly after had letters written and sent to king
Henry of England, in which he stated the acts done on his part against
himself and his subjects since the signing of the peace at Arras, which
were so disagreeable and offensive to his honour that they could not
longer be borne nor dissembled. He added, that if any thing should
have been done inimical by him, no one ought to be surprised; for he
had received too many insults and neglects not to warrant him therein,
which had been very displeasing to him.

When these papers had been examined by king Henry and his council,
they were perfectly convinced that a war with the duke of Burgundy was
inevitable, and gave immediate orders for the reinforcement of all the
frontiers of the Boulonnois and of Crotoy, and warned those countries
to be ready for whatever attempts might be made on them. In like manner
did the duke of Burgundy strengthen all his towns on the frontier.

The king of England sent declaratory letters to several parts of
France, and the principal towns, to explain the cause of quarrel
between him and the duke of Burgundy, which in substance contained
excuses for the charges made against him by the duke, of the
hostilities carried on against himself and subjects. He also stated
the letter sent to Ziric-zee, as an instance of his wish to avoid any
quarrel. With regard to the alliance he was desirous of forming with
the emperor of Germany, he had a right so to do without being called to
an account for it; and as for the summons that had been issued to raise
a large army to wage war against the duke, he did not deny but that
such summons was issued, though no cause for it was mentioned,--and he
had a right to assemble an army, and employ it wheresoever he pleased.
He concluded by saying, that the charges made against him by the duke
of Burgundy were groundless, as would be apparent to all from the acts
done against him and his subjects by the said duke and his allies. This
declaration shall, if it please God, be thrown back on him from whom it



Soon after the duke of Burgundy had sent his dispatches to England,
charging king Henry and his subjects with the many hostile acts they
had done against him, he knew that a war must take place, and held many
councils to consider on the best means of conducting it.

The council were much divided in their opinions: some were for the duke
beginning the war, and assembling the whole of his forces, not only
to oppose the English but to make an attempt to conquer Calais, which
was his own inheritance. Others were of a different opinion, for they
thought again and again on the commencement, and what might be the end
of the war,--saying, that the English were so near many parts of their
country that they could invade it with advantage whenever they pleased;
and they knew not what dependance and aid could be expected from king
Charles, his sovereign, and the princes he was now connected with, in
case any misfortunes should befal him.

This matter having been debated for many days, it was at length
determined that the duke should commence hostilities, and require the
assistance of his countries of Flanders, Holland, and the rest, to aid
him in the conquest of Calais and the county of Guines. The principal
advisers of this measure were master Jean Chevrot bishop of Tournay,
the lord de Croy, master Jean de Croy his brother, sir Jean de Hornes,
seneschal of Brabant, the lord de Chargny, the lord de Crevecoeur, Jean
de Brimeu, bailiff of Amiens, and many others.

Several great lords, who had constantly served the duke of Burgundy
in his wars, were not called to this council,--such as sir John de
Luxembourg, the lord d'Antoing, the vidame of Amiens, the bastard of
St Pol, the lord de Saveuses, Hugh de Launoy, the lord de Mailly, and
several others of high rank and power, as well in Picardy as in the
other territories of the duke, who thought that, since they had been
thus neglected, they were not bound to serve with their vassals in
the ensuing war with that alacrity they would have done had they been

When war had been resolved on, the duke went to Ghent, and assembled
in the banqueting hall the sheriffs and deacons of the trades. He
caused them to be harangued by master Goussenin le Sauvage, one of
his counsellors at the castle of Ghent, how the town of Calais had
belonged to his predecessors, and that it was his lawful inheritance,
as part of his county of Artois, although the English had long held
it by force, and against his right: of this they might be truly
informed, by examining the report formerly made by Collart de Comines,
high bailiff of Flanders, or by others of his counsellors: that the
English, since the peace of Arras, had done many hostile acts against
him and his subjects, which had much vexed him; and that they had, in
various proclamations, defamed his person and honour, which he could
not longer, without disgrace, suffer from them. For this reason he
had visited them, to request that they would afford him aid in men
and money to conquer the town of Calais, which, as master Goussenin
added, was very prejudicial to all Flanders; for that the Flemings who
went thither to purchase wool, tin, lead or cheese, were forced to pay
in money according to what alloy the English pleased to put on it,
or in ingots of refined gold and silver, which was not done in other
countries, and this the deacons of the trades vouched to be true.

When this harangue, which was very long, was concluded, the majority
of the sheriffs and deacons, without deliberation, or fixing a day to
consult with the other members of their body, consented to support
the war, and would not listen to some wise and ancient lords, who
were of a contrary opinion. But what is more, when news of this was
spread through the other towns of Flanders, the whole country was eager
for war; and it seemed to many to proceed too slowly,--for they were
impatient to display how well provided they were with arms and warlike
habiliments. They proceeded thus arrogantly and pompously,--for in
truth it seemed to them that Calais could not be able to withstand
their arms.

The duke of Burgundy made similar applications to the other towns and
castlewicks in Flanders for their aid in the war, and all liberally
supported him. He also went to Holland, to solicit from the Hollanders
shipping against Calais, who complied with the greater part of his
demands. He thence returned home to make great preparations for his war
against the English, and to conquer Calais.

While these matters were going forward, several enterprises had been
undertaken by the English and Burgundians against each other. The
duke of Burgundy on his return to Picardy sent thence six hundred
combatants, under the lord de Ternant, sir Simon de Lalain and other
captains, to reinforce the lord de l'Isle-Adam at Pontoise, and to
guard the frontier against the English, who were making a sharp attack
on that town, although it was but lately won from them by the lord de
l'Isle-Adam. A party of French joined these Picards, and made frequent
attempts to gain the city of Paris.

During this time, king Charles's queen was brought to bed of a son,
to whom the king gave the baptismal name of Philip after the duke of
Burgundy. The sponsors for the duke were Charles duke of Bourbon and
Charles d'Anjou, brother to the queen. When the christening was over,
the king sent a pursuivant with letters to the duke of Burgundy, to
inform him of what he had done, and to express a wish that it might be
agreeable to him. The duke was much pleased with the news, and made the
pursuivant presents becoming a prince.

The duke, in the mean time, continued to make requests throughout his
dominions for succours of men and money, to carry on with effect his
war against the English.

[A.D. 1436.]



At the beginning of this year, the count de Richemont, constable of
France, the bastard of Orleans, the lords de la Roche, de l'Isle-Adam,
de Ternant, sir Simon de Lalain, his brother Sausse, with other french
and burgundian captains, collected a force of about six thousand
combatants, and marched from Pontoise toward Paris, in the hope of
gaining admittance through the intrigues of the lord de l'Isle-Adam
with the partisans of the burgundian faction within that city.

Having remained there from four to five hours, seeing they could not
succeed, they quartered themselves at Aubervilliers, Montmartre, and
other places around. On the morrow, they attacked the town of St
Denis, wherein were from four to five hundred English, and won it by
storm.--About two hundred English were slain,--and the rest fled to
the abbey, where they were besieged, but soon surrendered on having
their lives spared, with the reservation of some of the natives, who
were to remain at the discretion of the conquerors.

The next day, which was a Thursday, sir Thomas Beaumont, lately
arrived at Paris with six hundred fighting men from Normandy, marched
from Paris to St Denis, to inquire into the state of the French. When
they perceived him, they made a sally with a large force, and almost
immediately defeated him. Three hundred and eighty were killed or made
prisoners, and among the last was sir Thomas: the rest escaped by
flying to Paris, pursued to the very gates.

The Parisians most inclined to the duke of Burgundy, namely, those in
the quarter of the market-place, and some few of the university, with
Michael Lallier and others of the principal citizens, seeing the great
loss the English had suffered, and so large a force of French and
Burgundians under their walls, assembled in parties, and resolved to
drive out the English and admit the others into their town. This they
made known to the lord de l'Isle-Adam, that he might inform the other
captains of their intentions. He sent notice thereof to the constable
and the nobles, who, eager to gain Paris, marched from St Denis in
handsome array, very early on the Friday morning.

In the mean time, Louis de Luxembourg, bishop of Therouenne, the
bishops of Lisieux and of Meaux, the lord Willoughby, and others of
the english party, suspecting that the commonalty were about to turn
against them, posted their men in the street of St Antony, near to the
bastille, which they filled with provision and warlike stores. They
kept their men armed, and on their guard, to retreat thither should
there be occasion.

When the French and Burgundians were come before Paris, to the gate of
St James, on the other side of the Seine toward Montlehery, they sent
the lord de l'Isle-Adam to hold a parley with the inhabitants on the
ramparts. He displayed to them a general amnesty from king Charles for
all that was passed, sealed with his great seal,--admonishing them, at
the same time, to surrender instantly to their lawful king and lord, at
the request of the duke of Burgundy, as they were now reconciled, for
that they had been ever steadily attached to the duke, and under his
government they would still remain. The Parisians, hearing these soft
speeches from the lord de l'Isle-Adam and his confederates, were so
much pleased, that they agreed, shortly after, to admit them into the

Ladders were now hastily placed against the walls, by which the lord
de l'Isle-Adam mounted and entered the town. He was followed by the
bastard of Orleans and numbers of their men. A large body of the
Burgundy-faction and of the commonalty met them, shouting, 'Peace! Long
live king Charles, and the duke of Burgundy!'

Soon after, the gates were thrown open, and the constable entered,
with the other lords and their men at arms. They advanced toward the
bastille, whither the bishops, and those of the english party, had
retreated, with a show of making some resistance; but it was vain, for
their enemies were too numerous. They were, therefore, repulsed at
the first onset, and a few killed and made prisoners. Barriers were
now erected before the gate of the bastille with large timber, and men
at arms posted in the Tournelles and adjoining parts, to prevent the
English from making any sallies. All their effects were now seized and
plundered,--and those who had been their principal supporters were
imprisoned, and their property confiscated. New officers were also
appointed, in the name of king Charles, for the government of the town.

The bishop of Therouenne, lord Willoughby, and the others in the
bastille, held a parley with the French; and, by means of the lord
de Ternant and sir Simon de Lalain, it was concluded that, on the
surrender of the bastille, those within should be allowed to depart in
safety, with all their effects. They had a passport from the constable,
under which they went by land and water to Rouen.

The Parisians, at their departure, set up a grand shouting at them,
crying out 'à la queue[25]!' Thus was the city of Paris reduced to the
obedience of king Charles. The English, after passing the gate leading
to the country, went round to embark at the back of the Louvre. The
bishop of Therouenne lost all the rich ornaments of his chapel; and the
greater part of his jewels and valuable rings fell to the lot of the
constable. However, he was much favoured by the lord de Ternant and sir
Simon de Lalain; and they restored to him some of his wealth, which was
dispersed in different parts of the town.

The standard of the duke of Burgundy was displayed at all the gates, as
an inducement for the Parisians to turn to his party. Some new knights
were created on this occasion by the constable, from the country of
Picardy, namely, Sausse de Lalain and Robert de Neufville, with others
of the French.

The constable remained for a long time in Paris after this
conquest,--and with him the lord de Ternant, who was made provost. The
aforesaid sir Sausse de Lalain, the bastard of Orleans, and others of
the French and Picards, now returned to the places they had come from.


[Footnote 25: In the French Dictionary of Richelet, it is thus
explained: _à la queue leu leu_, (_Continenti serie ludere_) a kind
of play, which means, 'the tail of the wolf.' To play _à la queue leu
leu_, is said when children place themselves in a file, and the leader,
making a half-wheel round, drags the rest after him, endeavouring to
catch hold of the last in the file.]



In this year, the count de Richemont, constable of France, advanced
into Champagne with a large body of troops to make war on the heir of
Commercy and others, who were disobedient to king Charles, and had
greatly annoyed that and the surrounding countries.

On his arrival, he took Laon, some leagues from Rheims, and thence
marched to Braine[26], belonging to the lord of Commercy; but as it was
too strong and well garrisoned, and refused to submit, he passed on to
Saint Menehoud, in the possession of Henry de la Tour, who gave it up
on capitulation.

The constable was here joined by the youth Everard de la Marche, who
made an agreement with him for his men to lay siege to Chavensy[27].
The constable gave him several of his captains and their men: with
these he commenced the siege of Chavensy about eight days after Easter,
by erecting a strong block-house, wherein he quartered about four
hundred of his troops and a number of common people, who came thither
at times from the low countries.

Everard had with him the constable's lieutenant named Jean de
Malatrait, sir John Geoffry de Conurant, and the provost of the
marshals, Tristan de l'Hermite, and also Pierre d'Orgy, Yvon du Puys,
the Arragonian, Estienne Diest, le grand Pierre, and others, men of
renown, who remained full four months carrying on a severe war against
this garrison, which, nevertheless defended themselves with prudence
and ability.

While this was going forward, a party of the besieging army kept the
open country, with the intent of harrassing in other places the heir
of Commercy, who was always on his guard, and well attended by men at
arms. He learnt from his spies, that his adversaries were quartered
at the village of Romaigne[28], in Champagne; and before they could
be prepared to resist him, he made a sudden attack on them at eight
of the clock in the morning, and totally defeated them. About sixty
were slain, among whom were Alain Geron bailiff of Senlis, Geoffry de
Morillon, Pierre d'Orgy, Alain de la Roche, Olivier de la Jouste, the
bastard of Villebranche, and many other gentlemen. Six score were made
prisoners,--and in the number was one Blanchelaine.

The heir of Commercy retreated after this defeat,--and when news of it
was carried to the besiegers of Chavensy, they were greatly surprised.
Everard de la Marche was not cast down by this misfortune, but gained
to his party the count de Vernembourg, who in person, attended by his
two sons, and accompanied by four or five hundred combatants, went
to this siege. He carried with him, likewise, sir Hugh Tauxte and
sir Herault de Gourgines, governors of Ainville[29], the children of
Brousset, and many more great lords, who remained at this siege until
the night of St John's day,--when the besieged made a grand sally, and
set fire to the quarters of the besiegers. They were successful in
throwing the enemy into confusion, and slew from two to three hundred,
among whom were Estienne Diest and the Arragonian. Another skirmish
took place, when one of the sons of the count de Vernembourg was
killed, and the great block-house set on fire by means of rockets. The
besiegers, having suffered severely in these sallies, decamped, when
their quarters were burnt.

Angillebert de Dolle and Girard de Marescoup commanded in Chavensey,
during this siege, for the Lord de Commercy, with about two hundred
fighting men.

During this time, the constable had reduced to obedience the towns
of Nampteuil-sur-Aine[30], Han-les-Moines[31], Bourg[32], and other
castles, on his presenting himself before them.


[Footnote 26: Braine,--near Compiégne.]

[Footnote 27: Chavensy. Q.]

[Footnote 28: La Romaigne,--near Rethel in Champagne.]

[Footnote 29: Ainville, on the frontiers of Champagne and Lorraine.]



At the end of the month of April, the bishop of Liege raised a large
force to combat and reduce to obedience several forts in the forest
of the Ardennes, held by a set of plunderers, who had done much
mischief to the inhabitants of his territories. The principal leaders
and supporters of these marauders were Jean de Beaurain, Philipot de
Sergins, the lord d'Orchimont and others, who made the castle of
Boussenoch, Villers opposite to Mousson, Aubigny, Beaurain, Orchimont,
and several other castles in these parts, their retreats.

Some of them gave out that they were attached to the king of France,
others to the duke of Burgundy, but the greater part to sir John de
Luxembourg, count de Ligny; while two of them, John de Beaurain and
Philipot de Sergins, made war on their own account, to recover sums due
to them for services they had done the Liegeois.

The bishop, through the aid of the nobles of the country, assembled
from two to three thousand horse, and from twelve to sixteen thousand
infantry, well equipped, and armed each according to his rank: he
had also three or four thousand carts laden with provision, military
engines, and stores of all kinds. The bishop, on quitting Liege,
advanced to Dinant[34], and thence across the river Meuse. Having
marched through woods for five leagues, his forces halted two days
at Rigniues,[35] to wait for the baggage, which travelled slowly on
account of the badness of the roads. At this place, the bishop formed
his army into four divisions, namely, two of cavalry, and the same
number of infantry,--and, riding down their fronts, admonished every
one to perform his duty well.

He dispatched part of his cavalry to post themselves before the castle
of Boussenoch, while he followed with the main body, and on his
arrival surrounded it on all sides, placing his bombards and engines
against the walls and gates of the castle, in which were about twenty
pillagers, greatly surprised to see so large an army before the gates.

The Liegeois set instantly to work, and soon drained the ditches
by sluices which they cut, while others brought faggots and filled
them, so that they began to storm the place with such vigour that the
bulwark was instantly won. Those within retreated to a large tower,
and defended themselves for a long time; but it was of no avail, for
they were overpowered by fire and arrows, and surrendered at discretion
to the bishop, who had them all hanged on trees near to the castle,
by a priest who acted as their captain,--and he, after hanging his
companions, was tied to a tree and burnt, and the castle razed to the

The bishop, after this exploit, marched away toward the upper Châtelet;
but many of his army wanted to march to Hirson[36] and other places
of sir John de Luxembourg,--because, they said, he was the supporter
of those they were now making war on. But this same day the bastard
of Coucy met the bishop, and said that he was sent by sir John de
Luxembourg to assure the bishop that sir John was only desirous of
living on neighbourly terms with him, and to request that he would
not suffer any injuries to be done to his country or vassals; that if
any thing wrong had been done to the Liegeois by those who gave out
that they were dependant on him, he wished to be heard in his defence,
and would refer the matter to friends of either side as arbitrators.
At the same time, letters were brought from the duke of Burgundy to
the bishop, to require that he would not do any injury to sir John de
Luxembourg, nor to the lord d'Orchimont, which put an end to their
intended plan.

The bishop, with a part of his army, then marched to the castle of
Aubigny, when, finding that the garrison had fled through fear of
him, he ordered the castle to be burnt. From Aubigny he went to
upper Châtelet, wherein a body of his men were, for the garrison had
abandoned it,--and it was destroyed as the others had been.

The bishop had intended marching to Villiers; but his intention being
known to the inhabitants of Mousson and Ivoy, they destroyed the castle
of Villiers, fearful of the damages that would be done to the country
should the Liegeois once enter it. On hearing this, the bishop took
the road to Beaurain, which castle John de Beaurain, its lord, had
lately repaired and strengthened with the addition of four towers: one
he called Hainault, another Namur, the third Brabant, and the fourth
Rethel, because it was from those countries he had gotten the money
to build them. However, when he heard of the march of the Liegeois, he
was afraid to wait their coming, and fled with his men, but not before
he had set the castle on fire. This did not prevent the bishop from
completely demolishing it to its foundations; then, without proceeding
further, he marched his men back to their own country, and went himself
to the city of Liege.

At this season, the town of Gamaches in Vimeu, which had long been held
by the English, surrendered to the lord d'Aussi and to sir Florimont de
Brimeu, seneschal of Ponthieu, by means of certain friends they had in
the town. The seneschal re-garrisoned it with men at arms for the duke
of Burgundy. In like manner, the English were driven out of Aumarle,
which surrendered to a gentleman called David de Reume, attached to
king Charles.

About the same time, the constable laid siege to Creil, in the
possession of the English, and erected a block-house at the end of
the bridge on the road to the Beauvoisis, wherein he remained for a
long time, but at length marched away in disgrace, which grieved him
much,--for he had lost many men, together with very large quantities of
military stores and artillery.


[Footnote 30: Nampteuil,--near Rheims.]

[Footnote 31: Han,--near Rheims.]

[Footnote 32: Bourg,--near Rheims.]

[Footnote 33: Bousseuvre,--is called afterward Boussenoch.]

[Footnote 34: Dinant, on the Meuse, sixteen leagues from Liege.]

[Footnote 35: Rigniues. Q.]

[Footnote 36: Hirson,--or Herisson, a town in Picardy, election of



Bernard de Bourset kept quiet possession of the town of Orchimont and
its castle,--but one day, having as usual sent out a detachment of
about fifty to lay waste and plunder the country of Liege, they were
observed and pursued by the Liegeois, under the command of the provost
of Rebogne. Their passage being cut off on the way they meant to have
returned, they fled for Dinant, and entered Bouvines, thinking they
should be safe there, but were mistaken, inasmuch as they were detained
prisoners. Although the officers of justice from Liege made frequent
applications to those of Bouvines to have them punished according to
their deserts, they were set at liberty, for these two towns did not
much love each other.

While this matter was passing, Everard de la Marche, who was in
alliance with the bishop of Liege, and had also many subjects of
complaint against these pillagers, assembled in haste as many men
as he could,--and, being joined by some forces from Dinant and the
surrounding country, advanced to Orchimont, and took the town by
storm. Bernard had at this moment but few men with him, and therefore
retreated to the castle, whither he was gallantly pursued by the
Liegeois. They pressed him so hardly that, at the end of four days, he
surrendered, on capitulation, to Everard de la Marche.

The castle and town were after this razed to the ground, to the great
joy of all the neighbouring country,--for they had been inhabited by a
set of wicked vagabonds, who had annoyed all within their reach.



While the war was on the point of breaking out between the English and
Burgundians, for each party was now watching the other, the English
suddenly came before Boulogne, thinking to win it by surprise,--but it
was too well defended. They burnt part of the shipping in the harbour,
and then retreated to Calais with all they could collect, without loss.

Shortly after, they again assembled a force of five or six hundred
combatants, and set out on a foraging party toward Gravelines. The
Flemings in that quarter collected, and attacked the English, contrary
to the will and advice of the gentlemen who commanded them, namely,
Georges des Ubes and Chery Hazebrouch. The consequence was, that they
were conquered,--from three to four hundred killed, and full six score
prisoners, whom the English carried with them and their forage to
Calais, and to other places under their obedience. The remainder saved
themselves by flight as speedily as they could.

At this time, La Hire was posted at Beauvais and Gerberoy,--and, by
means of intelligence which he had kept up in the town of Gisors, he
gained admittance, with the forces under his command, and won the
place. Part of the garrison retired into the castle, and hastily sent
off messengers to Rouen, and to other towns, to state their situation
and demand succours. On the third day, so strong a reinforcement came,
the town was reconquered,--and La Hire and his companions marched off
at a quicker step than a pace, with the exception of twenty or thirty
who had remained behind. These were put to death or detained prisoners
by the English, together with a great number of the inhabitants,
because they had afforded assistance to their enemies.



The men of Ghent were not idle all this time. They issued a summons
throughout their castlewicks and dependances, for all burghers,
whatever their rank might be, (reserving, however, the vassals of their
prince) to appear within three days before the sheriffs of Ghent, and
have their names and surnames inrolled, under pain of losing their
franchises. They were also ordered to provide themselves with arms
and all necessary habiliments for war. They likewise caused it to be
proclaimed, that those who had for their misdeeds been condemned to
perform certain pilgrimages, would be excused from doing them until
their return from the war, and fourteen days after; and also that those
who had quarrels should be placed under the safeguard of the law,
and all who dared to infringe it should be punished according to the
custom of the town of Ghent. It was also forbidden for any one of that
country, whatever his rank, to carry, or have carried away, any armour,
or habiliments for war, under pain of banishment for ten years.

When these proclamations were issued, there was much bustle in Ghent
and its dependances in preparations for the war,--and every town and
village knew exactly how many men they were to provide to make up the
quota of seventeen thousand, which the city of Ghent had promised
to deliver to their prince in the course of the present year; and
each family knew also the exact amount of the taxes it was to pay
for the support of the war. Summonses were next issued through their
castlewicks, that a third more carts and waggons were to be provided
than had been necessary for the late expedition to Hamme on the Somme;
and these demands were proclaimed in all the usual places by officers
sent from Ghent. But as these matters did not seem to the men of Ghent
to be pushed forward with the expedition they expected, they sent
another proclamation to their officers, declaring, that if within three
days from the date thereof there were not sent to their commissary in
Ghent the number of carriages required, they would order the deacon of
the black hoods and his attendants to the different towns and villages
to seize on all the best carts and carriages without exception, and at
the expense of those who should neglect to send them to Ghent by the
time specified. This second proclamation caused such an alarm among the
farmers and peasants, lest the black hoods should be sent, that they
made such dispatch in forwarding their carriages to the appointed place
that the townsmen of Ghent were well satisfied with them.

The regulations for their arms were as follow: each was to provide
himself with a short mallet of lead or iron, having points on its head
and a lance; that two mallets would be reckoned as equal to one lance;
that without such arms they would not pass muster,--and those who
should be found defective would be punished.

The inhabitants of Bruges, and the other towns, made likewise very
grand preparations to join the army; and for two months the majority of
such as had been ordered on this service had not done a single day's
work at their trades. Thus the greater part of their time was occupied
in spending their money in large companies at taverns and ale-houses,
which very frequently caused quarrels, when several were killed or

The duke of Burgundy, in the mean while, was busily employed in
preparing for his attack on Calais.

During this time, there lived one Hannequin Lyon, a native of
Dunkirk, but who, for his demerits, had been banished from Ghent,
and, becoming a fugitive, turned pirate, and, by his good fortune and
activity, increased in wealth, so that he now possessed eight or ten
vessels, well armed and victualled, under his command. He made war
indiscriminately on the flags of all nations, and was much feared on
the coasts of Holland and Flanders. He called himself The Friend of God
and the Enemy of all Mankind.

At length, he met with the fate that people of his way of life
generally experience,--for, when he was at the highest pinnacle of his
fortune, he lost his life and his wealth in a tempest at sea.



At this time, sir John de Croy, bailiff of Hainault, assembled, on
the borders of Picardy and the Boulonnois, about fifteen hundred
combatants, the principal leaders of whom were the lord de Waurin, sir
Baudo de Noyelle, sir Louis de Thieubronne, Robert de Saveuses, Richard
de Thieubronne, the lord Deulez, the bastard of Roucy, with several
more, well experienced in war. They intended to march them against
Calais and other places dependant on the English, and for this reason
had their rendezvous at a village called le Wast, two leagues from St

They marched thence one night to forage the country of the enemy,--but
this same night the English had formed an expedition to do the like
in the Boulonnois, to the amount of about two thousand men. Neither
of them knew of the other's intent, nor did they take roads likely
to meet; but on sir John de Croy's approaching the English border,
he dispatched some expert men at arms, well acquainted with the
country, to gain intelligence. They fell in with the rear of the
English detachment near the bridge of Milay, about day-break, and, on
reconnoitring them, found that they were very numerous. When returned
to sir John, they made him acquainted with what they had seen, and
that the English were advancing toward the Boulonnois. A council of
the captains was called to determine how they should act, when it
was resolved to pursue and attack them during the time they would be
engaged in plundering the villages, if they could overtake them in
time--otherwise to combat them wherever they should meet.

It was ordered that sir John de Croy, accompanied by a body of the most
able men at arms, should advance with the greater part of the archers,
and that the main body should follow near, under the banner of sir
Louis de Thieubronne.

Scouts were again sent forward, who rode long before they saw the
fires which the enemy had made by burning different villages and small
towns. Some prisoners whom they had taken had given information to the
English of their being abroad, who in consequence had collected their
men on a small eminence between Gravelines and Campagne[37]. It might
be at this time about ten o'clock, but the greater part of the English
were assembled lower down, and could not well be seen.

The main body of the Burgundians, on perceiving the enemy, were very
eager for the combat, because the advanced party had already begun
the engagement, and from sixty to eighty of the English on the hill
were slain and the others put to flight; but when, on advancing, they
perceived so large a body on the other side of the declivity rallying
the runaways, they were surprised and fearful of the event, and halted
for the arrival of the main body.

In the mean time, the English recovered courage on seeing the enemy
afraid to follow up their victory, and made a well ordered and firm
charge upon them. The Burgundians could not withstand the shock, were
thrown into confusion, and, instantly wheeling round, fled in haste for
the castles under their obedience.

The English, who had been half conquered at the first onset, pursued
them, full gallop, as far as the town of Ardres, and even within the
barriers. Upwards of a hundred were slain or made prisoners: among the
first was Robert de Bournonville, surnamed the Red. In the last were
Jean d'Estreves, Bournonville, Galiot du Champ, Maide, Houttefort,
Barnamont, and many others, men of note. The English pursued their
enemies with such eagerness that five or six were killed close to the
ditches of the town,--and among them was one of very high rank.

The lord de Waurin, sir Baudo de Noyelle, sir Louis de Thieubronne,
Robert de Saveuses, who had that day been knighted, and several more,
saved themselves in Ardres. Sir John de Croy had been wounded by an
arrow at the first onset, and his horse killed. He and the lord Deulez
retired to the abbey of Lille, much troubled and hurt at his defeat.
The others escaped to divers forts and castles in the neighbourhood.

When the English had ceased pursuing, they collected together, and
returned with their prisoners to Calais, and to other places under
their government. The count de Mortaigne came out of Calais to meet
them, and gave them a most joyful reception, blaming greatly, at the
same time, those who by flying had put them in such imminent danger.


[Footnote 37: Campagne-les-Boulonnois,--a village of Artois, near St



At the beginning of the month of June, duke Philip of Burgundy having
completed his preparations for the siege of Calais, as well in men
as in warlike stores, went without state to Ghent and other places
in Flanders, that he might hasten the march of the troops from that

On the Saturday after Corpus-Christi-day, a general muster was made
in Ghent before the duke, of all who were to join his army from that
town and its dependances, namely, from the towns of Alost, Grammont,
Dendermonde and Mene[38], (with those of the five members of the
county of Alost, containing seventy-two country towns and lordships)
of Boulers, Sotengien, Tournay, Gaures and Rides, with those from
Regnaits, and the regalles of Flanders, situated between Grammont and
Tournay. These troops remained in the market-place, where they had
been mustered, from eight o'clock in the morning until noon, when
they marched out of the town, taking the road to Calais. The duke
accompanied them as far as the open country, where he took leave of
them and went to Bruges, to hasten their contingent of men.

The weather was so exceedingly oppressive that two of the ghent
captains died of the heat. They were named Jean des Degrez, deacon of
the watermen, and Gautier de Wase-Reman, captain of Westmonstre, with
several others of low degree. The commander in chief of this division
of the flemish army was the lord de Comines; of that of Bruges, the
lord de Fienhuse; of those from Courtray, sir Girard de Guistelles; of
those from the Franc, the lord de Merque; of those from Ypres, Jean de

The first night they halted at Deijnse and Peteghem, which are not far
distant from Ghent, and remained there on the morrow to wait for their
baggage and stores. On the ensuing Monday they departed, and continued
their march until they came to the town of Armentieres, when they
quartered themselves in the meadows without the town with those from
Courtray and Oudenarde, who were within the castlewick of Ghent, and
had joined them on the march. The lord d'Antoing was their leader and
commander in chief, as being hereditary viscount of all Flanders.

When they remained at Armentieres, twenty-one of their men were
arrested, and hung on trees in front of head-quarters, for
having robbed some peasants. The ghent division then advanced to
Hazebrouch, in the country of Alleu, where they destroyed the mill
of d'Hazebourch, because he had, as they said, led on the Flemings
ungallantly when they were lately defeated by the English near to
Gravelines; but he excused himself by declaring, they would not attend
to his advice, nor obey his orders.

Thence they advanced to Drinchaut[39], where they were met by their
prince the duke of Burgundy, and the count de Richemont, constable of
France, who had come thither to wait on the duke. Both of them visited
the ghent men, and partook of a collation at their head-quarters.
The army marched through Bourbourg, and quartered themselves near to
Gravelines, where they destroyed the mill of Georges de Wez, for the
same reason they had done that of Cherry de Hazebourch.

At this place they were joined by the forces from Bruges, Ypres, the
Franc and other towns in Flanders, and formed an handsome encampment,
placing the tents regularly according to the towns they came
from--which made a fine sight, and at a distance had the appearance of
a large town. The carriages were innumerable to convey these tents,
baggage and stores; and on the top of each was a cock to crow the
hours. There were also great numbers of peasants to drag the culverines
and other engines of war; and the majority of the Flemings wore plain
armour, according to the custom of their country.

On their departure, they all mustered under arms before the duke and
constable, who viewed them with much pleasure,--and on this day a wolf
ran through the ranks of the division from Bruges, which caused a great
alarm and a cry of 'To arms!' on which the whole took the field, when
there might be full thirty thousand wearing helmets. They crossed the
river at Gravelines, and fixed their quarters at Tournehem, not far
distant. The weather was at this time dreadfully severe, with rain and
such high winds that they could not pitch their tents, but were forced
to lie on the ground. Three Picards were arrested and hanged by the
ghent men, for robbing the landlord of an hôtel of his provisions.

The count d'Estampes here joined the army of Flanders with the men at
arms the duke of Burgundy had ordered on this expedition,--and on a
Friday the whole encamped before the castle of Oye[40], in possession
of the English. This place soon surrendered to the duke and to the
men of Ghent, who ordered nine and twenty to be hanged the same day
in front of the castle; and afterward twenty-five suffered the like
sentence, with the exception of three or four that were respited at the
request of the duke. The castle was on its surrender burnt, and razed
to the ground.

With regard to the Picards and Burgundians now with the army, although
very expert plunderers, they could not lay hands on any thing; for the
flemish commanders would on no account suffer such things, or, when
known, pass them over with impunity,--and, what was worse, when they
chanced to get any things from the enemy, it often happened that, with
their spoil, their own private property was taken from them also. When
they complained of this, they only received additional blows, which
obliged them to be silent and suffer all, from the greater power of the
Flemings, but it was most impatiently.

The Flemings were so presumptuous that they thought nothing could be
done without them, and even imagined that the English, from fear of
them would abandon Calais and fly to England. This was frequently the
subject of their conversations with the Picards, adding, that they
well knew that, when the English should be informed of their lords of
Ghent being in arms against them, they would not run the risk of being
conquered by them, but make a timely retreat; that it was negligence in
the fleet not to have advanced prior to their arrival, before the port
of Calais, to cut off their escape.

They needed not have been so uneasy on this head, for the English were
well inclined to defend themselves,--and in truth, king Henry and all
England would just as soon have lost their thirty-year's conquests in
France as the single town of Calais, as I have been credibly informed,
and as they full well showed by their defence shortly afterward.

When the castle of Oye had been demolished, the whole army decamped, to
take post between the castle of Marque and Calais. At the same time,
the duke of Burgundy and his men at arms made an excursion before the
town of Calais, whence issued out a party of horse and foot, and a
considerable skirmish took place,--but in the end the English were
repulsed, and the Picards and Flemings drove away a large booty in
cows, sheep, horses, and other things.

The duke staid with his men at arms some time near Calais, until the
armies were returned to their quarters, and then went to his own tent
before the castle of Marque, as the Picards were about to make a
serious attack on it. The bulwark was won, to the great astonishment of
the garrison, who displayed on the side toward Calais the banner of St
George, ringing at the same time all their bells, and making the most
horrid noises and cries.

The assailants, fearful that the garrison would escape by night, placed
a strong guard all around; and, on the morrow, pointed many great
engines against the walls, which damaged them in several places.
They were then jointly attacked by the Picards and Flemings; but they
defended themselves obstinately by throwing down stones from the
battlements, with which and with arrows they killed and wounded so many
that the assailants were glad to retreat. The besieged demanded a truce
for a parley, which was granted them, when they offered to surrender
to the duke on the sole condition of not being hanged,--but that they
would submit in other respects unconditionally. These terms were
accepted, and all persons forbidden to enter the castle under pain of
death, unless ordered so to do.

The garrison was conducted by the four chief flemish officers to the
head-quarters of the ghent division; and it was determined to make
reprisals, in order to have some flemish prisoners in Calais exchanged.
In consequence, one hundred and four English were delivered over to the
bailiff of Ghent, who carried them thither to be imprisoned.

The greater part of the common men now entered the castle and took
whatever they could find; but some of the ghent men, placing
themselves at the gates, seized on all articles that had been taken, as
they repassed, and laid them in a heap, saying they were so ordered by
the sheriffs of Ghent,--but, when night came, they loaded the whole on
carts, and carried it whithersoever they pleased. They were, however,
charged with this before the sheriffs, and were banished from Ghent,
and the country of Flanders, for fifty years. This sentence raised
great murmurings, and was nearly the cause of a general mutiny among
the Flemings.

On the following day, several men were beheaded because they had been
taken with the English: six were Flemings, and the seventh a Hollander;
after which, the castle was demolished and razed to the ground.

The army now decamped, and fixed their quarters on the spot where,
it was said, Jacques d'Artavelle was formerly encamped when king
Edward won Calais after the decisive battle of Cressy. Duke Philip
was encamped hard by with his chivalry and men at arms, but nearer to
Calais. A severe skirmish took place this day with the English, in
which many were killed and wounded on both sides. La Hire, who had come
to visit the duke of Burgundy, was wounded by an arrow in the leg. Many
engines were also pointed, to throw stones and balls into the town of
Calais, which were returned with such interest from the ramparts, that
the enemy were glad to retreat to a greater distance.

The duke of Burgundy was encamped on the downs, among the sand hills;
and as he was one day riding, with few attendants, to reconnoitre the
towns, a cannon-shot fell so near him that it killed a trumpeter and
three horses, one of which belonged to the lord de Saveuses.

The English made frequent sallies on horseback and on foot, and many
severe skirmishes happened between the two parties, the details of
which would be tedious to relate, or to make mention of those who
behaved the worst or best: but I have heard from very good authority,
that the lords de Habourdin, de Crequi, and de Waurin, were much
applauded for their conduct in these several skirmishes, as well as
other valiant men of note from Picardy. The English, however, carried
off the palm of the day. At times, the Picards repulsed them back to
the barriers, in visible confusion.

With regard to the Flemings, they were not much afraid of these
English,--and thought, that if there were but three Flemings against
one Englishman, they should easily gain their point. The duke of
Burgundy was attended, on this occasion, by his nephew of Cleves, the
count d'Estampes, the lord d'Antoing, commander of the Flemings, the
lord de Croy, the lords de Crequi, de Fosseux, de Waurin, de Saveuses,
de Habourdin, de Humieres, d'Inchy, de Brimeu, de Launoy, de Huchin,
the brothers de Hastines and de Fremessen, with numbers of other lords
and gentlemen of his household from Burgundy, Flanders, Brabant,
Hainault, Artois and other parts of his dominions; but the duke had not
assembled half of his forces from Picardy, in regard to men at arms.
He had even sent back great part of those who were mustered, to the
surprise of many who wished him well; for they thought that it would
have been more to his advantage to have retained them than double the
number of common men.

Sir John de Croy, who commanded in the Boulonnois, was ordered to
quarter himself and men nearer to Calais, on the other side, toward the
bridge of Nieullay, when much conversation took place between them and
those in the town. The duke, shortly after, countermanded him, and sent
him before Guines, where he quartered his detachment near to the walls
and gates, and pointed many large engines against them, which damaged
them much.

Sir John de Croy was accompanied by sir Galois de Rancy, Robert de
Saveuses, and other men of note, who attacked the enemy so vigorously
that, for fear of being taken by storm, they abandoned the town
and withdrew into the castle, whither they were pursued,--and the
attack was renewed with more courage than ever. Before they came to
Guines, the fortress of Vauclingen had surrendered to sir John, on
condition that the English should retire in safety, with part of their
baggage. On similar terms was Sangate-castle yielded up to Robert de
Saveuses, who had marched thither during the siege of Guines,--and he
re-garrisoned it with his men.

During all this time, the duke of Burgundy was encamped before the
strong town of Calais, wondering what was become of his fleet,
which ought to have arrived some time. The Flemings were also much
discontented, and began loudly to complain of the duke's council,
and against the admirals of the fleet, namely, sir John de Hornes,
seneschal of Brabant, and the commander de la Morée; but the duke
appeased them with gentle words, saying that they would soon arrive, as
he had lately had letters from them,--and that hitherto the wind had
been against them, which had prevented their sailing sooner.

There came daily vessels from England to Calais, in sight of their
enemies, some days more, others less, laden with fresh provisions,
reinforcements of men, and warlike stores; and the opposite parties
were not so near each other but that the English turned out every day
their cattle to graze, which vexed their adversaries very much, and was
the cause of frequent skirmishes, in hopes of seizing some of them.

The lords and men of Ghent, perceiving that the Picards were in the
habit of carrying off these cattle, thought within themselves that they
were strong, well made and armed, and might as well have their share
also. On a certain day, therefore, about two hundred assembled, and
went as secretly as they could toward the marshes before Calais, to
forage; but they were seen and known from their dress by the English,
who were not well pleased at the attempt to carry off that whereon they
lived, and instantly attacked them with such courage that twenty-two
were killed on the spot and thirty taken prisoners. The remainder fled
in haste to their quarters, saying they had suffered a great loss, and
caused much confusion, for they thought they had narrowly escaped.
There were frequent alarms in the quarter of the Flemings, for at the
smallest noise they were on the alert and under arms, to the great
vexation of their lord the duke of Burgundy,--but he could not prevent
it, for they would have all things according to their good pleasure.

At this time, a herald, called Cambridge, came from England to the
duke, and, having saluted him very respectfully, said, 'that his lord
and master, Humphry, duke of Glocester, made known to him, by his
mouth, that, with God's pleasure, he would very shortly combat him and
his whole army, if he would wait his arrival,--and, should he decamp
thence, that he would seek him in his own territories,--but he could
not fix on any day for coming, as that would depend on the winds, which
are unsteady, and he could not cross the sea at his pleasure.'

The duke replied, 'that there would be no necessity for the duke of
Glocester to seek him in any other place but where he was, and that,
unless some misfortune should happen, he would there find him.' After
these words, the herald was magnificently feasted,--and rich gifts were
made him, with which he returned to Calais.

On the morrow, the duke of Burgundy went to the head-quarters of
the Flemings, where, having assembled their captains and the nobles
of Flanders, he caused them to be harangued by master Gilles de la
Voustine, his counsellor in the courts of Ghent, on the challenge he
had received from the duke of Glocester, by his herald, and the reply
he had made,--on which account, he requested them, as his dear friends,
to remain with him and assist him in the defence of his honour. Those
present immediately promised to comply with his demand in the most
liberal manner,--as did those from Bruges and the other towns of

It was also determined at this meeting to erect a high block-house on
an eminence near Calais, to enable them to view from it the proceedings
of those in the town. It was instantly begun with oak and other
wood,--and some cannon were placed thereon, to fire into Calais, and a
strong guard ordered for its defence. The English were not well pleased
at this, for they were afraid lest their sallies should be cut off: to
obviate which, they made an immediate attack on it with a large body
of men; but it was well defended by the Flemings, under the conduct of
some able warriors (le bon de Saveuses was one) who had gone thither;
and as numerous reinforcements to the Flemings were continually
pouring in, the English retreated to Calais without effecting any
thing, and leaving some dead behind them.

On the morrow and following days, there was much skirmishing at the
palisades of the town. In one of them, a half-witted knight, the lord
de Plateaux, was made prisoner: notwithstanding his folly, he was a
determined and brave man at arms. On Thursday, the 25th of July, the
fleet, which had been so anxiously expected, was discovered at sea. The
duke of Burgundy mounted his horse, and, attended by many lords and
others, rode to the sea-shore. When a barge having advanced as near
as the surf would permit, a man jumped out, and, coming to the duke,
informed him that the fleet in sight was his own. This spread universal
joy throughout the army, and several ran to the downs to see it,--but
their captains made as many return to the camp as they could.

The following evening-tide commissioners, appointed for this purpose,
quitted the fleet, and sunk four vessels in the mouth of the harbour
of Calais, that were filled with immense stones, well worked together
and cramped with lead, in order to choak up the entrance, and prevent
any supplies from entering the harbour from England. The fleet kept up,
in the mean time, a constant fire against the vessels in harbour, and
sunk one. The next day two other vessels, filled with stones like the
others, were also sunk at the mouth of the port. But, to say the truth,
all these sunken vessels were so improperly placed that when the tide
was out many remained on the sand, scarcely covered with water.

The English hastened from the town at ebb tide, as well women as
men, and with strong efforts, pulled them to pieces, and what wood
they could not convey into the town they burnt and destroyed,
notwithstanding a continual fire from the fleet, to the great
astonishment of the duke and his admirals.

Sir John de Hornes, seneschal of Brabant, the commander de la Morée,
and other lords from Holland, set sail with the fleet on the morrow,
and were soon out of sight, on their return to whence they had come;
for indeed they could not with safety remain long before Calais, on
account of danger from sea, which sailors say is more imminent between
Calais and England than elsewhere. They had also received information
that a fleet was on the point of sailing from England, against which
they would be unable to make head.

The Flemings were much discontented at their sailing away, and murmured
among themselves, saying they were betrayed by the ministers of their
prince,--for they had been promised, on leaving Flanders, that Calais
should at the same time be besieged by sea and land,--so that their
leaders had difficulty enough to pacify them.

In the mean time, the duke of Burgundy had sent to summon men at arms
from all parts of his dominions, and was impatiently expecting their
arrival to assist him in opposing the troops that were coming from
England. He ordered the ground to be examined by such as were well
acquainted with those parts, for a spot whereon he might best offer
battle to his enemies on their arrival; and to be better prepared for
every event, he summoned a grand council of his advisers, together with
the principal leaders of the commonalty, on the 27th of July, and laid
before them the whole of his intended operations, with which they were
perfectly satisfied.

But these were wholly deranged, a few days afterward, by the commonalty
from Ghent; for on the day the council was held, the English made a
grand sally from Calais, both horse and foot, and advanced unexpectedly
to the block-house before mentioned: the cavalry were posted between
the camp and the block-house, so that no immediate aid could be
sent thither. There were from three to four hundred Flemings in the
block-house,--and the cries of 'To arms!' were re-echoed through the
army, which caused great confusion and alarm. Multitudes rushed from
all sides to relieve the block-house, and even the duke of Burgundy
himself went thither on foot. But the English made a most vigorous
attack, and the defence was but indifferent, so that the block-house
was won before assistance could arrive.--About eight score Flemings
were killed, and the greater part of the rest made prisoners,--and
full half of them were put to death before the gates of Calais,
because the Flemings had slain an English knight whom the Picards
had taken prisoner while on horseback at this rencounter. The capture
of the block-house and its consequences were grievous to the duke of
Burgundy,--and the Flemings retreated to their camp disconsolate and
vexed at the death and capture of their friends and companions.

This same day, they collected together in different parts, and said
among themselves that they were betrayed, for that not one of the
promises which had been made them were kept; that they daily had some
of their number killed, without their nobles attending to it, or
endeavouring to prevent it. In short, they worked upon themselves so
much by this kind of conversation that they determined, in spite of
every remonstrance, to decamp and return home; and some of them wanted
even to put to death several of the duke's ministers.

The duke, on hearing of their intentions, was much troubled, and vexed
at the disgrace that would fall on him should he now decamp, after the
challenge sent him by the duke of Glocester by his herald and the
answer he had returned. He went, therefore, to the head-quarters of the
ghent division, and there assembled a large body of the malcontents,
whom he entreated in the most pressing manner to remain with him until
the arrival of the English, which it was now ascertained could not be
long; adding, that should they depart without waiting for the enemy and
offer him battle, they would cover themselves and him with indelible
disgrace, and such as no prince ever had incurred. With such language
did the duke and his council harangue the ghent men, but it was all in
vain, for they were most obstinately bent on departing, and listened
with a deaf ear to all that was said; notwithstanding, some of their
captains answered courteously for them, making excuses for their
conduct,--but for which the lower ranks little thanked them.

The duke, perceiving the difficulty in which these commoners had
involved him, and the blame which would be cast on him for their
departure, it need not be asked whether he was grieved at heart, for
hitherto all his undertakings had succeeded to his wish, and this,
which was of the greatest consequence, he failed in. He was, however,
obliged to endure the rudeness and folly of the Flemings,--for he could
not alter their dispositions, although he made repeated attempts to
detain them for a few days only.

When he perceived that it was labour in vain to make further
requests, he agreed with the lords of his council to decamp with the
Flemings,--and informed them, that since they would not remain longer,
he wished them to wait until the morrow, when they should pack up their
baggage, and march away in good order, with their arms, that they might
not be harrassed by the enemy, and that he would escort them as far
as the river of Gravelines. They returned for answer, that they would
comply with this order; but the greater number said, that they were in
sufficient force not to need any escort.

Several of the ringleaders of this mutiny were anxious to go to
the duke's quarters, to put to death the lord de Croy, sir Baudo
de Noyelle, Jean de Brimeu bailiff of Amiens, and others of the
ministers, saying, that it was by their advice that this enterprise
had been undertaken, which was not possible, as they affirmed, to
be achieved, considering the manner in which the business had been
carried on. These three lords, hearing of the mutiny of the Flemings
and the plots against their lives, left the army privately, with few
attendants, and hastened to the quarters of sir John de Croy before

The Flemings began on the Saturday and Sunday to strike their tents,
and to load their baggage for the march. The ghent men were the
principals in the mutiny,--and after their example, the whole of the
army and its followers packed up their baggage; but from the suddenness
of the departure, a very great quantity of provision and wine were left
behind,--and it was necessary to stave many pipes of wine, and of other
liquors, to the great loss of the merchants.

Several large engines of war and other stores belonging to the duke
of Burgundy were lost, because there were not enough of carts or
waggons to carry them away; and for the like cause, a number of things
belonging to the Flemings remained behind.

They broke up their camp with loud shoutings, bawling together, 'We
are betrayed! _Gaubbe, Gaubbe!_' which words signified nearly, 'Let
us return to our own country.' Having set fire to their huts, they
began their march toward Gravelines in a most disorderly manner. The
duke, overwhelmed with sorrow, put himself and his men at arms in
battle-array to cover the retreat of the Flemings, and kept on their
rear until they were at a sufficient distance, to prevent them from
being attacked by the English in Calais sallying out against them. He
formed his men at arms into a rear-guard, and thus followed the army,
which was already advanced as far as the castle of Marque.

The Flemings then marched, in a mere orderly manner, to quarter
themselves near to Gravelines, on the same spot they had occupied
before. The men of Bruges were, however, very much displeased at this
shameful retreat, and from not having horses to carry away their large
cannon and other engines of war which they had brought with them: they
put them on carts, and had them drawn by men to their former encampment
near to Gravelines.

This day the duke sent orders to sir John de Croy to break up his siege
of the castle of Guines, and join him with his men at arms without
delay. Sir John, on receiving this order and hearing of what had passed
in the main army, made instant preparations to obey it, and marched off
in good array, but was forced to leave behind many large engines, and a
quantity of other things, from want of means to convey them off.

The garrison of Guines were very much rejoiced at their departure, for
they were hardly pressed, and would have been obliged to surrender in a
few days had the Burgundians remained. They made a sally when the enemy
was marching away, shouting after them.

The garrison of Calais were likewise well pleased at their departure,
and issued out of the town to collect what had been left behind, and
made a considerable booty. They also sent messengers to England with
information of this event.

The duke of Burgundy was lodged in Gravelines, very much mortified
at what had happened, and complained bitterly of the disgrace the
Flemings had put on him to those of his lords who had accompanied him.
They consoled him as well as they could, and advised him to bear it
patiently, as it was the chance of fortune in this world. At the same
time, they recommended him to reinforce all his towns on the frontier
with steady men at arms, stores and provisions, as soon as possible,
to resist his enemies, who were daily expected from England, and who
would, as he might suppose, make every attempt to injure him, in return
for what he had done to them; and that he himself should retire to one
of the towns in the interior.

The duke of Burgundy issued summonses for all bearing arms to be ready
prepared to defend such parts of his dominions as should need it. He
then entreated some of the nobles present that they would remain in the
town of Gravelines, which, unless well guarded, would, if taken, be
very prejudicial to the whole country, promising them, on his honour,
that should they want assistance, or be besieged, he himself would
come to their succour, cost what it would. The lord de Crequi, the lord
de Saveuses, sir Simon de Lalain, his brother sir Sausse, Philibert de
Vaury, and other valiant men at arms, complied with his request, and
remained in Gravelines.

On the other hand, sir Louis de Thieubronne with his brother Guichart
were sent to Ardres, and others into the Boulonnois where the towns and
castles were garrisoned according to their strength and importance.
Some lords of the council were present at this meeting who had
advised the expedition to Calais, but greatly hurt at its unfortunate
termination, which they could not help: they were, nevertheless, forced
to hear many severe observations made thereon.

When the council broke up, and the above dispositions for the defence
of the country had been arranged, the duke again solicited the Flemings
to wait a few days longer for the arrival of the enemy,--but they
refused to remain from the fear they now had of the English; and some
of their captains waited on the duke the last day of July, to demand
leave to return to their own country. The duke, seeing that he could
no way detain them, gave permission for their departure; for he was
satisfied they would never act well against the enemy from want of

They marched from Gravelines, by short days marches, to their different
towns; but those from Ghent refused to enter their town unless each
man had a robe given him at the expense of the magistrates. This was
an ancient usage on the return of the townsmen from war; but now the
magistrates refused compliance, because it seemed to them that they
had behaved very ill. On receiving this answer, they did enter the
town, but much discontented and with murmuring. On marching from before
Calais, they had set fire to and destroyed the forts of Balinghen[41]
and of Sangate.

The duke of Burgundy, on leaving Gravelines, went to Lille, and thence
issued a proclamation for every person who had been accustomed to bear
arms to hold himself ready to march whithersoever he might please
to order, to oppose his adversaries the English, who were about to
disembark at Calais. In truth, the duke of Glocester arrived with his
army before Calais just after the burgundian army had decamped.


[Footnote 38: Mene. Q. Mechlin, or Menin?]

[Footnote 39: Drinchaut,--a village near Dunkirk.]

[Footnote 40: Oye,--a small town and territory between Gravelines and

[Footnote 41: Balinghen--is called before Vauclingen.]



While the duke of Burgundy was employed on the expedition against
Calais, sir Florimont de Brimeu, seneschal of Ponthieu, Richard de
Richaumes, governor of the town of Rue, Robert du Quesnoy, governor
of St Valery, and others in the neighbourhood of Crotoy, collected
together about four hundred combatants, and marched them by night to an
ambuscade on the shore near the town and castle of Crotoy.

Robert du Quesnoy ordered about thirty of his men to embark very early
in a boat and row towards the town, to induce the English to pursue
them. This they executed,--and when they thought that they were within
sight of the enemy, they made pretence as if their boat were aground,
and that they could neither advance nor retire, notwithstanding the
efforts ten or twelve of the crew pretended to make to get her afloat.

The English, observing this from the ramparts, thought to take
advantage of their situation, and made a sally, in hopes of taking them
prisoners; but they were immediately surrounded by those in ambush, who
attacked them with vigour, killing on the spot more than sixty-four,
and making prisoners from thirty to forty. The party of the seneschal
lost several. Thus was the garrison of Crotoy much weakened,--and when
the seneschal learnt from his prisoners that but few men at arms were
in the town, he collected a reinforcement of men from the adjoining
parts, and within a few days made an attack on Crotoy, which he took by
storm with little loss of men.

The townsmen retreated to the castle,--before which the seneschal
fixed his quarters, and pointed his engines against it, but without
doing any damage, for it was wonderous strong. When the seneschal had
remained before it some length of time, finding his attempts to conquer
it vain, he dislodged, after he had destroyed the fortifications of
the town, and marched back his men to the places they had come from,
carrying with them all the plunder they had gained in Crotoy.

The English had afterward at Crotoy two boats, called 'Gabarres,'[42]
with which they much harrassed the town of Abbeville, and especially
the fishermen. In consequence, the inhabitants of Abbeville sent by
night a party toward Crotoy in a boat, whence some of the crew by
swimming fastened grappling irons to each of these gabarres,--the
cords of which being fixed to the Abbeville boat, they towed them to
Abbeville, to the vexation of the English.


[Footnote 42: Gabarre--is a flat-bottomed boat, used in Holland and on



A few days after the decampment of the duke of Burgundy and the
Flemings, the duke of Glocester arrived at Calais with about ten
thousand fighting men to combat the duke of Burgundy, had he waited for
him. Since that it was otherwise, he followed the duke to Gravelines,
and thence marched into Flanders, and through several towns and large
villages, namely, Poperingues, Bailleul and others, whose suburbs he
burnt and destroyed, for no one opposed him,--but the people fled on
all sides, and none of the Flemings dared wait his coming. He drove,
therefore, away great numbers of cattle, with little or no loss of
men,--but they suffered much from want of bread.

He passed le Neuf-châtel, and burnt Rimesture and Valon-Chapelle.
Having entered Artois, he advanced to Arques[43] and Blandêques,[44]
where some skirmishing passed,--and he set fire to every town and
village that lay in his way. Marching through the jurisdiction of
St Omer, he committed great waste on all sides; and when near to
Tournehem, Esprelecques and Bredenarde,[45] some skirmishes took place
between him and the different governors: Cavart and other companions of
de Langle were wounded. Many captains were expelled by force from their
castles; and there were more killed and wounded near to Ardres than had
been in all Flanders.

The duke of Glocester now retreated toward Guines and Calais, on
account of sickness in the army, occasioned from want of bread, of
which they had not a sufficiency; and many good women saved their
houses by giving bread, and even got in return cattle, of which the
army had plenty, and which they were driving from Flanders. They were
rather embarrassed with them; for, not finding water to give them,
they wandered abroad and were lost,--and those who went in search of
them were very frequently surprised by the enemy when at a distance
from their vanguard.

While these things were passing in Artois and Flanders, sir Thomas
Kiriel and lord Faulconbridge assembled at Neuf-châtel d'Incourt about
a thousand combatants, whom they led across the Somme at Blanchetaque,
and quartered at Forest-montier; thence they advanced to Broye, on the
river Authie, where they remained four days, and took the castle by
storm, which, however, was not very strong, nor of much value,--but it
belonged to the vidame of Amiens. Part of the garrison were slain, and
from five to six of the English. This capture created great alarm in
the country round; for they feared the enemy would keep possession, as
at the time there were but few men at arms in those parts.

The English having found in this and in other towns much wealth, and
made many prisoners, they returned, by way of Blanchetaque, the same
road they had come, to their different garrisons, without any loss
worth mentioning; but they committed very great waste on the lands of
their enemies.


[Footnote 43: Arques,--diocese of St Omer.]

[Footnote 44: Blandêques,--diocese of St Omer.]

[Footnote 45: Bredenarde,--diocese of St Omer.]



Not long after the Flemings were returned home, news was brought them
that a large fleet of English ships was off the Flemish coast, near to
Biervlict, with intent, as was supposed, of invading the country. The
principal towns remanded the men who had been disbanded, and instantly
marched with a powerful army and artillery toward Biervlict, and
encamped near the sea to wait for the English, who were off the coast.

This fleet, however, was not stationed there for the purpose of
covering an invasion, but merely to alarm the Flemings, and prevent
them from opposing the duke of Glocester, who was with his army in the
neighbourhood of Poperingues and Bailleul. It had on board no men at
arms, but only mariners to manage and defend it, which made them no way
anxious to enter any of the enemy's ports; and, after hovering along
the coast for a few days, it made sail for Calais.

When the fleet was gone, each company of Flemings marched back to its
town, excepting those from Ghent, who being discontented at the blame
thrown on them, for being the principal cause of the retreat from
Calais, would not lay down their arms, and wanted to introduce many
reforms, and were in so mutinous a state that it was necessary for
their prince to go thither.

On the duke of Burgundy's arrival in Ghent, he ordered their
remonstrances to be laid before him. Some contained demands why Calais
had not been besieged by sea as well as by land, according to a promise
made,--and why the English fleet had not been burnt as had been
determined on.

To these demands the duke ordered answers to be given, that it was
impossible, as every seaman knew, to besiege Calais on the sea-side, by
reason of the danger of the vessels being driven on shore and captured
by the enemy. Add to this, that the Hollanders had not kept their
promise of assisting him in this business with their shipping. With
respect to burning the English fleet, the men and vessels ordered on
this service at Sluys had been constantly wind-bound in that harbour,
during the whole time.

In regard to their other demands, namely, to order three governors of
Ghent to make a procession through the country, with a sufficient force
to regarrison all their towns with native Flemings, and to put an end
to the quarrels between Bruges and Sluys, and several other points
insisted on by them, the duke made such satisfactory answers that they
were contented with them; and each laid down his arms, and retired
to his home, although they had shown great signs of violence at the
beginning. They caused the duke's archers to lay aside their staves,
saying that they were strong enough to guard him.

Sir Roland de Hautekirque, sir Collart de Comines, sir Gilles de la
Voustine, Enguerrand Auviel and John Daudain, were afterward banished
Ghent, because they had declined to appear with the other citizens to
remonstrate; and the Ghent men wrote to their castlewicks, that whoever
would arrest any one of the above persons, and deliver him into their
hands, should receive three hundred livres tournois as a reward,
besides all reasonable expenses.

Many ordinances were published for the more effectual guard and defence
of the country; and several governors were appointed, under the chief
command of the lord d'Estrenhuse, such as the lord de Comines at Ghent,
sir Gerard de Tournay at Oudenarde, and sir Gerard de Guystelles at
Courtray. Other nobles and men at arms were posted in different towns,
according to their rank, as well on the frontier toward Calais as
elsewhere, and on board of their fleet.

It was also proclaimed, that no person should, on account of the war,
quit the country, under a heavy penalty,--and that everyone should
provide himself with arms suitable to his rank; that all the principal
towns and forts should be repaired, and well supplied with provision
and warlike stores; and likewise that the ditches and ramparts should
be examined, and where weak strengthened and rebuilt at the charge
of the country, or of those who were bounden to keep them in proper
repair. It was at last necessary, in order to keep the commonalty in
good humour, that the duke should say publicly to them, that he was
perfectly satisfied with their departure from before Calais, and that
they had returned by his permission and by his orders. They were most
anxious to have this disgrace wiped away from them, because they knew
full well that all cried shame on them for it.

When all things had been restored to order, the duke of Burgundy
returned to Lille, whither came to him the lord de Chargny, with other
noble and valiant men, bringing with them from near Boulogne about
four hundred combatants, who were dispersed in the garrisons on that
frontier. Shortly after, the lords d'Ansy and de Warembon came thither,
with three or four hundred men, who did much mischief to the countries
of Artois and Cambresis, near to Tournay. The lord de Warembon led them
afterwards to garrison Pontoise, where they remained for a considerable

Throughout all France, the poor people and the church were sorely
oppressed by this war, for they had no defenders; and notwithstanding
the peace concluded at Arras, the French and Burgundians in the
countries of Beauvoisis, Vermandois, Santois, Laonnois, Champagne,
and in the Rethelois, made frequent wars on each other on the
most unreasonable pretences, by which the country was wasted and
destroyed,--and the inhabitants suffered more than before this peace
was made.

The poor labourers had no other resource than pitifully to cry out to
God, their Creator, for vengeance on their oppressors. But the worst
was, when they had obtained letters of favour from any of the captains,
they were frequently not attended to by others, even though of the same

About this time, sir John de Hornes, seneschal of Brabant, who had had,
with the lord de la Morée, the command of the duke of Burgundy's fleet
before Calais, was met near the sea-coast, by a party of Flemings,
where he was attending his private affairs, and accompanied by a few
servants, who put him to death, to the great sorrow of the duke of

When the duke had appeased the disaffected Flemings, as has been told,
and when he thought all was harmony among them, the men of Bruges
suddenly rose in arms, and marched with a large body to besiege Sluys,
near to which place they remained a long time. They began by murdering
one of the officers of their prince, called Vaustre d'Estembourg,
because he would not join the commonalty in arms before Sluys, where
they remained upwards of six weeks. Their leaders were Peter de
Bourgrane and Christopher Myneer; and one among them, named George
Vauderberques, made the duchess of Burgundy and her son quit their
carriage, in order that they might search it,--when they arrested the
lady of sir John de Hornes, which much troubled the duchess, although
the lady did not suffer any thing further. Sir William and sir Simon
de Lalain were with these ladies,--but by some negotiation between
them and the duke, they returned to their homes, and were pardoned for
this and other offences, because he thought that he should want their
services hereafter.



La Hire about this period won the town and castle of Soissons by storm,
from the governor, Guy de Roye, on the part of sir John de Luxembourg,
who, not having taken the oaths to king Charles as the other burgundian
captains had done, conformable to the peace at Arras, was considered by
the French as an enemy. The king, however, had granted him a delay for
a certain time, to consider of it, and had during that period forbidden
his captains to make war on sir John, provided he and his party should
abstain from war also.

When news of this event reached sir John de Luxembourg, he was much
angered,--for the greater part of Soissons and its dependances
appertained by legal descent to his daughter-in-law, Jane de Bar,
countess of St Pol. He reinforced all his other castles with men and
stores, to prevent any similar accident from befalling them. On the
other hand, Guy de Roye, who held the castle of Maicampre, between
Chargny and Noyon, placed a strong garrison within it, and carried on a
severe warfare against La Hire, in the Soissonnois, Laonnois, and other
parts attached to king Charles.

Similar reprisals were made by La Hire and the king's friends on those
of sir John de Luxembourg,--and thus was the country oppressed and
ruined, as well by one party as by the other.

After the duke of York had gained the town of Fécamp, by the surrender
of John d'Estouteville, it was reconquered by the French from the
English,--and nearly at the same time the duke of York gained, after
a long siege, St Germain sur Cailly[46], when about twelve of the
French were hanged. In like manner were the towns of Fontaines sur
Préaux[47], Bourg,[48] Blainville,[49] Préaux,[50] Lillebonne,[51]
Tancarville,[52] and other strong places reconquered, and the greater
part destroyed by the English. After this, they continued to waste all
the corn countries round Harfleur, with the intent of laying siege to
it as speedily and as completely as they could.


[Footnote 46: St Germain-sur-Cailly,--in Normandy, diocese of Rouen.]

[Footnote 47: Fontaines-sur-Préaux,--diocese of Rouen.]

[Footnote 48: Bourg Baudorion,--diocese of Rouen.]

[Footnote 49: Blainville,--diocese of Rouen.]

[Footnote 50: Préaux,--diocese of Rouen.]

[Footnote 51: Lillebonne,--diocese of Rouen.]

[Footnote 52: Tancarville,--near Lillebonne.]



In this year, the duchess of Bedford, sister to the count de Saint
Pol, married, from inclination, an English knight called sir Richard
Woodville, a young man, very handsome and well made, but, in regard to
birth, inferior to her first husband, the regent, and to herself. Louis
de Luxembourg, archbishop of Rouen, and her other relations, were very
angry at this match, but they could not prevent it.[53]

About the end of the following November, Jacquilina of Bavaria, who
had married Franche de Borselline, died, after a long and lingering
illness. She was succeeded by the duke of Burgundy in all her

The king of Sicily, duke of Anjou, the duke of Bourbon, the constable
of France, the chancellor, and many other noble princes and great
lords, visited the duke of Burgundy, about St Andrew's day, at Lille,
where he held his court. He received them most honourably. During their
stay, a treaty was proposed for the liberty of the king of Sicily, for
he was still a prisoner to the duke of Burgundy, as has been before
mentioned,--and some of his children were hostages for him in Burgundy.

This treaty was concluded, on condition that the king of Sicily would
engage to pay a certain sum of money for his ransom, for the security
of which he was to pledge four of his towns and castles in his duchies
of Lorraine and Bar, namely, Neuf-châtel in Lorraine, Clermont in
Argonne, Princhy[54] and Louye,[55] which were to be given up to the
duke when demanded. The duke of Burgundy, shortly after, placed his own
garrisons and captains in these towns and castles.

Thus did the king of Sicily recover his liberty and his children; but
he had only the two eldest sent to him at first, with a promise that
the two others should follow, provided there was not any default of
payment. In order that no delays might arise, sir Colard de Saussy and
John de Chambly bound themselves, with the king of Sicily, for the due
performance of all the articles of the treaty.

When this business was over, the constable of France treated with sir
John de Luxembourg, who was then at Lille, that all matters in dispute
between him and La Hire, on the subject of the capture of Soissons,
should be referred to arbitrators, and that an end should be put to
the warfare now raging between them. The term for taking the oaths of
allegiance to the king of France, or for declaring for one or other of
the parties, was prolonged for sir John de Luxembourg until St John
Baptist's day ensuing, on his promising to abstain from all hostilities
during that time.

During these feasts, William de Flavy, who had been driven out of
Compiégne by the constable of France, found means to re-enter it,
with a large body of men at arms, and kept possession a long time; in
which at length he was confirmed by king Charles, in spite of all the
attempts of the constable to reconquer it.

At this period also, the English regained by storm the town of
Pontoise. The attack commenced at day-break, when great part of the
garrison, consisting of about four hundred combatants of the lord de
l'Isle-Adam and de Warembon's men, saved themselves by flight, leaving
their baggage and effects behind them: which conquest was very hurtful
to the country of the Isle de France and the adjoining parts, for the
English placed a very strong garrison in Pontoise, whence detachments
made excursions, and frequently to the very gates of Paris.


[Footnote 53: Sir Richard Woodville paid a fine of £1000 to the
king for marrying the duchess of Bedford without a licence. He
was afterwards created earl of Rivers, and was father to the lady
Elizabeth, queen to king Edward IV.--_Parl. Hist._]

[Footnote 54: Princhy,--Princy, in the Gatinois, near Montargis.]

[Footnote 55: Louye,--in Maine, diocese of Mans.]


 H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-street,
 Blackfriars, London.


Page 1. line 3. _Simon de Lalain._] Either Simon de Lalain lord of
Montigny, younger brother of the lord de Lalain, or another Simon de
Lalain, lord of Chevrain, son of a great uncle of the former, who
married a lady of the house of Luxembourg, daughter to the count de

Page 1. line 4. _Enguerrand de Crequi._] Enguerrand de Crequi, called
_le Begue_, second son of John II, lord of Crequi, and uncle of John
IV, who was killed at Agincourt.

Page 3. line 15. _Rambures._] Andrew II, master of woods and waters in
Picardy, son of David who was killed at Agincourt and was master of the
cross bows of France.

Page 3. line 20. _Ferry de Mailly._] Ferry de Mailly, 4th son of John
Maillet de Mailly, lord of Talmas, &c. who on the death of all his
brothers without issue, succeeded to their lordships and also to the
lordship of Conti, which came into the family by the marriage of
Colart, third son of John Maillet, to the heiress Isabel. The lords of
Talmas were a younger branch of the house of Mailly.

Page 4. line 5. _Bousac._] Jean de Brosse, descended from the ancient
viscounts de Brosse in the Angoumois, was lord of St Severe and
Boussac, and a marshal of France. He signalized himself in many
actions, particularly at the siege of Orleans, and at the battles of
Patai and la Charité, and died in 1433. His son, of the same name, who
succeeded him, was equally celebrated in the history of the day. He
married Nicole de Blois only daughter and heir of Charles, last count
of Penthievre, and transmitted her large possessions to his descendants.

Page 8. line 7. _Lord de Chargny._] Peter de Bauffremont, lord of
Chargny, a noble Burgundian, knight banneret, and of the golden fleece.
See post, p. 222.

Page 8. line 8. _Lord de Humieres._] Matthew II, second son of Philip
lord of Humieres, who was made prisoner at the battle of Agincourt.

Page 9. line 19. _Lord de Crevecoeur._] James lord of Crevecoeur, and
Thois, chancellor and chamberlain to the duke of Burgundy.

Page 12. line 6. _Anthony de Chabannes._] Anthony, third son of Robert
lord of Charlus killed at Agincourt. Stephen, his eldest son, was
killed at Crevant in 1423. James the second, was lord of La Palice;
seneschal of Toulouse, and grand master of France, and was killed at
Castillon in 1453. This Anthony was at first, lord of S. Fargeau. He
was born in 1411, and served as page to the count of Ventadour and to
the great La Hire. He was at the battle of Verneuil 1424. In 1439, he
married Margaret de Nanteuil, countess of Dammartin, and assumed the
title of count de Dammartin by virtue of that marriage. He was grand
master, governor of Paris, &c., and died in 1488.

Page 13. line 20. _Lord de Châtillon._] Perhaps Charles de Chàtillon
lord of Sourvilliers, son of Charles lord of Sourvilliers killed at

Page 13. line 20. _Lord de Bonneul._] Another Charles de Châtillon, of
a younger branch, was lord of Bonneuil.

Page 29. line last. _Quarrel._] Renè claimed the duchy of Lorraine in
right of his wife Isabella, only daughter of Charles the late duke;
and Heuterus, relating the cause of this quarrel, says that Anthony
count of Vaudemont, brother of the deceased refused to admit Renè's
pretensions, alledging that the duchy could not descend to the heirs
female. For some reasons, however, it would appear probable that
Heuterus is mistaken, and that the dispute related to the affairs of
the county of Vaudemont only.

Page 36. line 7. _Count de Fribourg._] The county of Freyburg became
united with that of Neufchàtel by the marriage of Egon XIV, count of
Furstenburg and Freyburg, with Verena heiress of Neufchàtel. Their
grandson John count of Freyburg, &c. married a daughter of the prince
of Orange, but died 1458 without issue.

Page 36. line 7. _Lord de Mirabeau._] Henry de Bauffremont married
Jane, sister and heir to John last lord of Mirabeau of the family of
Vergy, about 1388.

Page 75. line 11. _Gilles de l'Aubespine._] Giles baron d'Aubespine
was of a noble family in Beauce, and ancestor of the marquisses of
Chateauneuf, Verderonne, and Aubespine, many of whom were distinguished
characters in the two following centuries.

Page 78. line 19. _Lord d'Orville._] Robert d'Aunoy Seigneur d'Orville,
master of the woods and waters in the year 1413, who died the year
following, was son of Philip d'Aunoy, Maitre d'Hotel to king Charles V,
and present at the battle of Poitiers. John, the son of Robert, is the
lord here mentioned; he was grand echanson of France, and died in 1489.
_Le Galois_ was a common surname of the lords d'Orville.

Page 89. line 17. _Magistrates._] The cause of this commotion was the
baseness of the gold and silver coin struck in the duke's name. The
sedition lasted twelve, not two days only, and was appeased by the
promise of a new coinage. _Pontus Heuterus_ in vit: Philippi boni.

Page 92. line 14. _Blanchefort._] Perhaps, Guy III. de Blanchefort,
lord of St Clement, &c. a chamberlain of the king, and seneschal of
Lyons, who died in 1460.

Page 93. line 9. _Lord d'Amont._] This must be James lord of Aumont,
counsellor and chamberlain to the duke of Burgundy, son of John lord of
Aumont, grand Echanson, who was slain at Agincourt.

Page 98. line 14. _Flanders._] Monstrelet appears to have been but
imperfectly informed of these transactions. In the year 1428, the
countess being besieged in Gouda by the Burgundian forces, submitted
to a peace, by which she acknowledged Philip as her heir to Hainaut,
Holland, Zealand, and Friezland, appointing him protector of the said
states during her life-time. It was also stipulated that she should not
marry without the consent of Philip and her states. Upon the conclusion
of this treaty, the duke departed, leaving Francis de Borselle, a
nobleman of high rank attached to the Burgundian party, lieutenant of
the provinces. _In July 1433_, says, the historian of Holland, the
countess married this gentleman in violation of her engagement, upon
which the duke entered the country, caused him to be apprehended, and
confined him in the tower of Rupelmonde. It was rumoured that he would
be beheaded; and Jacqueline alarmed for his safety, conveyed absolutely
the whole of her estates to Philip for his liberation, in consideration
of which the _generous_ robber assigned to his late prisoner the county
of Ostervant, the lordships of Brill and south Beveland, with the
collection of certain tolls and imposts, on which they lived together
but a short time before death put a period to her eventful history,
in the month of October 1436. _Barlandi Hollandiæ comitum historia et

Page 98. line 18. _Thomas Conette._] This unfortunate heretic was a
Breton by birth. Being seized with an inordinate desire of reforming
the dress of the ladies and the manners of the clergy, he left Rennes
and travelled into the low countries where he preached with so much
success that the towers of gauze and ribbons called _hennins_, which
were then the rage, disappeared wherever he went. Perhaps he was
spared the mortification of hearing that they were resumed several
_stages_ higher, immediately after his departure. From Flanders he
travelled into Italy, reformed the order of Carmelites at Mantua, and
made himself famous for his zeal and eloquence at Venice. The papal
ambassadors reported his praises at Rome; but his ardour for reform
which had captivated many others alarmed pope Eugenius, who justly
dreaded the consequences of his strenuous assertions, that marriage
ought to be allowed to the clergy, and that flesh might be eaten by
them without risk of damnation. It was not long after his arrival at
the pontifical city, that a process was instituted against him for
these and other heretical doctrines, and father Thomas was at last
burnt for not knowing how to confine his eloquence to the harmless
subject which first called it forth. He suffered with great constancy,
and was by some, even among the catholics, reputed a martyr. For
further particulars, consult Bayle, Art. Conecte.

Page 105. line 13. _Daughter_.] Frederick and Iolante. The marriage
thus agreed upon was concluded; and the duchy of Lorraine and county of
Vaudemont were afterwards united in their persons.

Page 109. line 3. from the bottom. _Chasteau-vilain._] William lord of
Chateauvilain held the office of _Chambrier de France_ in 1419 and died
in 1439.

Page 130. line 1. _John de Hingsbergh._] John son of the lord de
Hynsberch Lewenborch, archdeacon of Champagne. He was an adherent to
the duke of Burgundy, was present at some of his campaigns, and is
celebrated as a prelate of vast magnificence.

Page 130. line 2. _William de Lalain bailiff of Hainault._] Of this
family, "a family," says Comines, "of great and brave men, who for the
most part found their deaths in fighting for their native princes"
was Otho lord de Lalain, who died in 1441 at the advanced age of 108
years. His eldest son William, who succeeded him in his honours, and
was bailiff of Hainault and Holland is the person here mentioned. He
died in 1444. Sansay, the second son of Otho, married the heiress of
the family of Robesarte: and Simon the third son, has been already
mentioned at the commencement of the volume, unless that be another
Simon, the first cousin of Otho. See ante p. 1.

Page 132. line 13. _Sir John Talbot._] This is the great Talbot,
created earl of Shrewsbury in 1442.

Page 114. line 12. _Lord Willoughby._] Robert, lord Willoughby of
Eresby, one of the greatest heroes of the English army--present at the
battles of Agincourt and Verneuil, and at almost all the celebrated
actions of the day, was in 1432, dignified with the title of earl of
Vendosme, Beaufort, &c. and died in 1442, leaving only a daughter Joan
the wife of sir Richard Welles knight. Dugdale.

Page 137. line 15. _Viscount de Thouars._] Louis d'Amboise, viscount of
Thouars, prince of Talmont, &c. &c., had been deprived of his lands
for adherence to the English party, but was afterwards restored to
them, and served the king of France in his conquest of Guienne. He was
grandson of Ingerger, surnamed the great, who married Isabel, heiress
of Thouars, and widow of the marshal de Nesle, and was made prisoner at
the battle of Poitiers.

Page 137. line 2 from the bottom. _Lord de Bueil._] John V, count
of Sancerre, son of John lord de Bueil, killed at Agincourt, and of
Margaret countess of Sancerre. He was a celebrated commander, and
called _le Fleau des Anglais_.

Page 137. line last. _Pregent de Coetivy._] Coetivy, the name of an
ancient family of lower Brittany. Pregent VII, lord of Coetivy, was
eldest son of Alan III. killed at the siege of St James de Beauvron
in 1424, and of Catherine daughter of Hervè lord of Chàtel, killed at
Jersey. This Pregent married Mary de Laval, daughter of the infamous
marshal de Retz. He was chamberlain in 1424, governor of La Rochelle,
and in 1439 promoted to the high office of admiral of France. He was
killed at Cherbourg in 1450. "Ce fut un gran dommage et perte notable
pour le Roi, car il etoit tenu des vaillans chevaliers et renommé du
royaume, fort prudent et encor de bon age." Hist. du Roi Charles VII.

Page 139. line 4. _Count de Penthievre._] Oliver de Bretagne, or de
Blois, grandson of the famous competitor of John de Montfort, had been
deprived of his large counties of Penthievre, Limoges, &c. &c. but
never of the duchy of Brittany, to which he pretended no claim. His
brother John lord de l'Aigle was restored to Penthievre soon after, and
died 1454. Charles, the third brother succeeded, whose only daughter
and heir, Nicole de Blois, marrying Jean de Brosse, the county of
Penthievre passed into that family.

Page 139. line 3 from the bottom. _William de Coroam._] Should be Coram.

Page 140. line 15. _Sir Pierre de Beausalt._] Peter de Montmorency,
lord of Plessis Cacheleu, son of John II, lord of Beausalt, and uncle
of Anthony, who was slain at Verneuil, and of John in whom the direct
line of this younger branch ended in 1427.

Page 148. line 5 from the bottom. _King of Cyprus._] Lewis, count of
Geneva, eldest son of Amadeus duke of Savoy, married Charlotte, only
daughter of John king of Cyprus and Helen of Montferrat.

Page 149. line 10 from the bottom. _Count de Nevers._] Charles, count
of Nevers, eldest son of Philip count of Nevers killed at Agincourt,
was born in the year preceding his father's death, and died in 1464.
His mother was Bona d'Artois, daughter of Philip count of Eu.

Page 151. line 15. _Sect._] Here is a vast confusion of names, as
usual, in the affairs of distant countries. Tabouret is evidently an
invention of Monstrelet's derived from Taborite, the general name by
which the religious insurgents were then distinguished, from Tabor a
town in Bohemia, founded by their leader John Zisca. Protestus may,
very probably, be a mistake for Procopius, surnamed "of the shaven
crown," a celebrated leader and bishop among these Taborites during the
reign of Sigismund, who was slain in a bloody battle near Prague. Of
Lupus I can say nothing.

Page 153. line 11. _Lord de la Grange._] John de la Grange, ancestor
of the lords of Vesvre and Montigni, and of the marquisses of Arquien.
Marshal de Montigni, celebrated under Henry the third, was fifth in
descent from him.

Page 156. line 6. _John._] John of Burgundy, a posthumous son of
Philip, and brother to Charles, count of Nevers. He succeeded to the
estates of his brother in 1464, assumed the title of duke of Brabant,
and died in 1491. Elizabeth his daughter married the duke of Cleves,
and brought the earldom of Nevers into that family. His first wife was
daughter of the vidame of Amiens mentioned immediately afterwards.

Page 156. line 16. _Vidame of Amiens._] Raoul d'Ailly, sieur de
Pequigny, and vidame of Amiens.

Page 174. line 8. _Mathagon._] This can be no other than Matthew Gough,
an English captain of those days, and one of the commanders in the town
of St Denis when it was won by the French.

Page 176. line 5 from the bottom. _Fled._] John bastard son of the
great earl of Salisbury, to whom in his will he bequeathed 50 marks.
See _Dugdale_.

Page 182. line 2 from the bottom. _Sir Christopher de Harcourt._]
Christopher de Harcourt lord of Avrech, grand master of the woods and
waters in 1431, was third son of James de Harcourt lord of Montgomery.

Page 202. last line. _Woodville._] Richard de Widvile, was seneschal
of Normandy under Henry V; constable of the tower in 1425; lieutenant
of Calais in 1427; and 1429, served the king in his wars with 100 men
at arms and 300 archers. In 1437, he married the duchess of Bedford
(Jacqueline de Luxembourg) without license, for which he was condemned
to pay a fine of 1000_l._ In 1448 he was created lord Rivers; and in 6
Edward IV. (his daughter being then queen of England) was advanced to
the dignity of earl Rivers, constable of England. Three years after he
was beheaded by the Lancastrian insurgents at Northampton. _Dugdale._

Page 202. line last. _Restandif._ Q.] Restandif, is sir Ralph Standish,
who was killed in this battle. _Stow_ and _Holinshed_.

Mondo Domonfarrant is only an error of the press for Mondo de
Montferrant, who occurs again vol. 8. p. 28.

Page 223. line 3. _Bishop of Ache._] There came to this convention
according to Stowe, Nicholas Albergat, a Carthusian friar, entitled a
priest cardinal of the holy cross, and Hugh de Lusignan, a _Cyprian_ (I
presume he means Cypriot) Greek, bishop cardinal of Præneste: which, or
whether either of these, was the person meant by Monstrelet under the
fanciful name of "bishop of Ache," the reader may determine. Q. Auch.

Page 215. line 7. from the bottom.] Sir John Ratcliffe was constable of
Fronsac in Aquitaine, under Henry V, and seneschal of Aquitaine in 1 H.
6. knight of the garter, &c. He died before 1441 and left a son, John,
who succeeded him, and in 1 H. 7. was summoned to Parliament as lord

Page 215. line 5 from the bottom. _Lord Hungerford._] Walter lord
Hungerford of Heytesbury, treasurer of England, and of the executors
to the will of Henry V. He had summons to parliament from 4 H. 6, to 26
H. 6 inclusive, and died in 1449, leaving Robert lord Hungerford, his
son and successor, who during his father's life-time served in the wars
of France with 29 men at arms and 80 archers, and died in 1459.

Page 216. line 5. _Duke of Gueldres._] Arnold earl of Egmont succeeded
to Gueldres on the failure of the direct line in 1423. His son Adolph
(by Margaret daughter of Adolph IV, duke of Cleves) made war upon him,
in consequence of which he was disinherited, and his father made over
the duchy to Charles duke of Burgundy.

Page 216. line 6. _Count de Vernambourg._] Vernambourg i.e. Virnemburg,
or Wirnemburg, the title of a noble house of the duchy of Luxemburg,
of whom Robert count of Wirnemburg governed the duchy in the name of
Elizabeth of Burgundy.

Page 218. line 12. _Du Châtel._] Oliver lord du Châtel, chamberlain of
Bretagne; son of Hervè lord du Châtel, killed at Jersey, and brother to
the famous Tanneguy.

Page 218. line 14. _Sir Paillard du Fiè_.] Q. Fai? John Genevois
Bouton, lord of Fai, chamberlain of Burgundy, _bailiff_ of Dole, was
a commissary sent by the duke on this occasion. It is not impossible
that an error of the press may have converted his office of _bailli_
into the disgraceful appellation of _paillard_.

Page 219. line 3 from the bottom. _Cleves._] John, who succeeded his
father Adolph IV. duke of Cleves in 1445.

Page 237. line 5. Duke of Milan.] The death of Joan queen of
Naples followed closely upon that of Louis of Anjou, king of Sicily,
in 1434. The following year, Alphonso passed over from Arragon and
commenced the siege of Gaeta; and during that siege the battle was
fought of which this account is given. The personages here mentioned to
have been taken prisoners, are the king Alphonso, his brothers, John
king of Navarre, and Don Henry grand master of St James, the prince of
Tarento, John Anthony de Marzan, duke of Sessa, Christopher Gaetano,
count of Fondi, &c. The name of Garganeymé, I conjecture to be a
blunder for Gaetano; but it is a gross mistake to call him son to the
prince of Tarento.

Page 302. line 15. _Lord de Bloseville._] Qu. Bonvile? Sir William
Bonvile served under Henry V, and again under Henry VI, in the year
1443 with 20 men at arms and 600 archers. He was then seneschal of
Guienne, but may possibly have been in Normandy at this time. In 1450,
he was summoned to parliament as lord Bonvile of Chuton. He afterwards
joined the York party, and was beheaded after the second battle of St.

Page 306. line 3. _Lord de Torsy._] William d'Estouteville, lord of
Torsy, made prisoner at the siege of Harfleur, in 1429, ransomed
himself by the alienation of great part of his estates, and died in
1449. John d'Estouteville, here also mentioned, was his son, and
succeeding him in his lordship was made provost of Paris and master of
the cross-bows.

Page 323. line 6. _Duke of Burgundy._] This prince, the second son of
Charles VII. died in his infancy.

Page 332. line 4. _Commercy._] Robert de Sarbuck, lord of Commercy,
(son of Amé lord of Commercy and Mary daughter of John lord of
Chateauvilain) married in 1417 Jane countess of Roucy and Braine; and
John, their eldest son, here called the heir of Commercy became count
of Roucy and Braine by the donation of his mother in 1439.

Page 332. line 3 from the bottom. _Everard de la Marche._] Everard
III, de la Marck, lord of Aremberg, &c. and, by marriage of Sedan, was
of a younger branch of the family of the counts of la Marck, dukes of
Cleves, &c.

Page 339. line 13. _Lord d'Aussi._] John IV, son of David, _sire et
ber_ d'Auxi, killed at Agincourt, and of Margaret de la Trimoille. He
was lord of Fontaines sur Somme, _seneschal of Ponthieu_, knight of the
golden fleece, and finally master of the cross bows of France.

Page 340. line 5. _Everard de la Marche._] Everard de la Marck. See

Page 348. line 11. _Sir Louis de Thieubronne._] Should be Louis lord of

Page 363. line 14. _Lord de Croy._] Anthony lord de Croy and Renti,
count of Porcean, Guisnes, &c. son of John II, killed at Agincourt, was
grand chamberlain of Burgundy and grand master in 1463.

Page 364. line 4. _Sir John de Croy._] Brother of Anthony lord de
Croy, made count of Chimay in 1473, before which he was lord of Thou
sur Marne.

Page 365. line 12. _Seneschal of Brabant._] John de Hornes, lord of
Baussignies, &c. admiral and grand chamberlain to the duke of Burgundy,
descended from the grandfather of William lord of Hornes, who was
killed at Agincourt.

Page 398. line 3. _Franche de Borselline._] Francis, or Frank de
Borselle. See above.

Page 398. line 7. _Duke of Anjou._] Renè, duke of Bar, who had been
made prisoner as related to p. 42: soon afterward succeeded to the
duchy of Anjou and to the claims of this house on Sicily and Naples, by
the death of his brother, Louis III.

Printed by H. Bryer, Bridge-Street, Blackfriars, London.

Transciber's Note:
Original spelling has been retained.

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