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Title: The American Missionary — Volume 36, No. 12, December, 1882
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Missionary — Volume 36, No. 12, December, 1882" ***

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by Cornell University Digital Collections)



DOUBLE NUMBER. SEE FOURTH PAGE COVER.

[Illustration:

  Volume XXXVI.

  DECEMBER, 1882.

  NO. 12.

  The

  American Missionary

  “THEY ARE RISING ALL ARE RISING, THE BLACK AND WHITE TOGETHER”


  NEW YORK:

  Published by the American Missionary Association,

  Rooms, 56 Reade Street.

  Price, 50 Cents a Year, in Advance.

  Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N.Y., as second-class
  matter.]



                             CONTENTS.

                 *       *       *       *       *


                                                         PAGE.

  EDITORIALS.

    PARAGRAPH—Financial Outlook.                           353
    ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING.         354
    SUMMARY OF THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TREASURER.         357
    GENERAL SURVEY.                                        359


  FREEDMEN.

    REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL WORK.               369
    HIGHER EDUCATION OF THE NEGRO. Pres. E. M. Cravath.    370
    REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON CHURCH WORK.                    372
    REMARKS OF REV. C. O. BROWN.                           374


  AFRICA.

    REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE.                               375
    REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PROPOSED EXCHANGE OF
      MISSIONS.                                            376


  THE INDIANS.

    REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE.                               377
    WORK AND DUTY IN THE EAST. Gen. S. C. Armstrong.        378


  THE CHINESE.

    REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE.                               380
    ADDRESS OF REV. JAMES BRAND, D.D.                      381


  MISCELLANEOUS.

    REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FINANCE.                    383
    PETITION OF PRESIDENT WARE AND OTHERS.                 384
    EXCHANGE OF MISSIONS. By Secretary Strieby.            385


  ADDRESSES AT THE ANNUAL MEETING.

    PRESIDENT HAYS’ ADDRESS.                               391
    ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT A. D. WHITE.                      395
    ADDRESS OF REV. A. G. HAYGOOD, D.D.                    399
    FROM ADDRESS OF GEN. C. B. FISK.                       406
    FROM ADDRESS OF REV. A. J. F. BEHRENDS.                407
    RELATION OF THE A. M. A. TO CIVILIZATION, By Rev.
      F. L. Kenyon.                                        409


  DEDICATION OF LIVINGSTONE MISSIONARY HALL.               410


  RECEIPTS.                                                411

       *       *       *       *       *



American Missionary Association,

56 READE STREET, NEW YORK.

       *       *       *       *       *


  PRESIDENT, HON. WM. B. WASHBURN, Mass.


  CORRESPONDING SECRETARY.

    Rev. M. E. STRIEBY. D.D., 56 _Reade Street, N.Y._


  TREASURER.

    H. W. HUBBARD, Esq., 56 _Reade Street, N.Y._


  DISTRICT SECRETARIES.

    Rev. C. L. Woodworth, _Boston_.
    Rev. G. D. Pike, D.D., _New York_.
    Rev. James Powell, _Chicago_.


COMMUNICATIONS

relating To the work of the Association may be addressed to the
Corresponding Secretary; those Relating To the collecting fields,
to the District Secretaries; letters for the Editor of the
“American Missionary,” to Rev. G. D. Pike, D.D., at the New York
Office.


DONATIONS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

may be sent to H. W. Hubbard, Treasurer, 56 Reade Street, New York,
or, when more convenient, to either of the Branch Offices, Rev. C.
L. Woodworth, Dist. Sec., 21 Congregational House, Boston, Mass.,
or Rev. James Powell, Dist. Sec., 112 West Washington Street,
Chicago, Ill. A payment of thirty dollars at one time constitutes a
Life Member. Letters relating to boxes and barrels of clothing may
be addressed to the persons above named.


FORM OF A BEQUEST.

“I BEQUEATH to my executor (or executors) the sum of ——— dollars,
in trust, to pay the same in ——— days after my decease to the
person who, when the same is payable, shall act as Treasurer of the
‘American Missionary Association’ of New York City, to be applied,
under the direction of the Executive Committee of the Association,
to its charitable uses and purposes.” The Will should be attested
by three witnesses.


The Annual Report of the A. M. A. contains the Constitution of the
Association and By-Laws of the Executive Committee. A copy will be
sent free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *



                                The

                       AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

                 *       *       *       *       *

           VOL. XXXVI.      DECEMBER, 1882.      No. 12.

                 *       *       *       *       *



American Missionary Association.

       *       *       *       *       *

The annual meeting of this Association was held in Plymouth Church,
Cleveland, O., Oct. 24–26, and was one of great interest. In this
number of the MISSIONARY we have endeavored to give a glimpse
of what was said and done. For want of space, almost nothing is
published entire except the reports of the committees.

For Dr. Goodell’s sermon on “More Power from Christ for the World’s
Larger Needs,” Dr. Ward’s paper on “Caste in Education,” Dr.
Noble’s on “God’s Way of Vindicating Brotherhood” and Dr. Roy’s on
“The New South,” we must for the present refer our readers to _The
Advance_ of November 2d.

The papers read before the Women’s Meeting by Mrs. Andrews, Miss
Cahill and Miss Hamilton are reserved for mention in the January
MISSIONARY.

The addresses given by Dr. Gregory, Dr. Rust and Mr. Beard,
representing the Baptist, the Methodist and the Society of Friends
may be used in compiling a pamphlet relating to the work done
among the freedmen. Other addresses or papers may also be given in
pamphlet form.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE FINANCIAL OUTLOOK.

That part of the report of the Committee on Finances at our
Annual Meeting which says: “More ample facilities for church and
educational work bring with them larger demands for funds, so that
simply to preserve its efficiency in fields already occupied, the
Association requires an annual increase in contributions,” will be
readily appreciated by all who are accustomed to study the laws of
growth. Every new building either for school or church purposes;
every additional scholar, whether among the Negroes, Indians or
Chinese; every church and school organized, calls for enlarged
expenditures. The recommendation at Cleveland that $50,000 be added
to the current income of the Association for general uses during
the next fiscal year is based on sound business principles. It is
not one dollar more than will be required to give the greatest
efficiency to our operations. As in the past, so in the future we
must have, if we do what is pressing to be done, money for special
purposes.

1. The church work, that has grown so steadily under our care,
requires $10,000 for enlargement the coming year.

2. The work contemplated among the Indians, in addition to that
carried on by us during the past year, will also require at least
$20,000.

3. We have purchased fourteen acres of land at Little Rock, Ark.,
for a site for the Edward Smith college, and need $25,000 in
addition to the amount pledged to provide the buildings needful.

4. We need a new dormitory at Austin, Tex. Allen Hall was crowded
to its utmost the day the present school year was opened, and among
the first duties of the teachers was the painful one of turning
needy students away.

The committee at Cleveland, in urging that $375,000 be raised for
the coming year, observes that, “While the receipts for the past
two years have been more than $100,000 larger than in the two years
next preceding them, the expense of raising and disbursing these
funds and managing the affairs of the Association has increased
less than $400 per annum, thus showing that the Association is
fully equipped for a much larger work without additional cost
for the machinery of administration.” We never were in such good
condition to do the work we have in hand so economically, wisely
and successfully as at present, and there never was a time when the
welfare of the nation and the cause of Christ were more fruitful
with promise. The voice of the whole people, North, South, East and
West, is calling upon us to go forward with renewed strength. Shall
we have the means needful?

       *       *       *       *       *


ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING.

The thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the American Missionary
Association was held in Plymouth Church, Cleveland, Ohio, on
Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, October 24th to 26th, 1882.

Promptly at three o’clock Tuesday afternoon, the meeting of the
Association was called to order by the President, Hon. William B.
Washburn, of Massachusetts. Devotional services were conducted
by Prof. John Morgan, of Oberlin, after which Gov. Washburn, on
assuming the chair for the first time, said:

“I appear before you on this occasion with feelings of a mixed
character; partly painful, partly pleasing—painful when I reflect
that your expectations in regard to the presiding officer whom
you have lately selected probably never will be realized;
pleasing—doubly pleasing—to remember that I have received the
support of so distinguished an organization as has invited me to
preside over its deliberations.

“Let me, then, first of all, thank you for the honor conferred,
and assure you that no effort of mine shall be wanting to meet the
demands of the occasion.

“I know full well the many trials and difficulties which this
Society has been called upon to pass through in the past. Your
labors have been for the most part among the neglected and despised
races of our country. Society rests upon selfish principles.
Men respect the honored and the elevated, not the despised and
the down-trodden. Hence a great portion of the labors of this
organization has been unknown and uncared-for by the great majority
of mankind; and yet it is in the midst of such degradation that
we get the brightest glimpses of Christianity, the widest and
broadest views of humanity. The aspect to-day which we witness
of endeavoring to raise even the lowest masses of mankind into
intellectual, moral and spiritual dignity, never was broader than
at the present hour. Take courage, then, and feel that your labors
have not been in vain. The success which has attended your efforts
during the past year, the wonderful increase of the means which
have been provided this organization by an enlarged constituency,
the bright aspect of the future, ought to strengthen the hands and
encourage the hearts of all who are interested in this organization
to make greater sacrifices, if need be, in the future than have
ever been made in the past.

“Every true citizen, every real patriot ought to feel to-day a
special interest in the prosperity and the success of this Society.

“It has been well said that essential to the perpetuity of our
republican institutions are two conditions: Popular intelligence
and popular morality. In other words, in order that free
institutions may be preserved, there must be general intelligence
and sound morals. Hence, two institutions are essential—schools
and Christian churches. Free institutions without intelligence can
exist only in name. It is moral, not physical ills which we have to
fear. While the people themselves remain pure no human force can
prevail against them.

“When four millions of slaves were suddenly set free the great
problem to solve was, what shall we do with them? To-day each vote
of those individuals counts as much in the ballot-box as the vote
of the most distinguished and intelligent citizen in the land.
Would we preserve, therefore, and hand down to our children those
institutions which were entrusted to our charge by our fathers, and
which have been shedding on us blessings to which all other nations
are perfect strangers, then we must educate and Christianize these
millions of new-born citizens. I honor this organization especially
to-day because it has done more than all other instrumentalities,
perhaps, combined to bring about this grand result. Let no one,
then, be discouraged or falter at the magnitude of the work; for,
if we rise to the level of our opportunity, if we are true to
ourselves, victory will sooner or later be ours.”

Rev. George R. Merrill, of Ohio, was then elected Secretary, and
Rev. S. M. Newman, of Wisconsin, Assistant Secretary.

The Treasurer, H. W. Hubbard, Esq., then read his report, which was
referred to the Committee on Finance.

The annual report of the Executive Committee of the Association was
presented by Rev. M. E. Strieby, D.D., Corresponding Secretary of
the Society, and its several portions were referred to appropriate
committees.

After the appointment of the various committees, the remainder of
the session was devoted to prayer and conference, led by Rev. C. L.
Woodworth, District Secretary of the Association. This season of
prayer derived special interest from the fact that the same hour
was observed by the workers throughout the field.

Tuesday evening, after devotional services, led by Rev. Arthur
Little, D.D., of Chicago, the annual sermon was preached by Rev. C.
L. Goodell, D.D., of St. Louis, from the text, Matthew 28:18, the
theme being “More Power from Christ for the World’s Larger Needs.”

After the sermon, Rev. J. E. Twichell, D.D., presented an address
of welcome in behalf of the churches and people of Cleveland. The
observance of the Lord’s Supper followed, at which Rev. T. M.
Post, D.D., of St. Louis, and President J. H. Fairchild, D.D., of
Oberlin, presided.

Wednesday morning the prayer meeting was conducted by Rev. H.
L. Hubbell, of New York. At the opening of the regular session
at nine o’clock, the report of the Committee on the Revision of
the Constitution of the Association was presented by Rev. George
M. Boynton, of Massachusetts. A general discussion followed, in
which the speakers were limited to ten minutes each, and which was
closed promptly at half-past ten o’clock. On motion, the report
was made the order for two o’clock in the afternoon. Rev. F. L.
Kenyon, of Iowa, read a paper on “The Relation of the A. M. A.
to Civilization.” Gen. S. C. Armstrong, of Hampton, Va., read a
paper on “The Indian Problem,” which was followed by a few remarks
from Father Potter, of Ohio, formerly for about twenty years a
missionary among the Cherokee Indians. Rev. W. H. Ward, D.D., of
New York, read a paper on “Caste in Education.”

After the opening of the Wednesday afternoon session with prayer,
the order of the day was taken up and the report of the Committee
on the Constitution was referred to a special committee of
thirteen, to reconsider the whole subject, and report at the next
Annual Meeting, after having obtained an expression of opinion
from each of the State Congregational organizations. An invitation
was presented to the Association from Mr. and Mrs. D. P. Eells
to visit Oakwood on Friday morning, which was received with an
expression of thanks. Rev. F. A. Noble, D.D., of Illinois, read a
paper on “God’s way of vindicating Brotherhood.” The report of the
Committee on African Missions was presented by Rev. M. McG. Dana,
D.D., of Minnesota. Rev. Henry M. Ladd, D.D., of New York, using
a large map, gave an account of his recent extended missionary
explorations on the Upper Nile. Rev. M. E. Strieby, D.D., Secretary
of the Association, read a Paper in regard to the proposed exchange
of Missions with the A. B. C. F. M., and a special committee was
appointed to which the paper was referred. Rev. James Brand, D.D.,
of Ohio, presented the report of the Committee on Chinese Missions.

Wednesday evening, after opening with devotional exercises, Rev.
A. G. Haygood, D.D., of Georgia, delivered an interesting address,
followed by addresses from Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, of New York, and
Rev. A. J. F. Behrends, D.D., of Rhode Island.

Thursday morning the prayer-meeting was led by Rev. Moses Smith, of
Michigan. The business session was opened with prayer by Prof. A.
H. Currier, of Oberlin, after which Rev. W. E. Brooks, President of
Tillotson Institute, Texas, presented the claims of the work there.
The report on Indian Missions was presented by Rev. A. H. Ross,
D.D., of Michigan. Prof. G. F. Wright, of Ohio, next presented the
report on the Educational Work at the South, and was followed by
Mr. B. F. Ousley, a graduate of Fisk University, who spoke upon
the report, and also by Prof. A. Salisbury, the recently appointed
superintendent of the educational work of the Association. Rev. E.
M. Cravath, President of Fisk University, read a paper on “Higher
Education.” Rev. Arthur Little, D.D., of Chicago, presented the
report of the Committee on Church Work, which was followed by
addresses from Rev. C. O. Brown and Mr. Geo. W. Moore, a graduate
of Fisk University.

The Woman’s Missionary Meeting was held at nine o’clock Thursday
morning in the chapel of the church, when papers were read by Mrs.
G. W. Andrews, of Talladega, Ala., Miss Annie Cahill, of Nashville,
Tenn., and Miss Hamilton, of Memphis, Tenn.

Thursday afternoon the session was opened with devotional
exercises. The Committee on the proposed transfer of missions
reported, through Rev. M. McG. Dana, D.D., of Minnesota, favoring
the general plan, but making it a condition that the interests of
the work already in hand be not sacrificed, and with this condition
referring the whole subject to the Executive Committee of the
Association, with power. The report was accepted and adopted. A
petition was presented by President Ware, of Atlanta University,
requesting the appointment of a committee to define the policy of
the Association with reference to its work among the different
races, which was referred to the Executive Committee. The officers
of the Association were re-elected for the ensuing year. Addresses
were then made by Rev. J. M. Gregory, D.D., of Washington, D.C.,
representing the work of the Baptists at the South, and by Rev. R.
S. Rust, D.D., of Ohio, representing the Methodists, and by Elkanah
Beard, representing the Friends in the same field. These brethren
were received in a spirit of cordial fellowship and co-operation.
Rev. J. E. Roy, D.D., Field Superintendent of the Association,
read a paper on “The New South.” The concluding address of the
session was made by Secretary Strieby, representing the work of the
Congregational churches at the South. The report of the Finance
Committee was presented by J. G. W. Cowles, Esq. Thursday evening a
mass meeting was held in the Tabernacle. The music was furnished by
a choir of seventy-five voices from Oberlin, under the leadership
of Prof. F. B. Rice. After devotional exercises, addresses were
made upon “The National Problem of Southern Education,” by
ex-President R. B. Hayes, of Ohio: President A. D. White, of
Cornell University, and by Hon. J. L. M. Curry, of Virginia.
Rev. G. D. Pike, D.D., in behalf of the Association, tendered
a resolution of thanks to the churches and people of Cleveland
for their hospitality, and to the committees, pastors, choir and
railroads for their kindness in contributing to the success of the
meetings.

It was the prevailing feeling that the meeting at Cleveland was, on
the whole, a great success. Although there were other attractions
which drew many away, yet the attendance was large, and at the
closing session there were over three thousand present. The weather
was fine, the papers presented of a high order, and the interest
from beginning to end unabated. Nothing was lacking in the way of
preparation, and with the impetus of this meeting resting upon it,
the Association takes courage and looks forward to another year of
work with renewed faith and hope.

       *       *       *       *       *


SUMMARY OF THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TREASURER OF THE AMERICAN
MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION FOR THE YEAR ENDING SEPT. 30th, 1882.

       *       *       *       *       *

                             RECEIPTS.

  From Churches, Sabbath-schools, Missionary
    Societies and Individuals                   $186,166.62
  From Estates and Legacies                       78,612.47
  From Income. Sundry Funds                        7,701.04
  From Tuition and Public Funds                   24,400.22
  From Rents, Southern Property                      704.10
                                                ———————————$297,584.45
  Balance on hand Sept. 30th, 1881                              518.80
                                                           ———————————
                                                           $298,103.25
                                                           ===========

                           EXPENDITURES.

                           _The South._

  For Church and Educational Work, Lands,
    Buildings, etc.                             $230,733.07

                          _The Chinese._

  For Superintendent, Teachers, Rent, etc.        12,454.45

                          _The Indians._

  For Missionaries and Student Aid                 2,020.00

                        _Foreign Missions._

  Mendi Mission:
    For Superintendent, Missionaries, Supplies,
      etc.                                         9,548.70
    For John Brown Steamer, amt. transferred       7,002.43

  Jamaica Mission:
    For support of aged Missionary                   250.00

                      _Publication Account._

  For American Missionary (22,000 Monthly),
    Annual Reports (1,500), Circulars, Clerk
    Hire, Postage, etc.                            9,043.38

                    _Cost of Collecting Funds._

                          BOSTON OFFICE.

  For Salary Rev. G. L. Woodworth,
    Dist. Sec.                        $2,500.00
  For Salary Rev. Lewis Grout, Agent     900.00
  For Traveling Expenses of Dist. Sec.
    and Agent                            613.21
  For Clerk Hire, Rent, Printing,
    Postage, etc.                      1,628.27
                                       ————————    5,641.48

                          CHICAGO OFFICE.

  For Salary Rev. James Powell, Dist.
    Sec.                               2,500.00
  For Traveling Expenses                 540.16
  For Clerk Hire, Postage, Stationery,
    etc.                                 700.20
                                       ————————    3,740.36

                         MIDDLE DISTRICT.

  For Salary Rev. O. D. Pike, D.D.,
    Dist. Sec.                         2,500.00
  For Salary Rev. O. H. White, D.D.,
    Special Work                         355.00
  For Trav. Expenses, Printing,
    Postage, etc.                        178.70
                                       ————————    3,033.70

                     _Cost of Administration._

  For Salary Rev. M. E. Strieby, D.D.,
    Cor. Sec.                          3,500.00
  For Clerk Hire for Cor. Sec.         1,720.00
  For Salary of H. W. Hubbard, Treas.  2,500.00
  For Clerk Hire                       1,200.00
  For Rent, Stationery, Printing,
    Furniture, Janitor, Expressage,
    Postage, Trav. Ex., etc.           3,336.99
                                       ————————   12,256.99

                         _Miscellaneous._

  For Expenses in settlement of Legacies 157.25
  For Expenses of Annual Meeting         515.91
  For Amounts paid Annuitants, balance   850.86
  For Amounts refunded, sent Treas. by
    mistake                               64.84    1,588.86
                                                ———————————
                                                $297,313.42
    Balance in hand Sept. 30th, 1882                 789.83
                                                ———————————$298,103.25
                                                           ===========

               _Endowment Funds received_, 1881–82.

  President’s Chair. Talladega College           $15,000.00
  Graves’ Theo. Scholarships, for Talladega
    College                                        5,000.00
  Belden Scholarship, Bond of Oregon Short-Line
    Railway Co., for Talladega College             1,000.00
  Fisk University Scholarship, Note of Gen.
    C. B. Fisk                                       500.00

        _Statement of Arthington Mission Fund, for Africa._

  Balance in hand Sept. 30th, 1881                25,477.53
  Received from Oct. 1, 1881, to Sept. 30, 1882    5,172.92
                                                  ————————— $30,650.45
  Amount expended                                  9,280.53
  Balance in hand Sept. 30, 1881                  21,369.92
                                                  —————————  30,650.45

                    _Statement of Stone Fund._

  Balance in hand Sept. 30, 1881                  72,868.03
  Income in part                                     655.47
                                                  —————————  73,523.50

    Expended as follows:
  Fisk University, Livingstone Missionary Hall,
    balance                                       37,523.50
  Atlanta University, Stone Hall, in part         25,081.30
                                                  —————————
                                                 $62,604.80
  Balance in hand                                 10,918.70
                                                  —————————  73,523.50

                          RECAPITULATION.

  American Missionary Association, Current Fund $297,584.45
  Endowments for Talladega College                21,000.00
  Endowment for Fisk University                      500.00
  Arthington Fund, appropriated and used during
    the year                                       9,280.53
  Stone Fund, appropriated and used during the
    year                                          62,604.80
                                                 ——————————
                                                $390,969.78

  The receipts of Berea College, Hampton N. and
    A. Institute, and State appropriation of
    Georgia to Atlanta University, are added
    below, as presenting at one view the
    contributions of the same constituency for
    the general work in which the Association
    is engaged:
  American Missionary Association               $390,969.78
  Berea College                                   23,179.00
  Hampton N. and A. Institute (beside amount
    through A. M. A.)                             87,865.16
  Atlanta University                               8,000.00
                                                 ——————————
                                                $510,113.94
                                                ===========

       *       *       *       *       *


GENERAL SURVEY.


FREEDMEN.

These our fellow-citizens are proving the wisdom of the Government
in putting upon them the responsibilities of the elective franchise
as at once their defense and their process of education. Taking
into account their own aspiration and the force put beneath them by
the scheme of Christian schools, we should expect, as we find, a
tremendous uplift among them. In this we have assurance as to the
future, provided the appliances be worked with increasing vigor.
There is in this matter no halting place for the nation. We must
lift them up, or they will drag us down. As one of these helping
forces, we come to our own


_Educational Work._

Our system of schools during the year has been working with its
full force, and its appliances have been materially extended.
The large additions made to our accommodations provided the year
before were at once taxed to their utmost, thus proving that our
appreciation of the necessity was correct, and that our appeal for
the extension had not been made too soon nor too strong. And the
enlargement secured during this closing year is now met with the
response, “we, too, are full to overflowing.” Of the buildings
put up the year before, the two dormitories at Hampton, one for
Indian and one for colored youth, have had no empty rooms; at the
Atlanta University, the wing built to the Girls’ Hall by the Stone
Fund did not have capacity enough for the overflow of the main
structure; the Strieby Hall at Tougaloo, brought to completion and
dedicated since the opening of the year, had to be supplemented in
an extempore way; the Stone Hall at Talladega for boys was filled;
the Stone Hall at New Orleans for girls, and for the family of
teachers, was only opened to find the need of a boys’ hall; and
the Tillotson Institute at Austin, turning the ends of halls into
apartments, calls loudly for another building.

During this year, at the Fisk University, the Livingstone
Missionary Hall has been brought to completion and furnished,
providing dormitories for 121 male students, also a chapel,
library and recitation rooms. The total cost, $60,000, came from
the Stone Fund. This structure, which, in its name, embraces the
highest idea of the greatest African explorer, is next Monday to
come to its dedication, and some of our friends are to go hence
to participate in that service—the address to be delivered by
Professor Northrop, of Yale College. At the Atlanta University, the
Stone Hall, as the central building of the group, has been erected
at an expense of $40,000, and will soon be ready for occupancy.
Greatly commodious, and comely enough to relieve the plainness
of the halls on either side, it will furnish a chapel, library,
reading room and recitation rooms. This structure, as well as the
Stone Halls at Nashville, Talladega and New Orleans, has had the
wise supervision of Prof. T. N. Chase, who has occupied, meantime,
his favorite chair of Greek, and who, as a builder, has shown the
rare gift of always keeping within his appropriations. At Macon,
Ga., to the Lewis High School we have built a two-room “annex,” to
which also was added a wing for the library which is there growing
up. At Athens, Ga., our Knox Institute has been renovated, and in
it a chapel fitted up for the new church. At Mobile, Ala., our
Emerson Institute, that had been burned the second time, has been
rebuilt upon an enlarged scale, and at an expense not far beyond
the insurance money. At Talladega, the President’s house has been
finished, and two cottages on land adjoining our premises have been
bought for the use of two of our mission families, one of them
being named after Mr. Seth Wadhams, of Chicago, who gave the $1,500
for the purchase. At Marion, a house was built for a parish school.
At Athens, the Trinity School Building to accommodate 150 scholars
and the family of teachers, has been completed at a cost to the
Association of $8,000. For this the colored people themselves made
the needed two hundred thousand brick, mixing the clay by the
tramp of their one small steer, and they have their proportionate
interest in the property. At the laying of the corner stone, the
local editor, the Postmaster and the Principal of the Ladies’
Seminary of the place, made appreciative addresses, and Miss Wells
had her Jubilee. In Little Rock, Ark., at a cost of $5,500, we have
bought and fenced a tract of 14 acres, overlooking that city, as a
site for the Edward Smith College, which has been chartered by the
State, being so named from a gentleman in Massachusetts who gave
the money to buy the land, and who to a surplus now in hand intends
to add enough to make his donation $19,000. This institution is
greatly needed in that grandly opening State, where there is,
as yet, no provision for the higher education of the colored
people. This last planting will about complete our circle of State
institutions. At Fayetteville, Ark., our Howard School Building has
been overhauled, and in it we have re-opened our own school. So at
Lexington, Ky., we have refitted our High School Building, and have
resumed our own school, the city for the last six years having had
the use of the house. At Camp Nelson, the trustees of the Academy
are erecting a new three-story building under the lead of the Rev.
John G. Fee.

At the South we count 8 chartered institutions, 11 high and normal
schools, and 38 common schools—in all 57. During the year we have
employed 241 teachers, an increase over the last year of 11. Of
these, 13 have performed the duties of matrons and 15 have been
engaged in the business departments. The number of students has
been 9,608, a gain of 500 over last year. Of these, 72 have been in
the theological department, 28 in the law, 104 in the collegiate,
139 in the preparatory, 2,542 in the normal, 1,103 in the grammar,
2,185 in the intermediate, and 3,481 in the primary.

The theological departments at Howard, Talladega and Straight have
been doing their good work in training upon the ground just the
sort of men who are needed for the peculiar work to be done. Fisk
University has three of its graduates in the study of theology at
Oberlin, and one in a divinity school at Yale. The law department
of the Straight, with a faculty made up of five of the best lawyers
in New Orleans, has had 20 students, who are of both races, and
who, upon their diplomas, by the statute, are admitted to the
bar of all the courts of the State. We are pushing more and more
the lines of industrial training. The two farms at Talladega and
Tougaloo have this year been put into better shape than ever
before. Tougaloo raises fine fruits for the Chicago market and
fine stock for the surrounding country. Both raise much of the
beef and pork and vegetables for their own use. Atlanta University
is pushing fine gardening, teaching the girls of the senior
class cookery, and is planning to go into a school of carpentry.
The Fisk, this year, under a trained hospital nurse, introduces
hygienics and cookery. The Le Moyne, at Memphis, teaches cooking,
nursing and sewing. All of our boarding-schools require a certain
amount of work. The Storrs school, in Atlanta, has opened this
fall a genuine kindergarten under an expert teacher. The Avery
Institute, at Charleston, is going into the same, with training
also in the use of tools.

But to all intellectual and secular training there needs to be
added moral and religious cultivation. This is kept as our steady
aim. No teacher is sent out who is not in fellowship with some
church, and who does not profess to be actuated in going by a
missionary spirit. The large number of conversions, the frequent
revivals in these institutions, and the developed fruit of good
living, attest the fidelity of these missionary teachers. The
judgment day alone can reveal the influence of these consecrated
workers, the most of whom are women, upon the life and character of
the multitude of youth who have been under their care. The pupils
are watched over in the class-room, in the place of religious
assembly, and out of school hours. They are invited to private
conferences for the correction of habits and views, and there the
concerns of the soul are considered; scholars are prayerfully
followed up even into vacation by correspondence, until not a few
in these ways are led to Christ and into His church. The most of
our young men, who are examined for entering the ministry, in
giving their religious history, trace it back to the time when they
were led to the Saviour by some of their teachers, whose richest
reward it must be to see these young men coming into the ministry
with ample equipment largely through their own influence. Women’s
work for women is the modern discovery of missions. Of those who go
abroad, their work is largely that of teaching. Our lady workers,
of whom we have 200, besides the 40 in Howard, Hampton and Berea,
who are reckoned as teachers, are usually missionaries as really
as those who go abroad, or go South under that title. Of this last
class of workers, of whom we have twelve, there are some who are
very apostles in the garb of womanly delicacy. They teach mothers
and daughters things which belong to their sex; they lead to the
tidiness and comfort of home; they gather the maternal meetings and
lead in the same; they labor in revivals; they become assistant
pastors, being often, as the young pastors testify, their own best
teachers and guides. The soldiers of the Union are worthy of all
the praise and the gratitude they have received, but here has been
a small army of heroines, who, forgetful of the best chances, came
after the pomp of war, to serve not for three years, but for ten,
twelve, fifteen, seventeen years, growing gray by work and by the
anxieties and privations of the field, breaking down in health
and wearing out their lives, ostracised and despised by those
about them, who ought to have given sympathy and succor, and not
sustained as they should have been at home, of whom the world is
not worthy, but who must have a large place in the heart of Him,
who, in their isolation, has been the companion of each one, and
who, at the last, shall say, “She hath done what she could, she
hath chosen the good part.”

Before the war and since, the wealthy people at the South had a
full supply of colleges and seminaries, besides the free use of
the best institutions in the North, so that their children were
well educated. But there was a class of white people who could
avail themselves of no such advantages and for whom there were no
free public schools. As a consequence they fell into a distressing
state of ignorance and poverty; they lost aspiration; they felt
themselves in a hopeless class; and they are just there now. From
the beginning our institutions have been open to pupils of all
races. As yet the colored youth have been almost alone in entering
them. But it is thought that, as they shall be seen shooting
ahead, as prejudice shall wear away, many of these worthy white
young people will go where they can get an education, a better
one, and at a less cost, than anywhere else. A Confederate Colonel
says that this will come about in ten years. Already in the
medical department of the Howard University, of the 93 students
two-thirds are white, while some of the Professors are colored,
though accomplished in their profession. In the law department
of the Straight at New Orleans there are more white than colored
students. Some of the best teachers in the white public schools
of Atlanta have visited the class-rooms of our University there,
with the purpose frankly avowed of making improvement in the art
of teaching. In the country white teachers have gone to those
who had been trained at Atlanta to learn their normal methods of
instruction and of management. May not such yet say we will go to
that training school for ourselves, and get those improvements at
first hand? We have one notable illustration of what may be done,
and that is at Berea, Ky. This college, planted before the war by
the Association, upon being opened after the war, allowed colored
scholars to come. After some effervescence the institution settled
into its color-blind method, until it has become a great power
in the State with the colors in about equal proportion among the
students and at the grand commencement convocations. Some of the
young folks coming down from the mountains to Berea say they would
rather go there than to endure the manners of the aristocratic
colleges. The citizens of Cabin Creek, Ky., our old ante-bellum
battle ground, are just now erecting an Academy with the money
subscribed upon the condition of no caste. The influence of Berea
College is felt up in all the mountain country. White youth come
down there to get stores of knowledge to carry back. The Professors
have gone through that region lecturing on education, holding
teachers’ institutes and preaching. At Clover Bottom, 20 miles
out, they have gotten up such a mixed school, which is a success,
and is now under the patronage of this Association. The Committee
have decided to offer those mountain people the aid of our system,
if they will only allow the very few colored scholars to enter
the schools. Up there the colored children in a whole county are
scarcely numerous enough to call for more than one school, and
so the law forbidding such mixed public schools is a virtual
closing of the doors of knowledge to this class. The Committee
have made an appropriation for this work and have already had
their Field Superintendent upon a tour of exploration—his report
being favorable to kind, patient, persevering endeavor to get the
school-master abroad through a region wherein whole counties the
few school-houses are cabins with scarcely a glass window in them.

In the growth of the educational department and in the purpose
of the Committee to do the very best work in our institutions,
it has been found needful to secure the service of an expert in
school processes who should help to the most approved methods of
organization, discipline, instruction and unification. Accordingly
Mr. Albert Salisbury, who had been a Professor in the State Normal,
at Whitewater, Wis., and a conductor of teachers’ institutes, has
been appointed Superintendent of Education, and has already entered
upon service, giving promise of great effectiveness in his line.
Doctor Roy will continue in his position as Field Superintendent.


_Church Work._

At the first some of our best friends thought that the Association
was too slow in its church work; but all now, we think, agree
that the wisdom of experience justifies the process which mainly
through our schools grows its own timber, out of which to build
its churches, taking the young people thus trained and the adults
who are converted to the standard of Christian living and away
from the superstitions and immoralities of the old time. At first
view this would seem to be a tedious process. But it is surprising
how soon the youth run up to maturity and to become the leaders
of churches, the best of which have come on by this nurture. Then
there are some adult people, noble natures, of a childlike spirit,
who gain by absorption and take on the ideas of the younger folks.
In this way, through these seventeen years since the war, our
churches have come on from two or three to number 83, which is an
average of five a year. Nor are these merely skeleton churches.
Every one of these 83 has a pastor, except one whose minister
died a short time ago. Of the 73 ministers who serve these 83
churches, 22 are from the North, and 51 are native preachers.
Every one of these churches except seven has its own house of
worship, or chapel, and there are only four of these that depend
upon the college chapels for their places of religious assembly.
Some of these are rude in structure; the most are plain but comely;
four or five are of brick and of commanding appearance; all are
blessed sanctuaries. Many friends, in going through the South,
are pleasantly disappointed in finding these churches so well
housed. Nor, for young churches, are these deficient in encouraging
numbers. They have a total of 5,641 members, an average of 68,
while the average membership of the Congregational churches west of
the Mississippi River is only 45, and of all west of Pennsylvania,
63. The additions on profession were 709; the Sunday-school
scholars numbered 1,835; the amount raised for church purposes
$9,306, and the benevolent contributions reached $1,496.50.

It is beautiful to see how readily these plain people take up the
New Testament idea of church government, and how this natural
process tends to their education and discipline of character.
Herein we find confirmation that the Apostle made no mistake in
setting up such churches among the Christians of his day who had
not been trained in New England. These churches in the South are
known everywhere as insisting upon a high standard of ethics. Their
example, their methods, their influence, are greatly stimulating
to the churches round about them, so that by quality they make
up in part for want of quantity. These churches are organized
into seven conferences. Many persons have smiled upon reading
the reports of these convocations, and have wondered how such
an ecclesiastical body would seem, whether its members were not
simply playing at an ecclesiastical parliament. Our suggestion is,
come and see. If you were to come, you would find a fulfillment
of the Saviour’s words, “All ye are brethren,” the white and the
colored being members of the same body. You would find a rigidity
of parliamentary usage. You would find literary exercises,
discussions, reports, Sunday-school assemblies, devotional services
going on after the manner of those with which you are familiar.
Some of our brethren testify that these meetings seemed to afford
as much intellectual and spiritual stimulus as those which they
were accustomed to attend before going South. An additional
feature of these gatherings is the presence and participation of
the lady missionaries and teachers, whose reports are greatly
interesting. In Alabama the conference has associated with it a
Ladies’ Missionary Society with auxiliaries in different parts of
the State. The exercises of these women’s meetings are not only to
cultivate the missionary spirit, but to help the wives, mothers and
daughters of this people to be missionaries of sweetness and light,
of order and comfort, in their own homes. These ecclesiastical
assemblies become not only a representative of our work in its
spirit and extent, but they become occasions for drawing out the
fellowship of the pastors and churches, white and colored, where
they meet. At first these bodies were ignored. Now it is a common
thing for the local pastors to drop in upon them, to participate in
the exercises and to offer their pulpits for supply. This has been
done at Wilmington, Macon, Mobile, Marion and Selma.

During the last year, six new churches have been organized, those
at Williamsburg, Ky.; Cedar Cliff, N.C.; Athens, Ga.; Meridian,
Miss.; Eureka and Topeka, Kan. All of these are supplied with
pastors. Athens uses the assembly-room of our Knox Institute;
Meridian for the present rents rooms for the church and school;
Eureka and Topeka have both built houses of worship. New
meeting-houses have also been built at Caledonia, Miss.; Fausse
Point, La., and Luling, Tex. Paris, Tex., has replaced its big
shanty by a fine church edifice. Childersburg, Ala., burnt out, has
rebuilt with great self-denial on the part of the people. Mobile,
burnt out, is to be accommodated for a time in the assembly-room
of the Emerson Institute, rebuilt since the fire. The church at
East Savannah, blown down, has been rebuilt. The suburban church
at Louisville, Ga., also blown down, is still in its ruins. At
Five Mile, out from the city, a mission house has been built. By
the wonderful enterprise of their pastor, Rev. A. A. Myers, the
people have put up a commodious house at Williamsburg, Ky., in the
mountain country. The town is sixty years old, and this is the
first church brought to completion, three others having rotted
down during the process of building. The church at Clover Bottom,
Ky., has been supplied with a school-house sanctuary through the
aid secured by President Fairchild, of Berea. The great church at
Midway, Ga., has been finished up. The church at Anniston, Ala.,
has been enlarged. So during the year ten churches have been
erected.

The closing year has not been without its comforting measure of
spiritual influence. The dew has been in the fleece of most of
our churches and schools. In some of them individual cases of
conversion have been the reward of large faith and zeal. In others,
clusters of souls have been won to Christ. Distinctive revivals
have been enjoyed at Chattanooga and Memphis, Tenn.; McIntosh and
Macon, Ga.; Marion, Ala.; New Orleans, Talladega College, and in
the Fisk, Atlanta and Tougaloo Universities. The total number of
additions to our Southern churches on profession is 709. Those
who in our missions have been led to Christ but who have gone to
other churches would nearly double that number. The total number of
members in all our Southern churches is 5,641.


AFRICA.

When our last annual meeting was in session we had two parties upon
the ocean on their way to Africa. Mr. I. J. St. John and Rev. J. M.
Hall were going to reinforce the Mendi Mission, and Superintendent
Ladd and Dr. Snow were going to explore the Upper Nile with
reference to locating the Arthington Mission if the project should
prove feasible. Mr. St. John was to be the business manager and to
have charge of the John Brown steamer which was to be built. Mr.
Hall, from the theological department of the Howard University, was
to take charge of the Good Hope Station. He readily got hold of the
work and proved himself an acceptable and successful missionary.
He has the church, and a native teacher has the school under his
supervision. Mr. Hall, being of the sturdy mountain stock of East
Tennessee, has endured the climate well, and we can but hope that
an extended career of usefulness is before him. Mr. St. John, by
his own unavoidable exposure on his voyages between Freetown and
Mendi, and up the rivers to our stations, was himself made sick,
and so was confirmed in the judgment that called for the steamer as
a means of preserving the health of our missionaries. The English
Governor-General of the West Coast agreed with Mr. St. John to give
the steamer the carrying of the mail and of all Government freight
between Freetown and Mendi, which is an English dependency. The
transportation of supplies for the Mission and the marketing of
the lumber of our mill, the only one on the West Coast, call for
this steam craft. All views conspire to put down the “John Brown”
as one of the most effective missionaries to be introduced to that
region, where there are no roads nor beasts of burden and where
the water highway is the main reliance. It was thought best that
Mr. St. John should not take the risk of the first wet season at
the Mission, and so he returned to this country, coming over by a
sailing vessel to save expense. He makes the gratifying report that
in his intercourse along the coast he found many evidences of the
good influence of the Mendi Mission in its training of men who have
gone out into the ways of business, and who retain their integrity
of character. He named the noble chief of a tribe where is located
the vigorous Shengay Mission, who, with his son, had been educated
at our Good Hope Station. Rev. A. E. Jackson has continued in
charge of the Avery Station and boarding-school. During the year
the Mission was afflicted in the death of Rev. J. M. Williams, of
the Kaw Mendi Station, who, after having endured fifteen years of
service in Africa, succumbed to the disease of diabetes. Rev. Mr.
Jowett, one of the native preachers, is acceptably supplying Mr.
Williams’ place at Kaw Mendi. Mr. Jowett has a son now in the Fisk
University, who gives promise of making himself a useful man in his
native land. The other three lads from the Mendi Mission at school
at Hampton and at Atlanta, are doing well. The Debia Station is
under the care of Mr. and Mrs. Goodman.

Dr. Ladd and Dr. Snow, having made their long and perilous tour,
which took them up the Nile 2,500 miles, have returned. They report
no sufficiently inviting location for a mission in the region of
the Sobat. They recommend that Khartoum be occupied as a base of
operations, and that a school be established on the east bank of
the river opposite the city, which lies in the junction of the Blue
and White Niles. That site is quite healthy. They would have a
steamer by which to communicate with the Arthington district of the
Upper Nile. The Executive Committee, of course, had to submit to
the inevitable, as indicated by the double revolt, and voted to put
the mission into complete abeyance for the time.


THE INDIANS.

Though the Indian once had the continent to himself, he yet seems
to be “the man without a country.” And the Christian missions
which have sought to identify him with his native land have with
him been driven along before the advancing tide of the white man’s
migration. So has it been from the days of Jonathan Edwards,
John Eliot and David Brainard down to these times of the Riggses
and Williamsons. The Indian missions of this Association have
fared in the same way, those at Northfield, Mich., and those at
Cass Lake and Red Lake, Minn., which were served by some fifteen
missionaries, among them Revs. S. G. Wright, J. B. Bardwell and
A. Barnard. Of these the venerable Mr. Wright still abides in
the service, being now at Leech Lake. Returning this year to his
field, he writes: “We were very happy to find the little company
of earnest, devoted Christians, whom we left two years before,
still faithfully pursuing their work for God. They are truly the
salt of the earth, burning lights in this great darkness, the
spiritual power in the place.” Again he says: “I wish I could
attend the annual meeting. I should love to give the friends a
short history of the conversion and rich Christian experience of
numbers of those around us.” Our church at S’Kokomish, Washington
Territory, Rev. Myron Eells, pastor, during the year has swarmed,
seven of its members having taken letters to unite with four
other Christians of the Clallam Indians to form a Congregational
Church at Jamestown. One infant was baptized. A half-dozen white
neighbors came in and communed with them. Mr. Eells says that the
services were held in Chinook, Clallam, English, Chinook translated
into Clallam, and English translated into Clallam, a Pentecostal
gift of tongues. The work of the mother church has been more
encouraging this year than the last. Five have united with the
church on profession of faith. The service of the agents at the
S’Kokomish, Fort Berthold and Sisseton agencies has been about as
usual in routine and outcome. The work that is now going on at
the Hampton Institute in the educational and industrial training
of 89 young Indians of both sexes is truly encouraging; not only
as to its immediate accomplishment, but as to its future bearings
upon the welfare of the Indians, and upon the Indian question
itself. At the last commencement, the Indian classes claimed their
full share of attention, and showed an improvement in the general
character of the pupils over last year. One noted speech was made
by an Indian youth. Rev. Dr. Bartend, referring to that speech in
his address, said: “Two hundred and fifty years ago there came
floating into this beautiful harbor vessels from the old country.
What was their object? What was their hope? The prayer that arose
from their decks was this: ‘God give us strength that we may
educate and Christianize the Indian.’ William and Mary College, now
almost ready to perish, is the monument of their endeavor. They
did not see the answer to their prayer. God works in His own way,
in His own time, with His own men. Could they see what we to-day
behold, they would say, as do we, Speed on. God speed this glorious
school.” Although the Association, which founded and developed
the Hampton, has surrendered its control to a Board, yet besides
aiding in the support of the pastor, who cares for the three races,
associated in the one church of the place, it also makes a special
appropriation toward the Indian department of the Institute. The
Association will be ready to co-operate with the Government under
its new appropriation, using some of its own institutions for the
instruction and training of Indian youth. It has been proposed
that the Association take up a new mission among a neglected tribe
in the deep Northwest. Gen. Armstrong, by his recent tour among
the several Indian tribes of that region, has been able to make
judicious suggestions which will be duly considered.


THE CHINESE.

But a little while ago we were praying God to open the door of
China; and now the Chinese are pressing in at our own back door,
having a steam ferry between our shore and theirs. Even the
building of our Chinese wall, while China has been tearing down
hers, has had the immediate effect of hastening 25,000 of these
people in at our Golden Gate before the law should go into effect,
and this influx has been felt already in our schools, which for the
last few months have had a total larger than that of any former
months. Mr. Pond certifies that even the enforcement of the law
will not for some time occasion any let up in the pressure upon our
school accommodations. We have as stock on hand, as raw material,
these 125,000 people whom we should work up in the Christianizing
way, so that they may be prepared, some for their own mission work
at home, and some to receive the masses who may come by-and-by
when the embargo is lifted. So that while our government stands at
the Golden Gate to warn off any Mayflower immigrants, it may be
that this enforced quiet and isolation will become a mighty factor
in the scheme for Christianizing China. But none the less is it
a ludicrous object lesson that the nation which stands with its
front door wide open to receive 90,000 Europeans a month, should
yet shudder over the 125,000 Mongolians who in many years have
sought admission at the back door. It is a humiliating confession
that 50,000,000 of Christian people, compacted as a nation, should
shrink from having their system come into contact with the effete
superstitions of 125,000 sojourners. But the politicians’ law is
only for ten years. The principle, the conscience of the nation
will be at work. The law may become a dead letter or be repealed.
Before we are aware of it, the flood-gates may be raised and a
great tide may set in. So, in any event, we have herein a grand
opportunity, a mighty obligation.

Our last Annual Report mentioned a desire on the part of the
converted Chinamen in California and their friends, that a mission
be located at some well-chosen point in Southern China, from which
their Christian brethren going back to fatherland might go forth
to carry the Gospel to their countrymen. Further consideration
has settled it that Hong Kong, the centre of the district from
which most of our California Chinamen come, is the proper
location. Such a mission would give a Christian greeting to the
returning Christian Chinamen, would furnish an atmosphere and an
instrumentality for keeping up their spiritual life, would be a
training-school for those who should become missionaries, would be
a rallying centre there, and would be the point of juncture between
our work on the coast and that heathen empire. But, as it is the
purpose of this Association not to extend its operations abroad,
we made a distinctive proposition to the American Board that it
take up the proposed mission at Hong Kong, and so work in harmony
with us on this side the Pacific. We are glad to report that this
overture has been cordially acceded to, and that that venerable
missionary body accepts this “sacred trust.” Our brethren of the
Chinese Christian Association out there have in hand already a fund
of $700, which they intend to put into that mission as an offering
of the first fruits.

In its work on the Pacific Coast, the Association is represented
by its auxiliary, the California Chinese Mission, whose President
is Rev. Dr. John K. McLean, and whose Secretary is Rev. Wm. C.
Pond, who, in addition to the care of his city parish, has the
supervision of our operations there. Taking up the work into his
own mind and heart, he gives to it an amount of study, watch-care
and service that is marvellous. With a Pauline spirit, he goes the
round of the missions, cheering and directing the workers, healing
divisions and laying new plans.

Our fifteen schools are located at Berkeley, Marysville, Oakland,
Oroville, Petaluma, Point Pedro, Sacramento, Santa Barbara, Santa
Cruz, Stockton, and at San Francisco, where are the five missions,
No. 1, No. 2, Barnes, Bethany, and West. The work of the year
has been greatly encouraging. These schools have been taught by
thirty-one teachers, of whom eleven are Christianized Chinamen.

The total number of scholars enrolled during the year was 2,567,
a gain over the previous year of 935, while that year had a gain
over the former one of 76. Of these during the past year 156 have
ceased from idolatry and 106 have given evidence of conversion. Nor
do these figures give the full number of those who are brought to
the light in our schools, for many are scattered and cannot attend
them. The whole number of those of whom we have hope that they
are born of God in connection with our work from the first, Mr.
Pond thinks cannot be less than 431, and wisely does he add: “The
figures will cease to look dry and the statistical table will glow
with even a celestial light, if we but reflect that every unit in
these numbers stands for an undying soul, and every unit in some of
them for such a soul brought out from the dark bondage of Chinese
paganism into the glorious liberty of the sons of God.”

It is proposed now to re-establish our mission at Los Angeles,
which, as the original, gave way for a time to another that came
in but has turned out a failure. Chico, where there are many
Chinese, and no one to care for them, is another place where the
Superintendent could start a mission. So also the door seems to
be opening for yet another school in San Francisco at the great
Pioneer Wooden Mills, where 600 Chinese are employed. And so the
expanding work demands the additional appropriation which the
Committee have already voted, making a total of $13,000 to be used.


FINANCES.

At our last annual meeting we reported a total of $243,795.23,
which was a gain of $56,315.12, or 20 percent, over that of the
previous year. One year ago the Committee felt constrained to ask
that this sum should be carried up to $300,000 for the support and
enlargement of the varied work in charge. We started out well. Then
in the spring our chariot came to dragging heavily with a debt
of $25,000 upon it. Then there was a rally, and the fiscal year
came to its close, Sept. 30, with $297,584.45, which is a gain of
$53,789.22 over the last year, or 22 per cent. Besides the current
receipts we have received toward the endowment of the President’s
chair in Talladega College, $15,000; and for scholarships in the
same, $6,000; also a Scholarship note for $500, in behalf of Fisk
University, which makes a total of $319,584.45 received into our
treasury during the year. This leaves the treasury out of debt,
with a balance in hand of $789.83, and an increase of endowment
fund of $21,500. For this accomplishment we offer devout thanks to
Almighty God.

The exigencies of the work, the enlargement of the expenditure made
almost inevitable by the new buildings and increased facilities,
will scarcely be met by $300,000 the coming year. An increase of
that amount by 20 per cent, could be most economically and wisely
expended without any attempt at undue enlargement. The legitimate
and almost irresistible progress of the work demands that. But we
are the servants of our constituents, and assume not to decide. We
can most efficiently use the increase, but will faithfully work as
best we can with the means entrusted to us. We can only add that
the work will suffer if less than the $300,000 be secured.

As boys run backward that they may jump the further forward, so
we may profitably compare the receipts of this Association in its
earlier years with those of this last year. The nearly $300,000
just announced is equal to the total of contributions for the first
ten years. And the total for the year, as given by the Treasurer,
of the contributions from the same constituency for the general
work in which the Association is engaged, more than $500,000, is
equal to the receipts into our treasury for the first fourteen
years.

       *       *       *       *       *

Never have the affairs of this Association seemed more prosperous;
never have its labors on the field yielded a more abundant and
precious fruitage; never has it seemed more firmly established in
the confidence of the people, both at the North and the South;
never has it shared more fully the favor of God!

May we have grace to walk so humbly before God, and so honestly and
faithfully before men, in the administration of our trust, that His
favor and their confidence may abide upon us!

       *       *       *       *       *



THE FREEDMEN.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL WORK.

The Committee to whom has been referred the subject of the
educational work of this Association, beg leave to report that we
heartily approve the policy of the Association by which it has put
its main efforts upon the Christian education of teachers for the
colored people. Our Congregational churches, while it is important
to plant them, are not the first need. They can enter but slowly.
The people do not appreciate them nor ask for them. Education they
beseech us for. The lower common-school education we can supply
only here and there. We thank God, and we recognize it as a blessed
evidence of the growth of healthy public sentiment, that every year
more and more attention is paid in the States of the South to free
public education, and that in this the colored people are having
their part, and that the expense of supporting their schools is
more and more cheerfully borne. But the States which are willing
to educate children are not all ready as yet to educate their
teachers. Whether the common schools of the South are good, depends
on whether the schools for teachers are good. We believe there is
no other agency which is doing so much to secure teachers for the
colored youth of the South as the American Missionary Association.
This is a task which does not carry with it ecclesiastical profit;
but it carries the blessing of the Great Head of the Church, as it
has the good will of good men in every communion.

Apprehending the paramount importance of this work, we would
impress upon the officers of this Association, what they doubtless
feel, the importance of raising their chartered institutions and
normal schools to the very highest possible grade. Bricks and
mortar are necessary, good buildings are noble, but the first
demand is for good teaching, for the very best instruction which
Northern culture can secure. A few extra hundreds paid to a
competent principal may be of more real use than many thousands
paid for a building. Our consecrated wealth will provide the
buildings. That we do not fear for; but it needs great and rare
executive wisdom to see that these buildings shall be put to their
best use for the best instruction. Now is the molding time for the
colored people, and they need to be molded aright. Good education
in barracks is better than poor education in a palace. It has
been the boast of our constituency that they have known how to
educate. They have supported the best colleges in the North. They
are now supporting the best schools in the South. We are glad that,
apprehending these duties, the Association has just appointed a
competent Superintendent of Education, whose special business it
will be to see to it that the standard of education shall be raised
to the highest possible grade. We would especially recommend that
all our institutions be carefully examined, that we call nothing
college or university whose course of instruction falls below the
grade which belongs to the name, and that, if it be necessary in
any case, inferior teachers be weeded out and their places supplied
by such as are competent and earnest. This we urge, while knowing
that our institutions, as a rule, are models in all the South,
because we would not have the Association satisfied with that to
which we have already attained, and because we believe that our
schools can and should be made so superior to other institutions
that they shall attract white pupils as well as black, or break
down the walls of caste.

We see with satisfaction the progress made in Howard and Talladega
in theological education, which has been followed by the
organization of numerous prosperous churches. We would urge that,
as soon as possible, Fisk and Straight universities be supplied
with similar active departments of theological instruction.

Industrial departments have been made very useful in Hampton and
Tougaloo. These institutions are models in these as in other
respects. The explanation rests in part in the great enthusiasm
or ability of the gentlemen whom we are so fortunate as to have
in charge of those institutions, and who have a special gift in
developing these departments, and in part in the fortunate locality
in which these institutes are placed. While we would be glad to
have similar instruction given in Fisk, Atlanta, and elsewhere, we
recognize the great difficulty of doing similar work in cities.
Domestic labor should be encouraged, to relieve the expense of
board; but experiments in establishing schools of carpentry,
blacksmithing, nursing, etc., while excellent, need to be made with
the greatest care, and under the supervision of such teachers as
possess the requisite enthusiasm and faith.

We would especially urge, in this connection, on those who manage
our institutions, that they impress on the pupils the virtues of
thrift and self-support. The students who have come to us are
no longer ex-slaves. They have all been reared in freedom. They
should be required to pay a reasonable amount for tuition. This
should be imposed as an educating influence. They should be made to
understand that when education is given it represents a money value
as well as does the food that goes into the stomach. More and more
should they be required to pay their tuition, if it be but a dollar
a month, that they may understand its value. The aggregate of this
will be of considerable help, as it will elevate the educational
notions of the people.

We are glad to see that our chartered institutions are making
progress toward independence of the Association. For this they
should work by the increase of their endowments for instruction. We
express our great thanks to the generous friends who have so nobly
given for these purposes, and especially to the wise and generous
benevolence of Mrs. Stone, which has made this a marked year in the
history of our institutions. May the Lord reward her, and may her
example stir up many more.

Our work would not be complete without a more formal and a most
cordial recognition of the thanks we owe to the self-denying
teachers of our institutions. They are men and women of most
admirable culture; they have made the greatest sacrifices; they
have entered with the warmest enthusiasm into their work. We have
been greatly pleased with the professional enthusiasm of those
at the head of some of our excellent normal schools, to whom no
words of praise can be extravagant. The progress in nearly all our
institutions has been such as to merit our heartiest appreciation.
We commend this, our great work, to the generous hearts of our
Christian constituency.

                                    G. F. WRIGHT, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF THE NEGRO.

BY PRES. E. M. CRAVATH, FISK UNIVERSITY.

1. The negroes are citizens, and vested with all the rights,
duties and responsibilities of American citizenship. The ballot
is in their hands, and as a necessary consequence they will share
the offices of trust and responsibility. There must and will be
political leaders among them. It might be better for the country
if the colored people would use the ballot purely, with an eye
single to the best interests of society; if they should always vote
for the wisest, most honest and most capable men, uninfluenced by
personal prejudices, race distinction, or the popular excitement of
heated political campaigns, and with no aspiration for political
distinction or the honors and spoils of office. It might be better
for the country if the citizens of other races would do this. But
how unlike the Anglo-Saxon or the Celt would be the African if _he_
should do it. But, fortunately, or unfortunately, there is about
as much genuine human nature in the American citizen of African
descent as there is in those of European; and we must expect
essentially the same results under like conditions. It will not
prevent colored men from having political aspirations, and from
being elected to offices of trust and responsibility, to confine
education among them to public, normal and industrial schools.
The safer and better way is to give to the young men who have
aspirations for a higher education the opportunities and advantages
they seek, just as they are provided for the youth of other races.

2. The six millions of colored people in the South are organized
into distinct and separate churches, which are ministered to by
persons of their own race. This is the result both of choice and
necessity. The white churches are not open to them, and as a
general thing they prefer to have their separate organizations. The
influence and power of the minister among the colored people are
exceedingly great. No people stand more in need of an intelligent,
wise and educated ministry, and among no people can such a ministry
do such a noble work for the proper training of the young men who
are to constitute the religious teachers and guides of these six
millions of colored American citizens just delivered from bondage,
and now making trial before the world of freedom and citizenship. I
urge the necessity of institutions for higher education.

The public schools of the South for colored children are in
general taught by colored teachers. This is usually demanded
by the parents. In these public schools there are hundreds of
positions such as are filled in white schools by men who have
had their training in the best colleges and universities of the
South, and why should not colored young men be given the same
training for the same responsibilities and duties? The same
principles and necessities hold in the departments of law and
medicine. Is there any reason, in the nature of the case, why
a young colored man does not need to have as good an education
to fit him for these professions as a young white man does? In
all enlightened countries, institutions of higher education are
regarded as indispensible; they accomplish a work in the interests
of society, the Church and the State, which cannot be left out
with safety to any race or any country. But there are weighty
reasons why the colored youth of the South need the advantages
of a higher education. They have received less by inheritance.
Education, discipline, culture, the habits and surroundings of
life through generations, to some extent, at least, determine the
inherited intellectual and moral qualities of individuals, families
and races. The colored youth begins life without the inherited
qualities which can come only through generations of civilization.

Then, too, he has not had the advantages (and these are among the
greatest children can possess) of a cultured home, refined and
intellectual associations, a purified and stimulating social life,
and the instruction of an educated ministry. These have largely
been denied him in his earlier years. Thus, when young colored men
or women set out to secure an education that shall put them on a
high plane of intellectual life and give them a fair chance to work
a career which shall entitle them to be honestly ranked among the
educated and cultured of the white race in the higher departments
of the world’s work, they find themselves at a great disadvantage.

How shall this be overcome, except by patient, long-continued and
wisely-directed study? Aspiration must mature into purpose and
purpose ripen and harden into character. Intellectual labor must be
encouraged and even exacted until it becomes comparatively easy
and pleasurable. Habits of study and investigation must be formed
and the judgment must be matured. Where shall the young men of the
South get these advantages except in schools for higher education?
But there is one more consideration which I wish to urge. These
six millions are the representatives of a race 200,000,000 strong
and of a continent. No equal body of Africans was ever before
placed in a condition so favorable for the development of whatever
possibilities there are in the race. Under slavery they have been
disciplined to toil and have learned the lessons of work; they
have come to like the ways of civilized life and have acquired
a desire and taste for its comforts and luxuries. Pagan worship
and heathen superstitions have been largely destroyed, and the
people have accepted the Christian religion. They are widely
scattered among their fellow citizens of other races, and they have
intrusted to them the full duties, and have resting upon them all
the responsibilities of citizenship. Whatever possibilities are
in the race can here be developed in a shorter time and by a more
direct way than in the case of any section of Africa. So the race
is on trial, and every aid should be given in order that the best
possible result may be reached. Who can properly estimate the power
for good which colleges and universities, founded in the right
spirit, strongly administered and wisely adapted to the wants and
necessities of the people, can exert in determining the future of
the negro in this country and the future of the great African race?

       *       *       *       *       *


REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON CHURCH WORK.

The church work of the Association during the year has been steady,
growthful, and encouraging. Quite the average of progress has
been attained. This will readily appear by reference to a few
statistics. Six new churches have been added to the list, making in
all eighty-three. Ten houses of worship have been erected. It is a
remarkable fact that every one of the eighty-three churches, except
one whose minister died a short time ago, has a pastor. And equally
remarkable that fifty-one of these pastors are native preachers.
As showing the value of theological seminaries established by the
Association, and the ability and usefulness of trained colored men,
the average membership of sixty-eight in each church exceeds the
average of all the Congregational churches west of Pennsylvania.
The addition of 709 on profession, and the conversion of about an
equal number who have found other church homes, make an average of
seventeen conversions to each church, an increase of 20 per cent.
Where else can an equally good exhibition be made? Only about one
to a church throughout the country. There are seven churches which
have added from twenty-five to forty-five to their membership.
There are only six that report no additions. So far as reported
all but eleven churches contribute money for church purposes.
Thirty-seven report benevolent contributions. One church reports
$350, another church reports $158, another church reports $86,
another church reports $83, another church reports $60, another
church reports $50. Seventy-four Sunday-schools are reported.
One Sunday-school has over 500 members, another 400 members, ten
schools 200 members, and seven schools 100 members. These figures
indicate vitality in the churches, for Sunday-schools do not thrive
very well, excepting where there is activity in the churches with
which they are associated. In nine localities precious revivals
have been enjoyed. The local associations indicate growth in
fellowship and power. When we remember that these results have been
reached amid manifold hindrances and discouragements arising from
ignorance, prejudice, superstition and vice, we may well exclaim,
“What hath God wrought?” “Thank the Lord and take courage.” But
the best results of the year do not admit of tabulation. The
unwritten history of these churches are the tears, the struggles,
the sacrifices, the prayers, the burdens silently, uncomplainingly
borne. This is their real history. God knows it all, and those who
have been the patient workers in its making will be remembered
in that day when he counts up his jewels. Then it must not be
forgotten that these churches represent almost infinitely more in
the South than their small number would indicate. They are tonic
in their influence upon all the other churches around them. Their
simple New Testament polity, which encourages self-government
and self-development, their high standard of ethics, which is a
constant rebuke to an emotional religion apart from morality, make
them peculiarly lights shining in dark places, and invest them with
that quiet, but inscrutable transforming power that belongs to good
leaven.

In this has been vindicated the wisdom of the policy which has
preferred quality to quantity, good character to great numbers,
intelligent piety to ignorant devotion, a pure life to a noisy
profession. Without doubt the Association might have doubled its
present number of churches during these seventeen years. It has
cost something to move slowly in this matter.

We have said that the past year has witnessed the average growth.
The rate of progress during the last seventeen years has been
uniformly very constant, about five churches a year. Ten years
ago six new churches and ten houses of worship were reported. The
question now comes whether it is not quite time to change the rate
by doubling it, at least to quicken the pace. The church work is
initial and fundamental. It underlies all else. The Association is
in the South for no other purpose than to make Christian manhood
and womanhood. For this glorious work the church of God is the
divinely appointed agency. Others are auxiliary. There is but one
opinion as to the sore need of more churches. The Macedonian cry is
heard in many directions.

It has been demonstrated that Congregational churches can exist and
thrive west of the Hudson and south of Mason and Dixon’s line.

The polity and faith of the Pilgrim Fathers is not for the elect
few but the unsaved many. And if the methods, influence, and
example of our churches in the South are greatly stimulating to the
churches round about them, that is an additional argument for their
multiplication.

It can hardly be doubted that the schools and universities, by
their direct and indirect influence, have prepared sufficient
material for more churches. What are eighty-three among the
millions who sit in darkness? It must be kept distinctly in mind
that educational facilities are multiplying in the South, and that
to educate without Christianizing is possibly to augment the perils
instead of the defenses of the Republic.

The sanctifying and consecrating forces must be held in close
contact with the secular, so that education may be hallowed, or it
will end in defeat. We must hold steadfastly to our fundamental
principle that nothing but the gospel of Christ will uplift
and save the South. And while our educational institutions are
thoroughly Christian, yet the church must be the energizing and
radiating centre of Christian influence and power. Brethren, does
not the church work need and deserve a fresh impulse? Ought not
the momentum gathered during the seventeen years to accelerate its
progress very greatly now? Would not all hearts be gladdened, if
the next annual report should bring tidings of twelve instead of
six churches organized under the favoring auspices of this society?
Opportunities are (I was about to say waiting, but they don’t
wait) passing. Much has been irrevocably lost. Much yet remains.
Ideas are changing rapidly. We had feared that crystallization
would occur earlier than this, and society become so incrusted
with prejudice and hardened by vice that the helpful activities of
this and kindred societies would be hindered or defeated. But God
is mercifully holding the elements still in solution that churches
and schools, like ours, may become the dominating centres of the
new civilization. Let these blessed centres of light, healing,
influence, be multiplied, surcharged with transforming energy, with
assimilating power. The multiplicand already exists; men and money
must furnish, under God, the multiplier.

                                   ARTHUR LITTLE, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


REMARKS OF REV. C. O. BROWN.

Within the past two years it has been my privilege to look in upon
three or four of the churches contemplated in this report. One
year ago last August I found myself on the Sabbath day in the city
of Chattanooga, and I started out at an early hour to find the
Congregational church. I made several inquiries of the white people
whom I met, but none of them seemed to know. I sauntered along
until I was in front of the white Baptist church of the place, and
found an aged colored gentleman ringing the bell preparatory to
service. I asked him if he knew where the Congregational church
was. “Oh yes,” he said, “I’se a member of dat church myself.”
Then, having an opportunity, I chatted with him a few minutes, and
asked him why they wanted to sustain a Congregational church in
Chattanooga. “Oh,” he said among many other things, “we doesn’t
believe in dese yer incitements dat de old churches has.” And then
I asked him what they proposed to do in the future. “Look a heah,
brudder,” he said, “we’s come heah to stay.” Presently I found
myself in that Congregational church. I found an ordinarily good
little structure, comfortably furnished for church purposes. When
the congregation came in I saw decently clad people with hymn
books and Bibles in their hands. Presently from the study door
came the pastor, and with all dignity and order, took his place in
the pulpit, and he preached a sermon in which, if my eyes had been
closed, I should have found no evidence that he was a colored man.
He was a graduate of Atlanta University. There was every evidence
of order and system, of calm and deliberative religion, which we
should find in this church on the next Sabbath day.

In the evening of that same day I had an opportunity for
comparisons and contrasts. I went over to one of the old colored
churches which stands diagonally across an open square or common.
The scene was that of one billowy sea of emotion and excitement,
of hallooing and amen-ing. Now, I said to myself, here is this
pure church established in this community as a standing testimony
against that sort of thing. I said, as I sat beneath the spell of
emotions which found vent in tears, here in this Congregational
church and on this ground are both prophecy and fulfillment. The
Congregational church stands not more than six rods from where
my tent was at one time pitched when I was a soldier; where the
shells from Lookout mountain used to drop in the days of Thomas and
Hood. Here, I said, in this scarred ground, is a prophecy which
was uttered eighteen years ago, in the thunder of artillery and
the clash of battle. It was a prophecy of liberty; and this church
for colored people, for _free_ colored people, our brothers and
sisters, is the fulfillment of that prophecy. It was my privilege,
only a few days later, to be present in the Storrs Congregational
church of Atlanta. And it was a pleasure to be permitted to speak
to those people. I saw there the same evidence of Christian order
and propriety; everything which bore testimony to a high type of
Christian life. I attended two of its prayer meetings. There was
the calm, subdued temper which bore witness to the suppression of
the animal nature and the development of the spiritual. And I want
to say here, brethren, that if God in his providence should send me
to Atlanta, I should cast in my lot with the Storrs Congregational
church.

I wish to second what was said by Doctor Little with regard to
the enlargement of our church work in the South. We feel that the
time has come for broadening the boundaries of this distinctively
religious work. Our churches are, and are to be, the conservators
of the other work done in our educational institutions. None of our
young people should be allowed, for want of a church home of our
own polity, to escape from holy and pure influences. Nor should
they be allowed to expend in other directions power and influence
acquired in our schools which might be conserved in our churches.
Let us not make the mistake south of the Ohio River which, thirty
or forty years ago, was made west of the Hudson; but let us rather
from this annual meeting look to the enlargement of this blessed
part of our work, concerning which such glad harbingers are before
us in the general survey presented by the Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *



AFRICA.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE.

The Committee to whom was referred the general report on Africa
would submit the following:

Little that is new or very noteworthy has occurred during the
year past. The Mendi Mission, which has been so long, and at such
sacrificial cost, maintained by the Association, was reinforced
by a graduate of the theological department of Howard University,
Rev. Mr. Hall, who took charge of the church at Good Hope station,
and has brought to his work such qualifications as promise to
make him a valuable worker in this growingly hopeful field. Mr.
St. John, who went out to become the business manager of the
missionary steamer John Brown, though obliged temporarily to
return to this country, has accomplished some useful exploration,
and demonstrated that the proposed steamer will become a most
timely and invaluable assistant to the missionaries in the way
of facilitating transportation and intercommunication. There are
encouraging signs that the influence of the workers at this mission
is extending to the interior, and that the representatives of its
schools and churches who are engaged in secular callings are a
credit to the same, and are advertising the value of Christian
training and character to those who are as yet strangers to both.
One faithful laborer has, during the last twelvemonth, fallen at
his post, after a service of fifteen years, Rev. J. M. Williams.
His name will go to swell that ever-increasing list of heroic
workers, who sacrificed their lives for Africa’s redemption. A
native preacher has taken the vacated place, and so the holy work
goes on, though the brave workers here and there are summoned to
leave their toil and go up to their exceeding great reward. It is
a token at once significant and prophetic, that this successor
of Mr. Williams, at the Kaw Mendi station, has a son now in Fisk
University who will keep up the succession of workers in Africa,
by in due time returning to the land of his fathers as a herald
of the gospel of Christ. Three other youthful representatives of
the Mendi Mission are at school at Hampton and Atlanta, their very
presence here being fraught with good to fellow students from the
colored people of this country and to the land from which they came
as the first fruits in the way of missionary consecration. At the
last Annual Meeting, great interest was excited by the expedition
of Superintendent Ladd and Dr. Snow, which had just been entered
upon, to find on the upper Nile a suitable place for the proposed
Arthington Mission. Much was hoped for from this resolute attempt
to locate a new station in the region of the Sobat. These pioneers
have safely returned, and bring their mature recommendations
as to what is expedient to be done in the district, where that
generous patron of African missions, Mr. Arthington, was so urgent
something should be done. On the whole, this Association has made
a noble record, in concert with other missionary societies in the
dark continent. The chapter of what has been endured and achieved
by its representatives will be one of imperishable glory in the
annals of this body. Whatever changes the future may bring, for
the good brave work of the past, we and all lovers of Africa will
praise God. Never was its mission work in the far-away land more
promiseful, and we can but believe that days of large ingathering
and of immediate advance are before it, so that past sacrifices
and toils will not have been in vain, and the speedier successes
of coming days will justify a missionary policy of the boldest and
broadest character.

                                       M. MCG. DANA, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE PROPOSED EXCHANGE OF MISSIONS.

The Committee to whom was referred Secretary Strieby’s report,
on recommending the simplification of the work of the American
Missionary Association, by withdrawing from the foreign field,
and assuming more fully the work among the Indians to which it is
now providentially invited, approve in general of its proposals,
but beg to recommend to the Executive Committee of the American
Missionary Association, in considering and settling the questions
involved, the following points which they suggest as conditions in
effecting the changes contemplated:

1. That the entire Mendi Mission, with its long and checkered
history, representing such heroic sufferings and achievements, and
in the sustenance of which our British friends have so generously
aided us, be continued by transferring it to the A. B. C. F. M.
or to the United Brethren, who have a mission near by and who
will entertain overtures for the same, and that to this end the
churches, schools, and other property be made over to either party,
with the interest of the Avery fund, in the one case at once and
in the other for a limited time, as the Committee may arrange.
That the steamer John Brown, to which the Sabbath-schools of our
churches have contributed some $7,000, be built, and be given
over to such parties as will use it for the purposes originally
contemplated.

2. That the interest in, and funds for, the Arthington Mission
be, so far as may be, transferred to the A. B. C. F. M., and that
failing, to the United Presbyterians who are doing such excellent
work in the Nile Valley.

3. That this Association will assume the Indian Mission in Dakota
offered it by the A. B. C. F. M., and will withdraw from the
foreign fields, and arrange ultimately for the transference of the
interest of the Avery fund to the American Board.

And your Committee propose for your adoption the following
resolution, covering the adjudication of this question.

Resolved, That the matter of accepting the Dakota Mission from the
American Board, and of transferring our African Mission to that
Board or some other organization, be referred to the Executive
Committee with power, provided that it be made certain that the
Mendi Mission, so dear to the hearts of many of the Association, be
in some way sustained hereafter.

                                     M. MCG. DANA, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE INDIANS.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE.

The Committee on Indian Missions would report:

First. That the work of this Association among the Indians—a work
so small that the expenditure for it is only about one-fifth that
for the Chinese in America—has been prospered during the last year.
The blessing of the Master rests upon it, and our thanksgiving and
prayers should be stimulated thereby.

Second. We heartily approve of its plan to combine an industrial
with a literary education, that the boys and girls may take the
lead in Christian arts as in Christian culture. Yet the experiment
of training them in schools far from home should be carefully
watched, lest there be formed a gulf of separation between the
tribe and its educated youth, a gulf so deep that those returning
from Hampton shall, through social longings, lapse into the customs
of their fathers, or else shall stand aloof from their people in
cultured isolation. We should subordinate individual advancement to
tribal advantage; the benefit of the few to that of the many; and
for this purpose schools are being established nearer home. Hence
we recommend the careful study of the results of the experiment.

Third. We would earnestly press the evangelistic work among the
Indians. They are to stay with us. They are soon to be of us,
citizens with us of this Republic. So much is written in the
providence of God. To educate them is not enough. The federal
government is increasingly engaged in this. But its Commissioner
of Indian Affairs, the Hon. H. Price, in his forthcoming report
says: “Civilization is a plant of exceeding slow growth unless
supplemented by Christian teaching and influence.” “In no other
manner and by no other means, in my judgment, can our Indian
population be so speedily and permanently reclaimed from barbarism,
idolatry, and savage life as by the educational and missionary
operations of the Christian people of our country.” Christianized
education is the watchword, the vitalizing of all the truth of God
with the love and spirit of God. This means more than schools; it
means Christian schools and Christian churches. For this very work
this Association has been ordained of God, and it should enlarge
its work to the demands of the hour. The proposed exchange with
the American Board means, for this society, enlargement. The rapid
progress of the Indian towards citizenship demands enlargement. God
calls this Association to enlarge its Indian missions that it may
prepare both the negro and the Indian for citizenship and God.

Fourth. We believe that the welfare of the Indian demands the
abolition of both tribal and reservation relations, the allotment
of their lands in severalty, their amenability to State and federal
laws and courts. And while we recognize with gratitude the past
attempts of our national government in these directions, we need
to press upon Congress the duty of renewing its endeavors and
enlarging its appropriations for schools, that it may speedily
turn these wards into industrious citizens. And for this end we
would recommend that a committee of nine be appointed by this
Association to memorialize Congress to place the Indian by the side
of the negro and other citizens in the right to buy, own, and sell
property, real and personal, to work at what he pleases, and live
where he pleases, to have the same standing before the law, to vote
and hold office, in short to possess all the rights and obligations
of citizens of the Republic.

                                       A. H. ROSS, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


WORK AND DUTY IN THE EAST.

BY GEN. S. C. ARMSTRONG.

At Hampton there are ninety, and at Carlisle there are nearly three
hundred Indians—boys and girls—who are learning civilization as an
object lesson, and are themselves an object lesson to the centres
of intelligence and wealth, where is the sentiment that inspires
and the means that provide for the combined practical and spiritual
teaching of the red man. They suffice, perhaps, for a tangible
proof of the Indian’s capacity, of which the need was great; their
effect upon public sentiment has been marked. The result with
these Indians has, so far, proved satisfactory. Scattering these
pupils among the farmers of Massachusetts and of Pennsylvania for a
portion of the year, has had such a good effect mutually, that five
hundred more might well be so placed in various States, under the
care of special agents, with proper rendezvous where the sick or
unsatisfactory might be kept with a view to returning home, say ten
per cent, of the entire number.

The Negro institutions at Nashville, Tenn., at Talladega, Alabama,
and elsewhere, could do excellent work for them. The aims and
methods of most white schools render them unfit for Indians.

We have found the weak point of the race to be physical, not mental
or moral. They can endure the hardships peculiar to the plains, but
not steady work from day to day. They are tainted with inherited
disease; the lungs are their weak point. They are sinewy but not
muscular; however, as a race they hold their own with favorable
surroundings, are not decreasing seriously, if at all, and will not
settle the problem by dying out.

Mechanically they have proved apt to learn, but slow to execute.
Our Hampton Indian work-shops have this year supplied the Indian
Department with two thousand pairs of men’s brogan shoes, five
hundred dozen articles of tinware, and seventy-five sets of double
plow harness, which were pronounced by the inspectors well-made and
satisfactory. Carlisle has done more.

Both girls and boys take quickly and kindly to neatness and to
industrial pursuits, as well as to books. They are as eager as the
Negroes for knowledge, and become more and more so as they advance.
Want of ambition is the least of their troubles. Teaching them is
hard work, but interesting and stimulating in the highest degree.

They resent injury, but are not revengeful; not a sign of treachery
in nearly five years. Religiously, they are, I believe, the most
hopeful of the heathen races. The vastness and the grandeur of
the West has affected them as desert life has the Arabs; they are
remarkably Oriental in customs and ideas. They worship no fetish,
there are no idols to break, but they have a crude faith to be
cleared, dim eyes to be opened.

Christian efforts, under the care of Archdeacon Kirby of the
Episcopal Church, have evangelized ten thousand Indians of British
America, in their simple natural life. The mixed, harassed
condition of our own, makes the work far more difficult.

The mingling of races at Hampton has worked well; they are
mutually helpful and stimulating. An Indian classmate is kindly,
thoughtfully treated by his colored compeers. A race that has
been led is leading another. The “House-Father,” chief of our
sixty Sioux boys, is a negro. With perhaps finer mental and moral
texture, the red race does not produce half enough to feed itself;
the rougher, stronger blacks have not thrown a pauper upon the
country, and raise raw material for the mills of Christendom.
With benevolent intentions we have diminished and weakened the
one; using the other only for selfish purposes, it has multiplied
and grown stronger. Bringing both races under the care of the
American Missionary Association is most fitting and wise. Both are
peculiarly the concern of the American people, are providentially
committed to our care, and are a part of us. In doing for them we
are doing for ourselves, our children, and our country.

On the Indian girl rests most heavily the weight of past and
present influences. When, in October, 1881, I took 25 Indian boys
and five girls back to their Dakota homes, after three years’
training at Hampton, the former were readily placed in rooms by
themselves, away from the camp, employed in agency work-shops at
the trades they had learned, and thus helped on greatly. The girls
could not be so isolated; they had no trades, and though they
could make their own garments and do housework, there were not
suitable situations for them; they returned to their mothers and
grandmothers, who might sell them to the brave who would pay the
highest price in ponies for them.

One of the five, an earnest Christian, wrote: “Hard to be good
woman out here.” She finally married a white man of good repute.
Another is reported as a most satisfactory house servant in the
family of a missionary; another keeps her father’s store and books.
He is one of the best and most thrifty of Indians; but the family
live in one room in a log house. Two others, younger, are waiting
an opportunity to return to Hampton for two years’ more training,
with a view to becoming teachers.

Teaching is the career for Indian girls, as it has been the one way
for colored girls of the South to be more than drudges; there it is
the only field for a womanly ambition. The increase of educational
work for Indians creates some hope for their girls, on whom rests
the future of their race.

There is a tendency to increase our Indians’ course of study to
longer than three years. One set having returned, the Indians,
whose parental feelings are tender and strong, are more trustful
of us, and readily consent to a longer absence of their children.
One boy has already returned at his own expense, and another is
saving his money for the purpose, both to learn more and to perfect
themselves in their trade of shoemaking. The sooner the Indian can
stand without government aid, the better. Any boy can return who
will pay his way back. This gives a motive to work, and creates
appreciation of his opportunities.

For the practical necessities of Indian life their training should
be practical.

We give half the day to study and half to labor. An education which
does not fit them to take care of themselves may do them more harm
than good.

I think that when charity and the government are linked together
for Indian work, the former should erect the buildings and maintain
the teachers, the latter supply the wants of the body. United
States beef and flour and shoes are as good as any body’s, but
government employés, as our civil service stands, are not the men
to elevate the Indian. The telling factor in all work for men is
the person who does it. Unless that shall be supplied from the pure
fountains of our Christian civilization it will not, as a rule, be
supplied at all. I refer to the educational work at the agencies;
there the government day and boarding schools should be strictly
responsible to the controlling power, and their moral value will
be that of the agent in charge. Missionary institutions should
stimulate these, and should be conducted by superior men and women
directly responsible to their Eastern supporters. I call it sham
missionary work to send out Christian teachers to be supported
on public pay. The churches who do that, and some do, are doing
nothing. Let us first send our own teachers for the Indians, and
then fit them to become their own teachers; to make the teachers is
to make the people.

The free Negro schools in the South are vitalized by a number of
strong central institutions under Northern men that train the
picked growth of the race as teachers. This is, I think, the true
relation of Eastern charity to the Indian. There should be an
excellent boarding and industrial school at each important agency
for this purpose. Getting fifteen dollars a month of government for
food and clothing for each pupil need not in the least weaken the
independence or morals of teachers. The friends of the Indian will
do the rest.

The situation is critical, the opportunity is great; the rising
tide of public sentiment, the movement at Washington, the eagerness
as well as the exigency of the red man mean much.

But this work needs a leader; it will drag if thrown on an
overloaded man. The man is as much as the money; the one will bring
the other, both by wise appeals and good work that will commend
itself to the country.

For more than a century Indians rejected our civilization; now
their thinking men, for they are a race of thinkers, forecast the
future and wish their children taught the white man’s way as their
only hope.

They do not choose this; they are compelled to it. Hundreds,
thousands, are waiting for an education. They beg for what they
once refused.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE CHINESE.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE.

Your Committee on the Chinese Mission of the Association have
agreed upon the following report:

There are three points which demand special thanksgiving to God.

First. The manifestly wise policy of the Association on the whole
question of Christianizing the Chinese. This appears (1) in the
noble stand it has taken and the work it is doing for education and
Christianity on our Pacific coast, thus uttering a perpetual rebuke
to the intolerable selfishness and barbarism of political parties
in the passage of the anti-Chinese bill; (2) in the admirable
disposition made of the proposed mission in China itself.

The desire of earnest Christian Chinamen in California that a
mission be started in Southern China, which might be a “rallying
centre” of Christian influence for converted men on their return
home, and from which they could “go forth to carry the gospel
to their countrymen,” is a desire which must commend itself to
reason; and the readiness of these Christian Chinamen to aid
such a movement with contributions of their own is worthy of
the highest commendation. Moreover, that Hong Kong, that great
gateway of Chinese emigration, that district wrenched away from
the Chinese by English selfishness and rapacity forty years ago,
in the ignominious struggle of the opium war, should be the place
agreed upon for that mission, seemed peculiarly fitting. But that
this Association should be the body to establish the mission
there, thus distracting attention from its great peculiar work at
home, and dividing the contributions of American Congregational
churches between two foreign Congregational boards in China, could
hardly seem wise to any. How gratifying then to learn that this
Association, holding to the purpose of no more missions abroad, has
successfully arranged with the American Board to accept and carry
forward this movement at Hong Kong. The principle of simplicity
of arrangement and economical division of labor among our great
benevolent societies is thus endorsed once for all.

Second. The second point calling for thanksgiving is the marked
success of the work among the Chinese on the Pacific coast. There
is no more promising work for China, as a whole, in all the world,
than that now being done by the California Chinese Mission. Its
fifteen schools, with thirty-one teachers, eleven of whom are
converted Chinamen, twenty-five hundred scholars—an increase of
almost a thousand over last year, and a hundred and six conversions
to Christ, all show that it is no longer a mere experiment. The
efficient Christian organization known as the Congregational
Association of Christian Chinese, with its missionary spirit and
liberal contributions, demonstrate the fact on our own soil that
the Chinamen, like others, when touched by the spirit of Christ,
are a power for righteousness.

Third. The recent influx of 25,000 Chinamen, hastening to reach our
shores before the pagan bill of Congress should go into effect, has
suddenly increased the demand for laborers and money.

The work on the Pacific coast ought not to receive less than
$13,000 the coming year, that the 125,000 Chinese already in the
country may, during the ten years of national disgrace, be quietly
fitted to become a great Christian power for the elevation of their
countrymen.

While the anti-Chinese outcry from California has filled the
ears of the nation, your Committee wishes to recognize with
thanksgiving the noble work which many of the Christians of that
State have done and are doing for China and for Christ. The Chinese
missions of the Association are at present restricted to the
State of California. But your Committee are impressed with the
importance to the Association, in this part of its work, of full
and exact information as to the condition of the Chinese population
throughout the country, and as to the work done in their behalf by
various Christian agencies, and especially by the local churches
of various denominations. And we recommend that a systematic
inquiry be instituted on this subject, the result of which shall be
reported at the next annual meeting.

                                      JAMES BRAND, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


ADDRESS OF REV. JAMES BRAND, D.D.

MR. PRESIDENT: At one of the former meetings of this Association,
one speaker, in pleading for China, proposed that the audience go
with him, in imagination, to the Chinese quarter in San Francisco,
in order that from a personal inspection of the thrift, economy
and order manifested there he might get an argument for Christian
sympathy and support in Chinese education. They did so and the
argument was good. At the same meeting, another speaker, pleading
the same cause, proposed to the audience to go with him to a more
sacred place than the Chinese quarter, namely, the battle-fields
of the war, that he might gather from the memory and suggestions
of those hallowed places an argument for the maintenance of the
national and Christian principles contended for in that war, and
hence an argument for the Christian treatment of the Chinese.

Now, in getting the purchase for another argument for the same
unhappy people, I propose that you go for a few moments with me to
a more sacred place still than either the Chinese quarter or the
battle-fields of the war. I mean that upper room where, eighteen
centuries ago, occurred that last, long interview between Christ
and his disciples, before the crucifixion. Let us reverently step
in there and stand behind that little circle of the eleven. Let
us catch the spirit and the suggestions of that tender and holy
scene. The Divine One is speaking his last words to those men who
are soon to go forth and undertake the conversion of the world.
What is his most weighty thought? It is that which was expressed in
his closing prayer: “As thou hast sent me into the world even so
have I sent them into the world;” that is, the mission of Christian
men in the world was to be the same as His own. It was to be a
mission of vicarious suffering and service for all the world. Men
were dying in their sins in all countries. The nations were sitting
in the shadow of death. Generations were tramping on, each in the
track of the others, to hopeless doom. They did not know God’s
redeeming love. It is this spectacle of humanity rushing on to a
hopeless eternity, that puts that solemn and intense tone into the
Saviour’s voice as He talks and prays. They were to be men like
Christ. They were to go into all the world, bearing the love of God.

This is what the world needs. This world of faith in force, and
faith in diplomacy, and faith in partisan politics; this world of
faith in intellectual skill; this world of brain power, elaborating
expedients; this world of self-seeking refinement; these nations
that are under the shadow of death are all sending up through the
gloom of their moral miseries the inarticulate cry to God for just
this Christlike mission of loving men, to the world. This, then,
is the warrant; this is the groundwork of my plea for China. It is
not that the Chinese are very worthy, or that our nation ought to
be very consistent with its fundamental principles, but it is that
400,000,000 souls need a Saviour from sin, and we, whose mission
is identical with Christ’s, have something to do in the case. This
applies, of course, to all nations as well as the Chinese, but I
plead for a special application of the principle to China on two
grounds:

I. Because of the vastness and need of China and the peculiar
relation it now sustains to ourselves. What have we done for her
people? We have shut our door in their face. We have said no poor
laboring man of China shall feed his children on our shore for ten
years to come. Three hundred and thirty thousand of them will have
gone into eternity before these ten black years shall have expired!
Do we not hear the echo of that tender voice from that upper room,
“Inasmuch as ye did it unto these, ye have done it unto me”?

II. I plead for China because of the wrongs she has suffered at
nominally Christian hands, and especially at the hands of the
United States Government.

The anti-Chinese bill is a violation of treaty, a violation of
the spirit of impartial justice to foreigners, a violation of our
own interest, because opposed to the spirit of Christ, which when
resisted always reacts. It was carried through, like the opium
trade, for present personal advantage on a small scale. It is the
child of partisan politics, born out of a fear lest other foreign
laborers, finding themselves underbidden by the more economical
Chinese, might raise an outcry, and disturb the equilibrium of
party power. Hence, to gain votes, one party will sacrifice
national policy and Christian principle, and the other will do the
same rather than lose votes. Thus China must be affronted, and
Christianity dishonored before the world. It is not, however, the
American people as such who have done this thing—thank God for
that! Whenever the national conscience has spoken at all on the
subject, it has spoken against it. This anti-Chinese legislation
is the adoption, in America, of the old barbaric cast-off policy
of exclusion, which China herself has pursued for centuries toward
other nations. China is going forward: we have gone back.

Now what is to be the result in this case? It must be _reaction_.
There must come reaction against American commerce, losing more
than it gains, reaction against American integrity as to treaty
stipulations, awakening Chinese distrust and hate, casting a
blight upon Western civilization and, worst of all, defeating
American Christianity.

The great American nation has divided at the Chinese quarter. Say
what you will, that Chinese quarter in San Francisco has become the
great moral _divortium_ or water-shed of America where Christian
and anti-Christian sentiment divide. On one side the Chinese
workman is mobbed, excluded; on the other he is educated and led
to Christ. On the one side men act for party ends and call the
Chinaman a “heathen dog;” on the other they recognize him with
all his infirmities as a man for whom Christ died, and call him
brother. This is a tremendous responsibility we assume when we thus
prejudice a fifth part of the human family against the religion of
Christ.

Now, then, if we make special pleas for the Indian because we
have manifestly wronged him and ought to make amends; if we are
under special obligation to the freedman because we have sinned
against him, or because he may become an important link between our
Christianity and perishing Africa, why is not the same argument
good for the Chinese on the Pacific coast? Surely, in God’s sight,
these ten black years ought to be ten very bright years for the
Christian schools for Chinamen in California. China ought to have
at the end of that time a larger force of native missionaries
trained up on the Pacific slope than all the Christian workers
employed in that great empire to-day. The truth is, we are all
taking one side or the other of this question. In deciding which it
shall be let us keep in mind the noble sentiment of Henry Richard.
Speaking on the opium question in the House of Commons, he said,
“I am not ashamed to say that I am one of those who believe that
there is a God who ruleth in the kingdom of men, and that it is not
safe for a community, any more than an individual, recklessly and
habitually to affront those great principles of truth and justice
and humanity, on which, I believe, He governs the world. And we may
be quite sure of this, that, in spite of our pride of place and
power, in spite of our vast possessions and enormous resources,
in spite of our boasted force by land and sea, if we come into
conflict with that Power we shall be crushed like an egg-shell
against the granite rock.”

Better still, let us listen again for the serious tone of the
Divine prayer in that upper room. “I pray for them; I pray not
for the world, but for them which thou hast given me, for they
are thine. And now I am no more in the world but these are in the
world. Holy Father, keep them!” While the shadow of to-morrow’s
cross was already darkening his path, his thought was not for
himself but for _them_. “These are in the world,” and to be in it,
to work, to choose, to suffer in it—“in the world,” and so are
tempted to use the world’s tactics, tempted to lose sight of their
great commission and to become callous to the world’s needs—“in
the world,” and so they have to settle momentous questions—“in the
world,” having to meet its pains, its storms, its falsehood, its
curse, its fascinations, and so, may lose sight of the claims of
thy kingdom of love: Holy Father, keep them! _Keep them!_

       *       *       *       *       *



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FINANCE.

Your Committee on Finance beg leave to report that they have
examined the Treasurer’s statements of receipts and expenditures
and find them properly certified as correct by the auditors. Also
the trial balance, and the list of trust funds, and the books of
accounts are so certified.

The trust funds appear to be securely invested and wisely
administered for the purposes for which they were created.

We find that the accounts of the Treasurer are carefully kept
and that the control and disbursement of the current funds of
the Association are conducted in a thoroughly systematic and
business-like manner, with ample safeguards against error and loss.

Your Committee take pleasure in commending the wisdom, fidelity and
economy of the officers and Executive Committee in the financial
administration of the great trusts confided to their care.

It is gratifying to find that the expenditures of the Association
have been so carefully guarded and distributed that for six
consecutive years last past they have not exceeded the annual
income. During this period a large indebtedness previously incurred
has been wholly paid and no new indebtedness created in any
department of its work.

The balance in the treasury is $789.83, after paying all bills due
to September 30.

There is every reason to expect that this satisfactory condition of
things will be continued through the generosity of the churches to
this cause.

At the last annual meeting, your Committee on Finance recommended
that the churches increase their contributions from $243,000 to
$300,000 for the then current year; and the reports submitted at
this meeting show that this was done within $3,000. This additional
sum of $54,000 has been used partly in completing the college
buildings at Talladega, Ala., and Strieby Hall, at Tougaloo, Miss.
It has also greatly helped in the support of needy students,
besides materially increasing the working force and general church
and school efficiency.

It is worthy of remark that almost every dollar of this increased
contribution has done effective work in the mission fields,
since, while the receipts for the past two years have been more
than $100,000 larger than in the two years next preceding them,
the expense of raising and disbursing these funds and managing
the affairs of the Association has increased less than $400 per
annum, thus showing that the Association is fully equipped for
a much larger work without additional cost for the machinery of
administration. This fact constitutes a strong appeal to the
benevolent who wish their gifts applied without waste or diminution
to the good ends for which they are bestowed.

These more ample facilities for church and educational work bring
with them larger demands for funds, so that simply to preserve its
efficiency in fields already occupied the Association requires
an annual increase in contributions. Besides, new demands are
continually made for new foundations in different places.

From the reports and papers submitted at this meeting, we gather
that $5,000 more than last year will be needed to increase the work
among the Chinese in California; $20,000 more for the enlargement
of the work among the Indians; $25,000 more for the support of
schools and churches among the Freedmen, and $25,000 more towards
the building of Smith College at Little Rock, Ark.

In view of all these facts and reasons, the urgency of which all
friends of the Association will readily appreciate, your Committee
recommend that at least $50,000 be added to the current income of
the Association for general uses during the next fiscal year, and
express the earnest hope that the further sum of $25,000 may be
obtained for special purposes, making a grand total for 1882–3 of
$375,000.

                                  J. G. W. COWLES, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


PETITION OF PRESIDENT E. A. WARE AND OTHERS.

REFERRED TO THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.

We, the undersigned ministers and teachers, representing the
work of the American Missionary Association, mainly in the State
of Georgia, respectfully petition the annual meeting of the
Association about to assemble at Cleveland, Ohio, that they appoint
a committee of five, more or less, who shall report at the annual
meeting in 1883 with reference to the policy that should govern the
Association and its representatives in matters suggested by the
following questions:

First. Is it the mission of the Association to work solely among
the three despised races, so called, or through its work for
these races to labor for the upbuilding of other people without
distinction of race as rapidly as they can be brought within the
sphere of its influence?

Second. Should it or should it not be the policy of the Association
to establish separate churches or schools for different races?

Third. What should be the relations of comity between the
Association and our other benevolent societies when undertaking to
do missionary work of the same nature in the same field?

Fourth. What light, if any, is shed upon the foregoing questions by
the history of the foundation and early work of the Association?

We would suggest that the committee be instructed to invite
correspondence from the officers of the Association, from the
officers of our other missionary societies, from all workers in the
field, and from others interested, and that the report be published
in the religious press at least two months before the annual
meeting of 1883.

       *       *       *       *       *


EXCHANGE OF MISSIONS.

BY SECRETARY STRIEBY.

At the regular meeting of the Executive Committee of the American
Missionary Association, held Sept. 11, 1882, the following
resolution was adopted:

_Resolved_, That a committee of three be appointed to invite a
conference with the Am. Board respecting the advisability of
transferring our African work to the Board, and assuming the work
among the Indians now carried on by the Board.

In accordance with this vote a delegation from our Executive
Committee, consisting of Drs. Ward and Roy, Mr. Mead and Secretary
Strieby held an interview with the Prudential Committee of the
American Board in Boston, Sept. 14, at which the proposed exchange
was fully and fraternally considered. The Prudential Committee
of the Board subsequently passed a resolution recommending to
the Board the approval of the transfer, if all legal and other
difficulties could be obviated. In response, the Board, at its late
meeting in Portland, Oct. 3, passed the following resolution:

_Resolved_, That further arrangements for the Dakota Mission be
referred to the Prudential Committee with power, but with the
earnest recommendation that the whole mission be transferred to the
care of the American Missionary Association, unless the practical
difficulties shall prove to be insuperable.

On the 13th of October, a meeting was held in New York, of a
special committee of the Prudential Committee of the Board, and of
a special committee of the Ex. Com. of the A. M. A., in which the
principles and methods, as well as the difficulties in the way of
the transfer, were again considered.

The spirit of that meeting was not that of sharp bargaining
in commercial values, but of an earnest desire on the part of
Christian brethren, representing affiliated missionary societies
to consummate an arrangement that would facilitate the upbuilding
of the Redeemer’s Kingdom. Yet commercial values were canvassed.
The Board has in its Indian missions, buildings for churches and
schools, and other property, estimated at $36,000. The value of the
properly of the A. M. A. at the Mendi Mission can be stated with
less definiteness, but the buildings for churches, schools, and
industrial work can hardly be worth as much as that of the Board in
the Dakota Mission. But in addition to this property there is the
fund from the estate of Rev. Charles Avery, for African missions.
The points of difficulty suggested and discussed were: the legal
authority of the Association to transfer this Avery fund; the
continuance of the Mendi Mission by the Board; and its assumption
of the Arthington Mission. On the first point—the transfer of the
Avery fund—a legal opinion, very clear, and so far as could be
judged, satisfactory, was obtained, of which the following is the
decisive portion.

“Under the bequest thus given to the American Missionary
Association, it cannot lawfully delegate to another the discretion
which the testator has intrusted specifically to it. But it may
delegate to others the execution of purposes which are approved by
its discretion, and which are within the objects defined by the
testator. It may employ the agency of its own officers and servants
in the application of the income, or it may employ the agency of
other organizations, as in its discretion may be most fit, useful
and efficient in accomplishing the testator’s purposes.”

In regard to the second point, the Committee of the American
Missionary Association expressed the wish that the Mendi Mission
should be continued, while the representatives of the Board
deemed it unadvisable, on account of the great enlargement of its
African work recently entered upon; and on the third point, in
like manner and for the same reasons, they thought the Board would
be indisposed to assume the responsibilities of the Arthington
Mission. No final settlement of these points was attempted, it
being deemed necessary to wait until this annual meeting of the
Association should, if it thought best, approve of the exchange of
the missions, and, as the Board had done, remit to the Committee
the authority to arrange details. With a view to securing such
approval, I shall now proceed in behalf of the Executive Committee
to give the reasons for the exchange of missions.

1. It is believed that the churches desire the exchange.

A living missionary society must have a vital connection with the
churches. Thence mainly come its funds, and funds are as essential
to it as to a bank or factory; yet if it get from them nothing
but funds, it is no better than a bank or factory. It needs to be
grounded in the confidence of the churches, and to be permeated
in every branch and fibre by their piety and prayers. The wishes,
therefore, of the churches as to methods as well as aims should be
sought and heeded. Do the churches desire this change? That they
do, I offer in evidence the effort made to that end in the National
Council at New Haven. That effort was no sudden impulse originating
in the mind of a single individual, and as suddenly laid aside
by the Council. An elaborate report on the subject was presented
and discussed at great length. It is true that the movement was
not successful, yet it was full of significance, mainly from the
character of those who pressed it. They were among the strongest
and most influential men in the denomination. They were at the time
outvoted, but their convictions were not changed, nor in so far as
they were representative men is the weight of their testimony to
be disregarded. Passing down to the present time, we come to the
respectful resolution adopted by the Congregational Association
of Ohio, asking for substantially this exchange. This resolution
is not the work of foes, but of warmest friends, as our cordial
invitation and reception here abundantly testify.

But the most convincing fact of all is the reception which has
been given to the announcement of the proposed change. Almost
unanimously comes to us the assurance that the exchange is heartily
approved by the churches. I have said “almost” unanimously, for
there have come to us, from a few old and tried friends, words of
regret that we should abandon our work in Africa, so cherished in
precious memories.

There may be more of sentiment than of sound judgment in this plea,
but I beg the privilege of expressing my personal sympathy with
the feelings of these old friends. When I think of the toils and
sufferings of the workers in the Mendi Mission, of the buried dead
there, and of the survivors now in this country, with shattered
health, and when I think of the friends in this country and across
the ocean who have sustained this mission by their prayers and
offerings, I am frank to admit that it has cost me sleepless hours
and a sore heart to yield my consent to part with it—unimportant
as that consent may be. But in spite of all these sympathies and
of old associations, the reasons for the exchange seem to me so
conclusive as to leave no room for hesitation; and one of these
strong reasons is the one I have just presented—the wishes of the
churches.

2. The division will simplify the appeals in behalf of the two
Boards.

It is a surprise that so many people know so little about
Missionary and Benevolent Societies. This is sometimes simply
amusing, as when at the recent meeting of the American Board in
Portland, it is said that an agent of a railroad centering in
Portland asked if the Am. Board was an “Odd Fellows’ Society”; and
an intelligent looking man was overheard instructing his friend
that they were “Freethinkers.” But the matter becomes serious when
it results in the improper designation of bequests in wills and
legacies. People that leave legacies to missionary societies are
certainly interested in them, and might be supposed to know about
them, but mistakes are constantly made that invalidate legacies and
cause perplexity to heirs and loss to missionary treasuries. But
it must be admitted that the present distribution of work and the
appeals in its behalf foster the mistakes into which so many fall.
Sec. Humphrey, for example, appears before a Western conference
and in eloquent and earnest words presents the broad claim of the
American Board, dwelling with emphasis on the remarkable openings
in Africa, an almost newly discovered continent, and then calls for
sympathy for the Indians now lifting up their hands to welcome the
white man’s Bible instead of his whisky. Then follows Sec. Powell
in his vigorous and breezy way, telling not only of the colored man
in the South but of the wonderful land of his fathers, and follows
this with a stirring appeal for the Indians! Is it not too much to
expect of the average Christian that he should be able to separate
these tangled branches and make each tree stand out before him in
its own proper individuality?

But now, if the Am. Board, with its history of nearly
three-quarters of a century and its noble work in all parts
of the foreign field, is recognized as the sole agency of the
Congregational churches for foreign missions; if the Am. Home Miss.
Society, with its record of more than half a century, and with its
field stretching from Maine to California, dotted all over with
the monuments of its beneficial labors and filled with a vast and
ever-expanding population, shall be the channel for distinctively
home mission work; and if the American Missionary Association, with
its peculiar and diversified educational and religious methods,
shall be set apart to the work among the colored people of the
South and among the whites as far and as fast as the vanishing of
caste prejudice will permit, and also among the Indians and the
Chinamen on the Pacific Slope, then will the distinction between
the several societies be made clear, and Benevolence, which, like
commercial capital, is cautious, will see before it open and
distinct channels, through which it may pour its benefactions.

3. Providential indications point to the change. Missionary
Societies, if vital and effective, are born of the Spirit, but
developed in outer form and methods of work by providential
events, and if their usefulness continues, they must not remain
stagnant, but be obedient to the call of providential changes.
The American Board once wisely embraced three denominations of
Christians, Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed.
But the growth of those denominations and of the missionary zeal
in them, made it clear that each would do more good if working
separately, calling out the individual responsibility of the
several denominations, and the result has abundantly verified the
anticipation. So, too, has the Board modified its work. The changes
in its Indian missions, once reaching far South and now confined
to Dakota, may be cited as an illustration, not of the Board’s
fickleness, but of its wisdom.

The A. M. A. has been guided to marked changes. Its original
aim was to do mission work free from all possible complications
with slavery. It did not, as I understand the matter, assume
that all other Boards were in _favor_ of slavery, while it
alone was opposed to it, but its founders felt that the time
had come when their consciences could be no longer satisfied
unless their missionary contributions and labors constituted an
active and public protest against slavery. The breadth of this
principle included all forms of missionary efforts, and hence
the constitution of the Association provided for both home and
foreign work, and in its greatest enlargement on this basis, it
had about 110 home missionaries in the field, and its foreign
missions extended to West Africa, Jamaica, the Sandwich Islands,
Siam, the Copts in Egypt, the Indians in the United States, and
the refugees in Canada. But the war changed the whole aspect of
affairs for the Association. It set free the millions of slaves
and gave the opportunity for reaching them directly with schools
and the Gospel. The Association at once concentrated its efforts
upon these people, having shortly before or soon after the war
abandoned or transferred all its missions—home and foreign—except
the Mendi, and this was retailed as cognate to its work among the
Freedmen in this country. But now as we look back on the history
of that mission, so useful up to the date when we surrendered our
other foreign missions, and so comparatively unsuccessful since,
we are constrained to ask if it, too, should not then have been
relinquished.

Let me detail the facts: At the annual meeting in 1861, the Mendi
Mission reported four stations, three outstations and seven
preaching places; thirteen white missionaries on the ground, two
who had just returned to America, and one under appointment—sixteen
in all. Up to that date its schools and churches were prosperous,
converts were added, a theological class was formed and one young
man licensed to preach. And in addition to this more direct
evangelical work, it has exerted a marked and happy influence in
averting war among the natives, in checking the slave trade and
in developing industry and commerce among the people. I find this
testimony concerning a single station of the mission, that on the
Boom River: “The whole trade of this river has been developed
within the last ten years. It is now worth more than $40,000 a
year. The coast, or slave trade to the North, has been stopped.
Natives, in their own canoes, carry their produce to market, which
only four years ago was bartered away for half its value. The
credit for this change is due to the mission. The industry of the
people has increased ten-fold through that influence.” The mission
at that date was the most conspicuous work of the Association, and
the account of it stands at the head of the Annual Report, and
occupies seven pages. But at the close of the war, only four years
later, this mission took its place at the close of the Report,
occupied only a page and a half, and the sadly significant lines
on that page and a half were: “The increased expense (owing to
the very high rate of exchange) combined with the great demand for
missionary labors among the freedmen and the absorption of young
and middle-aged men in the armies of the country, has deprived the
committee of the ability to reinforce the mission as it needs. For
no inconsiderable portion of the year, Rev. Mr. Hinman and wife
have been the only white missionaries at the mission.” For more
than ten years the mission remained inadequately recruited. In 1876
we sent the loved and lamented Rev. E. P. Smith to explore the
field with the view to enlargement, but, alas! he never returned to
tell us the story, and his bones hallow the soil of West Africa.
In 1877 we inaugurated the effort to supply the mission with the
educated sons and daughters of the freedmen. From 1877 to 1881 we
sent thither fourteen missionaries with five children—nineteen in
all. To-day there is but one of these at the mission. Finally an
effort was made to recruit the Mendi mission with well-trained
colored men, but our efforts thus far have been unsuccessful. If
twenty-one years ago we could have foreseen these results, could we
have felt justified in going forward with the mission; and with the
results now before us as history, can we hesitate to surrender it
to another Board? Does not the Lord of missions seem to say to the
Association: I have other work for you?

Before passing from this subject it should be stated that our
experiment has been favorable as to the health of colored Americans
in Africa. Of the nineteen colored missionaries sent thither since
the year 1877, only three have died, one man and two women, and
in none of these cases did death result directly from the effects
of the climate. The retirement has in many cases been due to the
ill-health of the wives. The result emphasizes the necessity of
very close medical examination, especially of the women, and of
maturity of judgment and character in the missionaries and of
adequate preparation in study.

In 1879 Mr. Robert Arthington made to the Association the generous
offer of $15,000, on condition that it would establish a mission
within an area designated by him on the Upper Nile in tropical
Africa. The Committee expressed gratitude to Mr. Arthington,
yet feeling the responsibility of so great an undertaking, took
suitable time for deliberation. Estimates were made as to the
probable cost, and with all the light available, it was judged
that $50,000 would equip and found the mission. The Committee then
proposed to undertake the mission if our British friends would
supplement Mr. Arthington’s gift with a like amount. By the efforts
of the Freedmen’s Missions Aid Society this additional sum was
secured, and in 1881 Rev. Mr. Ladd and Dr. Snow made a preliminary
exploration, extending their trip 2,500 miles up the Nile, only
to find, however, the rebellion of the fanatical Achmet in full
career on the upper Nile, and barely escaping with their lives,
descended the river to find the rebellion of Arabi Pasha just ready
to break forth. The exploration was heroically and carefully made,
and yet it showed clearly that nothing could then be done towards
establishing the mission, nor can anything yet be attempted in the
present disturbed condition of the Nile basin.

In the meantime the experience of the British missions, lately
established in tropical Africa, shows us that a much larger sum
than $50,000 would probably be needed to plant the mission; and,
moreover, it has become more clear that the sud—a collection of
soil and weeds—so impedes the navigation of the Nile above the
mouth of the Sobat as to render access to the site specially
designated for the Arthington Mission extremely difficult,
uncertain, and, at times, impossible.

Under all circumstances it has become manifest that the farther
prosecution of the effort to plant the Arthington Mission will
involve the expenditure of greater sums of money, and the
encountering of much more formidable difficulties than we had
anticipated at the outset—and raises the question as to the wisdom
of transferring the fund, with the possibilities of the mission,
to another Board with larger resources and more experience, or of
returning the money to the generous donors.

Turning now from this foreign work which the Committee are disposed
to transfer, let me invite attention to the work which will be left
to us, and which, in consequence of the exchange, if made, we can
enlarge and prosecute with more vigor.

I begin with the work among the Freedmen. That work has been
remarkably, continuously and increasingly successful. It has gone
beyond the stage of experiment. It is planted firmly on lands and
in permanent buildings, and still more firmly in the confidence
of the colored people and in the respect of the white citizens.
It has been among the most important levers for the elevation of
the colored people, one of the strong influences in the settlement
of our national problem, and a most effective instrument in the
spread of the pure Gospel in the South. It has reached a point
where it ought to be greatly enlarged. If Congress shall pass the
bill appropriating ten millions of dollars annually among the
States on the basis of illiteracy, it will give such a stimulus
to common-school education in the South as to make a demand for
teachers by the thousand where we and all other agencies supply
only hundreds; it will do the preliminary work in the education of
a population that will call for a much larger number of educated
ministers; and it will give an uplift to the masses that will
render leaders in business and professional life a necessity to
their further progress and security. The munificent gift of a
million of dollars by Mr. Slater will impart a grand impulse to the
education of the colored people. It will doubtless render important
help to many societies; it will come far short of meeting the full
wants of any; and it would be a sad mistake, deprecated by no one
more than Mr. Slater himself, if this great gift should weaken the
sense of responsibility in others. Its greatest ultimate value will
probably be in awakening other generous hearts to the fact that
the work needs millions as well as hundreds and thousands. This
people are generations behind the Anglo-Saxons in preparation for
the duties of life, and they and their children need not only as
great, but for the time being greater facilities to enable them to
catch up in the race and then to march forward at even pace in the
responsibilities and privileges of citizens and Christians. The
time has come to push this great undertaking. The nation is aroused
to it, and the American Missionary Association, so well prepared
for it, needs only to be stripped of outer and foreign garments,
and to enter with disencumbered hands and redoubled energy and
means into the great work to which it has been so plainly called.

Nor by this concentration will the Association lose sight of
Africa. It believes as much as ever that God means that the
Freedmen have not only a great duty and destiny here, but that they
have also a special call and fitness to bear the Gospel to the land
of their fathers. In its schools and churches it will direct their
attention to this field, and endeavor to inspire them with the
missionary spirit. The only change will be in the hands that shall
lead them to Africa and guide and cheer them on in the work there.
The Association and the Board will work harmoniously and more
efficiently to this great end, the one on this continent, the other
on that.

The A. M. A. is prepared to do an enlarged work among the Indians.
Popular consent in the churches supporting the Association has
assigned to it especially the care of the colored races in America.
There is a fitness in putting these together; they are alike
alien to European blood: they are alike the victims of caste
prejudice, and they alike need schools as well as churches. The
Association has been the strenuous opponent of race oppression
and caste prejudice, and has devoted itself to the varied modes
of industrial, educational and church work needed by these races.
They should no longer be regarded as the subject of foreign mission
efforts. The Indians, for example, are the original inhabitants
of the land, and the strenuous efforts of those most interested
in their welfare are to induce the government to make no treaties
with them as foreigners, but to bring them as rapidly as possible
into the ranks of citizens, sharing the protection of law and
holding lands in severalty. It is a hindrance to this desirable
consummation if the Indians are treated ecclesiastically and
religiously as foreigners. If the State makes them citizens the
church ought certainly to regard them as “no more strangers and
foreigners, but fellow citizens.” On the other hand, no home
mission board with its simple plan for aiding in the formation of
churches and the support of ministers can adequately meet their
wants. They need the school and the industrial training as well as
the church, and these the A. M. A. is prepared to furnish and to
carry forward under the light of its ample experience in the South.

The Association is no stranger to the Indian work. At one time
it had twenty-one missionaries among them. It is true that its
missions were abandoned in large measure and the efforts of the
Association concentrated upon the South. But precious fruits
are yet gathered from that neglected planting. The Association
gave its hearty co-operation to the peace policy of Gen. Grant,
rendering useful service to the Government and the Indians by the
appointment of some _good_ agents, a few of whom, notwithstanding
all detractions and temptations, are alive and remain unto this
present. It has aided in the education of Indian youth at Hampton,
and the Committee had voted for the current year a much larger
appropriation for Indian work. If the Board shall transfer to it
the Dakota Mission, the responsibility and the call for funds may
be larger than was anticipated, but if it be the call of Providence
there will be no shrinking from duty.

Caste-prejudice is the curse of most of the nations yet unconverted
to Christ, and a great hindrance to the Gospel. In this country it
is the bitterest force left by Slavery—bitter in him who cherishes
it, and in him who suffers from it. Christianity must conquer it
as it did slavery—for the world. It can do this; its love can
subdue the pride of the Caucasian, and its light and power uplift
the negro, the Chinaman and the Indian. To the practical preaching
of this love and light must the American Missionary Association
devote its concentrated efforts, till all the people of this land
shall come into the fellowship of the Gospel and into the glorious
liberty of the children of God.

       *       *       *       *       *



ADDRESSES AT THE ANNUAL MEETING.

       *       *       *       *       *


PRESIDENT HAYES’ ADDRESS.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen.—Without preface I proceed
at once to state the proposition to which I ask your considerate
attention. The friends of popular education believe that the time
has fully come when national aid should be given wherever such
aid is needed, and to the extent that it is needed, for the free
education of all the citizens of the United States. The grave
necessity for national aid for education is in the Southern States,
and especially for the colored people. But the white people of
the South also need it. The people of New Mexico and the other
Territories need it. It is not improbable that by reason of
immigration from countries where popular education is neglected,
some of the new States and some of the large cities may need it.
The Indians did need it, but happily the large appropriations
recently made for their education—amounting to almost half a
million of dollars for the next fiscal year, and the action of the
government during the last few years in behalf of their education
at Hampton, at Carlisle, in Oregon, at the Indian agencies, and
at tribal schools, have at last fully committed the nation to
the wise and beneficent policy of fitting the Indians, as far
as practicable, and as fast as practicable, for the duties and
privileges of American citizenship.

The bills pending in Congress on the subject of national aid
for education are of two classes. One class seeks to establish
a permanent fund by devoting to the purpose the receipts of the
sales of the public lands, or from the taxes on spirituous liquors,
or from other specified sources. By the other class of measures
the money required is appropriated directly from the public
treasury. The measure which perhaps meets with most favor is the
latter class. It requires that ten or fifteen millions of dollars
a year shall be distributed among the States—each State to have
that proportion of this sum which its illiteracy bears to the
total illiteracy of the whole country. This appropriation, it is
contemplated, will be continued long enough to test the value of
the measure, or until the States themselves shall become able to
provide for the free education of all citizens.

And now, my friends, what are the grounds upon which these measures
are supported? This question opens a wide field of discussion—a
field so large that I do not hope to make even a hasty survey of
the whole of it in the time limited by the proprieties of this
occasion. Fortunately, it is not at all important that I should
attempt it. The facts, the figures and the arguments bearing on
the subject are all familiar. The embarrassment is that they have
been repeated so often and presented so ably that one hesitates
to spread them again before such an audience as this. But if the
question is asked, why repeat what is already so familiar, the
reply is cogent and near at hand. The evil we deplore and wish
to remove still remains. In spite of the work of the religious
denominations, and of benevolent associations and individuals,
the number of ignorant men armed with ballots which control the
Nation’s destiny grows larger and larger. Congress hesitates to
act, has adopted no remedy, and has not even reached a test vote
on the question. This leaves to the friends of free and universal
education at the South no recourse, except further agitation. This
is the American way to obtain from the government needed reforms.
Senators and Representatives have made reports and speeches, which
cover the whole ground. Voluminous and valuable writings leave
nothing to be desired by the citizen who would conscientiously
investigate this question.

There is another testimony in behalf of the right side of this
important subject which must not be overlooked. More than
seventeen years have passed since the close of the great war which
consolidated the Union, gave liberty to the slaves and opened
the way for free education at the South. During all of that time
a stream of benevolent enterprises and efforts has been poured
into the South in aid of this work by the various religious
denominations and by missionary and charitable associations. Rich
men have been glad to contribute to it generously out of their
abundance. Many men and women from humble homes have nobly given
their best years—their very lives—in the face of privations,
hardships and unparalleled discouragements to uplift an obscure and
injured people just released from the house of bondage. The history
of these voluntary organizations and voluntary individual efforts
is radiant with examples of self-sacrificing devotion in doing the
work of the Divine Master, which are at once touching and sublime.
If one could enumerate all that has been done, contributed,
sacrificed and suffered by associations and individuals for the
regeneration of the South, it would go far toward demonstrating to
the satisfaction of all fair-minded people that God has given to
this generation of the prosperous citizens of the United States a
duty and a privilege with respect to their countrymen of both races
in the South of unexampled interest to the Nation and to the cause
of human freedom throughout the world.

But admirable as their work has been, if we wisely consider the
magnitude of the task that remains, we shall begin to apprehend
that we have only picked up here and there a few pebbles on the
shore, while the great ocean of ignorance stretches vast and
untouched before us.

The following statistical tables are only too familiar:

_Number of Males in the late Slave-holding States twenty-one Years
of age and upward who could not Read and Write in 1870 and 1880_:

                      ——————1870.——————      ——————1880.——————
                       White.  Colored.       White.  Colored.
      Total           217,371   850,032      410,550   944,424

  Total number of illiterates of voting age in the
    late slave-holding States in 1870                1,167,303
  In 1880                                            1,354,974
  Increase of illiterate voters in the South from
    1870 to 1880                                       187,671
  Increase of illiterate whites of voting age from
    1870 to 1880                                        93,279
  Increase of illiterate colored people of voting
    age from 1870 to 1880                               94,392
  Total number of males of voting age in the South
    in 1880                                          4,154,125
  Total number of illiterate males of voting age in
    the South in 1880                                1,354,974
      32.3 per cent of the voters in the South are illiterate.
      Of the illiterates 69.7 per cent are colored and 30.3
        are whites.

From these tables it appears that the illiterate voters in each
one of the eight Southern States having the largest proportion of
emancipated slaves exceed in number the majority of votes ever
cast even at the most important elections. In one of these States
the ignorant voters constitute an absolute majority of the total
voting population of the State. In more than one-third of the Union
the ignorant voters are almost one-third of the total number of
voters. Most seriously important of all, these tables show that
the illiterate voters of the South have increased in the last
ten years, from 1870 to 1880, almost two hundred thousand. This
increase of ignorant voters in the last decade exceeds the number
of votes cast in any one of more than twenty of the States of the
Union at the last Presidential election. Adopting a phraseology
that was very familiar in the political debates of a generation
ago, it may be truly said that ignorance at the ballot box has
increased, is increasing, and ought to be diminished.

In the electoral colleges which choose the President, in both
Houses of Congress, in all the departments of the national
government, ignorance at the South is as efficient for evil—as
mischievous and dangerous—as if it was in New England or New York,
or here in the Western Reserve. It was settled by the war for the
Union beyond recall that the United States constitute one people
and have one national life, one interest and one destiny.

Recognizing this to be one of the legitimate results of the war,
the people of the Nation by constitutional amendments entered
into every State and defined and regulated those vital elements
of free government—citizenship and suffrage. In pursuance of
these amendments the lately-emancipated slaves by the most solemn
expression of the national will became citizens and voters. In the
presence of these facts, how can a statesman say that under this
Constitution there is no duty and no power to give national aid to
fit by education these freedmen for the responsible positions in
which the Nation has placed them?

Under the Constitution as it was before these vital amendments
were made, Washington, Adams, Jefferson and other great men of the
early days of the Republic, whom we are accustomed to call the
“Fathers,” by significant and solemn enactments and recommendations
fully affirmed the principle that the general government could and
ought to give encouragement and aid to the education of the people.
They placed in the ordinance of 1787 for the government of the
Northwest Territory, as the corner stone of the institutions they
wished to build, this article: “Religion, morality and knowledge
being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind,
_schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged_.”
Under every administration from the origin of the government to the
present time, appropriations of money or land for education in the
States and Territories have been made by the general government,
and it is now too late to question the constitutional power of
Congress to make such grants.

The exercise of this authority by Congress is in strict accordance
with the distribution of the governmental powers, which is one of
the distinguishing features of our American institutions. Whatever
in civilized communities individual citizens can do better than
any public authority is wisely left to individuals. Whatever
local organizations, such as counties, towns and cities, can more
efficiently accomplish than individuals, or the State, or national
government, belongs to the local authorities. The extensive range
of powers which State governments can most beneficially exercise
should be confided to the States. The aim of the framers of the
national Constitution, and of the people who have amended the
original instrument, has been to confer on the national government
those supreme powers which would enable it to secure to the people
of the United States, “union,” “justice,” “tranquillity,” “the
common defense,” “the general welfare,” and “the blessings of
liberty to themselves and their posterity.”

The history of education in this country and in Europe abundantly
proves that individuals and communities never have and never can
provide universal education. Government alone is adequate to the
task.

In the free States, in many cases, after a long and doubtful
struggle, it has been settled that the State can and ought to
provide free instruction for all its people. In almost all of the
late slave-holding States, however, especially in those States in
which the number of colored people is large, the efforts made since
their reconstruction have conclusively shown that to establish and
support an efficient system of free education without aid from
the national government, in the existing condition of the South,
is simply impossible. The situation of the South is so manifestly
exceptional that it is needless to dwell upon it. Slavery and
free schools would not dwell together. Slavery did not, could
not, tolerate universal education. I do not pause to debate the
question, who was responsible for slavery. It is perhaps enough
to say that the Union and the Constitution breathed into this
Nation the breath of life, and gave to it that glorious history
of which we are so proud. To the Union and to the Constitution we
are indebted for our present prosperity, power and prestige, and
the still more inspiring future which lies before us. The Union
and the Constitution, to which we owe all that we are, and have
been, and shall be, contained and recognized slavery. All who took
part in forming the Union or in framing the Constitution, all who
maintained them down to the war which brought emancipation, are in
some degree and in some sense responsible for slavery. The only
American citizens who are in no way responsible for slavery are
the sons of Africa. “They are here by the crimes of our ancestors
and the misfortunes of theirs.” And it is especially these colored
people who now eagerly and with uplifted hands implore the Nation
for that light which education alone can give, and without which
they cannot discharge the duties which the Constitution requires by
making them citizens and voters.

The slaveholders of the South had their full share of educational
facilities. But when the war ended, their impoverishment was more
complete and disastrous than ever before befell a wealthy and
civilized community. Without capital, without credit, without a
labor system, and burdened with debt, they were in no condition
to establish free schools. Want of means was not the only
difficulty. Neither white nor colored people at the South had any
knowledge or experience which would help them in establishing
popular education. The colored people were eager to learn. To them
education was a badge of freedom. But encumbered with we know not
how many centuries of barbarism behind them, and certainly with
two or three centuries of bondage, they were utterly helpless to
do anything which presupposes knowledge and experience in relation
to the complex methods and organizations of social life in highly
civilized communities.

We need not dwell on this aspect of the subject. It has plainly
come to pass that the whole question of popular education at the
South must be considered and dealt with by the great body of the
whole people of the Nation. The appeal must be made to the popular
judgment, conscience and patriotism. War measures and political
measures are no longer required to settle the controversies of
the past, or for reconstruction in the South. To finish the work
of uplifting the slave, and to fuse into one harmonious whole our
lately divided people, we must rely upon the healing influences of
time, and upon the forces which religion, business and education
can furnish. Of these forces, the government can usefully
employ only one. The stream of time will flow on, “The designs
of Providence to fulfill.” Religion, depending under God, upon
individual conscience and sense of duty, unaided by government,
wins its way by the voluntary contributions and efforts of
Christian men and women. Business, an agency of vast and unmeasured
power in promoting the peaceful progress of mankind, results from
a deeply seated and universal principle of human nature—self
interest—and will most efficiently do its work when government
wisely lets it alone. To complete reconstruction and regeneration
in the South, the only force now left to the government is popular
education.

Let national aid to this good cause be withheld no longer. Let it
be given by wise measures based on sound principles, and carefully
guarded. But let it be given promptly, generously and without
stint, to the end that the whole American people may be reared
up to the full stature of mental and moral manhood required for
intelligent self-government under our American institutions.

       *       *       *       *       *


ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT A. D. WHITE.

FELLOW CITIZENS: At that period to which our distinguished chairman
has just referred at the close of the late civil war there were
presented to this nation a number of great questions, appalling
by their magnitude and by the dangers of a wrong decision. Among
these I think one was in the hearts of all thinking men foremost:
What shall be done with these millions formerly chattels, now
citizens, the wards of the nation, the wards of humanity? Two
answers were given to that question. Two paths were open to the
triumphant nation. The first path laid out before us by many was
simply confiscation. It was said: Don’t in Heaven’s name give to
this country a great class of agricultural laborers divorced from
the soil, with no property in the land upon which they stand, for
if you do this you will but have escaped from the black sea of
bondage into the red sea of pauperism and of socialism. We were
told that right favored such a course. It was declared that these
freedmen had a right to the soil which for ages had obtained
its only value from the unpaid labor of themselves and of their
forefathers for many generations. We were also told that experience
favored such a course. We were pointed to Russia, where by the
ukase of the despot a vast body of serfs had been set free, and
had been endowed from the lands of their former masters. But,
thank God, nobler counsels prevailed. The better instincts of the
Anglo-Saxon race predominated. May I not say that the rising, the
reviving spirit of brotherhood between North and South averted such
a catastrophe. Nay, may I not go farther and still more truthfully
say that that same hand of the Almighty, which every reverent
and thoughtful student of history sees displayed so clearly in
the history of our nation from first to last, was never more
evident than when we avoided this path to new and deeper wells of
bitterness. But on the other hand there was pointed out another
path—a path chosen by devoted women, by earnest men, and that
path was simply education. It led us at first, no doubt, through
thickets of dislike; it led over chasms of hatred; nay, still
worse, it led through vast deserts of indifference—but at last it
became better and broader. It became better footing; it became more
and more paved with the noble deeds of self-sacrificing men and
women. It became more and more shaded by noble growths of human
self-sacrifice until all could see it as the appointed highway and
a better and nobler future for the whole nation.

My distinguished friend who has preceded me has looked at this
question from a lofty point of view—the point of view of a
statesman—the point of view of one who has been able to survey
this and the other questions which naturally connect themselves
with it over this entire nation from the highest seat which any
loyal son of this Republic recognizes—the Chief Magistracy of the
United States. May I be permitted to survey it from a much humbler
elevation—from that of a simple instructor of young men, whose duty
for years has been to show to young men, and, indeed, I am happy
now to say, young women also—to show to them the indications in
human history of the great hand of God leading humanity on through
all that blooms and decays, through all that struggles and suffers,
through all that falters or stands fast, to the great goal which
Divine Providence has appointed. And in that view and from that
point I do not hesitate to reiterate the assertion that in all
our history there is no greater proof of a Divine intelligence
which takes an interest in the affairs of this world than in that
Heaven-inspired choice of the path of education rather than the
path of confiscation.

You will remember, doubtless, fellow citizens, that prophecy of
Thomas Jefferson—the greatest political genius whom our country has
yet seen—that prophecy which used to ring in the hearts of some of
us before the civil war, even into the watches of the night—that
famous prophecy which seems to have come from Divine inspiration,
beginning with those terrible words: “I tremble when I remember
that God is just.” Had Thomas Jefferson foreseen the fulfillment of
his prophecy he would have been blasted with horror at the sight
of the wrath of the Almighty poured forth over this land, North
and South, for, as has so well been observed, whatever sin there
was, rested at the doors of the North as at the doors of the South.
But had that great political genius looked over and beyond this
out-pouring of God’s wrath, he would have seen an out-pouring of
mercy which would have led him to kneel humbly in adoration at the
blessings lavished upon the future nation. He would have seen the
nation welded together into one homogeneous whole as never before.
He would have seen prosperity revived as it had never been dreamed
of by the most sanguine. He would have seen an enlightenment and
civilization taking their roots, which he, with all his optimism,
never dared dream of.

But, fellow-citizens, what is the especial question which confronts
us at this moment? It has been most ably presented by the eminent
gentleman who has just spoken, but you will permit a few words more
upon some aspects of it which especially strike me. The question
simply is, how shall this path which heaven has indicated to us,
how shall this path of education be broadened into a great highway
worthy of the nation, sure to bring it to a worthy future? Now,
there are various agencies which will co-operate in this great
work. The first to which I will allude is the munificence of
public-spirited and devoted men and women. There seems to be no
limit to that. The scene which some of us witnessed this morning,
the giving over of an immense sum to the endowment of a college in
this city, is but the token of a vast outpouring of munificence
for advanced education such as this world never saw before. There
is to be—mark the prophecy, fellow-citizens—great as has been the
outpouring of wealth heretofore, and the statistics show in ten
years, gifts to the amount of $60,000,000, we are told; there is to
be in this time of revived prosperity an outpouring of wealth far
greater, to which all this which we have seen is as nothing. That
will go to build up the high schools and academies, the technical
schools, the colleges, the universities, perhaps. We can rely on
that. But there is another agency. All this mass of education must
be permeated, must be informed by the spirit of morality, which is
bedded in religion. That can only come from the great Christian
sentiment of this country as voiced in the Christian Church, and
if the Christian Church shall rise to the height of the great
argument, if she shall recognize her great mission, and there are
plentiful signs—many of them have been vouchsafed here within the
last three days—there are plentiful signs that she is to do this;
if she shall stand forth in the panoply of her Master, if she
shall catch the spirit of the sermon on the mount, of the first
great commandment and the second which is like unto it, of that
definition of pure religion and undefiled, as given by St. James,
all this mass of education can be permeated, can be informed by
morality based upon religion. We hear alarm expressed in various
quarters at new phases of thought, at what many, not understanding,
have called the dangers of infidelity. Fellow citizens, there is
never any danger of infidelity in any land where the Christian
Church puts herself at the head of the great forces for right and
justice and enlightenment acting upon the civilization of that
country. Danger comes as it came in France, when the church forgot
its mission and sided with despotism. Danger comes as it came in
England two centuries ago and less when the church sided with a
besotted monarchy and aristocracy. Danger comes as it came not so
many years ago in our own country when the church was led, in some
places at least, to make apologies for human slavery; but when
she arrays herself at the head of great movements like this, and
insists on doing works of self-sacrifice, of mercy, of justice,
of right, tell me not of any fears of infidelity. Then I am sure
will come the noblest and the grandest triumphs of Christianity.
But is this sufficient? My friend has already shown you that it
is not. Great as this outpouring of munificence has been and is
to be, it requires even more than that for the great base part,
the fundamental part of the work, and that is the work of bringing
about a state of things under which every child, white and black,
shall be educated suitably to his or her duties. How shall this be
done? Can it be done by private munificence, great as it is? I say
no. The State of New York alone pays for primary education, common
school education, every year, more than ten millions of dollars.
We cannot expect this steady outpouring for this fundamental part
of the system. As my friend has so ably shown, that can only be
undertaken by humanity organized by States, and by the Nation. Can
the States do it alone? Again I say no. It must be done by the
Nation acting in concert with the States. The Nation must plant in
every State which has not an educational system now, or which has
not an adequate educational system, a nucleus of a system around
which State endeavors may crystallize, which shall encourage these
Southern States which have been so discouraged, which have been, as
my distinguished friend has shown, so trodden down—so broken down
I will say, not trodden down—so broken down by the events of the
last twenty years. Now, how shall this be accomplished? There are
two ways. The first is by direct appropriation. That has already
been discussed before you. Fellow citizens, if it were to take
twice or thrice the sum named it would not be felt by any tax-payer
in this land. It would deprive not one man, woman or child in all
this national domain of one single comfort. But suppose we cannot
get Congress up to the mark of making an appropriation in money.
There is another method. It was a method advocated perhaps more
than fifty years ago, by that sainted friend of right and humanity,
William Ellery Channing. That was the consecration—that was his
word, and it was a most happy word—the consecration of the national
domain, all of it that has not been given since by the homestead
act and by various other acts for the promotion of various
commercial enterprises, the consecration of the proceeds of the
sales of the national domain, sacredly, to a fund for the education
of the whole people to their great duties and their great destiny.

It seems to me that this movement can still be pressed. Congress
can still be made to see that something must be done by the
Government of the United States to open up this great path of
education in the interest of the entire nation; but, fellow
citizens, I am aware that some objections are made. Let me refer
to them very briefly. The first is what may be called a political
objection. It is said, leave this matter to time, leave it to the
people, leave it to take care of itself. I have always noticed that
when a political man wants to evade a question, wants to evade any
trouble in the matter, he always says leave it to time, leave it
to the natural forces, leave it to itself. Now, in addition to the
argument that has already been so ably presented to you, let me
say that the greatest apostle of the “laissez faire” system, the
system under which everything is to be left to the natural course,
John Stuart Mill, has expressly and in terms made an exception
as regards popular education. This, he says, must be dealt with
by organized humanity. This must be planned and carried out by
the comparatively small number of men who see at the first the
importance of it, and by that vast force which government alone
can exercise. My friends, if it is left to time and chance, what
is likely to follow? You can see as well as I. There comes first
indifference. The great population concerned sinks back first into
indifference and then into a sort of complacency, and finally into
self-congratulation that somehow they are better than communities
that are educated. There is nobody after all quite so conceited,
I think you will find that the world over, as the man who is
ignorant. He sees that educated men make certain mistakes. He
makes no such. Therefore, he at last arrives at the point, he very
often does, and especially when his ignorance is shared by a great
population, that somehow he is superior to those who are educated.
Then comes the greatest of all dangers. Then comes the danger of
despotism, the despotism of an unenlightened mob of millions; and
of all despotisms, fellow citizens, this, all history proves, is
the very worst. Give me an autocrat, give me a despot the worst
in history, and I will take him cheerfully rather than that
many-headed despot, an unenlightened, uneducated democracy. Ah!
my friends, you can make one despot see that his interest lies in
the interest of his country. You can bring home to a single despot
a sense of shame, a sense of honor, a sense of responsibility.
You can never bring that home to a mob. It was said that the old
Bourbon despotism of France was a despotism tempered by epigrams;
but what wit, what wisdom shall temper a mob of uneducated
millions, extending over thousands and thousands of square miles of
territory. There is also a not often stated, generally unavowed,
but none the less strong on that account, there is what may be
called a social objection. It is freely avowed in Europe; I have
often heard it. It is sometimes sneakingly avowed in our own
country, and that is this: Is it not after all better that this
lower class should not know much? Is it not much better to keep it
so that it will feel its dependence on the upper class? My friends,
of all mistakes all history proves that is the most fatal, for
when you pursue that policy which seems so easy at first you find
that you have at last divided a nation into two strata—the upper
a thin stratum of pride and arrogance sustained by terrorism, the
lower a thick stratum of class ignorance which may at any moment be
inflamed by fanaticism or exploded by unrest. No, fellow citizens,
the only course is so to educate the whole mass that it will see
that its interest is on the side of law and order, so that it
will be able to understand the simple presentation of rudimentary
political truths.

       *       *       *       *       *


ADDRESS OF THE REV. A. G. HAYGOOD, D.D.

President of Emory College, Oxford, GA.

Mr. President: I never saw the day since Christ converted me that
my heart did not warm toward any good cause that, in its plans and
efforts, took in the whole human race. This American Missionary
Association represents such a cause, and I am grateful for the
privilege of taking some small part in this anniversary meeting.
And I am the more glad because this meeting is held in the city
where Garfield, our President, awaits the resurrection of the just.
President Hayes did good work for the South, for which history
will give him due credit. It was this: he let the South alone that
the storm-rocked sea might calm itself. President Garfield—living,
dying, and dead—awoke within the hearts of the masses of the
Southern people the throbs of a profounder national sentiment than
they had felt in twenty years.

It is becoming that I speak this evening of that part of your work
which I understand best, your work in the Southern States; and of
that part of it which I know best, your work for the negroes. Any
work of importance, as to its extent, methods, or designs, done
among the negroes must arouse interest in all thinking minds.
The negro has been in America 260 years; there are not far from
7,000,000 of them here to-day; nearly all of them are in the
Southern States. At the close of our war for independence there
were in the United States about 700,000 negroes. Within a century
they have multiplied ten times. How many will they be by 1982?
To speak in round numbers, the increase of the total population
of this country from 1870 to 1880, as the last census shows was
30 per cent; the increase of the white population, aided largely
as it was by immigration, was 28 per cent.; the increase of the
negro population, unaided by immigration, was 34 per cent. It is
only very foolish people who can be indifferent to such facts;
thoughtful men will consider them.

Visionaries and cranks may dream and declaim of solving the problem
of our future and theirs by getting them somehow out of this
country. But, if it were desirable or practicable to transport
them, they are born faster than whole navies can move them, and it
is as undesirable as it is impracticable. They are here to stay,
and so far as men can see, for the most part where they now are, in
the Southern States of this Union.

They are now nearly one-seventh of our population, and by the
providence of God they are free men and voters. The time has about
passed, Mr. President, for the North to please itself with eloquent
speech concerning their emancipation and for the South to fret
itself with fervent denunciation concerning their enfranchisement.
It were wiser and more profitable for the people of both sections
to accept the facts of a difficult question, to discuss the issues
of 1882, and in a business like way, to do our best to make the
most of them. As to the now dominant sentiment in the South, nobody
who has good sense wants them back in slavery, and the South, you
may depend upon it, will never consent for the ballot to be taken
from them.

Everybody knows that when they received the ballot _en masse_ they
were utterly unprepared for it. As a class they had just three
ideas concerning the ballot when it was given to them. First. They
looked upon it as a symbol of their freedom; this, I believe did
them good. Second. They received it as a special mark of the love
borne to them by the people of the North; this made them vain of
it, and alienated them from their white neighbors. Third. Their
predominant notion was that it was given them to “keep the old
rebels down;” this spoiled them for fair-minded politics. But as a
class they lacked conscience in the use of it.

You will pardon a single illustration of their capacity for
enlightened politics. For nearly eight years I have had in my
employment a colored man, Daniel Martin by name. He is about my own
age. I trust him fully in all matters for which he has capacity. We
are much attached to each other, and, the truth is, we have been
taking care of each other for a good while. He gets better wages
than ordinary colored men in our community, and is much above the
average of his race in character and common sense. He can read
“coarse print,” and can sign his name imperfectly. You will miss
the point of my illustration unless you bear in mind that he had
steadily voted the Republican ticket from the beginning of his
citizenship to the date of my story. And he so votes till this day.
The day before the Hayes and Tilden election he was plowing in a
little field near my house. One of our students quizzed him about
his views and intentions: “How are you going to vote to-morrow,
Uncle Daniel?” It is a peculiarity of the Southern negro that he
never delivers a solemn judgment on any subject without coming to
a full halt in whatever engages him. One consequence is, he comes
to a great many halts in his work. Another peculiarity of at least
the Southern negro is, that he thinks in metaphor and speaks in
parables. So Daniel, stopping his horse and sticking his plow
deeper into the ground, delivered himself as follows: “Now, Mr.
Longstreet, you see I is plowin dis furrow. If I only plow dis
furrow I makes dis furrow too deep and I don’t plow de balance of
de patch.” Mr. Longstreet admitted the force of the statement.
Daniel continued in answer to the young man’s question: “I think
things is ben gwine on in one way long enough; I think dere
ought to be a change. Wherefore I is gwine to vote for Mr. Hayes
to-morrow—git up, Bill.”

Next day he and I went to our county town; he voted for Hayes that
there might be a change; I voted for Tilden that there might be
a change; he killed my vote—or possibly one of yours—and we were
“equal before the law.”

But few of them are now prepared to vote intelligently, and
ballots, whether cast by fair or dark hands, in the hands of
ignorance are dangerous to free institutions. Are not you of the
North nearly as much concerned in the quality of the negro’s
ballot as we of the South are? Till recently, they voted “solid”
for the Republican ticket. A few weeks ago, in Georgia, the
majority of them voted for an ex-Confederate Brigadier General, who
fought bravely at the first Manassas, and who ran for Governor as
an Independent Democrat, receiving, however, the whole Republican
vote; and thousands of them voted for the nominee of the Democratic
party, the ex-Vice-President of the Confederacy. No white man
running for any office in the South will refuse their votes, and,
so far as I know, their votes are always sought when there is any
chance to get them. I am not sure but that his ignorance makes him
more dangerous as a voter when both parties seek his vote than
when it is given solid to one. In your work in the South, Mr.
President, I rejoice, for many reasons. The reason I now mention
is this: That work is helping to prepare the negro for his duties
as a citizen. I can well understand how the best and wisest people
in the North feel most deeply and solemnly their obligation to
do this work. For you gave him the ballot, and history will not
justify that gift unless you do all that you can do to prepare him
for its intelligent use. Not now, nor during the next generation,
can the South do this work alone. Unless you continue to help,
and to help mightily, it cannot be done. As to primary education,
many in the South—and I, for one, agree with them—believe with our
Senator Brown, of Georgia, that the national government should come
to the rescue and help the States in this work—distributing its
aid on the basis of illiteracy. This would give the South a large
share of “appropriations under the old flag.” What if it does? The
South is part of you, and you are part of the South—if this is a
Union and a Nation. Slowly but surely, as it seems to me, we are
beginning to understand our relations to each other. Some day we
will, it is to be hoped, understand one another so well and agree
so amicably that the phrases “the North” and “the South” shall have
only geographical meaning. President Arthur, many thanks to him
for this, made no allusion to “the South” in his first message to
Congress.

If the general government gives this needed help, it will be in the
interest of the whole country, although the Southern States may
get, for once, the lion’s share. For we are a large part of this
country; we are in the Union and intend to stay there—if we have to
whip somebody in order to do it. But, in the nature of things, this
sort of help must be temporary, and, as I suppose, should, like
the educational work of the State governments, be carried on, for
the most part, in the common schools. The thing that must be done,
if our work is to stand, is to train up among the negroes, as well
as among the whites, men and women who can teach the children of
their race—teach them in homes, in school-houses and in churches.
This cannot be done by the State as it should be done. For if, as
one has said, the “negroes need educated Christianity,” it is also
true that they must have Christianized education in order to get
it. This the State does not and cannot give. To achieve this most
desirable and necessary result the school-house and the church must
work together. There must be Bibles in the schools that are to
train teachers among this people, and there must be Christian men
and women in them who both teach and practice religion.

This, as it appears to me, is what you and others like you are
trying to do for the negroes. Your annual reports show that your
Association is doing successfully, and on a very broad scale, this
most necessary work. I do not particularize; your Secretaries have
covered all that ground.

You are raising up in these schools men and women who, in the years
to come, can, will and must teach the children of their people.
Hundreds of them are doing it now. I say must; for Christianized
education must, by its instinctive and divine impulses, perpetuate
itself and diffuse itself. Christian education, whether in
Christian or heathen lands, is the most aggressive and formative
influence that is now shaping the destiny of the human race. When
you send out from Nashville, from Berea, from Atlanta and New
Orleans young men and women who are both educated and religious,
you send into the very masses of these untaught millions those who
must teach what they have learned both from books and from Christ.
Again I say must, for the spirit that is in an educated Christian
man or woman is, as the old Methodist preacher used to say, “a fire
in the bones,” and it will blaze out.

The author of the Declaration of Independence wrote, it is said, in
1782, this prediction: “Nothing is more certainly written in the
book of fate than that these people are to be free; nor is it less
certain that the two races, equally free, cannot live in the same
government.”

It does not surprise me that Mr. Jefferson made both of these
predictions. As to the first, there was at that time in Virginia
and other Southern States a strong party that favored the
emancipation of the slaves. As to the second prediction, he had
studied French philosophy more than he had studied Christianity.
If this country were pagan Rome, or infidel France, the first
prediction would have failed—they would not have been set free by
the will of men. Had they been set free, the second prediction
would have been fulfilled, for in a pagan or infidel country,
the two races could not be equally free “and live in the same
government.” They would not have been set free had this not been
a Christian country; as it is a Christian country, the two races,
equally free before the law, can live in the same government and
the problem of their citizenship can be solved.

But this problem cannot be solved by legislation alone. Time
has proved the truth of the weighty words delivered at your
anniversary in 1875, by that venerable and great man who was taken
to heaven last winter. At that time the Rev. Dr. Leonard Bacon
wrote these words: “I come to this conclusion, legislation on the
part of the national government is no longer to be invoked in aid
of fundamental reconstruction. Attempts by Congress to employ
force for the abolition of prejudices and antipathies in social
intercourse do not help the cause in which the American Missionary
Association is at work. I used the word force, because law enforced
is force, and law not enforced is not law. The more completely
our cause can be henceforth disentangled from all connection with
political parties and agitators, the better for its progress.
Doubtless there will be more legislation by the several States,
especially in behalf of the great interest of public schools for
all, before the consummation that we hope for shall have been
attained; but the legislation, must be the effect and not the cause
of that fundamental reconstruction which we desire to work for.
It will exhibit and record, more than it can inspire or control,
the progress of reformed opinions and better sentiments among the
people.”

When the law gives equal opportunity and guarantees equal rights
to all (and this it must do to be worthy of respect), it has done
all it can do. Foundation work means character-building, and this
goes on in individuals. Law has its educative force; but to lift
up a race whether white, yellow, black, or red, there must be
character-building in individual men and women, and to do this
work right we must have the church and the school-house. And these
two must work together and not against each other. This sort of
foundation work you are trying to do and others are trying to do.
It has not failed; it cannot fail; it has life in itself.

Mr. Jefferson’s second prediction will fail—it is failing now.
These two races are both equally free, and they are living
together in the same government with less and less difficulty and
misunderstanding each year. Disturbances here and there, conflicts,
acts of violence there have been, there are, and there will be
for a time. The wonder is not that there was a period of disorder
in the Southern States after the war. The true wonder is that
there is now so little of it, and that between 1865 and 1870 the
South did not rush into final and utter chaos. There was never in
any country such a state of things—so provocative of universal
and remediless anarchy. What is it that saved us? Not the troops;
not acts of Congress. Christian schools and the church of God. It
was the Protestant religion that dominated the majority—both of
the negroes and the Southern white people. I grant you that the
conservative influences that the churches in the South brought out
of the war have been greatly aided by the work done by your society
and others like it; but it is also true that, but for the work the
church in the South did before your coming, you could have done
next to nothing, by this time, in the experiment. As to this whole
subject, full of difficulties as those know best who have personal
relations to it, there is just one platform on which Christian
people can stand. Our problem with these millions of negroes in our
midst can be happily solved—not by force of any sort from without
the States where they live; no more can it be solved by repression
within those States. It can be worked out only on the basis of the
Ten Commandments and of the Sermon on the Mount. On this platform
we can work out any problem whatsoever—whether personal, social,
political, national or ethnical—that Providence brings before us.
On any lower or narrower platform we will fail, and always fail.
We have learned—you of the North and we of the South—many things
in the last ten years. Among other valuable discoveries, we have
learned that the people of neither section are either all good
or bad. As to this race question, we of the South have learned,
and we are learning, that we can’t manage our problem by any mere
repressive system; you have learned, and are learning, that it
can’t be solved by any sort of force from without, whether force of
law, force of troops, or force of denunciation. Such knowledge is
precious; alas! that it cost us so much.

May I quote at this place one other paragraph from the words of
Dr. Leonard Bacon? It is at the close of a letter dated “New
Haven, October 22, 1875,” and is in these words: “May I be allowed
to say one word concerning the future of this society? That word
is conciliation—conciliation by meekness, by love, by patient
continuance in well-doing. The field is wide open for schools
and for the preaching of the Gospel, two great forces operating
as one for fundamental reconstruction. In both these lines of
effort the work of the society must be more and more a work of
conciliation—conciliation of the South to the North and to the
restored and beneficent Union; conciliation of races to each other,
white to black and black to white; conciliation of contending
sects oppressed with traditional bigotries to the simplicity of
the truth as it is in Jesus.” Thomas Jefferson was not a prophet:
Leonard Bacon was. And, thank God! so much has been done by this
Association to incarnate the truth that was in his great thoughts
and to fulfill his hopes and predictions as to its own future.
But this work of “fundamental reconstruction” is a slow process,
suggests the impatient one. That is true; character-building,
whether in a man or in a nation or in a race, is always a slow
process. And it must be slower in a nation or in a race than in
a man. There was never any great work done in the uplifting or
training of a race in a day or in a year. It takes generations.
How slowly our own race has risen out of its original savagery;
how unfit we still are to fulfill our mission to the world. We
have small cause for boasting when white men’s votes—sometimes
enough of them to turn the scale in great elections—can be bought
cheap in the open streets. Lifting up a nation or a race is a slow
process; wherefore the greatest necessity for zeal, for wisdom, and
for patience in our work. Whenever a great and necessary work that
requires a long time and much labor is to be done, we should begin
at once and do our best.

You find more sympathy and more of the spirit of co-operation among
Southern people than you found ten years ago. I rejoice in this
change of feeling in the South, and it is easy to understand it.
Time, the healer, has done his blessed work. Grace has overcome,
and the grave has buried much of bitter feeling on both sides. You
have learned your work better, and we have learned more perfectly
its value. A good deal of your work I have seen; I believe it is
good. I have looked into your school methods; they are yielding
happy results. I have considered “examination papers” from some of
your schools; they would have done credit to any school for any
race. I have listened to speeches and essays from colored youth at
your commencements; there was the evidence of sound culture and
true religion in them. When I heard them I “thanked God and took
courage.”

It is often asked, “Why don’t the South do more in this work of
educating and lifting up the negroes?” Sometimes the question has
been asked angrily—perhaps because ignorantly.

I believe the South can do more than it is doing—certainly more
than it has done. But I think it likely that we have done as much
as any other people in like circumstances would have done. History
does not record of any people such vast, rapid and radical changes
of opinion and sentiment on subjects that had been fiercely fought
over on hundreds of bloody fields, as has taken place in the South
during the last fifteen years on the questions that grow out of the
negro’s emancipation and enfranchisement. But the Southern States
have done more than most people suppose. There are nearly one
million negro children in our public schools in the South.

In speaking of what the South has done and has not done in the
work of educating the negroes, let it be remembered that the white
people of the South have not been on beds of roses since 1865. The
war and its consequences made the South poor beyond conception by
those who have not had our experience. It left the North rich. The
majority of our people have had a sharp struggle to live; most of
them have been unable to educate their own children.

Let me tell you of a man I talked with last summer. I went with
my family and a little party on what we might call a camp-fishing
expedition. As we approached the place where we proposed to spend
a few days in recreation, my attention was attracted by a white
woman pulling fodder in a little field near a cabin. That night her
husband came to our camp, offering such welcome as he could. We had
a long talk together. He had been a Confederate soldier, and he
had on his body the marks of seven bullet wounds. He never owned a
slave, he had fought for what he had been taught to believe were
the rights of the States. He is a laborer on the farm of the man
who owned the land where he lived. He gets $140 a year, cabin rent,
a few acres tended by his wife and little girls, and the privilege
of his winter wood. He said his employer is one of the kindest of
men, and does for him all he can do. The landlord himself has small
margins of profit. The poor fellow has five children, the eldest a
bright girl, aged fourteen. She looked dwarfed and older than her
years; she had been nurse and drudge for the little ones. These
children came to our camp by invitation, and the oldest promised to
come one afternoon and show my own children how to fish. I had my
heart set on her coming; I wanted my children to know more about
such people. She did not come at the time appointed, but that night
she came to tell us why. Her cotton dress was wet with the dew and
her little hands were fodder-stained. She said to me: “I am sorry
I could not come; mother and I had so much fodder to take up that
we have just got through.” This child and I had much talk together.
I asked her: “Daughter, can you read?” Her face brightened as she
said: “Yes, sir; a little.” “Can you write?” The brown eyes sought
the ground as she answered: “No, sir.” “If I will send you some
books, will you try to teach your little sisters to read?” The glad
look in her eyes I shall never forget, as she answered: “Yes, sir;
I will try.” We sent her a good supply and it made them all glad.
They are not beggars; the father would not take money for a fine
bunch of fish he sent, with his compliments, to my wife, and when
he found that we had left some money for little services by the
children he flushed and could hardly be persuaded to let them keep
it.

Some people call these “white trash.” I declare to you I never
heard a Southern white man or woman use the expression in speaking
of such persons.

Mr. President, there are tens of thousands of white people in the
South as poor as my friend of the fishing camp. If you can help
them, in Christ’s name do it.

As to our higher schools, some of our best colleges have died
since 1865; others are dying now. Such a death is a loss, not to
the South only, but to the whole country. Yours have grown rich.
I do not envy you; I rejoice in your strong and well-furnished
institutions. But you should be patient toward us, and, I am not
ashamed to say, you should help us as God gives you opportunity.
Men and brethren, it is time to have done with 1860–65. Said a
Brooklyn man to me last year who, unsolicited, had helped two
Southern schools: “I think my friends here approve what I have
done; but if any should ask, ‘Why did you not give this money to
your own people?’ my answer is: ‘They also are my people—we are one
people.’” On that platform we can become a Christian nation strong
enough to bless the world.

Northern money has done much to “develop the South” during the last
decade in pushing railroads and other great industrial enterprises.
It is all welcome, and ten times as much. But I do not question
that each $100 invested in Christian education in the South since
the war has done more to develop it in every best sense than each
$1,000 placed in railroads and factories. But enough on these lines
of thought.

I must say a word or two as to the relations of your work to
Africa. The first atlas I ever saw made a desert of sand cover
all the wonderful lands that Livingstone, Stanley, and others
have discovered, and they printed across the map of Africa
28,000,000, with an interrogation point to indicate a guess as to
the population. Now we are studying the maps of interior Africa,
and they tell us of great nations and a population that may reach
200,000,000! Can any man who believes in the Bible, or in God,
doubt for one moment that Providence is in the history of the
negroes in the United States? Can we doubt that these millions of
negroes, now committed to us as the wards of the Christian church,
must, some day, attempt and accomplish the evangelization of Africa?

I rejoice that your Association has its eye and heart upon Africa.
I saw two photographs in the chapel of Fisk University last May
that stirred my soul; they were the faces of two missionaries who
had gone from that great Christian school to Africa. One Sunday
evening I preached in the chapel. A youth from your Mendi Mission,
a native of Africa, getting ready to be a missionary, sang for
us in his home language a familiar Sunday-school song, “I Have
a Father in the Promised Land.” Some day they will be singing
Christian songs in every village of the Dark Continent. How the
thought of the Divine fatherhood and of the brotherhood of the
eternal Son has changed Europe and made America. Some day these
thoughts will change Africa. What we call civilization can’t do
it; the gospel of Jesus Christ can. The Christian negroes are
getting ready for their work, and you and others working in the
same fields, are helping them to get ready. The missionary fire
is beginning to burn in their hearts. When they go forth, bearing
the sacred symbol of our Lord’s love to men, every Christian
man and woman in our land should help them. That movement—and
it is coming—will, at no distant day give your colonization and
missionary societies all they can do. Was there ever a greater
need or a more hopeful field, a greater duty or a brighter promise
of success? Mr. President, you may be sure that from thousands of
Christian hearts all over the South the prayer goes up, “God bless
the work of the American Missionary Association, with all others
who are preaching the gospel to the poor.”

       *       *       *       *       *


FROM ADDRESS OF GENERAL CLINTON B. FISK.

The American Missionary Association is one of those societies that
has long been near my heart, having a large place in it. From its
very beginning I watched its growth, but had no idea in the years
before that I should ever have such intimate relations with it.
Being in the South at the close of the war with the care of two or
three millions of colored people thrown on my hands, I naturally
looked about to see what was being done for schools and what for
Christian culture. I found the American Missionary Association on
the skirmish line. They were gathering up the broken fetters of
the slaves, selling them for old iron and putting the money into
spelling-books and Bibles, building school-houses and sending
self-sacrificing, earnest Christian men and women to the South to
teach these people; and I naturally fell very much in love with
them.

I got a letter a day or two since. It was written by the Mayor of
one of the chief cities of the South to myself. I picked this out
of a large bundle of correspondence of the same sort. He addresses
me and says: “You will doubtless be surprised at receiving a letter
from me. In 1865 I was Mayor of this city, which position I now
occupy. In that memorable year 1865, through your instrumentality
and by order of Major-General George H. Thomas, I was suspended
from office. But that is a matter of the past, and for one I favor
letting ‘bygones be bygones.’ The charge against me was using my
official position for the oppression of the colored people and
opposing their education. However true that might have been at
the time, certainly such a charge cannot be made against me now.
Immediately after the close of the war and upon the restoration of
civil law, I was chosen one of the School Commissioners of this
district, and gave active aid, amidst much opposition, in the
establishment of Public Schools. I have labored earnestly in the
cause ever since, and I am proud to inform you that my efforts have
in a measure been crowned with success. We have now a splendid
school system and a magnificent school building for the whites.
We wish now to do as much for the colored people. There is much
opposition in every locality in the city to the establishment
of a colored school in their midst. Yet, notwithstanding this
opposition, I have proffered to sell a lot of my own for the
purpose on very reasonable terms.”

Now, that is a great change to come about in seventeen years. So
I simply sat down and wrote him a letter which he could use as
“substance of doctrine.” I said: “My dear Mr. Mayor, go on to
perfection. Do the same thing for the colored people you do for the
white people, and blot ‘colored’ and ‘white’ out of your memory.
Make a school for the children. It is not easy to send them to the
same school; I know all about that.” The colored boy is perhaps
more opposed to associating with the white boy in the school than
the white boy is to associating with the colored boy. It takes a
long time to overcome those strong prejudices on the part of the
colored people.

Just after the establishment of Fisk school, which commenced in
such a halo of glory under the auspices of this Association, there
came into my headquarters in Nashville an old Irish woman, bringing
her two little boys with her, and she said, “Misther Gineral Fisk,
’ave you heny hobjection to my sinding these little chaps to your
nigger school?” I said, “Not at all, if the ‘niggers’ haven’t any
objection.” But it will take a long time before they will drift
into one school. I am glad that all of ours are open. How singular
it would look to write over the portals of all our schools in the
South, “White children admitted here!” Let us do all we can for the
education of both races. That particular class to which my friend
Haygood made such admirable reference, those poor white people of
the South, appeals to us as scarcely any other interest in the
South does to-day. Let us remember them. I am glad, sir [addressing
Dr. Haygood], that you are going to be in a position to help a
great many colored young men and women to become teachers.

Now, my friend Dr. Haygood is a wonderfully modest sort of a man.
They chose him only a few weeks ago to be a bishop in his church.
And they did a good thing. Nearly all that great conference of
Southern Methodists voted for this man to take the highest place
in their church, notwithstanding all his grand utterances, his
earnest words, on many a Northern platform. They indorsed him and
said, “Come up higher!” He took over night to think about it, and
wrote them a letter declining to take such place as that. He said,
“God has called me to be an educator, and an educator I will be.”
To a man who turns his back upon a bishopric of the church and then
accepts the Secretaryship of a fund to promote the education of the
colored people, we can all give the right hand of fellowship. Now,
let us all go out of this meeting with a new covenant of love and
service for the Master.

It has well been said that the world itself is a musical instrument
not yet fully strung; but when every coast shall be peopled by
the lovers of our Lord Jesus Christ; when every mountain barrier
shall be overcome; when every abyss shall be spanned, for the
uninterrupted progress of the King’s highway of holiness, and the
people of the earth shall flock together, as in the prophetic
vision, to the mountain of the Lord’s house; then this world shall
give its sound in harmony with the infinite intelligence, and
angels and men shall shout together, “Hallelujah, the Lord God
Omnipotent reigneth.” Between that glad day and us there are years
of toil and travail. But there shall come the triumph. Truth is
marching on, steadily—slowly, sometimes, through the centuries, but
ever marching on, as resistless as the tides, whose each succeeding
billow washes further up the sands. It may be

    “ ... weary watching, wave on wave;
      And yet the tide heaves onward.
    We climb like corals, grave on grave,
      But pave a path that’s sunward.
    We’re beaten back in many a fray;
      Yet newer strength we borrow;
    And where the vanguard rests to-day,
      The rear shall camp to-morrow.”

Let us go forth, with our faces to the stars, and do something each
day of our lives to bring the world nearer to Christ, who died for
it.

       *       *       *       *       *


FROM ADDRESS OF REV. A. J. F. BEHRENDS, D.D.

There are a few themes so great, so charged with living importance,
that an earnest man never wearies of their study. Like the rays of
the sun, they are invested with perpetual freshness and force. Of
these themes, the very greatest is the conquest of the world to
Christ by the preaching of the Gospel and by the power of the Holy
Ghost. But foreign missionary societies, whose special aim it is to
carry the Gospel of Christ to the millions of heathenism, are not
the exclusive guardians of this great trust. They are the advance
guard of the army of conquest, clearing the way and widening
the field, but their very presence as the scouts and scattered
outposts of Christianity proclaims the presence of a greater army
of occupation, pressing close upon their leadership. Back of your
foreign work is that of home missions, the religious care of the
ignorant, vicious, and neglected within our own borders; back of
home missions is the manly culture of our professedly Christian
constituency, the care and compact handling of our local churches;
back of your local church life and work are those of your separate
homes—influences secret, subtle, but all-pervasive, for in the
Christian homes are the primary historic sources of all great
inspirations and achievements, both for personal character and for
social improvement. Far out on the world’s great battle-field,
separated from each other by many a league, are the pickets of
the army of the Lord; its great and growing supports are in the
Christian nations, the Christian churches, the Christian homes.

Reinforcements at any point of the long line must increase the
efficiency of the entire body. But the law of solid progress must
be from the home, as the training school of personal devotion,
through the church and the nation, to the broad world. I am afraid
that we have not fairly estimated the importance of the third
factor in the solution of the complicated problem of the world’s
Christianization. We are not lacking in an appreciation of the
value of domestic piety. We are not blind to the evangelistic
vocation of the church, though the energetic revival of this
conviction may be said to date from the close of the last century,
and it has as yet only partially leavened the great body of nominal
Christendom. But we are even farther from having mastered the
thought that nations are born of a divine purpose, and summoned to
missionary service.

God is marching on, not simply for the salvation of individual
souls, and their preparation for a future heaven, but for the moral
regeneration of nations, and the conversion of the world into a
kingdom of righteousness and love. In this great task nations
will yet be called to take an active part. Having ceased to be
obstructive, having passed beyond the line of moral indifference,
they are yet to prove themselves to be among the mightiest of
positive forces for the world’s regeneration. And I confess that
I have wholly misread the signs of the times if the Anglo-Saxon
nationalities are not summoned and destined to bear a conspicuous
part in the future of the world’s moral history. For you and
for me there can be no call of greater urgency than that this
youngest of the nations of the world, in which we are proud to
claim our citizenship, whose birth is the marvel of history, whose
development is the amazement of our time, whose guidance and
discipline seem as clearly providential as were those of ancient
Israel, shall be Christian, in order to the assimilation of all the
heterogeneous elements of our population, and the consequent use
of our united forces for the good of the race. No duty crowds us
more closely than that we prove ourselves worthy of our ancestry,
equal to our opportunities, building up on this new continent a
compact commonwealth, whose glory it shall be that its streams of
beneficence gladden all lands and enrich all peoples.

We cannot render the most effective Christian service to the world
until we ourselves have become thoroughly leavened with the spirit
of the Gospel, and any plan involving the Christianization of the
American people must provide for the solution of that great problem
with which this Association deals. You have not succeeded in
making the white man the Christian he ought to be until he and the
black man can clasp hands in the brotherhood of Christ. National
unity must remain incomplete until all antagonisms have vanished,
and the reconciliation is complete; and our moral influence on
the world cannot be what it may be and ought to be until we have
amicably and finally settled our domestic difficulties. American
patriotism and Christian philanthropy—these are the two great
considerations by which the work of the American Missionary
Association appeals to the prayerful and practical sympathies of
the Christian public.

       *       *       *       *       *


RELATION OF THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION TO CIVILIZATION.

BY REV. F. L. KENYON.

There are two civilizations in this nineteenth century that are
striving for the mastery. They differ in their source; the one is
from heaven, the other from earth. They differ in their objects.
The one has for its object the elevation of the animal in man to
the supreme place. The other has for its object the elevation of
the intellectual and moral and spiritual in man to the dominant
place. They differ also in their supports and instrumentalities.
The superstructure of the one rests upon ignorance and vice.
The other rests upon and is built up by and through the school,
the church, and the home. Thus it will be seen that the higher
civilization has a triangular foundation, and when we remember
that the triangle represents the highest perfection, we may get
a hint at least that this must be the final civilization. The
school, where the mighty power of a true education dispels and
destroys the threatening illiteracy of the world. The church, where
the wonderful transforming power of the gospel of Jesus Christ
incarnates itself in true manhood and womanhood. The home, where
the love principle is dominant and all controlling.

The higher civilization, which is to be the ultimate civilization
for humanity, must include within its bounds, as constituent
factors, every portion of the human race. The defect of previous
civilizations was in their omitting one or more of these great and
necessary factors.

The first of these is the idea of God. And this, first, as a
personal God. This is necessary so as to make God accessible
to us. In the second place, the true idea of God must include
righteousness. He must be a righteous God. This involves the ideas
of justice and law, without which no civilization can be perfect.
Eliminate these qualities from civilization and in the place of
government will come anarchy, which always and naturally produces
destruction. In the third place, the true idea of God includes the
fact that he is a loving God. The Johannean conception on this line
is the ultimate of all conceptions, viz.: God is love. It is very
clear that the final civilization must have this idea of God in all
the breadth which I have simply outlined.

The second great idea is the “equality of man,” an equality not
of conditions but of rights. Equality before God’s law and love,
before human law and institutions. From this equality of man comes
the great doctrine of freedom for all. Slavery cannot exist in a
final civilization, because this final civilization is built up
in part on the idea of equality of man. From this equality of man
comes that other great social doctrine of the brotherhood of man.
Any civilization which ignores the equality of man, and these great
included ideas, freedom and brotherhood of man, cannot, in the
very nature of things, be the higher and the final civilization.
All former civilizations failed to recognize this great fact,
and this is one of the reasons why they became effete and passed
away. I believe God has chosen this land, and has raised up this
Association for the purpose of working out this problem.

The physical view is a low one, and really belongs to the lower
civilization. In comparison with the intellectual, and moral, and
spiritual, the physical sinks into insignificance.

The third great idea of the permanent civilization is “the true
idea of woman.” In the earlier civilizations woman was held as
inferior to man, because perhaps she could not endure the fatigues
of the chase or engage in wars, and such brutalizing pursuits.
The very signs of her superiority were read as evidences of her
inferiority. In some her position was hardly anything but that of a
slave or a toy. In that civilization which had the highest culture
of any of the old civilizations, an educated woman was classed in
the common thought of the people as an impure woman. Thank God
such a civilization as that was not the final one. In the final
civilization woman has her place alongside of man—co-equal and
co-ordinate.

The fourth great idea necessary to a permanent and final
civilization, is the true idea of childhood—its worth and place in
the elevating forces of humanity. That civilization which holds
in cheap esteem the life of a child, is a low and vanishing one.
There is probably among the secondary tests of nobility no truer
one than man’s regard for children. All the ancient civilizations
were very low in this respect. Think of such a thing occurring in
this nineteenth century, of any ruler commanding the slaughter of
the innocents. No, the final civilization holds, must hold, to
the sacredness of child-life. Jesus is bringing that about. He
brought heaven to earth through the auroral gates of childhood.
Bethlehem’s manger gave to the world a new and potent civilizing
idea in the sacredness of child-life. These four constitute the
elemental ideas, the living, molding, working forces of the
higher civilization. The relation of the American Missionary
Association to this higher civilization is now to be noticed, and
so transparent is this relation that only a few words are necessary
to set it forth. First. It is related in its work, in a similar
way, be it spoken reverently, in which Jesus, the Son of God, is
related to the children of men. He came down into humanity to its
very lowest. So the A. M. A. goes down with its thousand tender
hands and its five hundred beating hearts to the very bottom of the
lower civilization. This is both human and divine wisdom. It is
related to the higher civilization in the second place because it
carries into and permeates the lower civilization with these great
ideas of the higher. “No fleet can outsail its slowest vessel.”
So no civilization can advance higher than the lowest elements or
parts of it advance. These people to whom this Association carries
these ideas are elemental factors in our civilization, and I know
of no other royal road by which they can be brought into the
higher civilization; and unless so brought they will drag higher
civilization down, and give the victory to the lower civilization,
and this nation will fall into the long procession of nations
that, failing to rise to their great opportunities, have gone down
in dishonor and disgrace to eternal death. To prevent this dire
catastrophe, I believe God, whose favors have been manifold to our
land, has raised up and commissioned this great Association. It is
virtually related, therefore, to the higher civilization as its
saviour, and also as the purifier and perfector of the higher by
bringing the lower up to its proper place in it on these high idea
lines. Incarnate these great ideas of the higher civilization into
the lower, which, as I understand it, is the work of the A. M. A.,
and you have given the victory to the higher civilization in this
the leading nation of the world; moreover, you have hastened the
coming of the day of the Son of Man.

       *       *       *       *       *


DEDICATION OF LIVINGSTONE MISSIONARY HALL.

As a fitting sequel to the earnest and efficient annual meeting
exercises in Cleveland, some of the officers of this Association
and other friends proceeded to Nashville, Tenn., to attend the
dedication of Livingstone Hall, Oct. 30.

As we published in our last issue a cut of the Hall and a statement
of its history, dimensions and uses, we refer the reader to the
November MISSIONARY for information relating to such matters. The
dedicatory address was delivered by Professor Cyrus Northrop,
of Yale College. Bishop McTyeire, President of the Vanderbilt
University at Nashville, and Dr. A. G. Haygood, President of Emory
College, Georgia, and Gen. C. B. Fisk, of New York, also made
addresses. The dedicatory prayer was offered by Secretary Strieby,
and music furnished by the Mozart Society and by Miss Sheppard
and Miss Mabel Lewis, well-known members of the original Jubilee
Singers Company. The address of Professor Northrop was masterly,
timely and suggestive. It was welcomed and approved by the very
respectable representation of Southern men on the platform, and
published in full in the Nashville _Daily American_.

       *       *       *       *       *



RECEIPTS FOR OCTOBER, 1882.

       *       *       *       *       *


  MAINE, $454.61.

    Bangor. Hammond St. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 126;
      First Cong. Ch., 18.94                                 144.94
    Belfast. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         20.00
    Biddeford. Second Cong. Ch.                               20.52
    Brownville. Cong. Ch. and Soc., by Hon. A. H.
      Merrill.                                               100.00
    Brunswick. Mrs. S. J. F. Hammond, _for Student
      Aid, Atlanta U._                                        25.00
    Fryeburgh. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 14; “The Young
      Pioneers,” 10.                                          24.00
    Gorham. “Friends,” _for Library, Talladega C._            43.00
    Hampden. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                5.00
    North Anson. Mrs. Eunice S. Brown                         10.00
    South Berwick. Mrs. Hodgdon’s S. S. Class,
      _for Student Aid_, _Talladega C._                       25.00
    South Paris. Cong. Ch.                                     8.06
    Wells. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           27.09
    Winterport. “M.”                                           2.00


  NEW HAMPSHIRE, $242.33.

    Amherst. Cong. Ch.                                        17.37
    Colebrook. “Mr. and Mrs. E. C. W.”                         2.00
    Greenville. Cong. Ch.                                     15.00
    Haverhill. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             13.28
    Henniker. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_.                                                5.00
    Lyme. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_.                                               10.00
    Marlborough. Freedmen’s Aid Soc., two Bbls. of
      C., value 45, _for McIntosh, Ga._
    New Boston. “L. H.,” _for Chinese M._                     25.00
    New Ipswich. Children’s 20th Annual Fair                  23.50
    Newmarket. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 10.18; Thomas
      H. Wiswall, 10.                                         20.18
    Pelham. Cong. Ch. and Soc                                 54.00
    Pembroke. Cong. Ch. (ad’l.)                                3.00
    Tilton and Northfield. Cong. Ch. and Soc                  20.00
    Wilton. Second Cong. Ch                                   34.00


  VERMONT, $304.80.

    Barton Landing. Horace Jones                               2.00
    Brandon. Mrs. L. G. Case                                   5.00
    Brattleborough. Center Ch. and Soc., 51.18;
      Center Ch., “A. S.” 10                                  61.18
    Cambridge. Rev. E. Wheelock                                5.00
    Cornwall. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 67.50, and MRS.
      P. P. HURD, 30, to const. herself L. M.                 97.50
    Coventry. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              19.20
    Craftsbury. Ladies’ Miss’y Soc. of Cong. Ch.,
      _for Freight, for Atlanta U._                            3.00
    Enosburgh. Cong. Ch. and Soc. (ad’l).                      5.00
    Grafton. “A Friend”                                       10.00
    Grand Isle. Cong. Ch.                                      6.00
    Montgomery Center. Cong. Ch.                               8.00
    Newport. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                9.75
    Putney. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                 4.87
    South Hero. Cong. Ch.                                     20.00
    Weybridge. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             38.30
    Windham. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                   4.00
    Windsor. Cong. Ch. and Soc. (ad’l)                         6.00


  MASSACHUSETTS, $3,503.10.

    Amesbury. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              11.31
    Andover. Mrs. Rebecca Mills                               50.00
    Agawam. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                 8.55
    Ashby. Cong. Sab. Sch., 46.43; Willing Hands
      Soc., 34.57; Mr. and Mrs. Jos. Foster, 2,
      _for Student Aid, Atlanta U_.                           83.00
    Ashland. Cong. Ch. and Sab. Sch., _for Student
      Aid, Talladega C._                                      27.75
    Barre. C. B. R.                                            1.00
    Berlin. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                 8.00
    Boston. Shawmut Branch Sab. Sch., _for Pekin,
      N.C._, and to const. DEA. S. C. WILKINS and
      DEA. N. S. LOVETT, L. Ms.                               76.00
    Boston. Misses M. A. and H. N. Kirk, 20; Mrs.
      L. A. Bartholomew, 5                                    25.00
    Boxborough. Cong. Ch.                                     10.00
    Brookline. Harvard Ch. and Soc.                           75.64
    Cambridgeport. Pilgrim Ch. Mon. Con.                       9.06
    Centreville. Cong. Sab. Sch.                               5.00
    Charlton. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                 15.00
    Charlestown. Winthrop Ch. and Soc.                        73.73
    Chelsea. Ladies’ Union Home Mission Band, _for
      Lady Missionary, Chattanooga, Tenn._                    60.00
    Chicopee. Third Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        20.69
    Danvers. G. W. Fisk, _for Student Aid, Atlanta
      U._                                                      3.25
    Easthampton. First Cong. Sab. Sch.                        50.00
    Fitchburgh. Rollston Ch. and Soc.                         50.00
    Gilbertville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          25.00
    Holliston. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                            101.35
    Holyoke. Second Cong. Ch. and Soc., 14.67;
      First Cong Ch. and Soc., 6                              20.67
    Lanesborough. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           5.00
    Lawrence. Mrs. W. E. G.                                    0.50
    Lawrence. Rev. C. Carter, Package Books, _for
      McIntosh, Ga._
    Lexington. Hancock Ch. and Soc.                           25.00
    Lincoln. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for Student Aid,
      Atlanta U._                                             22.00
    Littleton. Mrs. J. C. Houghton and S. S.
      Class, _for Student Aid, Atlanta U._                     4.00
    Milford. First Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch., _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                           5.00
    Millbury. Second Cong. Ch. and Soc.                      170.57
    Monson. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                50.00
    Natick. Rev. Daniel Wight                                 10.00
    Newburyport. Freedmen’s Aid Soc., _for Student
      Aid, Talladega C._                                      75.00
    Newton Center. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                   33.93
    Newton Highlands. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for
      Student Aid, Atlanta U._                                12.00
    Newton Upper Falls. S. D. H.                               1.00
    Newtonville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           60.38
    Northampton. “H. N.” 1,000; First Ch., 100.62;
      “A Friend,” 87.50                                    1,188.12
    Northfield. M. E. Hilliard                                 5.00
    North Hadley. “Friend”, _for Student Aid,
      Atlanta U._                                              0.75
    Norwood. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               55.00
    Oxford. First Cong. Ch. and Soc., 20; Woman’s
      Mission Soc., _for Freight_, 2                          22.00
    Orange. Mrs. E. W. M.                                      1.00
    Palmer. Second Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         20.94
    Royalston. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                      125.00
    Rutland. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          5.01
    Salem. Sab. Sch. of Tabernacle Ch., _for
      Student Aid, Fisk U._                                   50.00
    Salem. Geo. Driver, 2; Mrs. J. H. W., 50c                  2.50
    Sandwich. Silas Fish, _for John Brown Steamer_             5.00
    Scotland. Mrs. J. N. Leonard, Bbl. of Books
      and Papers, _for Macon, Ga._, and 1 _for
      Freight_                                                 1.00
    Sherborn. Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch.                             34.25
    Somerset. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               5.00
    South Barre. Cong. Sab. Sch.                              10.00
    South Hadley. First Cong. Ch. and Soc., 34;
      Teachers and Pupils Mount Holyoke Fem. Sem.,
      31                                                      65.00
    Springfield. South Ch. and Soc., 48.07; First
      Cong. Ch. and Soc., 30.28                               78.35
    Sudbury. Ladies’ Miss’y Soc., 3, and Bbl. of
      C., _for Atlanta U._                                     3.00
    Sunderland. Mary Warner’s S. S. Class, Cong.
      Ch., _for Mobile, Ala._                                  6.00
    Taunton. Union Ch. and Soc.                               10.00
    Templeton. “Three Ladies,” Box of C., val. 18,
      and 1, _for Freight_                                     1.00
    Upton. Miss Lydia Chamberlain, 5; Miss Lizzie
      Wheeler, 2; Emma Leland, 2.25, _for Mobile,
      Ala._                                                    9.25
    Uxbridge. Evan. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        24.00
    Wakefield. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             50.00
    Walpole. Orthodox Cong. Ch. and Soc., to
      const. DEA. SAMUEL E. GUILD L. M.                       57.62
    West Boxford. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          10.10
    Westfield. Second Cong. Ch. and Soc.                      23.90
    West Granville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         4.00
    West Granville. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                           1.00
    Westhampton. Cong. Ch.                                    27.00
    Westhampton. “Friend,” _for Pekin N.C._                    1.00
    West Somerville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        6.00
    West Springfield. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.,
      28; Second Cong. Ch. and Soc., 5.62                     33.62
    Winchendon. Rev. M. H. Hitchcock, 5; G. H. W.,
      50c.                                                     5.50
    Worcester. Central Ch. and Soc. (30 of which
      from MRS. ALPHONSO WOOD, _for Tillotson C. &
      N. Inst._ and to const. herself L. M.)                 186.29
    Worcester. “A Friend,” $5; “Fannie, Etta,
      Charlie and Mary,” 1.15, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 6.15
    Worcester. Old South Ch. and Soc., 53.77;
      Union Ch. Sab. Sch.; 18.10; Salem St. Ch.,
      3.50; E. J. Rice, 2; W. J. White, 2                     79.37
    ——— Box and Bbl. of C., _for Marion, Ala._


  RHODE ISLAND, $181.44.

    East Providence. Cong. Ch.                                29.75
    Peace Dale. Cong. Ch.                                     11.69
    Providence. Pilgrim Cong. Ch and Soc.                    120.00
    Providence. Beneficent Cong. Sab. Sch., _for
      John Brown Steamer_                                     20.00
    Providence. Rev. H. A. Kendall, Bbl. of C.,
      _for McIntosh, Ga._


  CONNECTICUT, $1,894.59.

    Ansonia. William Paul, 10; Geo. P. Cowles, 5;
      Thomas Wallace, 5, _for Building, Tillotson
      C. & N. Inst._                                          20.00
    Berlin. “A Friend,” _for Tillotson C. & N.
      Ins._                                                   20.00
    Berlin. Second Cong. Ch.                                   7.89
    Birmingham. J. Tomlinson, 5; Henry Somers, 3;
      J. S., 1, _for Building, Tillotson C. & N.
      Inst._                                                   9.00
    Bridgeport. L. B. Eaton, _for Land, Tillotson
      C. & N. Inst._                                          20.00
    Canaan. ———                                                1.00
    Chester. C. N. S.                                          1.00
    Derby. Edwin Hallock, 10; N. J. Bailey, 5; W.
      N. S., 1, _for Building_; L. De F., 1, _for
      Land, Tillotson C. & N. Inst._                          17.00
    Ellington. Cong. Ch.                                      81.55
    Elliott. Wm. Osgood                                        2.00
    Fair Haven. First Cong. Ch.                               59.25
    Farmington. Cong. Ch., Quar. Coll.                        47.04
    Hartford. Dr. John K. Lee, 500; J. E. Cushman,
      200                                                    700.00
    Kensington. Mrs. R. Hotchkiss                              5.00
    Meriden. S. B. Little, 10; W. H. Catlin, 5; “A
      Friend,” 1; Miss L. T., 1, _for Land,
      Tillotson C. and N. Inst._                              17.00
    Meriden. E. K. Breckenridge                                5.00
    Middletown. First Ch., 26; Dea. Selah
      Goodrich, 20                                            46.00
    Milford. Plymouth Cong. Ch., 40; Rev. G. H.
      Griffin, 20                                             60.00
    Milford. G. A. R., _for Land, Tillotson C. and
      N. Inst._                                                1.00
    Mount Carmel. “A Friend,” _for Chinese M._                 5.00
    New Britain. South Cong Ch., to const. D. O.
      ROGERS L. M.                                            30.00
    New Britain. Mrs. Louisa Nichols, 15; Mrs.
      Loomis, 2; Mr. Case, 2; “Cash,” 1; Rev. E.
      H. R., 1, _for Land_; Mrs. Helen S. North,
      10; John A. Williams, 2; I. H. Allis, 2,
      _for Building, Tillotson C. and N. Inst._               35.00
    New Haven. Third Cong. Ch.                                25.00
    New Haven. Dr. Wm. B. De Forest, _for
      President’s House, Talladega C._                        25.00
    New Haven. Mrs. G. W. Curtis, 5; Mrs. N. W.
      Beers, 2; L. W. C., 1; W. B. L., 1; Mrs A.
      T., 1; G. S., 50c., _for Student Aid_; “A
      Friend,” 25; Capt. S. B. C., 1, _for Land,
      Tillotson C. and N. Inst._                              36.50
    North Haven. S. B. T., _for Land, Tillotson C.
      and N. Inst._                                            1.00
    North Woodstock. Cong. Ch.                                12.90
    Norwich. Florence and Jenny Bill, _for Student
      Aid, Atlanta U._                                        50.00
    Old Lyme. “A Friend” (1 of which _for John
      Brown Steamer_)                                          5.00
    Old Saybrook. R. E. I., _for Land, Tillotson
      C. and N. Inst._                                         1.00
    Plainfield. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                            35.00
    Plainfield. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                          10.00
    Plainville. “A Friend”                                   100.00
    Plainville. Dea. A. N. Clark, _for Land,
      Tillotson C. and N. Inst._                              10.00
    Seymour. Cong. Ch.                                        16.00
    South Windsor. Sab. Sch. of Second Cong. Ch.               6.18
    Stamford. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                42.00
    Talcottville. Cong. Ch.                                  106.76
    Unionville. First Cong. Ch.                               29.52
    Wallingford. Cong. Ch.                                    75.00
    Wapping. Miss Florence Preston, _for Student
      Aid, Emerson Inst._                                      5.00
    Washington. Cong. Sab. Sch., 35, _for Indian
      Student Aid, Hampton Inst._, and 10 _for
      John Brown Steamer_                                     45.00
    Wauregan. Union Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                25.00
    West Hartland. Cong. Ch.                                   8.00
    West Haven. Mrs. Emiline Smith, _for Land,
      Tillotson C. and N. Inst._                              10.00
    Willimantic. “Friends,” _for Needmore Chapel,
      Talladega, Ala._                                        15.00
    ———. Mrs. H. A. Wakefield, _for Student Aid,
      Fisk U._                                                10.00


  NEW YORK, $401.06.

    Albany. “M.”                                              20.00
    Amsterdam. Sab. Sch. Class. Presb. Sab. Sch.,
      _for John Brown Steamer_                                10.00
    Antwerp. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                10.00
    Brooklyn. Bedford Cong. Ch.                               23.50
    Brooklyn. E. D. New England Cong. Ch.                     16.17
    Buffalo. First Cong. Ch.                                  15.00
    Clifton Springs. Mrs. Andrew Pierce, 25; Rev.
      S. R. Butler, 10                                        35.00
    Clifton Springs. Mrs. Henry L. Chase, _for
      Lady Missionary, New Orleans, La._                       5.00
    Deansville. “L.”                                           5.00
    Fredonia. Miss Martha L. Stevens                           5.00
    Gaines. Cong. Ch. and Soc., to const. MISS
      CLARA WARREN L. M.                                      44.09
    Gainesville. Mrs. B. F. B.                                 1.00
    Hamilton. First Cong. Ch., _for Student Aid,
      Fisk U._                                                20.00
    Malone. Cong. Ch.                                         53.75
    New York. E. L. H., _for Land, Tillotson C.
      and N. Inst._                                            1.00
    New York. W. S. D.                                         0.50
    Oswego. Cong. Ch., Theo. Irwin, 25; A. H.
      Failing, 5; J. B. Hubbard, 2; H. L. Hart, 2             34.00
    Pompey. Mrs. Lucy Child                                    5.00
    Rensselaerville. B. F. E.                                  1.00
    Richfield Springs. Cong. Ch., to const. DAVID
      BONFOY L. M.                                            31.00
    Rochester. Plymouth Cong. Ch.                             29.00
    Watertown. George Cook                                     5.00
    Wellsville. First Cong. Ch.                               23.55
    Woodhaven. Cong. Ch. Miss’y Soc.                           7.50


  NEW JERSEY, $500.50.

    Jersey City. M. W.                                         0.50
    Morristown. E. A. Graves, _for Talladega C._             500.00


  PENNSYLVANIA, $25.

    Clark. Mrs. Elizabeth Dickson                             10.00
    Meadville. Miss Eliza Dickson                             15.00


  OHIO, $300.21.

    Austinburgh. Young Ladies’ Miss’y Soc., _for
      Emerson Inst_.                                           7.50
    Bellevue. Elvira Boise, 25; S. W. Boise, 20               45.00
    Chardon. Cong. Ch., _for Ind’l Dept., Tougaloo
      U._                                                      3.64
    Chatham Center. First Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch. _for
      John Brown Steamer_                                     10.00
    Claridon. Children’s Miss’y Soc., _for Student
      Aid, Tougaloo U._                                       10.00
    Claridon. Mrs. N. S. Kellogg, 5; Cong. Sab.
      Sch., 2.50                                               7.50
    Cleveland. Sab. Sch. of First Cong. Ch., _for
      Student Aid, Fisk U._                                   13.26
    Cleveland. J. J. Low, 10; M. H. B., 50c.                  10.50
    Cleveland. Rogers & Son, Furniture, val. 25,
      _for Tougaloo U._
    Dover. Cong. Ch.                                          25.00
    Huntsburgh. Cong. Ch., _for Ind’l Dept.,
      Tougaloo U._                                             6.18
    Jefferson. Ladies’ Miss’y Soc., _for Student
      Aid, Tougaloo U._                                       39.00
    Kent. S. B. Hall, _for John Brown Steamer_                10.00
    Madison. Ladies’ Benev. Soc., 5.50, _for
      Student Aid_; H. H. Roe & Co., Cheese
      Apparatus, val. 110.41, _for Tougaloo U._                5.50
    Mallett Creek. Dr. J. A. Bingham                           5.00
    Mansfield. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Student Aid, Fisk U._                                   25.00
    Marietta. J. W. S. and H. R., 50c. each                    1.00
    Nelson. Cong. Ch.                                          6.00
    Newark. Welsh Cong. Ch.                                    9.28
    Oberlin. “A Friend,” _for Chinese M._                      2.00
    Oberlin. Farrer Neighborhood Sab. Sch., _for
      John Brown Steamer_                                      2.00
    Oberlin. Maria L. Root, 2; L. F., 1                        3.00
    Rochester. Cong. Ch.                                       9.10
    Saybrook. Rev. A. D. Barber                               22.50
    Warren. Miss Ella Estabrook’s S. S. Class in
      Presb. Ch., _for Reading Room, Emerson Inst._            8.00
    Wayne. Ellen Jones                                         5.00
    Weymouth. Cong. Ch., _for Ind’l. Dept.,
      Tougaloo U._                                             9.25


  INDIANA, $2.00.

    Michigan City. Girls’ Juv. Soc. of Cong. Ch.,
      _for Student Aid, Atlanta U._                            2.00


  ILLINOIS, $1,080.02.

    Aurora. Sab. Sch. of N. E. Cong. Ch., _for
      Student Aid, Fisk U._                                   25.00
    Cambridge. Y. P. Miss’y Circle, _for Student
      Aid, Fisk U._                                           25.00
    Chenoa. Woman’s Miss’y Soc.                                3.70
    Chicago. N. E. Cong. Ch. (96 of which special
      gift), 202.20; N. E. Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch.,
      74.64; First Cong. Ch., 148.56; Ladies’
      Miss. Soc. of Lincoln Park Ch., 25; Theo.
      Sem., 3.77                                             454.17
    Chicago. C. B. Bouton, _for Student Aid, Fisk
      U._                                                     50.00
    Englewood. Cong. Ch.                                       6.00
    Forrest. Cong. Ch.                                        25.74
    Galesburgh. Sab. Sch. of First Cong. Ch., 50;
      Sab. Sch. First Church of Christ, 45.25,
      _for Student Aid, Fisk U._                              95.25
    Galva. Cong. Ch., (ad’l)                                   5.00
    Geneseo. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for Student
      Aid, Fisk U._                                           42.20
    Kewanee. Women’s Miss’y Soc., _for Student
      Aid, Tougaloo U._                                       20.00
    Lee Center. Cong. Ch.                                     10.50
    Lyndon. “A Friend”                                         2.00
    Mendon. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                10.00
    Moline. Ladies’ Miss’y Soc., _for Student Aid,
      Fisk U._                                                25.00
    Northampton. R. W. Gilliam                                 5.00
    Oak Park. Cong Ch., 2.38; W. E. B., 50c                    2.88
    Port Byron. Cong. Ch.                                      6.70
    Rockford. First Cong Ch., 58.92; Second Cong.
      Ch., 11                                                 69.92
    Saint Charles. Abbie C. Ward, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 3.00
    Springfield. First Cong. Ch.                              33.15
    Sterling. Cong. Ch., _for Student Aid, Topeka,
      Kan._                                                   50.81
    Sycamore. J. H. Rogers, _for Student Aid, Fisk
      U._                                                    104.00
    Thomasborough. “R.”                                        5.00


  MICHIGAN, $280.58.

    Adrian. A. J. Hood (1 of which _for John Brown
      Steamer_)                                               10.00
    Ann Arbor. “A Friend.”                                    20.00
    Benzonia. Amasa Waters                                    10.00
    Benzonia. First Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                          15.00
    Chelsea. John C. Winans                                  100.00
    Detroit. “Two Friends of the Indians,” _for
      Indian M._                                              25.00
    Detroit. Mrs. H. D. T.                                     1.00
    Grand Blanc. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 11.37; Sab.
      Sch. Concert, 6.03                                      17.40
    Grand Rapids. Park Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch., _for
      Rev. J. H. H. Sengstacke_                               40.00
    Homestead. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                 2.45
    Mattawan. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                  2.25
    Middleville. Cong. Ch.                                     4.46
    Oliver. Cong. Sab. Sch., 9.28; First Cong.
      Ch., 7.74                                               17.02
    Saint John’s. Rev. S. S.                                   1.00
    Wheatland. “C. M.” (10 of which _for John
      Brown Steamer_)                                         15.00


  IOWA, $120.29.

    Atlantic. Cong. Sab. Sch., 7.47; Mrs. Milo
      Whiting, 5                                              12.47
    Anamosa. Mrs. S. E. B. and Mrs. D. McC., 50c.
      each                                                     1.00
    Cherokee. Ladies of Cong. Ch., _for Lady
      Missionary_, _New Orleans, La._                          2.50
    Chester Center. Cong. Ch., _for Student Aid_,
      _Fisk U._                                               10.00
    Danville. Mrs. Harriet Huntington                          6.00
    Davenport. J. A. Reed (10 of which _for
      Talladega C._)                                          20.00
    Humboldt. Mrs. L. A. W., 1; Mrs. C. A. L., 1               2.00
    Keokuk. Woman’s Miss’y Soc.                               13.30
    Le Grand. T. P. and Clarinda Craig                         5.00
    McGregor. Y. L. Mission Band, 10; Woman’s
      Miss’y Soc., 9.98                                       19.98
    Seneca. Rev. O. Littlefield and Wife                      15.00
    Toledo. Cong. Ch.                                         13.04


  WISCONSIN, $309.68.

    Clinton. John H. Cooper                                    5.00
    Durand. Mrs. A. Kidder, 5; Miss A. E. Kidder,
      5; Y. L. Miss’y Soc., 2                                 12.00
    Footville. Cong. Ch.                                       5.16
    Kenosha. First Cong. Sab. Sch., _for Lady
      Missionary_, _Montgomery, Ala._                         10.00
    Menomonee. “A Friend,” 100; Cong. Ch., 22.64             122.64
    Milwaukee. Hon. E. D. Holton, 100; Grand Av.
      Cong. Ch., 52.88                                       152.88
    Racine. Cong. Ch. (ad’l), 1; Rev. C. N., 1                 2.00


  MISSOURI, $19.18.

    Saint Joseph. Tabernacle Cong. Ch.                        19.18


  MINNESOTA, $78.87.

    Clearwater. Mrs. M. W.                                     0.50
    Granite Falls. Cong. Ch.                                   2.00
    Minneapolis. Plymouth Cong. Ch.                           50.77
    Minneapolis. Rev. E. M. Williams, _for Student
      Aid_, _Atlanta U._                                      15.00
    Saint Paul. Anna Baker                                     2.00
    Waseca. Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 8.60


  KANSAS, $2.00.

    Paola. Cong. Ch.                                           2.00


  NEBRASKA, $25.00.

    Lincoln. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                  25.00


  DAKOTA, $5.00.

    Kibby. “H. R. P.”                                          5.00


  COLORADO, $1.50.

    Denver. J. L. Peabody                                      1.50


  CALIFORNIA, $220.15.

    San Francisco. Receipts of The California
      Chinese Mission (ad’l)                                 220.15


  DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

    Washington. Dr. J. W. Chickering, Bundle of
      C., _for Chattanooga, Tenn._


  MARYLAND, $145.55.

    Baltimore. First Cong. Ch.                               145.55


  TENNESSEE, $135.90.

    Nashville. Fisk University, Tuition                      135.90


  NORTH CAROLINA, 25c.

    Wilmington. Tuition                                        0.25


  SOUTH CAROLINA, $10.00.

    Charleston. Plymouth Cong. Ch.                            10.00


  GEORGIA, $369.30.

    Atlanta. Storrs Sch., Tuition, 244.25; Rent, 9           253.25
    Atlanta. Friends in First Cong. Ch., _for
      Student Aid_, _Atlanta U._                              60.20
    Atlanta. First Cong. Ch., 15; Rev. E. K., 1               16.00
    Macon. Lewis High Sch., Tuition, 7.35; Rent,
      2.50                                                     9.85
    Savannah. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for Student Aid_,
      _Atlanta U._                                            30.00


  ALABAMA, $111.77.

    Mobile. Through A. M. 1; Through P. W., 75c.;
      E. S., 1; M. M., 50c., _for rebuilding
      Emerson Inst._                                           3.25
    Mobile. Emerson Inst., Tuition                             1.00
    Montgomery. Cong. Ch.                                     30.00
    Selma. Cong. Ch.                                           6.30
    Talladega. Rev. H. S. De Forest, _for
      President’s House_, _Talladega C._                      61.22
    ———. “A Friend”                                           10.00


  MISSISSIPPI, $44.54.

    Rodney. J. D. B.                                           0.54
    Tougaloo. Rent                                            44.00


  INCOME, $120.50.

    Avery Fund, _for Mendi M._                               120.50
                                                          —————————
         Total                                           $10,889.72
                                                         ==========

         *       *       *       *       *

    RECEIPTS OF THE CALIFORNIA CHINESE MISSION, E.
      Palache, Treas., additional for year ending
      Aug. 31st, 1882:
    FROM AUXILIARY MISSIONS: Petaluma, Col., at
      Anniversary, 6.50; Annual Members,
      26.—Sacramento, Annual Members, 6.—Santa
      Barbara, Mrs. N. P. Austin, 1; Miss Annie
      Dennis, 1.—Stockton, Annual Members, 8                  48.50
    FROM CHURCHES: Los Angeles, Cong. Ch., Annual
      Members, 4.—Oakland, Plym. Av. Ch. (5 of
      which from Rev. H. E. Jewett), 6.—Rio Vista,
      Cong. Ch., Mrs. M. L. Merritt, 5.—San
      Bernadino, Cong. Ch., Coll., 12.35—San
      Francisco, First Cong. Ch., Coll., 16;
      Annual Members, 4.—Bethany, Ch., Annual
      Members, 14                                             61.35
    FROM EASTERN FRIENDS: Bangor, Me., Hon. E. R.
      Burpee, 100.—Boston, Mass., Miss Harriette
      Carter, 10.—Glyndon, Minn., Mrs. N. M.
      Willard, 30c                                           110.30
                                                             ——————
         Total                                              $220.15
                                                            =======

         *       *       *       *       *

  FOR ARTHINGTON MISSION.

    Income Fund                                              175.00
                                                            =======

                                      H. W. HUBBARD, Treas.,
                                          56 Reade St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *



           BRAIN AND NERVE FOOD. VITALIZED PHOS-PHITES.

It restores the energy lost by Nervousness or Indigestion;
relieves Lassitude and Neuralgia; refreshes the Nerves tired
by Worry, Excitement or Excessive Brain Fatigue; strengthens a
Failing Memory, and gives Renewed Vigor in all Diseases of Nervous
Exhaustion or Debility. It is the only PREVENTIVE of Consumption.

It gives Vitality to the Insufficient Bodily or Mental Growth of
Children; gives Quiet, Rest and Sleep, as it promotes Good Health
to Brain and Body.

    Composed of the Nerve-Giving Principles of the Ox-Brain and
                            Wheat-Germ.

           Physicians have Prescribed 500,000 Packages.

              For sale by Druggists, or by Mail, $1.

        F. CROSBY CO., 664 and 666 Sixth Avenue, New York.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                       J. B. WILLIAMS & CO.,

                        GLASTONBURY, CONN.,

                         MANUFACTURERS OF

                     Shaving and Toilet Soaps.


For over 30 years this firm has made the manufacture of SHAVING
SOAPS a specialty, and their Yankee Barber’s Bar, and other soaps,
enjoy a reputation among Barbers, as well as those who shave
themselves, unequalled by any other.

To all of our readers who are seeking for the VERY BEST SHAVING
SOAP, we would say, be sure and get some of the following
(_carefully avoiding counterfeits_):

  GENUINE YANKEE SOAP,            BARBER’S FAVORITE SOAP,
    CLIPPER SHAVING SOAP,           VERBENA CREAM TABLET,
      POCKET SHAVING SOAP,            TONSORIAL SOAP,
        BARBER’S BAR SOAP,              MUG SHAVING SOAP.

These Soaps can be found in every State and nearly every town in
the United States.


                 *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: COUNT RUMFORD.]

                            HORSFORD’S

                          ACID PHOSPHATE.

                             (LIQUID.)

                FOR DYSPEPSIA, MENTAL AND PHYSICAL
                EXHAUSTION, NERVOUSNESS, DIMINISHED
                         VITALITY, URINARY
                        DIFFICULTIES, ETC.

              PREPARED ACCORDING TO THE DIRECTION OF

                Prof. E. N. Horsford, of Cambridge,
                               Mass.


There seems to be no difference of opinion in high medical
authority of the value of phosphoric acid, and no preparation has
ever been offered to the public which seems to so happily meet the
general want as this.

It is not nauseous, but agreeable to the taste.

No danger can attend its use.

Its action will harmonize with such stimulants as are necessary to
take.

It makes a delicious drink with water and sugar only.

Prices reasonable. Pamphlet giving further particulars mailed free
on application.

                        MANUFACTURED BY THE

                      RUMFORD CHEMICAL WORKS,

                         Providence, R.I.,

                  AND FOR SALE BY ALL DRUGGISTS.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                     ESTABLISHED THIRTY YEARS.

[Illustration: Smith

AMERICAN

ORGANS]

                           ARE THE BEST.

                 *       *       *       *       *

                 _Catalogues Free on Application._

  Address the Company either at
    BOSTON, MASS., 531 Tremont Street;
    LONDON, ENG., 57 Holborn Viaduct;
    KANSAS CITY, Mo., 817 Main Street;
    ATLANTA, GA., 27 Whitehall Street;
    Or, DEFIANCE, O.

                         OVER 95,000 SOLD.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                    7 PER CENT. TO 8 PER CENT.

                     Interest Net to Investors

                      In First Mortgage Bonds

                         ON IMPROVED FARMS

                  In Iowa, Minnesota and Dakota,

                            SECURED BY

                        ORMSBY BROS. & CO.,

                  BANKERS, LOAN AND LAND BROKERS,

                         EMMETSBURG, IOWA.

        References and Circulars forwarded on Application.


                 *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: THE Rising sun STOVE POLISH]

    For beauty of gloss, for saving of toil,
    For freeness from dust and slowness to soil,
    And also for cheapness ’tis yet unsurpassed,
    And thousands of merchants are selling it fast.

    Of all imitations ’tis well to beware;
    The half risen sun every package should bear;
    For this is the “trade mark” the MORSE BROS. use,
    And none are permitted the mark to abuse.


       *       *       *       *       *


                             PAYSON’S

                          INDELIBLE INK,

                  FOR MARKING ANY FABRIC WITH A
                      COMMON PEN, WITHOUT A
                           PREPARATION.


          It still stands unrivaled after 50 years’ test.


                      THE SIMPLEST AND BEST.


Sales now greater than ever before.

This Ink received the Diploma and Medal at Centennial over all
rivals.

Report of Judges: “For simplicity of application and indelibility.”


                            INQUIRE FOR

                      PAYSON’S COMBINATION!!!

Sold by all Druggists, Stationers and News Agents, and by many
Fancy Goods and Furnishing Houses.


                 *       *       *       *       *


              Circulation Now 80,000, and Increasing.

          Advocating Evangelical Religion and Temperance.

           Liberty, Education and Equal Rights for all.

                         NEW YORK WITNESS

                       PUBLICATIONS for 1882


=New York Weekly Witness.=—Now in its 11th year; circulation,
80,000; ONE DOLLAR a year. Gratis copy for club of 10, with $10. On
trial three months, 25c.

=Sabbath Reading.=—A very handsome, small eight-page weekly,
containing in each number an excellent sermon and a choice
selection of interesting matter for reading on the Lord’s Day.
FIFTY CENTS a year; club of ten, $4. On trial three months, 15c.

=Gems of Poetry.=—A beautiful, sixteen page monthly, on fine paper,
and with an excellent portrait of some eminent poet in each number.
The contents are two serials, the Æneid of Virgil and Aurora Leigh
by Mrs. Browning; a fine assortment of selected poetry, and a great
variety of original poetry—the latter competing for two prizes each
quarter. FORTY CENTS a year; club of three, $1. On trial for three
months, 10c.

=Specimens= of the above publications sent free on application. All
stop when subscription expires.

WITNESS, SABBATH READING and GEMS OF POETRY, three months on trial
for fifty cents.

                        JOHN DOUGALL & CO.

                          WITNESS OFFICE:

                  21 VANDEWATER STREET, NEW YORK.

         We demand the Prohibition of the Liquor Traffic.


                 *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: ESTEY ORGAN

  J. Estey & Co

  Brattleboro Vt.]

As musical culture increases it demands in musical instruments for
home, church, or school, excellence in tone, tasteful workmanship,
and durability.

                  SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                   Carpets Rugs, Mattings, etc.,

                             FOR CASH.

               $3.50—ELEGANT STYLES, LIGHT AND DARK
                   PATTERNS, AXMINSTER, MOQUETTE
                   AND HEARTH RUGS, 27 × 64 in.

These goods are very serviceable and are suitable for parlor or
drawing room, and are sold elsewhere for $5 to $7 each.

                REVERSIBLE, SMYRNA AND VELVET RUGS
                    AND MATS, large assortment.

REVERSIBLE MATS, 75c., 90c., $1; EXTRA QUALITY, $1.50; REVERSIBLE
RUGS, $1.60, $2.50, $3, $3.75, $4.50; EXTRA LARGE, $6, $6.50, $9
and $10.

                INDIA BODY BRUSSELS CARPETS, 45 and

                          55c. per yard.

                        TAPESTRY BRUSSELS,

                   60c., 65c., 75c. and upwards.

                  VELVET CARPETS (fine quality),

                      $1.25, $1.35 per yard.

                  MATTINGS, OIL CLOTHS, DRUGGETS,

           In numerous designs and worthy the attention
                     of consumers and dealers.

            Mail orders will receive prompt attention.

                       ANDREW LESTER & CO.,

                           511 Broadway,

          St. Nicholas Hotel Block.       NEW YORK, N.Y.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                     60,000 TONS USED IN 1881.

One ton will build two miles of staunch three-strand Barb Fence.
One strand will make an old wooden fence impassable to large
cattle. One strand at bottom will keep out hogs.

                   Washburn & Moen Man’f’g Co.,

                         WORCESTER, MASS.,

                         Manufacturers of

                    Patent Steel Barb Fencing.

[Illustration]

A STEEL Thorn Hedge. No other Fencing so cheap or put up so
quickly. Never rusts, stains, decays, shrinks nor warps. Unaffected
by fire, wind or flood. A complete barrier to the most unruly
stock. Impassable by man or beast.

No other Fence Material so easily handled by small proprietors and
tenants, or large planters in the South.

Shipped on spools containing 100 pounds, or eighty rods of Fencing.
Can be kept on the Reel for transient uses.

           CHEAPEST, BEST AND MOST EFFECTIVE OF FENCES.

Send for Illustrative Pamphlets and Circulars, as above.

                 *       *       *       *       *



THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

       *       *       *       *       *


We send this number of the AMERICAN MISSIONARY to some persons
whose names are not among our subscribers, with the hope that
they will read it, and that their interest in the work which it
represents will be deepened, and we take occasion to repeat what we
have set forth and urged frequently during the year, to wit:

That we are keenly alive to the necessity of keeping this magazine
abreast with the very best publications of other missionary
societies, at home and abroad. We shall seek to make its appearance
attractive by pictures and illustrations. The Children’s Page will
contain original stories and suggestive incidents. The General
Notes on Africa, the Chinese and Indians will be continued. The
fullest information will be given about our work in the South, now
recognized as so important to the welfare of the nation. We shall
also make ample reports of our methods and work among the Indians
and Chinese in America, and following the Annual Meeting publish a
double number like the present issue, giving a full account of the
proceedings of that occasion.

No Christian family can afford to be without missionary
intelligence, and no missionary society can afford to be without
readers of its publications; it had better give them to the readers
without pay than to have no readers. Missionary zeal will die in
the churches without missionary intelligence.

But it would be far better for both the societies and the readers
if missionary news were paid for. This would give the magazine
attentive perusal and the society relief from the reproach of a
large expense for publication. Missionary publications should be
put on a _paying basis_. Aside from a free list to life members,
ministers, etc., the cost of publication should be made up by
paying subscribers and advertisements.

We are anxious to put the AMERICAN MISSIONARY on this basis. We
intend to make it worth its price, and we ask our patrons to aid us:

1. More of our readers can take pains to send us either the
moderate subscription price (50 cents), or $1.00, naming a friend
to whom we may send a second copy.

2. A special friend in each church can secure subscribers at
club-rates (12 copies for $5 or 25 copies for $10).

3. Business men can benefit themselves by advertising in a
periodical that has a circulation of over 20,000 copies monthly and
that goes to many of the best men and families in the land. Will
not our friends aid us to make this plan a success?

Subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to H. W. HUBBARD,
Treasurer, 56 Reade st., New York, N.Y.

       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber’s Notes


Obvious printer’s punctuation errors and omissions corrected.
Inconsistent hyphenation retained due to the multiplicity of
authors. Period spellings (e.g.indispensible, incrusted) retained.

“Steet” changed to “Street” on the inside cover in the
CORRESPONDING SECRETARY listing.

“accustumed” changed to “accustomed” on page 363. (they were
accustomed to attend)

“ist” changed to “list” on page 383. (the list of trust funds)





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