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Title: The American Missionary — Volume 36, No. 10, October, 1882
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Missionary — Volume 36, No. 10, October, 1882" ***

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by Cornell University Digital Collections)


  VOL. XXXVI.      OCTOBER, 1882      NO. 10.


  American Missionary





         *       *       *       *       *

  Price, 50 Cents a Year, in Advance.

         *       *       *       *       *

  Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N.Y. as second class


                 *       *       *       *       *



    ANNUAL MEETING—Last Word, Financial                    289
    PARAGRAPHS                                             290
    NATIONAL AID FOR NATIONAL EDUCATION                    292
    NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSEMBLY                            293
    ADDRESS OF MR. BUTLER R. WILSON                        294
    BENEFACTIONS                                           296
    GENERAL NOTES—Africa, Indians                          297
    ITEMS FROM THE FIELD                                   298


    STUDIES IN THE SOUTH                                   299
    NEGRO PRAYER-MEETING (Cut)                             301


    DR. LADD’S JOURNAL                                     303


    GOD ANSWERS PERSEVERING PRAYER                         310
    MISSIONARY CLASS IN CHINA (Cut)                        312


    LETTER FROM AN AFRICAN BOY                             313
    A QUESTION OF COLOR                                    314

  RECEIPTS                                                 314

  THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTION                                318

       *       *       *       *       *

American Missionary Association,


       *       *       *       *       *



    Rev. M. E. STRIEBY, D.D., _56 Reade Street N.Y._


    H. W. HUBBARD, Esq., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


    Rev. C. L. WOODWORTH, _Boston_.
    Rev. G. D. PIKE, D.D., _New York_.
    Rev. JAMES POWELL, _Chicago_.


relating to the work of the Association may be addressed to the
Corresponding Secretary; those relating to the collecting fields,
to the District Secretaries; letters for the Editor of the
“American Missionary,” to Rev. G. D. Pike, D.D., at the New York


may be sent to H. W. Hubbard, Treasurer, 50 Reade Street, New York,
or, when more convenient, to either of the Branch Offices, Rev. C.
L. Woodworth, Dist. Sec., 21 Congregational House, Boston, Mass.,
or Rev. James Powell, Dist. Sec., 112 West Washington Street,
Chicago, Ill. A payment of thirty dollars at one time constitutes a
Life Member. Letters relating to boxes and barrels of clothing may
be addressed to the persons above named.


“I BEQUEATH to my executor (or executors) the sum of —— dollars, in
trust, to pay the same in —— days after my decease to the person
who, when the same is payable, shall act as Treasurer of the
‘American Missionary Association’ of New York City, to be applied,
under the direction of the Executive Committee of the Association,
to its charitable uses and purposes.” The Will should be attested
by three witnesses.

The Annual Report of the A. M. A. contains the Constitution of the
Association and the By-Laws of the Executive Committee. A copy will
be sent free on application.


                       AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

                 *       *       *       *       *

           VOL. XXXVI.      OCTOBER, 1882.      NO. 10.

                 *       *       *       *       *

American Missionary Association.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Annual Meeting of the American Missionary Association will
be held in Plymouth Church, Cleveland, O., commencing Tuesday,
Oct. 24, at 3 P.M. Tuesday afternoon the report of the Executive
Committee, including the Treasurer’s report, will be presented,
and on Tuesday evening the sermon will be preached by Rev. C. L.
Goodell, D.D., of St. Louis, Mo.

On Wednesday morning the report of the Committee on the Amendments
to the Constitution will be presented. The succeeding sessions
of Wednesday and Thursday will be occupied with papers and
reports of committees, with addresses. On Wednesday and Thursday
evenings, addresses will be given by Rev. A. J. F. Behrends, D.D.,
Rev. Atticus G. Haygood, D.D., ex-President Hayes, and other
distinguished speakers. The names of other speakers and further
details will be published in the religious papers. The Thursday
evening meeting will be a mass meeting at the Cleveland Tabernacle,
with addresses upon “The National Problem of Southern Education.”
For report of the Committee on the Revision of the Constitution see
page 318.

Rev. C. T. Collins, of Cleveland, is Chairman of the Committee of
Arrangements; Rev. H. M. Tenny, Chairman of Committee on Reduced
Railroad Rates. Applicants for entertainment will address Mr. S. H.
Cowell, Plymouth Church, Cleveland, before Oct. 12. Applicants for
reduced hotel rates will apply before Oct. 19.

       *       *       *       *       *


As we go to press, Sept. 12th, we find that the treasury is lacking
$24,028.11 of the $300,000 which was asked for at the last Annual
Meeting, and which the work absolutely demands. We yet have time to
wipe out this deficit if our friends will respond promptly. October
and the next year will have their own burdens to bear, and so, as
usual, our books will close with the remittances of September.


Our District Secretary Powell has the art of putting things, and
this is the way he puts the question, how to “reduce 1172 to
0000,” _i.e._, to reduce the number of churches from which _no_
contribution has been received since last September for the A.
M. A. within the States of the Interior, to zero. The answer is,
transfer each church to the list of those contributing.—Q. E. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

A superintendent of our educational work has been appointed by the
Executive Committee, the plan having been approved by a conference
of our leading workers, held last winter. Professor Albert
Salisbury, of the Wisconsin State Normal, at Whitewater, is the
man. In the growth of this department, and in the purpose of the A.
M. A. to do the very best work in its institutions, it was found
needful to secure one who, as an expert in school processes, should
help to the most approved methods of organization, of discipline,
of instruction and of unification. Professor Salisbury had been
assigned by his State to the specialty of conducting teachers’
institutes. In the same way he will serve our teachers and the
native teachers whom they have raised up. Prominent educators and
the Wisconsin and Boston journals of education have commended
him as the right man for the place. Dr. Roy will continue in his
service as Field Superintendent, giving yet more attention to the
church work.

       *       *       *       *       *

A mission at Hong Kong had been proposed to this Association as
a means of gathering into fellowship the Chinese who may have
returned from this country to their native land as Christians. It
seemed to some that such a work would be cognate to ours on the
Pacific Coast. But as it is the purpose of the A. M. A. not to
extend its missionary operations abroad, our Executive Committee
proposed to the American Board that it take up the mission at Hong
Kong, and so work in harmony with our operations on the coast. We
are glad to report that this overture has been cordially acceded
to, and that the American Board accepts this “sacred trust.” And
hence the rejoicing of Mr. Pond in his letter, to be found at the
proper place. Now, will not our good friends bear in mind our
mission on the Pacific, which is to be a feeder for that one on the
opposite coast, and send us such additional funds as will enable us
to enlarge our work, and so to help feed the millions of China with
the bread of life?

       *       *       *       *       *

A series of missionary meetings similar to those held in
Connecticut several years ago, and in Ohio three years ago, has
been held in sixteen of the leading Congregational Churches of
central New York during September. The places were Penn Yan,
Norwich, Walton, Utica, Antwerp, Norwood, Sandy Creek, Oswego,
Elmira, Ithaca, Canandaigua, Fairport, Lockport, Homer, Binghamton
and Poughkeepsie. The A. B. C. F. M. was represented by Dr. H. C.
Haydn, the A. H. M. S. by Rev. C. C. Creegan, the Cong. Union by
Dr. L. H. Cobb, and the A. M. A. by Drs. O. H. White and J. E. Roy.
Pastors and leading laymen bore a good share. A fuller account will
be given next month.

       *       *       *       *       *

A series of articles, worthy of attention, has recently appeared in
the _Atlantic Monthly_ under the title of “STUDIES IN THE SOUTH.”
The name of the author is not given, but internal evidence shows
that he is a Northern man who went South to study its problems with
an honest purpose to get at the facts rather than sustain any pet
theories. He was free in his intercourse with people of all classes
and colors, and is very frank in his report of what he says. His
statements as to the political situation are somewhat startling,
yet correct, as we think. It is, however, his view of the deeper
questions of the condition and prospects of the masses of the
people, white and colored, that we are most concerned about, and we
give a few extracts on these points.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is with profound sorrow that we note the death by drowning
of two adult sons of Rev. J. A. R. Rogers, now the pastor of a
Presbyterian Church at Shawano, Wis. All our readers are familiar
with the heroic labors and endurance of Mr. Rogers before and after
the war, in building up the college and church at Berea, Ky. The
names and birthplaces of the sons are historic. William Norris was
born at Berea in 1859, and Lewis Fairchild was born in Ohio, while
the family were in exile on account of the war. The eldest was a
graduate of Berea and was a teacher there the last year, active,
useful and greatly beloved. Lewis Fairchild at the time of his
decease was a member of the senior class in Olivet College. “Lovely
and pleasant in their lives; in their death they were not divided.”
Multitudes of our friends will be afflicted in this bereavement of
our brother and his companion.

       *       *       *       *       *

One of our old friends writes: “Do the colleges and literary
institutions supported by the A. M. A. prohibit the use of tobacco,
as well as of intoxicating liquors, among their students, as
Oberlin does?” We are happy to inform him and all other friends
that this is the rule in all of our schools, and that they would be
delighted to observe the freedom of all our school buildings from
the pollution of tobacco. It is a fine element in the formation of
character, as well as a matter of health and of economy.

       *       *       *       *       *


The title is its own argument. It is the instinct of
self-preservation. If one member suffer, the whole body suffers.
Congress has adjourned without passing the proposed law. It was to
appropriate $10,000,000 annually for five years, and to distribute
the same among the States and Territories in the proportion of
illiteracy. There is no doubt that some such bill will yet be
passed. At this ratio, the former slave States would receive seven
and a half millions out of the ten. That the North heartily agrees
to this has been a grateful surprise to the South. The scheme would
not have been thought of, except for the need of it in that section.

The question may, then, be raised: What would be the relation of
such aid to the work of this Association? It would greatly increase
the demand for the training of common school teachers in our normal
schools and colleges. The three months of country schools would
be raised to six. The increased facilities would tend to lead the
people to call for a better quality of teachers. Dr. Barnas Sears,
the late Secretary of the Peabody Fund, learned that one competent
teacher introduced, led to the displacement of a half-dozen
incompetents. The training of the teachers is the wholesale
business in the process of education. Then, it is of the utmost
importance that these teachers of the millions should themselves
have that moral and religious preparation which our missionary
institutions seek to impart, so that the lessons of morality, and
virtue and piety shall be taught, along with the elements of a
common education. The House committee, in their report, state that,
according to the census of 1880, 4,715,395 persons at the South
over ten years of age, or 70.56 per cent., are not able to write.
To raise up the qualified teachers for this illiterate mass will
tax the resources of all the institutions founded in that region by
the benevolence of the North.

Government aid will still leave another demand upon our style of
schools, viz., that which shall furnish industrial training. The
old-time colored mechanics, who had been taught trades, which
greatly increased their value in the market, are passing away.
Scarcely any of the young men are now learning trades, for the
reasons that white mechanics will not take them, that the colored
tradesmen have not capital enough to employ them, and that too
many of them have seen enough of working for board and clothes in
the case of father and mother, not taking into the account the
large and steady wages to come by and by. As it is going now, let
the old colored mechanics pass away, and the skilled artisans
coming from Europe will press in to fill the demand; and then the
Africo-American citizens will be driven to the wall and forced
back to be mere hewers of wood and drawers of water. The first
demand upon our schools was to open the doors of knowledge to
millions of starving intellects; but now, more and more, must we
push industrial training to help the people in the coming crisis,
which they do not forecast as readily as do their friends who have
studied the problem of their bondage and their freedom. So then,
along with books and the art of school teaching, we must train
the girls to the trades of cooking, of dressmaking, of nursing,
of type-setting, of running knitting and sewing machines; we must
teach the boys carpentry, blacksmithing, shoe and harness making,
agriculture, the raising of improved stock and the running of

National aid for public schools will still leave upon our
institutions and the like the great business of the higher
education. For a portion of the people this is demanded. If they
are to maintain themselves in their citizenship they must have the
first quality of education in their preachers, professors, lawyers,
doctors, journalists, scientists. In their general advancement
they are already requiring more and more of cultivation in their
preachers. With some congregations even now only the most thorough
classical and professional training can satisfy the demands of
their pulpits, while in the other professions nothing else can
succeed. The public schools will prepare the material, and make
the greater demand for the higher institutions, such as we are
developing. And so we find that national aid, if granted, will only
be a national call for our scheme of advanced education. Then, if
such a law is passed, it is proposed to run only five years. And
yet the generations of children will still be sweeping on and we
must make our patriotic and missionary propagandism to keep up with

       *       *       *       *       *

An important meeting of the National Education Assembly was held at
Ocean Grove, N.J., Aug. 8, 9. The audiences were large, and many
prominent educators were present from various parts of the country.
The opening address was by Hon. John Eaton, U.S. Commissioner of
Education, in which it was held that the national government is
the only agency able to cope with illiteracy in the country. A
feature of special interest was the showing of the work of the
Northern churches in the South since the war. Dr. Strieby, of New
York, represented the Congregationalists; Rev. Dr. J. M. Gregory,
of Illinois, the Baptists; Rev. Dr. R. H. Allen, of Pennsylvania,
the Presbyterians; and Rev. Dr. J. C. Hartzell, of Louisiana,
the Methodists. It appeared that more than $10,000,000 have been
spent by this agency, and that more than 15,000 students are now
in schools of higher grade, thus supported. Bishop Simpson, Dr. H.
A. Butz, president of Drew Theological Seminary, and Senator Blair
of New Hampshire, made addresses. The sentiments of the Assembly
were formulated in a memorial to Congress. A National Education
Committee was organized to continue the effort to secure national
aid. The secretary of the committee will reside in Washington, and
efforts to influence public opinion in favor of the end in view
will be earnestly prosecuted.

The following is an extract from a letter sent to the president of
the Assembly, Rev. J. C. Hartzell, D.D., from Hon. H. M. Teller,
Secretary of the Interior:

“The great mass of the people must depend on the public school
system for the education of their children. An efficient public
school system, extending to all the State, and affording equal
facilities for education to all classes of children, free from rate
bills, cannot be too highly prized. * * * I recognize it to be the
duty of the State to provide for the education of the children
within its borders; but if the State neglects or refuses so to do,
I think it is clearly within the power of the general government to
provide such school facilities. But, fortunately, there is no State
in which no provision for public education is made, and therefore
the occasion for the exercise of this power does not exist, except
as auxiliary to that of the State. I believe that in all the States
the sentiment in favor of educating the children is so strong that
the action required by the general government would be simply to
make and wisely disburse proper appropriations, so as to encourage
and stimulate the States that are the least able to carry on the
work by themselves. To do this without seeming to discriminate in
favor of certain States, such appropriations ought to be based on
the degree of illiteracy as shown by the last census.

“If a system of public schools can be maintained for ten or fifteen
years in any State, there will be no danger of its abandonment.

“An educated community will demand suitable educational facilities
for the education of all classes of children. So that we may
reasonably hope that the appropriation from the national treasury
need not extend beyond a period of ten or fifteen years.”

       *       *       *       *       *



If I fail to be a good specimen, do not attribute it to my race;
for my people were converted from a condition of chattel slavery
into that of American citizenship, depending almost entirely upon
themselves. What has been the result? In spite of nearly 20,000
political murders since the war, they have not all been killed;
nor, at the present rate of increase, is it reasonable to suppose
that they all will be. The prophecy of many good people, many
worthy people, many earnest people, that the ballot in the hand of
the negro was a stick with which to break the government’s head,
finds its answer in the fact that the most loyal and law-abiding
citizens south of Mason and Dixon’s line, to-day, are the ex-slaves.

With not enough land for a burial ground, had they all died
immediately after the war, they now pay taxes on millions of
dollars worth of real estate and personal property, being assessed
for nearly $10,000,000 in the State of Georgia alone. Prior to the
war there was a law throughout the South prohibiting a colored
person from learning to read and write on penalty of losing the
thumb or index finger, so that what they now know in that direction
they have acquired since the war; and to-day ten per cent. of the
entire colored race in the South can read and write. This ability,
on the part of the colored man, is a great step in his progress,
for it introduces a new rule of computation in the Southern
arithmetic—the old rule being, as you probably know, in Southern

    “A naught is a naught and a figger is a figger;
    Put down the naught and carry the figger.
    A naught is a naught and a figger is a figger.
    All the cotton for the white man and none for the nigger.”

What has produced these results? Mainly two things: The inherent
desire of the colored man to better his condition, thus differing
from his poor white neighbor; and the work of the American
Missionary Association. Taking up the work for which your honored
dead died, the Association planted schools and churches in the
South, and supplied these schools and churches with men and women,
who had pluck enough and backbone enough to defy Southern prejudice
and ostracism; and wherever one of these schools has been planted,
the change is marked. Lawlessness disappears, property increases in
value, and the colored people purchase homes. An ex-mayor of the
city of Atlanta, at the dedication of the Congregational Church,
said that the thrift, orderly habits and acquisition of property in
a certain portion of that city were mainly due to the school and
church of the American Missionary Association. Does the colored man
sit with folded arms, while the North, Great Britain and Africa—let
me repeat _Africa_—contribute for his civilization? I say Africa,
because, sitting in the old Midway Church, in Liberty County, Ga.,
sometime ago, I heard read, in the list of donations, “One dollar
contributed by a church in South Africa for the civilization of the
heathen in America;” and there was nothing said in that donation,
either, about the _color_ of the heathen! But are the colored
people idle? In one of the classes which graduated from the Atlanta
University not long ago, were two married women who did their own
house-work, walked more than three miles through the red mud of
Georgia to school, were punctual in attendance and graduated with
honor. In the same class was a married man who earned money to
support his family, kept up with his class in school, preached
for three country churches, helped edit a readable newspaper,
and graduated with honor. In one of the schools across the city,
an American Missionary Association school, there is a woman who
entered the night school, finished that, entered the day school,
has plodded on from class to class, to-day in the graduating class
holding a place of honor, and she has earned her living and has
purchased a home by sewing at the same time. This school has done
a great work; yet the loyal people of that city, of whom you heard
not long ago such a beautiful report on this platform, for some
reason took a great antipathy to that school, and, in order to
break it down, established another school on the next corner, a
public school. Did the A. M. A. school suspend operations? The
400 students, paying one dollar a month, increased to 600; two
new teachers were called from the Oswego training school and a
kindergarten school is soon to be annexed. But, in order that this
school on the next corner might not suspend operations, a woman who
does her own washing and ironing, cooks the meals of her husband,
and sends him off to his work early in the morning, goes to the A.
M. A. school till 2 o’clock in the afternoon, and sends two of her
children to the public school. Hundreds of such examples might be
given, even in the district schools taught by the students—examples
of work and of sacrifice upon the part of both parents and
scholars. What would you think of a man fifty years old going to
school that he might learn to read the Bible, earning his living
by bottoming chairs at night by the light of a pine-knot fire? No,
my friends, the colored man is not idle; if he were, filibustering
would not to-day be an item of business in the United States

We know the American Missionary Association in the South; we feel
toward her as a man should toward his mother. I remember that the
Association picked up from the streets of Atlanta an intimate
friend of mine, followed him through the grammar school, the
training school and college; taught him the lesson of Yankee push
and independence; started him out with a prayer for his safety;
and to-day stands with out-stretched hands bidding him God-speed
in his way onward and upward. The work has not all been done. Our
schools need to be increased ten-fold. Each school needs a training
department as an annex, for mechanical ability is to play no small
part in the progress of the colored man. Some people in the South
say, “Keep the colored man where his vote will be useful.” The
American Missionary Association has recognized him as a brother,
and says, “Give him a man’s chance.” We thank the American
Missionary Association for that; and under the inspiration of just
such treatment we mean to stay in the South and fight it out. We
are there “to the manner born.”

       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. Enoch Pratt, of Baltimore, has given $1,000,000 for a public
library in that city.

Col. C. G. Hammond has given $20,000 towards the Professorship Fund
of Chicago Seminary.

A fund of $100,000 has been received by the Perkins Institute for
the Blind—the same to be used in printing books for the blind.

Mr. J. H. Deane, of New York, offers to give $10,000 towards
$50,000 for the library of Richmond College (Baptist), provided
that $25,000 of the whole sum be raised south of Mason and Dixon’s
line, and that $25,000 be invested, and its income be used for the
replenishing of the library.

Hon. J. B. Grinnell has received a gift of $15,000 for Iowa College
from John L. Blair, of Blairsville, N.J., a prominent railroad man.

The will of the late C. D. Talcott, of Talcottville, Conn.,
bequeaths $5,000 to be expended in building a free public library
in that village.

Mr. James W. Scoville, of Chicago, in addition to his previous
generous gifts to the Chicago Theological Seminary, has just paid
over $10,000 for the endowment of the “Scoville Professorship of

_President De Forest has secured $21,000 towards the endowment of
Talladega College, Alabama. This is a good beginning. All of our
State chartered institutions need such foundations._

       *       *       *       *       *



—Rev. C. T. Wilson and Mr. C. W. Pearson, of the Nyanza Mission,
on account of impaired health are obliged to retire. Rev. G.
Litchfield is also invalided but hopes to engage again in
missionary work. Mr. Wilson’s resignation leaves Mr. Mackay the
only one now in the field of the original party of eight who went
out in 1876. Four are dead and three have retired.

—All the missionaries of the United Presbyterian Church in Egypt
got away safely, except Mr. Ewing and Dr. Watson, who remain at
their posts. Most of them are at present in England and Scotland, a
few being on the Continent. As the hot season had begun to come on,
the missionaries in Upper Egypt had generally come down and were at
Ramleh on the way for their usual vacation and rest. All those in
Cairo, Mansoura and Alexandria were at their posts and their usual
work until after the outbreak at Alexandria, on the 11th of June,
when word was shortly afterward received from one of the United
States judges in the International Court of Egypt warning them to
leave at once.

—The Belgian Government reports that Mr. Henry M. Stanley is
continuing, without relaxation, to develop his great enterprise
of establishing a line of stations from the embouchure of the
Congo River, in Africa, and carrying them as far forward as his
resources will permit. He has completed the four stations of Vivi,
Isangila, Manyenga and Stanley Pool, the first-named being below,
and the last above the rapids. These have already their dwellings,
gardens and flags. Each is under a white Governor, with three white
assistants, but the rest of the population consists of Zanzibar


—At the Indian Training and Industrial School at Carlisle have been
gathered together, during the last year, 295 Indian boys and girls
from 24 different tribes, speaking as many different languages. In
age these children range from eight years to maturity, the average
being about 15 years. From 60 to 70 of the older children give
evidence of sincere conversion to the Christian religion, and most
of those who have professed conversion give evidence, in improved
life and manners, of a change of heart. About 30 have joined the
different churches in Carlisle.

—The Pawnees say larks on the prairies sing Pawnee; that they
hear the brooding lark sing out from her nest, as the shades of
night deepen around her, “Ku-chae, kan-kee, koo-de-do—kan-kee,
koo-de-doo; Ka-chee, kan-kee, koo-de-do,” which interpreted is, “I
am not afraid; truly, I am not afraid.”

       *       *       *       *       *


LULING, Texas.—Rev. T. E. Hillson’s people have hung upon their new
church a sixty-dollar bell that is a delight to them.

BEREA, Ky.—The Berea College people have secured from the
legislature of Kentucky a law forbidding the sale of intoxicating
liquors within a radius of three miles from the College. The law
has been printed on a handbill and is now enforced. A druggist
in order to sell liquor must have a prescription of a regular
physician. It was well this law was thus early secured, for, as
Berea is to become a railway town, the need of it will be yet more

EUREKA, Kansas.—The Second Congregational Church of this place
within the first year of its existence has built a plain house of
worship at a cost of $850, and it will be ready for use at the
first of October. Rev. W. W. Weir is the pastor. The Council which
organized this church thus find that their faith in it is justified.

CEDAR CLIFF, N.C.—In May last, Rev. A. Connet assisted Rev. J. N.
Ray in organizing a church of 12 members at this place. Recently
the church received 21 new members.

MCLEANDSVILLE, N.C.—We hear of a revival now in progress in Rev. A.
Connet’s church, nine having found the Saviour, and thirteen more
being among the inquirers.

DUDLEY, N.C.—Rev. J. E. B. Jewett, of Pepperell, Mass., has
accepted an appointment to the missionary pastorate at this place.
His wife will assist him in the care of the school. Their former
experience in an academy will make them greatly useful in our work.
We have one daughter of Mr. Jewett as a teacher in Wilmington, and
one in New Orleans.

NEW ORLEANS, La.—Rev. S. N. Brown, a student of Fisk University,
who supplied the Central Church of this city very acceptably during
the vacation of Dr. Alexander, proved himself also a good night
watchman for our university premises. Hearing a burglar at work
in the main college building, he sallied out without collar or
shoe-tying and pursued the house-breaker, who soon put down the two
clocks he had taken. But the pursuer wanted more and kept up the
chase until he caught the thief. On his way to the police station
he met a policeman, who took the prisoner in charge and put him in
jail. The criminal proved to be a white man, and it is hoped that
the court will give him his dues.

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *




There is a class of colored men in the South who are laying the
foundations of a better state of things than now prevails, by
sheer industry and devotion to money-making. I found a conspicuous
illustration of this type in the person and work of a negro in one
of the old Southern States. He could not read, but had learned
within a few years, by instruction from his young wife, to write
well enough to enable him to “keep the time” of his hands by
recording it in his book of farm accounts. He had “begun without
nothin’,” he said. At the end of the war he gathered up some “lame
and sick gov’ment mules that had been turned out fuh de crows, an’
doctor’d ’em up.” Then he worked on the plantations near him, at
first by the day, but soon began to rent land and “hire hands.”
He said he “lived on nothin’, or what other folks frowed away;
but I reckon I fed my mules mighty well.” He had bought land, a
little at a time, and when I visited him owned many hundred acres
of the best land in that region. He still worked hard himself, and
exacted, most rigidly, the amount of labor which he thought his
hands ought to perform. “I don’t lay out fuh ’em to do as much
as I does, boss; but dey mus’n’t shirk.” His residence was but a
few miles from a considerable town. The year before I was there a
neighboring planter had wanted a twenty-acre wood-lot cleared off.
It was heavily timbered, and this black man offered to clear the
ground for the wood which was to be removed. This was accepted, and
he “had de choppin’ done in de wintah, when dey wusn’t no wuk, an’
han’s wus cheap.” The wood was drawn out and piled up on a vacant
lot near the road. “Nex’ summah eberybody’s out o’ wood in town;
dey allays is; dey nebber luks ahead mo’ ’an twel’ dinnah time.
Nobody hain’t no time to haul wood _den_. Eberybody’s in de cotton.
But ebery night, ahtah we done done de day’s wuk in de fiel’, den
my wagons every one takes loads o’ wood to town. De bigbugs pays
good price _den_, ’cause dey ain’t no wood fuh to be hed. So _dah_,
den [becoming animated], _hi_, boss, I sells de wood, _see_! An’ I
pays all de spences fuh cuttin’ it, an’ in de nex’ place I buys de
lan’ what de wood come off, an’ I hab suffin lef’ in de bank.” The
guttural chuckle with which he ended I am powerless to represent.
The principal citizens of the town said this story was true.

This man reared cattle, sheep, and hogs, and had better blooded
animals than any other planter near him, white or black. He was
saving all the manure that his farms yielded, and drawing more from
the town—“de profit’s on de back load.” His fences were good, and,
what is rare in the South, the fence-rows were kept clean, and free
from weeds, briars and bushes.


Many of the negroes are acquiring land, and are farming
successfully and profitably, in nearly all parts of the South,
while multitudes of others still work as “hired hands,” and save
nothing, consuming a large portion of their wages for intoxicating
drinks. The general inclination of the negroes to leave the
plantations and congregate in the towns is injuring the race
seriously, in many ways. There is not sufficient employment in the
towns for those who are already there, and great numbers become
idle, dissipated and vicious. Most of the colored people are better
adapted to farm-work than to other occupations, though many are
doing well as mechanics, blacksmiths, carpenters, bricklayers, and
plasterers. In the towns and cities nearly all the cartmen and
porters are negroes. Whatever may be the extent to which idleness
prevails among them, it is certain that the negroes perform a vast
amount of labor which is not only necessary or convenient for their
employers, but highly profitable as well. The labor of the colored
people is at present an important and, indeed, indispensable
factor in the chief wealth-producing industries of the South. If
the negroes could be brought to understand existing conditions
and tendencies in the regions which they inhabit, they might soon
greatly improve their fortunes, and secure for themselves and their
children most important advantages from opportunities which are
likely soon to pass away, never to be presented again, or at any
rate, not during the reign of the influences which are now becoming
dominant in the South.


Some of the colored preachers in most parts of the South are
ignorant, fat, lazy and licentious. Many of them use intoxicating
liquors freely. The influence of such men is of course a curse
to the colored people, and is the cause of much immorality among
the married women who are members of the “colored churches.”
But it would be most unjust to allow my readers to infer that
colored ministers generally belong to this class. Here, as in the
description of all classes of people in the South, discrimination
is necessary. The new order of things is manifesting itself in a
conflict between opposing tendencies in the negro churches, and
among their ministers. Except in the larger towns, most of the
older ministers depend on mere noise and excitement to influence
their hearers. They work themselves into incoherent fury, stamp
and yell, and appeal only to the “feelings” of their uninstructed
followers. These old men denounce “de high-flyin’ preachin’ we has
dese days.” They say “it’s all book-l’arnin’; dey ain’t no Holy
Ghos’ in it, at all. Dis new religion mighty smaht, an’ mighty
proud, but it hain’t got no _feelin’_ to it.” There is a great deal
of truth in this. The more intellectual preaching of the younger
educated men is ill suited to the tropical and impulsive nature of
the colored people. Their life is far more a matter of instinct
than of thought, and to attempt to teach religion to them by means
of appealing to their reason is to disarm religion at once of all
its potency. The preachers and missionaries who are best adapted
to the peculiar conditions and needs of the colored people are
the young men who have received an industrial education, who have
been trained to manual labor, and have learned either farming or
some mechanical art at such schools as the Normal and Agricultural
Institute at Hampton, Virginia, or the other admirable institutions
of learning fostered by the American Missionary Association and the
churches of the South. Of course, this class is still very small,
but it comprises some excellent men, whose influence is already
widely felt in the South, and is a potent factor in the soundest
and most hopeful religious work now going on there.


The foremost men in the Southern States—I mean those who are
foremost in business, and in the social and moral life and
activities of the local communities—are everywhere taking up the
subject of education for the negroes in a serious and business-like
spirit. I did not find anywhere, except in Southwestern Texas, any
manifestation of prejudice against negro education, or feeling
of jealousy regarding the advancement of the colored people in
intelligence or capability of self-elevation.

Many of the Southern people appear to me to be rather sanguine
and extravagant in their expectations regarding the results of
popular intellectual enlightenment. They talk very much as Horace
Mann and his fellow-laborers talked, when they were beginning the
intellectual revival which led to the establishment of the New
England public-school system. They will of course find, as has
been shown in the Northern States, that even after the public
schools have educated the mass of the people, other problems of a
serious nature remain.



The negroes are being educated more rapidly, in large portions
of the South, than are the people known as “poor whites,” More
interest is felt and greater efforts are made in behalf of the
negroes than for this class of white people. The negro has the
advantage of being in the world’s eye and mind. He is somewhat
picturesque, and occupies a position of historic interest. He
has powerful friends. The poor whites have no friends: there is
no picturesqueness, no historic interest, connected with their
situation. The leading white men of the Southern States, democrats,
seem to me to feel a more kindly interest in the negroes than
in this class of poor people of their own race. They know much
more about them. Greater effort is likely to be made, for a long
time to come, for the education and improvement of the negroes
than for the advancement of the poor whites; and yet the class is
not at all so degraded or so worthless as is popularly believed.
These people are _primitive_ in character, and in the conditions
and methods of their life, but they are not degraded. There is,
however, great danger that many of them will be debased under the
changed conditions of the new order of things in the South. No
other class in that portion of our country is so little understood,
or would better repay careful study. It is highly important that
the attention of thoughtful, philanthropic and patriotic men, both
North and South, should be directed to their position and probable
tendencies in relation to the new life of the country in which they
live. In blood and inherited qualities they are not, generally,
vicious or low. But they have no friends, no sympathy, either North
or South.


There is one important feature or division of the subject of
education in the Southern States which I have not yet brought
forward in these studies; that is, the question of separate or
mixed schools for the two races. The sentiment, feeling and
judgment of the Southern people are at present strongly and almost
universally opposed to the idea of educating white and black
children, or young people, in the same schools. But a change in
this matter is already in progress. After attentively studying
the subject everywhere, I am convinced that there will soon be
mixed schools, for white and colored children, in many parts of
the South. There are already a few such schools, and the effect of
considerations of convenience, cheapness and practical efficiency
are likely, I think, to cause a rapid increase in their number.
I look for a decided revolution in Southern thought and feeling
within twenty years in regard to this subject. A few of the most
intelligent and far-seeing among Southern leaders—some of the
foremost “Bourbons”—say that mixed schools are “sure to come,” and
they are not disturbed by the prospect.


The educational work already accomplished in the South by the
American Missionary Association is of a high character, and it
deserves all possible recognition and assistance. The best Southern
people everywhere spoke of it gratefully and enthusiastically. At
the Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Virginia; Talladega
College, in Alabama; Tougaloo University, Mississippi; Tillotson
Normal School, Austin, Texas; and at several other colleges and
normal schools which I saw, though the money endowments are scanty
compared with the amounts which are needed, the endowments in
personal qualities and character, as represented by the teachers,
are of a remarkably high order. This is necessary, for the work
of educating the colored people of the South requires the best
teachers that can be obtained.

In many of these institutions the boys learn something of various
trades or mechanical operations, and of farming, and the girls
are taught sewing, cooking, and the care of a house. I examined
a great number of the negro common and high schools, which are
taught by graduates and students of the colleges and normal schools
which I have named, and I think it wonderful that so many of these
negro teachers are successful. They have to struggle against many
disadvantages, but nearly all whom I saw had the confidence and
respect of the leading white citizens where they were at work.
There were a few fools among them, of course, but a great majority
appeared to be serious and sensible young men and women.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


  The space in the MISSIONARY will only admit of a few extracts
  from the remainder of this long journal. Much that is
  interesting we are obliged to omit. The time from Jan. 7th till
  Jan. 24th was busily spent in Khartoum. A small steamer was
  finally obtained, and our missionary explorers in the face of
  many discomforts and much danger pushed on up the Nile through
  the territory occupied by El Mehdi till they reached their
  objective point in Central Africa.—ED.

_Tuesday, Jan. 24th._—We fired up early. Crowds stood on the bank
to see our steamer off. We started at 10:30 A.M. The views of
Khartoum as we steamed down the Blue Nile were fine. The junction
of the Blue and White Niles is very marked. The difference in
color, and the line of demarcation are remarkable. The current as
we rounded the point was very strong, for here the whole broad Nile
is reduced to a very narrow channel, and our little steamer had
all she could do to make headway. As we got beyond this point the
river became very wide and the banks low. We were obliged to share
our “hole” with an officer, who was one of the few who escaped from
Mohammed Achmet at the time of the second slaughter. “He ran away
and lived to fight another day,” and now he acted as though he were
the hero of a hundred battles. We had a poor captain and not very
good men, but a fine, energetic pilot. At 9:15 we anchored near
the east bank in a position of comparative safety. We put up our
mosquito nets and spread insect powder with a free hand, hoping to
mitigate some of our troubles.

_Wednesday, Jan, 25th._—No sleep; too many discomforts. The “Hero”
kept up an incessant groaning. Our only hope was that he might die
before morning. Doctor threatened to shoot him, and I stood ready
to get him acquitted on the ground of justifiable homicide or of
“insanity.” Started about sunrise. The river was like a great
inland sea. There were thousands of ducks and geese. Mourgan and
the mate both managed to tumble into the hold to-day. It was a
wonder that they did not break their necks. The mate had to come
under the doctor’s care. About sundown we stopped for wood. We
went ashore in a boat as far as it could go, and were then carried
to dry land. While on shore the mate was taken very ill with the
fever, and lay on the ground in a most miserable condition. We got
him on board, and the doctor took him in charge. The cockroaches
are eating up everything, books and papers, etc. The water has come
in at the port-holes, although we have stuffed them as well as
possible, and has made the bedding damp. It is several inches deep
under the floor, and have to look out and not step through a loose
board into it. The mosquitoes may succeed in eating us up if they
keep on. It appears to be only a question of time. Therm., S. R.,
62°; M., 87°; S. S., 71°.

_Thursday, Jan. 26th._—No sleep! The groans of the “Hero” and the
bumping of the tiller, both “beyond control,” were too much for
us. We left at 11 A.M. There were crocodiles in vast numbers along
here and ducks by the thousands. From the steamer deck we shot
great numbers. Finally the men got tired going after them. But what
a feast they had. We also caught several large fish, but none of
them are fit to eat taken in this water. Anchored for the night at
Dooaim, a large town, evidently doing a good business, judging from
the number of ships and boats that are here.

_Friday, Jan. 27th._—Started at about 6 A.M. Had a good view of the
town as we steamed slowly out. Arrived at Kowa at 10:30 A.M. This
place was for some time the southern limit of the Soudan provinces.
It is a very large town, and is now the southern terminus of the
telegraph line. There is a low island opposite, but the town itself
stands up high and dry on the desert. Here again we were invited
to see a “fantasia,” but declined with thanks.

My face is still peeling from the effects of the Korosko Desert.

  On the way to Fashoda the travelers passed the island of Abbas,
  where Mohammed Achmet, the “False Prophet,” first distinguished
  himself, saw his village and the spot where the first slaughter
  occurred. They stopped at various other places of interest on
  the way, and had a variety of experiences. They studied the
  towns and the people in passing, and although generally well
  received, they had some difficulty to get wood, on account of
  the hostility of the Shillooks. They became acquainted with the
  African fever among the swamps, and were only too glad to reach

_Friday, Feb. 3d._—The steamer stopped, before we awoke this
morning, for wood, as it will be impossible to get it at Fashoda
on account of the hostile Shillooks. Started at noon with a small
supply. Arrived at Fashoda, within the territory designated by Mr.
Arthington, at 2:30 P.M. Saw naked natives fishing along the bank.
There are three villages with conical straw roofs to the north of
Fashoda, but near it, which first came in sight. The “Dragomen”
reside in these. We have a plan of Fashoda, which will give a
better idea of it than any verbal picture. We shall also take some
photographs of it to illustrate a more detailed account in the
report. For this country the place is well fortified. We could not
anchor off the main land, as the water was too low, but tied up
to an island opposite the town. The other steamer and a few boats
were lying here. Several Dinka villages were just visible with the
glass on the east shore. On our arrival an officer came on board to
search for slaves! He proposed to examine our boxes. But we told
him there was no custom house here. He might look for slaves, but
he could not examine any of our baggage. He found it was no use,
and went off. What a farce this suppression of the slave trade is!
Men will live in Fashoda, and draw good salaries to suppress the
slave trade. When a steamer comes in, like ours, from Khartoum,
they will come on board and look for slaves! While right back of
them is a regular caravan route, over which thousands are carried
every year, and they go on their way, and no questions are asked!
It _looks well_ to have an officer in uniform examine government
steamers, and make a show of great things! We sent our letters
and orders up to the Governor pro tem., but he and his aid were
already on their way to call on us. We found them very pleasant and

_Saturday, Feb. 4th._—There was much noise and loud talking and
confusion in unloading the steamer. This would have been a good
steamer for Mohammed Achmet to have captured, as we brought down
20,000 Turkish dollars, besides powder, cloth and soap. Took
several views of Fashoda as seen from the deck of the steamer. The
Governor sent us a present of two sheep, a quantity of chickens,
and a couple of baskets of vegetables. We noticed here for the
first time a species of crow with a white breast. The Dinkas on the
east shore are said to be quiet and friendly. Fashoda is considered
by everybody to be one of the most unhealthy spots on the White
Nile. * * The town is surrounded with a thorn _zeriba_, and is
built up, outside of the fort and the officers’ quarters, of round
cane huts smeared with mud and thatched. The Shillooks, who come
from the neighboring villages to trade and visit, are tall and well
built. The faces of the men and women are much alike, as the men
carefully pull out all the beard they have. The women generally
wear the skin of some animal loosely suspended from the left
shoulder. The men, when they come to town, wear a piece of cotton
cloth thrown over one shoulder and wound around them. I called a
few moments on the friendly and generous Governor. He walked with
me to the boat, while the soldiers presented arms and the band
played “All confusion worse confounded,” which is their national
air. It sounds best at a distance, say of five miles or more. The
Governor does everything he can for us. He has even sent us some
wood from the scant government stores. Witnessed a most brutal
flogging from the deck of the steamer. Such an outrage would not
be possible anywhere but here. I stood it as long as I could and
then was about to interfere, when some of the men standing around
drew off the man. There are great numbers of hippopotami around
here; we hear them all about us toward night; I counted fourteen
that I could see at one time. The Governor proposed to send a guard
of soldiers with us to the Sobat, but we finally concluded that we
would rather rely upon our own arms than have any such guard as he
could furnish.

_Monday, Feb. 6th._—Started about 4 A.M. Stopped for wood on the
west side; went ashore and looked about. The Captain will not
go on shore, nor allow us to do so, without being well armed.
Some Shillooks came down to the shore apparently to barter. We
were warned to be on our guard. They were absolutely naked, and
a wild looking set. We were off as soon as we got wood enough.
Passed a small island, one end of which was literally covered
with crocodiles. There is almost a continuous stretch of Shillook
villages on both banks along here. The men are all naked. The
language strikes one as very peculiar. There are a number of palm
trees in this vicinity with a bulge or swelling in the middle of
the stem. Passed several villages of considerable size. Saw the
village called O-Gawdie, where the late King of the Shillooks, who
was killed by Mohammed Achmet, resided. The natives in many places
are burning the grass and getting ready to plant their farms. We
notice also various methods of fishing, which for a wonder seem to
be quite successful. Some large flies came on board along here,
and we found that they could bite. At 7:30 we cast anchor in the
Sobat, at a point some distance above its mouth, and opposite
the deserted military station. We chose the middle of the stream
as a matter of safety, for although there are but a handful of
people living near here, yet they will swarm from the White Nile,
and other parts, at very short notice. Relays of three men each
were placed on watch all night. Now that the military station is
abandoned the country about here is not considered at all safe. But
here we are in the Sobat at last! After all our hopes and fears,
after all our journeyings over sea and land, up the old Nile and
across the burning sands of the Desert, here we are at last! We
are twenty-five hundred miles up the Nile. We are more than eight
thousand miles from home. We are in Central Africa.

  Dr. Ladd and his party went up the Sobat as far as was
  practicable, and took a number of photographs of the country
  and the people. They also went beyond the Sobat junction of the
  White Nile. Having successfully accomplished their mission,
  they were obliged to return as speedily as possible on account
  of the increasing dangers that surrounded them. They stopped at
  “Tawfikeeyeh,” where Sir Samuel Baker had his camp, and at the
  towns of Melacan and Waw, and took many interesting photographs
  of all these places. They also visited with a guard among the
  Shillook villages in the vicinity of Fashoda.

We rode around Fashoda outside of the zeriba of thorn bushes, which
had been put up as a protection to the place, and then we struck
across the plain to the village of Hegag. Here we had a pleasant
interview with the natives, and saw a man who had received a bad
bullet wound in the last fight with Mohammed Achmet. I took a
photograph of this village and of the chief’s family. After we had
had quite a chat with these people we again mounted, and, taking a
good road back, we let our horses out on a full run, to see what
an Arab horse could do. All the horses seemed to enjoy it, and
certainly we did, after the cramped life we had been leading on
board of the steamer. As we approached Fashoda the mounted guard,
now always on the alert and fearing an attack from Mohammed Achmet
at any time, spied us coming at full speed, and thinking something
might be wrong, rode out to meet us. There is a constant fear that
at any moment the place may be attacked, and a most vigilant
watch is kept. We rode around the town, took a photograph of the
market place and then returned to our lodgings on the steamer.
Here we were waited upon by a number of men who had all sorts of
favors to ask. One was a convict and wanted help; another wished
us to present some petitions for him at Khartoum. Toward evening
we called upon the Governor at his private house; had a pleasant
visit, and obtained much valuable information about the natives
and the country. On our return I took a photograph of some native
women cooking durra. By a careful calculation from latitude and
declination, I find that the time of sunrise this morning was 6:10
and the time of sunset was 5:50. In this way only are we able to
regulate our watches. * * *

Speaking of Kaka, Dr. Ladd says:

The small garrison of 50 men is practically in a state of siege.
They can get no supplies, and are actually afraid to go more than
a few steps beyond their zeriba. Kaka is thus threatened both by
the Shillooks and the followers of Mohammed Achmet, and there is
much fear expressed on all sides. This whole section of country is
considered very dangerous and unsafe. We are repeatedly told: “It
is well that you are armed; don’t go on shore without your arms.”
There certainly seem to be perilous times ahead, for things are
constantly getting worse, and the government has delayed to act
until action means war. There is a young Greek merchant on board
with whom I have been brushing up my Greek. He is from Fashoda and
expected to stop here, but is frightened out of it, and says he
shall go on to Khershawal, which is on the other side of the river,
and a place of less danger. He says, and others agree with him,
that there are spies everywhere who keep the rebels posted as to
every movement. One man is now in irons at Fashoda who was found
with a letter on his person directed to Mohammed Achmet, telling
him the condition of the forces at Fashoda and urging him to come
on at once and take the place. Threats have been made that if the
government does not send on an army at once the rebels will take
Fashoda within 20 days.

       *       *       *       *       *

The town of Kaka is built of mud-smeared straw huts, surrounded
with a zeriba. The fort is built of mud, boasts one cannon, and
is surrounded by a dry moat. One of the officers presented Doctor
with a young red-crested crane. After we had sufficiently examined
the fort and town we took the photograph of a Dinka woman whose
person was a marvel of bas-relief work, and also a general view of
the town. We were presented through the “Yousbashi” with a couple
of baskets of a seed called “sutcheb,” and were assured that it is
a sure cure for dysentery. Saw one soldier who ought to have been
shot on the spot for insubordination. The Governor ordered him
to accompany the durra to the town as a guard, and he flatly and
most emphatically refused to budge. The Governor tried to reason
with him and urge him, but he grew more and more obstreperous,
till finally, the governor slapped him in the face, and, after a
tussle, took his gun away from him. The Governor tried to have
some one arrest him, but no one would do it, and finally the man
got his gun back, and did as he pleased. What discipline can there
be in an army where such things are possible? Very soon there was
another fight, and this time on the steamer. We were about to put
off. Doctor and I were standing on the bridge. A soldier rushed on
board claiming an “angarib,” or native bed, which did not belong
to him; but he was bound to come on board and take it by force.
The Captain ordered him on shore. He refused to go. The Captain
undertook, with the help of his sailors, to put him off the boat,
and there was a fight at once. Other soldiers rushed in to help
their comrade, and it looked for a few minutes as though the crew
might be overpowered. Instinctively our hands found their way to
our revolvers, and we stood ready to defend the Captain if it
should become necessary. After a pretty general fight, the soldiers
were obliged to retreat. The plank was drawn in, and to settle all
questions of ownership, the “angarib” was broken up and thrown

_Tuesday, Feb. 14th._—We were up early this morning, and started
out to see the country and hunt a little before breakfast while
the men were cutting wood for the steamer. We borrowed a rifle
from one of the soldiers, so that we had two rifles and a shot
gun in the party. We were warned, as we went on shore, of a lion
that was lurking about in the bushes, but we wanted nothing better
than to see a lion. We struck straight back into the country for
some distance without seeing anything. After a time I got after
some guinea hens with the shot gun, leaving the rest of the party
with the rifles in the rear. I was creeping carefully along to
get within range when I suddenly came upon two large deer, with
horns over a yard long. They were close to me, and I ran a bullet
into the shot gun, but decided that it would be better to drive
them toward the rifles than to try them with only a shot gun.
They stopped once and looked at me, and then bounded away in the
direction of the rest of the party. Doctor fired as they passed,
but the grass just there was tall, and he missed. We were about
to follow them up, and get them, if possible, without giving them
our wind, when our suspicious were aroused by something moving in
the high grass and bushes. We watched closely, and soon made out a
crowd of men with spears crouching down when we observed them, and
darting from bush to bush, and circling around in such a way as to
surround us. They had horses, and were easily identified as Baggara
Arabs, probably belonging to Mohammed Achmet’s party. We thought it
best to retreat while we could do so in good order. We reached the
river, and reported the state of affairs to the Captain. Ibrahim
and the Mate also soon came in, reporting that they were Mohammed
Achmet’s people, that they were in great numbers, and that they
were still advancing, and spreading out so as to surround us. The
Captain gave the order to fire up at once, and ordered the men on
board as soon as possible. The Doctor and I started to reconnoiter,
but the Captain would not allow it, saying that we would find
ourselves in an ambush, and that it would do no good. We did not
want to be obliged to kill anybody to get away, or to fight unless
it became necessary, so we obeyed him, and went on board. The ropes
were cast off, and we turned on “full speed” down stream. We were
glad enough to get safely away. We passed a large island, which is
not properly named on the maps. In fact, there is not a single map
or book upon the Nile, or any extended portion of the Nile, that
is at all satisfactory. One would suppose that Gordon’s map of the
White Nile would at least approximate to accuracy. On the contrary,
it is full of the grossest and most amusing blunders. * * * Our
steersman is very ill with the fever to-day, and just about used
up. We have been obliged to take to eating _durra_, for our bread,
as well as most of our other provision, has given out. Saw two
large herds of buffaloes on the west bank. One herd numbered over a
hundred head, young and old. We had a good long look at them before
they sniffed the air and tossed their heads and plunged off into
the jungle. In the evening, Turk and Greek gathered around us, and
told us some marvelous stories of witches. Ibraham swallowed it all
as the sober truth, while we laughed at his credulity. We stopped
to spend the night and get wood on the east side, just beyond or
north of Waldochone Island. There is said to be good hunting here,
and we are preparing to enjoy the sport while the men are getting
the wood in the morning. This is the only variety our life affords,
and helps to keep us in good spirits. Temperature: 6, 61°; 11, 77°;
5:50, 83°.

_Wednesday, Feb. 15th._—We were up bright and early, and started
back into the country over a magnificent hunting ground. We started
up a hare, and were after him, when two large lions sprang out from
behind a bush, and ran across our path, tails up, making for the
jungle. They were immense fellows, and the men who were with us
were frightened and lagged behind, while Doctor and I chased them
up and tried to head them off. It was an exciting chase, and made
the blood tingle in our veins, but the brush became so dense that
they finally got away from us. It was an experience in African life
that we shall not soon forget. * * *

About four o’clock we saw some 300 Arabs with their horses, cattle
and spears. They were on their way, so the Captain and all on
board said, to join Mohammed Achmet. Certainly serious times are
brewing. What will the end be? Saw a number of Dinkas on the east
bank; saw a dozen huge hippopotami sunning themselves. Ran aground,
but were soon off again. It is a wonder we don’t run down some
hippopotami, for they are very thick in the water about here.
Arrived at Khershawal at 6:30 P.M. The pilot was so intent on
looking for sand-banks that he did not see the town and the people
waiting on the shore, till after we had passed it and them. I was
looking at the place through my glass, and the engineer asked me
if I did not see Khershawal. Of course I did, and we turned back,
while the whole crowd had a good laugh at the pilot. Here there is
a garrison, at present consisting of only 30 men. The Governor,
a fine looking man, came on board. He said the Arabs we saw had
passed here, giving as an excuse that they were going hunting,
but that it was very well understood where they were going. It is
said that great numbers of the Baggara Arabs are constantly going
over to Mohammed Achmet, and that at present his forces number
10,000 men. The Greek merchant is afraid to go back to Fashoda as
he intended, after selling his goods. Doctor has been threatened
with another chill, but happily it has been averted. The nearest
village of the Dinkas, who inhabit this side of the river, is six
hours distant. The chief of the tribe lives there. His assistant
lives here in Khershawal. Temperature, 6:10, 64°; 4, 87°; 9:40, 74°.

_Thursday, Feb. 16th._—Went on shore, and visited the town. The
soil is gravel, sand and loam, and the town stands up high and dry
from the river. The shore is covered with a beautiful white sand,
underneath which is a layer of excellent clay for bricks. The town
is built of straw huts, and is surrounded with a zeriba. We called
at the Governor’s, and were treated to sherbet and coffee. We then
walked about the town, and I took a photograph of the Assistant
Chief of the Dinkas, and one of a Dinka woman, and then took an
inside view of the town and another general view from the outside
of the zeriba. This place must be comparatively healthy. We were
presented with a sheep by the Governor as we were about to start.
We left at 9:45 A.M. Doctor and I were sitting on the bridge seeing
what we could see, when I discovered a huge snake in the water
swimming slowly and trying to cross the river. I rushed for the
shot-gun, and although we had almost got beyond range, gave him
both barrels with good effect. I jumped into the small boat with
a number of men; the steamer put about and we went after that
snake. As we neared him, however, he began to show signs of life,
and Doctor, fearing he might get away, fired two shots at him with
the rifle from the bridge. The second ball struck, but glanced,
leaving not the slightest trace of a mark, but stunned him so that
he turned over on his back. We picked him up and found that we had
got hold of a boa-constrictor. As soon as he was landed in the
boat he came to again, and made it lively for us. His strength was
something remarkable. He ran his head a little way under a board,
and six men pulling with all their might and main could not get
him out. He came out when he got ready, but then we had a rope
around him, and hauled him on deck. There was a scattering of the
crowd then. We choked him to death, cut his teeth out, and put him
away. He came to life again, and broke one of the supports of the
water-jar. Then Ibrahim stood on that snake’s head till he was
dead. We hung him up. He came to life again, and nearly got away.
Then we beat him on the head with a club till he was “as dead as a
door nail.” He came to life again! No use! We determined to conquer
him this time, and proceeded to skin him. This was too much for
him, and he concluded to remain dead. He measured 9 ft. 6 in. in
length, and 11¾ in. around. I have preserved the skin, and hope
to have it stuffed. The sailors will eat the flesh. We anchored for
the night, and to get wood, about 4 miles north of Gebel Ain, on
the east side. Temperature, 7, 62°; 12, 84°; 7:30, 80°.

_Friday, Feb. 17th._—The thumping of the rudder kept us awake
nearly all night. We went on shore not expecting to be gone long,
but the men said they had seen a lion, and that started us off,
and we soon got on the trail. Doctor and I were separated in the
thick brush. He followed one trail and I another. Ibrahim was with
me; a good sailor with him. I soon came upon three large deer. I
had only a shot gun, but dropped a bullet in, and was just raising
the gun when Ibrahim, in what I call his woman’s clothes, came
marching up, and asked what I saw. Of course I saw no deer then.
It was a splendid hunting ground. There were fresh tracks of lions
and buffaloes and deer, etc., all around us. But it was time to
return to the steamer. We had turned and gone only a little way,
when, all of a sudden, two mounted Baggara Arabs, with their long
spears leveled, sprang from the bushes and stood in the pathway
between us and the steamer. The truth flashed upon us. We were
waylaid by followers of El Mehdi, who would not hesitate to kill
us if they could. Ibrahim began to mutter his prayers and repeat
passages from the Koran. The two men stood their horses before us,
directly in our pathway, and eyed us from head to foot. My gun was
ready, my finger on the trigger, and they saw that the first step
forward meant death to one if not both of them. We walked steadily
forward and towards them. Ibrahim was so frightened that I could
hardly make him understand anything I said. Finally, I spoke so
sternly that he recovered his senses, and kept close to my side,
as I ordered him to do. As we approached the Arabs they turned
their horses and walked them ahead of us, consulting what they had
better do. Then they moved around us in a circle, and followed us
up in the rear. Finally, they called to us, and we turned and faced
them. They had evidently concluded that our guns were too many
for them; but they tried to get us to go back into the country,
telling us that our friends wanted to see us. But we were not to be
fooled so easily, and kept steadily on till we reached the steamer.
We thought, at first, that possibly the Doctor was in trouble,
and did want to see us, but we found, on his return, that he had
not seen them, and knew nothing about them. It was a ruse to get
us into a trap. All agreed that, if we had not been armed as we
were, they would have killed us in a minute. The Doctor had had
his adventures, too. He had seen three lions, and wounded one and
chased him nearly to Gebel Ain. He had met a party of Shillooks,
and found them friendly, after marching up to them and shaking them
by the hand. This region is full of game of all sorts. I killed
some pigeons for dinner, and then we all went on board. We started
at 11:20, and reached the broad part of the river, known as Aboo
Zeid, which Gordon has put down on his map as _a town_, at 3:30. We
anchored near the island of Abbas, about two hours from the former
village of Mohammed Achmet. Along here we saw hundreds of cords of
ambatch in rafts. But this spot did not please the Captain; so we
turned and tied up finally at the upper end of the island of Abbas,
near the town of Gos Aboo Goumaah. * * *

_Wednesday, Feb. 22d._—We tried to start this morning at 4 A.M.,
but found that one of the boats in tow was aground. This delayed us
until 6 o’clock, when we were off. The men were at work during the
night cutting wood, and we have a fair supply. Saw the encampment
of a slave caravan on the west bank, a little north of Gebel Owlee.
The suppression of the slave trade is a farce from beginning to
end. The first sight of Khartoum was a welcome one. It seemed
almost like getting home. How grand its mud houses looked too,
after the straw huts to which our eyes had become accustomed. There
is quite a fall in the White Nile just above its confluence with
the Blue. Looking across the low island which divides the main
stream of the White Nile, a narrow rushing river, from the Blue
Nile, the latter appears about six feet lower. We soon rounded the
point of the island, and were once again in the clear blue water
of the branch river. At 5:30 we tied up at Khartoum. The White
Nile voyage was safely ended. As soon as we were fairly at land,
Marcopoli Bey came on board and greeted us. And soon our Syrian
friends, who were the last to see us off, came to welcome us back.
We were among our friends again. We now heard the news for the
first time that Raouf Pasha had been deposed, that there was a new
order of government for the Soudan, and a new ministry, and mixed
up state of affairs in Cairo, with Arabi “Pasha” at the top of the
heap. The only thing that can be predicted with any certainty is
that there will be a general muss, and probably an Anglo-French
intervention. In the Soudan there can be no peace till Mohammed
Achmet is taken. Giegler Pasha is preparing an army, such as it is,
of about 3,500 men, to march against him, but the result is very
doubtful. It is reported that there is considerable fever in town.
One of our visitors had it upon him while he was calling on us,
and there is a lady at his house, who it is feared is dying with
it. We sent Ibrahim to see if our rooms were ready for us at the
consul’s. He came back to say that they were, and brought Mougades,
the “bookman,” with him. He seemed rejoiced to see us again. He was
expecting to start by a _merkeb_ for Berber tomorrow, but will wait
now, and go with us. We marched up to the consul’s in the evening,
and felt quite at home when we got back into our rooms. A pile of
letters was awaiting us, and what a feast we had after hungering
and thirsting so long for news from home. Our hearts are indeed
full of thanksgiving to the kind Providence who has watched over
our dear ones, and has brought us thus far on our way in safety.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *




It is now four years and more since I wrote (for the MISSIONARY
of Sept. 1878), an article under this title, “China for Christ.”
I said that this was the motto of our mission—inscribed, indeed,
as the legend on our corporate seal—because one chief source of
our enthusiasm in our mission work in California, is that we hope
by means of it to help dissipate the darkness of the great empire
across the sea. The object of that article was to invite our
American Missionary Association to undertake a mission having its
headquarters at Hong Kong, but reaching out especially into those
districts of the province of Kwang Tung, from which our Chinese
came. It would be extravagant to hope that that appeal might be
fresh in the memory of many of the readers of our magazine. But
the matter of which it treats has never been absent for a day
from the thoughts and prayers of the more earnest and advanced of
our Chinese brethren. Nothing has sufficed to discourage their
prayers. Repeatedly we have been made to understand that the
Association could not undertake this work in addition to its other
tasks, but the brethren prayed on. I thought that I had said all
that I could say, and done all that I could do, to bring to pass
what seemed to me so pressingly important, and had become almost
silent, waiting, I trust, on the Lord. But the prayers and the
faith of these brethren would not let me be still. They seemed deaf
to the negatives I brought them. “What are you going to do with
this money?” I said to one of them, referring to a sum of several
hundred dollars which the Congregational Association of Christian
Chinese has gathered and placed at interest. “We are keeping it
till the Hong Kong mission is established,” was the prompt reply.
Year after year they have counseled, prayed and waited, and, it
seems, have waited not in vain.

Through the influence of individuals belonging to the Executive
Committee of the A. M. A., and with the cordial and joyful
God-speed of the Committee as a whole, the American Board has
determined to listen to this appeal, and—to use the apt expression
of Dr. Alden in his letter to me—“to accept this sacred trust.”
Our readers may be assured that no time was lost in sending the
good news to the brethren. At their assembly at our Central Mission
House that evening there was glad thanksgiving, and with it fresh
and fervent prayer. To receive what one has long been craving,
sometimes almost makes one tremble. Our mission, as a “sacred
trust,” seems doubly sacred to me, now. Its possibilities are
magnified beyond computation, and the mistakes into which we shall
certainly fall, unless we are guided by a wisdom better than our
own, look fraught with such loss, such disaster, that I shrink from
the responsibility which I knew all along the answer to our prayers
would certainly involve. Let all our friends pray for us with new
faith and new ardor, that from among the Chinese in California a
genuine Salvation Army may be gathered—Bible readers, colporteurs,
pastors, teachers, evangelists—that, under the direction of some
wise and warm-hearted American missionary, residing at Hong Kong,
may advance to the conquest of China for Christ.


On the 4th day of this month of August, the new law against Chinese
immigration went into effect. The hardships and inconveniences it
involves, already—in some minor instances—begin to appear. But the
main effect has been to stimulate immigration to such an extent
that the Chinese population of our Pacific slope is at least 33
per cent. larger to-day that it was seven months ago. The arrivals
during the six months ending July 31 were 25,733; the departures,
3,627; the gain, 22,106. This increase will diffuse itself to some
extent over the entire country—not all of it remaining on this side
the continent—but almost all of it staying in America, a permanent
addition to our Chinese element. More and more will the privilege
of returning be prized by those who go back to their native land
for with a temporary stoppage of the immigration there will come
a relative diminution of the supply, and a consequent increase in
the compensation of Chinese labor. Let no one imagine then that
the passage of this law is likely to bring to a speedy close our
missionary opportunity. Thus far it has greatly increased our work,
and never before did we look over the rapidly approaching line
between the old year and the new and see such hopeful indications
as we see to-day. Let me give a few figures from the statistics
for July; New pupils, 230; total number enrolled, 971; average
attendance, 467. Total number enrolled as pupils in our schools
during eleven months of this fiscal year, 2,373. These numbers are
greater by almost 35 per cent. than those of the corresponding
month of last year, and those of that month were greater, I
believe, than any ever before recorded. The gain will not be so
great in the future, but it will not cease because for a time the
immigration ceases. Nothing can stop it but a stoppage of supplies.
And of that—thank God that I may speak so confidently by faith in
Him and in his people—of _that_ I have no fear.



The last communion season in Bethany Church occurred August 6th.
It was one of the few such seasons in which we have received
no Chinese to membership. But when from two Christian Chinese
families four children were presented for baptism, I felt with
fresh joy and power that God’s seal of blessing was manifest upon
our mission work. Two of the children were boys, sons of Jee Gam,
our veteran helper, who made so many friends while on a visit
eastward two years since. The other two were daughters of Chung
Mon, one of the first group of Chinese whom it was my privilege
to baptize—a staunch and steadfast believer, long president of
our Christian Association. His wife is a faithful Christian, a
member of the Methodist Church, and if you go into his home you
will see, in the tenderness and affection with which the Christian
father fondles his daughters, what Christ-life in a Chinese heart
has done for budding womanhood. Sons could not have been welcomed
more heartily or cared for more lovingly. Nothing there of that
sentiment prevalent in all heathendom, illustrated in the story
of “China Mary,” in our August MISSIONARY, that the birth of a
daughter is a token of the anger of the gods. The wife of Jee Gam
has been in California only about a year, the older son having
been born in China. She does not yet call herself a Christian, but
hopes to become one, she says—when she can learn a little more. Our
brother looks on his two boys and tells the longing of his heart,
by saying, “I hope they may both become missionaries in my native

But I am already encroaching on space that belongs to some other
department of the one great work, and I will bid my eager pencil

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


ATLANTA, Ga., June 16th, 1882.}

Doctor Pike have told President Ware that your are collection some
money for me. I am very glad to hear this. I am very thankful
toward you for your kindness toward me. I was the little boy who
came from Africa about four years ago this month. I was brought by
sea captain. I am very glad indeed to sit down and write to you
all. Our school closed last Friday. I like the school very much,
and I also have good many friends in Atlanta University. I hope
that the Lord will save my life, and helping me to get my learning,
that I may return back to my people, telling them about Jesus
Christ, who have died for all peoples. Mark, 16, 15: And He said
unto them, go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every
creature. May the Lord bless you and help you to do more for the

                                               PHILIP G. PAGE.



    “Dear me!” said Mrs. Strawberry Jam,
      A-growing very red,
    “What a most unfortunate creature I am;
      I can scarce hold up my head.
    To think that I should live to see
    An insult offered, like this, to me!
    That I should be placed on the very same shelf
    (Oh dear! I hardly know myself)
    By the side of that odious Blackberry Jam—
    That vulgar, common, Blackberry Jam!”

    So she fumed and fretted, hour by hour,
      Growing less and less contented,
    Till her temper became so thoroughly sour
      That she at last fermented.
    While Mr. Blackberry Jam kept still,
      And let her have her say—
    Kept a quiet heart, as blackberries will,
      And grew sweeter every day.

    One morn there stopped at Dame Smither’s fence
    The parson—to say that he might,
    By the kind permission of Providence,
      Take tea with her that night.
    And the good old lady, blessing her lot,
    Hastened to open her strawberry pot.
    “Oh, what a horrible mess! Dear—dear!
      Not a berry fit to eat is here.
    After all,” putting it down with a slam.
    “Nothing will keep like good Blackberry Jam,
      Honest, reliable, Blackberry Jam.”

    Mrs. Strawberry J. went into the pail;
      Oh my—what a dire disgrace!
    And the pig ate her up, with a twitch of his tail
      And a troubled expression of face.
    While Blackberry J., in a lovely glass dish,
      Sat along with the bread and honey,
    And thought, while happy as heart could wish,
      “Well, things turn out very funny!”

                                       —_The Century._

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

  MAINE, $181.39.

    Dennysville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           $9.00
    Gorham. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                25.28
    Gorham. T. P. Irish, _for Needmore S. S._, 5;
      Mrs. Caroline F. Smith, 5, _for Talladega C._           10.00
    Limington. Arzella Boothby, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    Machias. Centre St. Sab. Sch., 5; Miss U. M.
      Penniman, 5                                             10.00
    Portland. Rev. John O. Holbrook                            5.00
    South Waterford. Giles Shurtliff                           2.00
    Waterford. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              5.31


    Vassalborough. Estate of Mary B. Buxton, by
      Samuel Titcomb, Exr.                                   109.80

  NEW HAMPSHIRE, $441.57.

    Acworth. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                8.00
    Bedford. Mrs. S. P. D.                                     1.00
    Centre Harbor. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         13.00
    Chester. C. S. G.                                          1.00
    Concord. A. J. H., Mrs. A. S. and Mrs. I. N. A.            2.00
    Exeter. Second Cong. Sab. Sch., 22; “Friends,”
      8, _for Student Aid, Talladega C._                      30.00
    Goffstown. Cong. Ch. and Soc. (10 of which
      _for John Brown Steamer_)                               45.60
    Hinsdale. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              11.96
    Hollis. Cong. Ch.                                          8.54
    Keene. Second Cong. Sab. Sch.                             25.00
    Littleton. Cong. Ch.                                      14.25
    Monroe. Cong Ch. and Soc.                                  4.51
    New Ipswich. Cong. Ch. (1 _of which for John
      Brown Steamer_), 12.53; A. N. T., 1                     13.53
    Pembroke. Cong. Ch.                                       25.50
    Peterborough. Rev. Geo. Dustan, Bbl. of C, and
      2 _for freight, for Tougaloo U._                         2.00
    Plainfield. Mrs. Hannah Stevens, _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                           8.00
    Portsmouth. North Cong. Ch. and Soc. (5 _of
      which for Indian work at Hampton_)                     159.98
    Tilton. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                   10.00
    Wakefield. Rev. N. Barker, 2; Mrs. M. J. B., 1             3.00
    Westmoreland. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          11.00
    Winchester. Cong. Ch., 34.51; Sab. Sch., 9.19,
      _for S. S. work_                                        43.70

  VERMONT, $383.43.

    Berlin. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                17.30
    Brattleborough. Dea. Joseph Wilder, 10; G. H.
      Clapp, 5; H. Hadley, 5; Mrs. B. A. Clark, 2,
      _for Talladega C._                                      22.00
    Burlington. Winooski Av. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for
      Lady Missionary at Topeka_                              44.15
    Chester. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               25.33
    Hinesburgh. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             7.75
    Jamaica. Cong. Ch. and Soc., ad’l                          1.00
    Johnson. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               10.00
    Londonderry. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                            6.00
    Ludlow. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 14; Sab. Sch., 4.40           18.40
    Ludlow. Mrs. L. H. Coffin                                  2.00
    Middlebury. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                            29.97
    North Craftsbury. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                       6.00
    St. Johnsbury. No. Church, _for Parsonage_                25.00
    Sheldon. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                  20.00
    Springfield. Mrs. Frederick Parks                        100.00
    Swanton. Cong. Ch.                                        26.72
    Tyson Furnace. By L. G.                                    0.65
    West Enosburgh. Henry Fassett                              5.00
    Woodstock. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             16.16

  MASSACHUSETTS, $2,576.96.

    Amesbury. Elijah P. Elliott                                2.00
    Amesbury and Salisbury. Union Ch.                          4.00
    Amherst. First Cong. Ch.                                  50.00
    Amherst. Miss Mary H. Scott, _for Student Aid,
      Tougaloo U._                                             7.00
    Amherst. Mrs. T. F. Huntington, _for Atlanta
      U._                                                      2.00
    Ashby. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                  7.01
    Boston. S. D. Smith, Organs                              700.00
    Boston. Woman’s Home Missionary Ass’n., _for
      Lady Missionaries_                                     165.77
    Bradford. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        46.00
    Brookfield. Evang. Cong. Ch.                             100.00
    Buckland. Cong. Ch.                                       17.52
    Cambridge. North Ave. Ch. and Soc.                       302.00
    Chelsea. Third Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         28.66
    Chelsea. Union Home Mission Band, _for Lady
      Missionary, Chattanooga, Tenn._                         25.00
    Chesterfield. Cong. Ch.                                    5.50
    Coleraine. Cong. Ch.                                      12.00
    Conway. Cong. Ch.                                         28.55
    Curtisville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           13.00
    Danvers. First Cong. Ch. and Soc., to const.
      MARY U. TAPLEY and WM. H. KIMBALL, L. Ms.               90.00
    Deerfield. Miss C. E. Williams, _for Atlanta
      U._                                                      2.00
    Easton. Evan. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          12.00
    Falmouth. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        46.00
    Greenfield. Second Cong. Ch., 188.48; First
      Cong. Ch., 10                                          198.48
    Greenwich. Rev. E. P. Blodgett, 2.; Mrs. S. G.
      C., 1; Miss A. E. B., 1.; Miss M. E. B.,
      50c., _for Atlanta U._                                   4.50
    Hadley. E. Porter                                         10.00
    Housatonic. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                10.00
    Ipswich. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         27.31
    Marshfield. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                      84.02
    Mattapoisett. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          10.10
    Medford. “A Friend”                                        1.00
    Middlefield. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           16.00
    Natick. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          30.00
    Newton Centre. C. L. H.                                    1.00
    Northampton. First Cong. Ch., _for Student
      Aid, Atlanta U._                                        25.00
    North Somerville. “A Friend”                               1.00
    Oxford. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          33.73
    Palmer. Mrs. E. G. Learned, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 2.00
    Randolph. Miss Abbie W. Turner                            10.00
    Salem. J. P. A.                                            1.00
    Sandwich. Mrs. W. F.                                       1.00
    Shelburne. First Cong. Soc.                               50.72
    Southbridge. Mrs. M. F. Leonard, 5; Miss
      Leonard, 3; E. S. Swift, 3; “Friends,” 2.75,
      _for Talladega C._                                      13.75
    South Egremont. Cong. Ch.                                 25.00
    Stoneham. “A Friend”                                       1.00
    Sturbridge. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                            50.00
    Taunton. Trinity Cong. Ch. and Soc., to const.
      WOODWARD, L. Ms.                                       175.00
    Upton. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                25.00
    Webster. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               25.00
    Westborough. Mrs. M. M. Morse, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    West Newton. Mrs. Sarah Erving, _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                           5.00
    West Roxbury. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for Straight
      U._                                                     25.00
    Whitinsville. Cong. Sab. Sch.                             24.34
    Woburn. “A Friend,” _for John Brown Steamer_              20.00

  RHODE ISLAND, $281.00.

    Little Compton. United Cong. Ch.                          16.00
    Newport. Mrs. S. L. Little, _for Rebuilding
      Emerson Inst._                                           5.00
    Pawtucket. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             10.00
    Providence. David A. Waldron                             250.00

  CONNECTICUT, $2,860.53.

    Branford. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for Land,
      Tillotson C. and N. Inst._                              25.00
    Bridgeport. Alfred and Edith Palmer, _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                           5.00
    Chapinville. “M. A. N.,” _for Chinese M._                  5.00
    Colchester. Mrs. C. F. Skeele, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    Collinsville. H. N. Goodwin, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    Durham. First Cong. Ch.                                   25.00
    East Hampton. Cong. Ch., 23.42; Mrs. Chauncey
      Bevin, 2                                                25.42
    Fairfield. Sab. Sch. Class, Colored Children,
      _for John Brown Steamer_                                 3.16
    Guilford. “A Friend,” _for Talladega C._                   5.00
    Haddam Neck. “Friends,” by Rev. F. Munson,
      _for John Brown Steamer_                                 6.00
    Hadlyme. Richard E. Hungerford (10 _of which
      for John Brown Steamer_)                                60.00
    Hanover. Cong. Ch. and Sab. Sch.                          18.55
    Hartford. Windsor Av. Cong. Ch. to const. MRS.
      FANNIE E. R. GATES L. M.                                30.00
    Lakeville. “Friend”                                        5.00
    Lebanon. First Cong. Ch.                                  62.06
    Litchfield. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                20.00
    Mansfield Centre. H. D. Russ, _for Talladega
      C._                                                      4.00
    Middletown. Third Cong. Ch. (Westfield)                   15.00
    Middletown. “A. B. C.,” _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 2.00
    Mount Carmel. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for Student
      Aid, Atlanta U._                                        66.87
    New Britain. South Cong. Ch.                             121.21
    New Britain. South Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch., _for
      John Brown Steamer_                                     50.00
    New Haven. “A Friend” 5; Amos Townsend, 5.                10.00
    New London. “A Friend,” _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    North Branford. Cong. Ch.                                  8.00
    Northfield. Cong. Ch.                                     31.50
    Norwich. Mrs. M. B. Holyoke, _for Student Aid,
      Atlanta U._                                            100.00
    Norwich Town. Chas. B. Baldwin                            10.00
    Norwich Town. First Cong. Ch. _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    Putnam. “E. W. S.” 15, “M. A. K.” 5                       20.00
    Ridgefield. Cong. Ch.                                     29.45
    South Norwalk. Mary Spikenard                              2.00
    Simsbury. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              43.55
    Stonington. Second Cong. Ch. and Soc.                    116.10
    Terryville. Mr. and Mrs. Elizur Fenn                      10.00
    Thomaston. Cong. Ch., 28.75, and Sab. Sch.,
      36.17                                                   64.92
    Thompson. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              26.97
    Torringford. Cong. Ch. and Soc. 19.50; “A
      Friend,” 2.                                             21.50
    Washington. Cong. Ch.                                     68.70
    Washington. “Z.,” _for Indian M._                          1.00
    Waterbury. Second Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch., _for
      John Brown Steamer_                                     63.76
    West Haven. Mrs. Emeline Smith                            10.00
    West Winsted. Second Cong. Ch.                           151.31
    Willimantic. Linen Company, 27.50; W. C.
      Jillson, 10; Mrs. D. B. Tracy, 10, _for
      Talladega C._                                           47.50


    Middletown. Estate of Chas. Dunning, by Chas.
      A. Boardman, Ex.                                       800.00
    New London. Trust Estate of Henry P. Haven
      (300 of which _for Talladega C._)                      650.00

  NEW YORK, $734.67.

    Brooklyn. Central Cong. Sab. Sch., _for
      Missionaries at Fernandina, Fla., and Ladies
      Island, S.C._                                          175.00
    Brooklyn. East Cong. Ch., 55; Mrs. Lucy
      Thurber, 5; H. M. W., 1; E. J. H., 50c.                 61.50
    Coventryville. First Cong. Ch. and Soc. 28.15;
      Sab. Sch., 2                                            30.15
    Crown Point. First Cong. Ch., 94.25; Second
      Cong. Ch., 6.                                          100.25
    Eaton. Cong. Ch.                                          12.00
    Gerry. Mrs. M. A. Sears                                  178.36
    Gilbertsville. A. Wood, A. M.                             10.00
    Kiatone. Cong. Ch.                                         7.73
    McGrawville. “Friend,” _for John Brown Steamer_            5.00
    Mina. Mrs. A. T.                                           1.00
    Moravia. First Cong. Ch.                                  14.50
    New York. Joseph S. Holt                                  15.00
    New York. Colored Orphan Asylum, Children,
      _for John Brown Steamer_                                 5.00
    Pekin. Miss Abigail Peck                                  10.00
    Perry Centre. “A Friend”                                   5.00
    Pierrepont. Mrs. Sarah M. Gleason                          2.00
    Poughkeepsie. First Cong. Ch., 34.79; Mrs. M.
      J. Myers, 20                                            54.79
    Syracuse. Plymouth Cong. Ch.                              16.26
    Syracuse. A. B., _for John Brown Steamer_                  1.00
    Walton. First Cong. Sab. Sch.                             30.13

  NEW JERSEY, $258.02.

    East Orange. “L. F. H.”                                   10.00
    Irvington. Rev. Almon Underwood                           50.00
    Lakewood. Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Langdon                        2.00
    Lyons Farms. Presb. Sab. Sch., _for Needmore
      Chapel, Talladega, Ala._                                 8.75
    Mendham. Rev I. W. Cochran                                 5.00
    Montclair. First Cong. Ch.                               182.27


    Orwell. G. H. H.                                           0.50
    Worth. John Burgess                                        5.00

  OHIO, $654.12.

    Adams Mills. Mrs. M. A. Smith                             10.00
    Akron. Cong. Ch.                                          92.12
    Austinburgh. M. L. A., _for John Brown Steamer_            1.00
    Ashtabula. First Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                          10.00
    Bellevue. E. K., _for John Brown Steamer_                  1.00
    Chatham Centre. Cong. Ch.                                 22.00
    Cleveland. Heights Cong. Ch.                             100.00
    Kingsville. M. Whiting                                    25.00
    Madison. By Mrs. St. John, _for Student Aid,
      Tougaloo U._                                            56.00
    Mansfield. Miss Susan M. Sturges, _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                          10.00
    Mantua. Rev. Geo. Thompson                                 1.50
    Medina. First Cong. Ch.                                  118.00
    Mesopotamia. By Mrs. St. John, _for Student
      Aid, Tougaloo U._                                        3.50
    New Richland. Mrs. Elizabeth Johnston, 1, _for
      Student Aid, Talladega C._; 2, _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                           3.00
    North Amherst. “A Friend,” (25 of which _for
      John Brown Steamer_)                                   125.00
    Norwalk. “T. H.,” (_for John Brown Steamer_)              10.00
    Oberlin. W. G. Ballantine                                 10.50
    Painesville. First Ch., Woman’s Miss. Soc.,
      _for Indian M._                                         10.00
    Parisville. Welsh Cong. Ch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 7.00
    Randolph. Cong. Ch.                                        8.21
    Randolph. A. D., _for John Brown Steamer_                  1.00
    South Newbury. Mr. and Mrs. H. P. Green, 2;
      Mrs. R. P., 1; Mrs. R. S. Waterton, 2.50;
      Mrs. B. M. J., 50c.                                      6.00
    South Newbury. Mr. and Mrs. H. P. Green, 2;
      Mrs. R. P., 1; Ladies’ Miss. Soc., 1.50;
      Mrs. R. S. W., 50c., _for John Brown Steamer_            5.00
    Sharon Centre. E. L. Rogers                                5.00
    West Andover. Cong. Ch.                                   13.29

  INDIANA, $12.00.

    Auburn. James Adams ($5 _of which for John
      Brown Steamer_)                                         10.00
    Evansville. A. L. Robinson                                 2.00

  ILLINOIS, $577.99.

    Buda. Cong. Ch.                                           23.56
    Chicago. First Cong. Ch., $61.41; “E. D. C.,”
      50; South Cong. Ch., 47.17; Western Av.
      Chapel, 3.75                                           162.33
    Chicago. Union Park Cong. Sab. Sch., _for
      Student Aid, Talladega C._                              50.00
    Chicago. P. J. Sexton, 25; “A Friend,” 3; G.
      G., 1; —— Stephen, 1, _for Theo. Chair, Fisk
      U._                                                     30.00
    Jacksonville. Joy Prairie Ch.                             32.80
    Lake Forest. Samuel Dent                                   2.00
    Moline. John Deere, _for Theo. Chair, Fisk U._           100.00
    Paxton. Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Shaw, _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                           5.00
    Roberts. Cong. Ch.                                         7.00
    Thawville. Cong. Ch.                                      14.50
    Tonica. N. Richey                                         10.00
    Winnebago. Nahum F. Parsons, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                25.00
    Winnebago. N. F. Parsons                                  20.00
    Yorkville. Mrs. E. H. Colton                               2.00


    Belvidere. Estate of Olney Nichols, by H. W.
      Pier, Ex.                                               93.80

  MICHIGAN, $388.78.

    Allendale. Cong. Ch.                                       6.13
    Alpena. First Cong. Ch.                                   82.21
    Canandaigua. Cong. Ch.                                     3.17
    Detroit. Woodward Ave. Cong. Ch.                         104.39
    Edwardsburgh. S. C. Olmstead                              25.00
    Homestead. Mrs. E. C. Case, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    Morenci. Cong. Ch.                                         5.00
    Northville. Daniel Pomeroy                                50.00
    Olivet. Wm. B. Palmer, _for John Brown Steamer_          100.00
    Salem. Summit Missionary Soc.                              2.88
    Standish. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00

  IOWA, $196.46.

    Algona. A. Zahlten                                         6.00
    Cedar Rapids. Cong. Ch., 7.62; W. H. P., 50c.              8.12
    Chester Centre. Cong. Ch.                                 32.00
    Clear Lake. Cong. Ch.                                      1.50
    Farragut. Cong. Soc., _for Mendi M._                      21.15
    Grinnell. Cong. Ch.                                       26.40
    Iowa City. Collected by Rev. H. S. Bennett,
      ad’l, _for Theo. Chair, Fisk U._                         2.00
    Iowa City. Miss. H. O. C.                                  1.00
    Keokuk. Mrs. M. A. Smith                                   5.00
    Maquoketa. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             17.10
    Muscatine. W. Woodward, 10; J. S. Culp, 5,
      _for Theo. Chair, Fisk U._                              15.00
    Newton. First Cong. Ch.                                   39.19
    Onawa. Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    Onawa. Cong. Ch.                                          10.00
    Washington. D. W. Lewis, _for Theo. Chair,
      Fisk U._                                                 2.00
    Winthrop. Wm. H. Scott, 4; H. D., 1                        5.00

  WISCONSIN, $120.77.

    Alderley. Mrs. E. Hubbard, 3; Mrs. Annie Reid,
      2                                                        5.00
    Appleton. Ladies’ Soc. of Cong. Ch., Set of
      Chandeliers and 8.75, _for Freight, for
      Atlanta U._                                              8.75
    Beloit. Mrs. S. M. Clary, Box of C. and 3,
      _for Freight, for Macon, Ga._                            3.00
    Beloit. Mrs. Mary A. Kellogg (5 of which _for
      John Brown Steamer_)                                    10.00
    Burlington. Plym. Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch., _for
      John Brown Steamer_                                      2.00
    Fort Howard. Cong. Ch.                                    25.00
    Geneva. Presb. Ch., 22.19; Mrs. Mary J.
      Barnard, 10                                             32.19
    Mazo Manie. Mrs. R. L.                                     1.00
    River Falls. Cong. Sab. Sch.                               8.83


    Beloit. Estate of Miss Ellen D. Field, by H.
      F. Hobart, _for Macon, Ga._                             25.00

  MISSOURI, $117.15.

    Amity. Amity Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    Kidder. Cong. Ch., _for African M._                        9.15
    Laclede. Cong Ch.                                          3.00
    Saint Louis. Mrs. Rebecca Webb                           100.00

  MINNESOTA, $76.49.

    Afton. Cong. Ch.                                          15.00
    Hancock. First Cong. Ch.                                   3.35
    Marshall. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                  7.80
    Minneapolis. Plymouth Ch.                                 48.34
    Waseca. Mrs. J. L. Claghorn’s Sab. Sch. Class              2.00

  KANSAS, $8.50.

    Carbondale. First Cong. Ch.                                4.00
    White City. Cong. Ch.                                      4.50

  NEBRASKA, $11.60.

    Crete. Mrs. R. Sturtevant, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 2.00
    Weeping Willow. Cong. Sab. Sch., freight on
      books, _for Emerson Inst._                               8.25
    Wheatland. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 1.35


    Cheyenne. Cong. Ch.                                       12.00


    Houghton. First Ch. of Christ                              1.05
    Anacortes. George Hagadorn                                 2.50


    Washington. Mrs. A. N. Bailey, 10; W. T.
      Peabody, 2, _for John Brown Steamer_                    12.00


    Dudley. Cong. Ch.                                          2.20
    Wilmington. Cong. Ch.                                      5.00


    Charleston. Plymouth Cong. Church                         40.00
    Ladies’ Island, _for John Brown Steamer_                   1.50

  GEORGIA, $15.15.

    Macon. Cong. Ch., 13; Tuition, 2.15                       15.15

  ALABAMA, $280.84.

    Marion. Rev. A. W. Curtis, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                 5.00
    Marion. Cong. Ch.                                          4.50
    Mobile. A. C. Danner, 25; J. B. Stevens, 5;
      Alex. Cantry, 50c; Pupils of Emerson Inst.
      and others, 10.14; Rev. S. W. Jones and
      wife, 75c.; John Jackson, 85c; Hon. John
      Bruce, 1; H. A. Lockwood, 1; Geo S. Moore,
      1; N. W. Trimble, 1; J. L. Smith, 1; H. T.
      Goodloe, 1; L. H. Faith, 50c; J. J. Crowley,
      50c.; T. J. Lippincott, 3; Jas. McPhillip,
      5; John Soto, 1; J. McArthur, 5; Mrs.
      Holmes, 1; T. C. McBryde and wife, 5; Jas.
      E. Sherman, 1; Rob’t Morris, 1; Dr. Sterling
      and wife, 1; M. Primo, 1, _for rebuilding
      Emerson Institute_                                      73.24
    Mobile. Cong. Ch.                                          2.00
    Montgomery. Public Fund                                  175.00
    Selma. Cong. Ch.                                          21.10

  MISSISSIPPI, $39.00.

    Tougaloo. Tougaloo U., Tuition, 1; Rent, 38               39.00

  TEXAS, $1.30.

    Corpus Christi. Cong. Ch. and Sab. Sch.                    1.30

  INCOMES, $266.75.

    Avery Fund, _for Mendi M._                               210.50
    Graves Scholarship Fund, _for Talladega C._               31.25
    Income Fund, _for Theo. Dept., Howard U._                 25.00

  ENGLAND, $48.60.

    England, London. Freedman’s Missions Aid Sec.,
      _for John Brown Steamer_, £10                           48.60

  SCOTLAND, $59.53.

    Scotland, Perth. North United Presb. Ch., £10;
      Jas. Balman, _for Chinese M._, £2; “Friend,”
      by D. Morton, 5s.                                       59.53
    Total for August                                     $10,674.35
    Total from Oct. 1 to Aug. 31.                       $273,503.66


    England, London. Freedman’s Missions Aid Soc.,
      £190                                                   923.40
    Previously acknowledged from Oct 1 to July 31          3,699.52
      Total                                               $4,622.92

                                       H. W. HUBBARD, Treas.
                                           56 Reade St., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *

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=Sabbath Reading.=—A very handsome, small eight-page weekly,
containing in each number an excellent sermon and a choice
selection of interesting matter for reading on the Lord’s Day.
FIFTY CENTS a year; club of ten, $4. On trial three months 15c.

=Gems of Poetry.=—A beautiful, sixteen page monthly, on fine paper,
and with an excellent portrait of some eminent poet in each number.
The contents are two serials, the Æneid of Virgil and Aurora Leigh
by Mrs. Browning; a fine assortment of selected poetry, and a great
variety of original poetry—the latter competing for two prizes each
quarter. FORTY CENTS a year; club of three, $1. On trial for three
months, 10c.

=Specimens= of the above publications sent free on application. All
stop when subscription expires.

WITNESS, SABBATH READING and GEMS OF POETRY, three months on trial
for fifty cents.

                        JOHN DOUGALL & CO.

                          WITNESS OFFICE:

                  21 VANDEWATER STREET, NEW YORK.

         We demand the Prohibition of the Liquor Traffic.

                 *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Estey Organ

J. Estey & Co

Brattleboro Vt.]

As musical culture increases it demands in musical instruments for
home, church, or school, excellence in tone, tasteful workmanship,
and durability.


                 *       *       *       *       *

                    7 PER CENT. TO 8 PER CENT.

                     Interest Net to Investors

                      In First Mortgage Bonds

                         ON IMPROVED FARMS

                  In Iowa, Minnesota and Dakota,

                            SECURED BY

                        ORMSBY BROS. & CO.,


                         EMMETSBURG, IOWA.

        References and Circulars forwarded on Application.

                 *       *       *       *       *

                     60,000 TONS USED IN 1881.

One ton will build two miles of staunch three-strand Barb Fence.
One strand will make an old wooden fence impassable to large
cattle. One strand at bottom will keep out hogs.

                   Washburn & Moen Man’f’g Co.,

                         WORCESTER, MASS.,

                         Manufacturers of

                    Patent Steel Barb Fencing.


A STEEL Thorn Hedge. No other Fencing so cheap or put up so
quickly. Never rusts, stains, decays, shrinks nor warps. Unaffected
by fire, wind or flood. A complete barrier to the most unruly
stock. Impassable by man or beast.

No other Fence Material so easily handled by small proprietors and
tenants, or large planters in the South.

Shipped on spools containing 100 pounds, or eighty rods of Fencing.
Can be kept on the Reel for transient uses.


Send for Illustrative Pamphlets and Circulars, as above.


       *       *       *       *       *


To preach the Gospel to the poor. It originated in a sympathy with
the almost friendless slaves. Since Emancipation it has devoted its
main efforts to preparing the FREEDMEN for their duties as citizens
and Christians in America, and as missionaries in Africa. As
closely related to this, it seeks to benefit the caste-persecuted
CHINESE in America, and to co-operate with the Government in its
humane and Christian policy toward the INDIANS. It has also a
mission in AFRICA.


CHURCHES: _In the South_—In District of Columbia, 1; Virginia, 1;
North Carolina, 6; South Carolina, 2; Georgia, 13; Kentucky, 7;
Tennessee, 4; Alabama, 14; Kansas, 1; Arkansas, 1; Louisiana, 18;
Mississippi, 4; Texas, 6. _Africa_, 3. _Among the Indians_, 1.
Total, 82.

SOUTH.—_Chartered_: Hampton, Va.; Berea, Ky.; Talladega, Ala.;
Atlanta, Ga.; Nashville, Tenn.; Tougaloo, Miss.; New Orleans,
La., and Austin, Tex.—8. _Graded or Normal Schools_: Wilmington,
N.C.; Charleston, Greenwood, S.C.; Savannah, Macon, Atlanta, Ga.;
Montgomery, Mobile, Athens, Selma, Ala.; Memphis, Tenn.—11. _Other
Schools_, 35. Total, 54.

among the Chinese, 28; among the Indians, 9; in Africa, 13. Total,
369. STUDENTS.—In theology, 104; law, 20; in college course, 91;
in other studies, 8,884. Total, 9,108. Scholars taught by former
pupils of our schools, estimated at 150,000. Indians under the care
of the Association, 13,000.


1. A steady INCREASE of regular income to keep pace with the
growing work. This increase can only be reached by _regular_ and
_larger_ contributions from the churches, the feeble as well as the

2. ADDITIONAL BUILDINGS for our higher educational institutions, to
accommodate the increasing numbers of students; MEETING HOUSES for
the new churches we are organizing; MORE MINISTERS, cultured and
pious, for these churches.

3. HELP FOR YOUNG MEN, to be educated as ministers here and
missionaries to Africa—a pressing want.

Before sending boxes, always correspond with the nearest A. M. A.
office as directed on second page cover.


We are anxious to put the AMERICAN MISSIONARY on a paying basis. We
intend to make it worth its price, and we ask our patrons to aid us:

1. More of our readers can take pains to send us either the
moderate subscription price (50 cents), or $1.00, naming a friend
to whom we may send a second copy.

2. A special friend in each church can secure subscribers at
club-rates (12 copies for $5 or 25 copies for $10).

3. Business men can benefit themselves by advertising in a
periodical that has a circulation of 20,000 copies monthly and that
goes to many of the best men and families in the land. Will not our
friends aid us to make this plan a success?

We nevertheless renew the offer hitherto made, that the MISSIONARY
will be sent gratuitously, if desired, to the Missionaries of
the Association; to Life Members; to all Clergymen who take
up collections for the Association; to Superintendents of
Sabbath-schools; to College Libraries; to Theological Seminaries;
to Societies of Inquiry on Missions; and to every donor who does
not prefer to take it as a subscriber, and contributes in a year
not less than five dollars.

Subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to H. W. HUBBARD,
Treasurer, 56 Reade street, New York, N.Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber’s Notes

Obvious printer’s punctuation errors and omissions corrected.
Inconsistent hyphenation retained due to the multiplicity of

“Steet” changed to “Street” on the inside cover in the

Text moved from page 313 back to 311 in order to allow the drawing
to sit between paragraphs.

Missing “l” added to “retail” on page 317. (for the retail price)

Changed “Mahommed” to “Mohammed” on page 308. (are constantly going
over to Mohammed Achmet)

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Missionary — Volume 36, No. 10, October, 1882" ***

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