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Title: The Anatomy of Vegetables Begun - With a General Account of Vegetation founded thereon
Author: Grew, Nehemiah
Language: English
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Thursday, _Novemb. 9. 1671_.

_At a Meeting of the Council of the ~R. Society~._


That the Discourse presented to the R. Society, Entitul’d, _The Anatomy
of ~Vegetables~ begun, with a General Accompt of ~Vegetables~ thereon_,
By _N. Grew_, M.D. be Printed by _Spencer Hickman_, one of the Printers
of the _R. Society_.

                                                        _Brouncker_ Pres.


                                 With a
                             GENERAL ACCOUNT
                            Founded thereon.

                        By _NEHEMIAH GREW_, M. D.
                   and Fellow of the _Royal Society_.


                 Printed for _Spencer Hickman_, Printer
                   to the _R. Society_, at the _Rose_
                    in S. _Pauls_ Church-Yard, 1672.

                                 TO THE
                           _Right Honourable_
                           _Most Illustrious_
                           PRESIDENT & FELLOWS
                                 OF THE
                            _ROYAL SOCIETY_,
                             _The Following_
                            _Is most Humbly_
                               The Authour
                            _NEHEMIAH GREW_.


TO THE _Right Reverend_ JOHN _Lord Bishop of CHESTER_.


I hope your pardon, if while you are holding _that Best of Books_ in one
Hand, I here present some Pages of that of _Nature_ into your other:
Especially since _your Lordship_ knoweth very well, how excellent a
_Commentary_ This is on the _Former_; by which, in part God reads the
World his own Definition, and their Duty to him.

But if this Address, _my Lord_, may be thought congruous, ’tis yet more
just; and that I should let _your Lordship_, and others know, how much,
and how deservedly I resent your extraordinary Favours: Particularly
that you were pleased so far to animate my Endeavours towards the
publishing the following _Observations_. Many whereof, and most belonging
to the First Chapter, having now lain dormant near seven years; and yet
might perhaps have so continued, had not _your Lordships_ Eye at length
created Light upon them. In doing which, you have given one, amongst
those many Tokens, of as well your readiness to promote learning and
knowledge by the hands of others; as your high Abilities to do it by
your own. Both which are so manifest in _your Lordship_, that like the
first Principles of _Mathematical Science_, they are not so much to be
asserted, because known and granted by all.

The Consideration whereof, _my Lord_, may make me not only _just_ in
owning of your Favours, but also most _Ambitious_ of your _Patronage_:
which yet to bespeak, I must confess I cannot well. Not that I think what
is good and valuable, is alwaies its own best Advocate; for I know that
the Censures of men are humorous and variable, and that one Age must
have leave to frown on those Books, which another will do nothing less
than kiss and embrace. But chiefly for this Reason, lest I should so much
as seem desirous of _your Lordships_ Solliciting my Cause as to all I
have said: For as it is your Glory, that you like not so to shine, as to
put out the least Star; so were it to your Dishonour to borrow your Name
to illustrate the Spots, though of the most conspicuous.

           _Your Lordships_ Most Obliged & Most Humble Servant

                                                         _Nehemiah Grew_.



_Of what antiquity the ~Anatomy~ of ~Animals~ is, and how great have been
its Improvements of later years, is well known. That of ~Vegetables~
is a subject which from all Ages to this day hath not only lain by
uncultivated; but for ought I know, except some Observations of some of
our own Countrey-men, hath not been so much as thought upon; whether
for that the World hath been more enamoured with the former, or pity to
humane frailty hath more obliged to it, or other Reasons, I need not

_But considering that both came at first out of the same Hand, and are
therefore the Contrivances of the same Wisdom; I thence fully assured my
self, that it could not be a vain Design, though possibly unsuccessful,
to seek it in both._

_In the prosecution hereof, how far I have gone, I neither judge my
self, nor leave it to any one else to do it; because no man knows how
far we have yet to go, or are capable of going. Nor is there any thing
which starves and stinteth the growth of knowledge more, than such
Determinations, whether we speak or conceit them only._

_What we have performed thus far, lieth, for the most part, open to the
use and improvement of all men. Only in some places, and chiefly in the
Third Chapter, we have taken in the help of Glasses; wherein, after
we had finished the whole Composure, some Observations made by that
Ingenious and Learned Person Mr. ~Hook~, a Worthy Member of the ~Royal
Society~, my much Honoured Friend, and by him communicated to me, were
super-added: As likewise some others also ~Microscopical~, of my own,
which his gave me the occasion of making._

_Those that shall think fit to examine, as well as to peruse these
Observations, we advertise them, ~First~, That they begin, and so proceed
till they end again, with the Seed: For they will hardly be able to avoid
Errour and Misapprehension, if either partial or preposterous in their
Enquiries. ~Next~, That they confine not their Enquiries to one time of
the Year; but to make them in several Seasons, wherein the Parts of a
~Vegetable~ may be seen in their several Estates. ~And then~, That they
neglect not the comparative ~Anatomy~; for as some things are better seen
in one estate, so in one ~Vegetable~, than another._

_What, upon Observation already made, we have erected, as they are not
Sticks and Straws; so neither do we assure all to be of the best Oak. How
Dogmatical soever my Assertions may seem to be, yet do I not affect the
unreasonable Tyranny of obtruding upon the Faith of any. He that speaketh
Reason, may be rather satisfied, in being understood, than believed._


CHAP. 1.

_Of the Seed as Vegetating._

The Method propounded. 1, 2. The _Garden-Bean_ dissected. 2. The two
_Coats_ thereof. 2, 3. The _Foramen_ in the outer _Coat_, 3, 4. What
generally observable of the Covers of the _Seed_, 4. The main Body of the
_Seed_, 5, 6. The _Radicle_ distinguish’d. 6. The _Plume_ distinguish’d.
8. Described. 9. The _Cuticle_ described. 10, 11. The _Parenchyma_. 11,
12. The _Inner Body_, how observed. 14, 16. Describ’d. 15, 16, 17, 18.

The _Coats_ how in common subservient to the _Vegetation_ of the _Seed_.
20, 21. The _Foramen_, of what use herein. 22. The use of the _Inner
Coat_, and of the _Cuticle_. 22. Of the _Parenchyma_. 23. Of the Seminal
Root. 23, 24. How the _Radicle_ first becomes a _Root_. 24, 26. How after
the _Root_ the _Plume_ vegetates. 26. How the _Lobes_. 27. That they do,
demonstrated. 29, 32. How the _Lobes_ thus turn into _Dissimilar Leaves_.
32. What hence resolvable. 32, 33. The use of the _Dissimilar Leaves_.

CHAP. 2.

_Of the Root._

The _Skin_ hereof, its Original. 37. The _Cortical Body_, its Original.
37. Description. 37, 38. _Pores._ 38. _Proportions._ 39. The _Lignous
Body_, its Original. 39. Described by its _Pores_, 40. Its Proportions.
42. The _Insertment_, its original. 42. Description. 43. Pores. 43.
Number and size. 44. A fuller description hereof, with that of the
Osculations of the _lignous Body_. 44, 45. The _Pith_, its original
sometimes from the _Seed_. 46. Sometimes from the _Cortical Body_. 47,
49. Its _Pores_. 49. _Proportions_. 49, 50. _Fibres_ of the _lignous
Body_ therein. 50. The _Pith_ of those _Fibres_. 51.

How the _Root_ grows, and the use of the _Skin_, _Cortical_ and _lignous
Body_ thereto. 51, 54. How it groweth in length. 55. By what means it
descends. 56, 57. How it grows in breadth. 58. And the _Pith_ how thus
framed. 59. The use of the _Pith_. 60, 61. Of the _Insertment_. 61, 62.
The joint service of all the Parts. 63, 65.

CHAP. 3.

_Of the Trunk._

The _Skin_, its original. 67. The original of the _Cortical Body_. 67. Of
the _lignous_. 68. Of the _Insertment_ and _Pith_. 68. The Latitudinal
Shooting of the _lignous Body_, wherein observable. 69. The _Pores_ of
the _lignous Body_, where and how most remarkable. 70. The _Pith_ of the
same _Pores_. 70. A lesser sort of _Pores_. 71. A third sort only visible
through a _Microscope_. Observed in Wood or Char-coal. 71. Observed in
the Fibres of the Trunks of Plants. 72. 73. The _Insertions_ where
more visible. 73, 74. The smaller Insertions, only visible through a
_Microscope_. 74, 75. The _Pores_ of the Insertions. 76. Of the _Pith_.
77, 79.

How the _Trunk_ ascends. 80. 81. The disposition of its Parts consequent
to that Ascent. 81, 82. Consequent to the different Nature of the _Sap_.
83, 84. The effects of the said Differences. 84, 89. Which way, and how
the _Sap_ ascends. 89-98.

The Appendix.

_Of Trunk-Roots and Claspers._

_Trunk-Roots_ of two kinds. 99. _Claspers_ of one kind. 100. The use of
both. 100, 103.

CHAP. 4.

_Of the Germen, Branch, and Leaf._

The Parts of the _Germen_ and _Branch_ the same with those of the
_Trunk_. 104, 105. The manner of their growth. 105, 107. How nourished.
107. And the use of Knots. 108. How secur’d. 109. The Parts of a Leaf.
110. The Positions the _Fibres_ of the Stalks of Leaves. 110, 111. The
visible cause of the different shape of Leaves. 112. And of their being
flat. 113. The Foulds of Leaves, their kinds and Use. 114-118. The
Protections of Leaves. 119, 120. The use of the Leaf. 120, 123.

_The Appendix._

_Of Thorns, Hairs and Globulets._

_Thorns_ of two kinds. 124, 125. _Hairs_ of divers. 126. Their use. 127.
_Globulets_ of two kinds. 128.

CHAP. 5.

_Of the Flower._

Its Impalement of divers kinds. 129, 130. Their use. 130, 132. The
_Foliation_, its nature. 132. Foulds. 133, 134. Protections. 135. Downs.
135. Globulets. 136. Its Use. 137, 139. The _Attire_ of two kinds. The
Description of the first. 140, 142. Of the other. 143, 145. Their use.

CHAP. 6.

_Of the Fruit._

The Number, Description, and Original of the Parts of an _Apple_.
149-152. Of a _Pear_. 153, 155. Of a _Plum_. 155-159. Of a _Nut_. 159,
161. Of a _Berry_. 161, 162. The use of the _Fruit_. 163-167.

CHAP. 7.

_Of the Seed in its state of Generation._

The _Case_, its Figures. 168. The outer Coat, its Figures. 170. Various
Surface. 170, 171. And Mucilages. 171, 172. The nature of the outer Coat.
172. Its Original. 173, 174. The Original of the inner. 174. Its Nature.
175, 176. The _Secondine_. 177, 178. The _Colliquamentum_ herein. 178.
The _Navel Fibres_. 179, 180.

In the Generation of the _Seed_, the _Sap_ first prepared in the
_Seed-Branch_. 181. Next in the inner Coat. 182. With the help of the
outer. 182. The use of the _Secondine_. 183, 184. Of the Ramulets of the
_Seed-Branch_. ib. Of their _Inosculation_. ib. How the _Colliquamentum_
becometh a _Parenchyma_. 185, 186.

_Cl. Glissonius_ in Prolegomenis præfixis Libro de _Hepatis Anatomia_, c.

Plantæ quoque in hunc censum (_sc. Anatomicum_) veniunt. Varia enim
partium textura, & differentiis constant: & proculdubio ex accurata
earundem diffectione, utiles valde Observationes nobis exurgerent;
præstaretq; in illis (inferioris licet ordinis) rebus examinandis operam
impendere, quam in transcribendis (ut sæpe fit) aliorum laboribus,
inutiliter ætatem transigere. Quippe, hoc pacto, ignavarum apum more,
aliena duntaxat alvearia expilamus, nihilq; bono publico adjicimus.

_To be added and corrected._

Pag. 8. _l._ 15. after _must_, _adde_ upon the Sprouting of the _Bean_.
_p. 12. l. 23._ after _dense_, _adde_ and thence their different
Tinctures. _p. 18. l. 13._ after _that_, _adde_ when. _p. 20. l. 8._ for
_the_, _read_ an. _p. 56, l. 8._ _r._ once. _p. 90. l. 11._ _dele_ as.
_p. 91. l. 12._ _r._ older. _p. 120. l. 11._ after _all_, _r._ is. _p.
134. l. 11._ _r._ _Convolvulus_. _p. 143. l. 10._ _r._ ever. _p. 145. l.
14._ for _not_, _r._ or. _p. 159. l. 8._ for _by_, _r._ to. _p. 160. l.
18._ dele _not_. _p. 185. l. 14._ after _therewith_, _r._ the. _dele_ the
former _the_.

_In some Copies._

P. 168. _l. 4._ _r._ _ultimate end_, and _p. 170. l. 22._ _r._ _Favous_.

_The Reader is desired to excuse the misplacing of the Figures by the
Graver, in the Authors absence._

Transcriber’s Note

The above additions and corrections have been made, and in addition the
following changes were made to correct suspected printing errors:

Contents, “Coliquamentum” changed to “Colliquamentum” (The
_Colliquamentum_ herein.)

Contents, “subsetvient” changed to “subservient” (how in common

Page 13, “anothet” changed to “another” (there being another Body)

Page 28, “ruus” changed to “runs” (which runs into the _Plume_)

Page 93, “and and” changed to “and” (the _Lignous Body_, and from the

Page 99, “Rooots” changed to “Roots” (Of Trunk-Roots and Claspers.)

Page 121, “Leavs” changed to “Leaves” (the Leaves above-named)

Page 126, “althoegh” changed to “although” (although they are various)

Page 126, “to to” changed to “to” (in some resemblance to a _Stags-Horn_)

Page 171, “transpareut” changed to “transparent” (on the other,

Fig. 16, “The The” changed to “The” (The _Cortical Body_, or _Barque_.)

Punctuation and word spacing were amended without note; spelling remains
as printed.



With a General Account of _Vegetation_ founded thereon.


_Of the Seed as Vegetating._

Being to speak of Vegetables; and, as far as Inspection and consequent
Reason may conduct, to enquire into the visible Constitutions and Uses of
their several Parts; I chuse that Method which may with best advantage
suit to what we have to say hereon: And that is the Method of Nature her
self, in her continued Series of Vegetations, proceeding from the Seed
sown, to the formation of the Root, Trunk, Branch, Leaf, Flower, Fruit,
and last of all, of the Seed also to be sown again; all which we shall in
the same order particularly speak of.

The Essential Constitutions of the said Parts are in all Vegetables the
same: But for Observation, some are more convenient; in which I shall
chiefly instance. And first of all, for the Seed we chuse the great

If we take a Bean then and dissect it, we shall find it cloathed with
a double Vest or Coat: These Coats, while the Bean is yet green, are
separable, and easily distinguished. When ’tis dry, they cleave so
closely together, that the Eye, not before instructed, will judge them
but one; the inner Coat likewise (which is of the most rare contexture)
so far shrinking up, as to seem only the roughness of the outer, somewhat
resembling Wafers under _Maquaroons_.

At the thicker end of the Bean, in the outer Coat, a very small _Foramen_
presents it self: In dissection ’tis found to terminate against the point
of that part which I call the _Radicle_, whereof I shall presently speak.
It is of that capacity as to admit a small Virginal Wyer, and is most
conspicuous in a green Bean.

This _Foramen_ may be observed not only in the great Garden-Bean, but
likewise in the other kinds; in the French-Bean very plainly; in Pease,
Lupines, Vetches, Lentiles, and other Pulse ’tis also found; and in many
Seeds not reckoned of this kindred, as in that of _Fœnugreek_, _Medica
Tornata_, _Goats-Rue_, and others: In many of which, ’tis so very small,
as scarcely, without the help of Glasses to be discovered; and in some,
not without cutting off part of the Seed besides, which otherwise would
intercept the sight hereof; it being in these and such like Seeds, from
the place of the breaking off of the Peduncle perfectly distinct.

We may then observe, that all Seeds which have thick or hard Coats,
have the same likewise perforated, in this, or some other manner. And
accordingly, although the Coats of such Seeds as are lodg’d in Shells or
Stones, being thin, are not visibly perforated; yet the Stones and Shells
themselves always are; as _Chap. 7._ shall be seen how. To which Chapter,
what is farther observable, either as to the nature, or number of the
covers of the Seed, I also refer.

The Coats of the Bean being stripp’d off the proper Seed shews it self.
The parts whereof it is constituted, are three; _sc._ the main Body, and
two other appendant to it, which we may call the three Organical parts of
the Bean.

The main Body is not one entire piece, but alwaies divided lengthwise
into two halves or Lobes, which are both joyn’d together at the Basis
of the Bean. These Lobes in dry Beans, are but difficultly separated or
observ’d; but in young ones, especially boil’d, they easily slip asunder.
See _Fig. 1_.

Some very few Seeds are divided, not into two Lobes, but more; as that of
_Cresses_; and some not at all divided, but entire; as _Corn_: Excepting
which few, all other Seeds, even the smallest are divided, like as the
Bean, into just two Lobes: whereof though in most Seeds we cannot by
dissection be inform’d; yet otherwise we easily may as shall be seen.

At the Basis of the Bean, the two other Organical parts stand appendent;
by mediation whereof the two Lobes meet and join together. The greater
of these two parts stands without the two Lobes, and upon divesting the
Bean of its Coats, is immediately visible. ’Tis of a whiter colour, and
more glossie than the main Body, especially when the Bean is young. In
the Bean, and many other Seeds, tis situated somewhat above the thicker
end, as you hold the Bean in its most proper posture for growth. In
Oak-Kernels, which we call Acorns, Apple-Kernels, Almonds, and many other
Seeds, it stands prominent just from the end; the Basis and the end
being in these the same, but in the Bean divers. See _Fig. 1_.

This part is not only in the Bean, and the Seeds above mentioned; but in
all others: being that which upon the Vegetation of the Seed, becomes
the Root of the Plant; which therefore I call the _Radicle_: by which, I
mean the Materials, abating the Formality, of a Root, ’Tis not easie to
be observed, saving in some few Seeds, amongst which, that of the Bean is
the most fair and ample of all I have seen; but that of some other Seeds,
is, in proportion, greater; as of _Fœnugreek_, which is almost as big as
one of its Lobes.

The lesser of the two laid Appendents lies occult between the two Lobes
of the Bean, by separation whereof only it is to be seen. ’Tis enclos’d
in two small Cavities form’d in the Lobes for its reception. Its colour
comes near that of the _Radicle_; and is founded upon the Basis thereof
having a quite contrary production, _sc._ towards the cone of the Bean;
and being that very part, which, in process, becomes the Body or Trunk of
the Vegetable. See _Fig. 1_.

For the sake of this Part principally it is, that the Bean is divided
into Lobes; _sc._ that it may be warmly and safely lodged up between
them; and so secur’d from the Injuries so tender a Part would sustain
from the Mould, whereto, had the Main Body been entire, it must upon the
Sprouting of the _Bean_ have lain contiguous.

This Part is not, like the _Radicle_, an entire Body, but divided at its
loose end into divers pieces, all very close set together, as Feathers
in a Bunch; for which reason it may be called the _Plume_. They are so
close, that only two or three of the outmost are at first seen: but upon
a nice and curious separation of these, the more interiour still may be
discovered. Now as the _Plume_ is that Part which becomes the Trunk of
the Plant, so these pieces are so many true, and already formed, though
not displayed, Leaves, intended for the said Trunk, and foulded up in the
same plicature, wherein, upon the sprouting of the Bean, they afterwards
appear. In a French Bean the two outmost are very fair and elegant. In
the great Garden-Bean, two extraordinary small Plumes, often, if not
always, stand one on either side the great one now describ’d: From which,
in that they differ in nothing save in their size, I therefore only here
just take notice of them. And these three Parts, _sc._ the _Main Body_,
the _Radicle_, and the _Plume_, are concurrent to the making up of every
Seed; and no more than these.

Having thus taken a view of the Organical Parts of the Bean, let
us next examine the Similary, _sc._ those whereof the Organical are
compos’d: a distinct observation of which, for a clear understanding of
the Vegetation of the Seed, and of the whole Plant arising thence, is
requisite: To obtain which, we must proceed in our Anatomy.

Dissecting a Bean then, the first Part occurring is its Cuticle. The
Eye and first Thoughts suggest it to be only a more dense and glossy
Superficies; but better enquiry discovers it a real Cuticle. ’Tis so
exquisitely thin, and for the most part so firmly continuous with the
Body of the Bean, that it cannot, except in some small Rag, be distinctly
seen; which, by carrying your Knife superficially into the Bean, and then
very gently bearing upward what you have cut, will separate and shew it
self transparent. This Cuticle is not only spread upon the Convex of the
Lobes, but also on their Flats, where they are contiguous, extending it
self likewise upon both the _Radicle_ and _Plume_, and so over the whole

This Part, though it be so far common with the Coats of the Bean, as to
be like those, an Integument; yet are we in a quite different Notion to
conceive of it: For whereas the Coats upon setting the Bean, do only
administer the Sap, and, as being superseded from their Office, then die;
as shall be seen: this, on the contrary, with the Organical Parts of the
Bean, is nourished, augmented, and by a real Vegetation co-extended.

Next to the Cuticle, we come to the _Parenchyma_ it self; the Part
throughout which the _inner Body_, whereof we shall speak anon, is
disseminated; for which reason I call it the _Parenchyma_. The Surface
hereof is somewhat dense, but inwardly ’tis more porous, and of a laxer
Contexture. If you view it in a Microscope, it hath some similitude to
the Pith, while sappy, in the Roots and Trunks of Plants; and that for
good reason, as in _Ch. 2._ shall be seen. This is best seen in green
Beans. See _Fig. 2_.

This Part would seem by its colour to be peculiar to the Lobes of
the Bean; but as is the Cuticle, so is this also, common both to the
_Radicle_ and _Plume_; that is, the _Parenchyma_ of the Bean, as to
its essential substance, is the same in all three. The reason why the
colour of the _Plume_, and especially of the _Radicle_, which is white,
is so different from that of the Lobes, may chiefly depend upon their
being more compact and dense, and thence their different Tinctures. And
therefore the Lobes themselves, which are green while the Bean is young;
yet being old and dry, become whitish too. And in many other Seeds, as
Acorns, Almonds, the Kernels of Apples, Plums, Nuts, _&c._ the Lobes,
even fresh and young, are pure white as the Radicle it self.

But although the _Parenchyma_ be common, as is said, to all the Organical
Parts; yet in very differing proportions. In the _Plume_, where it is
proportionably least, it maketh about three Fifths of the whole _Plume_;
in the _Radicle_, it maketh about five Seavenths of the whole _Radicle_;
and in each Lobe, is so far over-proportionate, as to make at least nine
Tenths of the whole Lobe.

By what hath been said, that the _Parenchyma_ is not the only
constituting Part, besides the Cuticle, is imply’d: there being another
Body, of an essentially different substance, embosom’d herein: which may
be found, not only in the _Radicle_ and _Plume_, but also in the Lobes
themselves, and so in the whole Bean. See _Fig. 2_.

This inner Body appears most plain and conspicuous in cutting the
_Radicle_ athwart, and so proceeding by degrees towards the _Plume_,
through both which it runneth in a large and straight Trunk. In the
Lobes, being it is there in so very small proportion, ’tis difficultly
seen, especially towards their Verges: yet if with a sharp Knife you
smoothly cut the Lobes of the Bean athwart, divers small Specks, of a
different colour from that of the _Parenchyma_, standing therein all
along in a Line, may be observ’d; which Specks are the Terminations of
the Branches of this inner Body. See _Fig. 3_.

For this inner Body, as it is existent in every Organical part of the
Bean, so is it, with respect to each part, most regularly distributed.
In a good part of the _Radicle_ ’tis one entire Trunk; towards the
Basis thereof, ’tis divided into three main Branches; the middlemost
runneth directly into the Plume; the other two on either side it, after
a little space, pass into the Lobes; where the said Branches dividing
themselves into other smaller; and those into more, and smaller again,
are terminated towards the Verges of each Lobe; in which manner the said
inner Body being distributed, it becomes in each Lobe, a true and perfect
Root. See _Fig. 2_.

This Seminal Root, as now we’ll call it, being so tender, cannot be
perfectly excarnated, as may the Vessels in the Parts of an Animal, by
the most accurate Hand; yet by dissection begun and continu’d, as is
above-declared, its whole frame and distribution may be easily observ’d.
Again, if you take the Lobe of a Bean, and lengthwise pare off its
_Parenchyma_ by degrees, and in very thin Shives, many Branches of the
Seminal Root, (which by the other way of Dissection were only noted by so
many Specks) both as they are fewer about the Basis of the Bean, and more
numerous towards its Verges, in some good distinction and entireness will
appear. For this you must have new Beans.

As the inner Body is branched out in the Lobes, so is it in the _Plume_:
For if you cut the _Plume_ athwart, and from the Basis proceed along
the Body thereof, you’l find therein, first, one large Trunk or Branch,
and after four or five very small Specks round about it, which are the
terminations of so many lesser Branches therewith distributed to the
several parts of the _Plume_. See _Fig. 4_. The distribution of the
inner Body, as it is continuous throughout all the Organical Parts of the
Bean, is represented by _Fig. 2_.

This _Inner Body_ is, by dissection, best observable in the Bean and
great Lupine. In other larger Pulse it shows likewise some obscure Marks
of it-self: But in no other Seeds, which I have observed, though of the
greatest size, as of _Apples_, _Plums_, _Nuts_, &c. is there any clear
appearance hereof, upon dissection, saving in the _Radicle_ and _Plume_;
the reason of which is partly from its quantity, being in most Seeds so
extraordinary little; partly from its Colour, which in most Seeds, is the
same with that of the _Parenchyma_ it self, and so not distinguishable
from it.

Yet in a _Gourd-Seed_, the whole _Seminal Root_, not only its _Main
Branches_, but also the Sub-divisions and Inosculations of the lesser
ones, are without any dissection, upon the separation of the Lobes,
on their contiguous Flats immediatly apparent. See _Fig. 5_. And as to
the existence of this Seminal Root, what Dissection cannot attain,
ocular inspection in hundreds of other Seeds, even the smallest, will
demonstrate; as in this _Chapter_ shall be seen how.

In the mean time, let us only take notice, that when we say every Plant
hath its Root, we reckon short, for every Plant hath really two, though
not contemporary, yet successive Roots, its Original or _Seminal-Root_
within its Seed, and its _Plant-Root_, which the _Radicle_ becometh in
its growth: the _Parenchyma_ of the Seed being in some resemblance, that
to the _Seminal Root_ at first, which the Mould is to the _Plant-Root_
afterwards; and the _Seminal Root_ being that to the _Plant-Root_, which
the _Plant-Root_ is to the _Trunk_. For our better understanding whereof,
having taken a view of the several Parts of a Bean, as far as Dissection
conducts; we will next briefly enquire into the use of the said Parts,
and in what manner they are the Fountain of Vegetation, and concurrent to
the being of the future Plant.

The general Cause of the growth of a _Bean_ or other Seed, is
_Fermentation_; that is, the _Bean_ lying in the Mould, and a moderate
access of some moisture, partly dissimilar, and partly congenerous,
being made, a gentle _Fermentation_ thence ariseth; by which the _Bean_
swelling, and the _Sap_ still encreasing, and the _Bean_ continuing still
to swell, the work thus proceeds: as is the usual way of explicating. But
that there is simply a _Fermentation_, and so a sufficient supply of
_Sap_, is not enough; but that this _Fermentation_ and the _Sap_ wherein
’tis made, should be under a various Government by divers Parts thereto
subservient, is also requisite; and as the various preparation of the
_Aliment_ in an _Animal_, equally necessary, the particular process of
the Work according whereto, we find none undertaking to declare.

Let us look upon a _Bean_ then, as a piece of Work so fram’d and set
together, as to declare a Design for the production of a Plant, which,
upon its lying in some convenient Soyl, is thus effected. First of all,
the _Bean_ being enfoulded round in its Coats, the _Sap_ wherewith it is
fed, must of necessity pass through these: By which means, it is not only
in a proportionate quantity, and by due degrees; but also in a purer
body; and possibly not without some Vegetable Tincture, transmitted to
the _Bean_. Whereas, were the _Bean_ naked, the _Sap_ must needs be, as
over-copious, so but crude and immature, as not being filtred through so
fine a Cotton as the Coats be. And as they have the use of a _Filtre_
to the transient _Sap_, so of a Vessel to that which is still deposited
within them; being alike accommodated to the securer _Fermentation_
hereof, as Bottles or Barrels are to Beer, or any other _Fermentative

And as the _Fermentation_ is promoted by some Aperture in the Vessel; so
have we the _Foramen_ in the upper Coat also contrived, that if there
should be need of some more aiery Particles to excite the _Fermentation_,
through this they may obtain their Entry: Or, on the contrary, should
there be any such Particles or Steams as might damp the genuine
proceeding thereof, through this again they may have easy issue: being
that, as a common Pasport here to the _Sap_, which what we call the
Bung-hole of the Barrel, is to the new-tunn’d Liquor. That this _Foramen_
is truly permeable even in old setting _Beans_, appears upon their being
soak’d for some time in Water: For then taking them out, and crushing
them a little, many small bubbles will alternately arise and break upon

The _Sap_ being passed through the Coats, it next enters the Body of the
_Bean_; yet not indiscriminately neither; but, being filtred through the
_Outer Coat_, and fermented both in the Body and Concave of the _Inner_,
is by mediation of the _Cuticle_, again more finely filtr’d, and so
entereth the _Parenchyma_ it self under a fourth Government.

Through which Part the _Sap_ passing towards the _Seminal Root_, as
through that which is of a more spacious content; besides the benefit it
hath of a farther percolation, it will also find room enough for a more
free and active fermenting and maturation herein. And being moreover,
part of the true Body of the _Bean_, and so with its proper Seminalities
or Tinctures copiously repleat; the _Sap_ will not only find room, but
also matter enough, by whose Energy its _Fermentation_ will still be more

And the _Sap_ being duly prepared here, it next passeth into all the
Branches of the _Seminal Root_, and so under a fifth Government. Wherein
how delicate ’tis now become, we may conceive by the proportion betwixt
the _Parenchyma_ and this _Seminal Root_; so much only of the best
digested _Sap_ being discharged from the whole Stock in that, as this
will receive. And this, moreover, as the _Parenchyma_, with its proper
Seminalities being endowed; the _Sap_, for the supply of the _Radicle_,
and of the young Root from thence, is duly prepared therein, and with its
highest Tincture and Impregnation at last enriched.

The _Sap_ being thus prepared in the Lobes of the _Bean_, ’tis thence
discharg’d; and either into the _Plume_ or the _Radicle_, must forthwith
issue. And since the _Plume_ is a dependent on the _Radicle_; the _Sap_
therefore ought first to be dispenced to this; which accordingly is ever
found to shoot forth before the _Plume_, and that sometimes an inch or
two in length. Now because the primitive course of the _Sap_ into the
_Radicle_, is thus requisite, therefore by the frame of the Parts of
the _Bean_ is it made necessary too. For we may observe that the two
main Branches of the _Seminal Root_ in which the several _Ramifications_
in either Lobe are all united, commit not themselves into the _Seminal
Trunk_ of the _Plume_, nor yet so as to stand at right Angles with them,
and with equal respect towards them both; but being producted through
part of the _Parenchyma_ of the _Radicle_, are at last united therein to
the main Trunk, and make acute Angles therewith; as may be seen by _Fig.
2_. Now the _Sap_ being brought as far as the _Seminal Root_ in either
Lobe, and according to the conduct thereof continuing still to move,
it must needs immediately issue into the same part whereinto the main
Branches themselves do, that is, into the _Radicle_. By which _Sap_,
thus bringing the several Tinctures of the parts aforesaid with it, being
now fed; it is no longer a meer _Radicle_, but is made also _Seminal_,
and so becomes a perfect Root.

The _Radicle_ being thus impregnate and shot into a root, ’tis now time
for the _Plume_ to rouze out of its Cloysters, and germinate too: In
order whereto, ’tis now fed from the Root with laudable and sufficient
Aliment. For as the Supplies and motion of the _Sap_ were first made
from the Lobes towards the Root, so the Root being well shot into the
Moulds, and now receiving a new and more copious _Sap_ from these; the
motion hereof must needs be stronger, and by degrees revert the primitive
_Sap_, and so move in a contrary course, _sc._ from the Root towards the
_Plume_; and, by the continuation of the _Seminal trunk_, is directly
conducted thereinto; by which, being fed, it gradually enlarges and
displayes it self.

The course of the _Sap_ thus turned, it issues, I say, in a direct Line
from the _Root_ into the _Plume_, but collaterally into the Lobes also;
_sc._ by those two aforesaid Branches which are obliquely transmitted
from the _Radicle_ into either Lobe. By which Branches the said _Sap_
being disbursed back into all the _Seminal Root_, and from thence
likewise into the _Parenchyma_ of the Lobes; they are both thus fed, and
for some time augmenting themselves, really grow; as in _Lupines_ is

Yet is not this common to all Seeds; some rot under-ground, as _Corn_;
being of a laxer and less Oleous substance, differing herein from most
other Seeds; and being not divided into Lobes, but one entire thick
Body. And some, although they continue firm, yet rise not as the great
_Garden-Bean_; in which therefore it is observable, that the two Main
Branches of the Lobes in comparison with that which runs into the
_Plume_, are but mean; and so insufficient to the feeding and vegetation
of the Lobes; the _Plume_, on the contrary, growing so lusty, as to mount
up without them.

Excepting a few of these two kinds, all other Seeds whatsoever, (which I
have observed) besides that they continue firm, upon the Vegetation of
the _Plume_, mount also upwards, and advance above the Mould together
with it; as all Seeds which spring up with dissimilar Leaves, the two
(for the most part two) dissimilar Leaves, being the very Lobes of the
Seed divided, expanded, and thus advanced.

The Impediments of our apprehension hereof are the Colour, Size and
Shape of the dissimilar Leaves. Notwithstanding, that they are nothing
else but the main body of the Seed, how I came first to phansie, and
afterwards to know it, was thus: First, I observed in general that the
dissimilar Leaves were never jagg’d, but even edg’d: And seeing the even
verges of the Lobes of the Seed hereto respondent, I was apt to think,
that those which were so like, might prove the same. Next descending
to particular Seeds, I observed first of the _Lupine_; that as to its
Colour, upon its advance above the Mould, it ever changed into a perfect
Green. And why might not the same by parity of Reason be inferr’d of
other Seeds? That, as to its size, it grew but little bigger than when
first set. Whence, as I discern’d (the Augmentation being but little)
we here had only the two Lobes: So, (as some augmentation there was) I
inferr’d the like might be, and that, in farther degrees, in other Seeds.

Next, of the _Cucumber_-seed. That, as to its Colour, often appearing
above ground in its Primitive white, from white it turns to yellow,
and from yellow to green, the proper colour of a Leaf: That, as to its
size, though at its first arise, the Lobes were little bigger than upon
setting; yet afterwards as they chang’d their Colour, so their Dimensions
also, growing to a three-four-five-fold amplitude above their primitive
size: But whereas the Lobes of the Seed are in proportion, narrow, short
and thick, how then come the dissimilar Leaves to be so exceeding broad,
or long and thin? The Question answers it self: For the dissimilar
Leaves, for very reason are so thin, because so very broad or long; as
we see many things, how much they are extended in length or breadth, so
much they lose in depth, or grow more thin; which is that which here
befalls the now effoliated Lobes. For being once disimprisoned from their
Coats, and the course of the Sap into them now more and more encreased,
they must needs very considerably amplifie themselves; and from the
manner wherein the _Seminal Root_ is branched in them, that amplification
cannot be in thickness, but in length or breadth: In both which, in some
dissimilar Leaves ’tis very remarkable; especially in length, as in those
of _Lettice_, _Thorn-Apple_, and others; whose Seeds, although very
small, yet the Lobes of those Seeds growing up into Dissimilar Leaves,
are extended an Inch, and sometimes more, in length; though he that
shall attempt to get a clear sight of the Lobes of _Thorn-Apple_, and
some others, by Dissection, will find it no easy Task; yet is that which
may be obtained. From all which, and the observation of other Seeds, I
at last found, that the dissimilar Leaves of a young Plant, are nothing
else but the Lobes or _main Body_ of its Seed: So that as the Lobes did
at first feed and impregnate the _Radicle_ into a _perfect Root_; so the
_Root_ being perfected, doth again feed, and by degrees amplifie each
Lobe into a perfect Leaf.

The Original of the dissimilar Leaves thus known, we understand, why some
Plants have none; because the Seed either riseth not, as _Garden-Beans_,
_Corn_, &c. Or upon rising, the Lobes are little alter’d, as _Lupines_,
_Pease_, &c. Why, though the proper Leaves are often indented round; the
dissimilar, like the Lobes, are even-edg’d. Why, though the proper Leaves
are often hairy, yet these are ever smooth. Why some have more dissimilar
Leaves than two, as _Cresses_, which have six, as the Ingenious Mr.
_Sharrock_ also observes; the reason whereof is, because the _Main
Body_ is not divided into two, but six, distinct Lobes, as I have often
counted. Why _Radishes_ seem at first to have four, which yet after
appear plainly two; because the Lobes of the Seed have both a little
Indenture, and are both plaited, one over the other. To which we might

The use of the dissimilar Leaves is, first, for the protection of the
_Plume_; which being but young, and so but soft and tender, is provided
with these, as a double Guard, one on either side of it. For this
reason it is, that the _Plume_ in Corn is trussed up within a membranous
Sheath; and that of a _Bean_, cooped up betwixt a pair of _Surfoyls_; but
where the Lobes rise, there the _Plume_ hath neither of them, being both

Again, that since the _Plume_, being yet tender, may be injured not
only by the Air, but also for want of Sap, the supplies from the Root
being yet but slow and sparing; that the said _Plume_ therefore, by the
dissimilar Leaves, may have the advantage likewise of some refreshment
from Dew or Rain. For these having their Basis a little beneath that of
the _Plume_, and expanding themselves on all sides of it, they often
stand after Rain, like a Vessel of Water, continually soaking and
supplying it, lest its new access into the Ayr, should shrivel it.

Moreover, that since the dissimilar Leaves by their Basis intercept the
_Root_ and _Plume_, the greater and grosser part of the Sap may be by
the way deposited into those; and so the purest proceed into the yet but
young and delicate _Plume_, as its fittest Aliment.

Lastly, we have here a demonstration of the being of the _Seminal Root_;
which since through the colour or smallness of the Seed, it could not by
dissection be observ’d, except in some few; Nature hath here provided us
a way of viewing it in the now effoliated Lobes, not of one or two Seeds,
but of hundreds; the _Seminal Root_ visibly branching it self towards the
Cone and Verges of the said Lobes, or now dissimilar Leaves.


_Of the Root._

Having examin’d and pursu’d the Degrees of _Vegetation_ in the _Seed_,
we find its two Lobes have here their utmost period; and, that having
conveyed their Seminalities into the _Radicle_ and into the _Plume_;
these therefore as the Root and Trunk of the Plant still survive; Of
these in their order we next proceed to speak; and first, of the _Root_:
whereof, as well as of the _Seed_, we must by Dissection inform our

In Dissection of a _Root_ then, we shall find it with the _Radicle_, as
the Parts of an old man with those of a _Fœtus_, substantially one. The
first Part occurring is its skin, the Original whereof is from the Seed:
For that extream thin Cuticle which is spred over the Lobes of the Seed,
and from thence over the _Radicle_, upon the shooting of the _Radicle_
into a Root, is co-extended, and becomes its Skin.

The next Part is the _Cortical Body_; the Original whereof likewise is
from the Seed; or the _Parenchyma_, which is there common both to the
Lobes and _Radicle_, being by Vegetation augmented and prolonged into the
_Root_, is here the _Cortical Body_, or that which is sometimes called
the _Barque_.

The Contexture of this _Cortical Body_ may be well illustrated by
that of a _Sponge_, being a Body Porous, Dilative, and Pliable. Its
Pores, as they are innumerable, so extream small. These Pores are not
only susceptive of so much Moisture as to fill, but also to enlarge
themselves, and so to dilate the _Cortical Body_ wherein they are; which
by the shriv’ling in thereof, by being expos’d to the Air, is also seen.
In which dilatation many of its Parts becoming more lax and distant, and
none of them suffering a solution of their continuity; ’tis a Body also
sufficiently pliable; or, a most exquisitely fine-wrought Sponge.

The Extention of these Pores is much alike both by their length and
breadth of the Root; which from the shrinking up of the _Cortical Body_,
in a piece of a cut Root, by the same dimensions, is argu’d.

The proportions of this _Cortical Body_ are various: If thin, ’tis
called a _Barque_; & thought to serve to no other end, than what is
usually ascrib’d to it as a _Barque_; which is a narrow conceit: If a
Bulky Body in comparison with that within it, as in the young Roots of
_Cychory_, _Asparagus_, &c. ’tis here, because the fairest, therefore
taken for the prime Part; which, though, as to Medicinal use, it is;
yet, as to the private use of the Plant, not so. The Colour hereof,
though it be originally white, yet in the continued growth of the Root,
divers Tinctures, as yellow in _Dock_, red in _Bistort_, are thereinto

Next within this Part stands the _Lignous Body_; the Original whereof,
as of the two former, is from the Seed; or, the _Seminal Roots_ of both
the Lobes, being united in the _Radicle_, and with its _Parenchyma_
co-extended, is here in the Root the _Lignous Body_.

The Contexture hereof is, in many of its parts, much more close than that
of the _Cortical_; and their Pores very different: For whereas those of
the _Cortical_ are infinitely numerous, these of the _Lignous_ are in
comparison, nothing so. But these, although fewer, yet are they many of
them more open, fair, and visible: as in a very thin Slice cut athwart
the young Root of a Tree, and held up against the Light, is apparent: Yet
not in all equally, in _Coran_-Tree, in _Goosberry_-Tree, _&c._ less; in
_Oak_, _Plums_, and especially _Damascens_, more; in _Elder_, _Vines_,
&c. more conspicuous. And as they are different in number and size,
so also (whereon the numerousness of the Pores of the _Cortical Body_
principally depends) in their shape. For whereas those of the _Cortical
Body_ are extended much alike both by the length and breadth of the
_Root_; these of the _Lignous_ are only by the length; which, especially
in _Vines_ and some other _Roots_, is evident. Of these Pores, ’tis also
observable, that although in all places of the _Root_ they are visible,
yet most fair and open about the _Fibrous Extremities_ of some _Roots_
(and in many _Roots_ higher) where there is no Pith. These Pores, as they
shew in young _Roots_ of Trees, see in _Fig. 6_, & _7_.

This _Lignous Body_ lieth with all its Parts, so far as they are visible,
in a Circle or Ring; yet are there divers extream small Fibres thence
shooting, usually mixed with the _Cortical Body_; and by the somewhat
different colour of the said _Cortical Body_ where they stand, may be
noted these Fibres; the _Cortical Body_ and _Skin_ all together, properly
make the _Barque_.

The proportion betwixt this _Lignous Body_ and the _Cortical_, is
various, as was said; yet in this, constant, _sc._ that in the fibrous,
and smaller Parts of the _Root_, the _Lignous Body_ is not only in
compass, but in quantity the less; running like a slender Wyer or Nerve
through the other surrounding it. They stand both together pyramidally,
which is most common to _Infant-Roots_, but also to many other.

The next Part observable in the _Root_, is the _Insertment_. The
existence hereof, so far as we can yet observe, is sometimes in
the _Radicle_ of the Seed it self; I cannot say alwayes. As to its
substantial nature, we are more certain; that it is the same with that
of the _Parenchyma_ of the _Radicle_; being alwayes at least augmented,
and so, in part, originated from the _Cortical Body_, and so, at second
hand, from the said _Parenchyma_: For in dissecting a _Root_, we find,
that the _Cortical Body_ doth not only environ the _Lignous_, but is also
wedg’d, and in many pieces inserted into it; and that the said inserted
pieces, make not a meer Indenture, but transmit and shoot themselves
quite through as far as the Pith; which in a thin Slice cut athwart the
_Root_ as so many lines drawn from the Circumference towards the Center,
shew themselves. See _Fig. 6_, & _7_.

The Pores of the _Insertment_ are sometimes, at least, extended somewhat
more by the breadth of the _Root_, as about the top of the _Root_ of
_Borage_ may be seen; and are thus different from those of the _Cortical
Body_, which are extended by the length and breadth much alike; and from
those of the _Lignous_, being only by its length.

The number and size of these Insertions are various. In _Hawthorn_, and
some others, and especially _Willows_, they are most extream small; in
_Cherries_ and _Plums_ they are large; and in _Damascens_ especially,
very fairly apparent. In the _Roots_ of small _Plants_ they are generally
more easily discoverable; which may lead to the observation of them in

These Insertions, although they are continuous through both the length
and breadth of the _Root_; yet not so in all Parts, but by the several
shootings of the _Lignous Body_ are frequently intercepted. For of the
_Lignous Body_ it is (here best) observable, That its several shootings,
betwixt which the _Cortical_ is inserted, are not throughout the _Root_
wholly distinct; but that all along being enarch’d, the _Lignous Body_,
both in length and breadth, is thus disposed into Braces or Osculations.
Betwixt these several shootings of the _Lignous Body_ thus osculated,
the _Cortical_ shooting, and being also osculated answerably Brace for
Brace, that which I call the _Insertment_ is fram’d thereof.

These Osculations are so made, that the Pores of the _Lignous Body_, I
think, notwithstanding, seldom run one into another; but, for the most
part, still keep distinct; in the same manner as some of the Nerves,
though they meet, and for some space are associated together, yet ’tis
most probable that none of their Fibres are truly inosculated here, but
only in the Plexures.

These Osculations of the _Lignous Body_, and so the interception of the
Insertions of the _Cortical_, are not to be observ’d by the traverse
cut of the _Root_, but by taking off the _Barque_, or the _Cortical
Body_. In the Roots of Trees, they are generally obscure; but in Plants,
often more distinctly apparent; and especially in a _Turnep_: the
appearance whereof, the _Cortical Body_ being stripp’d off, is as a piece
of close-wrought Network, fill’d up with the Insertions of the said
_Cortical Body_. See _Fig. 8_.

The next and last distinct Part of the _Root_ is the _Pith_. The
substantial nature thereof, is, as was said of the _Insertment_, the
same likewise with that of the _Parenchyma_ of the Seed. And according
to the best observation we have yet made, ’tis sometimes existent in its
_Radicle_; in which, the two main Branches of the Lobes both meeting, and
being osculated together, are thus dispos’d into one round Trunk, and so
environing part of the _Parenchyma_, make thereof a _Pith_; as in either
the _Radicle_, or the young _Root_ of the great _Bean_ or _Lupine_, may,
I think, be well seen.

But many times the Original hereof is immediately from the _Cortical
Body_. For in dissection of divers _Roots_ both of Trees and Plants, as
of _Barberry_ or _Mallows_, it is observable, that the _Cortical Body_
and _Pith_ are both of them participant of the same Colour; in the
_Barberry_ both of them tinged yellow, and in _Mallows_ green. In cutting
the smaller Parts of the Roots of many Plants, as of _Borage_, _Mallows_,
_Parsley_, _Columbine_, &c. ’tis also evident, that the _Lignous Body_ is
not there in the least Concave, but standeth perfectly in the Center; and
that the Insertions being gradually multiplied afterwards, the _Pith_ at
length, towards the thicker parts of the _Root_, shews and enlarges it
self. Whence it appears, that in all such _Roots_, the _Pith_ is not only
of the same substantial nature, and by the Insertions doth communicate
with the _Cortical Body_; and that it is also more or less augmented
by it; which is true of the _Pith_ of all _Roots_; but is moreover, by
mediation of the said Insertions, wholly originated from it. The various
appearances of the _Insertions_ and _Pith_ from the Fibrous Parts to the
top of the _Root_, see in _Fig. 9_, _10_, _11_, _12_, _13_, _14_. The
Pores of the _Lignous Body_, entire in the said Fibrous Parts, are best
seen when they have lain by a night dry, after cutting.

A farther evidence hereof are the Proportions betwixt the _Cortical
Body_ and _Pith_. For as about the inferiour Parts of the _Root_, where
the _Pith_ is small, the _Cortical Body_ is proportionably great; so
about the top, where the _Pith_ is enlarged, the _Cortical Body_ groweth
proportionably less, _sc._ because by its Insertions, ’tis gradually
bestowed into the _Pith_. Likewise the peculiar frame of some _Roots_,
wherein besides the _Pith_, the _Lignous Body_ being divided into a
double Ring, there is also a thick Ring, of a white and soft substance,
stands betwixt them; and is nothing else but the Insertions of the
_Cortical Body_ collected into the said Ring; but, towards the top of the
Root, being inserted again, thus maketh a large and ample _Pith_; as in
_Fennel_-Roots is seen.

The Pores of the _Pith_, as those of the _Cortical Body_, are extended
both by the breadth and length of the _Root_, much alike; yet are they
more or less of a greater size than those of the _Cortical Body_.

The Proportions of the _Pith_, are various; in Trees, but small; in
Plants generally, very fair; in some making by far the greatest part
of the _Root_; as in a _Turnep_: By reason of the wide circumference
whereof, and so the finer Concoction and Assimilation of its Sap; that
part which in most old Trunks is a dry and harsh _Pith_, here proves a
tender pleasant meat. The parts of a _Turnep_ in the travers cut see in
_Fig. 8_.

In the Roots of very many Plants, as _Turneps_, _Carrots_, &c. the
_Lignous Body_, besides its main utmost Ring, hath divers of its
osculated Fibres dispersed throughout the Body of the _Pith_; sometimes
all alike, and sometimes more especially in, or near, its Center; which
Fibres, as they run towards the top of the _Root_, still declining the
Center, at last collaterally strike into its Circumference; either all
of them, or some few, keeping the Center still; of these principally the
_Lignous Body_ of the Trunk is often originated.

These Fibres, although they are so exceeding slender, yet in some
_Roots_, as in that of _Flower-de-liz_, they are visibly concave, each
of them, in their several Cavities also embosoming a very small _Pith_;
the sight whereof, the Root being cut traverse, and laid in a Window
for a day or two to dry, may without Glasses be obtained. And this is
the general account of the _Root_; the declaration of the manner of its
growth, with the use and service of its several parts, we shall next

We say then, that the _Radicle_ being impregnate, and shot into the
Moulds, the contiguous moisture, by the _Cortical Body_, being a Body
laxe and Spongy, is easily admitted: Yet not all indiscriminately, but
that which is more adapt to pass through the surrounding Cuticle. Which
transient Sap, though it thus becomes fine, yet is not simple; but a
mixture of Particles, both in respect of those originally in the Root,
and amongst themselves, somewhat heterogeneous. And being lodg’d in the
_Cortical Body_ moderately laxe, and of a Circular form; the effect will
be an easie Fermentation. The _Sap_ fermenting, a separation of Parts
will follow; some whereof will be impacted to the Circumference of the
_Cortical Body_, whence the Cuticle becomes a Skin; as we see in the
growing of the Coats of Cheeses, of the Skin over divers Liquors, and
the like. Whereupon the _Sap_ passing into the _Cortical Body_, through
this, as through a _Manica Hippocratis_, is still more finely filtred.
With which _Sap_, the _Cortical Body_ being dilated as far as its _Tone_,
without a solution of Continuity will bear; and the supply of the _Sap_
still renew’d; and the purest part, as most apt and ready, recedes, with
its due Tinctures, from the said _Cortical Body_, to the _Lignous_.
Which _Lignous Body_ likewise super-inducing its own proper Tinctures
into the said _Sap_; ’tis now to its highest preparation wrought up,
and becomes (as they speak of that of an Animal) the Vegetative _Ros_
or _Cambium_: the noblest part whereof is at last coagulated in, and
assimilated to the like substance with the said _Lignous Body_. The
remainder, though not united to it, yet tinctur’d therein, thus retreats,
that is, by the continual appulse of the _Sap_, is in part carried off
into the _Cortical Body_ back again, the _Sap_ whereof it now tinctures
into good Aliment: So that whereas before the _Cortical Body_ was only
relaxed in its Parts, and so dilated; ’tis now increas’d in real quantity
or number of parts, and so is truly nourish’d. And the _Cortical Body_
being saturate with so much of this Vital _Sap_ as serves it self;
and the second Remainders discharged thence to the Skin; this also is
nourish’d and augmented therewith. So that as in an _Animal Body_ there
is no instauration or growth of Parts made by the Bloud only, but the
_Nervous Liquor_ is also thereunto assistant; so is it here: the _Sap_
prepared in the _Cortical Body_, is as the Arterious; and that part
thereof prepared by the _Lignous_, is as the _Nervous Liquor_; which
partly becoming Nutriment to it self, and partly being discharged back
into the _Cortical Body_, and diffusing its Tincture through the _Sap_
there, that to the said _Cortical Body_ and _Skin_, becomes also true
Nutriment, and so they all now grow.

In which growth, a proportion in length and breadth is requisite: which
being rated by the benefit of the Plant, both for firm standing and
sufficient Sap, must therefore principally be in length. And because it
is thus requisite, therefore by the constitution of one of its Parts,
_sc._ the _Lignous Body_, it is also made necessary. For the Pores
hereof, in that they are all extended by its length, the _Sap_ also
according to the frame and site of the said Pores will principally move;
and that way as its _Sap_ moves, the same way will the generation of its
Parts also proceed; _sc._ by its length. And the _Lignous Body_ first
(that is, by a priority causal) moving in length it self; the _Cortical_
also moves therewith. For that which is nourish’d, is extended; but
whatever is extended, is mov’d; that therefore which is nourish’d, is
mov’d: The _Lignous Body_ then being first nourish’d, ’tis likewise first
mov’d, and so becomes and carries in it the Principle of all Vegetative
motion in the _Cortical_; and so they both move in length.

Yet as the _Lignous Body_ is the Principle of Motion in the _Cortical_;
so the _Cortical_ is the Moderator of that in the _Lignous_: As in Animal
Motions, the Principle is from the Nerves; yet being once given to the
Muscle or Limb, and that moving proportionably to its structure, the
Nerves also are carried in the same motion with it. We suppose therefore,
that as the principal motion of the _Lignous Body_ is in length, so is
its proper tendency also to ascend: But being much exceeded both in
Compass and Quantity by the _Cortical_ as in the smaller parts of the
_Root_ it is; it must needs therefore be over-born and governed by it;
and so, though not lose its motion, yet make it that way wherein the
_Cortical Body_ may be more obedient to it; which will be by descent:
Yet both of them being sufficiently pliable, they are thus capable, where
the Soyl I may oppose a direct descent, there to divert any way where it
is more penetrable, and so to descend obliquely. For the same reason it
may also be, that though you set a _Bean_ with the _Radicle_ upward; yet
the _Radicle_, as it shoots, declining also gradually, is thus arch’d in
form of an Hook, and so at last descends. For every declination from a
perpendicular Line, is a mixed motion betwixt Ascent and Descent; as that
of the _Radicle_ also is, and so seeming to be dependent upon the two
contrary Tendencies of the _Lignous_ and _Cortical Bodies_. What may be
the cause of those Tendencies (being most probably external, and perhaps
something of a _Magnetisme_) is besides my Task here to enquire.

Now although the _Lignous Body_, by the position and shape of its Pores,
principally groweth in length; yet will it in some degree likewise in
breadth: For it cannot be supposed that the purest _Sap_ is all received
into the said Pores; but that part thereof likewise, staying about its
_Superficial parts_, is there tinctur’d and agglutinated to them. And
because these Pores are prolonged by its length; therefore is it much
more laxe and easily divisible that way; as in slitting a Stick, or
cleaving of Timber, and in cutting and hewing them athwart is also seen.
Whence it comes to pass, that in shooting from the Center towards the
Circumference, and there finding more room, its said original Laxity
doth easily in divers places now become greater, and at length in open
Partments plainly visible. Betwixt which Partments, the _cortical Body_,
being bound in on the one hand, by the surrounding Skin and Moulds, and
pressed upon by the _Lignous_ on the other, must needs insert it self,
and so move contrary to it, from the Circumference towards the Center:
where the said contrary motions continued as begun, they at last meet,
unite, and either make or augment the _Pith_. And thus the _Root_ is
fram’d, and the Skin, the _cortical_ and _Lignous Bodies_, so as is said,
hereunto concurrent. We shall next shew the use of the two other Parts,
_sc_. the _Insertment_ and _Pith_; and first of the _Pith_.

One true use of the _Pith_ is for the better Advancement of the _Sap_,
whereof we shall speak in the next Chapter. The use we here observe is
for the quicker and higher Fermentation of the _Sap_: For although the
Fermentation made in the _Cortical Body_ was well subservient to the
first Vegetations, yet those more perfect ones in the _Trunk_ which after
follow, require a Body more adapted to it, and that is the _Pith_; which
is so necessary, as not to be only common to, but considerably large
in the _Roots_ of most Plants; if not in their inferiour parts, yet at
their tops. Where though either deriv’d or amplify’d from the _Cortical
Body_, yet being by its Insertions only, we may therefore suppose, as
those, so this, to be more finely constituted. And being also from its
co-arctation, while inserted, now free; all its Pores, upon the supply
of the _Sap_, will more or less be amplified: Upon which accounts, the
_Sap_ thereinto received, will be more pure, and its fermentation therein
more active. And as the _Pith_ is superiour to the _Cortical Body_ by its
Constitution, so by its Place. For as it thus stands central, it hath
the _Lignous Body_ surrounding it. Now as the Skin is the Fence of the
_Cortical Body_, and that of the _Lignous_; so is the _Lignous_ again a
far more preheminent one unto the _Pith_; the _Sap_ being here a brisk
Liquor, tunn’d up as in a wooden Cask.

And as the _Pith_ subserves the higher Fermentation of the _Sap_; so do
the Insertions its purer Distribution; that separation which the parts
of the _Sap_, by being fermented in the _Pith_, were dispos’d for;
being, upon its entrance into the Insertions, now made: So that as the
Skin is a Filtre to the _Cortical Body_, so are the Insertions a more
preheminent one to the _Lignous_; and as they subserve the purer, so the
freer and sufficient distribution of the _Sap_: For the _Root_ enlarging,
and so the _Lignous Body_ growing thicker, although the _Cortical_ and
the _Pith_ might supply _Sap_ sufficient to the nutrition of its Parts
next adjacent to them; yet those more inward, must needs be scanted
of their _Aliment_; and so, if not quite starv’d, yet be uncapable of
equal growth: Whereas the _Lignous Body_ being through its whole breadth
frequently disparted, and the _Cortical Body_ inserted through it; the
_Sap_ by those Insertions, as the Blood by the disseminations of the
_Arteries_, is freely and sufficiently convey’d to its intimate Parts,
even those which from either the _cortical Body_ or the _Pith_ are most
remote. Lastly, as the consequent hereof, they are thus assistant to the
Latitudinal growth of the _Root_; as the _Lignous Body_ to its growth in
length; so these Insertions of the _Cortical_, to its better growth in

Having thus seen the solitary uses of the Several Parts of the _Root_,
we shall lastly propound our Conjectures of that Design whereto they
are all together concurrent, and that is the Circulation of the _Sap_:
For the _Sap_ moving through the _cortical Body_, towards the _Pith_,
through the Insertions thereinto, obtains a pass: Which passage, the
superiour Insertions will not favour; because the _Pith_ standing in the
same height with them, is there large, the fermenting and course of the
_Sap_ quick, and so its opposition strong. But through the inferiour
it will much more easily enter; because there, through the smalness of
the _Pith_, the opposition is little, and through the shortness of the
Insertions, the way more open. So that though the _Sap_ may meet with
some opposition even here, yet here meeting with the least, here it will
bestow it self (feeding the _Lignous Body_ in its passage) into the
_Pith_. Into which fresh _Sap_ still entring, this, yet but crude, will
subside: that first received and so become a Liquor higher wrought, will
more easily mount upwards; and moving in the _Pith_, as in the _Arteria
magna_, in equal altitude with the more superiour Insertions; the most
volatile parts of all will still continue their direct ascent towards
the _Trunk_. But those of a middle nature, and, as not apt to ascend,
so being lighter than those beneath them, not to descend neither; they
will tend from the _Pith_ towards the Insertions in a motion betwixt
both; through which Insertions (feeding the _Lignous Body_ in its
passage) it is, by the next subsequent _Sap_, discharged off into the
_cortical Body_, as into the _Vena cava_, back again. Wherein, being
still pursu’d by fresh _Sap_ from the Center, and more occurring from
the Circumference, towards the inferiour Insertions it thus descends;
through which, together with part of the _Sap_ afresh imbib’d from the
Mould, it re-enters the _Pith_. From whence, into the _Cortical Body_,
and from thence into the _Pith_, the cruder part thereof reciprocally
is disburs’d; while the most Volatile, not needing the help of a
Circulation, more directly ascendeth towards the _Trunk_.


_Of the Trunk._

Having thus declar’d the degrees of _Vegetation_ in the _Root_; the
continuance hereof in the _Trunk_ shall next be shew’d: in order to
which, the Parts whereof this likewise is compounded, we shall first

That which without dissection shews it self, is the _Coarcture_: I cannot
say of the _Root_, nor of the _Trunk_; but what I chuse here to mention,
as standing betwixt them, and so being common to them both; all their
Parts being here bound in closer together, as in the tops of the grown
Roots of very many Plants, is apparent.

Of the Parts of the _Trunk_, the first occurring is its _Skin_: The
Formation whereof, is not from the Air, but in the _Seed_, from whence it
is originated; being the production of the Cuticle, there investing the
two _Lobes_ and _Plume_.

The next Part is the _Cortical Body_; which here in the _Trunk_ is no new
substantial formation; but, as is that of the _Root_, originated from the
_Parenchyma_ of the _Seed_; and is only the increase and augmentation
thereof. The _Skin_, this _Cortical Body_ properly so call’d, and (for
the most part) some Fibers of the _Lignous_ mixed herewith, all together
make the _Barque_.

Next, the _Lignous_ Body, which, whether it be visibly divided into
many softer Fibres, as in _Fennel_, and most Plants; or that its parts
stand more compact and close, shewing one hard, firm and solid piece,
as in Trees; it is in all one and the same Body; and that not formed
originally in the _Trunk_, but in the _Seed_; being nothing else but the
prolongation of the _Inner Body_ distributed in the _Lobes_ and _Plume_

Lastly, The _Insertions_ and _Pith_ are here originated likewise from
the _Plume_, as the same in the _Root_ from the _Radicle_: So that as
to their substantial Parts, the _Lobes_ of the Seed, the _Radicle_ and
_Plume_, the _Root_ and _Trunk_ are all one.

Yet some things are more fairly observable in the _Trunk_. First, the
_Latitudinal_ shootings of the _Lignous Body_, which in _Trunks_ of
several years growth, are visible in so many Rings, as is commonly known:
For several young Fibres of the _Lignous Body_, as in the _Root_, so
here, shooting into the _Cortical_ one year, and the spaces betwixt them
being after fill’d up with more (I think not till) the next, at length
they become altogether a firm compact Ring; the perfection of one Ring,
and the ground-work of another being thus made concomitantly.

From these Annual younger Fibres it is, that although the _Cortical Body_
and _Pith_ are both of the same substantial nature, and their Pores
little different; yet whereas the _Pith_, which the first year is green,
and of all the Parts the fullest of _Sap_, becomes afterwards white and
dry; the _Cortical Body_, on the contrary, so long as the Tree grows,
ever keepeth green and moist, _sc._ because the said Fibers annually
shoot into, and so communicate with it.

The Pores likewise of the _Lignous Body_, many of them in well-grown
Timber, as in Oaken boards, are very conspicuous, in cutting both
lengthwise and traverse; they very seldom run one into another, but keep,
like so many several Vessels, all along distinct; as by cutting, and so
following any one of them as far as you please, for a Foot or half a
Yard, or more together, may be observ’d.

These greater Pores, though in Wainscot, Tables, and the like, where they
have lain long open, they are but meer Vacuities, and so would be thought
to contain only _Sap_ in the Tree, and afterwards only Air; yet upon a
fresh cut, each of them may be seen fill’d up with a light and spongie
Body, which by Glasses, and even by the bare eye, appears to be a perfect
_Pith_; sometimes entire, and sometimes more or less broken.

Besides these, there are a lesser sort; which, by the help of a
_Microscope_, also appear, if not to be fill’d up with a _Pith_, yet to
contain certain light and filmy parts, more or fewer, of a _Pithy_ nature
within them.

And these are all the Pores the best Glasses, which, (when upon these
Enquiries) we had at hand, would shew us. But the Learned and most
Ingenious Naturalist Mr. _Hook_ sheweth us moreover, besides these, a
third, and yet smaller sort; the description whereof I find he hath
given us amongst his _Microscopical Observations_. Of these Pores (as a
confirmation of what, in the Second Chapter, I have said of the Pores
of the _Lignous Body_ in general) he also demonstrates; that they are
all continuous and prolonged by the length of the _Trunk_; as are the
greater ones; the Experiment whereof he imparteth to be, by filling up,
suppose in a piece of _Char-coal_, all the said Pores with _Mercury_;
which appears to pass quite through them, in that by a very good Glass it
is visible in their Orifices at both ends; and without a Glass, by the
weight of the Coal alone, is also manifest.

Upon farther Enquiry, I likewise find, that the Pores of the _Lignous
Body_ in the _Trunk_ of Plants, which at first only supposed, by the help
of good Glasses are very fairly visible; each Fibre being perforated by
30, 50, 100, or hundreds of Pores. Or what I think is the truest notion
of them, that each Fibre, though it seem to the bare eye to be but one,
yet is indeed a great number of Fibres together; every Pore being not
meerly a space betwixt the several pores of the Wood, but the Concave
of a Fiber: So that if it be asked, what all that part of a Vegetable,
either Plant or Tree, which is properly call’d the woody part; what all
that is, I suppose, that is nothing else but a Cluster of innumerable and
most extraordinary small Vessels or concave Fibres. See _Fig. 15_.

Next the Insertions of the _Cortical Body_, which in the _Trunk_ of
a Tree saw’d athwart, are plainly discerned as they run from the
Circumference toward the Center; the whole Body of the Tree being visibly
compounded of two distinct Substances, that of the several Rings, and
that of the Insertions, running cross; shewing that in some resemblance
in a Plain, which the Lines of Latitude and of the Meridian do in a
Globe. See _Fig. 16_.

These Insertions are likewise very conspicuous in Sawing of Trees
length-wayes into Boards, and those plain’d, and wrought into Leaves for
Tables, Wainscot, Trenchers, and the like. In all which, as in course
Trenchers made of _Beech_, and Tables of Oak, there are many parts which
have a greater smoothness than the rest; and are so many inserted pieces
of the _Cortical Body_; which by reason of those of the _Lignous_, seem
to be discontinuous; although in the _Trunk_ they are extended throughout
its Breadth.

These Insertions, although as is said, of a quite distinct substance
from the _Lignous Body_, and so no where truly incorporated with it, yet
being they are in all parts, the one as the Warp, the other as the Woof,
mutually braced and inter-woven together, they thus constitute one strong
and firmly coherent Body.

As the Pores are greater or less, so are the Insertions also: To the bare
eye usually the greater only are discernable: But through an indifferent
_Microscope_ there are others also, much more both numerous and small,
distinctly apparent. So that, I think, we may observe, that as the grand
_Pith_ of the _Trunk_ communicates with, and is augmented by the greater
Insertions; so is the _Pith_ of each greater Pore originated from the
less; and those (at least) pithy parts in the Midling Pores, from others
still less; and suppose, that the least of all are so far intruded into
the smallest Pores, as only just to cause a kind of roughness on their
concave sides, and no more; to what end shall be said. See _Fig. 17_.

In none of all these Pores can we observe any thing which may have the
true nature and use of Valves, which is easily to admit that, to which
they will by no means allow a regress. And their non-existence is enough
evident, from what in the first Chapter we have said of the _Lobes_ of
the _Seed_: in whose _Seminal Root_, were there any _Valves_, it could
not be, that by a contrary course of the _Sap_, they should ever grow;
which yet, where-ever they turn into Dissimilar Leaves, they do. Or if
we consider the growth of the _Root_, which oftentimes is upward and
downward both at once.

The Insertions here in the _Trunk_ give us likewise a sight of the
position of their Pores. For in a plained piece of Oak, as in Wainscot,
Tables, _&c._ besides the larger Pores of the _Lignous Body_, which
run by the length of the _Trunk_; the Tract likewise of those of the
Insertions may be observed to be made by the breadth, and so directly
cross. Nor are they continuous as those of the _Lignous Body_, but very
short, as those both of the _Cortical Body_ and _Pith_, with which the
Insertions, as to their substance are congenerous. Yet they all stand so
together, as to be plainly ranked in even Lines or Rows throughout the
breadth of the _Trunk_: As the Tract of these Pores appear to the naked
Eye, see in _Fig. 18_. By the best Microscope I have at hand, I can only
observe the Ranks of the Pores; not the Pores themselves, saving here and
there one; wherefore I have not describ’d them.

The Pores of the _Pith_ likewise being larger here in the _Trunk_, are
better observable than in the _Root_: the width whereof, in comparison
with their sides so exquisitely thin, may by an Honey-Comb be grosly
exemplified; and is that also which the vast disproportion betwixt the
Bulk and weight of a dry _Pith_ doth enough declare. In the _Trunks_ of
some Plants, they are so ample and transparent, that in cutting both by
the length and breadth of the _Pith_, some of them, even to the bare eye
would seem to be considerably extended by the length of the said _Pith_;
which once I also thought they were, and that only the rest of them were
but short and discontinuous, and as ’tis said, somewhat answerable to
the Cells of an Honey-Comb. This was the nearest we could come to them,
by conjecture, and the assistance of the best Glasses we then had by us,
when upon enquiry into the nature of the _Pith:_ But that Worthy Person
newly mentioned Mr. _Hooke_ sheweth us, that the Pores of the _Pith_,
particularly of _Elder-Pith_, so far as they are visible, are all alike
discontinuous; and that the _Pith_ is nothing else (to use his own words)
but an heap of Bubbles.

Besides what this Observation informs us of here, it farther confirms
what in the second Chapter we have said of the Original of the _Pith_
and _Cortical Body_, and of the sameness of both their natures with the
_Parenchyma_ of the Seed. For, upon farther enquiry with better Glasses,
I find, that the _Parenchyma_ of the _Plume_ and _Radicle_, and even of
the _Lobes_ themselves, though not so apparently, is nothing else but a
Mass of Bubbles.

In the _Piths_ of many Plants, the greater Pores have some of them lesser
ones within them, and some of them are divided with cross Membranes: And
betwixt their several sides, have, I think, other smaller Pores visibly
interjected. However, that they are all permeable, is most certain. They
stand together not indeterminately, but in even Ranks or Trains; as those
of the Insertions by the breadth, so these by the length of the _Trunk_.
And thus far there is a general corresponding betwixt the part of the
_Root_ and _Trunk_: Yet are there some considerable Disparities betwixt
them; wherein, and how they come to pass, and to what especial use and
end, shall next be said.

We say then, that the _Sap_ being in the _Root_ by Filtrations,
Fermentations (and in what _Roots_ needful, perhaps by Circulation also)
duly prepar’d; the prime part thereof passing through the intermediate
Coarcture, in due moderation and purity is entertain’d at last into the
_Trunk_. And the _Sap_ of the _Trunk_ being purer and more volatile, and
so it self apt to ascend; the motion of the _Trunk_ likewise will be
more noble, receiving a disposition and tendency to ascend therewith.
And what by the _Sap_ the _Trunk_ is in part dispos’d to, by the
respective position and quantity of its Parts it is effectually enabled.
For whereas in the _Root_ the _Lignous Body_ being in proportion with
the _Cortical_, but little, and all lying close within its Center; it
must therefore needs be under its controul: on the contrary, being here
comparatively of greater quantity, and also more dilated, and having
divers of its Branches standing more abroad towards the Circumference, as
both in the Leaves and Body of the young _Trunk_ and _Plume_, is seen;
it will in its own tendency to ascend, reduce the _Cortical Body_ to a
compliance with it.

And the _Trunk_ thus standing from under the restraint of the Mould in
the open Air, the disposition of its Parts originally different from
that of the Parts in the Root will not only be continued, but improved:
For by the force and pressure of the _Sap_ in its collateral Motion,
the _Lignous Body_ will now more freely and farther be dilated. And
this being dilated, the _Cortical Body_ also, must needs be inserted;
and is therefore in proportion alwayes more or less smaller here in the
_Trunk_, than in the _Root_. And as the _Cortical Body_ lessens, so the
_Pith_ will be enlarged, and by the same proportion is here greater. And
the _Pith_ being enlarged it self, its Pores (the _Lignous Body_, upon
its dilatation, as it were tentering and stretching out all their sides)
must needs likewise be enlarged with it, and accordingly are ever greater
in the _Pith_ of the _Trunk_, than of the _Root_. And the dilatation of
the _Lignous Body_ still continued, it follows, that whereas the _Pith_
descendent in the _Root_, is not only in proportion less and less, but
also in the smaller extremities thereof, and sometimes higher altogether
absent: Contrariwise, in the _Trunk_ it is not only continued to its
top, but also there in proportion equally ample with what it is in any
other inferiour part.

But although the openness of the Ayr permitting be alwayes alike; yet the
Energy of the _Sap_ effecting; being different; as therefore that doth,
the dilatation of the _Trunk_ will also vary. If that be less, so is
this; as in the _Trunks_ of most Trees: If that be greater, so is this;
as in Plants is common; the _Lignous Body_ being usually so far dilated,
that the _utmost shootings_ thereof may easily be seen to jut out, and
adjoyn to the Skin. And if the _Sap_ be still of greater energy, it so
far dilates the _Lignous Body_, as not only to amplifie the _Pith_ and
all its Pores; but also so far to stretch them out, as to make them tear.
Whereupon either running again into the _Cortical Body_, or shrinking up
towards it, the _Trunk_ thus sometimes becomes an _hollow Stalk_, the
_Pith_ being wholly, or in part voyded. But generally it keeps entire;
and where it doth, the same proportion and respect to the _Lignous_ and
_Cortical Bodies_, as is said. The Consequences of all which will be,
the strength of the _Trunk_, the security and plenty of the _Sap_, its
Fermentation will be quicker, its Distribution more effectual, and its
Advancement more sufficient.

First, the erect growth and strength of the _Trunk_; this being by the
position of its several parts effected: For besides the slendering of
the _Trunk_ still towards the top, the Circumferential position of the
_Lignous Body_ likewise is, and that eminently hereunto subservient: So
that as the _Lignous Body_ in the smaller part of the _Root_ standing
Central, we may thence conceive and see their pliableness to any
oblique motion; so here, on the contrary, the _Lignous Body_ standing
wide, it thus becomes the strength of the _Trunk_, and most advantageous
to its perpendicular growth. We see the same Design in _Bones_ and
_Feathers_: The strongest _Bones_, as those in the Legs, are hollow.
Now should we suppose the same _Bone_ to be contracted into a Solid
Body, although now it would be no heavier, and in that respect, as apt
for motion; yet would it have far less strength, than as it is dilated
to a Circumferential posture. And so for _Quills_, which, for the same
Reasons, in subserviency to flight, we see how exceeding light they are,
and yet, in comparison with the thinness of their Body, how very strong:
We see it not only in Nature, but Art. For hence it is that _Joyners_
and _Carpenters_ unite and set together their Timber-pieces and several
Works oftentimes with double Joynts; which, although they are no thicker
than a single one might be made, yet standing at a distance, have a
greater strength than that could have. And the same Architecture will
have the same use in the _Trunks_ of Plants, in most whereof ’tis very
apparent; as for instance, in Corn: For Nature designing its _Sap_ a
great Ascent for its higher maturity, hath given it a tall _Trunk_; but
to prevent its ravenous despoiling either of the Ear or Soyl; although it
be tall, yet are its sides but thin: and because again, it should grow
not only tall and thriftily, but for avoiding propping up, strongly too;
therefore, as its height is over-proportioned to the thinness of its
sides, so is its Circumference also; being so far dilated as to parallel
a _Quill_ it self. Besides the position of the _Lignous Body_ within the
compass of a Ring, we see some shootings thereof often standing beyond
the Circumference of the said Ring, making sometimes a triangular, oftner
a quadrangular Body of the _Trunk_; to the end, that the Ring being but
thin, and not self-sufficient, these, like Splinters to _Bones_, might
add strength and stability to it.

Next, the security and plenty of the _Sap_. For should the _Lignous
Body_, as it doth in the _Root_, its smaller parts, stand Central here
also, and so the _Cortical_ wholly surround it: the greater part of the
_Sap_ would thus be more immediately expos’d to the Sun and ayr; and
being lodg’d in a laxe Body, by them continually be prey’d upon, and
as fast as supplied to the _Trunk_, be exhausted. Whereas the _Pith_
standing in the Center, the _Sap_ therein being not only most remote
from the Ayr and Sun, but by the _Barque_, and especially the _Wood_,
being also surrounded and doubly immur’d, will very securely and
copiously be conveyed to all the Collateral parts, and (as shall be said
how) the top of the _Trunk_.

And the _Sap_ by the amplitude, and great porosity of the _Pith_ being
herein more copious, its Fermentation also will be quicker; which we see
in all Liquors by standing in a greater quantity together, proceeds more
kindly: And being tunn’d up within the _Wood_, is at the same time not
only secur’d from loss, but all extream mutations, the Day being thus not
too hot, nor the Night too cold for it.

And the Fermentation hereof being quicker, its motion also will be
stronger, and its distribution more effectual, not only to the
dilatation of the _Trunk_, but likewise the shooting out of the Branches.
Whence it is, that in the Bodies of Trees, the _Barque_ of it self,
though it be sappy, and many Fibres of the _Lignous Body_ mixed with it,
yet seldom sendeth forth any; and that in Plants, those with the least
_Pith_ (other advantages not supplying this defect) have the fewest or
smallest Branches, or other collateral Growths: and that _Corn_, which
hath no _Pith_, hath neither any Branches.

Lastly, the Advancement of the _Sap_ will hence also be more ready and
sufficient. For the understanding where, and how, we suppose that in all
_Trunks_ whatsoever there are two parts joyntly hereunto subservient.
In some the _Lignous Body_ and the _Cortical_, as in older _Trunks_,
the _Pith_ being either excluded or dried: But in most, principally
the _Lignous Body_ and _Pith_; as in most Annual Growths of Trees; but
especially Plants, where the _Cortical Body_ is usually much and often
wholly inserted.

Of the _Lignous_ body it is so apparent by its Pores, or rather by its
Vessels, that we need no farther evidence. For to what end are Vessels
but for the conveyance of Liquor? And is that also, which upon cutting
the young Branch of a Sappy Tree or Plant, by an accurate and steady view
may be observed. But when I say the Pores of the _Lignous Body_, I mean
principally them of the younger shootings, both those which make the new
Ring, and those which are mixed with the _Cortical Body_ in the _Barque_:
that which ascendeth by the Pores of the older Wood, being probably,
because in less quantity, more in form of a Vapour, than a Liquor. Yet
that which drenching into the sides of its Pores, is with all thereunto
sufficient Aliment; as we see _Orpine_, _Onions_, &c. only standing in
a moyster Ayr will often grow; And being likewise in part supplied by
the Insertions from the younger Shoots: But especially, because as it
is but little, so it serveth only for the growth of the said _Older
Wood_, and no more; whereas the more copious Aliment ascendent by the
younger Shoots, subserves not only their own growth, but the generation
of others; and is besides with that in the _Cortical Body_ the Fountain
of _Perspirations_, which we know even in Animals are much more abundant
than the _Nutritive parts_; and doubtless in a _Vegetable_ are still much

But these Pores, although they are a free and open way to the ascending
_Sap_; yet that meer Pores or Vessels should be able of themselves
to advance the _Sap_ with that speed, strength & plenty, and to that
height, as is necessary, cannot probably be supposed. It follows then,
that herein we must grant the _Pith_ a joynt service. And why else in
the smaller parts of the _Root_, where the _Pith_ is often wanting, are
the Pores there greater? Why is the _Pith_ in all primitive growths the
most _Sappy_ part, why hath it so great a stock of _Sap_, if not after
due maturation within it self still to be disbursed into the Fibres of
the _Lignous Body_? Why are the annual growths of all both Plants and
Trees with great Piths, the quickest and the longest? But how are the
Pores of the _Pith_ permeable? That they are so, both from their being
capable of a repletion with _Sap_, and of being again wholly emptied of
it, and again, instead thereof fill’d with Ayr, is as certain as that
they are Pores. That they are permeable, by the breadth, appears from the
dilatation of the _Lignous Body_, and from the production of Branches,
as hath been, and shall hereafter be said. And how else is there a
Communion betwixt this and the _Cortical Body_? That they are so also,
by the length, is probable, because by the best _Microscope_ we cannot
yet observ, that they are visibly more open by the breadth, than by the
length. And withal are ranked by the length, as those of the Insertions
by the breadth of the _Trunk_. But if you set a piece of dry _Elder-Pith_
in some tinged Liquor, why then doth it not penetrate the Pores, so as
to ascend through the Body of the _Pith_? The plain reason is, because
they are all fill’d with Ayr. Whereas the _Pith_ in a Vegetating Plant,
as its Parts or Pores are still generated, they are at the same time
also fill’d with _Sap_; which, as ’tis gradually spent, is still repair’d
by more succeeding, and so the Ayr still kept out; as in all primitive
growths, and the _Pith_ of _Elder_ it self: Yet the same _Pith_, by
reason of the following Winter, wanting a more copious and quick supply
of _Sap_, thus once become, ever after keeps dry. And since in the
aforesaid Trial the Liquor only ascends by the sides of the _Pith_, that
is of its broken Pores, we should thence by the same reason conclude that
they are not penetrable by the breadth neither, and so no way; and then
it need not be ask’d what would follow. But certainly the _Sap_ in the
Pores of the _Pith_ is discharged and repaired every moment, as by its
shriv’ling up; upon cutting the Plant is evident.

We suppose then, that as the _Sap_ ascendeth into the _Trunk_ by the
_Lignous Body_, so partly also by the _Pith_. For a piece of _Cotton_
with one end immers’d in some tinged Liquor, and with the other erect
above, though it will not imbibe the Liquor so far as to over-run at
the top, yet so as to advance towards it, it will; so here, the _Pith_
being a porous and spongy Body, and in its Vegetating state its Pores
also permeable, as a curious Filtre of Natures own contrivance, it thus
advanceth, or as people use to say, sucks up the _Sap_. Yet as it is seen
of the Liquor in the Cotton; so likewise are we to suppose it of the
_Sap_ in the _Pith_; that though it riseth up for some way, yet is their
some term, beyond which it riseth not, and towards which the motion of
the ascending _Sap_ is more and more broken, weak and slow, and so the
quantity thereof less and less. But because the _Sap_ moveth not only
by the length, but breadth of the _Pith_; at the same time therefore
as it partly ascendeth by the _Pith_, it is likewise in part pressed
into the _Lignous Body_ or into its Pores. And since the motion of the
_Sap_ by the breadth of the _Pith_ not being far continued, and but
collateral, is more prone and easie than the perpendicular, or by its
length; it therefore follows, that the collateral motion of the _Sap_,
at such a height or part of the _Pith_, will be equally strong with the
perpendicular at another part, though somewhat beneath it; and that
where the perpendicular is more broken and weak, the collateral will be
less; and consequently where the perpendicular tendency of the _Sap_
hath its term, the collateral tendency thereof, and so its pressure into
the Pores of the _Lignous Body_ will still continue. Through which, in
that they are small, and so their sides almost contiguous, the _Sap_
as fast as pressed into them will easily run up; as betwixt the two
halves of a Stick first slit, and then tied somewhat loosely together,
may also any Liquor be observed to do. And the sides of the said Pores
being not smooth, but by the intrusion of the smallest insertions made
somewhat rough; by that means the higher and more facile ascent of the
_Sap_ therein will farther be promoted. By all which Advantages the
facility and strength of that ascent will be continued higher in the said
Pores than in the _Pith_. Yet since this also, as well as that in the
_Pith_ will have its term; the _Sap_, although got thus far, would yet
at last be stagnant, or at least its ascent be very sparing, slow and
feeble, if not some way or other re-inforced. Wherefore, as the _Sap_
moving by the breadth of the _Pith_, presseth thence into the Pores of
the _Lignous Body_; so having well fill’d these, is in part by the same
Collateral motion disbursed back into a yet higher Region of the _Pith_.
By which partly, and partly by that portion of the _Sap_, which in its
perpendicular ascent was before lodged therein; ’tis thus here, as in any
inferiour place equally repleat. Whereupon the force and vigour of the
perpendicular motion of the _Sap_ herein will likewise be renew’d; and
so its Collateral motion also, and so its pressure into the Pores of the
_Lignous Body_, and consequently its ascent therein; and so by a pressure
from these into the _Pith_, and from the _Pith_ into these reciprocally
carried on, a most ready and copious ascent of the _Sap_ will be
continued from the bottom to the top, though of the highest _Trunk_.

_An Appendix._

_Of Trunk-Roots and Claspers._

The distinct Parts whereof these are constituted, are the same with those
of the _Trunk_, and but the continuation of them.

_Trunk-Roots_ are of two kinds: Of the one, are those that vegetate by a
direct descent: The place of their Eruption is sometimes all along the
_Trunk_; as in _Mint_, &c. Sometimes only at its utmost point, as in the

The other sort are such as neither ascend nor descend, but shoot forth
at right Angles with the _Trunk_; which therefore, though as to their
Office, they are true _Roots_, yet as to their Nature, they area _Middle
thing_ betwixt a _Root_ and a _Trunk_.

_Claspers_, though they are but of one kind, yet their nature is double;
not a mean betwixt that of the _Root_ and that of the _Trunk_, but
a compound of both; as in their Circumvolutions, wherein they often
mutually ascend and descend, is seen.

The use of these Parts may be observed as the _Trunk_ mounts, or as it
trails. In the mounting of the _Trunk_, they are for support and supply:
For support, we see the _Claspers_ of _Vines_; the Branches whereof being
very long, fragile and slender, unless by their _Claspers_ they were
mutually contain’d together, they must needs by their own weight, and
that of their Fruit, undecently fall, and be also liable to frequent
breaking. So that the whole care is divided betwixt the Gardener and
Nature; the Gardener with his Ligaments of Leather secures the main
Branches; and Nature with these of her own finding, secures the less.
Their Conveniency to which end, is seen in their Circumvolutions, a
motion not proper to any other Part: As also in their toughness or
strength, though much more slender than the Branches whereon they are

For Supply, we see the _Trunk-Roots_ of _Ivy_: For mounting very high,
and being of a closer Constitution than that of a _Vine_, the _Sap_
could not be sufficiently supplied to the upper Sprouts, unless these
to the _Mother-Root_ were joyntly assistant. Yet serve they for support
likewise; whence they shoot out, not as in _Cresses_, _Brook-lime_, &c.
reciprocally on each side, but commonly all in one; that so they may be
fastened at the nearest hand.

In the Trailing of the _Trunk_, they serve for stabiliment, propagation
and shade. For stabiliment, we see the _Claspers_ of _Cucumbers_: For
the _Trunk_ and _Branches_ being long and fragile, the Brushes of the
Winds would injuriously hoise them to and fro, to the dammage both of
themselves and their tender Fruit, were they not by these Ligaments
brought to good Association and Settlement.

As for this end, so for Propagation, we see the _Trunk-Roots_ of
_Camomile_. Whence we have the reason of the common observation, that it
grows better by being trod upon: the Mould, where too laxe, being thus
made to lie more conveniently about the said _Trunk-Roots_ newly bedded
therein; and is that which we see also effected in Rowling of _Corn_.

For both these ends, we see the _Trunk-Roots_ of _Strawberries_; as
also for shade; for in that we see all _Strawberries_ delight; and by
the trailing of the Plant is well obtain’d: So that as we are wont to
tangle the Twigs of Trees together to make an _Arbour Artificial_; the
same is here done to make a _Natural one_; as likewise by the _Claspers_
of _Cucumbers_: For the Branches of the one by the Linking of their
_Claspers_, and of the other by the Tethering of their _Trunk-Roots_,
being couched together; their tender fruits thus lie under the Umbrage of
a _Bower_ made of their own Leaves.


_Of the Germen, Branch, and Leaf._

The Parts of the _Germen_ and _Branch_, are the same with those of the
_Trunk_; the same _Skin_, _Cortical_ and _Lignous Bodies_, _Insertment_
and _Pith_, hereinto propagated, and distinctly observable herein.

For upon Enquiry into the Original of a _Branch_ or _Germen_, it appears,
That it is not from the _Superficies_ of the _Trunk_, but so deep, as to
take with the _Cortical_, the _Lignous Body_ into it self; and that not
only from its Circumference, but (so as to take the _Pith_ in also) from
its _Inner_ or _Central parts_. Divers whereof may commonly be seen to
shoot out into the _Pith_; from which _Shoots_ the surrounding and more
superiour _Germens_ are originated; in like manner as the _Lignous Body_
of the _Trunk_ is sometimes principally from those Fibrous _Shoots_ which
run along the _Pith_ in the _Root_.

The manner wherein usually the _Germen_ and _Branch_ are fram’d, is
briefly thus: The _Sap_ (as is said, _Chap. 3._) mounting in the
_Trunk_, will not only by its length, but by its breadth also, through
the _Insertions_ partly move. Yet, its Particles being not all alike
qualified, in different degrees: Some are more gross and sluggish;
of which we have the formation of a Circle of Wood only; or of an
Annual Ring: Others are more brisk; and by these we have the _Germen_
propagated. For by the vigour of their own motion from the Center, they
impress an equal tendency on some of the inner parts of the _Lignous
Body_ next adjacent to the _Pith_, to move with them. And since the
_Lignous Body_ is not entire, but frequently disparted; through these
dispartments, the said interiour Parts, upon their Nutrition, actually
shoot; not only towards the Circumference, so as to make part of a Ring,
but even beyond it, in order to the production of a _Germen_. And the
_Lignous Body_ thus moving, and carrying the _Cortical_ along with it;
they both make a force upon the _Skin_: Yet their motion being most even
and gradual, that force is such likewise; not to cause the least breach
of its parts, but gently to carry it on with themselves; and so partly
by the extension of its already existent parts, as of those of Gold in
drawing of Guilded Wyer; and partly by the accretion of new ones, as in
the enlarging of a Bubble above the Surface of the Water, it is extended
with them to their utmost growth. In which growth, the _Germen_ being
prolonged, and so displaying its several parts, as when a _Prospective_
or _Telescope_ is drawn out, thus becomes a _Branch_.

The same way as the propagation of the Parts of a _Germen_ is contriv’d
is its due nutrition also: For being originated from the inner part of
the _Lignous Body_, ’tis nourished with the best fermented _Sap_ in
the _Trunk_, _sc._ that next adjacent to it in the _Pith_. Besides,
since all its Parts, upon their shooting forth, divaricate from their
perpendicular, to a cross Line, as these and the other grow and thrive
together, bind and throng each other into a Knot; through which Knot the
_Sap_ being strain’d, ’tis thus in due moderation & purity delivered up
into the Branch.

And for Knots, they are so necessary, as to be seen not only where
collateral Branches put forth; but in such Plants also as shoot up in
one single _Trunk_; as in _Corn_; wherein, as they make for the strength
of the _Trunk_; so by so many percolations as they are Knots, for the
transmission of the _Sap_ more and more refined towards the Ear. So that
the two general uses of Knots are for firmer standing, and finer growth.

Lastly, as the due Formation and Nutrition of the _Germen_ are provided
for, so is its security also; which both in its position upon the
_Trunk_, and that of its Parts among themselves may be observed. The
position of its Parts shall be considered in speaking of the Leaf. As to
its standing in the _trunk_, ’tis alwayes betwixt the _trunk_ or _Elder
Branch_, and the _Basis_ of the Stalk of the _Leaf_; whereby it is not
only guarded from the Injuries of any contingent Violence, but also from
the more piercing assaults of the Cold, so long till in time ’tis grown,
as larger, so more hardy. The manner and uses of the position of every
_Germen_, considered as after it becomes a _Branch_, hath already been by
the Ingenious Mr. _Sharrock_ very well observed; to whom I refer.

Upon the prolongation of the _Germen_ into a _Branch_, its _Leaves_
are thus display’d. The Parts whereof are substantially the same with
those of a _Branch_: For the Skin of the Leaf is only the ampliation of
that of the _Branch_; being partly by the accretion of new, & partly
the extention of its already existent parts (dilated as in making of
_Leaf-Gold_) into its present breadth. The Fibres or Nerves dispersed
through the Leaf, are only the Ramifications of the _Branch_’s Wood,
or _Lignous Body_. The _Parenchyma_ of the Leaf which lies betwixt the
Nerves, and as in Gentlewomens Needle-works, fills all up, is nothing
else but the continuations of the _Cortical Body_, or inner part of the
_Barque_ from the _Branch_ into it self, as in most Plants with a fat
Leaf, may easily be seen.

The Fibres of the _Leaf_ neither shoot out of the _Branch_ nor _Trunk_,
nor stand in the _Stalk_, in an even Line; but alwayes in either an
Angular or Circular posture, and usually making either a Triangle, or a
Semi-Circle, or Cord of a Circle; as in _Cycory_, _Endive_, _Cabbage_,
&c. may be observed: And if the Leaf have but one main Nerve, that also
is postur’d in a Circular or Lunar Figure; as in _Mint_ and others. The
usual number of these Nerves or Fibres is 3, 5, or 7. See the _Figures_
from 20, to 29.

The reason of the said Positions of the Fibres in the _Stalk_ of the
_Leaf_, is for its more erect growth, and greater strength; which, were
the position of the said Fibres in an even Line, and so the Stalk it
self, as well as the Leaf flat, must needs have been defective; as from
what we have said of the Circumferential posture of the _Lignous Body_ in
the _Trunk_, we may better conceive.

As likewise for the security of its _Sap_: For by this means it is, that
the several Fibres, and especially the main or middle Fibre of the Leaf,
together with a considerable part of the _Cortical Body_, are so disposed
of, as to jut out, not from its upper, but its back, or nether plain.
Whence the whole Leaf, reclining backward, becomes a Canopy to them,
defending them from those Injuries which from colder Blasts, or an hotter
Sun, they might otherwise sustain. So that by a mutual benefit, as these
give suck to all the Leaf, so that again protection to these.

These Fibres are likewise the immediate visible Cause of the shape of the
Leaf: For if the nethermost Fibre or Fibres in the Stalk be in proportion
greater, the Leaf is long, as in _Endive_, _Cycory_, and others: If all
of a more equal size, it spreads rounder, as in _Ivy_, _Doves-foot_,
_Colts foot_, &c. And although a _Dock-Leaf_ be very long, whose Fibres
notwithstanding, as they stand higher in the Stalk, are disposed into a
Circle all of an equal size; yet herein a peculiar fibre, standing in the
Center betwixt the rest, and running through the length of the Leaf, may
be observed.

In correspondence also to the size and shape of these Fibres, is the Leaf
flat: In that either they are very small, or if larger, yet they never
make an entire Circle or Ring; but either half of one, as in _Borage_, or
at most three parts of one, as in _Mullen_, may be seen. For if either
they were so big, as to contain; or so entire, as perfectly to include
a _Pith_, the Energy of the _Sap_ in that _Pith_, would cause the said
_Lignous Ring_ to shoot forth on every side, as it doth in the _Root_ or
_Trunk_: But the said Fibres being not figur’d into an entire Ring, but
so as to be open; on that hand therefore where open, they cannot shoot
any thing directly from themselves, because there they have nothing to
shoot; and the _Sap_ having also a free vent through the said opening,
against that part therefore which is thereunto opposite, it can have no
force; and so neither will they shoot forth on that hand; and so will
they consequently that way only which the force of the _Sap_ directs,
which is only on the right and left.

The several Fibres in the Stalk, are all inosculated in the Leaf, with
very many Sub-divisions; according as these Fibres are inosculated
near, or at, or shoot directly to the edge of the Leaf, is it even or
scallop’d. Where these Inosculations are not made, there we have no
_Leaves_, but only a company of _Ramulets_, as in _Fennel_.

The Formations and Fouldings of Leaves have one Date, or are the
contemporary works of Nature; each Leaf obtaining its distinct shape,
and proper posture together; both being perfect, not only in the outer,
but Central and minutest Leaves, which sometimes are five hundred times
smaller than the outer; both which in the Cautious opening of a _Germen_
may be seen.

Nor is there greater Art in the Forms, than in the Foulds or Postures
of _Leaves_; both answerably varying, as this or that way they may be
most agreeable. Of the _Quincuncial_ posture, so amply instanc’d in by
the Learned Dr. _Brown_, I shall omit to speak. Others there are, which
though not all so universal, yet equally necessary where they are; giving
two general advantages to the Leaves, Elegancy and Security, _sc._ in
taking up, so far as their Forms will bear, the least room; and in being
so conveniently couch’d, as to be capable of receiving protection from
other parts, or of giving it to one another; as for instance,

First, There is the _Plain-Lap_, where the Leaves are all laid
somewhat convexly one over another, but not plaited; being to the
lengthy, breadth and number of Leaves most agreeable; as in the Buds
of _Pear-tree_, _Plum-tree_, &c. But where the Leaves are not thick
set, as to stand in the _Plain-lap_, there we have the _Plicature_;
as in _Rose-tree_, _Strawberry_, _Cinquefoyl_, _Burnet_, &c. For the
Leaves being here plaited, and so lying in half their breadth, and
divers of them thus also collaterally set together, the thickness of
them all, and half their breadth, are much alike dimensions; by which
they stand more secure within themselves, and in better consort with
other _Germen-Growths_ in the same Truss. If the Leaves be much indented
or jagg’d, now we have the same Duplicature; where there are divers
Plaits in the same Leaf, or Labels of a Leaf, but in distinct Sets, a
lesser under a greater; as in _Tansey_, &c. When the Leaves stand not
collaterally, but single, and that they are moreover very broad; then
we have the _Multiplicature_; as in _Gooseberries_, _Mallows_, &c. the
Plaits being not only divers in the same Leaf, but of the same set
continuant, and so each Leaf gather’d up in five, seven, or more Foulds,
in the same manner as our Gentlewomens Fans: Where either the thickness
of the Leaf will not permit a _flat lap_, or the fewness of their
number, or the smallness of their Fibres, will allow the _Rowl_, there
this may be observed; which is sometimes single, as in _Bears-Ears_;
sometimes double, the two _Rowls_ beginning at each edge of the Leaf,
and meeting in the middle. Which again, is either the _Fore-Rowl_, or
the _Back-Rowl_. If the Leaf be design’d to grow long, now we have the
_Back-Rowl_, as in _Docks_, _Primroses_, &c. For the main Fibres, and
that with a considerable part of the _Cortical Body_ standing prominent
from the _Back-plain_ of the Leaf, they thus stand securely couch’d up
betwixt the two _Rowls_; on whose security the growth of the Leaf in
length depends. But _Bears-Ears_, _Violets_, &c. upon contrary respects,
are rowled up inwards. Lastly, there is the _Tre-Rowl_, as in _Fern_;
the _Labels_ whereof, though all rowled up to the _main Stem_, yet could
not stand so firm and secure from the Injuries either of the Ground
or Weather, unless to the _Rowls_ in breadth, that by the length were
super-induc’d; the _Stalk_ or _main Stem_ giving the same protection
here, which in other Plants by the Leaves, or some particular _Mantling_,
is contriv’d.

For according to the Form and Foulding of every Leaf or _Germen_, is its
protection order’d; about six wayes whereof may be observ’d; _sc._ by
_Leaves_, _Surfoyles_, _Interfoyles_, _Stalks_, _Hoods_ and _Mantlings_.
To add to what we have above given, one or two Instances. Every Bud,
besides its proper Leaves, is covered with divers Leafy _Pannicles_ or
_Surfoyls_; which, what the Leaves are to one another, are that to them
all: For not opening except gradually, they admit not the Weather, Wet,
Sun or Ayr, to approach the Leaves, except by degrees respondent, and as
they are leisurely inur’d to bear them. Sometimes, besides _Surfoyls_,
there are also many _Interfoyls_ set betwixt the Leaves, from the
Circumference to the Center of the _Bud_; as in the _Hasel_: For the
Fibres of these Leaves standing out so far from a plain surface; they
would, if not thus shelter’d, lie too much expos’d and naked to the
Severities of the Weather. Where none of all the Protections above-named,
are convenient, there the Membranes of the Leaves by continuation in
their first forming (together with some Fibres of the _Lignous Body_) are
drawn out into so many _Mantles_ or _Veins_; as in _Docks_, _Snakeweed_,
&c. For the Leaves here being but few, yet each Leaf and its Stalk being
both exceeding long, at the bottom whereof the next following Leaf still
springs up; the form and posture of all is such, as supersedes all the
other kinds of protection, and so each Leaf apart is provided with a Veil
to it self.

The Uses of the Leaves, I mean in respect of their service to the Plant
it self, are these; first, for Protection, which, besides what they give
to one another, they afford also to the _Flower_ and _Fruit_: To the
_Flower_ in their Foulds; that being, for the most part, born and usher’d
into the open Ayr by the _Leaves_. To the _Fruit_, when afterwards they
are display’d, as in _Strawberries_, _Grapes_, _Rasps_, _Mulberries_,
&c. On which, and the like, should the Sun-Beams immediately strike,
especially while they are young, they would quite shrivel them up;
but being by the Leaves screened off, they impress the circumjacent
Ayr so far only as gently to warm the said Fruits, and so to promote
their Fermentation and Growth. And accordingly we see, that the Leaves
above-named are exceeding large in proportion to the _Fruits_: whereas
in _Pear-trees_, _Apple-trees_, &c. the _Fruit_ being of a solider
_Parenchyma_, and so not needing the like protection, are usually equal
with, and often wider in Diameter than the _Leaves_.

Another use is for Augmentation; or, the capacity for the due spreading
and ampliation of a Tree or Plant, are its Leaves: For the _Lignous
Body_ being divided into small Fibres, and these running all along their
lax and spongie _Parenchyma_; they are thus a Body fit for the imbibition
of _Sap_ and easie growth. Now the _Sap_ having a free reception into the
Leaves, it still gives way to the next succeeding in the _Branches_ and
_Trunk_, and the voyding of the _Sap_ in these, for the mounting of that
in the _Root_, and ingress of that in the Mould. But were there no Leaves
to make a free reception of _Sap_, it must needs be stagnant in all the
parts to the _Root_, and so the _Root_ being clogg’d, its fermenting and
other Offices will be voyded, and so the due growth of the whole. As in
the motion of a Watch, although the original term thereof be the Spring,
yet the capacity for its continuance in a due measure throughout all the
Wheels, is the free and easie motion of the Ballance.

Lastly, As the Leaves subserve the more copious advancement, so the
higher purity of the _Sap_: For this being well fermented both in the
Root, and in its Ascent through the _Trunk_, and so its Parts prepar’d
to a farther separation; the grosser ones are still deposited into the
Leaves; the more elaborate and essential only thus supplied to the
_Flower_, _Fruit_ and _Seed_, as their convenient Aliment. Whence it
is, that where the _Flowers_ are many and large, into which the more
odorous Particles are copiously receiv’d, the green Leaves have little
or no smell; as those of _Rose-tree_, _Carnations_, _French-Marigold_,
_Wood-bind_, _Tulips_; &c. But on the contrary, where the Flowers are
none or small, the green Leaves themselves are likewise of a strong
savour; as those of _Wormwood_, _Tansie_, _Baum_, _Mint_, _Rue_,
_Geranium Moschatum_, _Angelica_, and others.

_An Appendix._

_Of Thorns, Hairs and Globulets._

_Thorns_ are of two kinds, _Lignous_ and _Cortical_. Of the first are
such as those of the _Hawthorn_, and are constituted of all the same
substantial Parts whereof the _Germen_ it self, and in a like proportion:
which also in their Infancy are set with the resemblances of divers
minute Leaves. In affinity with these are the _Spinets_ or _Thorny
Prickles_ upon the Verges and Tops of divers Leaves, as of _Barberry_,
_Holly_, _Thistle_, _Furze_, and others; all which I think are the
filamentous extremities of the _Lignous Body_ sheathed in the _Skin_.

_Cortical Thorns_ are such as those of the _Rasberry_ Bush, being not,
unless in a most extraordinary small proportion propagated from the
_Lignous Body_, but almost wholly from the _Cortical_ and _Skin_, or from
the _Barque_.

The growth of this _Thorn_ may farther argue what in the Second Chapter
we supposed; _sc._ That as the proper tendency of the _Lignous Body_, is
to ascend, so of the _Cortical_ to descend. For as the _Lignous Thorn_,
like other Parts upon the _Trunk_, in its growth ascends; this being
almost wholly _Cortical_, pointeth downward. The use of _Thorns_ the very
Ingenious Mr. _Sharrock_ observed.

Upon the Leaves of divers Plants two Productions shew themselves, _sc._
_Hairs_ and _Globulets_. Of _Hairs_, only one kind is taken notice of,
although they are various. Ordinarily they are plain; which when fine and
thick set, as on most _Hairy Buds_; or fine and long, as on those of the
_Vine_, we call them _Down_.

But sometimes they are not plain, but branched out, from the bottom
to the top, reciprocally on every side, in some resemblance to a
_Stags-Horn_; as in _Mullen_. And sometimes they are _Astral_, as upon
_Lavender_, and some other Leaves, and especially those of _Wild Olive_;
wherein every _Hair_ rising in one round entire Basis a little way above
the Surface of the Leaf, is then disparted. Star-like, into several,
four, five or six points, all standing at right Angles with the said
perpendicular Basis.

The Uses of Hairs are for Distinction and Protection. That of Distinction
is but secondary, the Leaves being grown to a considerable size. That of
Protection is the prime, for which they were originally form’d together
with the Leaves themselves, and whose service they enjoy in their
Infant-estate: For the _Hairs_ being then in form of a _Down_, alwayes
very thick set, thus give that protection to the Leaves, which their
exceeding tenderness then requires; so that they seem to be vested with a
Coat of _Frieze_, or to be kept warm, like young and dainty Chickens, in

_Globulets_ are seen upon _Orach_, both Garden and wild; and yet more
plainly on _Mercury_ or _Bonus Henricus_. In these, growing almost upon
the whole Plant, and being very large, they are by all taken notice of.

But strict Observation discovers, that these _Globulets_ are the
natural and constant Off-spring of very many other Plants. Both these
_Globulets_, and likewise the diversity of _Hairs_, I find the Learned
Mr. _Hook_ hath already observed. They are of two kinds; _Transparent_,
as upon the Leaves of _Hysop_, _Mint_, _Baume_, and many more: _White_,
as upon those of _Germander_, _Sage_, and others. All which, though
the naked Eye will discover, yet by the help of Glasses we may observe
most distinctly. The use of these we suppose the same with those of the
_Flower_, whereof we shall speak.


_Of the Flower._

We next proceed to the _Flower_. The general Parts whereof are most
commonly three; _sc._ the _Empalement_, the _Foliation_, and the _Attire_.

The _Empalement_, whether of one or more pieces, I call that which is the
utmost part of the _Flower_, encompassing the other two. ’Tis compounded
of the three general Parts, the _Skin_, the _Cortical_ and _Lignous
Bodies_; each _Empaler_ (where there are divers) being as another little
Leaf; as in those of a _Quince-Flower_, as oft as they happen to be
overgrown, is well seen. As likewise in the _Primrose_, with the green
Flower, commonly so call’d, though by a mistake; for that which seems to
be the _Flower_, is only the more flourishing _Empalement_, the _Flower_
it self being white; but the continuation of all the three aforesaid
Parts into each _Empaler_, is discoverable, I think, no where better than
in an _Artichoke_, which is a true _Flower_, and whose _Empalers_ are of
that amplitude, as fairly to shew them all: As also, that the Original of
the _Skin_ of each _Empaler_ is not distinct from that of the rest; but
to be all one piece, laid in so many Plaits or Duplicatures as there are
_Empalers_, from the outermost to the inner and most central ones.

The Design of the _Empalement_, is to be security and Bands to the other
two Parts of the _Flower_: To be their security before its opening, by
intercepting all extremities of Weather: Afterwards to be their Bands,
and firmly to contain all their Parts in their due and most decorous
posture; so that a _Flower_ without its _Empalement_, would hang as
uncouth and taudry as a _Lady_ without her _Bodies_.

Hence we have the reason why it is various, and sometimes wanting. Some
_Flowers_ have none, as _Tulips_; for having a fat and firm Leaf, and
each Leaf likewise standing on a broad and strong Basis, they are thus
sufficient to themselves. _Carnations_, on the contrary, have not only an
_Empalement_, but that (for more firmitude) of one piece: For otherwise,
the foot of each Leaf being very long and slender, most of them would
be apt to break out of compass; yet is the top of the _Impalement_
indented also; that the Indentments, by being lapp’d over the Leaves
before their expansion, may then protect them; and by being spred under
them afterwards, may better shoulder and prop them up. And if the feet
of the Leaves be both long and very tender too, here the _Empalement_
is numerous, though consisting of several pieces; yet those in divers
Rounds, and all with a counterchangeable respect to each other (which
also the Learned Dr. _Brown_ observes) as in all _Knapweeds_, and other
_Flowers_; whereby, how commodious they are for both the aforesaid ends,
may easily be conceiv’d; and well enough exemplified by the Scales
of Fishes, whereunto, as to their position, they have not an unapt

The _Foliation_ also, is of the same substantial nature with the green
Leaf; the _Membrane_, _Pulp_, and _Fibres_ whereof, being, as there, so
here, but the continuation of the _Skin_, the _Cortical_ and _Lignous

The Foulds of the _Flower_ or _Foliation_ are various, as those of the
green Leaf; but some of them different. The most general are, First,
The _Plain Couch_, as in _Roses_, and many other double _Flowers_.
then the _Concave Couch_ as in _Blattaria flore albo_. Next the
_Plait_, as in some of the Leaves of _Pease-Blooms_, in the Flowers of
_Coriander_, &c. which is either single, as in those nam’d; or double,
as in _Blew-Bottle_, _Jacea_, and more of that rank. Next, the _Couch_
and _Plait_ together in the same Flower, as in _Marigolds_, _Daisies_,
and all others of an agreeing form: where the first apparent Fould or
Composture of the Leaves is in _Couch_; but the Leaves being erect, each
likewise may be seen to lie in a double _Plait_ within it self. Then the
_Rowl_, as in the _Flowers_ of _Ladies-Bower_, the broad top of each
Leaf being by a double _Rowl_ foulded up inwardly. Next, the _Spire_,
which it the beginning of a _Rowl_; and may be seen in the Flowers of
_Mallows_, and others. Lastly, the _Plait_ and _Spire_ together, where
the part analogous to the _Foliation_, is of one piece, the _Plaits_
being here laid, and so carried on by Spiral Lines to the top of the
_Flower_, as is in divers, and I think in _Convolvulus Doronici folio_
more elegantly seen. The reason of all which varieties, a comparative
consideration of the several parts of the _Flower_ may suggest. Ile only
mention, that no _Flower_ that I find, hath a _Back-Rowl_, as hath the
green Leaf, for two Reasons; because its Leaves have not their Fibres
standing out much on their backside, as the green Leaves have; and
because of its Attire, which it ever embosomes, and cannot so well do it
by a _Back-Rowl_.

The usual Protections of _Flowers_ by the Precedents are express’d,
_sc._ _Green Leaves_ and _Empalements_. Some have another more peculiar,
that is a _double Vail_; as the _Spring-Crocus_. For having no
_Empalement_, and starting up early out of the Mould, even before its
_Green Leaves_, and that upon the first opening of the Spring; lest it
should thus be quite starved, ’tis born swath’d up in a double Blanket,
or with a pair of Sheets upon its Back.

The Leaves of divers _Flowers_ at their Basis have an _hairy Tuft_; by
which _Tufts_ the Concave of the _Empalement_ is fill’d up; that, being
very choice and tender, they may thus be kept in a gentle and constant
warmth, as most convenient for them.

The Leaves of the _Flower_, though they are not hairy all over, yet in
some particular parts they are often set with a fine Downy Velvet; that,
being by their shape and posture in those parts contiguous to their
delicate and tender Attire, they may thus give it a more softly and
warmer touch. Thus in the Flower of _Ladies Bower_, those parts of its
Leaves which rowl inward, and lie contiguous to the Attire, are Downy;
whereas the other parts are plain and smooth: So the Flowers of _Pease_,
_Spanish Broom_, _Toad-Flax_, and many others, where contiguous to their
Attires, are deck’d with the like _Hairy Velvet_.

As upon the Green Leaves, so upon the Flowers are _Globulets_ sometimes
seen; as upon the backside of that of _Enula_. On none more plainly
than that kind of _Blattaria_ with the white Flower; where they are all
transparent, and growing both on the Stalk and Leaves of the _Flower_,
each shewing likewise its _Peduncle_ whereon it is erected.

The use of the _Flower_, or the _Foliation_ whereof we now speak, (that
is, as to its private service) is for the protection of the Attire;
this, as its under, and the _Empalement_ as its upper Garments; as
likewise of the _Fruit_: The necessity of which Service, in some Cases,
by the different situation of the _Flower_ and _Fruit_, with respect to
each other, is evident; _Apples_, _Pears_, and several other _Fruits_,
standing behind or under the _Flower_; but _Cherries_, _Apricots_, and
divers others, within it; for these, being of a very tender and pulpous
Body, and withal putting forth with the colder part of the Spring, could
not weather it out against the Variations and Extremities of the Air, (as
those of a more solid _Parenchyma_ can) except lodged up within their

And as the _Flower_ is serviceable to the safety of the _Fruit_, so
is it to its growth; _sc._ in its Infancy, or _Embryo_-estate; for
which purpose, as there is a Flower, so that Flower is greater or less,
according as the nature of the Fruit to which it belongs, and the plenty
of the _Sap_ by which the Fruit is fed, doth require. Thus, where the
young Fruit is of a solider constitution, and the ascent of the _Sap_
less copious, were there here no _Flower_ to promote the said ascent
thereof into the Fruit (in the manner as is effected by the Green Leaves)
it must needs pine and die, or prove less kindly. On the contrary, should
the Flower be over-large, it would not only promote the ascent of the
_Sap_ up to the Fruit, but being as yet over-proportionate to it, would
likewise it self exhaust the same _Sap_, as fast as ascendent; like a
greedy Nurse, that prepares the Meat for her Child, and then eats it up
her self. Thus we see _Apples_ and _Pears_ with a _Flower_ of a moderate
size, like their Body; of a middle Constitution, and their _Sap_ of a
middle quantity: But _Quinces_, being more solid, besides that they have
as great a _Flower_, the _Impalers_ of their _Flower_ also thrive so
far as to become handsom Leaves, continuing also after the _Flower_ is
fallen, firm and verdent a great while; so long till the _fruit_ be able
to provide for it self. On the other hand, _Plums_ being more tender
and Sappy than _Apples_ and _Pears_, besides that their _Empalers_ are
much alike, their _flower_ is less, and _Gooseberries_ and _Currans_,
which are still more Pulpy, and the course of the _Sap_ towards them
more free, have yet a _flower_ far less. And _Grapes_, whose _Sap_ is
still of quicker Ascent, have scarce any _flower_ at all; only some small
resemblance thereof, serving just upon the setting of the _fruit_, and no

The _Attire_ I find to be of two kinds, _Seminie_ and _Florie_: That
which I call _Seminie_, is made up of two general parts, _Chives_ and
_Semets_, one upon each _Chive_. These _Semets_ have the appearance
(especially in many _flowers_) of so many little _Seeds_; but are quite
another kind of Body: For upon enquiry we find, that these _Semets_,
though they seem to be solid, and for some time after their first
formation, are entire; yet are they really hollow; and their side, or
sides, which were at first entire, at length crack asunder: And that
moreover the Concave of each _Semet_ is not a meer vacuity, but fill’d
up with a number of minute Particles, in form of a Powder; which, though
common to all _Semets_, yet in some, and particularly those of a _Tulip_,
being larger, is more distinctly observable.

These _Semets_ are sometimes fastned so, as to stand erect above their
_Chive_, as those of _Larks-heel_. Sometimes, and I think usually, so
as to hang a little down, in the manner and figure of a _Kidney_; as in
_Mallows_. Their Cleft or Crack is sometimes single, but for the most
part double: At these Clefts it is that they disburse their Powders;
which as they start out, and stand betwixt the two Lips of each Cleft,
have some resemblance to the common Sculpture of a _Pomegranate_ with its
Seeds looking out at the Clefts of its _Rind_: This must be observ’d when
the Clefts are recently made, which usually is before the expansion of
the _Flower_.

The Particles of these Powders, though like those of Meal or other
Dust, they appear not easily to have any regular shape; yet upon strict
observation, especially with the assistance of an indifferent Glass,
it doth appear, that they are nothing else but a _Congeries_ of so many
perfect _Globes_ or _Globulets_: That which obscures them; is their being
so small. In _Dogs-Mercury_, _Borage_, and very many more Plants, they
are extreamly so. In _Mallows_, and some others, more fairly visible.

Some of these Powders are yellow, as in _Dogs-Mercury_, _Goats-Rue_,
&c. and some of other colours: But most of them I think are white; and
those of yellow _Henbane_ very elegant; the disburs’d Powders whereof, to
the naked eye, are white as Snow; but each _Globulet_, through a Glass,
transparent as Crystal; which is not a fallacy from the Glass, but what
we see in all transparent Bodies whatsoever, lying in a Powder or small
Particles together.

The _Florid Attire_, is commonly known by the blind and rude Name of
_Thrums_; as in the Flowers of _Marigold_, _Tansie_, &c. How adequate its
imposition is, observation will determine: For the several _Thrums_ or
rather _Suits_, whereof the _Attire_ is made up, however else they may
differ in various Flowers, in this agree, that they are ever consistent
of more than one, sometimes of two, and for the most part of three pieces
(for which I call them _Suits_) and each piece of a different, but
agreeable and comely form.

The _outer part_ of every _Suit_, is its _Floret_: whose _Body_ or _Tube_
is divided at the top (like that of the _Cowslip_) into divers distinct
Leaves; so that a _Floret_ is the Epitome of a _flower_; and is all the
_flower_ that many Plants, as _Mugwort_, _Tansie_, and others, have. What
the Learned Dr. _Brown_ observeth of the number Five as to the Leaves of
the _flower_, is still more universally holding in these of the _Floret_.

Upon the Expansion of the _Floret_, the next part of the _Suit_ is from
within its _Tube_ brought to sight; which we may (with respect to that
within it) call the _Sheath_: For this also, like the _Floret_, is a
concave Body; in its shape very well resembling the Fistulous Pouches of
_Wake-Robin_, or of _Dragon_.

The _Sheath_, after some time, dividing at the top, from within its
Concave, the third and innermost part of the _suit_, _sc._ the _Blade_
advanceth and displayes it self. This part is not hollow, as the other
two, but solid; yet at its point, not originally, but after some time, is
evermore divided into two halves.

Upon the division of the said Point, there appears, as upon the opening
of a _Semet_; a Powder of _Globulets_, which before lay enclosed up
within its Clefts; and are of the same nature with those of a _Semet_,
though not so copious: So that all _flowers_ have their _Powders_ or
_Globulets_. The whole _Attire_ may in _Knapweed_, _Blewbottle_, &c. be

The use of the _Attire_, how contemptibly soever we may look upon it,
is certainly great. And though for our own use we value the Leaves of
the _Flower_, or the _Foliation_, most; yet of all the three Parts, this
in some respects is the choycest, as for whose sake and service the
other two are made. The use hereof, as to Ornament and Distinction, is
unquestionable, but is not all. As for Distinction, though by the help of
Glasses we may make it to extend far; yet in a passant view, which is all
we usually make, we cannot so well. As for Ornament, and particularly
in reference to the _Semets_, we may ask, If for that meerly these were
meant, then why should they be so made as to break open, or to contain
any thing within them? Since their Beauty would be as good as if they
were not hollow, and is better before they crack and burst open, than

A farther use hereof therefore we must acknowledge, and may observe; and
that is for food; for Ornament and Distinction to us, and for Food to
other Animals. I will not say, but that it may serve even to these for
Distinction too, that they may be able to know one Plant from another,
and in their flight or progress settle where they like best; and that
therefore the varieties of these small parts are many, and well observed
by them, which we take no notice of: Yet the finding out of Food is but
in order to enjoy it: Which, that it is provided for a vast number of
little Animals in the _attires_ of all _Flowers_, observation perswades
us to believe. For why else are they evermore here found? Go from one
Flower to another, great and small, you shall meet with none untaken up
with these Guests. In some, and particularly the _Sun-flower_, where the
parts of the _Attire_, and the _animals_ for which they provide, are
larger, the matter is more visible. We must not think, that God Almighty
hath left any of the whole Family of his Creatures unprovided for; but as
the Great Master, some where or other carveth out to all; and that for
a great number of these little Folk, He hath stored up their peculiar
provisions in the _Attires_ of _Flowers_; each _Flower_ thus becoming
their Lodging and their Dining-Room, both in one.

Wherein the particular parts of the _Attire_ may be more distinctly
serviceable, this to one Animal, and that to another, I cannot say: Or to
the same Animal, as a _Bee_, whether this for the _Honey_, another for
their _Bread_, a third for the _Wax_: Or whether all only suck from hence
some _Juice_; or some may not also carry some of the Parts, as of the
_Globulets_, wholly away: Or lastly, what may be the primary and private
use of the _attire_ (for even this abovesaid; though great, yet is but
secondary) I now determine not.


_Of the Fruit._

The general composition of all _Fruits_ is one, that is, their
_Essential_ and truly _Vital Parts_, are in all the same, and but the
continuation of those which in the other Parts of a _Vegetable_, we
have already observed: Yet because by the different Constitutions and
Tinctures of these Parts, divers considerably different Fruits result; I
shall therefore take a particular view of the more known and principal of
them, _sc._ _Apples_, _Pears_, _Plums_, _Nuts_ and _Berries_.

An _Apple_, if cut traverse, appears constituted of four distinct Parts,
the _Pill_, the _Parenchyma_, _Branchery_ and _Coare_. The _Pill_ is
only the spreading and dilatation of the skin, or utmost part of the
Barque in the Branch. The _Parenchyma_, when full ripe, is a tender
delicate Meat: Yet as the _Pill_ is but the continuation of the utmost
part of the _Barque_; so is this but the continuance and ampliation,
or (as I may call it) the swelth and superbience of the _Inner part_
thereof; which upon observation of a young and Infant-_Apple_ especially,
is evident. Thus we see the _Pith_, which is often tough, in many
Roots, as _Parsneps_, _Turneps_, &c. is tender and edible. So here,
the _Parenchyma_, though originally no more than the _Barque_, yet the
plenty and purity of its _Sap_ being likewise effectual to the fulness
and fineness of its growth, it thus becomes a soft and tender meat.
The _Branchery_ is nothing else but the Ramifications of the _Lignous
Body_ throughout all the parts of the _Parenchyma_; the greater Branches
being likewise by the _Inosculations_ of the less (as in the Leaf)
united together. The main Branches are usually fifteen; ten are spred
and distributed through the _Parenchyma_, all enarching themselves
towards the _Cork_ or _Stool_ of the _Flower_; the other five running
from the _Stalk_ in a directer Line, at last meet the former at the said
_Cork_, and are there osculated with them. These five are originated
from one; which running along the Center of the _Stalk_, and part of the
_Parenchyma_ of the _Fruit_, is therein at last divided. To these the
Coats of the _Kernels_ are fastned; so that whereas these Branches were
originally all extended even beyond the _Fruit_, and inserted into the
_Flower_ for the due growth thereof; the _Fruit_ afterwards growing
to some head, and so intercepting and preying upon the Aliment of the
_Flower_, starves that, and therefrom supersedes the service of the said
Branches to it self, ten for its _Parenchyma_, and five for its _Seed_.
The _Coar_ is originated from the _Pith_; for the _Sap_ finding room
enough in the _Parenchyma_, through which to dispence it self all abroad,
quits the _Pith_, which thereby hardens into a _Coar_. Thus we see the
_Insertions_, although originate from the _Cortical Body_, yet their
Parts being, by the _Inosculations_ of the _Lignous_, so much compress’d
and made to co-incide together, they become a Body very compact and
dense. And in the _Barque_ we see the same effect by _arefaction_ only,
or a meer _voydance_ of the _Sap_; the _Inner Part_ whereof, though soft
and sappy, yet its superficial _Rind_ is often so hard and smooth, that
it may be fairly writ upon.

In a _Pear_ there are five distinct Parts, the _Pill_, the _Parenchyma_,
_Branchery_, _Calculary_ and _Acetary_. The three former are here and in
an _Apple_ much alike; saving that here the _Inner_ or _Seed-Branches_
are ordinarily ten. The _Calculary_ (most observable in rough-tasted,
or _Choak-Pears_) is a _congeries_ of little stony Knots: They are
many of them dispersed throughout the whole _Parenchyma_; but lying
more continuous and compact together towards the Center of the _Pear_,
surround the _Acetary_ there in a somewhat Globular Form. About the
_Stalk_ they stand more distant; but towards the _Cork_ or _Stool_ of
the _Flower_, they still grow closer, and there at last gather (almost)
into the firmitude of a _Plum-stone_ it self. Within this lies the
_Acetary_; ’tis of a soure tast, and by the bounding of the _Calculary_
of a _Globular Figure_. ’Tis a simple Body, having neither any of the
_Lignous_ branched in it, nor any Knots. It is of the same substantial
nature with the _Parenchyma_; but whether it be absolutely one with
it, or be derived immediately from the _Pith_, my Enquiries yet made,
determine not.

The Original of the _Calculary_ I seem to have neglected: But hereof we
may here best say, that whereas all the other Parts are Essential and
truly _Vital_, the _Calculary_ is not; but that the several Knots whereof
it consists, are only so many meer Concretions or Precipitations out of
the _Sap_; as in _Urines_, _Wines_, and other _Liquors_, we often see.
And that this _Precipitation_ is made by the mixture and re-action of
the Tinctures of the _Lignous_ and _Cortical Bodies_ upon each other:
Even as all _Vegetable Nutrition_ or _Fixation_ of Parts is also made
by the joynt efficiency of the two same Tinctures, as hath been said.
Hence we find, that as the _Acetary_ hath no Branches of the _Lignous
Body_, so neither hath it any Knots. Hence likewise it is, that we
have so different and contrary a taste in the _Parenchyma_ beyond the
_Calculary_, from that in the _Acetary_; for whereas this is soure, that,
wherein the said _Precipitations_ are made, is sweet; being much alike
effect, to what we find in mixing; of _Corals_, &c. with _Vinegar_ or
other _acid Liquor_.

In a _Plum_ (to which the _Cherry_, _Apricot_, _Peach_, _Walnut_, &c.
ought to be referr’d) there are four distinct Parts, the _Pill_, the
_Parenchyma_, _Branchery_ and _Stone_. The _Pill_ and _Parenchyma_ are,
as to their Original, with those of an _Apple_ or _Pear_ both alike:
As likewise the _Branchery_, but differently ramified. In _Plums_ (I
suppose all) there are five main _Out-Branches_, which run along the
Surface of the _Stone_ from the _Basis_ to the point thereof, four
of them by the one Ridge, and one by the other opposite to it. In an
_Apricot_ there is the same number, but the single Branch runs not upon
the Surface, but through the Body of the _Stone_. There are likewise
two or three smaller Branches, which run in like manner under the
other Ridge for some space, and then advancing into the _Parenchyma_,
therein disperse themselves: These latter sort in _Peaches_ are numerous
throughout: But notwithstanding the different disposition of the Branches
of the _Fruits_ aforesaid; yet is there one Branch dispos’d in one and
the same manner in them all: The entrance hereof into the _Stone_ is at
its _Basis_; from whence running through its Body, and still inclining
or arching it self towards its Concave, is at last about its Cone
thereinto emergent, where the Coats of the _Seed_ are appendent to it.
Of the _Seed-Branch_ ’tis therefore observable that after its entrance
into the _Fruit_, ’tis alwaies prolonged therein to a considerable
length; as is seen not only in _Apples_, &c. where the _Seed_ stands a
good distance from the _Stalk_; but in _Plums_ likewise, where it stands
very near it; in that here the _Seed-Branch_, as is said, never strikes
through the _Stone_ into the Coats of the _Seed_ directly, but about
its Cone or remoter end. The _Stone_, though it seem a simple Body, yet
it is compounded of different ones: The Inner Part thereof, as it is by
far the thinnest, so is it the most dense, white, smooth and simple.
The Original is from the _Pith_; difficult, but curious to observe: For
the _Seed-Branch_, not striking directly and immediately quite through
the _Basis_ of the _Stone_, but in the manner as is above described,
carries a considerable part of the _Pith_, now gathered round about it,
as its _Parenchyma_, along with it self, which, upon its entrance into
the concave of the _Stone_ about its farther end, is there in part spred
all over it, as the Lining thereof. The outer and very much thicker Part
consisteth partly of the like _Precipitations_ or concrete Particles,
as in a _Pear_, being gathered here much more closely, not only to a
Contiguity, but a coalition into one entire Stone; as we see in _Pears_
themselves, especially towards the _Cork_, they gather into the like
Stoniness; or as we see a _Stone_, _Mineral_ or _Animal_, oftentimes the
product of accumulated _Gravel_: But as the _Parenchyma_ is mixed with
the Concretion in the _Calculary_, so is it also, though not visibly,
with these in the _Stone_, the ground of the _Stone_ being indeed a
perfect _Parenchyma_; but by the said Concretions so far alter’d, as to
become dry, hard and undistinguishable from them.

In a _Nut_ (to which an _Achorn_ is analogous) there are three general
Parts, the _Cap_, _Shell_ and _Pith_. The _Cap_ is constituted of a
_Pill_ and _Parenchyma_ derived from the _Barque_, and _Ramulets_ from
the _Lignous Body_ of the _Branch_. The _Shell_ likewise is not one
simple Body, but compounded. The Superficial Part thereof is originated
from the _Pill_ or _Skin_ of the _Cap_, from the inside whereof it is
in a Duplicature produc’d and spred over the _shell_: which, if you
look at the _Basis_ of the _shell_, is farther evident; for that being
continuous with the _Parenchyma_ of the _Cap_, without the interposure
of the _Skin_, the said superficial Part is there wanting. The thicker
and inner part of the _shell_ consisteth of the same _Parenchyma_ as
that of the _Cap_, with a _congeries_ of _Precipitations_ filled up, as
in a Stone. And as the _Lignous Body_ is branched in a Stone, so, with
some difference, in a Shell. The _Outer Branches_ or _Ramulets_ are
numerous, each issuing out of the _Parenchyma_ of the _cap_, and entring
the _Shell_ at the Circumference of its _Basis_ and so running betwixt
its superficial and inner parts towards its _cone_, in a Round. The
_Inner_ or _Seed-Branch_ is single, entering in, as do the other, at the
_Basis_ of the _shell_, but at the _center_ thereof; from whence it runs,
not through the _Shell_, as in _Plums_ through the _Stone_; but through
the _Pith_, as far as the _cone_, where the Coats of the _Seed_ hang
appendent to it. The _Pith_, whether derived from the same part both in
name and nature in the _Branch_ and _Stalk_, or from the _Cortical Body_,
I yet determine not.

A _Berry_, as a _Gooseberry_ (to which _Currans_, _Grapes_, _Hipps_, &c.
are to be referr’d) consisteth, besides the _Seed_, of the three general
Parts, _Pill_, _Parenchyma_ and _Branchery_: The _Pill_ is originated
as in the foregoing Fruits. The _Parenchyma_ is double, as likewise
in some other _Berries_: The _outer_ is commonly, together with the
_Pill_, call’d the _Skin_, and is that part we spit out, being of a soure
taste. As the _Pill_ is originated from the _outer_, so this from the
_inner part_ of the _Barque_; and accordingly the Pores thereof may be
observed plainly of a like shape with those both of the _Cortical Body_
and _Pith_. The _inner_ is of a sweet taste, and is the part we eat: It
is of a constitution so laxe and tender, as it would seem to be only a
thicker or jellied Juice; although this likewise be a true _Parenchyma_,
something like that of an _Orange_ or _Limon_, with its Pores all fill’d
up with Liquor. The _Branchery_ is likewise double: The _Exterior_ runs
betwixt the _Pill_ and outer _Parenchyma_ in arched Lines, from the
_Stalk_ to the _Stool_ of the _Flower_. These outer Branches, though
of various number at the _Stalk_, yet at the _Cork_ are usually ten
principal ones; five for the five Leaves of the _Flower_, and five for
the _Chives_. The inner main Branches are two, diametrically opposite
to each other, and at the _Cork_ with the other inosculated. From these
two are branched other smaller, every one having a _Seed_ appendent to
it, whose Coats it entreth by a double Filament, one at the _Basis_,
the other at the _Cone_. They are all very white and turgent; and by
a slaunt cut, may be observ’d concave; thus representing themselves
analogous to so many true _spermatick Vessels_.

The Uses of _Fruits_ are for _Man_, (sometimes also other _Animals_,
as are _Akerns_ and _Haws_) and for the _Seed_. For Man, they are
so variously desirable, that till our Orchards and Store-Chambers,
_Confectioners_ Stores and _Apothecaries_ Shops, our Ladies Closets,
their Tables or Hands are empty of them, I shall not need to enquire
for what. If it be asked, how the Fruit becomes, generally above all
the other Parts, so pleasant a Meat? It is partly from the _Sap_, the
grosser portion thereof being deposited in the Leaves, and so the purer
hereunto reserved; partly from the Globular Figure of the Fruit; for the
_Sap_ being thus in a greater quantity herein, and in all parts equally
diffus’d, the Concoction hereof is with greatest advantage favoured and
promoted. Wherefore all Fruits which we eat raw, how small soever, are of
a Globular form, or thereunto approaching; and the nearer, the delicater;
amongst _apples_, the _Peppin_; amongst _Pears_, the _Burgundian_; and
amongst all Fruits, the _Grape_; and amongst _Grapes_, the roundest, are
of all the most dainty.

The visible cause of this Globular Figure, is the _Flower_; or the
Inosculation of all the main Branches at the _Stool_ of the _Flower_; and
upon the fall of the _Flower_, the obtuseness, and with Wind and Sun, as
it were the searing of their several ends: For thus the _Sap_ entring
the _Fruit_, being not able to effect, either a Disunion, or a shooting
forth of the said Branches, and so to carry on their growth in length;
they must thus of necessity be enarch’d, and with the _Parenchyma_ more
and more expand themselves. Whereas were they dispos’d and qualified
otherwise, than as is said, instead of forming a Fruit within bounds,
they would run out into all extravagance, and even into another little
Tree or Leafy growth.

To the _Seed_, the _Fruit_ is serviceable; First, in order to its
being supply’d with a due and most convenient _Sap_, the greater and
less elaborated part thereof being, in its passage towards the _Seed_,
thereinto received; the _Fruit_ doing the same office to the _Seed_,
which the _Leaves_ do to the _Fruit_; the _Sap_ in the _Fruit_ being in a
laxe comparison, as the _Wine_; and that for the _Seed_, a small part of
the highest Spirit rectified from it.

So likewise for its Protection, in order to the prosperous carrying on
and perfecting of its generation, and security being perfected. Which
protection it gives not only to the Seminal _Sap_ and _Seed_ it self;
but alwaies also to its _Seed-Branch_. Thus we see an _Apple_, besides
that it is it self of ample compass, for the sake of its _Seed_, hath
likewise its _coar_; as if it were not sufficient, that the Walls of
their Room are so very thick, unless also wainscotted. In a _Pear_ again,
where the _Parenchyma_ is of less compass than that of an _Apple_, to
what protection this affords, that of the _Calculary_ is super-added.
But in a _Plum_, where the _Parenchyma_ is exceeding tender, and in a
_Peach_, which hangs late, and till Autumn Frosts approach, we have not
only the Rubbish of a _Calculary_ but stout Stone-Walls. Within which
also, not only the _Seed_ it self; but the _Seed-Branch_ is evermore
immur’d. Lastly, in a _Nut_, where the _shell_ being not surrounded with
a _Parenchyma_, that protection is wanting without, ’tis answer’d by an
ample _Pith_ within it; and the _seed-Branch_ likewise included, not
meerly in the Body of the Shell, as in a _Plum_, but within the _pith_
it self. So necessary is this design that what the Hen by Incubation
or Hovering, is to the Egg or Chick; that the whole _Fruit_, by
comprehension, is to the _Seed_.


_Of the Seed._

As the Original, so the ultimate end & Perfection of _Vegetation_ is the
_Seed_. How it is the former, and in its state apt for _Vegetation_,
hath already been seen. How the latter, and in its state of Generation,
we shall now lastly enquire. In doing which, what in the other state
was either not distinctly existent, or not so apparent, or not so
intelligible, will occur.

The two general Parts of the _Seed_ are its _Covers_ and _Body_. The
_Covers_ in this estate are usually four; the outmost we may call
the _Case_: ’Tis of a very various form; sometimes a _Pouch_, as in
_Nasturtium_, _Cochlearia_; a _Cod_, as in all _Pulse_, _Galega_;
sometimes not entire, but parted, or otherwise open, as in _Sorrel_,
_Knotgrass_, with many other forms; I think alwaies more heterogeneous to
that of the _Seed_, by which it differs from the proper Coats. To this
the Caps of _Nuts_, and the _Parenchyma’s_ of Fruits are analogous.

The two next are properly the Coats: In a _Bean_ especially, and the
like; from whence to avoyd Confusion, the denomination may run common
to the responding Covers of other _Seeds_. The Colour of the outer
is of all degrees, from White to the Blackness of _Jett_: Its Figure
sometimes Kidney’d, as in _Alcea_, _Behen_, _Poppy_; triangular, as in
_Polygonatum_, _Sorrel_; triangular spherical, in _Mentha_, _Melissa_;
circular, in _Leucoium_, _Amaranthus_; globular, in _Napus_, _Asperula_;
oval, in _Speculum Veneris_, _Tithymalus_; half Globe, in _Coriander_;
that which we take for one single round _Seed_, being a Conjugation of
two; half Oval, in _Anise_, _Fennel_; Hastal, in _Lactuca_; Cylindrical,
as, if I mistake not, in _Jacobæa_, Pyramidal, in _Geranium_, _Althææ
Fol._ with many other differences: But the Perfection of one or two
of the said Figures lieth in the _Case_: So that as all Lines and
Proportions are in the _Flower_, so all Regular Figures in the _Seed_, or
rather in its _Covers_.

’Tis sometimes glistering, as in _Speculum Veneris_; Rough-cast, in
_Catanance_; Studded, in _Behen_, _Blattaria_; Favous, in _Papaver_,
_Antirrhinum_, _Lepidium annuum_, _Alcea Vesicaria_, _Hyosciamus_, and
many more, before the _Seeds_ have lain long by; Pounced, in _Phalangium
Cretæ_, _Lithospermum_; Ramified, in _Pentaphyllum fragiferum_, _Erectum
majus_, resembling the Fibres of the Ears of the Heart; some just
_Quinquenerval_, as in _Anisum_, and many more, the _Lignous Body_ being
in five main Fibres branched therein.

The Covers of not only _Quince_-Seeds, and those of _Psyllium_ (more
usually taken notice of) but those also of _Horminum_, _Nasturtium_,
_Eruca_, _Camelina_, _Ocymum_, and divers others, have a _Mucilage_;
which, though it be not visible when the Seeds are throughly dry; yet
lying a while in some warm Liquor, or only on the Tongue, it swells more
or less, and upon them all fairly shews it self. On that of _Ocymum_ it
appears grayish; on the other, transparent; and on that of _Nasturtium
Hortense_ very large; even emulous of the inner Pulp surrounding a
_Gooseberry-seed_. The putting of _Clary-seed_ into the Eye, may have
been brought into use from this _Mucilage_, by which alone it may become
Medicinal. And thus far of the _Superficies_.

The nature of the outer Coat is various, _Membranous_, _Cartilaginous_
and _Stony_; the like _Precipitations_ being sometimes made herein, as in
a Stone or Shell; as in that of the Seeds of _Carthamum_, _Lithospermum_,
and others. The Designment hereof, being either with respect to the
_Seed_ in its state of Generation; as where the Case is either wanting,
or at least insufficient of it self, there for its due protection and
warmth; or, in its state of _Vegetation_, for the better Fermenting of
its Tinctures and _Sap_; the Fermentations of some _Seeds_ not well
proceeding, unless they lie in their Stony Casks in the Mould, like
Bottled Liquors in Sand.

All _Seeds_ have their outer Covers open; either by a particular
_Foramen_, as in _Beans_, and other _Pulse_, as is said; or by the
breaking off of the _Seed_ from its _Peduncle_ or _Stool_, as in those
in _Cucumber_, _Cycory_; or by the entering and passage of a _Branch_ or
_Branches_, not only into the Concave thereof near the Cone, but also
through the Cone it self; as in _Shells_ and _Stones_.

For the sake of this _aperture_ it is, that _Akerns_, _Nuts_, _Beans_,
_Cucumbers_, and most other _Seeds_, are in their formation so placed,
that the _Radicle_ still standeth next to it; that, upon _Vegetation_, it
may have a free and ready passage into the Mould.

The Original of the outer Coat, though from Parts of the same substantial
nature, yet is differently made. In a _Plum_, the _Seed-Branch_ which
runs, as is described, through the Stone, is not naked, but, as is said,
invested with a thin _Parenchyma_, which it carries from the Stalk along
with it; and which, by the _Ramification_ of the said _Branch_ within
the Stone, is in part dilated into a Coat. That of a _Bean_ is from the
_Parenchyma_ of the Cod; the superficial part of which _Parenchyma_, upon
the large _peduncle_ of the _Bean_ becoming a thin Cuticle, and upon the
_Bean_ it self a _cartilaginous_ Coat.

The Original of the inner Coat of the _Bean_ is likewise from the inner
part of the said _parenchyma_; which first is spred into a long Cake, or
that which with the _seed-Branch_ maketh the _peduncle_ of the _Bean_;
under which Cake, there is usually a black part or spot; by the length of
which, the inner part of the Cake is next inserted into the outer Coat,
and spred all over the Concave thereof.

This inner Coat, though when the _Seed_ is grown old and dry, ’tis shrunk
up, and in most Seeds so far as scarcely to be discern’d; yet in its
first and juvenile Constitution, is a very Spongy and Sappy Body; and is
then likewise (as the _Womb_ in a pregnant Animal) in proportion very
thick and bulky; in a _Bean_, even as one of the _Lobes_ it self: And in
a _Plum_ or _apricot_, I think I may safely say, half an hundred times
thicker than afterwards, when it is dried and shrunk up; and can scarcely
be distinguished from the upper Coat. Upon which Accounts it is, in this
estate, a true and fair _Parenchyma_.

In this Inner Coat in a _Bean_, the _Lignous Body_ or _Seed-Branch_ is
distributed: Sometimes, as in _French-Beans_, throughout the whole Coat;
as it is in a Leaf: In the Great _Garden-Bean_, upon its first entrance,
it is bipartite, and so in small Branches runs along the Circumference of
the Coat, all meeting and making a kind of Reticulation against the Belly
of the _Bean_. In the same manner the main Branches in the outer Coat of
a _Kernel_, circling themselves on both hands from the place of their
first entrance, at last meet, and mutually inosculate.

So that all the Parts of a _Vegetable_, the _Root_, _Trunk_, _Branch_,
_Leaf_, _Flower_, _Fruit_ and _Seed_, are still made up of two
substantially different Bodies.

And as every Part hath two, so the whole _Vegetable_ taken together, is a
composition of two only, and no more: All properly Woody Parts, Strings
and Fibres, are one Body: All simple _Barques_, _Piths_, _Parenchyma’s_
and _Pulps_, and as to their substantial Nature, _Pills_ and _Skins_
likewise, all but one Body: the several Parts of a _Vegetable_ all
differing from each other, only by the various Proportions and Mixtures,
and variously sized Pores of these two Bodies. What from these two
general Observations might reasonably be inferr’d, I shall not now

The fourth and innermost Cover we may call the _Secondine_; the sight
whereof, by cutting off the Coats of an _Infant-Bean_, at the Cone
thereof in very thin Slices, and with great Caution, may be obtain’d.
While unbroken, ’tis transparent; being torn and taken off, it gathers
up into the likeness of a Jelly, or that we call the _Tredle_ of an Egg,
when over-boyl’d. This _Membrane_ in larger or elder _Beans_, is not
to be found distinct; but becomes as it were the Lining of the inner
Coat: But (as far as our Enquiries yet discover) it may in most other
_Seeds_, even full grown, be distinctly seen; as in those of _Cucumber_,
_Colocynthis_, _Burdock_, _Carthamum_, _Gromwel_, _Endive_, _Mallows_,
&c. ’Tis usually so very thin, as in the above-nam’d, as very difficultly
to be discover’d. In some _Kernels_, as of _Apricots_, ’tis very thick;
and in some other Seeds. That all these have the Analogy of one and the
same Cover, which I call the _Secondine_, is most probably argu’d from
their alike Natures; being all of them plain simple _Membranes_, with
not the least Fibre of the _Lignous Body_ or _Seed Branch_, visibly
distributed in them; as also from their Contexture, which is in all of
them more close.

The Concave of this _Membrane_ is filled with a most transparent
Liquor, out of which the Seed is formed; as in cutting a _petite_ and
_Infant-Bean_, may be seen; and yet better in a young _Walnut_. In
_Beans_ I have observed it to turn, upon boyling, into a tender white

Through this _Membrane_, the _Lignous Body_ or _Seed-Branches_
distributed in the inner Coat, at last shoot downright two slender
Fibres, like two Navles, one into each _Lobe_ of the _Bean_. The places
where the said Fibres shoot into the _Lobes_, are near the _Basis_ of
the _Radicle_; and by their Blackishness well enough remark’d: but the
Fibres themselves are so very small, as scarcely to be discern’d: Yet in
a _Lupine_, of the larger kind, both the places where the Navel-Fibres
shoot into the _Lobes_ (which here from the _Basis_ of the _Radicle_
is more remote) and the Fibres themselves, are fairly visible. For the
_Seed-Branch_, upon its entrance into the Coat of the _Lupine_, is
presently divided into two _main Branches_, and those two into other
less; whereof some underly, others aloft, run along the Coat, and
towards its other end meet and are inosculated; where about two opposite,
shallow, round, and most minute Cavities, answerable to two Specks of
a _cartilaginous_ gloss, one in either _Lobe_, may be observed, which
Specks are the ends of the said _Navel-Fibres_, upon the ripening of
the _Seed_ there broken off. These Fibres, from the Superficies of each
_Lobe_, descend a little way directly down; presently, each is divided
into two Branches, one distributed into the _Lobes_, the other into the
_Radicle_ & _Plume_, in the manner as in the first Chapter is describ’d.
And thus far the History. I shall now only with a brief account of
the _Generation_ of the _Seed_, as hereupon dependent, conclude this

Let us say then, that the _Sap_ having in the _Root_, _Trunk_, and
_Leaves_, passed divers Concoctions and Separations, in the manner as
they are said to be perform’d therein; ’tis now at last, in some good
maturity, advanced towards the _Seed_.

The more copious and cruder part hereof is again seperated by a free
reception into the _Fruit_, or other Part analogous to it: being either
sufficiently ample to contain it, or at least laxe enough for its
transpiration, and so its due discharge. The more Essential part is
into the _Seed-Branch_ or Branches entertain’d; which, because they are
evermore of a very considerable length, and of a Constitution very fine,
the said _Sap_ thus becomes in its Current therein, as in the _Spermatick
Vessels_, still more mature.

In this mature estate, from the _seed-Branch_ into the Coats of the
_seed_, as into the Womb, ’tis next delivered up. The meaner Part
hereof again, to the outer, as _aliment_ good enough, is supplied.
The finer part is transmitted to the Inner; which, being, as is said,
a _Parenchymous_ and more spatious Body, the _Sap_ therefore is not
herein, as in the outer, a meer _aliment_; but in order to its being, by
Fermentation, farther prepared.

Yet the outer Coat, being on the contrary hard and dense; for that
reason, as it admitteth not the Fermentation of the _Sap_ so well within
it self; so doth it the more promote and favour it in the Inner, being
Bounds both to it and its _Sap_; and also quickneth the process of the
whole Work in the formation of the _Seed_.

Nor doth the outer Coat, for the same reason, more promote than declare
the purity of the _Sap_ now contained in the Inner: For being more hard
and dense, and so not perspirable, must needs suppose the Parts of the
_Sap_ encompassed by it, since thus uncapable of any evacuation, to be
therefore all, so choice, as not to need it.

The _Sap_ being thus prepared in the inner Coat, as a Liquor now apt to
be the _Substratum_ of the future _Seed-Embrio_, by fresh supplies, is
thence discharged; yet that it may not be over-copious; which, because of
the laxity of the Inner Coat from whence it issues, it might easily be;
therefore as the said inner Coat is bounded without by the upper Coat,
so by the _Secondine_ or _Membrane_ is it bounded within; through which
_Membrane_ the _Sap_ being filtr’d, or, as it were, transpiring, the
depositure hereof, answerable to the _Colliquamentum_ in an Egg, or to
the _semen Mulibre_, into its Concave at last is made.

The other Part of the purest _sap_ embosom’d in the Ramulets of the
_seed-Branch_, runs a Circle, or some progress therein; and so becomes,
as the _Semen Masculinum_, yet more elaborate.

Wherein also, lest its Current should be too copious or precipitate,
by their co-arcture and divarication where they are inosculated, it is
retarded; the noblest portion only obtaining a pass.

With this purest _sap_, the said _Ramulets_ being supplied, from thence
at last, the _Navel-Fibres_ shoot (as the privitive _Artery_ into the
_Colliquamentum_) through the _Secondine_ into the aforesaid Liquor
deposited therein.

Into which Liquor, being now shot, and its own proper Sap or Tinctures
mixed therewith, it strikes it thus into a _Coagulum_; or, of a Liquor,
it becomes a Body consistent and truly _Parenchymous_; and the supply of
the said Liquor still continu’d, and the shooting of the Navel-Fibres,
as is above described, still carried on, and therewith the said
_Coagulation_ or _Fixation_ likewise.

And in the Interim of the _Coagulation_, a gentle _Fermentation_ being
also made, the said _Parenchyma_ or _Coagulum_ becometh such, not of
any Constitution indifferently, but is thus raised (as we see Bread
in Baking) into a _Congeries_ of _Fixed Bubbles_: For such is the
_Parenchyma_ of the whole Seed.



_Fig. 1._

_Sheweth a ~Bean~ with the two ~Lobes~ laid open somewhat wider than the
Parts, without a Rupture, will well bear, for the better sight of that
Part which lieth between them._

    _aaaa_ The two Lobes.

    _AA_ Their contiguous Flats.

    _b_ The Radicle.

    _c_ The Plume.

    _dd_ One of the Cavities wherein the Plume lieth.

_Fig. 2._

    _aaaa_ The _Parenchyma_.

    _eeee_ The _seminal Root_ distributed throughout the
    _Parenchyma_ of either _Lobe_.

    _b_ The _Radicle_, with the _seminal Root_ running through it
    in one Trunk to the Point thereof.

    _c_ The _Plume_, with the Distributions of its _Inner Body_
    continued from the _seminal Root_ of either _Lobe_.

    _xx_ The oblique _Insertion_ of the two grand Branches of the
    _Lobes_ into the Trunk of the _Radicle_.

_Fig. 3._

_The ~Lobe~ of a ~Bean~ cut athwart._

    _aaa_ The convex or external part thereof.

    _bbb_ The concave side out of sight.

    _cccc_ The Extremities of the Branches of the _seminal Root_,
    as they appear like so many small Specks in the traverse Cut.

_Fig. 4._

_The Plume cut athwart._

    The black Specks represent the Branches of the _seminal Body_
    thereinto inserted, or therein distributed.

_Fig. 5._

    _aaaa_ A _Lobe_ of a _Gourd-seed_.

    _cccc_ The greater Branches.

    _ee_ The Sub-divisions and Inosculations of the lesser.

_Fig. 5. 00._

    _AA_ A great white _Lupine_.

    _aa_ The _Navel-Fibres_ which strike from the Ramulets of the
    _Seed-Branch_, into the _Lobes_.

    _ab_ The production of the _Navel-Fibre_ into the _Radicle_

    _c_ The _Plume_.

    _bc_ The _Pith_.

    _aeeee_ The distribution of the _Navel-Fibre_ in the _Lobes_;
    all becoming the _seminal Root_, describ’d in the first Chapter.

_Fig. 6._

    _aaaa_ A Slice of the Root of a Tree.

    _cccc_ The _Cortical Body_ or _Barque_.

    _e_ The _Pith_.

    The black Pieces are the Shootings of the _Lignous Body_.

    The Specks therein are its _Pores_.

    The White Pieces are the _Insertions_ of the _Cortical Body_.

_Fig. 7._

_Sheweth the Root of ~Berbery~ in the Traverse Cut._

    _aaa_ The _Cortical Body_ or _Barque_.

    The white Lines are the _Insertions_.

    The Black Specks are the Pores of the _Lignous Body_.

_Fig. 8._

    _aaaa_ The _Cortical Body_ as appearing in a _Turnep_ cut

    _acdacd_ The _Lignous Body_, or the several Shoots thereof
    represented in their Ranks, by the black Lines; the Pricks
    made along the Lines being the Terminations of the said Shoots
    or Fibres; not visible except in a thin slice, or after the
    Surface of the _Turnep_, being cut, is well dried.

    _cccc_ The _Cortical Body_ inserted betwixt the Shootings of
    the _Lignous_: or the _Pith_.

    _ab ab_ A piece of the _Cortical Body_ taken off, that its own
    Insertions (_eeee_) and the Osculations of the _Lignous_ may
    be seen; which is best done after the Insertions are a little
    dried and shrunk.

_The Appearance of divers Roots, in their Elder estate, as ~ex. gr.~ of a

    _Fig. 9._ The Fibrous parts of the _Root_, where the _Lignous
    Body_ stands Central; the Pores whereof are represented by the
    black Specks.

    10. The _Root_ cut a little higher, where the _Cortical Body_
    sometimes appears only once inserted.

    11. The _Root_ cut higher with the Insertions in some number.

    12. The Insertions still more numerous.

    13. The _Pith_ (_a_) now begun, the said Insertions being
    collected in the Center.

    14. The _Pith_ (_a_) more amplified.

_Fig. 15._

_Sheweth a small piece of the Trunk of ~Burdock~._

    _a_ The just size thereof to the naked Eye.

    _aaaa_ The appearance of it through a _Microscope_.

    _lll_ The Inserted _Cortical Body_.

    _ccc_ The outmost shooting of the _Lignous Body_ distributed
    into the Leaves.

    _ee_ _bb_ _tt_ The inner Shootings or Fibres distributed to the

    The Black Specks are their Pores, which, through a _Microscope_
    are fairly visible in them all.

_Fig. 16._

    _aaaa_ The Slice of a Trunk of divers years growth.

    _cccc_ The _Cortical Body_, or _Barque_.

    _e_ The _Pith_.

    The white Lines are the Insertions of the _Cortical Body_ or

    The Black Lines are the _lignous Body_.

    The several Shootings thereof betwixt the black Circles shew
    the Annuall Rings.

_Fig. 17._

_Sheweth a small piece of Oak cut athwart._

    _b_ The just bigness of it, as it appeareth to the naked eye.

    _bbbb_ The appearance thereof through a _Microscope_.

    _aaaa_ The greater Insertions visible to the bare eye.

    The white Lines are the smaller Insertions only visible by the

    _cccccc_ The greater Pores visible to the bare eye.

    _eeeeee_ The middle sized.

    The black Spots are the smallest of all, and both these latter
    visible only through the _Microscope_.

    _c_ The _Pith_ of every great Pore.

_Fig. 18._

    _aaaa_ A piece of the Leaf of a Table.

    _bbbb_ The _lignous Body_ with its Pores running by the length
    of the Trunk.

    _cccc_ The Insertions of the _Cortical Body_, with the Tract of
    their Pores running directly cross to those of the _lignous_,
    _viz._ by the Diameter or breadth of the Trunk.

_Fig. 19._

_A Slice of a younger Trunk of a ~Burdock~._

    _cccc_ The utmost Shootings of the _lignous Body_ contiguous to
    the Skin; wholly distributed into the outer Leaves.

    _eeee_ The middle Shootings running chiefly into the lower

    _et_ _et_ &c. The inner Shootings belonging to the higher

    _a_ The _Pith_.

_The various Disposure, Size and Figure of the ~Fibres~ in the Stalk of a


    20 In _Endive_ thus.
    21    _Coltsfoot_.
    22    _Cycory_.
    23    _Ivy_.
    24    _Asarabacca_.
    25    _Mint_.
    26    _Dock_.
    27    _Borage_.
    28    _Mullen_.
    29    _Cabbage_.


[Illustration: _Fig: 19_ _Fig: 1_

_Fig: 16_ _Fig: 2_

_Fig: 3_ _Fig: 15_

_Fig: 5_

_Fig: 4_]

[Illustration: _Fig: 8_ _Fig: 6_ _Fig: 7_

_20_ _21_ _22_ _23_ _24_ _25_ _26_ _27_ _28_ _29_]

[Illustration: _Fig: 9_ _10_ _11_ _12_ _13_ _14_

_Fig: 17_

_Fig: 18_]

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