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Title: Trees You Want to Know
Author: Peattie, Donald Culross
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                         Trees You Want to Know

                         DONALD CULROSS PEATTIE

  Illustrations of the eastern trees from the classic “Sylva of North
 America” by Francois Andre Michaux; illustrations of western trees by
                          Ethel Bonney Taylor.

                             COPYRIGHT 1934
                       WHITMAN PUBLISHING COMPANY
                           RACINE, WISCONSIN

                           PRINTED IN U.S.A.


Every American wants to have at least a speaking acquaintance with the
trees that make up our great national heritage, the unequalled forests
of North America. The camper, the tramper, the woodsman, the gardener,
the motorist, and the inquisitive school girl and boy, all wish to know
the names, the uses, and the ranges of our native trees. There are more
than 400 tree species in North America, north of Mexico, and in so small
a book it is impossible to include all. Species from every section of
the country have been selected so that this little book is as
serviceable near San Francisco as near New York, in Alaska as in
Georgia, and throughout Canada.

The names of trees are confusing to learn only because lumbermen,
farmers, foresters, guides, and botanists all have different names for
the same tree. Again, one name, like Bull Pine or Scrub Oak, may be
applied to a dozen kinds of trees, in different regions. It has been
thought best in most cases to use only one name, chosen from the least
provincial and most literate sources. The Latin names are those now used
at the great Arnold Arboretum, except in a few cases that might confuse
the beginner.

Measurements and other characterizations of trees in the text apply to
mature growths of the season or to trees at the height of their life
cycle, not to early spring condition, nor to the appearance of saplings
or ancient, decrepit trees. Particularly the shape as described applies
to trees growing in the open. Under crowded forest conditions all trees
tend to have spindling outlines. At the limits of their ranges many
trees become mere shrubs. They develop most luxuriously near their
centers of distribution.


                           CALIFORNIA NUTMEG
                        (_Torreya californica_)

Shape with a pyramidal head, becoming round topped in age, 15-90 ft.
tall. Bark smoothish, thin, dark gray-brown, fissured into narrow
ridges. Branches spreading, slightly pendulous. Needles flat, scattered
along the twigs, the undersides marked with two whitish lines. Fruit
olive-like or plum-like, green becoming purple-streaked, consisting in a
fleshy aril in an open pit of which is buried the nutmeg-like seed.
Range: n. Coast Ranges and central Sierra Nevada of Calif. Of tree size
only near the coast, this curious tree is unlike any other in America
except FLORIDA YEW (_Torreya floridana_) a little tree, rare in nw. Fla.
with dark purple flesh on the fruit. PACIFIC YEW (_Taxus brevifolia_)
has short, slender, yellowish-green needles and a scarlet fleshy coat
around the seed. Alaska to Mont., and Sierra Nevada.


                              LIMBER PINE
                           (_Pinus flexilis_)

Shape broadly round topped; 40-50 ft. tall. Trunk massive, short. Bark
on young growth light gray, on old breaking into scales, furrowed and
finally black. Branches whorled and open. Needles in clusters of five,
stout, rigid, short, forming clusters at branch ends. Cones 3-4 in.
long; scales thick; seeds not winged. Range Albt. to w. Tex., mts. of
the Gt. Basin and up the e. slopes of the Sierras; rare on the Calif.
side. WHITE BARKED PINE (_Pinus albicaulis_) similar, with silvery bark,
short needles, small cones, and edible seeds. Goes to the timberline in
the Rockies and Pacific Coast Ranges. SILVER PINE (_Pinus monticola_)
resembles the next species but has stouter, rigid leaves without white
lines. A splendid timber tree reaching 150 ft. Mont. to Ida., s. in the
Sierras to Calif.


                               WHITE PINE
                           (_Pinus Strobus_)

Shape pagoda-like, up to 250 ft. tall. Bark bluish-black, smooth or in
age forming large plates. Branches whorled on young trees, horizontal.
Needles clustered in fives, soft, slender, 3-4 in. long, bluish-green
with white lines. Cones often curved, 4-6 in. long. Range: Newf. to Gt.
Lakes region and Minn., s. from the Virginias on the mts. to Ga. The
wood is light, soft, even-grained and beautiful, used for interior
finishing. “Soft Pine” has played a great role in our history. In the
days of wooden battleships it made the tallest masts. Appreciated by the
first colonists, it was wildly exploited in the last century. Railroads
were bent to great stands of it, wooden cities and mushroom fortunes
arose from its exploitation and great fleets were built to export it.
Now desolate stump lands tell the decline of an empire.


                               SUGAR PINE
                         (_Pinus Lambertiana_)

Shape with a broad, flat topped crown. Trunk up to 220 ft. tall,
massive, usually clothed with branches to the ground. Bark smooth, dark
gray on young branches, thick and scaly on old trunks, the plates
purplish brown to cinnamon. Branches in remote regular whorls, the upper
in age very elongated, bending under the weight of many big cones.
Needles 5 in a cluster, stout, rigid, 3-4 in. long, dark green. Cones
very large, 12-18 in. long. Range: mts. of extreme s. Ore. along Coast
Ranges and Sierra Nevada of Calif. This wood is like that of White Pine,
easily worked, pale, lustrous, handsome, similarly employed. Tallest and
mightiest of all pines in the world, it is famous for its stateliness. A
sugary matter exudes from cuts in this tree, but it may only be safely
eaten in small quantities.


                               PIÑON PINE
                            (_Pinus edulis_)

Shape bushy finally broad topped, 10-40 ft. tall. Trunk slim,
straggling. Bark irregularly ridged, becoming covered by light ruddy
scales. Branches horizontal, crooked. Needles in clusters of 2 (rarely
3) stout, rigid, ¾-1½ in. long. Cones only ½-¾ in. long, with thick
scale-ends, yellowish-green, lustrous. Range: Foothills of the Rockies
from Colo. to w. Tex. and through interior desert states to Mex. The
sweet edible seeds are an article of commerce in Mexico and the West. A
precious fuel in the desert states, wood of this scrubby tree gives off
a fragrant smoke that is characteristic of the southwestern towns and
Indian villages. ONE NEEDLE PINE (_Pinus monophylla_). Needles solitary,
blue-green. Cone brown. A little tree. Calif. to Ariz. and Colo. NUT
PINE (_Pinus Parryana_) Needles 4 in a cluster, blue-green, in-curved,
1½-2 in. long. Cone brown. Seeds edible. Centr. and s. Calif.


                                RED PINE
                           (_Pinus resinosa_)

Shape broadly pyramidal in youth, broad topped in age; up to 150 ft.
tall. Trunk 2-5 ft. thick. Bark gray, shallowly fissured into broad flat
ridges, loosely scaly. Branches stout, spreading, often drooping, but
twigs generally ascending. Needles in clusters of 2, rigid, stout,
triangular, dark, glossy, 5-6 in. long. Cones thin scaled, 2-6 in. long.
Range: e. Can. N.E., N.Y., n. Gt. Lakes region, w. Pa. The strong, ruddy
wood is greatly in demand for bridges and buildings. Masts and spars
made from it went round the world in the old clipper ships. Often
erroneously called “Norway Pine” (a name also given to a European
spruce) this is what the old lumberjacks of the North Woods meant by
“Hard Pine.” This stately, colorful pine is one of the most picturesque
of our trees.


                          WESTERN YELLOW PINE
                          (_Pinus ponderosa_)

Shape spire-like, round topped, up to 200 ft. tall. Trunk massive. Bark
ruddy, round ridged, scaly in age, with huge plates. Branches short,
thick, forked, often drooping. Needles in clusters of 3, densely crowded
at branch tips, dark yellow-green. Cones densely clustered, oval-oblong,
lustrous, ruddy, sometimes hook-scaled. Range B.C. to Ore. and s. in the
Sierra Nevada to Calif. ROCKY MT. YELLOW PINE (_Pinus scopulorum_)
differs in little except its shorter stature (not over 75 ft.), shorter
needles, often in clusters of 2, blackish bark, and smaller, stouter
cones. Black Hills and Big Horn Mts., high lands of w. Neb., and Rockies
from Wyo. to N. Mex. Both are among the most important timber trees of
the West. Lumbermen recognize many varieties of their woods. JEFFREY’S
PINE (_Pinus Jeffreyi_) is similar, symmetrical, with long bluish green
needles; twigs bloomy. Ore. to s. Calif.


                          SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE
                           (_Pinus echinata_)

Shape oblong, 50-100 ft. tall. Trunk ponderous, often clean and
branchless high up. Bark deep ruddy brown, broken in age into broad
armor-like plates built up of flaky scales. Needles 3-6 in. long in
clusters of 2, deep olive green, slender. Cones very small. Range:
Staten Island to s. Ga., and centr. Miss., not on the s. coast plain or
in high Appalachians or bottom lands of Mississippi valley. Again in
Ark., sw. Mo., ne. Tex., sw. Ill., Ky. and Tenn. Lumbermen recognize two
varieties of this important tree, the upland wood which is hard and
heavy, much valued for interior finish, and a weak, fast-growing type
from lowlands. BLACK PINE (_Pinus rigida_) has dark needles in threes,
3-4½ in. long, and cones 2-2½ in. long, ranging from Me. to n. Ga. and
w. Tenn.; this is a picturesque, short, dark, contorted tree without
much timber value.


                             LOBLOLLY PINE
                            (_Pinus Taeda_)

Shape high branched, broad crowned; up to 150 ft. tall. Bark rough,
gray-brown, or ruddy, separating in big, long scales. Branches wide
spreading, at maturity confined to top of stem. Needles slender, rigid,
lustrous light green, 3 or 4 in a cluster, 6 in. long. Cones large with
thick bristly scales. Range: Del. to n. Fla., rarely reaching the
Appalachians except in the Virginias: along the Gulf to e. Tex., n. in
Mississippi Basin to Tenn. The wood is soft, coarse grained and brittle
in the case of second-growth trees. Formerly virgin Loblolly timber (now
rare) was among the strongest and most durable of American pine woods.
The man-of-war “Roanoke” carried an immense mast cut from N. C. Loblolly
that had 302 annual rings; this tree regularly furnished the best naval
construction material.


                             LONG LEAF PINE
                          (_Pinus palustris_)

Shape spindling, a little broader at the crown, 50-100 ft. tall. Bark
smooth, thin, with red-brown plates. Branches short, horizontal, scaly.
Needles in threes, 10-15 in. long, gleaming and beautiful. Cones 6-10
in. long. Range: Norfolk Va. along the coast to centr. Fla.; far inland
in the Gulf States, up to e. Tenn. The wood, strong and durable when not
tapped for turpentine, is used for interior finish, bridges, trestles,
masts, spars and especially for railway carriages. This valuable tree,
with the longest needles and largest cones in the eastern states, is the
great tar, pitch, and turpentine tree that has supplied the world with
most of its naval stores. With the vanishing of virgin timber, the flow
of turpentine has become greatly diminished. SLASH PINE (_Pinus
caribaea_) is a similar, very slender spindly tree with small high
crown, which forms monotonous open grooves from S. C. to Fla. and Cuba.


                               JACK PINE
                          (_Pinus Banksiana_)

Shape if well developed broad topped, but usually stunted and
scraggling; 15-100 ft. tall. Trunk slim, often contorted. Bark ruddy
brown, gray and shaggy with age, forming irregular ridges. Branches wide
spreading, their twigs often drooping and ruddy. Needles scrubby, rigid,
twisted. Cones 1-2 in. long, remaining closed and grayish for years,
finally brown, 1-2 in. long. Range: N.S. to L. Mistassinie and the
Mackenzie R., skirting well south of James’ Bay; Gt. Lakes region to
centr. Minn. Though of little value save for fuel, this tree grows in
acid, rocky country where no other tree would. Everywhere associated
with poor soil, poverty, and bleak conditions, it is called “Unlucky
Tree” and superstitiously feared by French Canadians. The old
lumberjacks of the North Woods designated this contemptuously as “scrub


                             BIG CONE PINE
                           (_Pinus Coulteri_)

Shape broad spreading at the top; 40-90 ft. tall. Bark dark, with
braided fissures. Branches clothing stem near to base, lower extended.
Needles pale, 3 in a cluster, 5-14 in. long, very scant. Cones 10-13 in.
long, 5-7½ in. thick. Range: Coast Ranges of centr. and s. Calif.
Scarcely prepossessing in stature or foliage, this tree has the largest
cones among all pines. DIGGER PINE (_Pinus Sabiniana_) is similar,
ranging in a circle of the lower mts. surrounding the interior valleys
of Calif. Shape an open, broom-like crown, trunks usually leaning and
soon forking umbrella-wise. Needles grayish, scanty, clustered at twig
ends, 7-13½ in. long. Cones 6-10 in. long, 5-7 in. thick; scales with
big down-bent hook prickles. Seeds large, black-coated, sweet, eaten by
the Indians (“Diggers”) of Calif.


                             LODGEPOLE PINE
                          (_Pinus Murrayana_)

Shape narrowly pyramidal, 70-80 ft. tall. Bark close, firm, light
orange-brown. Branches ascending near the top, the lower down sweeping.
Needles stout, 2-3 in. long. Cones clustered, ¾-2 in. long. Also called
Tamarack Pine, this lofty slender tree makes dense monotonous forests
from the Yukon along the Rockies to s. Colo. and Utah, and along the
Sierras to s. Calif. It is used for mine timbers, railway ties, and its
very tall, slender, straight stems furnished the western Indians with
tepee poles. BEACH PINE (_Pinus contorta_) differs in being a stunted
tree of bogs, shores, and windswept dunes from Alaska to Calif.; stems
twisted: hark thick and dark; head broad and picturesque; needles darker
green, 1-1½ in. long. The two species intergrade, but the second, in
contrast, is quite useless.


                        EASTERN LARCH. TAMARACK
                           (_Larix laricina_)

Shape narrow or in old trees broadly pyramidal; 30-90 ft. tall. Trunk
slender. Bark smooth, ruddy brown, or on old trees rough with rounded
scales. Branches, horizontal or sweeping down, with young ones, borne in
thick clusters at the tip of the knob-like projections from the twigs,
falling in winter, renewed each spring, soft, ¾-1 in. long. Cones
remaining on the tree all winter, brown turning black. Range: Bogs
throughout the Can. forest belt to the arctic tree line; not on the
Rockies; s. to Gt. Lakes basin, n. Mississippi basin, N.E., N.Y., n. Pa.
The wood, heavy, strong, rather coarse, is durable in contact with the
soil. It is employed for ship timbers, ties, and fence posts. The gum
was used as a wound balm by the Pilgrims. When leafing out in spring the
Larch is very lovely.


                         WEST. LARCH. TAMARACK
                         (_Larix occidentalis_)

Shape narrowly pyramidal; 80-200 ft. tall. Bark very dark, on old trunks
becoming bright crimson and divided into huge plates. Branches short,
horizontal. Needles in clusters, except on the young growth, from woody
knobs, rigid, short, pointed, pale, renewed each spring, falling in
winter. Cones many scaled, 1-1½ in. long, with long slender bracts
protruding from between the scales. Range: Mts. of B.C. to w. Mont., and
s. to the Blue Mts. of Ore. No other American conifer produces such
hard, heavy wood; this is terra cotta in hue, valued for house
construction and furniture. Aided by the thickness of its bark this tree
withstands forest fires better than any other in the West and remains
the king of all larches in height and value. The sweet sap, issuing from
the tree, is eaten by Indians.


                               RED SPRUCE
                            (_Picea rubra_)

Shape loosely pyramidal; 40-75 ft. tall. Trunk slender. Bark reddish
brown, flaky with thin scales. Branches ascending near the top of the
tree, the lower down sweeping. Needles fragrant, 4-angled, scarcely more
than ½ in. long. Cones 1½-2 in. long, clustered near the summit. Range:
Marit. Provs. of Can., N.E., N.Y., s. on the mts. to Pa., and highest
peaks of Va. and N. C. Employed for construction, pulp, and flooring,
this is also considered the best American wood for resounding boards of
musical instruments. WHITE SPRUCE (_Picea canadensis_) ranges from Labr.
to Alaska, s. to N.E., centr. parts of Mich. and Wis., the Black Hills.
w. slopes of the Rockies in Can. and Mont. Not a large or valuable tree
except for paper pulp, it is the most ornamental eastern spruce. It
differs in its smooth twigs and longer cones: the needles are
unpleasantly scented.


                              BLACK SPRUCE
                           (_Picea mariana_)

Shape very narrow, spire-like; 20-90 ft. tall or sometimes a knee-high
dwarf even when very old, on the muskeags of the Northwest. Bark grayish
brown, flaky, thin-scaly. Branches very short, horizontal or a little
down sweeping, lightly up curving at the tips. Needles bluish green with
a whitish bloom, ½-¾ in. long, 4-angled. Cones ½-1½ in. long; scales
stiff and thin. Range: Throughout the forest belt of Can., except the
Rockies, s. to Pa. and thence on the high mts. to N.C., centr. parts of
Mich., Wis., Minn. Individually beautiful, this becomes a monotonous and
somber tree through the northern interior of the continent. The wood is
not useful except for paper pulp, but in that form it is employed by
almost every newspaper in the eastern states. Formerly its sap was the
basis of chewing gum, before chicle was employed.


                              SITKA SPRUCE
                          (_Picea sitchensis_)

Shape a loose open pyramid, spire-like at the summit; up to 200 ft.
tall. Trunk massive, often buttressed at the base. Bark broken into
large, thin, loose, reddish scales. Branches close, slender, horizontal
with rigid leading shoots. Needles flat, ½-1 in. long, silvery white
above, often twisted. Cones 2½-4 in. long with stiff scales. Range:
Alaska to Mendocino Co. Calif., always near the coast. This, the most
important lumber tree of Alaska, is used for interior finish,
boat-building, barrels, and packing cases. With its silvery foliage and
spire-like growth, it is unsurpassed in beauty by any evergreen. WEEPING
SPRUCE (_Picea Breweriana_) is similar, the needles also flat but not
silvery, and the branchlets sharply bent down from the trunk, the lower
sweeping to the ground. Mts. of sw. Ore. and adj. Calif.


                               WHITE FIR
                           (_Abies concolor_)

Shape a symmetrical pagoda-like tapering cone, up to 220 ft. tall. Trunk
massive. Bark thin, smooth, whitish-gray, in age deeply furrowed; ridges
rounded, with ashy scales. Branches widely spaced, whorled, on old trees
the lower sweeping to the ground. Needles flat, pale blue with a bloom.
Cones 3-6 in. long, their thin scales overlapping, deciduous. Range: On
the Sierra Nevada of Calif. and s. Ore. Also mts. of w. Colo., Utah,
Ariz. and N. Mex. ALPINE FIR (_Abies lasiocarpa_) is almost identical,
but the leaves green. Albt. to N. Mex. and Ore. RED FIR (_Abies
magnifica_) reaches 200 ft. height, with majestic lower branches and
cones 5-8 in. long. Needles bluish, quadrangular. Cascades of Ore. to
Mt. Shasta, and w. slope of the Sierra Nevada, where it forms vast,
splendid forests. The wood is moderately valuable for light


                             CANADA BALSAM
                           (_Abies balsamea_)

Shape pyramidal, up to 70 ft. tall. Trunk slender. Bark grayish brown
becoming scaly, with raised blisters containing resin. Branches in
whorls, horizontal. Needles appearing all in 1 plane on young or sterile
twigs, bristling all around the twig on old and cone-bearing branches,
pale below with grayish lines. Cones with sticky, shedding scales.
Range: Labr. to James’ Bay and nw. to Mackenzie R., N.E. N.Y. and s. on
the mts. to Va. This beautiful, fragrant tree, the finest eastern
Christmas tree, is chiefly valuable for its resin and Canada Balsam
which is gathered from the stem blisters in summer and used in painting
and scientific laboratories. The fragrant needles are put into pillows.
On the mts. of N.C. and Tenn. its place is taken by SHE BALSAM (_Abies
Fraseri_) which is similar, but with cones only 1-2 in. long, the
fringed bracts showing between the scales.


                            CANADIAN HEMLOCK
                          (_Tsuga canadensis_)

Shape a broad-based pyramid, the tip feathery; 50-80 ft. tall. Trunk
often fluted. Bark reddish to gray brown, with shallow, broad,
connecting ridges, somewhat scaly. Branches long, slender, horizontal or
drooping at base, ascending near top. Needles all in 1 plane, shining,
paler below, flattened, ½ in. long, short-stalked. Cones small,
short-stalked, hanging, few-scaled, 3-4 in. long. Range: N.S. to Wis.,
and Minn., s. to Del. and along the mts. to Ga. The value of this tree
lies chiefly in its bark, rich in tannin, though the frail wood is
sometimes used in exterior finishing. A lovely ornamental but not so
much so as the CAROLINA HEMLOCK (_Tsuga caroliniana_) in the Blue Ridge
from Va. to Ga., which has needles bristling all around the twigs, like
a fir, and a very compact, pyramidal, elegant small stature.


                            WESTERN HEMLOCK
                         (_Tsuga heterophylla_)

Shape broadly pyramidal, becoming narrow in age; up to 200 ft. tall.
Bark ridged and ruddy. Branches slender and pendulous, the twigs bright
red, upright. Needles spirally arranged around the twigs, curved, acute,
round or keeled, slender, light bluish green with whitish lines on both
sides, ½-1 in. long. Cones 2-3 in. long. Range: se. Alaska to Marin Co.
Calif., s. in the Rockies to Ida. and Mont. The wood is strong, easily
worked. The bark is rich in tannin and the inner bark is eaten by
Indians. This magnificent tree is the king of hemlocks. MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK
(_Tsuga Mertensiana_) has much the same range and also extends along the
w. slopes of the Sierra Nevada. It has cones up to 3 in. long, bright
purplish or reddish, and beautiful drooping branches and long thick


                              DOUGLAS FIR
                       (_Pseudotsuga taxifolia_)

Shape with a broad or narrow pyramidal crown; up to 200 ft. tall. Bark
smooth, shiny, dark gray-brown; in age deeply fissured, forming broad
ridges. Branches: lower drooping, middle and upper ascending. Needles
¾-1¼ in. long. Cones 2-4 in. long with thin scales from which finally
protrude the 3-forked bracts. Range: B. C. to centr. Calif. and n. Mex.,
along the Rockies from Mont. to w. Tex. and N. Mex. This is an important
timber tree, especially in Oregon; it is used for all kinds of
construction and for ties. For wharf piles it is preferred in all the
Pacific ports: it makes spars and masts of unequalled strength. BIG CONE
DOUGLAS FIR (_Pseudotsuga macrocarpa_) has much larger cones with scales
projecting at right angles from the axis. Mts. of s. Calif.


                              BALD CYPRESS
                         (_Taxodium distichum_)

Shape broadly or narrowly pyramidal, to 150 ft. tall. Trunk massive,
buttressed and fluted, becoming hollow with age, and accompanied by
outlying “knees” or spongy breathing knobs sometimes 10 ft. tall, and
long horizontal surface roots. Bark light cinnamon brown, flaky.
Branches erect or spreading, the much forked twigs drooping. Needles
falling in autumn. Cones 1 in. long, with thickened woody scales. Range:
Swamps near the coast, Gulf States n. to Del., and up the Mississippi to
s. Ind. The wood, light brown to very dark, is very durable. This
mysterious, very slow growing, very long lived tree is one of the most
valuable of American lumber trees. Often gloomy and even unsightly where
it forms dense swamps, it can be very lovely when its needles bud out in
spring and its lofty feathery summits are seen waving across the
everglades and savannahs.


                          CALIFORNIA BIG TREE
                          (_Sequoia gigantea_)

Shape at first broadly spindle, finally clean trunked, ending in a
broad, pointed crown. Trunk buttressed, 250-300 ft. tall, greatly
swollen at base; above this point 17-34 ft. thick. Bark thick, fibrous,
deeply grooved, dark cinnamon-brown, the outer plates dull
lavender-gray. Branches short, slender, curving forward and upward on
young trees and clothing stem to base; on old trees lofty, large,
crooked, drooping at tip. Leaves blue-green, scale-like and overlapping,
or, on young or fertile shoots, shorter, bristling. Cones 1-3 in. long,
resembling a little pineapple until the scales ultimately spread open.
Range: at 5000-8000 ft., w. slopes of the Sierra Nevada in Calif. The
wood is very durable and valuable, a dull red brown. This is the
noblest, rarest, and most impressive of all timber trees. The maximum
number of annual rings counted by reliable observers is about 2,300.


                        (_Sequoia sempervirens_)

Similar to the preceding but even taller (100-350 ft. or perhaps 400
ft.). Differing also in the trunk which is ultimately clean of branches
for 100 ft., and the scale-like or needle-like leaves on the main
branches which do not overlap but are irregularly scattered. Cones
smaller (¾-1 in. long). Range: N. and centr. Coast Ranges of Calif.
Though less restricted in range than the Big Trees, Redwoods do not go
far from the influence of the sea fogs along the Pacific coast. The wood
is crimson brown, soft, but very durable. This, the tallest tree in the
world (some even surpassing the Big Tree in height but not in girth)
yields more board feet of timber per individual than any other tree.
Though less impressive than the Big Trees, and less long lived (maximum
about 1,400 years) Redwoods are far more valuable and of majestic


                             INCENSE CEDAR
                        (_Libocedrus decurrens_)

Shape narrowly pyramidal, up to 150 ft. tall. Trunk massive, irregularly
lobed or fluted. Bark bright cinnamon red broken into irregular ridges
covered with scales. Branches erect above, the lower sweeping down in
bold curves. Scales light green, long and narrow, often keeled, in
opposite pairs, overlapping around the erect twigs (except at their
tips) and giving them a square look, becoming woody before falling.
Cones made up of 6 scales, the lowest pair bent back, the uppermost
united. Range: Cascade Mts. of Ore., inner Coast Ranges and Sierra
Nevada of Calif. This is a magnificent, aromatic tree, unique in North
America, with valuable wood, durable in contact with the soil, and used
for fencing, laths, shingles, interior finish, furniture and water


                             ALASKA CYPRESS
                     (_Chamaecyparis nootkatensis_)

Shape elongated-pyramidal, up to 120 ft. tall. Bark ashen brown with
diagonal ridges. Branches horizontal, repeatedly forking to form flat
sprays. Scales closely overlapping the twigs, fragrant, minute, or on
leading branches larger and spreading, becoming brown and woody in age.
Cones resinous, dryly fleshy. Range: s. Alaska to the Cascade mts. of
Ore. The wood, very durable, aromatic, close-grained, clear yellow, is
used for shipbuilding. One of the finest timber trees in the world, it
has been exported in great quantity especially to China. PORT OXFORD
CEDAR (_Chamaecyparis Lawsoniana_) s. Ore. to Humboldt Co., Calif. has
distinctly flattened twigs, conspicuous glands on the leaves and deeply
furrowed ruddy bark. This mighty tree is sometimes twelve feet thick.
The wood is used for flooring, interior finish and shipbuilding.


                              WHITE CEDAR
                       (_Chamaecyparis thyoides_)

Shape slenderly conical, 20-90 ft. tall. Bark grayish brown, separating
off in shreddy strips, somewhat spirally twisted. Branches short,
sparse, slender, horizontal, forking into feathery branchlets. Scales
minute, pressed closely to the stem and overlapping, keeled on the back
and glandular, spicy-aromatic. Cones gummy, very small, finally opening
toward the center into a few thick scales. Range: Swamps from se. Me. to
Fla. (but not on the peninsula) and around the coast to Miss. The light
ruddy brown, fragrant wood is not strong, but endures moisture
eternally; it is used for fence-posts, ties, and shingles. Stumps that
have been under water for centuries show no signs of rot. This
sad-looking tree forms monotonous low forests in the swamps that would
otherwise be useless.


                          EASTERN ARBOR VITAE
                         (_Thuja occidentalis_)

Shape a very compact symmetrical pyramid. up to 70 ft. tall. Trunk often
forked and lobed, or buttressed, clothed to the base by the branches.
Bark ash gray to light brown, separating into flat shreddy strips,
spirally twisted. Branches short, horizontal, or the lowest down
sweeping. Scales gray green, closely overlapping and thickly investing
every twig to form a beautiful flat forked spray of foliage; each scale
with a raised glandular spot which gives off a sweet, camphor-like
fragrance. Cones small, about ½ in. long. Ranges swamps from s. Lab. to
Man. and Minn., and from Pa. s. on the Appalachians, where very rare.
The wood, fragrant, soft and brittle but very durable, is used for fence
posts, rails, ties, spools and shingles. This is a superb tree, giving
to the bogs of the eastern states much of their charm.


                          WESTERN ARBOR VITAE
                           (_Thuja plicata_)

Shape narrowly pyramidal, up to 200 ft. tall. Trunk much buttressed.
Bark cinnamon red. Branches clothing the stem to the base, short,
horizontal, pendulous at tip. Leaves bright and glossy, in the form of
long scales closely investing the twigs, each scale marked by a whitish
triangular spot, the needles on vigorous leading shoots often not
overlapping but remote, bristling, sharp. Cones little over ½ in. long,
elliptic-oblong. Range: Alaska to n. Calif. and Mont. The wood differs
from the eastern species in being dull red brown, instead of pale
yellow. This is a precious timber tree of the Pacific Northwest. The
wood is used for interior finish, fences, shingles. Logs last forever
and from them Indians made their village totem poles, their plank lodges
and dug-out canoes.


                            WESTERN JUNIPER
                       (_Juniperus occidentalis_)

Shape round headed, 20-60 ft. tall. Trunk often forked half way up. Bark
cinnamon, fissured and shreddy, with glossy scales. Branches beginning
low on the trunk, very large, horizontal. Scales short, overlapping all
around the twig, grayish, glandular. Berry resinous, large. Range: Mt.
slopes and high prairies from e. Wash. and w. Ida. to San Bernardino
Mts. of s. Calif. The wood of this picturesque tree is red, soft, light,
durable, used for fences and fuel. Fond of wind-swept crags, “it dies
standing and wastes insensibly out of existence like granite, the wind
exerting as little control over it alive or dead as it does over a
glacial boulder.” (John Muir.) CALIFORNIA JUNIPER (_Juniperus
californica_) is closely similar, but has gray bark, bushy stem, paler
needles and a red brown berry with sweet pulp. Centr. and s. Calif.


                         RED OR VIRGINIA CEDAR
                        (_Juniperus virginiana_)

Shape cypress-like, narrowly pyramidal, 40-100 ft. tall. Trunk becoming
3-4 ft. thick, buttressed at base. Bark ruddy, shredding in long
ribbon-like strips. Branches at maturity sharply erect, spreading in
youth and age. Scales very short, turning russet in winter in the North,
closely overlapping except on vigorous young shoots, when they are erect
and needle-like and paler. Berry resinous, sweet. Range: N. S. to Fla.,
Tex., and Minn. The soft, aromatic, red and yellow wood is used for lead
pencils, moth-proof chests and closets, ties, posts, interior finish,
and yields cedar oil. ROCKY MT. CEDAR (_Juniperus scopulorum_) is
distinguished by stouter, often drooping, branches and darker wood.
Rockies from Albt. to w. Tex., Olympic mts. of Wash, e. Ore. through
Nev. to n. Ariz. Monotonously this conical little tree dots the
dome-like hills of the desert states.


                           (_Sabal Palmetto_)

Trunk at base knob-like, rooty; 30-40 ft. tall, 2 ft. thick, hollow,
with a light ruddy rind. Leaves shining, 5-6 ft. long 7-8 ft. broad, on
stalks 6-7 ft. long. Flowers small, greenish white, in very long,
branched clusters from upper leaf axils. Range: along coast from
Wilmington, N. C. to the Appalachicola R., Fla. Especially abundant on
the Fla. w. coast, this tree finds use as a food, the cabbage-like
terminal bud being eaten as “hearts of palm.” The bristles on the
sheaths of young leaves are made into scrubbing brushes and the trunks
are employed as wharf piles. On June 28, 1776, Charleston patriots under
Moultrie made a fort of palmetto trunks and from it repulsed the British
fleet. DESERT PALM (_Washingtonia filamentosa_) is a very lofty
fan-leaved palm of the deserts of southwestern Calif. Often cultivated.


                              BLACK WILLOW
                            (_Salix nigra_)

Shape short trunked, broad crowned, up to 90 ft. tall. Trunk often
forking near the base. Bark rough, scaly, dark brown on old trunks.
Leaves 2-4 in. long, lance-shaped, downy when young, short stalked,
appearing with the flowers and turning lemon yellow in autumn. Range:
N.B. to e. Dak., throughout the Middle West, and s. to Fla. and Ariz.
Also in centr. Calif. SHINING WILLOW (_Salix lucida_) is a tall shrub or
sometimes a small tree, the leaves when young covered with rusty or
sordid hairs, but finally smooth, thick, dark-green, and shining on both
sides. Michaux’s drawing of it, figured here, shows an unusually
short-tipped sort of leaf, and he may perhaps have confused it with the
Bay-leaved willow, _Salix pentandra_, or the Peach-leaved willow, _Salix
amygdaloides_. The Shining Willow ranges from Newf. to Min. and s. to
Pa., Ill., and Neb.

                             QUAKING ASPEN
                        (_Popular tremuloides_)

Shape round-topped, 20-60 ft. tall. Bark greenish white to yellowish
brown on young parts, though with dark blotches below the branches,
smooth except on very old trunks which become dark and furrowed.
Branches slender, often drooping at the ends. Twigs smooth, shiny, tan.
Buds slender, shining, scarcely sticky, red. Leaves blue-green with
whitish veins, on long flattened stalks. Range: Newf. to the Yukon, s.
to N. J. and the mts. of Pa. and Ky., through the Middle West and along
the Rockies to Mex., through the Southwest to centr. and s. Calif. This
graceful tree with almost birch-like bark, at times, and restless,
talkative foliage, is one of the most widespread in the country. Quite
common even in the east, it becomes abundant—the commonest deciduous
tree, in many parts of the far west and far north. It probably goes as
far north as any tree in the barrens of Canada, and in the western
mountains it fills the glens and follows water courses and lakes. “With
its slender, pendulous branches and shimmering leaves and pale bark, the
aspen enlivens the spruce forests of the north and marks steep mt.
slopes with broad bands of color, light green in summer and in autumn
glowing like gold against backgrounds of dark cliffs and stunted pines”
(Sargent). The aspen, in the West, should not be confused with the
various cottonwoods (which see.) The cottonwoods too have dancing,
whispering leaves, but the aspens are known by the fact that the
terminal bud of each twig is small and scarcely at all gummy, while
cottonwoods have big, sticky buds.


                          LARGE TOOTHED ASPEN
                       (_Populus grandidentata_)

Shape a rather narrow round topped head, up to 90 ft. tall. Bark smooth,
grayish, rough only on old trunks. Twigs stout, reddish brown, gray
downy in Spring. Buds big, dusty-looking, only slightly sticky. Leaves
on flattened stalks, turning gold in Fall. Range: N. S. to Ont. and
Minn., Ill., and Ind., s. in the mts. to N. C. The wood is used for
excelsior, pulp, and cheap lumber. SWAMP BLACK POPLAR (_Populus
heterophyla_) is a similar tree but with rough dark bark and darker
twigs, larger, heart-shaped leaves with finely scalloped margins, the
undersides downy, veiny, and with yellow midrib. Swamps from La. north
to Ill. and around the coast to Conn. WILLOW LEAVED POPLAR (_Populus
angustifolia_) has smooth bark and long, narrow leaves, quite unlike any
others. This is a favorite street tree in western cities; native from
Assin. to Nev., Ariz. and N. Mex.


                          CAROLINA COTTONWOOD
                        (_Populus balsamifera_)

Trunks often forking from the base, often leaning. Bark gray green; in
age gray, furrowed, with braiding ridges. Twigs ocher, sometimes corky
ridged. Buds sticky, brown. Leaves with a translucent border, paler
beneath, yellow in fall. Range: Que. and N. B. to Fla., Tex. and Kans. A
small tree of shores and low plains, with rainy-sounding, twinkling
foliage, sending forth at fruiting time clouds of downy seeds. FREMONT
COTTONWOOD (_Populus Fremontii_) has leaves tapering at tip, not paler
beneath. Centr. Calif. to N. Mex. and s. Colo. GREAT PLAINS POPLAR
(_Populus Sargentii_) has lighter yellow twigs, hoary buds, leaves
broader than long, lighter green, fewer toothed. High plains and mts.
from Albt. to w. Tex. and N. Mex. Groves of this tree, sighted by
pioneers, indicated the presence of water. From their flimsy wood were
run up the first towns of the old West.


                           MOCKER NUT HICKORY
                             (_Carya alba_)

Shape oval, 50-70 ft. tall. Trunk somewhat swollen at base. Branches
more or less down sweeping except the upper ones. Bark not shaggy but
broken by rough, corky, braided ridges that appear as if sand-papered.
Twigs stout, ruddy, downy. Buds pale gray, thick, densely hairy,
many-scaled. Leaves of 7-9 resinous leaflets, paler beneath. Fruit a
large husk splitting into 4 segments; nut brownish; kernel sweet. Range:
Gulf States to s. Gt. Lakes region and s. N.E. The wood is used like
that of shagbark and not commercially differentiated. PIGNUT (_Carya
glabra_) is similar, but the twigs and shining, heavy leaves are without
hairs; leaflets 5-7; fruit pear-shaped; shell very bony. The kernel is
far inferior to that of Shagbark and Mocker Nut. It is found throughout
the e. deciduous forest belt.


                            SHAGBARK HICKORY
                            (_Carya ovata_)

Shape narrowly oblong, up to 140 ft. tall. Bark smoke gray, shaggy and
peeling off in long thick strips. Branches pendulous. Twigs erect,
stout. Buds large, many scaled. Leaves of 5-7 leaflets. Fruit with a
thick husk splitting into 4 segments; nut whitish, 4-ridged, the kernel
delicious. Range: Gt. Lakes region to Tex. and Fla., e. to N. E. The
wood is heavy, hard, tough, employed for all implements requiring
strength, such as axles, axe handles, ploughs, and skiis. This noble
tree leafs out late and early drops its bronze foliage. KING NUT HICKORY
(_Carya laciniosa_) is similar in every way but the leaflets are 7-9 in
number, downier beneath; nut very large, yellowish, in a thinner husk.
As a nut tree this is decidedly superior to Shagbark. Centr. N. Y. and
down the Ohio Valley, Mo., Ia., and e. Okla. Bark scaly rather than
shaggy, but peeling off.


                          (_Juglans cinerea_)

Shape oval, up to 90 ft. tall. Bark deeply fissured, gray; twigs stout,
downy and sticky when young, as are the stout buds. Leaves with downy,
sticky stalk and central axis, consisting in 11-19 leaflets. Fruits 3-5
on a branch, ½ in. long, coated with matted, clammy, rusty hairs; the
husk not splitting; nut 2-celled at base, ridged, with sweet kernel.
Range: N.B. to Va., s. in the mts. to Ga., w. to centr. Minn. and s. to
Ark. The light brown, soft wood is used for furniture and interior
finish. The green husks are still employed in the s. Appalachians to dye
cloth orange and yellow; sugar of excellent quality can be made from the
sap. CALIFORNIA WALNUT (_Juglans Hindsii_) differs from Black Walnut in
having 11-17 narrower leaflets and smaller nuts. Coast from San
Francisco south. MEXICAN WALNUT (_Juglans rupestris_) is a small tree,
with 9-23 very slender leaflets. W. Tex. to Ariz.


                              BLACK WALNUT
                           (_Juglans nigra_)

Shape round headed, short trunked, up to 150 ft. tall. Bark brown,
furrowed. Twigs thick, downy at first. Buds flattened, with 4 scales.
Leaves with 15-25 pairs of leaflets, minutely downy beneath, becoming
smooth and shiny above. Fruit solitary or paired, about 2 in. thick, the
husk not splitting, thick, bitter-smelling; kernel sweet inside the
4-celled, black nut. Range: s. N.E. to Gt. Lakes region and centr. Neb.,
s. to e. Tex., and s. on the piedmont to Ga. and Ala. The very strong
heavy, durable wood is a beautiful rich dark brown. It has played an
interesting role in American history. Its husks dyed the homespuns of
the first settlers; its wood furnished the colonial cabinet makers, and
in the Civil War it was in great demand for gunstocks. The craze for
this tree reached fantastic lengths and resulted in its widespread


                              CANOE BIRCH
                         (_Betula papyrifera_)

Shape broadly pyramidal: up to 80 ft. tall. Bark soft, chalky white
(gray, or orange, in some regions) peeling around the stems in papery
strips. Branches horizontal, often pendulous at the ends. Leaves shining
above, black-dotted below. Range: Lab. to Alaska and Wash., s. to Pa.,
s. Mich., s. Wis., and w. to Neb. and Mont. The wood is valued for
woodenware. This lovely tree with cheerful foliage and softly gleaming
bark, lightens the somberness of northern forests, and furnished Indians
with canoes. BLACK BIRCH (_Betula fontinalis_) is similar, but with
close bronze bark and doubly toothed leaves. Alaska to Ore., in the
Rockies to Colo. RIVER BIRCH (_Betula nigra_) has ragged, flaky, silvery
gray to reddish brown bark and rhombic-oval leaves, the undersides
whitish and downy. River-banks, Mass. to s. Minn. (but s. of the Gt.
Lakes) and to n. Fla. and e. Tex. Not in the higher Appalachians.


                              CHERRY BIRCH
                            (_Betula lenta_)

Shape pyramidal in youth, broad topped in age; up to 80 ft. tall. Bark
on young parts lustrous red brown, on old brown and cracked. Branches
ultimately wide spreading, drooping at the ends. Twigs slender, lustrous
red brown. Leaves fragrant, like the bark, 2½-6 in. long with yellow
midrib, the undersides veiny and downy in the axils. Range: Me. to the
mts. of Ala., w. to Ohio. The wood is heavy, strong, dark and satiny. It
is used for ships and furniture. It yields birch oil which is employed
medicinally and as a flavoring. Birch beer is made from the sugary sap.
Very beautiful in spring, when the golden catkins clothe the tree, this
is the most valuable timber tree among our birches. YELLOW BIRCH
(_Betula lutea_) is similar, but the bark is gray and flaky and the
twigs are downy. Newf. to Man., s. to the mts. of Ga. The wood is valued
for agricultural implements.


                             AMERICAN BEECH
                         (_Fagus grandifolia_)

Shape broad topped; up to 100 ft. tall. Trunk massive. Bark smooth,
bluish gray. Branches greatly forked, terminating in many delicate pale
gray twigs. Leaves thin and filmy or becoming thicker and darker in the
South, turning a soft gold in autumn. Fruit a small brown edible nut
enclosed in a box-like rusty, knobby husk which splits, after frost, by
4 valves. Range: N.B. to e. Wis., s. to e. Tex. and n. Fla. The wood is
strong, tough and handsome but warping and not durable. The bark is an
ingredient in skin ointments and the nuts are gathered for the market,
but fruiting is scarce except far North. Beech woods, formerly of great
extent on limestones of the Middle West, were the gathering place of the
passenger pigeon which subsisted largely on beech nuts. The beech forms
open and airy but cool and emerald forest glades.


                              HOP HORNBEAM
                         (_Ostrya virginiana_)

Shape with a round branchy top; to 70 ft. tall. Bark gray, scaly, rough.
Twigs slender, tough. Leaves 3-5 in. long, light yellow green below,
with downy tufts in the axils of the veinlets. Range: Cape Breton to the
Black Hills, s. to Fla. and e. Tex. The wood is heavy, hard, tough, used
for tool handles, woodenware, etc. This shady graceful tree is
birch-like in form and bark, but beech-like in leaf; its autumn foliage
being clear yellow. IRONWOOD (_Carpinus caroliniana_) is a similar but
smaller tree, the trunk frequently forking near the ground, bark close
and blue-gray; stem and branches fluted and sinewy. Nutlet not enclosed
in a hop-like bag as in the Hop Hornbeam, but borne on a papery bract.
This graceful, leaning tree, with scarlet autumn leaves, is also called
Blue Beech. Que. to Minn., Fla. and Tex.


                               WHITE ELM
                          (_Ulmus americana_)

Shape, with a broadly umbrella-form top, up to 120 ft. tall. Trunk often
forking. Bark light gray, scaly and fissured. Branches very numerous but
only at the tip where they spread upwards like the spokes of an
umbrella, drooping at the ends. Leaves rough above, paler beneath, a
bright clear yellow in autumn. Range: Throughout the e. half of the
United States; n. to Newf.; reaching the Rockies from Sask. to Colo.
This magnificent tree characterizes stream banks and valleys in the
wild, and in cultivation the old villages, manor grounds, and colleges
of the northeastern states. CORK ELM (_Ulmus racemosa_) has twigs and
undersides of leaves downy even at maturity. Branchlets finally corky
winged. Middle West and Tenn. to Que. and nw. N. E. Both kinds are used
for hubs, beams of heavy agricultural implements and boats.


                              SLIPPERY ELM
                            (_Ulmus fulva_)

Shape with a broad, open, flat topped head: 60-70 ft. tall. Bark dark
brown tinged with red, divided by shallow fissures and covered by large
scales. Twigs stout, bright green, rough and downy. Leaves very scratchy
above, densely downy beneath, turning dull yellow in autumn. Range:
Throughout the e. half of the country and se. Can. A massive, handsome
tree, whose wood is used for agricultural implements, fence posts and
ties. The thick fragrant inner bark of the branches is mucilaginous and
was formerly used as a chewing-stick; it is employed in medicine against
inflammations. CEDAR ELM (_Ulmus crassifolia_) differs from all other
elms in being autumn-flowering. From the above it differs in its corky
winged pendulous branchlets and broader, shorter, lustrous leaves. A
handsome tree. Miss. to s. Ark, w. Tex. and adj. Mex.


                            COMMON HACKBERRY
                        (_Celtis occidentalis_)

Shape round topped: to 120 ft. tall. Trunk slender. Branches spreading
or pendulous. Bark light brown to silver gray, smooth until old age when
broken into scales or warty knobs. Leaves lustrous and rough above,
turning yellow in autumn; Fruit orange red to dark purple, with thin
edible flesh and large stone. Range: N. C. to Kans. and n. to Que. and
Man. This handsome tree has not much timber value; its leaves in the
South are sometimes heavy and dark green. MISSISSIPPI HACKBERRY (_Celtis
laevigata_) differs in its much narrower and longer leaves, the margins
not toothed; fruits smaller. S. Ind. and Ill. through Ky., Tenn. and
Ala. to s. Fla., Ark., Tex., Mex., and Bermuda. WESTERN HACKBERRY
(_Celtis reticulata_) is a small tree with very veiny, thick leaves and
orange fruits. Colo. and Tex. to Wash. and s. Calif.


                          SOUTHERN CHINQUAPIN
                          (_Castanea pumila_)

Bark light brown, furrowed with narrow cracks. Leaves 3-5 in. long,
white-downy beneath, dull yellow in fall. Flowers in dangling white
catkins. Fruit a spiny husk containing 1 small, sweet, brown nut. Range:
e. Tex. to Mo. and up the Ohio to Pa. Also uplands from Ala. to Tenn.
and Md. A mere shrub over much of its range, Chinquapin is a tree 50 ft.
tall in the far South. The nuts are offered in the southern markets.
CHESTNUT (_Castanea dentata_) has been almost annihilated by chestnut
blight. GIANT CHINQUAPIN (_Castanopsis chrysophylla_) is similar but the
leaves are shiny, evergreen, golden-downy beneath; catkins erect. A tree
50-115 ft. tall, with ruddy or gray, deeply furrowed bark. Cascades of
Ore. to the outer Coast ranges of Calif.


                              TANBARK OAK
                       (_Lithocarpus densiflora_)

Shape symmetrical, pyramidal, short-trunked, 40-150 ft. tall. Bark on
young trunks white-mottled, on old brown, smoothish or checked into
rough plates. Leaves 2-5 in. long, evergreen, the undersides densely
white downy beneath, becoming smooth, with a white bloom; nerves
parallel, conspicuous beneath. Fruit acorn-like but the cup scales
almost prickly. Range: Mts. of sw. Ore. and n. Coast Ranges of Calif.;
also in the Sierra Nevada to Mariposa Co. The wood is hard and strong,
used for furniture and interior construction. The bark is highly
valuable for tanning; it is stripped in May, June, and July. This
magnificent tree resembles a chestnut in leaf, flower, and the cup of
its acorn, but is oak-like in its shape and nut. Popularly often called
“Sovereign Oak.”


                               WHITE OAK
                            (_Quercus alba_)

Shape short-trunked, with very broad rounded top; 50-70 ft. tall. Bark
light gray, broken by shallow fissures into long, thin, flaky scales.
Branches wide-spreading. Leaves reddish brown in autumn. Range: s. and
w. N.E. to centr. Fla. and e. Tex., through the s. Gt. Lakes region to
se. Minn. The wood is strong, tough, heavy and durable, and is used for
boat-building, interior finish, agricultural implements, barrels and
clapboards. The bark is valued in tanning. VALLEY OAK (_Quercus lobata_)
called also Maul Oak, Weeping Oak, and Roble, is a magnificent tree of
Calif. with wide spreading, drooping branches. Leaves with more numerous
(7-11) lobes, dark green above, gray-downy beneath: bark on old trunks
furrowed into squarish, corky, gray segments.


                                POST OAK
                          (_Quercus stellata_)

Shape short-trunked, with broad, dense, round head; 60-100 ft. tall.
Bark grayish brown, deeply fissured. Branches horizontal. Twigs brown.
Leaves thickish, rough to touch above, gray downy below. Range: On the
coast plain and piedmont of the Gulf States, n. to s. N.E., and up the
Gt. Valley to Mo. and Ia., up the Ohio to Pa. The wood is heavy, hard,
durable, but difficult to season; used for ties. The acorn is edible,
like that of the White Oak, when boiled, and was used as a coffee
substitute in the Confederate States. OREGON OAK (_Quercus Garryana_) is
similar but with shorter leaves (2-5 in. long) and light gray bark. It
is the finest timber oak from Wash. to Calif.


                              OVERCUP OAK
                           (_Quercus lyrata_)

Shape a symmetrical, round topped head; up to 100 ft. tall. Branches
inclined to droop, rather short. Leaves shiny above, white downy
beneath, turning a deep cardinal red in autumn. Range: Swamps and river
bottoms, coast plain and piedmont from the Gulf States to s. N. J., and
up the Gt. Valley to Neb., Ill., and Ohio. The wood is like that of the
White Oak and similarly used. BUR OAK (_Quercus macrocarpa_) is similar
but the leaves broader, 5-8 in. long, maroon in autumn. Branches very
wide-spreading; bark light grayish-brown, deeply furrowed. Acorn large,
the rim of the cup almost bur-like. N. S. and w. N. E. through N. Y. and
w. of the Alleghenies to n. La., e. Tex. and the Rockies. A noble tree
once forming park-like groves in the Middle West in which the pioneers
easily drove horse and wagon, built their first cabins and pastured
their cattle.


                               BASKET OAK
                           (_Quercus Prinus_)

Shape a round topped, dense head; up to 100 ft. tall. Trunk massive.
Bark scaly, light gray. Branches stout, wide spreading. Leaves rather
rigid, 4-8 in. long, grayish downy beneath. Range: Gulf States and n. in
the Mississippi basin to Mo. and the Wabash R. Along the coast plain and
piedmont to Del. This is a most imposing tree in the South. It is used
in basketry, for ties and other rough construction. YELLOW CHESTNUT OAK
(_Quercus Muehlenbergii_) is similar, but with a narrow head, narrower
leaves, thicker and shorter acorn. Tex. to s. Minn. and through the
forest belt of the Middle West and limestone Alleghenies (Ala. to N. Y.)
Also down the Potomac and Hudson to tidewater. The glossy foliage and
handsome stature make this an impressive tree, especially in the Middle


                            SWAMP WHITE OAK
                          (_Quercus bicolor_)

Shape broad topped, 60-90 ft. tall. Bark light grayish brown, scaly.
Leaves white down beneath, turning yellow brown or orange red in autumn.
Range: s. N. E. to Gt. Lakes region and Minn., s. to Tex. and Fla. The
wood is valuable like that of the White Oak but the tree is not so
handsome. It is easily distinguished by its bark and the numerous twigs.
ROCK CHESTNUT OAK (_Quercus montana_) is a massive tree with dark brown,
ridged bark and foliage similar to the above but larger, glossy above
and not downy beneath except in youth. Acorn large, lustrous, and
handsome. Foliage in autumn yellow to dull orange. Throughout the
Appalachian range from the Catskills and mts. of N. J. to Ala. and in
the upper Ohio valley and w. N. Y. This noble tree forms stately groves
in the southern mountains.


                           SOUTHERN LIVE OAK
                         (_Quercus virginiana_)

Shape short trunked, the very broadly spreading branches making a crown
wider than high; 40-50 ft. tall. Bark dark brown, rough, deeply
furrowed, the ridges a grayer brown. Leaves evergreen, thick, 2-4 in.
long, paler beneath with very fine down. Range: Coast plain from Tex.
(and far up the Rio valley) to the Gt. Dismal Swamp and Mobjack Bay, Va.
The wood is light golden brown, beautiful, very hard to work, used for
ornamental interior finish on ships. With the immense spread of its
branches this noblest, most picturesque tree of the far South forms
gracious park-like groves. The Spanish Moss dripping from its boughs
adds to its dreamy charm. CANYON LIVE OAK (_Quercus chrysolepis_) is
similar but has pendulous branches, the leaves bluish rather than olive
green. This is the finest evergreen oak from Ore. to Calif.


                               WILLOW OAK
                          (_Quercus Phellos_)

Shape with a conical crown; to 80 ft. tall. Trunk stocky. Bark deep
ruddy brown, shallowly seamed. Leaves glossy above, lighter beneath.
Range: Gulf States and n. in the Gt. Valley to Ky., around the coast to
Long Island. But for its acorns, small as they are, they would scarcely
be recognized as an oak from its leaves. A favorite shade tree in S.
cities. LAUREL OAK (_Quercus imbricaria_) is very similar, with larger,
broader leaves, the under surface downy. Pa. to Ga., w. to s. Wisc., e.
Neb., and Ark. COAST LIVE OAK (_Quercus agrifolia_) is a striking tree
with evergreen, holly-like leaves and very long, slender little acorns
in shallow cups. Grows 90 ft. tall or may be a mere shrub. Centr. and s.
Calif. DESERT LIVE OAK (_Quercus hyopleuca_) differs from Coast Live Oak
in having leaves white downy beneath, the margins not spiny-toothed. W.
Tex. to s. Ariz.


                                RED OAK
                          (_Quercus borealis_)

Shape round headed; 50-150 ft. tall. Trunk usually extensively branching
about 15 ft. from the ground. Bark on young parts gray brown; on trunk
dark brown and finally broken by shallow furrows into long, straight,
flat faced ridges. Twigs rather slender, red. Leaves paler beneath, in
autumn turning a rich maroon red. Range: N.S. and the St. Lawr. and Gt.
Lakes basins (exc. L. Superior) throughout the forest belt of the Middle
West, s. to w. Tex. and centr. Tenn., s. on the mts. to Ga. Not a
valuable timber tree. SPANISH OAK (_Quercus falcata_) is important for
its good tan bark. Leaves long and narrow, with 5-7 deep, narrow,
scythe-shaped lobes, gray downy beneath. Acorn only ½ in. long, half
buried in its cup. Gulf States and up the Mississippi to s. Ind., around
the coast to N. J.


                           SWAMP SPANISH OAK
                         (_Quercus palustris_)

Bark dark brown with gray patches, scored with shallow, short, vertical
furrows. Branches horizontal and finally somewhat drooping. Twigs
numerous, slender. Leaves 3-5 in. long, paler beneath and tufted in the
axils of the veins with fine hairs. Autumn foliage a rich cardinal red.
Range: Chiefly lowlands of the Ohio Valley sw. to Okla. and Kans., ne.
through Pa. to Del., s. N. Y. and the lower Connecticut valley. A fine
tree reaching 100 ft. tall. PIN OAK (_Quercus coccinea_) differs in
having its leaves truncate at base, and its acorn cup hemispherical
instead of saucer-shaped. Foliage brilliant cardinal red in autumn. S.
Me. to Fla., w. to Tex. and Ia. YELLOW OAK (_Quercus ellipsoidalis_) is
very similar to Swamp Spanish Oak; the bark is smooth and gray, the
stature small; cup gray; leaves yellowish brown in Fall. S. Mich. to
Man. and Ia.


                               BLACK OAK
                          (_Quercus velutina_)

Trunk massive. Bark deep gray or sepia (the inner bark bright orange
yellow) very rough and thick, broken into short, thick, corky, cross
scored ridges. Twigs reddish mottled with gray, stout. Leaves dull
whitish olive beneath, turning dull brownish or orange or red in autumn.
Range: s. and w. N. E. to w. Ont. and Minn., s. to n. Fla., e. Tex., and
e. Kans. One of the finest and largest of all our oaks, 50-160 ft. tall.
The bark is rich in tannin and the yellow dye, quercitron is derived
from the inner bark. CALIFORNIA BLACK OAK (_Quercus Kelloggii_) differs
in having downy winter-buds and leaves without tufts in the axils of the
veins. Acorn only ½-¾ in. long. A very fine, wide-spreading, ornamental
tree. Ore. to Calif. It may reach 100 ft. high, and has a broadly round
topped head.


                               WATER OAK
                           (_Quercus nigra_)

Shape, with a conical head; 30-80 ft. tall. Bark smooth above but on old
trunks brownish gray, rough ridged. Leaves shining on both sides, but
paler beneath, with hair tufts in the axils of the veins, often
evergreen. Range: Swamps and bottomlands, Gulf States n. in the
Mississippi basin to Ky., around the coast to Del. BLACK JACK OAK
(_Quercus marilandica_) is a small, slim-stemmed tree with rough black
bark and thick, short, contorted branches; the leaves are broad, thick,
lustrous olive green above, rusty hairy beneath, wedge-shaped at base,
very broad near the tip by reason of the big obtuse lobes, middle lobe
just a wedge-shaped point. Acorn small, globular, half covered by the
thick scaled cup. Foliage yellow russet in fall. A characteristic rather
stunted tree of uplands. S. States and Mississippi Valley and s. Gt.
Lakes region and up the coast to Long Island.


                       BROAD LEAVED CUCUMBER TREE
                         (_Magnolia acuminata_)

Shape oblong, 50-90 ft. tall. Bark grayish brown, broken into small thin
scales, the ridges narrow and braiding. Buds silky. Leaves on the
undersides paler and slightly downy; 6-10 in. long. Flowers about 2 in.
long, tulip-shaped, slightly fragrant, blooming in late May. Range:
Chiefly the Appalachians, w. to s. Ill. and Ark., n. to w. N. Y., and n.
shore of L. Erie, s. to s. Ala. This handsome tree is chiefly valued as
an ornamental but the wood is used occasionally where tensile strength
is not required. BROAD LEAVED UMBRELLA TREE (_Magnolia tripetala_) has
thin leaves 18-20 in. long, clustered at the ends of the stout greenish
brown twigs, making an umbrella-like effect. Flowers creamy,
ill-smelling, appearing in May. A small tree with smooth gray bark with
blister-spots. N. C. to Ark. and especially along the Appalachians from
Ala. to Pa.


                           EVERGREEN MAGNOLIA
                        (_Magnolia grandiflora_)

Shape broadly pyramidal, symmetrical; to 90 ft. tall. Trunk short,
thick. Bark brown-gray, finally rough with short thin scales. Buds
large, silky. Leaves evergreen, leathery, glittering above, rusty downy
beneath. Flowers 6-8 in. across, water-lily-like, fragrant with waxy
petals that fall one by one. Range: Low grounds near the coast from se.
N. C. to Tex. and up the Mississippi to Ark. Not centr. and s. Fla. This
beautiful ornamental tree is cultivated far beyond its range in the
wild. The flowers bloom from April to June in the South, in midsummer in
the North. SWEET BAY MAGNOLIA (_Magnolia virginiana_) is a small
straggling tree, very similar, but the leaves much smaller and thinner,
with dense white down beneath; flowers also smaller. Gulf and S.
Atlantic states, n. in swamps near the sea to Magnolia, Mass.


                               TULIP TREE
                      (_Liriodendron tulipifera_)

Shape with a small pyramidal head; up to 190 ft. tall. Trunk straight
and often massive (to 10 ft. thick) sometimes clean of branches for 100
ft. Bark brownish gray with short, deep vertical furrows and rounded
ridges. Branches slender, curved, the lower drooping; twigs erect,
shining brown, many bearing the flowers like candelabra. Leaves turning
rich gold or russet in autumn. Flowers 3-4 in. across, blooming in May
and June. Range: Southern States (exc. Tex., Okla. and s. Fla.) to s.
parts of Wis., Mich., Vt. Also n. centr. Mass. and n. shore of L. Erie.
By lumbermen called “Yellow Poplar” on account of its restless leaves
and yellow wood, this lively tree is probably the most valuable American
timber tree (aside from the Conifers) and certainly the tallest in the
eastern States. The wood is light, soft, but not readily shrinking or
splitting, used for boat building, shingles and boxes.


                         GREAT LEAVED MAGNOLIA
                        (_Magnolia macrophylla_)

Shape broadly spreading, to 50 ft. tall. Trunk slender. Bark light gray,
divided into minute scales and shallowly furrowed. Buds silky. Leaves
1-3 ft. long, clustered at the tips of the branches, white-downy
beneath. Flowers bell shaped, 8-12 in. across, blooming in May and June.
Range: Gulf States to Ark. and e. Ky. Rare in w. N. C. This tropical
looking tree, with astonishing great leaves and flowers, has no value
but an ornamental one. EAR LEAVED UMBRELLA TREE (_Magnolia Fraseri_) is
a slender little tree with smooth brown bark, smooth, lustrous, deep
green leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, broadest near the end,
with two little ear-like lobes near the narrowed base. Flowers 3-9 in.
broad, creamy, sour-smelling, in May and June. Chiefly in the s.
Appalachians (Ky. and Va. to Ala.) and s. to the Gulf (Miss., Fla.)


                           CALIFORNIA LAUREL
                      (_Umbellularia californica_)

Shape short trunked, with a dense crown, making a broad based, dome
shaped thick tree 50-60 ft. tall. Bark drab or brown. Leaves evergreen,
aromatic, thick, 3½-4½ in. long. Fruit olive-like, reddish or
brown-purple when ripe, 1-1½ in. long; seed large. Range: Coast ranges
from Ore. to s. Calif., also on the w. slopes of the Sierra Nevada. A
magnificent unique tree, often forming groves of great beauty in cañons
and mountain valleys. The wood is heavy, hard, strong, intricately
patterned and is used for turned articles, especially furniture and
interior finish. In the early lumbering days it was employed for the log
railways and ox yokes. The seed, as sweet as chestnuts, was eaten
roasted by the Indians. A decoction of the leaves is used for an


                        (_Sassafras officinale_)

Shrub or tree up to 120 ft. tall. Trunk reaching 7 ft. in diameter. Bark
becoming very rugged, brown, broken into braided twisted ridges on young
trees cracked into short blocks. Branches very crooked, ascending. Twigs
bright green, very limber, the bark mucilaginous as are the Leaves which
are paler beneath, aromatic when crushed, turning orange and scarlet in
autumn. Flowers appearing with the leaves in early spring, greenish
gold, the sexes on separate trees. Fruit a “stone-fruit”, very handsome
slate blue on a thick red stalk, in Aug. Range: S. States to s. N. E.,
centr. Mich. and s. Ont., e. Ia. and Kans. The fragrant wood is used in
boat building and cooperage. Oil of sassafras, used in medicine, is
distilled from the bark and sassafras tea, brewed from the leaves, is a
rustic spring tonic.


                               SWEET GUM
                      (_Liquidambar styraciflua_)

Shape broad headed, 40-140 ft. tall. Trunk massive. Branches ascending
above, horizontal below, often corky ridged on the twigs. Bark gray
brown, deeply furrowed vertically, the ridges broad, flat and scaly.
Twigs bright green. Leaves fragrant when crushed, turning deep yellow or
rich red in autumn. Fruit a hard, spherical head, often persistent all
winter, most of its chambers empty of fertile seeds. Range: s. States n.
to Mo., and, near the coast, through the Middle Atlantic States to se.
Conn. This curious tree, often contorted and ungraceful, attains its
greatest development in the Mississippi basin. Its hard, heavy wood is
used for the outside finish of houses, for flooring, barrels and cabinet
making, and from the resinous sap a fragrant oil is distilled, used for
catarrhal troubles and as a basis for chewing gum.


                          (_Asimina triloba_)

Shrub or low tree, up to 40 ft. tall. Trunk at most 1 ft. thick. Bark
dark brown marked with large ash colored blotches. Leaves 6-12 in. long.
Flowers borne singly, about 1½ in. across, with 6 fleshy maroon or
purple petals and 3 reflexed green sepals, blooming March-April. Fruit
fleshy, 3-5 in. long, by 1-1½ in. thick, weighing 6-12 ounces, the skin
brown, finally black. Range: s. states to se. Neb., s. Mich., Ont.,
rarer up the Atlantic seaboard to e. Pa. The leaves of this curious
little tree are unpleasantly scented while the flowers smell like those
of red Trillium or Strawberry Bush. The fruit is generally ripe about
the time of the first frosts: it is in condition to eat when the skin
turns black and warps away from the flesh, and that of certain
individual trees may be excellent, as custardy fruits go.


                              SERVICE TREE
                       (_Amelanchier canadensis_)

Shape narrowly round-topped, up to 40 ft. high. Bark gray, with sepia
brown striping, becoming furrowed into flat scaly ridges on old trees.
Leaves turning rusty red in autumn. Flowers blooming while the leaves
are just expanding (March-May,) similar to those of apple or hawthorn,
but the petals strap-shaped and more graceful. Fruits edible, similar to
those of hawthorn. Ripe in summer. Range: Me. to Ga., Ia., La., and Mo.
In N.E. this is a mere shrub, but it becomes quite a fine tree
southward. In the s. Appalachians it is very beautiful when in flower.
It is believed in New England to flower when the shad begin to swim up
stream. The name of Service Tree or “Sarviss Tree” in the Appalachians
is a corruption of the old English name for the Service Tree of Europe
which is, in turn probably only a rustical attempt at the Latin name,


                         COMMON SYCAMORE PLANE
                       (_Platanus occidentalis_)

Shape broadly round topped, 50-150 ft. tall. Trunk massive, up to 13 ft.
thick, becoming our most ponderous tree, except the Sequoias. Bark
smooth, peeling in roundish, thin, brittle plates, leaving blotches of
white, green, and tan. Leaves 4-9 in. wide, turning russet in autumn.
Fruit a soft spherical head of nutlets embedded in hairs, green becoming
light brown. 2-4 balls together. Range: Throughout the e. U.S.A. except
s. Fla. and the far north. The wood of this picturesque river-bank tree
is heavy, coarse-grained and strong but short-lived and warping. It is
used for cigar boxes and interior finish. CALIFORNIA SYCAMORE (_Platanus
racemosa_) differs in having 5-7 fruiting heads together, and very
deeply cut leaves with narrow lobes; the upper parts are usually bone
white. Coast ranges and interior valley of centr. and s. Calif.


                           AMERICAN CRABAPPLE
                          (_Malus coronaria_)

Shape with broadly hemispherical, irregular top, 18-30 ft. tall. Trunk
usually forking in a shrubby way. Bark fissured, dark red-brown, scaly.
Branches contorted, twiggy, and often thorny. Leaves lobed or un-lobed,
finally more or less smooth on both sides, turning yellow or purplish in
autumn, or nearly evergreen in the South. Flowers white or pink,
fragrant, in late spring. Fruit greenish or yellowish, waxy, fragrant,
hard and sour. Range: N. Y. to Fla., Miss., Mo. and Ill. When in full
flower this is one of the loveliest of all trees. The fruits are
unexcelled for making jellies and conserves. IOWA CRAB (_Malus ioensis_)
has leaves downy on the undersides, Minn. to Tex., Mo., and Ind. OREGON
CRAB (_Malus fusca_) has leaves pale, downy, and finally rusty beneath;
fruits becoming purple-black, Alaska to Cal., Coast Ranges.


                              BLACK CHERRY
                          (_Prunus serotina_)

Shape narrowly oblong, to 100 ft. tall. Trunk stout and straight. Bark
at first smooth, glossy, mahogany red, becoming finally covered with
innumerable small scales. Twigs bright red. Leaves thickish, shining
above, clear yellow in autumn, with a dark red gland near the stalk.
Flowers from March-June. Fruit dark red becoming black with purple
flesh. Range: N.S. to N.D., Tex. and Fla. and, in a slightly different
variety, N. Mex. and Ariz., in mt. cañons. This stately, beautiful
species is one of the most valued timber trees of the country. The
strong wood, on exposure to air, turns dark as mahogany and is often
employed as a substitute for it, being popular in cabinet work and
veneering. The bitter bark yields a good cough syrup.


                               PIN CHERRY
                        (_Prunus pennsylvanica_)

Shape narrowly ovoid at the top, or rarely broadly rounded; up to 40 ft.
tall. Bark ruddy, shiny brown, smooth or nearly so, with numerous
horizontal lines or dots, becoming rather rough and “curly” on old
trees. Twigs slim, glossy, sparingly dotted. Leaves rather sparse,
drooping like those of the peach, the margin undulating paler beneath.
Flowers appearing with the leaves (April-May) or even before them. Fruit
about the size of a pea, on a long stalk, ruby red and translucent, very
sour. Range: Lab. to B.C. s. to Colo., Ia. and Pa., and on the mts. to
Tenn. and N. C. A mere shrub in the north, this is quite a fine little
tree in the s. Appalachians. WILD PLUM (_Prunus americana_) has
thorn-like twigs, flowers appearing before the leaves in early spring,
white and frail and very fragrant; fruit in summer red, about ⅞ in.
thick, sweet but tough-skinned. Conn. to Fla. and Colo.


                          KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE
                         (_Gymnocladus dioica_)

Shape broadly oval at the top, up to 100 ft. tall. Bark grayish, rough
with firm prominent scales. Trunk columnar, often branchless for 70
feet. Branches in winter appearing stump-like. Twigs bright yellow.
Leaflets pale yellow green below, margins slightly curled under. The
leaves appear very late (May) and, turning clear yellow in autumn, drop
early. Flowers in summer, the sexes on separate trees. Pods hanging
unopened on branches all winter; a sweet pulp between the bean-like
seeds. Range: w. N. Y. through the s. Gt. Lakes region to the Missouri;
w. of the Alleghenies to Miss. and Okla. This strange, lovely tree is
perhaps rarer in the wild than in cultivation. The beans were formerly
used for “coffee,” and the wood is employed for posts, ties, and
furniture, because it is so durable.


                              BLACK LOCUST
                        (_Robinia Pseudoacacia_)

Shape rather narrowly oblong, up to 80 ft. tall. Bark grayish to
blackish, with very high, sinewy, braiding ridges. Twigs armed with
spines sometimes 1 in. long. Leaves very thin, dull dark blue green,
paler beneath, turning yellow in autumn. Flowers in May and June,
fragrant. Pods persistent long after leaf-fall. Range: Appalachians, Pa.
to Ga., and in Okla. and Ark. Widely planted and naturalized elsewhere.
The wood of this favorite street and lawn tree is hard and durable, used
for ship-building, fence posts and turnery. The bark of the roots is
valued in pharmacy. CLAMMY LOCUST (_Robinia viscosa_) is at most a small
tree, with very slender trunk: twigs and leaf stalks sticky hairy.
Widely planted for its superb rose red, odorless flowers. In the wild
confined to w. N. C. and e. Tenn.


                              HONEY LOCUST
                       (_Gleditsia triacanthos_)

Shape with a broad, flat topped head, up to 140 ft. tall. Bark dark
gray, scaly. Twigs zigzag, with swollen joints. Spines red to brown, in
leaf axils or on stem and branches. Leaves turning yellow in autumn.
Flowers in June, intensely fragrant. Pods many-seeded, pulpy within,
contracting by cork-screw twists in withering. Range: from w. slopes of
Alleghenies (Pa. to Ala.) across the Gt. Valley to Neb. and Kans., n. to
Wis. and Mich. and w. N. Y., s. to ne. Tex. The durable wood is used for
railroad ties and farm implements. Because of its bee-haunted flowers
and airy foliage, this is a favorite farm tree, cultivated far beyond
its range in the wild. WATER LOCUST (_Gleditsia aquatica_) of the Gulf
States, up the Gt. Valley to Mo., Ky. and Ind., along the coast to N.
C., differs in its broader, oblique leaflets and its 2-seeded, oval,
pulpless pod.


                              SUGAR MAPLE
                           (_Acer saccharum_)

Shape at first with narrowly oval head, gradually becoming broad topped;
up to 120 ft. tall. Trunk stout and often lofty. Bark light gray brown,
finally furrowed and separating into small scales. Leaves 4-5 in.
across, dark and thickish, turning brilliant shades in autumn, of deep
red, scarlet, orange and clear yellow. Range: s. Newf. to Minn., e. Tex.
and w. Fla. This noble tree, which makes glorious in fall the quiet
streets of old villages in N. E. and e. Can., has heavy strong pale wood
valued for interior finish, tool handles, keels and shoe-lasts.
Accidental forms with contorted grain yield “bird’s-eye maple,” to the
cabinet maker. When the sap rises, from Feb. to April, the trunk is
tapped and the sap made into maple sugar and maple syrup. ROCKY MOUNTAIN
MAPLE (_Acer grandidentaum_) has the leaf lobes with lobe-like, sinuous
big teeth. Wyo. to Utah, N. Mex., and Mex.


                              OREGON MAPLE
                         (_Acer macrophyllum_)

Shape compactly round headed; to 80 ft. tall. Bark gray, divided into
narrow, ribbon-like, braiding ridges, sometimes cross marked into small
squarish plates. Leaves 3-15 in. long, turning brilliant orange in
autumn. Flowers with conspicuous petals, fragrant. Range: Alaska to the
mts. of s. Calif. This stately colorful timber tree is often associated
with Sequoia, when, “with their slender stems and large graceful leaves
nicely balanced on the long stalks against the faint light filtered
through the high forest canopy, they are in pointed contrast to the
titanic features of the Redwood.” (Jepson). BLACK MAPLE (_Acer nigrum_)
is very like Sugar Maple but the leaves are concave, drooping, and the
undersides are downy, not paler. L. Champlain through s. Ont. to s.
Kans. and e. Okla. Along the uplands to Ga. and Ala. and centr. Miss.
Scarcely distinguished by most people, it too produces Maple Sugar.


                              SILVER MAPLE
                             CUTLEAF MAPLE
                          (_Acer saccharinum_)

Shape pagoda-like, the upper short branches ascending, the lower long,
sweeping nearly to the ground; up to 120 ft. tall. Bark reddish brown or
gray, becoming furrowed and thinly scaly. Leaves 6-7 in. long, thin,
translucent, beautifully silvery below, the toothing very ornamental;
drooping on bright red stalks; pale yellow in Fall. Range: N.B. through
Gt. Lakes region to centr. Minn., e. Neb., to Ark., s. to Ga., Ala., and
centr. Miss. The wood is used like that of Sugar Maple. This
swift-growing tree is especially fine in the Middle West where it gives
dignity and depth to humble farm yards, and forms spacious glades along
the slow rivers. RED MAPLE (_Acer rubrum_) also called Swamp Maple, is
similar, but the leaves not “cut-leaf,” the undersides with a blue bloom
but not silvery; autumn foliage scarlet and yellow. Que. to Fla., s.
Minn. and e. Tex.


                            COMMON BOX-ELDER
                            (_Acer Negundo_)

Shape broadly round topped; 15-50 ft. tall. Trunk slender and often
crooked, short and wavy ridged. Bark light brown gray with narrow
shallow furrows and short, flat topped ridges. Twigs light olive. Leaves
of 3-6 veiny leaflets, dark or olive green. Range: throughout the e.
U.S.A. (probably not native in N.E.) and s. Can. to the Rockies, and
southwestward through the desert states. Variable over its wide range,
sometimes with foliage white- or yellow-margined or spotted, this river
bank tree passes unnoticed in the e. forest belt, but owing to its
ability to stand drought, wind, cold, and heat, it is highly appreciated
on the prairies and semi-deserts for shade. Where better wood is
lacking, it is used for furniture, construction, pulp and woodenware.
WESTERN BOX ELDER (_Acer californicum_) has thicker leaflets (only 3)
densely hairy beneath. Western States.


                             SWEET BUCKEYE
                         (_Aesculus octandra_)

Shape a narrowly pyramidal head; up to 90 ft. tall. Bark dark brown,
grayer with age, rough scaly. Branches small, pendulous. Leaves of 5-7
leaflets, turning brown in autumn. Petals unequal, longer than the
stamens. Seed chestnut-like but inedible, called Horsechestnut. Range:
Pa. to Ala., especially in the s. Appalachians and w. to Wis., Ia.,
Okla. and Tex. When, in spring, the turrets of golden flowers rise on
the branch tips, this symmetrical tree seems lighted with candelabra.
OHIO BUCKEYE (_Aesculus glabra_) is a large tree, differing in its
smaller, pale yellow flowers; petals unequal, shorter than the curved
stamens; fruit covered with prickles when young; bark ill-scented. W.
Pa. to Mich., Mo., Kans., Okla., Tenn. and n. Ga. CALIFORNIA BUCKEYE
(_Aesculus californica_) is a fine, broad-topped tree with pink or white
flowers. Calif.


                            AMERICAN LINDEN
                            (_Tilia glabra_)

Shape round-topped, symmetrical, to 130 ft. tall. Bark brownish gray and
fissured, the ridges braiding. Twigs slender, smooth, ruddy. Leaves
smooth but for hairy tufts on the veins beneath, turning yellow in
autumn. Range: N.B. through the Gt. Lakes region and southw. to Tex., s.
to Ga. on the mts. This stately tree, also called Basswood, Lime-tree
and Whitewood, is a favorite with the bees on account of its honey
scented flowers in May and June. They perfume the air for many yards
around. DOWNY BASSWOOD (_Tilia Michauxii_) has smaller leaves with dense
gray down on the under surface. A small, straggling tree, from Long
Island to n. Fla. and Tex. WHITE BASSWOOD (_Tilia heterophylla_) has
very large, unsymmetrical leaves, the undersides silvery downy.
Appalachians from s. N. Y. to Ala. and w. to s. Ill.


                               BLACK GUM
                          (_Nyssa sylvatica_)

Bark light brown tinged with red or dark brown or nearly black, smooth
even in old age or sometimes becoming deeply furrowed. Branches short,
with spur-like short twigs. Leaves thick, shining, turning a brilliant
maroon brown in autumn. Berry solitary or twin. Range: Me. to Fla. and
Tex., w. to n. Ind. and Mo. This curious tree, which inhabits the lower
slopes of the s. Appalachians as well as swamps and savannahs near the
coast, is often hollow in old age, a favorite hide-out of raccoon and
opossum. TUPELO (_Nyssa aquatica_) is a swamp tree with the same range
as Bald Cypress, and, like it, has usually a much swollen butt and very
spongy great roots. It differs from the preceding in the thicker twigs,
larger leaves, and blue, not purple-black, fruit.


                            EASTERN DOGWOOD
                           (_Cornus florida_)

Shape very broadly round- or flat-topped, up to 40 ft. tall. Trunk
slender, short, inclined to lean or twist. Bark black and roughish.
Leaves clustered toward the ends of the erect up-curved twigs. Flowers
consisting in many little green florets enclosed in the 4 big,
petal-like, greenish or white (or, exceptionally, pinkish) bracts,
March-May. Range: Me. and Que. w. to Minn., s. to Fla. and Tex. The bark
has been used as a substitute for quinine. This enchanting little tree,
best developed in the s. Appalachians, unfolds its great starry blossoms
while the leaves are yet small. WESTERN DOGWOOD (_Cornus Nuttallii_) is
a taller tree with broader leaves, the undersides downy, the bracts
(“petals”) even more showy, and 4-6 in number. It ranges from B. C. to
s. Calif.


                            PACIFIC MADROÑA
                         (_Arbutus Menziesii_)

Bark on young trees and branches reddish, peeling off; on old trunks
reddish-brown. Leaves 3-4 in. long, evergreen, thick, smooth and
glistening above, the undersides pale with a bloom. Flowers in branched
clusters, 5-6 in. long, in spring. Fruit bright orange red, pulpy and
seedy, often seen on the tree at the same time as the flowers. Range: B.
C. to mts. of Calif. This superb ornamental tree sometimes rises to 100
ft. in the damp coastal forests, the brilliant fruit and graceful
flowers waving at the summit. ARIZONA MADROÑA (_Arbutus arizonica_) is a
much smaller tree, with light gray or nearly white bark, shorter leaves,
and shorter, thick clusters of flowers. Fruit dark orange red. The
contrast between the white bark, red branches and pale green foliage is
very lovely.


                             (_Ilex opaca_)

Shape with narrowly pyramidal top, 40-50 ft. tall. Trunk short. Bark
smooth, gray mottled with whitish. Leaves evergreen, thick, paler
beneath, occasionally without the usual spiny teeth. Berries red or
rarely yellow. Range: Gulf States n. to Mo. and s. Ind. and up the coast
plain to s. Mass; reaches the Blue Ridge in the Carolinas and Ga. This
lovely little tree is in great danger of extermination owing to the
demands of a relentless Christmas trade. It is now rare in a wide radius
of all cities and large towns. YAUPON (_Ilex vomitoria_) is a pretty
little evergreen tree, very like holly, the leaf margins toothed but
never spiny. Related to the Paraguay tea, Yerba Maté, its leaves when
boiled yield a tea more valuable medicinally than pleasant to drink,
though Indians used to travel far to obtain it. Gulf States n. to Ark.
and along the coast to s. Va.


                           VIRGINIA PERSIMMON
                        (_Diospyros virginiana_)

Shape with a round topped head: up to 115 ft. tall. Bark dark brown or
black or gray, covered with warty, corky, rectangular plates. Leaves
rather thick, shiny above, pale and often downy beneath, turning deep
claret in fall. Flowers thick petaled with an odor like Gardenia, the
sexes on separate trees. Fruit at first green, hard, and astringent,
becoming amber or ruddy about the time of the first frosts, soft and
edible. Range: s. Conn. to Fla. and e. Tex., Ozarks and Ia. Scarcely n.
of the Ohio. The heartwood is nearly black, much valued for tools on
account of its hardness. Only when thoroughly soft, if at all, are the
fruits edible. The opossum is notoriously fond of them. BLACK PERSIMMON
(_Diospyros texana_) differs in having leaves broadest near the end. The
fruit, called Chapote, which has a black skin and thin insipid flesh,
yields a black dye. w. Tex. and Mex.


                               WHITE ASH
                         (_Fraxinus americana_)

Shape broadly round topped. Trunk massive. Bark light gray, deeply and
regularly furrowed, with narrow braiding ridges. Branches ascending, the
lower often long and finally drooping. Twigs stout, smooth, brittle,
greenish gray. Buds rusty. Leaves of 5-9 stalked leaflets, silvery
below, turning yellow or purple in autumn. Range: N. S. to w. Ont., and
Minn., e. Neb., Kan., Okla. and Tex., s. to n. Fla. A superb shade tree,
it is also one of the most valuable of our timber trees. Its wood is
heavy, strong, and white, in demand for tools. BLUE ASH (_Fraxinus
quadrangulata_) is a slender tree with 4-angled twigs, slender leaflets
with coarse teeth, and flowers containing both sexes. A slender tree, to
120 ft. tall, it is a good timber species and the bark yields a blue
dye. Mich. to Ark. and Ala. OREGON ASH (_Fraxinus oregona_). Leaflets
not stalked. A lofty tree with valuable wood. Mts. Wash. to s. Calif.


                        (_Catalpa bignonioides_)

Shape round topped, up to 50 ft. tall. Bark silvery gray, only slightly
furrowed, finally with ribbon-like scales. Branches few. Twigs stout.
Leaves 6-7 in. broad, downy beneath, very late in appearing and early
turning dull brown and dropping. Flowers in beautiful upright clusters,
the petals marked with gold and purple spots, exhaling a heavy
fragrance. Pods persistent almost through the winter on the leafless
twigs. Range: near the coast through the Gulf States. Widely planted and
naturalized elsewhere. This tropical looking tree is lovely at flowering
time. Honey from its flowers is reputed to be poisonous. CIGAR TREE
(_Catalpa speciosa_) is much taller (up to 100 ft.) with thicker trunk
and thick, strongly furrowed bark; flowers larger, but pure white.
Mississippi valley from s. Ill. to Ark. and Tenn.


  Arbor Vitae, Eastern                                                32
      Western                                                         33
  Ash, Blue                                                           92
      Oregon                                                          92
      White                                                           92
  Aspen, Large Toothed                                                38
      Quaking                                                         38

  Balsam, Canada                                                      22
      He                                                              22
  Basswood, Downy                                                     86
      White                                                           86
  Bay, Sweet                                                          66
  Beech, American                                                     47
  Big-Tree, California                                                27
  Birch, Black                                                        45
      Canoe                                                           45
      Cherry                                                          46
      River                                                           45
      Yellow                                                          46
  Box-Elder, Common                                                   84
      Western                                                         84
  Buckeye, California                                                 85
      Ohio                                                            85
      Sweet                                                           85
  Butternut                                                           43

  Catalpa                                                             93
  Cedar, Incense                                                      29
      Port Oxford                                                     30
      Red                                                             35
      Rocky Mt.                                                       35
      Virginia                                                        35
      White                                                           31
  Cherry, Black                                                       76
      Pin                                                             76
      Wild Red                                                        76
  Chestnut                                                            52
  Chinquapin, Giant                                                   52
      Southern                                                        52
  Cigar Tree                                                          93
  Cottonwood, Carolina                                                40
      Fremont                                                         40
  Crab Apple, American                                                75
      Iowa                                                            75
      Oregon                                                          75
  Cypress, Alaska                                                     30
      Bald                                                            26

  Dogwood, Eastern                                                    88
      Western                                                         88

  Elm, Cedar                                                          50
      Cork                                                            49
      Slippery                                                        50
      White                                                           49

  Fir, Alpine                                                         21
      Big Cone Douglas                                                25
      Douglas                                                         25
      Red                                                             21
      White                                                           21

  Gum, Black                                                          87
      Sweet                                                           71

  Hackberry, Common                                                   51
      Mississippi                                                     51
      Western                                                         51
  Hemlock, Canadian                                                   23
      Carolina                                                        23
      Mountain                                                        24
      Western                                                         24
  Hickory, Shagbark                                                   42
  Holly                                                               90
  Hornbeam                                                            48

  Ironwood                                                            48

  Juneberry                                                           73
  Juniper, California                                                 34
      Western                                                         34

  Kentucky Coffee Tree                                                78
  King Nut                                                            42

  Larch, Eastern                                                      16
      Western                                                         17
  Laurel, California                                                  69
  Linden, American                                                    86
  Locust, Black                                                       79
      Clammy                                                          79
      Honey                                                           80
      Water                                                           80

  Madroña, Arizona                                                    89
      Pacific                                                         89
  Magnolia, Evergreen                                                 66
      Great Leaved                                                    68
  Maple, Black                                                        82
      Cutleaf                                                         83
      Oregon                                                          82
      Red                                                             83
      Rocky Mt.                                                       81
      Silver                                                          83
      Sugar                                                           81
  Mocker Nut                                                          41

  Nutmeg, California                                                   3

  Oak, Basket                                                         57
      Bur                                                             56
      Black                                                           63
      Black Jack                                                      64
      California Black                                                63
      Canyon Live                                                     59
      Coast Live                                                      60
      Desert Live                                                     60
      Laurel                                                          60
      Oregon                                                          55
      Overcup                                                         56
      Pin                                                             62
      Post                                                            55
      Red                                                             55
      Rock Chestnut                                                   58
      Southern Live                                                   59
      Spanish                                                         61
      Swamp Spanish                                                   62
      Swamp White                                                     58
      Tanbark                                                         53
      Valley                                                          54
      Water                                                           64
      White                                                           54
      Willow                                                          60
      Yellow                                                          62
      Yellow Chestnut                                                 57

  Palm, Desert                                                        36
  Palmetto                                                            36
  Pawpaw                                                              72
  Persimmon, Black                                                    91
      Virginia                                                        91
  Pignut                                                              41
  Pine, Beach                                                         15
      Big Cone                                                        14
      Black                                                           10
      Digger                                                          14
      Jack                                                            13
      Jeffery’s                                                        9
      Limber                                                           4
      Loblolly                                                        11
      Lodgepole                                                       15
      Long Leaf                                                       12
      Nut                                                              7
      One Needle                                                       7
      Piñon                                                            7
      Red                                                              8
      Rocky Mt. Yellow                                                 9
      Silver                                                           4
      Slash                                                           12
      Yellow                                                          10
      Sugar                                                            6
      Western Yellow                                                   9
      White                                                            5
      White Barked                                                     4
  Plane, Common Sycamore                                              74
  Plum, Wild                                                          77
  Poplar, Great Plains                                                40
      Swamp Black                                                     39
      Willow Leaved                                                   39

  Redwood                                                             28

  Sassafras                                                           70
  Sequoia                                                             27
  Service Tree                                                        72
  Shadbush                                                            72
  Spruce, Black                                                       19
      Red                                                             18
      Sitka                                                           20
      Weeping                                                         20
      White                                                           18
  Sycamore, California                                                74

  Tamarack, Eastern                                                   16
      Western                                                         17
  Tulip Tree                                                          67
  Tupelo                                                              87

  Umbrella Tree, Broad Leaved                                         65
      Ear Leaved                                                      68

  Walnut, Black                                                       44
      California                                                      43
      Mexican                                                         43
  Willow, Black                                                       37
      Shining                                                         37

  Yaupon                                                              90
  Yew, Florida                                                         3
      Pacific                                                          3

                             Transcriber’s Notes

--Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

--Corrected a few palpable typographical errors.

--In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by

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