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Title: Elements of Trench Warfare, Bayonet Training
Author: Waldron, William Henry
Language: English
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 Elements of
 Trench Warfare

 Waldron



 Elements of
 Trench Warfare

 Bayonet Training

 _By_

 Lieut. Colonel William H. Waldron

 29th U.S. Infantry

 DISTINGUISHED GRADUATE INFANTRY AND
 CAVALRY SCHOOL, 1905
 GRADUATE ARMY STAFF COLLEGE, 1906
 GRADUATE ARMY WAR COLLEGE, 1911
 ASSISTANT DIRECTOR ARMY WAR
 COLLEGE COURSE, 1911-12

 _Author of_

 "Scouting and Patrolling"
 "Tactical Walks"

 PUBLISHED BY

 EDWIN N. APPLETON
 1 Broadway, New York
 1917

 _Price 75 Cents, postage paid_



 Copyright, 1917, by
 William H. Waldron

 First Edition, 5,000, March 1st, 1917.
 Second Edition, 10,000, August 1st, 1917.
 Third Edition 30,000, September 25th, 1917.

 PRESS OF ISAAC GOLDMANN COMPANY, NEW YORK



NOTICE


There is a wealth of material in this little book that will interest
the soldier. From the illustrations alone he will be able to obtain a
good general idea of the subject.

It is essentially a soldier's book, written in language that he can
understand. The price has been kept within the limits of his pocketbook.

With a view to securing a wide distribution of the book I desire to
secure a representative in every organization in the Army. I have an
attractive proposition to make to competent parties.

A letter will bring particulars. My address will be found in the Army
List and Directory. If this is not available, a letter addressed as
follows will be forwarded to me:

 Captain W.H. Waldron,
 29th Infantry,
 Care of "Infantry Journal,"
 Washington, D.C.

 (Signed) W.H. Waldron.



CONTENTS


                                                                  Page

  Chapter I.--The Organization of a Section of the
  Position                                                          9

  Chapter II.--Obstacles: Construction, repair. Wire
  entanglements, barricades, land mines, inundation                13

  Chapter III.--Lookout and Listening Posts: Types.
  Construction, service                                            27

  Chapter IV.--Field Trenches: Traversed trenches.
  Types of trenches. Drainage. Communication
  trenches. Dugouts. Penetration of projectiles.
  Communication. Trench mortar positions. Machine
  guns. Supporting points                                          33

  Chapter V.--Use and Improvement of Natural Cover                 60

  Chapter VI.--Revetments: Sandbags. Fascines.
  Hurdles. Gabions                                                 74

  Chapter VII.--Working Parties: Details of organization.
  Laying out tasks. Operations                                     90

  Chapter VIII.--Grenade Warfare: Organization and
  tactics of grenadiers. Offensive operations.
  Clearing fire trenches. Clearing communication
  trenches. Night operations. Grenade patrols.
  Notes on grenade warfare                                         97

  Chapter IX.--Gas Warfare: Methods of dissemination
  of gas. Gas helmets, care and use of
  Sprayers                                                        118

  Chapter X.--Service in the Trenches: Preparations
  for entering. Inspection of trenches. Tactical
  dispositions. Going into the trenches. Information
  routine. Observation field glasses. Snipers.
  What to fire at. Use of rifle grenades.
  Scouting and patrolling. Care of arms. Care of
  trenches. Latrines. Maps. Frost bite. The
  trench soldier's creed                                          128

  Chapter XI.--The Attack in Trench Warfare                       162

  BAYONET TRAINING

  Features of the Bayonet                                         175

  Method of Carrying out Bayonet Training and
  Hints to Instruction                                            177

  BAYONET LESSONS

  Formation--Technique of Instruction                             180

  Lesson No. 1--

  Position of "Guard"                                             181

  " " "Rest"                                                      184

  " " "High Port"                                                 184

  " " "Long Point"                                                184

  The "Withdrawal" After a Long Point                             189

  PROGRESSION

  Vulnerable Parts of the Body                                    190

  Lesson No. 2--"The Parries"                                     192

  PRACTICE                                                        194

  Lesson No. 3--"The Short Point"                                 193

  Lesson No. 4--"The Jab or Upward Point"                         197

  METHOD OF INJURING AN OPPONENT

  _Butt Strike I._                                                200

  " " _II._                                                       200

  " " _III._                                                      200

  " " _IV._                                                       202

  Practice                                                        202

  TACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE BAYONET                             203

  THE BAYONET ASSAULT                                             203

  METHOD OF CARRYING THE RIFLE WITH
  BAYONET FIXED                                                   205

  TEAMWORK                                                        206

  THE ADVANCE                                                     206

  THE CHARGE                                                      206

  ASSAULT PRACTICE                                                208

  FINAL ASSAULT PRACTICE                                          209

  ACCESSORIES                                                     211

  TARGETS                                                         215

  CONSTRUCTION OF GALLOWS                                         216

  " " DUMMIES                                                     217

  " " "TURK'S HEAD"                                               218

  " " PARRYING DUMMY TARGET                                       218

  DISCS ON TARGETS                                                218

  EXERCISES

  Exercise 1                                                      221

  The Run                                                         222

  Exercise 2                                                      223



INTRODUCTION


This little book has been prepared with a view to placing before the
soldier a store of information on the subject of Trench Warfare as
it has been developed on the battle fronts of Europe, and giving him
some idea of the nature of the service that he will be called upon to
perform when the time arrives for him to do his "bit."

The illustrations have been carefully prepared and arranged to the end
that the soldier may gain a fair knowledge of the subject from them
alone. The text is intended to treat the subject in a purely elementary
manner that the soldier may be able to understand.

The size of the book is such that it may be conveniently carried in the
pocket and referred to as occasion requires. The price has been kept
down to the point where it is available to the soldier.

If the book assists in his preparation for the front and, by reason
of the knowledge that he has gained from it, helps to make him more
efficient when he gets there, it will have served its purpose.

 The Author.



CHAPTER I

ORGANIZATION


The normal organization of an intrenched position includes the
following elements from front to rear:

1. In front of the position and at a variable distance from the first
line fire trench there is a line of wire entanglements. (See Obstacles,
p. 13).

2. Close up to the wire entanglements there is an intrenched post known
as the "listening post," which is connected with the first line fire
trench by a zigzag communicating trench. (See Listening Posts, p. 27).

3. Then comes the first line fire trench with attached machine-gun
emplacements at convenient points. (See Fire Trench and Machine-Gun
Emplacements, pp. 33 and 54).

4. The fire trench is so narrow that lateral communication along it
is effected only with difficulty. In order to provide a passageway a
communication or supervision trench is provided a few yards in rear of
the fire trench. Passageways lead from this communication trench to
the fire trench and to the dugouts located along it.

5. At a variable distance in rear of the fire trench (100 to 200 yards)
the emplacements for bomb-throwing apparatus and trench mortars are
located. These are connected up laterally by a communication trench
which joins with the main communication trench running from front to
rear through the position. (See Emplacements for Trench Mortars, p. 51).

6. From 100 to 400 yards to the rear of the first line fire trench, and
generally parallel to it, is the supporting trench or cover for the
supports. This trench is invariably provided with strong overhead cover
and a system of dugouts for the protection of the troops. (See Cover
for Supports, p. 53).

7. This whole arrangement of trenches is connected throughout from
front to rear, and laterally, by a system of zigzag communication
trenches.

[Illustration: PLATE 1.
_PLAN OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AN INTRENCHED POSITION_]

Take this brief description together with Plate 1, the drawing that
accompanies this volume, and study the two until you get the entire
system fixed firmly in your mind; that is, until you get a mental
picture of all the elements included in the system.

[Illustration: _Organization of a Sector of the Battle Front occupied
by a Field Army of Two Divisions._
Plate 2.]

After you have done this, study on through the book in order that you
may know the purpose of each of these elements and how one links up
with the other.

This is the typical system now in use in the European war theaters.
Circumstances at certain places may render some variations necessary,
and it must not be inferred that the trace of the works is the same
throughout. As a rule the types of trenches (altered when necessary to
meet local conditions) illustrated herein are the ones in actual use on
the war fronts.

All of these trenches and their accessories constitute what is known as
the first line. At a distance of from 2,000 to 5,000 yards in rear of
this first line a second line, organized in a similar manner, is to be
found.

At intervals of from 800 to 1,500 yards along the first line-centers of
resistance, or what we know as "supporting points," are located. These
consist of fortified villages, or a network (labyrinth) of trenches,
provided with every defensive device known to modern warfare. The
object of these supporting points is to bring a flanking fire to bear
on the intervals between them, with the idea that an attacking force
cannot advance beyond them without capturing them.

Plate 2 shows the general scheme of the occupation of a sector of the
line by a field army of two divisions.



CHAPTER II

OBSTACLES


The element of the defensive line nearest the enemy is a line or series
of lines of obstacles which are designed for the purpose of:

1. Protecting the lines from surprise.

2. Reducing the momentum of the attack, by breaking up the unity of
action and cohesion.

3. Holding the enemy under the effective fire of the defenders.

The conditions that obstacles should fulfil are as follows. They must--

1. Be close to the defender's position. As a rule on the western front
they are not more than from 50 to 100 yards distant. If they are too
close it may be possible to throw hand grenades from the far edge of
them into the defender's trenches.

2. As far as practicable, be sheltered and screened from the enemy.
Shell fire is the most effective method of destroying obstacles. If
they are not concealed they may furnish aiming points for the enemy's
fire against the first line fire trench by his being able to estimate
its location with reference to the obstacle.

3. Afford no cover or screen to the enemy.

4. Be so placed that the enemy will come upon them as a surprise.

5. Be so constructed as to be difficult of removal under fire and
impracticable to negotiate while still reasonably intact.

6. Be arranged so as not to interfere with a counter attack. The
obstacles may have occasional gaps left in them which may be mined.

The different classes of obstacles are: Abatis, low wire entanglements,
high wire entanglements, barricades, mines, fougasses, crows feet,
military pits with wire entanglements, inundations, etc.

[Illustration: Plate 3.--Abatis.]

Abatis (pronounced _abatee_) consists of branches of trees lying
parallel to each other, butts pointing to the rear, and the branches
interlaced with barbed wire. All leaves and small twigs should be
removed and the stiff ends of branches pointed. The butts are staked or
tied down or anchored by covering them with earth. When more than one
row is used the branches overlap the butts of those in front so as to
make the abatis about 5 feet high. An abatis formed by felling trees
towards the enemy, leaving the butt hanging to the stump, is called
_slashing_.

[Illustration: Plate 4.--Slashing.]


WIRE ENTANGLEMENTS

Barbed wire is the material most employed in the construction of
obstacles. It may be used in the following manner:

1. As a simple trip, for giving the alarm. It is stretched just above
the ground and attached to some object that will cause a noise to be
made if molested.

2. A simple wire fence, to cause delay and confusion to the enemy in
his advance.

3. As an adjunct to tree and brushwood entanglement.

4. As a wire entanglement.

5. As a covering for portable cylinders.

The advantages of the barbed-wire entanglement are:

1. It is easily and quickly made.

2. It is difficult to destroy.

3. It is difficult to get through.

4. It offers no obstruction to the view and fire of the defense.

The low wire entanglement is constructed as follows:

1. Drive stakes in the ground until they project about 18 inches. The
stakes should be about 6 feet apart, those in each row being opposite
the intervals in adjacent rows.

2. The wire is then passed loosely from the head of one stake to
another, wound around each and stapled.

3. Where two or more wires cross they should be tied together.

A more useful and efficient modification of the low wire entanglement
is made by stapling the wire down the sides of the stakes, allowing
five or more feet of slack wire between stakes. Drive the stakes in
the ground until the top is flush. This results in a loose network of
tangled wires difficult to get through, easily concealed and difficult
to remove.

The high wire entanglement is made by driving stakes so that they
protrude from 4 to 6 feet above the ground. They are placed at
irregular intervals 5 to 8 feet apart. The head of each stake is
connected with the foot of adjoining stakes with the wire loosely
drawn, wound around the stakes and stapled fast. Each center post
should be stayed by four wires. There should be a trip wire about 9
inches from the ground all the way across the front and another about
a foot from the top of the center posts. Barbed wire may then be
hung in festoons throughout the entanglement, with no fixed pattern.
To increase the entanglement wire may be stapled to the foot of the
posts, as indicated in the paragraph above, before they are driven.
Large nails should be driven in the tops of the posts with half their
length protruding. A number of the wires in the entanglement should be
fastened together where they cross. The wire should be passed through
paint, if practicable, to take away the bright color. The post should
be painted the color of the surrounding country. Under the conditions
encountered on the western front this work has to be done hastily. It
is best, therefore, to limit the first stage of construction to just
so many strands as will form a nucleus for the whole entanglement, in
order that the area may be covered by an obstacle before interruption
occurs.

[Illustration: Plate 4a.--Plan of wire entanglement.]

[Illustration: Plate 5.--High wire entanglement.]

_Tight wires help the enemy's advance by forming supports for hurdles.
It must be constantly borne in mind that the wires must not be
stretched taut._

[Illustration: Plate 5a.--Alarm trap.]

A portable wire entanglement is constructed by stretching wire loosely
around a wooden framework, either circular or square or made on a knife
rest, and rolling it into position to close up gaps that may have been
made in the entanglement. The illustration shows the wooden framework.

The ordinary repairs to entanglements are made under cover of darkness
by working parties detailed for the purpose. Iron posts that can be
quickly placed in position are advantageous, their disadvantage being
that they may retard bullets that would go through the ordinary wooden
posts, thus furnishing just that much cover and protection to attacking
parties.

[Illustration: Plate 6.--Portable entanglement. Constructed in the
trenches and rolled into position.]

In the construction and repair of entanglements care must be taken to
see that they are firmly fastened into the ground with numerous stay
posts or "deadmen." This is to prevent the enemy from pulling them
to pieces with grappling hooks connected to ropes that lead to his
trenches and are attached to powerful windlasses or capstans.


BARRICADES

Barricades are employed for the defense of streets, roads, bridges,
etc. They may be made out of any available material such as furniture,
vehicles (overturned or with wheels removed), carts filled with stones,
bales of goods, etc.

[Illustration: Plate 7.--Plan of barricade for blocking a road.]

Where trees grow along the roadside they may be felled across the road.
If necessary, barbed wire may be run through the branches to make the
passage more difficult.

Barricades should not as a rule close the road entirely to traffic.
Passages are required to allow the defenders to pass through when it
is necessary to do so. Hence they should be made in two parts, one
overlapping the other, as shown in the illustration.

A _fougass_ is a mine so arranged that upon explosion a large mass of
stones is projected against the enemy. An excavation is made in the
shape of a frustrom of a cone, inclining the axis in the direction of
the enemy so as to make an angle with the horizon of about 45 degrees.
The sides splay outward slightly. A box of powder is placed in a recess
at the bottom. This is covered with a platform of wood several inches
thick, on which the stones are piled.

The fuse is placed in a groove cut at the back of the excavation, or
the mine may be exploded by means of electricity.

The line of least resistance for the charge must be arranged so that
the powder will act in the direction of the axis and not vertically.
This is accomplished by throwing the excavated earth on the crest
towards the defender's side and ramming it well.

To ascertain the powder charge for any fougass, divide the number of
pounds of stone in the charge by 150. This gives the number of pounds
of powder in the powder charge. Thus a fougass charged with about 70
pounds of powder will throw about 5 tons of stone over a surface about
160 yards long and 120 yards wide.

[Illustration: Plate 8.--Fougass.]

[Illustration: Plate 9.--Vertical fougass.]

When broken up a cubic foot of stone weighs about 100 pounds.

A vertical type of fougass is also shown. A charge of 25 pounds of
powder should scatter a cubic yard of stones over an area about 200 by
100 yards.


SMALL LAND MINES

Land mines are placed in the line of the advance of the enemy and
exploded either by electricity or fuse from the defense. They are
made by digging holes from 2 to 3 yards deep, either by excavation or
by boring. In the former case the charge is placed in a recess which
extends into the solid earth at the side of the hole, which is then
refilled and tamped. In the latter case the charge is placed in the
bottom of the hole, which is then refilled and solidly tamped. In
common earth the powder charge for a 2-yard hole is 25 pounds. That for
a 3-yard hole is 80 pounds. The diameter of the crater formed will be
about twice the depth of the charge.

The mines may be arranged in one or more rows. The intervals between
mines should be such that the craters will nearly but not quite join.
The position of the mines should be concealed as much as possible
and further sophisticated by disturbing the ground slightly at points
where there are no mines and so situated as to suggest a systematic
arrangement.

[Illustration: Plate 9a.--Land mine.]


INUNDATION

Backing up the water of a stream so that it overflows a considerable
area forms a good obstacle, even though of fordable depth. If shallow,
the difficulty of fording may be increased by irregular holes or
ditches dug before the water comes up, or by constructing wire
entanglements in the water. It may be employed with advantage when the
drainage of a considerable area passes through a restricted opening, as
a natural gorge, culvert or bridge.

Open cribs filled with stones, or tighter ones filled with gravel, may
form the basis of the obstruction to the flow of the water. The usual
method of tightening spaces or cracks between cribs is by throwing in
earth or alternate layers of straw, hay, grass, earth, or sacks of
clay. A continuous construction, as shown in the illustration, may be
employed. The ends of the dam must be carried well into the solid earth
to prevent the water from cutting around them. This type of dam is
easily destroyed by artillery fire, and cannot be depended upon.

[Illustration: Plate 10.--Dam construction.]



CHAPTER III

LOOKOUT AND LISTENING POSTS


Except when the garrison are actually required to man the parapet, they
will be kept under cover, with the exception of a few lookouts, whose
duty it is to give timely warning of the movements of the enemy.

When the opposing forces are in close proximity to each other mining
operations are generally resorted to by both sides to compass the
destruction of the opposing works and open the way for an attack.

Lookout and listening posts serve the double purpose of having a few
men at the most advantageous places for observation at the front and
flanks and providing points at some distance to the front of the first
line fire trenches from which listeners may be able to discover the
location and direction of enemy mining operations before they really
menace the fire trench.

In the normal case there will be some natural cover available. Such,
however, is not always the case, and specially constructed observation
stations have to be provided.

The posts should be placed in advance of the first line trench, the
distance depending upon circumstances which have to be determined in
each particular instance. They must be fully protected from reverse
fire so that there will be no chance of the observer masking the fire
of his comrades manning the fire trench.

Unless the ground is very favorable it will be found difficult to
provide for observation above ground. Where there are natural features
such as embankments, mounds, hedgerows, ruins of buildings, etc., it
may be possible to make provision for observation even by day.

Where a loophole is used, the type having the narrower end outward
should be provided.

In the open type of post the observation directly to the front may be
greatly facilitated by the use of the periscope. (Plate 11.)

A good, strong parapet thrown up and chopped off at the corners will
enable the observer to cover areas from an oblique direction from the
post and protect him from fire from the front.

In the covered type the observer is provided loopholes having the
splay towards him. These may also be constructed to the oblique rather
than to the front. When this is done, provision must be made to cover
the entire front of the position from the several posts. (Plate 12.)

The post may be connected with the first line fire trench by a narrow
zigzag trench or by an underground passage. If the former, it must be
thoroughly concealed and have no excavated earth visible. If it can be
located along a hedge or some other natural feature its location may
remain unknown to the enemy for a considerable length of time. Where
a communication gallery is constructed the roof and walls must be
suitably shored up by casing and supports.

The sentinel in the listening post carries no accouterments. It has
been found that the creaking noise made by equipment when the sentinel
moves has been taken for mining operations of the enemy by his comrades.

[Illustration: Plate 11.--Open type of listening post.]

[Illustration: Plate 12.--Covered type of listening post.]

Listening galleries should never be left without a sentinel. There
should be a depot of arms and hand grenades near the entrance to the
gallery in case men are attacked while on duty from either above or
below ground.

[Illustration: Plate 13.--A listening and observation post.]

Listening will be conducted at specified times, or on some prearranged
signal, and for a definite period. During this time all within the
listening area, including the trenches, must remain absolutely
motionless.

Infantry manning a trench can assist listening by digging a small pit,
6 feet deep below the trench, and running a bore-hole out 20 feet or
more.

The enemy is always listening for indications of the direction and
position of gallery heads. Work must therefore be carried on with a
minimum of noise. Shouting down the shafts of galleries is absolutely
forbidden.

When the mining operations of the enemy are detected a report should be
made at once to the officer in charge of that section of the trench.



CHAPTER IV

FIELD TRENCHES


The next element of the defensive position is the _first line fire
trenches_. These are located so as to have a good field of fire to
the front for several hundred yards and so constructed as to give the
greatest cover and protection from the fire of the enemy.

An unbroken, continuous trench would be exposed to enfilade fire. A
shell, shrapnel or grenade bursting therein would have widespread
effect. To overcome these elements the trench is constructed in short
lengths, with traverses between them, and technically known as the
_traverse type_.

Better defilade is thus secured and the material effect of any burst is
confined to narrow limits.

The trench interval between the traverses is known as the "bay," which
should not ordinarily be longer than 18 feet. Longer bays invite heavy
casualties in case the trench is enfiladed or a high explosive shell
finds its mark.

The illustration, Plate 14, shows a trace of the traversed type of fire
trench.

[Illustration:
 _PLAN OF TRAVERSED TYPE OF FIRE TRENCH_
 _PLATE 14._]


TYPE OF TRENCH

Formerly, protection from the enemy's fire was obtained by thickness of
parapet. In the trench warfare of today it is obtained by completely
concealing the riflemen in a deep, narrow trench with a very low
parapet.

The height over which the average man can fire is about 5 feet or about
five-sixths of his own height. This factor determines the height of the
parapet above the firing banquet of the trench or the height of bottom
of loophole above the same point, when the latter is employed.

[Illustration: Plate 15.--Simple standing trench.]

[Illustration: _PLATE 15a._]

The type of trench in general use today is the simple standing trench
shown in Plate 15.


DRAINAGE

If a trench is to be occupied for any length of time, especially if
much ground or falling water is to be encountered, drainage becomes
of prime importance. Many years ago a celebrated military authority
asserted that "nothing so saps the courage of a soldier as to wet the
seat of his breeches." This may be accepted as a true maxim, especially
in cold weather. The trench should therefore be made as dry as
possible. The floor of the trench should be given a sufficient slope to
the rear where an intercepting drain should carry the water to prepared
sumps or to a point from which it can be disposed of by drainage.
Provision should also be made to exclude surface drainage from the
trenches.

A scheme for trench drainage is shown in the illustrations (Plates 16,
17 and 18).

Overhead cover may be provided as shown in Plates 19 and 20.

Loopholes are made wherever head cover is provided. Where the enemy's
trenches are close, there is considerable danger in using them.
Collective firing takes place over the parapet. When loopholes are used
they should face half-right or half-left and not directly to the front.

[Illustration: Plate 16.--Method of draining trench.]

[Illustration: Plate 17. Details of trench drainage.]

[Illustration: Plate 18. Detail of trench drainage.]

[Illustration: Plate 19.--Overhead cover.]

[Illustration: Plate 19a.--Overhead cover.]

[Illustration: Plate 20.--Overhead cover.]

[Illustration: Plate 20a.--Overhead cover.]

The disadvantages of loopholes are:

1. The difficulty of concealing firing points. Loopholes give the
enemy's snipers an easy mark.

2. They lessen the number of rifles that can be used at a given point.

3. The necessary head cover makes it difficult to get out of the trench
quickly.

4. Damaged head cover often spoils a good firing point.

The three types of loopholes are:

1. Narrowest point of the opening nearest the marksman. This type is
most difficult to conceal, much of the parapet thickness is cut away
and, if of hard material, tends to deflect the bullets into the firer's
face. This defect may be remedied somewhat by stepping the surface of
the loophole.

2. Narrowest point to the front. Easiest to conceal but gives a limited
field of view.

3. Narrowest point midway between the front and rear. A compromise
between the first two types.

The following general remarks on the construction of loopholes are
taken from a work based upon the experience gained during the war in
Europe:

1. The angle of splay is usually 60 degrees. The thicker the parapet
the smaller must be the angle of splay.

[Illustration: Plate 21.--Types of loopholes.]

2. The marksman holds his rifle in a line connecting the right
shoulder, the eye and the object, hence most of the body lies to the
left of the rifle. The loophole should be made to the right, with a
niche in the wall of the parapet from the hip to the armpit, to bring
the left shoulder well forward. It will be found that this permits the
right elbow to be placed on the edge of the parapet.

[Illustration: Plate 22.--Methods of constructing loopholes with
sandbags.]

3. Box loopholes with screens or blindage may be used, but should be
placed by a skilled marksman. The great disadvantage is that the enemy
notes these parapet alterations. Steel loophole plates are now provided
for this type of loophole. As the Germans sometimes use a steel bullet
with great penetrating power, it is advisable to place two plates
together to insure protection.

4. With every precaution that may be taken it is difficult to conceal a
loophole. A good plan is to deceive the enemy by using painted sandbags
and preparing plenty of dummy loopholes.

5. The minimum width of loopholes should be 2-1/2 inches. If narrower
than this, it is impossible to use both eyes to judge distances
correctly.

6. The parapet should be so sloped that there is a maximum grazing
fire when the rifle is fired as it lies on the parapet.

To insure that the bullet will not graze the parapet, although the
sights are clear, look through the barrel with the bolt removed.


COMMUNICATION TRENCH

In the first line fire trenches there are so many crooks and turns and
the trench itself is so narrow that passage along the same is very
difficult. To provide for this lateral communication a trench known
as the communication or supervision trench is dug. It runs generally
parallel to and a short distance in rear of the fire trench and is
connected therewith by zigzag approaches. The factor that determines
the distance between the fire trench and the communication trench is
that it should be at such a distance that a shell bursting in one of
the bays would not destroy the communication trench.

[Illustration: Plate 23.--Type of communication trench.]

The location of the communication trench with respect to the fire
trench and the arrangements of the approaches is shown in detail in
Plate 1.

The profile of the ordinary communication trench is shown in Plate 23.


DUGOUTS

During the artillery bombardment few men are left in the fire trenches.
The remainder of the garrison is held under cover a short distance
to the rear. This cover is provided by a system of dugouts connected
with the fire trench through underground passageways that lead to the
communication trench. This arrangement is shown in Plate 1.

A profile of the latest type of dugout is shown in Plate 24.

The solid earth cover is from 12 to 18 feet thick, which gives
protection from all but the very largest caliber shells.

[Illustration: Plate 24.--Type of dugout.]

Effective resistance is supplied by roofing materials as follows:

1. From shrapnel bullets: 2-inch planks covered with 12 inches of earth.

2. From 3-inch shells: 4-inch planks supporting 4 feet of earth with a
top layer of heavy stones to cause an early shell burst.

3. From howitzers of less than 6 inches caliber: 12-inch beams or logs
covered with 8 feet of earth.

4. From the largest caliber guns: 15 to 25 feet of earth.

The following table shows the penetration of the German S bullet at a
range of 200 yards:

                              _Inches_
 Steel plate                      3/8
 Broken stone                       6
 Brickwork, cement and mortar       9
 Brickwork, lime and mortar        14
 Sandbags                          24
 Sand, loose                       30
 Hardwood, oak, etc.               38
 Earth                             50
 Soft wood, poplar, etc.           58
 Clay                              60
 Dry turf                          80

In addition to the regular "dugouts" for the supports, the latest
type trenches have squad dugouts just in rear of the bays of the fire
trench. These provide shelter during bombardment for the members of the
squad not actually required on duty in the trench bay.

[Illustration: Plate 24a.--Section of traversed type of fire trench
showing entrance to squad dugout.]


COMMUNICATIONS

The fire trench is connected with the cover for supports by a system of
zigzag trenches having the profile shown in Plate 23. The arrangement
is shown in Plate 1.

[Illustration: Plate 25.--Profile of trench mortar emplacement.]


TRENCH MORTAR POSITIONS

Somewhere between the first line fire trench and the cover for the
supports is a line of emplacements for the trench mortars. Plate 25
shows a profile of the emplacement.

The arrangement of the position is shown in Plate 1.

[Illustration: Plate 25a.--Trench mortar.]

These trench mortars are used to hurl charges of high explosives
varying from 25 to 100 pounds into the enemy's lines. They have a
range of from 300 to 1,800 yards.

[Illustration: Plate 25b.--Improvised catapult.]


COVER FOR SUPPORTS

At a variable distance to the rear of the first line fire trench is
located the cover for supports, which is organized much in the same
manner as the first line system of trenches and affords a second
position in the system to fall back to in case of necessity. These
trenches are provided with overhead cover and numerous dugouts for the
protection of the men.


MACHINE GUNS

At every available place throughout the defensive position machine guns
are located, typical positions of which are shown in Plate 1.

The typical types of cover are shown in Plates 26 and 27.

Machine guns are a very potent factor in trench warfare. They are
now being employed to a far greater extent than ever before, and the
number is increasing on all the battle fronts as fast as they can be
manufactured. The machine-gun positions are carefully concealed from
the enemy, and fire is not opened until it is certain that it will be
effective.

[Illustration: Plate 26.--Profile of type of cover for machine gun.]

[Illustration: Plate 27.--Type of cover for machine guns.]

The selection of the sites for the emplacements should be made with a
view to bringing a powerful enfilade or oblique fire on the attacking
enemy at effective range, to provide a flanking fire for supporting
troops, and to sweep gaps in the line of obstacles.

Their fire should come as a surprise to the attacking party.

In the construction of cover for machine guns the following points
should be observed:

1. They must have a platform for the gun and gunner. This may be
provided for in the construction of the emplacement or built up with
sandbags. The platform should be 3 feet wide and 6-1/2 feet in length.

2. If head cover is provided, it should not differ in appearance from
that constructed elsewhere in the trenches. The loopholes must be
blinded with gunny sacks.

3. The front of the emplacement should be cut under to receive the
leg of the tripod, thus bringing the gun up closer to the parapet and
furnishing more cover for the gunner.

4. Splinter-proof shelters should be provided near at hand for the
members of the gun detachment.

5. Where the enemy's trenches are near, the position for the
emplacement should be selected by day and the actual work done under
cover of darkness.

6. The guns should be located so that they support each other by their
fire. Alternate positions should be constructed.

7. When located to enfilade straight lines of trenches, special
capioniers should be constructed.


SUPPORTING POINTS

At intervals from 800 to 1,500 yards along the first line, supporting
points are established. They may consist of a fortified village or
a specially prepared position having a "labyrinth" of trenches and
rendered well-nigh impregnable to infantry assault by every defensive
device known to modern warfare. They are designed to bring a flanking
fire to bear upon the intervening intervals with the idea that troops
cannot pass beyond them until they are reduced.


VILLAGE DEFENSE

The following was the actual scheme employed for the defense of a
French village and exemplifies the thoroughness with which defenses
must be organized.

The village was about 700 yards in rear of the front line, and had
three keeps surrounded with wire entanglements and independent of each
other, but with an elaborate system of communication trenches. Water
and four days' rations were stored in each keep, and wells dug. Each
of the keeps held about one company. The communication trenches were
about 6 feet deep, used as far as possible as fire trenches, and well
traversed. Firing platforms were revetted with brushwood, and shelters
made all over the village. In addition to keeps, a series of lines
existed in the rear of the front line, intercommunicating and provided
with barbed wire. A small wood on one point of the front was defended
by a network of low wire entanglements and a line of high wire netting.

Every officer had to know all about his section and its communications
with right and left. Telephone wires were laid low down in
communication trenches and fastened a few inches from ground with
wooden pickets.

Machine guns were placed so as to flank salients. A 65-mm. field gun
was placed in the front line to sweep the village, and an observation
station placed in a tree. The observer wore a green mask and green
sheet.

Great use was made of brushwood and undergrowth to revet steps of
firing platform.

All work was carried out by regimental officers and men without help
from the engineers, who were fully employed in mining. The garrison of
the village and the front line trenches in the vicinity was about one
battalion, but the fire trenches were sufficient for three battalions.



CHAPTER V[1]

USE AND IMPROVEMENT OF NATURAL COVER


_A screen or mask_ consists of hedges, crops, underbrush, etc., which
hide the rifleman without, however, protecting him from fire.

_Cover or shelter_ consists of walls, earthworks, etc., which protect
the rifleman from fire.

On the battlefield, natural features that screen and shelter should be
utilized as much as possible, as they possess the following advantages
over artificial works:

(_a_) Their organization demands less work.

(_b_) Concealment is easier.

(_c_) From their nature, it is difficult for the enemy to estimate, for
a given length, the number of men sheltered.

They possess, however, certain disadvantages:

(_a_) The protection is sometimes so excellent that, morally as well
as materially, it becomes difficult to leave the shelter. Example:
quarries with obstructed exits. Therefore, good judgment must be
exercised in the selection.

(_b_) Some of them are too visible. Example: large hedges. In this case
their range can be easily found.

As a general rule, do not occupy them uniformly and do not change the
appearance of the organized parts.

Organization of the cover:

To organize the cover which protects troops from fire, construct
suitable positions for firing and resting. To utilize the screens which
merely hide the troops without protecting them from fire, dig trenches
behind these screens in the following manner:

(_a_) Choose the points which give the best field of fire.

(_b_) Construct cover for firing.

(_c_) Construct a shelter.

The constructions are usually "individual" in the first period of work;
afterwards, they are organized "collectively." The covers are: (1)
for riflemen lying down, (2) for riflemen sitting down, and (3) for
riflemen standing up.

[Illustration: Plate 27a.--Use of the cover without improvement.]

[Illustration: Plate 27b.--First period.]

[Illustration: Plate 27c.--Second period.
Progressive improvement of the cover.]


INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION OF NATURAL COVER

Examples of hasty individual cover behind trees, bushes, or branches:

(_a_) Fallen tree (logs or branches), the height of which is at a
maximum of 1 foot above the ground:

(_b_) Fallen tree, the top of which is more than 1 foot above the
ground.

[Illustration: Plate 27d.--First period.]

[Illustration: Plate 27e.--Second period]

[Illustration: Plate 27f.--Third period.]

Wood which does not afford sufficient protection against bullets
must be reinforced by earth at the right and against the cover 1 foot
behind. Plates 27d, 27e, and 27f show the progressive improvement of
the cover.

[Illustration: Plate 27g.--Sharp ridges, furrows, or top of a crest at
the end of a gentle slope.]

Examples of hasty individual covers behind a furrow, a crest, a heap of
sand or earth:

Dig the ground as near as possible to crest _A_ of the furrow in the
manner indicated for the cover installed behind a fallen tree more than
1 foot high.

[Illustration: Plate 27h.--Narrow furrows.]

Use the earth excavated between furrows _A_ and _B_ to build up the
earth between furrows _B_ and _C_ and fill up furrow _C_; continue
afterwards as for the sharp ridge.

[Illustration: Plate 27i.--Low wall of earth, or earth and sand heaps,
more than 2 feet high (two methods, _A_ or _B_).]

(_A_) Lower the height about 8 inches; throw the earth forward. Dig a
trench as indicated in the figure.

(_B_) Make a loophole in the pile of earth, showing oneself as little
as possible. Improve the firing position by making a place for the
right leg and an elbow rest.

Examples of hasty shelters (individual) arranged behind a large stone
or heap of stones.

A heap of stones, the top of which is 1 foot at a maximum above the
ground:

[Illustration: Plate 27j.--First period.]

[Illustration: Plate 27k.--Second period.]


GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF NATURAL COVER

This consists in connecting up and coordinating the individual work
under the direction of the squad commander. The work should be carried
out on the lines adopted for the individual work and the rules
prescribed for the construction of artificial cover (profiles, depths,
various shelters) should be followed as far as possible. In arranging
the cover, the squads should utilize the natural features of the
terrain.

[Illustration: Plate 27l.--Arrangement for a mound of earth.]

[Illustration: Plate 27m.--Arrangement for a dry ditch.]

[Illustration: Plate 27n.--Arrangement for a sunken road defended on
the side towards the enemy.]

[Illustration: Plate 27o.--Arrangement for a sunken road defended from
the rear.]

Ditches full of water, drains, streams:

[Illustration: Plate 27p.--Arrangement of a large ditch.]

[Illustration: Plate 27q.--Arrangement of a ditch full of water.]

Ordinary roads, road and railroad embankments, and sunken roads:

[Illustration: Plate 27r.--Arrangement of an ordinary road defended on
the side toward the enemy.]

[Illustration: Plate 27s.--Same defended from the rear.]

[Illustration: Plate 27t.--Road embankment, defended from the rear.]

[Illustration: Plate 27u.--Arrangement of a railroad embankment.]

[Illustration: Plate 27v.--Arrangement of a sunken road.]

Hedges and woods:

Dig a trench behind the hedge and throw the earth against it; make
openings in the hedge to facilitate view and fire (Plate 27w). If the
hedge is low, deepen the trench, but make the parapet lower than the
hedge which masks it.

[Illustration: Plate 27w.--Arrangement of a hedge.]

[Illustration: Plate 27x.--Arrangement of the edge of a wood.]

Avoid destroying the natural appearance of the wood; do not cut the
trees and brush on a certain depth, but cut off branches where
necessary to obtain a field of fire. Behind this strip cut the brush
and small trees so as to make a path 3 to 4 yards wide. Construct a
trench behind the mask of trees. The parapet can be raised up to 2 or
even 3 feet. Construct abatis on the parts of the border of the wood,
where it will not interfere with the fire.

Walls:

[Illustration: Plate 27y.--Arrangement of a wall 2 feet 8 inches high.]

[Illustration: Plate 27z.--Arrangement of a wall 8 feet high.]

[Illustration: Plate 28.--Arrangement of a wall more than 8 feet high
without making loopholes.]

[Illustration: Plate 28a.--Arrangement of an iron fence built on a low
wall.]

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: This chapter reprinted from _Infantry Journal_.]



CHAPTER VI

REVETMENTS


A _revetment_ is a covering or facing placed upon an earth slope to
enable it to stand at an inclination greater than it would naturally
assume. Some revetments also increase the tenacity of slopes and
diminish the injury by fire. The upper parts of revetments that may be
struck by projectiles which penetrate the cover of earth must not be
made of materials of large units which will splinter when struck. The
upper part of the revetments is technically known as _crowning_.


SANDBAGS

Sandbags are made of coarse canvas or burlap. They are 33 inches long
and 14 inches wide. They are filled loosely with earth or sand about
1/2 cubic foot to a bag. Having been placed in position they are
pounded down with a shovel to a rectangular form when they will fill a
space about 20 by 13 by 5 inches.

The sandbag revetment is constructed by laying alternate rows of
headers and stretchers, breaking joints. The tied ends of the headers
and seams of the stretchers are put into the parapet. Men working in
pairs lay the bags and set them firmly in place with a spade or mallet.

The advantages are:

1. The portability of the empty bags. Only 62 pounds per one hundred
bags.

2. They may be filled with any kind of soil.

3. They are rapidly filled and easily placed in position.

4. They are invaluable in making repairs.

5. They will not splinter.

The only disadvantage is that they are not durable. The cloth soon goes
to decay and the filling material crumbles away.

Plate 29 shows the appearance of a sandbag revetment as seen from the
front and from the end.

[Illustration: Plate 29.--Sandbag revetment.]

A squad of six men with two shovels and one pick should fill 150 bags
in an hour. One man uses the pick, two shovel the dirt into the bag,
one holds the bag open and two men tie the bags. Having the filled bags
ready to hand ten men will lay 75 square feet of revetment in an hour.
Four men lay the bags and flatten them out while six carry them.


BRUSH

Brush is used in many forms for revetting. Almost any kind will serve
the purpose. For weaving, it must be live and is most pliable when not
in leaf. It should not be more than 1 inch in diameter at the butt.
When cut it should be assorted in sizes for the different class of
revetments. Poles 2-1/2 inches in diameter are cut for the supports.


FASCINES

A _fascine_ is a cylindrical bundle of brushwood tightly bound. The
usual length is 18 feet, the diameter 9 inches, and the weight normally
about 140 pounds. Lengths of 6 and 9 feet, which are sometimes used,
are most conveniently obtained by sawing a standard fascine into two
or three pieces.

[Illustration: Plate 29a.--Fascine.]

Fascines are made in a cradle which consists of five trestles, the
outer ones being 16 feet apart. The trestle is made by driving two
sticks about 6-1/2 feet long and 3 inches in diameter in the ground and
lashed at the intersection as shown in Plate 29a. In making the cradle,
plant the two end trestles first. Stretch a line from one to the other
over the intersection. Place the others 4 feet apart and lash them so
that each intersection comes fairly to the line.

_To build a fascine_, straight pieces of brush, 1 or 2 inches at the
butt, are laid on, the butts projecting at the end 1 foot beyond
the trestle. Leaves should be stripped and unruly branches cut off,
or partially cut through, so that they will lie close. The larger,
straighter brush should be laid on the outside, butts alternating in
direction, and smaller stuff in the center. The general object is to so
dispose the brush as to make the fascine of uniform size, strength and
stiffness from end to end.

When the cradle is nearly filled, the fascine is compressed or
_choked_ by the _fascine choker_ (Plate 30), which consists of two
bars, 4 feet long, joined 18 inches from the ends by a chain 4 feet
long. The chain is marked at 14 inches each way from the middle by
inserting a ring or special link. To use, two men standing on opposite
sides pass the chain under the brush, place the short ends of the
handles on top and pass the bars, short end first, across to each
other. They then bear down on the long ends until the marks on the
chain come together. Chokers may be improvised from sticks and rope or
wire.

[Illustration: Plate 30.--Method of using the fascine choker.]

_Binding_ will be done with a double turn of wire or tarred rope. It
should be done in twelve places 18 inches apart, the end binders 3
inches outside the end trestles. To bind a fascine will require 66 feet
of wire.

Improvised binders may be made from rods of live brush; hickory or
hazel is the best. Place the butt under the foot and twist the rod to
partially separate the fibers and make it flexible. A rod so prepared
is called a withe. To use a withe, make a half-turn and twist at
the smaller end. Pass the withe around the brush and the large end
through the eye. Draw taut and double the large end back, taking two
half-hitches over its own standing part.

[Illustration: Plate 31.--Fascine revetment.]

A _fascine revetment_ is made by placing the fascines as shown in
Plate 31. The use of headers and anchors is absolutely necessary in
loose soils only, but they greatly strengthen the revetment in any
case. A fascine revetment _must always be crowned_ with sod or bags.

In all brush weaving the following terms have been adopted and are
convenient to use:

_Randing._--Weaving a single rod in and out between pickets.

_Slewing._--Weaving two or more rods together in the same way.

_Pairing._--Carrying two rods together, crossing each other in and out
at each picket.

_Wattling._--A general term applied to the woven part of brush
construction.

A _hurdle_ is a basket work made of brushwood. If made in pieces the
usual size is 2 feet 9 inches by 6 feet, though the width may be varied
so that it will cover the desired height of slope.

A hurdle is made by describing on the ground an arc of a circle of
8-foot radius and on the arc driving ten pickets, 8 inches apart,
covering 6 feet out to out. Brush is then woven in and out and well
compacted. The concave side of a hurdle should be placed next the
earth. It warps less than if made flat.

[Illustration: Plate 32.--Method of laying out hurdle.]

[Illustration: Plate 33.--Hurdle.]

In _weaving the hurdle_, begin randing at the middle space at the
bottom. Reaching the end, twist the rod as described for a withe but
at one point only, bend it around the end picket and work back. Start
a second rod before the first one is quite out, slewing the two for
a short distance. Hammer the wattling down snug on the pickets with a
block of wood and continue until the top is reached. It improves the
hurdle to finish the edges with two selected rods paired. A pairing
may be introduced in the middle, if desired, to give the hurdle extra
endurance if it is to be used as a pavement or floor. If the hurdle
is not to be used at once, or if it is to be transported, it must be
_sewed_. The sewing is done with wire, twine or withes at each end and
in the middle, with stitches about 6 inches long, as shown in Plate
33. About 40 feet of wire is required to sew one hurdle. No. 14 is
about the right size, and a coil of 100 pounds will sew forty hurdles.
Three men should make a hurdle in two hours, two wattling and the third
preparing the rods.

_Continuous Hurdle._--If conditions permit the revetment to be built
in place, the hurdle is made continuous for considerable lengths.
The pickets may be larger; they are driven further apart, 12 or 18
inches, and the brush may be heavier. The construction is more rapid.
The pickets are driven with a little more slant than is intended and
must be anchored to the parapet. A line of poles, with wire attached
at intervals of two or three pickets, will answer. The wires should
be made fast to the pickets after the wattling is done. They will
interfere with the weaving if fastened sooner. Two men should make 4
yards of continuous hurdling of ordinary height in one hour.

_Brush Revetment._--Pickets may be set as above described and the brush
laid inside them without weaving, being held in place by bringing the
earth up with it. In this case the anchors must be fastened before
the brush laying begins. The wires are not much in the way in this
operation.

_Gabion Making._--A _gabion_ is a cylindrical basket with open ends,
made of brush woven on pickets or stakes as described for hurdles. The
usual size is 2 feet outside diameter and 2 feet 9 inches height of
wattling. On account of the sharp curvature somewhat better brush is
required for gabions than will do for hurdles. The _gabion form_ is
made of wood, 21 inches diameter, with equidistant notches around the
circumference, equal in number to the number of pickets to be used,
usually eight to fourteen; less if the brush is large and stiff, more
if small and pliable. The notches should be of such depth that the
pickets will project 1 inch outside the circle. The pickets should be
1-1/2 to 2 inches in diameter, 3 feet 6 inches long, sharpened, half at
the small and half at the large end.

[Illustration: Plate 34.--Gabion.]

[Illustration: Plate 35.]

_To Make a Gabion._--The form is placed on the ground. The pickets
are driven vertically in the ground, large and small ends down,
alternately. The form is then raised a foot and held by placing a
lashing around outside the pickets, tightened with a rack stick. (See
Plate 36.)

[Illustration: Plate 36.--Forming the gabion supports.]

The wattling is randed or slewed from the form up. The form is then
dropped down, the gabion inverted, and the wattling completed. If
the brush is small, uniform, and pliable, pairing will make a better
wattling than randing. If not for immediate use, the gabion must
be sewed as described for hurdles, the same quantity of wire being
required.

The gabion, when wattled and sewed, is completed by cutting off the
tops of the pickets, 1 inch from the web, the bottom 3 inches. The
latter are sharpened after cutting and driving a pairing picket through
the middle of its length and a little to one side of the axis. Three
men should make a gabion in an hour.

Gabions may be made without the forms, but the work is slower and not
so good. The circle is struck on the ground and the pickets driven
at the proper points. The weaving is done from the ground up. The
entire time of one man is required to keep the pickets in their proper
positions.

If brush is scarce, gabions may be made with 6 inches of wattling at
each end, the middle being left open. In filling, the open parts may be
lined with straw, grass, brush, or grain sacks to keep the earth from
running out.

_Gabion Revetment._--The use of gabions in revetment is illustrated in
Plate 37. If more than two tiers are used, the separating fascines
should be anchored back. Gabion revetment should be crowned with sod or
sandbag.

[Illustration: Plate 37.--Methods of use of gabion.]

The advantages of gabion revetment are very great. It can be put in
place without extra labor, faster and with less exposure than any
other. It is self-supporting and gives cover from view and partial
cover from fire quicker than any other form. Several forms of gabions
made of material other than brush have been used. Some of them are
sheet iron, empty barrels and hoops. The disadvantages of iron are that
it splinters badly, is heavy, and has not given satisfaction. If any
special materials are supplied, the methods of using them will, in view
of the foregoing explanation, be obvious.

_Timber or Pole Revetment._--Poles too large for use in any other way
may be cut to length and stood on end to form a revetment. The lower
end should be in a small trench and have a waling piece in front of
them. There must also be a waling piece or cap at or near the top,
anchored back. Plate 38 shows this form.

_Miscellaneous Revetments._--Any receptacles for earth which will make
a staple, compact pile, such as boxes, baskets, cans, etc., may be used
for a revetment. Canvas or burlap stretched behind pickets is being
used to a great extent on the battle fronts of Europe. If the soil will
make adobe, an excellent revetment may be made of them, but it will not
stand wet weather.

[Illustration: Plate 38.--Timber revetment.]



CHAPTER VII

WORKING PARTIES


The infantryman will always be called upon to construct the trench
which he is to occupy. Each company is provided with portable tools,
which the men carry, and each infantry regiment is provided with tools
for the purpose. The digging tools consist of picks and shovels.

When it has been decided to locate fire trenches along a certain
line officers will lay out the cutting lines and mark them with tape
or otherwise. A company will be assigned for the construction of a
definite section of the trench.

Let us work out the procedure, assuming that the work may go on
unmolested by the enemy. Such, however, is not usually the case. The
enemy will do anything in his power to prevent construction work. If,
however, we are familiar with the details of the work and know how
to go about it in an orderly and systematic manner under conditions
of noninterference by the enemy, we will be able to carry out these
details of organization and procedure under more or less trying
conditions when the time comes.

Officers have established the trace of the trench and marked the
cutting lines. It is the ordinary traversed type, 18 feet bays with
traverses 5 feet wide and 5 feet deep, as shown in Plate 14.

The company is composed of, say, twelve squads organized into three
platoons of four squads each. Six bays of the trench have been assigned
to the organization for construction. This gives a task to each platoon
of two bays, including one complete traverse and a half traverse on
each flank.

Tools have been issued to the first and third squads of each platoon,
the front rank men carrying picks and the rear rank men shovels.

The company is marched in column of squads to the site of the trench,
approaching it from the rear, and halted with the head of the column
fifteen paces in rear of and opposite the right of the section
assigned; that is, in rear of the first bay of the section. The second
platoon is then conducted by the platoon commander and halted with
its head opposite the third bay. The third platoon is in like manner
conducted to the rear of the fifth bay. Each platoon commander then has
the two rear squads of his platoon, conducted to a point behind the
bay on his left, _i.e._, the second, fourth and sixth respectively.
This allows two squads for the work in each bay, the leading squad
furnishing the first relief and the rear squad the second.

The leading squad of each column is then marched to a point two paces
in rear of the rear cutting line of the trench, where they take off
their packs and lay their rifles on them. The corporal and his rear
rank man fall out. The corporal assigns tasks, number ones to the first
2-yard section, number twos to the second and number threes the third.

The tasks are shown in Plate 39. The corporal superintends the work.
Number 4 rear rank marks out the cutting lines with his shovel around
the traverses and starts work on them.

Experience has shown that the best method of dividing up the work is to
group the men in pairs, one man with a pick and one with a shovel and
to prescribe that they relieve each other.

[Illustration: _PLATE 39._
_ORGANIZATION OF A WORKING PARTY_]

The leading squads assigned to each bay work at top speed for 30
minutes. At the end of the twenty-eighth minute the corporal of the
rear squad brings his men up and deploys them. At a signal from the
platoon commander the men of the first and third squads drop their
tools, get out of the trench, and proceed to the rear, where they rest.
The men of the second and fourth squads jump into the trench and take
up the task. At the end of another 30 minutes this procedure is again
carried out.

This scheme of assigning tasks and procedure was given an exhaustive
test in 1915 in the course of testing out various types of intrenching
tools. It worked to perfection.

The bays are first completed, after which the traverses begun by No.
4 rear rank are finished up. Great care should be taken to make the
dimensions of the trench as accurate as possible. The squad leader is
held responsible for this. He should provide himself with two sticks.
On one the following lengths are laid off: 1 foot, width of berms, and
height of parapet; 1 foot 4 inches, width of firing banquet, height of
firing banquet above bottom of trench, and width of bottom of trench.
The other stick has the following lengths measured on it: 4 feet,
depth of trench from ground surface to the top of firing banquet; 5
feet 4 inches, depth of trench from ground surface to bottom of trench.
(See Plate 15 for dimensions of standing trench.)

When the circumstances are such that the work of trench construction
is interfered with by the enemy, a modification of the system outlined
here will have to be made, but the details should be adhered to as
closely as possible.

When night work is necessary the trace should be staked out before
complete darkness sets in. If the trace can only be made after dark,
visible reference points needed with white paper, white tape or
screened flashlights may be utilized. Stick to the details of the
deployment, the laying out of tasks and the procedure as indicated for
day work as closely as possible. Avoid making any more noise than is
absolutely necessary; allow no smoking and require such conversation as
is necessary to be made in whispers. Protect the workers by a system of
patrols to the front.

Non-commissioned officers are held responsible for a systematic and
orderly execution of the work being performed by their units. The
captain cannot be everywhere along the line. He has to depend upon the
platoon and squad leaders in the work. That is why you should study it
and know about it so as to be able to make good when the time comes.



CHAPTER VIII

GRENADE WARFARE


The use of hand grenades as an implement of warfare dates back many
centuries. History records their use as far back as 1536. Up to the
close of the eighteenth century soldiers were trained in the throwing
of hand grenades, and for this reason were called "grenadiers." At
first there were a few in each regiment, later entire companies
were formed, and finally each infantry unit that corresponds to our
battalion of today had its own grenadier unit.

Then there was a period of time when more open formations were adopted,
when there was less opportunity for the employment of grenades and
their use was practically eliminated from the battlefield and confined
to sieges, where they have been used more or less since the dawn of
military history.

With the advent of the Russo-Japanese War came the extensive use of
trenches on the battlefield, and with the trenches came the hand
grenades which were used in large quantities by both sides. This was
especially the case when the fighting lines came to close quarters and
in the assaults against the forts at Port Arthur.

When the European war resolved itself into trench warfare, such as it
is today, the use of hand-thrown projectiles assumed an importance
heretofore never attained, and today we find ourselves employing hand
grenades in every phase of the conflict.


EMPLOYMENT OF GRENADIERS

Grenadiers are employed on both the offensive and defensive. They
accompany the attacking lines in the advance on the enemy's position,
they clear the fire trenches and communication trenches after parts
of the enemy's lines have been taken, and on the defense they assist
the riflemen in repelling attack and engage the enemy whenever he has
obtained a lodgment in the trenches.


ORGANIZATION

While every infantryman receives a certain amount of instruction in
grenade throwing, there should be a grenadier squad in each platoon
specially instructed and trained in this most effective auxiliary
method of trench warfare. Not all men possess the temperament and
qualifications necessary to make efficient grenadiers. Hence the
personnel of the grenadier squad should be carefully selected. Strong
physique, personal courage and steadiness in emergencies are the
qualifications that count. Men fond of outdoor sports, other things
being equal, will be found the best.

[Illustration: FIRST POSITION
 _Method of clearing Fire Trenches by Grenadier Squads_
_PLATE 40._]

[Illustration: SECOND POSITION]

The grenadier squad is organized as follows:

_Front Rank._

 No. 1. First bayonet man.
 No. 2. Second bayonet man.
 No. 3. Grenade thrower.
 No. 4. Squad leader, observer and director.

_Rear Rank._

 No. 1. First carrier.
 No. 2. Second carrier.
 No. 3. Barricader.
 No. 4. Barricader.


DUTIES

The duties of the several members of the squad vary under different
circumstances of their tactical employment which will be fully
explained below. In general they are as follows:

_Bayonet Men._--The bayonet men move in advance of the grenade
throwers. When the grenade thrower has thrown his grenades into
the objective trench the bayonet men must be ready to take instant
advantage of the temporary demoralization of the enemy caused by the
explosions and clear the way for a repetition of the operation.

_Grenade Thrower._--The grenade thrower must be ready and able to throw
a grenade at once whenever the bayonet men or squad leader may direct.

_Squad Leader._--The squad leader directs the operations of the squad.
He goes wherever his presence is necessary. He keeps a close watch to
the flanks. He replaces casualties and attends to the forwarding of
grenades to the thrower. He acts as a grenade thrower whenever he can
assist the operations in that capacity.

_Carriers._--The carriers carry as many grenades as possible, and when
their supply is exhausted they go to the reserve depots and replenish.
They are responsible for a continuous supply of grenades to the
throwers.

_Barricaders._--The barricaders are charged with the construction of
barricades. They carry sandbags and tools for filling them. In
addition they carry as many grenades as possible. They hold themselves
in readiness to go forward and construct a barricade or cover at any
point designated by the squad leader.

[Illustration: PLATE 41
_Combat in a Communicating Trench_]

_General._--All the men of the squad must be trained and prepared
to take over the duties of any other member. Before undertaking any
operation each man of the squad should thoroughly understand the part
he is to play in it.

_Formation._--The formation for the several classes of tactical
employment will be explained when each is considered below.


OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

When it has been decided to attack a certain sector of the enemy's
position a detailed reconnaissance is made with a view to locating and
developing every element of the position, detailed plans are made and
imparted to all concerned. (See Chapter XI.)

The phases of the attack consist of: (1) The artillery preparation;
(2) the infantry assault; (3) the occupation and organization of the
captured position, and preparation to meet a counter attack.

During the course of the artillery preparation grenadier squads work
their way across "no man's land" and establish themselves sufficiently
close to throw grenades into the fire trenches. Failing in this they
accompany the assaulting troops.

When they are able to work up close they cover the advance of the
infantry assaulting lines by showering grenades into the enemy's fire
trenches after the curtain of artillery fire has been extended back
into his position to prevent the supports and reserves from coming up
to the front.

All men of the squad carry as many grenades as possible and such number
as the squad leader may designate act as throwers, while the others act
as carriers and prepare the grenades for throwing. Accurate throwing,
properly observed and distributed, will greatly assist in preparing for
a successful assault.


CLEARING FIRE TRENCHES

No matter how well the infantry assault on the enemy's fire trenches
may be conducted, it rarely succeeds in occupying the hostile
position throughout its entire length. Casualties, loss of direction,
and unexpected obstacles encountered are bound to break up the
assaulting line more or less, thereby leaving gaps in the captured
position. Furthermore the attack on a line of trenches takes place on
a relatively small front by a large number of men. When the trenches
are finally reached and a lodgment effected there will be great
overcrowding. Provision must be made immediately for extending the
line, otherwise the casualties at these points will be exceedingly
heavy.

It is the particular duty of the grenadier squads to clear these "gaps"
of the enemy as quickly as possible. For this purpose an efficient and
well-organized storming party must be immediately available.

Let us say that, after careful artillery preparation, the assault has
reached the enemy's fire trench. There is much overcrowding at the
points where lodgments have been effected. There is a gap in the line
between two adjacent elements. How is this cleared of the enemy?

The grenadier squad immediately forms for action. Two bayonet men are
in the lead, followed by the grenade thrower, who is in turn followed
by the two carriers. Further to the rear are the two barricaders, who
carry a reserve supply of grenades in addition to their sandbags and
shovels. The squad leader is where he can best direct the operations.

The grenadier squad is formed as shown in the _first position_, Plate
40.

1. The grenade thrower puts grenades: (1) into bay 1, at _A_; (2) into
bay 2, at _D_; (3) into bay 1, at _B_; (4) into the traverse leg at _C_.

2. When the four grenades have exploded the bayonet men rush into bay
1, the leader advancing into the first leg of the traverse trench below
_B_, while his mate remains in the bay for a moment.

3. The squad leader rushes around the traverse to _A_, followed by the
grenade thrower.

4. When the bay and the next traverse passages are all cleared of the
enemy the word "O.K." is passed back to the squad leader by the bayonet
men. The bayonet men get into their proper positions and the remainder
of the squad rush into the cleared bay 1 and prepare for the further
clearing of succeeding bays in the same manner as described above.

Take the diagram on Plate 40. Study it out in connection with the text
and you will see how this system works out.

The men work in pairs, the two bayonet men together; the two carriers
behind the thrower; the two barricaders sufficiently far to the rear
to be protected by a corner of solid earth. The squad leader must of
necessity go where his presence is necessary. Usually he stays as near
the grenade thrower as possible.

When the enemy's grenadier parties are also very active in the sector,
the distances between pairs are extended so that no more than two men
are exposed in any one bay or traverse leg.

The formation of the squad must be preserved as long as possible. You
will appreciate that when losses occur the squad leader will have to
replace men and the formation will have to be modified to meet the
changed conditions. This makes it absolutely necessary that every
member of the squad be competent to take over the duties of any other
member.

When the squad has reached the limit of its advance the barricaders
will come forward and construct a barricade in such position that it
is well in view from a corner some distance behind.

No passing of bombs forward from man to man is permitted. When the
first carrier's supply is exhausted he returns to the rear to secure a
fresh supply from the reserve grenade carriers who are following the
grenade squad, and who have by now advanced to a point where their
supply is available. As soon as his supply is replenished he returns to
his proper position in the formation. Should the second carrier run out
of grenades the squad leader may cause one of the barricaders to take
all the grenades in the possession of the two and replace him while he
goes to the rear to secure a fresh supply.

In the meantime other grenadier squads are clearing out the
communication and supervision trenches, blocking up the exits to
dugouts and destroying machine-gun detachments that have thus far
escaped. The assaulting troops have passed on towards the second line,
covered by the curtain of fire of the artillery.


CLEARING COMMUNICATION TRENCHES

The clearing of communication trenches is effected much in the same
manner as explained for the fire trench. The grenadier squad is
organized and formed in the same manner. The squad works its way into
the communication trench by bombing each leg until they arrive at a
point where the formation, as illustrated in Plate 41, can be assumed.
The grenade thrower throws grenades into the trench at _B_ and then at
_C_. As soon as these have exploded the bayonet men take advantage of
the confusion to advance into the leg _A-B_ under cover of the shoulder
_b_, the squad leader and thrower advance to _A_, the carriers to the
point formerly occupied by the squad leader, and the barricaders to the
point formerly occupied by the carriers. The thrower then puts grenades
into the trench at C and then at D, after which the whole squad
advances another notch as formerly explained.

Where island traverses are encountered the thrower puts a grenade on
each side of the traverse and one in the rear of it. The bayonet men,
one on a side, assault around the traverse and meet on the far side,
and the operation proceeds as heretofore explained.


NIGHT OPERATIONS

The grenadier squads may be called upon at night, to perform any of the
services that are theirs by day, and in addition may be called upon
to make night reconnaissances. For this work the men must be able to
organize and reorganize the squad quickly and noiselessly. The throwers
must be particularly efficient. There must be the highest order of team
work.


GRENADIER PATROLS

Grenadier patrols are sent out at night to make reconnaissances of the
enemy's lines with a view to getting information which may include:

1. Location and organization of line.

2. The length of line occupied.

3. Numbers and disposition of occupying troops.

4. To get an accurate description of the ground.

5. To locate observation and listening posts or any other advanced
positions.

6. To locate machine guns.

These patrols may consist of from two men to the entire grenadier
squad. In a patrol of six or eight men two of them carry rifles and
belts, bayonets fixed. The remaining members of the patrol carry no
equipment except a haversack filled with grenades. The grenades are
used only in case of emergency. It is a reconnoitering patrol charged
with gaining information and therefore does not enter into an encounter
with the enemy except as a last resort.

The men move or crawl without noise and take advantage of all cover
that the ground affords. If they suspect they are observed, they should
"freeze" to the ground and remain absolutely motionless. On dark
nights it is easy to lose the direction and for the men to lose one
another. Every device or scheme to lessen risks in this respect must
be employed. The men may tie themselves lightly together so they will
not proceed in a bunch and at the same time retain connection with each
other.


NOTES ON GRENADE WARFARE

The first step in the training of a grenadier is to overcome his
fear of the grenade itself. This is accomplished by first having him
practice fuse lighting with dummy grenades having live fuses. The
men will be impressed with the fact that the grenades are dangerous
weapons and that familiarity in handling them must not be permitted to
degenerate into carelessness.

The next step towards efficiency is the development of accuracy of
throwing. For short distances it may be lobbed from the shoulder by
a motion similar to "putting the shot." Stick grenades may be thrown
for a short distance like throwing a dart. In the trenches the grenade
should be thrown with an overhand motion like the bowler of a cricket
ball, as there is danger of exploding them by knocking the hand against
the back of the trench.

The men should be taught to throw from all positions--standing,
sitting, kneeling and prone.

Should the grenade with a time fuse be dropped in the act of throwing,
there is time to pick it up and throw it out of the trench before it
explodes. Under no circumstances must it be allowed to explode in the
trench.

Communication throughout the squad in action should be maintained at
all times. System is required to insure the throwers having a supply
of grenades on hand all the time and that casualties are promptly
replaced.

Quick action is essential to success. Crawling and stalking give the
enemy what he is waiting for.

Arrangements to assist a storming party by rifle and machine-gun fire
are of the utmost value and should be provided whenever possible. Care
must be taken to provide a signal which will mark the progress of the
storming party through the trenches. A helmet held up on a bayonet will
do this.

All grenadiers must be especially trained in the filling of sandbags
and making sandbag barricades.

The work of the observer is difficult and requires much practice. He
must give his directions to the thrower in no uncertain terms. When
the thrower has missed his objective the observer will give positive
directions for the next throw. Instead of saying "A yard too much
to the left," he will say, "Throw a yard to the right." Positive
directions, even if only half heard, are of some use; negative
directions are certain to be both confused and confusing. The observer
should be expert in the use of the periscope.


HAND GRENADES AND PETARDS

The hand grenade used by our allies on the western front is the
bracelet grenade with automatic firing mechanism and consists of a ball
of cast iron filled with an explosive and of a leather bracelet which
is fastened to the wrist. To the bracelet is attached a piece of rope
about 30 centimeters long, having an iron hook at its end.

Just before the grenade is thrown, the hook is engaged in the ring
of the roughened wire of the friction primer placed inside the fuse
plug which closes the cast iron ball. When the grenade is thrown, the
ring with the primer wire, held back by the hook of the bracelet, is
wrenched off by a sudden movement of withdrawal from the wrist and the
fuse is fired. The explosion takes place four or five seconds later.

This grenade is supplied to the fighting zone ready for use. It is
quite complicated. It can be thrown about 25 meters.

The German grenade is composite; it can be thrown by hand or fired
from a rifle. As a hand missile, it is used at short distances, 15 to
20 meters. It is composed of a copper rod to the extremity of which is
fixed a cast iron cylinder, grooved to facilitate its breaking into
small pieces at the moment of explosion. The explosive is placed inside
this cylinder. A copper tube, also containing some explosive, is placed
in the interior. It is surmounted by a complicated system for closing
the grenade and for automatic ignition by percussion, which results in
at least 50 per cent. of misfires.

[Illustration: Plate 41b.--British hand grenade No. 1.]

Used with the rifle, this grenade has a maximum range of 400 meters.
At the extremity opposite the grenade, the copper rod ends in a copper
stem about 3 centimeters in length, movable about the axis of the
rod. This stem is covered with a copper sleeve of slight thickness,
which is attached to it only at the extremity fastened to the rod.
The diameter of the exterior of the sleeve must be such that it can
be pushed into the gun barrel without pressure. To fire the grenade,
a blank cartridge is placed in the chamber of the rifle; the quantity
of powder left in the cartridge is regulated according to the distance
at which the missile is to be thrown. At the moment of firing, the
explosive gases penetrate between the sleeve and the stem and jam the
sleeve against the grooves of the barrel. The sleeve and the stem,
which is attached to it, take a movement of rotation in the grooves of
the barrel, which insures the direction of the missile and the maximum
efficiency of the explosive gases of the cartridge.

[Illustration: Plate 41c.--The latest type British hand grenade.]

The bracelet grenade and the German grenade just described have to
be made in a factory. Attempts have been made to construct similar
missiles with the explosives which are at hand at the front, cheddite
and melinite. Several kinds have been made: a primed cartridge and a
primed hand petard, fitted on a wooden paddle, a preserved meat tin
can filled with explosive, etc.

The Germans have hand petards similar to those of the Allies but with
different explosives. These missiles are primed by a detonator and a
slow match and can be thrown about 30 meters. The discharge takes place
either automatically or by tinder. They are made on the spot and very
rapidly. The assaulting troops carry them in baskets or strung on a
circle of wire carried on the shoulder.

[Illustration: Plate 41d.--Throwing hand grenades.]

Grenades and petards constitute a terrible weapon. The projectiles
exert considerable moral effect owing to the violence of their
explosion and the awful wounds they occasion, and they make it possible
to reach the enemy at points where it is impossible to use the rifle
and bayonet.



CHAPTER IX

GAS WARFARE


Germany first made use of poisonous and asphyxiating gases on the
field of battle. It has become an accepted element in the present war.
Every soldier should, therefore, have a knowledge of the various ways
in which gas is employed in the attack, as well as the measures to be
taken to counteract its effect in the defense.

The two methods of disseminating the gas over the battlefield are by
emanation and grenades charged with it.


EMANATION

This method has for its object to create a poisonous or irritant
atmosphere. This is accomplished by means of the arsenic and
phosphorous gas being forced through tubes in the direction of the
enemy or by means of liquefied chlorine, bromide, phosgene and
sulphuretted hydrogen gas stored in cylinders under high pressure.
To be successful the gas attack must be attended by the following
conditions:

1. The weather must be comparatively calm with a wind blowing in the
direction of the enemy at about 5 miles an hour. If the wind is too
strong the gas will be carried over the enemy's trenches so rapidly
that it will not settle in them. If the wind be too light the gas will
be carried up into the air and disseminate or may even be blown back
into our own trenches, in which case chloride of lime scattered about
freely will disperse them.

2. There must be no rain, for that would quickly disseminate the gas
and negative the effect.

3. The attack must come as a surprise. If the elements of surprise are
missing and the enemy has time to take protective measures, the effect
is lost. If the surprise is complete, the enemy trenches should be
emptied very quickly.

4. The gas used must be heavier than the air, so that it will sift into
the enemy's trenches as it passes them. It is impracticable to decide
upon any definite hour for launching the gas attack. Everything depends
upon the direction and velocity of the wind. If an hour has been
tentatively designated and the wind changes, the attack will have to be
postponed.

When an assault follows the gas attack the men should wear the smoke
helmets for at least 30 minutes after the dissemination has ceased; in
fact they must not be removed until the order to do so is given by the
officer commanding the attack. You will appreciate that the enemy's
machine gunners may have better protection than the men in the bays of
the trenches.


SHELL AND GRENADE METHOD

In this method the gas dissemination is effected by means of shells
or bombs being fired into the enemy's trenches containing the desired
substances which are released and give off irritant fumes on explosion.
The grenades used weigh about 1 pound. They are similar in appearance
to the ordinary tin can grenade. Their effect in a trench will
continue for 20 to 30 minutes. In the attack a large number should be
concentrated in a particular area to produce a large volume of gas.
They are thrown by hand, trench mortar or catapult.


DEFENSE

Surprise must be guarded against in every possible way. The direction
of the wind must be continually watched, and when its velocity and
direction are specially favorable the protective measures must be
kept ready for instant use and special observers posted. Previous to
an attack the enemy may remain comparatively quiet for several days.
Noises like the moving of sheet iron may be heard. Preparations may be
observed along the position. When the attack starts a hissing noise is
heard; this latter is one of the indications that may be evident at
night.


HELMETS

Each man on duty in the trenches is provided with two smoke helmets,
specially devised and constructed so as to absorb the gas and
neutralize its effect, and which if properly cared for and used will
provide complete protection from any substance likely to be used by the
enemy. They are fitted with a valve tube through which to breathe and
with goggles to see through. There are certain rules prescribed for
their care and use.

1. They must not be removed from the protective covering except for
actual use against an attack.

2. When the helmet has been used once it should be replaced by a new
one.


DUMMY HELMETS

Dummy gas helmets will be provided in each organization by which the
men may be practiced in putting them on. The men must be thoroughly
drilled in the methods to be employed.

[Illustration: Plate 40a.--Gas helmet.]

The following directions accompany the helmets issued to the
British Army. When our helmets are issued it is probable that each
will be accompanied by a complete set of rules for its use and full
instructions for the method of getting into it and for its care and
preservation.


DIRECTION FOR USE AND CARE OF TUBE HELMETS


DESCRIPTION

These helmets are the same as the smoke helmet already issued, except
that stronger chemicals are added and a tube valve provided through
which to breathe out. The tube valve makes the helmet cooler and saves
chemicals from being affected by the breath. The wearer cannot breathe
_in_ through the tube valve; this is intended for breathing _out_ only.


DIRECTIONS FOR USE

Remove paper cap from mouthpiece of tube valve. Remove service cap.
Pull helmet over head. Adjust so that goggles are over eyes. Tuck in
skirt of helmet under coat collar and button coat so as to close in
skirt of helmet. Hold the tube lightly in lips or teeth like stem of
pipe, so as to be able to breathe in past it and out through it.

_Breathe in through mouth and nose, using the air inside the helmet.
Breathe out through tube only._


DIRECTIONS FOR CARE OF TUBE HELMET

1. Do not remove the helmet from its waterproof case except to use for
protection against gas.

2. Never use your tube helmet for practice or drill. Special helmets
are kept in each company for instruction only.

Should the goggles become misty during use they can be cleared by
rubbing them gently against the forehead.

When lacrimatory gases are used goggles affording mechanical protection
may be worn, as these gases are not likely to irritate the lungs,
though they sometimes produce sickness.


IMPROVISED METHODS

If a soldier does not possess one of the official pattern respirators,
the following measures will be found useful:

1. Wet and wring out any woolen article, such as a stocking or muffler,
so as to form a thick pad large enough to cover the nose and mouth,
and press firmly over both.

2. Place in a scarf, stocking or handkerchief, a pad of about three
handfuls of earth, preferably damp, and tie it firmly over the mouth
and nose.

3. A wet cloth pulled down over the eyes will be found useful as
additional protection, especially against certain gases other than
chlorine or when the gas is too strong for the ordinary respirator.

4. A stocking, wetted with water and soda solution or tea, folded into
eight folds and firmly held or tied over the nose.

5. A sock folded fourfold similarly wetted and held or tied. If the
sock or comforter has been soaked in soda solution it will still act
efficiently when dry, though if possible, it should be moist. The spare
tapes from puttees may be used for tying on the sock.

6. Any loose fabric, such as a sock, sandbag, woolen scarf or
comforter, soaked in urine, then wrung out to allow of free breathing
and tied tightly over the nose and mouth.

In the absence of any other cloths, the flannel waistbands issued for
winter use could be used for this purpose.


KNAPSACK SPRAYERS

Knapsack sprayers are issued for use to clear gases out of the trenches
after the cloud has blown over. A man with the sprayer on his back (and
wearing his smoke helmet) slowly traverses the trench, working the
spray. If this is not done the heavy poisonous gas may linger in the
trench for days and be a source of great danger.

If supports or reinforcements enter a trench charged with gas, they
should be preceded by a man using a sprayer.

Sprayers are charged with sodium thiosulphate--more commonly known as
"hypo"--6 pounds being dissolved in a bucket of water and a handful of
ordinary washing soda added.

Garden syringes and buckets may be used if sprayers are not available,
but these are not so effective. Sprayers should be charged before they
are taken up to the trenches, and should be kept ready for immediate
use.

Every officer defending a trench against an enemy gas attack should
endeavor to collect information whenever possible, to be sent to
headquarters through the usual channels. Particularly valuable is the
capture of apparatus used by the enemy either for disseminating gas or
for protection against it. If a shell attack is made, unexploded shells
or portions of them should be sent through to headquarters at once. The
time of day, duration of attack, color, taste or smell of gas used,
effect on the eyes, breathing, and all other symptoms should be noted.
New gases may be used at any time, and speedy information greatly
forwards the adoption of preventive measures.



CHAPTER X

SERVICE IN THE TRENCHES


PREPARATIONS FOR ENTERING TRENCHES

Preparing to enter upon a period of service in the trenches the company
commander makes a complete inspection of the company which includes:

1. Inspection of rifles and ammunition.

2. Inspection of equipment, contents of packs, intrenching tools,
field glasses, wire cutters, first-aid packets, emergency rations, gas
helmets, identification tags, canteens, clothing, etc.

3. Canteens to be filled with water.

4. Test bayonets, fix and unfix.

5. Have company fill magazines.


INSPECTION OF SECTION

The company commander precedes the company into the trenches and makes
a tour and inspection of the section assigned, which includes:

1. Layout of the trenches: fire trench, supervision trench,
communication trenches, machine-gun positions, snipers' positions,
listening and observation trenches, dugouts, latrines, etc.

2. Locate telephones, reserve ammunition and munitions depots, water
supply, gas alarms, tools and any trench accessories and utilities that
may be included in the section.

3. Get any information of the enemy that may be of value from the
outgoing company commander.


TACTICAL DISPOSITION

The company commander will then make his tactical dispositions. In
occupying the trenches a certain section of the line is assigned to
each company. This section contains so many bays of the trench. The
following dispositions are suggested as meeting the requirements under
our organization:

1. The company is organized into four platoons of four squads each.

2. The section of the line assigned to the company contains eight bays.

3. Support No. 1 consists of the first and second platoons.

4. Support No. 2 consists of the third and fourth platoons.

5. From Support No. 1: Two squads of the first platoon occupy bays 1
and 2; two squads of the second platoon occupy bays 3 and 4.

[Illustration: PLATE 41_a_.
TACTICAL DISPOSITIONS ONE COMPANY OF INFANTRY.]

6. From Support No. 2: Two squads of the third platoon occupy bays 5
and 6; two squads of the fourth platoon occupy bays 7 and 8.

7. Each squad establishes a double sentinel post in the bay assigned to
it and the remaining members go into the squad shelters just in rear
of the bays. This gives three reliefs for a double sentinel post and
allows one extra man to be utilized as "runner," etc.

8. The remainder of the company is established in the company dugouts.

9. Depending upon the length of the tours of duty of the company in
the first line trenches, the squads are changed according to a system
that will have to be varied to suit the occasion, the squads in support
taking their place in the fire trench and those in the fire trench
returning to the support.


GOING INTO THE TRENCHES

Platoons enter by not more than two squads at one time, thus minimizing
the danger from shell fire. The platoon commander will explain to his
squad leaders the extent of trench to be taken over and the action to
be taken in case they are caught under shell fire or rapid fire while
going up to the trenches. A second in command in each squad will be
designated, so that if casualties occur among the squad leaders the
relief will proceed as previously arranged.

The operation will proceed in silence. Rifles must be carried so that
they do not show over the parapet. On reaching the fire trench the men
of the first relief are posted to relieve the old detail and each man
finds out any points that may be useful from his predecessor on that
post.


INFORMATION TO BE OBTAINED

The platoon commander confers with the commander of the outgoing party
and secures all the information possible about the position which
includes:

1. Behavior of enemy during period preceding relief, and any point in
their line requiring special information, _e.g._, enemy may have cut
wire as though preparing to attack.

[Illustration: Plate 42.]

2. Machine-gun emplacement may be suspected at some particular point.

3. Anything ascertained by patrols about ground between firing lines,
thus avoiding unnnecessary reconnaissance.

4. Any standing arrangements for patrols at night, including point at
which wire can best be passed, ground to be patrolled, or place where
they can lie under cover.

5. Any parts of trench from which it is not safe to fire. Such
positions are apt to occur in winding trenches, and are not always
recognizable in the dark.

6. Special features of trench, recent improvements, work not completed,
dangerous points (on which machine guns are trained at night), useful
loopholes for observation.

7. Places from which food and water can be safely obtained.

8. Amount of ammunition, number of picks, shovels and empty sandbags in
that section of the line.

Information on these points cannot always be given properly by word of
mouth. _Written_ notes and plans should therefore be handed over to a
platoon commander taking over for the first time.

Every man is required to see that he has a good firing position for all
directions. Commanders must satisfy themselves that men have done this,
and report. _The whole line "Stands to Arms" during the hour before
dawn._

After dark, unless the moon is bright, rifles should be left in firing
position on the parapet. All men not on sentry should keep rifles, with
bayonets fixed, in the trench.


ROUTINE

1. Double sentinel posts are established in each bay. They are on post
one hour at a time.

2. When the enemy's trench-mortar detachments are active, special
sentinels will be posted to give notice of coming bombs.

3. Every man in the platoon is to know:

(_a_) The location of the platoon reserve ammunition and munitions.

(_b_) The location of latrines.

(_c_) The topography of the trenches in the platoon section and the
adjoining sections, including the approaches. The location of the
accessory defenses, listening and observation posts, machine-gun
positions, snipers' positions, trench-mortar positions, etc.

(_d_) The tactical disposition in the sector and the general
disposition of the company.

(_e_) The location of loopholes.

(_f_) The places of especial danger in order that he may stay away from
them.

4. Rifles are inspected twice daily. Every precaution is taken to keep
the rifle and ammunition free from mud.

5. There is a gas helmet parade daily.

6. Accurate sketches are made of the trench and any addition or
alteration entered on them.

7. Loopholes are inspected at dusk.

8. Wire entanglements are inspected and repaired under cover of
darkness.

9. A log of events hour by hour should be kept which shows every
item of enemy activity and the measures taken during the tour in the
trenches. This will be a valuable reference when turning the trench
over and will make a record of the habits of the enemy that may be most
valuable as a guide for making plans to circumvent him.

10. The police and sanitation of the trenches will be carefully looked
after.

11. Platoon commanders may divide the tour of supervision of the
platoon sector with the squad leaders.

12. The whole company stands to arms during the hour before dawn.


OBSERVATION

[Illustration: Plate 43.]

Observation of the enemy's line should be continuous. The observation
and firing system will be arranged so that all parts of the enemy's
line will be under observation and fire at all times.

Plate 42 shows the arrangement in general. The appliances for carrying
it out are shown in Plates 43, 44 and 45.

[Illustration: Plate 44.--Observation loophole and rifle firing rack.]

The observation is conducted through a small loophole made by a stick
through the parapet or an iron tube run through and directed toward
the point to be observed. To conceal the exit a few tufts of earth and
grass are placed there in an irregular manner. Steel loopholes may also
be employed for observation and firing purposes. They may be arranged
a yard or two apart, so that one man observing through one can direct
his mate using the rifle at the other so that he may bring fire to bear
upon any member of the enemy's force that exposes himself at the point
under observation.

The loopholes, both observation and firing, are arranged slantwise in
the parapet so that the observer does not look straight to his front
nor does the firer fire in that direction.

An aiming rack constructed so as to resist the recoil of the rifle and
not derange its aim on firing may be arranged near the observation
loophole. When the enemy exposes himself all that is necessary is a
press on the trigger and the bullet goes straight to its mark. Such an
aiming rack may be easily constructed, as shown in Plate 44.

Observation of the enemy trenches may also be effected by use of the
periscope or, in the absence of one of these, by a looking glass in a
slanted position fastened to a stick planted at the rear wall of the
trench and protruding over the parapet, to reflect his trenches. (See
Plate 45.)


FIELD GLASSES

The enemy's trench usually appears completely deserted, but on
observing it through field glasses you are astonished by the details
revealed. You will see, from time to time, the eye of the enemy
observer who shows himself at the loophole, or any other activity
that it is capable of being observed from the outside. The observer
watching through the field glasses will soon become so familiar with
the appearance of the opposing trenches that he will be able to detect
immediately any alteration in the obstacles, or changes that may be
made, such as the establishment of new listening or observation posts,
new sap heads, machine-gun emplacements, etc.

Observers are charged especially with detecting the location of
machine-gun emplacements. The examination should be so complete and
detailed as to prevent their existence without their location being
accurately known.

Any observations of enemy activities, of any nature whatever, are
reported immediately so that they may be passed on to the commander
whose unit is manning the trenches directly opposite the same.

Loopholes should be screened at the rear by a sandbag split and hung
over them. They should be carefully concealed to prevent their location
being discovered by the enemy. There must be no alteration in the
parapet where they are located.

[Illustration: Plate 45.--Looking-glass periscope.]

[Illustration:
Plate 45a.--Trench showing wire overhead cover and wire trapdoor
obsctacle. Machacoulis gallery in background.]


SNIPERS

The enemy's sojourn in the trenches should be made as disagreeable
to him as possible. He must be kept continually on the alert. Our
operations must be made a constant menace to him. It is in this way
that casualties are effected and he is gradually worn out. One of
the best methods of accomplishing all of the above is the employment
of snipers, who are specially selected and trained in this branch of
trench warfare.

The snipers are on duty all day, but they have their nights in bed.
They conduct their operations in pairs and are given a definite post
to occupy and in exceptional cases may be given a roving commission.
The advantage of having the same men regularly on the same post is that
they learn thoroughly the appearance of every square foot of the ground
included in their area of observation and are able immediately to note
any change that may take place. They soon learn where to look for the
enemy and in fact learn the habits, etc., of the enemy occupying their
sphere of observation.

The sniper must be an expert in:

1. The construction of loopholes by day and by night.

2. The use of telescopic sights, field glasses, periscopes and all
optical contrivances designed for observation purposes.

3. The selection of good positions for sniping.

4. Judging distances and estimating or measuring ranges.

5. Rifle firing. He should be an expert rifleman in order that full
advantage may be taken of the opportunities to inflict losses on the
enemy.

6. In trench warfare each pair of snipers will be required to report
each evening to the company commander the result of their day's
operations.


WHAT TO FIRE AT

When the enemy makes his attack you will generally fire at those who
appear in the sector that has been allotted to you to cover. You may,
however, abandon your target on your own initiative under the following
circumstances and fire:

1. On officers and non-commissioned officers. These can be recognized
by their gestures. They are generally in the center of groups and get
up and start first. They should be disabled, as this is the surest way
of breaking up the attack.

2. At a group on the move. Fire should be concentrated on an advancing
group. The time when the group is preparing to start its rush may be
indicated by rifles being raised and the movements that take place
along the line. After a rush has started, look out for the late comers
trying to rejoin their comrades. They make good targets.

3. When the enemy attempts to build up his line to the front by a
process of infiltration, that is, by having single men crawl from one
point to the other, each man should be fired on during his advance.

4. Fire will be immediately concentrated on any machine gun that comes
into action. With the German gun prolonged firing heats the water in
the jacket to the boiling point and puffs of steam are given off. Do
not be deceived into thinking that this necessarily gives away the
position of the gun, for this steam has been piped to a distant place
and allowed to escape so as to draw fire that otherwise might be
directed on the real position of the gun.

5. On signallers or runners. These are carrying information that will
probably be of benefit to the enemy's commander. You will appreciate
the necessity of preventing this.

6. On an enemy showing a flank. No opportunity must be lost to fire
upon an enemy that exposes his flank. The fire of a single rifleman
down the flank may cause a whole line to retreat.


USE OF RIFLE GRENADES

Rifle grenades are capable of causing more losses to the enemy than
bombardment. The rifle grenade arrives at its destination unexpectedly
without any noise; it explodes before one has even time to get out of
the way. As it does not arrive at fixed hours like the bombardment, the
enemy cannot continually avoid it by taking refuge in his dugouts and
shelters; when he is moving about a trench which is subject to rifle
grenading he must be continually on the alert. This perpetual menace,
hour in and hour out, day in and day out, renders his sojourn in the
trenches extremely disagreeable.

Before rifle grenades are thrown careful observation of the opposing
trench must have been made to determine the point where the grenade is
likely to do the greatest damage.

Rifles are placed in the aiming racks and the grenades fired from time
to time, day and night, at moments when it seems propitious. In this
way a sentinel may be taken by surprise; a non-commissioned officer or
officer may be caught unawares.

It should be remembered that we will probably be able to throw twenty
grenades to the enemy's one. Advantage should always be taken of this
munitions superiority. Every man of the enemy we can put out of action
is one less to kill us in the advance which will eventually come.
Sometimes the enemy will try to reply. Here is where our munitions
superiority comes in again. We can fairly shower him with grenades and
make him take to his shelters.

It may be advisable to execute a sudden burst of grenade fire. This is
started by a volley and followed by fire at will.

When the artillery has destroyed parts of the enemy's trenches or makes
breaches in his obstacles by day he will endeavor to repair them at
night. He may be considerably annoyed and losses inflicted upon him
by a well-directed shower of rifle grenades arriving at points where
his working parties are located. To make this effective the rifle racks
should be placed in position and secured during the day after trial
shots have demonstrated conclusively the direction and angle for them.


SHELLING

You will be impressed by the shells, especially the big ones. The din
and blast of the explosions are, to say the least, terrifying. But
you will soon come to know that the shell often makes more noise than
it does harm and that, after a terrific bombardment, by no means is
everybody destroyed.


HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF FROM SHELLS

The big shell, which is so appalling, is only really dangerous if it
falls on the place where a man is standing, because the splinters rise
in the air. Fall down flat when the shell bursts. Even if you are quite
close, there is comparatively little risk. Get up immediately after
the explosion, especially if you are 200 to 300 yards away from the
place where it burst. The splinters do not fall for some time after the
explosion.

The steel helmets and the infantry pack will furnish considerable
protection from shrapnel fragments and balls.


DURING THE COMBAT

The safest place to avoid the enemy's shell fire when the attack
has been launched is close up to the enemy's position, where the
artillery fire has to cease for fear of placing shells indiscriminately
in his own troops and ours. Some men, completely distracted, lie
down with their face to the ground. They will be crushed where they
lie. Artillery fire, when it is violent, tends to throw the ranks
into confusion and disorder. You have only ears for the roar of the
approaching shell. You slow down and attempt to seek cover where there
is no cover. The unit breaks up, and runs wild or stops altogether.
_Disorder and confusion means massacre._

March strictly in place. To the front is your safest haven of refuge.
Get hold of the frightened ones and keep them in place. You will need
them to help you when you reach the goal.


IN THE TRENCHES

Dugouts with strong overhead cover are provided for your protection
when not actually required to man the trench. In some places it may be
possible to dig shelter caves and shore up the roofs.


SCOUTING AND PATROLLING

 To the Reader: You will find a wealth of information on the methods
 to be employed by scouts and patrols in a little book similar to
 this one in size, entitled "Scouting and Patrolling," by the author
 of this volume. Published and for sale by the United States Infantry
 Association, Washington, D.C. Price 50 cents, by mail, postpaid. _Get
 your copy now and prepare yourself for these important duties._

Scouting and patrolling to the front is of greatest importance. It is
kept up both day and night. The units occupying the first line send out
patrols whenever necessary. They are frequently able to obtain valuable
information and at the same time serve to counteract the enemy's
efforts in this direction.

The patrols generally consist of a junior officer or non-commissioned
officer and from four to six selected men. Their operations are
conducted in accordance with the situation and the mission they are
sent on.

Hand grenades are frequently carried for both offensive and defensive
operations. Grenade patrols always carry them. The operations of
patrols may include:

1. Reconnaissance of sectors of the enemy's position with a view to
determining his dispositions and arrangement of obstacles.

2. Making sketches of positions.

3. Capturing prisoners.

4. Opposing enemy patrols.

5. Harrassing the enemy.

When the patrol goes out every man in the sector of the firing line
must be informed of such fact and the possibility of its returning
through his post. It is not sufficient to simply notify the men on post
at the time the patrol goes out, as a man cannot always be trusted
to pass the information on to his relief. Word should be quietly
taken along the line by the non-commissioned officer in charge of the
relief in person. When the patrol is out, special instructions have
to be given with respect to firing. To cease firing altogether is very
undesirable. It arouses the enemy's suspicions. A few trustworthy
riflemen are directed to fire high at intervals. No lights are sent up
while the patrol is out.

If the patrol is to remain stationary, similar to the outguard of an
outpost, communication may be maintained by means of a string, spelling
out the messages by Morse code, two jerks meaning a dash and one jerk
meaning a dot.

Where night patrols have to remain out under trying conditions special
dugouts should be reserved where they can rest upon their return.


CARE OF ARMS

The infantryman's rifle is his best friend. The personal care that
he gives to it is indicative of his soldierness and discipline. Your
rifle must be kept in prime condition, otherwise it may fail you at a
critical moment. A canvas breech cover that will protect the bolt and
magazine mechanism will be found a great advantage when the rifle is
not in use. Care must be taken to exclude mud and dirt from the bolt
mechanism. Do not put mud-covered cartridges into the magazine. Wipe
them off first. Arrange a proper receptacle near your post for the
storage of your reserve ammunition. Be careful that you do not clog
the muzzle of the rifle with mud and dirt. If fired in this condition
it will ruin the rifle. Be careful not to clog up the sight cover with
mud. Oil the rifle frequently with good sperm oil. Half of the oilers
in the squad should be filled with oil and the other half with Hoppe's
No. 9 Powder Solvent.

Rifles must be carefully inspected daily by platoon commanders and the
men required to work on them during the periods off post.


CARE OF TRENCHES

Repairs will have to be made daily. The widening of trenches in the
making of repairs should be strictly forbidden. Under no circumstances
must they be altered in any manner except on the order of the company
commander.

Platoon commanders will go over every part of the trench several times
daily with the squad leaders of the various sections and decide upon
the repairs and improvements to be made. A complete and thorough
police will be made prior to being relieved. All refuse will be
removed. Fired cartridges will be disposed of, as they might get
imbedded in the trench floor and hinder subsequent digging.

Each squad leader will be held strictly responsible for the state of
police of the section of trench occupied by his squad.


LATRINES

Latrines are located at convenient points in the trenches. For the
men on duty in the first line they are generally dug to the flank of
a connecting trench and connected therewith by a passageway. Their
location is plainly marked.

The rules of sanitation are even more strictly observed in trenches
than they are in soldier camps. The trenches and passageways must not
under any circumstances be defiled. Latrines should be kept clean and
sanitary. They will be carefully protected from flies. The free use of
chloride of lime daily is an absolute necessity.


MAPS

A complete detailed plan of our own trenches and as much as is known
of those of the enemy opposite should be made, and be available for
study and to refer to in making reports. Every bay of the trench should
be numbered, every traverse lettered. All junction points of fire and
communicating trenches, all dugouts, all posts, mortar positions,
machine-guns positions, observation posts, and any points that it may
be necessary to refer to in reports should be designated by numbers.


FROST BITE; CHILLED FEET

The causes are:

1. Prolonged standing in cold water or liquid mud.

2. Tight boots and leggings, that interfere with the blood circulation.


PREVENTION

1. Before going into the trenches wash the feet and legs and dry them
thoroughly. The British Army has an issue of an anti-freeze mixture
which will probably be issued to our troops also. The feet and legs
should be rubbed with it. Put on perfectly dry socks. An extra pair of
dry socks should be carried.

2. During the period of service in the trenches the feet should be
treated in this manner from time to time.

3. When the feet are cold, hot water will not be used for washing nor
will they be held close to a fire.

4. Rubber boots must be worn only in the trenches. On no account must
they be worn while on reserve.


TRENCH SOLDIERS' CREED

To be of the greatest effectiveness in the trench every soldier,
personally and collectively, must be able to adopt the following creed
and live up to it:

1. We are here for two purposes, to do as much damage as possible to
the enemy and to hold our section of the line against all attacks. We
are doing everything in our power to accomplish these missions. We
realize that every man of the enemy confronting us that is not placed
_hors de combat_ will be there ready to shoot us down when the assault
takes place. We realize also that if the enemy makes a lodgment on
our section of the line that it endangers others and a costly counter
attack may be necessary. We _will_ hold on.

2. With the means at hand and those we are able to devise we will make
the enemy's stay in his trenches as uncomfortable and disagreeable as
possible. All of our utilities are being utilized to the fullest extent
and our various detachments are organized and their tactical operations
are conducted with this object in view.

3. We have done everything possible to strengthen our line.

4. If, despite all the precautions we can take and the hardest fight
we are able to make, the enemy succeeds in effecting a lodgment on our
section of the line, we will meet him with the bayonet and fight to the
last drop of our blood.

5. We are all familiar with the tactical dispositions in our section
of the line. Those of us on the flanks connect up with the platoons
to our right and left. We know the route to company and battalion
headquarters and know where the nearest support is located. We know
the position of our machine guns and the sector they cover. We are in
constant communication with the observing posts that cover our front,
and our observing posts covering the other platoons are in constant
communication with them.

6. We know the firing position assigned to us and are familiar with the
use to be made of the accessories furnished us. We can fire over the
parapet at the foot of our wire entanglements to repel night attack.

7. We will at all times be careful about needlessly exposing ourselves.
We appreciate the fact that it is absolutely stupid to get killed or
wounded in the trench through negligence. By so doing one has served no
purpose and a soldier cannot be replaced. Our leaders have warned us of
the especially dangerous places. We know where they are and avoid them
except when our presence there is necessary as a matter of duty.

8. The sections of the enemy's line that we are to cover with our fire
have all been pointed out and each of us is familiar with same. We have
located the enemy's loopholes and are doing our best to keep them under
fire.

9. We know our way and move noiselessly about the trenches. When we
enter and leave it is with absolute silence.

10. We are doing our utmost to collect information about the enemy,
his defenses, his activity, his movements, and especially his night
operations. All of this information we transmit immediately to the
platoon leader.

11. We know the best way to get over our parapet to reach the enemy.

12. Our appliances for protection from gas attacks are complete and
ready for instant use. We have our helmets on our persons ready to
put on. We are familiar with their use and have confidence in their
effectiveness. We will wait for the signal to don our gas helmets
(signal is usually made by beating a gong, and care must be taken
to follow exactly the directions for putting on the gas helmets;
carelessness may mean your disablement).

13. Our trenches are drained and every precaution is being taken to
keep the drains and sump holes in condition to perform their functions.

14. We have rendered the parapets and shelters throughout our sector
bullet-proof, and effective measures are being taken to prevent them
from caving in.

15. We are keeping our trenches sanitary and clean; our reserve
munitions are carefully stored in their proper places ready for
instant use. Refuse is always placed in receptacles when it can be
carried away. We do not under any circumstances litter up our trench
floor. Our empty shells are collected and sent to the rear.

16. Our rifles are our best friends. We keep them clean, well oiled,
and in readiness for instant use. Our bayonets we have with us at all
times ready to be placed on the rifle. We protect our rifle ammunition
from the mud, as we realize that muddy cartridges will clog the breech
mechanism and cause mal-function.

17. We are taking every precaution to prevent "trench feet;" when
practicable we take off our shoes and rub our feet for 15 minutes each
day. We do not wear tight shoes and leggings that tend to interfere
with blood circulation. We each have a pair of dry socks to put on. We
do not wear rubber boots except when it is absolutely necessary.

18. We observe the orders regarding the wearing of equipment.

19. We do not drink any water except that from authorized sources. We
replenish our canteens whenever practicable.

In addition to the above the platoon commander must be able to adopt
the following and live up to them:

1. My sentries are posted in the proper places. They are posted by
non-commissioned officers. They have the proper orders. No man is
ever on duty more than one hour at a time. I visit them at frequent
intervals.

2. I have a runner ready to carry a message to company headquarters. I
realize that any information of the enemy that I may secure may be of
great importance at regimental and other headquarters. I will therefore
send it back with the utmost dispatch.

3. I am familiar with the methods of communicating with the artillery,
of giving them information and of asking them for support.

4. My patrols operating to the front at night have been properly
instructed and are doing their duty effectively. All sentries in the
trench have been notified when they are out and cautioned to look out
for their return.

5. I have given complete and detailed instruction covering what to do
in case of gas attacks and the sending out of the S.O.S. signal. I
have gas and attack messages already prepared and ready to send after
inserting the time and place in them.

6. I know the name of every man in my platoon and they all know me.

7. I am here to inflict as much damage as possible on the enemy and to
hold my part of the line. _I will do it!_



CHAPTER XI

THE ATTACK IN TRENCH WARFARE


OBJECTIVES

The objectives which must be dealt with in the attack of an intrenched
position such as will be found on the western front are:

1. The trenches of the first line.

2. The supporting points.

3. The trenches of the second line.

By a study of the text preceding this you must realize that in the
defense of these objectives there will be employed artillery, rifles,
grenades and machine guns.


ARTILLERY PREPARATION

The first phase of the attack is the artillery preparation. In order
that the infantry may make the attack with a minimum of losses, the
artillery must have destroyed the wire entanglements and obstacles
that obstruct the advance, or at least have sufficiently breached
them to permit their being negotiated. The destruction of these
obstacles is never complete. It would require too great an expenditure
of ammunition. The infantry occupying the hostile trenches must be
simply overwhelmed with artillery fire so that they will be unable to
man the parapets when the assault is launched. During the artillery
preparation the hostile infantry does not occupy their firing positions
in the trenches but remain in their dugouts, which are fully protected
from all but the heaviest shells. Only a few observers are left in the
trenches.

When the bombardment against this particular part of the line ceases
the infantry leave their dugouts and man the firing positions. To
prevent this is one of the most important as well as most difficult
tasks of the artillery. This may be effected by a well-directed fire
on the exits to the dugouts with a view to caving them in and thus
preventing the egress of the occupants. The enemy may sometimes be
induced to leave his shelter prematurely by the following ruse:

1. Cease the artillery fire.

2. Open a heavy rifle fire; this causes the enemy to believe that the
assault has begun and he will man his parapets in strength.

3. After waiting for several minutes open the artillery again with even
increased vigor.

The hostile infantry may be forced out of his dugouts by the use of
shells and grenades containing suffocating gases which penetrate the
shelters and make them untenable.

The artillery is also charged with putting the enemy's artillery out of
action to prevent them from firing upon the attacking infantry.

If the enemy artillery is left free, it will shell our trenches and
approaches, causing casualties and confusion and thus interfering with
the formation for the attack. The location of hostile batteries is
effected by aerial reconnaissance.

Another task of the artillery is to prevent the hostile reserves from
coming up to reinforce their firing lines. These reserves will be
located back in the second line until their presence is required at
the front. As long as the artillery preparation continues they remain
in the shelters, but as soon as it ceases they man the trenches.
The artillery must therefore extend its fire to the second line and
continue it while the first line is being rushed. Back of the second
position the enemy holds strong reserves. The entrance of these into
action must be prevented. This is accomplished by extending the
curtain of fire still further to the rear. The supporting points must
receive a lion's share of attention for, bristling with machine guns
and trench mortars, they are the really dangerous elements to the
infantry attack after it passes the first line trenches.

The weapon which inflicts the greatest losses on the assaulting
infantry is the machine gun, which appears suddenly out of the ground
and lays low whole units. By a careful reconnaissance these machine-gun
positions are ferreted out and every possible means are taken to effect
their destruction.

The effectiveness of the artillery preparation depends simply upon
superiority of guns and munitions. In this respect we now possess a
great advantage, for the state of our munition supply is such that our
artillery may fire several shells to one of the enemy. This is what
established the superiority.


ORGANIZATION OF INFANTRY ATTACK

The organization of the attacking infantry corresponds in a general
way to the organization of the position being attacked. A first line
of assault is organized. Its mission is the capture of the enemy's
first line trenches. A second line follows, having for its mission
the assault and capture of the second line trenches. A separate
organization of these two lines is necessary for the reason that the
first attacking line is generally so disorganized in the fighting that
it no longer possesses the cohesion necessary to carry it through to
the second line. It has been found necessary to launch a comparatively
fresh and intact force against it.

As the first position is organized into several separate lines of
defense, so also is the first attacking line organized and launched in
two or more waves, those in rear being in the nature of reinforcements
to those in front.


OBJECTIVES

Each unit of the attacking line is assigned a distinct objective.
Certain units are given the mission of attacking the supporting points
to prevent their enfilading the units advancing through the intervals
between them.

The main efforts are made along the lines between the supporting
points, as to assault the latter would entail a casualty list not
commensurate with the results. The effort against them is made with a
view to neutralizing their effect. If the attack is successful in the
intervals, the supporting points will fall as a result.

The waves of the first line are directed against the first position,
the second against the second position. The reserves held under the
orders of the division commander are employed where the development of
the situation dictates.

Further to the rear, and under orders of the supreme commander, large
bodies of reinforcements are held ready to be moved rapidly to points
where progress has been made to such an extent that maneuver operations
are practicable.


PREPARATION FOR THE ASSAULT

Preparatory to the assault, numerous saps (trenches) are run out to the
front from the main firing trenches. The night before the attack, a
parallel is broken out connecting the sap heads. This parallel is amply
supplied with short ladders and is occupied by the companies composing
the first wave of the attack. The saps and the main trenches are also
filled with men assigned to the following waves, who will move into
the parallel as soon as the first wave leaves it. As the artillery
preparation ceases, the first waves rush up the ladders in succession
and move out to the assault.


THE FIRST WAVE

As the artillery preparation against the first line is completed
and the curtain of fire shifted far into the enemy's position, the
infantry of the first wave emerges from the parallel and moves out.
The formation and gait depend upon the distance to the hostile trench.
If the artillery preparation has been effective and the distance is
not more than 100 yards, it is expected that the wave will be able to
reach the fire trench without firing, except possibly when the wire
is reached. If the distance is much greater than 100 yards, it is
necessary to cover the advance with rifle fire. This is accomplished by
a line of skirmishers deployed at extended intervals, which precedes
the wave at about 50 yards. The wave starts out at a walk, carefully
aligned. It afterwards takes up the double time and advances by rushes
until the wire entanglements are reached.

From this moment the period of the charge and individual combat begins.
The men can no longer be kept from firing. Each tries to protect
himself with his rifle. Each man locates his opening in the wire
through which he is to go and makes for it. The line reforms on the
other side. With rifles at the high charge (a position to our old head
parry, but slanting slightly upward from right to left) the line rushes
upon the enemy. Each man runs straight towards the part of the trench
in front of him and jumps upon the parapet. By rifle shots and bayonet
thrusts he destroys everything in his way. Men selected in advance take
charge of the prisoners. The line is reformed, lying down just beyond
the fire trench, and fire is opened against the second line. Men are
positively forbidden to enter the communication trenches. They are most
inviting for cover, but a man rarely gets out of them.

The grenadier squad proceed to their work of clearing the fire and
communication trenches.


THE SECOND WAVE

The second wave of the first line starts forward at the moment the
first wave reaches the hostile trenches. If it starts sooner, it will
unite with the first at the entanglement and become involved in the
fight for the fire trench. It will be broken up prematurely and will be
unable to take advantage of the developments of the fight of the first
wave. The reinforcement by the second wave and the disorganization
produced by the assault lead to a mixture of units in the trenches
of the first position. Before starting out to the assault of the
next trench it is necessary that order be restored. When this is
accomplished the attack is launched against the second line. In front
of the supporting points the combat rages. The men are barely able to
hold on the outer edges. In the interval the advance has reached high
tide and has expanded like a wave and stopped. This is the limit that
can be expected of the first line.

Hasty cover is prepared and advantage taken of such cover as may exist.
All elements of the attack open fire on the second position.


THE SECOND LINE

Under the cover of these operations the second line has come up in a
series of three lines, where it is built up compact at the position
of the stopped first line. From this point its attack against the
enemy's second line is launched. The lines are worked up to a point
from which the assault is to be made, and when the time comes the first
wave dashes out to the attack, followed by the second wave in the same
manner as the assault against the first position was made.

The action of the two lines of attack may be expected to overwhelm
the greater part of the two main hostile positions. At certain
points, however, the resistance will hold out, and, if not overcome,
will constitute points of support to which the enemy may bring up
reinforcements and even turn the tide of battle by a counter attack.

To deal with these points that hold out, as well as with hostile
reinforcements which may arrive, the reserve is launched into action,
which brings the attack into the open ground beyond the second line
of defense, and maneuver operations are begun. The mobile units are
rapidly thrown into action, and large forces from the general reserve
are hurried to the point where the lines of defense are broken through.

From what has gone before we may deduce that the following conditions
must prevail to attain success in an attack on a prepared position:

1. The attack must be planned down to the most minute detail.

2. There must be a greatly superior force of artillery concentrated at
the point of attack, and the artillery preparation must be thorough.

3. The infantry must be sufficient in number, training and morale to
perform the tasks that will be demanded of them.

4. The arrangements for the supply of ammunition to the firing line
must be planned and carried out in all its details.

5. Plans for meeting counter attacks must be thorough and complete. The
capture of a position is often less difficult than its retention.

6. Finally, every officer and man must know exactly what he is to do.


Bayonet Training

Waldron

The system of Bayonet Training stated herein is taken from the
provisional Manual of Bayonet Training of the British Army. In the
vernacular of the day, it is the "real dope."

Every battalion should have a bayonet assault practice course
constructed along the lines indicated and the work of training should
be systematically conducted. The non-commissioned officers should be
taken out on a "Tactical Walk" on the course and all the features of
the exercises explained. This is followed by their practical training
over the course and this in turn is followed by the instruction of the
privates of the organization.


FEATURES OF THE BAYONET

To attack with the bayonet effectively requires good direction,
strength and quickness, during a state of wild excitement and probable
physical exhaustion. The limit of the range of a bayonet is about 5
feet (measured from the opponent's eyes) but more often the killing
is at close quarters, at a range of 2 feet or less, when troops are
struggling hand to hand in trenches or darkness.

The bayonet is essentially an offensive weapon--go straight at an
opponent with the point threatening his throat and deliver the point
wherever an opening presents itself. If no opening is obvious, one
must be created by beating off the opponents weapon or making a "feint
point" in order to make him uncover himself.

Hand to hand fighting with the bayonet is individual, which means that
a man must think and act for himself and rely on his own resources
and skill; but, as in all games, he must play for his side and not
only for himself. In a bayonet assault all ranks go forward to kill
or be killed, and only those who have developed skill and strength by
constant training will be able to kill.

The spirit of the bayonet must be inculcated into all ranks so that
they go forward with that aggressive determination and confidence of
superiority born of continual practice, without which a bayonet assault
will not be effective.

The technical points of bayonet fighting are extremely few and simple.
The essence of bayonet training is continuity of practice.


METHOD OF CARRYING OUT BAYONET TRAINING AND HINTS TO INSTRUCTORS

An important point to be kept in mind in Bayonet Training is the
development of the individual by teaching him to think and act for
himself. The simplest means of attaining this end is to make men
use their brains and eyes to the fullest extent by carrying out the
practices so far as possible, without words of command, i.e., to point
at a shifting target as soon as it is stationary, to parry sticks,
etc. The class should, whenever possible, work in pairs and act on the
principle of "master and teacher." This procedure in itself, develops
individuality and confidence. Sharp jerky words of command which tend
to make men act mechanically, should be omitted. Rapidity of movement
and alertness are taught by competition in fixing and unfixing the
bayonet and by other such quickening movements.

As the technique of bayonet fighting is so simple, long detail is quite
unnecessary and makes the work monotonous. All instructions should be
carried out on common-sense lines. It should seldom be necessary to
give the details of a "point" or "parry" more than two or three times,
after which the class should acquire the correct positions by practice.
For this reason a lesson or daily practice should rarely last more
than half an hour. Remember that nothing kills interest so easily as
monotony.

The spirit of the bayonet is to be inculcated by describing the special
features of bayonet and hand to hand fighting. The men must learn to
practice bayonet fighting in the spirit and with the enthusiasm that
animates them when training for their games, and to look upon their
instructor as a trainer and helper. Interest in the work is to be
created by explaining the reasons for the various positions, the method
of handling the rifle and bayonet and the uses of the points. Questions
should be put to the men to find out if they understand these reasons.
When men realize the object of their work they naturally take a greater
interest in it.

Progression in bayonet training is regulated by obtaining first correct
position and good direction, then quickness. Strength is the outcome of
continual practice.

In order to encourage dash and gradually strengthen the leg muscles
from the commencement of the training, classes should be frequently
practiced in charging short distances over the bayonet practice courses.

All company officers and non-commissioned officers should be taught
how to instruct in bayonet training in order that they may be able to
teach their squads and platoons this very important part of a soldier's
training, which must be regularly practiced during the whole of his
service at home, and during his periods of rest behind the firing-lines.

The greatest care should be taken that the object representing the
opponent and its support should be incapable of injuring the bayonet or
butt. Only light sticks are to be used for parrying practice.

The chief causes of injury to the bayonet are insufficient instruction,
in the bayonet training lessons, failure to withdraw the bayonet clear
of the dummy, and placing the dummies on hard, unprepared ground.


BAYONET LESSONS

_Formation._--Intervals or distances are taken as prescribed in
paragraphs 109 and 111 I.D.R. Bayonets are fixed, paragraph 95, I.D.R.

_Technique of Instruction._--Before requiring the soldier to take a
position or execute a movement for the first time, the instructor
should show him the position or how to execute the movement, stating
the essential elements and explaining the purpose that they serve.

Illustrate the position or movement a second time, requiring careful
observation so that the men will be taught to use their eyes and brains
right from the beginning.

Now, require the men to assume the position or execute the movement
under consideration. Accuracy and expertness will be developed by
practice.

Fatigue and exhaustion should be carefully guarded against. They
prevent proper interest being taken in the exercises and delay the
progress of the instruction.

The training consists of five lessons and the Final Assault practice.


_Lesson No. 1_

The First lesson is divided into:

1. The position of _Guard_, from which the various bayonet attacks are
made.

2. The position of _High Port_, which is assumed when advancing.

3. The _Long Point_, which is the normal method of bayonet attack.

4. The _Withdrawal_, which follows the attack.


THE POSITION OF GUARD

Being at the Order Arms: Raise the piece with the right hand, throw it
to the front. Grasp with both hands, the left at a convenient place
above the rear sight so that the left arm is only slightly bent; right
hand at the small of the stock and held just in front of the navel. The
rifle is held naturally and easily, without constraint, barrel inclined
slightly to the left. At the same time the left foot is carried forward
to a point in a natural position such as a man walking might adopt on
meeting with resistance. The left knee is slightly bent, right leg
straight and braced. The right foot is flat on the ground with the toe
inclined to the right front.

[Illustration: THE LONG POINT]

The common faults that will be noted in assuming the position are:

1. The body will be leaned back from the hips, which causes
unsteadiness and does not permit quick and aggressive action.

2. The left arm is bent too much, which raises the point of the bayonet
too high and produces a certain amount of constraint. The left hand
should grasp the piece at such a point that will avoid this defect. A
little practice will show the exact place to hold the hand to obtain
the maximum effect.

3. The right hand may be held too low and too far back, which has the
effect of raising the point of the bayonet and giving a faulty position
to the left arm and hand.

4. The rifle may be grasped too tightly with the hands, which produces
rigidity and restrains freedom of movement. The left hand merely guides
the bayonet in the attack, the right furnishes the power behind the
thrust, hence great care should be taken to see that the left arm is
not deprived of its freedom of action by gripping the rifle too hard
with the left hand.


THE POSITION OF "REST"

The feet are retained at the position of Guard. The piece is lowered
and held in the easiest and most comfortable position.


THE POSITION OF HIGH PORT

Being at the position of Guard. Without changing the position of the
hands on the piece, carry the rifle so that the left wrist is level
with and directly in front of the left shoulder. The right hand is
level with the belt.

Practice will be had at the position of _High Port_ with the right hand
quitting the piece, it being held approximately in position with the
left hand alone. This will be found advantageous when jumping ditches,
climbing out of trenches, surmounting obstacles, etc., leaving the
right hand free.


THE POSITION OF LONG POINT

Being at the position of Guard. Thrust the point of the bayonet
vigorously towards the point of the objective, to the full extent of
the left arm, the stock running along side of and kept close to the
right inner fore arm. The body is inclined forward; left knee well
bent; right leg braced, and weight of body pressed well forward with
the sole of the right foot, heel raised. The chief power in the Point
is derived from the right arm with the weight of the body behind it,
the left arm and hand being employed to direct the point of the bayonet
at the objective.

The eyes must be fixed on the objective. In making the point other
than straight to the front the left foot will be moved laterally in
the direction to which the point is made. After progress has been made
in the execution of the simple point as indicated above, practice
should include stepping forward with the rear foot when the assault is
delivered.

The common faults in the execution of the Long Point will be noted as
follows:

1. The rifle is drawn back slightly before delivering the point, which
makes for a momentary loss of time that may give an opponent the
advantage and should be assiduously guarded against.

2. The stock of the piece is held too high, which makes the guiding
of the point of the bayonet with the left hand more difficult, and
reduces accuracy in delivering the point at the exact spot intended.

[Illustration: POSITION OF GUARD]

3. The eyes are not directed on the point of the attack. This is an
error. One that may cause a man to miss his mark. The soldier must
realize what this means in hand to hand fighting. The opponent will get
him.

4. The left knee is not sufficiently bent, which does not allow the
point to be made with the force intended.

5. The body is not thrust sufficiently forward, which reduces just that
much the force of the attack.

6. The point is started at too great a distance from the objective to
make a hit. Practice must be conducted in making the point until the
soldier knows the exact distance at which he will have to start to
produce the maximum effect. This distance is between four and five feet.

During the later stages of the instruction the men should also be
taught to step forward with the rear foot when delivering the point.


THE WITHDRAWAL AFTER A LONG POINT

[Illustration: THE WITHDRAWAL]

Being at the position of Long Point. To withdraw the bayonet. Draw
the piece straight back until the right hand is well behind the hip.
Immediately assume the position of Guard. If the leverage or proximity
of the object transfixed with the bayonet renders it necessary, prior
to the withdrawal, the left hand is slipped up close to the stacking
swivel.

In the preliminary instruction all Points will be immediately followed
by a withdrawal, prior to assuming the position of guard.


PROGRESSION

After the several positions hereinbefore described have been learned,
the Points should be made at a definite place on a target, such as the
throat, the stomach, the head, etc.

As progress is made, the pause between the point and the withdrawal is
shortened until the soldier comes directly to the position of Guard
from the point. Proficiency will finally be attained in making a "feint
point" at one part of the target and the real point at another, for
example: Feint at the head and point at the right thigh; feint at the
stomach and point at the neck, etc.

Attacks at a retreating foe should be made against the kidneys, the
position of which should be shown to the soldier.


VULNERABLE PARTS OF THE BODY

If possible, the point of the bayonet should be directed against the
opponents throat, especially in hand to hand fighting. The point of
the bayonet will easily enter and make a fatal wound on penetrating a
few inches. Other and more or less exposed parts are the face, chest,
lower abdomen, thighs and the region of the kidneys when the back is
turned. Four to six inches penetration is sufficient to incapacitate
and allow for a quick withdrawal, whereas if a bayonet is driven home
too far it is often impossible to withdraw it.

As soon as the nomenclature of the positions and movements are learned
the men should work in pairs. They should be practiced in pointing in
various directions. 1. At the opposite man's hand, which he places in
various positions on and off the body. 2. At thrusting rings tied on
the end of a stick.

This practice is conducted without word of command, so that the eyes
and brain may be trained.

It is not sufficient that a dummy be merely transfixed. Some particular
spot on the dummy should constitute the target. Discs or numbers should
be placed on the dummy and the men required to point at a distance of
about five feet from it and later as they become more proficient, to
point after advancing several paces. The advance must be made in a
practical manner and the point delivered with either foot to the front.

The rifle must never be drawn back when making a Long Point in a
forward movement. The impetus of the body and the forward stretching of
the arms supply sufficient force.

The bayonet must be withdrawn immediately after the Point has been
delivered, and a forward threatening attitude assumed by the side of or
beyond the dummy.

To guard against accidents the men must be at least five feet apart and
the bayonet scabbard should be on the bayonet.

The principles of this practice should be observed when pointing at
dummies in trenches, standing upright on the ground or suspended from
gallows. They should be applied at first slowly and deliberately. No
attempt must be made to carry out the Final Assault Practice until the
men have been carefully instructed in and have thoroughly mastered the
preliminary lessons.


_Lesson No. 2_

THE PARRIES

Being at the position of Guard: The right or left parry is executed by
vigorously straightening the left arm, without bending the wrist or
twisting the rifle in the hand, and forcing the piece to the right or
left far enough to fend off the adversary's weapon. The eyes must be
kept on the weapon that is being parried and not on the eyes of the
opponent as indicated in our bayonet combat training.

The common faults in the execution of the parries consist of:

1. Making a wide, sweeping parry, with no forward movement of the
bayonet or body in it.

2. The eyes are taken off the weapon that is being parried.

The men should be taught to regard the parry as a part of an offensive
movement, namely of the Point, which would immediately follow it in
actual combat. For this reason, as soon as the movements of the parries
have been learned they should always be accompanied by a slight forward
movement of the body.

Parries will be practiced with the right as well as with the left foot
forward, preparatory to the practice of parrying when advancing.


PRACTICE

Men when learning the parries should be required to observe the
movements of the rifle carefully, and should not be kept longer at this
practice than is necessary for them to understand what is required,
that is vigorous, yet controlled action.

The men work in pairs with scabbards on the bayonets, one man pointing
with the stick and the other parrying it. The position of guard is
resumed after each parry. At first this practice must be slow and
deliberate, without being allowed to become mechanical, and will be
progressively increased in rapidity and vigor.

Later a point at that part of the body indicated by the opposite man's
hand should immediately follow the parry, and, finally sticks long
enough to represent the opponents weapon at the position of guard
should be attached to dummies and parried before delivering the point.
(See Targets.)

The men must be taught to parry points made at them:

1. By an enemy in a trench when they are themselves on the parapet.

2. By an enemy on the parapet when they are on the trench.

3. When both are fighting on the same level at close quarters in a deep
trench.


_Lesson No. 3_

THE SHORT POINT

Being at the position of Guard: Shift the left hand quickly towards the
muzzle and draw the rifle back to the full extent of the right arm,
the butt either upwards or downwards, according as a low point or high
point is to be made. Deliver the point vigorously to the full extent of
the left arm.

The short point is used at a range of about three feet. In close
fighting it is the natural point to make when the bayonet has just been
withdrawn after a long point. If a strong withdrawal is necessary the
right hand should be slipped above the back sight after the short point
has been made.

[Illustration: THE SHORT POINT]

By placing two discs on a dummy the short point should be taught in
conjunction with the long point, the first disc being transfixed with
the latter and the second with the former. On delivery of the long
point if the left foot is forward, the short point would take place
with the right foot forward and _vice versa_.

The parries should be practiced from the position of the short point.


_Lesson No. 4_

THE JAB OR UPWARD POINT

Being at the position of Short Point: Shift the right hand up the rifle
and grasp it above the balance, at the same time bringing the piece to
an almost vertical position close to the body. From this position, bend
the knees and jab the point of the bayonet upwards into the throat or
under the chin of the opponent.

The common faults in this movement are:

1. The rifle is drawn backward and not held sufficiently upright.

2. The rifle is grasped too low with the right hand.

From the position of Jab, the men will be practiced in fending off an
attack made on any part of their body by an opponent.

[Illustration: THE JAB]

When making a Jab from the position of guard, the right, being the
thrusting hand, will be brought up first.

The Jab can be employed successfully in close quarter fighting in
narrow trenches or when embraced by an enemy.


METHODS OF INJURING AN OPPONENT

It should be impressed upon the soldier that, although a man's point
has missed, or has been parried or his bayonet has been broken, he can,
as attacker, still maintain his advantage by injuring his opponent in
one of the following ways:

_Butt Strike I._ Swing the butt up at the opponent's crotch, ribs,
forearm, etc., using a half arm blow and advancing the rear foot.

This is essentially a half arm blow from the shoulder, keeping the
elbow rigid. It can be executed only when the rifle is grasped at the
small of the stock.

_Butt Strike II._ If the opponent jumps back so that the first butt
strike misses, the rifle will come into a horizontal position over the
left shoulder, butt to the front. The attacker will then step in with
the rear foot and dash the butt into his opponent's face.

_Butt Strike III._ If the opponent retires still further out of
distance, the attacker again closes up and slashes his bayonet down on
his opponent's head or neck.

_Butt Strike IV._ If the point is beaten or brought down, the butt can
be used effectively by crashing it down on the opponent's head with an
over-arm blow, advancing the rear foot. When the opponent is out of
distance Butt Strike III can again be used.

In individual fighting the butt can also be used horizontally against
the opponent's ribs, forearm, etc. This method is impossible in trench
fighting or in an attack, owing to the horizontal sweep of the bayonet
to the attacker's left.

The men must be impressed with the fact that the butt must never be
used when it is possible to use the point of the bayonet effectively.

Butt Strikes can be used only under certain conditions and in certain
positions. If the soldier acquires absolute control of his weapon
under these conditions he will be able to adapt himself to all other
phases of close in fighting. For example, when a man is gripped by
an opponent, so that neither the point nor the butt can be used,
the knee brought up against the crotch or the heel stamped on the
instep may momentarily disable him and make him release his hold. When
wrestling the opponent may be tripped by forcing his weight on to one
leg and then kicking that leg from under him. These methods will only
temporarily disable an enemy, who must be killed with the bayonet.


PRACTICE

When the men have been shown the methods of using the butt and the
knee, they should be practiced by affixing several discs on a dummy
and executing combination exercises at them. For example, point at one
disc, use the knee on another fixed low down, jab at a third, etc. For
practice with the Butt, light dummies should be used to prevent injury
to the piece.


TACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE BAYONET

A bayonet assault should preferably be made under cover of fire, or
darkness or as a surprise. Under these circumstances the prospect of
success is greatest, for a bayonet is useless at any range except in
hand to hand fighting.

The bayonet is essentially a weapon of offense to be used with skill
and vigor. To await an opportunity for using the bayonet entails
defeat. An approaching enemy will simply stand out of bayonet range and
shoot down the defenders.

In an assault the enemy should be killed with the bayonet. Firing
should be avoided. A bullet passing through an opponent's body may kill
a friend who happens to be in the line of fire.


THE BAYONET ASSAULT

Training in the final assault is conducted only after the soldier has
received a thorough course of instruction in the preliminary lessons
and has acquired complete control over his weapons. This training must
approximate as nearly as possible the conditions of actual fighting.
Instructors should endeavor by every means in their power to arouse the
interest and imagination of the men. Each problem should be carefully
explained beforehand so that every man may have a complete knowledge of
just exactly what is being attempted. Each target must be regarded as
an armed opponent and each line of targets as an enemy line, attacking,
defending or retiring, to be disposed of accordingly.

Any tendency towards carelessness and slackness must be corrected at
once and all the men must be impressed with the fact that a practice
assault that is not carried out with quickness, vigor and determination
is worse than useless.

Lack of imagination or lack of understanding of what is being
attempted, leading to a violation of the principles of tactics in
practice assaults against dummy targets, can only lead to disaster in a
real assault against the enemy.

Nervous tension, due to the anticipation of an attack, the advance
across the open and the final dash at the enemy all combine to tire
an assaulting party. It is only by their physical fitness and superior
skill with the bayonet that they can overcome a comparatively fresh foe.

Accuracy in directing the bayonet when moving rapidly or surmounting
obstacles; a thrust of sufficient force to penetrate clothing and
equipment; a clean withdrawal, which requires no small effort,
especially when the bayonet is fixed by a bone; are all of the greatest
importance.


METHOD OF CARRYING THE RIFLE WITH BAYONET FIXED

1. A quick, short advance. Carry the rifle at the position of "High
Port." This position is suitable for close formations. It minimizes
risks of accidents when surmounting obstacles. It can be maintained
with the left hand alone, allowing a free use of the right when
necessary.

2. Long advance, in close formation. Carry the rifle slung over the
left shoulder, barrel perpendicular, sling to the front. This allows
the free use of both hands.

3. Long advance, in open order. Carry the rifle at the "Trail."


TEAMWORK

The importance of teamwork, discipline, and organized control
throughout the conduct of the bayonet assault cannot be too strongly
impressed upon the men. In this, as well as in all other tactical
operations, success can only be achieved through the closest
cooperation of all concerned. While individual initiative is to be
encouraged, it must be strictly subordinated to the will of the leader
of the assaulting party. The failure of an enterprize can usually be
traced to the lack of this close cooperation.


THE ADVANCE

1. All members of the attacking party must "go over the top," that is,
leave the trench, or rise from cover simultaneously.

2. The first stage, especially of a long advance, is slow and
steady--not faster than the pace of the slowest man.

Such an advance has a decided moral effect on the enemy. It will
produce the maximum shock at the moment of impact. It allows the
attacking force to reach its objective without undue exhaustion. On the
other hand, if the assault is allowed to develop without control and
in a haphazard fashion, the moral effect of the steady advance of a
resistless wall of men is lost and the defenders will be given time to
dispose of their opponents in detail.


THE CHARGE

The actual charge will not be delivered over a greater distance than
20 paces. Within the last ten paces the piece will be brought to the
position of guard. The alignment will be maintained as far as possible
until actual contact is gained.

As soon as a position is carried and prior to any further advance or
any other operation whatsoever, the line must be reformed and every
precaution taken against a counter attack. In Trench Warfare, the
indiscriminate pursuit with the bayonet must never be permitted unless
orders to that effect have been given by the leaders of the assaulting
party. The attacking troops are not so fresh as the enemy and
experience has shown that unorganized pursuit is exposed to ambuscades
and machine gun fire. In most cases the work of immediate pursuit is
better accomplished by the supporting artillery assisted by the rapid
fire of the infantry on the retreating enemy.


ASSAULT PRACTICE

Throughout the period of training the men, the men should be constantly
practiced in:

1. The recognized method of carrying the rifle with the bayonet fixed.

2. The rapid advance out of deep trenches.

3. Teamwork and control of advancing line. Fire discipline, direction
and control.

4. The art of using the bayonet with effect in the cramped space of
communication and fire trenches.

5. Reforming and opening fire after an assault.

6. Acting as leaders of an attacking party.


FINAL ASSAULT PRACTICE

One of the best methods of training a command in the final assault
is to construct a section of trench, forming a course, over which
the training may be conducted. The edges of the trenches should be
protected by logs anchored back in the parapets or solid ground.
Constant use will soon wear them down if this precaution is not taken.
Cinders placed on the course are a great advantage, for they prevent
the men from slipping.

When dummy targets are laid on the ground or on parapets, care should
be taken to see that the earth under them is free from stones,
otherwise bayonets will be injured when the thrust penetrates clear
through the dummy and into the ground.

For this practice work it will be well to select the bayonets of the
company that are most worn and use them exclusively.

Most interesting and practical problems in the tactics of trench
warfare can be solved by combining the assault practice with other
forms of training such as the operations of grenadier squads in
clearing fire trenches and communication trenches; throwing hand
grenades, to cover the assault; barricading with sandbags and the
construction of trenches.

The illustration herein shows a type of Final Assault Practice course,
that may be prepared with a minimum expenditure of labor and material.
It occupies a space of about 100 feet in width and may be of varying
depth according to the elements that it is desired to introduce. A
platoon of four squads with the squad leaders taken out of the line
and placed in rear to direct their squads, may be run over the course
with safety after the men have had sufficient preliminary training. The
elements of this course are:

1. A line of traversed type of fire trench. There being four bays, 18
feet long with 6 foot traverses. This trench is the simple type of
standing trench shown in the profile.

2. A supervision trench located parallel to and about 50 feet in rear
of the fire trench. Profile shown.

3. Communication zigzags from the supervision trench to the fire
trench.

4. Two communication zigzags of three legs each running to the rear
from the supervision trench.

5. The location of squad dugouts in rear of the bays of the fire
trench and platoon dugouts just in rear of the supervision trench are
indicated. It is not necessary for the purposes to excavate these. The
location of the entrances in the trenches should be indicated.

The starting line is 40 feet in front of the traversed fire trench.
This may be a deep trench or merely a line as desired. The trench gives
good practice for the men in getting out of a fire trench, quickly
and forming a line beyond. The whole system of trenches should be
constructed on ground that can be easily drained.


ACCESSORIES

1. Portable gallows for the suspension of from one to four targets are
constructed and located at such points as may be desired in the area
between the fire trench and the supervision trench and that to the rear
of the latter.

[Illustration: _Gallows with Dummy._]

2. Shell craters may be excavated in the open spaces mentioned above in
which dummy targets may be placed.

3. Portable Turk's Head may be constructed and placed at such points as
may be desired in the trenches or in the open spaces above ground.

4. Dummy targets may be placed where-ever desired.

[Illustration:]

[Illustration: _TURK'S HEAD._]

[Illustration:
 _Dummies in Trenches._]

[Illustration:
 _Types of Dummies._]


TARGETS

_Target A._ Consists of a portable gallows having one dummy target.

_Target B._ Consists of a portable gallows having two or more dummy
targets.

_Target C._ Consists of a portable gallows the same as Target A, having
a dummy target with the stick protruding to the front to represent the
opponent's bayonet.

_Target D._ Consists of a dummy target to lie on the ground or rest
against the side wall of the trench.

_Target E._ Is a Turk's Head.


CONSTRUCTION OF GALLOWS

The gallows for targets A, B, and C is constructed as shown in the
plate. Two standards are made as indicated and joined together by
pieces of 2×4 of the desired length at A and B. For Target A this
length should be about 6 feet; for Target B at least 5 feet should be
allowed for each dummy. Where more than two targets are hung the top
cross piece had better be a 4×4 instead of a 2×4.

[Illustration: _Plan for Gallows for Dummies._]


CONSTRUCTION OF DUMMIES

The dummy may consist of a gunny sack filled with straw and packed
tightly. It may be an old uniform stuffed with straw. A more elaborate
form that tends to hold the bayonet when it is thrust into it may be
made as follows:

1. Split a sack along the side and across the end forming a manta. Lay
it on the ground.

2. Place a layer of straw about 20 inches wide and nearly the length of
the sack, allowing a few inches at the top and bottom for folding over.
Now place a layer of good stiff sod on the straw. Follow this with
another layer of straw. Follow this of sod and straw until the dummy is
8 or 10 inches thick. Then put a one-quarter board with the grain up
and down on top of the whole.

3. Fold in the sides and top tight and sew them together with a strong
twine and a baling needle.

4. Run a strong rope around the outside edges, turning it at each
corner to make a loop by which the dummy may be hanged to the gallows.

For those dummies that are to sit on the ground a piece of 2-inch plank
placed across the bottom before the sacking is folded and sewed will
form a good base. On these the rope will be omitted.


CONSTRUCTION OF "TURK'S HEAD"

On the end of a pole about six feet long place a ball of straw about 9
inches in diameter, packed tightly in gunny sacking. Sharpen the other
end of the pole so that it may be stuck in the ground.


CONSTRUCTION OF PARRYING DUMMY TARGET

Take one of the ordinary dummies. Put a Turk's Head on a stick about
4 feet long and nail some canvas or gunny sacking to the other end so
that the edges will spread out. Sew the canvas to a point on the dummy
about two-thirds of the way down the front and suspend it from the top
with strong ropes attached to the upper corners of the dummy.


DISCS ON TARGET

With a view to attaining accuracy in the points, cardboard discs about
3 inches in diameter should be placed on the front of the dummies. The
soldier should not merely try to hit the dummy with his bayonet, but he
should endeavor to make hits on the discs.

[Illustration: EACH DUMMY MUST BE REGARDED AS AN ACTUAL ARMED OPPONENT]


EXERCISES

The exercises that may be devised with this equipment are of an
infinite variety, ranging from practice runs of one man to each bay of
the trench, merely going into and out of the trenches, to an entire
squad assaulting each bay with targets placed all along the course.

The following are suggested exercises:


_Exercise 1_

Number of men to make the run: Four, one at each bay.

_Targets: No. 1._ One Target D, half exposed on parapet at the left
corner of Bay 4 to represent a man firing over the parapet.

_No. 2._ One Target D, resting against the rear wall of the fire
trench of Bay 4, at the opening of the dugout, to represent a man just
emerging from the squad dugout.

_No. 3._ One Target A, midway between the fire trench and the
supervision trench.

_No. 4._ One Target E, in supervision trench.

_No. 5._ One Target D, in supervision trench at the entrance to the
communication trench.

_No. 6._ One Target D, on the ground to the rear of the supervision
trench. Note. Targets for the man making the run against Bay 4 are
stated. Those for the other men making the run are similarly located.


THE RUN

The method of making the run will be explained for the man making the
run at Bay 4. The other men proceed in a similar manner.

Being in the prone position at the starting point the soldier rises
quickly to his feet and advances at the double time (not running)
towards Target No. 1, the piece being carried at the "High Port."
When within about 8 paces of Target No. 1 the piece is brought to
the position of guard and when at the proper distance the target is
attacked with a vigorous "Long Point." This is followed by a clean
withdrawal.

The soldier then jumps into the fire trench and attacks Target No. 2 or
attacks from over the fire trench as is desired. He then climbs out of
the fire trench and continues his advance attacking Target No. 3 with a
Long Point; No. 4 with a Long Point; No. 5 with a Short Point and No.
6 with a Long Point, each being followed by a clean withdrawal of the
bayonet.


_Exercise 2_

Number of men to make run: Two squads, one at Bays 1 and 2, and the
other at Bays 3 and 4.

_Targets_: The targets are given only for the four men making the run
against Bay 4. Those for the other three bays are similarly arranged.

_No. 1._ Four Targets D, half exposed on parapet of bay to represent
men firing over the parapet.

_No. 2._ Four Targets D, lying on ground or in shell crater a few feet
in rear of the bay.

_No. 3._ Four Targets A or C, in the open area about midway between the
fire trench and the supervision trench.

_No. 4._ Four Targets D in the bottom of the supervision trench.

_No. 5._ Four Targets E, a few yards in rear of the supervision trench.

The run is conducted in the same manner as explained for Exercise 1.
Additional precautions will have to be taken to prevent the men from
injuring one another with their bayonets.

The line attacks Target No. 1. The men jump over the fire trench
landing on the parados and immediately attack Target No. 2. The line
passes on towards Target No. 3, jumping all trenches encountered and
attack Target No. 3 with a parry and a point if Target C is used
and with a point if Target A is used. The line then goes into the
supervision trench and attacks Target No. 4, climbing out immediately
and advancing on Target No. 5 which is attacked by a "Jab."

In order to save time a second line may be started from the starting
line when the first has passed beyond the fire trench and towards the
supervision trench.

After the men have been taken through a thorough course of training
in the individual instruction, problems should be devised in which a
squad assaults a section of the trench system under the direction
of the squad leader. This is followed by exercises conducted by the
platoon leader, the strength of the platoon being as many squads as can
be employed at one time on the front of the section of trench system
available.

END.



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