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Title: Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of Charles Darwin
Author: Darwin, Charles
Language: English
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WORKS OF

CHARLES DARWIN



CONTENTS


##  THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE, Edition 2

##  THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE, Edition 11

##  THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES

##  ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, Edition 1

##  ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, Edition 2

##  ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, Edition 6

##  DESCENT OF MAN AND SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX, Ed. 1, v1

##  DESCENT OF MAN AND SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX, Ed. 1, v2

##  DESCENT OF MAN AND SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX, Edition 2

##  VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DOMESTICATION, Vol. 1

##  VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DOMESTICATION, Vol. 2

##  LIFE AND LETTERS OF DARWIN, Vol. 1

##  LIFE AND LETTERS OF DARWIN, Vol. 2

##  MORE LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN, Vol. 1

##  MORE LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN, Vol. 2

##  THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DARWIN

##  HIS LIFE IN AN AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL CHAPTER

##  THE CORAL REEFS

##  VOLCANIC ISLANDS

##  MONOGRAPH ON CIRRIPEDIA, Vol. 1

##  MONOGRAPH ON THE SUB-CLASS CIRRIPEDIA, Vol. 2

##  SOUTH AMERICAN GEOLOGY

##  THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF FLOWERS

##  CROSS & SELF-FERTILISATION IN VEGETABLES

##  THE EXPRESSION OF EMOTION IN MAN AND ANIMALS

##  THE FORMATION OF VEGETABLE MOULD

##  THE INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS

##  POWER OF MOVEMENT IN PLANTS

THE MOVEMENT AND HABITS OF CLIMBING PLANTS



TABLES OF CONTENTS OF VOLUMES



THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE
By Charles Darwin



CONTENTS
	PREFACE
	THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE
CHAPTER I 	ST. JAGO--CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS
CHAPTER II 	RIO DE JANEIRO
CHAPTER III 	MALDONADO
CHAPTER IV 	RIO NEGRO TO BAHIA BLANCA
CHAPTER V 	BAHIA BLANCA
CHAPTER VI 	BAHIA BLANCA TO BUENOS AYRES
CHAPTER VII 	BUENOS AYRES AND ST. FE
CHAPTER VIII 	BANDA ORIENTAL AND PATAGONIA
CHAPTER IX 	SANTA CRUZ, PATAGONIA, AND THE FALKLAND ISLANDS
CHAPTER X 	TIERRA DEL FUEGO
CHAPTER XI 	STRAIT OF MAGELLAN.--CLIMATE OF THE SOUTHERN COASTS
CHAPTER XII 	CENTRAL CHILE
CHAPTER XIII 	CHILOE AND CHONOS ISLANDS
CHAPTER XIV 	CHILOE AND CONCEPCION: GREAT EARTHQUAKE
CHAPTER XV 	PASSAGE OF THE CORDILLERA
CHAPTER XVI 	NORTHERN CHILE AND PERU
CHAPTER XVII 	GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO
CHAPTER XVIII 	TAHITI AND NEW ZEALAND
CHAPTER XIX 	AUSTRALIA
CHAPTER XX 	KEELING ISLAND: CORAL FORMATIONS
CHAPTER XXI 	MAURITIUS TO ENGLAND
FOOTNOTES:



A NATURALIST'S VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD
By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S.



First Edition 	May 1860
Second Edition 	May 1870
Third Edition 	February 1872
Fourth Edition 	July 1874
Fifth Edition 	March 1876
Sixth Edition 	January 1879
Seventh Edition 	May 1882
Eighth Edition 	February 1884
Ninth Edition 	August 1886
Tenth Edition 	January 1888
Eleventh Edition 	January 1890
Reprinted 	June 1913


INDEX
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


CONTENTS
Chapter I

Porto Praya — Ribeira Grande — Atmospheric Dust with Infusoria — Habits of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-fish — St. Paul's Rocks, non-volcanic — Singular Incrustations — Insects the first Colonists of Islands — Fernando Noronha — Bahia — Burnished Rocks — Habits of a Diodon — Pelagic Confervæ and Infusoria — Causes of discoloured Sea.
Chapter II

Rio de Janeiro — Excursion north of Cape Frio — Great Evaporation — Slavery — Botofogo Bay — Terrestrial Planariae — Clouds on the Corcovado — Heavy Rain — Musical Frogs — Phosphorescent insects — Elater, springing powers of — Blue Haze — Noise made by a Butterfly — Entomology — Ants — Wasp killing a Spider — Parasitical Spider — Artifices of an Epeira — Gregarious Spider — Spider with an unsymmetrical web.
Chapter III

Monte Video — Maldonado — Excursion to R. Polanco — Lazo and Bolas — Partridges — Absence of trees — Deer — Capybara, or River Hog — Tucutuco — Molothrus, cuckoo-like habits — Tyrant-flycatcher — Mocking-bird — Carrion Hawks — Tubes formed by lightning — House struck.
Chapter IV

Rio Negro — Estancias attacked by the Indians — Salt-Lakes — Flamingoes — R. Negro to R. Colorado — Sacred Tree — Patagonian Hare — Indian Families — General Rosas — Proceed to Bahia Blanca — Sand Dunes — Negro Lieutenant — Bahia Blanca — Saline incrustations — Punta Alta — Zorillo.
Chapter V

Bahia Blanca — Geology — Numerous gigantic extinct Quadrupeds — Recent Extinction — Longevity of Species — Large Animals do not require a luxuriant vegetation — Southern Africa — Siberian Fossils — Two Species of Ostrich — Habits of Oven-bird — Armadilloes — Venomous Snake, Toad, Lizard — Hybernation of Animals — Habits of Sea-Pen — Indian Wars and Massacres — Arrowhead — Antiquarian Relic.
Chapter VI

Set out for Buenos Ayres — Rio Sauce — Sierra Ventana — Third Posta — Driving Horses — Bolas — Partridges and Foxes — Features of the country — Long-legged Plover — Teru-tero — Hail-storm — Natural enclosures in the Sierra Tapalguen — Flesh of Puma — Meat Diet — Guardia del Monte — Effects of cattle on the Vegetation — Cardoon — Buenos Ayres — Corral where cattle are slaughtered.
Chapter VII

Excursion to St. Fé — Thistle Beds — Habits of the Bizcacha — Little Owl — Saline streams — Level plains — Mastodon — St. Fé — Change in landscape — Geology — Tooth of extinct Horse — Relation of the Fossil and recent Quadrupeds of North and South America — Effects of a great drought — Parana — Habits of the Jaguar — Scissor-beak — Kingfisher, Parrot, and Scissor-tail — Revolution — Buenos Ayres — State of Government.
Chapter VIII

Excursion to Colonia del Sacramiento — Value of an Estancia — Cattle, how counted — Singular breed of Oxen — Perforated pebbles — Shepherd-dogs — Horses broken-in, Gauchos riding — Character of Inhabitants — Rio Plata — Flocks of Butterflies — Aeronaut Spiders — Phosphorescence of the Sea — Port Desire — Guanaco — Port St. Julian — Geology of Patagonia — Fossil gigantic Animal — Types of Organisation constant — Change in the Zoology of America — Causes of Extinction.
Chapter IX

Santa Cruz — Expedition up the River — Indians — Immense streams of basaltic lava — Fragments not transported by the river — Excavation of the valley — Condor, habits of — Cordillera — Erratic boulders of great size — Indian relics — Return to the ship — Falkland Islands — Wild horses, cattle, rabbits — Wolf-like fox — Fire made of bones — Manner of hunting wild cattle — Geology — Streams of stones — Scenes of violence — Penguin — Geese — Eggs of Doris — Compound animals.
Chapter X

Tierra del Fuego, first arrival — Good Success Bay — An account of the Fuegians on board — Interview with the savages — Scenery of the forests — Cape Horn — Wigwam Cove — Miserable condition of the savages — Famines — Cannibals — Matricide — Religious feelings — Great Gale — Beagle Channel — Ponsonby Sound — Build wigwams and settle the Fuegians — Bifurcation of the Beagle Channel — Glaciers — Return to the Ship — Second visit in the Ship to the Settlement — Equality of condition amongst the natives.
Chapter XI

Strait of Magellan — Port Famine — Ascent of Mount Tarn — Forests — Edible fungus — Zoology — Great Seaweed — Leave Tierra del Fuego — Climate — Fruit-trees and productions of the southern coasts — Height of snow-line on the Cordillera — Descent of glaciers to the sea — Icebergs formed — Transportal of boulders — Climate and productions of the Antarctic Islands — Preservation of frozen carcasses — Recapitulation.
Chapter XII

Valparaiso — Excursion to the foot of the Andes — Structure of the land — Ascend the Bell of Quillota — Shattered masses of greenstone — Immense valleys — Mines — State of miners — Santiago — Hot-baths of Cauquenes — Gold-mines — Grinding-mills — Perforated stones — Habits of the Puma — El Turco and Tapacolo — Humming-birds.
Chapter XIII

Chiloe — General aspect — Boat excursion — Native Indians — Castro — Tame fox — Ascend San Pedro — Chonos Archipelago — Peninsula of Tres Montes — Granitic range — Boat-wrecked sailors — Low's Harbour — Wild potato — Formation of peat — Myopotamus, otter and mice — Cheucau and Barking-bird — Opetiorhynchus — Singular character of ornithology — Petrels.
Chapter XIV

San Carlos, Chiloe — Osorno in eruption, contemporaneously with Aconcagua and Coseguina — Ride to Cucao — Impenetrable forests — Valdivia — Indians — Earthquake — Concepcion — Great earthquake — Rocks fissured — Appearance of the former towns — The sea black and boiling — Direction of the vibrations — Stones twisted round — Great Wave — Permanent Elevation of the land — Area of volcanic phenomena — The connection between the elevatory and eruptive forces — Cause of earthquakes — Slow elevation of mountain-chains.
Chapter XV

Valparaiso — Portillo Pass — Sagacity of mules — Mountain-torrents — Mines, how discovered — Proofs of the gradual elevation of the Cordillera — Effect of snow on rocks — Geological structure of the two main ranges, their distinct origin and upheaval — Great subsidence — Red snow — Winds — Pinnacles of snow — Dry and clear atmosphere — Electricity — Pampas — Zoology of the opposite sides of the Andes — Locusts — Great Bugs — Mendoza — Uspallata Pass — Silicified trees buried as they grew — Incas Bridge — Badness of the passes exaggerated — Cumbre — Casuchas — Valparaiso.
Chapter XVI

Coast-road to Coquimbo — Great loads carried by the miners — Coquimbo — Earthquake — Step-formed terraces — Absence of recent deposits — Contemporaneousness of the Tertiary formations — Excursion up the valley — Road to Guasco — Deserts — Valley of Copiapó — Rain and Earthquakes — Hydrophobia — The Despoblado — Indian ruins — Probable change of climate — River-bed arched by an earthquake — Cold gales of wind — Noises from a hill — Iquique — Salt alluvium — Nitrate of soda — Lima — Unhealthy country — Ruins of Callao, overthrown by an earthquake — Recent subsidence — Elevated shells on San Lorenzo, their decomposition — Plain with embedded shells and fragments of pottery — Antiquity of the Indian Race.
Chapter XVII

Galapagos Archipelago — The whole group volcanic — Number of craters — Leafless bushes — Colony at Charles Island — James Island — Salt-lake in crater — Natural history of the group — Ornithology, curious finches — Reptiles — Great tortoises, habits of — Marine lizard, feeds on seaweed — Terrestrial lizard, burrowing habits, herbivorous — Importance of reptiles in the Archipelago — Fish, shells, insects — Botany — American type of organisation — Differences in the species or races on different islands — Tameness of the birds — Fear of man an acquired instinct.
Chapter XVIII

Pass through the Low Archipelago — Tahiti — Aspect — Vegetation on the mountains — View of Eimeo — Excursion into the interior — Profound ravines — Succession of waterfalls — Number of wild useful plants — Temperance of the inhabitants — Their moral state — Parliament convened — New Zealand — Bay of Islands — Hippahs — Excursion to Waimate — Missionary establishment — English weeds now run wild — Waiomio — Funeral of a New Zealand woman — Sail for Australia.
Chapter XIX

Sydney — Excursion to Bathurst — Aspect of the woods — Party of natives — Gradual extinction of the aborigines — Infection generated by associated men in health — Blue Mountains — View of the grand gulf-like valleys — Their origin and formation — Bathurst, general civility of the lower orders — State of Society — Van Diemen's Land — Hobart Town — Aborigines all banished — Mount Wellington — King George's Sound — Cheerless aspect of the country — Bald Head, calcareous casts of branches of trees — Party of natives — Leave Australia.
Chapter XX

Keeling Island — Singular appearance — Scanty Flora — Transport of seeds — Birds and insects — Ebbing and flowing springs — Fields of dead coral — Stones transported in the roots of trees — Great crab — Stinging corals — Coral-eating fish — Coral formations — Lagoon islands or atolls — Depth at which reef-building corals can live — Vast areas interspersed with low coral islands — Subsidence of their foundations — Barrier-reefs — Fringing-reefs — Conversion of fringing-reefs into barrier-reefs, and into atolls — Evidence of changes in level — Breaches in barrier-reefs — Maldiva atolls, their peculiar structure — Dead and submerged reefs — Areas of subsidence and elevation — Distribution of volcanoes — Subsidence slow and vast in amount.
Chapter XXI

Mauritius, beautiful appearance of — Great crateriform ring of mountains — Hindoos — St. Helena — History of the changes in the vegetation — Cause of the extinction of land-shells — Ascension — Variation in the imported rats — Volcanic bombs — Beds of infusoria — Bahia, Brazil — Splendour of tropical scenery — Pernambuco — Singular reefs — Slavery — Return to England — Retrospect on our voyage.


INDEX
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES
TWO ESSAYS WRITTEN IN 1842 AND 1844
By Charles Darwin
Edited By His Son Francis Darwin
1909
CONTENTS

ESSAY OF 1842

    PAGES
    Introduction xi

PART I

    § i. On variation under domestication, and on the principles of selection 1
    § ii. On variation in a state of nature and on the natural means of selection 4
    § iii. On variation in instincts and other mental attributes 17

PART II

    §§ iv. and v. On the evidence from Geology. (The reasons for combining the two sections are given in the Introduction) 22
    § vi. Geographical distribution 29
    § vii. Affinities and classification 35
    § viii. Unity of type in the great classes 38
    § ix. Abortive organs 45
    § x. Recapitulation and conclusion 48

{viii}

ESSAY OF 1844

PART I

CHAPTER I
ON THE VARIATION OF ORGANIC BEINGS UNDER DOMESTICATION; AND ON THE PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION.

    Variation
    On the hereditary tendency
    Causes of Variation
    On Selection
    Crossing Breeds
    Whether our domestic races have descended from one or more wild stocks
    Limits to Variation in degree and kind
    In what consists Domestication
    Summary 57-80

CHAPTER II
ON THE VARIATION OF ORGANIC BEINGS IN A WILD STATE; ON THE NATURAL MEANS OF SELECTION; AND ON THE COMPARISON OF DOMESTIC RACES AND TRUE SPECIES.

    Variation
    Natural means of Selection
    Differences between “Races” and “Species”:—first, in their trueness or variability
    Difference between “Races” and “Species” in fertility when crossed
    Causes of Sterility in Hybrids
    Infertility from causes distinct from hybridisation
    Points of Resemblance between “Races” and “Species”
    External characters of Hybrids and Mongrels
    Summary
    Limits of Variation 81-111

CHAPTER III
ON THE VARIATION OF INSTINCTS AND OTHER MENTAL ATTRIBUTES UNDER DOMESTICATION AND IN A STATE OF NATURE; ON THE DIFFICULTIES IN THIS SUBJECT; AND ON ANALOGOUS DIFFICULTIES WITH RESPECT TO CORPOREAL STRUCTURES.

    Variation of mental attributes under domestication
    Hereditary habits compared with instincts
    Variation in the mental attributes of wild animals
    Principles of Selection applicable to instincts
    Difficulties in the acquirement of complex instincts by Selection
    Difficulties in the acquirement by Selection of complex corporeal structures 112-132

{ix}

PART II
ON THE EVIDENCE FAVOURABLE AND OPPOSED TO THE VIEW THAT SPECIES ARE NATURALLY FORMED RACES, DESCENDED FROM COMMON STOCKS.

CHAPTER IV
ON THE NUMBER OF INTERMEDIATE FORMS REQUIRED ON THE THEORY OF COMMON DESCENT; AND ON THEIR ABSENCE IN A FOSSIL STATE 133-143

CHAPTER V
GRADUAL APPEARANCE AND DISAPPEARANCE OF SPECIES. 144-150

    Gradual appearance of species
    Extinction of species

CHAPTER VI
ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC BEINGS IN PAST AND PRESENT TIMES.

SECTION FIRST 151-174

    Distribution of the inhabitants in the different continents
    Relation of range in genera and species
    Distribution of the inhabitants in the same continent
    Insular Faunas
    Alpine Floras
    Cause of the similarity in the floras of some distant mountains
    Whether the same species has been created more than once
    On the number of species, and of the classes to which they belong in different regions

SECOND SECTION 174-182

    Geographical distribution of extinct organisms
    Changes in geographical distribution
    Summary on the distribution of living and extinct organic beings

SECTION THIRD 183-197

    An attempt to explain the foregoing laws of geographical distribution, on the theory of allied species having a common descent
    Improbability of finding fossil forms intermediate between existing species

CHAPTER VII
ON THE NATURE OF THE AFFINITIES AND CLASSIFICATION
OF ORGANIC BEINGS. 198-213

    Gradual appearance and disappearance of groups
    What is the Natural System?
    On the kind of relation between distinct groups
    Classification of Races or Varieties
    Classification of Races and Species similar
    Origin of genera and families

{x}

CHAPTER VIII
UNITY OF TYPE IN THE GREAT CLASSES; AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURES.

    Unity of Type
    Morphology
    Embryology
    Attempt to explain the facts of embryology
    On the graduated complexity in each great class
    Modification by selection of the forms of immature animals
    Importance of embryology in classification
    Order in time in which the great classes have first appeared 214-230

CHAPTER IX
ABORTIVE OR RUDIMENTARY ORGANS.

    The abortive organs of Naturalists
    The abortive organs of Physiologists
    Abortion from gradual disuse 231-238

CHAPTER X
RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION.

    Recapitulation
    Why do we wish to reject the Theory of Common Descent?
    Conclusion 239-255
    Index 257
    Portrait frontispiece
    Facsimile to face p. 50



ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES.
OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE.
By Charles Darwin,



CONTENTS

DETEAILED CONTENTS.

ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES.

INTRODUCTION.
1. VARIATION UNDER DOMESTICATION.
2. VARIATION UNDER NATURE.
3. STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE.
4. NATURAL SELECTION
5. LAWS OF VARIATION.
6. DIFFICULTIES ON THEORY.
7. INSTINCT.
8. HYBRIDISM.
9. ON THE IMPERFECTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD.
10. ON THE GEOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF ORGANIC BEINGS.
11. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.
12. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION—continued.
13. MUTUAL AFFINITIES OF ORGANIC BEINGS: MORPHOLOGY:
14. RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION.



ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION,
OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE
By CHARLES DARWIN
CONTENTS.
INDEX

INTRODUCTION

Page 1
CHAPTER I.

Variation under Domestication.

Causes of Variability—Effects of Habit—Correlation of Growth—Inheritance—Character of Domestic Varieties—Difficulty of distinguishing between Varieties and Species—Origin of Domestic Varieties from one or more Species—Domestic Pigeons, their Differences and Origin—Principle of Selection anciently followed, its Effects—Methodical and Unconscious Selection—Unknown Origin of our Domestic Productions—Circumstances favourable to Man's power of Selection

7-43
CHAPTER II.

Variation under Nature.

Variability—Individual differences—Doubtful species—Wide ranging, much diffused, and common species vary most—Species of the larger genera in any country vary more than the species of the smaller genera—Many of the species of the larger genera resemble varieties in being very closely, but unequally, related to each other, and in having restricted ranges

44-59
CHAPTER III.

Struggle for Existence.

Its bearing on natural selection—The term used in a wide sense—Geometrical powers of increase—Rapid increase of naturalised animals and plants—Nature of the checks to increase—Competition universal—Effects of climate—Protection from the number of individuals—Complex relations of all animals and plants throughout nature—Struggle for life most severe between individuals and varieties of the same species; often severe between species of the same genus—The relation of organism to organism the most important of all relations

60-79
CHAPTER IV.

Natural Selection.

Natural Selection—its power compared with man's selection—its power on characters of trifling importance—its power at all ages and on both sexes—Sexual Selection—On the generality of intercrosses between individuals of the same species—Circumstances favourable and unfavourable to Natural Selection, namely, intercrossing, isolation, number of individuals—Slow action—Extinction caused by Natural Selection—Divergence of Character, related to the diversity of inhabitants of any small area, and to naturalisation—Action of Natural Selection, through Divergence of Character and Extinction, on the descendants from a common parent—Explains the Grouping of all organic beings

80-130
CHAPTER V.

Laws of Variation.

Effects of external conditions—Use and disuse, combined with natural selection; organs of flight and of vision—Acclimatisation—Correlation of growth—Compensation and economy of growth—False correlations—Multiple, rudimentary, and lowly organised structures variable—Parts developed in an unusual manner are highly variable: specific characters more variable than generic: secondary sexual characters variable—Species of the same genus vary in an analogous manner—Reversions to long-lost characters—Summary

131-170
CHAPTER VI.

Difficulties on Theory.

Difficulties on the theory of descent with modification—Transitions—Absence or rarity of transitional varieties—Transitions in habits of life—Diversified habits in the same species—Species with habits widely different from those of their allies—Organs of extreme perfection—Means of transition—Cases of difficulty—Natura non facit saltum—Organs of small importance—Organs not in all cases absolutely perfect—The law of Unity of Type and of the Conditions of Existence embraced by the theory of Natural Selection

171-206
CHAPTER VII.

Instinct.

Instincts comparable with habits, but different in their origin—Instincts graduated—Aphides and ants—Instincts variable—Domestic instincts, their origin—Natural instincts of the cuckoo, ostrich, and parasitic bees—Slave-making ants—Hive-bee, its cell-making instinct—Difficulties on the theory of the Natural Selection of instincts—Neuter or sterile insects—Summary

207-244
CHAPTER VIII.

Hybridism.

Distinction between the sterility of first crosses and of hybrids—Sterility various in degree, not universal, affected by close interbreeding, removed by domestication—Laws governing the sterility of hybrids—Sterility not a special endowment, but incidental on other differences—Causes of the sterility of first crosses and of hybrids—Parallelism between the effects of changed conditions of life and crossing—Fertility of varieties when crossed and of their mongrel offspring not universal—Hybrids and mongrels compared independently of their fertility—Summary

245-278
CHAPTER IX.

On the Imperfection of the Geological Record.

On the absence of intermediate varieties at the present day—On the nature of extinct intermediate varieties; on their number—On the vast lapse of time, as inferred from the rate of deposition and of denudation—On the poorness of our palæontological collections—On the intermittence of geological formations—On the absence of intermediate varieties in any one formation—On the sudden appearance of groups of species—On their sudden appearance in the lowest known fossiliferous strata

279-311
CHAPTER X.

On the Geological Succession of Organic Beings.

On the slow and successive appearance of new species—On their different rates of change—Species once lost do not reappear—Groups of species follow the same general rules in their appearance and disappearance as do single species—On Extinction—On simultaneous changes in the forms of life throughout the world—On the affinities of extinct species to each other and to living species—On the state of development of ancient forms—On the succession of the same types within the same areas—Summary of preceding and present chapters

312-345
CHAPTER XI.

Geographical Distribution.

Present distribution cannot be accounted for by differences in physical conditions—Importance of barriers—Affinity of the productions of the same continent—Centres of creation—Means of dispersal, by changes of climate and of the level of the land, and by occasional means—Dispersal during the Glacial period co-extensive with the world

346-382
CHAPTER XII.

Geographical Distribution—continued.

Distribution of fresh-water productions—On the inhabitants of oceanic islands—Absence of Batrachians and of terrestrial Mammals—On the relation of the inhabitants of islands to those of the nearest mainland—On colonisation from the nearest source with subsequent modification—Summary of the last and present chapters

383-410
CHAPTER XIII.

Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs.

Classification, groups subordinate to groups—Natural system—Rules and difficulties in classification, explained on the theory of descent with modification—Classification of varieties—Descent always used in classification—Analogical or adaptive characters—Affinities, general, complex and radiating—Extinction separates and defines groups—Morphology, between members of the same class, between parts of the same individual—Embryology, laws of, explained by variations not supervening at an early age, and being inherited at a corresponding age—Rudimentary organs; their origin explained—Summary

411-458
CHAPTER XIV.

Recapitulation and Conclusion.

Recapitulation of the difficulties on the theory of Natural Selection—Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour—Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species—How far the theory of natural selection may be extended—Effects of its adoption on the study of Natural history—Concluding remarks

459-490



THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION;
OR
THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE.
By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S.,
Author of "The Descent of Man," etc., etc.


Sixth London Edition, with all Additions and Corrections.
The 6th Edition is often considered the definitive edition.



CONTENTS
	AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE PROGRESS OF OPINION ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES
	DETAILED CONTENTS
	ORIGIN OF SPECIES
	INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I 	  VARIATION UNDER DOMESTICATION
CHAPTER II 	  VARIATION UNDER NATURE
CHAPTER III 	  STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE
CHAPTER IV 	  NATURAL SELECTION; OR THE SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
CHAPTER V 	  LAWS OF VARIATION
CHAPTER VI 	  DIFFICULTIES OF THE THEORY
CHAPTER VII 	  MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTIONS TO THE THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION
CHAPTER VIII 	  INSTINCT
CHAPTER IX 	  HYBRIDISM
CHAPTER X 	  ON THE IMPERFECTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD
CHAPTER XI. 	  ON THE GEOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF ORGANIC BEINGS
CHAPTER XII 	  GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
CHAPTER XIII 	    GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION—continued
CHAPTER XIV 	  MUTUAL AFFINITIES OF ORGANIC BEINGS
CHAPTER XV 	  RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION
	GLOSSARY OF THE PRINCIPAL SCIENTIFIC TERMS USED IN THE PRESENT VOLUME
	INDEX



THE DESCENT OF MAN AND SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX
By Charles Darwin
IN TWO VOLUMES—Vol. I.
With Illustrations
CONTENTS
Introduction 	Page 1-5
PART I.
ON THE DESCENT OF MAN
CHAPTER I.
The Evidence of the Descent of man from some Lower form.
Nature of the evidence bearing on the origin of man—Homologous structures in man and the lower animals—Miscellaneous points of correspondence—Development—Rudimentary structures, muscles, sense-organs, hair, bones, reproductive organs, &c.—The bearing of these three great classes of facts on the origin of man 	9-33
CHAPTER II.
Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and the Lower Animals.
The difference in mental power between the highest ape and the lowest savage, immense—Certain instincts in common—The emotions—Curiosity—Imitation—Attention—Memory—Imagination—Reason—Progressive improvement—Tools and weapons used by animals—Language—Self-consciousness—Sense of beauty—Belief in God, spiritual agencies, superstitions 	34-69
CHAPTER III.
Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and the Lower Animals—continued.
The difference in mental power between the highest ape and the lowest savage, immense—Certain instincts in common—The emotions—Curiosity—Imitation—Attention—Memory—Imagination—Reason—Progressive improvement—Tools and weapons used by animals—Language—Self-consciousness—Sense of beauty—Belief in God, spiritual agencies, superstitions 	70-106
CHAPTER IV.
On the Manner of Development of Man from some Lower Form.
Variability of body and mind in man—Inheritance—Causes of variability—Laws of variation the same in man as in the lower animals—Direct action of the conditions of life—Effects of the increased use and disuse of parts—Arrested development—Reversion—Correlated variation—Rate of increase—Checks to increase—Natural selection—Man the most dominant animal in the world—Importance of his corporeal structure—The causes which have led to his becoming erect—Consequent changes of structure—Decrease in size of the canine teeth—Increased size and altered shape of the skull—Nakedness—Absence of a tail—Defenceless condition of man 	107-157
CHAPTER V.
On the Development of the Intellectual and Moral Faculties during Primeval and Civilised Times.
The advancement of the intellectual powers through natural selection—Importance of imitation—Social and moral faculties—Their development within the limits of the same tribe—Natural selection as affecting civilised nations—Evidence that civilised nations were once barbarous 	158-184
CHAPTER VI.
On the Affinities and Genealogy of Man.
Position of man in the animal series—The natural system genealogical—Adaptive characters of slight value—Various small points of resemblance between man and the Quadrumana—Rank of man in the natural system—Birthplace and antiquity vii of man—Absence of fossil connecting-links—Lower stages in the genealogy of man, as inferred, firstly from his affinities and secondly from his structure—Early androgynous condition of the Vertebrata—Conclusion 	185-213
CHAPTER VII.
On the Races of Man.
The nature and value of specific characters—Application to the races of man—Arguments in favour of, and opposed to, ranking the so-called races of man as distinct species—Sub-species—Monogenists and polygenists—Convergence of character—Numerous points of resemblance in body and mind between the most distinct races of man—The state of man when he first spread over the earth—Each race not descended from a single pair—The extinction of races—The formation of races—The effects of crossing—Slight influence of the direct action of the conditions of life—Slight or no influence of natural selection—Sexual selection. 	214-250
PART II.

SEXUAL SELECTION.
CHAPTER VIII.
Principles of Sexual Selection.
Secondary sexual characters—Sexual selection—Manner of action—Excess of males—Polygamy—The male alone generally modified through sexual selection—Eagerness of the male—Variability of the male—Choice exerted by the female—Sexual compared with natural selection—Inheritance at corresponding periods of life, at corresponding seasons of the year, and as limited by sex—Relations between the several forms of inheritance—Causes why one sex and the young are not modified through sexual selection—Supplement on the proportional numbers of the two sexes throughout the animal kingdom—On the limitation of the numbers of the two sexes through natural selection 	253-320
CHAPTER IX.
Secondary Sexual Characters in the Lower Classes of the Animal Kingdom.
viii These characters absent in the lowest classes—Brilliant colours—Mollusca—Annelids—Crustacea, secondary sexual characters strongly developed; dimorphism; colour; characters not acquired before maturity—Spiders, sexual colours of; stridulation by the males—Myriapoda 	321-340
CHAPTER X.
Secondary Sexual Characters of Insects.
Diversified structures possessed by the males for seizing the females—Differences between the sexes, of which the meaning is not understood—Difference in size between the sexes—Thysanura—Diptera—Hemiptera—Homoptera, musical powers possessed by the males alone—Orthoptera, musical instruments of the males, much diversified in structure; pugnacity; colours—Neuroptera, sexual differences in colour—Hymenoptera, pugnacity and colours—Coleoptera, colours; furnished with great horns, apparently as an ornament; battles; stridulating organs generally common to both sexes 	341-385
CHAPTER XI.
Insects, continued.—Order Lepidoptera.
Courtship of butterflies—Battles—Ticking noise—Colours common to both sexes, or more brilliant in the males—Examples—Not due to the direct action of the conditions of life—Colours adapted for protection—Colours of moths—Display—Perceptive powers of the Lepidoptera—Variability—Causes of the difference in colour between the males and females—Mimickry, female butterflies more brilliantly coloured than the males—Bright colours of caterpillars—Summary and concluding remarks on the secondary sexual characters of insects—Birds and insects compared 	386-423
FOOTNOTES



THE DESCENT OF MAN, AND SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX
By Charles Darwin
IN TWO VOLUMES.-Vol. II.
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS


CONTENTS
FOOTNOTES

INDEX
PART II.
SEXUAL SELECTION—continued.
CHAPTER XII.
Secondary Sexual Characters of Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles.
Fishes: Courtship and battles of the males—Larger size of the females—Males, bright colours and ornamental appendages; other strange characters—Colours and appendages acquired by the males during the breeding-season alone—Fishes with both sexes brilliantly coloured—Protective colours—The less conspicuous colours of the female cannot be accounted for on the principle of protection—Male fishes building nests, and taking charge of the ova and young. Amphibians: Differences in structure and colour between the sexes—Vocal organs. Reptiles: Chelonians—Crocodiles—Snakes, colours in some cases protective—Lizards, battles of—Ornamental appendages—Strange differences in structure between the sexes—Colours—Sexual differences almost as great as with birds 	1-37
CHAPTER XIII.
Secondary Sexual Characters of Birds.
Sexual differences—Law of battle—Special weapons—Vocal organs—Instrumental music—Love-antics and dances—Decorations, permanent and seasonal—Double and single annual moults—Display of ornaments by the males 	38-98
CHAPTER XIV.
viBirds—continued
Choice exerted by the female—Length of courtship—Unpaired birds—Mental qualities and taste for the beautiful—Preference or antipathy shewn by the female for particular males—Variability of birds—Variations sometimes abrupt—Laws of variation—Formation of ocelli—Gradations of character—Case of Peacock, Argus pheasant, and Urosticte 	99-153
CHAPTER XV.
Birds—continued.
Discussion why the males alone of some species, and both sexes of other species, are brightly coloured—On sexually-limited inheritance, as applied to various structures and to brightly-coloured plumage—Nidification in relation to colour—Loss of nuptial plumage during the winter 	154-182
CHAPTER XVI.
Birds—continued.
The immature plumage in relation to the character of the plumage in both sexes when adult—Six classes of cases—Sexual differences between the males of closely-allied or representative species—The female assuming the characters of the male—Plumage of the young in relation to the summer and winter plumage of the adults—On the increase of beauty in the Birds of the World—Protective colouring—Conspicuously-coloured birds—Novelty appreciated—Summary of the four chapters on birds 	183-238
CHAPTER XVII.
vii Secondary Sexual Characters of Mammals.
The law of battle—Special weapons, confined to the males—Cause of absence of weapons in the female—Weapons common to both sexes, yet primarily acquired by the male—Other uses of such weapons—Their high importance—Greater size of the male—Means of defence—On the preference shewn by either sex in the pairing of quadrupeds 	239-273
CHAPTER XVIII.
Secondary Sexual Characters of Mammals.—continued.
Voice—Remarkable sexual peculiarities in seals—Odour—Development of the hair—Colour of the hair and skin—Anomalous case of the female being more ornamented than the male—Colour and ornaments due to sexual selection—Colour acquired for the sake of protection—Colour, though common to both sexes, often due to sexual selection—On the disappearance of spots and stripes in adult quadrupeds—On the colours and ornaments of the Quadrumana—Summary 	274-315
CHAPTER XIX.
Secondary Sexual Characters of Mammals.—continued.
Differences between man and woman—Causes of such differences and of certain characters common to both sexes—Law of battle—Differences in mental powers—and voice—On the influence of beauty in determining the marriages of mankind—Attention paid by savages to ornaments—Their ideas of beauty in woman—The tendency to exaggerate each natural peculiarity 	316-354
CHAPTER XX.
Secondary Sexual Characters of Man—continued.
On the effects of the continued selection of women according to a different standard of beauty in each race—On the causes which interfere with sexual selection in civilised and savage nations—Conditions favourable to sexual selection during primeval times—On the manner of action of sexual selection with mankind—On the women in savage tribes having some power to choose their husbands—Absence of hair on the body, and development of the beard—Colour of the skin—Summary 	355-384
CHAPTER XXI.
General Summary and Conclusion.
Main conclusion that man is descended from some lower form—Manner of development—Genealogy of man—Intellectual and moral faculties—Sexual selection—Concluding remarks 	385-405
Index 	406



THE DESCENT OF MAN AND SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX
By Charles Darwin



CONTENTS
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.
THE DESCENT OF MAN; AND SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX.
INTRODUCTION.
PART I. THE DESCENT OR ORIGIN OF MAN.
CHAPTER I. THE EVIDENCE OF THE DESCENT OF MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM.
CHAPTER II. — ON THE MANNER OF DEVELOPMENT OF MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM.
CHAPTER III. — COMPARISON OF THE MENTAL POWERS OF MAN AND THE LOWER ANIMALS.
CHAPTER IV. — COMPARISON OF THE MENTAL POWERS OF MAN AND THE LOWER ANIMALS, continued.
CHAPTER V. — ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES DURING
CHAPTER VI. — ON THE AFFINITIES AND GENEALOGY OF MAN.
CHAPTER VII. — ON THE RACES OF MAN.
PART II. SEXUAL SELECTION.
CHAPTER VIII. — PRINCIPLES OF SEXUAL SELECTION.
CHAPTER IX. — SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS IN THE LOWER CLASSES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.
CHAPTER X. — SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF INSECTS.
CHAPTER XI. — INSECTS, continued.
CHAPTER XII. — SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF FISHES, AMPHIBIANS, AND REPTILES.
CHAPTER XIII. — SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF BIRDS.
CHAPTER XIV. — BIRDS—continued.
CHAPTER XV. — Birds—continued.
CHAPTER XVI. — BIRDS—concluded.
CHAPTER XVII. — SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF MAMMALS.
CHAPTER XVIII. — SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF MAMMALS, continued.
PART III. — SEXUAL SELECTION IN RELATION TO MAN, AND CONCLUSION.
CHAPTER XIX. — SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF MAN.
CHAPTER XX. — SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF MAN, continued.
CHAPTER XXI. — GENERAL A SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.



THE VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DOMESTICATION.
By Charles Darwin
IN TWO VOLUMES.-Vol. I.
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS



CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.
FOOTNOTES

INTRODUCTION ... Page 1
CHAPTER I.

DOMESTIC DOGS AND CATS.

ANCIENT VARIETIES OF THE DOG—RESEMBLANCE OF DOMESTIC DOGS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES TO NATIVE CANINE SPECIES—ANIMALS NOT ACQUAINTED WITH MAN AT FIRST FEARLESS—DOGS RESEMBLING WOLVES AND JACKALS—HABIT OF BARKING ACQUIRED AND LOST—FERAL DOGS—TAN-COLOURED EYE-SPOTS—PERIOD OF GESTATION—OFFENSIVE ODOUR—FERTILITY OF THE RACES WHEN CROSSED—DIFFERENCES IN THE SEVERAL RACES IN PART DUE TO DESCENT FROM DISTINCT SPECIES—DIFFERENCES IN THE SKULL AND TEETH—DIFFERENCES IN THE BODY, IN CONSTITUTION—FEW IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES HAVE BEEN FIXED BY SELECTION—DIRECT ACTION OF CLIMATE—WATER-DOGS WITH PALMATED FEET—HISTORY OF THE CHANGES WHICH CERTAIN ENGLISH RACES OF THE DOG HAVE GRADUALLY UNDERGONE THROUGH SELECTION—EXTINCTION OF THE LESS IMPROVED SUB-BREEDS.

CATS, CROSSED WITH SEVERAL SPECIES—DIFFERENT BREEDS FOUND ONLY IN SEPARATED COUNTRIES—DIRECT EFFECTS OF THE CONDITIONS OF LIFE—FERAL CATS—INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY ... Page 15
CHAPTER II.

HORSES AND ASSES.

HORSE.—DIFFERENCES IN THE BREEDS—INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY OF—DIRECT EFFECTS OF THE CONDITIONS OF LIFE—CAN WITHSTAND MUCH COLD—BREEDS MUCH MODIFIED BY SELECTION—COLOURS OF THE HORSE—DAPPLING—DARK STRIPES ON THE SPINE, LEGS, SHOULDERS, AND FOREHEAD—DUN-COLOURED HORSES MOST FREQUENTLY STRIPED—STRIPES PROBABLY DUE TO REVERSION TO THE PRIMITIVE STATE OF THE HORSE.

ASSES.—BREEDS OF—COLOUR OF—LEG- AND SHOULDER-STRIPES—SHOULDER-STRIPES SOMETIMES ABSENT, SOMETIMES FORKED ... Page 49
CHAPTER III.

PIGS—CATTLE—SHEEP—GOATS.

PIGS BELONG TO TWO DISTINCT TYPES, SUS SCROFA AND INDICA—TORF-SCHWEIN—JAPAN PIG—FERTILITY OF CROSSED PIGS—CHANGES IN THE SKULL OF THE HIGHLY CULTIVATED RACES—CONVERGENCE OF CHARACTER—GESTATION—SOLID-HOOFED SWINE—CURIOUS APPENDAGES TO THE JAWS—DECREASE IN SIZE OF THE TUSKS—YOUNG PIGS LONGITUDINALLY STRIPED—FERAL PIGS—CROSSED BREEDS.

CATTLE.—ZEBU A DISTINCT SPECIES—EUROPEAN CATTLE PROBABLY DESCENDED FROM THREE WILD FORMS—ALL THE RACES NOW FERTILE TOGETHER—BRITISH PARK CATTLE—ON THE COLOUR OF THE ABORIGINAL SPECIES—CONSTITUTIONAL DIFFERENCES—SOUTH AFRICAN RACES—SOUTH AMERICAN RACES—NIATA CATTLE—ORIGIN OF THE VARIOUS RACES OF CATTLE. {iv}

SHEEP.—REMARKABLE RACES OF—VARIATIONS ATTACHED TO THE MALE SEX—ADAPTATIONS TO VARIOUS CONDITIONS—GESTATION OF—CHANGES IN THE WOOL—SEMI-MONSTROUS BREEDS.

GOATS.—REMARKABLE VARIATIONS OF ... Page 65
CHAPTER IV.

DOMESTIC RABBITS.

DOMESTIC RABBITS DESCENDED FROM THE COMMON WILD RABBIT—ANCIENT DOMESTICATION—ANCIENT SELECTION—LARGE LOP-EARED RABBITS—VARIOUS BREEDS—FLUCTUATING CHARACTERS—ORIGIN OF THE HIMALAYAN BREED—CURIOUS CASE OF INHERITANCE—FERAL RABBITS IN JAMAICA AND THE FALKLAND ISLANDS—PORTO SANTO FERAL RABBITS—OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS—SKULL—SKULL OF HALF-LOP RABBITS—VARIATIONS IN THE SKULL ANALOGOUS TO DIFFERENCES IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF HARES—VERTEBRÆ—STERNUM—SCAPULA—EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE ON THE PROPORTIONS OF THE LIMBS AND BODY—CAPACITY OF THE SKULL AND REDUCED SIZE OF THE BRAIN—SUMMARY ON THE MODIFICATIONS OF DOMESTICATED RABBITS ... Page 103
CHAPTER V.

DOMESTIC PIGEONS.

ENUMERATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL BREEDS—INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY—VARIATIONS OF A REMARKABLE NATURE—OSTEOLOGICAL CHARACTERS: SKULL, LOWER JAW, NUMBER OF VERTEBRÆ—CORRELATION OF GROWTH: TONGUE WITH BEAK; EYELIDS AND NOSTRILS WITH WATTLED SKIN—NUMBER OF WING-FEATHERS, AND LENGTH OF WING—COLOUR AND DOWN—WEBBED AND FEATHERED FEET—ON THE EFFECTS OF DISUSE—LENGTH OF FEET IN CORRELATION WITH LENGTH OF BEAK—LENGTH OF STERNUM, SCAPULA, AND FURCULA—LENGTH OF WINGS—SUMMARY ON THE POINTS OF DIFFERENCE IN THE SEVERAL BREEDS ... Page 131
CHAPTER VI.

PIGEONS—continued.

ON THE ABORIGINAL PARENT-STOCK OF THE SEVERAL DOMESTIC RACES—HABITS OF LIFE—WILD RACES OF THE ROCK-PIGEON—DOVECOT-PIGEONS—PROOFS OF THE DESCENT OF THE SEVERAL RACES FROM COLUMBA LIVIA—FERTILITY OF THE RACES WHEN CROSSED—REVERSION TO THE PLUMAGE OF THE WILD ROCK-PIGEON—CIRCUMSTANCES FAVOURABLE TO THE FORMATION OF THE RACES—ANTIQUITY AND HISTORY OF THE PRINCIPAL RACES—MANNER OF THEIR FORMATION—SELECTION—UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION—CARE TAKEN BY FANCIERS IN SELECTING THEIR BIRDS—SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT STRAINS GRADUALLY CHANGE INTO WELL-MARKED BREEDS—EXTINCTION OF INTERMEDIATE FORMS—CERTAIN BREEDS REMAIN PERMANENT, WHILST OTHERS CHANGE—SUMMARY ... Page 180

{v}
CHAPTER VII.

FOWLS.

BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF THE CHIEF BREEDS—ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF THEIR DESCENT FROM SEVERAL SPECIES—ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF ALL THE BREEDS HAVING DESCENDED FROM GALLUS BANKIVA—-REVERSION TO THE PARENT-STOCK IN COLOUR—ANALOGOUS VARIATIONS—ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE FOWL—EXTERNAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SEVERAL BREEDS—EGGS—CHICKENS—SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS—WING- AND TAIL-FEATHERS, VOICE, DISPOSITION, ETC.—OSTEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SKULL, VERTEBRÆ, ETC.—EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE ON CERTAIN PARTS—CORRELATION OF GROWTH ... Page 225
CHAPTER VIII.

DUCKS—GOOSE—PEACOCK—TURKEY—GUINEA-FOWL—CANARY-BIRD—GOLD-FISH—HIVE-BEES—SILK-MOTHS.

DUCKS, SEVERAL BREEDS OF—PROGRESS OF DOMESTICATION—ORIGIN OF, FROM THE COMMON WILD-DUCK—DIFFERENCES IN THE DIFFERENT BREEDS—OSTEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES—EFFECTS OF USE AND DISUSE ON THE LIMB-BONES.

GOOSE, ANCIENTLY DOMESTICATED—LITTLE VARIATION OF—SEBASTOPOL BREED.

PEACOCK, ORIGIN OF BLACK-SHOULDERED BREED.

TURKEY, BREEDS OF—CROSSED WITH THE UNITED STATES SPECIES—EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON.

GUINEA-FOWL, CANARY-BIRD, GOLD-FISH, HIVE-BEES.

SILK-MOTHS, SPECIES AND BREEDS OF—ANCIENTLY DOMESTICATED—CARE IN THEIR SELECTION—DIFFERENCES IN THE DIFFERENT RACES—IN THE EGG, CATERPILLAR, AND COCOON STATES—INHERITANCE OF CHARACTERS—IMPERFECT WINGS—LOST INSTINCTS—CORRELATED CHARACTERS ... Page 276
CHAPTER IX.

CULTIVATED PLANTS: CEREAL AND CULINARY PLANTS.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON THE NUMBER AND PARENTAGE OF CULTIVATED PLANTS—FIRST STEPS IN CULTIVATION—GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CULTIVATED PLANTS.

CEREALIA.—DOUBTS ON THE NUMBER OF SPECIES.—WHEAT: VARIETIES OF—INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY—CHANGED HABITS—SELECTION—ANCIENT HISTORY OF THE VARIETIES.—MAIZE: GREAT VARIATION OF—DIRECT ACTION OF CLIMATE ON.

CULINARY PLANTS.—CABBAGES: VARIETIES OF, IN FOLIAGE AND STEMS, BUT NOT IN OTHER PARTS—PARENTAGE OF—OTHER SPECIES OF BRASSICA.—PEAS: AMOUNT OF DIFFERENCE IN THE SEVERAL KINDS, CHIEFLY IN THE PODS AND SEED—SOME VARIETIES CONSTANT, SOME HIGHLY VARIABLE—DO NOT INTERCROSS.—BEANS.—POTATOES: NUMEROUS VARIETIES OF—DIFFERING LITTLE, EXCEPT IN THE TUBERS—CHARACTERS INHERITED ... Page 305

{vi}
CHAPTER X.

PLANTS continued—FRUITS—ORNAMENTAL TREES—FLOWERS.

FRUITS.—GRAPES—VARY IN ODD AND TRIFLING PARTICULARS.—MULBERRY.—THE ORANGE GROUP—SINGULAR RESULTS FROM CROSSING.—PEACH AND NECTARINE—BUD-VARIATION—ANALOGOUS VARIATION—RELATION TO THE ALMOND.—APRICOT.—PLUMS—VARIATION IN THEIR STONES.—CHERRIES—SINGULAR VARIETIES OF.—APPLE.—PEAR.—STRAWBERRY—INTERBLENDING OF THE ORIGINAL FORMS.—GOOSEBERRY—STEADY INCREASE IN SIZE OF THE FRUIT—VARIETIES OF.—WALNUT.—NUT.—CUCURBITACEOUS PLANTS—WONDERFUL VARIATION OF.

ORNAMENTAL TREES—THEIR VARIATION IN DEGREE AND KIND—ASH-TREE—SCOTCH-FIR—HAWTHORN.

FLOWERS—MULTIPLE ORIGIN OF MANY KINDS—VARIATION IN CONSTITUTIONAL PECULIARITIES—KIND OF VARIATION.—ROSES—SEVERAL SPECIES CULTIVATED.—PANSY.—DAHLIA.—HYACINTH, HISTORY AND VARIATION OF ... Page 332
CHAPTER XI.

ON BUD-VARIATION, AND ON CERTAIN ANOMALOUS MODES OF REPRODUCTION AND VARIATION.

BUD-VARIATIONS IN THE PEACH, PLUM, CHERRY, VINE, GOOSEBERRY, CURRANT, AND BANANA, AS SHOWN BY THE MODIFIED FRUIT—IN FLOWERS: CAMELLIAS, AZALEAS, CHRYSANTHEMUMS, ROSES, ETC.—ON THE RUNNING OF THE COLOUR IN CARNATIONS—BUD-VARIATIONS IN LEAVES—VARIATIONS BY SUCKERS, TUBERS, AND BULBS—ON THE BREAKING OF TULIPS—BUD-VARIATIONS GRADUATE INTO CHANGES CONSEQUENT ON CHANGED CONDITIONS OF LIFE—CYTISUS ADAMI, ITS ORIGIN AND TRANSFORMATION—ON THE UNION OF TWO DIFFERENT EMBRYOS IN ONE SEED—THE TRIFACIAL ORANGE—ON REVERSION BY BUDS IN HYBRIDS AND MONGRELS—ON THE PRODUCTION OF MODIFIED BUDS BY THE GRAFTING OF ONE VARIETY OR SPECIES ON ANOTHER—ON THE DIRECT OR IMMEDIATE ACTION OF FOREIGN POLLEN ON THE MOTHER-PLANT—ON THE EFFECTS IN FEMALE ANIMALS OF A FIRST IMPREGNATION ON THE SUBSEQUENT OFFSPRING—CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY ... Page 373
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
1. Dun Devonshire Pony, with shoulder, spinal, and leg stripes ... PAGE 56
2. Head of Japan or Masked Pig ... 69
3. Head of Wild Boar, and of "Golden Days," a pig of the Yorkshire large breed ... 72
4. Old Irish Pig, with jaw-appendages ... 75
5. Half-lop Rabbit ... 108
6. Skull of Wild Rabbit ... 117
7. Skull of large Lop-eared Rabbit ... 117
8. Part of Zygomatic Arch, showing the projecting end of the malar-bone, and the auditory meatus, of Rabbits ... 118
9. Posterior end of Skull, showing the inter-parietal bone, of Rabbits ... 118
10. Occipital Foramen of Rabbits ... 118
11. Skull of Half-lop Rabbit ... 119
12. Atlas Vertebræ of Rabbits ... 121
13. Third Cervical Vertebræ of Rabbits ... 121
14. Dorsal Vertebræ, from sixth to tenth inclusive, of Rabbits ... 122
15. Terminal Bone of Sternum of Rabbits ... 123
16. Acromion of Scapula of Rabbits ... 123
17. The Rock-Pigeon, or Columbia Livia ... 135
18. English Pouter ... 137
19. English Carrier ... 140
20. English Barb ... 145
21. English Fantail ... 147
22. African Owl ... 149
23. Short-faced English Tumbler ... 152
24. Skulls of Pigeons, viewed laterally ... 163
25. Lower Jaws of Pigeons, seen from above ... 164
26. Skull of Runt, seen from above ... 165
27. Lateral view of Jaws of Pigeons ... 165
28. Scapulæ of Pigeons ... 167
29. Furculæ of Pigeons ... 167
30. Spanish Fowl ... 226
31. Hamburgh Fowl ... 228
32. Polish Fowl ... 229
33. Occipital Foramen of the Skulls of Fowls ... 261
34. Skulls of Fowls, viewed from above, a little obliquely ... 262
35. Longitudinal sections of Skulls of Fowls, viewed laterally ... 263
36. Skull of Horned Fowl, viewed from above, a little obliquely ... 265
37. Sixth Cervical Vertebræ of Fowls, viewed laterally ... 267
38. Extremity of the Furcula of Fowls, viewed laterally ... 268
39. Skulls of Ducks, viewed laterally, reduced to two-thirds of the natural size ... 282
40. Cervical Vertebræ of Ducks, of natural size ... 283
41. Pods of the Common Pea ... 328
42. Peach and Almond Stones, of natural size, viewed edgeways ... 337
43. Plum Stones, of natural size, viewed laterally ... 345



THE VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DOMESTICATION.
By Charles Darwin
IN TWO VOLUMES.-Vol. II.
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS.
INDEX
CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.
CHAPTER XII.

INHERITANCE.

WONDERFUL NATURE OF INHERITANCE—PEDIGREES OF OUR DOMESTICATED ANIMALS—INHERITANCE NOT DUE TO CHANCE—TRIFLING CHARACTERS INHERITED—DISEASES INHERITED—PECULIARITIES IN THE EYE INHERITED—DISEASES IN THE HORSE—LONGEVITY AND VIGOUR—ASYMMETRICAL DEVIATIONS OF STRUCTURE—POLYDACTYLISM AND REGROWTH OF SUPERNUMERARY DIGITS AFTER AMPUTATION—CASES OF SEVERAL CHILDREN SIMILARLY AFFECTED FROM NON-AFFECTED PARENTS—WEAK AND FLUCTUATING INHERITANCE: IN WEEPING TREES, IN DWARFNESS, COLOUR OF FRUIT AND FLOWERS, COLOUR OF HORSES—NON-INHERITANCE IN CERTAIN CASES—INHERITANCE OF STRUCTURE AND HABITS OVERBORNE BY HOSTILE CONDITIONS OF LIFE, BY INCESSANTLY RECURRING VARIABILITY, AND BY REVERSION—CONCLUSION ... Page 1
CHAPTER XIII.

INHERITANCE continued—REVERSION OR ATAVISM.

DIFFERENT FORMS OF REVERSION—IN PURE OR UNCROSSED BREEDS, AS IN PIGEONS, FOWLS, HORNLESS CATTLE AND SHEEP, IN CULTIVATED PLANTS—REVERSION IN FERAL ANIMALS AND PLANTS—REVERSION IN CROSSED VARIETIES AND SPECIES—REVERSION THROUGH BUD-PROPAGATION, AND BY SEGMENTS IN THE SAME FLOWER OR FRUIT—IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BODY IN THE SAME ANIMAL—THE ACT OF CROSSING A DIRECT CAUSE OF REVERSION, VARIOUS CASES OF, WITH INSTINCTS—OTHER PROXIMATE CAUSES OF REVERSION—LATENT CHARACTERS—SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS—UNEQUAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE TWO SIDES OF THE BODY—APPEARANCE WITH ADVANCING AGE OF CHARACTERS DERIVED FROM A CROSS—THE GERM WITH ALL ITS LATENT CHARACTERS A WONDERFUL OBJECT—MONSTROSITIES—PELORIC FLOWERS DUE IN SOME CASES TO REVERSION ... Page 28
CHAPTER XIV.

INHERITANCE continued—FIXEDNESS OF CHARACTER—PREPOTENCY—SEXUAL LIMITATION—CORRESPONDENCE OF AGE.

FIXEDNESS OF CHARACTER APPARENTLY NOT DUE TO ANTIQUITY OF INHERITANCE—PREPOTENCY OF TRANSMISSION IN INDIVIDUALS OF THE SAME FAMILY, IN CROSSED BREEDS AND SPECIES; OFTEN STRONGER IN ONE SEX THAN THE OTHER; SOMETIMES DUE TO THE SAME CHARACTER BEING PRESENT AND VISIBLE IN ONE BREED AND LATENT IN THE OTHER—INHERITANCE AS LIMITED BY SEX—NEWLY-ACQUIRED CHARACTERS IN OUR DOMESTICATED ANIMALS OFTEN TRANSMITTED BY ONE SEX ALONE, SOMETIMES LOST BY ONE SEX ALONE—INHERITANCE AT CORRESPONDING PERIODS OF LIFE—THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PRINCIPLE WITH RESPECT TO EMBRYOLOGY; AS EXHIBITED IN DOMESTICATED ANIMALS; AS EXHIBITED IN THE APPEARANCE AND DISAPPEARANCE OF INHERITED DISEASES; SOMETIMES SUPERVENING EARLIER IN THE CHILD THAN IN THE PARENT—SUMMARY OF THE THREE PRECEDING CHAPTERS ... Page 62

{iv}
CHAPTER XV.

ON CROSSING.

FREE INTERCROSSING OBLITERATES THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ALLIED BREEDS—WHEN THE NUMBERS OF TWO COMMINGLING BREEDS ARE UNEQUAL, ONE ABSORBS THE OTHER—THE RATE OF ABSORPTION DETERMINED BY PREPOTENCY OF TRANSMISSION, BY THE CONDITIONS OF LIFE, AND BY NATURAL SELECTION—ALL ORGANIC BEINGS OCCASIONALLY INTERCROSS; APPARENT EXCEPTIONS—ON CERTAIN CHARACTERS INCAPABLE OF FUSION; CHIEFLY OR EXCLUSIVELY THOSE WHICH HAVE SUDDENLY APPEARED IN THE INDIVIDUAL—ON THE MODIFICATION OF OLD RACES, AND THE FORMATION OF NEW RACES, BY CROSSING—SOME CROSSED RACES HAVE BRED TRUE FROM THEIR FIRST PRODUCTION—ON THE CROSSING OF DISTINCT SPECIES IN RELATION TO THE FORMATION OF DOMESTIC RACES ... Page 85
CHAPTER XVI.

CAUSES WHICH INTERFERE WITH THE FREE CROSSING OF VARIETIES—INFLUENCE OF DOMESTICATION ON FERTILITY.

DIFFICULTIES IN JUDGING OF THE FERTILITY OF VARIETIES WHEN CROSSED—VARIOUS CAUSES WHICH KEEP VARIETIES DISTINCT, AS THE PERIOD OF BREEDING AND SEXUAL PREFERENCE—VARIETIES OF WHEAT SAID TO BE STERILE WHEN CROSSED—VARIETIES OF MAIZE, VERBASCUM, HOLLYHOCK, GOURDS, MELONS, AND TOBACCO, RENDERED IN SOME DEGREE MUTUALLY STERILE—DOMESTICATION ELIMINATES THE TENDENCY TO STERILITY NATURAL TO SPECIES WHEN CROSSED—ON THE INCREASED FERTILITY OF UNCROSSED ANIMALS AND PLANTS FROM DOMESTICATION AND CULTIVATION ... Page 100
CHAPTER XVII.

ON THE GOOD EFFECTS OF CROSSING, AND ON THE EVIL EFFECTS OF CLOSE INTERBREEDING.

DEFINITION OF CLOSE INTERBREEDING—AUGMENTATION OF MORBID TENDENCIES—GENERAL EVIDENCE ON THE GOOD EFFECTS DERIVED FROM CROSSING, AND ON THE EVIL EFFECTS FROM CLOSE INTERBREEDING—CATTLE, CLOSELY INTERBRED; HALF-WILD CATTLE LONG KEPT IN THE SAME PARKS—SHEEP—FALLOW-DEER—DOGS—RABBITS—PIGS—MAN, ORIGIN OF HIS ABHORRENCE OF INCESTUOUS MARRIAGES—FOWLS—PIGEONS—HIVE-BEES—PLANTS, GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE BENEFITS DERIVED FROM CROSSING—MELONS, FRUIT-TREES, PEAS, CABBAGES, WHEAT, AND FOREST-TREES—ON THE INCREASED SIZE OF HYBRID PLANTS, NOT EXCLUSIVELY DUE TO THEIR STERILITY—ON CERTAIN PLANTS WHICH EITHER NORMALLY OR ABNORMALLY ARE SELF-IMPOTENT, BUT ARE FERTILE, BOTH ON THE MALE AND FEMALE SIDE, WHEN CROSSED WITH DISTINCT INDIVIDUALS EITHER OF THE SAME OR ANOTHER SPECIES—CONCLUSION ... Page 114

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CHAPTER XVIII.

ON THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CHANGED CONDITIONS OF LIFE: STERILITY FROM VARIOUS CAUSES.

ON THE GOOD DERIVED FROM SLIGHT CHANGES IN THE CONDITIONS OF LIFE—STERILITY FROM CHANGED CONDITIONS, IN ANIMALS, IN THEIR NATIVE COUNTRY AND IN MENAGERIES—MAMMALS, BIRDS, AND INSECTS—LOSS OF SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS AND OF INSTINCTS—CAUSES OF STERILITY—STERILITY OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS FROM CHANGED CONDITIONS—SEXUAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF INDIVIDUAL ANIMALS—STERILITY OF PLANTS FROM CHANGED CONDITIONS OF LIFE—CONTABESCENCE OF THE ANTHERS—MONSTROSITIES AS A CAUSE OF STERILITY—DOUBLE FLOWERS—SEEDLESS FRUIT—STERILITY FROM THE EXCESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANS OF VEGETATION—FROM LONG-CONTINUED PROPAGATION BY BUDS—INCIPIENT STERILITY THE PRIMARY CAUSE OF DOUBLE FLOWERS AND SEEDLESS FRUIT ... Page 145
CHAPTER XIX.

SUMMARY OF THE FOUR LAST CHAPTERS, WITH REMARKS ON HYBRIDISM.

ON THE EFFECTS OF CROSSING—THE INFLUENCE OF DOMESTICATION ON FERTILITY—CLOSE INTERBREEDING—GOOD AND EVIL RESULTS FROM CHANGED CONDITIONS OF LIFE—VARIETIES WHEN CROSSED NOT INVARIABLY FERTILE—ON THE DIFFERENCE IN FERTILITY BETWEEN CROSSED SPECIES AND VARIETIES—CONCLUSIONS WITH RESPECT TO HYBRIDISM—LIGHT THROWN ON HYBRIDISM BY THE ILLEGITIMATE PROGENY OF DIMORPHIC AND TRIMORPHIC PLANTS—STERILITY OF CROSSED SPECIES DUE TO DIFFERENCES CONFINED TO THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM—NOT ACCUMULATED THROUGH NATURAL SELECTION—REASONS WHY DOMESTIC VARIETIES ARE NOT MUTUALLY STERILE—TOO MUCH STRESS HAS BEEN LAID ON THE DIFFERENCE IN FERTILITY BETWEEN CROSSED SPECIES AND CROSSED VARIETIES—CONCLUSION ... Page 173
CHAPTER XX.

SELECTION BY MAN.

SELECTION A DIFFICULT ART—METHODICAL, UNCONSCIOUS, AND NATURAL SELECTION—RESULTS OF METHODICAL SELECTION—CARE TAKEN IN SELECTION—SELECTION WITH PLANTS—SELECTION CARRIED ON BY THE ANCIENTS, AND BY SEMI-CIVILISED PEOPLE—UNIMPORTANT CHARACTERS OFTEN ATTENDED TO—UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION—AS CIRCUMSTANCES SLOWLY CHANGE, SO HAVE OUR DOMESTICATED ANIMALS CHANGED THROUGH THE ACTION OF UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION—INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT BREEDERS ON THE SAME SUB-VARIETY—PLANTS AS AFFECTED BY UNCONSCIOUS SELECTION—EFFECTS OF SELECTION AS SHOWN BY THE GREAT AMOUNT OF DIFFERENCE IN THE PARTS MOST VALUED BY MAN ... Page 192

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CHAPTER XXI.

SELECTION—continued.

NATURAL SELECTION AS AFFECTING DOMESTIC PRODUCTIONS—CHARACTERS WHICH APPEAR OF TRIFLING VALUE OFTEN OF REAL IMPORTANCE—CIRCUMSTANCES FAVOURABLE TO SELECTION BY MAN—FACILITY IN PREVENTING CROSSES, AND THE NATURE OF THE CONDITIONS—CLOSE ATTENTION AND PERSEVERANCE INDISPENSABLE—THE PRODUCTION OF A LARGE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS ESPECIALLY FAVOURABLE—WHEN NO SELECTION IS APPLIED, DISTINCT RACES ARE NOT FORMED—HIGHLY-BRED ANIMALS LIABLE TO DEGENERATION—TENDENCY IN MAN TO CARRY THE SELECTION OF EACH CHARACTER TO AN EXTREME POINT, LEADING TO DIVERGENCE OF CHARACTER, RARELY TO CONVERGENCE—CHARACTERS CONTINUING TO VARY IN THE SAME DIRECTION IN WHICH THEY HAVE ALREADY VARIED—DIVERGENCE OF CHARACTER, WITH THE EXTINCTION OF INTERMEDIATE VARIETIES, LEADS TO DISTINCTNESS IN OUR DOMESTIC RACES—LIMIT TO THE POWER OF SELECTION—LAPSE OF TIME IMPORTANT—MANNER IN WHICH DOMESTIC RACES HAVE ORIGINATED—SUMMARY ... Page 224
CHAPTER XXII.

CAUSES OF VARIABILITY.

VARIABILITY DOES NOT NECESSARILY ACCOMPANY REPRODUCTION—CAUSES ASSIGNED BY VARIOUS AUTHORS—INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES—VARIABILITY OF EVERY KIND DUE TO CHANGED CONDITIONS OF LIFE—ON THE NATURE OF SUCH CHANGES—CLIMATE, FOOD, EXCESS OF NUTRIMENT—SLIGHT CHANGES SUFFICIENT—EFFECTS OF GRAFTING ON THE VARIABILITY OF SEEDLING-TREES—DOMESTIC PRODUCTIONS BECOME HABITUATED TO CHANGED CONDITIONS—ON THE ACCUMULATIVE ACTION OF CHANGED CONDITIONS—CLOSE INTERBREEDING AND THE IMAGINATION OF THE MOTHER SUPPOSED TO CAUSE VARIABILITY—CROSSING AS A CAUSE OF THE APPEARANCE OF NEW CHARACTERS—VARIABILITY FROM THE COMMINGLING OF CHARACTERS AND FROM REVERSION—ON THE MANNER AND PERIOD OF ACTION OF THE CAUSES WHICH EITHER DIRECTLY, OR INDIRECTLY THROUGH THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM, INDUCE VARIABILITY ... Page 250
CHAPTER XXIII.

DIRECT AND DEFINITE ACTION OF THE EXTERNAL CONDITIONS OF LIFE.

SLIGHT MODIFICATIONS IN PLANTS FROM THE DEFINITE ACTION OF CHANGED CONDITIONS, IN SIZE, COLOUR, CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, AND IN THE STATE OF THE TISSUES—LOCAL DISEASES—CONSPICUOUS MODIFICATIONS FROM CHANGED CLIMATE OR FOOD, ETC.—PLUMAGE OF BIRDS AFFECTED BY PECULIAR NUTRIMENT, AND BY THE INOCULATION OF POISON—LAND-SHELLS—MODIFICATIONS OF ORGANIC BEINGS IN A STATE OF NATURE THROUGH THE DEFINITE ACTION OF EXTERNAL CONDITIONS—COMPARISON OF AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN TREES—GALLS—EFFECTS OF PARASITIC FUNGI—CONSIDERATIONS OPPOSED TO THE BELIEF IN THE POTENT INFLUENCE OF CHANGED EXTERNAL CONDITIONS—PARALLEL SERIES OF VARIETIES—AMOUNT OF VARIATION DOES NOT CORRESPOND WITH THE DEGREE OF CHANGE IN THE CONDITIONS—BUD-VARIATION—MONSTROSITIES PRODUCED BY UNNATURAL TREATMENT—SUMMARY ... Page 271

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CHAPTER XXIV.

LAWS OF VARIATION—USE AND DISUSE, ETC.

NISUS FORMATIVUS, OR THE CO-ORDINATING POWER OF THE ORGANISATION—ON THE EFFECTS OF THE INCREASED USE AND DISUSE OF ORGANS—CHANGED HABITS OF LIFE—ACCLIMATISATION WITH ANIMALS AND PLANTS—VARIOUS METHODS BY WHICH THIS CAN BE EFFECTED—ARRESTS OF DEVELOPMENT—RUDIMENTARY ORGANS ... Page 293
CHAPTER XXV.

LAWS OF VARIATION, continued—CORRELATED VARIABILITY.

EXPLANATION OF TERM—CORRELATION AS CONNECTED WITH DEVELOPMENT—MODIFICATIONS CORRELATED WITH THE INCREASED OR DECREASED SIZE OF PARTS—CORRELATED VARIATION OF HOMOLOGOUS PARTS—FEATHERED FEET IN BIRDS ASSUMING THE STRUCTURE OF THE WINGS—CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HEAD AND THE EXTREMITIES—BETWEEN THE SKIN AND DERMAL APPENDAGES—BETWEEN THE ORGANS OF SIGHT AND HEARING—CORRELATED MODIFICATIONS IN THE ORGANS OF PLANTS—CORRELATED MONSTROSITIES—CORRELATION BETWEEN THE SKULL AND EARS—SKULL AND CREST OF FEATHERS—SKULL AND HORNS—CORRELATION OF GROWTH COMPLICATED BY THE ACCUMULATED EFFECTS OF NATURAL SELECTION—COLOUR AS CORRELATED WITH CONSTITUTIONAL PECULIARITIES ... Page 319
CHAPTER XXVI.

LAWS OF VARIATION, continued—SUMMARY.

ON THE AFFINITY AND COHESION OF HOMOLOGOUS PARTS—ON THE VARIABILITY OF MULTIPLE AND HOMOLOGOUS PARTS—COMPENSATION OF GROWTH—MECHANICAL PRESSURE—RELATIVE POSITION OF FLOWERS WITH RESPECT TO THE AXIS OF THE PLANT, AND OF SEEDS IN THE CAPSULE, AS INDUCING VARIATION—ANALOGOUS OR PARALLEL VARIETIES—SUMMARY OF THE THREE LAST CHAPTERS ... Page 339
CHAPTER XXVII.

PROVISIONAL HYPOTHESIS OF PANGENESIS.

PRELIMINARY REMARKS—FIRST PART:—THE FACTS TO BE CONNECTED UNDER A SINGLE POINT OF VIEW, NAMELY, THE VARIOUS KINDS OF REPRODUCTION—THE DIRECT ACTION OF THE MALE ELEMENT ON THE FEMALE—DEVELOPMENT—THE FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE OF THE ELEMENTS OR UNITS OF THE BODY—VARIABILITY—INHERITANCE—REVERSION.

SECOND PART:—STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS—HOW FAR THE NECESSARY ASSUMPTIONS ARE IMPROBABLE—EXPLANATION BY AID OF THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE SEVERAL CLASSES OF FACTS SPECIFIED IN THE FIRST PART—CONCLUSION ... Page 357

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CHAPTER XXVIII.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

DOMESTICATION—NATURE AND CAUSES OF VARIABILITY—SELECTION—DIVERGENCE AND DISTINCTNESS OF CHARACTER—EXTINCTION OF RACES—CIRCUMSTANCES FAVOURABLE TO SELECTION BY MAN—ANTIQUITY OF CERTAIN RACES—THE QUESTION WHETHER EACH PARTICULAR VARIATION HAS BEEN SPECIALLY PREORDAINED ... Page 405

Index ... Page 433



THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN
Volume I
By Charles Darwin
Edited By His Son Francis Darwin



CONTENTS
VOLUME I
PREFACE
LIFE AND LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN.
VOLUME I.
CHAPTER 1.I. — THE DARWIN FAMILY.
CHAPTER 1.II. — AUTOBIOGRAPHY.
CHAPTER 1.III. — REMINISCENCES OF MY FATHER'S EVERYDAY LIFE.
CHAPTER 1.IV. — CAMBRIDGE LIFE.
CHAPTER 1.V. — THE APPOINTMENT TO THE 'BEAGLE.'
CHAPTER 1.VI. — THE VOYAGE.
CHAPTER 1.VII. — LONDON AND CAMBRIDGE.
CHAPTER 1.VIII. — RELIGION.
CHAPTER 1.IX. — LIFE AT DOWN.
CHAPTER 1.X. — THE GROWTH OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
     Chapter I. "On the kind of intermediateness necessary, and the number
     Chapter II. "The gradual appearance and disappearance of organic
     Chapter III. "Geographical Distribution." Corresponds to Chapters XI.
     Chapter IV. "Affinities and Classification of Organic beings."
     Chapter V. "Unity of Type," Morphology, Embryology.
     Chapter VI. Rudimentary Organs.
     Chapter VII. Recapitulation and Conclusion.
CHAPTER 1.XI. — THE GROWTH OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
CHAPTER 1.XII. — THE UNFINISHED BOOK.
CHAPTER 1. XIII. — THE WRITING OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
CHAPTER 1.XIV. — BY PROFESSOR HUXLEY.



THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF

CHARLES DARWIN
Volume II
By Charles Darwin
Edited By His Son Francis Darwin
CONTENTS
TRANSCRIPT OF A FACSIMILE OF A PAGE FROM A NOTE-BOOK OF 1837.
LIFE AND LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN.
VOLUME II.
CHAPTER 2.I. — THE PUBLICATION OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
CHAPTER 2.II. — THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES' (continued).
CHAPTER 2.III. — SPREAD OF EVOLUTION.
CHAPTER 2.IV. — THE SPREAD OF EVOLUTION.
CHAPTER 2.V. — THE PUBLICATION OF THE 'VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DOMESTICATION.'
CHAPTER 2.VI. — WORK ON 'MAN.'
CHAPTER 2.VII. — PUBLICATION OF THE 'DESCENT OF MAN.'
CHAPTER 2.VIII. — MISCELLANEA
CHAPTER 2.IX. — MISCELLANEA (continued)
CHAPTER 2.X. — FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS.
CHAPTER 2.XI. — THE 'EFFECTS OF CROSS- AND SELF-FERTILISATION
CHAPTER 2.XII. — 'DIFFERENT FORMS OF FLOWERS ON PLANTS OF THE SAME SPECIES.'
CHAPTER 2.XIII. — CLIMBING AND INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS.
CHAPTER 2.XIV. — THE 'POWER OF MOVEMENT IN PLANTS.'
CHAPTER 2.XV. — MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL LETTERS.
CHAPTER 2.XVI. — CONCLUSION.
APPENDIX I.
APPENDIX II.
Notes upon the Rhea Americana. Zoology Society Proc., Part v. 1837.
Notes on the Effects produced by the Ancient Glaciers of
Notes on the Fertilization of Orchids. Annals and Magazine of Natural
APPENDIX III.
APPENDIX IV.



MORE LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN


By Charles Darwin



CONTENTS
PREFACE
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
MORE LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN.
VOLUME I.
OUTLINE OF CHARLES DARWIN'S LIFE.
CHARLES DARWIN
CHAPTER 1.I.—AN AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL FRAGMENT, AND EARLY LETTERS.
CHAPTER 1.II.—EVOLUTION, 1844-1858.
CHAPTER 1.III.—EVOLUTION, 1859-1863.
CHAPTER 1.IV.—EVOLUTION, 1864-1869.
CHAPTER 1.V.—EVOLUTION, 1870-1882.
CHAPTER 1.VI.—GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, 1843-1867.



MORE LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN, VOLUME II
By Charles Darwin



CONTENTS
MORE LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN
VOLUME II
CHAPTER 2.VII.—GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.
CHAPTER 2.VIII.—MAN.
CHAPTER 2.IX. GEOLOGY, 1840-1882.
CHAPTER 2.X.—BOTANY, 1843-1871.
CHAPTER 2.XI.—BOTANY, 1863-1881.
CHAPTER 2.XII.



THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF CHARLES DARWIN
From The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin
By Charles Darwin
Edited by his Son Francis Darwin
CAMBRIDGE 1828-1831.
"VOYAGE OF THE 'BEAGLE' FROM DECEMBER 27, 1831, TO OCTOBER 2, 1836."
FROM MY RETURN TO ENGLAND (OCTOBER 2, 1836) TO MY MARRIAGE (JANUARY 29,
FROM MY MARRIAGE, JANUARY 29, 1839, AND RESIDENCE IN UPPER GOWER STREET,
RESIDENCE AT DOWN FROM SEPTEMBER 14, 1842, TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1876.
MY SEVERAL PUBLICATIONS.
WRITTEN MAY 1ST, 1881.



CHARLES DARWIN: HIS LIFE TOLD IN AN AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL CHAPTER,
AND IN A SELECTED SERIES OF HIS PUBLISHED LETTERS
Edited By His Son, Francis Darwin, F.R.S.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 	PAGE
I. 	—The Darwins 	1
II. 	—Autobiography 	5
III. 	—Religion 	55
IV. 	—Reminiscences 	66
V. 	—Cambridge Life—The Appointment to the Beagle: 1828-1831 	104
VI. 	—The Voyage: 1831-1836 	124
VII. 	—London and Cambridge: 1836-1842 	140
VIII. 	—Life at Down: 1842-1854 	150
IX. 	—The Foundations of the Origin of Species: 1831-1844 	165
X. 	—The Growth of the Origin of Species: 1843-1858 	173
XI. 	—The Writing of the Origin of Species, June 1858, to November 1859 	185
XII. 	—The Publication of the Origin of Species, October to December 1859 	206
XIII. 	—The Origin of Species—Reviews and Criticisms—Adhesions and Attacks: 1860 	223
XIV. 	—The Spread of Evolution: 1861-1871 	245
XV. 	—Miscellanea—Revival of Geological Work—The Vivisection Question—Honours 	281
XVI. 	—The Fertilisation of Flowers 	297
XVII. 	—Climbing Plants—Power of Movement in Plants—Insectivorous Plants—Kew Index of Plant Names 	313
XVIII. 	—Conclusion 	325

APPENDICES.
APPENDIX
I. 	—The Funeral in Westminster Abbey 	329
II. 	—Portraits 	331
Index 		333



CORAL REEFS
By Charles Darwin
Plates and drawings unavailable
CONTENTS
EDITORIAL NOTE.
CORAL REEFS.
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.
THE STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL REEFS.
CRITICAL INTRODUCTION.
CORAL-REEFS.
INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER I.—ATOLLS OR LAGOON-ISLANDS.
CHAPTER II.—BARRIER REEFS.
CHAPTER III.—FRINGING OR SHORE-REEFS.
CHAPTER IV.—ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH OF CORAL-REEFS.
CHAPTER V.—THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF
CHAPTER VI.—ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL-REEFS WITH REFERENCE TO THE
APPENDIX.



VOLCANIC ISLANDS
By Charles Darwin



CONTENTS
EDITORIAL NOTE.
VOLCANIC ISLANDS.
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS
GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON VOLCANIC ISLANDS.
CHAPTER I.—ST. JAGO, IN THE CAPE DE VERDE ARCHIPELAGO.
CHAPTER II.—FERNANDO NORONHA; TERCEIRA; TAHITI, ETC.
CHAPTER III.—ASCENSION.
CHAPTER IV.—ST. HELENA.
CHAPTER V.—GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO.
CHAPTER VI.—TRACHYTE AND BASALT.—DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANIC ISLES.
CHAPTER VII.—AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
INDEX TO VOLCANIC ISLANDS.



A MONOGRAPH ON THE SUB-CLASS CIRRIPEDIA (Vol. 1 of 2)
The Lepadidae; or, Pedunculated Cirripedes
By Charles Darwin
CONTENTS
List of Species
Lepas 	67
1. Lepas anatifera 	73
2. Lepas Hillii 	77
3. Lepas anserifera 	81
4. Lepas pectinata 	86
5. Lepas australis 	89
6. Lepas fascicularis 	92
Pæcilasma 	99
1. Pæcilasma Kæmpferi 	102
2. Pæcilasma aurantia 	105
3. Pæcilasma crassa 	107
4. Pæcilasma fissa 	109
5. Pæcilasma eburnea 	112
Dichelaspis 	115
1. Dichelaspis Warwickii 	120
2. Dichelaspis Grayii 	123
3. Dichelaspis pellucida 	125
4. Dichelaspis Lowei 	128
5. Dichelaspis orthogonia 	130
Oxynaspis 	133
1. Oxynaspis celata 	134
Conchoderma 	136
1. Conchoderma aurita 	141
2. Conchoderma virgata 	146
C. virgata, var. chelonophilus 	151
C. virgata, var. Olfersii 	152
3. Conchoderma Hunteri 	153
Alepas 	156
1. Alepas minuta 	160
2. Alepas parasita 	163
3. Alepas cornuta 	165
4. Alepas tubulosa 	169
Anelasma 	169
1. Anelasma squalicola 	170
Ibla 	180
1. Ibla Cumingii 	183
2. Ibla quadrivalvis 	203
Scalpellum 	215
Sub-Carinâ Nullâ 	222
1. Scalpellum vulgare 	222
2. Scalpellum ornatum 	244
3. Scalpellum rutilum 	253
Sub-Carinâ Presente 	259
4. Scalpellum rostratum 	259
5. Scalpellum Peronii 	264
6. Scalpellum villosum 	274
Pollicipes 	293
1. Pollicipes cornucopia 	298
2. Pollicipes elegans 	304
3. Pollicipes polymerus 	307
4. Pollicipes mitella 	316
5. Pollicipes spinosus 	324
6. Pollicipes sertus 	327
Lithotrya 	331
1. Lithotrya dorsalis 	351
2. Lithotrya cauta 	356
3. Lithotrya nicobarica 	359
4. Lithotrya rhodiopus 	363
5. Lithotrya truncata 	366
6. Lithotrya Valentiana 	371



A MONOGRAPH ON THE SUB-CLASS CIRRIPEDIA (VOL. 2 OF 2)
THE BALANIDÆ, (OR SESSILE CIRRIPEDES); THE VERRUCIDÆ, ETC., ETC.
By Charles Darwin
CONTENTS
	Page
Dedication 	v
Preface 	vii
Monograph on the Cirripedia 	1
Introduction 	1
On the Names given to the different parts of Cirripedes 	3
Class Crustacea, Sub-Class Cirripedia 	9
On the Sexual Relation of Cirripedes 	23
Order I.-Thoracica 	30
Family Balanidæ 	33
Table of Contents 	33
Structure of Shell 	34
Structure of the Individual Compartments 	43
Structure of the Radii 	45
Structure of the Alæ 	47
Structure of the Sheath 	48
Structure of the Basis 	49
Structure of the Opercular Valves (Scuta and Terga) 	51
Growth of the Whole Shell, and Its Microscopical Structure 	54
Muscles of Sack 	61
Branchiæ 	63
Thorax and Body 	65
Muscular System 	68
Movements and Muscles of the Cirri 	71
Mouth 	74
Cirri 	81
Caudal Appendages 	85
Alimentary Canal 	85
Circulatory System 	87
Nervous System 	88
Eyes and Vision 	93
Acoustic Organs 	95
Olfactory Sacks 	97
Male Organs of Generation 	97
Female Organs of Generation 	100
Metamorphoses and Homologies 	102
Larva, First Stage 	103
Larva, Second Stage 	109
Larva in the Last or Pupal Stage 	110
Act of Metamorphosis 	126
On the Homologies of the Carapace and Shelly Valves 	131
Cementing Apparatus 	133
Affinities, Classification, Variation 	152
Rate of Growth, Exuviation, Powers of Repairing Injuries 	156
Geographical Range and Habits 	159
Geological History 	172
Sub-Family Balaninæ 	175
1. Genus Balanus 	177
Sections of the Genus 	193
Section A 	194
1. Balanus tintinnabulum 	194
Var. communis, vesiculosus, validus, zebra, crispatus, spinosus, coccopoma, concinnus, intermedius, occator, d'Orbignii
Varieties 	201
2. Balanus tulipiformis 	204
3. Balanus psittacus 	206
4. Balanus Capensis 	209
5. Balanus Nigrescens 	210
6. Balanus decorus 	212
7. Balanus vinaceus 	213
8. Balanus Ajax 	214
Section B 	216
9. Balanus stultus 	216
10. Balanus calceolus 	218
11. Balanus galeatus 	220
12. Balanus cymbiformis 	221
13. Balanus navicula 	221
Section C 	223
14. Balanus trigonus 	223
15. Balanus spongicola 	225
16. Balanus lævis 	227
Var. nitidus, Coquimbensis
17. Balanus perforatus 	231
Var. angustus, Cranchii, fistulosus, mirabilis
18. Balanus concavus 	235
19. Balanus amphitrite 	240
Var. communis, venustus, pallidus, niveus, modestus, Stutsburi, obscurus, variegatus, cirratus
Varieties 	245
20. Balanus pocilus 	245
21. Balanus eburneus 	248
22. Balanus improvisus 	250
Var. assimilis
23. Balanus nubilus 	253
24. Balanus corrugatus 	254
Section D 	256
25. Balanus porcatus 	256
26. Balanus patellaris 	259
27. Balanus crenatus 	261
28. Balanus glandula 	265
Section E 	267
29. Balanus balanoides 	267
Varieties 	270
30. Balanus cariosus 	273
31. Balanus declivis 	275
Section F 	277
32. Balanus Hameri 	277
33. Balanus amaryllis 	279
34. Balanus allium 	281
35. Balanus cepa 	283
36. Balanus quadrivittatus 	284
37. Balanus terebratus 	285
38. Balanus vestitus 	286
39. Balanus Imperator 	288
40. Balanus flosculus 	290
Var. sordidus
41. Balanus bisulcatus 	293
Var. plicatus
42. Balanus dolosus 	295
43. Balanus unguiformis 	296
Var. erisma
44. Balanus varians 	298
45. Balanus inclusus 	299
2. Sub-Genus Acasta 	302
1. Acasta spongites 	308
2. Acasta sulcata 	310
3. Acasta cyathus 	312
4. Acasta undulata 	313
5. Acasta glans 	314
6. Acasta lævigata 	315
7. Acasta fenestrata 	316
8. Acasta purpurata 	318
9. Acasta sporillus 	319
3. Genus Tetraclita 	321
1. Tetraclita porosa 	329
Var. communis, nigrescens, viridis, rubescens, elegans, communis (young), patellaris
2. Tetraclita serrata 	334
3. Tetraclita rosea 	335
4. Tetraclita purpurascens 	337
5. Tetraclita costata 	339
6. Tetraclita vitiata 	340
7. Tetraclita corulescens 	342
8. Tetraclita radiata 	343
4. Genus Elminius 	345
1. Elminius Kingii 	348
2. Elminius modestus 	350
3. Elminius plicatus 	351
4. Elminius simplex 	353
5. Genus Pyrgoma 	355
1. Pyrgoma anglicum 	360
2. Pyrgoma Stokesii 	361
3. Pyrgoma cancellatum 	362
4. Pyrgoma conjugatum 	364
5. Pyrgoma grande 	365
6. Pyrgoma milleporæ 	367
7. Pyrgoma dentatum 	369
8. Pyrgoma crenatum 	370
9. Pyrgoma monticulariæ 	372
Species dubiæ 	374
6. Sub-Genus Creusia 	375
1. Creusia spinulosa 	376
Varieties with the Scuta and Terga calcified together 	380
7. Genus Chelonobia 	382
1. Chelonobia testudinaria 	392
2. Chelonobia caretta 	394
3. Chelonobia patula 	396
Second Section of the Sub-Family of Balaninæ 	397
8. Genus Coronula 	397
1. Coronula balænaris 	415
2. Coronula diadema 	417
3. Coronula reginæ 	419
4. Coronula barbara 	421
Species Dubiæ 	423
9. Genus Platylepas 	424
1. Platylepas bissexlobata 	428
2. Platylepas decorata 	429
Species Dubiæ 	430
10. Genus Tubicinella 	430
1. Tubicinella trachealis 	431
11. Genus Xenobalanus 	438
1. Xenobalanus globicipitis 	440
Sub-Family Chthamalinæ 	446
12. Genus Chthamalus 	447
1. Chthamalus stellatus 	455
Var. communis, fragilis, depressus
2. Chthamalus antennatus 	460
3. Chthamalus cirratus 	461
4. Chthamalus fissus 	462
5. Chthamalus dentatus 	463
6. Chthamalus Hembeli 	465
7. Chthamalus intertextus 	467
8. Chthamalus scabrosus 	468
13. Nov. Genus Chamæsipho 	470
1. Chamæsipho columna 	470
2. Chamæsipho scutelliformis 	472
14. Nov. Genus Pachylasma 	475
1. Pachylasma giganteum 	477
2. Pachylasma aurantiacum 	480
15. Genus Octomeris 	482
1. Octomeris angulosa 	483
2. Octomeris brunnea 	484
16. Genus Catophragmus 	485
1. Catophragmus polymerus 	487
2. Catophragmus imbricatus 	490
Remarks on Bronn's List of Fossil Balaninæ and Chthamalinæ 	492
Family Verrucidæ 	495
Genus Verruca 	496
Powers of Excavation 	512
1. Verruca Strömia 	518
2. Verruca lævigata 	520
3. Verruca Spengleri 	521
4. Verruca nexa 	522
5. Verruca prisca 	525
Family Lepadidæ 	526
Genus Alcippe 	529
Alcippe lampas 	530
Female 	530
Male 	555
Order II.-Abdominalia 	563
Cryptophialus minutus 	566
Female 	566
Male 	584
Order III.-Apoda 	587
Proteolepas bivincta 	589
Synopsis et Index Systematicus 	606
Synopsis et Index Systematicus Specierum, et recentium, et fossilum 	611
Description of plates 	641
Plate 1. Balanus tintinnabulum 	641
Plate 2. Genus Balanus 	641
Plate 3. Genus Balanus 	642
Plate 4. Genus Balanus 	642
Plate 5. Genus Balanus 	642
Plate 6. Genus Balanus 	643
Plate 7. Genus Balanus 	643
Plate 8. Genus Balanus 	644
Plate 9. Sub-Genus Acasta 	644
Plate 10. Genus Tetraclita 	645
Plate 11. Genera Tetraclita and Elminius 	645
Plate 12. Genera Elminius and Pyrgoma 	646
Plate 13. Genera Pyrgoma and Creusia 	646
Plate 14. Genera Creusia and Chelonobia 	647
Plate 15. Genera Chelonobia and Coronula 	648
Plate 16. Genus Coronula 	649
Plate 17. Genera Platylepas, Tubicinella, and Xenobalanus 	651
Plate 18. Genus Chthamalus 	652
Plate 19. Genera Chthamalus, Chamæsipho, and Pachylasma 	652
Plate 20. Genera Pachylasma, Octomeris, and Catophragmus 	653
Plate 21. Genus Verruca 	654
Plate 22. Alcippe lampas 	655
Plate 23. Genera Alcippe and Cryptophialus 	658
Plate 24. Genera Cryptophialus and Proteolepas 	660
Plate 25. Genera Proteolepas and Balanus 	662
Plate 26. Structure of the Mouth and Thorax 	664
Plate 27. Nervous System and Senses 	666
Plate 28. Cementing Apparatus 	667
Plate 29. Cirri and Larvæ, first stages 	669
Plate 30. Larvæ of Lepas: second and last stages of development 	671
Errata 	674
Index 	675
Plates 	685
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Woodcuts on page 3*
Figure 1. Shell 	3*
Figure 2. Compartments 	3*
Figure 3. Compartments 	3*
Figure 4. Compartments 	3*
Figure 5. Scutum (internal view of) 	3*
Figure 6. Tergum (external view) 	3*
Figure 7. Tergum (internal view) 	3*
Woodcuts on other pages
Figure 1. Rostrum with two radii, serving in Chthamalinæ for rostro-lateral compartments 	36
Figure 2. Always serving for lateral and carino-lateral compartments 	36
Figure 3. Carina, serving in the Chthamalinæ, also, as a rostrum 	36
Figure 4. Octomeris 	39
Figure 5. Chthamalus 	39
Figure 6. Chamæsipho 	39
Figure 7. Balanus 	39
Figure 8. Tetraclita 	39
Figure 9. Basal edge of wall of compartment in Balanus tintinnabulum 	43
Figure 10. Edge of the radius of Balanus tintinnabulum 	46
Figure 11. Portion of edge of basis of Balanus tintinnabulum 	50
Plates
Plate 1. Balanus tintinnabulum 	685
Plate 2. Balanus 	686
Plate 3. Balanus 	687
Plate 4. Balanus 	688
Plate 5. Balanus 	689
Plate 6. Balanus 	690
Plate 7. Balanus 	691
Plate 8. Balanus 	692
Plate 9. Acasta 	693
Plate 10. Tetraclita 	694
Plate 11. Tetraclita: Elminius 	695
Plate 12. Elminius: Pyrgoma 	696
Plate 13. Pyrgoma: Creusia 	697
Plate 14. Creusia: Chelonobia 	698
Plate 15. Chelonobia: Coronula 	699
Plate 16. Coronula 	700
Plate 17. Platylepas: Tubicinella: Xenobalanus 	701
Plate 18. Chthamalus 	702
Plate 19. Chthamalus: Chamæsipho: Pachylasma 	703
Plate 20. Pachylasma: Octomeris: Catophragmus 	704
Plate 21. Verruca 	705
Plate 22. Alcippe lampas 	706
Plate 23. Alcippe: Cryptophialus 	707
Plate 24. Cryptophialus: Proteolepas 	708
Plate 25. Proteolepas: Balanus 	709
Plate 26. Mouth: Thorax 	710
Plate 27. Nervous System 	711
Plate 28. Cementing Apparatus 	712
Plate 29. Cirri: Larvæ, first stages 	713
Plate 30. Larvæ, last stages 	714



GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON SOUTH AMERICA
By Charles Darwin



CONTENTS
EDITORIAL NOTE.
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS.
GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON SOUTH AMERICA
CRITICAL INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER I. ON THE ELEVATION OF THE EASTERN COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA.
CHAPTER II. ON THE ELEVATION OF THE WESTERN COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA.
CHAPTER III. ON THE PLAINS AND VALLEYS OF CHILE:—SALIFEROUS SUPERFICIAL DEPOSITS.
CHAPTER IV. ON THE FORMATIONS OF THE PAMPAS.
CHAPTER V. ON THE OLDER TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF PATAGONIA AND CHILE.
CHAPTER VI. PLUTONIC AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS:—CLEAVAGE AND FOLIATION.
CHAPTER VII. CENTRAL CHILE:—STRUCTURE OF THE CORDILLERA.
CHAPTER VIII. NORTHERN CHILE. CONCLUSION.



THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF FLOWERS ON PLANTS OF THE SAME SPECIES
By Charles Darwin



CONTENTS
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.
THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF FLOWERS ON PLANTS OF THE SAME SPECIES.
INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER I. HETEROSTYLED DIMORPHIC PLANTS: PRIMULACEAE.
CHAPTER II. HYBRID PRIMULAS.
CHAPTER III. HETEROSTYLED DIMORPHIC PLANTS—continued.
CHAPTER IV. HETEROSTYLED TRIMORPHIC PLANTS.
CHAPTER V. ILLEGITIMATE OFFSPRING OF HETEROSTYLED PLANTS.
CONCLUSIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE EQUAL-STYLED VARIETY OF P. Sinensis.
CHAPTER VI. CONCLUDING REMARKS ON HETEROSTYLED PLANTS.
CHAPTER VII. POLYGAMOUS, DIOECIOUS, AND GYNO-DIOECIOUS PLANTS.
CHAPTER VIII. CLEISTOGAMIC FLOWERS.



THE EFFECTS OF CROSS & SELF-FERTILISATION IN THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.
By Charles Darwin



CONTENTS
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE EFFECTS OF CROSS AND SELF-FERTILISATION IN THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
CHAPTER II. CONVOLVULACEAE.
CHAPTER III. SCROPHULARIACEAE, GESNERIACEAE, LABIATAE, ETC.
CHAPTER IV. CRUCIFERAE, PAPAVERACEAE, RESEDACEAE, ETC.
CHAPTER V. GERANIACEAE, LEGUMINOSAE, ONAGRACEAE, ETC.
CHAPTER VI. SOLANACEAE, PRIMULACEAE, POLYGONEAE, ETC.
CHAPTER VII. A SUMMARY OF THE HEIGHTS AND WEIGHTS OF THE CROSSED AND SELF-FERTILISED PLANTS.
CHAPTER VIII. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CROSSED AND SELF-FERTILISED PLANTS IN CONSTITUTIONAL VIGOUR AND IN OTHER RESPECTS.
CHAPTER IX. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-FERTILISATION AND SELF-FERTILISATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDS.
CHAPTER X. MEANS OF FERTILISATION.
CHAPTER XI. THE HABITS OF INSECTS IN RELATION TO THE FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS.
CHAPTER XII. GENERAL RESULTS.



THE EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS
With Photographic And Other Illustrations
By Charles Darwin
CONTENTS
DETAILED CONTENTS.
ON THE EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN MAN AND ANIMALS.
INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER I. — GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION.
CHAPTER II. — GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION—continued.
CHAPTER III. — GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EXPRESSION—concluded.
CHAPTER IV. — MEANS OF EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS.
CHAPTER V. — SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF ANIMALS.
CHAPTER VI. — SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS OF MAN: SUFFERING AND WEEPING.
CHAPTER VII. — LOW SPIRITS, ANXIETY, GRIEF, DEJECTION, DESPAIR.
CHAPTER VIII. — JOY, HIGH SPIRITS, LOVE, TENDER FEELINGS, DEVOTION.
CHAPTER IX. — REFLECTION—MEDITATION-ILL-TEMPER—SULKINESS—DETERMINATION.
CHAPTER X. — HATRED AND ANGER.
CHAPTER XI. — DISDAIN—CONTEMPT—DISGUST-GUILT—PRIDE, ETC.
CHAPTER XII. — SURPRISE—ASTONISHMENT—FEAR—HORROR.
CHAPTER XIII. — SELF-ATTENTION—SHAME—SHYNESS—MODESTY: BLUSHING.
CHAPTER XIV. — CONCLUDING REMARKS AND SUMMARY.
FOOTNOTES:
ILLUSTRATIONS
Muscles of the Human Face. Fig 1-2
Muscles of the Human Face. Fig 3
Small Dog Watching a Cat on A Table. Figure 4
Dog in a Hostile Frame of Mind. Fig. 5
Dog in a humble and Affectionate Frame of Mind. Fig. 6
Dog in a Hostile Frame of Mind. Fig. 7
Dog Carressing his Master. Fig. 8
Cat, Savage, and Prepared to Fight. Fig. 9
Cat in an Affectionate Frame of Mind. Fig. 10
Sound Producing Quills from Tail of a Porcupine. Fig. 11
Hen Driving Away a Dog from Her Chickens. Fig. 12
Swan Driving Away an Intruder. Fig 13
Head of Snarling Dog. Fig 14
Cat Terrified at a Dog. Fig.15
Cynopithecus Niger, Pleased by Being Caressed. Fig.17
Chimpanzee Disappointed and Sulky. Fig. 18
Screaming Infants. Plate I.
Obliquity of the Eyebrows. Plate II
Moderate Laughter and Smiling. Plate III
Ill-temper. Plate IV
Anger and Indignation. Plate VI
Scorn and Disdain. Plate V
Gestures of the Body. Plate VII
Photograph of an Insane Woman. Fig. 19
Terror. Fig. 20
Horror and Agony. Fig. 21



THE FORMATION OF VEGETABLE MOULD
THROUGH THE ACTION OF WORMS WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THEIR HABITS
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS
By Charles Darwin
CONTENTS

Introduction


Page 1–6

CHAPTER I.
HABITS OF WORMS.

Nature of the sites inhabited—Can live long under water—Nocturnal—Wander about at night—Often lie close to the mouths of their burrows, and are thus destroyed in large numbers by birds—Structure—Do not possess eyes, but can distinguish between light and darkness—Retreat rapidly when brightly illuminated, not by a reflex action—Power of attention—Sensitive to heat and cold—Completely deaf—Sensitive to vibrations and to touch—Feeble power of smell—Taste—Mental qualities—Nature of food—Omnivorous—Digestion—Leaves before being swallowed, moistened with a fluid of the nature of the pancreatic secretion—Extra-stomachal digestion—Calciferous glands, structure of—Calcareous concretions formed in the anterior pair of glands—The calcareous matter primarily an excretion, but secondarily serves to neutralise the acids generated during the digestive process.


7–15

CHAPTER II.
HABITS OF WORMS—continued.

Manner in which worms seize objects—Their power of suction—The instinct of plugging up the mouths of their burrows—Stones piled over the burrows—The advantages thus gained—Intelligence shown by worms in their manner of plugging up their burrows—Various kinds of leaves and other objects thus used—Triangles of paper—Summary of reasons for believing that worms exhibit some intelligence—Means by which they excavate their burrows, by pushing away the earth and swallowing it—Earth also swallowed for the nutritious matter which it contains—Depth to which worms burrow, and the construction of their burrows—Burrows lined with castings, and in the upper part with leaves—The lowest part paved with little stones or seeds—Manner in which the castings are ejected—The collapse of old burrows—Distribution of worms—Tower-like castings in Bengal—Gigantic castings on the Nilgiri Mountains—Castings ejected in all countries.


52–120

CHAPTER III.
THE AMOUNT OF FINE EARTH BROUGHT UP BY WORMS TO THE SURFACE.

Rate at which various objects strewed on the surface of grass-fields are covered up by the castings of worms—The burial of a paved path—The slow subsidence of great stones left on the surface—The number of worms which live within a given space—The weight of earth ejected from a burrow, and from all the burrows within a given space—The thickness of the layer of mould which the castings on a given space would form within a given time if uniformly spread out—The slow rate at which mould can increase to a great thickness—Conclusion.


121–163

CHAPTER IV.
THE PART WHICH WORMS HAVE PLAYED IN THE BURIAL OF ANCIENT BUILDINGS.

The accumulation of rubbish on the sites of great cities independent of the action of worms—The burial of a Roman villa at Abinger—The floors and walls penetrated by worms—Subsidence of a modern pavement—The buried pavement at Beaulieu Abbey—Roman villas at Chedworth and Brading—The remains of the Roman town at Silchester—The nature of the débris by which the remains are covered—The penetration of the tesselated floors and walls by worms—Subsidence of the floors—Thickness of the mould—The old Roman city of Wroxeter—Thickness of the mould—Depth of the foundations of some of the Buildings—Conclusion.


164–208

CHAPTER V.
THE ACTION OF WORMS IN THE DENUDATION OF THE LAND.

Evidence of the amount of denudation which the land has undergone—Sub-aerial denudation—The deposition of dust—Vegetable mould, its dark colour and fine texture largely due to the action of worms—The disintegration of rocks by the humus-acids—Similar acids apparently generated within the bodies of worms—The action of these acids facilitated by the continued movement of the particles of earth—A thick bed of mould checks the disintegration of the underlying soil and rocks.  Particles of stone worn or triturated in the gizzards of worms—Swallowed stones serve as mill-stones—The levigated state of the castings—Fragments of brick in the castings over ancient buildings well rounded.  The triturating power of worms not quite insignificant under a geological point of view.


209–236

CHAPTER VI.
THE DENUDATION OF THE LAND—continued.

Denudation aided by recently ejected castings flowing down inclined grass-covered surfaces—The amount of earth which annually flows downwards—The effect of tropical rain on worm castings—The finest particles of earth washed completely away from castings—The disintegration of dried castings into pellets, and their rolling down inclined surfaces—The formation of little ledges on hill-sides, in part due to the accumulation of disintegrated castings—Castings blown to leeward over level land—An attempt to estimate the amount thus blown—The degradation of ancient encampments and tumuli—The preservation of the crowns and furrows on land anciently ploughed—The formation and amount of mould over the Chalk formation.


237–279

CHAPTER VII.
CONCLUSION.

Summary of the part which worms have played in the history of the world—Their aid in the disintegration of rocks—In the denudation of the land—In the preservation of ancient remains—In the preparation of the soil for the growth of plants—Mental powers of worms—Conclusion.


280–288



THE FORMATION OF VEGETABLE MOULD
THROUGH THE ACTION OF WORMS WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THEIR HABITS
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS
By Charles Darwin
CONTENTS

Introduction


Page 1–6

CHAPTER I.
HABITS OF WORMS.

Nature of the sites inhabited—Can live long under water—Nocturnal—Wander about at night—Often lie close to the mouths of their burrows, and are thus destroyed in large numbers by birds—Structure—Do not possess eyes, but can distinguish between light and darkness—Retreat rapidly when brightly illuminated, not by a reflex action—Power of attention—Sensitive to heat and cold—Completely deaf—Sensitive to vibrations and to touch—Feeble power of smell—Taste—Mental qualities—Nature of food—Omnivorous—Digestion—Leaves before being swallowed, moistened with a fluid of the nature of the pancreatic secretion—Extra-stomachal digestion—Calciferous glands, structure of—Calcareous concretions formed in the anterior pair of glands—The calcareous matter primarily an excretion, but secondarily serves to neutralise the acids generated during the digestive process.


7–15

CHAPTER II.
HABITS OF WORMS—continued.

Manner in which worms seize objects—Their power of suction—The instinct of plugging up the mouths of their burrows—Stones piled over the burrows—The advantages thus gained—Intelligence shown by worms in their manner of plugging up their burrows—Various kinds of leaves and other objects thus used—Triangles of paper—Summary of reasons for believing that worms exhibit some intelligence—Means by which they excavate their burrows, by pushing away the earth and swallowing it—Earth also swallowed for the nutritious matter which it contains—Depth to which worms burrow, and the construction of their burrows—Burrows lined with castings, and in the upper part with leaves—The lowest part paved with little stones or seeds—Manner in which the castings are ejected—The collapse of old burrows—Distribution of worms—Tower-like castings in Bengal—Gigantic castings on the Nilgiri Mountains—Castings ejected in all countries.


52–120

CHAPTER III.
THE AMOUNT OF FINE EARTH BROUGHT UP BY WORMS TO THE SURFACE.

Rate at which various objects strewed on the surface of grass-fields are covered up by the castings of worms—The burial of a paved path—The slow subsidence of great stones left on the surface—The number of worms which live within a given space—The weight of earth ejected from a burrow, and from all the burrows within a given space—The thickness of the layer of mould which the castings on a given space would form within a given time if uniformly spread out—The slow rate at which mould can increase to a great thickness—Conclusion.


121–163

CHAPTER IV.
THE PART WHICH WORMS HAVE PLAYED IN THE BURIAL OF ANCIENT BUILDINGS.

The accumulation of rubbish on the sites of great cities independent of the action of worms—The burial of a Roman villa at Abinger—The floors and walls penetrated by worms—Subsidence of a modern pavement—The buried pavement at Beaulieu Abbey—Roman villas at Chedworth and Brading—The remains of the Roman town at Silchester—The nature of the débris by which the remains are covered—The penetration of the tesselated floors and walls by worms—Subsidence of the floors—Thickness of the mould—The old Roman city of Wroxeter—Thickness of the mould—Depth of the foundations of some of the Buildings—Conclusion.


164–208

CHAPTER V.
THE ACTION OF WORMS IN THE DENUDATION OF THE LAND.

Evidence of the amount of denudation which the land has undergone—Sub-aerial denudation—The deposition of dust—Vegetable mould, its dark colour and fine texture largely due to the action of worms—The disintegration of rocks by the humus-acids—Similar acids apparently generated within the bodies of worms—The action of these acids facilitated by the continued movement of the particles of earth—A thick bed of mould checks the disintegration of the underlying soil and rocks.  Particles of stone worn or triturated in the gizzards of worms—Swallowed stones serve as mill-stones—The levigated state of the castings—Fragments of brick in the castings over ancient buildings well rounded.  The triturating power of worms not quite insignificant under a geological point of view.


209–236

CHAPTER VI.
THE DENUDATION OF THE LAND—continued.

Denudation aided by recently ejected castings flowing down inclined grass-covered surfaces—The amount of earth which annually flows downwards—The effect of tropical rain on worm castings—The finest particles of earth washed completely away from castings—The disintegration of dried castings into pellets, and their rolling down inclined surfaces—The formation of little ledges on hill-sides, in part due to the accumulation of disintegrated castings—Castings blown to leeward over level land—An attempt to estimate the amount thus blown—The degradation of ancient encampments and tumuli—The preservation of the crowns and furrows on land anciently ploughed—The formation and amount of mould over the Chalk formation.


237–279

CHAPTER VII.
CONCLUSION.

Summary of the part which worms have played in the history of the world—Their aid in the disintegration of rocks—In the denudation of the land—In the preservation of ancient remains—In the preparation of the soil for the growth of plants—Mental powers of worms—Conclusion.


280–288



INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS
By Charles Darwin


CONTENTS
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS.
INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS.
CHAPTER I. DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA, OR THE COMMON SUN-DEW.
CHAPTER II. THE MOVEMENTS OF THE TENTACLES FROM THE CONTACT OF SOLID BODIES.
CHAPTER III. AGGREGATION OF THE PROTOPLASM WITHIN THE CELLS OF THE TENTACLES.
CHAPTER IV. THE EFFECTS OF HEAT ON THE LEAVES.
CHAPTER V. THE EFFECTS OF NON-NITROGENOUS AND NITROGENOUS ORGANIC FLUIDS ON THE LEAVES.
CHAPTER VI. THE DIGESTIVE POWER OF THE SECRETION OF DROSERA.
CHAPTER VII. THE EFFECTS OF SALTS OF AMMONIA.
CHAPTER VIII. THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS OTHER SALTS AND ACIDS ON THE LEAVES.
CHAPTER IX. THE EFFECTS OF CERTAIN ALKALOID POISONS, OTHER SUBSTANCES AND VAPOURS.
CHAPTER X. ON THE SENSITIVENESS OF THE LEAVES, AND ON THE LINES OF TRANSMISSION OF THE MOTOR IMPULSE.
CHAPTER XI. RECAPITULATION OF THE CHIEF OBSERVATIONS ON DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA.
CHAPTER XII. ON THE STRUCTURE AND MOVEMENTS OF SOME OTHER SPECIES OF DROSERA.
CHAPTER XIII. DIONAEA MUSCIPULA.
CHAPTER XIV. ALDROVANDA VESICULOSA.
CHAPTER XV. DROSOPHYLLUM—RORIDULA—BYBLIS—GLANDULAR HAIRS OF OTHER PLANTS—CONCLUDING REMARKS ON THE DROSERACEAE.
CHAPTER XVI. PINGUICULA.
CHAPTER XVII. UTRICULARIA.
CHAPTER XVIII. UTRICULARIA (continued).
CONCLUSION.
INDEX.



THE POWER OF MOVEMENT IN PLANTS
By Charles Darwin
Assisted By Francis Darwin


CONTENTS
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS.
THE MOVEMENTS OF PLANTS.
INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER I. THE CIRCUMNUTATING MOVEMENTS OF SEEDLING PLANTS.
CHAPTER II. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE MOVEMENTS AND GROWTH OF SEEDLING PLANTS.
CHAPTER III. SENSITIVENESS OF THE APEX OF THE RADICLE TO CONTACT AND TO OTHER IRRITANTS.
CHAPTER IV. THE CIRCUMNUTATING MOVEMENTS OF THE SEVERAL PARTS OF MATURE PLANTS.
CHAPTER V. MODIFIED CIRCUMNUTATION: CLIMBING PLANTS; EPINASTIC AND HYPONASTIC MOVEMENTS.
CHAPTER VI.MMODIFIED CIRCUMNUTATION: SLEEP OR NYCTITROPIC MOVEMENTS, THEIR USE: SLEEP OF COTYLEDONS.
CHAPTER VII. MODIFIED CIRCUMNUTATION: NYCTITROPIC OR SLEEP MOVEMENTS OF LEAVES.
CHAPTER VIII. MODIFIED CIRCUMNUTATION: MOVEMENTS EXCITED BY LIGHT.
CHAPTER IX. SENSITIVENESS OF PLANTS TO LIGHT: ITS TRANSMITTED EFFECTS.
CHAPTER X. MODIFIED CIRCUMNUTATION: MOVEMENTS EXCITED BY GRAVITATION.
CHAPTER XI. LOCALISED SENSITIVENESS TO GRAVITATION, AND ITS TRANSMITTED EFFECTS.
CHAPTER XII. CONCLUDING REMARKS.





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