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Title: Harper's Round Table, July 28, 1896
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Harper's Round Table, July 28, 1896" ***

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[Illustration: HARPER'S ROUND TABLE]

Copyright, 1896, by HARPER & BROTHERS. All Rights Reserved.

       *       *       *       *       *

PUBLISHED WEEKLY. NEW YORK, TUESDAY, JULY 28, 1896. FIVE CENTS A COPY.

VOL. XVII.--NO. 874. TWO DOLLARS A YEAR.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration]

A THRESHER THRASHED.

BY DAWSON STEARNS.


"Talk about catching fish," remarked Walter Clay, in a phlegmatic and
yet rather sarcastic style, "it seems to me that Katie has caught one
now, if she never did before."

The youth addressed showed that he was more hot-tempered than his
companion, as his cheeks flushed and his eyes danced angrily for an
instant when the comprehension of his friend's double meaning flashed
upon him.

"Oh, stop punning, and look out for that line, quick!" was the sharp
reply.

"Better mind your helm, or you'll have your boom gybe, if this lovely
fish doesn't gybe it for you, my boy," retorted Walter, as his attention
was more closely called to the line he was paying out, as he stood near
the weather-bow and watched carefully ahead.

The boys were in a cat-boat of comfortable build, heading toward the
mouth of Long Island Sound, close-hauled on the port tack, Brentons Reef
Light-ship a mile or more off on the weather-quarter, and a breeze so
true and sternly that they felt no uneasiness about getting back to
Newport before sundown if they devoted most of the afternoon to sport.
The boat was named the _Katie_, and was owned by the young man at the
helm, Harry Main, who had chosen the name and had it painted in neat
letters on her stern with the consent of one who did not hesitate to
acknowledge the flattery of the compliment. Hence his companion's
good-natured play upon it, as well as intimation of the important aspect
of the present occasion.

The _Katie_ was a very weatherly craft, as well as a good sailer, and
was highly prized by her young owner; in fact, she was a prize. The boat
had been built to his special order by one of the most experienced of
cat-boat constructors, after many long consultations with his _fidus
Achates_ and constant chum Walter, as well as the benefit of
professional advice, and the sanction of his father, who footed the
bills in redemption of a promise made if Harry attained a certain record
at his college examinations. The record had been made through faithful
work, the prize had been earned, and the boys were now right heartily
enjoying the fruit of their labors in the summer vacation. Little wonder
that their good fortune was envied by many, and that their popularity
was in no small degree enhanced by the nautical tone acquired through
their amateur sailorizing, while their manliness was increased, lung
power developed, brains brightened, complexions enriched, and muscles
toughened by the glow of such healthful exercise and invigorating
pastime.

That morning the boys had started out for bluefish, their boat equipped
with outriggers to facilitate the handling of the lines, as is
customary; and with reefed sail, to prevent the gaining of too much
headway, they were making a fair catch, when a tremendous splashing in
the water ahead and rapidly nearing them attracted their attention. It
was soon seen that the commotion, whatever it might be due to, was
frightening away the fish, and indignation took the place of
satisfaction on the part of the fishermen. Watching the disturbance in
the water as it drew nearer, the boys could soon make out that it was
caused by some monster of the deep, and presently resounding slaps on
the surface of the Sound could be plainly distinguished with the
creature's tail, making a noise and splashing as though a massive plank
were dropped flat side into the water fairly from a height. This was
done not only once, but many times, the reports sometimes resembling
gun-shots, and indicating that more monsters than one were causing the
racket.

"Whales fighting!" suggested Harry.

"No; not big enough; they're closer than you think," said Walter, as he
stood with his hand shading his eyes, intently watching them.

"Not sharks, eh? Horse-mackerel, I guess, or sturgeon," rapidly
conjectured Harry.

"Great Scott! No, old man--threshers, as you're a sinner!" concluded
Walter, decisively. "And there's a whole school of 'em. Look out for
your lines!"

But even as the truth flashed upon him his caution was too late, for one
of the threshers dashed alongside, sweeping it clear of lines and
leaving them afar off, as the school proceeded to gambol in a new
direction.

"This is interesting, but I don't think it will pay as well as
bluefish," remarked Walter; and even as he spoke another line on the
opposite side went with a snap, as the fish scurried off with a
vindictive splash of his mighty caudal appendage.

"Let's make it pay!" ejaculated Harry, quick to resolve.

"Capital idea, my boy! Will you kindly elucidate your proposition?"
inquired Walter, as he ruefully gathered in some wreckage of bluefishing
gear.

"Why," said Harry, "let's make over to Brentons Reef Light-ship, and see
if we can't get some shark hooks and bait from the crew, and capture one
of the beggars."

"We might try it," said Walter, contemplatively. "Those piratical
splashers certainly have assumed too much audacity to suit my
equanimity, and they deserve to be punished. Well, get her around, and
we'll run over to the light-ship and see."

It was always the quick brain of Harry that planned such expeditions,
and as the _Katie_ made good time on her course he eagerly pictured the
heroic effect of capturing a thresher and towing it to port. Walter
Clay, always willing for any sort of adventure that was not too reckless
for a fair chance of safety, and warranted not to get "rattled," but
preserve his good-nature and presence of mind under all circumstances,
carefully arranged the details of the proposed venture. The men on the
light-ship happened to have just such gear as was required for the
purpose, and willingly lent it, including a cable's-length (120 fathoms)
of stanch half-inch hemp line coiled in a tub, and a big shark-hook with
several feet of chain, as well as some chunks of salt pork for bait.
They likewise informed the boys that the threshers were probably the
same school that had been reported the day before as greatly interfering
with the fishermen off on Montauk Shoal.

Specimens of the genuine thresher-shark indeed these creatures
were--those _Alopias vulpes_, or sea-foxes, the dorsal lobes of whose
tails are nearly as long as the rest of their bodies, and are used in
splashing the surface of the water to aid in securing their prey of
small fish. Exceedingly grotesque in appearance they seemed sometimes,
the upper lobe of the long tail curving upwards and resembling in form
the blade of a scythe. One of the men on the light-ship said he had
always heard them called "swingle-tails," and also volunteered the
information that the biggest he had ever seen was one caught at Marion,
Massachusetts, in November, 1864, which measured thirteen feet long and
weighed about 400 pounds. Some people believed that they attacked
whales, but he had seen them all up and down the North Atlantic coast,
as well as in the Mediterranean and off California, and "in all his
going to sea he had never found a whale yet that wouldn't laugh at a
thresher." The most damage they did was to fishermen's nets and lines.

The threshing and splashing of the fish had attracted the attention of a
great flock of gulls as the boys headed the _Katie_ once more toward the
scene of activity; and in the bright sunlight, with the glinting
slippery bodies of some of the threshers almost constantly visible, the
spray flying, and the bead-eyed sea-birds fluttering and watching
overhead, the picture was rather a thrilling one. They were both
determined enough in their intentions, yet when they actually arrived
upon the scene and a thresher of apparently abnormal size rushed to meet
them with a resounding slap of his tail upon the surface of the water
that sent the foam flying skyward and seemed like a laughing defy to
their plans, even the cool-blooded Walter began to feel a little
excitement.

This selfsame thresher lost no time in making good his challenge, but
swallowed the bait, and ran off with it away to windward so rapidly that
it seemed as if he were going to tow the boat, which was again got full
and by on the port tack. Walter was now paying out the line as slowly as
he could, with a turn under a belaying-pin, as he made the first remark
recorded in this sketch. But it soon became evident that something would
have to be done if they did not wish to be towed to sea, so Harry ported
his helm to let the boat fall off and endeavor to check the creature in
its mad career. As the wind came more abeam, however, so did the shark,
and instead of making leeway, the attraction to windward was so powerful
that the situation looked almost dangerous, and as if the only way to
counteract the shark's tow-line was to let it over the stem with a free
sheet. It was just a question, however, whether even then the boat might
not be drawn astern, and Walter was actively considering the
advisability of cutting the line, when all at once the fish took a turn
and once more made toward them.

"Head her up again, quick!" shouted Walter. "Down your helm. He's
coming!"

The boat had fortunately way enough to bring her quickly up into the
wind as Harry shoved his tiller hard over to starboard and hauled in his
sheet, then jumped to help his friend get in the slack of the line as
the infuriated monster dashed toward them. He was not a moment too soon.
Had the boat not changed direction and forged ahead a little the wildly
rushing thresher would have struck it a terrific blow on the
port-quarter. As it was, he passed the boys with a leap clear out of
water that sent a tremendous splash of spray in their faces, and just
missed the boom as he dived astern. It was a thrilling moment; but,
indeed, the whole affair, from the time the shark first swallowed the
bait, seemed to have happened in less time than one could tell it.

"By jingo!" cried Walter. "What's he going to do next?"

They had not long to wait for a reply. Circling around to seaward, the
thresher repeated exactly the same manoeuvre, this time a streak of
bloody foam following in his wake. The boys had all they could do to
handle the boat in consonance with the shark's movements. As he madly
rushed ahead, the line began to smoke from its friction with the rail at
the velocity it paid out, and Harry again had to leave his helm to bail
water and pour it upon the hempen coils, so quickly snaking out, with
the threat of possible disaster when the tub should be emptied. Walter's
hands were burned and blistered and raw in spots from contact with the
flying line, in a vain endeavor this time to grasp it and get a turn
around a pin. The fish went too fast. The boys looked at each other, too
excited to speak, as they glanced at the rapidly emptying tub and the
flying streak of blue foam ahead. Another instant and the line was all
paid out. The last coil of it swirled over the side as they both grasped
the tub with all their might to see if they could hold it. The end of
the line was made fast to the tub. It might have been a dangerous thing
to do, for if the line had parted under the strain, and hit one of them
a blow with its rebounding end, it would have been a severe one. But
fortunately this shark felt the check, and with a mighty splash he
turned again and made back towards them.

"Haul in and coil down for all you're worth!" commanded Walter, as he
heaved a sigh of relief, and applied his bleeding hands vigorously to
getting the slack of the line inboard again.

The shark did not come toward them so directly as before, and the boat
had not so much way on, so that they were able to finally get the line
taut and a turn taken beneath a pin again. The strain was maintained
anxiously for a few minutes, when the thresher took another sudden rush
for their port-quarter. With all the vigor acquired by his momentary
rest he leaped again clear out of water, and as the boys rapidly hauled
in the line a strange thing happened. The strain came suddenly upon the
leaping thresher, and brought such a snapping jaw upon his jaws that he
actually turned a complete somersault in the air before he sank again
beneath the surface astern, and as the line paid out once more the sweat
streamed from the faces and bodies of the daring fisher-lads.

"We can't keep this up," said Walter, as he hugged his sore hands.

"What can we do?" questioned Harry.

The question was answered by the tooting of a naphtha-launch's whistle.
The crew of the light-ship had been watching the _Katie_ through
glasses, and divining their predicament, had hailed a passing yacht,
which promptly sent the launch to see the fun and assist if necessary.
The assistance was gladly welcomed, and after a spirited pull and a vast
amount of powerful splashing in his dying agonies, the thresher was
finally got alongside and the death-blow given with a boat-hook. The
boys sailed back to Newport with jubilant hearts, and their prize in
tow. He was a monster of his species, measuring nearly fourteen feet
from tip to tip. And the sea-gulls followed them home with cheering
screams!



THE SUMMER ANGEL.


Everybody knows what the funny man in the daily newspapers means by the
"summer girl."

She is supposed to be a giddy and frivolous creature who wears mannish
or boyish clothes. She is not a fine young woman. If she has noble and
womanly traits, she is supposed to pack them away carefully in tar-paper
and camphor with her furs for winter use at home.

Sometimes she is amusing. Often she is pretty and bright. She is always
stylish.

It was such a description that happened to fall into the hands of a real
summer girl who sat leaning against a rock basking in the sun at a
mountain resort, and it set her to thinking.

She had been coming to this same place ever since she could remember,
and the people of the little village on the mountain-side had seen her
growing, like a tall rare flower of the conservatory, taller and
handsomer each year. They had watched her pass their doors, but they had
not known her.

It happened that she had been reading a description of the summer girl
as wearing just such a hat and gown as hers--"nobby," and "fetching,"
and "chic." She had the same piquant face, and was said to pass like an
annual vision of beauty before the delighted eyes of the poor mountain
folk whom she had seen all her life and did not know.

This was all, but it startled her. It was as if the writer had known
her--from the outside. Of course he didn't know her true heart and her
refined inward nature, else he wouldn't have made her talk slang and
paint her face. No, it was only an accidental likeness. But it set her
to thinking, and while she thought her eyes happened to fall upon the
door of a log cabin upon the mountain-side beneath her. The cabin was
unpainted, poor, and shabby.

An old woman sat at the door sewing. A lame boy was coming up the walk
from the village of the summer cottagers. He carried two empty pails in
his hands, and he limped. He had been carrying milk to the summer
people--probably to her own home.

She suddenly realized that she had always seen this boy here, and that
he seemed never to have grown. He looked now as he had looked certainly
for seven years. For the first time in her life this pathetic little
crippled figure stood out before her as a real living, human person; not
only a part of the summer landscape, like a gnarled and stunted tree,
but a living, breathing, suffering, human creature, who was patiently
living his poor life, carrying buckets of milk down the mountain, and
trudging slowly back, day after day, year after year.

What was his name, his story? How came the ugly hump upon his narrow
back? Were the people in the log cabin his own kindred? Were they good
to him?

Why had she never wondered before, and found out? So in the breast of a
real, sweet womanly summer girl awoke a new interest in the humble
people of the mountain.

When she finally rose and started homeward she took the long foot-path
leading past the mountaineer's door. She paid the old woman, who still
sat patching, a real visit, and when she left she was asked to call
again. So began the first of a number of humble friendships.

The "boy" with the hump she discovered to be forty years old, but he was
still a child, for the illness that had deformed his body had laid a
blight upon his mind too. Ho could carry the milk-buckets and bring the
cows, and he could sing. He could even remember from summer to summer,
and after a while he knew who it was who sent him pictures of beautiful
things and a warm coat, and had been teaching him slowly to learn to
read. Indeed, it was he who first called her the "summer angel," but he
only half knew what he was saying. She looked like his ideal of an
angel, and she came every summer. And the name, once given, clung to
her.

So, in one instance, began to develop one of the sweetest types of the
summer girl. She is not the one the funny man likes to describe, but
there are many of her, and her number is growing.

In many poor little country villages the coming of the sweet, healthy,
and helpful summer girl means the coming of new life and new interests
to the village folk, who know the great world only through its summer
representatives. There are more girls than boys who go to summer towns,
because many boys have duties in the city.

If every summer-girl would resolve that to some one, at least, she would
come as a summer angel, brightening and helping, what joy would the
season bring? Her helpfulness may be of any kind whatever. It may be
lending books or papers to such people as scarcely ever have them, or
reading to some old person in a busy household.

A dozen wide-awake clever girls who are banded together can accomplish
wonders. They can get up tableaux in the hotel parlor or farm-house
sitting-room, charging from ten to twenty-five cents admittance to raise
money to buy a horse for the old coachman, whose horse has just died.
They might even help to cure a lame horse or dog on his own account, if
they are real summer angels. They can send magazines all the year round
to special "shut-in" people whom they discover.

They can have a very good time among themselves too. They can compare
and exchange specimens of pressed wild flowers or sea-weeds or shells.
They can write to the ROUND TABLE, and tell what they are doing, and
perhaps their letters, if they are fairly well written, and show a
serious purpose, will be printed. Then others may join the "summer
sisterhood," and form small circles in out-of-the-way places.

  RUTH MCENERY STUART.



THE CARE OF A DOG.

BY JAMES STEELE.


There are dogs and dogs, of course, and while some members of the canine
family are gifted with the capacity of looking after themselves, because
they cannot help it, and to all appearances thrive well when combating
hardships, a good dog is worth all the care and trouble that his master
may choose to expend upon him. This article is not intended to tell how
to rear delicate dogs, but simply to give an idea how to make your
canine friend and companion more happy and contented, and to give him a
start in life.

In looking to his comfort, the first thing to take up is the dog's home.
Every one is familiar with the little house to which is attached a poor,
unhappy specimen of the dog tribe, with a heavy collar about his neck
and a jangling chain that admits of a few feet of freedom and is
suggestive of confinement. Now, bear this in mind, no dog is happy when
chained up; thus we take up the kennel first.

Dogs are liable to many ailments that afflict human beings. Rheumatism
is a common disease with them, and they suffer from cold and heat and
lack of shade and warmth quite as much as they suffer from lack of
proper food and drink. Thus a dog owner is responsible for his dog's
health, and this means a great deal, for if a human being's good spirits
depend upon the way they feel, surely a dog's do also.

A kennel's first essential should be dryness; next, warmth and
ventilation. To secure all this, the floor of a dog-house should always
be raised off the ground. Especially is this true where the dog is young
or in the state of puppyhood. Dampness is his foe. A good idea is to
have the dog-house elevated at least six inches, and have the opening
front upon the exercising yard, where the dog can have plenty of room to
play and jump about without being hampered by a fraying, dangling chain.

[Illustration: END VIEW OF HOUSE.]

Although we learn from the old adage that "dogs delight to bark and
bite," this is not true. The dog is naturally gregarious, and loves
companionship of his own kind. Therefore, two dogs are happier than one.
If they are allowed to be together continually, each appears to adapt
himself to the other's disposition, and it is only those who seldom meet
their kind that love to fight.

We will suppose that a kennel is to be built for one dog, for instance.
He should have a yard of at least fifteen feet square to run about in,
and opening on this should be a dog-house with two entrances, that could
be shut in case of cold weather.

[Illustration: DOG-HOUSE AND YARD, WITH WIRE FOR HITCHING.]

Fleas are the great enemies of a dog's comfort. The poor beast, whose
thoughts and actions are interrupted constantly by a desire to scratch
or nibble fruitlessly at the irritating little enemy to peace, is to be
pitied. A great deal can be done, in constructing a dog-house, to do
away with the pest. If possible, the floor and sides of the house itself
should be made of good red cedar. For some reason, dogs domiciled in
houses made or lined with this wood are almost entirely free from fleas,
and this is a good thing to keep in mind.

It does not pay to give a dog hay or straw to sleep on, and old carpets
or blankets should not appear in any well-regulated kennel. Appended are
diagrams and drawings of a house and yard for one dog. It can be
enlarged or diminished, as may be necessary.

There is not space in this article to go into the subject of dogs'
diseases and ailments. If a dog is ill, he needs a physician as much as
you or I. In his puppyhood he is liable to distemper and mange--the
childish diseases that carry off so many of his kind. But once safely
through them, if he is well looked after, he can count upon a happy
existence of from ten to twelve years if his master is kind and
considerate.

Now let us suppose that the dog or dogs, whose proper care and bringing
up we are to treat of, are of that intelligent and useful class known as
sporting or hunting dogs, setters or pointers, and there are no finer
kinds to have about even if their owner does not possess a gun or lives
far from a game country. It is these dogs' first and natural instinct to
have their attention arrested by the peculiar scent that attaches itself
to game birds and animals. Most sporting dogs have to be taught to
discriminate and to learn that chickens and sparrows are things to be
left alone, however.

Now, to bring up a dog successfully his master should study the animal's
character and individuality, and adapt himself to him the way a teacher
should try to adapt himself to a pupil's natural gifts. There are
ambitious dogs, bright dogs, lazy dogs, and dunces, and to make anything
of the last requires both time and patience. It is a good dog's natural
instinct to endeavor to please his master; he is conscious of the
encouragement of praise, and knows well when he has not done his duty.
It is firmly believed by many that dogs have a conscience, and proof is
not wanting to substantiate this theory.

Truly, a dog has many attributes that we must admire--affection,
constant and lasting; a sense of duty and responsibility; a devotion
that triumphs over fear and pain; and a loyalty that never swerves. He
may admit of friends and acquaintances, but if he is a proper dog he
knows but one lord and master, and but one person does the well-brought
up dog serve with all his heart.

Let us take a puppy and bring him up in the way he should go. He comes
to you a little, good-natured, roly-poly thing, with a wide grin and an
uncertain gait, and absolute unconsciousness that he may be of any use
or value, the same as a child. You can do almost anything with him if he
is a bright puppy. He can be taught to fetch and carry in a dozen
lessons. It is his instinct to chase a ball and to tear everything to
pieces with his sharp little teeth. His one idea is to have a good time
and eat more than is good for him. But now we must take care of his
health first, and then show that if he chases a ball it is not to chew
it up, but to bring it back to you; that he must not tear things to
pieces, for fear of a punishment, and that if he eats things he should
not, he is filled with a consciousness that he is doing wrong. No puppy
should ever feel hungry. With an old dog it is different; he has stopped
growing. It is better to have a dog that has attained his full growth
underfed than to give him all that he can eat. Milk and bread, or a
little corn meal and a little finely chopped meat, should be given to a
puppy, and plenty of it; but if you would have a healthy, wide-awake,
grown-up dog, feed him sparingly. One meal a day is all-sufficient; more
than that is unnecessary to his health. Prepared dog's food, made in the
way of biscuit, is easy to procure. One of these a day, broken up into
small bits, will keep a dog in excellent condition. Once a week he may
be given a small amount of cooked meat or a mess of porridge and
potatoes. Occasionally a bone for him to gnaw on should be given him as
a tidbit, but no mess of scraps or chicken bones or fat-inducing things
should be allowed him under any circumstances, unless he has been
working hard in the field and is in for a day's work on the morrow. A
dog should have all the water that he wishes to drink, and it is a good
thing to have in the bottom of the pan a small bit of sulphur as large
as the end of one's thumb.

By every means his acquaintance should be cultivated, and it should be
impressed upon his mind that to his owner he owes everything. If
possible, feed him yourself. Give him to understand that you are the one
who lets him have his liberty, and whose whistle he must obey.

Never be too familiar with a young dog. He must have a certain respect,
not necessarily a fear of you; but he must learn to obey. Any
intelligent puppy will learn his name in a few lessons. Once you have
given it to him, never change it. Mind you this--when he has once
recognized _you_ as being his master, his one idea is to please you and
to deserve a pat on the head and a word of praise. Never tussle with him
with a stick, and never deceive him under any pretence. More dogs have
been spoiled by their masters not playing fair with them than one could
reckon. Be honest with your dog, and he will be honest with you.

If you possess a gun, and your dog is of that kind which has inherited
the scent for game, the first thing to teach him is to fetch and
carry--that is, to retrieve--and this without chewing or mutilating the
object which he brings. A way to break a dog of this is to take an old
glove, put a few tacks with the points extending outward, and fill it
full of cotton. He will find that by picking it up gently he can carry
it without discomfort, while if he attempts to worry it the consequences
are not agreeable. This lesson is much better for him than any amount of
whipping, and he will remember it much longer.

[Illustration: LEARNING TO LOCATE A BIRD WITHOUT FLUSHING IT.]

If you wish to shoot over your dog, the next thing is to make him find
the bird. To do this, the best way is to procure a live quail, which can
easily be had from any bird-fancier; put it in a small cage and show it
to the pup, warning him not to touch it. Then conceal the cage in a
copse of fern or grass, and bring him carefully in that direction. Never
let him nearer than within four or five feet of it; then speak to him
encouragingly. Under the influence of your words, he will become all
attention, and a dog thus properly broken will never "flush a covey,"
unless he runs into, them by accident or when he is carried away by
excitement, under which circumstances he will show contrition.

[Illustration: PLAN OF KENNEL.]



A VIRGINIA CAVALIER.[1]

[1] Begun in HARPER'S ROUND TABLE No. 868.

BY MOLLY ELLIOT SEAWELL.

CHAPTER VII.


Inside, Greenway Court was not devoid of comfort, and even of luxury.
The main hall was open to the roof, and, like all the rooms in the
house, the rafters were left bare, and the walls roughcast in a sort of
brown plaster not unpleasant to the eye. In every room there was a huge
fireplace with great iron fire-dogs. In some of the guest-chambers were
the vast curtained beds of the period, but in Lord Fairfax's own room
was a small iron bedstead that he had used in his campaigns when a young
man. His library communicated with his bedroom, and was by far the most
luxurious room in the whole quaint building. It was lined with books
from the floor to the low ceiling--George had never seen so many books
in all his life before. There were also a few portraits and one or two
busts. Over the mantel two swords were crossed--one a cavalry sword, and
the other a delicate rapier, such as officers in the foot-regiments used
at that day. George's eyes fell upon them as soon as he and the Earl
entered the room.

"The sword was the one I had the honor to use in my campaigns under
Marlborough, and the rapier"--here Lord Fairfax smiled a little--"I had
concealed about me when I entered Boucham in disguise."

After supper was over, Lance showed George into a room with one of the
gigantic four-posters in it. The floor was covered with bear-skins, and
Billy was instructed to roll himself up in them for a bed, which he did
with much satisfaction, with Rattler on top of him, as soon as George
was in bed, which was not long in being accomplished.

Next morning George was up and around early, looking about the place. He
had never seen the mountains before, and was deeply impressed by their
grandeur.

The scenery was even more striking in the blaze of the morning light
than he had supposed. On every side, beyond the valley, giant peaks rose
into the blue air, covered with vegetation to the very top. He
understood then the profusion of bear-skins in the house, and thought
what fine sport might be had in tracking big game through the deep
gorges and dark forests of the region. Lance came up to him as he stood
on the broad stone steps drinking in the wild beauty of the scene, and
inhaling the keen sharp air, so unlike the softness of the lowland
atmosphere.

"There is great sport hereabouts, Lance," cried George.

"Yes, sir; bears and Injuns, mostly--and rattlesnakes in season. Did you
ever eat bear-meat, Mr. Washington?"

"No," answered George; "but I have been told it is fine. And how about
the Indians?" he asked, smiling.

"Injuns and rattlesnakes have their seasons together," answered Lance,
with a grim smile, in reply. "They and their French friends generally
keep pretty close this time of year. I don't know which I would rather
receive--the French and Injuns coming as friends or enemies. Sometimes
half a dozen of 'em turn up, usually in the summer, the French always
pretending to be traders, or something of that sort, and they bring two
or three Injun bucks with them--to carry their luggage, they say: but
who ever saw an Injun carrying anything but a firelock--if he can get
one? They always profess to belong to a peaceable tribe; but that's all
in my eye, sir. They hang about for a day or two, asking for fresh meat
or vegetables, and making out that they don't know how to get across the
mountains, and all the time the French are drawing maps in their
note-books, and the Injuns making maps in their heads; for, Mr.
Washington, your Injun is full of horse-sense about some things. He
can't look ahead, or plan, or wait--all the Injuns in North America
couldn't have taken Bouchain--but for killing people quick and sure, I
don't know of any soldiers quite so good as Injuns. The French, sir,
have a regular plan in all their expeditions here. The last party that
turned up got me talking about the way we had repulsed the redskins--for
we have stood a siege or two, sir. For answer I took the Frenchmen
inside the house. I showed them that we had water, the source of which
was hidden; I showed them a regular magazine, all bricked up in the
cellar, and an arsenal next my lord's room, and another cellar-room full
of dried provisions; and then I showed them two swivels, with a plenty
of suitable shot, and I said to them, very plain spoken:

"'If you come to Greenway Court, you'll have to bring artillery with
you; you can't starve us out, and to take it will cost you more than it
comes to.'

"So I think the Frenchies know better than to trouble us. But I am not
so sure of the Injuns. They have not good heads on their shoulders about
campaigns, and they don't see that it is not worth their while to
trouble us; and I would not be surprised any night to find a lot of
skulking savages around here, trying to burn us out."

George was deeply interested in this account, but at that moment
breakfast was announced, and he went in-doors.

The large low hall was used as a dining-room, the table being drawn
close to the fire. Lord Fairfax was already there, and breakfast was
soon despatched.

"I hope, George," said the Earl, as they rose from the table, "that you
have the excellent habit of learning something every day. As a
beginning, you may have Lance's services every morning for two hours to
teach you fencing--not only with the rapier, but the sword exercise on
horseback and afoot. It is not only well for you, as you intend entering
a military life, to know this, but it is the finest exercise possible
for the muscles and the eye, and also in the art of keeping one's
temper. I shall expect you to become proficient in this noble art."

"I'll try, sir," was George's modest answer.

Lord Fairfax then led the way to the room which Lance had called the
arsenal. Here were all manner of arms; quaint old arquebuses and
matchlocks, every sort of pistol then in use, fowling-pieces, and on a
rack in a corner two dozen serviceable modern muskets, shining and
polished, and evidently ready for use; then there were rapiers and
small-swords and broadswords and claymores and strange curved Turkish
scimitars. George's eyes glittered with delight as he examined all these
curious and interesting things. Presently Lance entered, and Lord
Fairfax left the room. George soon found that this room and its contents
were the old soldier's pride. He had some interesting story to tell
about every weapon in the collection, but George cut him short with a
request to begin his fencing-lesson. Lance took down the foils and
masks, and, while examining them, said, "Mr. Washington, what do you
think is the first and greatest thing a man must have to learn to be a
good fencer?"

"Courage," replied George.

"Courage is necessary; but no man ever learned fencing by being
courageous."

"Swiftness, dexterity, keeping your eyes wide open--"

"All of them are necessary too, sir; but the great thing is good temper.
If you lose your temper and fly into a passion, your adversary has you
at his mercy. I never saw a man with an ungovernable temper that I
couldn't knock the blade out of his hand in five minutes."

George's face fell at this.

"I am afraid, Lance," he said, "that I have a very quick temper, and a
very high temper."

"Do you let it run away with you, sir?" asked Lance, passing his foil
through his fingers.

"Sometimes," answered George, dejectedly; "though I have never fallen
into a passion before my mother, or any woman, since I was a little boy,
because it is certainly not gentlemanlike to be violent where ladies
are--'tis a gross insult to them, of which I would not be guilty."

"Well, sir," continued Lance, still critically examining his foil, "if
you can do so much out of respect for ladies, I should think you could
do a little more out of respect for yourself, and keep your temper
always."

The red blood poured into George's face at this, and his angry eyes
seemed to emit blue sparks. Lance, who was really nothing but a servant,
daring to speak to him like that! He straightened himself up, and, in a
manner that showed he had not belied himself, fixed on the old soldier a
look of concentrated rage. Lance returned the look steadily. Though
nominally a servant, he was a tried and trained soldier, and not to be
awed by the wrath of this splendid stripling. As Lance continued to
gaze at him the expression in George's face slowly changed; the color
died away, leaving him paler than usual, and his eyes softened. He said
nothing, but after a pause, which meant a struggle and a victory over
himself, he held out his hand for the foil. Lance, with a respectful
bow, handed it to him, and began the lesson.

The old soldier found his pupil just what might have been
expected--powerful, alert, with a wonderful quickness of the eye, and of
great natural grace and agility, but impetuous and passionate, and quite
unable to stand on the defensive. His temper rose, too, at the first
lunge he made, and although he controlled it perfectly as regarded his
words, never showing the slightest chagrin in his language, yet Lance
could see that his pupil was angry from the beginning. It placed him at
an immediate disadvantage. His foil flew out of his hand when he
determined to grip it the hardest, and for the first time in his life he
attempted a manly exercise and failed in it. This did not sweeten his
temper, and when the lesson--a long one--closed, he was mortified and
vexed to the last degree. Nevertheless, he thanked Lance, and, seizing
his jacket and hat, rushed out of doors, feeling that he must be alone
with his wrath and chagrin. Lance put up the foils and musks with a
queer look in his eyes.

"He will learn something besides the use of the sword in fencing," he
said to himself.

Outside, George pursued his way along a path up the mountain-side, his
rage cooling, and growing more and more ashamed of himself. He thought
highly of Lance, and was troubled at showing before him so much anger
over a trifle; for trifle it was he realized. An hour's brisk walking
brought his pulses down, and he presently retraced his steps down the
mountain. He was not in the mood to observe much, though he walked back
rather slowly. He reached the house at one o'clock, just as Lord Fairfax
came out of his study to dinner. The table was laid as usual in the
hall. Behind the Earl's place stood Lance, while Billy's head just
peered above George's chair.

"And how did you get on with your fencing-lesson?" was Lord Fairfax's
first question.

"Very poorly, sir, I am afraid," answered George, blushing a little. "I
lost my temper, and felt as if I were fighting instead of exercising,
and so I did not succeed very well."

Lord Fairfax laughed one of his peculiar, silent laughs.

"You are not the first young man who has done that. When I was a youth I
was a very ungovernable one, and I remember chasing a fencing-master,
who was giving me a lesson, through the streets of London until I came
to myself, and was glad to call a hackney-coach and hide. A skilful
adversary will very often test your temper in the beginning, and make
some exasperating remark, which, in effect, renders your sword-arm
powerless; for an angry man may be a fierce swordsman, but he can never
be a skilful one."

George's eyes opened very wide indeed. He glanced at Lance, but the old
soldier wore a perfectly impenetrable front. So that was why Lance made
so free in his remarks! George reflected some moments, and came to the
private conclusion that one could learn a great deal more in fencing
than the art of attack and defence.

In the afternoon saddle-horses were brought, and Lord Fairfax and George
started for a long ride over the mountains. Although the Earl was not,
and never had been, so familiar with the woods and fields, and the
beasts and birds, and every living thing which inhabited them, as his
young companion, he displayed stores of information which astonished and
delighted the boy. He explained to him that the French and the English
were engaged in a fierce contest for a great empire, of which the
country around them was the battle-field; that the lines of demarcation,
north and south, were very well defined; but that neither nation would
commit itself to any boundaries on the east and west, and consequently
the best part of the continent was in dispute. He gave George the
geography of the country as it was then understood, and showed him what
vast interests were involved in the planting of a single outpost of the
French. For himself, the King had granted him all the land between the
Potomac and the Rappahannock, and as far west as his Majesty's dominions
went, which, as Lord Fairfax said, with a smile, were claimed to extend
to the Pacific Ocean. Only a small part of these lands had been
surveyed. He felt anxious to have the tract across the Alleghany
Mountains surveyed, as it was of importance to guard against the advance
of the French in that direction. He asked George if he had ever studied
surveying, and on George's saying that he had given considerable time to
it, and was fond of it, the Earl told him that there were fine
opportunities for a surveyor in this new country, and it would be a good
profession for George, provided he did not succeed in his ambition to
join the army or the navy.

"I will join either one, if I can, sir, in preference to any other
profession," was George's reply.

They reached home at dark, and found the cheerful welcome of a roaring
fire in the great hall awaiting them. At supper Lance, with a great
flourish, handed a dish to Lord Fairfax which George thought the most
uninviting he had ever seen--huge lumps of something burned black; but
the aroma was delicious. Seeing Lord Fairfax take one of the black
lumps, George courageously followed his example, and, attacking it,
found it perfectly delicious.

"Bears' paws generally taste better than they look," remarked Lord
Fairfax; and George remembered that Lance had told him there would be
bear meat for supper.

The evening was spent in the library, the Earl reading and writing. He
pointed out a smaller table than his own, in a corner, saying, "That is
for you to read and write at, and to keep your books and papers on."
George found writing materials on it, and, seating himself, wrote a long
letter to little Betty, and then wrote in his journal for his mother,
describing Billy's expedition, and that the boy was safe with him. He
then took a volume of the _Spectator_, and soon became absorbed in it.
Presently Lord Fairfax, who was watching him with pleased eyes, asked,

"What paper interests you so much, George?"

"I will read it to you, sir, if you care to hear it," George replied.

Lord Fairfax liked to be read to, and listened very gravely to the
reading. George laid down the book when the paper was finished, saying:
"There is no name at the end of it, sir. Most of them have Mr. Addison's
or Captain Steele's or Mr. Arbuthnot's or Mr. Pickell's or some other
name at the bottom, but this has none."

"I wrote that paper," remarked the Earl. "I had the honor of
contributing several papers to the _Spectator_; but while appreciating
the honor, I did not seek the notoriety of an author, and so, except to
a few persons, my writings are unknown."

George nearly dropped the book in his surprise, but he regarded Lord
Fairfax's attainments with greater respect than ever.

[Illustration: THE DAILY LESSON IN ARMS AT GREENWAY COURT.]

The next day and the next and the next were passed in much the same way,
only that George no more lost his temper in fencing or in any other way.
The instant he became cool and self-controlled he learned the science of
the sword with great rapidity. Every morning for two hours he and Lance
practised--sometimes in the arsenal, sometimes out-of-doors, when they
would go through the sword exercise on horseback.

Every day George grew fonder of the old soldier. He was a man of great
natural intelligence, and could talk most sensibly upon every subject
connected with the profession of arms. One thing he said remained fixed
in George's mind, and was recalled many years afterwards at a very
critical time. They were one morning at the stables, which were directly
at the back of the house, and were resting after a bout on horseback
with swords.

"Whenever there is a regular war against the Injuns, Mr. Washington, the
British troops will have to learn a new sort of fighting. Before this
they have never had to fight an enemy they could not see; but when it
comes to fighting Injuns in a country like this, where there is a man
with a gun behind every tree and rock, and where a thousand men can
march so that when you look at the path you would think less than a
hundred had passed over it, and when you are fighting an enemy that has
no ammunition-wagons or baggage-wagons or anything that travels on
wheels--I say, Mr. Washington, there will be a good many British
soldiers that will bite the dust before they find out how to fight these
red warriors--for warriors they are, sir. And though it is not for me,
that never was anything but a private soldier, to talk about officers,
yet I know that the English officers have got more to learn about
fighting in this country than the men have."

The hour came when all this returned to George with terrible force.

Within a few days after his arrival he had an opportunity to send his
letter to Betty and his journal to his mother. He was very anxious to
know how his mother would act on hearing of Billy's having taken French
leave. But it must be admitted that Billy was of small value to anybody
except George; and although Madam Washington, when she wrote, denounced
Billy's disobedience, laziness, and general naughtiness in strong terms,
she promised amnesty when he returned. George read this part of the
letter to Billy, whose only comment was very philosophic.

"Missis ain' gwi' trouble me, but I spect mammy and daddy will gimme a
whuppin'."

The prospect of the "whuppin'" did not affect Billy's happiness, who,
having much to eat and little to do, and the presence of Rattler and his
loved "Marse George," had all that was essential to his happiness.

The life was so altogether new to George, and the companionship of Lord
Fairfax so unlike any he had ever known before, that the boy's mind grew
and developed more in the weeks he spent at Greenway than in all his
previous life. For the first time he was treated as a man by a man, and
all at once it made a man of him. He began to think and act like a man
instead of a boy.

Lord Fairfax did not join him in his sports and hunting expeditions, but
he delighted to hear of them when George would return after a hard day's
tramp over the mountains in search of game. Proud was he the day he
returned after having shot his first bear--a splendid black specimen,
measuring over five feet from snout to tail. Old Lance, who had become a
skilful trapper, took the skin off, and cured it so cleverly that not an
inch of it was lost. This trophy George intended for his mother.

Every evening he spent in the library with Lord Fairfax, reading.
Sometimes it was a book of his own choice, and sometimes he read aloud
to the Earl, whose eyes were beginning to fail. Many of the books thus
read were classical authors and scientific treatises, neither of which
George had any natural fancy for. But he had the capacity to learn
something from everything, and the most valuable lesson he got from his
varied reading was the vast number of things of which he was ignorant
compared with the small number of things he knew. This made him
perfectly modest at all times.

As for Lord Fairfax, he felt himself daily growing more passionately
fond, in his quiet and restrained way, of the boy. He began to look
forward with apprehension to the time when he must again be alone--a
feeling he had never had before. He would gladly have kept George with
him always, and provided for his future; but he knew well enough that
Madam Washington would never give up this noble son of hers to anybody
in the world. And so the two lived together, drawing closer and closer
to each other, each of a silent, strong nature--the man of the world
wearied of courts and camps, and the boy in his white-souled youth
knowing nothing but the joy of living and the desire of living rightly,
and both were happy in their daily and hourly companionship.

[TO BE CONTINUED.]



CROSSING THE XUACAXÉLLA.

BY CAPTAIN CHARLES A. CURTIS, U. S. A.

III.


Frank dropped flat upon the earth, and began to work his way to the
cabin, taking every advantage of the inequality of the ground to screen
himself from observation. The opposite bank of the stream being lower
than ours, there was little danger of his being seen by the Indians,
unless some of them were in the branches of the cotton-woods. I saw him
arrive safely, and received a signal from Mr. Hopkins through a back
window. An instant later Mr. Baldwin looked out of the back door and
raised his hat. I was glad to see that his college career was still a
possibility.

Retracing my steps to the ambulance and escort, I caused the animals to
be grouped in charge of the driver and two soldiers, and with the rest
of the detail moved in the direction of the ranch buildings.

It had become so dark that we might possibly have passed over the open
space without being seen, but, for fear of accidents, we covered it on
all-fours. The first persons I met were Baldwin and Frank, who took me
to Mr. Hopkins. The ranchman greeted me with the assurance that the
arrival of my party was a Godsend, and had probably saved their scalps.

I learned that the men at Date Creek, including Baldwin, numbered seven;
that three were in the stable and four in the house. These buildings
stood the same distance from the stream, and forty feet apart. The bank
of the creek was perpendicular for nearly a mile either way, standing
fully twelve feet above the surface of the water; but there was a notch
with a sloping descent, midway between the buildings, down which the
live-stock was driven to water. This slope afforded the only practicable
point of attack, unless the Indians chose to move by one of the flanks
over a long level.

Mr. Hopkins said he had crept out to a shrub on the edge of the
precipitous river-bank to the left of the slope, just before my arrival,
and had seen on the opposite shore a small party of men moving through
the willow bushes to our left. He believed it was a flanking party
intending to make a feint from that direction, and enable the main body
to charge through the notch in the bank. Believing the repelling force
to number but seven, the Indians could but count upon the certain
success of such a movement. Their flanking party must be met, and to
meet it would reduce the defenders of the slope to a number not worth
considering.

I was convinced that Mr. Hopkins's inferences were correct; but in order
that no mistake should be made, I sent two veterans in frontier service,
Privates Clary and Hoey, to reconnoitre both flanks. They were gone half
an hour, and returned with the information that no demonstration was
being made towards our right, but that a dozen or more men had gathered
on the opposite shore at a point where they could cross and turn our
left flank.

Preparations to meet this movement were begun at once. Sergeant Frank
was sent to the ambulance with orders for the men left in charge to
bring in the animals, two at a time, and fasten them in rear of the
stable and stack. This was easily accomplished in the darkness. The
ambulance was left in charge of Vic.

While this was going on and I was overlooking the construction of
rifle-shelters on the flanks, Sergeant Henry approached and asked if he
could not be of some use. Something in the tone of the boy's voice
showed me he felt he had been neglected, while his brother had been
kept busy.

"What would you like to do?" I asked.

"Does a soldier choose his duty, sir?" was the reply, uttered with some
dignity.

"Not usually, Sergeant, it is true. I have a very important thing for
you to do--something for which I was just intending to look you up. Go
and find Clary, and tell him to help you carry several armfuls of hay
from the stack to the right of the slope. Make a heap, so that when it
is lighted it will illuminate the approach from the creek. Ask Mr.
Hopkins if he has any kerosene or other inflammable stuff to sprinkle on
the hay and make it flash up quickly. Then throw up a shelter in which
you can lie and be ready to light the hay when signalled.

"Yes, sir. Thank you. I'll attend to everything."

Not more than ten minutes had elapsed when the boy sergeant returned and
reported that the bundle of hay was placed and a shelter constructed.

"Mr. Hopkins has one gallon of axle grease," said he, "two quarts of
spirits of turpentine, and a pint of alcohol."

"Excellent. Mix the alcohol and turpentine, and sprinkle the liquid and
grease on the hay. Then place yourself in the shelter, and when you see
a light flash from the west window of the house light your bonfire."

"I'll do so, sir," and the boy ran away in the darkness.

Eight men were placed in each building, three on the threatened flank
and two on the other. An hour had passed after completing our
preparations, when we became aware of a considerable force approaching
from the left. In fact, the enemy took pains to have us know of this
movement by breaking into whoops, which we recognized to be those of the
terrible Apaches. Not a sound came from the creek. I strained my eyes in
that direction, eager to catch sight of any movement through the water
toward the slope. The pool before the notch in the bank was calm, and
the reflection of the starlit sky could be seen in its surface. On the
shore beyond nothing was visible in the black darkness beneath the
pendulous branches of the willows. At last I saw the fixed reflections
of the stars in the surface of the pool diffuse themselves into myriads
of sparkling atoms. A considerable body of Indians must be in the water,
but none were in sight. Yes; they were crossing in two columns, to the
right and left of the notch, concealed by the high shore, and would
shortly unite and charge up the slope. I sent Baldwin to the stable to
tell the men there that the Apaches were coming, and to be on the alert.

The whoops of the flanking party redoubled, and were accompanied by a
desultory firing, which the three men opposing them answered in the same
way. Then I saw the sparkling water of the pool cut off from my sight,
and knew that a body of men stood on the slope between us and the creek.

"Frank, show the light. Men, ready!"

[Illustration: EVERY RIFLE IN THE HANDS OF THE WHITE MEN IN THE TWO
BUILDINGS SPOKE.]

The lantern flashed from the window, quickly answered by a flash on the
bank, and a mass of red flame threw its luminous tresses skyward,
bathing the whole scene in light. In the notch, half-way up the slope,
stood a momentarily paralyzed group of nearly a hundred painted
warriors. Every rifle in the hands of the white men in the two buildings
spoke, and instantly the notch emptied itself pell-mell of its living
throng. Only a few prostrate bodies showed the Apaches had been there.

With the discharge of firearms a silence immediately fell upon the scene
in marked contrast to the shrieking and yelling of a moment before. The
bonfire burned low, and went out. Once more we were in darkness.

We believed the Indians would make no further demonstration; for the
manner of their late reception had shown them that the ranch had been
re-enforced. We waited nearly an hour, and then placing two-thirds of
our force on the crest of the river-bank, where they could command the
opposite side, I took the remaining third and forded the stream. We
scouted the bosque to some depth, and right and left for a considerable
distance. The Indians had gathered their dead and departed. Returning to
the ranch, sentinels were posted, the ambulance run in by hand, the
stock fed, and a midnight meal cooked.

While sitting by the camp-fire, listening to the sizzling of the bacon
and sniffing the aroma of the coffee, Mr. Hopkins introduced me to his
men and guests, and I heard an explanation of the tracks and blood at
Soldiers Holes.

Early that morning three gentlemen who had passed the night at the ranch
started for Prescott. They were a Mr. Gray, a Scotch merchant of La Paz;
Mr. Hamilton, a lawyer of the same place; and Mr. Rosenberg, a
freighter. When near the Holes, Mr. Hamilton, who was riding in advance,
was shot by Indians concealed in the sage-brush. Mr. Rosenberg's mule
was wounded, and plunged so that his rider fell to the ground. Mr. Gray,
seeing the plight of the freighter, rode to his side, seized him by the
collar, and aided him to leap to a seat behind him.

It is probable that this act of generous daring might have ended in the
death of both men, but for a diversion caused by the sudden appearance
of the military express-man. He came up a slope from a lower level, and
taking in the situation at a glance, let fly three shots from his
breech-loading carbine that caused the Indians to lie low. The three men
rode to the ranch, and Mr. Hopkins and his three men accompanied them to
bring in the body of Mr. Hamilton. The Indians did not begin to
concentrate at the creek until after the burial.

Supper being over, the boys and I were getting into our blankets for the
rest of the night, when Mr. Baldwin, who had been getting ready to
depart, came near to bid us good-by.

"I seem to take frequent leave of you these times, Lieutenant," said he.

"Yes; and your farewell ride with the Whipple mail seems to be anything
but monotonous. I think the Anabasis would be a more suitable subject
for study on this route than the Memorabilia."

"'Hence they proceeded one day's journey, a distance of five parasangs,
and fell in with the barbarians,' might well be said daily of this
trip."

"Hadn't you better travel with me the rest of the way?"

"I think this is the last we shall see of the Apaches; they do not range
south and west of here. Good-by, sir."

"Good-by, until we meet at Tysons Wells."

The next morning, when the boys, Vic and I, were taking our seats in the
ambulance, Mr. Hopkins and his men, Mr. Gray and Mr. Rosenberg,
approached us mounted. They informed me that all were going to La Paz.

"The Injins are gettin' a little too thick here for sleepin' well arter
a hard day's work," said the ranchman. "Think I'll stay away till Uncle
Sam thins 'em out a leetle more."

"Can I obtain a five or ten gallon keg of you, Mr. Hopkins?" I asked.
"Ours was accidentally smashed on the road."

"Haven't a keg to my name, Lieutenant. One way 'n' ernuther all been
smashed, gin way, or lent."

The ride from the ranch to the edge of the desert plain was twelve
miles, a portion of it over a rugged ridge. To the point where we were
to ford the creek was two miles, and there the hired men, pack-mules,
and ranch cattle turned off on the Bill Williams Fork route to the Rio
Colorado.

Once on the level of the Xuacaxélla our team broke into a brisk trot,
and we rolled along with a fair prospect of soon crossing the ninety
miles between the Date Creek Mountains and La Paz. Messrs. Gray,
Rosenberg, and Hopkins soon turned into a bridle-path which led into a
mine. Before taking leave of us Mr. Gray told me that my camping-place
for the night would be at the point of the third mountain spur which
jutted into the plain from the western range.

We had not travelled long before we realized our misfortune in having
smashed our water-keg. Each individual in our party had a three-pint
army canteen, which had been filled when we forded the creek in the
early dawn. These were to last us until evening through an exceedingly
sultry day. Frank, Henry, and I did our best to overcome our desire for
water, but the younger boy could not refuse Vic a drink when she looked
up with lolling tongue to the canteens.

The men were the greatest sufferers, unless I except their horses. Long
before mid-day their canteens were empty, and their mouths so dry that
articulation was difficult, and they rarely spoke.

At five o'clock we arrived opposite the third spur, where we found a
wand sticking in the ground and holding a slip of paper in its cleft
end. It proved to be a note from Baldwin, saying that this was the place
to camp, and the Black Tanks were on the southern side of the spur, two
miles distant.

We were too thirsty to spend time in examining the scenery. The boys and
I were quickly out of the vehicle, the horses and mules were relieved of
bridles, saddles, and harness, and all but two men, who were left to
guard the property and collect fuel for a fire, were on the way to
water. Closely followed by Vic, the boy sergeants and I preceded the men
and stock. We passed through a leafless and almost branchless growth of
the giant cactus, succeeded by a thick underbrush of mezquit, which put
off our view of the height until we turned sharply to the right. Then we
saw before us a long irregular range, apparently three thousand feet in
height, which had been cleft from summit to base as if by a wedge. In
this rent we found water--water deposited in a natural reservoir by the
periodical rainfalls in millions of gallons--a reservoir never known to
be dry.

Private Tom Clary, bearing a camp-kettle and coffee-pot, had outstripped
the men driving the stock, and overtook us as we began the ascent into
the cleft. Climbing the dike which enclosed the main deposit, we
descended to the cistern, filled our cups, and swallowed the contents
without taking a breath. When we dipped up a second, Tom Clary looked
into the depths of his cup with knitted brows.

"Whist, now, b'ys!" he exclaimed. "Look into the wather! It's aloive
with wigglers of ivery variety. They're as plinty as pays in a soup."

"Ugh! And we are full of them too, Tom," said Henry, looking into his
dipper with narrow-eyed anxiety.

Pausing in the act of taking a second drink, I looked into my cup, and
saw that it contained myriads of animalcula and larvæ, which shot and
zigzagged from side to side in the liveliest manner.

"Will they hurt us, Tom?" questioned Henry.

"I rickon they've got the worst of it, Sergeant, laddy; but I think I'd
fale a bit aisier if I was blindfolded or takin' a dhrink in the dark. I
prefer me liquid refrishmint with a little less mate, not to minshin its
being less frisky."

We had come to the tanks with fresh towels, intending to wash off the
dust of travel. We now used one of them to strain the water, and were
astonished to see that each quart left behind it a plump teaspoonful of
animalcula. The water was sweet, but, after discovering the life in it,
we drank sparingly.

As we pursued the narrow path to camp in single file, we noticed Vic a
considerable distance to the right, scouting and nosing about in an
earnest manner. Evidently she thought she had made an important
discovery, for she several times looked in our direction and barked. But
we were too hungry to investigate, and soon she disappeared from sight.

When we reached the ambulance the boys put a few cakes of hard bread in
their pockets, and taking their shot-guns, went out to look for some
"cotton-tails" while supper was being prepared. Believing we were well
out of the range of hostile Indians, I did not object to their going
alone. They passed a considerable distance beyond the growth of _Cereus
giganteus_, over a level stretch covered with knee-high bunch-grass and
desert weeds, without seeing a hare. Pausing on the brink of a shoal,
dry ravine, they stood side by side, and rested the butts of their guns
upon the ground. Just then a shout of "Supper! supper!" came from the
group near the camp-fire.

"Hate to go back without anything," said Frank. "Strange we don't see a
rabbit now, when we saw dozens on the way to the tanks."

"That was because we didn't have a gun," said Henry.

"You don't believe the rabbits knew we weren't armed then and know we
are now?"

"Hunters tell bigger stories than that about 'Brer Rabbit.' Not one has
bobbed up since we got a gun."

Suddenly, from the flat surface of the plain, not twenty yards beyond
the ravine, where nothing but bunch-grass and low shrubbery had been
seen before, sprang up sixteen Indians to full height, as startlingly as
so many jacks-in-a-box.

[TO BE CONTINUED.]



A BATTLE ROYAL.


  You ought to have seen the terrible row we had in my room last night,
  The elephant plush and the calico cat and my new little pug had a fight,
  And though an elephant's great and strong, and a cat has powerful claws,
  My little pug-dog came out on top with the aid of his teeth and paws.

  The trouble arose in the simplest way; the cat was asleep on a chair.
  And the elephant plush was standing about, and sniffing the cool night
      air,
  When Puggy rushed in, as he sometimes does, for a romp on the bed with
      me,
  And tripped on the trunk of the elephant bold, and over and over went
      he.

  He turned two somersaults up in the air, as he tripped on the elephant's
      trunk,
  And then went bang 'gainst the pussy-cat's chair with a really horrible
      bunk.
  He bunked so hard that the chair slid back, with a bang on the side of
      the door,
  And the calico cat, with a hiss and a scat, came tumbling down to the
      floor.

  And it happened as puss came tumbling down old Puggy lay down just
      below;
  He'd tumbled right flat on his poor little back, a picture of trouble
      and woe--
  And the pussy kerflop came down on top of my new little live little
      pup,
  And then came a mighty old struggle in which the cat was just chewed
      all up.

  Pug snapped and he yawled and he rolled and he kicked, but the calico
      cat held fast;
  And they slid o'er the floor in a mad embrace, until, pretty near the
      last,
  They came to the elephant made of plush, with celluloid tusks, so rare,
  Who silently stood, as I said before, a-sniffing the cool night air.

  And of course when they rolled underneath his legs, the elephant came
      down too--
  And oh, the row, the terrible row, I'm sure would have startled you.
  Those three bold friends of my nursery days now got in a terrible
      plight,
  But the small live pug, with his teeth and his paws, soon had much the
      best of the fight.

  And now to-day I am gathering up from all parts of the nursery floor
  Small pieces of cotton and calico shreds and samples of plush galore.
  There are eyes and ears and tails and trunks from my bed to the
      wash-stand rug
  That tell of the glorious victory that was won by my brave little pug.

  As for Puggy himself, he's still romping away, and he hasn't a scar
      to show;
  Nor does he remember, as far as I see, that terrible scene of woe.
  And the only effect of his fight at all is he seems to be twice as
      fat,
  Which may come, I cannot with certainty say, from swallowing part of
      the cat.

  CARLYLE SMITH.



PUBLIC-SCHOOL BOY AFLOAT.

BY RICHARD BARRY.


To the passengers on the ferry-boats crossing between New York and Long
Island City, through the sweeping tide of the East River, a view is
given of a trim-looking craft lying just astern of the old battle-ship
_New Hampshire_, moored to the Twenty-eighth-street wharf. She is very
much dwarfed in appearance by the towering top sides of the
three-decker, and during the winter months the deck-house that stretches
above her bulwarks makes her look as if her days of freedom to plough
the main were past and gone.

The vessel is the _St. Mary's_, the nautical training-ship connected
with the public-school system of New York city. From the first of
November to the middle of April she is indeed nothing but a floating
school-house, and the long shed on her deck is divided into
recitation-rooms, equipped with blackboards and chalk and benches, and
presided over by uniformed teachers.

All this sounds dry enough, even if it is connected with a ship; but the
scholars are very different in appearance from the lads who attend the
public-schools, although they are drawn from the same sources. Every boy
is togged out in the uniform of a naval apprentice, and he is very proud
of his ship and of the name on the ribbon of his cap.

Life on a sailing-vessel, that depends entirely upon the wind for her
motive power, is very different from the life on board a steamer or one
of the steel cruisers of Uncle Sam's new navy. No boy who has ever read
any of Marryat's stories, or those from the pen of Clarke Russell, but
has been filled with a desire to try the sea for himself, and if he is
able-bodied, and a boy with a good record and a desire to learn, he can
step back, as it were, into the time when Marryat's or Russell's heroes
lived and had their adventures. He can live on board the _St. Mary's_
the life of the sailor-boy of the old school, and find extant all its
pleasures and excitements. Indeed, it is not all school-work and
blackboard and chalk; there are long months of cruising in blue waters,
and strange countries to be seen, and a chance also for a fine
occupation, and good paying positions awaiting him at the end of his
term of service.

To begin at the beginning, let us see how the New York boy, who has
known nothing but the streets and the crowded houses, can accomplish all
this, and how he goes about it, and what he learns and sees.

In the first place, it must be well understood that the _St. Mary's_ is
not offered by the government as a floating reformatory for bad or
unruly boys, or to help careless parents to get rid of them. It is
exactly the reverse, and this is now well known.

Application for admission to the Nautical School must be made to the
chairman of the executive committee of the Board of Education, or made
in person to the Superintendent on board the _St. Mary's_ herself.

But to state a few of the requirements before the papers are signed and
the school-boy becomes a sailor. The applicant must be between the ages
of sixteen and twenty years. He must be of average size, sound
constitution, and free from all physical defects. This means that a
rigid examination is enforced, and the boy is measured and given tests
of strength to prove that he is worthy by nature to put on the blue suit
of service.

He must show testimonials of good character, and, of course, must have
been influenced to enter by a taste for a seafaring life, and he must
come to a decision of his own free will. The examination, outside of the
physical one, is very simple. He must be able to read and spell, to
write legibly, and to know enough of arithmetic to figure simple sums up
to and including percentage. Lastly, as the boy is not of age, his
parent or guardian must sign the necessary papers. Once enlisted, he is
maintained at the expense of the city, but has to come provided with
numerous articles necessary to a sailor. The list includes two pairs of
black leather shoes, rubber boots, one black silk hand-kerchief, one
strong jack-knife, tooth-brushes, clothes-brushes, and hair-brushes;
thread, needles, wax, tape, and buttons, and many other things to keep
him comfortable.

The blue uniform and the canvas working suit are given to him, and only
thirty dollars are required to defray the expense of clothing and
bedding for the two years' cruise.

[Illustration: SAIL-MAKING ON THE "ST. MARY'S."]

The winter's school term, which begins in November, ends on April 1,
when the boys are given a vacation of ten days and bid their farewells.
Upon their return to the ship they find the temporary deck-house taken
down, and they are put to work rigging the ship and preparing for what
they have so long been looking forward to--the summer's cruise.

About April 20 the yards are all up, and the _St. Mary's_ is
all-a-taunt-o and ready to go to sea. Now for a month, they cruise in
the waters of Long Island Sound, learning to handle ship, and then when
they have thoroughly learned their stations and the duties assigned to
them, they set sail for the far countries and foreign ports which most
of them are anxious to visit.

The writer remembers being in the harbor of Southampton, England, upon
one occasion when the _St. Mary's_ came into port. It made his heart
beat with pride to see the beautiful vessel (just as if she had sailed
out of the past history of the good old days) come sweeping in from the
Channel. All her white sails were set when she first was sighted, and
the nimble little sailors aloft began to take them in one by one as she
drew up to her anchorage.

The flag flying at her peak is the most beautiful thing to an American
to be seen in foreign countries, and proud indeed was the writer to turn
to an English friend and explain what the trim craft was, and to tell
that the crew were New York boys, and Americans every one.

[Illustration: A LESSON IN FURLING SAIL.]

Soon after she dropped her anchor and trimmed ship a boat was lowered
away, and it came dashing up to the pier. It was a pleasure to look at
the brown, healthy faces, and to notice the well-kept cadence of the
stroke pulled by the strong young arms.

Leaving one of the officers on shore, the lads pulled back to the ship,
looking curiously at the town, and longing perhaps for the liberty which
would be allowed them on the morrow.

Engaging a boatman to row us off, the author and his English friend were
soon alongside the school-ship, where the former explained that he was a
New-Yorker, and was asked to come on board.

Although she had been at anchor only an hour or so, all the running gear
was being neatly stowed away, and the loose ends flemished (_i.e._,
coiled down flat) on the deck. But a word as to the vessel herself:

The _St. Mary's_ was an old United States sloop-of-war, the type of a
vessel, modernized a little, that had won honor and glory for the
country. The _Wasp_ was such a one as this, and every one knows what she
did during the war of 1812. The other craft that stung the English so
badly when commanded by Lawrence, the gallant little _Hornet_, was about
this type--a sloop-of-war--also. Although the _St. Mary's_ was very
peaceful looking, because she lacked the rows of black carronades along
her sides, still it required but little stretching of the imagination to
change her into a man-of-war.

We spoke to a little wiry youngster, who told us he lived in "West
Twenty-thoid" Street, and asked him how he liked being a sailor. The
grin that accompanied his answer--"It's bully good fun"--convinced us
that he, at least, was happy, and had rightly chosen his calling. In
fact, we did not see an unhappy face amongst the crew, and this speaks
volumes.

The _St. Mary's_ had stopped at the Azores, on the voyage out, where the
boys had had fine times, according to account, and where the people had
been looking forward to their coming, for they generally touched there
on their cruises. Of course I had to explain to my English friend that
these boys had nothing to do with the regular navy, but were intended
for the merchant service, unless they wished, of course, to change it
for life on board one of the new cruisers. Every one of them hoped to be
an officer some day, and there is no reason, if they attend to duty, why
this hope should not be fulfilled, for a better training for positions
of command could not be had.

[Illustration: WINTER WORK ON BOARD THE "ST. MARY'S."]

One of the officers told us of a little adventure that had happened upon
one of the former voyages, which not only showed the spirit of the _St.
Mary's_ crew, but also proved that most of the lads had profited by New
York's being surrounded by water. One of the boys, a little fellow, had
fallen off the boat-yard into the water. The tide had swept him quite a
distance from the ship before his cries were heard. When "man
overboard!" was shouted, in half a jiffy a score or more of the crew had
plunged headlong from the railing and bowsprit after him. In fact, it
looked as if the whole ship's company was going for an impromptu swim.
Two of the rescuers laid hold of the drowning boy and kept him afloat,
while the rest paddled about like a flock of ducks. It took some time
for the boat that was hurriedly manned to pick them all up, as the tide
had carried some of them quite a distance out. But they were all taken
aboard safe and sound, and, as everybody writes when telling of a rescue
from "a watery grave," "none the worse for their wetting."

From Southampton the _St. Mary's_ was bound to Cherbourg, France; then
to Lisbon, Portugal; Cadiz, Spain; and Gibraltar.

I could well imagine what fun the boys were going to have at the last
named place, thy strongest fortress of the English, and the "key of the
Mediterranean," as every one says again when speaking of it.

It is from here that the lads always write the longest letters home, for
there is much to tell about; and no matter how many times they visit the
port afterwards, when in command of their own vessels, perhaps, they
will never forget their first sight of the great frowning rock, and
their visit to the hidden guns and casemates. In the harbor they find
all sorts of strange sailing-craft of the Mediterranean, and hear the
jargon of tongues of the multitude of foreign mariners that meet here
from all quarters of the globe.

On the return voyage they stop at the Madeira Islands, and thence,
setting sail, they make for home, arriving in Long Island Sound about,
the last of August. Now, until the middle of October, they spend the
time in practical exercises, cruising to and fro in calmer waters; and
in the middle of October the _St. Mary's_ returns to her dock in the
city.

A leave of two weeks is granted the boys, and it is easy to imagine what
heroes they are to their younger brothers and to their old companions
who have spent the hot summer in the city.

When they return to the ship on the first of November they find the
topmasts housed, the yards taken down, and the deck-house in position
for the winter's term of schooling, which begins at once. During the
cruise at sea the whole time has been taken up with the study of
seamanship and the practice of professional branches of knowledge. They
have learned to tie knots, to hand, reef, and steer, and may be pardoned
a slight roll in their walk and a tendency to indulge in nautical
phraseology.

The boys whose second cruise it has been are found positions on board
the American vessels who receive a subsidy under the postal-subsidy
bill, for all such are required to be officered by Americans, and to
carry a "cadet" for each thousand tons burden. This enables the
graduates of the school to step at once into a paying situation, where
their education will be of great advantage to them. Maybe some of them
make up their minds to go into the navy, or others decide that they are
not cut out for the sea, and take up some life on shore; but no matter
what they do, they cannot but be benefited by what they have learned and
seen.

The first-year boys and the new recruits begin to take up their studies,
which are those taught in the common schools--geography, history of the
United States, English grammar, arithmetic, algebra, and last, but not
least, theoretical navigation. Ship's routine is followed in their daily
life, but there is plenty of time for play and skylarking.

When a boy has been graduated from this school, if he has paid attention
to his duties and his studies, he is competent to navigate a vessel, he
understands thoroughly dead reckoning, and he knows how to find the
latitude and longitude by the sun, moon, planets, or stars, and besides
this, he knows the duties of a seaman from beginning to end. There is
nothing for him to learn about the handling of a sailing-vessel, for he
has taken his trick at the wheel, he has learned the rule of the road,
and how to give proper orders. He can heave the lead like an old hand,
and has had plenty of practice in handling small boats under both oars
and sails. The American sailor has proved himself often indeed to be the
best afloat, and the lad from the _St. Mary's_ is qualified to take
first rank.

During the war of the rebellion many of the commissioned officers were
drawn from the ranks of the merchant marine. Had the _St. Mary's_ then
been in existence, her boys would have given accounts of themselves, and
there is no question that, should at some future time a war arise, there
would be places aplenty for them to make use of the knowledge they have
gained, or to win laurels in the service of their country. Not long ago
a big sailing-ship, returning home from a long cruise, had the
misfortune to lose, by death and accident, all of her officers fit to
navigate and command her. On board at the time was one of the _St.
Mary's_ lads, only nineteen years of age, and the command and
responsibility of bringing the great ship safely to port fell upon his
shoulders. I am glad to state that he did not fear or shirk the
responsibility, and that the grown men under him knew at once that they
had a commander who was familiar with his business, and who could be
trusted in any emergency, for they encountered severe storms after the
boy Captain had assumed command.

The officers of the school-ship are all graduates of Annapolis and
appointed by the government, and the petty officers are made up of old
men-of-war's men, a few of whom are on board as assistant instructors.
The boys, however, fill some of these positions themselves, and thus
early assume the duties which teach them how to get on with men who are
compelled to obey their orders.

If a boy has a taste for the sea, and his parents have no objections to
his selecting it as a calling, he can find out a great deal about the
world and not a little about himself by spending two years on board the
school-ship _St. Mary's_.



THE TRANSFERRED FLAG.

BY JAMES BUCKHAM.

  Frigate and schooner in conflict dread,
  Banners throbbing at each mast-head;
  England's jack in the smoke and reek,
  Stars and stripes at the schooner's peak.

  Clash and roar of the awful fight;
  Sabres gleaming like shafts of light;
  Crack of pistols; a musket's boom;
  Shouts and groans in the drifting gloom.

  Overhead, in the murk, the flags
  Toss, with their edges torn to rags,
  Lash at each other, and writhe and snap--
  Silken musketry, clap on clap!

  See! On the Yankee yard-arm stands
  A daring middy, with outspread hands!
  He bends, he leaps--and without a slip,
  Catches the yard of the British ship!

  Up, up, he climbs, till, the cross-trees past,
  He reaches the top of the swaying mast.
  Then, with a slash of his knife, he throws
  The British flag to his country's foes.

  Lo! from his bosom, like flame unfurled,
  He draws the banner that rules the world,
  And nails it there, with its crimson bars
  And gleaming glory of unstained stars!

  Quick was the brain that conceived the thought,
  And brave the deed that the sailor-boy wrought;
  Bright he his name on history's roll,
  And far the flash of his hero-soul!



SEED-SOWING.

BY EMMA J. GRAY.


Gardening is said to come natural to Japanese boys and girls, but there
is no reason why our amateur gardeners should not rival them.

Spring has been well named the "mother of the flowers," for then indeed
nature wakes. The previously hard soil softens, gentle showers fall, the
long sunny days follow one after the other, and serious mistake must
indeed have been made at the time of planting if the cheerless winter
garden is not readily transformed into beds and bowers of delicate
richest color, and bewilderingly beautiful flowers do not send lavish
and grateful odor.

An important matter, however, is the preparation of the soil, and
another quite as important is to sow seeds late and not early. Then,
too, attention must be given to their size and construction. Some seeds
are round and tiny, such as the portulaca. These are scattered over the
ground and gently mixed by the hand into the soil, while others must be
planted, really embedded in the earth, such as sweet-pease. Again, other
seeds have a shell-like covering, which must be removed before sowing,
and others must be placed in the earth in a special direction. We have
all heard of the boy who wondered why his beans didn't grow. On
investigation he learned they were growing as fast as possible, only
they would have bloomed and borne in China, for he had planted them
upside down. Seeds such as the verbena must be planted lengthwise, and
there are others which must be soaked before planting at all.

Young gardeners should commence with the easiest-raised plants, and wait
until experience and study will lend a hand with the more difficult. And
do not forget that the world is full of kind people who will gladly tell
you what you do not know.

After sunset is the best time for seed-sowing. When they are sown,
gently water, and then cover with an old piece of carpet. This is to
keep the ground in a more equal temperature. Every evening pick up the
carpet and examine the earth. Keep it moist--not wet--and when the seeds
are sprouted replace the carpet with paper. To prevent this blowing, put
stones on its outer edges. When the tender shoots are positively strong,
hardy enough to withstand violent winds and hot suns, remove the paper.
Keep on watch for the unexpected--such as insects, for example, which
must be picked off. Weed carefully, and water when necessary.

Beginners may be sure of success if they sow any of the following seeds:
Sweet-alyssum and candy-tuft, both of which have delicate white
blossoms, and bloom freely from June to October; asters, which are very
hardy, and whose colors are without number and exceedingly showy;
balsam--or, as usually called, lady's-slipper, both double and single,
is an old-fashioned favorite; morning-glories are beautiful, and fine to
cover an unsightly pole or unpainted fence; mignonette and pansies will
be sweet, while zinnia, portulaca, and marigold will lend brilliance.



A NATURALIST'S BOYHOOD.

MR. WILLIAM HAMILTON GIBSON'S START.

BY BARNET PHILLIPS.


I am enjoying a book, a picture, a statue, or say a piece of music. I know
these to be the finished works of the man or the woman, but I invariably
hark back to the boy or the girl.

What I want to discover is the precise time, in the lives of certain
boys and girls, when the steel first struck the flint, the spark flew,
and out streamed that jet of fire which never afterwards was
extinguished.

I was reading an article entitled "Professor Wriggler," written by Mr.
William Hamilton Gibson, which appeared in HARPER'S YOUNG PEOPLE, in the
number of October 31, 1893. I need not tell you that both old and young,
at home and abroad, delight in reading what Mr. Hamilton Gibson has
written, because he was not alone the most observant of naturalists, but
a distinguished artist and a sympathetic author.

[Illustration: THE LATE WILLIAM HAMILTON GIBSON.]

He thus filled a peculiar position in the literary and artistic world
which is seldom given to any one man to fill. Besides being a naturalist
from his boyhood, he was able to write better than most people what he
wished to write, and to illustrate his articles in a way that was
unique. Mr. Gibson's death a few days ago, therefore, has closed the
career of a man who had the ability to interest a large number of people
not only in natural history, but in art and literature.

The news of Mr. Gibson's death came to me suddenly, and as I was reading
it I recalled an interesting talk I had with him less than a year ago
about his work early in life and the way he got his start. I had been
reading one of his articles to a lady, who, when she heard the name of
the author, said:

"Why, I knew Mr. Hamilton Gibson long ago. When he was a lad he painted
a lovely drop-curtain for us. He could not have been more than fifteen
or sixteen then."

The next time I met Mr. Hamilton Gibson I asked him about this
drop-curtain. "Do you remember it?"

"Certainly I do. We had a temperance society at Sandy Hook, Connecticut,
and we gave a grand entertainment. I made the drop-curtain. It
represented a wood. There was a rock in the foreground, and a
Virginia-creeper was climbing over it."

"Was it an original composition?" I asked.

"I made many studies of the rock and the Virginia-creeper from nature.
On the other side of the curtain I painted a drawing-room. There were a
marble mantelpiece, a clock, and lace curtains. I don't think I enjoyed
painting the clock as much as the Virginia-creeper."

"To paint a drop curtain at fifteen or sixteen means that you had then a
certain facility. But that could not have been your beginning. When did
you break your shell? What chipped or cracked your egg, so that your
particular bird emerged, chirped, and finally took flight? That was what
I wanted to know."

"Is that what you are after?" asked Mr. Hamilton Gibson. "From my baby
days I was curious about flowers and insects. The two were always united
in my mind. What could not have been more than a childish guess was
confirmed in my later days." Then Mr. Hamilton Gibson paused. I could
see he was recalling, not without emotion, some memories of the long
past.

"I was very young, and playing in the woods. I tossed over the fallen
leaves, when I came across a chrysalis. There was nothing remarkable in
that, for I knew what it was. But, wonderful to relate, providentially I
deem it, as I held the object in my hand a butterfly slowly emerged,
then fluttered in my fingers."

"You were pleased with its beauty," I said.

"Oh! It was more than that. I do not know whether I was or was not a
youngster with an imagination, but suddenly the spiritual view of a new
or of another life struck me. I saw in this jewel born from an unadorned
casket some inkling of immortality. Yes, that butterfly breaking from
its chrysalis in my hand shaped my future career."

"But some young people may feel passing impulses, but how account for
your artistic skill and literary powers?"

"As to the art side, at least deftness of hand came early. I had the
most methodical of grandmothers. Every day I had a certain task. I made
a square of patch-work for a quilt. I learned how to sew, and I can sew
neatly to-day. I knew how to use my fingers."

"Did you like patch-work?" I inquired.

"I simply despised it. Sewing must have helped me, for it was
eye-training, and when I went to work with a pencil and a paint-brush I
really had no trouble. I read a great deal. I devoured Cooper's novels
and the Rollo series; but there was one special volume, _Harris on
Insects_, I never tired of. I studied that over and over again. It was
the illustrations of Marsh which fascinated me. I never found a bug,
caterpillar, or butterfly that I did not compare my specimens with the
Marsh pictures. I learned this way much which I have never forgotten."

"Had you any particular advantages?"

"Yes; my brother was a doctor, and he let me use his microscope, and so
I acquired a knowledge of the details of flowers and insects that escape
the naked eye. I pulled flowers to pieces, but not in the spirit of
destruction, but so that I might better understand their structure. When
I was ten I had a long illness. When I was getting better, I was
permitted to take an hour's or so turn in the garden. That hour I
devoted to collecting insects and flowers. On my return to my room, what
I had collected amused me until I could get out again next day or the
day after."

"It was pleasure and study combined," I said.

"I was not conscious that I was studying. Then in my sick-room I began
to draw and paint the insects. I think I was conscientious about it, and
careful--perhaps minutely so. I tried to put on paper exactly what I
saw, and nothing else. You say you like 'Professor Wriggler.' I drew him
when I was ten or eleven, and I could not make him any more accurate
to-day than I did thirty years ago."

"Were you encouraged at your work?" I inquired.

"Yes; once I was much pleased. I came across a curious insect. I could
not find it in the books. I made a drawing of it and sent it to a
professor of the Smithsonian, asking him to give me its scientific name.
Back came by return mail my sketch, and under it the Latin name. The
professor wrote me that if the people who were always annoying him with
pictures of impossible bugs would only send him as accurate a picture as
was mine, he never would have any more bother."

"Did you have any setbacks?"

"Yes; and I haven't forgotten it up to to-day. I was always collecting,
and I had brought together every insect I had found in my neighborhood.
As I took them home I pinned them in the drawers of an old-fashioned
bureau. In time the whole of the drawers, bottom and sides, were full of
pinned specimens, and there was room for no more. I had saved enough
money to buy a cabinet, and I went to New York and purchased one. When I
returned home the first thing I did was to look at my precious
collection. When I opened a drawer there was a confused mass of wings
only. One single wretch of a black ant had got in, and had passed the
word to 10,000 other black ants. They had eaten the bodies of my insects
in all the drawers. That quite broke my heart."

"But your writing. How did that come about?" I asked.

"I don't think that you can develop in one direction only. You must
unbosom yourself. You are forced to tell or to write about the things
you have most at heart. When I was a small boy I wrote a book for
myself, and called it 'Botany on the Half-shell.' The first thing I ever
wrote which was printed was an article for one of Messrs. Harper's
publications, and I made the pictures for it. That was my début."

"Then your work went hand in hand?"

[Illustration: MR. GIBSON AT WORK IN HIS STUDIO.]

"Certainly. The one was the stimulant of the other. We all grew up
together. The days spent in my room when I was ill helped me. I think I
studied flowers then, so that their forms and colors were indelibly
impressed on my mind. When I was older I made a small bunch of flowers
in wax. Not a detail escaped me. I made moulds of all kinds of leaves.
Once I put together a rose, some sprigs of mignonette and heliotrope in
wax, and gave them to my dear old friend, Henry Ward Beecher. He was
delighted with my flowers, and put them on his study table. Presently
Mrs. Beecher came in. She ran to the flowers and broke the rose all to
pieces.

"How could she have done that?" I asked.

"It must have been with her nose. She wanted to smell the rose."

Then Mr Hamilton Gibson showed me some monster drawings of
flowers--Brobdingnagian ones. The flowers opened and closed when you
pulled a string, showing their interior structure. Here were bees or
other insects, and they flew into the flowers, collected the honey, and,
above all, the pollen, and buzzed out again. He explained to me how
plant life would perish were it not for certain insects, which bring a
new existence to flowers; for without these winged helpers there would
be no longer any varieties of flowers or seeds.

You will see, then, that in tracing the beginning of Mr. Hamilton
Gibson's career what I mean by harking backwards.

I am certain, too, that in every boy and girl there is something good
and excellent. Like the flower visited by the bee, all it wants is
impulse. Then, as Mr. Hamilton Gibson explained it to me, will come the
blossoming, and lastly perfect fruitage.



[Illustration: INTERSCHOLASTIC SPORT]


The choice of officials at the National Games is another subject which
will bear discussion, and although I have reserved it until the last, it
must not be considered that this is because I have considered it of any
less importance than the various subjects connected with these games
that have been discussed within the past few weeks in this Department.
All who regularly attend interscholastic track and field games,
especially graduates of the New York schools, and those who watch their
young brothers and cousins in their indulgence in sport, were much
surprised when they looked over the programme of the National Games and
saw the list of men who had been invited to act as officials.

There is a certain number of gentlemen in this city who have become so
thoroughly identified with school-boy sports that their names are always
to be found on the list of officials at interscholastic games. At the
National Games, however, it was different, and there are many who
resented the change.

In the first place, school sports--and college sports, for that
matter--are supposed to be somewhat different in tone from other sports,
even from those of amateur athletic associations. We try to conduct them
on a higher plane, and we try to give to them a purer spirit of
amateurism and comradeship than can be obtained by other organizations.
And in carrying out this idea it has always been the custom to have
school or college graduates act as officials.

At the National Games this unwritten law or custom was not carried out,
and many of the New York school-boys felt that the visiting athletes
were receiving a wrong impression of the way in which we do things down
here. Many questioned me concerning the change that they noticed on the
first page of the programme, but being no wiser than they at the time,
I was unable to enlighten them. Since then, however, I have learned that
the change was due to ignorance on the part of the managers of the day
rather than to any desire for reform.

INTERSCHOLASTIC RECORDS OF THE UNITED STATES.

  Event.                              Record.              Maker.
  100-yard dash                          10-1/5 sec.    F. H. Bigelow.
  220-yard run                           22-2/5  "      F. H. Bigelow.
  440-yard run                           50-3/5  "      T. E. Burke.
  Half-mile run                    2 m.   1-1/5  "      R. H. Hanson.
  Mile run                         4 "   32-2/5  "      W. T. Laing.
  Mile walk                        7 "   11-3/5  "      J. S. Eells.
  120-yard hurdle (3 ft. 6 in.)          17      "      E. C. Perkins.
  220-yard hurdle (2 ft. 6 in.)          26-1/2  "      E. D. Field.
  Mile bicycle                     2 "   34-1/5  "      I. A. Powell.
  Two-mile bicycle                 5 "   18-2/5  "      G. F. Baker, Jun.
  Running high jump                5 ft. 11     in.     S. A. W. Baltazzi.
  Running broad jump              21  "   7      "      A. Cheek.
  Pole vault                      10  "   9      "      B. Johnson.
  Throwing 12-lb. hammer         125  "                 R. T. Johnson.
  Throwing 16-lb. hammer         118  "   2-3/4  "      F. C. Ingalls.
  Putting 12-lb. shot             42  "   5-1/2  "      Patterson.
  Putting 16-lb. shot             39  "   3      "      M. C. O'Brien.

  Event.                              School.
  100-yard dash                  Worcester H.-S.
  220-yard run                   Worcester H.-S.
  440-yard run                   Boston English H.-S.
  Half-mile run                  Boston English H.-S.
  Mile run                       Phillips Academy, Andover.
  Mile walk                      Hotchkiss, Lakeville, Conn.
  120-yard hurdle (3 ft. 6 in.)  Hartford H.-S.
  220-yard hurdle (2 ft. 6 in.)  Hartford H.-S.
  Mile bicycle                   Cutler, N.Y.
  Two-mile bicycle               Hotchkiss, Lakeville, Conn.
  Running high jump              Harvard, N.Y.
  Running broad jump             Oakland, Cal., H.-S.
  Pole vault                     Worcester Academy.
  Throwing 12-lb. hammer         Brookline H.-S.
  Throwing 16-lb. hammer         Hartford H.-S.
  Putting 12-lb. shot            Evansville.
  Putting 16-lb. shot            Boston English H.-S.

  Event.                              Time and Place.
  100-yard dash                  N.E.I.S.A.A. games, June 9, 1894.
  220-yard run                   N.E.I.S.A.A. games, June 9, 1894.
  440-yard run                   N.E.I.S.A.A. games, June 9, 1894.
  Half-mile run                  N.Y.I.S.A.A. games, June 5, 1896.
  Mile run                       N.E.I.S.A.A. games, June 9, 1894.
  Mile walk                      Conn. H.-S.A.A. games, June 6, 1896.
  120-yard hurdle (3 ft. 6 in.)  Conn. H.-S.A.A. games, 1894.
  220-yard hurdle (2 ft. 6 in.)  Conn. H.-S.A.A. games, June 8, 1895.
  Mile bicycle                   N.Y.I.S.A.A. games, May 11, 1895.
  Two-mile bicycle               Conn. H.-S.A.A. games, June 8, 1895.
  Running high jump              N.Y.I.S.A.A. games, May 11, 1895.
  Running broad jump             A.A.L. field day, Oct. 16, 1894.
  Pole vault                     N.E.I.S.A.A. games, June 5, 1896.
  Throwing 12-lb. hammer         N.E.I.S.A.A. games, June 9, 1894.
  Throwing 16-lb. hammer         Conn. H.-S.A.A. games, June 6, 1896.
  Putting 12-lb. shot            Wis. I.S.A.A. games, May 30, 1896.
  Putting 16-lb. shot            N.E.I.S.A.A. games, 1894.

The Knickerbocker Athletic Club is a newcomer in athletics, and its
officials do not know yet, or did not know at the time of the National
Games, that there are, as I have stated, half a dozen gentlemen in this
city who almost always hold certain official positions on
interscholastic occasions. Of course such ignorance is pardonable, but I
do not think that the Knickerbocker managers should be so readily
pardoned for inviting certain gentlemen to act as officials without
consulting the officers of the National Association. So far as I am able
to find out, the Knickerbocker Club did not submit the names of those
whom they had chosen to act as officials to any officer of the National
Association, and the latter, so I am told, did not know who were to act
as referee and judges until shortly before they reached the Columbia
Oval on the afternoon of June 20.

It was too late then to make any changes, of course, and all the
officers of the National Association could do was to blame themselves
for their own carelessness and thoughtlessness in not asking to see a
list of the officials a week before the games. There was no fault to be
found with the manner in which the gentlemen chosen by the Knickerbocker
Club performed their duties, yet there was an indescribable something
lacking on the field that day which we have always felt and appreciated
at other interscholastic functions.

There was not exactly an air of professionalism about the proceedings,
and yet the officials went about their work in such a "professional" way
that the gentle, amateur, leisurely atmosphere of other times and
seasons was not there. Furthermore, there was a slight inclination
toward bossism in some quarters; and young men who are taking part in
amateur sports do not care to be bossed, and if they have reason to
suspect that they are going to be bossed, it may be put down as a
certainty that they will not again compete under similar conditions. I
haven't any doubt that next year, no matter under what conditions the
National Games are held, the officers of the Association will choose
their own officials, and there will be found among them the same
gentlemen who for years have helped to make school-boy field days the
pleasant affairs they always are.

But it is only just to say to any organization, whether it be in New
York or in any other city, which hopes to succeed in the management of
school-boy sports, that it must carry out the school-boy idea of the
proprieties of things; and school-boys have very distinct ideas of what
they want; and if school-boys are pleased to have certain gentlemen,
school and college graduates, to act as officials at their sports, these
same gentlemen must be asked to hold these same positions, or the
organization will very soon lose favor in scholastic eyes. Nevertheless,
the schools must remember that the Knickerbocker Athletic Club is the
first that ever did anything for interscholastic sport, and for this
reason they should be willing to overlook a great deal.

[Illustration: Bayne, c.f. Young, l.f. Grant, s.s. Hasbrouck, 2 b.
Wiley, c.

Huntington, r.f. Pell, 1 b. Bien, Jun., p. Fleming, 3 b.

THE BERKELEY SCHOOL BASEBALL NINE.--Champions N.Y.I.S.A.A.]

A number of years ago it was a very common thing for college men and
other amateurs to devote a large part of their summer to the playing of
baseball. So popular did this playing on "summer nines" become that a
number of hotels offered inducements to clever amateur players to come
and spend a few weeks at their resort in order that the locality might
have a good baseball nine as a sort of summer attraction. The custom
went from bad to worse, until summer resorts actually began to bid one
against the other for the most capable players.

Many amateurs who would not for a moment have considered any other kind
of proposition found that they had easy consciences when it was merely a
question of taking a reduction in board and lodging. They seemed to fail
to recognize the fact that by accepting such a reduction they were
practically accepting the sum of money which the hotel-keeper subtracted
from their bills at the end of their stay. In some cases, too, no bills
at all were submitted to the baseball boarders. Thus amateurs were
rapidly sliding into the path of professionalism, and the colleges found
that they must take some steps to interfere with summer baseball
playing.

All of the colleges now, I think, with the possible exception of Brown,
have rules forbidding the playing of baseball on "summer nines," the
penalty being that any member of the college who does this becomes
ineligible to any university team. And thus summer playing for college
men has been effectively put a stop to.

The colleges, however, cannot legislate against players who are not
members of their institutions, and they have found it difficult to
prevent sub-Freshmen or school-boy players from accepting the favors of
hotel-keepers or others in return for belonging to the hotel's nine.
Princeton, however, has seized the bull by the horns, and has issued a
decree, which was sent around to all the preparatory schools last
spring, stating that no one will be considered eligible to any of the
university teams who has at any time played for any sort of
compensation.

[Illustration: L. Biddle bow. Goodwin, 2. N. Biddle, 3. Niedecken, 4.

Howard, 5. Brock, 6. Shiverick; cox. Wheeler, 7. Thomas, stroke.

THE VICTORIOUS HALCYON CREW, ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL, CONCORD.]

This is an excellent rule, and will effectively put a stop to summer
ball-playing by young men who are preparing for Princeton, and who hope
to achieve the honor of playing on the university nine. It is to be
hoped that every other university and college in this country will adopt
similar rules.

But aside from the penalties that are to be incurred for playing on
"summer nines," there must be a number of other reasons that will
prevent school-boys from running the risk of being looked upon as
semi-professionals. I say "semi-professionals," although there is really
no half-way house between amateurism and professionalism. If a young man
accepts reduced board at any time, or a uniform, or a pair of shoes or
stockings, or in fact anything that has any commercial value whatever,
as a reward for any kind of services rendered in athletics, he is a
professional.

NATIONAL INTERSCHOLASTIC RECORDS.

  Event.                              Record.
  100-yard dash                            10-1/5 sec.
  220-yard dash                            22-2/5  "
  Quarter-mile run                         51-2/5  "
  Half-mile run                      1 m.  59-3/5  "
  One-mile run                       5 "   10-1/5  "
  120-yard hurdles (3 ft. 6 in.)           16-4/5  "
  220-yard hurdles (2 ft. 6 in.)           26-2/5  "
  One-mile walk                      7 "   53-2/5  "
  One-mile bicycle                   2 "   36      "
  Running high jump                  5 ft.  8     in.
  Running broad jump                21  "   1      "
  Pole vault                        10  "   5      "
  Throwing 12-lb. hammer           129  "  10      "
  Putting 12-lb. shot               43  "   4      "

  Event.                                    Holder.
  100-yard dash                   W. H. Jones, New England I.S.A.A.
  220-yard dash                   W. H. Jones, New England I.S.A.A.
  Quarter-mile run                H. L. Washburn, New York I.S.A.A.
  Half-mile run                   W. S. Hipple, New York I.S.A.A.
  One-mile run                    D. T. Sullivan, New England I.S.A.A.
  120-yard hurdles (3 ft. 6 in.)  A. F. Beers, New York I.S.A.A.
  220-yard hurdles (2 ft. 6 in.)  J. H. Converse, New England I.S.A.A.
  One-mile walk                   A. L. O'Toole, New England I.S.A.A.
  One-mile bicycle                O. C. Roehr, Long Island I.S.A.A.
  Running high jump               { F. R. Sturtevant, Connecticut H.-S.A.A.
                                  { T. Flourney, Iowa State H.-S.A.A.
  Running broad jump              H. Brown, Connecticut H.-S.A.A.
  Pole vault                      R. G. Clapp, New England I.S.A.A.
  Throwing 12-lb. hammer          F. C. Ingalls, Connecticut H.-S.A.A.
  Putting 12-lb. shot             F. C. Ingalls, Connecticut H.-S.A.A.

The word "professional" means an individual who performs in athletics
for the sake of the reward that he is to receive. It does not make any
difference whether this reward comes to him in cash, clothing, or pie.
And he cannot evade being classed among professionals if he once accepts
any kind of remuneration. Of course it seems different to those young
men who do not think seriously about the ethics of sport. They think
that they are not accepting any remuneration if they allow a
hotel-keeper or an athletic club to furnish them with a suit of
clothes--a baseball uniform--and pay their expenses.

They argue that it is only just, if they are playing baseball, that
their expenses to and from neighboring resorts should be paid, and they
do not see why the hotel or the club, if it chooses to, should not
present uniforms to the young men who are playing ball. But it seems to
me that this very argument is strongest when looked at from the other
side. The young men who accept uniforms or expenses do so because they
feel that it is worth while for the hotel man or the club to spend that
money to have them play baseball.

Therefore, if it is worth anything to the hotel man to pay them this
money, their services acquire a commercial value. As soon as services
are recognized to have a commercial value, and are paid for, either
directly or indirectly, the one who accepts the reward or remuneration,
either directly in cash or clothing, or indirectly in railroad fare and
hotel bills, becomes a professional, for he has made use of his ability
as an athlete to obtain railroad transportation or board at no expense
to himself beyond his skill as an athlete.

There is a difference in playing at summer resorts for the sport of the
thing and in playing for the advantage of it. Young men who like to play
baseball, and who can get up a nine wherever they happen to be this
summer, should do so by all means, for there is nothing healthier than
sport of this kind. But they should not allow any one to let them derive
any kind of financial advantage from the fact that they know how to play
baseball, and they should not allow any of their friends or admirers to
induce them to go to any certain resort because they know how to play
baseball.

Young men usually want to do what they consider the right thing, and
what their older brothers and their friends among older men consider the
right thing. College men have come to the conclusion that playing on
summer nines is a bad thing for amateur sport, and if there are a number
of young men, readers of this Department, not yet in college, who have
not given sufficient thought to the matter, and who very possibly cannot
see the serious side of the question just now, let them, for the
present, rest upon the judgment of the college men, and abide by their
decision, and when they get to be college men themselves they will
appreciate the situation as they cannot now, and they will be very glad
that they left playing on "summer nines" to others who were not such
thorough sportsmen as they, and who by so doing lose much that they can
never regain in after years.

This Department prints again this week a table of the Interscholastic
records of the United States, and also a table of the National
Interscholastic records, in order that many who have not made a
distinction between these two classes of figures may see what this
difference is. As was stated last week, a National Interscholastic
record is one made at the National Games, whereas an Interscholastic
record is one made at any interscholastic field-meeting. We may feel
perfectly sure that the figures as printed in the National table are
absolutely correct, for there has been only one National Interscholastic
meeting, that of June 20 of this year.

The Berkeley School nine, which won the Interscholastic Championship
this year, is undoubtedly one of the strongest baseball teams ever
developed at any of the New York city schools. This team earned the
championship of the Association by 167-10. The team was an unusually
hard-hitting one, and in one game alone the Berkeley players pounded out
eight home runs. The best individual work of the team was done by Wiley,
Pell, and Huntington. Wiley will undoubtedly be known in a few years as
one of the best amateur catchers, and if he goes to college he should
make a record for himself on the diamond.

"TRACK ATHLETICS IN DETAIL."--ILLUSTRATED.--8VO, CLOTH, ORNAMENTAL,
$1.25.

  THE GRADUATE.



[Illustration: ROYAL BAKING POWDER]



[Illustration: THOMPSON'S EYE WATER]



HARPER'S NEW CATALOGUE,

Thoroughly revised, classified, and indexed, will be sent by mail to any
address on receipt of ten cents.



[Illustration: BICYCLING]

     This Department is conducted in the interest of Bicyclers, and the
     Editor will be pleased to answer any question on the subject. Our
     maps and tours contain many valuable data kindly supplied from the
     official maps and road-books of the League of American Wheelman.
     Recognizing the value of the work being done by the L.A.W., the
     Editor will be pleased to furnish subscribers with membership
     blanks and information so far as possible.


[Illustration: Copyright, 1896, by Harper & Brothers.]

This week we give a map of the city of Chicago. It will be observed that
all the streets of the city are not put down on the map, it being
impossible, on a small scale, to include them. A sufficient number of
the principal streets and avenues are given, however, to make it a
simple matter for a wheelman to place himself anywhere in the city, and
find the nearest route to asphalt, macadam, or wood-block pavement. The
roads which are suitable for wheeling are so arranged in the city, as
will be seen from the map, that it is possible to get to any part of it
without having much disagreeable riding.

Starting from the Court-house and going north, the rider should cross
the Chicago River and run out Dearborn Street, turning into Lincoln
Park, and following the Lake Drive out through Evanston. This is not
only the most picturesque ride in the city of Chicago, but it is the
best method of getting out of the north of the city if you are on a trip
by the Lake shore. By turning to the left off the Lake Drive a little
more than half-way through Lincoln Park, crossing the park, and entering
Fullerton Avenue, you will find good wood-block pavement. Running out to
Milwaukee Avenue, and turning right into the latter, which is also block
pavement, you are on the northwest exit from the city. To leave the city
on the westward, cross the branch of the Chicago River, and run from the
Court-house out Washington Boulevard--which is partly asphalt and partly
macadam--pass through Garfield Park, and thence out of the city.

On the south from the Court-house and post-office is one of the famous
runs in the vicinity of Chicago, or, as a matter of fact, in the middle
West. This is a fifteen-mile run to Pullman City. It is a capital road
all the way; it makes a good thirty-mile ride, and is one of the best
roads for a road race that can be had. There have been several
interesting experiments made on this route, such as military operations,
soldiers mounted on bicycles, and carrying of despatches, and there are
road races constantly being held. Leaving the Court-house, run to the
corner of Jackson Street, and Michigan Avenue Boulevard over
granite-block pavement, thence on Michigan Avenue Boulevard to the
corner of Thirty-fifth Street, where you may either turn to the left on
Thirty-fifth Street and run over to the Grand Boulevard, or keep
straight on Michigan Avenue Boulevard to Garfield Boulevard, turning
left into this and running into Washington Park. The former route is
better on account of the fact that by this route the rider has the
opportunity of passing through the entire length of Washington Park. On
reaching the Midway in Washington Park, turn to the left, cross the
park, and run eastward into Jackson Park, turning right into this, and
thence proceed to the south of Stony Island Avenue, which is block
pavement, and run by Hog Lake through South Chicago to Ninety-fifth
Street. At this point turn sharp to the right into Ninety-fifth Street,
turning soon again to the left, and running into Pullman City over a
road of good rideable gravel. This is a run of fifteen miles, and for
the entire distance the pavement and road-bed are not only good and kept
in the best of condition, but some of the road is through parks and the
rest through interesting scenery. At Pullman City you can get a good
seventy-five-cent dinner, and the ride out and back, with the rest at
Pullman, makes a capital wheelman's short tour.

Another possible ride in Chicago is to run north from the Court-house,
through Lincoln Park, up the Lake Drive to Evanston; thence running back
by the same route, but keeping to the right after passing through half
Lincoln Park, running out Fullerton Avenue; thence turning left into
Humboldt Boulevard, following this through Humboldt Park and on to
Central Boulevard; thence turning left through Garfield Park, down West
Jackson Street to Ashland Avenue; turning right into this, proceed to
West Twelfth Street; thence by West Twelfth Street to Douglas Park,
through the park and southward by California Avenue, crossing the south
branch of the Chicago River, turning left into Thirty-first Street and
running westward to Western Avenue Boulevard, turning right again into
the latter and running to Garfield Boulevard at Tremont Ridge; thence by
Garfield Boulevard to Washington Park, and so returning by Grand Avenue
Boulevard and Michigan Avenue Boulevard to the Court-house, or running
southward to Pullman City, as already described.



[Illustration: STAMPS]

     This Department is conducted in the interest of stamp and coin
     collectors, and the Editor will be pleased to answer any question
     on these subjects so far as possible. Correspondents should address
     Editor Stamp Department.


We Americans pride ourselves on our new inventions, and economical
adaptation of systems and methods originated elsewhere. In postal
matters we still have much to learn. For instance, twenty years ago
Berlin introduced the pneumatic-tube system for the prompt delivery of
local letters. In 1879 Paris adopted the same system, and London,
Vienna, and other European cities followed suit. In London 60,000
letters are daily sent through the tubes.

Philadelphia has just been authorized by the P. O. Department to begin
the work of constructing such a system at once. It is proposed to have a
central pumping station at the new City Hall, from whence lines of pipes
will radiate to every part of the city. The diameter of the tubes is to
be eight inches, thus enabling packages of some size to be sent by this
method. The capacity of the tubes is to be 50,000 letters per hour. When
the system is completed Philadelphia will have the quickest local-mail
delivery in the world. Probably the New York and Brooklyn post-offices
will be connected by pneumatic tube in a few months, and the system is
bound to expand rapidly. It would not be surprising to find Boston, New
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington connected by tubes,
enabling letters and parcels to be forwarded in as many hours as it now
takes days. The telegraph companies will be seriously affected by the
new system.

The operation is very simple. The letters are placed in a leather tube
or carrier, which fits snugly into the pneumatic tube. Then a blast of
air from behind, or the suction of air from the front, or a combination
of the two methods, forces the carrier and its contents forward. As the
friction soon wears out the leather carriers, American genius will be
called upon to invent a metal carrier on "ball-bearings." With leather
tubes about ninety per cent. of the power applied is lost in overcoming
the friction and in waste, only ten per cent. of the total force applied
being used to propel the carrier.

The charge for sending pneumatic letters in Paris was 15c. each in 1879,
and the territory covered was but a small part of the city. To-day every
part of Paris is reached by the tubes, and the charge is 10c. per
letter, the same as our special delivery. Nine varieties of the Paris
pneumatic letters are collected. Probably many of the readers of the
ROUND TABLE have one or more of them. They bear a map of the city on the
face of the envelope, showing the different sections served by this
post. The Berlin and Vienna pneumatic letters are simpler in design.
There are no special designs on the London envelopes.

The latest development in Plate No. collecting is the great advance in
values of all the lower Nos. (say under No. 50) on _water-marked_ paper,
especially of the 1c. stamps. Probably not very many were printed, but
the chances are that many of the smaller post-offices still have some on
hand. One speculator in New York, who travels a great deal, makes it a
point to look over the stock of stamps on hand in every one of the
smaller post-offices whenever he gets permission. He has bought a very
large number, and the U. S. Post-Office Department is just so much
nearer a paying basis, as these stamps never get used in the way of
paying postage.

At the last annual dinner of the London Philatelic Society, Mr. Castle
in a very humorous speech divided the purchasers of stamps into four
classes--bird, beasts, fishes, and reptiles. The birds were those who
collected stamps for the gratification of a hobby; the fishes were those
who watched the market and picked up bargains to sell them thereafter at
an advance; the beasts were, of course, the dealers who preyed on birds
and fishes to the best of their ability, and the reptiles were the
speculators who cornered everything they could find, and locked them up
while awaiting a rise of prices, and thereby prevented many collectors
completing their collections.

     C. H. OSMOND, St. Clair, Dunedin, New Zealand, wishes to exchange
     stamps.

     J. O. HALL.--The 1861 pink is so scarce that I have known a dealer
     to let his boy look over two million of the 1861-7 3c. stamps
     without finding a single copy. The ordinary rose-color comes in a
     multitude of shades.

     A. ALLEN.--"Silk threads" means a stamp printed on paper in which a
     silk thread is embedded. The first stamps printed on this kind of
     paper were the Great-Britain 10d. brown and 1s. green of 1847. The
     paper is sometimes called "Dickinson" paper, from its maker.
     Bavaria 1849-1868, Würtemberg 1857, Switzerland 1854-1862, are also
     printed on this paper. Specialists in Switzerland stamps collect
     the different sets on green, black, blue, yellow, white, purple,
     and red threads. Other advanced collectors usually pay no attention
     to the color of the thread. "Silk paper" in U. S. stamps means a
     paper in which a lot of short fine filaments of silk have been
     embedded when the paper was still in a pulpy condition. Usually
     found on some of the U.S. Revenues.

     J. COOPER.--Yes. The Cuban stamps now offered in packages at such
     low prices are genuine. It seems the Cuban government kept all
     remainders for nearly twenty-five years, and have sold out the
     entire lot of many millions to stamp-dealers.

     JOHN G. SAXE.--The 5-rouble gold piece is worth full face value.
     Any money-broker will give you the full value, less a small charge
     for exchange.

     C. B. N.--The present 5c. U.S. stamp is found in two conditions: 1.
     From a new plate, very carefully printed; this shows a faint line
     at the edge of the background on which the portrait is engraved;
     this line is made by the engraver as a guide. 2. The ordinary
     stamp, which does not show the line, or simply traces of it. This
     refinement in varieties does not meet with the approval of
     philatelists in general.

     YREKA.--There are many minor varieties of U. S. Revenues in colors
     (shades), papers, etc. They are worth keeping if you are making up
     a big collection.

     NED C.--The 1803 cent can be bought of dealers at 10c. each; the
     1820 dime for 50c. The French coin; no value. The Prussian coin has
     no value in this country.

     CECIL RAWSON.--Your British Guiana stamp, from your description, is
     the ordinary 1c. green, worth 5c.

     E. STEBBINS.--The U. S. 24c. 1861 is very common. All the other
     U. S. 24c. are comparatively scarce.

     W. L. MCKINNON.--Your coin is a 3 skilling Norway. No value in this
     country.

     G. H. CLARK.--The stamps are the so-called "Dominical" or "Sabbath"
     stamps issued in Belgium two years ago. On the Continent of Europe
     it is customary to deliver letters on Sunday. Some years ago a
     large number of Belgic citizens petitioned the government to forbid
     the delivery of letters on Sunday, or at least to make it optional
     on the part of the sender. As a result all stamps were issued in
     the following form: The lower part of the stamp bears the
     instruction, in the French and Flemish languages, "Do not deliver
     on Sunday." If the sender wishes the letter delivered on Sunday he
     tears off this part of the stamp.

     [Illustration]

     G. H. C.--The word "Julia" in small letters on the bust of portrait
     on some of the Spanish stamps is the name of the engraver. Funchal
     is the capital of the Island of Madeira, with its special series of
     Portuguese colonial stamps. "Continente" is the main land of
     Portugal. New Brunswick never issued any stamped envelopes.

  PHILATUS.

       *       *       *       *       *

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[Illustration: STAMPS]

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[Illustration: THOMPSON'S EYE WATER]



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And other styles to suit all hands.

THE MOST PERFECT OF PENS.



Midsummer Jaunt by a Bird-lover.


     During the last week in June I decided to take a day off and go
     trout-fishing. Promptly after breakfast I mounted my bicycle, and
     was soon spinning up the "river road." In five minutes I arrived at
     the brook, leaned my "bike" against a neighboring barn, and
     started. I was at once interested in the swallows which were
     skimming around, almost touching the ground in their low sweeping
     flight. Once two of them tried to go in a hole at once, and a
     lively scrap resulted.

     I soon found a willow rod, to which I tied my line, and after
     putting a little worm on my flies I commenced fishing. As usual,
     "skeeters" were plentiful, and I turned up my coat collar for
     protection. Robins were numerous in the pasture, hopping fearlessly
     among the cows. After going a mile and a half through pasture and
     bits of woodland, I came to the end of the brook without having
     caught a fish.

     I recollected having been told of another brook about a quarter of
     a mile from the one I was fishing in, and I decided to hunt it up.
     I easily found the road which ran through the woods. I had not gone
     far before I became aware that birds were numerous, for a little
     oven-bird ran across the road into a brush-heap, where it was
     joined by its mate. I could not get through the underbrush as fast
     as they could, so they were soon lost to view. Further on a
     blue-jay flew screaming through the woods, starting the little red
     squirrels.

     The woods were alive with chickadees, an unusual occurrence, and
     for some time all I heard was chickadee-dee-dee-chickadee-dee. The
     brook was a small one, and the woods were thick, so I rolled on the
     end of my pole all but a foot of my line. I fished the brook for
     about an eighth of a mile and succeeded in catching a great number
     of fingerlings, which of course I threw back, and one 6-1/4-inch
     trout. As the law said 6 inches, I kept it.

     On the way back I spied a cat-bird on a maple sapling. Near the
     place where I saw the oven-bird my eye caught a glimpse of gaudy
     colors, and, following them up, I discovered a male Maryland
     yellow-throat. He was soon joined by his mate, and both of them
     hopped into a brush-heap. I was greatly elated, as yellow-throats
     are a rarity about Springfield. Near the barn were two huge
     chestnut-trees overhanging the brook, and as I was tired I sat down
     on the ground and leaned against the smaller tree. Suddenly a
     series of loud knocks and a pick-wick-wick-wick right over my head
     caused me to hop to my feet. My movements started the flickers,
     which flew up the brook, and, to my surprise, alighted on the
     ground.

     Several kingbirds were perched on a rail fence near by, and now and
     then darted off after some insect. A meadow-lark whistled far up
     the pasture, and a solitary sand-piper teetered along the brook.
     While crossing the Connecticut River on my way home I noted a
     belted kingfisher on a dead limb. I arrived home in time for
     dinner, and you may be sure I had soon eaten my trout. While writing
     this a bird-note called me out-doors. There I found many
     bird-loving neighbors intently watching a pair of red-breasted
     grosbeaks. The male was resplendent in his fine colors, but the
     poor little brown and white female looked dilapidated.

  ALBERT W. ATWATER.
  SPRINGFIELD, MASS.

       *       *       *       *       *

"Where'd I leave That?"

     To-day I paid a visit to the room in which are stored the articles
     left by passengers on one of the great railways entering New York.
     People leave many articles in the cars, and forget to call for all
     of them. Indeed, not more than one-third of the things found in the
     cars are ever claimed by owners. On the other hand, very few things
     that are claimed and accurately described fail to be recovered.
     Every railway keeps a store-room for lost articles, and employs are
     under strict orders to send all articles to it.

     Perhaps you can guess what a lot of odd things I saw in this
     store-room! Of course there were such common things as books,
     umbrellas, and, rubbers. A few of each? Oh no, not a few only, but
     barrel upon barrel of rubbers, a library of books, and enough
     umbrellas to fill a twenty-bushel bin. But the queer things
     included--what do you think? Well, half a dozen sets of false
     teeth, more than one hundred night-robes, a score or more of
     eye-glasses, and two razors. Any live-stock? Not in this room, for
     the attendant told me such things had to be cared for, and could
     not be stored here; but during the past few weeks, he said, there
     had been turned in two canaries, three kittens, a lap-dog, and a
     parrot!

     There are not a few pocket-books found, but these are invariably
     called for. Some months ago a man left a book containing $54,000 in
     one of the sleeping-cars, and books containing $100 to $1000 are
     quite often found. Rather odd, too, is the fact that the people who
     leave most of these things in the cars are old travellers.
     Excursionists and others unfamiliar with the ways of travel look
     after their possessions. It is the confident man or woman who
     leaves the car and leaves his or her valise or lap-dog behind.

     If your friends are coming to New York soon, tell them that the
     value of articles forgotten by passengers entering this city every
     year foots up into the hundreds of thousands of dollars, and that
     they will do well not to contribute anything to this wasteful fund.

  JOHN B. HENDERSON, R.T.K.
  NEW YORK.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Rare Bittern.

"In our reading lesson to-day occurred a reference to a tiger-bittern.
Our natural history does not mention it. Can you tell me if there is
such a bird? Ella F. Loomis, Steubenville, O." The tiger-bittern is
found in the West Indies and in South America, but is rare. It is a
trifle smaller than the United States blue heron, and has a bill much
shorter. The coloring is most beautiful. From the top of the head to the
last row of feathers on the legs it is barred precisely like the Bengal
tiger, the stripes of bright yellow showing up in striking contrast to
the black. The bars are most regular.

If the skin of this bittern were spread out on the floor at some
distance from you, you would assert it to be a portion of a tiger-skin.
Like many other varieties of crane, heron, and bittern, this bird is
sought for its plumes, and is becoming rarer every year.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Law She Intended to Practise.

In our day women enter occupations which earlier times thought belonged
exclusively to men. The wife of one of the men now before the people as
a candidate for President of the United States is a lawyer. At the time
of her admission to the bar she was the head of a household and mother
of two children. Asked her specialty in law practice, she replied,
"Home-rule."

       *       *       *       *       *

Answers to Kinks.

No. 8.

1, Lark--Shakespeare. 2, Cock--Longfellow. 3, Jay--Longfellow.
4, Bluebird--Longfellow. 5, Duck--O. W. Holmes. 6, Turtle-dove--D.
Conway. 7, Cuckoo--Shakespeare. 8, Cuckoo--Shakespeare. 9,
Pheasant--William Howitt. 10, Gull--O. W. Holmes. 11, White
owl--Longfellow. 12, Eagle--Mrs. Barbauld. 13, Nightingale--Coleridge.
14, Nightingale--Coleridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

Kinks.

No. 9.--CENTRAL ACROSTIC.

If the cross-words--of equal length--are correctly solved, the central
letters, reading downward, will spell the name of a Greek hero whose
life ended with the burning of a brand.

Cross-words.--1. A weight used in sounding. 2. Cuts into two parts. 3. A
large wild-duck; the greenhead. 4. An overseer. 5. Imprisonment. 6. Long
gaiters. 7. A plant clinging by tendrils. 8. Bespangled.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 10.--A MATHEMATICAL MELANGE.

From the date of the siege of Saragossa subtract that of Valentinian's
death: add the number of letters in the name of a common article; divide
by the number of Henry VIII.'s wives; multiply by a German word of
denial; divide by the number of letters in a whip used for punishing
criminals; subtract the age of the "Sage of Monticello"; add the weight
of the giant anvil at the Woolwich Arsenal, England, and that of the
Braganza diamond (in carats). The square root of the first half of this
number multiplied by 1/37 of the second half will give the number of
letters in the name of "The Blooming Grace." Who is she?

  VINCENT V. M. BEEDE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 11.--A RIDDLE.

I have no substance, and generally no intelligent relation to time or
times. Sometimes I am sensible, but oftener I am absurd. Yet I have
great influence, and not infrequently change the plans of people.
Indeed, I have helped to change the history of the world. What am I?

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 12.--A RECEIPT.

  To decapitate a notion
    Of course makes it dead,
  But gives what is put
    On the murderer's head.
  A further beheadment
    Will make what you pay
  When you purchase an article
    At a shop some day.
  Again you behead
    With a very quick motion,
  And at once there's a plant
    That is part of the notion.
  Behead once more
    And the first part you see
  Of what our confection
    Is going to be.
  Take a measure of paper
    To form the second.
  Prefix one hundred
    In proper shape reckoned.
  Join this to the first,
    And I'm sure you will say
  It's a delightful treat
    For a hot summer day.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 13.--AN ENDLESS CHAIN.

The first syllable of every word is the second of the preceding word.
The first syllable of the first word is the second syllable of the last.
All words are dissyllables.

An animal--the tonic--a brief communication--a longer
one--fear--relating to dew--to assign--a game--a citadel--a disease of
rye--obtained--delicate--the true skin--naval--pertaining to the
kidneys--to frighten--steel covering--human--grease--a poet--not rare.

  SIMON T. STERN.



[Illustration: THE CAMERA CLUB.]

     Any questions in regard to photograph matters will be willingly
     answered by the Editor of this column, and we should be glad to
     hear from any of our club who can make helpful suggestions.

COPYING PICTURES WITH A CAMERA.


Copying pictures may seem to be a very simple matter, for the subject
does not even need to be posed, and will remain motionless for any
length of time; but there are several points connected with the copying
of pictures which are of importance if one wishes to make a correct
copy. For convenience the pictures to be copied might be divided into
three classes. I. Black and white pictures, such as engravings,
wood-cuts, wash-drawings, etchings, etc. II. Photographs and half-tones.
III. Oil-paintings, colored pastels, etc.

The first thing to be considered is the arranging of the camera so that
it will be exactly perpendicular with the picture. A copying-stand is a
great convenience, but, like many other conveniences, not an actual
necessity. A vertical support, with the drawing or picture placed in
such a manner that its centre shall come on an exact line with the
centre of the lens is all that is required. A board the width of the bed
of the camera, and perhaps five feet in length, will answer every
purpose of a copying-stand. At one end of this board fasten a small
piece of board in such a way that it shall be at exactly right angles
with the long board. This small board is the support for the picture.
The camera either rests on the board, or is raised a little above it by
a small block, the adjustment depending on the size of the picture to be
copied. To find whether the centre of the lens corresponds with that of
the picture, place the camera quite near the picture, thread a piece of
silk through the centre of the lens cap, place the cap on the lens, and
carry the string to the centre of the picture. In this way one can
readily see whether the two centres correspond with each other.

In copying a black and white picture we want no half-tones or shadows,
so that if the paper has a grain it must be placed in a strong front
light. An all-round illumination, which can be had by using the
apparatus out-of-doors, is the best lighting, as there is no possibility
of shadows.

The most suitable plate for copying a black and white picture is the
brand called "photo-mechanical." If these plates are not easily
obtained, use a very slow plate.

Place the picture on the support upside down, fastening it very securely
with thumb-tacks. If the paper is thin, place a piece of red or black
paper behind the picture. This should always be done if the picture is
being copied from a book, or there is any printed matter on the reverse
side of the picture.

In copying pictures from books a thin piece of flat board should be put
back of the leaf, and the leaf held in place by two stout rubber straps.

In copying photographs or half-tone prints, a plate of medium rapidity
should be used. If there are heavy shadows a more rapid plate is
required. A small diaphragm must be used in order to have the picture
sharp at the edges.

In copying colored pictures the only plate to use is the orthochromatic
plate. This will render the true color values of the different tints in
the picture. Oil-paintings require more care in lighting than other
colored pictures, in order to avoid the brush marks appearing in the
photographs.

The plates are developed in the same way as if made direct from the
object, hydroquinon and pyro giving the best results.

If one has been unfortunate enough to break a valuable negative, but has
a good print from it, a small negative may be made from the photograph,
and from this small negative an enlargement can easily be produced.

     SIR KNIGHT CHARLES H. WOODS asks if the "Eureka" camera is a good
     camera, as he wishes to buy a 4 by 5 camera and does not wish an
     expensive one. The "Eureka" does very good work, but is not as
     convenient a camera as one of the hand-cameras at the same price.



[Illustration: Ivory Soap]

An experienced laundress will tell you that shirts never look as white
as when washed with Ivory Soap.

THE PROCTER & GAMBLE CO., CIN'TI.



[Illustration]

THE

BALTIMOREAN PRINTING-PRESS

has earned more money for boys than all other presses in the market.
Boys, don't idle away your time when you can buy a self-inking
printing-press, type, and complete outfit for $5.00. Write for
particulars, there is money in it for you.

THE J. F. W. DORMAN CO.,

Baltimore, Md., U.S.A.



[Illustration]

EARN A TRICYCLE.

We wish to Introduce our Teas. Sell 30 lbs. and we will give you a Fairy
Tricycle: sell 25 lbs. for a solid Silver Watch and Chain; 50 lbs. for a
Gold Watch and Chain; 75 lbs. for a Bicycle; 10 lbs. for a Gold Ring.
Write for catalog and order sheet Dept. I

W. G. BAKER,

Springfield, Mass.



Hold their place in the front rank of the publications to which they
belong.--_Boston Journal_, Feb. 19, 1896.

HARPER'S

PERIODICALS

  MAGAZINE, $4.00 a Year
  WEEKLY, $4.00 a Year
  BAZAR, $4.00 a Year
  ROUND TABLE, $2.00 a Year



[Illustration: THOMPSON'S EYE WATER]



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LITTLE KNIGHTS AND LADIES

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THE STORY OF BABETTE

A Little Creole Girl. By RUTH MCENERY STUART. Illustrated. Post 8vo,
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TOMMY TODDLES

By ALBERT LEE. Illustrated by PETER S. NEWELL. Square 16mo, Cloth,
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AFLOAT WITH THE FLAG

By W. J. HENDERSON, Author of "Sea Yarns for Boys," etc. Illustrated.
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       *       *       *       *       *

Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York.



[Illustration: NECESSITY IS THE MOTHER OF INVENTION.]

       *       *       *       *       *

AMBITIOUS.

"Wisht I wuz a cork," said Jack. "They can swim all day and never get
drownded."

       *       *       *       *       *

JIM'S JOKE.

CHARLIE. "Catch any fish down at Beachville?"

JIM. "Yes. Caught a brook-trout yesterday."

CHARLIE. "Brook-trout? At the sea-shore? Whereabouts?"

JIM. "At the dinner table."

       *       *       *       *       *

A CORRECTION.

"Look at that old sea-dog," said Uncle George, pointing out the old
sailor.

"He ain't a sea-dog," said Bob. "He runs a cat-boat."

       *       *       *       *       *

HOW IT IS DONE.

HARRY (_who is not yet up in bicycular slang_). "I say, Will, how do you
do when you scorch?"

WILL. "Pretty well, I thank you. If you wish to scorch, say in the
Park, just let your wheel go like forty. The bicycle cop will do the
arrest. That's scorching."

       *       *       *       *       *

A FAMILY RESEMBLANCE.

DR. BALSAM. "Your boy favors you greatly, Mr. Hillside--that is, takes
after you."

FARMER HILLSIDE. "He'd favor me more, Doctor, ef he'd only obey me. He
don't take after me; but I tell you his mother takes after him when he
don't toe the mark she chalks for him."

       *       *       *       *       *

A BUSINESS SESSION.

RAYMOND. "Papa, you say Congress is in session when it is sitting, don't
you?"

PAPA. "Certainly, my boy."

RAYMOND. "Well, then, would it be wrong for me to say that our old
Plymouth Rock hen is now in session in the barn?"

       *       *       *       *       *

A fat old gentleman in a light gray suit got into an elevated train at
Thirty-fourth Street, and bustled every one out of his way in order to
secure the only vacant seat left on the shady side of the car. As soon
as he had thrown himself into the seat, he buried his face in a
newspaper in order that he might not see how many women were standing in
the car. The train had hardly pulled out of the station when a poorly
dressed and undoubtedly Irish woman who sat next to him touched him on
the arm, and said,

"I beg your pardon, sorr--"

The old gentleman looked up and frowned, and then turned to his
newspaper again.

"Will you be so good, sorr--" began the woman again.

The fat man in the gray suit glared savagely, but gave no reply. Several
times the woman tried to make him speak. At last, just after the guard
had announced "Ninth Street!" the woman said again, "I really beg your
pardon, sorr, but--"

The fat man turned upon her savagely, his face very red, and exclaimed,

"If you don't stop talking to me, woman, I'll call the conductor and
have you put off the car!"

"Shure, sorr," exclaimed the woman, "I'm afther gettin' off at Ninth
Street, but, conductor or no conductor, I won't get out until you get
off my butter that you've been sittin' in since you got on at
Thirty-fourth Street!"

       *       *       *       *       *

A gentleman recently returned from travelling in England brought back
the following story, which he tells with such hearty laughter as to make
one believe that to have seen the incident were better than to read
about it:

The engineer of a train, or rather driver, as they call him in England,
not shutting off steam soon enough, ran his train some distance past the
station. He backed down again, but either through carelessness or
defective machinery his engine ran some distance the other way. The
station-master, exceedingly wroth at the first miscalculation, was
simply spluttering with wrath at the second, and running down the track
he yelled out:

"Hold on there! Stop where you are! We'll just shift the station up to
you, being as you can't get up to it."

       *       *       *       *       *

Freddie was sent down stairs by his uncle to bring up a pair of tan
shoes. The youngster returned with two shoes, one of which was laced and
the other buttoned.

"That isn't the right pair, Freddie," said his uncle. "I can't wear
those. They are not mates. Where are the others?"

The little boy looked somewhat puzzled for a moment, and then said, "I
don't think you can wear the other pair, uncle; it isn't alike, either."





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