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Title: Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction, and the Drama, Vol 4 of 4
Author: Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                          Transcriber’s Note:

This version of the text cannot represent certain typographical effects.
Italics are delimited with the ‘_’ character as _italic_. The topic
headings were printed in =boldface= type, and are delimited with ‘_’.

The original volume promised many illustrations. However, the edition
used here had none of them. The List of Illustrations is retained;
however, the pages indicated, which were struck out and corrected with
hand-written notes, were not valid and have been removed.

The text was printed with two columns per page, which could not be
reproduced in this format.

Minor errors, attributable to the printer, have been corrected. Please
see the transcriber’s note at the end of this text for details regarding
the handling of any textual issues encountered during its preparation.

The following less-common characters are found in this book: ă (a with
breve), ā (a with macron), ĕ (e with breve), ē (e with macron), ĭ (i
with breve), ī (i with macron), ŏ (o with breve), ō (o with macron), ŭ
(u with breve), ū (u with macron). If they do not display properly,
please try changing your font.



           AND THE DRAMA::::

                       A REVISED AMERICAN EDITION
                        OF THE READER’S HANDBOOK


                    THE REV. E. COBHAM BREWER, LL.D.

                               EDITED BY

                             MARION HARLAND


                               VOLUME IV

[Illustration: colophon]


        NEW YORK              SELMAR HESS              PUBLISHER




                          Copyright, 1892, by
                              SELMAR HESS.

       HESS PRESS.

                         LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


                               VOLUME IV.



                  _Illustration_                 _Artist_
         KATRINA VAN TASSEL (_colored_)    E. A. ABBEY
         SHOP (THE) OF FIGARO              J. J. ARANDA
         THEODORA                          BENJAMIN CONSTANT
         WELLERS (THE TWO)                 FREDERICK BARNARD
         SALLY IN OUR ALLEY                E. S. KENNEDY
         SAMSON AND DELILAH                J. ECHENA
         SANCHO AND THE DUCHESS            C. R. LESLIE
         SAPPHO                            W. KRAY
           OF)                             SIR DAVID WILKIE
         SATAN WOUNDED                     GUSTAVE DORÉ
           BEFORE JACK CADE                CHAS. LUCY
         SCHARLOT (HUON KILLS)             GABRIEL MAX
         SCHEHERAZADE                      FERD. KELLER
         SHARP (BECKY)                     FREDERICK BARNARD
         SHORE (JANE)
         SIGYN (LOKI AND)                  CARL GEBHARDT
         SILVIA                            C. E. PERUGINI
           OF THE PRINCE                   GUSTAVE DORÉ
         SNOW-WHITE                        ALBERT TSCHAUTSCH
           SISTER SITTAH
           MARCHIONESS                     FREDERICK BARNARD
         SYKES (BILL)                      FREDERICK BARNARD
         TARTUFFE (ELMIRE AND)             CARL HOFF
           BAUMGARTEN                      A. BAUER
           ACHILLES                        BENJAMIN WEST
         THISBE                            E. LONG
         TITANIA                           EPHRAIM KEYSER
         TOSCA (LA)                        L. LELOIR
         TROILUS AND CRESSIDA              V. W. BROMLEY
         TROLL (ATTA), FROM
         TULLIA                            ERNST HILDEBRAND
         UNDINE                            MULLER
         URSUS AND HOMO                    G. ROCHEGROSSE
         VALJEAN (JEAN)                    EMILE BAYARD
         VALKYRIE (THE)
           DE LA)                          BUSSCHE
         VASHTI                            ERNST NORMAND
         VIOLA AND OLIVIA                  CARL BECKER
           STYX                            EUGÈNE DELACROIX
           GERVAISE AND)                   ADRIEN MARIE
         VIRGINIA (THE DEATH OF)           A. ZICK
         WELCOME, SIR OLUF                 W. KRAY
           WIFE                            CHAS. R. LESLIE
         YVETOT (THE KING OF)              EMILE BAYARD


                        FICTION, AND THE DRAMA.

=Skeggs= (_Miss Carolina Wilhelmina Amelia_), the companion of “Lady
Blarney.” These were two flash women, introduced by Squire Tuthill to
the Primrose family, with a view of beguiling the two eldest daughters,
who were both very beautiful. Sir William Thornhill thwarted their
infamous purpose.--Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_ (1766).

=Skeleton= (_Sam_), a smuggler.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
George III.).

=Sketchley= (_Arthur_), George Rose, author of _Mrs. Brown_ (her
observations on men and objects, politics and manners, etc.).

=Skettles= (_Sir Barnet_), of Fulham. He expressed his importance by an
antique gold snuff-box and a silk handkerchief. His hobby was to extend
his acquaintances, and to introduce people to each other. Skettles,
junior, was a pupil of Dr. Blimber.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_

=Skevington’s Daughter=, an instrument of torture invented by
Skevington, lieutenant of the Tower, in the reign of Henry VIII. It
consisted of a broad iron hoop, in two parts, jointed with a hinge. The
victim was put into the hoop, which was then squeezed close and locked.
Here he remained for about an hour and a half in the most inexpressible
torture. (Generally corrupted into the “Scavenger’s Daughter.”)

=Skewton= (_The Hon. Mrs._), mother of Edith (Mr. Dombey’s second wife).
Having once been a beauty, she painted when old and shrivelled, became
enthusiastic about the “charms of nature,” and reclined in her
bath-chair in the attitude she assumed in her barouche when young and
well off. A fashionable artist had painted her likeness in this
attitude, and called his picture “Cleopatra.” The Hon. Mrs. Skewton was
the sister of the late Lord Feenix, and aunt to the present lord.--C.
Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

=Skiffins= (_Miss_), an angular, middle-aged woman, who wears “green kid
gloves when dressed for company.” She marries Wemmick.--C. Dickens,
_Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Skimpole= (_Harold_), an amateur artist, always sponging on his
friends. Under a plausible, light-hearted manner he was intensely
selfish, but Mr. Jarndyce looked on him as a mere child, and believed in
him implicitly.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1852).

(The original of this character was Leigh Hunt, who was greatly
displeased at the skit.)

=Skin= (_The Man without a_), Richard Cumberland. So called by Garrick,
on account of his painful sensitiveness of all criticism. The same
irritability of temper made Sheridan caricature him in _The Critic_ as
“Sir Fretful Plagiary” (1732-1811).

=Skinfaxi= (“_shining mane_”), the horse which draws the chariot of
day.--_Scandinavian Mythology._

=Skofnung=, the sword of King Rolf, the Norway hero, preserved for
centuries in Iceland.

=Skogan.= (See SCOGAN.)

=Skreigh= (_Mr._), the precentor at the Gordon Arms inn,
Kippletringan.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Skulls at Banquets.= Plutarch tells us that towards the close of an
Egyptian feast a servant brought in a skeleton, and cried to the guests,
“Eat, drink, and be merry, for to-morrow you die!”

                Like skulls at Memphian banquets.
                     Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 65 (1820).

=Skurliewhitter= (_Andrew_), the scrivener.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of
Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Sky-Lark=, a lark with the “skies,” or ’scīs. The Westminster boys used
to style themselves _Romans_, and the “town,” _Volsci_; the latter word
was curtailed to _’sci_ [_sky_]. A row between the Westminsterians and
the town roughs was called a _’sci-lark_, or a lark with the Volsci.

=Skyresh Bol´golam=, the high admiral or galbert of the realm of
Lilliput.--Swift, _Gulliver’s Travels_ (“Voyage to Lilliput,” iii.,

=Slackbridge=, one of the “hands” in Bounderby’s mill at Coketown.
Slackbridge is an ill-conditioned fellow, ill-made, with lowering
eyebrows, and though inferior to many of the others, exercises over them
a great influence. He is the orator, who stirs up his fellow-workmen to
strike.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

=Slammerkin= (_Mrs._). Captain Macheath says of her, “She is careless
and genteel.” “All you fine ladies,” he adds, “who know your own beauty,
affect an undress.”--Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_, ii. 1 (1727).

=Slander=, an old hag, of “ragged, rude attyre, and filthy lockes,” who
sucked venom out of her nails. It was her nature to abuse all goodness,
to frame groundless charges, to “steale away the crowne of a good name,”
and “never thing so well was doen, but she with blame would blot, and of
due praise deprive.”

          A foule and loathly creature sure in sight,
          And in condition to be loathed no lesse:
          For she was stuft with rancor and despight
          Up to the throat, that oft with bitternesse
          It forth would breake and gush in great excesse,
          Pouring out streames of poyson and of gall
          ’Gainst all that truth or vertue doe professe,
          Whom she with leasings lewdly did miscall,
          And wickedly backbite. Her name men “Slaunder” call.
            Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, IV. viii. 24 (1596).

=Slang=, from Slangenberg, a Dutch general, noted for his abusive and
exaggerated epithets when he reproved the men under his command. The
etymon is suited to this dictionary, and the following are not without
wit:--Italian, _s-lingua_, _s_ negative and _lingua_ = “bad language;”
French, _esclandre_, “an event which gives rise to scandal,” hence,
_faire esclandre_, “to expose one to scandal,” _causer de l’escandre_,
“to give ground for scandal;” Greek, _skandălon_, “an offense, a
scandal.” “Slangs,” fetters for malefactors.

=Slango=, a lad, servant of Gaylove, a young barrister. He dresses up as
a woman, and when Squire Sapskull comes from Yorkshire for a wife,
Slango passes himself off as Arbella. In the mean time, Gaylove assumes
the airs and manners of a Yorkshire tike, and marries Arbella, with whom
he is in love.--Carey, _The Honest Yorkshireman_ (1736).

=Slawken-Ber´gius Hafen=, an imaginary author, distinguished for the
great length of his nose. In the _Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy_
(by Sterne), Slawken-Bergius is referred to as a great authority on all
lore connected with noses, and a curious tale is introduced from his
hypothetical works about a man with an enormously long nose.

  No nose can be justly amputated by the public, not even the nose of
  Slawken-Bergius himself.--Carlyle.

=Slaygood= (_Giant_), master of a gang of thieves which infested the
King’s highway. Mr. Greatheart slew him, and rescued Feeblemind from his
grasp in a duel.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, ii. (1684).

=Sleary=, proprietor of the circus at Coketown. A stout man with one eye
fixed and one loose, a voice like the efforts of a broken pair of
bellows, a flabby skin, and muddled head. He was never sober and never
drunk, but always kind-hearted. Tom Gradgrind, after robbing the bank,
lay concealed in this circus as a black servant till Sleary connived at
his escape. This Sleary did in gratitude to Thomas Gradgrind, Esq.,
M.P., who adopted and educated Cecilia Jupe, daughter of his clown,
Signor Jupe.

_Josephine Sleary_, daughter of the circus proprietor, a pretty girl of
18, who had been tied on a horse at two years old, and had made a will
at 12. This will she carried about with her, and in it she signified her
desire to be drawn to the grave by two piebald ponies. Josephine married
E. W. B. Childers, of her father’s circus.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_

=Sleek= (_Aminadab_), in _The Serious Family_, a comedy by Morris

=Sleeper= (_The_). Almost all nations have a tradition about some
sleeper who will wake after a long period of dormancy.

_American_ (_North_). RIP VAN WINKLE, a Dutch colonist, of New York,
slept twenty years in the Catskill Mountains.--Washington Irving.

_American_ (_South_). SEBASTIAN I., supposed to have fallen in the
battle of Alcazarquebir, in 1578, is only asleep, and will in due time
awake, return to life, and make Brazil the chief kingdom of the earth.

_Arabian Legends._ MAHOMMED MOHADI, the twelfth imân, is only sleeping,
like Charlemagne, till Antichrist appears, when he will awake in his
strength, and overthrow the great enemy of all true believers.

NOURJAHAD is only in a temporary sleep, waiting the fulness of time.

_British Traditions._ KING ARTHUR is not dead in Avillon, but is merely
metamorphosed into a raven. In due time he will awake, resume his proper
person, claim the throne of Britain, and make it the head and front of
all the kingdoms of the globe. “Because King Arthur bears for the nonce
the semblance of a raven, the people of Britain never kill a raven”
(Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. ii. 5).

GYNETH slept 500 years by the enchantment of Merlin. She was the natural
daughter of King Arthur and Guendolen, and was thus punished because she
would not put an end to a combat in which twenty knights were mortally
wounded, including Merlin’s son.--Sir W. Scott, _Bridal of Triermain_

MERLIN, the enchanter, is not dead, but “sleeps and sighs in an old
tree, spell-bound by Vivien.”--_British Legend._

ST. DAVID was thrown into an enchanted sleep by Ormandine, but after
sleeping for seven years, was awoke by Merlin.

_French Legend._ The French slain in the SICILIAN VESPERS are not really
dead, but they sleep for the time being, awaiting the day of

_German Legends._ BARBAROSSA, with six of his knights, sleeps in
Kyffhaüsberg, in Thuringia, till the fulness of time, when they will
awake and make Germany the foremost kingdom of the earth. The beard of
the red king has already grown through the table slab at which he is
sitting, but it must wind itself three times round the table before his
second event. Barbarossa occasionally wakes and asks, “Is it time?” when
a voice replies, “Not yet. Sleep on.”

CHARLEMAGNE is not dead, but only asleep in Untersberg, near Saltzburg,
waiting for the advent of Antichrist, when he will rouse from his
slumber, go forth conquering, and will deliver Christendom that it may
be fit for the second advent and personal reign of Christ.

CHARLES V., kaiser of Germany, is only asleep, waiting his time, when he
will awake, return to earth, “resume the monarchy over Germany,
Portugal, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Denmark, putting all
enemies under his feet.”

KNEZ LAZAR, of Servia, supposed to have been slain by the Turks in 1389,
is not really dead, but has put on sleep for a while, and at an allotted
moment he will re-appear in his full strength.

_Grecian Legends._ ENDYM´ION, a beautiful youth, sleeps a perpetual
sleep in Latmos. Selēnê (the moon) fell in love with him, kissed him,
and still lies by his side. In the British Museum is an exquisite statue
of Endymion asleep.--_Greek Fable._

EPIMEN´IDES (5 _syl._), the Cretan poet, was sent in boyhood to search
for a stray sheep; being heated and weary, he stepped into a cave, and
fell asleep for fifty-seven years. Epimenidês, we are told, attained the
age of 154, 157, 229, and some say 289 years.--Pliny, _History_, vii.

_Irish Traditions._ BRIAN, surnamed “Boroimhe,” king of Ireland, who
conquered the Danes in twenty pitched battles, and was supposed to have
been slain in the battle of Clontarf, in 1014, was only stunned. He
still sleeps in his castle of Kincora, and the day of Ireland’s
necessity will be Brian’s opportunity.

DESMOND OF KILMALLOCK, in Limerick, supposed to have perished in the
reign of Elizabeth, is only sleeping under the waters of lough Gur.
Every seventh year he re-appears in full armor, rides round the lake
early in the morning, and will ultimately reappear and claim the family
estates.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_.

_Jewish Legend._ ELIJAH, the prophet, is not dead, but sleeps in
Abraham’s bosom till Antichrist appears, when he will return to
Jerusalem and restore all things.

_Russian Tradition._ ELIJAH MANSUR, warrior, prophet, and priest in
Asiatic Russia, tried to teach a more tolerant form of Islâm, but was
looked on as a heretic, and condemned to imprisonment in the bowels of a
mountain. There he sleeps, waiting patiently the summons which will be
given him, when he will awake, and wave his conquering sword to the
terror of the Muscovite.--Milner, _Gallery of Geography_, 781.

_Scandinavian Tradition._ OLAF TRYGGVASON, king of Norway, who was
baptized in London, and introduced Christianity into Norway, Iceland and
Greenland. Being overthrown by Swolde, king of Sweden (A.D. 1000), he
threw himself into the sea and swam to the Holy Land, became an
anchorite, and fell asleep at a greatly advanced age; but he is only
waiting his opportunity, when he will sever Norway from Sweden, and
raise it to a first-class power.

_Scottish Tradition._ THOMAS OF ERCELDOUNE sleeps beneath the Eildon
Hills, in Scotland. One day an elfin lady led him into a cavern in these
hills, and he fell asleep for seven years, when he revisited the upper
earth, under a bond that he would return immediately the elfin lady
summoned him. One day, as he was making merry with his friends, he heard
the summons, kept his word, and has never since been seen.--Sir W.
Scott, _Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border_.

_Spanish Tradition._ BOBADIL EL CHICO, last of the Moorish kings of
Granada, lies spell-bound near the Alhambra, but in the day appointed he
will return to earth and restore the Moorish government in Spain.

_Swiss Legend._ Three of the family of TELL sleep a semi-death at Rütli,
waiting for the hour of their country’s need, when they will wake up and
deliver it.


=Sleeper Awakened= (_The_). Abou Hassan, the son of a rich merchant at
Bagdad, inherited a good fortune; but, being a prudent man, made a vow
to divide it into two parts: all that came to him from rents he
determined to set apart, but all that was of the nature of cash he
resolved to spend on pleasure. In the course of a year he ran through
this fund, and then made a resolve in future to ask only one guest at a
time to his board. This guest was to be a stranger, and never to be
asked a second time. It so happened that the Caliph Haroun-al-Raschid,
disguised as a merchant, was on one occasion his guest, and heard Abou
Hassan say that he wished he were caliph for one day, and he would
punish a certain imân for tittle-tattling. Haroun-al-Raschid thought
that he could make capital of this wish for a little diversion; so,
drugging the merchant’s wine, he fell into a profound sleep, was
conveyed to the palace, and, on waking, was treated as the caliph. He
ordered the imân to be punished, and sent his mother a handsome gift;
but at night, another sleeping draught being given him, he was carried
back to his own house. When he woke he could not decide if he had been
in a dream or not, but his conduct was so strange that he was taken to a
mad-house. He was confined for several days, and, being discharged, the
caliph in disguise again visited him, and repeated the same game, so
that next day he could not tell which had been the dream. At length the
mystery was cleared up, and he was given a post about the caliph’s
person, and the sultana gave him a beautiful slave for his wife. Abou
Hassan now played a trick on the caliph. He pretended to be dead, and
sent his young wife to the sultana to announce the sad news. Zobeida,
the sultana, was very much grieved, and gave her favorite a sum of money
for the funeral expenses. On her return she played the dead woman, and
Abou Hassan went to the caliph to announce his loss. The caliph
expressed his sympathy, and, having given him a sum of money for the
funeral expenses, went to the sultana to speak of the sad news of the
death of the young bride. “The bride?” cried Zobeida; “you mean the
bridegroom, commander of the faithful.” “No, I mean the bride,” answered
the caliph, “for Abou Hassan has but just left me.” “That cannot be,
sire,” retorted Zobeida, “for it is not an hour ago that the bride was
here to announce his death.” To settle this moot point, the chief of the
eunuchs was sent to see which of the two was dead; and Abou, who saw him
coming, got the bride to pretend to be dead, and set himself at her head
bewailing, so the man returned with the report that it was the bride who
was dead, and not the bridegroom. The sultana would not believe him, and
sent her aged nurse to ascertain the fact. As she approached, Abou
Hassan pretended to be dead, and the bride to be the wailing widow;
accordingly, the nurse contradicted the report of the eunuch. The caliph
and sultana, with the nurse and eunuch, then all went to see for
themselves, and found both apparently dead. The caliph now said he would
give 1000 pieces of gold to know which died first, when Abou Hassan
cried, “Commander of the faithful, it was I who died first.” The trick
was found out, the caliph nearly died with laughter, and the jest proved
a little mine of wealth to the court favorite.--_Arabian Nights._

=Sleepers.= (See SEVEN SLEEPERS.)

=Sleeping Beauty= (_The_), a lady who sleeps in a castle a hundred
years, during which time an impenetrable wood springs up around the
castle; but being at length disenchanted by a young prince, she marries
him. The brothers Grimm have reproduced this tale in German. The old
Norse tale of Brynhild and Sigurd seems to be the original of _The
Sleeping Beauty_.--Perrault, _Contes du Temps_ (“La Belle au Bois
Dormant,” 1697).

(Tennyson has poetized this nursery story.)

=Sleepner=, the horse of Odin.

=Slender=, one of the suitors of “sweet Anne Page.” His servant’s name
is Simple. Slender is a country lout, cousin of Justice
Shallow.--Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_ (1596).

=Slick Mose=, idiot boy, yet with animal instinct and dogged fidelity
enough to make him signally useful to those to whom he is attached.
“Della sets a heap by Slick Mose’s notions in things,” said the Colonel.
“Well, there’s no tellin’ ’bout these half-witted creatures. And more
people _are_ half-witted than is suspected.”--Octave Thanet, _Expiation_

=Slick= (_Sam_), Judge Thomas Chandler Haliburton, of Nova Scotia,
author of _The Clockmaker_ (1837).

_Sam Slick_, a Yankee clockmaker and pedlar, wonderfully ’cute, a great
observer, full of quaint ideas, droll wit, odd fancies, surprising
illustrations, and plenty of “soft sawder.” Judge Haliburton wrote the
two series called _Sam Slick, or the Clockmaker_ (1837).

=Sliderskew= (_Peg_), the hag-like housekeeper of Arthur Gride. She robs
her master of some deeds, and thereby brings on his ruin.--C. Dickens,
_Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Sligo= (_Dr._), of Ireland. He looks with contempt on his countryman,
Dr. Osasafras, because he is but a _parvenu_.

  Osasafras? That’s a name of no note. He is not a Milesian, I am sure.
  The family, I suppose, came over the other day with Strongbow, not
  above seven or eight hundred years ago.--Foote, _The Devil Upon Two
  Sticks_ (1768).

=Slingsby= (_Jonathan Freke_), John Francis Waller, author of _The
Slingsby Papers_ (1852), etc.

_Slingsby_ (_Philip_), pseudonym of N. P. Willis, in the series of
essays and tales published as _The Slingsby Papers_. Chief among these
is _Love in the Library_ (184-).

=Slip=, the valet of young Harlowe (son of Sir Harry Harlowe, of
Dorsetshire). He schemes with Martin, a fellow-servant, to contract a
marriage between Martin and Miss Stockwell (daughter of a wealthy
merchant), in order to get possession of £10,000, the wedding portion.
The plan was this: Martin was to pass himself off as young Harlowe, and
marry the lady or secure the dot; but Jenny (Miss Stockwell’s maid)
informs Belford, the lover of Miss Stockwell, and he arrests the two
knaves just in time to prevent mischief.--Garrick, _Neck or Nothing_

=Slippers=, which enabled the feet to walk, _knives_ that cut of
themselves, and _sabres_ which dealt blows at a wish, were presents
brought to Vathek by a hideous monster without a name.--W. Beckford,
_Vathek_ (1784).

=Slippery Sam=, a highwayman in Captain Macheath’s gang. Peachum says he
should dismiss him, because “the villain hath the impudence to have
views of following his trade as a tailor, which he calls an honest
employment.”--Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_, i. (1727).

=Slipslop= (_Mrs._), a lady of frail morals.--Fielding, _Joseph Andrews_

=Slocums= (_The_), _Rowland Slocum_, the head of a large marble-yard,
and a good citizen. He gives Richard Shackford employment, and lets him
become an inmate of his family.

_Margaret Slocum_, a motherless, only child, her father’s housekeeper,
Richard Shackford’s fast friend, and, in time, his wife.--T. B. Aldrich,
_The Stillwater Tragedy_ (1880).

=Slop= (_Dr._), Sir John Stoddart, M.D., editor of the _New Times_, who
entertained an insane hatred of Napoleon Bonaparte, called by him “The
Corsican Fiend.” William Hone devised the name from Stoddart’s book
entitled _Slop’s Shave at a Broken Hone_ (1820), and Thomas Moore helped
to popularize it (1773-1856).

_Slop_ (_Dr._), a choleric, enthusiastic, and bigoted physician. He
breaks down Tristram’s nose, and crushes Uncle Toby’s fingers to a
jelly, in attempting to demonstrate the use and virtues of a newly
invented pair of obstetrical forceps.--Sterne, _The Life and Opinions of
Tristram Shandy, Gentleman_ (1759).

(Under this name, Sterne ridiculed Dr. Burton, a man mid-wife of York.)

=Slopard= (_Dame_), wife of Grimbard, the brock or badger, in the
beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

=Sloppy=, a love-child, brought up by Betty Higden, for whom he turned
the mangle. When Betty died, Mr. Boffin apprenticed him to a
cabinet-maker. Sloppy is described as “a very long boy, with a very
little head, and an open mouth of disproportionate capacity that seemed
to assist his eyes in staring.” It is hinted that he became “the prince”
of Jenny Wren, the doll’s dressmaker.

  Of an ungainly make was Sloppy. There was too much of him longwise,
  too little of him broadwise, and too many sharp angles of him
  angle-wise.... He had a considerable capital of knee, and elbow, and
  wrist, and ankle. Full-private Number One in the awkward squad was
  Sloppy.--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_, I. i. 16 (1864).

=Slote= (_Hon. Bardwell_). Member of Congress, who condenses phrases
into initials, expressing himself phonetically as “H. K.” for Hard Cash,
and “G. F.” for Jug Full.--B. E. Woolf, _The Mighty Dollar_ (1875).

=Slough of Despond= (_The_), a deep bog, which Christian had to pass on
his way to the Wicket Gate. Neighbor Pliable would not attempt it, and
turned back. While Christian was floundering in the slough, Help came to
his aid, and assisted him over.

  The name of the slough was Despond. Here they wallowed for a time, and
  Christian, because of the burden that was on his back, began to sink
  into the mire. This miry slough is such a place as cannot be mended.
  It is the descent whither the scum and filth that attends conviction
  of sin doth continually run, and therefore is it called the Slough of
  Despond; for still, as the sinner is awakened about his lost
  condition, there arise in his soul many fears and doubts and
  discouraging apprehensions, which all of them get together, and settle
  in this place, and this is the reason of the badness of this
  ground.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, i. (1678).

=Slowboy= (_Tilly_), nurse and general help of Mr. and Mrs. Peerybingle.
She “was of a spare and straight shape, insomuch that her garments
appeared to be in constant danger of sliding off her shoulders. Her
costume was remarkable for its very partial development, and always
afforded glimpses at the back of a pair of dead-green stays.” Miss Tilly
was very fond of baby, but had a surprising talent for getting it into
difficulties, bringing its head into perpetual contact with doors,
dressers, stair-rails, bedposts, and so on. Tilly, who had been a
foundling, looked upon the house of Peerybingle, the carrier, as a royal
residence, and loved both Mr. and Mrs. Peerybingle with all the
intensity of an undivided affection.--C. Dickens, _The Cricket on the
Hearth_ (1845).

=Sludge= (_Gammer_), the landlady of Erasmus Holiday, the schoolmaster
in White Horse Vale.

_Dickie Sludge_, or “Flibbertigibbet,” her dwarf grandson.--Sir W.
Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Slum= (_Mr._), a patter poet, who dressed _en militaire_. He called on
Mrs. Jarley, exhibitor of wax-works, all by accident. “What, Mr. Slum?”
cried the lady of the wax-works; “who’d have thought of seeing you
here?” “’Pon my soul and honor,” said Mr. Slum, “that’s a good remark!
’Pon my soul and honor, that’s a wise remark.... Why I came here? ’Pon
my soul and honor, I hardly know what I came here for.... What a
splendid classical thing is this, Mrs. Jarley! ’Pon my soul and honor,
it is quite Minervian!” “It’ll look well, I fancy,” observed Mrs.
Jarley. “Well!” said Mr. Slum; “It would be the delight of my life, ’pon
my soul and honor, to exercise my Muse on such a delightful theme. By
the way--any orders, madam? Is there anything I can do for you?” (ch.

  “Ask the perfumers,” said the military gentleman, “ask the
  blacking-makers, ask the hatters, ask the old lottery office keepers,
  ask any man among ’em what poetry has done for him, and mark my word,
  he blesses the name of Slum.”--C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_

=Slumkey= (_Samuel_), “blue” candidate for the representation of the
borough of Eatanswill in parliament. His opponent is Horatio Fizkin, who
represents the “buff” interest.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_

=Sly= (_Christopher_), a keeper of bears, and a tinker. In the induction
of Shakespeare’s comedy called _Taming of the Shrew_, Christopher is
found dead drunk by a nobleman, who commands his servant to take him to
his mansion and attend on him as a lord. The trick is played, and the
“commonty” of _Taming of the Shrew_ is performed for the delectation of
the ephemeral lord.

A similar trick was played by Haroun-al-Raschid on a rich merchant,
named Abou Hassan (see _Arabian Nights_, “The Sleeper Awakened”). Also
by Philippe _le Bon_ of Burgundy, on his marriage with Eleanora (see
Burton, _Anatomy of Melancholy_, ii. 2, 4; 1624).

=Slyne= (_Chevy_), one of old Martin Chuzzlewit’s numerous relations. He
is a drunken, good-for-nothing vagabond, but his friend, Montague Tigg,
considers him “an unappreciated genius.” His chief peculiarity consists
in his always being “round the corner.”--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_

=Small= (_Gilbert_), the pinmaker, a hard-working old man, who loves his
son most dearly.

_Thomas Small_, the son of Gilbert, a would-be man of fashion and
maccaroni. Very conceited of his fine person, he thinks himself the very
glass of fashion. Thomas Small resolves to make a fortune by marriage,
and allies himself to Kate, who turns out to be the daughter of Strap,
the cobbler.--S. Knowles, _The Beggar of Bethnal Green_ (1834).

=Small Beer Poet= (_The_). W. Thomas Fitzgerald. He is now known only
for one line, quoted in the _Rejected Addresses_: “The tree of freedom
is the British oak.”--Cobbett gave him the sobriquet (1759-1829).

=Small-Endians=, a “religious sect” in Lilliput, who made it an article
of orthodoxy to break their eggs at the small end. By the Small-endians
is meant the Protestant party; the Roman Catholics are called the
Big-endians, from their making it a _sine quâ non_ for all true
Churchmen to break their eggs at the big end.--Swift, _Gulliver’s
Travels_ (“Voyage to Lilliput,” 1726).

=Smallweed Family= (_The_), a grasping, ill-conditioned lot, consisting
of grandfather, grandmother, and the twins, Bartholomew and Judy. The
grandfather indulges in vituperative exclamations against his aged wife,
with or without provocation, and flings at her anything he can lay his
hand on. He becomes, however, so dilapidated at last that he has to be
shaken up by his amiable grand-daughter, Judy, in order to be aroused to

_Bart._, i.e., _Bartholomew Smallweed_, a youth, who moulds himself on
the model of Mr. Gruppy, the lawyer’s clerk, in the office of Kenge and
Carboy. He prides himself on being “a limb of the law,” though under 15
years of age; indeed it is reported of him that his first long clothes
were made out of a lawyer’s blue bag.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1852).

=Sma´trash= (_Eppie_), the ale-woman at Wolf’s Hope village.--Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

=Smauker= (_John_), footman of Angelo Cyrus Bantam. He invites Sam
Weller to a “swarry” of “biled mutton.”--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick
Papers_ (1836).

=Smectym´nuus=, the title of a celebrated pamphlet containing an attack
upon episcopacy (1641). The title is composed of the initial letters of
the five writers, =SM= (Stephen Marshall), =EC= (Edmund Calamy), =TY=
(Thomas Young), =MN= (Matthew Newcomen), =UUS= (William Spurstow).
Sometimes one U is omitted. Butler says the business of synods is:

              To find in lines of beard and face.
              The physiognomy of “Grace;”
              And by the sound and twang of nose,
              If all be sound within disclose ...
              The handkerchief about the neck
              (Canonical cravat of Smeck,
              From whom the institution came
              When Church and State they set on flame ...)
              Judge rightly if “regeneration”
              Be of the newest cut in fashion.
                      _Hudibras_, i. 3 (1663).

=Smelfungus.= Smollett was so called by Sterne, because his volume of
_Travels through France and Italy_ is one perpetual snarl from beginning
to end.

  The lamented Smelfungus travelled from Boulogne to Paris, from Paris
  to Rome, and so on; but he set out with the spleen and jaundice, and
  every object he passed by was discolored or distorted. He wrote an
  account of them, but ’twas nothing but the account of his own
  miserable feelings.--Sterne, _Sentimental Journey_ (1768).

=Smell a Voice.= When a young prince had clandestinely visited the young
princess brought up in the palace of the Flower Mountain, the fairy
mother, Violenta, said, “I smell the voice of a man,” and commanded the
dragon on which she rode to make search for the intruder.--Comtesse
D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The White Cat,” 1682).

Bottom says, in the part of “Pyramus:”

   I see a voice, now will I to the chink,
   To spy an I can hear my Thisbe’s face.
         Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_, act v. sc. 1 (1592).

=Smike= (1 _syl._), a poor, half-starved, half-witted boy, the son of
Ralph Nickleby. As the marriage was clandestine, the child was put out
to nurse, and neither its father or mother went to see it. When about
seven years old, the child was stolen by one Brooker, out of revenge,
and put to school at Dotheboys Hall, Yorkshire. Brooker paid the school
fees for six years, and being then transported, the payment ceased, and
the boy was made a sort of drudge. Nicholas Nickleby took pity on him,
and when he left, Smike ran away to join his friend, who took care of
the poor half-witted creature till he died.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas
Nickleby_ (1838).

=Smiler=, a sheriff’s officer, in _A Regular Fix_, by J. M. Morton.

=Smilinda=, a lovelorn maiden, to whom Sharper was untrue. Pope, in his
eclogue called _The Basset Table_ (1715), makes Cordelia and Smilinda
contend on this knotty point, “Who suffers most, she who loses at
basset, or she who loses her lover?” They refer the question to Betty
Lovet. Cordelia stakes her “lady’s companion, made by Mathers, and worth
fifty guineas,” on the point; and Smilinda stakes a snuff-box, won at
Corticelli’s in a raffle, as her pledge. When Cordelia has stated the
iron agony of loss at cards, and Smilinda the crushing grief of losing a
sweetheart, “strong as a footman, and as his master sweet,” Lovet awards
the lady’s companion to Smilinda, and the snuff-box to Cordelia, and
bids both give over, “for she wants her tea.” Of course, this was
suggested by Virgil’s _Eclogue_, iii.

=Smiley= (_Jim_), the champion better of Calaveras County, and owner of
a trained frog.--Mark Twain, _The Jumping Frog_ (1867).

=Smith= (_Henry_), _alias_ “Henry Gow,” _alias_ “Gow Chrom,” _alias_
“Hal of the Wynd,” the armorer, and lover of Catharine Glover, whom at
the end he marries.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry

_Smith_ (_Mr._), a faithful, confidential clerk in the bank of Dornton
and Sulky.--Holcroft, _The Road to Ruin_ (1792).

_Smith_ (_Rainy Day_), John Thomas Smith, _Antiquary_ (1766-1833).

_Smith_ (_Wayland_), an invisible farrier, who haunted the “Vale of
White Horse,” in Berkshire, where three flat stones supporting a fourth,
commemorate the place of his stithy. His fee was sixpence, and he was
offended if more were offered him.

Sir W. Scott has introduced him in _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Smith’s Prizeman=, one who has obtained the prize (£25) founded in the
University of Cambridge, by Robert Smith, D.D., once Master of Trinity.
Two prizes are awarded annually to two commencing bachelors of arts for
proficiency in mathematics and natural philosophy.

=Smolkin=, a punic spirit.

         Peace, Smolkin, peace, thou fiend!
              Shakespeare, _King Lear_, act iii. sc. 4 (1605).

=Smollett of the Stage= (_The_), George Farquhar (1678-1707).

=Smotherwell= (_Stephen_), the executioner.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of
Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Smyr´nean Poet= (_The_), Mimnermos, born at Smyrna (fl. B.C. 630).

=Snacks=, the hard, grinding steward of Lord Lackwit, who, by grasping,
got together £26,000. When Lord Lackwit died, and the property came to
Robin Roughhead, he toadied him with the greatest servility, but Robin
dismissed him, and gave the post to Frank.--Allingham, _Fortune’s

=Snaffle= (_Erastus_), a successful speculator in “wild cat” stocks,
especially ingenious in “standing from under” when the crash
comes.--Arlo Bates, _The Philistines_ (1888).

=Snaggs=, a village portrait-taker and tooth-drawer. He says, “I draws
off heads, and draws out teeth,” or “I takes off heads, and takes out
teeth.” Major Touchwood, having dressed himself up to look like his
uncle, the colonel, pretends to have the tooth-ache. Snaggs being sent
for, prepares to operate on the colonel, and the colonel, in a towering
rage, sends him to the right about.--T. Dibdin, _What Next?_

=Snags´by= (_Mr._), the law-stationer in Cook’s Court, Cursitor Street.
A very mild specimen of the “spear half,” in terrible awe of his
termagant wife, whom he calls euphemistically “his little woman.” He
preceded most of his remarks by the words, “not to put too fine a point
upon it.”--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1852).

=Snail=, the collector of customs, near Ellangowan House.--Sir W. Scott,
_Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Snailsfoot= (_Bryce_), the jagger or pedlar.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Snake= (_Mr._), a traitorous ally of Lady Sneerwell, who has the
effrontery to say to her, “you paid me extremely liberally for
propagating the lie, but, unfortunately, I have been offered double to
speak the truth.” He says:

  Ah, sir, consider; I live by the baseness of my character; and if it
  were once known that I have been betrayed into an honest action, I
  shall lose every friend I have in the world.--Sheridan, _School for
  Scandal_, v. 3 (1777).

=Snaw´ley=, “in the oil and color line.” A “sleek, flat-nosed man,
bearing in his countenance an expression of mortification and
sanctity.”--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_, iii. (1838).

=Sneak= (_Jerry_), a hen-pecked pinmaker; a paltry, pitiful, prying
sneak. If ever he summoned up a little manliness, his wife would begin
to cry, and Jerry was instantly softened.

  Master Sneak, ... the ancient corporation of Garratt, in consideration
  of your great parts and abilities, and out of respect to their
  landlord, Sir Jacob, have unanimously chosen you mayor.--Act ii.

  Jerry Sneak has become the type of hen-pecked husbands.--_Temple Bar_,
  456 (1875).

_Mrs. Sneak_, wife of Jerry, a domineering tartar of a woman, who keeps
her lord and master well under her thumb. She is the daughter of Sir
Jacob Jollup.--S. Foote, _The Mayor of Garratt_ (1763).

_Jerry Sneak Russell._ So Samuel Russell, the actor, was called, because
of his inimitable representation of “Jerry Sneak,” which was quite a hit

=Sneer=, a double-faced critic, who carps at authors behind their backs,
but fawns on them when they are present (see act i. 1).--Sheridan, _The
Critic_ (1779).

=Sneerwell= (_Lady_), the widow of a City knight. Mr. Snake says, “Every
one allows that Lady Sneerwell can do more with a word or a look than
many can with the most labored detail, even when they happen to have a
little truth on their side to support it.”

  Wounded myself, in the early part of my life, by the envenomed tongue
  of slander, I confess I have since known no pleasure equal to the
  reducing of others to the level of my own reputation.--Sheridan,
  _School for Scandal_, i. 1 (1777).

=Snevellicci= (_Mr._), in Crummle’s company of actors. Mr. Snevellicci
plays the military swell, and is great in the character of speechless

_Mrs. Snevellicci_, wife of the above, a dancer in the same theatrical

_Miss Snevellicci_, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Snevellicci, also of the
Portsmouth Theatre. “She could do anything from a medley dance to Lady
Macbeth.” Miss Snevellicci laid her toils to catch Nicholas Nickleby,
but “the bird escaped from the nets of the toiler.”--C. Dickens,
_Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Snitchey and Craggs=, lawyers. It was the opinion of Mr. Thomas Craggs
that “everything is too easy,” especially law; that it is the duty of
wise men to make everything as difficult as possible, and as hard to go
as rusty locks and hinges which will not turn for want of greasing. He
was a cold, hard, dry man, dressed in grey-and-white like a flint, with
small twinkles in his eyes. Jonathan Snitchey was like a magpie or
raven. He generally finished by saying, “I speak for Self and Craggs,”
and, after the death of his partner, “for Self and Craggs, deceased.”

_Mrs. Snitchey and Mrs. Craggs_, wives of the two lawyers. Mrs. Snitchey
was, on principle, suspicious of Mr. Craggs; and Mrs. Craggs was, on
principle, suspicious of Mr. Snitchey. Mrs. Craggs would say to her lord
and master:

  Your Snitcheys, indeed! I don’t see what you want with your Snitcheys,
  for my part. You trust a great deal too much to your Snitcheys, I
  think, and I hope you may never find my words come true.

Mrs. Snitchey would observe to Mr. Snitchey:

  Snitchey, if ever you were led away by man, take my word for it you
  are led away by Craggs; and if ever I can read a double purpose in
  mortal eye, I can read it in Craggs’s eye.--C. Dickens, _The Battle of
  Life_, ii. (1846).

=Snodgrass= (_Augustus_), M.P.C., a poetical young man, who travels
about with Mr. Pickwick, “to inquire into the source of the Hampstead
ponds.” He marries Emily Wardle.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_

=Snoring= (_Great_). “Rector of Great Snoring,” a dull, prosy preacher.

=Snorro Sturleson=, last of the great Icelandic scalds or court poets.
He was author of the _Younger Edda_, in prose, and of the
_Heimskringla_, a chronicle, in verse, of the history of Norway, from
the earliest times to the year 1177. The _Younger Edda_ is an
abridgement of the _Rhythmical Edda_ (see SÆMUND SIGFUSSON). The
_Heimskringla_ appeared in 1230, and the _Younger Edda_ is often called
the _Snorro Edda_. Snorro Sturleson incurred the displeasure of Hakon,
king of Norway, who employed assassins to murder him (1178-1241).

⁂ The _Heimskringla_ was translated into English by Samuel Laing, in

=Snout= (_Tom_), the tinker who takes part in the “tragedy” of _Pyrămus
and Thisbe_, played before the duke and duchess of Athens “on their
wedding day at night.” Next to Peter Quince and Nick Bottom, the weaver,
Snout was by far the most self-important man of the troupe. He was cast
for Pyramus’s father, but has nothing to say, and does not even put in
an appearance during the play.--Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_

=Snow King= (_The_), Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, king of Sweden, killed
in the Thirty Years’ War, at the battle of Lutzen. The cabinet of Vienna
said, in derision of him, “The Snow King is come, but he can live only
in the north, and will melt away as soon as he feels the sun” (1594,

  At Vienna he was called, in derision, “The Snow King” who was kept
  together by the cold, but would melt and disappear as he approached a
  warmer soil.--Dr. Crichton, _Scandinavia_ (“Gustavus Adolphus,” ii.

_Snow King_ (_The_), Frederick, elector palatine, made king of Bohemia
by the Protestants in the autumn of 1619, but defeated and set aside in
the following autumn.

  The winter king, king in times of frost, a snow king, altogether
  soluble in the spring, is the name which Frederick obtained in German

=Snow Queen= (_The_), Christiana, queen of Sweden (1626, 1633-1689).

The Princess Elizabeth of England, who married Frederick V., elector
palatine, in 1613, and induced him to accept the crown of Bohemia in
1619. She was crowned with her husband, October 25, 1619, but fled, in
November, 1620, and was put under the ban of the empire in 1621.
Elizabeth was queen of Bohemia during the time of snow, but was melted
by the heat of the ensuing summer.

=Snubbin= (_Serjeant_), retained by Mr. Perker for the defence in the
famous case of “Bardell _v._ Pickwick.” His clerk was named Mallard, and
his junior, Phunky, “an infant barrister,” very much looked down upon by
his senior.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

=Snuffim= (_Sir Tumley_), the doctor who attends Mrs. Wititterly.--C.
Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Snuffle= (_Simon_), the sexton of Garratt, and one of the corporation.
He was called a “scollard, for he could read a written hand.”--S. Foote,
_Mayor of Garratt_, ii. 1 (1763).

=Snug=, the joiner, who takes part in the “lamentable comedy” of
_Pyramus and Thisbe_, played before the duke and duchess of Athens “on
their wedding day at night.” His _rôle_ was the “lion’s part.” He asked
the manager (Peter Quince) if he had the “lion’s part written out, for,”
said he, “I am slow of memory;” but being told he could do it extempore,
“for it was nothing but roaring,” he consented to undertake
it.--Shakespeare, _A Midsummer Night’s Dream_ (1592).

=Sobri´no=, one of the most valiant of the Saracen army, and called “The
Sage.” He counselled Agrămant to entrust the fate of the war to a single
combat, stipulating that the nation whose champion was worsted should be
tributary to the other. Rogēro was chosen for the pagan champion, and
Rinaldo for the Christian army; but when Rogero was overthrown, Agramant
broke the compact. Sobrino was greatly displeased, and soon afterwards
received the rite of Christian baptism.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_

  Who more prudent than Sobrino?--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_ (1605).

=Soc´ratês= (_The English_), Dr. Johnson is so called by Boswell

  Mr. South’s amiable manners and attachment to our Socrătês at once
  united me to him.--_Life of Johnson_ (1791).

=Sofronia=, a young Christian of Jerusalem, the heroine of an episode in
Tasso’s _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575). The tale is this: Aladine, king of
Jerusalem, stole from a Christian church an image of the Virgin, being
told by a magician that it was a palladium, and, if set up in a mosque,
the Virgin would forsake the Christian army, and favor the Mohammedan.
The image was accordingly set up in a mosque, but during the night was
carried off by some one. Aladine, greatly enraged, ordered the instant
execution of all his Christian subjects, but, to prevent this massacre,
Sofronia accused herself of the offence. Her lover, Olindo, hearing that
Sofronia was sentenced to death, presented himself before the king, and
said that he and not Sofronia was the real offender; whereupon the king
ordered both to instant execution; but Clorinda, the Amăzon, pleading
for them, obtained their pardon, and Sofronia left the stake to join
Olindo at the altar of matrimony.--Bk. ii.

This episode may have been suggested by a well-known incident in
ecclesiastical history. At Merum, a city of Phrygia, Amachius, the
governor of the province, ordered the temple to be opened, and the idols
to be cleansed. Three Christians, inflamed with Christian zeal, went by
night and broke all the images. The governor, unable to discover the
culprits, commanded all the Christians of Merum to be put to death; but
the three who had been guilty of the act confessed their offence, and
were executed.--Socratês, _Ecclesiastical History_, iii. 15 (A.D. 439).

=Soham=, a monster with the head of a horse, four eyes, and the body of
a fiery dragon. (See OURANABAD.)

=Soi-même.= _St. Soi-même_, the “natural man,” in opposition to the
“spiritual man.” In almost all religious acts and feelings, a thread of
self may be detected, and many things are done ostensibly for God, but
in reality for St. Soi-même.

  They attended the church service not altogether without regard to St.
  Soi-même.--_Asylum Christi_, ii.

=Soldan= (_The_), Philip II. of Spain, whose wife was Adicia (or _papal
bigotry_). Prince Arthur sent the soldan a challenge for wrongs done to
Samient, a female ambassador (_deputies of the states of Holland_). On
receiving this challenge, the soldan “swore and banned most
blasphemously,” and mounting “his chariot high” (_the high ships of the
Armāda_), drawn by horses fed on carrion (_the Inquisitors_), went forth
to meet the prince, whom he expected to tear to pieces with his chariot
scythes, or trample down beneath his horses’ hoofs. Not being able to
get at the soldan from the great height of the chariot, the prince
uncovered his shield, and held it up to view. Instantly the soldan’s
horses were so terrified that they fled, regardless of the whip and
reins, overthrew the chariot, and left the soldan on the ground, “torn
to rags, amongst his own iron hooks and grapples keen.”--Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, v. 8 (1596).

⁂ The overthrow of the soldan by supernatural means, and not by combat,
refers to the destruction of the Armada by tempest, according to the
legend of the medals, _Flavit Jehovah, et dissipati sunt_ (“He blew with
His blast, and they were scattered”).

=Soldier’s Daughter= (_The_), a comedy by A. Cherry (1804). Mrs.
Cheerly, the daughter of Colonel Woodley, after a marriage of three
years, is left a widow, young, rich, gay, and engaging. She comes to
London, and Frank Heartall, a generous-minded young merchant, sees her
at the opera, falls in love with her, and follows her to her lodging.
Here he meets with the Malfort family, reduced to abject poverty by
speculation, and relieves them. Ferret, the villain of the piece,
spreads a report that Frank gave the money as hush-money, because he had
base designs on Mrs. Malfort; but his character is cleared, and he leads
to the altar the blooming young widow, while the return of Malfort’s
father places his son again in prosperous circumstances.

=Soldiers’ Friend= (_The_), Frederick, duke of York, second son of
George III., and commander of the British forces in the Low Countries
during the French Revolution (1763-1827).

=Solarion=, a dog, selected from the finest and purest breeds, and
endowed with intellect and soul by means of electricity. He is his
master’s favorite companion and fellow-student until master and dog love
the same woman. They quarrel, the man strikes the dog, and the dog,
leaping upon his former friend, tears him horribly. The master shoots
him dead, and bears for the rest of his life in frightful disfigurement
of visage tokens of his folly and madness.--Edgar Fawcett, _Solarion_

=Solemn Doctor= (_The_). Henry Goethals was by the Sorbonne given the
honorary title of _Doctor Solemnis_ (1227-1293).

=Solemn League and Covenant=, a league to support the Church of
Scotland, and exterminate popery and prelacy. Charles II. signed it in
1651, but declared it null and void at his restoration.

=Soles=, a shoemaker, and a witness at the examination of Dirk
Hatteraick.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Solid Doctor= (_The_), Richard Middleton (*-1304).

=Soliman the Magnificent=, Charles Jennens, who composed the libretto
for Handel’s _Messiah_ (*-1773).

=Soli´nus=, duke of Ephesus, who was obliged to pass the sentence of the
law on Æge´on, a merchant, because, being a Syracusan, he had dared to
set foot in Ephesus. When, however, he discovered that the man who had
saved his life, and whom he best loved, was the son of Ægeon, the
prisoner was released, and settled in Ephesus.--Shakespeare, _Comedy of
Errors_ (1593).

=Solomon=, an epic poem in three books, by Prior (1718). Bk. i. Solomon
seeks happiness from wisdom, but comes to the conclusion that “All is
vanity;” this book is entitled _Knowledge_. Bk. ii. Solomon seeks
happiness in wealth, grandeur, luxury, and ungodliness, but comes to the
conclusion that “All is vanity and vexation of spirit;” this book is
entitled _Pleasure_. Bk. iii., entitled _Power_, consists of the
reflections of Solomon upon human life, the power of God, life, death,
and a future state. An angel reveals to him the future lot of the Jewish
race, and Solomon concludes with this petition:

               Restore, Great Father, Thy instructed son,
               And in my act may Thy great will be done!

_Solomon_ is called king of the ginn and fairies. This is probably a
mere blunder. The monarch of these spirits was called “suleyman,” and
this title of rank has been mistaken for a proper name.

_Solomon died standing._ Solomon employed the genii in building the
Temple, but, perceiving that his end was at hand, prayed God that his
death might be concealed from the genii till the work was completed.
Accordingly, he died standing, leaning on his staff as if in prayer. The
genii, supposing him to be alive, toiled on, and when the Temple was
fully built, a worm knawed the staff, and the corpse fell prostrate to
the earth. Mahomet refers to this as a fact:

  When We [_God_] had decreed that Solomon should die, nothing
  discovered his death unto them [_the genii_] except the creeping thing
  of the earth, which gnawed his staff. And when his [_dead_] body fell
  down, the genii plainly perceived that if they had known that which is
  secret, they would not have continued in a vile punishment.--_Al
  Korân_, xxxiv.

_Solomon’s Favorite Wife._ Prior, in his epic poem called _Solomon_ (bk.
ii.), makes Abra the favorite.

           The apples she had gathered smelt most sweet;
           The cake she kneaded was the savory meat;
           All fruits their odor lost and meats their taste,
           If gentle Abra had not decked the feast;
           Dishonored did the sparkling goblet stand,
           Unless received from gentle Abra’s hand; ...
           Nor could my soul approve the music’s tone,
           Till all was hushed, and Abra sung alone.

Al Beidâwi, Jallâlo´ddin, and Abulfeda, give Amīna, daughter of Jerâda,
king of Tyre, as his favorite concubine.

_Solomon Kills His Horses._ Solomon bought a thousand horses, and went
to examine them. The examination took him the whole day, so that he
omitted the prayers which he ought to have repeated. This neglect came
into his mind at sunset, and, by way of atonement, he slew all the
horses except a hundred of the best “as an offering to God;” and God, to
make him amends for his loss, gave him the dominion of the winds.
Mahomet refers to this in the following passage:--

  When the horses, standing on three feet, and touching the ground with
  the edge of the fourth foot, swift in the course, were set in parade
  before him [_Solomon_] in the evening, he said, “Verily I have loved
  the love of earthly good above the remembrance of my Lord; and I have
  spent the time in viewing these horses till the sun is hidden by the
  veil of night. Bring the horses back unto me.” And when they were
  brought back, he began to cut off their legs and their necks.--_Al
  Korân_, xxxvii.

_Solomon’s Mode of Travelling._ Solomon had a carpet of green silk, on
which his throne was placed. This carpet was large enough for all his
army to stand on. When his soldiers had stationed themselves on his
right hand, and the spirits on his left, Solomon commanded the winds to
convey him whither he listed. Whereupon the winds buoyed up the carpet,
and transported it to the place the king wished to go to, and while
passing thus through the air, the birds of heaven hovered overhead
forming a canopy with their wings to ward off the heat of the sun.
Mahomet takes this legend as an historic fact, for he says in reference
to it:

  Unto Solomon We subjected the strong wind, and it ran at his command
  to the land whereon We had bestowed our blessing.--_Al Korân_, xxi.

And again:

  We made the wind subject to him, and it ran gently at his command
  whithersoever he desired.--_Al Korân_, xxxviii.

_Solomon’s Signet-Ring._ The rabbins say that Solomon wore a ring in
which was set a chased stone that told him everything he wished to know.

_Solomon Loses His Signet-Ring._ Solomon’s favorite concubine was Amīna,
daughter of Jerâda, king of Tyre, and when he went to bathe, it was to
Amina that he entrusted his signet-ring. One day the devil, Sakhar,
assumed the likeness of Solomon, and so got possession of the ring, and
for forty days reigned in Jerusalem, while Solomon himself was a
wanderer living on alms. At the end of the forty days, Sakhar flung the
ring into the sea; it was swallowed by a fish, which was given to
Solomon. Having thus obtained his ring again, Solomon took Sakhar
captive, and cast him into the sea of Galilee.--_Al Korân_ (Sale’s
notes, ch. xxxviii.). (See JOVIAN.)

⁂ Mahomet, in the _Korân_, takes this legend as an historic fact, for he
says: “We [_God_], also tried Solomon, and placed on his throne a
counterfeit body [_i.e._, _Sakhar, the Devil_].”--Ch. xxxviii.

Uffan, the sage, saw Solomon asleep, and wishing to take off his
signet-ring, gave three arrows to Aboutaleb, saying, “When the serpent
springs upon me, and strikes me dead, shoot one of these arrows at me,
and I shall instantly come to life again.” Uffan tugged at the ring, was
stung to death, but, being struck by one of the arrows, revived. This
happened twice. After the third attempt, the heavens grew so black, and
the thunder was so alarming, that Aboutaleb was afraid to shoot, and
throwing down the bow and arrow, fled with precipitation from the
dreadful place.--Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“History of
Aboutaleb,” 1743).

_Solomon_ (_The Second_), James I. of England (1566, 1603-1625).

  The French king (_Henri IV._) said, in the presence of Lord Sanquhar,
  to one that called James _a second Solomon_. “I hope he is not the son
  of David the fiddler” [_David Rizzio_].--Osborne, _Secret History_, i.

Sully called him “The Wisest Fool in Christendom.”

_Solomon_, a tedious, consequential, old butler, in the service of Count
Wintersen. He has two idiosyncrasies: One is that he receives letters of
confidential importance from all parts of the civilized world, but “has
received no communication from abroad to tell him who Mrs. Haller is.”
One letter “from Constantinople” turns out to be from his nephew, Tim
Twist, the tailor, about a waistcoat, which had been turned three times.
In regard to the other idiosyncrasy, he boasts of his cellar of wine,
provided in a “most frugal and provident way,” and of his alterations in
the park, “all done with the most economical economy.” He is very proud
of his son, Peter, a half-witted lad, and thinks Mrs. Haller “casts eyes
at him.”--Benj. Thompson, _The Stranger_ (1797).

=Solomon Daisy=, parish clerk and bellringer, of Chigwell. He had
little, round, black, shiny eyes like beads; wore rusty black breeches,
a rusty black coat, and a long-flapped waistcoat, with little queer
buttons like his eyes. As he sat in the firelight, he seemed all eyes,
from head to foot.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

=Solomon of China= (_The_), Taetsong I., whose real name was Lee-chemen.
He reformed the calendar, founded a very extensive library, established
schools in his palace, built places of worship for the Nestorian
Christians, and was noted for his wise maxims (*, 618-626).

=Solomon of England= (_The_), Henry VII. (1457, 1485-1509). (See SOLOMON

=Solomon of France= (_The_), Charles V. _le Sage_ (1337, 1364-1380).

⁂ Louis IX. (_i.e._, St. Louis) is also called “The Solomon of France”
(1215, 1226-1270).

=Solon of French Prose= (_The_), Balzac (1596-1655).

=Solon of Parnassus= (_The_). Boileau is so called by Voltaire, in
allusion to his _Art of Poetry_ (1636-1711).

=Solsgrace= (_Master Nehemiah_), a Presbyterian pastor.--Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Solus=, an old bachelor, who greatly wished to be a married man. When
he saw the bright sides of domestic life, he resolved he would marry;
but when he saw the reverse sides, he determined to remain single.
Ultimately, he takes to the altar Miss Spinster.--Inchbald, _Every One
has His Fault_ (1794).

=Solymæan Rout= (_The_), the London rabble and rebels. Solymæa was an
ancient name of Jerusalem, subsequently called Hiero-solyma, that is
“sacred Solyma.” As Charles II. is called “David,” and London
“Jerusalem,” the London rebels are called “the Solymæan rout,” or the
rabble of Jerusalem.

         The Solymæan rout, well versed of old,
         In godly faction, and in treason bold, ...
         Saw with disdain an Ethnic plot [_popish plot_] begun,
         And scorned by Jebusites [_papists_] to be outdone.
               Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

=Sol´yman=, king of the Saracens, whose capital was Nice. Being driven
from his kingdom, he fled to Egypt, and was there appointed leader of
the Arabs (bk. ix.). Solyman and Argantês were by far the most doughty
of the pagan knights. The former was slain by Rinaldo (bk. xx.), and the
latter by Tancred.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

=Somnambulus.= Sir W. Scott so signs _The Visionary_ (political satires,
1819).--Olphar Hamst [Ralph Thomas], _Handbook of Fictitious Names_.

=Somo Sala= (_Like the Father of_), a dreamer of air-castles, like the
milkmaid Perrette, in Lafontaine. (See COUNT NOT, etc.)

=Son of Be´lial= (_A_), a wicked person, a rebel, an infidel.

  Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial: they knew not [i.e.,
  _acknowledged not_] the Lord.--_1 Sam._ ii. 12.

=Son of Consolation=, St. Barnabas of Cyprus (first century).--_Acts_
iv. 36.

=Son of Perdition= (_The_), Judas Iscariot.--_John_ xvii. 12.

_Son of Perdition_, Antichrist.--_2 Thess._ ii. 3.

=Son of a Star= (_The_), Barcochebas, or Barchochab, who gave himself
out to be the “star” predicted by Balaam (died A.D. 135).

  There shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of
  Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the
  children of Sheth.--_Numb._ xxiv. 17.

=Son of the Last Man.= Charles II. was so called by the
parliamentarians. His father, Charles I., was called by them “The Last

=Son of the Rock=, echo.

  She went. She called on Armar. Nought answered but the son of the
  rock.--Ossian, _The Songs of Selma_.

=Sons of Phidias=, sculptors.

=Sons of Thunder=, or _Boanerges_, James and John, sons of
Zebedee.--_Mark_ iii. 17.

=Sonderby= (_John_), a school-teacher who, after dallying with an evil
temptation all through one summer, shakes himself free of it, and
resolves “to make a man of himself, to go where human life is thick and
the push keen and strong, to earn a place there by using the talent
given him, and to work with hope, courage and belief, with a heart open
to his humankind.”--Bliss Perry, _The Broughton House_ (1890).

=Song.= _The Father of Modern French Songs_, C. F. Panard (1691-1765).

_Song._ _What! all this for a song?_ So said William Cecil, Lord
Burghley, when Queen Elizabeth ordered him to give Edmund Spenser £100
as an expression of her pleasure at some verses he had presented to her.
When a pension of £50 a year was settled on the poet, Lord Burghley did
all in his power to oppose the grant. To this Spenser alludes in the
lines following:--

            O, grief of griefs! O, gall of all good hearts!
              To see that virtue should despisèd be
            Of him that first was raised for virtuous parts;
              And now, broad-spreading like an aged tree,
              Lets none shoot up that nigh him planted be.
            Oh, let the man of whom the Muse is scorned,
            Alive nor dead be of the Muse adorned!
                    Spenser, _The Ruins of Time_ (1591).

=Sonnam´bula= (_La_), Ami´na, the miller’s daughter. She was betrothed
to Elvi´no, a rich young farmer, but the night before the wedding was
discovered in the bed of Conte Rodolpho. This very ugly circumstance
made the farmer break off the match and promise marriage to Lisa, the
innkeeper’s daughter. The count now interfered, and assured Elvino that
the miller’s daughter was a sleep-walker, and while they were still
talking she was seen walking on the edge of the mill-roof, while the
huge mill-wheel was turning rapidly. She then crossed a crazy old
bridge, and came into the midst of the assembly, when she woke and ran
to the arms of her lover. Elvino, convinced of her innocence, married
her, and Lisa was resigned to Alessio, whose paramour she
was.--Bellini’s opera, _La Sonnambula_ (1831).

(Taken from a melodrama by Romani, and adapted as a libretto by Scribe.)

=Sophi=, in Arabic, means “pure,” and therefore one of the pure or true
faith. As a royal title it is tantamount to “Catholic,” or “most
Christian.”--Selden, _Titles of Honor_, vi, 76-7 (1614).

=Sophi´a=, mother of Rollo and Otto, dukes of Normandy. Rollo is the
“bloody brother.”--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Bloody Brother_ (1639).

_Sophia_, wife of Mathīas, a Bohemian knight. When Mathias went to take
service with King Ladislaus of Bohemia, the queen, Honoria, fell in love
with him, and sent Ubaldo and Ricardo to tempt Sophia to infidelity. But
immediately Sophia perceived their purpose she had them confined in
separate chambers, and compelled them to earn their living by spinning.

_Sophia’s Picture._ When Mathias left, Sophia gave him a magic picture,
which turned _yellow_ if she were tempted, and black if she yielded to
the temptation.--Massinger, _The Picture_ (1629).

_Sophia_ (_St._) or AGIA [_Aya_] SOFI´A, the most celebrated mosque of
Constantinople, once a Christian church, but now a Mohammedan jamih. It
is 260 feet long and 230 feet broad. Its dome is supported on pillars of
marble, granite, and green jasper, said to have belonged to the temple
of Diana at Ephesus.

               Sophia’s cupola with golden gleam.
                         Byron, _Don Juan_, v. 3 (1820).

_Sophia_ (_The princess_), only child of the old king of Lombardy, in
love with Paladore, a Briton, who saved her life by killing a boar which
had gored her horse to death. She was unjustly accused of wantonness by
Duke Birēno, whom the king wished her to marry, but whom she rejected.
By the law of Lombardy, this offence was punishable by death, but the
accuser was bound to support his charge by single combat, if any
champion chose to fight in her defence. Paladore challenged the duke,
and slew him. The whole villainy of the charge was then exposed, the
character of the princess was cleared, and her marriage with Paladore
concludes the play.--Robert Jephson, _The Law of Lombardy_ (1779).

_Sophia_ [FREELOVE], daughter of the Widow Warren by her first husband.
She is a lovely, innocent girl, passionately attached to Harry Dornton,
the baker’s son, to whom ultimately she is married.--T. Holcroft, _The
Road to Ruin_ (1792).

_Sophia_ [PRIMROSE], the younger daughter of the vicar of Wakefield;
soft, modest, and alluring. Being thrown from her horse into a deep
stream, she was rescued by Sir William Thornhill _alias_ Mr. Burchell.
Being abducted, she was again rescued by him, and finally married
him.--Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_ (1766).

_Sophia_ [SPRIGHTLY], a young lady of high spirits and up to fun. Tukely
loves her sincerely, and knowing her partiality for the Hon. Mr.
Daffodil, exposes him as a “male coquette,” of mean spirit and without
manly courage; after which she rejects him with scorn, and gives her
hand and heart to Tukely.--Garrick, _The Male Coquette_ (1758).

=Sophonis´ba=, daughter of Asdrubal, and reared to detest Rome. She was
affianced to Masinissa, king of the Numidians, but married Syphax. In
B.C. 203 she fell into the hands of Lelius and Masinissa, and, to
prevent being made a captive, married the Numidian prince. This subject
and that of Cleopatra have furnished more dramas than any other

_French:_ J. Mairet, _Sophonisbe_ (1630); Pierre Corneille;
Lagrange-Chancel; rewritten by Voltaire. _Italian:_ Trissino (1514);
Alfieri (1749-1863). _English:_ John Marston, _The Wonder of Women_, or
_the Tragedy of Sophonisba_ (1605); James Thomson, _Sophonisba_ (1729).

(In Thomson’s tragedy occurs the line, “Oh, Sophonisba! Sophonisba, oh!”
and a wit set all the town laughing with “Oh, Jemmy Thomson! Jemmy
Thomson, oh!”)

=Sophronia=, a young lady who was taught Greek, and to hate men who were
not scholars. Her wisdom taught her to gauge the wisdom of her suitors,
and to discover their shortcomings. She never found one up to the mark,
and now she is wrinkled with age, and talks about the “beauties of the
mind.”--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the World_, xxviii. (1759).

_Sophronia._ (See =Sofronia=.)

=Sophros´yne= (4 _syl._), one of Logistilla’s handmaids, noted for her
purity. Sophrosynê was sent with Andronīca to conduct Astolpho safely
from India to Arabia.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Sophy=, the eldest of a large family. She is engaged to Traddles, and
is always spoken of by him as “the dearest girl in the world.”--C.
Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

=Sora´no=, a Neapolitan noble, brother of Evanthe (3 _syl._) “the wife
for a month,” and the infamous instrument of Frederick, the licentious
brother of Alphonso, king of Naples.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _A Wife for
a Month_ (1624).

=Sordello=, a Provençal poet, whom Dantê meets in purgatory, sitting
apart. On seeing Virgil, Sordello springs forward to embrace him.

⁂ R. Browning has a poem called _Sordello_, and makes Sordello typical
of liberty and human perfectibility.

=Sorel= (_Agnes_), surnamed _La dame de Beauté_, not from her personal
beauty, but from the “château de Beauté,” on the banks of the Marne,
given to her by Charles VII. (1409-1450).

=Sorento= (in Naples), the birthplace of Torquato Tasso, the Italian

=Sorrows of Werther=, a mawkish, sentimental novel by Goethe (1774),
once extremely popular. Werther, the hero of the story, loves a married
woman, and becomes disgusted with life because Charlotte [Lotte] is the
wife of his friend, Kestner.

  _Werther_, infusing itself into the core and whole spirit of
  literature, gave birth to a race of sentimentalists, who raged and
  wailed in every part of the world till better light dawned on them,
  or, at any rate, till exhausted nature laid itself to sleep, and it
  was discovered that lamenting was an unproductive labor.--Carlyle.

=Sosia= (in Molière, _Sosie_), the slave of Amphitryon. When Mercury
assumes the form of Sosia, and Jupiter that of Amphitryon, the mistakes
and confusion which arise resemble those of the brothers Antiph´olus and
their servants, the brothers Dromio, in Shakespeare’s _Comedy of
Errors_.--Plautus, Molière (1668), and Dryden (1690), _Amphitryon_.

  His first name ... looks out upon him like another Sosia, or as if a
  man should suddenly encounter his own duplicate.--C. Lamb.

=Sosii=, brothers, the name of two booksellers at Rome, referred to by

=So´tenville= (_Mon. le baron de_), father of Angélique, and
father-in-law of George Dandin. His wife was of the house of Prudoterie,
and both boasted that in 300 years no one of their distinguished lines
ever swerved from virtue. “La bravoure n’y est pas plus hérdéitaire aux
mâles que la chasteté aux femelles.” They lived with their son-in-law,
who was allowed the honor of paying their debts, and receiving a
snubbing every time he opened his mouth, that he might be taught the
mysteries of the _haut monde_.--Molière, _George Dandin_ (1668).

=Soulis= (_Lord William_), a man of prodigious strength, cruelty,
avarice and treachery. Old Redcap gave him a charmed life, which nothing
could affect “till threefold ropes of sand were twisted round his body.”
Lord Soulis waylaid May, the lady-love of the heir of Branxholm, and
kept her in durance till she promised to become his bride. Walter, the
brother of the young heir, raised his father’s liegemen, and invested
the castle. Lord Soulis having fallen into the hands of the liegemen,
“they wrapped him in lead, and flung him into a caldron, till lead,
bones, and all were melted.”--John Leyden (1802).

(The caldron is still shown in the Skelfhill, at Ninestane Rig, part of
the range of hills which separates Liddesdale and Teviotdale.)

=South= (_Squire_), the Archduke Charles of Austria.--Arbuthnot,
_History of John Bull_ (1712).

=Southampton= (_The earl of_), the friend of the earl of Essex, and
involved with him in the charge of treason, but pardoned.--Henry Jones,
_The Earl of Essex_ (1745).

=Sovereigns of England= (_Mortual Days of the_).

SUNDAY: six, viz., Henry I., Edward III., James I., William III., Anne,
George I.

MONDAY: six, viz., Stephen, Henry IV., Henry V., Richard III.,
Elizabeth, Mary II. (Richard II. _deposed_).

TUESDAY: four, viz., Richard I., Charles I., Charles II., William IV.
(Edward II. _resigned_, and James II. _abdicated_).

WEDNESDAY: four, viz., John, Henry III., Edward IV., Edward V. (Henry
VI. _deposed_).

THURSDAY: five, viz., William I., William II., Henry II., Edward VI.,
Mary I.

FRIDAY: three, viz., Edward I., Henry VIII., Cromwell.

SATURDAY: four, viz., Henry VII., George II., George III., George IV.

That is, 6 Sunday and Monday; 5 Thursday; 4 Tuesday, Wednesday and
Saturday; and 3 Friday.

  ANNE, August 1 (Old Style), August 12 (New Style), 1714.

  CHARLES I., January 30, 1648-9; CHARLES II. February 6, 1684-5;
  CROMWELL died September 3, 1658; burnt at Tyburn, January 30, 1661.

  EDWARD I., July 7, 1307; EDWARD III., June 21, 1377; EDWARD IV., April
  9, 1483; EDWARD V., June 25, 1483; EDWARD VI., July 6, 1553;
  ELIZABETH, March 24, 1602-3.

  GEORGE I., June 11, 1727; GEORGE II., October 25, 1760; GEORGE III.,
  January 29, 1820; GEORGE IV., June 26, 1830.

  HENRY I., December 1, 1135; HENRY II., July 6, 1189; HENRY III.,
  November 16, 1272; HENRY IV., March 20, 1412-3; HENRY V., August 31,
  1422; HENRY VI., _deposed_ March 4, 1460-1; HENRY VII., April 21,
  1509; HENRY VIII., January 28, 1546-7.

  JAMES I., March 27, 1625; JAMES II., _abdicated_ December 11, 1688;
  JOHN, October 19, 1216.

  MARY I., November 17, 1558; MARY II., December 27, 1694.

  RICHARD I., April 6, 1199; RICHARD II. _deposed_ September 29, 1399;
  RICHARD III., August 22, 1485.

  STEPHEN, October 25, 1154.

  WILLIAM I., September 9, 1087; WILLIAM II., August 2, 1100; WILLIAM
  III., March 8, 1701-2; WILLIAM IV., June 20, 1837.

  ⁂ Edward II. _resigned_ Tuesday, January 20, 1327, and was _murdered_
  Monday, September 21, 1327. Henry VI. _deposed_ Wednesday, March 4,
  1461, again Sunday, April 14, 1471, and _died_ Wednesday, May 22,
  1471. James II. _abdicated_ Tuesday, December 11, 1688, and _died_ at
  St. Germain’s, 1701. Richard II. _deposed_ Monday, September 29, 1399,
  _died_ the last week in February, 1400; but his death was not
  announced till Friday, March 12, 1400, when a dead body was exhibited
  said to be that of the deceased king.

  Of the sovereigns, eight have died between the ages of 60 and 70, two
  between 70 and 80, and one has exceeded 80 years of age.

  William I. 60, Henry I. 67, Henry III. 65, Edward I. 68, Edward III.
  65, Elizabeth 69, George I. 69, George IV. 68.

  George II. 77. William IV. 72. George III. 82.

  _Length of reign._ Five have reigned between 20 and 30 years, seven
  between 30 and 40 years, one between 40 and 50 years, and three above
  50 years.

  William I., 20 years 8 months 16 days; Richard II., 22 years 3 months
  8 days; Henry VII., 23 years 8 months; James I., 22 years 4 days;
  Charles I., 23 years 10 months 4 days.

  Henry I., 35 years 3 months 27 days; Henry II., 34 years 6 months 17
  days; Edward I., 34 years 7 months 18 days; Henry VI., 38 years 6
  months and 4 days; Henry VIII., 37 years 9 months 7 days; Charles II.
  + Cromwell, 36 years 8 days; George II., 33 years 4 months 15 days.

  Elizabeth, 44 years 4 months 8 days.

  Henry III., 56 years 20 days; Edward III., 50 years 4 months 28 days;
  George III., 59 years 3 months 4 days.

=Sow= (_A_), a machine of war. It was a wooden shed which went on
wheels, the roof being ridged like a hog’s back. Being thrust close to
the wall of a place besieged, it served to protect the besieging party
from the arrows hurled against them from the walls. When the countess of
March (called “Black Agnes”), in 1335, saw one of those engines
advancing towards her castle, she called out to the earl of Salisbury,
who commanded the engineers:

                       Beware Montagow,
                       For farrow shall thy sow;

and then had such a huge fragment of rock rolled on the engine that it
dashed it to pieces. When she saw the English soldiers running away, the
countess called out, “Lo! lo! the litter of English pigs!”

=Sow of Dallweir=, named “Henwen,” went burrowing through Wales, and
leaving in one place a grain of barley, in another a little pig, a few
bees, a grain or two of wheat, and so on, and these made the places
celebrated for the particular produce ever after.

It is supposed that the sow was really a ship, and that the keeper of
the sow, named Coll ab Collfrewi, was the captain of the vessel.--_Welsh
Triads_, lvi.

=Sowerberry=, the parochial undertaker, to whom Oliver Twist is bound
when he quits the workhouse. Sowerberry was not a badly disposed man,
and he treated Oliver with a certain measure of kindness and
consideration; but Oliver was ill-treated by Mrs. Sowerberry, and
bullied by a big boy called Noah Claypole. Being one day greatly
exasperated by the bully, Oliver gave him a thorough “drubbing,”
whereupon Charlotte, the maidservant, set upon him like a fury,
scratched his face, and held him fast till Noah Claypole had pummelled
him within an inch of his life. Three against one was too much for the
lad, so he ran away.--C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

_Sowerberry_, a misanthrope.--W. Brough, _A Phenomenon in a Smock

=Sowerbrowst= (_Mr._), the maltster.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_
(time, George III.).

=Soyer= (_Alexis_), a celebrated cook, appointed, in 1837, _chef de
cuisine_ to the Reform Club, London, was the author of several useful
works, as _The Gastronomic Regenerator_, _The Poor Man’s Regenerator_,
_The Modern Housewife_, etc. (died 1858).

=Spado=, an impudent rascal, in the band of Don Cæsar (called “Captain
Ramirez”), who tricks every one, and delights in mischief.--O’Keefe,
_Castle of Andalusia_ (1798).

  Quick’s great parts were “Isaac,” “Tony Lumpkin,” “Spado,” and “Sir
  Christopher Curry.”--_Records of a Stage Veteran._

(“Isaac,” in the _Duenna_, by Sheridan; “Tony Lumpkin,” in _She Stoops
to Conquer_, by Goldsmith; “Sir Christopher Curry,” in _Inkle and
Yarico_, by G. Colman.)

=Spahis=, native Algerian cavalry, officered by Frenchmen. The infantry
are called _Turcos_.

=Spanish Brutus= (_The_), Alfonso Perez de Guzman, governor of Tarifa,
in 1293. Here he was besieged by the infant, Don Juan, who had Guzman’s
son in his power, and threatened to kill him unless Tarifa was given up.
Alfonso replied, “Sooner than be guilty of such treason, I will lend
Juan a dagger to carry out his threat;” and so saying, he tossed his
dagger over the wall. Juan, unable to appreciate this patriotism, slew
the young man without remorse.

⁂ Lopê de Vega has dramatized this incident.

=Spanish Curate= (_The_), Lopez.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Spanish
Curate_ (1622).

=Spanish Fryar= (_The_), a drama by Dryden (1680). It contains two
plots, wholly independent of each other. The serious element is this:
Leonora, the usurping queen of Aragon, is promised in marriage to Duke
Bertran, a prince of the blood; but is in love with Torrismond, general
of the army, who turns out to be the son and heir of King Sancho,
supposed to be dead. Sancho is restored to his throne, and Leonora
marries Torrismond. The comic element is the illicit love of Colonel
Lorenzo for Elvīra, the wife of Gomez, a rich old banker. Dominick (the
Spanish fryar) helps on this scandalous amour, but it turns out that
Lorenzo and Elvira are brother and sister.

=Spanish Lady= (_The_), a ballad contained in Percy’s _Reliques_, ii.
23. A Spanish lady fell in love with Captain Popham, whose prisoner she
was. A command being sent to set all the prisoners free, the lady prayed
the gallant captain to make her his wife. The Englishman replied that he
could not do so, as he was married already. On hearing this the Spanish
lady gave him a chain of gold and a pearl bracelet to take to his wife,
and told him that she should retire to a nunnery and spend the rest of
her life praying for their happiness.

  It will be stuck up with the ballad of _Margaret’s Ghost_ [_q.v._] and
  the _Spanish Lady_, against the walls of every cottage in the
  country.--Isaac Bickerstaff, _Love in a Village_ (1763).

=Spanish Tragedy= (_The_), by T. Kyd (1597). Horatio (son of Hieronimo)
is murdered while he is sitting in an arbor with Belimperia. Balthazar,
the rival of Horatio, commits the murder, assisted by Belimperia’s
brother, Lorenzo. The murderers hang the dead body on a tree in the
garden, where Hieronimo, roused by the cries of Belimperia, discovers
it, and goes raving mad.

=Spanker= (_Lady Gay_), in _London Assurance_, by D. Boucicault (1841).

  Dazzle and Lady Gay Spanker “act themselves,” and will never be
  dropped out of the list of acting plays.--Percy Fitzgerald.

=Sparabel´la=, a shepherdess, in love with D’Urfey, but D’Urfey loves
Clum´silis, “the fairest shepherd wooed the foulest lass.” Sparabella
resolves to kill herself; but how? Shall she cut her windpipe with a
penknife? “No,” she says, “squeaking pigs die so.” Shall she suspend
herself to a tree? “No,” she says, “dogs die in that fashion.” Shall she
drown herself in a pool? “No,” she says, “scolding queans die so.” And
while in doubt how to kill herself, the sun goes down, and

              The prudent maiden deemed it then too late,
              And till to-morrow came deferred her fate.
                            Gay, _Pastoral_, iii. (1714).

=Sparkish=, “the prince of coxcombs,” a fashionable fool, and “a cuckold
before marriage.” Sparkish is engaged to Alithēa Moody, but introduces
to her his friend, Harcourt, allows him to make love to her before his
face, and, of course, is jilted.--_The Country Girl_ (Garrick, altered
from Wycherly’s _Country Wife_, 1675).

=Sparkler= (_Edmund_), son of Mrs. Merdle by her first husband. He
married Fanny, sister of Little Dorrit. Edmund Sparkler was a very large
man, called in his own regiment “Quinbus Flestrin, junior, or the Young

_Mrs. Sparkler_, Edmund’s wife. She was very pretty, very self-willed,
and snubbed her husband in most approved fashion.--C. Dickens, _Little
Dorrit_ (1857).

=Sparrowgrass=, pen-name of Frederic S. Cozzens, under which he depicted
the blunders and mishaps of a pair of city-bred people, who set up their
Lares and Penates in Yonkers, N.Y.--Frederic Swartwout Cozzens, _The
Sparrowgrass Papers_ (1856).

=Sparsit= (_Mrs._), housekeeper to Josiah Bounderby, banker and
mill-owner at Coketown. Mrs. Sparsit is a “highly connected lady,” being
the great-niece of Lady Scadgers. She had a “Coriolanian nose and dense
black eyebrows,” was much believed in by her master, who, when he
married, made her “keeper of the bank.” Mrs. Sparsit, in collusion with
the light porter, Bitzer, then acted the spy on Mr. Bounderby and his
young wife.--C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

=Spasmodic School= (_The_), certain authors of the nineteenth century,
whose writings abound in spasmodic phrases, startling expressions, and
words used out of their common acceptation. Carlyle, noted for his
Germanic English, is the chief of this school. Others are Bailey, author
of _Festus_, Sydney Dobell, Gilfillan, and Alexander Smith.

⁂ Professor Aytoun has gibbeted this class of writers in his
_Firmilian_, a _Spasmodic Tragedy_ (1854).

=Spear of Achillês.= Telĕphos, son-in-law of Priam, opposed the Greeks
in their voyage to Troy. A severe contest ensued, and Achillês, with his
spear, wounded the Mysian king severely. He was told by an oracle that
the wound could be cured only by the instrument which gave it; so he
sent to Achillês to effect his cure. The surly Greek replied he was no
physician, and would have dismissed the messengers with scant courtesy,
but Ulysses whispered in his ear that the aid of Telephos was required
to direct them on their way to Troy. Achillês now scraped some rust from
his spear, which, being applied to the wound, healed it. This so
conciliated Telephos that he conducted the fleet to Troy, and even took
part in the war against his father-in-law.

           Achillês’ and his father’s javelin caused
           Pain first, and then the boon of health restored.
                               Dantê, _Hell_, xxxi. (1300).

  And fell in speche of Telephus, the king,
  And of Achilles for his queinte spere,
  For he coude with it both hele and dere (_i.e._, wound).
                   Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Squire’s Tale”).

  Whose smile and frown, like to Achillês’ spear,
  Is able with the change to kill and cure.
                      Shakespeare, _2 Henry VI._ act v. sc. 1 (1591).

⁂ The plant milfoil or yarrow, called by the old herbalists, _Achilles_,
is still used in medicine as a tonic. The leaves were at one time much
used for healing wounds, and are still employed for this purpose in
Scotland, Germany, France, and other countries.

=Spearman= (_Rosanna_). Housemaid in the employ of Lady Verinder, and a
reformed thief. She is infatuated with Franklin Blake, who is quite
ignorant of her passion. Learning, accidentally, that he has, as a
sleep-walker, stolen the diamond, she tries to use the knowledge to
establish a hold upon him. Failing in this, she drowns herself in a
quicksand, leaving behind her a confession of her hopeless love and the
means she had used to avert suspicion from him.--Wilkie Collins, _The

=Spears of Spyinghow= (_The Three_), in the troop of Fitzurse.--Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Speech ascribed to Dumb Animals.= Al Borak, the animal which conveyed
Mahomet to the seventh heaven; Arīon, the wonderful horse which Herculês
gave to Adrastos; Balaam’s ass (_Numb._ xxii. 28-30); the black pigeons
of Dodōna; Comrade, Fortunio’s horse; Katmîr, the dog of the Seven
Sleepers; Sâleh’s camel; Temliha, king of the serpents; Xanthos, the
horse of Achillês. Frithjof’s ship, _Ellīda_, could not speak, but it
understood what was said to it.

=Speech given to Conceal Thought.= _La parole a été donnée a l’homme
pour déguiser la pensée or pour l’aider à cacher sa pensée._ Talleyrand
is usually credited with this sentence, but Captain Gronow, in his
_Recollections and Anecdotes_, asserts that the words were those of
Count Montrond, a wit and poet, called “the most agreeable scoundrel and
most pleasant reprobate in the court of Marie Antoinette.”

Voltaire, in _Le Chapon et la Poularde_, says: “Ils n’employent les
paroles que pour déguiser leurs pensées.”

Goldsmith, in _The Bee_, iii. (October 20, 1759), has borrowed the same
thought: “the true use of speech is not so much to express our wants as
to conceal them.”

=Speech-Makers= (_Bad_).

ADDISON could not make a speech. He attempted one in the House of
Commons, and said, “Mr. Speaker, I conceive--I conceive, sir--sir, I
conceive----” Whereupon a member exclaimed, “The right honorable
secretary of state has conceived thrice, and brought forth nothing.”

CAMPBELL (_Thomas_), once tried to make a speech, but so stuttered and
stammered, that the whole table was convulsed with laughter.

CICERO, the great orator, never got over his nervous terror till he
warmed to his subject.

IRVING (_Washington_), even with a speech written out, and laid before
him, could not deliver it without a breakdown. In fact, he could hardly
utter a word in public without trembling.

MOORE (_Thomas_) could never make a speech.

(Dickens and Prince Albert always spoke well and fluently.)

=Speed=, an inveterate punster, and the clownish servant of Valentine,
one of the two “gentlemen of Verona.”--Shakespeare, _The Two Gentlemen
of Verona_ (1594).

=Speed the Plough=, a comedy by Thomas Morton (1798). Farmer Ashfield
brings up a boy named Henry, greatly beloved by every one. This Henry is
in reality the son of “Morrington,” younger brother of Sir Philip
Blandford. The two brothers fixed their love on the same lady, but the
younger married her, whereupon Sir Philip stabbed him to the heart, and
fully thought him to be dead, but after twenty years, the wounded man
reappeared, and claimed his son. Henry marries his cousin, Emma
Blandford; and the farmer’s daughter, Susan, marries Robert, only son of
Sir Abel Handy.

=Spenlow= (_Mr._), father of Dora (_q.v._). He was a proctor, to whom
David Copperfield was articled. Mr. Spenlow was killed in a carriage

_Misses Lavinia_ and _Clarissa Spenlow_, two spinster aunts of Dora
Spenlow, with whom she lived at the death of her father.

  They were not unlike birds altogether, having a sharp, brisk, sudden
  manner, and a little, short, spruce way of adjusting themselves, like
  canaries.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_, xli. (1849).

=Spens= (_Sir Patrick_), a Scotch hero, sent, in the winter-time, on a
mission to Norway. His ship, in its home passage, was wrecked off the
coast of Aberdeen, and every one on board was lost. The incident has
furnished the subject of a spirited Scotch ballad by Lady Lindsay.

=Spenser.= _The Spenser of English Prose Writers_, Jeremy Taylor

_Spenser._ _From Spenser to Flecknoe_, that is, from the top to the
bottom of all poetry; from the sublime to the ridiculous.--Dryden,
_Comment on Spenser, etc._

=Spenser’s Monument=, in Westminster Abbey, was erected by Anne
Clifford, countess of Dorset.

=Spider’s Net= (_A_). When Mahomet fled from Mecca, he hid in a cave,
and a spider wove its net over the entrance. When the Koreishites came
thither, they passed on, being fully persuaded that no one had entered
the cave, because the cobweb was not broken.

In the _Talmud_, we are told that David, in his flight, hid himself in
the cave of Adullam, and a spider spun its net over the opening. When
Saul came up and saw the cobweb, he passed on, under the same

=Spindle= (_Jack_), the son of a man of fortune. Having wasted his money
in riotous living, he went to a friend to borrow £100. “Let me see, you
want £100, Mr. Spindle; let me see, would not £50 do for the present?”
“Well,” said Jack, “if you have not £100, I must be contented with £50.”
“Dear me, Mr. Spindle!” said the friend, “I find I have but £20 about
me.” “Never mind,” said Jack, “I must borrow the other £30 of some other
friend.” “Just so, Mr. Spindle, just so. By-the-by would it not be far
better to borrow the whole of that friend, and then one note of hand
will serve for the whole sum? Good morning, Mr. Spindle; delighted to
see you! Tom, see the gentleman down.”--Goldsmith, _The Bee_, iii.

=Spirit of the Cape= (_The_), Adamastor, a hideous phantom, of unearthly
pallor, “erect his hair uprose of withered red,” his lips were black,
his teeth blue and disjointed, his beard haggard, his face scarred by
lightning, his eyes “shot livid fire,” his voice roared. The sailors
trembled at the sight of him, and the fiend demanded how they dared to
trespass “where never hero braved his rage before?” He then told them
“that every year the shipwrecked should be made to deplore their
foolhardiness.” According to Barreto the “Spirit of the Cape” was one of
the giants who stormed heaven.--Camoens, _The Lusiad_ (1572).

         In me the Spirit of the Cape behold ...
         That rock by you the “Cape of Tempests” named ...
         With wide-stretched piles I guard ...
         Great Adamastor is my dreaded name.
                                                       Canto v.

=Spiri´to=, the Holy Ghost as the friend of man, personified in canto
ix. of _The Purple Island_, by Phineas Fletcher (1633). He was married
to Urania, and their offspring are: Knowledge, Contemplation, Care,
Humility, Obedience, Faith or Fido, Penitence, Elpi´nus or Hope, and
Love, the foster-son of Gratitude. (Latin, _spirĭtus_, “spirit.”)

=Spitfire= (_Will_), or WILL SPITTAL, serving-boy of Roger Wildrake, the
dissipated royalist.--Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Spontaneous Combustion.= There are above thirty cases on record of
death by spontaneous combustion, the most famous being that of the
Countess Cornelia di Baudi Cesenatê, which was most minutely
investigated, in 1731, by Guiseppê Bianchini, a prebendary of Verona.

The next most noted instance occurred at Rheims, in 1725, and is
authenticated by no less an authority than Mon. Le Cat, the celebrated

Messrs. Foderé and Mere investigated the subject of spontaneous
combustion, and gave it as their fixed opinion that instances of death
from such a cause cannot be doubted.

In vol. vi. of the _Philosophical Transactions_, and in the _English
Medical Jurisprudence_, the subject is carefully investigated, and
several examples are cited in confirmation of the fact.

Joseph Battaglia, a surgeon of Ponte Bosio, gives in detail the case of
Don G. Maria Bertholi, a priest of Mount Valerius. While reading his
breviary the body of this priest burst into flames in several parts, as
the arms, back and head. The sleeves of his shirt, a handkerchief and
his skull-cap were all more or less consumed. He survived the injury
four days. (This seems to me more like an electrical attack than an
instance of spontaneous combustion.)

=Spontoon=, the old confidential servant of Colonel Talbot.--Sir W.
Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Spoons= (_Gossip_). It was customary at one time for sponsors at
christenings to give gilt spoons as an offering to their godchild. These
spoons had on the handle the figure of one of the apostles or
evangelists, and hence were called “Apostle spoons.” The wealthy would
give the twelve apostles, those of less opulence the four evangelists,
and others again a single spoon. When Henry VIII. asks Cranmer to be
godfather to “a fair young maid,” Cranmer replies, “How may I deserve
such honor, that am a poor and humble subject?” The king rejoins, “Come,
come, my lord, you’d spare your spoons.”--Shakespeare, _Henry VIII._ act
v. sc. 2 (1601).

=Sporus.= Under this name Pope satirized Lord John Hervey, generally
called “Lord Fanny” from his effeminate habits and appearance. He was
“half wit, half fool, half man, half beau.” Lord John Hervey was
vice-chamberlain in 1736, and lord privy seal in 1740.

                             That thing of silk,
         Sporus, that mere white curd of asses’ milk;
         Satire or sense, alas! can Sporus feel,
         Who breaks a butterfly upon a wheel?
                     A. Pope, _Prologue to the Satires_ (1734).

⁂ This Lord John Hervey married the beautiful Molly Lapel; hence Pope

                      So perfect a beau and a belle
                As when Hervey, the handsome, was wedded
                      To the beautiful Molly Lapel.

=S.P.Q.R.=, the Romans. The letters are the initials of _Senatus
Populus-Que Romanus_.

  New blood must be pumped into the veins and arteries of the
  S.P.Q.R.--G.A. Sala (_Belgravia_, April, 1871).

=Spotswood= (_Lady_). A singular letter to this lady (widow of Governor
Spotswood of Virginia) is preserved in the family. It was written by
Rev. John Thompson, rector of St. Mark’s Church, Culpepper County,
Virginia, and contains an elaborate and apparently dispassionate
argument for marrying a clergyman. The only outbreak of loverly feeling
is in the expressed hope that if he should convince her reason, she will
“keep him no longer in suspense and misery, but consummate his
happiness” (1742).

=Sprackling= (_Joseph_), a money-lender and a self-made man.

_Thomas Sprackling_, his brother and equal in roguery.--Wybert Reeve,

=Spregner= (_Louis_), Annette Veilchen’s bachelor.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne
of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Sprightly= (_Miss Kitty_), the ward of Sir Gilbert Pumpkin of
Strawberry Hall. Miss Kitty is a great heiress, but stage-struck, and
when Captain Charles Stanley is introduced she falls in love with him,
first as a “play-actor,” and then in reality.--I. Jackman, _All the
World’s a Stage_.

=Spring= (_A Sacred_). The ancient Sabines, in times of great national
danger, vowed to the gods “a sacred spring” (_ver sacrum_), if they
would remove the danger. That is, all the children born during the next
spring were “held sacred,” and at the age of twenty were compelled to
leave their country and seek for themselves a new home.

=Spring-Heel Jack.= The marquis of Waterford, in the early part of the
nineteenth century, used to amuse himself by springing on travellers
unawares, to terrify them; and from time to time others have followed
his silly example. Even so late as 1877-8, an officer in her majesty’s
service caused much excitement in the garrisons stationed at Aldershot,
Colchester, and elsewhere by his “spring-heel” pranks. In Colchester and
its neighborhood the tales told of this adventurer caused quite a little
panic, and many nervous people were afraid to venture out after sunset,
for fear of being “sprung” upon. I myself investigated some of the cases
reported to me, but found them for the most part Fakenham ghost tales.

=Springer= (_The_). Ludwig Margrave, of Thuringia, was so called,
because he escaped from Giebichenstein, in the eleventh century, by
leaping over the river Saale.

=Sprowles= (_The_). New England village _parvenus_.

_Hezekiah Sprowle_, esquire and colonel is “a retired India merchant,”
_i.e._, he used to deal in West India rum, molasses, etc. His wife was
an heiress, and helps him push their way up the social ladder.

_Miss Matilda Sprowle_, just out of school. “There’s one piece o’goods,”
said the colonel to his wife, “that we han’t disposed of, nor got a
customer for yet. That’s Matildy. I don’t mean to set _her_ up at
vaandoo, I guess she can have her pick of a dozen.”--Oliver Wendell
Holmes, _Elsie Venner_ (1861).

=Spruce, M.C.= (_Captain_), in _Lend Me Five Shillings_, by J. M. Morton

=Spruch-Sprecher= (_The_) or “sayer of sayings” to the archduke of
Austria.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Spuma´dor=, Prince Arthur’s horse. So called from the foam of its
mouth, which indicated its fiery temper.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii.

⁂ In the _Mabinogion_, his favorite mare is called Llamrei (“the

=Spurs= (_The Battle of_), the battle of Guinnegate, in 1513, between
Henry VIII. and the duc de Longueville. So called because the French
used their spurs in flight more than their swords in fight. (See SPURS
OF GOLD, etc.)

=Squab= (_The Poet_). Dryden was so called by Lord Rochester.

=Square= (_Mr._), a “philosopher,” in Fielding’s novel called _The
History of Tom Jones, a Foundling_ (1749).

=Squeers= (_Mr. Wackford_), of Dotheboy’s Hall, Yorkshire, a vulgar,
conceited, ignorant schoolmaster, overbearing, grasping, and mean. He
steals the boys’ pocket money, clothes his son in their best suits, half
starves them, and teaches them next to nothing. Ultimately, he is
transported for purloining a deed.

_Mrs. Squeers_, wife of Mr. Wackford, a raw-boned, harsh, heartless
virago, without one spark of womanly feeling for the boys put under her

_Miss Fanny Squeers_, daughter of the schoolmaster, “not tall like her
mother, but short like her father. From the former she inherited a voice
of hoarse quality, and from the latter a remarkable expression of the
right eye.” Miss Fanny falls in love with Nicholas Nickleby, but hates
him and spites him because he is insensible of the soft impeachment.

_Master Wackford Squeers_, son of the schoolmaster, a spoilt boy, who
was dressed in the best clothes of the scholars. He was over-bearing,
self-willed, and passionate.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

  The person who suggested the character of Squeers was a Mr. Shaw, of
  Bowes. He married a Miss Laidman. The satire ruined the school, and
  was the death both of Mr. and Mrs. Shaw.--_Notes and Queries_, October
  25, 1873.

=Squeeze= (_Miss_), a pawnbroker’s daughter. Her father had early taught
her that money is the “one thing needful,” and at death left her a
moderate competence. She was so fully convinced of the value of money
that she would never part with a farthing without an equivalent, and
refused several offers, because she felt persuaded her suitors sought
her money and not herself. Now she is old and ill-natured, marked with
the small-pox, and neglected by every one.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the
World_, xxviii. (1759).

=Squint= (_Lawyer_), the great politician of society. He makes speeches
for members of parliament, writes addresses, gives the history of every
new play, and finds “seasonable thought” upon every possible
subject.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the World_, xxix. (1759).

=Squint-Eyed.= [Guercīno] Gian-Francesco Barbieri, the painter

=Squintum= (_Dr._), George Whitefield is so called by Foote in his farce
entitled _The Minor_ (1614-1770).

_Squintum_ (_Dr._). The Rev. Edward Irving, who had an obliquity of the
eyes, was so called by Theodore Hook (1792-1834).

=Squire of Dames= (_The_), a young knight, in love with Col´umbell, who
appointed him a year’s service before she would consent to become his
bride. The “squire” was to travel for twelve months, to rescue
distressed ladies, and bring pledges of his exploits to Columbell. At
the end of the year he placed 300 pledges in her hands, but instead of
rewarding him by becoming his bride, she set him another task, viz., to
travel about the world on foot, and not present himself again till he
could bring her pledges from 300 damsels that they would live in
chastity all their life. The squire told Columbell that in three years
he had found only three persons who would take the pledge, and only one
of these, he said (a rustic cottager) took it from a “principle of
virtue;” the other two (a nun and a courtezan) promised to do so, but
did not voluntarily join the “virgin martyrs.” This “Squire of Dames”
turned out to be Britomart.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. 7 (1590).

⁂ This story is imitated from “The Host’s Tale,” in _Orlando Furioso_,

=Squires= (_Milton_), servant in the Fairchild family, boorish,
vindictive hind who murders one brother and tries to fasten the deed
upon another.--Harold Frederic, _Seth’s Brother’s Wife_ (1886).

=Squirt=, the apothecary’s boy in Garth’s _Dispensary_; hence any
apprentice lad or errand boy.

           Here sauntering ’prentices o’er Otway weep.
           O’er Congreve smile, or over D’Urfey sleep,
           Pleased sempstresses the Lock’s famed Rape unfold,
           And Squirts read Garth till Apozems grow cold.
                                    J. Gay, _Trivia_ (1712).

(Pope wrote _The Rape of the Lock_, 1712.)

=Squod= (_Phil_), a grotesque little fellow, faithfully attached to Mr.
George, the son of Mrs. Rouncewell (housekeeper at Chesney Wold). George
had rescued the little street arab from the gutter, and the boy lived at
George’s “Shooting Gallery” in Leicester Square (London). Phil was
remarkable for limping along sideways, as if “tacking.”--C. Dickens,
_Bleak House_ (1852).

=Stael= (_Madame de_), called by Heine [_Hi.ne_] “a whirlwind in
petticoats,” and a “sultana of mind.”

=Stagg= (_Benjamin_), the proprietor of the cellar in the Barbican where
the secret society of “Prentice Knights” used to convene. He was a blind
man, who fawned on Mr. Sim Tappertit, “the ’prentices glory” and captain
of the “’Prentice Knights.” But there was a disparity between his words
and sentiments, if we may judge from this specimen: “Good-night, most
noble captain! farewell, brave general! bye-bye illustrious commander! a
conceited, bragging, empty-headed, duck-legged idiot!” Benjamin Stagg
was shot by the soldiery in the Gordon riots.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby
Rudge_ (1841).

=Staggchase= (_Mrs. Frederick_), descendant of an old Boston family, and
one of the cleverest women in her set.--Arlo Bates, _The Philistines_

=Stagirite= (3 _syl._). Aristotle is called the Stagirite, because he
was born at Stagīra, in Macedon. Almost all our English poets call the
word Stagĭrite: as Pope, Thomson, Swift, Byron, Wordsworth, B. Browning,
etc. The Greek would be Stag´īrite.

                Thick like a glory round the Stagyrite,
                Your rivals throng, the Sages.
                       R. Browning, _Paracelsus_, i.

                   All the wisdom of the Stagirite.

                Plato, the Stagyrite, and Tully joined.

                As if the Stagirite o’erlooked the line.

              Is rightly censured by the Stagirite,
              Who says his numbers do not fadge aright.
                         Swift, _To Dr. Sheridan_ (1718).

=Stammerer= (_The_). Louis II. of France, _le Bégué_ (846, 877-879).

Michael II., Emperor of the East (*, 820-829).

Notker or Notger, of St. Gall (830-912).

=Stanchells=, head jailer at the Glasgow tolbooth.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob
Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Standard.= A substantial building for water supplies, as the Water
Standard of Cornhill, the Standard in Cheap, opposite Honey Lane, “which
John Wells, grocer, caused to be made [? _rebuilt_] in his mayoralty,
1430.”--Stow, _Survey_ (“Cheapside”).

_The Cheapside Standard._ This Standard was in existence in the reign of
Edward I. In the reign of Edward III. two fishmongers were beheaded at
the Cheapside Standard, for aiding in a riot. Henry IV. caused “the
blank charter of Richard II.” to be burnt at this place.

_The Standard, Cornhill._ This was a conduit with four spouts, made by
Peter Morris, a German, in 1582, and supplied with Thames water,
conveyed by leaden pipes over the steeple of St. Magnus’s Church. It
stood at the east end of Cornhill, at its junction with Gracechurch
Street, Bishopsgate Street, and Leadenhall Street. The water ceased to
run between 1598 and 1603, but the Standard itself remained long after.
Distances from London were measured from this spot.

  In the year 1775, there stood upon the borders of Epping Forest, at a
  distance of about twelve miles from London, measuring from the
  Standard in Cornhill, or rather from the spot on which the Standard
  used to be, a house of public entertainment, called the
  Maypole.--Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_, i. (1841).

_Standard_ (_The Battle of the_), the battle of Luton Moor, near
Northallerton, between the English and the Scotch, in 1138. So called
from the “standard,” which was raised on a wagon, and placed in the
centre of the English army. The pole displayed the standards of St.
Cuthbert of Durham, St. Peter of York, St. John of Beverley, and St.
Wilfred of Ripon, surmounted by a little silver casket, containing a
consecrated wafer.--Hailes, _Annals of Scotland_, i. 85 (1779).

  The Battle of the Standard, was so called from the banner of St.
  Cuthbert, which was thought always to secure success. It came forth at
  the battle of Nevil’s Cross, and was again victorious. It was
  preserved with great reverence till the Reformation, when, in 1549,
  Catharine Whittingham (a French lady), wife of the dean of Durham,
  burnt it out of zeal against popery.--Miss Yonge, _Cameos of English
  History_, 126-8 (1868).

=Standing= (_To die_). Vespasian said, “An emperor of Rome ought to die
standing.” Louis XVIII. of France, said, “A king of France ought to die
standing.” This notion is not confined to crowned heads.

=Standish= (_Miles_), the puritan captain, was short of stature,
strongly built, broad in the shoulders, deep-chested, and with sinews
like iron. His wife, Rose, was the first to die “of all who came in the
_Mayflower_.” Being desirous to marry Priscilla, “the beautiful
puritan,” he sent young Alden to plead his cause; but the maiden
answered archly, “Why don’t you speak for yourself, John?” Soon after
this, Standish was supposed to have been killed, and John Alden did
speak for himself, and prevailed.--Longfellow, _Courtship of Miles
Standish_ (1858).

_Standish_ (_Mrs. Justice_), a brother magistrate with Bailie
Trumbull.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Stanley=, in the earl of Sussex’s train.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_
(time, Elizabeth).

_Stanley_ (_Captain Charles_), introduced by his friend, Captain
Stukely, to the family at Strawberry Hall. Here he meets Miss Kitty
Sprightly, an heiress, who has a theatrical twist. The captain makes
love to her under the mask of acting, induces her to run off with him
and get married, then, returning to the hall, introduces her as his
wife. All the family fancy he is only “acting,” but discover too late
that their “play” is a life-long reality.--I. Jackman, _All the World’s
a Stage_.

=Stanley Crest= (_The_). On a chapeau gu. an eagle feeding on an infant
in its nest. The legend is that Sir Thomas de Lathom, having no male
issue, was walking with his wife one day, and heard the cries of an
infant in an eagle’s nest. They looked on the child as a gift from God,
and adopted it, and it became the founder of the Stanley race (time,
Edward III.).

=Stannard= (_Major_). Sturdy, blunt, unaffected soldier, a terror to
evil-doers, and the strong-tower of persecuted innocence. His wife is a
lovely woman, worthy of the gallant warrior.--Charles King, _Marion’s
Faith_, and _The Colonel’s Daughter_ (1886), (1888).

=Stantons= (_The_), John Stanton, intelligent young carpenter, engaged
to Melissa Blake, once a teacher, now a copyist of legal papers.

_Orin Stanton_, half-brother to John. A sculptor; “one of the artists
who would never be able to separate his idea of the nurse from that of
the serving-maid. He viewed art from the strictly utilitarian standpoint
which considers it a means toward the payment of butcher and baker and
candlestick-maker.”--Arlo Bates, _The Philistines_ (1888).

=Staples= (_Lawrence_), head jailer at Kenilworth Castle.--Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Starch= (_Dr._), the tutor of Blushington.--W. T. Moncrieff, _The
Bashful Man_.

=Starchat´erus=, of Sweden, a giant in stature and strength, whose life
was protracted to thrice the ordinary term. When he felt himself growing
old, he hung a bag of gold round his neck, and told Olo he might take
the bag of gold if he would cut off his head, and he did so. He hated
luxury in every form, and said a man was a fool who went and dined out
for the sake of better fare. One day, Helgo, king of Norway, asked him
to be his champion in a contest which was to be decided by himself alone
against nine adversaries. Starchaterus selected for the site of combat
the top of a mountain covered with snow, and, throwing off his clothes,
waited for the nine adversaries. When asked if he would fight with them
one by one or all together, he replied, “When dogs bark at me, I drive
them all off at once.”--Joannes Magnus, _Gothorum Suevorumque Historia_

=Stareleigh= (_Justice_), a stout, pudgy little judge, very deaf, and
very irascible, who, in the absence of the chief justice, sat in
judgment on the trial of “Bardell v. Pickwick.”--C. Dickens, _The
Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

=Starno=, king of Lochlin. Having been conquered by Fingal and
generously set at liberty, he promised Fingal his daughter, Agandecca,
in marriage, but meant to deal treacherously by him and kill him. Fingal
accepted the invitation of Starno, and spent three days in boar-hunts.
He was then warned by Agandecca to beware of her father, who had set an
ambuscade to waylay him. Fingal, being forewarned, fell on the ambush
and slew every man. When Starno heard thereof, he slew his daughter,
whereupon Fingal and his followers took to arms, and Starno either “fled
or died.” Swaran succeeded his father, Starno.---Ossian, _Fingal_, iii.;
see also _Cath-Loda_.

=Starvation Dundas=, Henry Dundas, the first Lord Melville. So called
because he introduced the word _starvation_ into the language (1775).

=Starveling= (_Robin_), the tailor. He was cast for the part of
“Thisbe’s mother,” in the drama played before Duke Theseus (2 _syl._) on
“his wedding day at night.” Starveling has nothing to say in the
drama.--Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_ (1592).

=Stati´ra=, the heroine of La Calprenède’s romance of _Cassandra_.
Statīra is the daughter of Darīus, and is represented as the “most
perfect of the works of creation.” Oroondatês is in love with her, and
ultimately marries her.

_Statira_, daughter of Dari´us, and wife of Alexander. Young, beautiful,
womanly, of strong affection, noble bearing, mild yet haughty, yielding
yet brave. Her love for Alexander was unbounded. When her royal husband
took Roxāna into favor, the proud spirit of the princess was indignant,
but Alexander, by his love, won her back again. Statira was murdered by
Roxana, the Bactrian, called the “Rival Queen.”--N. Lee, _Alexander The
Great_ (1678).

=Staunton= (_The Rev. Mr._), rector of Willingham, and father of George

_George Staunton_, son of the Rev. Mr. Staunton. He appears first as
“Geordie Robertson,” a felon; and in the Porteous mob he assumes the
guise of “Madge Wildfire.” George Staunton is the seducer of Effie
Deans. Ultimately he comes to the title of baronet, marries Effie, and
is shot by a gypsy boy called “The Whistler,” who proves to be his own
natural son.

_Lady Staunton_, Effie Deans, after her marriage with Sir George. On the
death of her husband, she retires to a convent on the Continent.--Sir W.
Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Steadfast=, a friend of the Duberly family.--Colman, _The Heir-at-Law_

=Steel Castle=, a strong ward, belonging to the Yellow Dwarf. Here he
confined All-Fair when she refused to marry him according to her
promise.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The Yellow Dwarf,” 1682).

=Steenson= (_Willie_), or “Wandering Willie,” the blind fiddler.

_Steenie Steenson_, the piper, in Wandering Willie’s tale.

_Maggie Steenson_, or “Epps Anslie,” the wife of Wandering Willie.--Sir
W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Steerforth=, the young man who led little Em’ly astray. When tired of
his toy, he proposed to her to marry his valet. Steerforth, being
shipwrecked off the coast of Yarmouth, Ham Peggotty tried to rescue him,
but both were drowned.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

=Steinbach= (_Erwin von_), designed Strasbourg Cathedral; begun 1015,
and finished 1439.

                 A great master of his craft,
           Erwin von Steinbach.
                         Longfellow, _Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Steinernherz von Blutsacker= (_Francis_), the scharf-gerichter, or
executioner.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Steinfeldt= (_The old baroness of_), introduced in Donnerhugel’s
narrative.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Steinfort= (_The baron_), brother of the Countess Wintersen. He falls
in love with Mrs. Haller, but, being informed of the relationship
between Mrs. Haller and “the stranger,” exerts himself to bring about a
reconciliation.--Benj. Thompson, _The Stranger_ (1797).

=Stella.= The Lady Penelopê Devereux, the object of Sir Philip Sidney’s
affection. She married Lord Rich, and was a widow in Sidney’s life-time.
Spenser says, in his _Astrophel_, when Astrophel (_Sir Philip_) died,
Stella died of grief, and the “two lovers” were converted into one
flower, called “Starlight,” which is first red, and, as it fades, turns
blue. Some call it _penthea_, but henceforth (he says) it shall be
called “Astrophel.” It is a pure fiction that Stella died from grief at
the death of Sidney, for she afterwards married Charles Blount, created
by James I. earl of Devonshire. The poet himself must have forgotten his
own lines:

        No less praiseworthy Stella do I read,
          Tho’ nought my praises of her needed are,
        Whom verse of noblest shepherd lately dead [1586]
          Hath praised and raised above each other star.
                Spenser, _Colin Clout’s Come Home Again_ (1591).

_Stella._ Miss Hester Johnson was so called by Swift, to whom she was
privately married in 1706. Hester is first changed into the Greek
_aster_, and “aster” in Latin, like _stella_, means “a star.” Stella
lived with Mrs. Dingley, on Ormond Quay, Dublin.

          Poor Stella must pack off to town ...
          To Liffy’s stinking tide at Dublin ...
          To be directed there by Dingley ...
          And now arrives the dismal day,
          She must return to Ormond Quay.
                      Swift, _To Stella at Wood Park_ (1723).

=Steno= (_Michel_), one of the chiefs of the tribunal of Forty. Steno
insults some of the ladies assembled at a civic banquet given by Marino
Faliero, the doge of Venice, and is turned out of the house. In revenge,
he fastens on the doge’s chair some scurrilous lines against the young
dogaressa, whose extreme modesty and innocence ought to have protected
her from such insolence. The doge refers the matter to “the Forty,” who
sentence Steno to two month’s imprisonment. This punishment, in the
opinion of the doge, is wholly inadequate to the offence, and Marino
Faliero joins a conspiracy to abolish the council altogether.--Byron,
_Marino Faliero, the Doge of Venice_ (1819).

=Stentor=, a Grecian herald in the Trojan war. Homer says he was
“great-hearted, brazen-voiced, and could shout as loud as fifty men.”

  He began to roar for help with the lungs of a Stentor.--Smollett.

=Steph´ano=, earl of Carnūti, the leader of 400 men in the allied
Christian army. He was noted for his military prowess and wise
counsel.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, i. (1575).

_Stephano_, a drunken butler.--Shakespeare, _The Tempest_ (1609).

_Stephano_, servant to Portia.--Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_

=Stephen=, one of the attendants of Sir Reginald Front de Bœuf (a
follower of Prince John).--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Stephen_ (_Count_), nephew of the count of Crèvecœur.--Sir W. Scott,
_Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Stephen_ (_Master_), a conceited puppy, who thinks all inferiors are to
be snubbed and bullied, and all those weaker and more cowardly than
himself are to be kicked and beaten. He is especially struck with
Captain Bobadil, and tries to imitate his “dainty oaths.” Master Stephen
has no notion of honesty and high-mindedness; thus he steals Downright’s
cloak, which had been accidently dropped, declares he bought it, and
then that he found it. Being convicted of falsehood, he resigns all
claim to it, saying, in a huff, “There, take your cloak; I’ll none
on’t.” This small-minded youth is young Kno’well’s cousin.--Ben Jonson,
_Every Man in his Humor_ (1598).

=Stephen Steelheart=, the nickname of Stephen Wetheral.--Sir W. Scott,
_Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Stephen of Amboise=, leader of 5000 foot soldiers from Blois and Tours
in the allied Christian army of Godfrey of Bouillon. Impetuous in
attack, but deficient in steady resistance. He was shot by Clorinda with
an arrow (bk. xi.).--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

=Sterling= (_Mr._), a vulgar, rich City merchant, who wishes to see his
two daughters married to titles. Lord Ogleby calls him “a very abstract
of ’Change;” and he himself says, “What signifies birth, education,
titles, and so forth? Money, I say--money’s the stuff that makes a man
great in this country.”

_Miss Sterling_, whose Christian name is Elizabeth or Betty; a spiteful,
jealous, purse-proud damsel, engaged to Sir John Melvil. Sir John,
seeing small prospect of happiness with such a tartar, proposed marriage
to the younger sister; and Miss Sterling being left out in the cold,
exclaimed, “Oh, that some other person, an earl or duke for instance,
would propose to me, that I might be revenged on the monsters!”

_Miss Fanny Sterling_, an amiable, sweet-smiling, soft-speaking beauty,
clandestinely married to Lovewell.--Colman and Garrick, _The Clandestine
Marriage_ (1766).

=Sterry=, a fanatical preacher, admired by Hugh Peters.--S. Butler,
_Hudibras_ (1663-78).

=Stevens=, a messenger of the earl of Sussex at Say’s Court.--Sir W.
Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Stewart= (_Colonel_), governor of the castle of Doune.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

_Stewart_ (_Prince Charles Edward_), surnamed “The Chevalier” by his
friends, and “The Pretender” by his foes. Sir W. Scott introduces him in
_Waverley_, and again in _Redgauntlet_, where he appears disguised as
“Father Buonaventura.” (Now generally spelt Stuart.)

_Stewart_ (_Walking_), John Stewart, the English traveller, who
travelled on foot through Hindûstan, Persia, Nubia, Abyssinia, the
Arabian Desert, Europe and the United States (died 1822).

  A most interesting man,... eloquent in conversation, contemplative ...
  and crazy beyond all reach of helebore, ... yet sublime and divinely
  benignant in his visionariness. This man, as a pedestrian traveller,
  had seen more of the earth’s surface ... than any man before or
  since.--De Quincey.

⁂ Walking Stewart must not be confounded with John M’Douall Stuart, the
Australian explorer (1818-1866).

=Steyne= (_Marquis of_), earl of Gaunt and of Gaunt Castle, a viscount,
baron, knight of the Garter and of numerous other orders, colonel,
trustee of the British Museum, elder brother of the Trinity House,
governor of White Friars, etc., had honors and titles enough to make him
a great man, but his life was not a highly moral one, and his conduct
with Becky Sharp, when she was the wife of Colonel Rawdon Crawley, gave
rise to a great scandal. His lordship floated through the ill report,
but Mrs. Rawdon was obliged to live abroad.--W. M. Thackeray, _Vanity
Fair_ (1848).

=Stick to it, says Baigent.= Baigent was the principal witness of the
Claimant in the great Tichborne trial, and his advice to his _protégé_
was, “Stick to it” (1872).

=Stiggins=, a hypocritical, drunken Methodist “shepherd” (minister),
thought by Mrs. Weller to be a saint. His time was spent for the most
part in drinking pineapple rum at the Marquis of Granby tavern.--C.
Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

=Still= (_Cornelius, the_), Cornelius Tacitus. (Latin, _tacĭtus_,

  Cornelius, the Stylle, in his firste book of his yerely exploictes,
  called in Latine, _Annales_.--_Fardle of Facions_, iii. 3 (1555).

=Stimulants used by Public Characters.=


BRAHAM, bottled porter.

BULL (_Rev. William_), the nonconformist, was an inveterate smoker.

BYRON, gin-and-water.

CATLEY (_Miss_), linseed tea and madeira.

COOKE (_G. F._), everything drinkable.

DISRAELI (Lord Beaconsfield), champagne jelly.

EMERY, cold brandy-and-water.

ERSKINE (_Lord_), opium in large doses.

Gladstone (_W. E._), an egg beaten up in sherry.

HENDERSON, gum arabic and sherry.

HOBBES, only cold water.

INCLEDON, madeira.

JORDAN (_Mrs._), calves’-foot jelly dissolved in warm sherry.

KEAN (_Edmund_), beef-tea, cold brandy.

KEMBLE (_John_), opium.

LEWIS, mulled wine and oysters.

NEWTON smoked incessantly.

OXBERRY, strong tea.

POPE, strong coffee.

SCHILLER required to sit over a table deeply impregnated with the smell
of apples. He stimulated his brain with coffee and champagne.

SIDDONS (_Mrs._), porter, not “stout.”

SMITH (_William_), drank strong coffee.

WEDDERBURNE (the first Lord Ashburton) used to place a blister on his
chest when he had to make a great speech.--Dr. Paris, _Pharmacologia_

WOOD (_Mrs._), drank draught porter.

=Stinkomalee.= So Theodore Hook called the London University. The word
was suggested by “Trincomalee” (in Ceylon), a name before the public at
the time. Hook hated the “University,” because it admitted students of
all denominations.

  Only look at Stinkomalee and King’s College. Activity, union, craft,
  indomitable perseverance on the one side; indolence, indecision,
  internal distrust, and jealousies, calf-like simplicity, and cowardice
  intolerable on the other.--Wilson, _Noctes Ambrosianæ_ (1822-36).

=Stitch= (_Tom_), a young tailor, a great favorite with the
ladies.--_The Merry History of Tom Stitch_ (seventeenth century).

=Stockwell= (_Mr._), a City merchant, who promised to give his daughter,
Nancy, in marriage, to the son of Sir Harry Harlowe of Dorsetshire.

_Mrs. Stockwell_, the merchant’s wife, who always veers round to the
last speaker, and can be persuaded to anything for the time being.

_Nancy Stockwell_, daughter of the merchant, in love with Belford, but
promised in marriage to Sir Harry Harlowe’s son. It so happens that Sir
Harry’s son has privately married another lady, and Nancy falls to the
man of her choice.--Garrick, _Neck or Nothing_ (1766).

=Stolen Kisses=, a drama by Paul Meritt, in three acts (1877). Felix
Freemantle, under the pseudonym of Mr. Joy, falls in love with Cherry,
daughter of Tom Spirit, once valet to Mr. Freemantle (who had come to
the title of Viscount Trangmar). When Tom Spirit ascertained that “Felix
Joy” was the son of the viscount, he forbade all further intercourse,
unless Felix produced his father’s consent to the marriage. The next
part of the plot pertains to the brother of Tom Spirit, who had assumed
the name of Walter Temple, and, as a stock-broker, had become very
wealthy. In his prosperity, Walter scornfully ignored his brother, Tom,
and his ambition was to marry his daughter, Jenny, to the son of
Viscount Trangmar, who owed him money. Thus, the two cousins, Cherry and
Jenny, came into collision; but at the end Jenny married Fred Gay, a
medical student, Cherry married Felix, the two brothers were reconciled,
and Tom released his old master, Viscount Trangmar, by destroying the
bond which Walter held and gave him.

=Stonehenge.= Aurelius Ambrosius asked Merlin what memento he could
raise to commemorate his victory over Vortigern; and Merlin advised him
to remove “The Giant’s Dance” from Mount Killaraus, in Ireland, to
Salisbury Plain. So Aurelius placed a fleet and 15,000 men under the
charge of Uther, the pendragon, and Merlin, for the purpose. Gilloman,
king of Ireland, who opposed the invaders, was routed, and then Merlin,
“by his art,” shipped the stones, and set them up on the plain “in the
same manner as they stood on Killaraus.”--Geoffrey, _British History_,
viii. 11-12 (1142).

          How Merlin, by his skill and magic’s wondrous might,
          From Ireland hither brought the Sonendge in a night.
                Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

         Stonehenge, once thought a temple, you have found
         A throne, where kings, our earthly gods, were crowned.
                      Dryden, _Epistles_, ii.

_Stonehenge a Trophy._ It is said, in the Welsh triads, that this circle
of stones was erected by the Britons to commemorate the “treachery of
the Long Knives,” _i.e._, a conference to which the chief of the British
warriors were invited by Hengist, at Ambresbury. Beside each chief a
Saxon was seated, armed with a long knife, and at a given signal each
Saxon slew his Briton. As many as 460 British nobles thus fell, but
Eidiol, earl of Gloucester, after slaying seventy Saxons (some say 660),
made his escape.--_Welsh Triads._

  Stonehenge was erected by Merlin, at the command of Ambrosius, in
  memory of the plot of the “Long-Knives,” when 300 British chiefs were
  treacherously massacred by Vortigern. He built it on the site of a
  former circle. It deviates from older bardic circles, as may be seen
  by comparing it with Avebury, Stanton-Drew, Keswick, etc. It is called
  “The Work of Ambrosius.”--_Cambrian Biography_, art. “Merddin.”

⁂ MONT DIEU, a solitary mound close to Dumfermline, owes its origin,
according to story, to some unfortunate monks, who, by way of penance,
carried the sand in baskets, from the sea-shore at Inverness.

At Linton is a fine conical hill, attributed to two sisters (nuns), who
were compelled to pass the whole of the sand through a sieve, by way of
penance, to obtain pardon for some crime committed by their brother.

The Gog Magog Hills, near Cambridge, are ascribed to his Satanic

=Stonewall Jackson=, Thomas Jonathan Jackson, general in the Southern
army, in the great civil war of the United States. General Bee suggested
the name in the battle of Bull Run (1861). “There is Jackson,” said he
to his men, “standing like a stone wall” (1824-1863).

=Storm-and-Stress Period.= The last quarter of the eighteenth century
was called in Germany the _Sturm-und-Drang Zeit_, because every one
seemed in a fever to shake off the shackles of government, custom,
prestige, and religion. The poets raved in volcanic rant or moonshine
sentimentality; marriage was disregarded; law, both civil and divine,
was pooh-poohed. Goethe’s _Man with the Iron Hand_ and _Sorrows of
Werther_, Schiller’s _Robbers_, Klinger’s tragedies, Lessing’s
criticisms, the mania for Shakespeare and Ossian, revolutionized the
literature; and the cry went forth for untrammelled freedom, which was
nicknamed “Nature.” As well go unclad, and call it nature.

=Storms= (_Cape of_). The Cape of Good Hope was called by Bartholomew
Diaz _Cabo Tormentoso_ in 1486; but King John II. of Portugal gave it
its present more auspicious name.

=S.T.P.=, the initials of Sanctæ Theologiæ Professor: Professor of
Sacred Theology. The same as D.D., Divinitatis Doctor: Doctor of

=Stradiva´rius= (_Antonius_), born at Cremo´na, in Italy (1670-1728). He
was a pupil of Andreas Amāti. The Amati family, with Stradivarius and
his pupil, Guarnerius (all of Cremona), were the most noted
violin-makers that ever lived, insomuch that the word “Cremona” is
synonymous for a first-rate violin.

        The instrument on which he played
        Was in Cremona’s workshop made ...
        The maker from whose hands it came
        Had written his unrivalled name--
          “Antonius Stradivarius.”
                 Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (prelude, 1863).

=Strafford=, an historical tragedy by R. Browning (1836). This drama
contains portraits of Charles I., the earl of Strafford, Hampden, John
Pym, Sir Harry Vane, etc., both truthful and graphic. The subject of the
drama is the attainder and execution of Thomas Wentworth, earl of

=Straitlace= (_Dame Philippa_), the maiden aunt of Blushington. She is
very much surprised to find her nephew entertaining dinner company, and
still more so that he is about to take a young wife to keep house for
him instead of herself.--W. T. Moncrieff, _The Bashful Man_.

=Stral´enheim= (_Count of_), a kinsman of Werner, who hunted him from
place to place, with a view of cutting him off, because he stood between
him and the inheritance of Siegendorf. This mean, plausible,
overreaching nobleman was by accident lodged under the same roof with
Werner, while on his was to Siegendorf. Here Werner robbed him of a
rouleau of gold, and next night Ulric (Werner’s son) murdered him.

_Ida Stralenheim_, one of the characters in Byron’s drama, _Werner_
(1822). She was the daughter of Count Stralenheim, and was betrothed to
Ulric, for whom she had a deep affection, but when she learned from the
lips of Ulric himself that he was the murderer of her father she fell
senseless at his feet, and revived only to learn that he had fled the
country, and that she had lost him forever.

=Stranger= (_The_), the Count Waldbourg. He married Adelaide at the age
of 16; she had two children by him, and then eloped. The count, deserted
by his young wife, lived a roving life, known only as “The Stranger;”
and his wife, repenting of her folly, under the assumed name of Mrs.
Haller, entered the service of the Countess Wintersen, whose affection
she secured. In three years’ time, “the stranger” came by accident into
the same neighborhood, and a reconciliation took place.

Kotzebue’s _Menschenhasz und Rene_ (1787). English adaptation: _The
Stranger_ (1808).

=Strangford= (_Percy Clinton Sydney Smythe, viscount_), in 1803,
published a translation of the poems of Camoens, the great Portuguese

       Hibernian Strangford ...
       Thinkst thou to gain thy verse a higher place.
       By dressing Camoens in a suit of lace?...
       Cease to deceive; thy pilfered harp restore,
       Nor teach the Lusian bard to copy Moore.
             Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

=Strap= (_Hugh_), a simple, generous, and disinterested adherent of
Roderick Random. His generosity and fidelity, however, meet with but a
base return from the heartless libertine.--T. Smollett, _Roderick
Random_ (1748).

  We believe there are few readers who are not disgusted with the
  miserable reward assigned to Strap in the closing chapter of the
  novel. Five hundred pounds (scarce the value of the goods he had
  presented to his master) and the hand of a reclaimed street-walker,
  even when added to a Highland farm, seem but a poor recompense for his
  faithful and disinterested attachment.--Sir W. Scott.

=Strasbourg Cathedral=, designed by Erwin von Steinbach (1015-1439).

=Strauchan= (_Old_), the squire of Sir Kenneth.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Straw.= _A little straw shows which way the wind blows._

         You know or don’t know, that great Bacon saith,
         Fling up a straw, ’twill show the way the wind blows.
                              Byron, _Don Juan_, xiv. 8 (1824).

=Streets of London= (_The_), a drama by Dion Boucicault (1862), adapted
from the French play _Les Pauvres des Paris_.

=Stre´mon=, a soldier, famous for his singing.--Beaumont and Fletcher,
_The Mad Lover_ (1617).

=Strephon=, the shepherd in Sir Philip Sidney’s _Arcadia_, who makes
love to the beautiful Uranĭa (1580). It is a stock name for a lover,
Chloê being usually the corresponding lady.

Captain O’Flarty was one of my dying Strephons at Scarborough. I have a
very grate regard for him, and must make him a little miserable with my
happiness.--Garrick, _The Irish Widow_, i. 3 (1757).

  The servant of your Strephon ... is my lord and master.--Garrick,
  _Miss in Her Teens_ (1753).

=Stretton= (_Hesba_), the pseudonym of Miss Smith, daughter of a
bookseller and printer in Wellington, Salop, authoress of several
well-known religious novels.

=Strickalthrow= (_Merciful_), in Cromwell’s troop.--Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Strictland= (_Mr._), the “suspicious husband,” who suspects Clarinda, a
young lady visitor, of corrupting his wife; suspects Jacintha, his ward,
of lightness; and suspects his wife of infidelity; but all his
suspicions being proved groundless, he promises reform.

_Mrs. Strictland_, wife of Mr. Strictland, a model of discretion and
good nature. She not only gives no cause of jealousy to her husband, but
never even resents his suspicions or returns ill temper in the same
coin.--Dr. Hoadly, _The Suspicious Husband_ (1747).

=Strike, Dakyns! the Devil’s in the Hempe=, the motto of the Dakynses.
The reference is to an enemy of the king, who had taken refuge in a pile
of hemp. Dakyns, having nosed the traitor, was exhorted to strike him
with his battle-axe, and kill him, which he did. Hence the crest of the
family--a dexter arm ... holding a battle-axe.

=Strong= (_Dr._), a benevolent old schoolmaster, to whom David
Copperfield was sent whilst living with Mr. Wickfield. The old doctor
doted on his young wife, Annie, and supported her scapegrace cousin,
Jack Maldon.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

=Strong Men and Women.=

Antæos, Atlas, Dorsănês, the Indian Herculês, Guy, earl of Warwick,
Herculês, Macĕris, son of Amon, Rustam, the Persian Herculês, Samson,
Starchatĕrus, the Swede (first Christian century).

BROWN (_Miss Phœbe_), about five feet, six inches in height, well
proportioned, round-faced and ruddy. She could carry fourteen score, and
could lift a hundredweight with each hand at the same time. She was fond
of poetry and music, and her chief food was milk.--W. Hutton.

MILO, of Crotōna, could carry on his shoulders a four-year-old bullock,
and kill it with a single blow of his fist. On one occasion, the pillar
which supported the roof of a house gave way, and Milo held up the whole
weight of the building with his hands.

POLYD´AMAS, the athlete. He killed a lion with a blow of his fist, and
could stop a chariot in full career with one hand.

TOPHAM (_Thomas_) of London (1710-1749). He could lift three hogsheads,
or 1836 lbs.; could heave a horse over a turnpike gate; and could lift
two hundredweight with his little finger.

=Strongback=, one of the seven attendants of Fortunio. He could never be
overweighted, and could fell a forest in a few hours without
fatigue.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Fortunio,” 1682).

The brothers Grimm have introduced the tale of “Fortunio” in their

=Strongbow=, Gilbert de Clare, who succeeded to the title of his
brother, the earl of Hertford, in 1138, and was created earl of Pembroke
(died 1149).

Henry II. called him a “false” or “pseudo-earl.”

_Strongbow_ (Richard of Strigal) was Richard de Clare, earl of Pembroke,
son of Gilbert de Clare. He succeeded Dermot, king of Leinster, hiss
father-in-law, in 1170, and died 1176.

        The earl of Strigale then, our Strongbow, first that won
        Wild Ireland with the sword.
                    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xviii. (1613).

=Struldbrugs=, the inhabitants of Luggnagg, who never die.

  He had reached that period of life ... which ... entitles a man to
  admission into the ancient order of Struldbrugs.--Swift, _Gulliver’s
  Travels_ “Laputa,” (1726).

=Strutt= (_Lord_), the king of Spain; originally Charles II. (who died
without issue), but also applied to his successor, Philippe, duc
d’Anson, called “Philip, Lord Strutt.”

  I need not tell you of the great quarrels that happened in our
  neighborhood since the death of the late Lord Strutt; how the parson
  [_Cardinal Portocarero_] ... got him to settle his estate upon his
  cousin, Philip Baboon [_Bourbon_], to the great disappointment of his
  cousin, Squire South [_Charles of Austria_].--Dr. Arbuthnot, _History
  of John Bull_, i (1712).

=Stryver= (_Bully_), of the King’s Bench Bar, counsel for the defence in
Darnay’s trial.

  He was stout, loud, red, bluff, and free from any drawback of
  delicacy; had a pushing way of shouldering himself (morally and
  physically) into companies and conversations, that argued well for his
  shouldering his way on in life.--C. Dickens, _A Tale of Two Cities_,
  ii. 24 (1859).

=Stuart Ill-Fated= (_The House of_), as that of Œdĭpos.

JAMES I. of Scotland, poet, murdered by conspirators at Perth, in the
forty-fourth year of his age (1393, 1424-1437).

JAMES II., his son, killed at the siege of Roxburgh, aged 30 (1430,

JAMES III., his son, was stabbed in his flight from Bannockburn by a
pretended priest, aged 36 (1452, 1460-1488).

(His brother, the earl of Mar, was imprisoned in 1477, and died in
durance, 1480.)

JAMES IV., his son, the “Chivalrous Madman,” was defeated and slain at
Flodden, aged 41 (1472, 1488-1513).

JAMES V., his son, was defeated at Solway Moss, November 25, and died of
grief, December 14, aged 30 (1512, 1513-1542).

MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, daughter of James V., was beheaded, aged 44 years,
63 days (1542, 1542-1587, Old Style).

(Her husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was murdered (1541-1566). Her
niece, Arabella Stuart, died insane in the Tower, 1575-1615.)

CHARLES I., her grandson, was beheaded, aged 48 years, 69 days (1600,

CHARLES II., his son, was in exile from 1645 to 1661, and in 1665
occurred the Great Fire of London, in 1666 the Great Plague; died aged
54 years, 253 days (1630, 1661-1685).

(His natural son, the Duke of Monmouth, defeated at Sedgemoor, July 5,
1685, was executed as a traitor, July 15, aged 36.)

James II., brother of Charles, and son of Charles I., was obliged to
abdicate to save his life, and died in exile (1633, reigned 1685-1688,
died a pensioner of Louis XIV., 1701).

JAMES FRANCIS EDWARD “the Luckless,” his son, called the “Old
Pretender,” was a mere cipher. His son, Charles, came to England to
proclaim him king, but was defeated at Culloden, leaving 3000 dead on
the field (1688-1765).

CHARLES EDWARD, the “Young Pretender,” was son of the “Old Pretender.”
After the defeat of his adherents at Culloden he fled to France, was
banished from that kingdom, and died at Rome (1720-1788).

HENRY BENEDICT, Cardinal York, the last of the race, was a pensioner of
George III.

=Stuart of Italy= (_The Mary_), Jane I. of Naples (1327, 1343-1382).

Jane married her cousin, Andrè of Hungary, who was assassinated two
years after his marriage, when the widow married the assassin. So Mary
Stuart married her cousin, Lord Darnley, 1565, who was murdered, 1567,
and the widow married Bothwell, the assassin.

Jane fled to Provence, 1347, and was strangled in 1382. So Mary Stuart
fled to England in 1568, and was put to death, 1587 (Old Style).

Jane, like Mary, was remarkable for her great beauty, her brilliant
court, her voluptuousness, and the men of genius she drew around her;
and, like Mary, she was also noted for her deplorable administration.

⁂ La Harpe wrote a tragedy called _Jeanne de Naples_ (1765). Schiller
made an adaptation of it (1821).

=Stuarts’ Fatal Number= (_The_). This number is 88.

James III. was killed in flight near Bannockburn, 1488.

Mary Stuart was beheaded, 1588 (New Style).

James II. of England was dethroned, 1688.

Charles Edward died, 1788.

⁂ James Stuart, the “Old Pretender,” was born, 1688, the very year that
his father abdicated.

James Stuart, the famous architect, died, 1788.

(Some affirm that Robert II., the first Stuart king, died 1388, the year
of the great battle of Otterbum; but the death of this king is more
usually fixed in the spring of 1390.)

=Stuart= (_Jack_), frank, brave, unintellectual lover of Constance
Varley, and one of the travelling-party in the Holy Land. Through a
fatal combination of misunderstandings, the man she has loved for years
leaves her without uttering the words that burned upon his tongue, and
the lonely-hearted girl turns for comfort to the assured, patient
affection of the honest fellow who makes no secret of his devotion.
Constance Varley marries Jack Stuart.--Julia Constance Fletcher,
_Mirage_ (1878).

=Stubble= (_Reuben_), bailiff to Farmer Cornflower, rough in manner,
severe in discipline, a stickler for duty, “a plain, upright, and
downright man,” true to his master and to himself.--C. Dibdin, _The
Farmer’s Wife_ (1780).

=Stubbs=, the beadle at Willingham. The Rev. Mr. Staunton was the
rector.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_Stubbs_ (_Miss Sissly or Cecilia_), daughter of Squire Stubbs, one of
Waverley’s neighbors.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Stuffy= (_Matthew_), an applicant to Velinspeck, a country manager, for
a situation as prompter, for which he says he is peculiarly qualified by
that affection of the eyes vulgarly called a squint, which enables him
to keep one eye on the performance and the other on the book at the same
time.--Charles Mathews, _At Home_ (1818).

  Stuffy is one of the richest bits of humor we ever witnessed. His
  endless eulogies upon the state of things in the immortal Garrick’s
  time are highly ludicrous.--_Contemporary Paper._

=Stuke´ly= (2 _syl._), a detestable man. “’Twould be as easy to make him
honest as brave” (act i. 2). He pretends to be the friend of Beverley,
but cheats him. He aspires to the hand of Miss Beverley, who is in love
with Lewson.--Edward Moore, _The Gamester_ (1753).

_Stukeley_ (_Will_), the companion of Little John. In the morris-dance
on May-day, Little John used to occupy the right hand side of Robin
Hood, and Will Stukely the left. (See STUTLY.)

_Stukely_ (_Captain Harry_), nephew of Sir Gilbert Pumpkin of Strawberry
Hall.--I. Jackman, _All the World’s a Stage_.

=Stupid Boy= (_The_), St. Thomas Aquinas; also called at school “The
Dumb Ox” (1224-1274).

=Sturgeon= (_Major_), J.P., “the fishmonger from Brentford,” who turned
volunteer. This bragging major makes love to Mrs. Jerry Sneak.--S.
Foote, _The Mayor of Garratt_ (1763).

  We had some desperate duty, Sir Jacob ... such marchings and
  counter-marchings, from Brentford to Ealing, from Ealing to Acton,
  from Acton to Uxbridge. Why, there was our last expedition to
  Hounslow; that day’s work carried off Major Molossas.... But to
  proceed. On we marched, the men all in high spirits, to attack the
  gibbet where Gardel is hanging; but, turning down a narrow lane to the
  left, as it might be about there, in order to possess a pigstye, that
  we might take the gallows in flank and secure a retreat, who should
  come by but a drove of fat oxen for Smithfield. The drums beat in
  front, the dogs barked in the rear, the oxen set up a gallop; on they
  came, thundering upon us, broke through our ranks in an instant, and
  threw the whole corps into confusion.--Act i. 1.

=Sturmthal= (_Melchoir_), the banneret of Berne, one of the Swiss
deputies.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Stutly= (_Will_), sometimes called _Will Stukely_, a companion of
Little John. In the morris-dance on May-day, Little John occupied the
right hand side of Robin Hood, and Will Stutly the left. His rescue from
the sheriff of [Notts.] by Robin Hood forms the subject of one of the
Robin Hood Ballads.

           When Robin Hood in the greenwood lived,
             Under the greenwood tree,
           Tidings there came to him with speed,
             Tidings for certaintie,
           That Will Stutley surprisëd was,
             And eke in prison lay;
           Three varlets that the sheriff hired,
             Did likely him betray.
                _Robin Hood’s Rescuing Will Stutly_, iv. 15.

=Stuyvesant= (_Peter_).

“If, from all I have said, thou dost not gather, worthy reader, that
Peter Stuyvesant was a tough, sturdy, valiant, weather-beaten,
mettlesome, obstinate, leather-sided, lion-hearted, generous-spirited
old governor, either I have written to but little purpose, or thou art
very dull at drawing conclusions.”--Diedrich Knickerbocker (Washington
Irving), _A History of New York_ (1809).

=Styles= (_Tom_ or _John_), or _Tom o’ Styles_, a phrase name at one
time used by lawyers in actions of ejectment. Jack Noakes and Tom Styles
used to act in law the part that N or M acts in the church. The legal
fiction has been abolished.

  I have no connection with the company further than giving them, for a
  certain fee and reward, my poor opinion as a medical man, precisely as
  I may give it to Jack Noakes or Tom Styles.--Dickens.

⁂ Tom Styles, Jack Noakes, John Doe, and Richard Roe, are all Mrs.
Harrises of the legal profession, _nomina et præterea nihil_.

=Subtle=, the “alchemist,” an artful quack, who pretends to be on the
eve of discovering the philosopher’s stone. Sir Epicure Mammon, a rich
knight, is his principal dupe, but by no means his only one.--Ben
Jonson, _The Alchemist_ (1610).

_Subtle_, an Englishman settled in Paris. He earns a living by the
follies of his countrymen who visit the gay capital.

_Mrs. Subtle_, wife of Mr. Subtle, and a help-meet for him.--Foote, _The
Englishman in Paris_ (1753).

=Subtle Doctor= (_The_), Duns Scotus, famous for his metaphysical
speculations in theology (1265-1308).

=Subvolvans=, inhabitants of the moon, in everlasting strife with the
Privolvans. The former live under ground in cavities, “eight miles deep
and eighty round;” the latter on “the upper ground.” Every summer the
under-ground lunatics come to the surface to attack the “grounders,” but
at the approach of winter slink back again into their holes.--S. Butler,
_The Elephant in the Moon_ (1754).

=Such Things Are=, a comedy by Mrs. Inchbald (1786). The scene lies in
India, and the object of the play is to represent the tyranny of the old
_régime_, and the good influence of the British element, represented by
Haswell, the royal physician. The main feature is an introduction to the
dungeons, and the infamous neglect of the prisoners, amongst whom is
Arabella, the sultan’s beloved English wife, whom he has been searching
for unsuccessfully for fifteen years. Haswell receives the royal signet,
and is entrusted with unlimited power by the sultan.

=Suckfist= (_Lord_), defendant in the great Pantagruelian lawsuit, known
as “Lord Busqueue _v._ Lord Suckfist,” in which the plaintiff and
defendant pleaded in person. After hearing the case, the bench declared,
“We have not understood one single circumstance of the matter on either
side.” But Pantagruel gave judgment, and as both plaintiff and defendant
left the court fully persuaded that the verdict was in his own favor,
they were both highly satisfied, “a thing without parallel in the annals
of the law.”--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. 11-13 (1533).

=Suddlechop= (_Benjamin_), “the most renowned barber in all Fleet
Street.” A thin, half-starved creature.

_Dame Ursula Suddlechop_, the barber’s wife. “She could contrive
interviews for lovers, and relieve frail fair ones of the burden of a
guilty passion.” She had been a pupil of Mrs. Turner, and learnt of her
the secret of making yellow starch, and two or three other prescriptions
more lucrative still. The dame was scarcely 40 years of age, of full
form and comely features, with a joyous, good-humored expression.

  Dame Ursula had acquaintances ... among the quality, and maintained
  her intercourse ... partly by driving a trade in perfumes, essences,
  pomades, head-gears from France, not to mention drugs of various
  descriptions, chiefly for the use of ladies, and partly by other
  services, more or less connected with the esoteric branches of her
  profession.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_, viii. (time, James

=Suds= (_Mrs._), any washerwoman or laundress.

=Suicides from Books.=

CLEOM´BROTOS, the Academic philosopher, killed himself after reading
Plato’s _Phædon_, that he might enjoy the happiness of the future life,
so enchantingly described.

FRÄULEIN VON LASSBERG drowned herself in spleen, after reading Goethe’s
_Sorrows of Werther_.

=Sulin-Sifad´da=, one of the two steeds of Cuthullin, general of the
Irish tribes. The name of the other was Dusronnal.

  Before the right side of the car is seen the snorting horse; the
  high-maned, broad-breasted, proud, wide-leaping, strong steed of the
  hill. Loud and resounding is his hoof; the spreading of his mane above
  is like a stream of smoke on a ridge of rocks. Bright are the sides of
  his steed. His name is Sulin-Sifadda.--Ossian, _Fingal_, i.

              Dusronnal snorted over the bodies of heroes.
              Sifadda bathed his hoof in blood.--Ditto.

=Sulky= (_Mr._), executor of Mr. Warren, and partner in Dornton’s bank.
With a sulky, grumpy exterior, he has a kind heart, and is strictly
honest. When Dornton is brought to the brink of ruin by his son’s
extravagance, Sulky comes nobly forward to the rescue. (See SILKY.)--T.
Holcroft, _The Road to Ruin_ (1792).

      And oh! for monopoly. What a blest day,
        When the lank and the silk shall, in fond combination
      (Like Sulky and Silky, that pair in the play).
        Cry out with one voice for “high rents” and “starvation!”
                T. Moore, _Ode to the Goddess Ceres_ (1806).

=Sullen= (_Squire_), son of Lady Bountiful by her first husband. He
married the sister of Sir Charles Freeman, but after fourteen months,
their tempers and dispositions were found so incompatible that they
mutually agreed to a divorce.

  He says little, thinks less, and does nothing at all. Faith! but he’s
  a man of great estate, and values nobody.--Act i. 1.

  Parson Trulliber, Sir Wilful Witwould, Sir Francis Wronghead, Squire
  Western, Squire Sullen--such were the people who composed the main
  strength of the tory party for sixty years after the Revolution.--Lord

⁂ “Parson Trulliber,” in _Joseph Andrews_ (by Fielding); “Sir Wilful
Witwould,” in _The Way of the World_ (Congreve); “Sir Francis
Wronghead,” in _The Provoked Husband_ (by Cibber); “Squire Western,” in
_Tom Jones_ (by Fielding).

_Mrs. Sullen_, sister of Sir Charles Freeman, and wife of Squire Sullen.
They had been married fourteen months, when they agreed mutually to a
separation, for in no one single point was there any compatibility
between them. The squire was sullen, the lady sprightly; he could not
drink tea with her, and she could not drink ale with him; he hated ombre
and picquet, she hated cock-fighting and racing; he would not dance, and
she would not hunt. Mrs. Sullen liked Archer, friend of Thomas Viscount
Aimwell, both fortune-hunters; and Squire Sullen, when he separated from
his wife, was obliged to resign the £20,000, which he received with her
as a dowry.--George Farquhar, _The Beaux’ Stratagem_ (1707).

=Sul-Malla=, daughter of Conmor, king of Inis-Huna and his wife,
Clun-galo. Disguised as a warrior, Sul-Malla follows Cathmor to the war;
but Cathmor, walking his round, discovers Sul-Malla asleep, falls in
love with her, but exclaims, “This is no time for love.” He strikes his
shield to rouse the host to battle, and is slain by Fingal. The sequel
of Sul-Malla is not given.

  Clun-galo came. She missed the maid. “Where art thou, beam of light?
  Hunters from the mossy rock, saw you the blue-eyed fair? Are her steps
  on grassy Lumon, near the bed of roses? Ah, me! I beheld her bow in
  the hall. Where art thou, beam of light?”--Ossian, _Temora_, vi. (Set
  to music by Sir H. Bishop.)

=Summerson= (_Esther_). (See ESTHER HAWDON.)

=Summons to Death.=

JACQUES MOLAY, grand-master of the Knights Templars, as he was led to
the stake, summoned the Pope (Clement V.) within forty days, and the
king (Philippe IV.) within forty weeks to appear before the throne of
God to answer for his murder. They both died within the stated time.

MONTREAL D’ALBANO, called “Fra Moriale,” knight of St. John of
Jerusalem, and captain of the Grand Company in the fourteenth century,
when sentenced to death by Rienzi, summoned him to follow within the
month. Rienzi was within the month killed by the fickle mob.

PETER and JOHN DE CARVAJAL, being condemned to death on circumstantial
evidence alone, appealed, but without success, to Ferdinand IV. of
Spain. On their way to execution, they declared their innocence, and
summoned the king to appear before God within thirty days. Ferdinand was
quite well on the thirtieth day, but was found dead in his bed next

GEORGE WISHART, a Scotch reformer, was condemned to the stake by
Cardinal Beaton. While the fire was blazing about him, the martyr
exclaimed in a loud voice, “He who from yon high place beholdeth me with
such pride, shall be brought low, even to the ground, before the trees
which have supplied these faggots have shed their leaves.” It was March
when these words were uttered, and the cardinal died in June.

=Sun= (_The_). The device of Edward III., was the sun bursting through a
cloud. Hence Edward III. is called “our half-faced sun.”--Shakespeare,
_2 Henry VI._ act iv. sc. 1 (1592).

=Sun-Steeds.= Brontê (“thunder”) and Amethēa (“no loiterer”), Æthon
(“fiery red”) and Pyroïs (“fire”); Lampos (“shining like a lamp”), used
only at noon; Philogēa (“effulgence”), used only in the westering

⁂ Phaĕton (“the shining one”) and Abraxas (the Greek numeral for 365)
were the horses of Aurora, or the morning sun.

=Sun´ith=, one of the six Wise Men of the East led by the guiding star
to Jesus. He had three holy daughters.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, v.

=Sunshine of St. Eulalie´= (3 _syl._), Evangeline.

 Sunshine of St. Eulălie was she called, for that was the sunshine
 Which, as the farmers believed, would load their orchards with apples.
     Longfellow, _Evangeline_, i. 1 (1849).

=Super Grammat´icam=, Sigismund, emperor of Germany (1366, 1411-1437).

  At the council of Constance, held 1414, Sigismund used the word
  _schisma_ as a noun of the feminine gender (_illa nefanda schisma_). A
  prig of a cardinal corrected him, saying “‘Schisma,’ your highness, is
  neuter gender;” when the kaiser turned on him with ineffable scorn,
  and said, “I am king of the Romans, and what is grammar to me?” [_Ego
  sum rex Romanus et super grammaticam._]--Carlyle, _Frederick the
  Great_ (1858).

=Superstitions about Animals.=

ANT. When ants are unusually busy, foul weather is at hand.

Ants never sleep.--Emerson, _Nature_, iv.

Ants lay up food for winter use.--_Prov._ vi. 6-8; xxx. 25.

Ants’ eggs are an antidote to love.

ASS. The mark running down the back of an ass, and cut at right angles
over the shoulders, is the cross of Christ impressed on the animal
because Christ rode on an ass in His triumphant entry into Jerusalem.

Three hairs taken from the “cross” of an ass will cure the
whooping-cough, but the ass from which the hairs are plucked will die.

The ass is deaf to music, and hence Apollo gave Midas the ears of an
ass, because he preferred the piping of Pan to the music of Apollo’s

BARNACLE. A barnacle broken off a ship turns into a Solan goose.

             Like your Scotch barnacle, now a block,
             Instantly a worm, and presently a great goose.
                     Marston, _The Malecontent_ (1604).

BASILISK. The basilisk can kill at a distance by the “poison” of its

                       There’s not a glance of thine
           But, like a basilisk, comes winged with death.
                     Lee, _Alexander the Great_, v. 1 (1678).

BEAR. The cub of a bear is licked into shape and life by its dam.

             So watchful Bruin forms with plastic care
             Each growing lump and brings it to a bear.
                        Pope, _The Dunciad_, i. 101 (1728).

BEAVER. When a beaver is hunted, it bites off the part which the
hunters seek, and then, standing upright, shows the hunters it is
useless to continue the pursuit. [Æsop tells a similar story of a
civet-cat.]--Eugenius Philalethes, _Brief Natural History_, 89.

BEE. If bees swarm on a rotten tree, a death in the family will occur
within the twelvemonth.

              Swarmed on a rotten stick the bees I spied,
              Which erst I saw when Goody Dobson dyed.
                              Gay, _Pastoral_, v. (1714).

Bees will never thrive if you quarrel with them or about them.

If a member of the family dies and the bees are not put into mourning,
they will forsake their hive.

It is unlucky for a stray swarm of bees to alight on your premises.

BEETLES. Beetles are both deaf and blind.

CAT. When cats wash their ears more than usual, rain is at hand.

  When the cat washes her face over her ears, wee shall have great shore
  of raine.--Melton, _Astrologastor_, 45.

The sneezing of a cat indicates good luck to a bride.

          Crastina nupturæ lux est prosperrima sponsæ:
          Felix fele bonum sternuit omen amor.
                            Robert Keuchen, _Crepundia_, 413.

If a cat sneezes thrice, a cold will run through the family.

Satan’s favorite form is that of a black cat, and hence is it the
familiar of witches.

A cat has nine lives.

  _Tybalt._ What wouldst thou have with me?

  _Mer._ Good king of cats, nothing but one of your nine
  lives.--Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet_, act iii. sc. 1 (1595).

CHAMELEONS live on air only.

               I saw him eat the air for food.
                                  Lloyd, _The Chameleon_.

COW. If a milkmaid neglects to wash her hands after milking, her cows
will go dry.

Curst cows have curt horns. _Curst_ means “angry, fierce.”

  God sends a curst cow short horns.--Shakespeare, _Much Ado About
  Nothing_, act ii. sc. 1 (1600).

CRICKET. Crickets bring good luck to a house. To kill crickets is
unlucky. If crickets forsake a house, a death in the family will soon

  It is a signe of death to some in a house, if the crickets on a sudden
  forsake the chimney.--Melton, _Astrologastor_, 45.

CROCODILES moan and sigh, like persons in distress, to allure travellers
and make them their prey.

                As the mournful crocodile
        With sorrow snares relentless passengers.
              Shakespeare, _2 Henry VI._ act iii. sc. 1 (1591).

Crocodiles weep over the prey which they devour.

  The crocodile will weep over a man’s head when he [_it_] hath devoured
  the body, and then he will eat up the head too.--Bullokar, _English
  Expositor_ (1616).

Paul Lucas tells us that the hummingbird and lapwing enter fearlessly
the crocodile’s mouth, and the creature never injures them, because they
pick its teeth.--_Voyage fait en_ 1714.

CROW. If a crow croaks an odd number of times, look out for foul
weather; if an even number, it will be fine.

  [_The superstitious_] listen in the morning whether the crow crieth
  even or odd, and by that token presage the weather.--Dr. Hall,
  _Characters of Vertues and Vices_, 87.

If a crow flies over a house and croaks thrice, it is a bad
omen.--Ramesey, _Elminthologia_, 271 (1668).

If a crow flutters about a window and caws, it forbodes a death.

              Night crowes screech aloud,
        Fluttering ’bout casements of departing soules.
                    Marston, _Antonio and Mellida_, ii. (1602).

  Several crows fluttered about the head of Cicero on the day that he
  was murdered by Popilius Lænas ... one of them even made its way into
  his chamber, and pulled away the bedclothes.--Macaulay, _History of
  St. Kilda_, 176.

If crows flock together early in the morning, and gape at the sun, the
weather will be hot and dry; but if they stalk at nightfall into water,
and croak, rain is at hand.--Willsford, _Nature’s Secrets_, 133.

When crows forsake a wood in a flock, it forebodes a
famine.--_Supplement to the Athenian Oracle_, 476.

DEATH-WATCH. The clicking or tapping of the beetle called a death-watch
is an omen of death to some one in the house.

         Chamber-maids christen this worm a “Death-watch,”
         Because, like a watch, it always cries “click;”
         Then woe be to those in the house that are sick,
         For sure as a gun they will give up the ghost ...
         But a kettle of scalding hot water injected
         Infallibly cures the timber infected;
         The omen is broken, the danger is over,
         The maggot will die, and the sick will recover.
                               Swift, _Wood an Insect_ (1725).

DOG. If dogs howl by night near a house, it presages the death of a sick

  If doggs howle in the night neer an house where somebody is sick, ’tis
  a signe of death.--Dr. N. Home, _Dæmonologie_, 60.

When dogs wallow in the dust, expect foul weather: “Canis in pulvere

            Præscia ventorum, se volvit odora canum vis;
              Numina difflatur pulveris instar homo.
                          Robert Keuchen, _Crepundia_, 211.

ECHINUS. An echīnus, fastening itself on a ship’s keel, will arrest its
motion like an anchor.--Pliny, _Natural History_, xxxii. 1.

EGG. The tenth egg is always the largest.

  Decumana ova dicuntur, quia ovum decimum majus nascitur.--Festus.

ELEPHANT. Elephants celebrate religious rites.--Pliny, _Natural
History_, viii. 1.

Elephants have no knees.--Eugenius Philalethes, _Brief Natural History_,

  The elephant hath joints, but none for courtesy; his legs are for
  necessity, not for flexure.--Shakespeare, _Troilus and Cressida_, act
  iii. sc. 3 (1602).

FISH. If you count the number of fish you have caught, you will catch no
more that day.

FROG. To meet a frog is lucky, indicating that the person is about to
receive money.

  Some man hadde levyr to mete a frogge on the way than a knight ... for
  than they say and ’leve that they shal have golde.--_Dives and Pauper_
  (first precepte, xlvi. 1493).

When frogs croak more than usual, it is a sign of bad weather.

GUINEA-PIG. A guinea-pig has no ears.

HADDOCK. The black spot on each side of a haddock, near the gills, is
the impression of St. Peter’s finger and thumb, when he took the tribute
money from the fish’s mouth.

  The haddock has spots on either side, which are the marks of St.
  Peter’s fingers when he catched that fish for the tribute.--Metellus,
  _Dialogues, etc._, 57 (1693).

HAIR. If a dog bites you, any evil consequences may be prevented by
applying three of the dog’s hairs to the wound.

            Take the hair, it is well written,
            Of the dog by which you’re bitten;
            Work off one wine by his brother,
            And one labor by another.
                        Athenæus (ascribed to Aristophanês).

HARE. It is unlucky if a hare runs across a road in front of a
traveller. The Roman augurs considered this an ill omen.

  If an hare cross their way, they suspect they shall be rob’d, or come
  to some mischance.--Ramesay, _Elminthologia_, 271 (1668).

It was believed at one time that hares changed their sex every year.

HEDGEHOG. Hedgehogs foresee a coming storm.--Bodenham, _Garden of the
Muses_, 153 (1600).

Hedgehogs fasten on the dugs of cows, and drain off the milk.

HORSE. If a person suffering from whooping-cough asks advice of a man
riding on a piebald horse, the malady will be cured by doing what the
man tells him to do.

JACKAL. The jackal is the lion’s provider. It hunts with the lion, and
provides it with food by starting prey, as dogs start game.

LADY-BUG. It is unlucky to kill a lady-bug.

LION. The lion will not injure a royal prince.

          Fetch the Numidian lion I brought over;
          If she be sprung from royal blood, the lion
          Will do her reverence, else he will tear her.
                  Beaumont and Fletcher, The Mad Lover (1617).

  The lion will not touch the true prince.--Shakespeare, _1 Henry IV._
  act ii. sc. 4 (1598).

The lion hates the game-cock, and is jealous of it. Some say because the
cock wears a crown (its crest), and others because it comes into the
royal presence “booted and spurred.”

  The fiercest lion trembles at the crowing of a cock.--Pliny, _Natural
  History_, viii. 19.

According to legend, the lion’s whelp is born dead, and remains so for
three days, when the father breathes on it, and it receives life.

LIZARD. The lizard is man’s special enemy, but warns him of the approach
of a serpent.

MAGPIE. To see _one_ magpie is unlucky; to see _two_ denotes merriment,
or a marriage; to see _three_, a successful journey; _four_, good news;
_five_, company.--Grose.

Another superstition is: “One for sorrow; two for mirth; three, a
wedding; four, a death.”

                 One’s sorrow, two’s mirth,
                 Three’s a wedding, four’s a birth,
                 Five’s a christening, six’s a dearth,
                 Seven’s heaven, eight is hell,
                 And nine’s the devil his ane sel.
                             _Old Scotch Rhyme._

In Lancashire, two magpies flying together is thought unlucky.

  I have heard my gronny say, hoode os leef o seen two owd harries as
  two pynots [_magpies_].--Tim Bobbin, _Lancashire Dialect_, 31 (1775).

When the magpie chatters, it denotes that you will see strangers.

MAN. A person weighs more fasting than after a good meal.

The Jews maintained that man has three natures--body, soul, and spirit.
Diogĕnês Laertius calls the three natures body, phrên, and thumos; and
the Romans called them manês, anĭma, and umbra.

There is a nation of pygmies.

The Patagonians are of gigantic stature.

There are men with tails, as the Ghilanes, a race of men “beyond the
Sennaar;” the Niam-niams, of Africa, the Narea tribes, certain others
south of Herrar, in Abyssinia, and the natives in the south of Formosa.

MARTIN. It is unlucky to kill a martin.

MOLE. Moles are blind. Hence the common expression, “Blind as a mole.”

         Pray you tread softly, that the blind mole may not
         Hear a footfall.
             Shakespeare, _The Tempest_, act. iv. sc. 1 (1609).

MOON-CALF, the offspring of a woman, engendered solely by the power of
the moon.--Pliny, _Natural History_, x. 64.

MOUSE. To eat food which a mouse has nibbled, will give a sore throat.

It is a bad omen if a mouse gnaws the clothes which a person is
wearing.--Burton, _Anatomy of Melancholy_, 214 (1621).

A fried mouse is a specific for small-pox.

OSTRICH. An ostrich can digest iron.

  _Stephen._ I could eat the very hilts for anger.

  _Kno´well._ A sign of your good digestion; you have an ostrich
  stomach.--B. Jonson, _Every Man in His Humor_, iii. 1 (1598).

  I’ll make thee eat iron like an ostrich, and swallow my
  sword.--Shakespeare, _2 Henry VI._ act iv. sc. 10 (1591).

OWL. If owls screech with a hoarse and dismal voice, it bodes impending
calamity. (See OWL.)

            The oulê that of deth the bodê bringeth.
                       Chaucer, _Assembly of Foules_ (1358).

PELICAN. A pelican feeds its young brood with its blood.

  The pelican turneth her beak against her brest, and therewith pierceth
  it till the blood gush, wherewith she nourisheth her young.--Eugenius
  Philalethes, _Brief Natural History_, 93.

           Then sayd the Pellycane,
           “When my byrdts be slayne,
         With my bloude I them reuyue [_revive_],”
           Scrypture doth record,
           The same dyd our Lord,
         And rose from deth to lyue [_life_].
                     Skelton, _Armoury of Byrdts_ (died 1529).

         And, like the kind, life rendering pelican,
         Repast them with my blood.
                   Shakespeare, _Hamlet_, act iv. sc. 5 (1596).

PHŒNIX. There is but one phœnix in the world, which, after many
hundred years, burns itself, and from its ashes another phœnix rises

        Now I will believe, ... that in Arabia
        There is one tree, the phœnix’ throne; one phœnix
        At this hour reigning there.

        Shakespeare, _The Tempest_, act iii. sc. 3 (1609).

The phœnix is said to have fifty orifices in its bill, continued to
its tail. After living its 1000 or 500 years, it builds itself a funeral
pile, sings a melodious elegy, flaps its wings to fan the fire, and is
burnt to ashes.

        The enchanted pile of that lonely bird
        Who sings at the last his own death-lay.
        And in music and perfume dies away.
        T. Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (“Paradise and the Peri,” 1817).

The phœnix has appeared five times in Egypt: (1) in the reign of
Sesostris; (2) in the reign of Amăsis; (3) in the reign of Ptolemy
Philadelphos; (4) a little prior to the death of Tiberius; and (5)
during the reign of Constantine. Tacitus mentions the first three
(_Annales_, vi. 28).

PIG. In the fore feet of pigs is a very small hole, which may be seen
when the pig is dead and the hair carefully removed. The legend is that
the devils made their exit from the swine through the fore feet, and
left these holes. There are also six very minute rings round each hole,
and these are said to have been made by the devil’s claws.

When pigs carry straws in their mouth, rain is at hand.

  When swine carry bottles of hay or straw to hide them, rain is at
  hand.--_The Husbandman’s Practice_, 137 (1664).

When young pigs are taken from the sow, they must be drawn away
backwards, or the sow will be fallow.

The bacon of swine killed in a waning moon will waste much in the

When hogs run grunting home, a storm is impending.--_The Cabinet of
Nature_, 262 (1637).

It is unlucky for a traveller if a sow crosses his path.

  If, going on a journey on business, a sow cross the road, you will
  meet with a disappointment, if not an accident, before you return

To meet a sow with a litter of pigs is very lucky.

  If a sow is with her litter of pigs, it is lucky, and denotes a
  successful journey.--Grose.

Langley tells us this marvellous bit of etymology: “The bryde anoynteth
the poostes of the doores with swynes grease, ... to dryve awaye
misfortune, wherefore she had her name in Latin _uxor_, ´ab ungendo’
[_to anoint_].”--_Translation of Polydore Vergil_, 9.

PIGEON. If a white pigeon settles on a chimney, it bodes death to some
one in the house.

No person can die on a bed or pillow containing pigeon’s feathers.

  If anybody be sick and lye a-dying, if they [_sic_] lie upon pigeon’s
  feathers they will be languishing and never die, but be in pain and
  torment.--_British Apollo_, ii. No. 93 (1710).

The blue pigeon is held sacred in Mecca.--Pitt.

PORCUPINE. When porcupines are hunted or annoyed, they shoot out their
quills in anger.

RAT. Rats forsake a ship before a wreck, or a house about to fall.

                They prepared
        A rotten carcass of a boat; the very rats
        Instinctively had quit it.
                Shakespeare, _The Tempest_, act i. sc. 2 (1609).

If rats gnaw the furniture of a room, there will be a death in the
family ere long.--Grose.

⁂ The bucklers at Lanuvium being gnawed by rats, presaged ill fortune,
and the battle of Marses, fought soon after, confirmed the superstition.

The Romans said that to see a _white_ rat was a certain presage of good
luck.--Pliny, _Natural History_, viii. 57.

RAVEN. Ravens are ill-omened birds.

           The hoarse night raven, trompe of doleful dreere.

Ravens seen on the left hand side of a person bode impending evil.

              Sæpe sinistra cava prædixit ab ilice cornix.
                          Virgil, _Ecl._, i.

Ravens call up rain.

           How the curst raven, with her harmless voice,
           Invokes the rain!
                       Smart, _Hop Garden_, ii. (died 1770).

When ravens forsake a wood, it prognosticates famine.

  This is because ravens bear the character of Saturn, the author of
  such calamities.--_Athenian Oracle_ (supplement, 476).

Ravens forebode pestilence and death.

            Like the sad-presaging raven, that tolls
            The sick man’s passport in her hollow beak,
            And, in the shadow of the silent night,
            Doth shake contagion from her sable wing.
                        Marlowe, _The Jew of Malta_ (1633).

Ravens foster forsaken children.

 Some say that ravens foster forlorn children.
             (?) Shakespeare, _Titus Andronicus_, act ii. sc. 3 (1593).

It is said that King Arthur is not dead, but is only changed into a
raven, and will in due time resume his proper form and rule over his
people gloriously.

The raven was white till it turned tell-tale, and informed Apollo of the
faithlessness of Corōnis. Apollo shot the nymph for her infidelity, but
changed the plumage of the raven into inky blackness for his officious
prating.--Ovid, _Metamorphoses_, ii.

            He [_Apollo_] blackened the raven o’er,
            And bid him prate in his white plumes no more.
                        Addison’s _Translation of Ovid_, ii.

If ravens gape against the sun, heat will follow; but if they busy
themselves in preening or washing, there will be rain.

REM´ORA. A fish called the remora can arrest a ship in full sail.

                 A little fish that men call remora,
                 Which stopped her course ...
                 That wind nor tide could move her.
                             Spenser, _Sonnets_ (1591).

ROBIN. The red of a robin’s breast is produced by the blood of Jesus.
While the “Man of Sorrows” was on His way to Calvary, a robin plucked a
thorn from His temples, and a drop of blood, falling on the bird, turned
its bosom red.

Another legend is that the robin used to carry dew to refresh sinners
parched in hell, and the scorching heat of the flames turned its
feathers red.

             He brings cool dew in his little bill,
               And lets it fall on the souls of sin;
             You can see the mark on his red breast still,
               Of fires that scorch as he drops it in.
                         J. G. Whittier, _The Robin_.

If a robin finds a dead body unburied, it will cover the face at least,
if not the whole body.--Grey, _On Shakespeare_, ii. 226.

             The robins so red, now these babies are dead,
             Ripe strawberry leaves doth over them spread.
                         _Babes in the Wood._

It is unlucky either to keep or to kill a robin. J. H. Pott says, if any
one attempts to detain a robin which has sought hospitality, let him
“fear some new calamity.”--_Poems_ (1780).

SALAMANDER. The salamander lives in the fire.

  Should a glass-house fire be kept up without extinction for more than
  seven years, there is no doubt but that a salamander will be generated
  in the cinders.--J. P. Andrews, _Anecdotes, etc._, 359.

The salamander seeks the hottest fire to breed in, but soon quenches it
by the extreme coldness of its body.--Pliny, _Natural History_, x. 67;
xxix. 4.

Food touched by a salamander is poisonous.--Ditto, xxix. 23.

SALIVA. The human saliva is a cure for blindness.--Ditto, xxviii. 7.

If a man spits on a serpent, it will die. Ditto, vii. 2.

The human saliva is a charm against fascination and witchcraft.

              Thrice on my breast I spit, to guard me safe
              From fascinating charms.

  To unbewitch the bewitched, you must spit into the shoe of your right
  foot.--Scot, _Discoverie of Witchcraft_ (1584).

Spitting for luck is a most common superstition.

  Fishwomen generally spit upon their hansel.--Grose.

A blacksmith who has to shoe a stubborn horse, spits in his hand to
drive off the “evil spirit.”

            The swarty smith spits in his buckthorne fist.
                        Browne, _Britannia’s Pastorals_, i.

If a pugilist spits in his hand, his blows will be more telling.--Pliny,
_Natural History_, xxviii. 7.

SCORPION. Scorpions sting themselves.

Scorpions have an oil which is a remedy for their stings.

           ’Tis true the scorpion’s oil is said
           To cure the wound the venom made.
                       S. Butler, _Hudibras_, iii. 2 (1678).

SPIDER. It is unlucky to kill a moneyspinner.

  Small spiders, called “money-spinners,” prognosticate good luck, if
  they are not destroyed or removed from the person on whom they attach

The bite of a spider is venomous.

No spider will spin its web on an Irish oak.

Spiders will never set their webs on a cedar roof.--Caughey, _Letters_

Spiders indicate where gold is to be found. (See SPIDERS INDICATORS OF

There are no spiders in Ireland, because St. Patrick cleared the island
of all vermin.

Spiders envenom whatever they touch.

                      There may be in the cup
    A spider steeped, and one may drink, depart,
    And yet partake no evil.
                Shakespeare, _Winter’s Tale_, act iii. sc. 1 (1604).

A spider enclosed in a quilt and hung round the neck will cure the
ague.--Mrs. Delany, _A Letter dated March 1, 1743_.

  I ... hung three spiders about my neck, and they drove my ague
  away.--Elias Ashmole, _Diary_ (April 11, 1681).

A spider worn in a nutshell round the neck is a cure for fever.

     Cured by the wearing a spider around one’s neck in a nutshell.
                 Longfellow, _Evangeline_, ii. (1849).

Spiders spin only on dark days.

            The subtle spider never spins
            But on dark days his slimy gins.
                        S. Butler, _On a Nonconformist_, iv.

Spiders have a natural antipathy to toads.

STAG. Stags draw, by their breath, serpents from their holes, and then
trample them to death. (Hence the stag has been used to symbolize
Christ.)--Pliny, _Natural History_, viii. 50.

STORK. It is unlucky to kill a stork.

According to Swedish legend, a stork fluttered round the cross of the
crucified Redeemer, crying, _Styrkê! styrkê!_ (“Strengthen ye!
strengthen ye!”), and was hence called the _styrk_ or _stork_, but ever
after lost its voice.

SWALLOW. According to Scandinavian legend, the bird hovered over the
cross of Christ, crying, _Svalê! svalê!_ (“Cheer up! cheer up!”), and
hence it received the name of _svalê_ or _swallow_, “the bird of

If a swallow builds on a house, it brings good luck.

The swallow is said to bring home from the seashore a stone which gives
sight to her fledglings.

 Seeking with eager eyes that wondrous stone which the swallow
 Brings from the shore of the sea, to restore the sight of its
             Longfellow, _Evangeline_, i. 1 (1849).

To kill a swallow is unlucky.

When swallows fly high, the weather will be fine.

            When swallows fleet soar high and sport in air,
            He told us that the welkin would be clear.
                        Gay, _Pastoral_, i. (1714).

SWAN. The swan retires from observation when about to die, and sings
most melodiously.

  Swans a little before their death sing most sweetly.--Pliny, _Natural
  History_, x. 23.

  The swanne cannot hatch without a cracke of thunder.--Lord
  Northampton, _Defensive, etc._ (1583).

TARANTULA. The tarantula is poisonous.

The music of a tarantula will cure its venomous bite.

TOAD. Toads spit poison, but they carry in their head an antidote

       ... the toad ugly and venomous,
    Wears yet a precious jewel in its head.
                Shakespeare, _As You Like It_, act ii. sc. 1 (1600).

In the dog days, toads never open their mouths.

Toads are never found in Ireland, because St. Patrick cleared the island
of all vermin.

UNICORN. Unicorns can be caught only by placing a virgin in their

The horn of a unicorn dipped into a liquor will show if it contains

VIPER. Young vipers destroy their mothers when they come to birth.

WEASEL. To meet a weasel is unlucky.--Congreve, _Love for Love_.

You never catch a weasel asleep.

WOLF. If a wolf sees a man before the man sees the wolf, he will be
struck dumb.

Men are sometimes changed into wolves.--Pliny, _Natural History_.

WREN. If any one kills a wren, he will break a bone before the year is

MISCELLANEOUS. No animal dies near the sea, except at the ebbing of the

  ’A parted even just between twelve and one, e’en at the turning o’ the
  tide.--Shakespeare, _Henry V._ act. ii. sc. 3 (Falstaff’s death,

=Superstitions about Precious Stones.=

R. B. means Rabbi Benoni (fourteenth century); S. means Streeter,
_Precious Stones_ (1877).

AGATE quenches thirst, and if held in the mouth, allays fever.--R. B.

It is supposed, at least, in fable, to render the wearer invisible, and
also to turn the sword of foes against themselves.

The agate is an emblem of health and long life, and is dedicated to
June. In the Zodiac it stands for Scorpio.

AMBER is a cure for sore throats and all glandular swellings.--R. B.

It is said to be a concretion of birds’ tears.--Chambers.

     Around thee shall glisten the lovliest amber
     That ever the sorrowing sea-bird hath wept.
                 T. Moore, Lalla Rookh (“Fire-Worshippers,” 1817).

The birds which wept amber were the sisters of Meleager, called
Meleagrĭdês, who never ceased weeping for their brother’s death.--Pliny,
_Natural History_, xxxvii. 2, 11.

AMETHYST banishes the desire for drink, and promotes chastity.--R. B.

The Greeks thought that it counteracted the effects of wine.

The amethyst is an emblem of humility and sobriety. It is dedicated to
February and Venus. In the Zodiac it stands for Sagittarius, in
metallurgy for copper, in Christian art it is given to St. Matthew, and
in the Roman Catholic Church it is set in the pastoral ring of bishops,
whence it is called the “prelate’s gem,” or _pierre d’évêque_.

CAT’S-EYE, considered by the Cingalese as a charm against witchcraft,
and to be the abode of some genii.--S., 168.

CORAL, a talisman against enchantments, witchcrafts, thunder, and other
perils of flood and field. It was consecrated to Jupiter and
Phœbus.--S., 233.

Red coral worn about the person is a certain cure for indigestion.--R.

CRYSTAL induces visions, promotes sleep, and ensures good dreams.--R. B.

It is dedicated to the moon, and in metallurgy stands for silver.

DIAMOND produces somnambulism, and promotes spiritual ecstasy.--R. B.

The diamond is an emblem of innocence, and is dedicated to April and the
sun. In the Zodiac it stands for Virgo, in metallurgy for gold, in
Christian art invulnerable faith.

EMERALD promotes friendship and constancy of mind.--R. B.

If a serpent fixes its eyes on an emerald, it becomes blind.--Ahmed ben
Abdalaziz, _Treatise on Jewels_.

The emerald is an emblem of success in love, and is dedicated to May. In
the Zodiac, it signifies Cancer. It is dedicated to Mars, in metallurgy
it means iron, and in Christian art, is given to St. John.

GARNET preserves health and joy.--R. B.

The garnet is an emblem of constancy, and, like the jacinth, is
dedicated to January.

This was the carbuncle of the ancients, which they said gave out light
in the dark.

LOADSTONE produces somnambulism.--R. B.

It is dedicated to Mercury, and in metallurgy means quicksilver.

MOONSTONE has the virtue of making trees fruitful, and of curing

It contains in it an image of the moon, representing its increase and
decrease every month.--Andreas Baccius.

ONYX contains in it an imprisoned devil, which wakes at sunset, and
causes terror to the wearer, disturbing sleep with ugly dreams.--R. B.

Cupid, with the sharp point of his arrows, cut the nails of Venus during
sleep, and the parings, falling into the Indus, sank to the bottom, and
turned into onyxes.--S., 212.

In the Zodiac it stands for Aquarius; some say it is the emblem of
August and conjugal love; in Christian art it symbolizes sincerity.

OPAL is fatal to love, and sows discord between the giver and
receiver.--R. B.

Given as an engagement token, it is sure to bring ill luck.

The opal is an emblem of hope, and is dedicated to October.

RUBY. The Burmese believe that rubies ripen like fruit. They say a ruby
in its crude state is colorless, and, as it matures, changes first to
yellow, then to green, then to blue, and lastly to a brilliant red, its
highest state of perfection and ripeness.--S., 142.

The ruby signifies Aries in the Zodiacal signs; but some give it to
December, and make it the emblem of brilliant success.

SAPPHIRE produces somnambulism, and impels the wearer to all good
works.--R. B.

In the Zodiac it signifies Leo, and in Christian art is dedicated to St.
Andrew, emblematic of his heavenly faith and good hope. Some give this
gem to April.

TOPAZ is favorable to hemorrhages, imparts strength, and promotes
digestion.--R. B.

  Les anciens regardaient la topaze comme utile contre l’épilepsie et la
  mélancolie.--Bouillet, _Dict. Univ. des Sciences, etc._ (1855).

The topaz is an emblem of fidelity, and is dedicated to November. In the
Zodiac it signifies Taurus, and in Christian art is given to St. James
the Less.

TURQUOISE, given by loving hands, carries with it happiness and good
fortune. Its color always pales when the well-being of the giver is in
peril.--S., 170.

The turquoise is an emblem of prosperity, and is dedicated to December.
It is dedicated to Saturn, and stands for lead in metallurgy.

A bouquet composed of diamonds, loadstones and sapphires combined,
renders a person almost invincible, and wholly irresistible.--R. B.

All precious stones are purified by honey.

  All kinds of precious stones dipped into honey become more brilliant
  thereby, each according to its color, and all persons become more
  acceptable when they join devotion to their graces. Household cares
  are sweetened thereby, love is more loving, and business becomes more
  pleasant.--S. Francis de Salis, _The Devout Life_, iii. 13 (1708).

=Supporters in Heraldry= represent the pages who supported the banner.
These pages, before the Tudor period, were dressed in imitation of the
beasts, etc., which typified the bearings or cognizances of their

=Surface= (_Sir Oliver_), the rich uncle of Joseph and Charles Surface.
He appears under the assumed name of Premium Stanley.

_Charles Surface_, a reformed scapegrace, and the accepted lover of
Maria, the rich ward of Sir Peter Teazle. In Charles, the _evil_ of his
character was all on the surface.

_Joseph Surface_, elder brother of Charles, an artful, malicious, but
sentimental knave; so plausible in speech and manner as to pass for a
“youthful miracle of prudence, good sense, and benevolence.” Unlike
Charles, his _good_ was all on the surface.--Sheridan, _School for
Scandal_ (1777).

=Surgeon’s Daughter= (_The_), a novel by Sir Walter Scott, laid in the
time of George II. and III., and published in 1827. The heroine is Menie
Gray, daughter of Dr. Gideon Gray, of Middlemas. Adam Hartley, the
doctor’s apprentice, loves her, but Menie herself has given her heart to
Richard Middlemas. It so falls out that Richard Middlemas goes to India.
Adam Hartley also goes to India, and, as Dr. Hartley, rises high in his
profession. One day, being sent for to visit a sick fakir´, he sees
Menie Gray under the wing of Mde. Montreville. Her father had died, and
she had come to India, under madame’s escort, to marry Richard; but
Richard had entrapped the girl for a concubine in the harem of Tippoo
Saib. When Dr. Hartley heard of this scandalous treachery, he told it to
Hyder Ali, and the father of Tippoo Saib, who were so disgusted at the
villainy that they condemned Richard Middlemas to be trampled to death
by a trained elephant, and liberated Menie, who returned to her native
country under the escort of Dr. Hartley.

=Surgery= (_Father of French_), Ambrose Paré (1517-1590).

=Surly=, a gamester and friend of Sir Epicure Mammon, but a disbeliever
in alchemy in general, and in “doctor” Subtle in particular.--Ben
Jonson, _The Alchemist_ (1610).

=Surplus= (_Mr._), a lawyer, Mrs. Surplus, and Charles Surplus, the
nephew.--J. M. Morton, _A Regular Fix_.

=Surrey= (_White_), name of the horse used by Richard III. in the battle
of Bosworth Field.

   Saddle White Surrey for the field to-morrow.
               Shakespeare, _King Richard III._ act v. sc. 3 (1597).

=Surtur=, a formidable giant, who is to set fire to the universe at
Ragnarök, with flames collected from Muspelheim.--_Scandinavian

=Sur´ya= (2 _syl._), the sun-god, whose car is drawn by seven green
horses, the charioteer being Dawn.--Sir W. Jones, _From the Veda_.

=Susanna=, the wife of Joacim. She was accused of adultery by the Jewish
elders, and condemned to death; but Daniel proved her innocence, and
turned the criminal charge on the elders themselves.--_History of

=Susannah=, in Sterne’s novel entitled _The Life and Opinions of
Tristram Shandy, Gentleman_ (1759).

=Suspicions Husband= (_The_), a comedy by Dr. Hoadly (1747). Mr.
Strictland is suspicious of his wife, his ward, Jacintha, and Clarinda,
a young lady visitor. With two attractive young ladies in the house,
there is no lack of intrigue, and Strictland fancies that his wife is
the object thereof; but when he discovers his mistake, he promises

=Sussex= (_The earl of_), a rival of the earl of Leicester, in the court
of Queen Elizabeth; introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Kenilworth_.

=Sut´leme´me= (4 _syl._), a young lady attached to the suite of
Nouron´ihar, the emir’s daughter. She greatly excelled in dressing a

=Sutor.= _Ne sutor supra Crepĭdam._ A cobbler, having detected an error
in the shoe-latchet of a statue made by Apellês, became so puffed up
with conceit that he proceeded to criticize the legs also; but Apellês
said to him, “Stick to the last, friend.” The cobbler is qualified to
pass an opinion on shoes, but anatomy is quite another thing.

Boswell, one night sitting in the pit of Covent Garden Theatre, with his
friend, Dr. Blair, gave an imitation of a cow lowing, which the house
greatly applauded. He then ventured another imitation, but failed;
whereupon the doctor turned to him and whispered in his ear, “Stick to
the cow.”

A wigmaker sent a copy of verses to Voltaire, asking for his candid
opinion on some poetry he had perpetrated. The witty patriarch of Ferney
wrote on the MS., “Make wigs,” and returned it to the barber-poet.

=Sutton= (_Sir William_), uncle of Hero Sutton, the City maiden.--S.
Knowles, _Woman’s Wit, etc._ (1838).

=Suwarrow= (_Alexander_), a Russian general, noted for his slaughter of
the Poles in the suburbs of Warsaw, in 1794, and the still more shameful
butchery of them on the bridge of Prague. After having massacred 30,000
in cold blood, Suwarrow went to return thanks to God “for giving him the
victory.” Campbell, in his _Pleasures of Hope_, i., refers to this
butchery; and Lord Byron, in _Don Juan_, vii., 8, 55, to the Turkish
expedition (1786-1792).

             A town which did a famous siege endure ...
             By Suvaroff or _Anglicè_ Suwarrow.
                         Byron, _Don Juan_, vii. 8 (1824).

=Suzanne=, the wife of Chalomel, the chemist and druggist.--J. R. Ware,
_Piperman’s Predicament_.

=Swallow’s Nest=, the highest of the four castles of the German family
called Landschaden, built on a pointed rock almost inaccessible. The
founder was a noted robber-knight. (See “Swallow.”)

=Swan.= Fionnuāla, daughter of Lir, was transformed into a swan, and
condemned to wander for many hundred years over the lakes and rivers of
Ireland, till the introduction of Christianity into that island.

T. Moore has a poem on this subject in his _Irish Melodies_, entitled
“The Song of Fionnuala” (1814).

_Swan_ (_The_), called the bird of Apollo or of Orpheus (2 _syl._). (See

_Swan_ (_The knight of the_), Helias, king of Lyleforte, son of King
Oriant and Beatrice. This Beatrice had eight children at a birth, one of
which was a daughter. The mother-in-law (Matabrune) stole these
children, and changed all of them, except Helias, into swans. Helias
spent all his life in quest of his sister and brothers, that he might
disenchant them and restore them to their human forms.--Thoms, _Early
English Prose Romances_, iii. (1858).

  Eustachius vanit ad Buillon ad domum ducissæ quæ uxor erat militis qui
  vocabatur “Miles Cygni.”--Reiffenberg, _Le Chevalier au Cygne_.

_Swan_ (_The Mantuan_), Virgil, born at Mantua (B.C. 70-19).

_Swan_ (_The Order of the_). This order was instituted by Frederick II.
of Brandenburg, in commemoration of the mythical “Knight of the Swan”

=Swan-Tower=, of Cleves. So called because the house of Cleves professed
to be descended from the “Knight of the Swan” (_q.v._)

=Swan of Avon= (_The Sweet_). Shakespeare was so called by Ben Jonson

=Swan of Cambray=, Fénelon, archbishop of Cambray (1651-1715).

=Swan of Lichfield=, Miss Anna Seward, poetess (1747-1809).

=Swan of Padua=, Count Francesco Algarotti (1712-1764).

=Swan of the Meander=, Homer, a native of Asia Minor, where the Meander
flows (fl. B.C. 950).

=Swan of the Thames=, John Taylor, “water-poet” (1580-1654).

            Taylor, their better Charon, lends an oar,
            Once Swan of Thames, tho’ now he sings no more.
                        Pope, _The Duncaid_, iii. 19 (1728).

=Swane= (1 _syl._) or =Swegen=, surnamed “Fork-Beard,” king of the
Danes, joined Alaff or Olaf [Tryggvesson] in an invasion: of England,
was acknowledged king, and kept his court at Gainsbury. He commanded the
monks of St. Edmund’s Bury, to furnish him a large sum of money, and as
it was not forthcoming, went on horseback at the head of his host to
destroy the minster, when he was stabbed to death by an unknown hand.
The legend is that the murdered St. Edmund rose from his grave and smote

     The Danes landed here again ...
     With those disordered troops by Alaff hither led,
     In seconding their Swane ... but an English yet there was ...
     Who washed his secret knife in Swane’s relentless gore.
                 Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).

=Swanston=, a smuggler.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George

=Swaran=, king of Lochlin (_Denmark_), son and successor of Starno. He
invaded Ireland in the reign of Cormac II. (a minor), and defeated
Cuthullin, general of the Irish forces. When Fingal arrived the tide of
battle was reversed, and Swaran surrendered. Fingal, out of love to
Agandecca (Swaran’s sister), who once saved his life, dismissed the
vanquished king with honor, after having invited him to a feast. Swaran
is represented as fierce, proud and high-spirited; but Fingal as calm,
moderate and generous.--Ossian, _Fingal_.

=Swash-Buckler= (_A_), a riotous, quarrelsome person. Nash says to
Gabriel Harvey: “_Turpe senex miles_, ’tis time for such an olde fool to
leave playing the swash-buckler” (1598).

=Swedenborgians= (called by themselves “The New Jerusalem Church”). They
are believers in the doctrines taught by Dr. Emanuel Swedenborg
(1688-1772). Their views respecting salvation, the inspiration of the
Bible, future life and the Trinity, differ widely from those of other
Christians. In regard to the Trinity, they believe it to be centered in
the person of Jesus Christ.

=Swedish Nightingale= (_The_), Jenny Lind, the public singer. She
married Mr. Goldschmidt, and retired (1821-1887).

=Swee´dlepipe= (_Paul_), known as “Poll,” barber and bird-fancier; Mrs.
Gamp’s landlord. He is a little man, with a shrill voice but a kind
heart, in appearance “not unlike the birds he was so fond of.” Mr.
Sweedlepipe entertains a profound admiration of Bailey, senior, whom he
considers to be a cyclopædia “of all the stable-knowledge of the
time.”--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Sweepclean= (_Saunders_), a king’s messenger at Knockwinnock
Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Sweet Singer of Israel= (_The_), King David.

=Sweet Singer of the Temple=, George Herbert, author of a poem called
_The Temple_ (1593-1633).

=Sweno=, son of the king of Denmark. While bringing succors to Godfrey,
he was attacked in the night by Solyman, at the head of an army of
Arabs, and himself and all his followers were left dead on the field.
Sweno was buried in a marble sepulchre, which appeared miraculously on
the field of battle, expressly for his interment (bk. viii.).--Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

This is a very parallel case to that of Rhesus. This Thracian prince was
on his march to Troy, bringing succors to Priam, but Ulysses and Diomed
attacked him at night, slew Rhesus and his army, and carried off all the
horses.--Homer, _Iliad_, x.

=Swertha=, housekeeper of the elder Mertoun (formerly a pirate).--Sir W.
Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Swidger= (_William_), custodian of a college. His wife was Milly, and
his father, Philip. Mr. Swidger was a great talker, and generally began
with, “That’s what I say,” _à propos_ of nothing.--C. Dickens, _The
Haunted Man_ (1848).

=Swimmers.= Leander used to swim across the Hellespont every night to
visit Hero.--Musæus, _De Amore Herois et Leandri_.

Lord Byron and Lieutenant Ekenhead accomplished the same feat in 1 hr.,
10 min., the distance (allowing for drifting) being four miles.

A young native of St. Croix, in 1817, swam over the Sound “from
Cronenburgh [? _Cronberg_] to Graves” in 2 hrs., 40 min., the distance
being six English miles.

Captain Boynton, in May, 1875, swam or floated across the channel from
Grisnez to Fan Bay (Kent) in 23 hrs.

Captain Webb, August 24, 1875, swam from Dover to Calais, a distance of
about thirty miles including drift, in 22 hrs., 40 min.

H. Gurr was one of the best swimmers ever known. J. B. Johnson, in 1871,
won the championship for swimming.

=Swing= (_Captain_), a name assumed by certain persons, who, between
1830 and 1833, used to send threatening letters to those who used
threshing-machines. The letters ran thus:

  Sir, if you do not lay by your threshing-machine, you will hear from

=Swiss Family Robinson.= This tale is an abridgment of a German tale, by
Joachim Heinrich Kampe.

=Switzers=, guards attendant on a king, irrespective of their
nationality. So called because at one time the Swiss were always ready
to fight for hire.

The king, in _Hamlet_, says, “Where are my Switzers?” _i.e._, my
attendants; and in Paris, to the present day, we may see written up,
_Parlez au Suisse_ (“speak to the porter”), be he Frenchman, German, or
any other nation.

  Law, logicke, and the Switzers may be hired to fight for
  anybody.--Nashe, _Christ’s Tears over Jerusalem_ (1594).

=Swiveller= (_Mr. Dick_), a dirty, smart, young man, living in
apartments near Drury Lane. His language was extremely flowery, and
interlarded with quotations: “What’s the odds,” said Mr. Swiveller, _à
propos_ of nothing, “so long as the fire of the soul is kindled at the
taper of conwiviality, and the wing of friendship never moults a
feather?” His dress was a brown body-coat, with a great many brass
buttons up the front, and only one behind, a bright check neckcloth, a
plaid waistcoat, soiled white trousers, and a very limp hat, worn the
wrong side foremost, to hide a hole in the brim. The breast of his
coat was ornamented with the cleanest end of a very large
pocket-handkerchief; his dirty wristbands were pulled down and folded
over his cuffs; he had no gloves, and carried a yellow cane, having a
bone handle, and a little ring. He was forever humming some dismal
air. He said _min_ for “man,” _forgit_, _jine_; called wine or spirits
“the rosy,” sleep “the balmy,” and generally shouted in conversation,
as if making a speech from the chair of the “Glorious Apollers” of
which he was perpetual “grand.” Mr. Swiveller looked amiably towards
Miss Sophy Wackles, of Chelsea. Quilp introduced him as clerk, to Mr.
Samson Brass, solicitor, Bevis Marks. By Quilp’s request, he was
afterwards turned away, fell sick of a fever, through which he was
nursed by “the marchioness” (a poor house-drab), whom he married, and
was left by his Aunt Rebecca an annuity of £125.

  “Is that a reminder to go and pay?” said Trent, with a sneer. “Not
  exactly, Fred,” replied Richard. “I enter in this little book the
  names of the streets that I can’t go down while the shops are open.
  This dinner to-day closes Long Acre. I bought a pair of boots in Great
  Queen Street, last week, and made that ‘no thoroughfare’ too. There’s
  only one avenue to the Strand left open now, and I shall have to stop
  up that to-night with a pair of gloves. The roads are closing so fast
  in every direction, that in about a month’s time, unless my aunt sends
  me a remittance, I shall have to go three or four miles out of town to
  get over the way.”--C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_, viii (1840).

=Sword.= (For the names of the most famous swords in history and
fiction, see _Dictionary of Phrase and Fable_, 869.) Add the

Ali’s sword, Zulfagar.

Koll, the Thrall’s sword, named Greysteel.

Ogier, the Dane, had two swords, made by Munifican, viz., Sauvagine and
Courtain or Curtāna.

       He [_Ogier_] drew Courtain his sword from out its sheath.
                   W. Morris, _Earthly Paradise_, 634.

Strong-o’-the-Arm had three swords, viz., Baptism, Florence, and Graban
made by Ansias.

_Sword_ (_The Marvel of the_). When King Arthur first appears on the
scene, he is brought into notice by the “Marvel of the Sword;” and Sir
Galahad, who was to achieve the Holy Graal, was introduced to knighthood
by a similar adventure. That of Arthur is thus described:

  In the greatest church of London ... there was seen in the churchyard,
  against the high altar, a great stone, foursquare, like to a marble
  stone, and in the midst thereof, was an anvil of steel a foot in
  height, and therein stuck a fair sword, naked by the point, and
  letters of gold were written about the sword that said thus: _Whoso
  pulleth out this sword of this stone and anvil, is rightwise king born
  of England._ [_Arthur was the only person who could draw it out, so he
  was acknowledged to be the rightful king._]--Pt. i. 3, 4.

The sword adventure of Sir Galahad, at the age of 15, is thus given:

  The king and his knights came to the river and they found there a
  stone floating, as it had been of red marble, and therein stuck a fair
  and rich sword, and in the pomell thereof were precious stones,
  wrought with subtil letters of gold. Then the barons read the letters,
  which said in this wise: _Never shall man take me hence, but only he
  by whom I ought to hang, and he shall be the best knight of the
  world._ [_Sir Galahad drew the sword easily, but no other knight was
  able to pull it forth._]--Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_,
  iii. 30, 31 (1470).

A somewhat similar adventure occurs in the _Amădis de Gaul_. Whoever
succeeded in drawing from a rock an enchanted sword, was to gain access
to a subterranean treasure (ch. cxxx.; see also lxxii. xcix.).

_Sword_ (_The Irresistible_). The king of Araby and Ind sent Cambuscan´,
king of Tartary, a sword that would pierce any armor, and if the smiter
chose he could heal the wound again by striking it with the flat of the
blade.--Chaucer, _The Squire’s Tale_ (1388).

=Sword and the Maiden= (_The_). Soon after King Arthur succeeded to the
throne, a damsel came to Camelot girded with a sword which no man
defiled by “shame, treachery, or guile” could draw from its scabbard.
She had been to the court of King Ryence, but no knight there could draw
it. King Arthur tried to draw it, but with no better success; all his
knights tried also, but none could draw it. At last a poor ragged knight
named Balin, who had been held in prison for six months, made the
attempt, and drew the sword with the utmost ease, but the knights
insisted it had been done by witchcraft. The maiden asked Sir Balin to
give her the sword, but he refused to do so, and she then told him it
would bring death to himself and his dearest friend; and so it did; for
when he and his brother, Balan, jousted together, unknown to each other,
both were slain, and were buried in one tomb.--Sir T. Malory, _History
of Prince Arthur_, i. 27-44 (1470).

=Sword in the City Arms= (_London_). Stow asserts that the sword or
dagger in the City arms was not added in commemoration of Walworth’s
attack on Wat Tyler, but that it represents the sword of St. Paul, the
patron saint of London. This is not correct. Without doubt the
cognizance of the City, previous to 1381, was St. Paul’s sword, but
after the death of Tyler, it was changed into Walworth’s dagger.

 Brave Walworth, knight, lord mayor, that slew
   Rebellious Tyler in his alarmes;
 The king, therefore, did give him in lieu
   The dagger to the city armes.
             _Fishmongers’ Hall_ (“Fourth Year of Richard II.,” 1381).

=Sword of God= (_The_). Khaled, the conqueror of Syria (632-8), was so
called by Mohammedans.

=Sword of Rome= (_The_), Marcellus. Fabius was called “The Shield of
Rome” (time of Hannibal’s invasion).

=Swordsman= (_The Handsome_). Joachim Murat was called _Le Beau Sabreur_

=Syb´arite= (3 _syl._), an effeminate man, a man of pampered
self-indulgence. Seneca tells us of a sybarite who could not endure the
nubble of a folded rose leaf in his bed.

         [_Her bed_] softer than the soft sybarite’s, who cried
         Aloud because his feelings were too tender
         To brook a ruffled rose leaf by his side.
                     Byron, _Don Juan_, vi. 89 (1824).

=Sybrandt=, cousin and lover of Catalina, in _The Dutchman’s Fireside_,
by James Kirke Paulding. The girl, half-spoiled by city life, is now
ashamed of her rustic lover in his snuff-colored suit; anon, believes
all the slanderous tales she hears of him, and, when she witnesses his
terrible struggle with the Indian who sought her life, knows that she
loves him truly and entirely (1831).

=Syc´orax=, a foul witch, the mistress of Ariel, the fairy spirit, by
whom for some offence he was imprisoned in the rift of a cloven pine
tree. After he had been kept there for twelve years, he was liberated by
Prospero, the rightful duke of Milan, and father of Miranda. Sycorax was
the mother of Caliban.--Shakespeare, _The Tempest_ (1609).

  If you had told Sycorax that her son, Caliban, was as handsome as
  Apollo, she would have been pleased, witch as she was.--Thackeray.

  Those foul and impure mists which their pens, like the raven wings of
  Sycorax, had brushed from fern and bog.--Sir W. Scott, _The Drama_.

=Syddall= (_Anthony_), house-steward at Osbaldistone Hall.--Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Sydenham= (_Charles_), the frank, open-hearted, trusty friend of the
Woodvilles.--Cumberland, _The Wheel of Fortune_ (1779).

=Syl=, a monster like a basilisk, with human face, but so terrible that
no one could look on it and live.

=Sylla= (_Cornelius_), the rival of Ma´rius. Being consul, he had,
_ex-officio_, a right to lead in the Mithridatic war (B.C. 88), but
Marius got the appointment of Sylla set aside in favor of himself.
Sylla, in dudgeon, hastened back to Rome, and insisted that the “recall”
should be reversed. Marius fled. Sylla pursued the war with success,
returned to Rome in triumph, and made a wholesale slaughter of the
Romans who had opposed him. As many as 7000 soldiers and 5000 private
citizens fell in this massacre, and all their goods were distributed
among his own partisans. Sylla was now called “Perpetual Dictator,” but
in two years retired into private life, and died the year following
(B.C. 78).

Jouy has a good tragedy in French called _Sylla_ (1822), and the
character of “Sylla” was a favorite one with Talma, the French actor. In
1594, Thomas Lodge produced his historical play called _Wounds of Civil
War, lively set forth in the True Tragedies of Marius and Sylla_.

=Sylli= (_Signor_), an Italian exquisite, who walks fantastically, talks
affectedly, and thinks himself irresistible. He makes love to Cami´ola,
“the maid of honor,” and fancies, by posturing, grimaces, and
affectation, to “make her dote on him.” He says to her, “In singing, I
am a Siren,” in dancing, a Terpsichŏrê. “He could tune a ditty lovely
well,” and prided himself “on his pretty spider fingers, and the
twinkling of his two eyes.” Of course, Camiŏla sees no charms in these
effeminacies; but the conceited puppy says he “is not so sorry for
himself as he is for her” that she rejects him. Signor Sylli is the
silliest of all the Syllis.--Massinger, _The Maid of Honor_ (1637). (See

=Sylvia=, daughter of Justice Balance, and an heiress. She is in love
with Captain Plume, but promised her father not to “dispose of herself
to any man without his consent.” As her father feared Plume was too much
a libertine to make a steady husband, he sent Sylvia into the country to
withdraw her from his society; but she dressed in her brother’s military
suit, assumed the name of Jack Wilful, _alias_ Pinch, and enlisted. When
the names were called over by the justices, and that of “Pinch” was
brought forward, Justice Balance “gave his consent for the recruit to
dispose of [_himself_] to Captain Plume,” and the permission was kept to
the letter, though not in its intent. However, the matter had gone too
far to be revoked, and the father made up his mind to bear with grace
what without disgrace he could not prevent.--G. Farquhar, _The
Recruiting Officer_ (1705).

  I am troubled neither with spleen, colic, nor vapors, I need no salts
  for my stomach, no harts-horn for my head, nor any wash for my
  complexion. I can gallop all the morning after the hunting-horn, and
  all the evening after a fiddle.--Act i. 2.

=Sylvio de Rosalva= (_Don_), the hero and title of a novel by C. M.
Wieland (1733-1813). Don Sylvio, a quixotic believer in fairyism, is
gradually converted to common sense by the extravagant demands which are
made on his belief, assisted by the charms of a mortal beauty. The
object of this romance is a crusade against the sentimentalism and
religious foolery of the period.

=Symkyn= (_Symond_), nicknamed “Disdainful,” a miller, living at
Trompington, near Cambridge. His face was round, his nose flat, and his
skull “pilled as an ape’s.” He was a thief of corn and meal, but stole
craftily. His wife was the village parson’s daughter, very proud and
arrogant. He tried to outwit Aleyn and John, two Cambridge scholars, but
was himself outwitted, and most roughly handled also.--Chaucer,
_Canterbury Tales_ “The Reeve’s Tale,” (1388).

=Symmes’s Hole.= Captain John Cleve Symmes maintained that there was, at
82° N. lat., an enormous opening through the crust of the earth into the
globe. The place to which it led he asserted to be well stocked with
animals and plants, and to be lighted by two under-ground planets named
Pluto and Proserpine. Captain Symmes asked Sir Humphrey Davy to
accompany him in the exploration of this enormous “hole” (*-1829).

Halley, the astronomer (1656-1742), and Holberg, of Norway (1684-1754),
believed in the existence of this hole.

=Symon´ides the Good=, king of Pentap´olis.--Shakespeare, _Pericles,
Prince of Tyre_ (1608).

=Symphony= (_The Father of_) Francis Joseph Haydn (1732-1809).

=Synia=, the portress of Valhalla.--_Scandinavian Mythology._

=Syntax= (_Dr._), a simple-minded, pious, hen-pecked clergyman, green as
grass, but of excellent taste and scholarship, who left home in search
of the picturesque. His adventures are told by William Coombe in
eight-syllable verse, called _The Tour of Dr. Syntax in Search of the
Picturesque_ (1812.)

_Dr. Syntax’s Horse_ was called Grizzle, all skin and bone.

=Synter´esis=, Conscience personified.

     On her a royal damsel still attends,
     And faithful counsellor, Synter´esis.
                 Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vi. (1633).

=Syphax=, chief of the Arabs who joined the Egyptian armament against
the crusaders. “The voices of these allies were feminine, and their
stature small.”--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xvii. (1575).

_Syphax_, an old Numidian soldier in the suite of Prince Juba, in Utĭca.
He tried to win the prince from Cato to the side of Cæsar; but Juba was
too much in love with Marcia (Cato’s daughter) to listen to him. Syphax,
with his “Numidian horse,” deserted in the battle to Cæsar, but the
“hoary traitor” was slain by Marcus, the son of Cato.--Addison, _Cato_

=Syrinx=, a nymph beloved by Pan, and changed at her own request into a
reed, of which Pan made his pipe.--_Greek Fable._

  _Syrinx_, in Spenser’s _Eclogue_, iv., is Anne Boleyn, and “Pan” is
  Henry VIII. (1579).

Tusser has a poem on _Thriftiness_, twelve lines in length, and in
rhyme, every word of which begins with _t_ (died 1580). Leon Placentius,
a Dominican, wrote a poem in Latin hexameters, called _Pugna Porcorum_,
253 lines long, every word of which begins with _p_ (died 1548).

    The thrifty that teacheth the thriving to thrive,
    Teach timely to traverse, the thing that thou ’trive,
    Transferring thy toiling, to timeliness taught,
    This teacheth thee temp’rance, to temper thy thought.
    Take Trusty (to trust to) that thinkest to thee,
    That trustily thriftiness trowleth to thee.
    Then temper thy traveil, to tarry the tide;
    This teacheth thee thriftiness, twenty times tryed.
    Take thankfull thy talent, thank thankfully those
    That thriftily teacheth [_? teach thee_] thy time to transpose.
    Troth twice to be teached, teach twenty times ten,
    This trade thou that takest, take thrift to thee then.
       _Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_, xlix. (1557).

=Taau=, the god of thunder. The natives of the Hervey Islands believe
that thunder is produced by the shaking of Taau’s wings.--John Williams,
_Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands_, 109 (1837).

=Tabakiera=, a magic snuff-box which, upon being opened, said, _Que
quieres?_ (“What do you want?”); and, upon being told the wish, it was
there and then accomplished. The snuff-box is the counterpart of
Aladdin’s lamp, but appears in numerous legends slightly varied (see for
example Campbell’s _Tales of the West Highlands_, ii. 293-303, “The
Widow’s Son”).--Rev. W. Webster, _Basque Legends_, 94 (1876).

=Tabarin=, a famous vender of quack medicines, born at Milan, who went
to Paris in the seventeenth century. By his antics and rude wit he
collected great crowds together, and in ten years (1620-30) became rich
enough to buy a handsome château in Dauphine. The French aristocracy,
unable to bear the satire of a charlatan in a château, murdered him.

The jests and witty sayings of this _farceur_ were collected together in
1622, and published under the title of _L’inventaire Universel des
Œuvres de Tabarin, contenant ses Fantaisies, Dialogues, Paradoxes,
Farces, etc._

In 1858 an edition of his works was published by G. Aventin.

=Tachebrune= (2 _syl._), the horse of Ogier le Dane. The word means
“brown spot.”

=Taciturnian=, an inhabitant of _L’Isle Taciturne_, or Taciturna,
meaning London and the Londoners.

  A thick and perpetual vapor covers this island, and fills the souls of
  the inhabitants with a certain sadness, misanthropy, and irksomeness
  of their own existence. Alaciel [_the genius_] was hardly at the first
  barriers of the metropolis when he fell in with a peasant bending
  under the weight of a bag of gold ... but his heart was sad and gloomy
  ... and he said to the genius, “Joy! I know it not; I never heard of
  it in this island.”--De la Dixmie, _L’Isle Taciturne et l’Isle
  Enjouée_ (1759).

=Tacket= (_Tibb_), the wife of old Martin, the shepherd of Julian
Avenel, of Avenel Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time,

=Tackleton=, a toy merchant, called Gruff and Tackleton, because at one
time Gruff had been his partner; he had, however, been bought out long
ago. Tackleton was a stern, sordid, grinding man; ugly in looks, and
uglier in his nature; cold and callous, selfish and unfeeling; his look
was sarcastic and malicious; one eye was always wide open, and one
nearly shut. He ought to have been a money-lender, a sheriff’s officer,
or a broker, for he hated children and hated playthings. It was his
greatest delight to make toys which scared children, and you could not
please him better than to say that a toy from his warehouse had made a
child miserable the whole Christmas holidays, and had been a nightmare
to it for half its child-life. This amiable creature was about to marry
May Fielding, when her old sweetheart, Edward Plummer, thought to be
dead, returned from South America, and married her. Tackleton was
reformed by Peerybingle, the carrier, bore his disappointment manfully,
sent the bride and bridegroom his own wedding-cake, and joined the
festivities of the marriage banquet.--C. Dickens, _The Cricket on the
Hearth_ (1845).

=Taffril= (_Lieutenant_), of H. M. gunbrig _Search_. He is in love with
Jenny Caxton, the milliner.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George

=Taffy=, a Welshman. The word is simply Davy (_David_) pronounced with
aspiration. David is the most common Welsh name; Sawney (_Alexander_),
the most common Scotch; Pat (_Patrick_), the most common Irish; and John
(_John Bull_), the most common English. So we have Cousin Michael for a
German, Micaire for a Frenchman, Colin Tampon for a Swiss, and Brother
Jonathan in the United States.

=Tag=, wife of Puff, and lady’s maid to Miss Biddy Bellair.--D. Garrick,
_Miss in Her Teens_ (1753).

=Tahmuras=, a king of Persia, whose exploits in Fairy-land among the
peris and deevs are fully set forth by Richardson, in his

=Tails= (_Men with_). The Niam-niams, an African race between the gulf
of Benin and Abyssinia, are said to have tails. Mons. de Castlenau
(1851) tells us that the Niam-niams “have tails forty centimetres long,
and between two and three centimetres in diameter.” Dr. Hubsch,
physician to the hospitals of Constantinople, says, in 1853, that he
carefully examined a Niam-niam negress, and that her tail was two inches
long. Mons. d’Abbadie, in his _Abyssynian Travels_ (1852), tells us that
south of the Herrar is a place where all the _men_ have tails, but not
the females. “I have examined,” he says, “fifteen of them, and am
positive that the tail is a natural appendage.” Dr. Wolf, in his
_Travels and Adventures_, ii. (1861), says: “There are both men and
women in Abyssinia with tails like dogs and horses.” He heard that, near
Narea, in Abyssinia, there were men and women with tails so muscular
that they could “knock down a horse with a blow.”

John Struys, a Dutch traveller, says, in his _Voyages_ (1650), that “all
the natives on the south of Formosa have tails.” He adds that he himself
personally saw one of these islanders with a tail “more than a foot

It is said that the Ghilane race, which numbers between 30,000 and
40,000 souls, and dwell “far beyond the Senaar,” have tails three or
four inches long. Colonel du Corret assures us that he himself most
carefully examined one of the race named Bellal, a slave belonging to an
emir in Mecca, whose house he frequented.--_World of Wonders_, 206.

The Poonangs, of Borneo, are said to be a tail-bearing race.

_Individual Examples._ Dr. Hubsch says that he examined at
Constantinople the son of a physician whom he knew intimately, who had a
decided tail, and so had his grandfather.

In the middle of the present (the nineteenth) century, all the
newspapers made mention of the birth of a boy at Newcastle-on-Tyne with
a tail, which “wagged when he was pleased.”

In the College of Surgeons at Dublin may be seen a human skeleton with a
tail seven inches long.

_Tails given by way of Punishment._ Polydore Vergil asserts that when
Thomas á Becket came to Stroud, the mob cut off the tail of his horse,
and in eternal reproach, “both they and their offspring bore tails.”
Lambarde repeats the same story in his _Perambulation of Kent_ (1576).

  For Becket’s sake Kent always shall have tails.--Andrew Marvel.

John Bale, bishop of Ossory, in the reign of Edward VI., tells us that
John Capgrave and Alexander of Esseby have stated it as a fact that
certain Dorsetshire men cast fishes’ tails at St. Augustine, in
consequence of which “the men of this county have borne tails ever

We all know the tradition that Cornish men are born with tails.

=Taillefer=, a valiant warrior and minstrel in the army of William the
Conqueror. At the battle of Hastings (or _Senlac_) he stimulated the
ardor of the Normans by songs in praise of Charlemagne and Roland. The
soldier-minstrel was at last borne down by numbers, and fell fighting.

  He was a juggler or minstrel, who could sing songs and play tricks....
  So he rode forth singing as he went, and as some say, throwing his
  sword up in the air and catching it again.--E. A. Freeman, _Old
  English History_, 332.

=Tailors of Tooley Street= (_The Three_). Canning tells us of three
tailors of Tooley Street, Southwark, who addressed a petition of
grievances to the House of Commons, beginning with these words, “We, the
people of England.”

The “deputies of Vaugirard” presented themselves before Charles VIII. of
France. When the king asked how many there were, the usher replied,
“Only one, an please your majesty.”

=Taj=, in Agra (East India), the mausoleum built by Shah Jehan to his
favorite sultana, Moomtaz-i-Mahul, who died in childbirth of her eighth
child. It is of white marble, and is so beautiful that it is called “A
Poem in Marble,” and “The Marble Queen of Sorrow.”

=Talbert= [_Tŏl´.but_], John Talbert or rather Talbot. “The English
Achillês,” first earl of Shrewsbury (1373-1453).

        Our Talbert, to the French so terrible in war,
        That with his very name their babes they used to scare.
                    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xviii. (1613).

=Tallbot= (_John_), a name of terror in France. Same as above.

  They in France, to feare their young children, crye, “The Talbot
  commeth!”--Hall, _Chronicles_ (1545).

     Is this the Talbot, so much feared abroad,
     That with his name the mothers still their babes?
                 Shakespeare, _1 Henry VI._ act. ii. sc. 3 (1589).

_Talbot_ (_Colonel_), an English officer, and one of Waverley’s
friends.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

_Talbot_ (_Lord Arthur_), a cavalier who won the love of Elvira,
daughter of Lord Walton; but his lordship had promised his daughter in
marriage to Sir Richard Ford, a puritan officer. The betrothal being set
aside, Lord Talbot became the accepted lover, and the marriage ceremony
was fixed to take place at Plymouth. In the mean time, Lord Arthur
assisted the Dowager Queen Henrietta to escape, and on his return to
England was arrested by the soldiers of Cromwell, and condemned to
death; but Cromwell, feeling secure of his position, commanded all
political prisoners to be released, so Lord Arthur was set at liberty,
and married Elvira.--Bellini, _I Puritani_ (1834).

_Talbot_ (_Lying Dick_), the nickname given to Tyrconnel, the Irish
Jacobite, who held the highest offices in Ireland in the reign of James
II., and in the early part of William III.’s reign (died 1691).

=Tale of a Tub=, a comedy by Ben Jonson (1618). This was the last comedy
brought out by him on the stage; the first was _Every Man in His Humor_

  In the _Tale of a Tub_, he [_Ben Jonson_] follows the path of
  Aristoph´anês, and lets his wit run into low buffoonery, that he might
  bring upon the stage Inigo Jones, his personal enemy.--Sir Walter
  Scott, _The Drama_.

_Tale of a Tub_, a religious satire by Dean Swift (1704). Its object is
to ridicule the Roman Catholics under the name of Peter, and the
Presbyterians under the name of Jack [_Calvin_]. The Church of England
is represented by Martin [_Luther_].

  _Gulliver’s Travels_ and the _Tale of a Tub_ must ever be the chief
  corner-stones of Swift’s fame.--Chambers, _English Literature_, ii.

=Tales= (_Chinese_), being the transmigrations of the mandarin,
Fum-Hoam, told to Gulchenraz, daughter of the king of Georgia. (See
FUM-HOAM.)--T. S. Gueulette (originally in French, 1723).

_Tales_ (_Fairy_), a series of tales, originally in French, by the
Comtesse D’Aunoy, D’Aulnoy, or D’Anois (1698). Some are very near copies
of the _Arabian Nights_. The best-known are “Cherry and Fairstar,” “The
Yellow Dwarf,” and “The White Cat.”

About the same time (1697), Claude Perrault published, in French, his
famous _Fairy Tales_, chiefly taken from the _Sagas_ of Scandinavia.

_Tales_ (_Moral_), twenty-three tales by Marmontel, originally in French
(1761). They were intended for draughts of dramas. The design of the
first tale, called “Alcibiădês,” is to expose the folly of expecting to
be loved “merely for one’s self.” The design of the second tale, called
“Soliman II.,” is to expose the folly of attempting to gain woman’s love
by any other means than reciprocal love; and so on. The second tale has
been dramatized.

_Tales_ (_Oriental_), by the Comte de Caylus, originally in French
(1743). A series of tales supposed to be told by Moradbak, a girl of 14,
to Hudjadge, shah of Persia, who could not sleep. It contains the tale
of “The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus.” (See MORADBAK.)

=Tales of a Grandfather=, in three series, by Sir W. Scott; told to Hugh
Littlejohn, who was between five and six years of age (1828). These
tales are supposed to be taken from Scotch chronicles, and embrace the
most prominent and graphic incidents of Scotch history. Series i., to
the amalgamation of the two crowns in James I.; series ii., to the union
of the two parliaments in the reign of Queen Anne; series iii., to the
death of Charles Edward, the Young Pretender.

=Tales of My Landlord=, tales supposed to be told by the landlord of the
Wallace inn, in the parish of Gandercleuch, “edited and arranged by
Jedediah Cleishbotham, schoolmaster and parish clerk” of the same
parish, but in reality corrected and arranged by his usher, Peter or
Patrick Pattison, who lived to complete five of the novels, but died
before the last two were issued. These novels are arranged thus: _First
Series_, “The Black Dwarf” and “Old Mortality;” _Second Series_, “Heart
of Midlothian;” _Third Series_, “Bride of Lammermoor” and “Legend of
Montrose;” _Posthumous_, “Count Robert of Paris” and “Castle
Dangerous.”--Sir W. Scott. (See _Black Dwarf_, introduction.)

=Tales of the Crusaders=, by Sir W. Scott, include _The Betrothed_ and
_The Talisman_.

=Tales of the Genii=, that is, tales told by the genii to Iracagem,
their chief, respecting their tutelary charges, or how they had
discharged their functions as the guardian genii of man. Patna and
Coulor, children of Giualar (imân of Terki), were permitted to hear
these accounts rendered, and hence they have reached our earth. The
genius, Barhaddan, related the history of his tutelary charge of
Abu´dah, a merchant of Bagdad. The genius, Mamlouk, told how he had been
employed in watching over the Dervise Alfouran. Next, Omphram recounted
his labors as the tutelar genius of Hassan Assar, caliph of Bagdad. The
genius, Hassarack, tells his experience in the tale of Kelaun and
Guzzarat. The fifth was a female genius, by name, Houadir, who told the
tale of Urad, the fair wanderer, her ward on earth. Then rose the sage
genius, Macoma, and told the tale of the Sultan Misnar, with the
episodes of Mahoud and the princess of Cassimir. The affable Adiram, the
tutelar genius of Sadak and Kalas´rade, told of their battle of life.
Last of all rose the venerable genius, Nadan, and recounted the history
of his earthly charge, named Mirglip, the dervise. These tales are from
the Persian, and are ascribed to Horam, son of Asmar.

=Talgol=, a butcher in Newgate market, who obtained a captain’s
commission in Cromwell’s army for his bravery at Naseby.

            Talgol was of courage stout ...
            Inured to labor, sweat, and toil,
            And like a champion, shone with oil ...
            He many a boar and huge dun cow
            Did, like another Guy, o’erthrow ...
            With greater troops of sheep he’d fought
            Than Ajax or bold Don Quixote.
                        S. Butler, _Hudibras_. i. 2 (1663).

=Taliesin= or TALIESSIN, son of St. Henwig, chief of the bards of the
West, in the time of King Arthur (sixth century). In the _Mabinogion_,
are given the legends connected with him, several specimens of his
songs, and all that is historically known about him. The bursting in of
the sea through the neglect of Seithenin, who had charge of the
embankment, and the ruin which it brought on Gwyddno Garanhir, is
allegorized by the bursting of a pot called the “caldron of
inspiration,” through the neglect of Gwion Bach, who was set to watch

       That Taliessen, once which made the rivers dance,
       And in his rapture raised the mountains from their trance.
       Shall tremble at my verse.
                   Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1613).

=Talisman= (_The_), a novel by Sir W. Scott, and one of the best of the
thirty-two which he wrote (1825). It relates how Richard Cœur de Lion
was cured of a fever in the Holy Land, by Saladin, the soldan, his noble
enemy. Saladin, hearing of his illness, assumed the disguise of Adonbec
el Hakim, the physician, and visited the king. He filled a cup with
spring water, into which he dipped the talisman, a little red purse that
he took from his bosom, and when it had been steeped long enough, he
gave the draught to the king to drink (ch. ix.). During the king’s
sickness, the archduke of Austria planted his own banner beside that of
England; but as soon as Richard recovered from his fever he tore down
the Austrian banner, and gave it in custody to Sir Kenneth. While
Kenneth was absent he left his dog in charge of it, but on his return,
found the dog wounded, and the banner stolen. King Richard, in his rage,
ordered Sir Kenneth to execution, but pardoned him on the intercession
of “the physician” (Saladin). Sir Kenneth’s dog showed such a strange
aversion to the Marquis de Montserrat, that suspicion was aroused, the
marquis was challenged to single combat, and, being overthrown by Sir
Kenneth, confessed that he had stolen the banner. The love story
interwoven is that between Sir Kenneth, the prince royal of Scotland,
and Lady Edith Plantagenet, the king’s kinswoman, with whose marriage
the tale concludes.

=Talismans= (_The Four_). Houna, surnamed Seidel-Beckir, a talismanist,
made three of great value: viz., a little golden fish, which would fetch
out of the sea whatever it was bidden; a poniard, which rendered
invisible not only the person bearing it, but all those he wished to be
so; and a ring of steel, which enabled the wearer to read the secrets of
men’s hearts. The fourth talisman was a bracelet, which preserved the
wearer from poison.--Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“The Four
Talismans,” 1743).

=Talking-Bird= (_The_), called Bulbulhe´zar. It had the power of human
speech, and when it sang all the song-birds in the vicinity came and
joined in concert. It was also oracular, and told the sultan the tale of
his three children, and how they had been exposed by the sultana’s two
jealous sisters.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Two Sisters,” the last tale).

The talking bird is called “the little green bird” in “The Princess
Fairstar,” one of the _Fairy Tales_ of the Comtesse D’Aunoy (1682).

=Tallboy= (_Old_), forester of St. Mary’s Convent.--Sir W. Scott,
_Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Talleyrand.= This name, anciently written “Taileran,” was originally a
sobriquet derived from the words _tailler les rangs_ (“cut through the

Talleyrand is generally credited with the _mot_: “La parole a été donnée
à l’homme pour l’aider à cacher sa pensée [_or_ déguiser la pensée];”
but they were spoken by Comte de Montrond, “the most agreeable scoundrel
in the court of Marie Antoinette.”--Captain Gronow, _Recollections and

Voltaire, sixty years previously, had said: “Ils n’employent les paroles
que pour déguiser leurs pensées.”--_Le Chapon et la Poularde._

And Goldsmith, in 1759, when Talleyrand was about four years old, had
published the sentence: “The true use of speech is not so much to
express our wants as to conceal them.”--_The Bee_, iii.

=Talos=, a son of Perdix, sister of Dædălos, inventor of the saw,
compasses, and other mechanical instruments. His uncle, jealous of him,
threw him from the citadel of Athens, and he was changed into a

_Talos_, a man of brass, made by Hephæstos (_Vulcan_). This wonderful
automaton was given to Minos to patrol the island of Crete. It traversed
the island thrice every day, and if a stranger came near, made itself
red hot, and squeezed him to death.

=Talus=, an iron man, representing power or the executive of a state. He
was Astræa’s groom, whom the goddess gave to Sir Artĕgal. This man of
iron, “unmovable and resistless without end,” “swift as a swallow, and
as a lion strong,” carried in his hand an iron flail, “with which he
threshed out falsehood, and did truth unfold.” When Sir Artegal fell
into the power of Radigund, queen of the Amăzons, Talus brought
Britomart to the rescue.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 1 (1596).

=Talut.= So the Mohammedans call Saul.

  Verily God hath sent Talût king over you .... Samuel said, Verily God
  hath chosen him, and hath caused him to increase in knowledge and
  stature.--_Al Korân_, ii.

=Talvi=, a pseudonym of Mrs. Robinson. It is simply the initials of her
maiden name, Therese Albertine Louise von Iakob.

=Tam o’ Todshaw=, a huntsman, near Charlie’s Hope Farm.--Sir W. Scott,
_Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Tam o’ the Cowgate=, the sobriquet of Sir Thomas Hamilton, a Scotch
lawyer, who lived in the Cowgate, at Edinburgh (*-1563).

=Tam O’ Shanter=, drunken peasant who looks into the lighted windows of
Alloway Kirk one night, on his way home from the tavern, and watches the
witches dance. He is discovered and chased by the hags. In crossing the
bridge, a witch who has sprung upon his crupper, seizes his horse’s
tail, and he leaves it with her, since she cannot cross running
water.--Robert Burns, _Tam O’ Shanter_.

=Tamburlaine the Great= (or _Timour Lengh_), the Tartar conqueror. In
history called Tamerlane. He had only one hand and was lame (1336-1405).
The hero and title of a tragedy by C. Marlowe (1587). Shakespeare (_2
Henry IV._ act ii. sc. 4) makes Pistol quote a part of this turgid play.

               Holla, ye pampered jades of Asia.
               What! can ye draw but twenty miles a day,
               And have so proud a chariot at your heels,
               And such a coachman as great Tamburlaine.

(In the stage direction in Marlowe’s play:

  Enter Tamburlaine, drawn in his chariot by Treb´izon and Soria, with
  bits in their mouths, reins in his left hand, in his right a whip with
  which he scourgeth them.)

N. Rowe has a tragedy entitled _Tamerlane_ (_q. v._).

=Tamer Tamed= (_The_), a kind of sequel to Shakespeare’s comedy _The
Taming of the Shrew_. In the _Tamer Tamed_, Petruchio is supposed to
marry a second wife, by whom he is hen-pecked.--Beaumont and Fletcher

=Tamerlane=, emperor of Tartary, in Rowe’s tragedy so called, is a
noble, generous, high-minded prince, the very glass of fashion for all
conquerors, in his forgiveness of wrongs, and from whose example
Christians might be taught their moral code. Tamerlane treats Bajazet,
his captive, with truly godlike clemency, till the fierce sultan plots
his assassination. Then, longer forbearance would have been folly, and
the Tartar has his untamed captive chained in a cage, like a wild
beast.--N. Rowe, _Tamerlane_ (1702).

It is said that Louis XIV. was Rowe’s “Bajazet,” and William III. his

⁂ Tamerlane is a corruption of _Timour Lengh_ (“Timour, the lame”). He
was one-handed and lame also. His name was used by the Persians _in

=Taming of the Shrew= (_The_), a comedy by Shakespeare (1594). The
“shrew” is Kathari´na, elder daughter of Baptista, of Padua, and she is
tamed by the stronger mind of Petruchio into a most obedient and
submissive wife.

This drama is founded on _A pleasaunt conceited Historie, called The
Taming of a Shrew. As it hath beene sundry times acted by the right
honourable the earle of Pembrooke his servants, 1607._ The induction is
borrowed from Heuterus, _Rerum Burgundearum_, iv., a translation of
which into English, by E. Grimstone, appeared in 1607. The same trick
was played by Haroun-al-Raschid, on the merchant Abou Hassan (_Arabian
Nights_, “The Sleeper Awakened”); and by Philippe the Good of Burgundy.
(See Burton, _Anatomy of Melancholy_, II. ii. 4; see also _The
Frolicksome Duke, or the Tinker’s Good Fortune_ (a ballad), Percy.)

Beaumont and Fletcher wrote a kind of sequel to this comedy, called _The
Tamer Tamed_, in which Petruchio is supposed to marry a second wife, by
whom he is hen-pecked (1647).

_The Honeymoon_, a comedy by Tobin (1804), has a similar plot, but the
shrew is tamed with far less display of obstreperous self-will.

=Tami´no and Pami´na=, the two lovers who were guided by the magic flute
through all worldly dangers to the knowledge of divine truth (or the
mysteries of Isis).--Mozart, _Die Zauberflöte_ (1791).

=Tamismud=, aged chief of the Delawares, regarded as an oracle by
Indians of all tribes. When Magua brings his captives, whites and
Indians, before the sage for sentence, Tamismud is a hundred years old,
and speaks with clear eyes, and for the most part dreamily, as communing
with unseen powers. His style of speech is highly figurative and the
superstitious creatures by whom he is surrounded hang breathlessly upon
every sentence uttered by his lips.--James Fenimore Cooper, _The Last of
the Mohicans_ (1826).

=Tam´ora=, queen of the Goths, in love with Aaron, the Moor.--(?)
Shakespeare, _Titus Andron´icus_ (1593).

⁂ The classic name is _Andronīcus_, but Titus Andronĭcus is a purely
fictitious character.

=Tamper= (_Colonel_), betrothed to Emily. On his return from Havana, he
wanted to ascertain if Emily loved him “for himself alone;” so he
pretended to have lost one leg and one eye. Emily was so shocked that
the family doctor was sent for, who, amidst other gossip, told the young
lady he had recently seen Colonel Tamper, who was looking remarkably
well, and had lost neither leg nor eye. Emily now perceived that a trick
was being played, so she persuaded Mdlle. Florival to assume the part of
a rival lover, under the assumed name of Captain Johnson. After the
colonel had been thoroughly roasted, Major Belford entered, recognized
“Captain Johnson” as his own _affiancée_, the colonel saw how the tables
had been turned upon him, apologized, and all ended happily.--G. Colman,
Sr., _The Deuce is in Him_ (1762).

=Tamson= (_Peg_), an old woman at Middlemas village.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Tanaquill=, wife of Tarquinius, _priscus_ of Rome. She was greatly
venerated by the Romans, but Juvenal uses the name as the
personification of an imperious woman with a strong independent will. In
the _Faëry Queen_, Spenser calls Gloriana (_Queen Elizabeth_),
“Tanaquill” (bk. i. introduction, 1590).

=Tancred=, son of Eudes and Emma. He was the greatest of all the
Christian warriors except Rinaldo. His one fault was the love of woman,
and that woman Clorinda, a pagan (bk. i.). Tancred brought 800 horse to
the allied crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon. In a night combat
Tancred unwittingly slew Clorinda, and lamented her death with great and
bitter lamentation (bk. xii.). Being wounded, he was tenderly nursed by
Erminia, who was in love with him (bk. xix).--Tasso, _Jerusalem
Delivered_ (1575).

⁂ Rossini has an opera entitled _Tancredi_ (1813).

_Tancred_, prince of Otranto, one of the crusaders, probably the same as
the one above.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Tancred_ (_Count_), the orphan son of Manfred, eldest grandson of Roger
I. of Sicily, and rightful heir to the throne. His father was murdered
by William the Bad, and he himself, was brought up by Siffre´di, lord
high chancellor of Sicily. While only a count, he fell in love with
Sigismunda, the chancellor’s daughter, but when King Roger died, he left
the throne to Tancred, provided he married Constantia, daughter of
William the Bad, and thus united the rival lines. Tancred gave a tacit
consent to this arrangement, intending all the time to obtain a
dispensation from the pope, and marry the chancellor’s daughter; but
Sigismunda could not know his secret intentions, and, in a fit of
irritation, married the Earl Osmond. Now follows the catastrophe:
Tancred sought an interview with Sigismunda, to justify his conduct, but
Osmond challenged him to fight. Osmond fell, and stabbed Sigismunda when
she ran to his succor.--Thomson, _Tancred and Sigismunda_ (1745).

⁂ Thomson’s tragedy is founded on the episode called “The Baneful
Marriage,” _Gil Blas_, iv. 4 (Lesage, 1724). In the prose tale, Tancred
is called “Henriquez,” and Sigismunda “Blanch.”

=Tancredi=, the Italian form of Tancred (_q.v._). The best of the early
operas of Rossini (1813).

=Tanner of Tamworth= (_The_), the man who mistook Edward IV. for a
highwayman. After some little altercation, they changed horses, the king
giving his hunter for the tanner’s cob, worth about four shillings; but
as soon as the tanner mounted the king’s horse, it threw him, and the
tanner gladly paid down a sum of money to get his old cob back again.

King Edward now blew his hunting-horn, and the courtiers gathered round
him. “I _hope_ [_i.e._, _expect_] I shall be hanged for this,” cried the
tanner; but the king, in merry pin, gave him the manor of Plumpton Park,
with 300 marks a year.--Percy, _Reliques, etc._

=Tannhäuser= (_Sir_), called in German the _Ritter Tannhäuser_, a
Teutonic knight, who wins the love of Lisaura, a Mantuan lady. Hilario,
the philosopher, often converses with the Ritter on supernatural
subjects, and promises that Venus herself shall be his mistress, if he
will summon up his courage to enter Venusberg. Tannhäuser starts on the
mysterious journey, and Lisaura, hearing thereof, kills herself. At
Venusberg, the Ritter gives full swing to his pleasures, but in time
returns to Mantua, and makes his confession to Pope Urban. His holiness
says to him, “Man, you can no more hope for absolution, than this staff
which I hold in my hand, can be expected to bud.” So Tannhäuser flees in
despair from Rome, and returns to Venusberg. Meanwhile, the pope’s staff
actually does sprout, and Urban sends in all directions for the Ritter,
but he is nowhere to be found.

Tieck, in his _Phantasus_ (1812), introduces the story. Wagner (in 1845)
brought out his great opera, called _Tannhäuser_. The companion of
Tannhäuser was Eckhardt.

⁂ The tale of Tannhäuser is substantially the same as that of Thomas of
Erceldoun, also called “Thomas the Rhymer,” who was so intimate with
Faëry folk, that he could foretell what events would come to pass. He
was also a bard, and wrote the famous lay of _Sir Tristrem_. The general
belief is, that the seer is not dead, but has been simply removed from
the land of the living to Faëry-land, whence occasionally he emerges, to
busy himself with human affairs. Sir W. Scott has introduced the legend
in _Castle Dangerous_, v. (See ERCELDOUN.)

=Tantalus=, for crimes the nature of which is uncertain, he was punished
in the Inferno with insatiable hunger and thirst, placed up to his chin
in water, which receded whenever he tried to drink, while tempting
fruits grew near by, that drew back if he attempted to touch them.
Hence, _tantalize_.--_Greek Mythology._

=Taouism=, the system of Taou, that invisible principle which pervades
everything. Pope refers to this universal divine permeation in the
well-known lines: it

          Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze,
          Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees,
          Lives through all life, extends through all extent,
          Spreads undivided, operates unspent.
                      _Essay on Man_, i. (1733).

=Tapestered Chamber= (_The_), a tale by Sir W. Scott, laid in the reign
of George III. There are but two characters introduced. General Browne
goes on a visit to Lord Woodville, and sleeps in the “tapestered
chamber,” which is haunted. He sees the “lady in the sacque,” describes
her to Lord Woodville next morning, and recognizes her picture in the
portrait gallery.

  The back of this form was turned to me, and I could observe, from the
  shoulders and neck, it was that of an old woman, whose dress was an
  old-fashioned gown, which, I think, ladies call a sacque--that is, a
  sort of robe completely loose in the body, but gathered into broad
  plaits upon the neck and shoulders, which fall down to the ground, and
  terminate in a species of train.

=Tap´ley= (_Mark_), an honest, light-hearted young man, whose ambition
was “to come out jolly” under the most unfavorable circumstances.
Greatly attached to Martin Chuzzlewit, he leaves his comfortable
situation at the Blue Dragon to accompany him to America, and in “Eden”
has ample opportunities of “being jolly,” so far as wretchedness could
make him so. On his return to England he marries Mrs. Lupin, and thus
becomes landlord of the Blue Dragon.--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_,
xiii., xxi., etc. (1843).

  Charles [_VII. of France_] was the Mark Tapley of kings, and bore
  himself with his usual “jollity” under this afflicting news. It was
  remarked of him that “no one could lose a kingdom with greater
  gaiety.”--Rev. J. White.

=Tappertit= (_Sim_, i.e., _Simon_), the apprentice of Gabriel Varden,
locksmith. He was just 20 in years, but 200 in conceit. An
old-fashioned, thin-faced, sleek-haired, sharp-nosed, small-eyed little
fellow was Mr. Sim Tappertit, about five feet high, but thoroughly
convinced in his own mind that he was both good looking and above the
middle size, in fact, rather tall than otherwise. His figure, which was
slender, he was proud of; and with his legs, which in knee-breeches were
perfect curiosities of littleness, he was enraptured. He had also a
secret notion that the power of his eye was irresistible, and he
believed that he could subdue the haughtiest beauty “by eyeing her.” Of
course Mr. Tappertit had an ambitious soul, and admired his master’s
daughter, Dolly. He was captain of the secret society of “’Prentice
Knights,” whose object was “vengeance against their tyrant masters.”
After the Gordon riots, in which Tappertit took a leading part, he was
found “burnt and bruised, with a gun-shot wound in his body and both his
legs crushed into shapeless ugliness.” The cripple, by the locksmith’s
aid, turned shoe-black under an archway near the Horse Guards, thrived
in his vocation, and married the widow of a rag-and-bone collector.
While an apprentice, Miss Miggs, the “protestant” shrewish servant of
Mrs. Varden, cast an eye of hope on “Simmun;” but the conceited puppy
pronounced her “decidedly scraggy,” and disregarded the soft
impeachment.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841). (See SYLLI.)

=Tapwell= (_Timothy_), husband of Froth, put into business by Wellborn’s
father, whose butler he was. When Wellborn was reduced to beggary,
Timothy behaved most insolently to him; but as soon as he supposed he
was about to marry the rich dowager, Lady Allworth, the rascal fawned on
him like a whipped spaniel.--Massinger, _A New Way to Pay Old Debts_

=Tara= (_The Hill of_), in Meath, Ireland. Here the kings, the clergy,
the princes and the bards used to assemble in a large hall, to consult
on matters of public importance.

 The harp that once thro’ Tara’s halls
   The soul of music shed,
 Now hangs as mute on Tara’s walls
   As if that soul were fled.
             T. Moore, _Irish Melodies_ (“The Harp that Once ...” 1814).

_Tara_ (_The Fes of_), the triennial convention established by Ollam
Fodlah or Ollav Fola in B.C. 900, or 950. When business was over the
princes banqueted together, each under his shield suspended by the chief
herald on the wall, according to precedency. In the reign of Cormac, the
palace of Tara was 900 feet square, and contained 150 apartments, and
150 dormitories, each for sixty sleepers. As many as 1000 guests were
daily entertained in the hall.

=Tarpa= (_Spurius Metius_), a famous critic of the Augustan age. He sat
in the temple of Apollo, with four colleagues, to judge the merit of
theatrical pieces before they were produced in public.

  He gives himself out for another Tarpa; decides boldly, and supports
  his opinions with loudness and obstinacy.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, xi. 10

=Tarpe´ian Rock.= So called from Tarpeia, daughter of Spurius Tarpeius,
governor of the citadel on the Saturnian (_i.e._, Capitoline) Hill of
Rome. The story is that the Sabines bargained with the Roman maid to
open the gates to them, for the “ornaments on their arms.” As they
passed through the gates they threw on her their shields, saying, “These
are the ornaments we bear on our arms.” She was crushed to death, and
buried on the Tarpeian Hill. Ever after, traitors were put to death by
being hurled headlong from the hill-top.

     Bear him to the rock Tarpeian, and from thence
     Into destruction cast him.
                 Shakespeare, _Coriolanus_, act iii. sc. 1 (1610).

⁂ G. Gilfillan, in his introduction to Longfellow’s poems, makes an
erroneous allusion to the Roman traitress. He says Longfellow’s
“ornaments, unlike those of the Sabine [_sic_] maid, have not crushed

Louise Imogen Guiney has a poem entitled _Tarpeia_, beginning:

    “Woe! lightly to part with one’s soul as the sea with its foam!
    Woe to Tarpeia, Tarpeia, daughter of Rome!”

=Tarquin=, a name of terror in Roman nurseries.

           The nurse, to still her child, will tell my story,
           And fright her crying babe with Tarquin’s name.
                       Shakespeare, _Rape of Lucrece_ (1594).

_Tarquin_ (_The Fall of_). The well-known Roman story of Sextus
Tarquinius and Lucretia has been dramatized by various persons, as: N.
Lee (1679); John Howard Payne, _Brutus_, or _The Fall of Tarquin_
(1820)--this is the tragedy in which Edmund Kean appeared with his son,
Charles, at Glasgow, the father taking “Brutus” and the son “Titus.”
Arnault produced a tragedy in French, entitled _Lucrèce_, in 1792; and
Ponsard, in 1843. Alfieri has a tragedy called _Brutus_, on the same
subject. It also forms indirectly the subject of one of the lays of Lord
Macaulay, called _The Battle of the Lake Regillus_ (1842), a battle
undertaken by the Sabines for the restoration of Tarquin, but in which
the king and his two sons were left dead upon the field.

=Tarquinia=, wife of Titus, son of Brutus. Titus is one of the
conspirators whose object is to bring back the Tarquins to Rome, and the
sin against the state is palliated by his connection with the proscribed
family. The unhappy son is condemned to death by his own father, and
beheaded in his presence.--John Howard Payne, _Brutus_, a tragedy

=Tarquinius= (_Sextus_), having violated Lucretia, wife of Tarquinius
Collatīnus, caused an insurrection in Rome, whereby the magistracy of
kings was changed for that of consuls.

⁂ A parallel case is given in Spanish history: Roderick, the Goth, king
of Spain, having violated Florinda, daughter of Count Julian, was the
cause of Julian’s inviting over the Moors, who invaded Spain, drove
Roderick from the throne, and the Gothic dynasty was set aside for ever.

=Tartaro=, the Basque Cyclops; of giant stature and cannibal habits, but
not without a rough _bonhommie_. Intellectually very low in the scale,
and invariably beaten in all contests with men. Galled in spirit by his
ill success, the giant commits suicide. Tartaro, the son of a king, was
made a monster out of punishment, and was never to lose his deformity
till he married. One day he asked a girl to be his bride, and on being
refused, sent her “a talking ring,” which talked without ceasing
immediately she put it on; so she cut off her finger and threw it into a
large pond, and there the Tartaro drowned himself.--Rev. W. Webster,
_Basque Legends_, 1-4 (1876).

In one of the Basque legends, Tartaro is represented as a Polyphēmos,
whose one eye is bored out with spits made red hot by some seamen who
had wandered inadvertently into his dwelling. Like Ulysses, the leader
of these seamen made his escape by the aid of a ram, but with this
difference--he did not, like Ulysses, cling to the ram’s belly, but
fastened the ram’s bell round his neck and threw a sheep-skin over his
shoulders. When Tartaro laid hold of the fugitive, the man escaped,
leaving the sheep-skin in the giant’s hand.

=Tartar=, handsome, “eminently well-dressed” and vivacious cousin of the
Crittendens, into whose family Phœbe has married. The country-bred
bride conceives the fancy that the dashing belle is beloved of her
(Phœbe’s) husband, and leaves him in consequence. Tartar, meanwhile,
has long loved--as she believes--hopelessly, Peyton Edwards, a
quietly-reserved young lawyer, whom she finally marries.--Mariam Coles
Harris, _Phœbe_ (1884).

=Tartarin=, a Quixotic Frenchman whose life at home and whose adventures
while travelling are related by Alphonse Daudet in _Tartarin of
Tarascon_, _Tartarin on the Alps_, and _Port Tarascon_.

=Tartlet= (_Tim_), servant of Mrs. Pattypan, to whom also he is engaged
to be married. He says, “I loves to see life, because vy, ’tis so
agreeable.”--James Cobb, _The First Floor_, i. 2 (1756-1818).

=Tartuffe= (2 _syl._), the chief character and title of a comedy by
Molière (1664). Tartuffe is a religious hypocrite and impostor who uses
“religion” as the means of gaining money, covering deceit, and promoting
self-indulgence. He is taken up by one Orgon, a man of property, who
promises him his daughter in marriage, but his true character being
exposed, he is not only turned out of the house, but is lodged in jail
for felony.

Isaac Bickerstaff has adapted Molière’s comedy to the English stage,
under the title of _The Hypocrite_ (1768). Tartuffe he calls “Dr.
Cantwell,” and Orgon “Sir John Lambert.” It is thought that “Tartuffe”
is a caricature of Père la Chaise, the confessor of Louis XIV., who was
very fond of truffles (French, _tartuffes_), and that this suggested the
name to the dramatist.

=Tartuffe of the Revolution.= N. J. Pache is so called by Carlyle

  Swiss Pache sits sleek-headed, frugal, the wonder of his own ally for
  humility of mind.... Sit there Tartuffe, till wanted.--Carlyle.

=Tasnar=, an enchanter, who aided the rebel army arrayed against Misnar,
sultan of Delhi. A female slave undertook to kill the enchanter, and
went with the sultan’s sanction to carry out her promise. She presented
herself to Tasnar and Ahu´bal, and presented papers which she said she
had stolen. Tasnar, suspecting a trick, ordered her to be bow-strung,
and then detected a dagger concealed about her person. Tasnar now put on
the slave’s dress, and, transformed into her likeness, went to the
sultan’s tent. The vizier commanded the supposed slave to prostrate
“herself” before she approached the throne, and while prostrate he cut
off “her” head. The sultan was angry, but the vizier replied, “This is
not the slave, but the enchanter. Fearing this might occur, I gave the
slave a pass-word, which this deceiver did not give, and was thus
betrayed. So perish all the enemies of Mahomet and Misnar, his
vicegerent upon earth!”--Sir C. Morell [J. Ridley], _Tales of the
Genii_, vi. (1751).

=Tasso and Leonora.= When Tasso, the poet, lived in the court of Alfonso
II., the reigning duke of Ferrara, he fell in love with Leonora d’Este
(2 _syl._), the duke’s sister, but “she saw it not or viewed with
disdain” his passion, and the poet, moneyless, fled half mad to Naples.
After an absence of two years, in which the poet was almost starved to
death by extreme poverty, his friends, together with Leonora, induced
the duke to receive him back, but no sooner did he reach Ferrara than
Alfonso sent him to an asylum, and there he was kept for seven years,
when he was liberated by the instigation of the pope, but died soon
afterwards (1544-1595).

=Taste=, a farce by Foote (1753), to expose the imposition of
picture-dealers and sellers of virtu generally.

=Tati´nus=, a Greek who joined the crusaders with a force of 200 men
armed with “crooked sabres” and bows. These Greeks, like the Parthians,
were famous in retreat, but when a drought came they all sneaked off
home.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xiii. (1575).

=Tatius= (_Achilles_), the acolyte, an officer in the Varangian
guard.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Tatlanthe= (3 _syl._) the favorite of Fadladinida (queen of
Queerummania and wife of Chrononhotonthologos). She extols the warlike
deeds of the king, supposing the queen will feel flattered by her
praises; and Fadladinida exclaims, “Art mad, Tatlonthe? Your talk’s
distasteful.... You are too pertly lavish in his praise?” She then
guesses that the queen loves another, and says to herself, “I see that I
must tack about,” and happening to mention “the captive king,”
Fadladinida exclaims, “That’s he! that’s he! that’s he! I’d die ten
thousand deaths to set him free.” Ultimately, the queen promises
marriage to both the captive king and Rigdum-Funnidos “to make matters
easy.” Then, turning to her favorite, she says:

          And now, Tatlanthe, thou art all my care;
          Where shall I find thee such another pair?
          Pity that you, who’ve served so long and well,
          Should die a virgin and lead apes in hell.
          Choose for yourself, dear girl, our empire round;
          Your portion is twelve hundred thousand pound.
                      H. Carey, _Chrononhotonthologos_ (1734).

=Tattle=, a man who ruins characters by innuendo, and so denies a
scandal as to confirm it. He is a mixture of “lying, foppery, vanity,
cowardice, bragging, licentiousness, and ugliness, but a professed beau”
(act i.). Tattle is entrapped into marriage with Mrs. Frail.--Congreve,
_Love for Love_ (1695).

⁂ “Mrs. Candour,” in Sheridan’s _School for Scandal_ (1777), is a Tattle
in petticoats.

=Tattycoram=, a handsome girl, with lustrous dark hair and eyes, who
dressed very neatly. She was taken from the Foundling Asylum (London) by
Mr. Meagles to wait upon his daughter. She was called in the hospital
Harriet Beadle. Harriet was first changed to Hatty, then to Tatty, and
Coram was added because the Foundling stands in Coram street. She was
most impulsively passionate, and when excited had no control over
herself. Miss Wade enticed her away for a time, but afterwards she
returned to her first friends.--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_ (1857)

=Tawny= (_The_). Alexandre Bonvici´no, the historian, was called _Il
Moretto_ (1514-1564).

=Taylor=, “the water-poet.” He wrote four score books, but never learnt
“so much as the accidences” (1580-1654).

            Taylor, their better Charon, lends an oar,
            Once Swan of Thames, tho’ now he sings no more.
                        Pope, _The Dunciad_, iii. 19 (1728).

_Taylor_ (_Dr. Chevalier John_). He called himself “Opthalminator,
Pontificial, Imperial and Royal.” He died, 1767. Hogarth has introduced
him in his famous picture, “The Undertaker’s Arms.” He is one of the
three figures atop, to the left hand of the spectator; the other two are
Mrs. Mapp and Dr. Ward.

=Teacher of Germany= (_The_), Philip Melancthon, the reformer

=Teachwell= (_Mrs._), a pseudonym of Lady Ellinor Fenn, wife of Sir John
Fenn, of East Dereham, Norfolk.

=Teague= (_1 syl._), an Irish lad, taken into the service of Colonel
Careless, a royalist, whom he serves with exemplary fidelity. He is
always blundering, and always brewing mischief, with the most innocent
intentions. His bulls and blunders are amusing and characteristic.--Sir
Robert Howard, _The Committee_ (1670), altered by T. Knight into _The
Honest Thieves._

  Who...has not a recollection of the incomparable Johnstone [_Irish
  Johnstone_] in “Teague,” picturesquely draped in his blanket, and
  pouring forth his exquisite humor and mellifluous brogue in equal
  measure.--Mrs. C. Mathews, _Tea Table Talk._

=Tearless Battle= (_The_), a battle fought B. C. 367, between the
Lacedæmonians and the combined armies of the Arcadians and Argives (_2
syl._). Not one of the Spartans fell, so that, as Plutarch says, they
called it “The Tearless Battle.”

⁂ Not one was killed in the Abyssinian expedition under Sir R. Napier

=Tears--Amber.= The tears shed by the sisters of Pha´ëton were converted
into amber.--_Greek Fable._

According to Pliny (_Natural History_, xxxvii. 2, 11), amber is a
concretion of birds’ tears, but the birds were the sisters of Meleāger,
who never ceased weeping for his untimely death.

=Tearsheet= (_Doll_), a common courtezan.--Shakespeare, 2 _Henry IV._

=Teazle= (_Sir Peter_), a man who, in old age, married a country girl
who proved extravagant, fond of pleasure, selfish and vain. Sir Peter
was for ever nagging at her for her inferior birth and rustic ways, but
secretly loving her and admiring her _naïveté_. He says to Rowley, “I am
the sweetest-tempered man alive, and hate a teasing temper, and so I
tell her ladyship a hundred times a day.”

_Lady Teazle_, a lively, innocent, country maiden, who married Sir
Peter, old enough to be her grandfather. Planted in London in the whirl
of the season, she formed a liaison with Joseph Surface, but, being
saved from disgrace, repented and reformed.--R. B. Sheridan, _School for
Scandal_ (1777).

=Teeth.= Rigord, an historian of the thirteenth century, tells that when
Chosroës, the Persian, carried away the true cross discovered by St.
Helĕna, the number of teeth in the human race was reduced. Before that
time, Christians were furnished with thirty, and in some cases with
thirty-two teeth, but since then no human being has had more than
twenty-three teeth.--See _Historiens de France_, xviii.

⁂ The normal number of teeth is thirty-two still. This “historic fact”
is of a piece with that which ascribes to woman one more rib than to

=Teetotal.= The origin of this word is ascribed to Richard (_Dicky_)
Turner, who, in addressing a temperance meeting in September, 1833,
reduplicated the word _total_ to give it emphasis: “We not only want
_total_ abstinence, we want more, we want t-total abstinence.” The
novelty and force of the expression took the meeting by storm.

It is not correct to ascribe the word to Mr. Swindlehurst, of Preston,
who is erroneously said to have stuttered.

=Te´ian Muse=, Anacreon, born at Teïos, in Ionia, and called by Ovid
(_Tristia_, ii. 364) Teïa Musa (B.C. 563-478).

 The Scian and the Teian Muse ... [_Simonidês and Anacreon_]
 Have found the fame your shores refuse.
             Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 86 (“The Isles of Greece,” 1820).

⁂ Probably Byron meant Simonidês of Ceos. Horace (_Carmĭna_, ii. 1, 38)
speaks of “Ceæ munera neniæ,” meaning Simonidês; but Scios, or Scio,
properly means Chios, one of the seven places which laid claim to Homer.
Both Ceos and Chios, are isles of Greece.

=Tei´lo= (_St._), a Welsh saint, who took an active part against the
Pelagian heresy. When he died, three cities contended for his body, but
happily the strife was ended by the multiplication of the dead body into
three St. Teilos. Capgrave insists that the _ipsissime_ body was
possessed by Llandaff.--_English Martyrology._

=Teirtu’s Harp=, which played of itself, merely by being asked to do so,
and when desired to cease playing, did so.--_The Mabinogion_ (“Kilhwch
and Olwen,” twelfth century).

St. Dunstan’s harp discoursed most enchanting music without being struck
by any player.

The harp of the giant, in the tale of _Jack and the Bean-Stalk_, played
of itself. In one of the old Welsh tales, the dwarf named Dewryn Fychan,
stole from a giant a similar harp.

=Telamachus,= the only son of Ulysses and Penelŏpê. When Ulysses had
been absent from home nearly twenty years, Telemachus went to Pylos and
Sparta, to gain information about him. Nestor received him hospitably at
Pylos, and sent him to Sparta, where Menelāus told him the prophecy of
Proteus (2 _syl._), concerning Ulysses. He then returned home, where he
found his father, and assisted him in slaying the suitors. Telemachus
was accompanied in his voyage by the goddess of wisdom, under the form
of Mentor, one of his father’s friends. (See TELEMAQUE.)--_Greek Fable._

=Télémaque= (_Les Aventures de_) a French prose epic, in twenty-four
books, by Fénelon (1699). The first six books contain the story of the
hero’s adventures, told to Calypso, as Ænēas told the story of the
burning of Troy and his travels from Troy to Carthage to Queen Dido.
Télémaque says to the goddess that he started with Mentor from Ithăca,
in search of his father, who had been absent from home for nearly twenty
years. He first went to inquire of old Nestor if he could give him any
information on the subject, and Nestor told him to go to Sparta, and
have an interview with Menelāus. On leaving Lacedæmonia, he was
shipwrecked off the coast of Sicily, but was kindly treated by King
Acestês, who furnished him with a ship to take him home (bk. i.). This
ship fell into the hands of some Egyptians; he was parted from Mentor,
and sent to feed sheep in Egypt. King Sesostris, conceiving a high
opinion of the young man, would have sent him home, but died, and
Télémaque was incarcerated by his successor in a dungeon overlooking the
sea (bk. ii.). After a time he was released and sent to Tyre. Here he
would have been put to death by Pygmalīon, had he not been rescued by
Astarbê, the king’s mistress (bk. iii.). Again he embarked, reached
Cyprus, and sailed thence to Crete. In this passage he saw Amphitrītê,
the wife of the sea-god, in her magnificent chariot, drawn by sea-horses
(bk. iv.). On landing in Crete, he was told the tale of King Idomĕneus
(4 _syl._), who made a vow if he reached home in safety, after the siege
of Troy, that he would offer in sacrifice the first living being that
came to meet him. This happened to be his own son; but when Idomeneus
proceeded to do according to his vow, the Cretans were so indignant that
they drove him from the island. Being without a ruler, the islanders
asked Télémaque to be their king (bk. v.). This he declined, but Mentor
advised the Cretans to place the reigns of government in the hands of
Aristodēmus. On leaving Crete, the vessel was again wrecked, and
Télémaque, with Mentor, was cast on the island of Calypso (bk vi.). Here
the narrative closes, and the rest of the story gives the several
adventures of Télémaque from this point till he reaches Ithaca. Calypso,
having fallen in love with the young prince, tried to detain him in her
island, and even burnt the ship which Mentor had built to carry them
home; but Mentor determined to quit the island, threw Télémaque from a
crag into the sea, and then leaped in after him. They had now to swim
for their lives, and they kept themselves afloat till they were picked
up by some Tyrians (bk. vii.). The captain of the ship was very friendly
to Télémaque, and promised to take him with his friend to Ithaca, but
the pilot by mistake landed them on Salentum (bk. ix.). Here Télémaque,
being told that his father was dead, determined to go down to the
infernal regions to see him (bk. xviii.). In Hadês he was informed that
Ulysses was still alive (bk. xix.). So he returned to the upper earth
(bk. xxii.), embarked again, and this time reached Ithaca, where he
found his father, and Mentor left him.

=Tell= (_William_), a famous chief of the confederates of the forest
cantons of Switzerland, and son-in-law of Walter Furst. Having refused
to salute the Austrian cap which Gessler, the Austrian governor, had set
up in the market-place of Altorf, he was condemned to shoot an apple
from the head of his own son. He succeeded in this perilous task, but
letting fall a concealed arrow, was asked by Gessler with what object he
had secreted it. “To kill thee, tyrant,” he replied, “if I had failed.”
The governor now ordered him to be carried in chains across the Lake
Lucerne to Küssnacht Castle, “there to be devoured alive by reptiles;”
but, a violent storm having arisen on the lake, he was unchained, that
he might take the helm. Gessler was on board, and when the vessel neared
the castle, Tell leapt ashore, gave the boat a push into the lake, and
shot the governor. After this he liberated his country from the Austrian
yoke (1307).

This story of William Tell is told of a host of persons. For example:
Egil, the brother of Wayland Smith, was commanded by King Nidung to
shoot an apple from the head of his son. Egil, like Tell, took two
arrows, and being asked why, replied, as Tell did to Gessler, “To shoot
thee, tyrant, if I fail in my task.”

A similar story is told of Olaf and Eindridi, in Norway. King Olaf dared
Eindridi to a trial of skill. An apple was placed on the head of
Eindridi’s son, and the king shooting at it grazed the boy’s head, but
the father carried off the apple clean. Eindridi had concealed an arrow
to aim at the king, if the boy had been injured.

Another Norse tale is told of Hemingr and Harald, son of Sigurd (1066).
After various trials of skill, Harald told Hemingr to shoot a nut from
the head of Bjorn, his younger brother. In this he succeeded, not with
an arrow, but with a spear.

A similar tale is related of Geyti, son of Aslak, and the same Harald.
The place of trial was the Faroe Isles. In this case also it was a nut
placed on the head of Bjorn.

Saxo Grammatĭcus tells nearly the same story of Toki, the Danish hero,
and Harald; but in this trial of skill Toki killed Harald.--_Danorum
Regum Heroumque Historia_ (1514).

Reginald Scot says that Puncher shot a penny placed on his son’s head,
but made ready another arrow to slay the Duke Remgrave who had set him
the task (1584).

⁂ It is said of Domitian, the Roman emperor, that if a boy held up his
hands with the fingers spread, he could shoot eight arrows in succession
through the spaces without touching one of the fingers.

William of Cloudesley, to show the king his skill in shooting, bound his
eldest son to a stake, put an apple on his head, and, at the distance of
300 feet, cleft the apple in two without touching the boy.

                   I have a son is seven years old,
                     He is to me full dear,
                   I will hym tye to a stake ...
                   And lay an apple upon his head,
                     And go six score paces hym fro,
                   And I myselfe with a broad arrow
                     Will cleve the apple in two.
                               Percy, _Reliques_.

Similar feats of skill are told of Adam Bell and Clym of the Clough.

In Altorf market-place, the spot is still pointed out where Tell shot
the apple from his son’s head, and a plaster statue stands where the
patriot stood when he took his aim.

          See Roman fire in Hampden’s bosom swell,
          And fate and freedom in the shaft of Tell.
                     Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1799).

⁂ The legend of William Tell has furnished Florian with the subject of a
novel in French (1788); A. M. Lemierre with his tragedy of _Guillaume
Tell_ (1766); Schiller with a tragedy in German, _Wilhelm Tell_ (1804);
Knowles with a tragedy in English, _William Tell_ (1840); and Rossini
with the opera of _Guglielmo Tell_, in Italian (1829).

=Tellus’s Son,= Antæos, son of Posei´don and Gê, a giant wrestler of
Lib´ya, whose strength was irresistible so long as he touched his mother
(_earth_). Herculês, knowing this, lifted him into the air, and crushed
him to death. Near the town of Tingis, in Mauritania, is a hill in the
shape of a man, called “The Hill of Antæos,” and said to be his tomb.

       So some have feigned that Tellus’ giant son
         Drew many new-born lives from his dead mother;
       Another rose as soon as one was done,
         And twenty lost, yet still remained another.
       For when he fell and kissed the barren heath,
       His parent straight inspired successive breath,
       And tho’ herself was dead, yet ransomed him from death.
               Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, ix. (1633).

⁂ Similarly, Bernardo del Carpio lifted Orlando in his arms, and
squeezed him to death, because his body was proof against any instrument
of war.

=Temliha,= king of the serpents, in the island of serpents. King Temliha
was “a small yellow serpent, of a glowing color,” with the gift of human
speech, like the serpent which tempted Eve.--Comte de Caylus, _Oriental
Tales_ (“History of Aboutaleb,” 1743).

=Tem´ora=, the longest of the Ossianic prose-poems, in eight books. The
subject is the dethronement of the kings of Connaught, and consolidation
of the two Irish kingdoms in that of Ulster. It must be borne in mind
that there were two colonies in Ireland--one the Fir-bolg, or British
Belgæ, settled in the south, whose king was called the “lord of Atha,”
from Atha, in Connaught, the seat of government; and the other the Cael,
from Caledonia, in Scotland, whose seat of government was Temŏra, in
Ulster. When Crothar was “lord of Atha,” he wished to unite the two
kingdoms, and, with this view, carried off Conlāma, only child of the
rival king, and married her. The Caledonians of Scotland interfered, and
Conar, the brother of Fingal, was sent with an army against the usurper,
conquered him, reduced the south to a tributary state, and restored, in
his own person, the kingdom of Ulster. After a few years, Cormac II. (a
minor) became king of Ulster and over-lord of Connaught. The Fir-bolg,
seizing this opportunity of revolt, Cairbar, “lord of Atha,” threw off
his subjection, and murdered the young king in his palace of Temora.
Fingal interfered in behalf of the Caels; but no sooner had he landed in
Ireland than Cairbar invited Oscar (Fingal’s grandson) to a banquet,
picked a quarrel with him in the banquet hall, and both fell dead, each
by the other’s hand. On the death of Cairbar, Faldath became leader of
the Fir-bolg, but was slain by Fillan, son of Fingal. Fillan, in turn,
was slain by Clathmor, brother of Cairbar. Fingal now took the lead of
his army in person, slew Clathmor, reduced the Fir-bolg to submission,
and placed on the throne Ferad-Artho, the only surviving descendant of
Conar (first of the kings of Ulster of Caledonian race).

=Tempest= (_The_), a drama by Shakespeare (1609). Prospero and his
daughter, Miranda, lived on a desert island, enchanted by Sycŏrax, who
was dead. The only other inhabitants were Caliban, the son of Sycorax, a
strange, misshapen thing, like a gorilla, and Ariel, a sprite, who had
been imprisoned by Sycorax for twelve years in the rift of a pine tree,
from which Prospero set him free. One day Prospero saw a ship off the
island, and raised a tempest to wreck it. By this means his brother,
Anthonio, Prince Ferdinand, and the king of Naples, were brought to the
island. Now it must be known that Prospero was once duke of Milan; but
his brother, Anthonio, aided by the king of Naples, had usurped the
throne, and set Prospero and Miranda adrift in a small boat, which was
wind-driven to this desert island. Ferdinand (son of the king of Naples)
and Miranda fell in love with each other, and the rest of the
shipwrecked party being brought together by Ariel, Anthonio asked
forgiveness of his brother, Prospero was restored to his dukedom, and
the whole party was conducted by Ariel with prosperous breezes back to

⁂ Dryden has a drama called _The Tempest_ (1668).

_Tempest_ (_The_), a sobriquet of Marshal Junot, one of Napoleon’s
generals, noted for his martial impetuosity (1771-1813).

_Tempest_ (_The Hon. Mr._), late governor of Senegambia. He was the son
of Lord Hurricane; impatient, irascible, headstrong, and poor. He says
he never was in smooth water since he was born, for being only a younger
son, his father gave him no education, taught him nothing, and then
buffeted him for being a dunce.

  First I was turned into the army; there I got broken bones and empty
  pockets. Then I was banished to the coast of Africa, to govern the
  savages of Senegambia.--Act ii. 1.

_Miss Emily_ [_Tempest_], daughter of Mr. Tempest; a great wit of very
lively parts. Her father wanted her to marry Sir David Daw, a great lout
with plenty of money, but she had fixed her heart on Captain Henry
Woodville, the son of a man ruined by gambling. The prospect was not
cheering, but Penruddock came forward, and by making them rich, made
them happy.--Cumberland, _The Wheel of Fortune_ (1779).

_Tempest_ (_Lady Betty_), a lady with beauty, fortune and family, whose
head was turned by plays and romances. She fancied a plain man no better
than a fool, and resolved to marry only a gay, fashionable, dashing
young spark. Having rejected many offers because the suitor did not come
up to her ideal, she was gradually left in the cold. Now she is company
only for aunts and cousins, in the ballroom is a wallflower, and in
society generally esteemed a piece of fashionable lumber.--Goldsmith, _A
Citizen of the World_, xxviii. (1759).

=Templars= (_Knight_), an order of knighthood founded in 1118, for the
defence of the Temple in Jerusalem. Dissolved in 1312, and their lands,
etc., transferred to the Hospitallers. They wore a _white_ robe with a
_red_ cross; but the Hospitallers a _black_ robe with a _white_ cross.

=Temple= (_The_). When Solomon was dying, he prayed that he might remain
standing till the Temple was completely finished. The prayer was
granted, and he remained leaning on his staff till the Temple was
finished, when the staff was gnawed through by a worm, and the dead body
fell to the ground.--_Talmud Legend._

_Temple_ (_Launcelot_), the nom de plume of John Armstrong, the poet

_Temple_ (_Elizabeth_), daughter of Judge Temple and the heroine of two
stirring adventures, the first being an escape, by the intervention of
Leather-Stocking, from a panther, the second from a forest-fire, the
hunter again coming to her aid. She marries Oliver Effingham, whom she
has known as Oliver Edwards.--J. F. Cooper, The Pioneers (1822).

=Templeton= (_Laurence_), the pseudonym under which Sir W. Scott
published Ivanhoe. The preface is initialed L. T., and the dedication is
to the Rev. Dr. Dryasdust (1820).

=Tempy= (_Miss_), New England spinster, who kept her young, loving heart
and through it, her young face, after all contemporaries were old. She
had but one old quince-tree, but she tended it carefully every spring,
“and would look at it so pleasant, and kind of _expect_ the thorny old
thing into blooming.”

  “She was just the same with folks!”--Sarah Orne Jewett, _Miss Tempy’s
  Watchers_ (1888).

=Tenantius=, the father of Cymbeline, and nephew of Cassibelan. He was
the younger son of Lud, king of the southern part of Britain. On the
death of Lud, his younger brother, Cassibelan, succeeded, and on the
death of Cassibelan, the crown came to Tenantius, who refused to pay the
tribute to Rome exacted from Cassibelan, on his defeat by Julius Cæsar.

=Tendo Achillis=, a strong sinew running along the heel to the calf of
the leg. So called because it was the only vulnerable part of Achillês.
The tale is that Thetis held him by the heel when she dipped him in the
Styx, in consequence of which the water did not wet the child’s heel.
The story is post-Homeric.

=Teniers= (_The English_), George Morland (1763-1804).

_Teniers_ (_The Scottish_), Sir David Wilkie (1785-1841).

=Teniers of Comedy= (_The_), Florent Carton Dancourt (1661-1726).

=Tennessee’s Partner=, camp-name for associate and co-worker with a
dare-devil who runs away with the Partner’s wife, returns to camp
without her, and is taken back amicably by the Partner. When Tennessee
is tried for highway robbery the Partner offers “$1700 in coarse gold
and a watch”--his whole fortune--to buy him off. The offer is refused;
Tennessee is hanged. The Partner waits composedly, a little way from the
gallows, with a mule and a cart. “When the gentlemen are done with the
‘diseased,’ he will take him.” “Ef thar is any present”--in his simple,
serious way--“as would like to jine in the fun’l, they ken come.”--Bret
Harte, _Tennessee’s Partner_ (1871).

=Tennis-Ball of Fortune= (_The_), Pertinax, the Roman emperor. He was
first a charcoal-seller, then a schoolmaster, then a soldier, then an
emperor; but within three months he was dethroned and murdered (126-193;
reigned from January 1 to March 28, A.D. 193).

=Tent= (_Prince Ahmed’s_), a tent given to him by the fairy, Pari-Banou.
It would cover a whole army, yet would fold up into so small a compass
that it might be carried in one’s pocket.--_Arabian Nights._

Solomon’s carpet of green silk was large enough to afford standing room
for a whole army, but might be carried about like a pocket-handkerchief.

The ship, _Skidbladnir_, would hold all the deities of Valhalla, but
might be folded up like a roll of parchment.

Bayard, the horse of the four sons of Aymon, grew larger or smaller, as
one or more of the four sons mounted on its back.--Villeneuve, _Les
Quatre Filz Aymon_.

=Tents= (_The father of such as dwell in_), Jabal.--_Gen._ iv. 20.

=Terebin´thus=, Ephes-dammim, or Pasdammim.--_1 Sam._ xvii. 1.

        O, thou that ’gainst Goliath’s impious head
        The youthful arms in Terebinthus sped,
        When the proud foe, who scoffed at Israel’s band,
        Fell by the weapon of a stripling hand.
                    Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, viii. (1575).

=Terence of England= (_The_), Richard Cumberland (1732-1811).

       Here Cumberland lies, having acted his parts;
       The Terence of England, the mender of hearts;
       A flattering painter, who made it his care
       To draw men as they ought to be, not as they are ...
       Say ... wherefore his characters, thus without fault, ...
       Quite sick of pursuing each troublesome elf,
       He grew lazy at last, and drew men from himself.
                   Goldsmith, _Retaliation_ (1774).

=Tere´sa=, the female associate of Ferdinand, Count Fathom.--Smollett,
_Count Fathom_ (1754).

=Teresa d´Acunha=, lady’s-maid of Joceline, countess of Glenallan.--Sir
W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Teresa Panza=, wife of Sancho Panza. In pt. I. i. 7 she is called Dame
Juana [Gutierez]. In pt. II. iv. 7 she is called Maria [Gutierez]. In
pt. I. iv. she is called Joan.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_ (1605-15).

=Tereus= [_Te´.ruse_], king of Daulis, and the husband of Procnê.
Wishing afterwards to marry Philomēla, her sister, he told her that
Procnê was dead. He lived with his new wife for a time, and then cut out
her tongue, lest she should expose his falsehood to Procnê; but it was
of no use, for Philomela made known her story in the embroidery of a
peplus. Tereus rushed after Procnê with an axe, but the whole party were
metamorphosed into birds. Tereus was changed into a hoopoo (some say a
lapwing, and others an owl), Procnê into a swallow, and Philomela into a

              And the mute Silence hist along,
              ’Less Philomel will deign a song
              In her sweetest saddest plight,
              Smoothing the rugged brow of night.
                  *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *
              Sweet bird that shunn’st the noise of folly
              Most musical, most melancholy.

              Milton, _Il Penseroso_.

In _Titus Andronĭcus_ the sons of Tamŏra, after defiling Lavinia, cut
off her tongue and hands, but she wrote her tale in the sand with a
staff held in her mouth and guided by her arms.

             Fair Philomela, she but lost her tongue,
             And in a tedious sampler sewed her mind.
             But, lovely niece, that mean is cut from thee;
             A craftier Tereus, cousin, hast thou met,
             And he hath cut those pretty fingers off,
             That could have better sewed than Philomel.
                                Act ii. sc. 4 (1593).

=Ter´il= (_Sir Walter_). The king exacts an oath from Sir Walter to send
his bride, Cælestina, to court on her wedding night. Her father, to save
her honor, gives her a mixture supposed to be poison, but in reality
only a sleeping draught, from which she awakes in due time, to the
amusement of the king and delight of her husband.--Thomas Dekker,
_Satiromastix_ (1602).

=Termagant=, an imaginary being, supposed by the crusaders to be a
Mohammedan deity. In the _Old Moralities_ the degree of rant was the
measure of the wickedness of the character portrayed; so Pontius Pilate,
Herod, Judas Iscariot, Termagant, the tyrant, Sin, and so on, were all
ranting parts.

  I would have such a fellow whipped for o’er-doing Termagant; it
  out-Herods Herod, pray you, avoid it.--Shakespeare, _Hamlet_, act iii.
  sc. 2 (1596).

_Termagant_, the maid of Harriet Quidnunc. She uses most wonderful
words, as _paradropsical_ for “rhapsodical,” _perjured_ for “assured,”
_phisology_ for “philology,” _curacy_ for “accuracy,” _fignification_
for “signification,” importation for “import,” _anecdote_ for
“antidote,” _infirmaries_ for “infirmities,” _intimidate_ for
“intimate.”--Murphy, _The Upholsterer_ (1758).

=Ter´meros=, a robber of Peloponnesos, who killed his victims by
cracking their skulls against his own.

=Termosi´ris=, a priest of Apollo, in Egypt; wise, prudent, cheerful,
and courteous.--Fénelon, _Télémaque_, ii. (1700).

=Ternotte=, one of the domestics of Lady Eveline Berenger, “the
betrothed.”--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Terpin= (_Sir_), a king who fell into the power of Radigund, queen of
the Amăzons. Refusing to dress in female attire, as she commanded, and
to sew, card wool, spin, and do house work, he was doomed to be gibbeted
by her women. Sir Artegal undertook his cause, and a fight ensued, which
lasted all day. When daylight closed, Radigund proposed to defer the
contest till the following day, to which Sir Artegal acceeded. Next day
the knight was victorious; but when he saw the brave queen bleeding to
death, he took pity on her, and, throwing his sword aside, ran to succor
her. Up started Radigund as he approached, attacked him like a fury,
and, as he had no sword, he was, of course, obliged to yield. So the
contest was decided against him, and Sir Terpin was hung by women, as
Radigund had commanded.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 5 (1596).

=Terpischore= [_Terp.sic´o.re._], the Muse of dancing.--_Greek Fable._

=Terrible= (_The_), Ivan IV. or II. of Russia (1529, 1533-1584).

=Terror of France= (_The_), John Talbot, first earl of Shrewsbury

      Is this the Talbot, so much feared abroad,
      That with his name the mothers still their babes?
                  Shakespeare, _1 Henry VI._ act ii. sc. 3 (1589).

=Terror of the World= (_The_), Attĭla, king of the Huns (*-453).

=Terry Alts=, a lawless body of rebels, who sprang up in Clare (Ireland)
after the union.

The “Thrashers” of Connaught, the “Carders,” the followers of “Captain
Right,” in the eighteenth century, those of “Captain Rock,” who appeared
in 1822, and the “Fenians,” in 1865, were similar disturbers of the

=Tesoretto= (“The Little Treasure,”) an Italian poem by Brunetto Latini,
preceptor of Dantê (1285). The poem is one of the landmarks in the
development of the Italian language. The poet says he was returning from
an embassy to the king of Spain, and met a scholar who told him of the
overthrow of the Guelfi. Struck with grief, he lost his road, and
wandered into a wood, where Dame Nature accosted him, and disclosed to
him the secrets of her works. On he wandered till he came to a vast
plain, inhabited by Virtue and her four daughters, together with
Courtesy, Bounty, Loyalty, and Prowess. Leaving this, he came to a
fertile valley, which was for ever shifting its appearance, from round
to square, from light to darkness. This was the valley of Queen
Pleasure, who was attended by Love, Hope, Fear, and Desire. Ovid comes
to the poet at length and tells him how to effect his escape. Dantê
meets Brunetto Latini in Hell, and praises his poem.

=Tes´sira=, one of the leaders of the Moorish host.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

=Tests of Chastity.= Alasnam’s mirror; the brawn or boar’s head;
DRINKING-HORN); Florimel’s girdle; grotto of Ephesus; the test mantle;
oath on St. Antony’s arm was held in supreme reverence because it was
believed that whoever took the oath falsely would be consumed by “St.
Antony’s fire” within the current year; the trial of the sieve.

=Tests of Fidelity.= Canacê’s mirror; Gondibert’s emerald ring. The
corsned or “cursed mouthful,” a piece of bread consecrated by exorcism,
and given to the “suspect” to swallow as a test. “May this morsel choke
me if I am guilty,” said the defendant, “but turn to wholesome
nourishment if I am innocent.” Ordeals, combats between plaintiff and
defendant, or their representatives.

=Tête Bottée=, Philippe de Commines [_Cum.min_], politician and
historian (1445-1509).

            You, Sir Philippe des Comines [_sic_] were at a
            hunting-match with the duke, your master; and
            when he alighted, after the chase, he required
            your services in drawing off his boots. Reading
            in your looks some natural resentment, ...
            he ordered you to sit down in turn, and rendered
            you the same office ... but ... no
            sooner had he plucked one of your boots off
            than he brutally beat it about your head ...
            and his privileged fool, Le Gloirieux, ... gave
            you the name of _Tête Bottée_.--Sir W. Scott,
            _Quentin Durward_, xxx. (time, Edward IV.).

=Te´thys=, daughter of Heaven and Earth, the wife of Ocean and mother of
the river-gods. In poetry it means the sea generally.

                 The golden sun above the watery bed
                 Of hoary Têthys raised his beamy head.
                             Hoole’s _Ariosto_, viii.

            By the earth-shaking Neptune’s mace [_trident_],
            And Têthy’s grave majestic pace.
                        Milton, _Comus_, 870 (1634).

=Tetrachor´don=, the title of one of Milton’s books about marriage and
divorce. The word means “the four strings;” and refers to the four chief
places in Scripture which bear on the subject of marriage.

             A book was writ of late called _Tetrachordon_.
                         Milton, _Sonnet_, x.

=Teucer=, son of Telămon of Salămis, and brother of Telamon Ajax. He was
the best archer of all the Greeks at the siege of Troy.

  I may, like a second Teucer, discharge my shafts from behind the
  shield of my ally.--Sir W. Scott.

=Teufelsdroeckh= (_Herr_), pronounce _Toi.felz.drurk_; an eccentric
German professor and philosopher. The object of this satire is to expose
all sorts of shams, social as well as intellectual.--Carlyle, _Sartor
Resartus_ (1849).

=Teutonic Knights= (_The_), an order organized by Frederick, duke of
Suabia, in Palestine (1190). St. Louis gave them permission to quarter
on their arms the _fleur de lis_ (1250). The order was abolished, in
1809, by Napoleon I.

=Tewksburys= (_The_), “Society” couple, always bickering, and always
making up, inveighing against the boredom of society duties, yet bent
upon complying with every by-law, and sacrificing time and happiness to
their idol.--Philip Henry Welch, _The Tailor-Made Girl_ (1888).

=Texartis=, a Scythian soldier, killed by the Countess Brenhilda.--Sir
W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Tezoz´omoc=, chief of the priests of the Az´tecas. He fasted ten months
to know how to appease the national gods, and then declared that the
only way was to offer “the White Strangers” on their altars. Tezozomoc
was killed by burning lava from a volcanic mountain.

             Beholds the judgment ... and sees
             The lava floods beneath him. His hour
             Is come. The fiery shower, descending, heaps
             Red ashes round. They fall like drifted snows,
             And bury and consume the accursed priest.
                         Southey, _Madoc_, ii. 26 (1805).

=Thaddeus of Warsaw=, the hero and title of a novel by Jane Porter

=Thaddu=, the father of Morna, who became the wife of Comhal and the
mother of Fingal.--Ossian.

=Tha´is= (2 _syl._), an Athenian courtezan, who induced Alexander, in
his cups, to set fire to the palace of the Persian kings at Persepŏlis.

            The king seized a flambeau with zeal to destroy;
              Thaïs led the way to light him to his prey,
            And, like another Helen, fired another Troy.
                        Dryden, _Alexanders Feast_ (1697).

=Thaïs´a=, daughter of Simon´idês, king of Pentap´olis. She married
Periclês, prince of Tyre. In her voyage to Tyre Thaïsa gave birth to a
daughter, and dying, as it was supposed, in childbirth, was cast into
the sea. The chest in which she was placed drifted to Ephesus, and fell
into the hands of Cer´imon, a physician, who soon discovered that she
was not dead. Under proper care, she entirely recovered, and became a
priestess in the temple of Diana. Periclês, with his daughter and her
betrothed husband, visiting the shrine of Diana, became known to each
other, and the whole mystery was cleared up.--Shakespeare, _Pericles,
Prince of Tyre_ (1608).

=Thal´aba ebn Hateb=, a poor man, who came to Mahomet, requesting him to
beg God to bestow on him wealth, and promising to employ it in works of
godliness. The “prophet” made the petition, and Thalaba rapidly grew
rich. One day Mahomet sent to the rich man for alms, but Thalaba told
the messengers their demand savored more of tribute than of charity, and
refused to give anything; but afterwards repenting, he took to the
“prophet” a good round sum. Mahomet now refused to accept it, and,
throwing dust on the ungrateful churl, exclaimed, “Thus shall thy wealth
be scattered!” and the man became poor again as fast as he had grown
rich.--_Al Korân_, ix. (Sale’s notes).

=Thal´aba, the Destroyer=--that is, the destroyer of the evil spirits of
Dom-Daniel. He was the only surviving child of Hodei´rah (3 _syl._), and
his wife, Zeinab (2 _syl._); their other eight children had been cut off
by the Dom-Danielists, because it had been decreed by fate that “one of
the race would be their destruction.” When a mere stripling, Thalăba was
left motherless and fatherless (bk. i.); he then found a home in the
tent of a Bedouin named Mo´ath, who had a daughter, Onei´za (3 _syl._).
Here he was found by Abdaldar, an evil spirit, sent from Dom-Daniel to
kill him; but the spirit was killed by a simoom, just as he was about to
stab the boy, and Thalaba was saved (bk. ii.). He now drew from the
finger of Abdaldar, the magic ring, which gave him power over all
spirits; and, thus armed, he set out to avenge the death of his father
(bk. iii.). On his way to Babylon he was encountered by a merchant, who
was in reality the sorcerer, Loba´ba, in disguise. This sorcerer led
Thalaba astray into the wilderness, and then raised up a whirlwind to
destroy him; but the whirlwind was the death of Lobaba himself, and
again Thalaba escaped (bk. iv.). He reached Babylon at length, and met
there Mohāreb, another evil spirit, disguised as a warrior, who
conducted him to the “mouth of hell.” Thalaba detected the villainy, and
hurled the false one into the abyss (bk. v.). The young “Destroyer” was
next conveyed to “the paradise of pleasure,” but he resisted every
temptation, and took to flight just in time to save Oneiza, who had been
brought there by violence (bk. vi.). He then killed Aloa´din, the
presiding spirit of the garden, with a club, was made vizier, and
married Oneiza, but she died on the bridal night (bk. vii.). Distracted
at this calamity, he wandered towards Kâf, and entered the house of an
old woman, who was spinning thread. Thalaba expressed surprise at its
extreme fineness, but Maimu´na (the old woman) told him, fine as it was,
he could not break it. Thalaba felt incredulous, and wound it round his
wrists, when, lo! he became utterly powerless; and Maimuna, calling up
her sister, Khwala, conveyed him helpless to the island of Moha´reb (bk.
viii.). Here he remained for a time, and was at length liberated by
Maimuna, who repented of her sins, and turned to Allah (bk. ix.). Being
liberated from the island of Mohāreb, our hero wandered, cold and
hungry, into a dwelling, where he saw Laila, the daughter of Okba, the
sorcerer. Okba rushed forward with intent to kill him, but Laila
interposed, and fell dead by the hand of her own father (bk. x.). Her
spirit, in the form of a green bird, now became the guardian angel of
“The Destroyer,” and conducted him to the simorg, who directed him the
road to Dom-Daniel (bk. xi.), which he reached in time, slew the
surviving sorcerers, and was received into heaven (bk. xii.).--Southey,
_Thalaba, the Destroyer_ (1797).

=Thales´tris=, queen of the Amazons. Any bold, heroic woman.

      As stout Armi´da [_q.v._], bold Thalestris,
      And she [_Rhodalind q.v._] that would have been the mistress
      Of Gondibert.
                  S. Butler, _Hudibras_, i. 2 (1663).

=Tha´lia=, the Muse of pastoral song. She is often represented with a
crook in her hand.

         Turn to the gentler melodies which suit
         Thalia’s harp, or Pan’s Arcadian lute.
                     Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1790).

=Thaliard=, a lord of Antioch.--Shakespeare, _Pericles, Prince of Tyre_

=Tham´muz=, God of the Syrians, and fifth in order of the hierarchy of
hell: (1) Satan, (2) Beëlzebub, (3) Moloch, (4) Chemos, (5) Thammuz (the
same as Ado´nis). Thammuz was slain by a wild boar in Mount Lebanon,
from whence the river Adonis descends, the water of which, at a certain
season of the year, becomes reddened. Addison saw it, and ascribes the
redness to a minium washed into the river by the violence of the rain.

         Thammuz came next behind,
       Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured
       The Syrian damsels to lament his fate
       In amorous ditties all a summer’s day;
       While smooth Adonis from his native rock
       Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood
       Of Thammuz yearly wounded.
                   Milton, _Paradise Lost_, i. 446, etc. (1665).

=Thamu´dites= (3 _syl._), people of the tribe of Thamûd. They refused to
believe in Mahomet without seeing a miracle. On a grand festival, Jonda,
prince of the Thamûdites, told Sâleh, the prophet, that the god which
answered by miracle should be acknowledged God by both. Jonda and the
Thamûdites first called upon their idols, but received no answer. “Now,”
said the prince to Sâleh, “if God will bring a camel big with young from
that rock, we will believe.” Scarcely had he spoken, when the rock
groaned and shook and opened; and forthwith there came a camel, which
there and then cast its young one. Jonda became at once a convert, but
the Thamûdites held back. To add to the miracle, the camel went up and
down among the people crying, “Ho! every one that thirsteth, let him
come, and I will give him milk!” (compare _Isaiah_ lv. 1.).

  Unto the tribe of Thamûd we sent their brother, Sâleh. He said, “O, my
  people, worship God; ye have no god besides him. Now hath a manifest
  proof come unto you from the Lord. This she-camel of God is a sign
  unto you; therefore dismiss her freely ... and do her no hurt, lest a
  painful punishment seize upon you.”--_Al Korân_, vii.

⁂ There is a slight resemblance between this story and that of the
contest between Elijah and the priests of Baal, so graphically described
in _1 Kings_ xviii.

=Tham´yris= (_Blind_), a Thracian poet, who challenged the Muses to a
contest of song, and was deprived of sight, voice, and musical skill for
his presumption (Pliny, _Natural History_, iii. 33, and vii. 57).
Plutarch says he had the finest voice of any one, and that he wrote a
poem on the _War of the Titans with the Gods_. Suidas tells us that he
composed a poem on creation. And Plato, in his _Republic_ (last book),
feigns that the spirit of the blind old bard passed into a nightingale
at death. Milton speaks of:

             Blind Thamyris and blind Mæon´idês [_Homer_].
                         _Paradise Lost_, iii. 35 (1665).

=Thanatopsis.= “View of, or meditation upon death.”

W. C. Bryant’s poem bearing this name was written when he was but
nineteen years old (1818). It is the best of his poems.

=Thancmar=, châtelain of Bourbourg, the great enemy of Bertulphe, the
provost of Bruges. Charles “the Good,” earl of Flanders, made a law in
1127, that a serf was always a serf till manumitted, and whoever married
a serf became a serf. By these absurd laws, the provost of Bruges became
a serf, because his father was Thancmar’s serf. By the same laws,
Bouchard, though a knight of long descent became Thancmar’s serf,
because he married Constance, the provost’s daughter. The result of
these laws was that Bertulphe slew the earl and then himself, Constance
went mad and died, Bouchard and Thancmar slew each other in fight, and
all Bruges was thrown into confusion.--S. Knowles, _The Provost of
Bruges_ (1836).

=Thaumast=, an English pundit, who went to Paris, attracted by the rumor
of the great wisdom of Pantag´ruel. He arranged a disputation with that
prince, to be carried on solely by pantomime, without the utterance of a
single word. Panurge undertook the disputation for the prince, and
Pantagruel was appointed arbiter. Many a knotty point in magic, alchemy,
the cabala, geomancy, astrology, and philosophy were argued out by signs
alone, and the Englishman freely confessed himself fully satisfied, for
“Panurge had told him even more than he had asked.”--Rabelais,
_Pantagruel_, ii. 19, 20 (1533).

=Thaumaturga.= Filumēna is called _La Thaumaturge du Dixneuvième
Siecle_. In 1802, a grave was discovered with this inscription: LUMENA
PAXTE CVMFI, which has no meaning, but being re-arranged makes PAX
TE-CUM, FI-LUMENA. So Filumena was at once accepted as a proper name and
canonized. And because as many miracles were performed at her tomb as at
that of the famous Abbé de Paris, mentioned in Paley’s _Evidences_, she
was called “The Nineteenth-Century Miracle-Worker.” But who Filumena
was, or if indeed she ever existed, is one of those secrets which no
one, perhaps, will ever know. (See ST. FILOMENA.)

=Thaumatur´gus.= Gregory, bishop of Neo-Cæsarēa, in Cappadocia, was so
called on account of his numerous miracles (212-270).

ALEXANDER OF HOHENLOHE, was a worker of miracles.

APOLLONIUS OF TYA´NA, “raised the dead, healed the sick, cast out
devils, freed a young man from a lamia or vampire of which he was
enamored, uttered prophecies, saw at Ephesus the assassination of
Domitian at Rome, and filled the world with the fame of his sanctity”
(A.D. 3-98).--Philostrătos, _Life of Apollonius of Tyana_, in eight

FRANCIS D’ASSISI (_St._), founder of the Franciscan order (1182-1226).

J. J. GASSNER, of Bratz, in the Tyrol, exorcised the sick and cured
their diseases “miraculously” (1727-1779).

ISIDORE (_St._) of Alexandria (370-440).--Damascius, _Life of St.
Isidore_ (sixth century).

JAMBLICHUS, when he prayed, was raised ten cubits from the ground, and
his body and dress assumed the appearance of gold. At Gadăra he drew
from two fountains the guardian spirits, and showed them to his
disciples.--Eunapius, _Jamblichus_ (fourth century).

MAHOMET, “the prophet.” (1) When he ascended to heaven on Al Borak, the
stone on which he stepped to mount rose in the air as the prophet rose,
but Mahomet forbade it to follow any further, and it remained suspended
in mid-air. (2) He took a scroll of the _Korân_ out of a bull’s horn.
(3) He brought the moon from heaven, made it pass through one sleeve and
out of the other, and then allowed it to return to its place in heaven.

PASCAL (_Blaise_) was a miracle-worker (1623-1662).

PLOTI´NUS, the Neo-platonic philosopher (205-270).--Porphyrius, _Vita
Plotini_ (A.D. 301).

PROCLUS, a Neo-platonic philosopher (410-485).--Marinus, _Vita Procli_
(fifth century).

SOSPITRA possessed the power of seeing all that was done in every part
of the whole world.--Eunapius, _Œdeseus_ (fourth century).

VESPASIAN, the Roman emperor, cured a blind man and a cripple by his
touch during his stay at Alexandria.

VINCENT DE PAUL, founder of the “Sisters of Charity” (1576-1660).

=Thaumaturgus Physicus,= a treatise on natural magic, by Gaspar Schott

=Thaumaturgus of the West,= St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153).

=Theag´enes and Chariclei´a= (_The Loves of_), a love story, in Greek,
by Heliodorus, bishop of Trikka (fourth century). A charming fiction,
largely borrowed from by subsequent novelists, and especially by Mdlle.
de Scudéri, Tasso, Guarini and D’Urfé. The tale is this: Some Egyptian
brigands met one morning on a hill near the mouth of the Nile, and saw a
vessel, laden with stores, lying at anchor. They also observed that the
banks of the Nile were strewn with dead bodies and the fragments of
food. On further examination they beheld Charicleia sitting on a rock,
tending Theagĕnês, who lay beside her severely wounded. Some pirates had
done it, and to them the vessel belonged. We are then carried to the
house of Nausĭclês, and there Calasīris tells the early history of
Charicleia, her love for Theagenês, and their capture by the pirates.

=Thea´na= (_3 syl._) is Anne, countess of Warwick.

      No less praiseworthy I Theana read ...
      She is the well of bounty and brave mind,
      Excelling most in glory and great light,
      The ornament is she of womankind,
      And court’s chief garland with all virtues dight.
                  Spenser, _Colin Clout’s Come Home Again_ (1595).

=Thebaid= (_The_), a Latin epic poem in twelve books, by Statius (about
a century after Virgil). Laïos, king of Thebes, was told by an oracle
that he would have a son, but that his son would be his murderer. To
prevent this, when the son was born he was hung on a tree by his feet,
to be devoured by wild beasts. The child, however, was rescued by some
of the royal servants, who brought him up, and called his name Œdĭpos
or Club-foot, because his feet and ankles were swollen by the thongs.
One day, going to Thebes, the chariot of Laïos nearly drove over the
young Œdipos; a quarrel ensued, and Laïos was killed. Œdipos, not
knowing whom he had slain, went on to Thebes, and ere long married the
widowed queen, Jocasta, not knowing that she was his mother, and by her
he had two sons and two daughters. The names of the sons were Et´eoclês
and Polynīcês. These sons in time dethroned their father, and agreed to
reign alternate years. Etĕŏclês reigned first, but at the close of the
year refused to resign the crown to his brother, and Polynicês made war
upon him. This war, which occurred some forty-two years before the siege
of Troy, and about the time that Debŏrah was fighting with Sisĕra
(_Judges_ iv.), is the subject of the _Thebaid_.

The first book recapitulates the history given above, and then goes on
to say that Polynicês went straight to Argos, and laid his grievance
before King Adrastos (bk. i.). While at Argos he married one of the
king’s daughters, and Tydeus the other. The festivities being over,
Tydeus was sent to Thebes to claim the throne for his brother-in-law,
and, being insolently dismissed, denounced war against Eteoclês. The
villainous usurper sent fifty ruffians to fall on the ambassador on his
way to Argos, but they were all slain, except one, who was left to carry
back the news (bk. ii). When Tydeus reached Argos he wanted his
father-in-law to march at once against Thebes, but Adrastos, less
impetuous, made answer that a great war required time for its
organization. How ever, Kapăneus (3 _syl._), siding with Tydeus
[_Ti´.duce_], roused the mob (bk. iii.), and Adrastos at once set about
preparations for war. He placed his army under six chieftains, viz.,
Polynicês, Tydeus, Amphiarāos, Kapaneus, Parthenopæos and Hippomĕdon, he
himself acting as commander-in-chief (bk. iv.). Bks. v., vi. describe
the march from Argos to Thebes. On the arrival of the allied army before
Thebes, Jocasta tried to reconcile her two sons, but, not succeeding in
this, hostilities commenced, and one of the chiefs, named Amphiaraos,
was swallowed up by an earthquake (bk. vii.). Next day Tydeus greatly
distinguished himself, but fell (bk. viii.). Hippomedon and Parthenopæos
were both slain the day following (bk. ix.). Then came the turn of
Kapaneus, bold as a tiger, strong as a giant, and a regular dare-devil
in war. He actually scaled the wall, he thought himself sure of victory,
he defied even Jove to stop him, and was instantly killed by a flash of
lightning (bk. x.). Polynicês was now the only one of the six remaining,
and he sent to Eteoclês to meet him in single combat. The two brothers
met, they fought like lions, they gave no quarter, they took no rest. At
length Eteoclês fell, and Polynicês, running up to strip him of his
arms, was thrust through the bowels, and fell dead on the dead body of
his brother. Adrastos now decamped, and returned to Argos (bk. xi.).
Creon, having usurped the Theban crown, forbade any one, on pain of
death, to bury the dead; but when Theseus, king of Athens, heard of this
profanity, he marched at once to Thebes, Creon died, and the crown was
given to Theseus (bk. xii.).

=Theban Bard= (_The_), THEBAN EAGLE or THEBAN LYRE, Pindar, born at
Thebes (B.C. 522-442).

         Ye that in fancied vision can admire
         The sword of Brutus and the Theban lyre.
                     Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1799).

=Thecla= (_St._) said to be of noble family, in Ico´nium, and to have
been converted by the Apostle Paul. She is styled in Greek martyrologies
the _protomartyress_, but the book called _The Acts of Paul and Thecla_
is considered to be apocryphal.

                  On the selfsame shelf
          With the writings of St. Thecla herself.
                      Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Thekla=, daughter of Wallenstein.--Schiller, _Wallenstein_ (1799).

=Thélème= (_Abbey of_) the abbey given by Grangousier to Friar John for
the aid he rendered in the battle against Picrochole, king of Lerné. The
abbey was stored with everything that could contribute to sensual
indulgence and enjoyment. It was the very reverse of a convent or
monastery. No religious hypocrites, no pettifogging attorneys, no
usurers were admitted within it, but it was filled with gallant ladies
and gentlemen, faithful expounders of the Scriptures, and every one who
could contribute to its elegant recreations and general festivity. The
motto over the door was: “FAY CE QUE VOULDRAS.”--Rabelais, _Gargantua_,
i. 52-7 (1533).

_Thélème_, the Will personified. Voltaire, _Thélème and Macare_.

=The´lu=, the female or woman.

     And divers colored trees and fresh array [_hair_]
     Much grace the town [_head_], but most the Thelu gay;
     But all in winter [_old age_] turn to snow and soon decay.
                 Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, v. (1633).

=Thenot=, an old shepherd bent with age, who tells Cuddy, the herdsman’s
boy, the fable of the oak and the briar. An aged oak, once a most royal
tree, was wasted by age of its foliage, and stood with bare head and
sear branches. A pert bramble grew hard by, and snubbed the oak, calling
it a cumberer of the ground. It even complained to the lord of the
field, and prayed him to cut it down. The request was obeyed, and the
oak was felled; but now the bramble suffered from the storm and cold,
for it had no shelter, and the snow bent it to the ground, where it was
draggled and defiled. The application is very personal. Cuddy is the
pert, flippant bramble, and Thenot the hoary oak; but Cuddy told the old
man his tale was long and trashy, and bad him hie home, for the sun was
set.--Spenser, _Shepheardes Calendar_, ii. (1579).

(Thenot is introduced also in ecl. iv., and again in ecl. xi., where he
begs Colin to sing something, but Colin declines because his mind is
sorrowing for the death of the shepherdess Dido.)

_Thenot_, a shepherd who loved Clorin chiefly for her “fidelity” to her
deceased lover. When the “faithful shepherdess” knew this, in order to
cure him of his passion, she pretended to return his love. Thenot was so
shocked to see his charm broken that he lost even his respect for
Clorin, and forsook her.--John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherdess_

=Theocritus,= of Syracuse, in Sicily (fl. B.C. 280), celebrated for his
idylls in Doric Greek. Meli is the person referred to below.

                   Behold once more,
               The pitying gods to earth restore
               Theocritus of Syracuse.
                Longfellow, The _Wayside Inn_ (prelude 1863).

_Theocritus_ (_The Scotch_), Allan Ramsay, author of _The Gentle
Shepherd_ (1685-1758).

_Theocritus_ (_The Sicilian_), Giovanni Meli, of Palermo, immortalized
by his eclogues and idylls (1740-1815).

=Theod´ofred=, heir to the Spanish throne, but incapacitated from
reigning, because he had been blinded by Witiza. Theodofred was the son
of Chindasuintho, and father of King Roderick. As Witiza, the usurper,
had blinded Theodofred, so Roderick dethroned and blinded
Witiza.--Southey, _Roderick, etc._ (1814).

⁂ In mediæval times no one with any personal defect was allowed to reign
and one of the most ordinary means of disqualifying a prince for
succeeding to a throne was to put out his eyes. Of course, the reader
will call to mind the case of Prince Arthur, the nephew of King John;
and scores of other instances in Italian, French, Spanish, German,
Russian, and Scandinavian history.

=Theod´omas=, a famous trumpeter at the siege of Thebes.

          At every court ther cam loud menstralcye
          That never trompêd Joab for to heere,
          Ne he Theodomas yit half so cleere
          At Thebês, when the citê was in doute.
               Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_, 9592, etc. (1338).

=Theodo´ra=, sister of Constantine, the Greek emperor. She entertained
most bitter hatred against Rogēro for slaying her son, and vowed
vengeance. Rogero, being entrapped in sleep, was confined by her in a
dungeon, and fed on the bread and water of affliction, but was
ultimately released by Prince Leon.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=The´odore= (3 _syl._), son of General Archas, “the loyal subject”
of the great-duke of Muscovia. A colonel, valorous, but
impatient.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Loyal Subject_ (1618).

_Theodore_ (3 _syl._), of Ravenna, brave, rich, honored, and chivalrous.
He loved Honōria “to madness,” but “found small favor in the lady’s
eyes.” At length, however, the lady relented and married him. (See
HONORIA.)--Dryden, _Theodore and Honoria_ (from Boccaccio).

_Theodore_, son of the lord of Clarinsal, and grandson of Alphonso. His
father thought him dead, renounced the world, and became a monk of St.
Nicholas, assuming the name of Austin. By chance Theodore was sent home
in a Spanish bark, and found his way into some secret passage of the
count’s castle, where he was seized and taken before the count. Here he
met the monk, Austin, and was made known to him. He informed his father
of his love for Adelaide, the count’s daughter, and was then told that
if he married her, he must renounce his estates and title. The case
stood thus: If he claimed his estates, he must challenge the count to
mortal combat, and renounce the daughter; but if he married Adelaide, he
must forego his rights, for he could not marry the daughter and slay his
father-in-law. The perplexity is solved by the death of Adelaide, killed
by her father by mistake, and the death of the count by his own
hand.--Robert Jephson, _Count of Narbonne_ (1782).

_Theod´orick_, king of the Goths, called by the German minnesingers,
Diderick of Bern (Verōna).

_Theodorick_, or “Alberick of Mortemar,” an exiled nobleman, hermit of
Engaddi, and an enthusiast.--Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard

=Theodorus= (_Master_), a learned physician, employed by Ponocratês to
cure Gargantua of his vicious habits. The doctor accordingly “purged him
canonically with Anticyrian hellebore, cleansed from his brain all
perverse habits, and made him forget everything he had learned of his
other preceptors.”--Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 23.

  Hellebore was made use of to purge the brain, in order to fit it the
  better for serious study.--Pliny, _Natural History_, xxv. 25; Aulus
  Gellius, _Attic Nights_, xvii. 15.

=Theodo´sius=, the hermit of Cappadocia. He wrote the four gospels in
letters of gold (423-529).

              Theodosius, who of old.
          Wrote the gospels in letters of gold.
                      Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Theophilus= (_St._), of Adana, in Cilicia (sixth century). He was
driven by slander to sell his soul to the devil, on condition that his
character was cleared. The slander was removed, and no tongue wagged
against the thin-skinned saint. Theophilus now repented of his bargain,
and after a fast of forty days and forty nights, was visited by the
Virgin, who bade him confess to the bishop. This he did, received
absolution, and died within three days of brain fever.--Jacques de
Voragine, _The Golden Legends_ (thirteenth century).

This is a very stale trick, told of many a saint. Southey has poetized
one of them in his ballad of _St. Basil_, or _The Sinner Saved_ (1829).
Elĕēmon sold his soul to the devil on condition of his procuring him
Cyra for wife. The devil performed his part of the bargain, but Eleemon
called off, and St. Basil gave him absolution. (See SINNER SAVED.)

=Theophras´tus of France= (_The_), Jean de la Bruyère, author of
_Caractères_ (1646-1696).

=Theresa=, the miller’s wife, who adopted and brought up Amīna, the
orphan, called “the somnambulist.”--Bellini, _La Sonnambula_ (libretto
by Scribe, 1831).

_Therēsa_, wife of the count palatine of Padōlia, beloved by Mazeppa.
Her father, indignant that a mere page should presume to his daughter’s
hand, had Mazeppa bound to a wild horse, and set adrift. The future
history of Theresa is not related.--Byron, _Mazeppa_ (1819).

  Medora [_wife of the Corsair_], Neuha [in _The Island_], Leila [in
  _The Giaour_], Francesca [in _The Siege of Corinth_], and Theresa, it
  has been alleged, are but children of one family, with differences
  resulting only from climate and circumstances.--Finden, _Byron

  _Theresa_ (_Sister_), with Flora M’Ivor at Carlisle.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

  =Theringe= (_Mde. de_), the mother of Louise de Lascours, and
  grandmother of Diana de Lascours and Martha, _alias_ Orgari´ta, “the
  orphan of the Frozen Sea.”--E. Stirling, _The Orphan of the Frozen
  Sea_ (1856).

  =Thermopylæ.= When Xerxes invaded Greece, Leonĭdas was sent with 300
  Spartans, as a forlorn hope, to defend the pass leading from Thessaly
  into Locris, by which it was thought the Persian host would penetrate
  into Southern Greece. The Persians, however, having discovered a path
  over the mountains, fell on Leonidas in the rear, and the “brave
  defenders of the hot-gates” were cut to pieces.

  =Theron=, the favorite dog of Roderick, the last Gothic king of Spain.
  When the discrowned king, dressed as a monk, assumed the name of
  “Father Maccabee,” although his tutor, mother, and even Florinda
  failed to recognize him, Theron knew him at once, fawned on him with
  fondest love, and would never again leave him till the faithful
  creature died. When Roderick saw his favorite,

        He threw his arms around the dog, and cried,
        While tears streamed down, “Thou, Theron, thou hast known
        Thy poor lost master; Theron, none but thou!”
                    Southey, _Roderick, etc._, xv. (1814).

  =Thersi´tes= (3 _syl._), a scurrilous Grecian chief, “loquacious,
  loud, and coarse.” His chief delight was to inveigh against the kings
  of Greece. He squinted, halted, was gibbous behind and pinched before,
  and on his tapering head grew a few white patches of starveling down
  (_Iliad_, ii.).

   His brag, as Thersītês, with elbows abroad.
      T. Tusser, _Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry_, liv. (1557).

  =The´seus= (2 _syl._), the Attic hero. He induced the several towns of
  Attica to give up their separate governments and submit to a common
  jurisdiction, whereby the several petty chiefdoms were consolidated
  into one state, of which Athens was the capital.

  ⁂ Similarly, the several kingdoms of the Saxon heptarchy were
  consolidated into one kingdom by Egbert; but in this latter case, the
  might of arms, and not the power of conviction, was the instrument

  _Theseus_ (_Duke_) of Athens. On his return home, after marrying
  Hypolĭta, a crowd of female suppliants complained to him of Creon,
  king of Thebes. The duke therefore set out for Thebes, slew Creon, and
  took the city by assault. Among the captives taken in this siege were
  two knights, named Palămon and Arcite, who saw the duke’s sister from
  their dungeon window, and fell in love with her. When set at liberty,
  they told their loves to the duke, and Theseus (2 _syl._) promised to
  give the lady to the best man in a single combat. Arcite overthrew
  Palamon, but as he was about to claim the lady his horse threw him,
  and he died; so Palamon lost the contest, but won the bride.--Chaucer,
  _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Knight’s Tale,” 1388).

  ⁂ In classic story, Theseus is called “king;” but Chaucer styles him
  “duke,” that is, dux, “leader or emperor” (_imperātor_).

  =Thespian Maids= (_The_), the nine Muses. So called from Thespia, in
  Bœotia, near Mount Helĭcon, often called _Thespia Rupes_.

           Those modest Thespian maids thus to their Isis sung.
                       Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xv. (1613).

  =Thespi´o=, a Muse. The Muses were called Thespi´adês, from Thespīa,
  in Bœo´tia, at the foot of mount Helĭcon.

          Tell me, oh, tell me then, thou holy Muse,
          Sacred Thespīo.
             Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vii. (1633).

  =Thespis=, the father of the Greek drama.

           Thespis, the first professor of our art,
           At country wakes sang ballads from a cart.
                       Dryden, Prologue to _Sophonisba_ (1729).

  =Thes´tylis=, a female slave; any rustic maiden.--Theocritos,

                 With Thestylis to bind the sheaves.
                             Milton, _L’Allegro_ (1638).

  =Thet´is=, mother of Achillês. She was a sea-nymph, daughter of
  Nereus, the sea-god.--_Grecian Story._

  =Theuerdank=, a sobriquet of Kaiser Maximilian I. of Germany (1459,

  =Thiebalt=, a Provençal, one of Arthur’s escorts to Aix.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Thieves= (_The Two_). The penitent thief crucified with Jesus, has
  been called by sundry names, as Demas, Dismas, Titus, Matha, and

  The impenitent thief, has been called Gestas, Dumachas, Joca, and

  In the Aprocryphal _Gospel of Nicodemus_, the former is called Dysmas
  and the latter Gestas. In the _Story of Joseph of Arimathea_, the
  former is called Demas and the latter Gestas. Longfellow’s _Golden
  Legend_, calls them Titus and Dumachus. A legend says that they
  attacked Joseph in his flight into Egypt. Titus said, “Let the good
  people go;” but Dumachus refused to do so till he “paid a ransom for
  himself and family.” Upon this, Titus gave his fellow forty groats;
  and the infant Jesus said, “In thirty years I shall die, and you two
  with Me. We shall be crucified together; but in that day, Titus, this
  deed shall be remembered.”

  _Thieves_ (_His ancestors proved_). It is Sir Walter Scott who wrote
  and proved his “ancestors were thieves,” in the _Lay of the Last
  Minstrel_, iv. 9.

                A modern author spends a hundred leaves
                To prove his ancestors notorious thieves.
                            _The Town Ecolgue._

  =Thieves Screened.= It is said of Edward the Confessor, that one day,
  while lying on his bed for his afternoon’s nap, a courtier stole into
  his chamber and seeing the king’s casket, helped himself freely from
  it. He returned a second time, and on his third entrance, Edward said,
  “Be quick, or Hugoline (the chamberlain) will see you.” The courtier
  was scarcely gone, when the chamberlain entered and instantly detected
  the theft. The king said, “Never mind, Hugoline; the fellow who has
  taken it no doubt has greater need of it than either you or I.”
  (Reigned 1042-1066).

  Several similar anecdotes are told of Robert the Pious, of France. One
  time he saw a man steal a silver candle-stick off the altar, and said,
  “Friend Ogger, run for your life, or you will be found out.” At
  another time, one of the twelve poor men in his train cut off a rich
  gold pendant from the royal robe, and Robert, turning to the man, said
  to him, “Hide it quickly, friend, before any one sees it.” (Reigned

  The following is told of two or three kings, amongst others of Ludwig
  the Pious, who had a very overbearing wife. A beggar under the table,
  picking up the crumbs which the king let down, cut off the gold fringe
  of the royal robe, and the king whispered to him, “Take care the queen
  doesn’t see you.”

  =Thieves of Historic Note.=

  AUTOL´YCOS, son of Hermês; a very prince of thieves. He had the power
  of changing the color and shape of stolen goods so as to prevent their
  being recognized.--_Greek Fable._

  BARLOW (_Jimmy_), immortalized by the ballad-song:

                 My name it is Jimmy Barlow;
                 I was born in the town of Carlow;
                 And here I lie in Maryboro’ jail,
                 All for the robbing of the Dublin mail.

  CARTOUCHE, the Dick Turpin of France (eighteenth century).

  COTTINGTON (_John_), in the time of the Commonwealth, who emptied the
  pockets of Oliver Cromwell, when lord protector, stripped Charles II.
  of £1500, and stole a watch and chain from Lady Fairfax.

  DUVAL (_Claude_), a French highwayman, noted for his gallantry and
  daring (*-1670). (See “James Whitney,” who was a very similar

  ⁂ Alexander Dumas has a novel entitled _Claude Duval_, and Miss
  Robinson introduces him in _White Friars_.

  FRITH (_Mary_), usually called “Moll Cutpurse.” She had the honor of
  robbing General Fairfax, on Hounslow Heath. Mary Frith lived in the
  reign of Charles I., and died at the age of 75 years.

  ⁂ Nathaniel Field has introduced Mary Frith, and made merry with some
  of her pranks, in his comedy, _Amends for Ladies_ (1618).

  GALLOPING DICK, executed in Aylesbury, in 1800.

  GRANT (_Captain_), the Irish highwayman, executed at Maryborough in

  GREENWOOD (_Samuel_), executed at Old Bailey in 1822.

  HASSAN, the “Old Man of the Mountain,” once the terror of Europe. He
  was chief of the Assassins (1056-1124).

  HOOD (_Robin_) and his “merry men all,” of Sherwood Forest. Famed in
  song, drama and romance. Probably he lived in the reign of Richard
  Cœur de Lion.

  ⁂ Sir W. Scott has introduced him both in _The Talisman_ and in
  _Ivanhoe_. Stow has recorded the chief incidents of his life (see
  under the year 1213). Ritson has compiled a volume of ballads
  respecting him. Drayton has given a sketch of him in the _Polyolbion_,
  xxvi. The following are dramas on the same outlaw, viz.:--_The Playe
  of Robyn Hode, very proper to be played in Maye games_ (fifteenth
  century); Skelton, at the command of Henry VIII., wrote a drama called
  _The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntington_ (about 1520); _The
  Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntington_, by Munday (1597); _The Death
  of Robert, Earle of Huntington, otherwise called Robin Hood of Merrie
  Sherwodde_, by H. Chettle (1598). Chettle’s drama is in reality a
  continuation of Munday’s, like the two parts of Shakespeare’s plays,
  _Henry IV._ and _Henry V._ _Robin Hood’s Penn´orths_, a play by
  William Haughton (1600); _Robin Hood and His Pastoral May Games_
  (1624), _Robin Hood and His Crew of Soldiers_ (1627), both anonymous;
  _The Sad Shepherd, or a Tale of Robin Hood_ (unfinished), B. Jonson
  (1637); _Robin Hood_, an opera (1730); _Robin Hood_, an opera by Dr.
  Arne and Burney (1741); _Robin Hood_, a musical farce (1751); _Robin
  Hood_, a comic opera (1784); Robin Hood, an opera by O’Keefe, music by
  Shield (1787); _Robin Hood_, by Macnally (before 1820). Sheridan began
  a drama on the same subject, which he called _The Foresters_; _The
  Foresters_, Tennyson (1892).

  PERIPHE´TES (4 _syl._) of Argŏlis, surnamed “The Club-Bearer,” because
  he used to kill his victims with an iron club.--_Grecian Story._

  PROCRUSTES (3 _syl._), a famous robber of Attica. His real name was
  Polypēmon or Damastês, but he received the sobriquet of _Procrustês_,
  or “The Stretcher,” from his practice of placing all victims that fell
  into his hands on a certain bedstead. If the victim was too short to
  fit it he stretched the limbs to the right length; if too long he
  lopped off the redundant part.--_Grecian Story._

  REA (_William_), executed at Old Bailey in 1828.

  SHEPPARD (_Jack_), an ardent, reckless, generous youth, wholly
  unrivalled as a thief and burglar. His father was a carpenter in
  Spitalfields. Sentence of death was passed on him in August, 1724; but
  when the warders came to take him to execution, they found he had
  escaped. He was apprehended in the following October, and again made
  his escape. A third time he was caught, and in November suffered
  death. Certainly the most popular burglar that ever lived (1701-1724).

  ⁂ Daniel Defoe made _Jack Sheppard_ the hero of a romance in 1724, and
  H. Ainsworth in 1839.

  SINIS, a Corinthian highwayman, surnamed “The Pine-Bender,” from his
  custom of attaching the limbs of his victims to two opposite pines
  forcibly bent down. Immediately the trees were released they bounded
  back, tearing the victim limb from limb.--_Grecian Story._

  TER´MEROS, a robber of Peloponnesos, who killed his victims by
  cracking their skulls against his own.

  TURPIN (_Dick_), a noted highwayman (1711-1739). His ride to York is
  described by H. Ainsworth in his _Rookwood_ (1834).

  WHITNEY (_James_), the last of the “gentlemanly” highwaymen. He prided
  himself on being “the glass of fashion and the mould of form.”
  Executed at Porter’s Block, near Smithfield (1660-1694).

  WILD (_Jonathan_), a cool, calculating, heartless villain, with the
  voice of a Stentor. He was born at Wolverhampton, in Staffordshire,
  and, like Sheppard, was the son of a carpenter. Unlike Sheppard, this
  cold-blooded villain was universally execrated. He was hanged at
  Tyburn (1682-1725).

  ⁂ Defoe made _Jonathan Wild_ the hero of a romance in 1725; Fielding
  in 1744.

  =Thirlmore= (_Rev. and Col._), ambitious, able man, first a popular,
  sensational preacher, then, as the bubble breaks, a farmer and
  stock-raiser, lastly an officer in the U. S. Army, during the Civil
  War. In the varied experiences of the latter career, the selfishness
  which has marred his character sloughs off, and the _man_
  appears.--William M. Baker, _His Majesty, Myself_ (1879) and _The
  Making of a Man_ (1881).

  =Third Founder of Rome= (_The_), Caius Marius. He was so called,
  because he overthrew the multitudinous hordes of Cambrians and
  Teutons, who came to lick up the Romans as the oxen of the field lick
  up grass (B.C. 102).

  ⁂ The first founder was Romulus, and the second Camillus.

  =Thirsil and Thelgon=, two gentle swains who were kinsmen. Thelgon
  exhorts Thirsil to wake his “too long sleeping Muse;” and Thirsil,
  having collected the nymphs and shepherds around him, sang to them the
  song of _The Purple Island_.--Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_,
  i., ii. (1633).

  =Thirsty= (_The_), Colman Itadach, surnamed “The Thirsty,” was a monk
  of the rule of St. Patrick. Itadach, in strict observance of the
  Patrician rule, refused to quench his thirst even in the
  harvest-field, and died in consequence.

  =Thirteen Precious Things of Britain.=

  1. DYRNWYN (the sword of Rhydderch Hael). If any man except Hael drew
  this blade, it burst into a flame from point to hilt.

  2. THE BASKET OF GWYDDNO GARANHIR. If food for one man were put
  therein, it multiplied till it sufficed for a hundred.

  3. THE HORN OF BRAN GALED, in which was always found the very beverage
  that each drinker most desired.

  4. THE PLATTER OF RHEGYNYDD YSGOLHAIG, which always contained the very
  food that the eater most liked.

  5. THE CHARIOT OF MORGAN MWYNVAWR. Whoever sat therein was transported
  instantaneously to the place he wished to go to.

  9. THE HALTER OF CLYDNO EIDDYN. Whatever horse he wished for was
  always found therein. It hung on a staple at the foot of his bed.

  7. THE KNIFE OF LLAWFRODDED FARCHAWG, which would serve twenty-four
  men simultaneously at any meal.

  8. THE CALDRON OF TYRNOG. If meat were put in for a brave man, it was
  cooked instantaneously, but meat for a coward would never get boiled

  9. THE WHETSTONE OF TUDWAL TUDCLUD. If the sword of a brave man were
  sharpened thereon, its cut was certain death; but if of a coward, the
  cut was harmless.

  10. THE ROBE OF PADARN BEISRUDD, which fitted every one of gentle
  birth, but no churl could wear it.

  11. THE MANTLE OF TEGAU EURVRON, which only fitted ladies whose
  conduct was irreproachable.

  12. THE MANTLE OF KING ARTHUR, which could be worn or used as a
  carpet, and whoever wore it or stood on it was invisible. This mantle
  or carpet was called Gwenn.

  ⁂ The ring of Luned rendered the wearer invisible so long as the stone
  of it was concealed.

  13. THE CHESSBOARD OF GWENDDOLEN. When the men were placed upon it,
  they played of themselves. The board was of gold, and the men
  silver.--_Welsh Romance._

  =Thirteen Unlucky.= It is said that it is unlucky for thirteen persons
  to sit down to dinner at the same table, because one of the number
  will die before the year is out. This silly superstition is based on
  the “Last Supper,” when Christ and His twelve disciples sat at meat
  together. Jesus was crucified; and Judas Iscariot hanged himself.

  =Thirty= (_The_). So the Spartan senate established by Lycurgos was

  Similarly, the Venetian senate was called “The Forty.”

  =Thirty Tyrants= (_The_). So the governors, appointed by Lysander, the
  Spartan, over Athens, were called (B.C. 404). They continued in power
  only eight months, when Thrasybūlos deposed them and restored the

  “The Thirty” put more people to death in eight months of peace, than
  the enemy had done in a war of thirty years.--Xenophon.

  =Thirty Tyrants of Rome= (_The_), a fanciful name, applied by
  Trebellius Pollio, to a set of adventurers who tried to make
  themselves masters of Rome at sundry times between A.D. 260 and 267.

  The number was not thirty, and the analogy between them and “The
  Thirty Tyrants of Athens” is scarcely perceptible.

  =Thirty Years’ War= (_The_), a series of wars between the Protestants
  and Catholics of Germany, terminated by the “Peace of Westphalia.” The
  war arose thus: The emperor of Austria interfered in the struggle
  between the Protestants and Catholics, by depriving the Protestants of
  Bohemia of their religious privileges; in consequence of which the
  Protestants flew to arms. After the contest had been going on for some
  years, Richelieu joined the Protestants (1635), not from any love of
  their cause, but solely to humiliate Austria and Spain (1618-1648).

  The Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta is called “The Thirty
  Years’ War”.

  =Thisbe= (2 _syl._), a beautiful Babylonian maid, beloved by Pyrămus,
  her next-door neighbor. As their parents forbade their marriage, they
  contrived to hold intercourse with each other through a chink in the
  garden wall. Once they agreed to meet at the tomb of Ninus. Thisbê was
  first at the trysting-place, but, being scared by a lion, took to
  flight, and accidentally dropped her robe, which the lion tore and
  stained with blood. Pyramus, seeing the blood-stained robe, thought
  that the lion had eaten Thisbê, and so killed himself. When Thisbê
  returned and saw her lover dead, she killed herself also. Shakespeare
  has burlesqued this pretty tale in his _Midsummer Night’s Dream_

  =Thom´alin=, a shepherd who laughed to scorn the notion of love, but
  was ultimately entangled in its wiles. He tells Willy that one day,
  hearing a rustling in a bush, he discharged an arrow, when up flew
  Cupid into a tree. A battle ensued between them, and when the
  shepherd, having spent all his arrows, ran away, Cupid shot him in the
  heel. Thomalin did not much heed the wound at first, but soon it
  festered inwardly and rankled daily more and more.--Spenser,
  _Shepheardes Calendar_, iii. (1579).

  Thomalin is again introduced in Ecl. vii., when he inveighs against
  the Catholic priests in general, and the shepherd Palinode (3 _syl._)
  in particular. This eclogue could not have been written before 1578,
  as it refers to the sequestration of Grindal, archbishop of Canterbury
  in that year.

  =Thomas= (_Monsieur_), the fellow-traveller of Val´entine. Valentine’s
  niece, Mary, is in love with him.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Mons.
  Thomas_ (1619).

  _Thomas_ (_Sir_), a dogmatical, prating, self-sufficient squire, whose
  judgments are but “justices’ justice.”--Crabbe, _Borough_, x. (1810).

  =Thomas à Kempis=, the pseudonym of Jean Charlier de Gerson
  (1363-1429). Some say, of Thomas Hämmerlein Maleŏlus (1380-1471).

  =Thomas the Rhymer= or “Thomas of Erceldoun,” an ancient Scottish
  bard. His name was Thomas Learmont, and he lived in the days of
  Wallace (thirteenth century).

  ⁂ Thomas the Rhymer, and Thomas Rymer were totally different persons.
  The latter was an historiographer, who compiled _The Fœdera_

  =Thomas= (_Winifred_), beautiful coquette, who wins Henry Vane’s heart
  only to trifle with it, in Frederic Jesup Stimson’s novel, _The Crime
  of Henry Vane_ (1884).

  =Thopas= (_Sir_), a native of Poperyng, in Flanders; a capital
  sportsman, archer, wrestler, and runner. Sir Thopas resolved to marry
  no one but an “elf queen,” and accordingly started for Faëryland. On
  his way he met the three-headed giant, Olifaunt, who challenged him to
  single combat. Sir Thopas asked permission to go for his armor, and
  promised to meet the giant next day. Here mine host broke in with the
  exclamation, “Intolerable stuff!” and the story was left
  unfinished.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Rime of Sir Thopas,”

  =Thor=, eldest son of Odin and Frigga; strongest and bravest of the
  gods. He launched the thunder, presided over the air and the seasons,
  and protected man from lightning and evil spirits.

  His wife was Sif (“love”).

  His chariot was drawn by two he-goats.

  His mace or hammer was called Mjolner.

  His belt was Megingjard. Whenever he put it on his strength was

  His palace was Thrudvangr. It contained 540 halls.

  Thursday is Thor’s day.--_Scandinavian Mythology._

  The word means “Refuge from terror.”

  =Thoresby= (_Broad_), one of the troopers under Fitzurse.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Thorn´berry= (_Job_), a brazier in Penzance. He was a blunt but kind
  man, strictly honest, most charitable, and doting on his daughter,
  Mary. Job Thornberry is called “John Bull,” and is meant to be a type
  of a genuine English tradesman, unsophisticated by cant and foreign
  manners. He failed in business “through the treachery of a friend;”
  but Peregrine, to whom he had lent ten guineas, returning from
  Calcutta after the absence of thirty years, gave him £10,000, which he
  said his loan had grown to by honest trade.

  _Mary Thornberry_, his daughter, in love with Frank Rochdale, son and
  heir of Sir Simon Rochdale, whom ultimately she married.--G. Colman,
  Jr., _John Bull_ (1805).

  =Thorne= (_Esmerald_), physician who is killed instantly by a runaway
  horse, and, without suspecting that his spirit has left his body,
  seeks first one friend, then another, remaining viewless to all.
  Condemned to work his way from a lower to a higher plane, he rebels
  against the natural law of sowing and reaping, until led by the spirit
  of his own little child to repentance and sanctification.

  _Thorne_ (_Helen_), patient wife and sorrowing widow of
  Esmerald.--Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward, _The Gates Between_ (1887).

  =Thornhaugh= (_Colonel_), an officer in Cromwell’s army.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

  =Thornhill= (_Sir William_), _alias_ Mr. Burchell, about 30 years of
  age. Most generous and most whimsical, most benevolent and most
  sensitive. Sir William was the landlord of Dr. Primrose, the vicar of
  Wakefield. After travelling through Europe on foot, he had returned
  and lived _incognito_. In the garb and aspect of a pauper, Mr.
  Burchell is introduced to the vicar of Wakefield. Twice he rescued his
  daughter, Sophia--once when she was thrown from her horse into a deep
  stream, and once when she was abducted by Squire Thornhill. Ultimately
  he married her.--Goldsmith, _The Vicar of Wakefield_ (1766).

  _Thornhill_ (_Squire_), nephew of Sir William Thornhill. He enjoyed
  a large fortune, but was entirely dependent on his uncle. He was a
  sad libertine, who abducted both the daughters of Dr. Primrose, and
  cast the old vicar into jail for rent after the entire loss of his
  house, money, furniture, and books by fire. Squire Thornhill tried
  to impose upon Olivia Primrose by a false marriage, but was caught
  in his own trap, for the marriage proved to be legal in every
  respect.--Goldsmith, _The Vicar of Wakefield_ (1766).

  This worthy citizen abused the aristocracy much on the same principle
  as the fair Olivia depreciated Squire Thornhill:--he had a sneaking
  affection for what he abused.--Lord Lytton.

  =Thornton= (_Captain_), an English officer.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_
  (time George I.).

  _Thornton_ (_Cyril_), the hero and title of a novel of military
  adventure, by Captain Thomas Hamilton (1827).

  =Thorough Doctor= (_The_). William Varro was called _Doctor Fundātus_
  (thirteenth century).

  =Thoughtful= (_Father_), Nicholas Cat´inet, a marshal of France. So
  called by his soldiers for his cautious and thoughtful policy

  =Thoughtless= (_Miss Betty_), a virtuous, sensible, and amiable young
  lady, utterly regardless of the conventionalities of society, and
  wholly ignorant of etiquette. She is consequently forever involved in
  petty scrapes most mortifying to her sensitive mind. Even her lover is
  alarmed at her _gaucherie_, and deliberates whether such a partner for
  life is desirable.--Mrs. Heywood, _Miss Betty Thoughtless_

  (Mrs. Heywood’s novel evidently suggested the _Evelina_ of Miss
  Burney, 1778.)

  =Thoulouse= (_Raymond, count of_), one of the crusading princes.--Sir
  W. Scott _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

  =Thrame= (_Janet_), fiend-possessed serving maid, who, when she went
  abroad led by her possessor and master, left her body hung upon a nail
  in her room.--R. L. Stevenson, _Thrame Janet_.

  =Thraso=, a bragging, swaggering captain, the Roman Bobadil
  (_q.v._).--Terence, _The Eunuch_.

  _Thraso_, duke of Mar, one of the allies of Charlemagne.--Ariosto,
  _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

  =Three a Divine Number.= Pythagoras calls three the perfect number,
  expressive of “beginning, middle, and end,” and he makes it a symbol
  of deity.

  AMERICAN INDIANS: Otkon (_creator_), Messou (_providence_) Atahuata
  (_the Logos_).

  (Called _Otkon_ by the Iroquois, and _Otkee_ by the Virginians).

  ARMORICA. The korrigans or fays of Armorica are three times three.

  BRAHMINS: Brahma, Vishnu, Siva.

  BUDDHISTS: Buddha, Annan Sonsja, Rosia Sonsja.

  (These are the three idols seen in Buddhist temples; Buddha stands in
  the middle.)

  CHRISTIANS: The Father, the Son (_the Logos_), the Holy Ghost.

  When, in creation, the earth was without form and void, “the Spirit
  moved over the face,” and put it into order.

  EGYPTIANS (_Ancient_). Almost every district had its own triad, but
  the most general were Osiris, Isis, Horus; Eicton, Cneph (_creator_),

  ETRUSCANS. Their college consisted of three times three gods.

  Lars Porsĕna of Clusium,
    By the nine gods he swore
  That the great house of Tarquin
    Should suffer wrong no more.
              Lord Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_ (“Horatius,” 1842).

  KAMTSCHADALES: Koutkhou (_creator of heaven_), Kouhttigith, his sister
  (_creator of earth_), Outleigin (_creator of ocean_).

  PARSEES: Ahura (_the creator_), Vohu Mano (“entity”), Akem Mano

  PERSIANS: Oromasdês or Oromāzês (_the good principle_), Arimanês (_the
  evil principle_), Mithras (_fecundity_).

  Others give Zervanê (_god the father_), and omit Mithras from the

  PERUVIANS (_Ancient_): Pachama (_goddess mother_), Virakotcha (=
  _Jupiter_), Mamakotcha (=_Neptune_). They called their Trinity
  “Tangatanga” (_i.e._, “three in one”).

  PHŒNICIANS: Kolpia (_the Logos_), Baaut (“darkness”), Mot

  ROMANS (_Ancient_): Jupiter (_god of heaven_), Neptune (_god of earth
  and sea_), Pluto (_god of Hades, the under-world_).

  (Their whole college of gods consisted of four times three deities.)

  SCANDINAVIANS: Odin (“life”), Hænir (“motion”), Loda (“matter”).

  TAHITIANS: Taroataihetoomoo (_chief deity_), Tepapa (_the fecund
  principle_), Tettoomatataya (_their offspring_).

  Lao-Tseu, the Chinese philosopher, says the divine trinity is: Ki, Hi,

  Orpheus says it is: Phanês (_light_), Urănos (_heaven_), Kronos

  Plato says it is: Tô Agăthon (_goodness_), Nous (_intelligence_),
  Psuchê (_the mundane soul_).

  Pythagoras says it is: Monad (_the unit_ or _oneness_), Nous, Psuchê.

  Vossius says it is: Jupiter (_divine power_), Minerva (_the Logos_),
  Juno (_divine progenitiveness_).

  _Subordinate._ The orders of ANGELS are three times three, viz.: (1)
  Seraphim, (2) Cherubim, (3) Thrones, (4) Dominions, (5) Virtues, (6)
  Powers, (7) Principalities, (8) Archangels, (9) Angels.--Dionysius,
  the Areopăgite.

                                In heaven above
         The effulgent bands in triple circles move.
                     Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, xi. 13 (1575).

  The CITIES OF REFUGE were three on each side the Jordan.

  The FATES are three: Clotho (with her distaff, presides at birth),
  Lachĕsis (spins the thread of life), Atrŏpos (cuts the thread).

  The FURIES are three: Tisiponê, Alecto, Megæra.

  The GRACES are three: Euphros´ynê (_cheerfulness of mind_), Aglaia
  (_mirth_), Thalīa (_good-tempered jest_).

  The JUDGES OF HADES are three: Minos (_the chief baron_), Æacus (_the
  judge of Europeans_), Rhadamanthus (_the judge of Asiatics and

  The MUSES are three times three.

  Jupiter’s thunder is three-forked (_trifĭdun_); Neptune’s trident has
  three prongs; Pluto’s dog, Cerbĕrus, has three heads. The rivers of
  hell are three times three, and Styx flows round it thrice three

  In Scandinavian mythology there are three times three earths; three
  times three worlds in Niflheim; three times three regions under the
  dominion of Hel.

  According to a mediæval tradition, the heavens are three times three.,
  viz., the Moon, Venus, Mercury, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the
  fixed stars and the primum mobĭlê.

  SYMBOLIC. (1) In the tabernacle and Jewish Temple.

  The _Temple_ consisted of three parts: the porch, the Temple proper
  and the holy of holies. It had three courts: the court of the priests,
  the court of the people and the court of foreigners. The innermost
  court had three rows, and three windows in each row (_1 Kings_ vi. 36;
  vii. 4).

  Similarly, Ezekiel’s city had three gates on each side (_Ezek._
  xlviii. 31). Cyrus left direction for the rebuilding of the Temple; it
  was to be three score cubits in height, and three score cubits wide,
  and three rows of great stones were to be set up (_Ezra_ vi. 3, 4). In
  like manner, the “New Jerusalem” is to have four times three
  foundations: (1) jasper, (2) sapphire, (3) chalcedony, (4) emerald,
  (5) sardonyx, (6) sardius, (7) chrysolyte, (8) beryl, (9) topaz, (10)
  chrysoprase, (11) jacinth, (12) amethyst. It is to have three gates
  fronting each cardinal quarter (_Rev._ xxi. 13-20).

  (2) In the _Temple Furniture_: The golden candlestick had three
  branches on each side (_Exod._ xxv. 32); there were three bowls (ver.
  33); the height of the altar was three cubits (_Exod._ xxvii. 1);
  there were three pillars for the hangings (ver. 14); Solomon’s molten
  sea was supported on oxen, three facing each cardinal point (_1 Kings_
  vii. 25).

  (3) _Sacrifices and Offerings_: A meat offering consisted of
  three-tenth deals of fine flour (_Lev._ xiv. 10); Hannah offered up
  three bullocks when Samuel was devoted to the temple (_1 Sam._ i. 24);
  three sorts of beasts--bullocks, rams, and lambs--were appointed for
  offerings (_Numb._ xxix.); the Jews were commanded to keep three
  national feasts yearly (_Exod._. xxiii. 14-17); in all criminal
  charges three witnesses were required (_Deut._ xvii. 6).

  MISCELLANEOUS THREES. Joshua sent three men from each tribe to survey
  the land of Canaan (_Josh._ xvii. 4). Moses had done the same at the
  express command of God (_Numb._ xiii.). Job had three friends (_Job_
  ii. 11). Abraham was accosted by three men (angels), with whom he
  pleaded to spare the cities of the plain (_Gen._ xviii. 2).
  Nebuchadnezzar cast three men into the fiery furnace (_Dan._ iii. 24).
  David had three mighty men of valor, and one of them slew 300 of the
  Philistines with his spear (_2 Sam._ xxiii. 9, 18). Nebuchadnezzar’s
  image was three score cubits high (_Dan._ iii. 1). Moses was hidden
  three months from the Egyptian police (_Exod._ ii. 2). The ark of the
  covenant was three months in the house of Obededom (_2 Sam._ vi. 11).
  Balaam smote his ass three times before the beast upbraided him
  (_Numb._ xxii. 28). Samson mocked Delilah three times (_Judges_ xvi.
  15). Elijah stretched himself three times on the child which he
  restored to life (_1 Kings_ xvii. 21). The little horn plucked up
  three horns by the roots (_Dan._ vii. 8). The bear seen by Daniel in
  his vision, had three ribs in its mouth (ver. 5). Joab slew Absalom
  with three darts (_2 Sam._ xviii. 14). God gave David the choice of
  three chastisements (_2 Sam._ xxiv. 12). The great famine in David’s
  reign lasted three years (_2 Sam._ xxi. 1); so did the great drought
  in Ahab’s reign (_Luke_ iv. 25). There were three men transfigured on
  the mount, and three spectators (_Matt._ xvii. 1-4). The sheet was let
  down to Peter three times (_Acts_ x. 16). There are three Christian
  graces: Faith, hope, and charity (_1 Cor._ xiii. 13). There are three
  that bear record in heaven, and three that bear witness on earth (_1
  John_ v. 7, 8). There were three unclean spirits that came out of the
  mouth of the dragon (_Rev._ xvi. 13).

  So again. Every ninth wave is said to be the largest.

              [_They_] watched the great sea fall,
            Wave after wave, each mightier than the last;
            Till last, a ninth one, gathering half the deep
            And full of voices, slowly rose and plunged,
            Roaring, and all the wave was in a flame.
                        Tennyson, _The Holy Grail_ (1858-59).

  A wonder is said to last three times three days. The scourge used for
  criminals is a “cat o’ nine tails.” Possession is nine points of the
  law, being equal to (1) money to make good a claim, (2) patience to
  carry a suit through, (3) a good cause, (4) a good lawyer, (5) a good
  counsel, (6) good witnesses, (7) a good jury, (8) a good judge, (9)
  good luck. Leases used to be granted for 999 years. Ordeals by fire
  consisted of three times three red-hot ploughshares.

  There are three times three crowns recognized in heraldry, and three
  times three marks of cadency.

  We show honor by a three times three in drinking a health.

  The worthies are three Jews, three pagans, and three Christians: viz.,
  Joshua, David, and Judas Maccabæus; Hector, Alexander, and Julius
  Cæsar; Arthur, Charlemagne, and Godfrey of Bouillon. The worthies of
  London are three times three also: (1) Sir William Walworth, (2) Sir
  Henry Pritchard, (3) Sir William Sevenoke, (4) Sir Thomas White, (5)
  Sir John Bonham, (6) Christopher Croker, (7) Sir John Hawkwood, (8)
  Sir Hugh Caverley, (9) Sir Henry Maleverer (Richard Johnson, _The Nine
  Worthies of London_).

  ⁂ Those who take any interest in this subject can easily multiply the
  examples here set down to a much greater number. (See below, the
  _Welsh Triads_.)

  =Three Ardent Lovers of Britain= (_The_): (1) Caswallawn, son of Beli,
  the ardent lover of Flur, daughter of Mugnach Gorr; (2) Tristan or
  Tristram, son of Talluch, the ardent lover of Yseult, wife of March
  Meirchawn, his uncle, generally called King Mark of Cornwall; (3)
  Kynon, son of Clydno Eiddin, the ardent lover of Morvyth, daughter of
  Urien of Rheged.--_Welsh Triads._

  =Three Battle Knights= (_The_), in the court of King Arthur: (1)
  Cadwr, earl of Cornwall; (2) Launcelot du Lac; (3) Owain, son of
  Urien, prince of Rheged, _i.e._, Cumberland and some of the adjacent
  lands. These three would never retreat from battle, neither for spear,
  nor sword, nor arrow; and Arthur knew no shame in fight when they were
  present.--_Welsh Triads_.

  =Three Beautiful Women= (_The_), of the court of King Arthur: (1)
  Gwenhwyvar or Guenever, wife of King Arthur; (2) Enid, who dressed in
  “azure robes,” wife of Geraint; (3) Tegau or Tegau Euron.--_Welsh

  =Three Blessed Rulers= (_The_) of the island of Britain: (1) Bran or
  Vran, son of Llyr, and father of Caradawc (_Caractacus_). He was
  called “The Blessed,” because he introduced Christianity into the
  nation of the Cymry from Rome; he learnt it during his seven years’
  detention in that city with his son. (2) Lleurig ab Coel ab Cyllyn
  Sant, surnamed “The Great Light.” He built the cathedral of Llandaff,
  the first sanctuary in Britain. (3) Cadwaladyr, who gave refuge to all
  believers driven out by the Saxons from England.--_Welsh Triads_,

  =Three Calenders= (_The_), three sons of three kings, who assumed the
  disguise of begging dervises. They had each lost one eye. The three
  met in the house of Zobeidê, and told their respective tales in the
  presence of Haroun-al-Raschid, also in disguise. (See
  CALENDERS.)--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Three Calenders”).

  =Three Chief Ladies= (_The_) of the island of Britain: (1) Branwen,
  daughter of King Llyr, “the fairest damsel in the world;” (2)
  Gwenhwyvar or Guenever, wife of King Arthur; (3) Æthelflæd, the wife
  of Ethelred.

  =Three Closures= (_The_) of the island of Britain: (1) The head of
  Vran, son of Llyr, surnamed “The Blessed,” which was buried under the
  White Tower of London, and so long as it remained there, no invader
  would enter the island. (2) The bones of Vortimer, surnamed “The
  Blessed,” buried in the chief harbor of the island; so long as they
  remained there, no hostile ship would approach the coast. (3) The
  dragons buried by Lludd, son of Beli, in the city of Pharaon, in the
  Snowdon rocks. (See THREE FATAL DISCLOSURES.)--_Welsh Triads_, liii.

  =Three Counselling Knights= (_The_) of the court of King Arthur: (1)
  Kynon or Cynon, son of Clydno Eiddin; (2) Aron, son of Kynfarch ab
  Meirchion Gul; (3) Llywarch Hên, son of Elidir Lydanwyn. So long as
  Arthur followed the advice of these three, his success was invariable,
  but when he neglected to follow their counsel, his defeat was
  sure.--_Welsh Triads._

  =Three Diademed Chiefs= (_The_) of the island of Britain: (1) Kai, son
  of Kyner, the steward of King Arthur. He could transform himself into
  any shape he pleased. Always ready to fight, and always worsted. Half
  knight and half buffoon. (2) Trystan mab Tallwch, one of Arthur’s
  three heralds, and one whom nothing could divert from his purpose; he
  is generally called Sir Tristram. (3) Gwevyl mab Gwestad, the
  melancholy. “When sad, he would let one of his lips drop below his
  waist, while the other turned up like a cap upon his head.”--_The
  Mabinogion_, 227.

  =Three Disloyal Tribes= (_The_) of the island of Britain: (1) The
  tribe of Goronwy Pebyr, which refused to stand substitute for their
  lord, Llew Llaw Gyffes, when a poisoned dart was shot at him by Llech
  Goronwy; (2) the tribe of Gwrgi, which deserted their lord in Caer
  Greu, when he met Eda Glinmawr in battle (both were slain); (3) the
  tribe of Alan Vyrgan, which slunk away from their lord on his journey
  to Camlan, where he was slain.--_Welsh Triads_, xxxv.

  =Three Estates of the Realm=: the nobility, the clergy, and the

  N.B.--The sovereign is not one of the three estates.

  =Three Fatal Disclosures= (_The_) of the island of Britain: (1) That
  of the buried head of Vran “The Blessed,” by King Arthur, because he
  refused to hold the sovereignty of the land except by his own
  strength; (2) that of the bones of Vortimer by Vortigern, out of love
  for Ronwen (_Rowena_), daughter of Hengist, the Saxon; (3) that of the
  dragons in Snowdon by Vortigern, in revenge of the Cymryan displeasure
  against him; having this done, he invited over the Saxons in his
  defence. (See THREE CLOSURES.)--_Welsh Triads_, liii.

  =Three-Fingered Jack=, the nickname of a famous negro robber, who was
  the terror of Jamaica in 1780. He was at length hunted down and killed
  in 1781.

  =Three Golden-Tongued Knights= (_The_) in the court of King Arthur;
  (1) Gwalchmai, called in French Gawain, son of Gwyar; (2) Drudwas, son
  of Tryffin; (3) Eliwlod, son of Madog ab Uthur. They never made a
  request which was not at once granted.--_Welsh Triads._

  =Three Great Astronomers= (_The_), of the island of Britain: (1)
  Grwydion, son of Don. From him the Milky Way is called “Caer Gwydion.”
  He called the constellation Cassiopeia “The Court of Don,” or Llys
  Don, after his father; and the Corona Borealis, he called “Caer
  Arianrod,” after his daughter. (2) Gwynn, son of Nudd. (3)
  Idris.--_Welsh Triads_, ii. 325.

  =Three Holy Tribes= (_The_), of the island of Britain: (1) That of
  Bran or Vran, who introduced Christianity into Wales; (2) that of
  Cunedda Wledig; and (3) that of Brychan Brycheiniog.--_Welsh Triads_,

  =Three Guardsmen=, trio of French gentlemen, who enter the army of
  Louis XIII., assuming the pseudonyms of Athos, Porthos and Aramis.
  Their adventures are traced through three books of Dumas, _Les Trois
  Mousquetaires_, _Vingt Ans Après_ and _Le Vicomte de Bragelonne_.

  =Three Kings’ Day=, Twelfth Day or Epiphany, designed to commemorate
  the visit of the “three kings,” or “Wise Men of the East,” to the
  infant Jesus.

  =Three Kings of Cologne= (_The_), the three “Wise Men” who followed
  the guiding star “from the East” to Jerusalem, and offered gifts to
  the babe Jesus. Their names were Jaspar or Gaspar, Melchior, and
  Balthazar; or Apellius, Ameĕrus, and Damascus; or Magalath, Galgalath,
  and Sarasin; or Ator, Sator and Peratŏras. Klopstock, in his
  _Messiah_, says the Wise Men were six in number, and gives their names
  as Hadad, Selĭma, Zimri, Mirja, Beled, and Sunith.

  ⁂ The toys shown in Cologne Cathedral as the “three kings” are called
  Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar.

  =Three Learned Knights= (_The_), of the island of Britain: (1)
  Gwalchmai ab Gwyar, called in French romances Gawain; (2) Llecheu ab
  Arthur; (3) Rhiwallon with the broom-bush hair. There was nothing that
  man knew they did not know.--_Welsh Triads._

  =Three-Leg Alley= (_London_), now called Pemberton Row, Fetter Lane.

  =Three Letters= (_A Man of_), a thief. A Roman phrase, from _fur_, “a

                 Tun’ trium literarum homo
                 Me vituperas? Fur!
                             Plautus, _Aulularia_, ii. 4.

  =Three Makers of Golden Shoes= (_The_), of the island of Britain; (1)
  Caswallawn, son of Beli, when he went to Gascony to obtain Flur. She
  had been abducted for Julius Cæsar, but was brought back by the
  prince. (2) Manawyddan, son of Llyr, when he sojourned in Lloegyr
  (_England_). (3) Llew Llaw Gyffes, when seeking arms from his
  mother.--_Welsh Triads_, cxxiv.

  “What craft shall we take?” said Manawyddan.... “Let us take to making
  shoes.”... So he bought the best cordwal ... and got the best
  goldsmith to make clasps ... and he was called one of the three makers
  of gold shoes.--_The Mabinogion_ (“Manawyddan,” twelfth century).

  =Three Robbers= (_The_). The three stars in Orion’s belt are said to
  be “three robbers climbing up to rob the Ranee’s silver
  bedstead.”--Miss Frere, _Old Deccan Days_, 28.

  =Three Stayers of Slaughter= (_The_): (1) Gwgawn Gleddyvrud; the name
  of his horse was Buchestom. (2) Morvran eil Tegid. (3) Gilbert mab
  Cadgyffro.--_Welsh Triads_, xxix.

  =Three Tailors of Tooley Street= (_The_), three worthies who held a
  meeting in Tooley Street, for the redress of popular grievances, and
  addressed a petition to the House of Commons, while Canning was prime
  minister, beginning, “We, the people of England.”

  =Three Tribe Herdsmen of Britain= (_The_): (1) Llawnrodded Varvawe,
  who tended the milch cows of Nudd Hael, son of Senyllt; (2) Bennren,
  who kept the herd of Caradawc, son of Brân, Glamorganshire; (3)
  Grwdion, son of Don, the enchanter, who kept the kine of Gwynedd,
  above the Conway. All these herds consisted of 21,000 milch
  cows.--_Welsh Triads_, lxxxv.

  =Three Tyrants of Athens= (_The_); Pisistrătos (B.C. 560-490), Hippias
  and Hipparchos (B.C. 527-490).

  (The two brothers reigned conjointly from 527-514, when the latter was

  =Three Unprofessional Bards= (_The_), of the island of Britain: (1)
  Rhyawd, son of Morgant; (2) King Arthur; (3) Cadwallawn, son of
  Cadvan.--_Welsh Triads_, lxxxix, 113.

  =Three Weeks after Marriage=, a comedy by A. Murphy (1776). Sir
  Charles Racket has married the daughter of a rich London tradesman,
  and, three weeks of the honeymoon having expired, he comes on a visit
  to the lady’s father, Mr. Drugget. Old Drugget plumes himself on his
  aristocratic son-in-law, so far removed from the vulgar brawls of
  meaner folk. On the night of their arrival the bride and bridegroom
  quarrel about a game of whist; the lady maintained that Sir Charles
  ought to have played a diamond instead of a club. So angry is Sir
  Charles that he resolves to have a divorce; and, although the quarrel
  is patched up, Mr. Drugget has seen enough of the _beau monde_ to
  decline the alliance of Lovelace for his second daughter, whom he
  gives to a Mr. Woodley.

  =Three Writers= (_The_). The _Scriptores Tres_ are Richardus
  Corinensis, Gildas Badonĭcus and Nennius Banchorensis; three who wrote
  on _The Ancient History of the British Nation_, edited, etc., by
  Julius Bertram (1757).

  ⁂ The Five Writers, or _Scriptores Quinque_, are five English
  chronicles on the early history of England, edited by Thomas Gale
  (1691). The names of these chroniclers are: William of Malmesbury,
  Henry of Huntingdon, Roger Hoveden, Ethelwerd, and Ingulphus of

  The Ten Writers, or _Scriptores Decem_, are the authors of ten ancient
  chronicles on English history, compiled and edited by Roger Twysden
  and John Selden (1652). The collection contains the chronicles of
  Simeon of Durham, John of Hexham, Richard of Hexham, Ailred of Rieval,
  Ralph de Diceto, John Brompton, Gervase of Canterbury, Thomas Stubbs,
  William Thorn and Henry Knighton. (See SIX CHRONICLES.)

  =Thresher= (_Captain_), the feigned leader of a body of lawless
  Irishmen, who attacked, in 1806, the collectors of tithes and their

  Captain Right was a leader of the rebellious peasantry in the south of
  Ireland in the eighteenth century.

  Captain Rock was the assumed name of a leader of Irish insurgents in

  =Thrummy-Cap=, a sprite which figures in the fairy tales of
  Northumberland. He was a “queer-looking little auld man,” whose scene
  of exploits generally lay in the vaults and cellars of old castles.
  John Skelton, in his _Colyn Clout_, calls him Tom-a-Thrum, and says
  that the clergy could neither write nor read, and were no wiser than
  this cellar sprite.

  =Thrush= (_Song of the_). Marvellous, rippling music, like the sweet
  babble of a brook over stones; like the gentle sighing of the wind in
  pine trees ... a rhapsody impossible to describe, but constantly
  reminding one of running streams and gentle waterfalls, and coming
  nearer to “put my woods in song” than any other bird-notes
  whatever.--Olive Thorne Miller, _In Nesting Time_ (1888).

  _Thrush_ (_Golden-crowned_). Commencing in a very low key ... he grows
  louder and louder, till his body quakes, and his chant runs into a
  shriek, ringing in my ear with a peculiar sharpness. This lay may be
  represented thus: “Teacher! _teacher!_ Teacher! TEACHER! TEACHER!” the
  accent on the first syllable, and each word uttered with increasing
  force and shrillness.--John Burroughs, _Wake Robin_ (1871).

  =Thu´le= (2 _syl._), the most remote northern portion of the world
  known to the ancient Greeks and Romans; but whether an island or part
  of a continent nobody knows. It is first mentioned by Pythĕas, the
  Greek navigator, who says it is “six days’ sail from Britain,” and
  that its climate is a “mixture of earth, air and sea.” Ptolemy, with
  more exactitude, tells us that the 63° of north latitude runs through
  the middle of Thulê, and adds that “the days there are at the
  equinoxes [_sic_] twenty-four hours long.” This, of course, is a
  blunder, but the latitude would do roughly for Iceland.

  (No place has a day of twenty-four hours long at either equinox; but
  anywhere beyond either polar circle the day is twenty-four hours long
  at one of the solstices.)

  _Thule_ (2 _syl._). Antonius Diogenês, a Greek, wrote a romance on
  “The Incredible Things beyond Thulê” (_Ta huper Thoulen Apista_),
  which has furnished the basis of many subsequent tales. The work is
  not extant, but Photius gives an outline of its contents in his

  =Thumb= (_Tom_), a dwarf no bigger than a man’s thumb. He lived in the
  reign of King Arthur, by whom he was knighted. He was the son of a
  common ploughman, and was killed by the poisonous breath of a spider
  in the reign of Thunstone, the successor of King Arthur.

  Amongst his adventures may be mentioned the following:--He was lying
  one day asleep in a meadow, when a cow swallowed him as she cropped
  the grass. At another time he rode in the ear of a horse. He crept up
  the sleeve of a giant, and so tickled him that he shook his sleeve,
  and Tom, falling into the sea, was swallowed by a fish. The fish being
  caught and carried to the palace gave the little man his introduction
  to the king.

  ⁂ The oldest version extant of this nursery tale is in rhyme, and
  bears the following title:--_Tom Thumb, His Life and Death; wherein is
  declared many marvailous acts of manhood, full of wonder and strange
  merriments. Which little knight lived in King Arthur’s time, and was
  famous in the court of Great Brittaine. London: printed for John
  Wright, 1630_ (Bodleian Library). It begins thus:

              In Arthur’s court Tom Thumbe did liue--
                A man of mickle might,
              The best of all the Table Round,
                And eke a doughty knight.
                          His stature but an inch in height,
                Or quarter of a span;
              Then thinke you not this little knight
                Was prov’d a valiant man?

  N.B.--“Great Britain” was not a recognized term till 1701 (Queen
  Anne), when the two parliaments of Scotland and England were united.
  Before that time, England was called “South Britain,” Scotland “North
  Britain,” and Brittany “Little Britain.” The date, 1630, would carry
  us back to the reign of Charles I.

  Fielding, in 1730, wrote a burlesque opera called _Tom Thumb_, which
  was altered in 1778, by Kane O’Hara. Dr. Arne wrote the music to it,
  and his “daughter (afterwards Mrs. Cibber), then only 14, acted the
  part of ‘Tom Thumb’ at the Haymarket Theatre.”--T. Davies, _Life of

  ⁂ Here again the dates do not correctly fit in. Mrs. Cibber was born
  in 1710, and must have been 20 when Fielding produced his opera of
  _Tom Thumb_.

  _Thumb_ (_General Tom_), a dwarf exhibited in London in 1846. His real
  name was Charles S. Stratton. At the age of 25, his height was 25
  inches, and his weight 25 lbs. He was born at Bridgeport, Connecticut,
  in 1832, and died in January, 1879.

  They rush by thousands to see Tom Thumb. They push, they fight, they
  scream, they faint, they cry, “Help!” and “Murder!” They see my bills
  and caravan, but do not read them. Their eyes are on them, but their
  sense is gone.... In one week 12,000 persons paid to see Tom Thumb,
  while only 133½ paid to see my “Aristidês.”--Haydon, the artist, _MS.

  =Thunder= (_The Giant_), a giant who fell into a river and was killed,
  because Jack cut the ropes which suspended a bridge which the giant
  was about to cross.--_Jack the Giant Killer_.

  _Thunder_ (_The Sons of_). James and John, the sons of Zebedee, were
  called “Boaner´gês.”--_Luke_ ix. 54; _Mark_ iii. 17.

  =Thunder and Lightning=, Stephen II. of Hungary, was surnamed
  _Tonnant_ (1100, 1114-1131).

  =Thunderbolt= (_The_). Ptolemy, king of Macedon, eldest son of Ptolemy
  Sotêr I., was so called from his great impetuosity (B.C. *, 285-279).

  Handel was called by Mozart “The Thunderbolt” (1684-1759).

  =Thunderbolt of Italy= (_The_), Gaston de Foix, nephew of Louis XII.

  =Thunderbolt of War= (_The_). Roland is so called in Spanish ballads.

  Tisaphernês is so called in Tasso’s _Jerusalem Delivered_, xx. (1575).

  =Thunderer= (_The_), the _Times_ newspaper. This popular name was
  first given to the journal in allusion to a paragraph in one of the
  articles contributed by Captain Edward Sterling, while Thomas Barnes
  was editor.

  We thundered forth the other day an article on the subject of social
  and political reform.

  Some of the contemporaries caught up the expression, and called the
  _Times_ “The Thunderer.” Captain Sterling used to sign himself “Vetus”
  before he was placed on the staff of the paper.

  =Thundering Legion= (_The_), the twelfth legion of the Roman army
  under Marcus Aurēlius acting against the Quadi, A.D. 174. It was shut
  up in a defile, and reduced to great straits for want of water, when a
  body of Christians, enrolled in the legion, prayed for relief. Not
  only was rain sent, but the thunder and lightning so terrified the foe
  that a complete victory was obtained, and the legion was ever after
  called “The Thundering Legion.”--Dion Cassius, _Roman History_, lxxi.
  8; Eusebius, _Ecclesiastical History_, v. 5.

  The Theban legion, _i.e._, the legion raised in the Thebaïs of Egypt,
  and composed of Christian soldiers led by St. Maurice, was likewise
  called “The Thundering Legion.”

  The term “Thundering Legion” existed before either of these two was so

  =Thunstone= (2 _syl._), the successor of King Arthur, in whose reign
  Tom Thumb was killed by a spider.--_Tom Thumb._

  =Thu´rio=, a foolish rival of Valentine for the love of Silvia,
  daughter of the duke of Milan.--Shakespeare, _The Two Gentlemen of
  Verona_ (1595).

  =Thwacker= (_Quartermaster_), in the dragoons.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

  =Thwackum=, in Fielding’s novel, _The History of Tom Jones, a
  Foundling_ (1749).

  =Thyamis=, an Egyptian thief, native of Memphis. Theagĕnês and
  Chariclēa being taken by him prisoners, he fell in love with the lady,
  and shut her up in a cave for fear of losing her. Being closely beset
  by another gang stronger than his own, he ran his sword into the heart
  of Chariclea, that she might go with him into the land of shadows, and
  be his companion in the future life.--Heliodorus, _Æthiopica_.

      Like to the Egyptian thief, at point of death,
      Kill what I love.
                  Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_, act v. sc. 1 (1614).

  =Thyeste´an Banquet= (in Latin _cæna Thyestæ_), a cannibal feast.
  Thyestês was given his own two sons to eat in a banquet served up to
  him by his brother, Atreus [_At.truce_].

  Procnê and Philomēla served up to Tereus (2 _syl._) his own son Itys.

  ⁂ Milton accents the word on the second syllable in _Paradise Lost_,
  x. 688, but then he calls Chalybe´an (_Samson Agonistes_, 133)
  “Chalyb´ean,” Æge´an (_Paradise Lost_, i. 745) “Æ´gean,” and
  Cambuscan´ he calls “Cambus´can.”

  =Thyeste´an Revenge=, blood for blood, tit for tat of bloody

  1. Thyestês seduced the wife of his brother, Atreus (2 _syl._), for
  which he was banished. In his banishment he carried off his brother’s
  son, Plisthĕnês, whom he brought up as his own child. When the boy was
  grown to manhood, he sent him to assassinate Atreus, but Atreus slew
  Plisthenês, not knowing him to be his son. The corresponding vengeance
  was this: Thyestês had a son named. Ægisthos, who was brought up by
  King Atreus as his own child. When Ægisthos was grown to manhood, the
  king sent him to assassinate Thyestês, but the young man slew Atreus

  2. Atreus slew his own son, Plisthenês, thinking him to be his
  brother’s child. When he found out his mistake, he pretended to be
  reconciled to his brother, and asked him to a banquet. Thyestês went
  to the feast, and ate part of his own two sons, which had been cooked,
  and were set before him by his brother.

  3. Thyestês defiled the wife of his brother, Atreus, and Atreus
  married Pelopia, the unwedded wife of his brother, Thyestês. It was
  the son of this woman by Thyestês who murdered Atreus (his uncle and

  ⁂ The tale of Atreus and that of Œdĭpus are the two most lamentable
  stories of historic fiction, and in some points resemble each other:
  Thus Œdipus married his mother, not knowing who she was; Thyestês
  seduced his daughter, not knowing who she was. Œdipus slew his
  father, not knowing who he was; Atreus slew his son, not knowing who
  he was. Œdipus was driven from his throne by the sons born to him
  by his own mother; Atreus [_At´.ruce_] was killed by the natural son
  of his own wife.

  =Thymbræ´an God= (_The_), Apollo; so called from a celebrated temple
  raised to his honor on a hill near the river Thymbrĭus.

                           The Thymbræan god
               With Mars I saw and Pallas.
                           Dantê, _Purgatory_, xii. (1308).

  =Thymert=, priest and guardian of Guenn. Beloved by the fisherfolk,
  and secretly in love with his beautiful ward. He finds her drowned on
  the shore of his island home.--Blanche Willis Howard, _Guenn_ (1883).

  =Thyrsis=, a herdsman introduced in the _Idylls_ of Theocrĭtos, and in
  Virgil’s _Eclogue_, vii. Any shepherd or rustic is so called.

                   Hard by, a cottage chimney smokes
                 From betwixt two agêd oaks,
                 Where Corydon and Thyrsis met,
                 Are at their savory dinner set.
                             Milton, _L’Allegro_ (1638).

  =Thyrsus=, a long pole with an ornamental head of ivy, vine leaves, or
  a fir cone, carried by Bacchus and by his votaries at the celebration
  of his rites. It was emblematic of revelry and drunkenness.

            [_I will_] abash the frantic thyrsus with my song.
                        Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_ (1767).

  =Tibbs= (_Beau_), a poor, clever, dashing young spark, who had the
  happy art of fancying he knew all the _haut monde_, and that all the
  _monde_ knew him; that his garret was the choicest spot in London, for
  its commanding view of the Thames; that his wife was a lady of
  distinguished airs; and that his infant daughter would marry a peer.
  He took off his hat to every man and woman of fashion, and made out
  that dukes, lords, duchesses, and ladies addressed him simply as Ned.
  His hat was pinched up with peculiar smartness; his looks were pale,
  thin, and sharp, round his neck he wore a broad black ribbon, and in
  his bosom a glass pin; his coat was trimmed with tarnished lace; and
  his stockings were silk. Beau Tibbs interlarded his rapid talk with
  fashionable oaths, such as, “Upon my soul! egad!”

  “I was asked to dine yesterday,” he says, “at the Duchess of
  Piccadilly’s. My Lord Mudler was there. ‘Ned,’ said he, ‘I’ll hold
  gold to silver I can tell you where you were poaching last night ... I
  hope Ned, it will improve your fortune,’ ‘Fortune, my lord? five
  hundred a year at least--great secret--let it go no further.’ My lord
  took me down in his chariot to his country seat yesterday, and we had
  a _tête-à-tête_ dinner in the country.” “I fancy you told us just now
  you dined yesterday at the duchess’s, in town.” “Did I so?” replied
  he, coolly. “To be sure, egad! now I do remember--yes, I had two
  dinners yesterday.”--Letter liv.

  _Mrs. Tibbs_, wife of the beau, a slattern and a coquette, much
  emaciated, but with the remains of a good-looking woman. She made
  twenty apologies for being in _dishabille_; but had been out all night
  with the countess. Then, turning to her husband, she added, “And his
  lordship, my dear, drank your health in a bumper.” Ned then asked his
  wife if she had given orders for dinner. “You need make no great
  preparation--only we three. My lord cannot join us to-day--something
  small and elegant will do, such as a turbot, an ortolan, a----”

  “Or,” said Mrs. Tibbs, “what do you think, my dear, of a nice bit of
  ox-cheek, dressed with a little of my own sauce?” “The very thing,” he
  replies; “it will eat well with a little beer. His grace was very fond
  of it, and I hate the vulgarity of a great load of dishes.” The
  citizen of the world now thought it time to decamp, and took his
  leave, Mrs. Tibbs assuring him that dinner would certainly be quite
  ready in two or three hours.--Letter lv.

  _Mrs. Tibbs’s lady’s-maid_, a vulgar, brawny Scotchwoman. “Where’s my
  lady?” said Tibbs, when he brought to his garret his excellency the
  ambassador of China. “She’s a-washing your twa shirts at the next
  door, because they won’t lend us the tub any longer.”--Goldsmith, _A
  Citizen of the World_ (1759).

  =Tibert= (_Sir_), the name of the cat in the beast-epic of _Reynard
  the Fox_ (1498).

  =Tibet Talkapace=, a prating hand-maid of Custance, the gay and rich
  widow, vainly sought by Ralph Roister Doister.--Nicholas Udall, _Ralph
  Roister Doister_ (first English comedy, 1534).

  The metre runs thus:

       I hearde our nourse speake of an husbande to-day
       Ready for our mistresse, a rich man and gay;
       And we shall go in our French hoodes every day ...
       Then shall ye see Tibet, sires, treade the mosse so trig ...
       Not lumperdee, clumperdee, like our Spaniel Rig.

  =Tibs= (_Mr._), a most “useful hand.” He will write you a receipt for
  the bite of a mad dog, tell you an Eastern tale to perfection, and
  understands the business part of an author so well that no publisher
  can humbug him. You may know him by his peculiar clumsiness of figure,
  and the coarseness of his coat; but he never forgets to inform you
  that his clothes are all paid for. (See TIBBS.)--Goldsmith, _A Citizen
  of The World_, xxix. (1759).

  =Tibullus= (_The French_), the chevalier Evariste de Parny

  =Tiburce= (2 or 3 _syl._), brother of Valerian, converted by St.
  Cecile, his sister-in-law, and baptized by Pope Urban. Being brought
  before the Prefect Almachius, and commanded to worship the image of
  Jupiter, he refused to do so, and was decapitated.--Chaucer,
  _Canterbury Tales_ (“Second Nun’s Tale,” 1388).

  ⁂ When Tiburce is followed by a vowel it is made 2 _syl._, when by a
  consonant it is 3 _syl._, as:

           And after this, Tiburce in good entente (2 _syl._),
           With Valerīan to Pope Urban went,
           And this thing sche unto Tiburce tolde (3 _syl._).

  =Tibur´zio=, commander of the Pisans, in their attack upon Florence,
  in the fifteenth century. The Pisans were thoroughly beaten by the
  Florentines, led by Lu´ria, a Moor, and Tiburzio was taken captive.
  Tiburzio tells Luria that the men of Florence will cast him off after
  peace is established, and advises him to join Pisa. This Luria is far
  too noble to do, but he grants Tiburzio his liberty. Tiburzio, being
  examined by the council of Florence, under the hope of finding some
  cause of censure against the Moor, to lessen or cancel their
  obligations to him, “testifies to his unflinching probity,” and the
  council could find no cause of blame, but Luria, by poison, relieves
  the ungrateful state of its obligation to him.--Robert Browning,

  =Tichborne Dole= (_The_). When Lady Mabella was dying, she requested
  her husband to grant her the means of leaving a charitable bequest. It
  was to be a dole of bread, to be distributed annually on the Feast of
  the Annunciation, to any who chose to apply for it. Sir Roger, her
  husband, said he would give her as much land as she could walk over
  while a billet of wood remained burning. The old lady was taken into
  the park, and managed to crawl over twenty-three acres of land, which
  was accordingly set apart, and is called “The Crawls” to this hour.
  When the Lady Mabella was taken back to her chamber, she said, “So
  long as this dole is continued, the family of Tichborne shall prosper;
  but immediately it is discontinued, the house shall fall, from the
  failure of an heir male. This,” she added, “will be when a family of
  seven sons is succeeded by one of seven daughters.” The custom began
  in the reign of Henry II., and continued till 1796, when, singularly
  enough, the baron had seven sons and his successor seven daughters,
  and Mr. Edward Tichborne, who inherited the Doughty estates, dropping
  the original name, called himself Sir Edward Doughty.

  =Tickell= (_Mark_), a useful friend, especially to Elsie
  Lovell.--Wybert Reeve, _Parted_.

  =Tickler= (_Timothy_), an ideal portrait of Robert Sym, a lawyer of
  Edinburgh (1750-1844).--Wilson, _Noctes Ambrosianæ_ (1822-36).

  =Tiddler.= (See TOM TIDDLER’S GROUND.)

  =Tiddy-Doll=, a nickname given to Richard Grenville, Lord Temple

  =Tide-Waiters= (_Ecclesiastical_). So the Rev. Lord Osborne (S. G. O.)
  calls the clergy in convocation whose votes do not correspond with
  their real opinions.

  =Tider= (_Robin_), one of the servants of the earl of Leicester.--Sir
  W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Tiffany=, Miss Alscrip’s lady’s-maid; pert, silly, bold, and a
  coquette.--General Burgoyne, _The Heiress_ (1781).

  =Tigg= (_Montague_), a clever impostor, who lives by his wits. He
  starts a bubble insurance office--“the Anglo-Bengalee Company”--and
  makes considerable gain thereby. Having discovered the attempt of
  Jonas Chuzzlewit to murder his father, he compels him to put his money
  in the “new company,” but Jonas finds means to murder him.--C.
  Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

  =Tiglath-Pile´ser=, son of Pul, second of the sixth dynasty of the new
  Assyrian empire. The word is _Tiglath Pul Assur_: “the great tiger of

  =Tigra´nes= (3 _syl._), one of the heroes slain by the impetuous Dudon
  soon after the arrival of the Christian army before Jerusalem.--Tasso,
  _Jerusalem Delivered_, iii. (1575).

  _Tigranes_ (3 _syl._), king of Arme´nia.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _A
  King or No King_ (1619).

  =Tigress Nurse= (_A_). Tasso says that Clorinda was suckled by a
  tigress.--_Jerusalem Delivered_, xii.

  Roman story says Romulus and Remus were suckled by a she-wolf.

  Orson, the brother of Valentine, was suckled by a she-bear, and was
  brought up by an eagle.--_Valentine and Orson._

  =Tilburi´na=, the daughter of the governor of Tilbury Fort; in love
  with Whiskerandos. Her love-ravings are the crest unto the crest of
  burlesque tragedy (see act ii. 1).--Sheridan, _The Critic_ (1779).

  “An oyster may be crossed in love,” says the gentle Tilburina.--Sir W.

  =Tilbury Fort= (_The governor of_), father of Tilburīna; a plain,
  matter-of-fact man, with a gushing, romantic and love-struck daughter.
  In Mr. Puff’s tragedy, _The Spanish Armada_.--Sheridan, _The Critic_

  =Tim Syllabub=, a droll creature, equally good at a rebus, a riddle, a
  bawdy song or a tabernacle hymn. You may easily recognize him by his
  shabby finery, his frizzled hair, his dirty shirt and his
  half-genteel, but more than half-shabby dress.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen
  of the World_, xxix. (1759).

  =Times= (_The_), a newspaper founded by John Walter in 1785. It was
  first called _The London Daily Universal Register_; in 1788 the words
  _The Times or ..._ were added. This long title was never tolerated by
  the public, which always spoke of the journal as _The Register_, till
  the original title was suppressed, and the present title, _The Times_,
  remained. In 1803, John Walter, son of the founder, became manager,
  and greatly improved the character of the paper, and in 1814
  introduced a steam press. He died in 1847, and was succeeded by his
  son, John Walter III. In the editorial department, John (afterwards
  “Sir John”) Stoddart (nicknamed “Dr. Slop”), who began to write
  political articles in _The Times_ in 1810, was appointed editor in
  1812, but, in 1816, was dismissed for his rabid hatred of Napoleon. He
  tried to establish an opposition journal, _The New Times_, which
  proved an utter failure. Sir John Stoddart was succeeded by John
  Stebbing; then followed Thomas Barnes (“Mr. T. Bounce”), who remained
  editor till his death, in 1841. W. F. A. Delane came next, and
  continued till 1858, when his son, John Thaddeus Delane, succeeded
  him. The following gentlemen were connected with this paper between
  1870 and 1880:--

  AN EAST END INCUMBENT, Mr. Rowsell, a volunteer correspondent.

  ANGLICANUS, Arthur P. Stanley, dean of Westminster, a volunteer

  C., Dr. Cumming, who often dates from Dunrobin.

  C. E. T., Sir Charles E. Trevelyan, a volunteer correspondent.

  CHURCH MATTERS, the Rev. Henry Wace, preacher at Lincoln’s Inn.

  CITY ARTICLE, M. B. Sampson.

  COLLEAGUES TO CORRESPONDENTS, Dr. Charles Austin, with Messrs. Dallas,
  Broome, and Kelly.

  CORRESPONDENTS in every chief town of the United Kingdom, and in all
  the most important foreign countries.

  CRITIC. _Fine Arts_, Tom Taylor; _Dramatic_, John Oxenford (died
  1876); _Musical_, T. J. Davidson.

  EDITOR, John Thaddeus Delane, who succeeded his father; Assistant, Mr.
  Stebbings, who succeeded G. W. Dasent (“The Hardy Norseman”).

  H., Vernon Harcourt, M. P., a volunteer correspondent.

  HERTFORDSHIRE INCUMBENT, Canon Blakesley, dean of Lincoln.

  HISTORICUS, Vernon Harcourt, M. P., who also wrote slashing articles
  in the _Saturday Review_.

  IRISH CORRESPONDENT, Dr. G. V. Patten, editor and proprietor of the
  _Dublin Daily Express_.

  IRISH MATTERS, O’Conor Morris.

  J. C., Dr. Cumming (see C.), a volunteer correspondent.

  LEADERS, Leonard H. Courteney, Dr. Gallenga, Mr. Knox, Robert Lowe,
  Canon Moseley, Lawrence Oliphant.

  MANAGER OF OFFICE, Mowbray Morris.


  MERCATOR, Lord Overstone, a volunteer correspondent.

  MILITARY AFFAIRS, Captain Hozier.

  RELIGIOUS MATTERS, the Rev. Henry Wace, preacher at Lincoln’s Inn.

  REPORTERS, about sixteen.

  RUNNYMEDE, Benjamin Disraeli, afterwards earl of Beaconsfield, a
  volunteer correspondent.

  SENEX, Grote (died in 1871), a volunteer correspondent.

  S. G. O., the Rev. Lord Sidney Godolphin Osborne, a volunteer

  SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT, Dr. W. Howard Russell, famous for his letters
  from the Crimēa, in 1854; from India, in 1857; from America, in 1861;
  from Bohemia, in 1866; from France, on the Franco-Prussian war, in
  1870-71; etc. Occasionally, Captain Hozier has acted as “Our Own

  VETUS, Capt. Edw. Sterling, a volunteer correspondent.

  VIATOR, John Alexander Kinglake, a volunteer correspondent.

  ⁂ Paper is supplied from the Taverham Mills; _ink_ by Messrs. Fleming
  and Co., Leith, and by Messrs. Blackwell and Co., London; _Daily
  Issue_, between 70,000 and 80,000, which can be thrown from the press
  in two hours; _Working Staff_, 350 hands.

  Called “The Thunderer” from an article contributed by Captain E.
  Sterling, beginning: “We thundered forth the other day an article on
  the subject of social and political reform;” and “The Turnabout,”
  because its politics jump with the times, and are not fossilized whig
  or tory.

  =Tim´ias=, King Arthur’s squire. He went after the “wicked foster,”
  from whom Florimel fled, and the “foster,” with his two brothers,
  falling on him, were all slain. Timias, overcome by fatigue, now fell
  from his horse in a swoon, and Belphœbê, the huntress, happening to
  see him fall, ran to his succor, applied an ointment to his wounds,
  and bound them with her scarf. The squire, opening his eyes,
  exclaimed, “Angel or goddess; do I call thee right?” “Neither,”
  replied the maid, “but only a wood-nymph.” Then was he set upon his
  horse and taken to Belphœbê’s pavilion, where he soon “recovered
  from his wounds, but lost his heart” (bk. iii. 6). In bk. iv. 7
  Belphœbê subsequently found Timias in dalliance with Amoret, and
  said to him, “Is this thy faith?” She said no more, “but turned her
  face and fled.” This is an allusion to Sir Walter Raleigh’s amour with
  Elizabeth Throgmorton (_Amoret_), one of the queen’s maids of honor,
  which drew upon Sir Walter (_Timias_) the passionate displeasure of
  his royal mistress, Queen Elizabeth, (_Belphœbê_).--Spenser, _Faëry
  Queen_, iii. (1590).

  =Timms= (_Corporal_), a non-commissioned officer in Waverley’s
  regiment.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

  =Timo´leon=, the Corinthian. He hated tyranny, and slew his own
  brother, whom he dearly loved, because he tried to make himself
  absolute in Corinth. “Timophănês he loved, but freedom more.”

                 The fair Corinthian boast
           Timoleon, happy temper, mild and firm,
           Who wept the brother while the tyrant bled.
                       Thomson, _The Seasons_ (“Winter,” 1726).

  =Timon=, the Man-hater, an Athenian, who lived in the time of the
  Peloponnesian war. Shakespeare has a drama so called (1609). The drama
  begins with the joyous life of Timon, and his hospitable extravagance;
  then launches into his pecuniary embarrassment, and the discovery that
  his “professed friends” will not help him; and ends with his flight
  into the woods, his misanthropy, and his death.

  When he [_Horace Walpole_] talked misanthropy, he out-Timoned

  ⁂ On one occasion, Timon said, “I have a fig tree in my garden, which
  I once intended to cut down; but I shall let it stand, that any one
  who likes may go and hang himself on it.”

  =Timon’s Banquet=, nothing but cover and warm water. Being shunned by
  his friends in adversity, he pretended to have recovered his money,
  and invited his false friends to a banquet. The table was laden with
  covers, but when the contents were exposed, nothing was provided but
  lukewarm water. (See SCHACABAC.)--Shakespeare, _Timon of Athens_, act
  iii. sc. 6 (1609).

  =Timoth´eos=, a musician, who charged double fees to all pupils who
  had learned music before.--Quintilian, _De Institutione Oratoria_, ii.

  Ponocrates made him forget all that he [_Gargantua_] had learned under
  other masters, as Timŏthĕus did to his disciples who had been taught
  music by others.--Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 23 (1533).

               Timotheus placed on high
               Amid the tuneful quire,
             With flying fingers touched the lyre.
                         Dryden, _Alexander’s Feast_ (1697).

  =Timothy= (_Old_), ostler at John Menge’s inn, at Kirchoff.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Timothy Quaint=, the whimsical, but faithful steward of Governor
  Heartall; blunt, self-willed, but loving his master above all things,
  and true to his interests.--Cherry, _The Soldier’s Daughter_ (1804).

  =Ti´murkan=, the Tartar, and conqueror of China. After a usurpation of
  twenty years, he was slain in a rising of the people, by Zaphimri,
  “the orphan of China.”

           My mind’s employed on other arts:
           To sling the well-stored quiver
           Over this arm, and wing the darts
           At the first reindeer sweeping down the vale,
           Or up the mountain, straining every nerve;
           To vault the neighing steed, and urge his course,
           Swifter than whirlwinds, through the ranks of war;--
           These are my passions, this my only science.
           Raised from a soldier to imperial sway,
           I still will reign in terror.
               Murphy, _The Orphan of China_, iv. 1.

  =Tinacrio=, “the Sage,” father of Micomico´na, queen of Micom´icon,
  and husband of Queen Zaramilla. He foretold that after his death his
  daughter would be dethroned by the giant, Pandafilando, but that in
  Spain, she would find a champion in Don Quixote, who would restore her
  to the throne. This adventure comes to nothing, as Don Quixote is
  taken home in a cage, without entering upon it.--Cervantes, _Don
  Quixote_, I. iv. 3 (1605).

  =Tinclarian Doctor= (_The Great_), William Mitchell, a whitesmith and
  tin-plate worker, of Edinburgh, who published _Tinkler’s Testament_,
  dedicated to Queen Anne, and other similar works.

  The reason why I call myself the Tinclarian doctor, is because I am a
  tinklar, and cures old pans and lantruns.--_Introduction to Tinkler’s

  ⁂ Uniformity of spelling must not be looked for in the “doctor’s”
  book. We have “Tinklar,” “Tinkler,” and “Tinclarian.”

  =Tinderbox= (_Miss Jenny_), a lady with a moderate fortune, who once
  had some pretensions to beauty. Her elder sister happened to marry a
  man of quality, and Jenny ever after resolved not to disgrace herself
  by marrying a tradesman. Having rejected many of her equals, she
  became at last the governess of her sister’s children, and had to
  undergo the drudgery of three servants, without receiving the wages of
  one.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the World_, xxviii. (1759).

  =Tinker= (_The Immortal_ or _The Inspired_), John Bunyan (1638-1688).

  =Tinsel= (_Lord_), a type of that worst specimen of aristocracy, which
  ignores all merit but blue blood, and would rather patronize a
  horse-jockey than a curate, scholar, or poor gentleman. He would
  subscribe six guineas to the concerts of Signor Cantata, because Lady
  Dangle patronized him, but not one penny to “languages, arts, and
  sciences,” as such.--S. Knowles, _The Hunchback_ (1831).

  =Tintag´el= or TINTAGIL, a strong and magnificent castle on the coast
  of Cornwall, said to have been the work of two giants. It was the
  birthplace of King Arthur, and subsequently the royal residence of
  King Mark. Dunlop asserts that vestiges of the castle still exist.

                They found a naked child upon the sands
                Of dark Tintagil, by the Cornish sea,
                And that was Arthur.
                            Tennyson, _Guinevere_ (1858).

  =Tinto= (_Dick_), a poor artist, son of a tailor in the village of
  Langdirdum. He is introduced as a lad in the _Bride of Lammermoor_, i.
  This was in the reign of William III. He is again introduced in _St.
  Ronan’s Well_, i., as touching up the sign-board of Meg Dods, in the
  reign of George III. As William III. died in 1702, and George III.
  began to reign in 1760, Master Dick must have been a patriarch when he
  worked for Mrs. Dods.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (1819);
  _St. Ronan’s Well_ (1823).

  Meg Dods agreed with the celebrated Dick Tinto to repaint her father’s
  sign, which had become rather undecipherable. Dick accordingly gilded
  the bishop’s crook, and augmented the horrors of the devil’s aspect,
  until it became a terror to all the younger fry of the
  school-house.--_St. Ronan’s Well_, i.

  =Tintoretto=, the historical painter, whose real name was Jacopo
  Robusti. He was called _Il Furioso_ from the extreme rapidity with
  which he painted (1512-1594).

  =Tintoretto of England= (_The_), W. Dobson was called “The Tintoret of
  England” by Charles I. (1610-1646).

  =Tintoretto of Switzerland= (_The_), John Huber (eighteenth century).

  =Tiphany=, the mother of the three kings of Cologne. The word is
  manifestly a corruption of St. Epiphany, as Tibs is of St. Ubes,
  Taudry of St. Audry, Tooley [Street] of St. Olaf, Telder of St.
  Ethelred, and so on.

  Scores of the saints have similarly manufactured names.

  =Ti´phys=, pilot of the Argonauts; hence any pilot.

          Many a Tiphys ocean’s depths explore,
          To open wondrous ways, untried before.
                      Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, viii. (Hoole).

  ⁂ Another name for a pilot or guiding power is Palinūrus; so called
  from the steersman of Ænēas.

             E’en Palinurus nodded at the helm.
                         Pope, _The Dunciad_, iv. 614 (1742).

  =Tippins= (_Lady_), an old lady “with an immense, obtuse, drab, oblong
  face, like a face in a tablespoon; and a dyed ’long walk’ up the top
  of her head, as a convenient public approach to the bunch of false
  hair behind.” She delights “to patronize Mrs. Veneering,” and Mrs.
  Veneering is delighted to be patronized by her ladyship.

  Lady Tippins is always attended by a lover or two, and she keeps a
  little list of her lovers, and is always booking a new lover, or
  striking out an old lover, or putting a lover in her black list, or
  promoting a lover to her blue list, or adding up her lovers, or
  otherwise posting her book, which she calls her Cupĭdon.--C. Dickens,
  _Our Mutual Friend_, ii. (1864).

  =Tipple=, in Dudley’s _Flitch of Bacon_, first introduced John Edwin
  into notice (1750-1790).

  Edwin’s “Tipple,” in the _Flitch of Bacon_, was an exquisite

  =Tippoo Saib= (_Prince_), son of Hyder Ali, nawaub of Mysore.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

  =Tips= or “Examination Crams.” Recognized stock pieces of what is
  called “book work” in university examinations are: Fermat’s theorem,
  the “Ludus Trojanus” in Virgil’s _Æneid_ (bk. vi.), Agnesi’s “Witch,”
  the “Cissoid” of Diocles and the famous fragment of Solon, generally
  said to be by Euripidês.

  In law examinations the stock pieces are the _Justinian_ of Sandars;
  the _Digest of Evidence_ of Sir James Stephen; and the _Ancient Law_
  of Sir Henry Maine.

  The following are recognized primers:--Hill’s Logic; Spencer’s _First
  Principles_; Maine’s _Ancient Law_; Lessing’s _Laocoon_; Ritter and
  Preller’s _Fragmenta_; Wheaton’s _International Law_.

  =Tip-tilted.= Tennyson says that Lynette had “her slender nose
  tip-tilted like the petal of a flower.”--Tennyson, _Gareth and
  Lynette_ (1858).

  =Tiptoe=, footman to Random and Scruple. He had seen better days, but,
  being found out in certain dishonest transactions, had lost grade, and
  “Tiptoe, who once stood above the world,” came into a position in
  which “all the world stood on Tiptoe.” He was a shrewd, lazy, knowing
  rascal, better adapted to dubious adventure, but always sighing for a
  snug berth in some wealthy, sober, old-fashioned, homely, county
  family, with good wages, liberal diet, and little work to do.--G.
  Colman, _Ways and Means_ (1788).

  =Tiran´te the White=, the hero and title of a romance of chivalry.

  “Let me see that book,” said the curé; “we shall find in it a fund of
  amusement. Here we shall find that famous knight, Don Kyrie Elyson, of
  Montalban, and Thomas, his brother, with the Knight Fonseca, the
  battle which Detriantê fought with Alano, the stratagems of the Widow
  Tranquil, the amour of the empress with her squire, and the witticisms
  of Lady Brillianta. This is one of the most amusing books ever
  written.”--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 6 (1605).

  =Tiresias=, a Theban soothsayer, blind from boyhood. It is said that
  Athêna deprived him of sight, but gave him the power of understanding
  the language of birds, and a staff as good as eyesight to direct his
  way. Ovid says that Tiresias met two huge serpents in the wood and
  struck them with his staff, when he found himself turned into a woman,
  in which shape he remained for seven years. In the eighth year,
  meeting them again, he again struck them, and was changed back to a
  man. Dante places Tiresias in the Eighth Chasm of the Fourth Circle of
  the Lower Hell among the sorcerers, and other dealers in magic arts.

                 Behold Tiresias, who changed his aspect
                 When of male he was made female,
                 Altogether transforming his members.
                 And afterward he had again to strike
                 The two involved serpents with his rod
                 Before he could resume his manly plumes.
                             Dante, _Inferno_, xx. 40.

  Meeting two mighty serpents in the green wood he struck their
  intertwined bodies with his staff, and, oh, wonderful! he found
  himself changed into a woman, and so remained for seven years. Again
  he sees them, in the eighth year. “And if,” he cried, “so powerful was
  the effect of my former blow, once more will I strike you!” And, the
  serpents struck with the same blows, his former shape returned, and
  his original nature.--Ovid, _Metamorphoses_, iii.

  ⁂ Milton, regretting his own blindness, compares himself to Tiresias,
  among others.

               Blind Thamyris and blind Mæonidês [_Homer_],
               And Tiresias and Phineus prophets old.
                           _Paradise Lost_, iii. 36 (1665).

  =Tirlsneck= (_Jonnie_), beadle of old St. Ronan’s.--Sir W. Scott, _St.
  Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

  =Tirso de Moli´na=, the pseudonym of Gabriel Tellez, a Spanish monk
  and dramatist. His comedy called _Convivando de Piedra_ (1626) was
  imitated by Molière in his _Festin de Pierre_ (1665), and has given
  birth to the whole host of comedies and operas on the subject of “Don
  Juan” (1570-1648).

  =Tiryn´thian Swain= (_The_), Her´culês, called in Latin _Tirynthius
  Heros_, because he generally resided at Tiryns, a town of Ar´golis, in

     Upon his shield lay that Tirynthian swain
       Swelt’ring in fiery gore and poisonous flame,
     His wife’s sad gift venomed with bloody stain. [See NESSUS.]
                 Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vii. (1633).

  =Tisapher´nes= (4 _syl._), “the thunderbolt of war.” He was in the
  army of Egypt, and was slain by Rinaldo.--Tasso, _Jerusalem
  Delivered_, xx. (1575).

  ⁂ This son of Mars must not be mistaken for Tissaphernês, the Persian
  satrap, who sided with the Spartans, in the Peloponnesian war, and who
  treacherously volunteered to guide “the ten thousand” back to Greece.

  =Tisbi´na=, wife of Iroldo. Prasildo, a Babylonish nobleman, fell in
  love with her, and threatened to kill himself. Tisbina, to divert him,
  tells him if he will perform certain exploits which she deemed
  impossible, she will return his love. These exploits he accomplishes,
  and Tisbina, with Iroldo, takes poison to avoid dishonor. Prasildo
  discovers that the draught they have taken is harmless, and tells them
  so; whereupon Iroldo quits the country, and Tisbina marries Prasildo.
  Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495). (See DIANORA, and DORIGEN.)

  =Tisellin=, the raven, in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

  =Tisiph´one= (4 _syl._), one of the three Furies. Covered with a
  bloody robe, she sits day and night at hell-gate, armed with a whip.
  Tibullus says her head was coifed with serpents in lieu of hair.

  The Desert Fairy, with her head covered with snakes, like Tisiphonê,
  mounted on a winged griffin.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The
  Yellow Dwarf,” 1682).

  =Ti´tan=, the son of Hēlĭos, the child of Hyperi´on and Basil´ea, and
  grandson of Cœlum, or heaven. Virgil calls the sun “Titan,” and so
  does Ovid.

                         ... primos crastĭnus ortus
               Extulerit Titan, radiisque retexerit orbem.
                           _Æneid_, iv. 118, 119.

             A maiden queen that shone at Titan’s ray.
                         Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 4 (1590).

  =Titans=, giants, sons of Heaven and Earth. Their names were Ocēănos,
  Kœos, Krios, Hyperīon, Iapĕtos, and Kronos.

  The _Titanĭdês_ were Theia [_Thi-a_], Rhea, Themis, Mnemosynê,
  Phœbê, and Tethys.

  =Titan´ia=, queen of the fairies, and wife of Obĕron. Oberon wanted
  her to give him for a page a little changeling, but Titania refused to
  part with him, and this led to a fairy quarrel. Oberon, in revenge,
  anointed the eyes of Titania, during sleep, with an extract of “Love
  in Idleness,” the effect of which was to make her fall in love with
  the first object she saw on waking. The first object Titania set eyes
  on happened to be a country bumpkin, whom Puck had dressed up with an
  ass’s head. While Titania was fondling this unamiable creature, Oberon
  came upon her, sprinkled on her an antidote, and Titania, thoroughly
  ashamed of herself, gave up the boy to her spouse; after which a
  reconciliation took place between the willful fairies.--Shakespeare,
  _Midsummer Night’s Dream_ (1592).

  =Tite Barnacle= (_Mr._), head of the Circumlocution Office, and a very
  great man in his own opinion. The family had intermarried with the
  Stiltstalkings, and the Barnacles and Stiltstalkings found berths
  pretty readily in the national workshop, where brains and conceit were
  in inverse ratio. The young gents in the office usually spoke with an
  eye-glass in the eye, in this sort of style: “Oh, I say; look here!
  Can’t attend to you to-day, you know. But look here! I say; can’t you
  call to-morrow?” “No.” “Well, but I say; look here! Is this public
  business?--anything about--tonnage--or that sort of thing?” Having
  made his case understood, Mr. Clennam received the following
  instructions in these words;--

  You must find out all about it. Then you’ll memorialize the
  department, according to the regular forms for leave to memorialize.
  If you get it, the memorial must be entered in that department, sent
  to be registered in this department, then sent back to that
  department, then sent to this department to be countersigned, and then
  it will be brought regularly before that department. You’ll find out
  when the business passes through each of these stages by inquiring at
  both departments till they tell you.--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_, x

  =Tite Poulette=, daughter (supposed) of a quadroon mother. “She lives
  a lonely, innocent life, in the midst of corruption, like the lilies
  in the marshes.... If she were in Holland to-day, not one of a hundred
  suitors would detect the hidden blemish of mixed blood.” When the
  young man, who thus describes her loves her, Lalli, her putative
  mother confesses: “I have robbed GOD long enough. Here are the sworn
  papers. Take her--she is as white as snow--so!... I never had a child.
  She is the Spaniard’s daughter.”--G. W. Cable, _Old Creole Days_

  =Titho´nus=, a son of Laomedon, king of Troy. He was so handsome that
  Auro´ra became enamored of him, and persuaded Jupiter to make him
  immortal; but as she forgot to ask for eternal youth also, he became
  decrepit and ugly, and Aurora changed him into a cicada, or
  grasshopper. His name is a synonym for a very old man.

           Weary of aged Tithon’s saffron-bed.
                       Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, I. ii. 7 (1500).

                 ... thinner than Tithōnus was
             Before he faded into air.
                         Lord Lytton, _Tales of Milētus_, ii.

  _Tithonus_ (_The Consort of_), the dawn.

               Now the fair consort of Tithonus old,
               Arisen from her mate’s beloved arms,
               Looked palely o’er the eastern cliff.
                           Dantê, _Purgatory_, ix. (1308).

  =Tithor´ea=, one of the two chief summits of Parnassus. It was
  dedicated to Bacchus, the other (_Lycorēa_), being dedicated to the
  Muses and Apollo.

  =Titian= (_Tiziano Vecellio_), an Italian landscape painter,
  especially famous for his flesh-tints and female figures (1477-1576).

  _Titian_ (_The French_), Jacques Blanchard (1600-1638).

  _Titian_ (_The Portuguese_), Alonzo Sanchez Coello (1515-1590).

  =Titmarsh= (_Michael Angelo_), a pseudonym used by Thackeray, in a
  number of his earlier writings. Like Michael Angelo, Thackeray had a
  broken nose.

  =Titmouse= (_Mr. Tittlebat_), a vulgar, ignorant coxcomb, suddenly
  raised from the degree of a linen-draper’s shopman, to a man of
  fortune, with an income of £10,000 a year.--Warren, _Ten Thousand a

  =Tito Mele´ma=, a Greek, who marries Romola.--George Eliot, _Romola_.

  =Titurel=, the first king of Graal-burg. He has brought into
  subjection all his passions, has resisted all the seductions of the
  world, and is modest, chaste, pious, and devout. His daughter, Sigunê,
  is in love with Tschionatulander, who is slain.--Wolfram von
  Eschenbach, _Titurel_ (thirteenth century).

  ⁂ Wolfram’s _Titurel_ is a tedious expansion of a lay already in
  existence, and Albert of Scharfenberg produced a _Young Titurel_, at
  one time thought the best romance of chivalry in existence, but it is
  pompous, stilted, erudite, and wearisome.

  =Titus=, the son of Lucius Junius Brutus. He joined the faction of
  Tarquin, and was condemned to death by his father, who, having been
  the chief instrument in banishing the king and all his race, was
  created the first consul. The subject has been often dramatized. In
  English, by N. Lee (1678) and John Howard Payne (1820). In French, by
  Arnault, in 1792; and by Ponsard, in 1843. In Italian, by Alfieri,
  _Bruto_, etc. It was in Payne’s tragedy that Charles Kean made his
  _début_ in Glasgow, as “Titus,” his father playing “Brutus.”

  _Titus_, “the delight of man,” the Roman emperor, son of Vespasian
  (40, 79-81).

  _Titus_, the penitent thief, according to the legend. Dumăchus and
  Titus were two of a band of robbers, who attacked Joseph in his flight
  into Egypt. Titus said, “Let these good people go in peace;” but
  Dumachus replied, “First let them pay their ransom.” Whereupon Titus
  handed to his companion forty groats; and the infant Jesus said to

           When thirty years shall have gone by
           I at Jerusalem shall die ...
                 On the accursêd tree.
           Then on My right and My left side,
           These thieves shall both be crucified,
           And Titus thenceforth shall abide
                 In paradise with Me.
                       Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

  =Tityre Tus= (long _u_), the name assumed in the seventeenth century
  by a clique of young blades of the better class, whose delight was to
  break windows, upset sedan-chairs, molest quiet citizens, and rudely
  caress pretty women in the streets at night-time. These brawlers took
  successively many titular names, as Muns, Hectors, Scourers,
  afterwards Nickers, later still Hawcubites, and lastly Mohawks or

  “Tityre tu-s” is meant for the plural of “Tityre tu,” in the first
  line of Virgil’s first _Eclogue_: “Tityre, tu patulæ recubans sub
  tegmine fagi,” and meant to imply that these blades were men of
  leisure and fortune, who “lay at ease under their patrimonial beech

  =Tit´yrus=, in the _Shepheardes Calendar_, by Spenser (ecl. ii. and
  vi.), is meant for Chaucer.

      The gentle shepherd sate beside a spring ...
      That Colin hight, which well could pipe and sing,
      For he of Tityrus his song did learn.
                  Spenser, _The Shepheardes Calendar_, xii. (1579).

  =Tityus=, a giant, whose body covered nine acres of ground. In
  Tartărus, two vultures or serpents feed forever on his liver, which
  grows as fast as it is gnawed away.

  Promētheus (3 _syl._) is said to have been fastened to Mount Caucasus,
  where two eagles fed on his liver, which never wasted.

           Nor unobserved lay stretched upon the marle
           Tityus, earth-born, whose body, long and large,
           Covered nine acres. There two vultures sat,
           Of appetite insatiate, and with beaks
           For ravine bent, unintermitting gored
           His liver. Powerless he to put to flight
           The fierce devourers. To this penance judged
           For rape intended on Latona fair.
                       Fenton’s _Homer’s Odyssey_, xi. (1716).

  =Tizo´na=, the Cid’s sword. It was buried with him, as Joyeuse
  (Charlemagne’s sword) was buried with Charlemagne, and Durindāna with

  =Tlal´ala=, surnamed “The Tiger,” one of the Aztĕcas. On one occasion,
  being taken captive, Madoc released him, but he continued the
  unrelenting foe of Madoc and his new colony, and was always foremost
  in working them evil. When at length the Aztecas, being overcome,
  migrated to Mexico, Tlalala refused to quit the spot of his father’s
  tomb, and threw himself on his own javelin.--Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

  =Toad-Eater= (_Pulteney’s_). Henry Vane was so called in 1742, by Sir
  Robert Walpole. Two years later, Sarah Fielding, in _David Simple_,
  speaks of “toad-eater” as “quite a new word,” and she suggests that it
  is “a metaphor taken from a mountebank’s boy eating toads in order to
  show his master’s skill in expelling poison,” and “built on a
  supposition that people who are in a state of dependence are forced to
  do the most nauseous things to please and humor their patrons.”

  =Tobo´so= (_Dulcinĕa del_), the lady chosen by Don Quixote for his
  particular paragon. Sancho Panza says she was “a stout-built, sturdy
  wench, who could pitch the bar as well as any young fellow in the
  parish.” The knight had been in love with her before he took to
  errantry. She was Aldonza Lorenzo, the daughter of Lorenzo Corchuelo
  and Aldonza Nogalês; but when Signior Quixāda assumed the dignity of
  knighthood, he changed the name and style of his lady into Dulcinea
  del Tobōso, which was more befitting his rank.--Cervantes, _Don
  Quixote_, I. i. 1 (1605).

  =Toby=, waiter of the Spa hotel, St. Ronan’s, kept by Sandie
  Lawson.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

  _Toby_, a brown Rockingham-ware beer jug, with the likeness of Toby
  Filpot embossed on its sides, “a goodly jug of well-browned clay,
  fashioned into the form of an old gentleman, atop of whose bald head
  was a fine froth answering to his wig” (ch. iv.).

  Gabriel lifted Toby to his mouth, and took a hearty draught.--C.
  Dickens, _Master Humphrey’s Clock_ (“Barnaby Rudge,” xli., 1841).

  _Toby_, Punch’s dog, in the puppet-show exhibition of _Punch and

  In some versions of the great drama of _Punch_, there is a small dog
  (a modern innovation), supposed to be the private property of that
  gentleman, and of the name of Toby--always Toby. This dog has been
  stolen in youth from another gentleman, and fraudulently sold to the
  confiding hero who, having no guile himself, has no suspicion that it
  lurks in others; but Toby, entertaining a grateful recollection of his
  old master, and scorning to attach himself to any new patron, not only
  refuses to smoke a pipe at the bidding of Punch but (to mark his old
  fidelity more strongly) seizes him by the nose, and wrings the same
  with violence, at which instance of canine attachment the spectators
  are always deeply affected.--C. Dickens.

  _Toby_, in the periodical called _Punch_, is represented as a grave,
  consequential, sullen, unsocial pug, perched on back volumes of the
  national Menippus, which he guards so stolidly that it would need a
  very bold heart to attempt to filch one. There is no reminiscence in
  this Toby, like that of his peep-show namesake, of any previous
  master, and no aversion to his present one. Punch himself is the very
  beau-ideal of good-natured satire and far-sighted shrewdness, while
  his dog (the very Diogĕnês of his tribe) would scorn his nature if he
  could be made to smile at anything.

  ⁂ The first cover of immortal _Punch_ was designed by A. S. Henning;
  the present one by Richard Doyle.

  _Toby_ (_Uncle_), a captain, who was wounded at the siege of Namur,
  and was obliged to retire from the service. He is the impersonation of
  kindness, benevolence, and simple-heartedness; his courage is
  undoubted, his gallantry delightful for its innocence and modesty.
  Nothing can exceed the grace of Uncle Toby’s love-passages with the
  Widow Wadman. It is said that Lieutenant Sterne (father of the
  novelist), was the prototype of Uncle Toby.--Sterne, _Tristram Shandy_

  My Uncle Toby is one of the finest compliments ever paid to human
  nature. He is the most unoffending of God’s creatures, or, as the
  French would express it, _un tel petit bonhomme_. Of his
  bowling-green, his sieges, and his amours, who would say or think
  anything amiss?--Hazlitt.

  =Toby Veck=, ticket-porter and jobman, nicknamed “Trotty” from his
  trotting pace. He was “a weak, small, spare man,” who loved to earn
  his money, and heard the chimes ring words in accordance with his
  fancy, hopes, and fears. After a dinner of tripe, he lived for a time
  in a sort of dream, and woke up on New Year’s day to dance at his
  daughter’s wedding.--C. Dickens, _The Chimes_ (1844).

  =Todd= (_Laurie_), a poor Scotch nailmaker, who emigrates to America,
  and, after some reverses of fortune, begins life again as a
  backwoodsman, and greatly prospers.--Galt, _Laurie Todd_.

  =Tod´gers= (_Mrs._), proprietress of a “commercial boarding-house;”
  weighed down with the overwhelming cares of sauces, gravy, and the
  wherewithal of providing for her lodgers. Mrs. Todgers had a soft
  heart for Mr. Pecksniff, widower, and being really kind-hearted,
  befriended poor Mercy Pecksniff in her miserable married life with her
  brutal husband, Jonas Chuzzlewit.--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_

  =Tofa´na=, of Palermo, a noted poisoner, who sold a tasteless,
  colorless poison, called the _Manna of St. Nicola of Bara_, but better
  known as _Aqua Tofana_. Above 600 persons fell victims to this fatal
  drug. She was discovered in 1659, and died 1730.

  La Spara or Hieronyma Spara, about a century previously, sold an
  “elixir” equally fatal. The secret was ultimately revealed to her
  father confessor.

  =Tofts= (_Mistress_), a famous singer towards the close of the
  eighteenth century. She was very fond of cats, and left a legacy to
  twenty of the tabby tribe.

        Not Niobê mourned more for fourteen brats,
        Nor Mistress Tofts, to leave her twenty cats.
                    Peter Pindar [Dr. Wolcot], _Old Simon_ (1809).

  =Toinette=, a confidential female servant of Argan, the _malade
  imaginaire_. “Adroite, soigneuse, diligente, et surtout fidèle,” but
  contractious, and always calling into action her master’s irritable
  temper. In order to cure him, she pretends to be a travelling
  physician of about 90 years of age, although she has not seen
  twenty-six summers; and in the capacity of a Galen, declares M. Argan
  is suffering from lungs, recommends that one arm should be cut off,
  and one eye taken out to strengthen the remaining one. She enters into
  a plot to open the eyes of Argan to the real affection of Angelique
  (his daughter), the false love of her stepmother, and to marry the
  former to Cléante, the man of her choice, in all which schemes she is
  fully successful.--Molière, _Le Malade Imaginaire_ (1673).

  =Toison d’Or=, chief herald of Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin
  Durward_, and _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Toki=, the Danish William Tell. Saxo Grammaticus, a Danish writer of
  the twelfth century, tells us that Toki once boasted, in the hearing
  of Harald Bluetooth, that he could hit an apple with his arrow off a
  pole; and the Danish Gessler set him to try his skill by placing an
  apple on the head of the archer’s son (twelfth century).

  =Tolande of Anjou=, a daughter of old King Réné of Provence, and
  sister of Margaret of Anjou (wife of Henry VI. of England).--Sir W.
  Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Tolbooth= (_The_), the principal prison of Edinburgh.

     The Tolbooth felt defrauded of his charms
     If Jeffrey died, except within her arms.
                 Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

  Lord Byron refers to the “duel” between Francis Jeffrey, editor of the
  _Edinburgh Review_, and Thomas Moore, the poet, at Chalk Farm, in
  1806. The duel was interrupted, and it was then found that neither of
  the pistols contained a bullet.

       Can none remember the eventful day,
       That ever-glorious, almost fatal fray,
       When Little’s [_Thomas Moore_] leadless pistol met his eye,
       And Bow Street myrmidons stood laughing by?

  =Tolme´tes= (3 _syl._), Foolhardiness personified in _The Purple
  Island_, fully described in canto viii. His companions were Arrogance,
  Brag, Carelessness, and Fear. (Greek, _tolmêtês_, “a foolhardy man.”)

       Thus ran the rash Tolmetes, never viewing
       The fearful fiends that duly him attended ...
       Much would he boldly do, but much more boldly vaunt.
                   P. Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, viii. (1633).

  =Tom=, “the Portugal dustman,” who joined the allied army against
  France in the war of the Spanish Succession.--Dr. Arbuthnot, _History
  of John Bull_ (1712).

  _Tom_, one of the servants of Mr. Peregrine Lovel, “with a good deal
  of surly honesty about him.” Tom is no sneak, and no tell-tale, but he
  refuses to abet Philip, the butler, in sponging on his master, and
  wasting his property in riotous living. When Lovel discovers the state
  of affairs, and clears out his household, he retains Tom, to whom he
  entrusts the cellar and the plate.--Rev. J. Townley, _High Life Below
  Stairs_ (1750).

  =Tom Folio=, Thomas Rawlinson, the bibliopolist (1681-1725).

  =Tom Jones= (1 _syl._), a model of generosity, openness, and manly
  spirit, mixed with dissipation. Lord Byron calls him “an accomplished
  blackguard” (_Don Juan_, xiii. 110, 1824).--Fielding, _Tom Jones_

  A hero with a flawed reputation, a hero sponging for a guinea, a hero
  who cannot pay his landlady, and is obliged to let his honor out to
  hire, is absurd, and the claim of Tom Jones to heroic rank is quite

  =Tom Long=, the hero of an old tale, entitled _The Merry Conceits of
  Tom Long, the Carrier, being many Pleasant Passages and Mad Pranks
  which he observed in his Travels_. This tale was at one time amazingly

  =Tom Scott=, Daniel Quilp’s boy, Tower Hill. Although Quilp was a
  demon incarnate, yet “between the boy and the dwarf there existed a
  strange kind of mutual liking.” Tom was very fond of standing on his
  head, and on one occasion Quilp said to him, “Stand on your head
  again, and I’ll cut one of your feet off.”

  The boy made no answer, but directly Quilp had shut himself in, stood
  on his head before the door, then walked on his hands to the back, and
  stood on his head there, then to the opposite side and repeated the
  performance.... Quilp, knowing his disposition, was lying in wait at a
  little distance, armed with a large piece of wood, which, being rough
  and jagged, and studded with broken nails, might possibly have hurt
  him, if it had been thrown at him.--C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity
  Shop_, v. (1840).

  =Tom Thumb=, the name of a very diminutive little man in the court of
  King Arthur, killed by the poisonous breath of a spider, in the reign
  of King Thunstone, the successor of Arthur. In the Bodleian Library
  there is a ballad about Tom Thumb, which was printed in 1630. Richard
  Johnson wrote in prose, _The History of Tom Thumbe_, which was printed
  in 1621. In 1630, Charles Perrault published his tale called _Le Petit
  Poucet_. Tom Thumb is introduced by Drayton in his _Nymphidia_

  “Tom” in this connection is the Swedish _tomt_ (“a nix or dwarf”), as
  in _Tomptgubbe_ (“a brownie or kobold”); the final t is silent, and
  the tale is of Scandinavian origin.

  _Tom Thumb_, a burlesque opera, altered by Kane O’Hara (author of
  _Midas_), in 1778, from a dramatic piece by Fielding, the novelist
  (1730). Tom Thumb, having killed the giants, falls in love with
  Huncamunca, daughter of King Arthur. Lord Grizzle wishes to marry the
  princess, and when he hears that the “pygmy giant-queller” is
  preferred before him, his lordship turns traitor, invests the palace
  “at the head of his rebellious rout,” and is slain by Tom. Then
  follows the bitter end: A red cow swallows Tom, the queen,
  Dollallolla, kills Noodle, Frizaletta kills the queen, Huncamunca
  kills Frizaletta, Doodle kills Huncamunca, Plumantê kills Doodle, and
  the king, being left alone, stabs himself. Merlin now enters, commands
  the red cow to “return our England’s Hannibal,” after which the wise
  wizard restores all the slain ones to life again, and thus “jar
  ending,” each resolves to go home “and make a night on’t.”

  =Tom Tiddler’s Ground=, a nook in a rustic by-road, where Mr. Mopes,
  the hermit, lived, and had succeeded in laying it waste. In the middle
  of the plot was a ruined hovel, without one patch of glass in the
  windows, and with no plank or beam that had not rotted or fallen away.
  There was a slough of water, a leafless tree or two, and plenty of
  filth. Rumor said that Tom Mopes had murdered his beautiful wife from
  jealousy, and had abandoned the world. Mr. Traveller tried to reason
  with him, and bring him back to social life, but the tinker replied,
  “When iron is thoroughly rotten you cannot botch it, do what you
  may.”--C. Dickens, _A Christmas Number_ (1861).

  =Tom Tiler and His Wife=, a transition play between a morality and a
  tragedy (1578).

  =Tom Tipple=, a highwayman in Captain Macheath’s gang. Peachum calls
  him “a guzzling, soaking sot, always too drunk to stand himself or to
  make others stand. A cart,” he says, “is absolutely necessary for
  him.”--Gray, _The Beggar’s Opera_, i. (1727).

  =Tom Tram=, the hero of a novel entitled _The Mad Pranks of Tom Tram,
  Son-in-Law to Mother Winter, whereunto is added His Merry Jests, Odd
  Conceits and Pleasant Tales_ (seventeenth century).

                    All your wits that fleer and sham,
                    Down from Don Quixote to Tom Tram.

  =Tom-a-Thrum=, a sprite which figures in the fairy tales of the Middle
  Ages; a “queer-looking little auld man,” whose chief exploits were in
  the vaults and cellars of old castles. John Skelton, speaking of the
  clergy, says:

          Alas! for very shame, some cannot declyne their name;
          Some cannot scarsly rede, And yet will not drede
          For to kepe a cure.... As wyse as Tom-a-Thrum.
                      _Colyn Clout_ (time, Henry VIII.).

  =Tom o’ Bedlam=, a ticket-of-leave madman from Bethlehem Hospital, or
  one discharged as incurable.

  =Tom of Ten Thousand=, Thomas Thynne; so called from his great wealth.
  He was buried in Westminster Abbey, but why, the then dean has not
  thought fit to leave on record.

  =Tom the Piper=, one of the characters in the ancient morris-dance,
  represented with a tabor, tabor-stick and pipe. He carried a sword and
  shield, to denote his rank as a “squire minstrel.” His shoes were
  brown; his hose red and “gimp-thighed;” his hat or cap, red, turned up
  with yellow, and adorned with a feather; his doublet blue, the sleeves
  being turned up with yellow; and he wore a yellow cape over his
  shoulders. (See MORRIS-DANCE.)

  =Tom Turner= (_Mrs._), unsophisticated country dame, whose head is
  turned by the feigned devotion of a man to whom “flirting is a part of
  daily existence.” “Mrs. Tom” dresses flashily, in imitation of the
  butterflies of fashion whom she meets in her new career as a woman of
  the world, affects airs and graces foreign to her nature, and plays
  the fool generally until shocked into her senses by a letter from her
  quiet, commonplace husband, telling her that he “has gone away and
  that she will not see him again.” She follows him, entreats
  forgiveness, returns to home and plain living, and, as a
  characteristic penance, wears her gaudy costumes out as everyday
  gowns. There were thirty of them at first. “I’ve worn them all almost
  out. When I get to the end of them I’ll have my own things again.”--H.
  C. Bunner, _Mrs. Tom’s Spree_ (1891).

  =Tomahourich= (_Muhme Janet of_), an old sibyl, aunt of Robin Oig
  M’Combich, the Highland drover.--Sir W. Scott, _The Two Drovers_
  (time, George III.).

  =Tom´alin=, a valiant fairy knight, kinsman of King Obĕron. Tomălin is
  not the same as “Tom Thumb,” as we are generally but erroneously told,
  for in the “mighty combat” Tomalin backed Pigwiggen, while Tom Thum or
  Thumb, seconded King Oberon. This fairy battle was brought about by
  the jealousy of Oberon, who considered the attentions of Pigwiggen to
  Queen Mab were “far too nice.”--M. Drayton, _Nymphidia_ (1563-1631).

  =Tomb= (_Knight of the_), James, earl of Douglas in disguise.

  His armor was ingeniously painted so as to represent a skeleton; the
  ribs being constituted by the corselet and its back-piece. The shield
  represented an owl with its wings spread--a device which was repeated
  upon the helmet, which appeared to be completely covered by an image
  of the same bird of ill omen. But that which was particularly
  calculated to excite surprise in the spectator was the great height
  and thinness of the figure.--Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_, xiv.
  (time, Henry I.).

  =Tomboy= (_Priscilla_), a self-willed, hoydenish, ill-educated romp,
  of strong animal spirits, and wholly unconventional. She is a West
  Indian, left under the guardianship of Barnacle, and sent to London
  for her education. Miss Priscilla Tomboy lives with Barnacle’s
  brother, old [Nicholas] Cockney, a grocer, where she plays
  boy-and-girl love with young Walter Cockney, which consists chiefly in
  pettish quarrels and personal insolence. Subsequently she runs off
  with Captain Sightly, but the captain behaves well by presenting
  himself next day to the guardian, and obtaining his consent to
  marriage.--_The Romp_ (altered from Bickerstaff’s _Love in the City_).

  =Tomès= [_Tō-may_], one of the five physicians called in by Sganarelle
  to consult on the malady of his daughter, Lucinde (2 _syl._). Being
  told that a coachman he was attending was dead and buried, the doctor
  asserted it to be quite impossible, as the coachman had been ill only
  six days, and Hippocrătês had positively stated that the disorder
  would not come to its height till the fourteenth day. The five doctors
  meet in consultation, talk of the town gossip, their medical
  experience, their visits, anything, in short, except the patient. At
  length the father enters to inquire what decision they had come to.
  One says Lucinde must have an emetic, M. Tomès says she must be
  blooded; one says an emetic will be her death, the other that bleeding
  will infallibly kill her.

  _M. Tomès_, Si vous ne faites saigner tout à l’heure votre fille,
  c’est une personne morte.

  _M. Desfonandrès_, Si vous la faites saigner, elle ne sera pas en vie
  dans un quart-d’-heure.

  And they quit the house in great anger (act. ii. 4).--Molière,
  _L’Amour Médecin_ (1665).

  =Tomkins= (_Joseph_), secret emissary of Cromwell. He was formerly
  Philip Hazeldine, _alias_ Master Fibbet, secretary to Colonel
  Desborough (one of the parliamentary commissioners).--Sir W. Scott,
  _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

  =Tom´yris=, queen of the Massagētæ. She defeated Cyrus, who had
  invaded her kingdom, and, having slain him, threw his head into a
  vessel filled with human blood, saying, “It was blood you thirsted
  for; now take your fill!”

                Great bronze valves embossed with Tomyris.
                            Tennyson, _The Princess_, v.

          [_I_] was shown the seath and cruel mangling made
          By Tomyris on Cyrus, when she cried,
          “Blood thou didst thirst for; take thy fill of blood!”
                      Dantê, _Purgatory_, xii (1308).

  =Ton-Iosal= was so heavy and unwieldy that when he sat down it took
  the whole force of a hundred men to set him upright on his feet
  again.--_The Fiona_.

  If Fion was remarkable for his stature, ... in weight all yielded to
  the celebrated Ton-Iosal.--J. Macpherson, _Dissertation on Ossian_.

  =Ton-Thena= (“_fire of the wave_”), a remarkable star which guided
  Larthon to Ireland, as mentioned in Ossian’s _Tem´ora_, vii., and
  called in _Cathlin of Clutha_, “the red traveller of the clouds.”

  =Tonio=, a young Tyrolese, who saved Maria, the sutler-girl, when on
  the point of falling down a precipice. The two, of course, fall in
  love with each other, and the regiment, which had adopted the
  sutler-girl, consents to their marriage, provided Tonio will enlist
  under its flag. No sooner is this done than the marchioness of
  Berkenfield lays claim to Maria as her daughter, and removes her to
  the castle. In time, the castle is besieged and taken by the very
  regiment into which Tonio had enlisted, and, as Tonio had risen to the
  rank of a French officer, the marchioness consents to his marriage
  with her daughter.--Donizetti, _La Figlia del Reggimento_ (1840).

  =Tonna= (_Mrs._), Charlotte Elizabeth (1792-1846).

  =Tonto= (_Don Cherubin_), canon of Tole´do, the weakest mortal in the
  world, though, by his smirking air, you would fancy him a wit. When he
  hears a delicate performance read, he listens with such attention as
  seems full of intelligence, but all the while he understands nothing
  of the matter.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, v. 12 (1724).

  =Tonton=, the smallest dog that ever existed. When the three princes
  of a certain king were sent to procure the tiniest dog they could
  find, as a present to their aged father, the White Cat gave the
  youngest of them a dog, so small that it was packed in wadding in a
  common acorn shell.

  As soon as the acorn was opened, they all saw a little dog laid in
  cotton, and so small it might jump through a finger-ring without
  touching it.... It was a mixture of several colors; its ears and long
  hair reached to the ground. The prince set it on the ground, and
  forthwith the tiny creature began to dance a saraband with
  castanets.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The White Cat,” 1682)

  =Tony Lumpkin=, a young booby, fond of practical jokes, and low
  company. He was the son of Mrs. Hardcastle by her first
  husband.--Goldsmith, _She Stoops to Conquer_ (1773).

  =Tony Tyler=, on the editorial staff of the _Tecumseh Chronicle_. “He
  knows about eighteen hundred times as much as Samboye (managing
  editor) does, only somehow, he hasn’t the faculty of putting it on
  paper. Too much whiskey!”--Harold Frederic, Seth’s Brother’s Wife

  =Toodle=, engine-fireman, an honest fellow, very proud of his wife,
  Polly, and her family.

  _Polly Toodle_, known by the name of Richards, wife of the stoker.
  Polly was an apple-faced woman, and was mother of a large, apple-faced
  family. This jolly, homely, kind-hearted matron was selected as the
  nurse of Paul Dombey, and soon became devotedly attached to Paul and
  his sister, Florence.

  _Robin Toodle_, known as “The Biler,” or “Rob the Grinder,” eldest son
  of Mrs. Toodle, wet-nurse of Paul Dombey. Mr. Dombey gets Robin into
  an institution called “The Charitable Grinders,” where the worst part
  of the boy’s character is freely developed. Robin becomes a sneak, and
  enters the service of James Carker, manager of the firm of Dombey and
  Son. On the death of Carker, Robin enters the service of Miss Lucretia
  Tox.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

  =Toom Tabard= (“_empty jacket_”), a nickname given to John Balliol,
  because his appointment to the sovereignty of Scotland was an empty
  name. He had the royal robe or jacket, but nothing else (1259,

  =Tooth Worshipped= (_A_). The people of Ceylon worship the tooth of an
  elephant; those of Malabar, the tooth of a monkey. The Siamese once
  offered a Portuguese 700,000 ducats for the redemption of a monkey’s

  =Tooth-picks.= The Romans used tooth-picks made of mastic wood, in
  preference to quills; hence, Rabelais says that Prince Gargantua
  “picked his teeth with mastic tooth-pickers” (s’escuroit les dents
  avecques ung trou de lentisce), bk. i. 23.

               Lentiscum melius; sed si tibi frondea cuspis
               Defuerit, dentes, penna, levare potes.
                           Martial, _Epigrams_, xx. 24.

  =Toots= (_Mr._), an innocent, warm-hearted young man, just burst from
  the bonds of Dr. Blimber’s school, and deeply in love with Florence
  Dombey. He is famous for blushing, refusing what he longs to accept,
  and for saying, “Oh, it is of no consequence.” Being very nervous, he
  never appears to advantage, but in the main, “there were few better
  fellows in the world.”

  “I assure you,” said Mr. Toots, “really I am dreadfully sorry, but
  it’s of no consequence.”--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_, xxviii.

  =Topas= (_Sir_), a native of Poperyng, in Flanders; a capital
  sportsman, archer, wrestler, and runner. Chaucer calls him “Sir
  Thopas” (_q.v._).

  _Topas_ (_Sir_). Sir Charles Dilke was so called by the _Army and Navy
  Gazette_, November 25, 1871 (1810-1869).

  =Topham= (_Master Charles_), usher of the black rod.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

  =Topsy=, a young slave-girl, who never knew whether she had either
  father or mother, and being asked by Miss Ophelia St. Clare, how she
  supposed she came into the world, replied, “I ’spects I
  growed.”--Harriet Beecher Stowe, _Uncle Tom’s Cabin_ (1852).

  =Tor= (_Sir_), the natural son of King Pellinore, and the wife of
  Aries, the cowherd. He was the first of the knights of the Round
  Table.--Sir. T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 24 (1470).

  =Toralva= (_The licentiate_), mounted on a cane, was conveyed through
  the air with his eyes shut; in twelve hours he arrived at Rome, and
  the following morning returned to Madrid. During his flight he opened
  his eyes once, and found himself so near the moon that he could have
  touched it with his finger.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iii. 5
  (1615). (See TORRALBA.)

  =Tordenskiol= [_Tor´.den.skole_], or the “Thunder-Shield.” So Peder
  Wessel, vice-admiral of Denmark (in the reign of Christian V.), was
  called. He was brought up as a tailor, and died in a duel.

             From Denmark thunders Tordenskiol;
             Let each to heaven commend his soul,
             And fly.
                         Longfellow, _King Christian_ [_V._].

  =Torfe= (_Mr. George_), provost of Orkney.--Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_
  (time, William III.).

  =Tormes= (_Lazarillo de_), by Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (sixteenth
  century); a kind of Gil Blas, whose adventures and roguish tricks are
  the first of a very popular sort of novel called the _Gusto
  Picaresco_. Lesage has imitated it in his _Gil Blas_, and we have
  numberless imitations in our own language. (See TYLL OWLYGLASS.)

  The ideal Yankee, in whom European prejudice has combined the
  attractive traits of a Gines de Passamonte, a Joseph Surface, a
  Lazarillo de Tormes, a Scapin, a Thersitês, and an Autolycus.--W. H.

  ⁂ “Gines de Passamonte,” in _Don Quixote_, by Cervantes; “Joseph
  Surface,” in _The School for Scandal_, by Sheridan; “Scapin,” in _Les
  Fourberies de Scapin_, by Molière; “Thersitês,” in Homer’s Iliad, i.;
  “Autolycus,” in the _Winter’s Tale_, by Shakespeare.

  =Tormot=, youngest son of Torquil, of the Oak (foster-father of Eachin
  M’Ian).--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

  =Torquato=, that is, Torquato Tasso, the Italian poet, author of
  _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1544-1595). After the publication of his great
  epic, Tasso lived in the court of Ferrara, and conceived a violent
  passion for Leonora, one of the duke’s sisters, but fled, in 1577, to

                Torquato’s tongue
      Was tuned for slavish pæans at the throne
      Of tinsel pomp.
                  Akenside, _Pleasures of Imagination_, ii. (1744).

  =Torquil of the Oak=, foster-father of Eachin M’Ian. He was chief of
  the clan Quhele, and had eight sons, the finest men in the clan.
  Torquil was a seer, who was supposed to have communication with the
  invisible world, and he declared a demon had told him that Eachin or
  Hector M’Ian, was the only man in the two hostile clans of Chattan and
  Quhele who would come off scathless in the approaching combat (ch
  xxvi.).--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

  A parallel combat is described in _The Cid_. When Sancho of Castile
  was stabbed by Bellĭdo of Zamora, Diego Ordoñez, of the house of Lara,
  challenged five of the knights of Zamora to a single combat. Don Arias
  Gonzalo and his four sons accepted the challenge. Pedro Arias was
  first slain, then his brother, Diego. Next came Herman, who received a
  mortal wound, but struck the charger of Diego Ordoñez. The charger,
  furious with pain, carried its rider beyond the lists, and the combat
  was declared to be drawn.

  =Torralba= (_Dr._), carried by the spirit Cequiel from Valladŏlid to
  Rome and back again in an hour and a half. He was tried by the
  Inquisition for sorcery (time, Charles V.).--Joseph de Ossau Pellicer
  (seventeenth century). (See TORALVA.)

  =Torre= (_Sir_), son of Sir Bernard, baron of Astolat. His brother was
  Sir Lavaine, and his sister Elaine “the lily maid of Astolat.” He was
  blunt-mannered, but not without kindness of heart.--Tennyson, _Idylls
  of the King_ (“Elaine”).

  The word “Torre” is a blunder for Tirre. Sir Torre or Tor, according
  to Arthurian legend, was the natural son of Pellinore, king of Wales,
  “begotten of Aries’ wife, the cowherd” (pt. ii. 108). It was Sir Tirre
  who was the brother of Elaine (pt. iii. 122).--Sir T. Malory, _History
  of Prince Arthur_ (1470).

  =Tor´rismond=, general of the forces of Aragon. He falls in love with
  Leonora, the usurping queen, promised in marriage to Bertran, prince
  of the blood-royal, but she falls in love with Torrismond, who turns
  out to be the son of Sancho, the deposed king. Ultimately Sancho is
  restored, and Leonora is married to Torrismond.--Dryden, _The Spanish
  Fryar_ (1680),

  =Torso Farne´se= (3 _syl._), Dircê and her sons, the work of
  Apollonius and Tauriscus of Rhodes.

  =Toshach Beg=, the “second” of M’Gillie Chattanach, chief of the clan
  Chattan, in the great combat.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_
  (time, Henry IV.).

  =Tottenham in Boots=, a popular toast in Ireland in 1734. Mr.
  Tottenham gave the casting vote which threw out a Government bill very
  obnoxious to the Irish, on the subject of the Irish parliament. He had
  come from the country, and rushed into the House, without changing his
  boots just in time to give his vote, which prevented the bill from
  passing by a majority of one.

  =Totterly= (_Lord_), an Adonis of 60, and a _ci-devant Jeune
  Homme_.--C. Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman_.

  =Touchet= [_Too-shay_]. When Charles IX. introduced Henri of Navarre
  to Marie Touchet, the witty Navarrese made this anagram of her name,
  _Je charme tout_.

  =Touchetts= (_The_). _Mrs. Touchett_, “plain-faced old woman, without
  coquetry, and without any great elegance, but with an extreme respect
  for her own motives. Mrs. Touchett might do a great deal of good, but
  she never pleases.” She lives in Florence, her husband in London.

  _Mr. Touchett_, “a gentle, refined, fastidious old man, combining
  consummate shrewdness with a sort of fraternizing good humor.” His
  feeling about his own position in the world is of the democratic sort.

  _Ralph Touchett_, philosophical invalid, whose interest in his cousin
  Isabel is believed by most people to be brotherly. In order that she
  may not feel obliged to marry for a support, he persuades his father
  to divide his (Ralph’s) inheritance into two equal parts and give
  one-half, unconditionally, to Isabel. She is married for this fortune,
  and, a miserable woman, comes against her husband’s will, to see her
  cousin die happy because she is with him.--Henry James, Jr., _Portrait
  of a Lady_ (1881).

  =Touchfaucet= (_Captain_), in Picrochole’s army, taken captive by
  Friar John. Being presented to Grangousier and asked the cause of his
  king’s invasion, he replied, “To avenge the injury done to the
  cake-bakers of Lernê” (ch. 25, 26). Grangousier commanded his
  treasurer to give the friar 62,000 saluts (£15,500) in reward, and to
  Touchfaucet he gave “an excellent sword of a Vienne blade, with a gold
  scabbard, and a collar of gold weighing 702,000 merks (576,000
  ounces), garnished with precious stones, and valued at £16,000
  sterling, by way of present.” Returning to King Picrochole, he advised
  him to capitulate, whereupon Rashcalf cried aloud, “Unhappy the prince
  who has traitors for his counsellors!” and Touchfaucet, drawing “his
  new sword,” ran him through the body. The king demanded who gave him
  the sword, and being told the truth, ordered his guards “to hew him in
  pieces.”--Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 45-47 (1533).

  =Touching for the King’s Evil.= It is said that scrofulous diseases
  were at one time very prevalent in the island, and that Edward the
  Confessor, in answer to earnest prayer, was told it would be cured by
  the royal touch. Edward, being gifted with this miraculous power,
  transmitted it as an heir-loom to his successors. Henry VII. presented
  each person touched with a small coin, called a touch-piece or

  Charles II. of England, during his reign, touched as many as 92,107
  persons; the smallest number (2983) being in the year 1669, and the
  largest number in 1684, when many were trampled to death (see
  Macaulay’s _History of England_, xiv.). In these “touchings,” John
  Brown, a royal surgeon, superintended the ceremony. (See _Macbeth_,
  act iv. sc. 3.)

  Prince Charles Edward, who claimed to be prince of Wales, touched a
  female child for the disease in 1745.

  The French kings claimed the same divine power from Anne of Clovis,
  A.D. 481. And on Easter Sunday, 1686, Louis XIV. touched 1600, using
  these words, _Le roy te touche, Dieu te guerisse_.

  ⁂ Dr. Johnson was the last person touched. The touch-piece given to
  him has on one side this legend, _Soli Deo gloria_, and on the other
  side, _Anna D: G. M. BR. F: et H. REG._ (“Anne, by the grace of God,
  of Great Britain, France and Ireland, queen”).

        Our good Edward he, the Confessor and king ...
        That cancred evil cured, bred ’twixt the throat and jaws,
        When physic could not find the remedy nor cause ...
        He of Almighty God obtained by earnest prayer,
        This tumor by a king might curêd be alone,
        Which he an heir-loom left unto the English throne.
                    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xi. (1613).

  =Touchstone=, a clown filled with “quips and cranks and wanton wiles.”
  The original of this character was Tarlton, the favorite court jester
  of Queen Elizabeth.--Shakespeare, _As You Like It_ (1598).

  His famous speech is “the seven degrees of affront:” (1) the _retort
  courteous_, (2) the _quip modest_, (3) the _reply churlish_, (4) the
  _reproof valiant_, (5) the _counter-check quarrelsome_, (6) the _lie
  circumstantial_, (7) the _lie direct_ (act v. sc. 4).

  =Touchwood= (_Colonel_), “the most passionate, impatient,
  unreasonable, good-natured man in Christendom.” Uncle of Major and
  Clarissa Touchwood.

  _Sophia Touchwood_, the colonel’s daughter, in love with her cousin,
  Major Touchwood. Her father wants her to marry Colonel Clifford, but
  the colonel has fixed his heart on Clarissa, the major’s sister.

  _Major Touchwood_, nephew of Colonel Touchwood, and in love with his
  cousin, Sophia, the colonel’s daughter. He fancies that Colonel
  Clifford is his rival, but Clifford is in love with Clarissa, the
  major’s sister. This error forms the plot of the farce, and the
  mistakes which arise when the major dresses up to pass himself off for
  his uncle constitute its fun and entanglement.

  _Clarissa Touchwood_, the major’s sister, in love with Colonel
  Clifford. They first met at Brighton, and the colonel thought her
  Christian name was Sophia; hence the major looked on him as a
  rival.--T. Dibdin, _What Next?_

  _Touchwood_ (_Lord_), uncle of Melle´font (2 _syl._).

  _Lady Touchwood_, his wife, sister of Sir Paul Pliant. She
  entertains a criminal passion for her nephew, Mellefont, and,
  because he repels her advances, vows to ruin him. Accordingly, she
  tells her husband that the young man has sought to dishonor her, and
  when his lordship fancies that the statement of his wife must be
  greatly overstated, he finds Mellefont with Lady Touchwood in her
  own private chamber. This seems to corroborate the accusation laid
  to his charge, but it was an artful trick of Maskwell’s to make
  mischief, and in a short time a conversation which he overhears
  between Lady Touchwood and Maskwell reveals the whole infamous
  scheme most fully to the husband.--Congreve, _The Double Dealer_

  (Lord and Lady Touchwood must not be mistaken for _Sir George_ and
  _Lady Frances Touchwood_, who are very different characters.)

  Their Wildairs, Sir John Brutes, Lady Touchwoods and Mrs Frails, are
  conventional reproductions of those wild gallants and demireps which
  figure in the licentious dramas of Dryden and Shadwell.--Sir W. Scott,
  _The Drama_.

  ⁂ “Wildair,” in _The Constant Couple_, by Farquhar; “Brute,” in _The
  Provoked Wife_, by Van Brugh; “Mrs. Frail,” in _Love for Love_, by

  _Touchwood_ (_Sir George_), the loving husband of Lady Frances,
  desperately jealous of her, and wishing to keep her out of all
  society, that she may not lose her native simplicity and purity of
  mind. Sir George is a true gentleman of most honorable feelings.

  _Lady Frances Touchwood_, the sweet, innocent wife of Sir George
  Touchwood. Before her marriage she was brought up in seclusion in the
  country, and Sir George tries to keep her fresh and pure in
  London.--Mrs. Cowley, _The Belle’s Stratagem_ (1780).

  _Touchwood_ (_Peregrine_), a touchy old East Indian, a relation of the
  Mowbray family.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

  =Tough= (_Mr._), an old barrister.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
  George III.).

  =Touran.= The death of the children of Touran forms one of the three
  tragic stories of the ancient Irish. The other two are _The Death of
  the Children of Lir_ and _The Death of the Children of Usnach_.

  =Tournemine= (3 _syl._), a Jesuit of the eighteenth century, fond of
  the marvellous. “Il aimait le merveilleux et ne renonçait qu’avec
  peine à y croire.”

                      Il ressemble à Tournemine,
                      Il croit ce qu’il imagine.
                                  _French Proverb._

  =Touthope= (_Mr._), a Scotch attorney and clerk of the peace.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

  She ordered the fellow to be drawn through a horse-pond, and then to
  be well rubbed down with an oaken towel.--_The Adventure of My Aunt._

  =Tower of Hunger= (_The_), Gualandi, the tower in which Ugolino with
  his two sons and two grandsons were starved to death in 1288.--Dantê,
  _Inferno_ (1300).

  =Tower of London= (_The_), was really built by Gundulphus, bishop of
  Rochester, in the reign of William I., but tradition ascribes it to
  Julius Cæsar.

               Ye towers of Julius, London’s lasting shame.
                           Gray, _The Bard_ (1757).

  =Tower of Vathek=, built with the intention of reaching heaven, that
  Vathek might pry into the secrets seen by Mahomet. The staircase
  contained 11,000 stairs, and when the top was gained, men looked no
  bigger than pismires, and cities seemed mere bee-hives.--Beckford,
  _Vathek_ (1784).

  =Townley Mysteries=, certain religious dramas; so called, because the
  MS. containing them belonged to P. Townley. These dramas are supposed
  to have been acted at Widkirk Abbey, in Yorkshire. In 1831, they were
  printed for the Surtees Society under the editorship of the Rev.
  Joseph Hunter, and J. Stevenson. (See COVENTRY MYSTERIES.)

  =Townley= (_Colonel_), attached to Berinthia, a handsome young widow,
  but in order to win her he determines to excite her jealousy, and
  therefore pretends love to Amanda, her cousin. Amanda, however, repels
  his attentions with disdain; and the colonel, seeing his folly,
  attaches himself to Berinthia.--Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_

  _Townley_ (_Lord_) a nobleman of generous mind and high principle,
  liberal and manly. Though very fond of his wife, he insists on a
  separation because she is so extravagant and self-willed. Lady Townly
  sees at length the folly of her ways, and promises amendment,
  whereupon the husband relents and receives her into favor again.

  _Lady Townly_, the gay, but not unfaithful young wife of Lord Townley,
  who thinks that the pleasure of life consists in gambling; she “cares
  nothing for her husband,” but “loves almost everything he hates.” She

  I dote upon assemblies; my heart bounds at a ball; and at an opera, I
  expire. Then I love play to distraction; cards enchant me; and dice
  put me out of my little wits.--Vanbrugh and Cibber, _The Provoked
  Husband_, iii. 1 (1728).

  (Mrs. Pritchard, Margaret Woffington, Miss Brunton, Miss M. Tree, and
  Miss E. Tree, were all excellent in this favorite part.)

  =Tox= (_Miss Lucretia_), the bosom friend of Mr. Dombey’s married
  sister (Mrs. Chick). Miss Lucretia was a faded lady, “as if she had
  not been made in fast colors,” and was washed out. She “ambled through
  life without any opinions, and never abandoned herself to unavailing
  regrets.” She greatly admired Mr. Dombey, and entertained a forlorn
  hope that she might be selected by him to supply the place of his
  deceased wife. Miss Tox lived in Princess’s Place, and maintained a
  weak flirtation with a Major Bagstock, who was very jealous of Mr.
  Dombey.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

  =Tozer=, one of the ten young gentlemen in the school of Dr. Blimber,
  when Paul Dombey was there. A very solemn lad, whose “shirt-collar
  curled up the lobes of his ears.”--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_

  =Trabb=, a prosperous old bachelor, a tailor by trade.

  He was having his breakfast in the parlor behind the shop.... He had
  sliced his hot roll into three feather-beds, and was slipping butter
  in between the blankets.... He was a prosperous old bachelor, and his
  open window looked into a prosperous little garden and orchard, and
  there was a prosperous iron safe let into the wall at the side of the
  fireplace, and without doubt, heaps of his prosperity were put away in
  it in bags.--Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

  =Traddles=, a simple, honest young man, who believes in everybody and
  everything. Though constantly failing, he is never depressed by his
  want of success. He had the habit of brushing his hair up on end,
  which gave him a look of surprise.

  At the Creakle’s school, when I was miserable, he [_Traddles_] would
  lay his head on the desk for a little while, and then, cheering up,
  would draw skeletons all over his slate.--C. Dickens, _David
  Copperfield_, vii.(1849).

  =Trade´love= (_Mr._), a broker on ’Change, one of the four guardians
  of Anne Lovely, the heiress. He was “a fellow that would out-lie the
  devil, for the advantage of stock, and cheat his own father in a
  bargain. He was a great stickler for trade, and hated every one that
  wore a sword” (act. i. 1). Colonel Feignwell passed himself off as a
  Dutch merchant named Jan van Timtamtirelereletta herr van Feignwell,
  and made a bet with Tradelove. Tradelove lost, and cancelled the debt
  by giving his consent to the marriage of his ward to the supposed
  Dutchman.--Mrs. Centlivre, _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_ (1717).

  =Tragedy= (_Father of Greek_), Thespis, a traditional actor of Athens.
  Æschylos is also called “The Father of Greek Tragedy” (B.C. 525-426).

  =Tragedy of Gorboduc=, otherwise entitled the _Tragedy of Ferrex and
  Porrex_, the earliest English tragedy, was the joint production of
  Thomas Sackville, afterwards Lord Buckhurst, and earl of Dorset, and
  Thomas Norton, a Puritan clergyman. It was produced before Queen
  Elizabeth, at Whitehall, January 18, 1562. Sackville was already known
  as the most important of the writers who produced “The Mirror for
  Magistrates,” a collection of narratives of various remarkable English
  historical personages, which was first published in 1559. Norton had
  been associated with Sternhold and Hopkins in their metrical version
  of the _Psalms_. On the title-page of the first edition of Gorboduc,
  published in 1565, without the consent of the authors, it is stated
  that the first three acts were written by Norton and the last two by
  Sackville, but Charles Lamb expresses himself “willing to believe that
  Lord Buckhurst supplied the more vital parts.”

  =Trainband=, the volunteer artillery, whose ground for practice was in

                A trainband captain eke was he,
                  Of famous London town.
                            Cowper, _John Gilpin_ (1782).

  =Trajan= (_The Second_), Marcus Aurelius Claudius, surnamed Gothĭcus,
  noted for his valor, justice, and goodness (215, 268-270).

  =Trajan and St. Gregory.= It is said that Trajan, although unbaptized,
  was delivered from hell in answer to the prayers of St. Gregory.

                   There was storied on the rock
               The exalted glory of the Roman prince,
               Whose mighty worth moved Gregory to earn.
               His mighty conquest--Trajan, the emperor.
                           Dantê, _Purgatory_, xi. (1308).

  =Trajan and the Importunate Widow.= One day a mother appeared before
  the Emperor Trajan, and cried, “Grant vengeance, sire! My son is
  murdered.” The emperor replied, “I cannot stop now; wait till I
  return.” “But, sire,” pleaded the widow, “if you do not return, who
  will grant me justice?” “My successor,” said Trajan. “And can Trajan
  leave to another the duty that he himself is appointed to perform?” On
  hearing this the emperor stopped his cavalcade, heard the woman’s
  cause, and granted her suit. Dantê tells this tale in his _Purgatory_,
  xi.--John of Salisbury, _Polycraticos de Curialium Nugis_, v. 8
  (twelfth century).

  Dion Cassius (_Roman Historia_, lxix.) tells the same story of
  Hadrian. When a woman appeared before him with a suit as he was
  starting on a journey, the emperor put her off, saying, “I have no
  leisure now.” She replied, “If Hadrian has no leisure to perform his
  duties, let him cease to reign!” On hearing this reproof he dismounted
  from his horse and gave ear to the woman’s cause.

  A woman once made her appeal to Philip of Macedon, who, being busy at
  the time, petulantly exclaimed, “Woman, I have no time now for such
  matters.” “If Philip has no time to render justice,” said the woman,
  “then it is high time for Philip to resign!” The king felt the rebuke,
  heard the cause patiently, and decided it justly.

  =Tramecksan and Slamecksan=, the High-heels and Low-heels, two great
  political factions of Lilliput. The animosity of these Guelphs and
  Ghibellines of punydom ran so high “that no High-heel would eat or
  drink with a Low-heel, and no Low-heel would salute or speak to a
  High-heel.” The king of Lilliput was a High-heel, but the
  heir-apparent a Low-heel.--Swift, _Gulliver’s Travels_ (“Voyage to
  Lilliput.” iv., 1726).

  =Tramp= (_Gaffer_), a peasant at the execution of old Meg
  Mudochson.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

  =Tramtrist= (_Sir_), the name assumed by Sir Tristram, when he went to
  Ireland to be cured of his wounds after his combat with Sir Marhaus.
  Here La Belle Isold (or Isold “the Fair”) was his leech, and the young
  knight fell in love with her. When the queen discovered that Sir
  Tramtrist was Sir Tristram, who had killed her brother, Sir Marhaus,
  in combat, she plotted to take his life, and he was obliged to leave
  the island. La Belle Isold subsequently married King Mark of Cornwall,
  but her heart was ever fixed on her brave young patient.--Sir T.
  Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, ii. 9-12 (1470).

  =Tranchera=, Agricane’s sword which afterwards belonged to
  Brandimart.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

  =Tra´nio=, one of the servants of Lucentio, the gentleman who marries
  Bianca (the sister of Kathari´na, “the Paduan shrew”).--Shakespeare,
  _Taming of the Shrew_ (1594).

  =Transfer=, a usurer, who is willing to advance Sir George Wealthy a
  sum of money on these easy terms: (1) 5 per cent. interest; (2) 10 per
  cent. premium; (3) 5 per cent. for insuring the young man’s life; (4)
  a handsome present to himself as broker; (5) the borrower to pay all
  expenses; and (6) the loan not to be in cash but goods, which are to
  be taken at a valuation and sold at auction at the borrower’s sole
  hazard. These terms are accepted, and Sir George promises besides a
  handsome _douceur_ to Loader for having found a usurer so
  promptly.--Foote, _The Minor_ (1760).

  =Transformations.= In the art of transformation, one of the most
  important things was a ready wit to adopt in an instant some form
  which would give you an advantage over your adversary; thus, if your
  adversary appeared as a mouse, you must change into an owl, then your
  adversary would become an arrow to shoot the owl, and you would assume
  the form of fire to burn the arrow, whereupon your adversary would
  become water to quench the fire; and he who could outwit the other
  would come off victorious. The two best examples I know of this sort
  of contest are to be found, one in the _Arabian Nights_, and the other
  in the _Mabinogion_.

  The former is the contest between the Queen of Beauty and the son of
  the daughter of Eblis. He appeared as a scorpion, she in a moment
  became a serpent; whereupon he changed into an eagle, she into a more
  powerful black eagle; he became a cat, she a wolf; she instantly
  changed into a worm and crept into a pomegranite, which in time burst,
  whereupon he assumed the form of a cock to devour the seed, but it
  became a fish; the cock then became a pike, but the princess became a
  blazing fire, and consumed her adversary before he had time to
  change.--“The Second Calendar.”

  The other is the contest between Caridwen and Gwion Bach. Bach fled as
  a hare, she changed into a greyhound; whereupon he became a fish, she
  an otter-bitch, he instantly became a bird, she a hawk; but he became
  as quick as thought a grain of wheat. Caridwen now became a hen, and
  made for the wheat-corn and devoured him.--“Taliesin.”

  =Translator-General.= Philemon Holland is so called by Fuller, in his
  _Worthies of England_. Holland translated Livy, Pliny, Plutarch,
  Suetonius, Xenophon, and several other classic authors (1551-1636).

  =Transome= (_Harold_), takes a leading part in George Eliot’s novel
  _Felix Holt_.

  _Transome_ (_Mrs_). Mother of Harold.

  =Trapbois= (_Old_), a miser in Alsatia. Even in his extreme age, “he
  was believed to understand the plucking of a ‘pigeon’ better than any
  man in Alsatia.”

  _Martha Trapbois_, the miser’s daughter, a cold, decisive, masculine
  woman, who marries Richie Moniplies.--Sir W. Scott, _The Fortunes of
  Nigel_ (time, James I.).

  =Trapper= (_The_). One of the titles of Natty Bumpo, a character
  introduced into several of Cooper’s novels. In _The Pioneers_, he
  bears his own name, in others he is “The Trapper,” “The Deerslayer,”
  “The Pathfinder,” “The Hawk-eye” and “Leatherstocking.”

  =Traveller= (_The_). The scheme of this poem is very simple: The poet
  supposes himself seated among Alpine solitudes, looking down upon a
  hundred kingdoms. He would fain find some spot where happiness can be
  attained, but the natives of each realm think their own the best; yet
  the amount of happiness in each is pretty well equal. To illustrate
  this, the poet describes the manners and government of Italy,
  Switzerland, France, Holland, and England.--O. Goldsmith (1764).

  _Traveller_ (_Mr._), the stranger who tried to reason with Mr. Mopes
  and bring him back to society, but found the truth of the tinker’s
  remark, “When iron is thoroughly rotten, you cannot botch it.”--C.
  Dickens, _A Christmas Number_ (1861).

  =Travellers’ Tales.= Marco Polo says,

  “Certain islands lie so far north in the Northern Ocean, that one
  going thither actually leaves the pole-star a trifle behind to the

  A Dutch skipper told Master Noxon, the hydrographer of Charles II.,
  that he had himself sailed two degrees beyond the pole.

  Maundeville says, in Prester John’s country is a sea of sand which
  ebbs and flows in great waves without one drop of water. This sea,
  says the knight of St. Alban’s, men find full of right good fish of
  most delicious eating.

  At the time of the discovery of America by Columbus, many marvellous
  tales were rife in Spain. It was said that in one part of the coast of
  El Nombre de Dios, the natives had such long ears that one ear served
  for bed and the other for counterpane. This reminds one of Gwevyl mab
  Gwestad, one of whose lips hung down to his waist, and the other
  covered his head like a cowl. Another tale was that one of the crew of
  Columbus had come across a people who lived on sweet scents alone, and
  were killed by foul smells. This invention was hardly original,
  inasmuch as both Plutarch and Pliny tell us of an Indian people who
  lived on sweet odors, and Democrĭtos lived for several days on the
  mere effluvia of hot bread. Another tale was that the noses of these
  smell-feeders were so huge that their heads were all nose. We are also
  told of one-eyed men; of men who carried their heads under one of
  their arms; of others whose head was in their breast; of others who
  were conquered, not by arms, but by their priests holding up before
  them a little ivory crucifix--a sort of Christian version of the
  taking of Jericho by the blast of the rams’ horns of the Levites in
  the time of Joshua.

  =Travels ... in Remote Nations=, by “Lemuel Gulliver.” He is first
  shipwrecked and cast on the coast of Lilliput, a country of pygmies.
  Subsequently he is thrown among the people of Brobdingnag, giants of
  tremendous size. In his third expedition he is driven to Lapūta, an
  empire of quack pretenders to science and knavish projectors. And in
  his fourth voyage he visits the Houyhnhnms [_Whin´.n´me_], where
  horses were the dominant powers.--Dean Swift (1726).

  =Travers=, a retainer of the earl of Northumberland.--Shakespeare,
  _Henry IV._ (1598).

  _Travers_ (_Sir Edmund_), an old bachelor, the guardian and uncle of
  Lady Davenant. He is a tedious gossip, fond of meddling, prosy, and
  wise in his own conceit. “It is surprising,” he says, “how unwilling
  people are to hear my stories. When in parliament I make a speech,
  there is nothing but coughing, hemming, and shuffling of feet--no
  desire of information.” By his instigation, the match was broken off
  between his niece and Captain Dormer, and she was given in marriage to
  Lord Davenant, but it turned out that his lordship was already
  married, and his wife living.--Cumberland, _The Mysterious Husband_

  =Travia´ta=, an opera, representing the progress of a courtezan. Music
  by Verdi, and libretto from _La Dame aux Came´lias_, a novel by
  Alexandre Dumas _fils_ (1856).

  =Treachery of the Long-Knives= (_The_). Hengist invited the chief
  British nobles to a conference at Ambresbury, but arranged that a
  Saxon should be seated beside each Briton. At the given signal, each
  Saxon was to slay his neighbor with his long knife, and as many as 460
  British nobles fell. Eidiol, earl of Gloucester escaped, after killing
  seventy (some say 660) of the Saxons.--_Welsh Triads._

  Stonehenge was erected by Merlin, at the command of Ambrosius, in
  memory of the plot of the “Long-Knives.”... He built it on the site of
  a former circle. It deviates from older bardic circles, as may be seen
  by comparing it with Avebury, Stanton-Drew, Keswick, etc.--_Cambrian
  Biography_, art. “Merddin.”

  =Trecentisti=, the Italian writers of the “Trecento” (thirteenth
  century). They were Dantê (1265-1321); Petrarch (1304-1374); Boccaccio
  (1313-1375), who wrote the _Decameron_. Among the famous artists were
  Giotto, Lorenzo Ghiberti, and Andre Orcagna. (See CINQUECENTO,

              In Italy he’d ape the Trecentisti.
                          Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 86 (1820).

  =Tree= (_The Bleeding_). One of the superstitous tales told of the
  marquis of Argyll, so hated by the royalists for the part he took in
  the execution of Montrose, was this: “That a tree on which thirty-six
  of his enemies were hanged was immediately blasted, and when hewn
  down, a copious stream of blood ran from it, saturating the earth, and
  that blood for several years flowed out from the roots.”--Laing,
  _History of Scotland_, ii. 11 (1800); _State Trials_, ii. 422.

  _Tree_ (_The Poet’s_), a tree which grows over the tomb of Tan-Sein, a
  musician at the court of [Mohammed] Akbar. Whoever chews a leaf of
  this tree, will be inspired with a divine melody of voice.--W. Hunter.

  His voice was as sweet as if he had chewed the leaves of that
  enchanted tree, which grows over the tomb of the musician,
  Tan-Sein.--Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (1817).

  _Tree_ (_The Singing_), a tree, each leaf of which was musical, and
  all the leaves joined together in delightful harmony.--_Arabian
  Nights_ (“The Story of the Sisters who envied their Younger Sister”).

  In the _Fairy Tales_ of the Comtesse D’Aunoy, there is a similar tale
  of a tree which bore “the singing apple,” but whoever ate of this
  fruit received the inspiration of poetry as well.--“Cherry and

  =Tregeagle=, the giant of Dosmary Pool, on Bodmin Downs (Cornwall).
  When the wintry winds blare over the downs, it is said to be the giant

  =Trelawny Ballad= (_The_), is by the Rev. R. S. Hawker, of
  Morwenstow.--_Notes and Queries_, 441 (June, 1876).

  =Tremor= (_Sir Luke_), a desperate coward, living in India, who made
  it a rule never to fight, either in his own house, his neighbor’s
  house, or in the street. This prudent desperado is everlastingly
  snubbing his wife. (See TRIPPET.)

  _Lady Tremor_, daughter of a grocer, and grandchild of a wig-maker.
  Very sensitive on the subject of her plebeian birth, and wanting to be
  thought a lady of high family.--Mrs. Inchbald, _Such Things Are_

  =Tremydd ap Tremhidydd=, the man with the keenest sight of all
  mortals. He could discern “a mote in the sunbeam in any of the four
  quarters of the world.” Clustfein ap Clustfeinydd was no less
  celebrated for his acuteness of hearing, “his ear being distressed by
  the movement of dew, in June, over a blade of grass.” The meaning of
  these names is, “Sight, the son of Seer,” and “Ear, the son of
  Hearer.”--_The Mabinogion_ (“Notes to Geraint,” etc., twelfth

  =Trenmor=, great-grandfather of Fingal, and king of Morven (north-west
  of Scotland). His wife was Inibaca, daughter of the king of Lochlin or
  Denmark.--Ossian, _Fingal_, vi.

  In _Temora_, ii. he is called the first king of Ireland, and father of

  =Trent= (_Fred_), the scapegrace brother of little Nell. “He was a
  young man of one and twenty, well-made, and certainly handsome, but
  dissipated, and insolent in air and bearing.” The mystery of Fred
  Trent and little Nell is cleared up in ch. lxix.--C. Dickens, _The Old
  Curiosity Shop_ (1840).

  =Tres= (_Scriptores_): Richardus Corinensis, or Richard of Cirencester
  (fourteenth century); Gildus Badonicus; and Nennius Banchorensis;
  published by Professor Bertram (1757).

  =Tresham= (_Mr._), senior partner of Mr. Osbaldistone, Sr.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

  _Tresham_ (_Richard_), same as General Witherington, who first appears
  as Matthew Middlemas.

  _Richard Tresham_, the son of General Witherington. He is also called
  Richard Middlemas.--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time,
  George II.).

  _Tresham_ (_Thorold, Lord_), head of a noble family, whose boast was,
  that “no blot had ever stained their ’scutcheon,” though the family
  ran back into pre-historic times. He was a young, unmarried man, with
  a sister, Mildred, a girl of 14, living with him. His near neighbor,
  Henry, earl of Mertoun, asked permission to pay his addresses to
  Mildred, and Thorold accepted the proposal with much pleasure. The old
  warrener next day told Thorold he had observed for several weeks that
  a young man climbed into Mildred’s chamber at night-time, and he would
  have spoken before, but did not like to bring his young mistress into
  trouble. Thorold wrung from his sister an acknowledgement of the fact,
  but she refused to give up the name, yet said she was quite willing to
  marry the earl. This Thorold thought would be dishonorable, and
  resolved to lie in wait for the unknown visitor. On his approach,
  Thorold discovered it was the earl of Mertoun, and he slew him, then
  poisoned himself, and Mildred died of a broken heart.--Robert
  Browning, _A Blot on the ’Scutcheon_.

  =Tressilian= (_Edmund_), the betrothed of Amy Robsart. Amy marries the
  earl of Leicester, and is killed by falling into a deep pit, to which
  she has been cruelly inveigled.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time,

  =Tre´visan= (_Sir_), a knight to whom Despair gave a hempen rope, that
  he might go and hang himself.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. (1590).

  =Tribulation= [WHOLESOME], a pastor of Amsterdam, who thinks “the end
  will sanctify the means,” and uses “the children of perdition” to
  promote his own object, which he calls the “work of God.” He is one of
  the dupes of Subtle, “the alchemist,” and his factotum, Face.--Ben
  Jonson, _The Alchemist_ (1610).

  =Tribune of the People= (_The_), John Bright (1811-1889).

  =Tricolor=, the national badge of France since 1789. It consists of
  the Bourbon _white_ cockade, and the _blue and red_ cockade of the
  city of Paris combined. It was Lafayette who devised this symbolical
  union of king and people, and when he presented it to the nation,
  “Gentlemen,” said he, “I bring you a cockade that shall make a tour of
  the world.” (See STORNELLO VERSES.)

  If you will wear a livery, let it at least be that of the city of
  Paris--blue and red, my friends.--Dumas, _Six Years Afterwards_, xv.

  =Tricoteuses de Robespierre= (_Les_), Robespierre’s Knitters. During
  the sittings of the Convention and at those of the popular Clubs and
  the Revolutionary Tribunal, certain women were always seen knitting.
  Encouraged by the rabble they carried their insolence so far that they
  were called the Furies of the Guillotine. They disappeared with the
  Jacobins.--Bouillet, _Dict. Universel_.

  =Triermain= (_The Bridal of_), a poem by Sir Walter Scott, in four
  cantos, with introduction and conclusion (1813). In the introduction,
  Arthur is represented as the person who tells the tale to Lucy, his
  bride. Gyneth, a natural daughter of King Arthur and Guendŏlen, was
  promised in marriage to the bravest knight in a tournament; but she
  suffered so many combatants to fall, without awarding the prize, that
  Merlin threw her into an enchanted sleep, from which she was not to
  wake till a knight as brave as those who had fallen claimed her in
  marriage. After the lapse of 500 years, Sir Roland de Vaux, baron of
  Triermain, undertook to break the spell, but had first to overcome
  four temptations, viz., fear, avarice, pleasure and ambition. Having
  come off more than conqueror, Gyneth awoke and became his bride.

  =Trifal´di= (_The countess_), called “The Afflicted Duenna” of the
  Princess Antonomasia (heiress to the throne of Candaya). She was
  called Trifaldi from her robe, which was divided into three triangles,
  each of which was supported by a page. The face of this duenna was, by
  the enchantment of the giant, Malambru´no, covered with a large, rough
  beard, but when Don Quixote mounted Clavilēno, the Winged, “the
  enchantment was dissolved.”

  The renowned knight, Don Quixote de la Mancha, hath achieved the
  adventure merely by attempting it. Malambruno is appeased, and the
  chin of the Dolorida dueña is again beardless.--Cervantes, _Don
  Quixote_, II. iii. 4, 5 (1615).

  =Trifal´din= of the “Bushy Beard” (white as snow), the gigantic squire
  of “The Afflicted Duenna,” the Countess Trifaldi.--Cervantes, _Don
  Quixote_, II. iii. 4 (1615).

  =Trifle= (_Miss Penelopé_), an old maiden sister of Sir Penurious
  Trifle. Stiff as a ramrod, prim as fine airs and graces could make
  her, fond of long words, and delighting in phrases modelled in true
  Johnsonian ponderosity.

  _Trifle_ (_Miss Sukey_), daughter of Sir Penurious, tricked into
  marriage with Mr. Hartop, a young spendthrift, who fell in love with
  her fortune.

  ⁂ Sir Penurious Trifle is not introduced, but Hartop assumes his
  character, and makes him fond of telling stale and pointless stories.
  He addresses Sir Gregory as “you knight.”--Foote, _The Knights_

  =Trim= (_Corporal_), Uncle Toby’s orderly. Faithful, simple-minded and
  most affectionate. Voluble in speech, but most respectful. Half
  companion, but never forgetting he is his master’s servant. Trim is
  the duplicate of Uncle Toby in delf. The latter at all times shows
  himself the officer and the gentleman, born to command and used to
  obedience, while the former always carries traces of the drillyard,
  and shows that he has been accustomed to receive orders with
  deference, and to execute them with military precision. It is a great
  compliment to say that the corporal was worthy such a noble
  master.--Sterne, _The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy_ (1759).

  =Trimalchi=, a celebrated cook in the reign of Nero, mentioned by
  Petronius. He had the art of giving to the most common fish the flavor
  and appearance of the best. Like Ude, in our own day, he said that
  “sauces are the soul of cookery, and cookery the soul of festivity,”
  or, as the cat’s-meat man observed, “’tis the seasonin’ as does it.”

  =Trin´culo=, a jester.--Shakespeare, _The Tempest_ (1609).

  A miscarriage ... would (like the loss of Trinculo’s bottle in the
  horse-pond) be attended not only with dishonor but with infinite
  loss.--Sir W. Scott.

  =Trin´ket= (_Lord_), a man of fashion and a libertine.

  He is just polite enough to be able to be very unmannerly, with a
  great deal of good breeding; is just handsome enough to make him
  excessively vain of his person; and has just reflection enough to
  finish him for a coxcomb; qualifications ... very common among ... men
  of quality.--G. Colman, _The Jealous Wife_, ii. (1761).

  =Tri´nobants=, people of Trinoban´tium, that is, Middlesex and Essex.
  Their chief town was Trin´ovant, now _London_.

         So eastward where by Thames the Trinobants were set,
         To Trinovant their town ... That London now we term ...
         The Saxons ... their east kingdom called [_Essex_].
                     Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xvi. (1613).

  =Trinquet=, one of the seven attendants of Fortunio. His gift was that
  he could drink a river and be thirsty again. “Are yon always thirsty?”
  asked Fortunio. “No,” said the man, “only after eating salt meat or
  upon a wager.”--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Fortunio,” 1682).

  =Trip to Scarborough= (_A_), a comedy by Sheridan (1777), based on
  _The Relapse_, by Vanbrugh (1697). Lord Foppington goes to Scarborough
  to marry Miss Hoyden, daughter of Sir Tunbelly Clumsy, but his
  lordship is not known personally to the knight and his daughter. Tom
  Fashion, younger brother of Lord Foppington, having been meanly
  treated by his elder brother, resolves to outwit him; so, passing
  himself off as Lord Foppington, he gets introduced to Sir Tunbelly,
  and marries Miss Hoyden before the rightful claimant appears. When at
  length Lord Foppington arrives he is treated as an impostor, till Tom
  Fashion explains the ruse. As his lordship behaves contumeliously to
  the knight, matters are easily arranged, Lord Foppington retires, and
  Sir Tunbelly accepts Tom Fashion as his son-in-law with good grace.

  =Tripe= (1 _syl._), the nickname of Mrs. Hamilton, of Covent Garden
  Theatre (1730-1788).

  =Triple Alliance= (_The_).

  1. A treaty between Great Britain, Sweden, and the United Provinces,
  in 1668, for the purpose of checking the ambition of Louis XIV.

  2. A treaty between George I. of England, Philip, duke of Orleans,
  regent of France, and the United Provinces, for the purpose of
  counteracting the plans of Alberoni, the Spanish minister, 1717.

  =Trippet= (_Beau_), who “pawned his honor to Mrs. Trippet never to
  draw sword in any cause,” whatever might be the provocation. (See

  _Mrs. Trippet_, the beau’s wife, who “would dance for four and twenty
  hours together,” and play cards for twice that length of
  time.--Garrick, _The Lying Valet_ (1740).

  =Tripping as an Omen.=

  When Julius Cæsar landed at Adrumētum, in Africa, he happened to trip
  and fall on his face. This would have been considered a fatal omen by
  his army, but, with admirable presence of mind, he exclaimed, “Thus
  take I possession of thee, O Africa!”

  A similar story is told of Scipio. Upon his arrival in Africa, he also
  happened to trip, and, observing that his soldiers looked upon this as
  a bad omen, he clutched the earth with his two hands, and cried aloud,
  “Now, Africa, I hold thee in my grasp!”--_Don Quixote_, II. iv. 6.

  When William the Conqueror leaped on shore at Bulverhythe, he fell on
  his face, and a great cry went forth that the omen was unlucky; but
  the duke exclaimed, “I take seisin of this land with both my hands!”

  The same story is told of Napoleon in Egypt; of King Olaf, son of
  Harald, in Norway; of Junius Brutus, who, returning from the oracle,
  fell on the earth, and cried, “’Tis thus I kiss thee, mother Earth!”

  When Captain Jean Cœurpreux tripped in dancing at the Tuileries,
  Napoleon III. held out his hand to help him up, and said, “Captain,
  this is the second time I have seen you fall. The first was by my side
  in the field of Magenta.” Then, turning to the lady, he added, “Madam,
  Captain Cœurpreux is henceforth commandant of my Guards, and will
  never fall in duty or allegiance, I am persuaded.”

  =Trismegistus= (“_thrice greatest_”), Hermês, the Egyptian
  philosopher, or Thoth, councillor of Osīris. He invented the art of
  writing in hieroglyphics, harmony, astrology, magic, the lute and
  lyre, and many other things.

  =Tris´sotin=, a _bel esprit_. Philaminte (3 _syl._), a _femme
  savante_, wishes him to marry her daughter, Henriette, but Henriette
  is in love with Clitandre. The difficulty is soon solved by the
  announcement that Henriette’s father is on the verge of bankruptcy,
  whereupon Trissotin makes his bow and retires.--Molière, _Les Femmes
  Savantes_ (1672).

  Trissotin is meant for the Abbé Crotin, who affected to be poet,
  gallant and preacher. His dramatic name was “Tricotin.”

  =Tristram= (_Sir_), son of Sir Meliŏdas, king of Li´onês, and
  Elizabeth, his wife (daughter of Sir Mark, king of Cornwall). He was
  called Tristram (“sorrowful”) because his mother died in giving him
  birth. His father also died when Tristram was a mere lad (pt. ii. 1).
  He was knighted by his uncle, Mark (pt. ii. 5), and married Isond _le
  Blanch Mains_, daughter of Howell, king of Britain (_Brittany_); but
  he never loved her, nor would he live with her. His whole love was
  centered on his aunt, La Belle Isond, wife of King Mark, and this
  unhappy attachment was the cause of numberless troubles, and
  ultimately of his death. La Belle Isond, however, was quite as
  culpable as the knight, for she herself told him, “My measure of hate
  for Mark is as the measure of my love for thee;” and when she found
  out that her husband would not allow Sir Tristram to remain at
  Tintag´il Castle, she eloped with him, and lived three years at Joyous
  Guard, near Carlisle. At length she returned home, and Sir Tristram
  followed her. His death is variously related. Thus the _History of
  Prince Arthur_ says:

  When, by means of a treaty, Sir Tristram brought again La Belle Isond
  unto King Mark from Joyous Guard, the false traitor, King Mark, slew
  the noble knight as he sat harping before his lady, La Belle Isond,
  with a sharp-ground glaive, which he thrust into him from behind his
  back.--Pt. iii. 147 (1470).

  Tennyson gives the tale thus: He says that Sir Tristram, dallying with
  his aunt, hung a ruby carcanet round her throat; and, as he kissed her

         Out of the dark, just as the lips had touched,
         Behind him rose a shadow and a shriek--
         “Marks way!” said Mark, and clove him thro’ the brain.
                     Tennyson, _Idylls_ (“The Last Tournament”).

  Another tale is this: Sir Tristram was severely wounded in Brittany,
  and sent a dying request to his aunt to come and see him. If she
  consented, a white flag was to be hoisted on the mast-head of her
  ship; if not, a black one. His wife told him the ship was in sight,
  displaying a black flag, at which words the strong man bowed his head
  and died. When his aunt came ashore and heard of his death, she flung
  herself on the body, and died also. The two were buried in one grave,
  and Mark planted over it a rose and a vine, which became so interwoven
  it was not possible to separate them.

  ⁂ Sir Launcelot, Sir Tristram and Sir Lamorake were the three bravest
  and best of the 150 knights of the Round Table, but were all equally
  guilty in their amours: Sir Launcelot with the queen; Sir Tristram
  with his aunt, King Mark’s wife; and Sir Lamorake with his aunt, King
  Lot’s wife.

  =Tristram’s Horse=, Passetreûl, or Passe Brewell. It is called both,
  but one seems to be a clerical error.

  (Passe Brewell is in Sir T. Malory’s _History of Prince Arthur_, ii.

  _History of Sir Tristram or Tristan._ The oldest story is by Gotfrit
  of Strasbourg, a minnesinger (twelfth century), entitled _Tristan and
  Isolde_. It was continued by Ulrich of Turheim, by Heinrich of
  Freyburg, and others, to the extent of many thousand verses. The tale
  of Sir Tristram, derived from Welsh traditions, was versified by
  Thomas the Rhymer, of Erceldoune.

  The second part of the _History of Prince Arthur_, compiled by Sir T.
  Malory, is almost exclusively confined to the adventures of Sir
  Tristram, as the third part is to the adventures of Sir Launcelot, and
  the quest of the Holy Graal (1470).

  Matthew Arnold has a poem entitled _Tristram_; and R. Wagner, in 1865,
  produced his opera of _Tristan and Isolde_.

  See Michel, _Tristan; Recueil de ce qui reste des Poèmes relatifs à
  ses Aventures_ (1835).

  =Tristrem l’Hermite=, provost-marshal of France, in the reign of Louis
  XI. Introduced by Sir W. Scott in _Quentin Durward_ (1823), and in
  _Anne of Geierstein_ (1829).

  =Tritheim= (_J_), chronicler and theologian of Treves, elected abbot
  of Spanheim at the age of 22 years. He tried to reform the monks, but
  produced a revolt, and resigned his office. He was then appointed
  abbot of Würzburg (1462-1516).

            Old Tritheim, busied with his class the while.
                        R. Browning, _Paracelsus_, i. (1836).

  =Triton=, the sea-trumpeter. He blows through a shell to rouse or
  allay the sea. A post-Hesiodic fable.

                Have sight of Proteus coming from the sea,
                Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn.

  =Triumvirate= (_The_), in English history: The duke of Marlborough,
  controlling foreign affairs, Lord Godolphin, controlling council and
  parliament, and the duchess of Marlborough, controlling the court and

  =Triumvirate of England=, (_The_): Gower, Chaucer, and Lydgate, poets.

  =Triumvirate of Italian Poets= (_The_): Dantê, Boccaccio, and

  Boccaccio wrote poetry, without doubt, but is now chiefly known as
  “The Father of Italian Prose.” These three are more correctly called
  the “Trecentisti” (_q.v._).

  =Triv´ia=, Diana; so called because she had three faces, Luna in
  Heaven, Diana on earth, and Hecate in Hell.

          The noble Brutus went wise Trivia to inquire,
          To show them where the stock of ancient Troy to place.
                      M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, i. (1612).

  =Trog´lodytes= (3 _or_ 4 _syl._). According to Pliny (_Nat. Hist._, v.
  8), the Troglodytes lived in caves under ground, and fed on serpents.
  In modern parlance, we call those who live so secluded as not to be
  informed of the current events of the day, _troglodytes_. Longfellow
  calls _ants_ by the same name.

                 [_Thou the_] nomadic tribes of ants
                 Dost persecute and overwhelm
                 These hapless troglodytes of thy realm.
                             Longfellow, _To a Child_.

  _Troglody´tes_ (4 _syl._), one of the mouse heroes in the battle of
  the frogs and mice. He slew Pelĭon, and was slain by Lymnoc´haris.

    The strong Lymnocharis, who viewed with ire
    A victor triumph, and a friend expire;
    With heaving arms, a rocky fragment caught,
    And fiercely flung where Troglodytês fought ...
    Full on his sinewy neck the fragment fell,
    And o’er his eyelids, clouds eternal dwell.
                Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_ (about 1712).

  =Troil= (_Magnus_), the old udaller of Zetland.

  _Brenda Troil_, the udaller’s younger daughter. She marries Mordaunt

  _Minna Troil_, the udaller’s elder daughter. In love with the
  pirate.--Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

  (A udaller is one who holds his lands by allodial tenure.)

  =Tro´ilus= (3 _syl._), a son of Priam, king of Troy. In the picture
  described by Virgil (_Æneid_, i. 474-478), he is represented as having
  thrown down his arms and fleeing in his chariot, not equal to meeting
  Achilles; he is pierced with a lance, and, having fallen backwards,
  still holding the reins, the lance with which he is transfixed
  “scratches the sand over which it trails.”

  In the _Troilus and Creseide_ of Chaucer, and the _Troilus and
  Cressida_ of Shakespeare, we have a story unknown to classic fiction.
  Chaucer pretends to take it from Lollius, but who Lollius was, has
  never been discovered. In this story Troilus falls in love with
  Cressid, daughter of the priest Chalchas, and Pandărus is employed as
  a go-between. After Troilus has obtained a promise of marriage from
  the priest’s daughter, an exchange of prisoners is arranged, and
  Cressid, falling to the lot of Diomed, prefers her new master to her
  Trojan lover.

  Chaucer’s _Troilus and Creseide_ is not one of the _Canterbury Tales_,
  but quite an independent one, in five books. It contains 8246 lines,
  nearly 3000 of which are borrowed from the _Filostrato_ of Boccaccio.

  =Trois Chapitres= (_Les_), or THE THREE CHAPTERS, three theological
  works on the “Incarnation of Christ and His dual nature.” The authors
  of these “chapters” are Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrrhus,
  and Ibas of Edessa. The work was condemned in 553 as heretical.

  =Trois Echelles=, executioner.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ and
  _Anne of Geierstein_ (time Edward IV.).

  =Trojan=, a good boon companion, a plucky fellow or man of spirit.
  Gadshill says, “There are other Trojans [_men of spirit_] that ... for
  sport sake are content to do the profession [_of Thieving_] some
  grace.” So in _Love’s Labor’s Lost_ “Unless you play the honest
  Trojan, the poor wench is cast away” (unless you are a man of
  sufficient spirit to act honestly, the girl is ruined).

  “He is a regular Trojan,” means he is _un brave homme_, a capital

  =Trompart=, a lazy but wily-witted knave, grown old in cunning. He
  accompanied Braggadoccio as his squire (bk. ii. 3), but took to his
  heels when Talus shaved the master, “reft his shield,” blotted out his
  arms, and broke his sword in twain. Being overtaken, Talus gives him a
  sound drubbing (bk. v. 3).--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_ (1590-6).

  =Trondjem’s Cattle= (_Remember the bishop of_), _i.e._, look sharp
  after your property; take heed, or you will suffer for it. The story
  is, that a certain bishop of Trondjem [_Tron´.yem_] lost his cattle by
  the herdsmen taking his eyes off them to look at an elk. Now this elk
  was a spirit, and when the herdsman looked at the cattle again they
  were no bigger than mice; again he turned towards the elk, in order to
  understand the mystery, and while he did so, the cattle all vanished
  through a crevice into the earth.--Miss Martineau, _Feats on the
  Fiord_ (1839).

  =Tropho´nios=, the architect of the temple of Apollo, at Delphi. After
  death he was worshipped, and had a famous cave near Lebadia, called
  “The Oracle of Trophonios.”

  The month of this cave was three yards high and two wide. Those who
  consulted the oracle had to fast several days, and then to descend a
  steep ladder till they reached a narrow gullet. They were then seized
  by the feet, and dragged violently to the bottom of the cave, where
  they were assailed by the most unearthly noises, howlings, shrieks,
  bellowings, with lurid lights and sudden glares, in the midst of which
  uproar and phantasmagoria the oracle was pronounced. The votaries were
  then seized unexpectedly by the feet, and thrust out of the cave
  without ceremony. If any resisted, or attempted to enter in any other
  way, he was instantly murdered.--Plutarch, _Lives_.

  =Trotley= (_Sir John_), an old-fashioned country gentleman, who
  actually prefers the obsolete English notions of domestic life,
  fidelity to wives and husbands, modesty in maids, and constancy in
  lovers, to the foreign free and easy manners which allow married
  people unlimited freedom, and consider licentiousness _bon
  ton_.--Garrick, _Bon Ton_ (1776). (See PRIORY.)

  =Trotter= (_Job_), servant to Alfred Jingle. A sly, canting rascal,
  who has at least the virtue of fidelity to his master. Mr. Pickwick’s
  generosity touches his heart, and he shows a sincere gratitude to his
  benefactor.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

  _Trotter_ (_Nelly_) fishwoman at old St. Ronan’s.--Sir W. Scott, _St.
  Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

  =Trotters=, the Punch and Judy showman; a little, good-natured,
  unsuspicious man, very unlike his misanthropic companion, Thomas
  Codlin, who played the panpipes, and collected the money.

  His real name was Harris, but it had gradually merged into Trotters,
  with the prefatory adjective “Short,” by reason of the small size of
  his legs. Short Trotters, however, being a compound name, inconvenient
  in friendly dialogue, he was called either Trotters or Short, and
  never Short Trotters, except on occasions of ceremony.--C. Dickens,
  _The Old Curiosity Shop_, xvii. (1840).

  =Trotty=, the sobriquet of Toby Veck, ticket-porter and jobman.

  They called him Trotty from his pace, which meant speed, if it didn’t
  make it. He could have walked faster, perhaps; most likely; but rob
  him of his trot, and Toby would have taken to his bed and died. It
  bespattered him with mud in dirty weather; it cost him a world of
  trouble; he could have walked with infinitely greater ease; but that
  was one reason for his clinging to his trot so tenaciously. A weak,
  small, spare old man; he was a very Herculês, this Toby, in his good
  intentions.--C. Dickens, _The Chimes_, i. (1844).

  =Trotwood= (_Betsey_), usually called “Miss Betsey,” great aunt of
  David Copperfield. Her idiosyncrasy was donkeys. A dozen times a day
  would she rush on the green before her house to drive off the donkeys,
  and donkey-boys. She was a most kind-hearted, worthy woman, who
  concealed her tenderness of heart under a snappish austerity of
  manner. Miss Betsey was the true friend of David Copperfield. She
  married in her young days a handsome man, who ill-used her, and ran
  away, but preyed on her for money till he died.--C. Dickens, _David
  Copperfield_ (1849).

  =Trouil´logan=, a philosopher, whose advice was, “Do as you like.”
  Panurge asked the sage if he advised him to marry. “Yes,” said
  Trouillogan. “What say you?” asked the prince. “Let it alone,” replied
  the sage. “Which would you advise?” inquired the prince. “Neither,”
  said the sage. “Neither?” cried Panurge; “that cannot be.” “Then
  both,” replied Trouillogan. Panurge then consulted several others, and
  at last the oracle of the Holy Bottle.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, iii.
  35 (1545).

  Molière has introduced this joke in his _Marriage Forcé_ (1664).
  Sganarelle asks his friend Géronimo, if he would advise him to marry,
  and he answers “No.” “But,” says the old man, “I like the young
  woman.” “Then marry her, by all means.” “That is your advice?” says
  Sganarelle. “My advice is, do as you like,” says the friend.
  Sganarelle next consults two philosophers, then some gypsies, then
  declines to marry, and is at last compelled to do so, _nolens volens_.

  =Trovato´re= (4 _syl._), or “The Troubadour” in Manrico, the supposed
  son of Azuce´na, the gypsy, but in reality, the son of Garzia (brother
  of the conte di Luna). The Princess Leono´ra falls in love with the
  troubadour, but the count, entertaining a base passion for her, is
  about to put Manrico to death, when Leonora intercedes on his behalf,
  and promises to give herself to him, if he will spare her lover. The
  count consents; but while he goes to release his captive Leonora kills
  herself by sucking poison from a ring. When Manrico discovers this sad
  calamity, he dies also.--Verdi, _Il Trovatore_ (1853).

  (This opera is based on the drama of _Gargia Guttierez_, a fifteenth
  century story.)

  =Troxartas= (3 _syl._), king of the mice, and father of Psycarpax, who
  was drowned. The word means “bread-eater.”

      Fix their counsel ...
  Where great Troxartas crowned in glory reigns ...
  Psycarpax’ father, father now no more!
              Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, i. (about 1712).

  =Trudge=, in _Love in a Bottle_, by Farquhar (1698).

  =True Thomas=, Thomas the Rhymer. So called from his prophecies, the
  most noted of which was his prediction of the death of Alexander III.
  of Scotland, made to the earl of March. It is recorded in the
  _Scotichronĭcon_ of Fordun (1430).

  =Trueworth=, brother of Lydia, and friend of Sir William Fondlove.--S.
  Knowles, _The Love-Chase_ (1837).

  =Trull= (_Dolly_). Captain Macheath says of her, “She is always so
  taken up with stealing hearts, that she does not allow herself time to
  steal anything else” (act ii. 1).--Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

  =Trulla=, the daughter of James Spenser, a Quaker. She was first
  dishonored by her father, and then by Simeon Wait (_or_ Magna´no), the

             He Trulla loved, Trulla more bright
             Than burnished armor of her knight,
             A bold virago, stout and tall
             As Joan of France or English Mall.
                         S. Butler, _Hudibras_, i. 2 (1663).

  =Trul´liber= (_Parson_), a fat clergyman; ignorant, selfish, and
  slothful.--Fielding, _The Adventures of Joseph Andrews_ (1742).

  Parson Barnabas, Parson Trulliber, Sir Wilful Witwould, Sir Francis
  Wronghead, Squire Western, Squire Sullen; such were the people who
  composed the main strength of the Tory party for sixty years after the

  ⁂ “Sir Wilful Witwould,” in _The Way of the World_, by Congreve; “Sir
  Francis Wronghead,” in _The Provoked Husband_, by C. Cibber; “Squire
  Western,” in _Tom Jones_, by Fielding; “Squire Sullen,” in _The Beaux’
  Stratagem_, by Farquhar.

  =Trunnion= (_Commodore Hawser_), a one-eyed naval veteran, who has
  retired from the service in consequence of injuries received in
  engagements; but he still keeps garrison in his own house, which is
  defended with drawbridge and ditch. He sleeps in a hammock, and makes
  his servants sleep in hammocks, as on board ship, takes his turn on
  watch, and indulges his naval tastes in various other ways. Lieutenant
  Jack Hatchway is his companion. When he went to be married, he rode on
  a hunter which he steered like a ship, according to the compass,
  tacking about, that he might not “go right in the wind’s eye.”--T.
  Smollett, _The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle_ (1750).

  It is vain to criticize the manœuvre of Trunnion, tacking his way
  to church on his wedding day, in consequence of a head wind.--_Encyc.
  Brit._, Art. “Romance.”

  ⁂ Dickens has imitated this in Wemmick’s house, which had flag and
  drawbridge, fortress and gun in miniature; but the conceit is more
  suited to “a naval veteran” than a lawyer’s clerk. (See WEMMICK.)

  =Truscott= (_Jack_), officer in U. S. Army, and, according
  to his wife, “gallant, noble, gentle, tender, true,
  faithful--and--um--_sweet_!” Truscott’s character, said to be drawn
  from life, is one of the finest in Captain Charles King’s series of
  military novels. Truscott leads the rescuing party to the cottonwood
  copse where a handful of U. S. soldiers are penned in by Indians.

  “More shots and yells, a trumpet-blare, and then--then, ringing like
  clarion over the turmoil of the fight, echoing far across the still
  valley, the sound of a glorious voice shouting the well-known words of
  command,--Left--front--into line--_gallop_.” And Dana can hold in no
  longer. Almost sobbing, he cries aloud--

  “Jack Truscott, by all that is glorious! I’d know the voice among a
  million!” Who in the ----th would not? Who in the old regiment had not
  leaped at its summons, time and again?--Charles King, _Marion’s Faith_

  =Trusty= (_Mrs._), landlady of the Queen’s Arms, Romford. Motherly,
  most kind-hearted, a capital caterer, whose ale was noted. Bess, “the
  beggar’s daughter,” took refuge with her, and was most kindly treated.
  Mrs. Trusty wished her son, Ralph, to take Bess to wife, but Bess had
  given her heart to Wilford, the son of Lord Woodville, her cousin.--S.
  Knowles, _The Beggar of Bethnal Green_ (1834).

  =Tryamour= (_Sir_), the hero of an old metrical novel, and the model
  of all knightly virtues.

  =Try´anon=, daughter of the fairy king who lived on the island of
  Ole´ron. “She was as white as a lily in May, or snow that snoweth on a
  winter’s day,” and her “haire shone as goldê wire.” This paragon of
  beauty married Sir Launfal, King Arthur’s steward, whom she carried
  off to “Oliroun, her jolif isle.”--Thomas Chestre, _Sir Launfal_
  (fifteenth century).

  =Trygon=, a poisonous fish. Ulysses was accidentally killed by his son
  Telegŏnos with an arrow pointed with trygon-bone.

                      The lord of Ithăca,
        Struck by the poisonous trygon’s bone expired.
                    West, _Triumphs of the Gout_ (“Lucian” 1750).

  =Tryphon=, the sea-god’s physician.

          They send in haste for Tryphon, to apply
          Salves to his wounds, and medicines of might;
          For Tryphon of sea-god’s the sovereign leech is hight.
                      Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. 4 (1590).

  =Tubal=, a wealthy Jew, the friend of Shylock.--Shakespeare, _The
  Merchant of Venice_ (a drama, 1598).

  =Tuck=, a long, narrow sword (Gaelic _tuca_, Welsh _twca_, Italian
  _stocco_, French _estoc_). In _Hamlet_ the word “tuck” is erroneously
  printed _stuck_ in Malone’s edition.

            If he by chance escape your venomed tuck,
            Our purpose may hold there.
                        Shakespeare, _Hamlet_, act iv. sc. 7.

  _Tuck_, (_Friar_), the “curtal friar of Fountain’s Abbey,” was the
  father confessor of Robin Hood. He is represented as a sleek-headed,
  pudgy, paunchy, pugnacious clerical Falstaff, very fat and
  self-indulgent, very humorous, and somewhat coarse. His dress was a
  russet habit of the Franciscan order, a red corded girdle with gold
  tassel, red stockings, and a wallet.

  Sir Walter Scott, in his _Ivanhoe_, calls him the holy clerk of
  Copmanhurst, and describes him as a “large, strong-built man in a
  sackcloth gown and hood, girt with a rope of rushes.” He had a round,
  bullet head, and his close-shaven crown was edged with thick, stiff,
  curly black hair. His countenance was bluff and jovial, eyebrows black
  and bushy, forehead well-turned, cheeks round and ruddy, beard long,
  curly and black, form brawny (ch. xv.).

  In the May-day morris-dance the friar is introduced in full clerical
  tonsure, with the chaplet of white and red beads in his right hand, a
  corded girdle about his waist, and a russet robe of the Franciscan
  order. His stockings red, his girdle red, ornamented with gold twist
  and a golden tassel. At his girdle hung a wallet for the reception of
  provisions, for “Walleteers” had no other food but what they received
  from begging. Friar Tuck was chaplain to Robin Hood, the May-king.

          In this our spacious isle, I think there is not one
          But he hath heard some talk of Hood and Little John;
          Of Tuck, the merry friar, which many a sermon made,
          In praise of Robin Hood, his outlaws and their trade.
                      Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxvi. (1622).

  =Tud= (_Morgan_), chief physician of King Arthur.--_The Mabinogion_
  (“Geraint,” twelfth century).

  =Tug= (_Tom_), the waterman, a straightforward, honest young man, who
  loved Wilhelmi´na, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Bundle, and, when he
  won the waterman’s badge in rowing, he won the consent of “the
  gardener’s daughter” to become his loving and faithful wife.--C.
  Dibdin, _The Waterman_ (1774).

  =Tukely=, the lover of Sophia. As Sophia has a partiality for the Hon.
  Mr. Daffodil, “the male coquette,” Tukely dresses in woman’s clothes,
  makes an appointment with Daffodil, and gets him to slander Sophia and
  other ladies, concealed among the trees. They thus hear his slanders,
  and, presenting themselves before him, laugh him to scorn.--Garrick,
  _The Male Coquette_ (1758).

  =Tulk´inghorn= (_Mr._), attorney-at-law and legal adviser of the
  Dedlocks. Very silent and perfectly self-contained, but, knowing Lady
  Dedlock’s secret, he is like the sword of Dam´oclês over her head, and
  she lives in ceaseless dread of him.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_

  =Tullia=, wicked daughter of Servius Tullius, king of Rome. She
  conspired with her paramour to compass her father’s death, and drove
  over his dead body on her way to greet her accomplice as king.

  =Tulliver= (_Mr._), honest, irascible miller, whose love for “the
  little wench,” his daughter, is the gentlest feeling of his nature.
  His pride is hurt by financial disaster; he becomes a hireling of the
  man he hates; his fortunes are redeemed by his son, but he dies soon

  _Tulliver_ (_Mrs._), a weak, garrulous woman, vain of her “Dodson

  _Tulliver_ (_Maggie_), fine, upright, imaginative, affectionate girl,
  understood by few, and passionately loved by two men. She resists her
  love for her cousin’s almost betrothed, and suffers the loss of
  reputation patiently. Tom Tulliver, her brother, is the sternest of
  her censors. The two are drowned together in a river-flood.--George
  Eliot, _The Mill on the Floss_.

  =Tully=, Marcus Tullius Cicero, the great Roman orator (B.C. 106-43).
  He was proscribed by Antony, one of the triumvirate, and his head and
  hands, being cut off, were nailed, by the orders of Antony, to the
  Rostra of Rome.

          Ye fond adorers of departed fame,
          Who warm at Scipio’s worth or Tully’s name.
                      Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1799).

  The Judas who betrayed Tully to the sicarii was a cobbler. The man who
  murdered him was named Herennius.

  =Tungay=, the one-legged man at Salem House.

  He generally acted, with his strong voice, as Mr. Creakle’s
  interpreter to the boys.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_, ii. (1849).

  =Tunstall= (_Frank_), one of the apprentices of David Ramsay, the
  watchmaker.--Sir W. Scott, _The Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

  =Tupman= (_Tracy_), M.P.C., a sleek, fat young man, of very amorous
  disposition. He falls in love with every pretty girl he sees, and is,
  consequently, always getting into trouble.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick
  Papers_ (1836).

  =Turbulent School of Fiction= (_The_), a school of German romance
  writers, who returned to the feudal ages, and wrote between 1780 and
  1800, in the style of Mrs. Radcliffe. The best known are Cramer,
  Spiers, Schlenkert, and Veit Weber.

  =Turcaret=, a comedy by Lesage (1708), in which the farmers-general of
  France are gibbeted unmercifully. He is a coarse, illiterate man, who
  has grown rich by his trade. Any one who has risen from nothing to
  great wealth, and has no merit beyond money-making, is called a

  =Turcos=, native Algerian infantry, officered by Frenchmen. The
  cavalry are called _Spahis_.

  =Turell= (_Jane_), a fair Puritan, whose early precocity and mature
  accomplishments are related by her husband. Before she was four years
  old she “could say the Assembly’s Catechism, many of the Psalms, some
  hundred lines of the best poetry, read distinctly, and make pertinent
  remarks on many things she read.” In later years she fulfilled the
  promise thus given of intellectual acquirements, while “her innocence,
  modesty, ingenuity and devotion charmed all into admiration of
  her.”--Ebenezer Turell, _Memoirs of the Pious and Ingenious Mrs. Jane
  Turell_ (1735).

  =Turk Gregory=, Gregory VII. (Hildebrand); so called for his furious
  raid upon royal prerogatives, especially his contest with the emperor
  [of Germany] on the subject of investiture. In 1075, he summoned the
  emperor Henry IV. to Rome; the emperor refused to obey the summons,
  the pope excommunicated him, and absolved all his subjects from their
  allegiance; he next declared Henry dethroned, and elected a new
  kaiser, but Henry, finding resistance in vain, begged to be reconciled
  to the pope. He was now commanded, in the midst of a severe winter, to
  present himself, with Bertha, his wife, and their infant son, at the
  castle of Canossa, in Lombardy; and here they had to stand three days
  in the piercing cold, before the pope would condescend to see him, but
  at last the proud prelate removed the excommunication, and Henry was
  restored to his throne.

  =Turkish Spy= (_The_). A once popular romance relating the adventures
  of Mahmut, a Turk who lived forty-five years undiscovered in Paris,
  unfolding the intrigues of the Christian courts, between 1637 and
  1682. The author of this romance is Giovanni Paolo Mara´na, and he
  makes it the medium of an historical novel of the period (1684).

  =Turkomans=, a corruption of _Turk-imâms_ (“Turks of the true faith”).
  The first chief of the Turks who embraced Islam, called his people so
  to distinguish them from the Turks who had not embraced that faith.

  =Turnbull= (_Michael_), the Douglas’s dark huntsman.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

  _Turnbull_ (_Mr. Thomas_), also called “Tom Turnpenny,” a canting
  smuggler and school-master.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George

  =Turnip-Hoer=, George I. So called because, when he first came over to
  England, he proposed planting St. James’s Park with turnips (1660,

  =Turnpenny= (_Mr._), banker at Marchthorn.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s
  Well_ (time, George III.).

  _Turnpenny_ (_Tom_), also called “Thomas Turnbull,” a canting smuggler
  and school-master.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

  =Turntippit= (_Old lord_), one of the privy council in the reign of
  William III.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (1819).

  =Turon=, the son of Brute’s sister, slew 600 Aquitanians with his own
  hand in one single fight.

        Where Turon, ... Brute’s sister’s valiant son ...
        Six hundred slew outright thro’ his peculiar strength;
        By multitudes of men, yet overpressed at length.
        His noble uncle there, to his immortal name
        The city Turon [_Tours_] built, and well endowed the same.
                    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, i. (1612).

  =Turpin=, a churlish knight, who refuses hospitality to Sir Calepine
  and Serēna, although solicited to do so by his wife, Blanĭda (bk. vi.
  3). Serena told Prince Arthur of this discourtesy, and the prince,
  after chastising Turpin, unknighted him, and prohibited him from
  bearing arms ever after (bk. vi. 7). The disgraced churl now vowed
  revenge; so off he starts, and seeing two knights, complains to them
  of the wrongs done to himself and his dame by “a recreant knight,”
  whom he points out to them. The two champions instantly challenge the
  prince “as a foul woman-wronger,” and defy him to combat. One of the
  two champions is soon slain and the other overthrown, but is spared on
  craving his life. The survivor now returns to Turpin, to relate his
  misadventure, and when they reach the dead body see Arthur asleep.
  Turpin proposes to kill him, but Arthur starts up and hangs the rascal
  on a tree (bk. vi. 7).--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_ (1596).

  _Turpin_, “archbishop of Rheims,” the hypothetical author of a
  _Chronicle_, purporting to be a history of Charlemagne’s Spanish
  adventures in 777, by a contemporary. This fiction was declared
  authentic and genuine by Pope Calixtus II. in 1122, but it is now
  generally attributed to a canon of Barcelona in the eleventh century.

  The tale says that Charlemagne went to Spain in 777 to defend one of
  his allies from the aggressions of a neighboring prince. Having
  conquered Navarre and Aragon he returned to France. He then crossed
  the Pyrenees, and invested Pampeluna for three months, but without
  success. He tried the effect of prayer, and the walls, like those of
  Jericho, fell down of their own accord. Those Saracens who consented
  to be baptized he spared, but the rest were put to the sword. Being
  master of Pampeluna, the hero visited the sarcophagus of James; and
  Turpin, who accompanied him, baptized most of the neighborhood.
  Charlemagne then led back his army over the Pyrenees, the rear being
  under the command of Roland. The main army reached France in safety,
  but 50,000 Saracens fell on the rear, and none escaped.

  _Turpin_ (_Dick_), a noted highwayman, executed at York (1739).

  Ainsworth has introduced into _Rookwood_ Turpin’s famous ride to York
  on his steed, Black Bess. It is said that Maginn really wrote this
  powerful description (1834).

  _Turpin_ (_The French Dick_) is Cartouche, an eighteenth century
  highwayman. W. H. Ainsworth made him the hero of a romance (1841).

  =Tur´quine= (_Sir_) had sixty-four of King Arthur’s knights in prison,
  all of whom he had vanquished by his own hand. He hated Sir Launcelot,
  because he had slain his brother, Sir Car´ados, at the Dolorous Tower.
  Sir Launcelot challenged Sir Turquine to a trial of strength, and slew
  him, after which he liberated the captive knights.--Sir T. Malory,
  _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 108-110 (1470).

  =Turquoise= (2 _syl._), a blue material found in Persia, the exact
  nature of which is not known. Sundry virtues are attached to it: (1)
  It indicates by its hue the state of the wearer’s health; (2) it
  indicates by its change of lustre if any peril awaits the wearer; (3)
  it removes animosity between the giver and the receiver; (4) it is a
  potent love-charm, and hence Leah gave a turquoise ring to Shylock
  “when he was a bachelor,” in order to make him propose to her.

  =Tur´veydrop= (_Mr._), a selfish, self-indulgent, conceited
  dancing-master, who imposes on the world by his majestic appearance
  and elaborate toilette. He lives on the earnings of his son (named
  Prince, after the prince regent), who reveres him as a perfect model
  of “deportment.”--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1852).

  =Tuscan Poet= (_The_), Ludovico Ariosto, born at Reggio, in Modena
  (1474-1533). Noted for his poem entitled _Orlando Furioso_.

              The Tuscan poet doth advance
              The frantic paladin of France.
                          Drayton, _Nymphidia_ (1563-1631).

  =Tutivillus=, the demon who collects all the fragments of words
  omitted, mutilated, or mispronounced by priests in the performance of
  religious services, and stores them up in that “bottomless” pit which
  is “paved with good intentions.”--Langland, _Visions of Piers
  Plowman_, 547 (1362); and the _Townley Mysteries_, 310, 319, etc.

  =Twangdillo=, the fiddler, in Somerville’s _Hobbinol_, a burlesque
  poem in three cantos. Twangdillo had lost one leg and one eye by a
  stroke of lightning on the banks of the Ister, but was still

         He tickles every string to every note;
         He bends his pliant neck, his single eye
         Twinkles with joy, his active stump beats time.
                     _Hobbinol_, or _The Rural Games_, i. (1740).

  =Tweedledum and Tweedledee.= In the time of George III. the musical
  world was divided between the parties holding by the German Händel and
  the Italian Bononcini. The prince of Wales supported Händel, the duke
  of Marlborough stood for Bononcini.

                  Some say, compared to Bononcini,
                  That mynherr Handel’s but a ninny;
                  Others aver that he to Handel
                  Is scarcely fit to hold a candle;
                  Strange all this difference should be
                  ’Twixt Tweedledum and Tweedledee.
                              J. Byrom (1691-1763).

  =Twelfth Night=, a drama by Shakespeare. The story came originally
  from a novellette by Bandello (who died 1555), reproduced by
  Belleforest in his _Histoires Tragiques_, from which Shakespeare
  obtained his story. The tale is this: Viola and Sebastian were twins,
  and exactly alike. When grown up, they were ship-wrecked off the coast
  of Illyria, and both were saved. Viola, being separated from her
  brother, in order to obtain a livelihood, dressed like her brother,
  and took the situation of page under the duke Orsino. The duke, at the
  time, happened to be in love with Olivia, and as the lady looked
  coldly on his suit, he sent Viola to advance it, but the willful
  Olivia, instead of melting towards the duke, fell in love with his
  beautiful page. One day Sebastian, the twin-brother of Viola, being
  attacked in a street brawl, before Olivia’s house, the lady, thinking
  him to be the page, invited him in, and they soon grew to such
  familiar terms that they agreed to become man and wife. About the same
  time, the duke discovered his page to be a beautiful woman, and as he
  could not marry his first love, he made Viola his wife, and the
  duchess of Illyria.

  =Twelve Apostles of Ireland= (_The_), twelve Irish prelates of the
  sixth century, disciples of St. Finnian of Clonard.

  1. CIARAN or KEIRAN, bishop and abbot of Saighir (now _Seir-Keiran_,
  King’s County).

  2. CIARAN or KEIRAN, abbot of Clomnacnois.

  3. COLUMCILLE of Hy (now _Iona_). This prelate is also called St.

  4. BRENDAN, bishop and abbot of Clonfort.

  5. BRENDAN, bishop and abbot of Birr (now _Parsonstown_, King’s

  6. COLUMBA, abbot of Tirdaglas.

  7. MOLAISE or LAISRE, abbot of Damhiris (now _Devenish Island_, in
  lough Erne).

  8. CAINNECH, abbot of Aichadhbo, in Queen’s County.

  9. RUADAN or RODAN, abbot of Lorrha, in Tipperary County.

  10. MOBI CLAIRENECH (_i.e._, “the flat-faced”), abbot of Glasnooidhan
  (now _Glasnevin_, near Dublin).

  11. SENELL, abbot of Cluain-inis, in lough Erne.

  12. NANNATH or NENNITH, bishop and abbot of Inismuige-Samh (now
  _Inismac-Saint_, in lough Erne).

  =Twelve Knights of the Round Table.= Dryden says there were twelve
  paladins, and twelve knights of the Round Table. The table was made
  for 150, but as twelve is the orthodox number, the following names
  hold the most conspicuous places:--(1) LAUNCELOT, (2) TRISTRAM, and
  (3) LAMORACKE, the three bravest; (4) TOR, the first made; (5)
  GALAHAD, the chaste; (6) GAW´AIN, the courteous; (7) GARETH, the
  big-handed; (8) PALOMIDES, the Saracen, or unbaptized; (9) KAY, the
  rude and boastful; (10) MARK, the dastard; (11) MORDRED, the traitor;
  and the twelfth, as in the case of the paladins, must be selected from
  one of the following names, all of which are seated with the prince in
  the frontispiece attached to the _History of Prince Arthur_, compiled
  by Sir T. Malory in 1470;--Sirs Acolon, Ballamore, Beleobus, Belvoure,
  Bersunt, Bors, Ector de Maris, Ewain, Floll, Graheris, Galohalt,
  Grislet, Lionell, Marhaus, Paginet, Pelleas, Percival, Sagris,
  Superabilis, and Turquine.

  Or we may take from the _Mabinogion_ the three “battle knights,”
  Cadwr, Launcelot, and Owain; the three “counselling knights,” Kynon,
  Aron, and Llywarch Hên; the three “diademed knights,” Kai, Trystan,
  and Gwevyl; and the three “golden-tongued,” Gwalchmai, Drudwas and
  Eliwlod, many of which are unknown in modern story.

  Sir Walter Scott names sixteen of renown, seated round the king:

            There _Galahad_ sat with manly grace,
            Yet maiden meekness in his face;
            There _Morolt_ of the iron mace;
                And lovelorn _Tristrem_ there;
            And _Dinadam_, with lively glance;
            And _Lanval_, with the fairy lance;
            And _Mordred_, with his looks askance;
                _Brunor_ and _Belvidere_.
            Why should I tell of numbers more?
            Sir _Cay_, Sir _Banier_, and Sir _Bore_,
                Sir _Caradoc_, the keen,
            And gentle _Gawain’s_ courteous lore,
            _Hector de Mares_, and _Pellinore_,
            And _Lancelot_, that evermore
                Looked stol’n-wise on the queen.
                        _Bridal of Triermain_, ii. 13 (1813).

  =Twelve Paladins= (_The_), twelve famous warriors in Charlemagne’s

  1. ASTOLPHO, cousin of Roland, descended from Charles Martel. A great
  boaster, fool-hardy, and singularly handsome. It was Astolpho who went
  to the moon to fetch back Orlando’s (_Roland’s_) brains when mad.

  2. FERUMBRAS or FIERABRAS, a Saracen, afterwards converted and

  3. FLORISMART, the _fidus Achātês_ of Roland or Orlando.

  4. GANELON, the traitor, count of Mayence. Placed by Dantê in the

  5. MAUGRIS, in Italian MALAGIGI, cousin to Rinaldo, and son of Beuves
  of Aygremont. He was brought up by Oriande the fairy, and became a
  great enchanter.

  6. NAMO or NAYME de Bavière.

  7. OGIER, the DANE, thought to be Holger, the hero of Denmark, but
  some affirm that “Dane” is a corruption of _Damné_; so called because
  he was not baptized.

  8. OLIVER, son of Regnier, comte de Gennes, the rival of Roland in all
  feats of arms.

  9. OTUEL, a Saracen, nephew to Ferragus or Ferracute. He was
  converted, and married a daughter of King Charlemagne.

  10. RINALDO, son of Duke Aymon, and cousin to Roland. Angelica fell in
  love with him, but he requited not her affection.

  11. ROLAND, called ORLANDO in Italian, comte de Cenouta. He was
  Charlemagne’s nephew, his mother being Berthe, the king’s sister, and
  his father Millon.

  12. One of the following names, all of which are called paladins, and
  probably supplied vacancies caused by death:--Basin de Genevois,
  Geoffrey de Frises, Guerin, duc de Lorraine, Guillaume de l’Estoc, Guy
  de Bourgogne, Hoël comte de Nantes, Lambert, prince of Bruxelles,
  Richard, duc de Normandy, Riol du Mans, Samson, duc de Bourgogne, and

  ⁂ There is considerable resemblance between the twelve selected
  paladins and the twelve selected Table knights. In each case there
  were three pre-eminent for bravery: Oliver, Roland and Rinaldo
  (_paladins_); Launcelot, Tristram, and Lamoracke (_Table knights_). In
  each case was a Saracen: Ferumbras (_the paladin_); Palomides (_the
  Table knight_). In each was a traitor: Ganelon (_the paladin_);
  Mordred (_the Table Knight_), like Judas Iscariot in the apostolic

            Who bear the bows were knights in Arthur’s reign,
            Twelve they, and twelve the peers of Charlemain.
                        Dryden, _The Flower and the Leaf_.

  =Twelve Wise Masters= (_The_), the original corporation of the
  mastersingers. Hans Sachs, the cobbler of Nürnberg, was the most
  renowned and the most voluminous of the mastersingers, but he was not
  one of the original twelve. He lived 1494-1576, and left behind him
  thirty-four folio vols. of MS., containing 208 plays, 1700 comic
  tales, and about 450 lyric poems.

    Here Hans Sachs, the cobbler-poet, laureate of the gentle craft,
    Wisest of the Twelve Wise Masters, in huge folios sang and danced.
                Longfellow, _Nuremberg_.

  ⁂ The original corporation consisted of Heinrik von Mueglen, Konrad
  Harder, Master Altschwert, Master Barthel Regenbogen (blacksmith),
  Master Muscablüt (tailor), Hans Blotz (barber), Hans Rosenblüt
  (armorial painter), Sebastian Brandt (jurist), Thomas Murner, Hans
  Folz (surgeon), Wilhelm Weber, and Hans Sachs (cobbler). This last,
  though not one of the founders, was so superior to them all that he is
  always reckoned among the wise mastersingers.

  =Twemlow= (_Mr._), first cousin to Lord Snigsworth; “an innocent piece
  of dinner-furniture,” in frequent requisition by Mr. and Mrs.
  Veneering. He is described as “grey, dry, polite, and susceptible to
  east wind;” he wears “first-gentleman-in-Europe collar and cravat;”
  “his cheeks are drawn in as if he had made a great effort to retire
  into himself some years ago, and had got so far, but never any
  further.” His great mystery is who is Mr. Veneering’s oldest friend;
  is he himself his oldest or his newest acquaintance? He couldn’t
  tell.--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

  =Twenty Bold Mariners.=

      “Twenty bold mariners went to the wave,
      Twenty sweet breezes blew over the main;
      All were so hearty, so free and so brave--
      But they never came back again.”
         *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *
                   Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, _Along the Shore_ (1888).

  =Twice-told Tales.= Some of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s most charming tales
  and sketches are collected under this caption (1851).

  =Twickenham= (_The Bard of_), Alexander Pope, who lived for thirty
  years at Twickenham (1688-1744).

  =Twigtythe= (_The Rev. Mr._), clergyman at Fasthwaite Farm, held by
  Farmer Williams.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

  =Twin Brethren= (_The Great_), Castor and Pollux.

  Back comes the chief in triumph
    Who, in the hour of fight,
  Hath seen the Great Twin Brethren
    In harness on his right.
  Safe comes the ship to haven,
    Thro’ billows and thro’ gales,
  If once the great Twin Brethren
    Sit shining on the sails.
              Lord Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_ (“Battle of Lake
                 Regillus,” xl. 1842).

  =Twineall= (_The Hon. Mr._), a young man who goes to India, intending
  to work himself into place by flattery; but, wholly mistaking
  character, he gets thrown into prison for treason. Twineall talks to
  Sir Luke Tremor (who ran away from the field of battle) of his
  glorious deeds of fight; to Lady Tremor (a grocer’s daughter) of high
  birth, supposing her to be a descendant of the kings of Scotland; to
  Lord Flint (the sultan’s chief minister) of the sultan’s dubious right
  to the throne, and so on.--Mrs. Inchbald, _Such Things Are_ (1786).

  =Twist= (_Oliver_), the son of Mr. Brownlow’s oldest friend and Agnes
  Fleming; half-brother to “Manks.” He was born and brought up in a
  workhouse, starved, and ill-treated; but was always gentle, amiable,
  and pure-minded. His asking for more gruel at the workhouse because he
  was so hungry, and the astonishment of the officials at such daring
  impudence, is capitally told.--Charles Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

  =Twitcher= (_Harry_). Henry, Lord Brougham [_Broom_] was so called,
  from his habit of twitching his neck (1778-1868).

  Don’t you recollect, North, some years ago that Murray’s name was on
  our title-page; and that, being alarmed for Subscription Jamie [_Sir
  James Mackintosh_] and Harry Twitcher, he ... scratched his name
  out?--Wilson, _Noctes Ambrosianæ_ (1822-36).

  _Twitcher_ (_Jemmy_), a cunning and treacherous highwayman in
  Macheath’s gang.--Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

  _Twitcher_ (_Jemmy_), the nickname of John, Lord Sandwich, noted for
  his liaison with Miss Ray (1718-1792).

            When sly Jemmy Twitcher had smugged up his face
            With a lick of court whitewash and pious grimace,
            Avowing he went where three sisters of old,
            In harmless society, guttle and scold.
                        Gay, (1716-1771).

  =Two Drovers= (_The_), a tale in two chapters, laid in the reign of
  George III., written by Sir Walter Scott (1827). It is one of the
  “Chronicles of the Canongate” supposed to be told by Mr. Croftangry.
  Robin Oig M’Combich, a Highland drover, revengeful and proud, meets
  with Harry Wakefield, a jovial English drover, and quarrels with him
  about a pasture-field. They fight in Heskett’s ale-house, but are
  separated. Oig goes on his way to get a dagger, with which he returns
  to the ale-house, and stabs Harry who is three parts drunk. Being
  tried for murder, he is condemned and executed.

  =Two Gentlemen of Vero´na=, a drama by Shakespeare, the story of which
  is taken from the _Diana_ of Montemayor (sixteenth century). The tale
  is this: Protheus and Valentine were two friends, and Protheus was in
  love with a lady of Verōna, named Julia. Valentine went to sojourn in
  Milan, and there fell in love with Silvia, the duke’s daughter, who
  was promised in marriage to Thurio. Protheus, being sent by his father
  to Milan, forgot Julia, fell in love with Silvia, and, in order to
  carry his point, induced the duke to banish Valentine, who became the
  captain of banditti, into whose hands Silvia fell. Julia, unable to
  bear the absence of her lover, dressed in boy’s clothes, and, going to
  Milan, hired herself as a page to Protheus, and when Silvia was lost,
  the duke, with Thurio, Protheus and his page, went in quest of her.
  She was soon discovered, but when Thurio attempted to take possession
  of her, Valentine said to him, “I dare you to touch her;” and Thurio
  replied, “None but a fool would fight for a girl.” The duke,
  disgusted, gave Silvia to Valentine; and Protheus, ashamed of his
  conduct, begged pardon of Valentine, discovered his page to be Julia,
  and married her (1595).

  =Two Kings of Brentford= (_The_). In the duke of Buckingham’s farce
  called _The Rehearsal_ (1671), the two kings enter hand-in-hand, dance
  together, sing together, walk arm-in-arm, and, to heighten the
  absurdity, they are made to smell of the same nosegay (act ii. 2.).

  =Two-Legged Mare= (_The_), a gallows. Vice says to Tyburn:

              I will help to bridle the two-legged mare.
                          _Like Will to Like, etc._ (1587).

  =Two-Shoes= (_Goody_), a nursery tale by Oliver Goldsmith (1765).
  Goody Two-shoes was a very poor child, whose delight at having a
  _pair_ of shoes was so unbounded that she could not forbear telling
  every one she met that she had “two shoes,” whence her name. She
  acquired knowledge and became wealthy. The title-page states that the
  tale is for the benefit of those

                 Who from a state of rags and care,
                 And having shoes but half a pair,
                 Their fortune and their fame should fix,
                 And gallop in a coach and six.

  =Two Strings to Your Bow=, a farce by Jephson (1792). Lazarillo,
  wanting a master, enters the service of Don Felix and also of Octavio
  at the same time. He makes perpetual blunders, such as giving letters
  and money to the wrong master; but it turns out that Don Felix is
  Donna Clara, the betrothed of Octavio. The lovers meet at the Eagle
  hotel, recognize each other, and become man and wife.

  =Two Unlucky.= In our dynasties two has been an unlucky number; thus:
  Ethelred II. was forced to abdicate; Harold II. was slain at Hastings;
  William II. was shot in the New Forest; Henry II. had to fight for his
  crown, which was usurped by Stephen; Edward II. was murdered at
  Berkeley Castle; Richard II. was deposed; Charles II. was driven into
  exile; James II. was obliged to abdicate; George II. was worsted at
  Fontenoy and Lawfeld, was disgraced by General Braddock and Admiral
  Byng, and was troubled by Charles Edward, the Young Pretender.

  =Tyb´alt=, a fiery young nobleman of Verona, nephew to Lady Capŭlet,
  and cousin to Juliet. He is slain in combat by Ro´meo.--Shakespeare,
  _Romeo and Juliet_ (1595).

  The name is given to the _cat_ in the beast-epic called _Reynard the
  Fox_. Hence Mercutio calls him “rat-catcher” (act iii. sc. 1), and
  when Tybalt demands of him, “What wouldst thou have with me?” Mercutio
  replies, “Good king of cats, nothing but one of your nine lives” (act
  iii. sc. 1).

  _Tybalt_, a Lombard officer, in love with Laura, niece of Duke
  Gondibert. The story of _Gondibert_ being unfinished, no sequel of
  this attachment is given.--Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

  _Tybalt_ or _Tibert_, the cat in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_

  =Tyburn= (_Kings of_), hangmen.

  =Tyburn Tree= (_The_), a gallows; so called because criminals at one
  time hung on the elm trees which grew on the banks of the Tyburn. The
  “Holy Maid of Kent,” Mrs. Turner, the poisoner, Felton, the assassin
  of the duke of Buckingham, Jack Sheppard, Jonathan Wild, Lord Ferrers,
  who murdered his steward, Dr. Dodd and Mother Brownrigg, “all died in
  their shoes” on the Tyburn tree.

          Since laws were made for every degree,
          To curb vice in others as well as in me [_Macheath_],
          I wonder we ha’nt better company
            ’Neath Tyburn tree.
                          Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

  =Tycho=, a vassal of the bishop of Treves, in the reign of Kaiser
  Henry IV. He promised to avenge his lord and master, who had been
  plundered by Count Adalbert, a leader of bandits. So, going to the
  count’s castle, he craved a draught of water. The porter brought him a
  cup of wine, and Tycho said, “Thank thy lord for his charity, and tell
  him he shall meet with his reward.” Then, returning home, he procured
  thirty large wine-barrels, in each of which he concealed an armed
  retainer and weapons for two others. Each cask was then carried by two
  men to the count’s castle, and when the door was opened Tycho said to
  the porter, “I am come to recompense thy lord and master,” and the
  sixty men carried in the thirty barrels. When Count Adalbert went to
  look at the present, at a signal given by Tycho the tops of the casks
  flew off, and the ninety armed men slew the count and his brigands,
  and then burnt the castle to the ground.

  The reader may perceive a certain resemblance between this tale and
  that of “Ali Baba, or the Forty Thieves” (_Arabian Nights’

  =Tyler= (_Wat_), a frugal, honest, industrious, skillful blacksmith of
  Essex; with one daughter, Alice, pretty, joyous, innocent, and modest.
  With all his frugality and industry, Wat found it very hard to earn
  enough for daily bread, and the tax-collectors came for the poll-tax,
  three groats a head, for a war to maintain our conquests in France.
  Wat had saved up the money, and proffered six groats for himself and
  wife. The collectors demanded three groats for Alice also, but Tyler
  said she was under 15 years of age, whereupon, one of the collectors
  having “insulted her virgin modesty,” Tyler felled him to the ground
  with his sledge-hammer. The people gathered round the smith, and a
  general uprising ensued. Richard II., sent a herald to Tyler, to
  request a parley, and pledging his royal word for his safe conduct.
  The sturdy smith appointed Smithfield for the rendezvous, and there
  Tyler told the king the people’s grievances; but while he was
  speaking, William Walworth, the lord mayor, stabbed him from behind
  and killed him. The king, to pacify the people, promised the poll-tax
  should be taken off and their grievances redressed, but no sooner had
  the mob dispersed than the rebels were cut down wholesale, and many
  being subjected to a mockery of a trial, were infamously
  executed.--Southey, _Wat Tyler_ (1794, published, 1817).

  =Tyll Owlyglass= or TYLL OWLEGLASS, by Thomas Murner, a Franciscan
  monk, of Strasbourg (1475-1536); the English name of the German “Tyll
  Eulenspiegel.” Tyll is a mechanic of Brunswick, who runs from pillar
  to post as charlatan, physician, lansquenet, fool, valet, and
  Jack-of-all-trades. He undertakes anything and everything, but
  invariably “spoils the Egyptians” who trust in him. He produces
  popular proverbs, is brimfull of merry mischief, droll as Sam Slick,
  indifferent honest as Gil Blas, light-hearted as Andrew Bode, as full
  of tricks as Scapin, and as popular as Robin Hood. The book is crammed
  with observations, anecdotes, fables, _bon mots_, facetiæ, and shows
  forth the omnipotence of common sense. There are two good English
  versions of this popular picaresco romance--one printed by William
  Copland, and entitled _The Merrye Jeste of a Man called Howlëglass and
  the many Marvellous Thinges and Jestes which he did in his Lyfe in
  Eastland_; and the other published in 1860, translated by K. R. H.
  Mackenzie, and illustrated by Alfred Crowquill. In 1720 was brought
  out a modified and abridged edition of the German story.

  To few mortals has it been granted to earn such a place in universal
  history as Tyll Eulenspiegel [_U’len-spee’.g’l_]. Now, after five
  centuries, Tyll’s native village is pointed out with pride to the
  traveller, and his tombstone ... still stands ... at Möllen, near
  Lubeck, where since 1350 [_sic_] his once nimble bones have been at

  =Tylwyth Teg=, or the “Family of Beauty,” elves who “dance in the
  moonlight on the velvet sward,” in their airy and flowing robes of
  blue and green, white and scarlet. These beautiful fays delight in
  showering benefits on the human race. _The Mabinogion_.

  =Tyneman= (2 _syl._), Archibald IV., earl of Douglas. So called
  because he was always on the losing side.

  =Tyre=, in Dryden’s satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, means Holland.
  “Egypt,” in the same satire, means France.

               I mourn my countrymen, your lost estate ...
               Now all your liberties a spoil are made,
               Egypt and Tyrus intercept your trade.
                           Pt. i. (1681).

  _Tyre_ (_Archbishop of_), with the crusaders.--Sir W. Scott, _The
  Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Tyrian Cyn´osure= (3 _syl._), Ursa Minor. Ursa Major is called by
  Milton “The Star of Arcady,” from Calisto, daughter of Lyca´on, the
  first king of Arcadia, who was changed into this constellation. Her
  son, Arcas or Cynosūra, was made the Lesser Bear.--Pausanias,
  _Itinerary of Greece_, viii. 4.

                  And thou shalt be our star of Arcady,
                  Or Tyrian Cynosure.
                              Milton, Comus, 343 (1634).

  =Tyrie=, one of the archers in the Scottish guard of Louis XI.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

  _Tyrie_ (_The Rev. Michael_), minister of Glenorquhy.--Sir W. Scott,
  _The Highland Widow_ (time, George II.).

  =Tyrog´lyphus= (“_the cheese-scooper_”), one of the mouse princes
  slain in the battle of the frogs and mice by Lymnisius (“the laker”).

  Lymnisius good Tyroglyphus assails,
  Prince of the mice that haunt the flowery vales;
  Lost to the milky fares and rural seat,
  He came to perish on the bank of fate.
              Parnell, _Battle of the Frogs and Mice_, iii. (about

  =Tyrrel= (_Francis_), the nephew of Mr. Mortimer. He loves Miss Aubrey
  “with an ardent, firm disinterested love.” On one occasion Miss Aubrey
  was insulted by lord Courtland, with whom Tyrrel fought a duel, and
  was for a time in hiding; but when Courtland recovered from his
  wounds, Tyrrel re-appeared, and ultimately married the lady of his
  affection.--Cumberland, _The Fashionable Lover_ (1780).

  _Tyrrel_ (_Frank_), or Martigny, earl of Etherington, son of the late
  earl, and la comtesse de Martigny, his wife. He is supposed to be
  illegitimate. Frank is in love with Clara Mowbray, daughter of Mr.
  Mowbray, of St. Ronan’s.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time,
  George III).

  =Tyrtæos=, selected by the Spartans as their leader, because his lays
  inspired the soldiers to deeds of daring. The following is a
  translation of one of his martial songs;--

          Oh, how joyous to fall in the face of the foe,
              For country and altar to die!
          But a lot more ignoble no mortal can know,
          Than with children and parents heart-broken with woe,
              From home as an exile to fly.

          Unrecompensed labor, starvation, and scorn,
              The feet of the captive attend;
          Dishonored his race, by rude foes overborne;
          From altar, from country, from kith and kin torn;
              No brother, no sister, no friend.

          To the field, then! Be strong, and acquit ye like men!
              Who shall fear for his country to fall?
          Ye younger, in ranks firmly serried remain;
          Ye elders, though weak, look on flight with disdain,
              And honor your fatherland’s call!

  _Tyrtæos_ (_The Spanish_), Manuel José Quintāna, whose odes stimulated
  the Spaniards to vindicate their liberty, at the outbreak of the War
  of Independence (1772-1857).

  ⁂ Who can tell the influence of such odes as the _Marseillaise_, or
  some of the Jacobite songs, on the spirit of a people? Even the
  music-hall song, “We don’t want to fight,” almost roused the English
  nation into a war with Russia in 1878.

  =Tyson= (_Kate_), a romantic young lady, who marries Frank
  Cheeney.--Wybert Reeve, _Parted_.

  =Ubaldo=, one of the crusaders, mature in age. He had visited many
  regions, “from polar cold to Libya’s burning soil.” He and Charles,
  the Dane, went to bring back Rinaldo from the enchanted
  castle.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

  =Ubaldo and Ricardo=, two men sent by Honoria, queen of Hungary, to
  tempt the fidelity of Sophia, because the queen was in love with her
  husband, Mathias. Immediately Sophia understood the object of their
  visit, she had the two men confined in separate rooms, where they were
  made to earn their food by spinning.--Massinger, _The Picture_ (1629).

  =Ube´da= (_Orbaneia of_), a painter who drew a cock so
  preposterously that he was obliged to write under it “This is a
  cock,” in order that the spectator might know what was intended to
  be represented.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. i. 3 (1615).

  =Uberti= (_Farinata Degli_), a noble Florentine, leader of the
  Ghibelline faction. Dantê represents him in his _Inferno_, as lying in
  a fiery tomb, yet open and not to be closed till the last judgment.

  =Uberto=, Count d’Este, etc.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

  =Udaller=, one who holds land by allodial tenure. Magnus Troil, in Sir
  W. Scott’s _Pirate_, was a udaller.

  =Ude=, the most learned of cooks, author of _La Science de Gueule_. He
  says, “Coquus nascitur non fit.” That “music, dancing, fencing,
  painting, and mechanics possess professors under 20 years of age, but
  pre-eminence in cooking is never attained under 30.” He was _premier
  artiste_ to Louis XVI., then to Lord Sefton, then to the duke of York,
  then _chef de cuisine_ at Crockford’s. It is said that he quitted the
  earl of Sefton, because one of his lordship’s guests added pepper to
  his soup. He was succeeded by Frascatelli.

  ⁂ Vatel, we are told, committed suicide (1677), during a banquet given
  by the Prince de Condé, because the lobsters for the turbot sauce did
  not arrive in time.

  =Udolpho= (_The Mysteries of_), a romance by Mrs. Radcliffe (1790).

  =Ugo=, natural son of Niccolo III. of Ferrara. His father had for his
  second wife Parisi´na Malatesta, between whom and Ugo a criminal
  attachment arose. When Niccolo was informed thereof, he had both
  brought to open trial, and both were condemned to suffer death by the
  common headsman.--Frizzi, _History of Ferrara_.

  =Ugoli´no=, count of Gheradesca, a leader of the Guelphi in Pisa. He
  was raised to the highest honors, but the Archbishop Ruggie´ri incited
  the Pisans against him, his castle was attacked, two of his grandsons
  fell in the assault, and the count himself, with his two sons and two
  surviving grandsons, were imprisoned in the tower of the Gualandi, on
  the Piazza of the Anziani. Being locked in, the dungeon key was flung
  into the Arno, and all food was withheld from them. On the fourth day
  his son, Gaddo, died, and by the sixth day little Anselm, with the two
  grandchildren, “fell one by one.” Last of all the count died also
  (1288), and the dungeon was ever after called “The Tower of Famine.”

  Dantê has introduced this story in his _Inferno_, and represents
  Ugolino as devouring most voraciously the head of Ruggieri, while
  frozen in the lake of ice.

  Chaucer, in his _Canterbury Tales_, makes the monk briefly tell this
  sad story, and calls the count “Hugeline of Pise.”

                Oh, thou Pisa, shame!... What if fame
                Reported that thy castles were betrayed

                By Ugolino, yet no right hadst thou
                To stretch his children on the rack ...
                Their tender years ... uncapable of guilt.
                            Dantê, _Hell_, xxxiii. (1300).

              Remember Ugolino condescends
              To eat the head of his arch-enemy
              The moment after he politely ends
              His tale.
                          Byron, _Don Juan_, ii. 83 (1819).

  =Ulalume=, the lost love, to the door of whose tomb the poet strays
  with “Psyche, his soul.”

               And we pass to the end of the vista,
               But were stopped by the door of a tomb,--
                   By the door of a legended tomb;
               And I said, “What is written, sweet sister
               On the door of this legended tomb?”
               She replied, “Ulalume! Ulalume!
                   ’Tis the vault of thy lost Ulalume!”
                           Edgar Allan Poe, _Poems_ (1850).

  =Ula´nia=, queen of Islanda. She sent a golden shield to Charlemagne,
  to be given as a prize to his bravest knight, and whoever won it might
  claim the donor in marriage.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_, xv. (1516).

  =Ulfin=, the page of Gondibert’s grandsire, and the faithful Achātês
  of Gondibert’s father. He cured Gondibert by a cordial kept in his
  sword hilt.--Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

  =Ulf=, Celtic husband, who, surprising his wife with her lover,
  follows and slays him, then tells her what he has seen, and how
  avenged his injured honor, and kills her.--Charles de Kay, _Hesperus
  and other Poems_ (1880).

  =Ulien’s Son=, Rodomont.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

  =Ulin=, an enchantress who had no power over those who remained
  faithful to Allah and their duty; but if any fell into error or sin
  she had full power to do as she liked, Thus, when Misnar (sultan of
  India) mistrusted the protection of Allah, she transformed him into a
  toad. When the Vizier Horam believed a false report, obviously untrue,
  she transformed him also into a toad. And when the Princess Hemjunah,
  to avoid a marriage projected by her father, ran away with a stranger,
  her indiscretion placed her in the power of the enchantress, who
  transformed her likewise into a toad. Ulin was ultimately killed by
  Misnar, sultan of Delhi, who felled her to the ground with a
  blow.--Sir C. Morell [J. Ridley], _Tales of the Genii_, vi., viii.

  =Ullin=, Fingal’s aged bard, called “the sweet voice of resounding

  _Ullin_, the Irish name for Ulster.

  He pursued the chase on Ullin, on the moss-covered top of
  Drumardo.--Ossian, _Temora_, ii.

  =Ullin’s Daughter= (_Lord_), a young lady who eloped with the chief of
  Ulva’s Isle, and induced a boatman to row them over Lochgyle during a
  storm. The boat was capsized just as Lord Ullin and his retinue
  reached the shore. He saw the peril, he cried in agony, “Come back,
  come back! and I’ll forgive your Highland chief;” but it was too late,
  the “waters wild rolled o’er his child, and he was left
  lamenting.”--Campbell, _Lord Ullin’s Daughter_ (a ballad).

  =Ulric=, son of Werner (_i.e._, count of Siegendorf). With the help of
  Gabor, he saved the count of Stral´enheim from the Oder; but murdered
  him afterwards for the wrongs he had done his father and himself,
  especially in seeking to oust them from the princely inheritance of
  Siegendorf.--Byron, _Werner_ (1822).

  =Ulri´ca=, in _Charles XII._, by J. R. Planché (1826).

  _Ulrica_, a girl of great beauty and noble determination of character,
  natural daughter of Ernest de Fridberg. Dressed in the clothes of
  Herman (the deaf and dumb jailer-lad), she gets access to the dungeon
  where her father is confined as a “prisoner of State,” and contrives
  his escape, but he is recaptured. Whereupon Christine (a young woman
  in the service of the Countess Marie) goes direct to Frederick II.,
  and obtains his pardon.--E. Stirling, _The Prisoner of State_ (1847).

  _Ulrica_, _alias_ MARTHA, mother of Bertha, the betrothed of Hereward
  (3 _syl._).--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

  _Ulrica_, daughter of the late thane of Torquilstone; _alias_ Dame
  Urfried, an old sibyl at Torquilstone Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_
  (time Richard I.).

  =Ulster= (_The kings of_). The kings of _Ulster_ were called O’Neil;
  those of _Munster_, O’Brien; of _Connaught_, O’Connor; of _Leinster_,
  MacMorrough; and of _Meath_, O’Melaghlin.

  =Ultimus Romano´rum=, Horace Walpole (1717-1797).

  =Ulvfagre=, the fierce Dane, who massacred the Culdees of Io´na, and
  having bound Aodh in iron, carried him to the church, demanding of him
  where he had concealed the church treasures. At that moment a
  mysterious gigantic figure in white appeared, and, taking Ulvfagre by
  the arm, led him to the statue of St. Columb, which instantly fell on
  him and killed him.

                The tottering image was dashed
                  Down from its lofty pedestal;
                On Ulvfagre’s helm it crashed.
                Helmet, and skull, and flesh, and brain,
                It crushed as millstones crush the grain.
                            Campbell, _Reullura_.

  =Ulysses=, a corrupt form of Odusseus [_O. dus´.suce_], the king of
  Ithăca. He is one of the chief heroes in Homer’s _Iliad_, and the
  chief hero of the _Odyssey_. Homer represents him as being craftily
  wise and full of devices. Virgil ascribes to him the invention of the
  Wooden Horse.

  Ulysses was very unwilling to join the expedition to Troy, and
  pretended to be mad. Thus, when Palamēdês came to summon him to the
  war, he was plowing the sand of the seashore and sowing it with salt.

  _Ulysses’s bow._ Only Ulysses could draw this bow, and he could shoot
  an arrow from it through twelve rings.

  William the Conqueror had a bow which no arm but his own could bend.

  Robin Hood’s bow could be bent by no hand but his own.

  ⁂ Statius says that no one but Kapăneus [_Kap´.a.nuce_] could poise
  his spear.

              His cypress spear with steel encircled shone,
              Not to be poised but by his hand alone.
                          _Thebaid_, v.

  _Ulysses’s Dog_, Argus, which recognized his master after an absence
  of twelve years. (See THERON, King Roderick’s dog.)

  =Ulysses and Polyphemos.=

  Ulysses and his crew, having reached the island of Sicily, strayed
  into the cave of Polyphēmos, the giant Cyclops. Soon as the monster
  returned and saw the strangers, he seized two of them, and, having
  dashed out their brains, made his supper off them, “nor entrails left,
  nor yet their marrowy bones;” then stretched he his huge carcass on
  the floor, and went to sleep. Next morning he caught up two others,
  devoured them for his breakfast, then stalked forth into the open air,
  driving his flocks before him. At sun-down he returned, seized other
  two for his supper and after quaffing three bowls of wine, fell
  asleep. Then it was that Ulysses bored out the giant’s eye with a
  green olive stake heated in the fire. The monster roared with pain,
  and after searching in vain to seize some of his tormentors, removed
  the rock from the mouth of the cave to let out his goats and sheep.
  Ulysses and his companions escaped at the same time by attaching
  themselves to the bellies of the sheep, and made for their ship.
  Polyphemos hurled rocks at the vessel, and nearly succeeded in sinking
  it, but the fugitives made good their flight, and the blinded monster
  was left lamenting.--Homer, _Odyssey_, ix.

  ⁂ An extraordinary parallel to this tale is told in the third voyage
  of Sindbad, the sailor. Sindbad’s vessel was driven by a tempest to an
  island of pygmies, and advancing into the interior, the crew came to a
  “high palace,” into which they entered. At sundown came home the
  giant, “tall as a palm tree; and in the middle of his forehead was one
  eye, red and fiery as a burning coal.” Soon as he saw the intruders,
  he caught up the fattest of them and roasted him for his supper, then
  lay down to sleep, and “snored louder than thunder.” At daybreak he
  left the palace, but at night returned, and made his meal off another
  of the crew. This was repeated a third night, but while the monster
  slept, Sindbad, with a red-hot spit, scooped out his eye. “The pain he
  suffered made him groan hideously,” and he fumbled about the palace to
  catch some of his tormentors “on whom to glut his rage;” but not
  succeeding in this, he left the palace, “bellowing with pain.” Sindbad
  and the rest lost no time in making for the sea; but scarcely had they
  pushed off their rafts when the giant approached with many others, and
  hurled huge stones at the fugitives. Some of them even ventured into
  the sea up to their waists, and every raft was sunk except the one on
  which Sindbad and two of his companions made their escape.--_Arabian
  Nights_ (“Sindbad, the Sailor,” third voyage).

  Another similar tale occurs in the Basque legends, in which the
  giant’s name is Tartaro, and his eye was bored out with spits made red
  hot. As in the previous instances, some seamen had inadvertently
  wandered into the giant’s dwelling, and Tartaro had banqueted on three
  of them, when his eye was scooped out by the leader. This man, like
  Ulysses, made his escape by means of a ram, but, instead of clinging
  to the ram’s belly, he fastened round his neck the ram’s bell, and
  threw over his back a sheep-skin. When Tartaro laid his hand on the
  skin, the man left it behind and made good his escape.

  That all these tales are borrowed from one source none can doubt. The
  _Iliad_ of Homer had been translated into Syriac by Theophilus
  Edessenes, a Christian Maronite monk of Mount Libănus, during the
  caliphate of Hárun-ur-Ráshid (A.D. 786-809).--See _Notes and Queries_,
  April 19, 1879.

  =Ulysses of Brandenburg= (_The_), Albert III., elector of Brandenburg,
  also called “The German Achillês” (1414-1486).

  =Ulysses of the Highlands= (_The_), Sir Evan Cameron, lord of Lochiel
  [_Lok.keel´_], and surnamed “The Black” (died 1719).

  ⁂ It was the son of Sir Evan who was called “The Gentle Lochiel.”

  =Umbra= (_Obsequious_), in Garth’s Dispensary, is meant for Dr. Gould

  =Umbriel´= (2 _syl._), the tutelar angel of Thomas, the apostle, once
  a Sadducee, and always hard of conviction.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_,
  iii. (1748).

  _Umbriel_ [_Um.breel´_], a sprite whom Spleen supplies with a bagful
  of “sighs, sobs, and cross words,” and a vialful of “soft sorrows,
  melting grief, and flowing tears.” When the baron cuts off Belinda’s
  lock of hair, Umbriel breaks the vial over her, and Belinda instantly
  begins sighing and sobbing, chiding, weeping, and pouting.--Pope,
  _Rape of the Lock_ (1712).

              Umbriel, a dusky, melancholy sprite
              As ever sullied the fair face of light,
              Down to the central earth, his proper scene,
              Repaired, to search the gloomy cave of Spleen.
                          Canto iv. 13, etc.

  =U´na=, truth; so called because truth is one. She goes, leading a
  lamb and riding on a white ass, to the court of Gloriana, to crave
  that one of her knights might undertake to slay the dragon which kept
  her father and mother prisoners. The adventure is accorded to the Red
  Cross Knight, and the two start forth together. A storm compels them
  to seek shelter in a forest, and when the storm abates they get into
  Wandering Wood, where they are induced by Archimago to sleep in his
  cell. A vision is sent to the knight, which causes him to quit the
  cell, and Una, not a little surprised at this discourtesy, goes in
  search of him. In her wanderings she is caressed by a lion, who
  becomes her attendant. After many adventures, she finds St. George,
  “The Red Cross Knight;” who is held captive by Ugoglio, pride. Prince
  Arthur slays Ugoglio and frees the knight, who is then taken by Una to
  the house of Holiness to prepare for his battle with the dragon, which
  he finally defeats after a terrific three-days contest.--Spenser,
  _Faëry Queen_, i. (1590).

  _Una_, one of Flora M’Ivor’s attendants.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_
  (time, George II.).

  =Uncas=, son of Chingachgook, surnamed “Deer-foot.” The courage,
  dignity, and loyalty of this young chieftain, combine with his
  personal graces to make him one of the most interesting creations of
  the novelist’s imagination. He dies in the effort to rescue the
  palefaced girl he loves, from the cruel Magua, and is buried by his
  tribe with all the honors due the bravest and purest of the tribe.

  “Who that saw thee in battle, would believe that thou couldst die? Who
  before thee has ever shown Uttawa the way into the fight? Thy feet
  were like the wings of eagles; thine arm heavier than falling branches
  from the pine, and thy voice like the Manitou when he speaks in the
  clouds.”--James Fenimore Cooper, _The Last of the Mohicans_.

  =Unborn Doctor= (_The_), of Moorfields. Not being born a doctor, he
  called himself “The Un-born Doctor.”

  =Uncle Larry=, genial man of the world, kindly in thought, and
  sagacious in speech, who appears in _The Last Meeting_, _The Rival
  Ghosts_ and other tales by Brander Matthews.

  =Uncle Toby=, a captain who had been wounded at the siege of Namur,
  and had been dismissed the service on half-pay. Most kind and
  benevolent, modest, and simple-minded, but brave and firm in his own
  opinions. His gallantry towards Widow Wadman, is exquisite for its
  modesty and chivalry. Uncle Toby retains his military tastes and camp
  habits to the last.--Sterne, _The Life and Opinions of Tristram
  Shandy, Gentleman_ (1729).

  But what shall I say to thee, thou quintessence of the milk of human
  kindness, ... thou master of the best of corporals, ... thou high and
  only final Christian gentleman, ... divine Uncle Toby?... He who
  created thee was the wisest man since the days of Shakespeare
  himself.--Leigh Hunt.

  =Uncle Tom=, a negro slave, of unaffected piety, and most faithful in
  the discharge of all his duties. His master, a humane man, becomes
  embarrassed in his affairs, and sells him to a slave-dealer. After
  passing through various hands, and suffering intolerable cruelties, he
  dies.--Harriet Beecher Stowe, _Uncle Tom’s Cabin_ (1852).

  ⁂ The original of this character was the negro slave subsequently
  ordained and called “the Rev. J. Henson.” He was in London, 1876,
  1877, took part in several religious services, and was even presented
  to her majesty, Queen Victoria.

  =Undine= [_Oon-deen_], a water-sylph, who was in early childhood
  changed for the young child of a fisherman living on a peninsula, near
  an enchanted forest. One day Sir Huldbrand took shelter in the
  fisherman’s hut, fell in love with Undine, and married her. Being thus
  united to a man, the sylph received a soul. Not long after the wedding
  Sir Huldbrand returned homeward, but stopped awhile in the city, which
  lay on the other side of the forest, and met there Bertalda, a
  beautiful but haughty lady, whom they invited to go with them to their
  home, the Castle Ringstettin. For a time, the knight was troubled with
  visions, but Undine had the mouth of a well closed up, and thus
  prevented the water-sprites from getting into the castle. In time the
  knight neglected his wife, and became attached to Bertalda, who was in
  reality the changeling. One day, sailing on the Danube, the knight
  rebuked Undine in his anger, and immediately she was snatched away by
  sister sylphs to her water home. Not long after the knight proposed to
  Bertalda, and the wedding day arrived. Bertalda requested her maid to
  bring her some water from the well; so the cover was removed, Undine
  rose from the upheaving water, went to the chamber of Sir Huldbrand,
  kissed him, and he died. They buried him, and a silver stream bubbled
  round his grave; it was Undine who thus embraced him, true in life,
  and faithful in death.--De la Motte Fouqué, _Undine_ (1807).

  ⁂ This romance is founded on a tale by Theophrastus Paracelsus, in his
  _Treatise on Elemental Sprites_.

  =Ungrateful Guest= (_The_), a soldier in the army of Philip of
  Macĕdon, who had been hospitably entertained by a villager. Being
  asked by the king what he could give him in reward of his services,
  the fellow requested he might have the farm and cottage of his late
  host. Philip, disgusted at such baseness, had him branded with the

  =Unique= (_The_), Jean Paul Richter, whose romances are quite unique,
  and belong to no school (1763-1825).

  =Universal Doctor=, Alain de Lille (1114-1203).

  ⁂ Sometimes Thomas Aquinas is also called _Doctor Universālis_

  =Unknown= (_The Great_), Sir Walter Scott, who published the Waverley
  novels anonymously (1771-1832).

  =Unlearned Parliament= (_The_). The parliament convened by Henry IV.,
  at Coventry, in Warwickshire (1404), was so called because lawyers
  were excluded from it.

  =Unlucky Possessions=, the gold of Nibelungen and the gold of Tolosa,
  Graysteel, Harmonia’s necklace, Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, etc.

  =Unready= (_The_), Ethelred II. (*, 978-1016).

  ⁂ “Unready” does not mean “never ready or prepared,” but lacking
  _rede_, _i.e._, “wisdom, judgment or kingcraft.”

  =Unreason= (_The abbot of_), or FATHER HOWLEGLAS, one of the masquers
  at Kennaquhair.--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Unwashed= (_The Great_), the common people. It was Burke who first
  applied this term to the artizan class.

  =Upholsterer= (_The_), a farce by Murphy (1758). Abraham Quidnunc,
  upholsterer, in St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields, being crazed with
  politics, so neglects his business for the affairs of Europe that he
  becomes a bankrupt; but, at this crisis, his son, John, who had
  married the widow of a rich planter, returns from the West Indies,
  pays off his father’s debts, and places him in a position where he may
  indulge his love for politics without hampering himself with business.

  =Ura´nia=, sister of Astrophel (_Sir Philip Sidney_), is the countess
  of Pembroke.

       Urania, sister unto Astrophel,
       In whose brave mind, as in a golden coffer,
       All heavenly gifts and riches lockèd are,
       More rich than pearls of Ind.
                   Spenser, _Colin Clout’s Come Home Again_ (1595).

  _Urania_, daughter of the king of Sicily, who fell in love with Sir
  Guy (eldest son of St. George, the patron saint of England).--R.
  Johnson, _The Seven Champions, etc._, iii. 2 (1617).

  =Ura´nian Venus=, _i.e._, “Celestial Venus,” the patroness of chaste
  and pure love.

  Venus _pandêmos_ or _popularis_ is the Venus of the animal passion
  called “love.”

  Venus _etaira_ or _amīca_ is the Venus of criminal sensuality.

             The seal was Cupid bent above a scroll,
             And o’er his head Uranian Venus hung
             And raised the blinding bandage from his eyes.
                         Tennyson, _The Princess_, i. (1830).

  =Urban= (_Sylvānus_), the hypothetical editor of _The Gentleman’s

  =Urbané=, hero of a religious story bearing the title of _Urbané and
  His Friends_, by Elizabeth Payson Prentiss (1863).

  =Urchin=, a hedgehog, a mischievous little fellow, a dwarf, an imp.

  We’ll dress like urchins.
              Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_, act iv. sc. 4

  =Ureus=, the Egyptian snake, crowned with a mitre, and typical of

  =Urfried= (_Dame_), an old sibyl at Torquilstone Castle; _alias_
  Ulrica, daughter of the late thane of Torquilstone.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Urgan=, a human child stolen by the king of the fairies, and brought
  up in elf-land. He was sent to lay on Lord Richard the “curse of the
  sleepless eye,” for killing his wife’s brother. Then said the dwarf to
  Alice Brand (the wife of Lord Richard), “if any woman will sign my
  brow thrice with a cross, I shall resume my proper form.” Alice signed
  him thrice, and Urgan became at once “the fairest knight in all
  Scotland,” and Alice recognized in him her own brother, Ethert.--Sir
  W. Scott, _Lady of the Lake_, iv. 12 (1810).

  =Urganda=, a potent fairy in the _Amădis de Gaul_ and other romances
  of the Carlovingian cycle.

  This Urganda seemed to be aware of her own importance.--Smollett.

  =Ur´gel=, one of Charlemagne’s paladins, famous for his enormous

  =U´riel= (3 _syl._), or =Israfil=, the angel who is to sound the
  resurrection trumpet.--_Al Korân._

  _Uriel_, one of the seven great spirits, whose station was in the sun.
  The word means “God’s light” (see _2 Esdras_ iv., v., x. 28).

       The archangel Uriel, one of the seven
       Who, in God’s presence, nearest to his throne,
       Stand ready at command.
                   Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iii. 648, etc. (1665).

  ⁂ Longfellow calls him “the minister of Mars,” and says that he
  inspires man with “fortitude to bear the brunt and suffering of
  life.”--_The Golden Legend_, iii. (1851).

  =U´rien=, the foster-father of Prince Madoc. He followed the prince to
  his settlement in North America, south of the Missouri (twelfth
  century).--Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

  =Urim=, in _Garth’s Dispensary_, is designed for Dr. Atterbury.

               Urim was civil and not void of sense,
               Had humor and courteous confidence, ...
               Constant at feasts, and each decorum knew,
               And soon as the dessert appeared, withdrew.
                           _The Dispensary_, i. (1699).

  =Urra´ca=, sister of Sancho II. of Castile, and queen of
  Zamōra.--_Poema del Cid Campeador_ (1128).

  =Urre= (_Sir_), one of the knights of the Round Table. Being wounded,
  the king and his chief knights tried on him the effect of “handling
  the wounds” (_i.e._, touching them to heal them), but failed. At last,
  Sir Launcelot was invited to try, and as he touched the wounds they
  severally healed.--_Arthurian Romance_.

  =Urrie= (_Sir John_), a parliamentary leader.--Sir W. Scott, _Legend
  of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

  =Ursa Major=, Calisto, daughter of Lycāon, violated by Jupiter, and
  converted by Juno into a bear; whereupon the king of gods and man
  placed her in the Zodiac as a constellation. The Great Bear is also
  called “Hellicê.”

  _Ursa Major._ Dr. Johnson was so called by Boswell’s father

  My father’s opinion of Dr. Johnson may be conjectured from the name he
  afterwards gave him, which was “Ursa Major;” but it is not true, as
  has been reported, that it was in consequence of my saying that he was
  a constellation of genius and literature.--Boswell (1791).

  =Ursel= (_Zedekias_), the imprisoned rival of the Emperor Alexius
  Comnēnus of Greece.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time,

  =Ur´sula=, mother of Elsie, and wife of Gottlieb [_Got.leeb_], a
  cottage farmer, of Bavaria.--Hartmann von der Aue, _Poor Henry_
  (twelfth century); Longfellow _Golden Legend_ (1851).

  _Ursula_, a gentlewoman, attending on Hero.--Shakespeare, _Much Ado
  about Nothing_ (1600).

  _Ursula_, a silly old duenna, vain of her saraband dancing; though not
  fair yet fat and fully forty. Don Diego leaves Leonora under her
  charge, but Leander soon finds that a little flattery and a few gold
  pieces will put the dragon to sleep, and leave him free of the garden
  of his Hesperidês.--I. Bickerstaff, _The Padlock_ (1768).

  _Ursula_ (_Sister_), a disguise assumed at St. Bride’s, by the Lady
  Margaret de Hautlieu.--Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry

  _Ursula_ (_Saint_), daughter of Dianotus, king of Cornwall (brother
  and successor of Caradoc, king of Cornwall). She was asked in marriage
  by Conan [Meriadoc] of Armorica, or Little Britain. Going to France
  with her maidens, the princess was driven by adverse winds to Cologne,
  where she and “her 11,000 virgins” were martyred by the Huns and Picts
  (October 21, 237). Visitors to Cologne are still shown piles of skulls
  and bones heaped in the wall, faced with glass, which the verger
  asserts to be the relics of the martyred virgins; but, like Iphis,
  they must have changed their sex since death for most undoubtedly many
  of the bones are those of men and boys.--See Geoffrey, _British
  History_, v. 15, 16.

  A calendar in the Freisingen Codex notices them as “SS. XI. M.
  VIRGINUM” _i.e._, “eleven holy virgin martyrs;” but, by making the “M”
  into a Roman figure equal 1000, we have XIM=11,000; so iiic=300.

  Ursula is the Swabian _ursul_ or _hörsel_ (“the moon”), and, if this
  solution is accepted, then the “virgins who bore her company” are the
  stars. Ursul is the Scandinavian Hulda.

  Those who assert the legend to be based on a fact, have supplied the
  following names as the most noted of the virgins, and, as there are
  but eleven given, it favors the Freisingen Codex:--(1) Ursula, (2)
  Sencia or Sentia, (3) Gregoria, (4) Pinnosa, (5) Mardia, (6) Saula,
  (7) Brittola, (8) Saturnina, (9) Rabacia, Sabatia, or Sambatia, (10)
  Saturia or Saturnia, and (11) Palladia.

  In 1837 was celebrated with great splendor the sixteenth centenary
  “jubilee of their passion.”

       Bright Ursula the third, who undertook to guide
       The eleven thousand maids to Little Britain sent,
       By seas and bloody men devoured as they went;
       Of which we find these four have been for saints preferred.
       And with their leader still do live encalendered:
       St. Agnes, Cor´dula, Odillia, Florence, which
       With wondrous sumptuous shrines those ages did enrich
       At Cullen.
                   Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

  =Ursus=, humane, tender-hearted pessimist, posing as a misogynist and
  philanthropist. His favorite comrade is the tame wolf, _Homo_.--Victor
  Hugo, _L’Homme qui rit_.

  =Use of Pests.= David once said he could not image why a wise deity
  should have created such things as spiders, idiots, and mosquitoes;
  but his life showed they were all useful to him at any rate. Thus,
  when he fled from Saul, a spider spun its web at the mouth of the
  cave, and Saul, feeling assured that the fugitive could not have
  entered the cave without breaking the web, passed on without further
  search. Again, when he was taken captive before the king of Gath, he
  feigned idiocy, and the king dismissed him, for he could not believe
  such a driveller could be the great champion who had slain Goliath.
  Once more, when he entered into the tent of Saul, as he was crawling
  along, Abner, in his sleep, tossed his legs over him. David could not
  stir, but a mosquito happened to bite the leg of the sleeper, and,
  Abner shifting it, enabled David to effect his escape.--_The Talmud_.

  =Used Up=, an English version of _L’Homme Blasé_, of Felix Auguste
  Duvert, in conjunction with Auguste Théodore de Lauzanne. Charles
  Mathews made this dramatic trifle popular in England.--Boucicault,
  _Used Up_ (1845).

  =Useless Parliament= (_The_), the first parliament held in the reign
  of Charles I. (June 18, 1625). It was adjourned to Oxford in August,
  and dissolved twelve days afterwards.

  =Usher= (_The House of_), a doomed family, the last scions of which
  are twins--a brother and sister. The brother is the victim of
  melancholia, the sister seems to die and is buried prematurely. She
  bursts the coffin and appears in the door of her brother’s room. “For
  a moment she remained trembling and reeling to and fro upon the
  threshold--then, with a low, moaning cry, fell heavily inward upon the
  person of her brother, and, in her violent and now final death
  agonies, bore him to the floor a corpse, and a victim to the terrors
  he had anticipated.”--Edgar Allan Poe, _Tales of the Grotesque and
  Arabesque_ (1840).

  =Usnach= or =Usna=. Conor, king of Ulster put to death by treachery,
  the three sons of Usnach. This led to the desolating war against
  Ulster, which terminated in the total destruction of Eman. This is one
  of the three tragic stories of the ancient Irish. The other two are
  _The Death of the Children of Touran_ and _The Death of the Children
  of Lir_.

  Avenging and bright falls the swift sword of Erin
    On him who the brave sons of Usna betrayed!...
  By the red cloud that hung over Conor’s dark dwelling
    When Ulad’s three champions lay sleeping in gore ...
  We swear to avenge them.
              T. Moore, _Irish Melodies_ iv. (“Avenging and Bright ...”

  =Uta=, queen of Burgundy, mother of Kriemhild and Günther.--_The
  Nibelungen Lied_ (twelfth century).

  =Utha=, the “white-bosomed daughter of Herman.” She dwelt “by Thano’s
  stream,” and was beloved by Frothal. When Fingal was about to slay
  Frothal, she interposed and saved his life.--Ossian, _Carric-Thura_.

  =Uthal=, son of Larthmor, petty king of Berrathon (a Scandinavian
  island). He dethroned his father, and, being very handsome, was
  beloved by Nina-Tho´ma (daughter of a neighboring prince), who eloped
  with him. Uthal proved inconstant, and, confining Nina-Thoma in a
  desert island, fixed his affections on another. In the mean time
  Ossian and Toscar arrived at Berrothan. A fight ensued, in which Uthal
  was slain in single combat, and Larthmor restored to his throne.
  Nina-Thoma was also released, but all her ill treatment could not
  lessen her deep love, and when she heard of the death of Uthal she
  languished and died.--Ossian, _Berrathon_.

  =Uther= or UTER, pendragon or war-chief of the Britons. He married
  Igerna, widow of Gorloïs, and was by her the father of Arthur and
  Anne. This Arthur was the famous hero who instituted the knights of
  the Round Table.--Geoffrey, _History of Britain_, viii. 20 (1142).

  =Uthorno=, a bay of Denmark, into which Fingal was driven by stress of
  weather. It was near the residence of Starno, king of Lochlin
  (_Denmark_).--Ossian, _Cath-Loda_, i.

  =Uto´pia=, a political romance by Sir Thomas More.

  The word means “nowhere” (Greek, _ou-topos_). It is an imaginary
  island, where everything is perfect--the laws, the politics, the
  morals, the institutions, etc. The author, by contrast, shows the
  evils of existing laws. Carlyle, in his _Sartor Resartus_, has a place
  called “Weissnichtwo” [_Vice-neckt-vo_, “I know not where”]. The
  Scotch “Kennaquhair” means the same thing (1524).

  Adoam describes to Telemachus the country of Bétique (in Spain) as a
  Utopia.--Fénelon, _Télémaque_, viii.

  _Utopia_, the kingdom of Grangousier. “Parting from Me´damoth,
  Pantag´ruel sailed with a northerly wind, and passed Me´dam, Gel´asem,
  and the Fairy Isles; then keeping Uti to the left, and Uden to the
  right, he ran into the port of Utopia, distant about 3½ leagues from
  the city of the Amaurots.”

  ⁂ Parting from _Medamoth_ (“from no place”), he passed _Medam_
  (“nowhere”), _Gelasem_ (“hidden land”), etc.; keeping to the left
  _Uti_ (“nothing at all”) and to the right _Uden_ (“nothing”), he
  entered the port of _Utopia_ (“no place”), distant 3½ leagues from
  _Amauros_ (“the vanishing point”).--See _Maps for the Blind_,
  published by Nemo and Co., of Weissnichtwo.

  (These maps were engraved by Outis and Son, and are very rare.)

  =Uzziel= [_Uz´.zeel_], the next in command to Gabriel. The word means
  “God’s strength.”--Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iv. 782 (1665).

  =Vadius=, a grave and heavy pedant.--Molière, _Les Femmes Savantes_

  ⁂ The model of this character was Ménage, an ecclesiastic, noted for
  his wit and learning. Vadius, although a caricature, was at once
  recognized by Molière’s readers.

  =Vafri´no=, Tancred’s squire, practiced in all disguises, and learned
  in all the Eastern languages. He was sent as a spy to the Egyptian
  camp. Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

  =Vagabonds= (_The_).

           “We are two travellers, Roger and I.
             Roger’s my dog;--come here, you scamp!
           Jump for the gentleman,--mind your eye!
             Over the table--look out for the lamp!
           The rogue is growing a little old;
             Five years we’ve tramped through wind and weather,
           And slept out-doors when nights were cold,
             And ate and drank--and starved--together.”
              *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *
                       Trowbridge, _The Vagabonds_ (1869).

  =Vagabond= (_The Bishop’s_), “Cracker,” who imposes in countless ways
  upon the credulity and takes advantage of the humanity of a benevolent
  man. In the end he saves the bishop’s life at the cost of his own,
  and, as the good man offers to pray by his dying bed, tries to wave
  his hand in the old airy style. “I reckon God a’mighty knows I’d be
  the same old Demming ef I could get up, an’ I don’ mean to make no
  purtenses. But mabbe it’ll cheer up th’ ole ’ooman a bit; so you
  begin, an’ I’ll bring in an ‘Amen’ whenever it’s wanted.” When the
  prayer ended there was no “Amen.” Demming was gone where prayer may
  only faintly follow.--Octave Thanet, _Knitters in the Sun_ (1887).

  =Vain´love=, a gay young man about town.--Congreve, _The Old Bachelor_

  =Valantia= (_Count_), betrothed to the Marchioness Merĭda, whom he
  “loved to distraction till he found that she doted on him, and this
  discovery cloyed his passion.” He is light, inconsiderate,
  unprincipled and vain. For a time he intrigues with Amantis, “the
  child of Nature,” but when Amantis marries the Marquis Almanza, the
  count says to Merida she shall be his wife if she will promise not to
  love him.--Mrs. Inchbald, _Child of Nature_. (See THENOT.)

  =Valclusa= (_Vaucluse_), the famous retreat of Petrarch (father of
  Italian poetry) and his mistress, Laura, a lady of Avignon.

      At last the Muses rose ... from fair Valclusa’s bowers.
                  Akenside, _Pleasures of Imagination_, ii. (1744).

  =Valdes= (2 _syl._) =and Cornelius=, friends of Dr. Faustus, who
  instruct him in magic, and induce him to sell his soul, that he may
  have a “spirit” to wait on him for twenty-four years.--C. Marlowe,
  _Dr. Faustus_ (1589).

  =Valence= (_Sir Aymer de_), lieutenant of Sir John de Walton, governor
  of Douglas Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

  =Valenti´na=, daughter of the conte di San Bris, governor of the
  Louvre. She was betrothed to the conte di Nevers, but loved Raoul [di
  Nangis], a Huguenot, by whom she was beloved in return. When Raoul was
  offered her hand by the Princess Margheri´ta di Valois, the bride of
  Henri le Bernais (_Henri IV._), he rejected it, out of jealousy; and
  Valentina, out of pique, married Nevers. In the Bartholomew slaughter
  which ensued, Nevers fell, and Valentina married her first love,
  Raoul, but both were shot by a party of musketeers under the command
  of her father, the conte di San Bris.--Meyerbeer, _Les Huguenots_

  =Valentine=, one of the “two gentlemen of Verona;” the other
  “gentleman” was Protheus. Their two serving-men were Speed and Launce.
  Valentine married Silvia, daughter of the duke of Milan, and Protheus
  married Julia. The rival of Valentine was Thurio.--Shakespeare, _The
  Two Gentlemen of Verona_ (1595).

  _Valentine_, a gentleman in attendance on the duke of
  Illyria.--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_ (1602).

  _Valentine_ (3 _syl._), a gentleman just returned from his travels. In
  love with Cellide (2 _syl._), but Cellide is in love with Francisco
  (Valentine’s son).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Mons. Thomas_ (a comedy,
  before 1620).

  _Valentine_ (3 _syl._), a gallant that will not be persuaded to keep
  his estate.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _Wit without Money_ (1639).

  _Valentine_, brother of Margaret. Maddened by the seduction of his
  sister, he attacks Faust during a serenade, and is stabbed by
  Mephistophelês. Valentine dies reproaching his sister,
  Margaret.--Goethe, _Faust_ (1798).

  _Valentine_ [LEGEND], eldest son of Sir Sampson Legend. He has a
  _tendre_ for Angelica, an heiress, whom he eventually marries. To
  prevent the signing away of his real property for the advance of £4000
  in cash to clear his debts, he feigns to be mad for a time. Angelica
  gets the bond, and tears it before it is duly signed.--Congreve, _Love
  for Love_ (1695).

  ⁂ This was Betterton’s great part.

  _Valentine_ (_Saint_), a Romish priest, who befriended the martyrs in
  the persecution of Claudius II., and was, in consequence, arrested,
  beaten with clubs, and finally beheaded (February 14, 270). Pope
  Julius built a church in his honor, near Pontê Molê, which gave its
  name to the gate _Porta St. Valentini_, now called “Porta del Popolo,”
  and by the ancient Romans “Porta Flaminia.”

  ⁂ The 15th February was the festival of _Februta Juno_ (Juno, the
  fructifyer), and the Roman Catholic clergy substituted St. Valentine
  for the heathen goddess.

  =Valentine and Orson=, twin sons of Bellisant and Alexander (emperor
  of Constantinople). They were born in a forest near Orleans. While the
  mother was gone to hunt for Orson, who had been carried off by a bear,
  Valentine was carried off by King Pepin (his uncle). In due time
  Valentine married Clerimond, the Green Knight’s sister.--_Valentine
  and Orson_ (fifteenth century).

  =Valentine Mortimer=, scatter-brained youth, who accepts against his
  conscience ill-gotten possessions, and is forced by conscience to
  renounce them, just before his early death.--Jean Ingelow, _Fated to
  be Free_ (1875).

  =Valentine and Violet=, two girls who are made the subject of the
  curious social experiment described in _The Children of Gibeon_, by
  Walter Besant (1890).

  =Valentine de Grey= (_Sir_), an Englishman and knight of France. He
  had “an ample span of forehead, full and liquid eyes, free nostrils,
  crimson lips, well-bearded chin, and yet his wishes were innocent as
  thought of babes.” Sir Valentine loved Hero, niece of Sir William
  Sutton, and in the end married her.--S. Knowles, _Woman’s Wit, etc._

  =Valentin´ian= [=III.=], emperor of Rome (419, 425-455). During his
  reign the empire was exposed to the invasions of the barbarians, and
  was saved from ruin only by the military talents of Aët´ius, whom the
  faithless emperor murdered. In the year following Valentinian was
  himself “poisoned” by [Petrōnius] Maxĭmus, whose wife he had violated.
  He was a feeble and contemptible prince, without even the merit of
  brute courage. His wife’s name was Eudoxia.--Beaumont and Fletcher,
  _Valentinian_ (1617).

  =Valenti´no=, Margheri´ta’s brother, in the opera of _Faust e
  Margherita_, by Gounod (1859).

  _Valentino_, familiar name of Duke Cæsar Borgia. Daring, unscrupulous
  noble, whose amours are as audacious as the measures he devises for
  ridding himself of his rivals and enemies. His relationship to Pope
  Alexander VI. gives him peculiar advantages for prosecuting his evil
  designs. He is poisoned at a banquet, together with his father, who
  dies. Valentino procures an antidote in time to save his life, but
  remains an invalid for long. Recovering partially, he sets sail for
  France, is seized by the Spaniards and imprisoned for two years in
  Seville. Escaping, he takes service under the king of Navarre and is
  killed in a skirmish with the soldiers of the constable of Lerina, at
  the early age of thirty-one.--William Waldorf Astor, _Valentino, An
  Historical Romance_ (1885).

  =Valère= (2 _syl._), son of Anselme (2 _syl._), who turns out to be
  Don Thomas d’Alburci, a nobleman of Naples. During an insurrection the
  family was exiled and suffered shipwreck. Valère, being at the time
  only seven years old, was picked up by a Spanish captain, who adopted
  him, and with whom he lived for sixteen years, when he went to Paris
  and fell in love with Elise, the daughter of Har´pagon, the miser.
  Here also Anselme, after wandering about the world for ten years, had
  settled down, and Harpagon wished him to marry Elise; but the truth
  being made clear to him that Valère was his own son, and Elise in love
  with him, matters were soon adjusted.--Molière, _L’Avare_ (1667).

  _Valère_ (2 _syl._), the “gamester.” Angelica gives him a picture, and
  enjoins him not to lose it on pain of forfeiting her hand. He loses
  the picture in play, and Angelica, in disguise, is the winner of it.
  After a time Valère is cured of his vice and happily united to
  Angelica.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Gamester_ (1709).

  =Vale´ria=, sister of Valerius, and friend of Horatia.--Whitehead,
  _The Roman Father_ (1741).

  _Valeria_, a blue-stocking, who delights in vivisection, entomology,
  women’s rights, and natural philosophy.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Basset
  Table_ (1706).

  =Valerian=, husband of St. Cecilia. Cecilia told him she was beloved
  by an angel, who constantly visited her; and Valerian requested to see
  this visitant. Cecilia replied that he should do so, if he went to
  Pope Urban to be baptized. This he did, and on returning home, the
  angel gave him a crown of lilies, and to Cecilia, a crown of roses,
  both from the garden of paradise. Valerian, being brought before the
  Prefect Almachius for heresy, was executed.--Chaucer, _Canterbury
  Tales_ (“The Second Nun’s Tale,” 1388).

  =Vale´rio=, a noble young Neapolitan lord, husband of Evanthê (3
  _syl._). This chaste young wife was parted from her husband by
  Frederick, the licentious brother of Alphonso, king of Naples, who
  tried in vain to seduce her, and then offered to make her any one’s
  wife for a month, at the end of which time the libertine should suffer
  death. No one would accept the offer, and ultimately the lady was
  restored to her husband.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _A Wife for a Month_

  =Valerius=, the hero and title of a novel by J. G. Lockhart (1821).
  Valerius is the son of a Roman commander, settled in Britain. After
  the death of his father, he is summoned to Rome, to take possession of
  an estate to which he is the heir. At the villa of Capĭto he meets
  with Athanasia, a lady who unites the Roman grace with the elevation
  of the Christian. Valerius becomes a Christian also, and brings
  Athanasia to Britain. The display at the Flavian amphitheatre is
  admirably described. A Christian prisoner is brought forward, either
  to renounce his faith or die in the arena; of course the latter is his

  This is one of the best Roman stories in the language.

  _Valerius_, the brother of Valeria. He is in love with Horatia, but
  Horatia is betrothed to Caius Curiatius.--Whitehead, _The Roman
  Father_ (1741).

  =Valiant= (_The_), Jean IV. of Brittany (1338, 1364-1399).

  =Valiant-for-Truth=, a brave Christian, who fought three foes at once.
  His sword was “a right Jerusalem blade,” so he prevailed, but was
  wounded in the encounter. He joined Christiana’s party in their
  journey to the Celestial City.--Bunyan, Pilgrim’s Progress, ii (1684).

  =Valjean= (_Jean_), ex-convict, whose efforts at re-habilitation meet
  with rebuff and misconstruction. The best qualities of a really noble
  nature appear in his care for his adopted child, the daughter of poor
  Fantine.--Victor Hugo, _Les Miserables_.

  =Valkyrior= or _Valkyrs_, stern, beautiful maidens, who hover over
  battle-fields to bear away to Valhalla the souls of slain heroes. They
  also wait at table in the halls of Valhalla.--_Scandinavian

  =Val´ladolid´= (_The doctor of_), Sangrado, who applied depletion for
  every disease, and thought the best diet consisted of roast apples and
  warm water.

  I condemned a variety of dishes, and arguing like the doctor of
  Valladolid, “Unhappy are those who require to be always on the watch,
  for fear of overloading their stomachs!”--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, vii. 5

  =Valley of Humiliation=, the place where Christian encountered
  Apollyon, and put him to flight.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, i.

  =Valley of the Shadow of Death=, a “wilderness, a land of deserts, and
  of pits, a land of drought, and of the shadow of death” (_Jer._ ii.
  6). “The light there is darkness, and the way full of traps ... to
  catch the unwary.” Christian had to pass through it, after his
  encounter with Apollyon.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, i. (1678).

  Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear
  no evil: for Thou art with me; Thy rod and Thy staff they comfort
  me.--_Psalm_ xxiii. 4.

  =Valunder=, the Vulcan of Scandinavian mythology, noted for a golden
  arm-ring, on which was wrought all the heathen deities, with their
  attributes. It was once stolen by Sotê, but being recovered by
  Thorsten, became an heirloom, and of course descended to Frithjof, as
  one of his three inheritances, the other two being the sword
  Angurva´del, and the self-acting ship, _Ellīda_.--Tegnér, _Frithjof
  Saga_, iii. (1825).

             Farewell, and take in memory of our love
             My arm-ring here, Valunder’s beauteous work,
             With heavenly wonders graven on the gold.

  =Valver´de= (3 _syl._), a Spaniard, in love with Elvi´ra. He is the
  secretary of Pizarro, and at the end preserves the life of
  Elvira.--Sheridan, _Pizarro_ (altered from Kotzebue, 1799).

  =Vamen=, a dwarf, who asked Baly, the giant monarch of India, to
  permit him to measure out three paces to build a hut upon. The kind
  monarch smiled at the request, and bade the dwarf measure out what he
  required. The first pace compassed the whole earth, the second the
  whole heavens, and the third all pandalon or hell. Baly now saw that
  the dwarf was no other than Vishnû, and he adored the present
  deity.--_Hindû Mythology._

  ⁂ There is a Basque tale the exact counterpart of this.

  =Vamp=, bookseller and publisher. His opinion of books was that the
  get-up and binding were of more value than the matter. “Books are like
  women; to strike, they must be well dressed. Fine feathers make fine
  birds. A good paper, an elegant type, a handsome motto, and a catching
  title, have driven many a dull treatise through three
  editions.”--Foote, _The Author_ (1757).

  =Van= (_The Spirit of the_), the fairy spirit of the Van Pools, in
  Carmarthen. She married a young Welsh farmer, but told him that if he
  struck her thrice, she would quit him forever. They went to a
  christening, and she burst into tears, whereupon her husband struck
  her as a marjoy; but she said, “I weep to see a child brought into
  this vale of tears.” They next went to the child’s funeral, and she
  laughed, whereupon her husband struck her again; but she said, “I
  truly laugh to think what a joy it is to change this vale of tears for
  that better land, where there is no more sorrow, but pleasures for
  evermore.” Their next visit was to a wedding, where the bride was
  young, and the man old, and she said aloud, “It is the devil’s
  compact. The bride has sold herself for gold.” The farmer again struck
  her, and bade her hold her peace; but she vanished away, and never
  again returned.--_Welsh Mythology._

  =Vanbeest Brown= (_Captain_) _alias_ Dawson, _alias_ Dudley, _alias_
  Harry Bertram, son of Mr. Godfrey Bertram, laird of Ellangowan.

  _Vanbeest Brown_, lieutenant of Dirk Hatteraick.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy
  Mannering_ (time, George II.).

  =Vanberg= (_Major_), in _Charles XII._, by J. R. Planché (1826).

  =Vanda=, wife of Baldric. She is the spirit with the red hand, who
  appears in the haunted chamber to the Lady Eveline Berenger, “the
  betrothed.”--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

  =Van´dunke= (2 _syl._), burgomaster of Bruges, a drunken merchant,
  friendly to Gerrard, king of the beggars, and falsely considered to be
  the father of Bertha. His wife’s name is Margaret. (Bertha is in
  reality the daughter of the duke of Brabant.)--Beaumont and Fletcher,
  _The Beggars’ Bush_ (1622).

  =Vandyck= (_The English_), William Dobson, painter (1610-1647).

  =Vandyck in Little=, Samuel Cooper. In his epitaph in old St. Pancras
  Church he is called “the Apellês of his age” (1609-1672).

  =Vandyck of France=, Hyacinth Rigaud y Ros (1659-1743).

  =Vandyck of Sculpture=, Antoine Coysevox (1640-1720).

  =Vane= (_Ellery_), a coquettish girl, who has method in her coquetry,
  beguiles Ellery Vane to the loss of his heart by tying on her hat in
  his presence.

     “Ah! Ellery Vane, you little thought,
       An hour ago, when you besought
     This country lass to walk with you,
       After the sun had dried the dew,
     What perilous danger you’d be in
       As she tied her bonnet under her chin!”
                 Nora Perry, _After the Ball and Other Poems_ (1875).

  _Vane_ (_Henry_), a man who begins life as a flippant young fellow
  with a French education; settles down into an astute money-maker;
  falls in love seriously when he meant to flirt, and, finding that the
  girl with whom he is enamored has played a sharper game than he, and
  is engaged to another man, blows out his own brains.--Frederic Jesup
  Stimson, _The Crime of Henry Vane_.

  =Vanessa=, Miss Esther Vanhomrigh, a young lady who proposed marriage
  to Dean Swift. The dean declined the proposal in a poetical trifle
  called _Cadēnus and Vanessa_.

  Essa, _i.e._, Esther, and Van, the pet form of Vanhomrigh; hence

  =Vanity=, the usher of Queen Lucifĕra.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 4

  _Vanity_, a town through which Christian and Faithful had to pass on
  their way to the Celestial City.

  Almost five thousand years agone, there were pilgrims walking to the
  Celestial City,... and Beëlzebub, Apollyon, and Legion ... perceived,
  by the path that the pilgrims made, that their way to the city lay
  through this town of Vanity.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, i. (1678).

  =Vanity Fair=, a fair established by Beëlzebub, Apollyon and Legion,
  for the sale of earthly “vanities,” creature comforts, honors,
  decorations and carnal delights. It was held in Vanity town, and
  lasted all the year round. Christian and Faithful had to pass through
  the fair, which they denounced, and were consequently arrested, beaten
  and put into a cage. Next day, being taken before Justice Hate-good,
  Faithful was condemned to be burnt alive.--Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s
  Progress_, i. (1678).

  ⁂ A looking-glass is called Vanity Fair.

  _Vanity Fair_ is the name of a periodical noted for its caricatures
  signed “Ape,” and set on foot by Signor Pellegrini.

  _Vanity Fair_, a novel by W. M. Thackeray (1848). Becky (Rebecca)
  Sharp, the daughter of a poor painter, dashing, selfish, unprincipled,
  and very clever, contrives to marry Rawdon Crawley, afterwards his
  excellency Colonel Crawley, C.B., governor of Coventry Island. Rawdon
  expected to have a large fortune left him by his aunt, Miss Crawley,
  but was disinherited on account of his marriage with Becky, then a
  poor governess. Becky contrives to live in splendor on “nothing a
  year,” gets introduced at court, and is patronized by Lord Steyne,
  earl of Gaunt; but, this intimacy giving birth to a great scandal,
  Becky breaks up her establishment, and is reduced to the lowest
  Bohemian life. Afterwards she becomes the “female companion” of Joseph
  Sedley, a wealthy “collector,” of Boggley Wollah, in India. Having
  insured his life and lost his money, he dies suddenly under very
  suspicions circumstances, and Becky lives for a time in splendor on
  the Continent. Subsequently she retires to Bath, where she assumes the
  character of a pious, charitable Lady Bountiful, given to all good
  works. The other part of the story is connected with Amelia Sedley,
  daughter of a wealthy London stock-broker, who fails, and is reduced
  to indigence. Captain George Osborne, the son of a London merchant,
  marries Amelia, and old Osborne disinherits him. The young people live
  for a time together, when George is killed in the battle of Waterloo.
  Amelia is reduced to great poverty, but is befriended by Captain
  Dobbin, who loves her to idolatry, and after many years of patience
  and great devotion, she consents to marry him. Becky Sharp rises from
  nothing to splendor, and then falls; Amelia falls from wealth to
  indigence, and then rises.

  =Vanhorne= (_Miss_), “an old woman with black eyes, a black wig,
  shining false teeth, a Roman nose and a high color,” who munches
  aromatic seeds coated with sugar, and tries to make or mar the
  fortunes of everybody she knows. Lonely, crabbed and rich.--Constance
  Fenimore Woolson, _Anne_ (1882).

  =Van Ness= (_Aunt_), sentimental, worldly old woman, who succeeds in
  marrying her niece, Constance Varley, to the man she does not want to
  accept.--Julia Constance Fletcher, _Mirage_ (1878).

  =Vanoc=, son of Merlin, one of the knights of the Round Table.

     Young Vanoc, of the beardless face
     (Fame spoke the youth of Merlin’s race),
     O’erpowered, at Gyneth’s footstool bled,
     His heart’s blood dyed her sandals red.
                 Sir W. Scott, _Bridal of Triermain_, ii. 25 (1813).

  =Vantom= (_Mr._). Sir John Sinclair tells us that Mr. Vantom drank in
  twenty-three years 36,688 bottles (_i.e._, 59 pipes) of wine.--_Code
  of Health and Longevity_ (1807).

  ⁂ Between four and five bottles a day.

  =Vanwelt= (_Ian_), the supposed suitor of Rose Flammock.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

  =Vapians= (_The_), a people of Utopia, who passed the equinoctial of
  Queūbus, “a torrid zone lying somewhere beyond three o’clock in the

  In sooth, thou wast in very gracious fooling last night, when thou
  spokest ... of the Vapians passing the equinoctial of
  Queubus.--Shakespeare, _Twelfth Night_, act ii. sc. 3 (1602).

  =Vapid=, the chief character in _The Dramatist_, by F. Reynolds, and
  said to be meant for the author himself. He goes to Bath “to pick up

  =Varbel=, “the lowly but faithful squire” of Floreski, a Polish count.
  He is a quaint fellow, always hungry.--J. P. Kemble, _Lodoiska_

  =Varden= (_Gabriel_), locksmith, Clerkenwell; a round, red-faced,
  sturdy yeoman, with a double chin, and a voice husky with good living,
  good sleeping, good humor and good health. He was past the prime of
  life, but his heart and spirits were in full vigor. During the Gordon
  riots Gabriel refused to pick the lock of Newgate prison, though at
  the imminent risk of his life.

  _Mrs. Varden_ [_Martha_], the locksmith’s wife and mother of Dolly, a
  woman of “uncertain temper” and a self-martyr. When too ill-disposed
  to rise, especially from that domestic sickness, ill temper, Mrs.
  Varden would order up “the little black teapot of strong mixed tea, a
  couple of rounds of hot buttered toast, a dish of beef and ham cut
  thin without skin, and the _Protestant Manual_ in two octavo volumes.
  Whenever Mrs. Varden was most devout, she was always the most
  ill-tempered.” When others were merry, Mrs. Varden was dull; and when
  others were sad, Mrs. Varden was cheerful. She was, however, plump and
  buxom, her handmaiden and “comforter” being Miss Miggs. Mrs. Varden
  was cured of her folly by the Gordon riots, dismissed Miggs, and lived
  more happily and cheerfully ever after.

  _Dolly Varden_, the locksmith’s daughter; a pretty, laughing girl,
  with a roguish face, lighted up by the loveliest pair of sparkling
  eyes, the very impersonation of good humor and blooming beauty. She
  married Joe Willet, and conducted with him the Maypole inn, as never
  country inn was conducted before. They greatly prospered, and had a
  large and happy family. Dolly dressed in the Watteau style; and modern
  Watteau costume and hats were, in 1875-6, called “Dolly Vardens.”--C.
  Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

  =Vari´na=, Miss Jane Waryng, to whom Dean Swift had a _penchant_ when
  he was a young man. Varina is a Latinized form of “Waryng.”

  =Varney= (_Richard_, afterwards _Sir Richard_), master of the horse to
  the earl of Leicester.--Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Varro= (_The British_). Thomas Tusser, of Essex, is so called by
  Warton (1515-1580).

  =Vasa= (_Gustavus_), a drama, by H. Brooke (1730). Gustavus, having
  effected his escape from Denmark, worked for a time as a common
  laborer in the copper mines of Dalecarlia [_Dah´.le.karl´.ya_]; but
  the tyranny of Christian II. of Denmark having driven the Dalecarlians
  into revolt, Gustavus was chosen their leader. The revolters made
  themselves masters of Stockholm; Christian abdicated; and Sweden
  became an independent kingdom (sixteenth century).

  =Vashti.= When the heart of the king [Ahasuerus] was merry with wine,
  he commanded his chamberlains to bring Vashti, the queen, into the
  banquet hall, to show the guests her beauty; but she refused to obey
  the insulting order, and the king, being wroth, divorced
  her.--_Esther_ i. 10, 19.

            O Vashti, noble Vashti! Summoned out
            She kept her state, and left the drunken king
            To brawl at Shushan underneath the palms.
                        Tennyson, _The Princess_, iii. (1830).

  =Vatel=, the cook who killed himself, because the lobster for his
  turbot sauce did not arrive in time to be served up at the banquet at
  Chantilly, given by the Prince de Condé to the king.

  =Vath´ek=, the ninth caliph of the race of the Abassides, son of
  Motassem, and grandson of Haroun-al-Raschid. When angry, “one of his
  eyes became so terrible that whoever looked at it either swooned or
  died.” Vathek was induced by a malignant genius to commit all sorts of
  crimes. He abjured his faith, and bound himself to Eblis, under the
  hope of obtaining the throne of the pre-Adamite sultans. This throne
  eventually turned out to be a vast chamber in the abyss of Eblis,
  where Vathek found himself a prisoner without hope. His wife was
  Nouron´ihar, daughter of the Emir Fakreddin, and his mother’s name was
  Catharis.--W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1784).

  =Vathek’s Draught=, a red-and-yellow mixture given him by an emissary
  of Eblis, which instantaneously restored the exhausted body, and
  filled it with unspeakable delight.--W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1784).

  =Vato=, the wind-spirit.

  Even Zoroaster imagined there was an evil spirit called Vato, that
  could excite violent storms of wind.--T. Rowe [_i.e._, Dr. Pegge],
  _Gentleman’s Magazine_, January, 1763.

  =Vaudeville= (_Father of The_), Oliver Basselin (fifteenth century).

  =Vaughan=, the bogie of Bromyard exorcised by nine priests. Nine
  candles were lighted in the ceremony, and all but one burnt out. The
  priests consigned Nicholas Vaughan to the Red Sea; and casting the
  remaining candle into the river Frome, threw a huge stone over it, and
  forbade the bogie to leave the Red Sea till that candle re-appeared to
  human sight. The stone is still called “Vaughan’s Stone.”

  =Vaugirard= (_The deputies of_). The usher announced to Charles VIII.
  of France, “The deputies of Vaugirard.” “How many?” asked the king.
  “Only one, may it please your highness.”

  =V. D. M. I. Æ.=, _Verbum Dei manet in æternum_ (“the Word of God
  endureth for ever”). This was the inscription of the Lutheran bishops,
  in the diet of Spires. Philip of Hessen said the initials stood for
  _Verbum diaboli manet in episcopis_ (“the word of the devil abideth in
  the [_Lutheran_] bishops”).

  =Veal= (_Mrs._), an imaginary person, whom Defoe feigned to have
  appeared, the day after her death, to Mrs. Bargrave, of Canterbury, on
  September 8, 1705.

  Defoe’s conduct in regard to the well-known imposture, Mrs. Veal’s
  ghost, would justify us in believing him to be, like Gil Bias, “tant
  soi peu fripon.”--_Encyc. Brit._, Art. “Romance.”

  =Veal’s Apparition= (_Mrs._). It is said that Mrs. Veal, the day after
  her death, appeared to Mrs. Bargrave, at Canterbury, September 8,
  1705. This cock-and-bull story was affixed by Daniel Defoe to
  Drelincourt’s book of _Consolations against the Fears of Death_, and
  such is the matter-of-fact style of the narrative that most readers
  thought the fiction was a fact.

  =Vec´chio= (_Peter_), a teacher of music and Latin; reputed to be a
  wizard.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Chances_ (1620).

  =Veck= (_Toby_), nicknamed “Trotty;” a ticket-porter, who ran on
  errands. One New Year’s Eve he ate tripe for dinner, and had a
  nightmare, in which he fancied he had mounted up to the steeple of a
  neighboring church, and that goblins issued out of the bells, giving
  reality to his hopes and fears. He was roused from his sleep by the
  sound of the bells ringing in the new year. (See MEG.)--C. Dickens,
  _The Chimes_ (1844).

  =Vedder= (_Jan_), a fisherman whose mistaken marriage leads to every
  evil he does or suffers. One who would become a good man but for his
  perverse, wrong-headed wife. He is desperately wounded in a quarrel,
  and his condition, working upon all that is best in his wife, changes
  her temper and behavior to him.--Amelia E. Barr, _Jan Vedder’s Wife_

  =Vegliantino= [_Val.yan.tee´no_], Orlando’s horse.--Ariosto, _Orlando
  Furioso_ (1516). Also called Veillantif.

  =Vehmgericht=, or THE HOLY VEHME, a secret tribunal of Westphalia, the
  principal seat of which was in Dortmund. The members were called “Free
  Judges.” It took cognizance of all crimes in the lawless period of the
  Middle Ages, and those condemned by the tribunal were made away with
  by some secret means, but no one knew by what hand. Being despatched,
  the dead body was hung on a tree to advertise the fact and deter
  others. The tribunal existed at the time of Charlemagne, but was at
  its zenith of power in the twelfth century. Sir W. Scott has
  introduced it in his _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  Was Rebecca guilty or not? The Vehmgericht of the servant’s hall
  pronounced against her.--Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_, xliv. (1848).

  =Vehmique Tribunal= (_The_), or the Secret Tribunal, or the court of
  the Holy Vehme, said to have been founded by Charlemagne.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Veil of St. Agatha=, a miraculous veil belonging to St. Agatha, and
  deposited in the church of the city of Catania, in Sicily, where the
  saint suffered martyrdom. “It is a sure defence against the eruptions
  of Mount Etna.” It is very true that the church itself was overwhelmed
  with lava in 1693, and some 20,000 of the inhabitants perished; but
  that was no fault of the veil, which would have prevented it if it
  could. Happily, the veil was recovered, and is still believed in by
  the people.

  =Veilchen= (_Annette_), attendant of Anne of Geierstein.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Veiled Prophet of Khorassan= (_The_), Hakim ben Allah, surnamed
  Mokanna, or “The Veiled,” founder of an Arabic sect, in the eighth
  century. He wore a veil to conceal his face, which had been greatly
  disfigured in battle. He gave out that he had been Adam, Noah,
  Abraham, and Moses. When the Sultan Mahadi marched against him, he
  poisoned all his followers at a banquet, and then threw himself into a
  cask containing a burning acid, which entirely destroyed his body.

  ⁂Thomas Moore has made this the subject of a poetical tale, in his
  _Lalla Rookh_ (“The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan,” 1817).

      There, on that throne, ... sat the prophet-chief,
      The great Mokanna. O’er his features hung
      The veil, the silver veil, which he had flung
      In mercy there, to hide from mortal sight
      His dazzling brow, till man could bear its light.
          *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *    *
      “’Tis time these features were uncurtained,
      This brow whose light--oh, rare celestial light!--
      Hath been reserved to bless thy favored sight ...
      Turn now and look; then wonder, if thou wilt,
      That I should hate, should take revenge by guilt,
      Upon the hand whose mischief or whose mirth
      Sent me thus maimed and monstrous upon earth ...
      Here--judge if hell, with all its power to damn,
      Can add one curse to the foul thing I am!”
        He raised the veil; the maid turned slowly round,
      Looked at him, shrieked, and sunk upon the ground.
                                  _The Veiled Prophet of Khorassan._

  =Velasquez=, the Spanish governor of Portugal in 1640, when the
  people, led by Don Juan, duke of Braganza, rose in rebellion, shook
  off the Spanish yoke, and established the duke on the throne, under
  the name and title of Juan or John IV. The same dynasty still
  continues. Velasquez was torn to pieces by the mob. The duchess calls
  him a

                                Discerning villain,
            Subtle, insidious, false, and plausible;
            He can with ease assume all outward forms ...
            While with the lynx’s beam he penetrates
            The deep reserve of every other breast.
                        R. Jephson, _Braganza_, ii. 2 (1785).

  =Velinspeck=, a country manager, to whom Matthew Stuffy makes
  application for the post of prompter.--Charles Mathews, _At Home_

  =Vellum=, in Addison’s comedy, _The Drummer_ (1715).

  =Velvet= (_The Rev. Morphine_), a popular preacher, who feeds his
  flock on _eau sucrée_ and wild honey. He assures his hearers that the
  way to heaven might once be thorny and steep, but now “every hill is
  brought low, every valley is filled up, the crooked ways are made
  straight, and even in the valley of the shadow of death, they need
  fear no evil, for One will be with them to support and comfort them.”

  =Veneering= (_Mr._), a new man, “forty, wavy-haired, dark, tending to
  corpulence, sly, mysterious, filmy; a kind of well-looking veiled
  prophet, not prophesying.” He was a drug merchant of the firm of
  Chicksey, Stobbles and Veneering. The two former were his quondam
  masters, but their names had “become absorbed in Veneering, once their
  traveller or commission agent.”

  _Mrs. Veneering_, a new woman, “fair, aquiline-nosed and fingered, not
  so much light hair as she might have, gorgeous in raiment and jewels,
  enthusiastic, propitiatory, conscious that a corner of her husband’s
  veil is over herself.”

  Mr. and Mrs. Veneering were bran-new people, in a bran-new house, in a
  bran-new quarter of London. Everything about the Veneerings was spick
  and span new. All their furniture was new, all their friends were new,
  all their servants were new, their plate was new, their carriage was
  new, their harness was new, their horses were new, their pictures were
  new, they themselves were new, they were as newly married as was
  lawfully compatible with their having a bran-new baby.

  In the Veneering establishment, from the hall chairs, with the new
  coat of arms, to the grand pianoforte with the new action, and
  upstairs again to the new fire-escape, all things were in a state of
  high varnish and polish.--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_, ii. (1864).

  =Veneerings of Society= (_The_), flashy, rich merchants, who delight
  to overpower their guests with the splendor of their furniture, the
  provisions of their tables and the jewels of their wives and

  =Venerable Bede= (_The_). Two accounts are given respecting the word
  _venerable_ attached to the name of this “wise Saxon.” One is this:
  When blind, he preached once to a heap of stones, thinking himself in
  a church, and the stones were so affected by his eloquence that they
  exclaimed, “Amen, venerable Bede!” This, of course, is based on the
  verse, _Luke_ xix. 40.

  The other is that his scholars, wishing to honor his name, wrote for

                          Hæc sunt in fossa,
                          Bedæ presbyteri ossa;

  but an angel changed the second line into “Bedæ venerabilis ossa”

  ⁂The chair in which he sat is still preserved at Jarrow. Some years
  ago a sailor used to show it, and always called it the chair of the
  “Great Admiral Bede.”

  =Venerable Doctor= (_The_), William de Champeaux (*-1121).

  =Venerable Initiator= (_The_), William of Occam (1276-1347).

  =Venetian Glass=, an antique goblet with a tragic history, bought in
  Venice of a _vertu_ dealer, by John Manning, to whose remote ancestor
  it had belonged. Manning goes into the army, is wounded at Gettysburg,
  and nursed back to life by a beautiful woman. He marries her, and
  falls into a lingering decline. One day the Venetian goblet arrives
  from Italy, and his wife, in a freak, pours his medicine into it. In
  passing it to her husband the glass drops, and is shivered, “as its
  fellow had been shivered three centuries ago,” and more. She still
  stared steadily before her; then her lips parted, and she said, “The
  glass broke! The glass broke! then the tale is true!” Then, with one
  hysterical shriek, she fell forward amid the fragments of the Venetian
  goblet, unconscious thereafter of all things.--Brander Matthews,
  _Venetian Glass_ (1884).

  =Venery.= Sir Tristram was the inventor of the laws and terms of
  venery. Hence a book of venery was called _A Book of Tristram_.

  Of Sir Tristram came all the good terms of venery and of hunting; and
  the sizes and measures of blowing of an horn. And of him we had first
  all the terms of hawking; and which were beasts of chase and beasts of
  venery, and which were vermin; and all the blasts that belong to all
  manner of games. First to the uncoupling, to the seeking, to the
  rechase, to the flight, to the death and to the strake; and many other
  blasts and terms shall all manner of gentlemen have cause to the
  world’s end to praise Sir Tristram, and to pray for his soul.--Sir T.
  Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, ii. 138 (1470).

  =Venice Preserved=, a tragedy by T. Otway (1682). A conspiracy was
  formed by Renault, a Frenchman, Elliot, an Englishman, Bedamar, Pierre
  and others, to murder the Venetian senate. Jaffier was induced by his
  friend, Pierre, to join the conspirators, and give his wife as hostage
  of his good faith. As Renault most grossly insulted the lady, Jaffier
  took her away, when she persuaded her husband to reveal the plot to
  her father, Priuli, under the promise of a general amnesty. The senate
  violated the promise made by Priuli, and commanded all the
  conspirators except Jaffier to be broken on the wheel. Jaffier, to
  save his friend, Pierre, from the torture, stabbed him, and then
  himself. Belvidera went mad and died.

  =Venner= (_Dudley_), sad and studious father of _Elsie Venner_, in O.
  W. Holmes’s novel of that name (1863).

  =Ventid´ius=, an Athenian imprisoned for debt. Timon paid his debt,
  and set him free. Not long after, the father of Ventidius died,
  leaving a large fortune, and the young man offered to refund the loan,
  but Timon declined to take it, saying that the money was a free gift.
  When Timon got into difficulties he applied to Ventidius for aid; but
  Ventidius, like the rest, was “found base metal,” and “denied
  him.”--Shakespeare, _Timon of Athens_ (1609).

  _Ventidius_, the general of Marc Antony.

  ⁂ The master scene between Ventidius and Antony in this tragedy is
  copied from _The Maid’s Tragedy_ (by Beaumont and Fletcher), Ventidius
  being the “Melantius” of Beaumont and Fletcher’s drama.--Dryden, _All
  for Love, or the World Well Lost_ (1678).

  =Ventriloquist.= The best that ever lived was Brabant, the
  engastrimisth of François I. of France.

  =Venus= (_Paintings of_). VENUS ANADYOM´ENÊ, or Venus rising from the
  sea and wringing her golden tresses, by Apellês. Apellês also put his
  name to a “Sleeping Venus.” Tradition says that Campaspê (afterwards
  his wife) was the model of his Venus.

  THE RHODIAN VENUS, referred to by Campbell, in his _Pleasures of
  Hope_, ii., is the Venus spoken of by Pliny, xxxv. 10, from which
  Shakespeare has drawn his picture of Cleopatra in her barge (_Antony
  and Cleopatra_, act ii. sc. 2). The Rhodian was Protog´enês.

           When first the Rhodian’s mimic art arrayed
           The queen of Beauty in her Cyprian shade,
           The happy master mingled in his piece
           Each look that charmed him in the fair of Greece ...
           Love on the picture smiled. Expression poured
           Her mingling spirit there, and Greece adored.
                       _Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

  _Venus_ (_Statues of_). THE CNIDIAN VENUS, a nude statue, bought by
  the CNIDIANS. By Praxitĕlês.

  THE COAN VENUS, a draped statue, bought by the Coans. By Praxitelês.

  THE VENUS DE’ MEDICI, a statue dug up in several pieces at Hadrian’s
  villa, near Tiv´oli (seventeenth century), and placed for a time at
  the Medici palace at Rome, whence its name. It was the work of
  Cleom´enês, the Athenian. All one arm and part of the other were
  restored by Bandinelli. In 1680 this statue was removed to the Uffizi
  gallery at Florence. It was removed to Paris by Napoleon, but was
  afterwards restored.

  THE VENUS OF ARLES, with a mirror in the right hand and an apple in
  the left. This statue is ancient, but the mirror and apple are by

  THE VENUS OF MILO. The “Venus Victorious” is called the “Venus of
  Milo,” because it was brought from the island of Milo, in the Ægēan
  Sea, by Admiral Dumont d’Urville, in 1820. It is one of the _chefs
  d’œuvre_ of antiquity, and is now in the Louvre of Paris.

  THE PAULINE VENUS, by Canōva. Modelled from Pauline Bonaparte,
  Princess Borghese.

  I went by chance into the room of the Pauline Venus; my mouth will
  taste bitter all day. How venial! how gaudy and vile she is with her
  gilded upholstery! It is the most hateful thing that ever wasted
  marble.--Ouida, _Ariadnê_, i. 1.

  THE VENUS PANDĒMOS, the sensual and vulgar Venus (Greek, _pan-dêmos_,
  for the vulgar or populace generally); as opposed to the “Uranian
  Venus,” the beau-ideal of beauty and loveliness.

  Amongst the deities from the upper chamber a mortal came, the light,
  lewd woman, who had bared her charms to live for ever here in marble,
  in counterfeit of the Venus Pandēmos.--Ouida, _Ariadnê_, i. 1.

  GIBSON’S VENUS, slightly tinted, was shown in the International
  Exhibition of 1862.

  _Venus_, the highest throw with the four _tali_ or three _tesseræ_.
  The best cast of the _tali_ (or four-sided dice) was four different
  numbers; but the best cast of the _tesseræ_ (or ordinary dice) was
  three sixes. The worst throw was called _canis_--three aces in
  _tesseræ_ and four aces in _tali_.

  _Venus_ (_The Isle of_), a paradise created by “Divine Love” for the
  Lusian heroes. Here Uranian Venus gave Vasco de Gama the empire of the
  sea. This isle is not far from the mountains of Imāus, whence the
  Ganges and Indus derive their source.--Camoens, _Lusiad_, ix. (1572).

  ⁂Similar descriptions of paradise are: “the gardens of Alcinŏus”
  (_Odyssey_, vii.); “the island of Circê” (_Odyssey_, x.); Virgil’s
  “Elysium” (_Æneid_, vi.); “the island and palace of Alci´na” (_Orlando
  Furioso_, vi., vii.); “the country of Logistilla” (_Orlando Furioso_,
  x.); “Paradise,” visited by Astolpho (_Orlando Furioso_, xxxiv.); “the
  island of Armi´da” (_Jerusalem Delivered_); “the bower of Acrasia”
  (_Faëry Queen_); “the palace with its forty doors” (_Arabian Nights_,
  “Third Calendar”), etc.

  _Venus_ (_Ura´nian_), the impersonation of divine love; the presiding
  deity of the Lusians.--Camoens, _Lusiad_ (1572).

  =Venus and Adonis.= Adōnis, a most beautiful boy, was greatly beloved
  by Venus and Proserpine. Jupiter decided that he should live four
  months with one and four months with the other goddess, and the rest
  of the year he might do what he liked. One day he was killed by a wild
  boar during a chase, and Venus was so inconsolable at the loss that
  the infernal gods allowed the boy to spend six months of the year with
  Venus on the earth, but the other six he was to spend in hell. Of
  course, this is an allegory of the sun, which is six months above and
  six months below the equator.

  ⁂ Shakespeare has a poem called _Venus and Adonis_ (1593), in which
  Adonis is made cold and passionless, but Venus ardent and sensual.

  =Venus of Cleom´enes= (4 _syl._), now called the “Venus de’ Medici” or
  “Venus de Medicis.”

  =Venusberg=, the mountain of fatal delights. Here Tannhäuser tarried,
  and when Pope Urban refused to grant him absolution, he returned
  thither, to be never more seen.--_German Legend._

  =Ver´done= (2 _syl._), nephew to Champernal, the husband of
  Lami´ra.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Little French Lawyer_ (1647).

  =Verdugo=, captain under the governor of Segovia.--Beaumont and
  Fletcher, _The Pilgrim_ (1621).

  =Vere= (_Mr. Richard_), laird of Ellieslaw, a Jacobite conspirator.

  _Miss Isabella Vere_, the laird’s daughter. She marries young Patrick
  Earnscliffe, laird of Earnscliffe.--Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_
  (time, Anne).

  _Vere_ (_Sir Arthur de_), son of the earl of Oxford. He first appears
  under the assumed name of Arthur Philipson.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
  Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Verges= (2 _syl._), an old-fashioned constable and night-watch, noted
  for his blundering simplicity.--Shakespeare, _Much Ado about Nothing_

  =Vergob´retus=, a dictator, selected by the druids, and possessed of
  unlimited power, both in war and state, during times of great danger.

  This temporary king or vergobretus, laid down his office at the end of
  the war.--_Dissertation on the Era of Ossian._

  =Verinder= (_Rachel_), pretty, strong-willed, imperious, warm-hearted
  young Englishwoman, the legatee of a diamond of immense value. She
  receives it upon her twenty-first birthday, wears it all the evening
  and insists upon keeping it in her room that night. She sees from the
  adjoining apartment, her lover, Franklin Blake, purloin the gem, and
  hides the name of the thief, while discarding him.--Wilkie Collins,
  _The Moonstone_.

  =Verisopht= (_Lord Frederick_), weak and silly, but far less vicious
  than his bear-leader, Sir Mulberry Hawk. He drawled in his speech, and
  was altogether “very soft.” Ralph Nickleby introduced his niece, Kate,
  to the young nobleman at a bachelor’s dinner-party, hoping to make of
  the introduction a profitable investment, but Kate was far too modest
  and virtuous to aid him in his scheme.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas
  Nickleby_ (1838).

  =Vernon= (_Diana_), niece of Sir Hildebrand Osbaldistone. She has
  great beauty, sparkling talents, an excellent disposition, high birth,
  and is an enthusiastic adherent of an exiled king. Diana Vernon
  marries Frank Osbaldistone.

  _Sir Frederick Vernon_, father of Diana, a political intriguer called
  “his excellency the earl of Beauchamp.” He first appears as Father
  Vaughan [_Vawn_].--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

  _Vernon_ (_Elinor_), “a student, enthusiastic and devoted, and one of
  rare attainments, both in character and degree.” She becomes an author
  of note. Her betrothed, Walter Mayward, would wean her from devotion
  to letters, and loses her thereby. Frederic St. Clair appreciates the
  glory of her perfected womanhood, loves and marries her, and her
  “poetry finds in his love its triumph, its crowning, its glorious
  apotheosis.”--Grace Greenwood, _Heart Histories_ (1850).

  =Ver´olame= (3 _syl._) or VERULAM, “a stately nymph” of Isis. Seeing
  her stream besmeared with the blood of St. Alban, she prayed that it
  might be diverted into another channel, and her prayer was granted.
  The place where St. Alban was executed was at that time called
  Holmhurst.--Robert of Gloucester. _Chronicle_ (in verse), 57
  (thirteenth century).

  ⁂ A poetical account of this legend is also given by W. Browne in his
  _Britannia’s Pastorals_, iv (1613).

  =Veron´ica=, the maiden who handed her handkerchief to Jesus on His
  way to Calvary. The “Man of Sorrows” wiped His face with it, returned
  it to the maiden, and it ever after had a perfect likeness of the
  Saviour photographed on it. The handkerchief and the maiden were both
  called Veronica (_i.e._, _vera iconica_, “the true likeness”).

  ⁂ One of these handkerchiefs is preserved in St. Peter’s of Rome, and
  another in Milan Cathedral.

  =Verrina=, the republican who murders Fiesco.--Schiller, _Fiesco_

  =Versatile= (_Sir George_), a scholar, pleasing in manners,
  warm-hearted, generous, with the seeds of virtue and the soul of
  honor, but being deficient in stability, he takes his color, like the
  chameleon, from the objects at hand. Thus, with Maria Delaval, he is
  manly, frank, affectionate, and noble; with Lord Vibrate, hesitating,
  undecided, and tossed with doubts; with Lady Vibrate, boisterously
  gay, extravagant, and light-hearted. Sir George is betrothed to Maria
  Delaval, but the death of his father delays the marriage. He travels,
  and gives a fling to youthful indulgences. After a time, he meets
  Maria Delaval by accident, his better nature prevails, and he offers
  her his hand, his heart, his title, and his fortune.--Holcroft, _He’s
  Much to Blame_ (1790).

  =Vertaigne= (2 or 3 _syl._), a nobleman and judge, father of Lamīra
  and Beaupré.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Little French Lawyer_

  =Vesey= (_Sir John_), a baronet, most worldly wise, and, being poor,
  gives himself the nickname of “Stingy Jack,” that he may be thought
  rich. Forthwith his £10,000 was exaggerated into £40,000. Sir John
  wanted his daughter to marry Alfred Evelyn, but feeling very uncertain
  about the stability of the young man’s money, shilly-shallied about
  it; and in the mean time, Georgina married Sir Frederick Blount, and
  Evelyn was left free to marry Clara Douglas, whom he greatly
  loved.--Lord L. Bulwer Lytton, _Money_ (1840).

  =Vestris=, called “The God of Dancing,” used to say, “Europe contains
  only three truly great men--myself, Voltaire, and Frederick of
  Prussia” (1729-1808).

  =Vesuvian Bay:=

                  “My soul to-day
                  Is far away,
                  Sailing the Vesuvian Bay;
                  My wingéd boat,
                  A bird afloat,
                  Swims ’round the purple peaks remote.”

  The English language does not contain a more exquisite bit of
  word-painting than the poem embodying the above-quoted lines.--Thomas
  Buchanan Read, _Drifting_ (1867).

  =Veto= (_Monsieur and Madame_), Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette. The
  king had the power of putting his _veto_ on any decree of the National
  Assembly (1791), in consequence of which he was nicknamed “Capet

  ⁂ The name occurs in the celebrated song called _La Carmagnole_, which
  was sung to a dance of the same name.

  =Vetus=, in the _Times_ newspaper, is the _nom de plume_ of Edward
  Sterling (1773-1847), “The Thunderer” (1812-13).

  =Vexhalia=, wife of Osmond, an old Varangian guard.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

  =Vholes= (1 _syl._), a lawyer who draws Richard Carstone into his
  toils. He is always closely buttoned up, and speaks in a lifeless
  manner, but is pre-eminently a “most respectable man.”--C. Dickens,
  _Bleak House_ (1852).

  =Vibrate= (_Lord_), a man who can never make up his mind to anything,
  and, “like a man on double business bent, he stands in pause, which he
  shall first begin, and both neglects.” Thus, he would say to his
  valet, “Order the coachman at eleven. No; order him at one. Come back!
  order him in ten minutes. Stay! don’t order him at all. Why don’t you
  go and do as I bid you?” or, “Tell Harry to admit the doctor. No, not
  just yet; in five minutes. I don’t know when. Was ever man so
  tormented?” So with everything.

  _Lady Vibrate_, wife of the above. Extravagant, contradictious, fond
  of gaiety, hurry, noise, embarrassment, confusion, disorder, uproar,
  and a whirl of excitement. She says to his lordship:

  I am all gaiety and good humor; you are all turmoil and lamentation. I
  sing, laugh, and welcome pleasure wherever I find it; you take your
  lantern to look for misery, which the sun itself cannot discover. You
  may think proper to be as miserable as Job; but don’t expect me to be
  a Job’s wife.--Act. ii. 1.

  _Lady Jane Vibrate_, daughter of Lord and Lady Vibrate. An amiable
  young lady, attached to Delaval, whom she marries.--Holcroft, _He’s
  Much to Blame_ (1790).

  =Vicar of Bray= (_The_). Mr. Brome says the noted vicar was Simon
  Alleyn, vicar of Bray, in Berkshire, for fifty years. In the reign of
  Henry VIII. he was _catholic_ till the Reformation; in the reign of
  Edward VI. he was =calvanist=; in the reign of Mary he was _papist_;
  in the reign of Elizabeth he was _protestant_. No matter who was king,
  he resolved to die the vicar of Bray.--D’Israeli, _Curiosities of

  Another statement gives the name of Pendleton as the true vicar. He
  was afterwards rector of St. Stephen’s, Walbrook (Edward VI. to

  Hadyn says the vicar referred to in the song was Simon Symonds, who
  lived in the Commonwealth, and continued vicar till the reign of
  William and Mary. He was _independent_ in the protectorate,
  _episcopalian_ under Charles II., _papist_ under James II., _moderate
  protestant_ under William and Mary.

  ⁂ The song called _The Vicar of Bray_ was written in the reign of
  George I., by Colonel Fuller, or an officer in Fuller’s regiment, and
  does not refer to Alleyn, Pendleton, or Symonds, but to some real or
  imaginary person, who was vicar of Bray, from Charles II. to George I.
  The first verse begins: “In good King Charles’s golden days” I was a
  zealous high-church*-man. Ver. 2: “When royal James obtained the
  crown,” I found the Church of Rome would fit my constitution. Ver. 3:
  “When William was our king declared,” I swore to him allegiance. Ver.
  4: “When gracious Anne became our queen,” I became a tory. Ver. 5:
  “When George, in pudding-time came o’er,” I became a whig. And “George
  my lawful king shall be--until the times do alter.”

  I have had a long chase after the vicar of Bray, on whom the proverb
  ... Mr. Fuller, in his _Worthies_ ... takes no notice of him.... I am
  informed it is Simon Alleyn or Allen who was vicar of Bray about 1540,
  and died, 1588.--_Brome to Rawlins_, June 14, 1735. (See _Letters from
  the Bodleian_, II. i. 100.)

  =Vicar of Wakefield= (_The_), Dr. Primrose, a simple-minded, pious
  clergyman, with six children. He begins life with a good fortune, a
  handsome house, and wealthy friends, but is reduced to utter poverty
  without any fault of his own, and, being reduced like Job, like Job he
  is restored. First, he loses his fortune through the rascality of the
  merchant who held it. His next great sorrow was the elopement of his
  eldest daughter, Olivia, with Squire Thornhill. His third was the
  entire destruction by fire of his house, furniture and books, together
  with the savings which he had laid by for his daughters’ marriage
  portions. His fourth was being incarcerated in the county jail by
  Squire Thornhill for rent, his wife and family being driven out of
  house and home. His fifth was the announcement that his daughter,
  Olivia, “was dead,” and that his daughter, Sophia, had been abducted.
  His sixth was the imprisonment of his eldest son, George, for sending
  a challenge to Squire Thornhill. His cup of sorrow was now full, and
  comfort was at hand: (1) Olivia was not really dead, but was said to
  be so in order to get the vicar to submit to the squire, and thus
  obtain his release. (2) His daughter, Sophia, had been rescued by Mr.
  Burchell (_Sir William Thornhill_), who asked her hand in marriage.
  (3) His son, George, was liberated from prison, and married Miss
  Wilmot, an heiress. (4) Olivia’s marriage to the squire, which was
  said to have been informal, was shown to be legal and binding. (5) The
  old vicar was released, re-established in his vicarage, and recovered
  a part of his fortune.--Goldsmith, _The Vicar of Wakefield_ (1766).

  ⁂ This novel has been dramatized several times: In 1819 it was
  performed in the Surrey Theatre; in 1823 it was turned into an opera;
  in 1850 Tom Taylor dramatized it; in 1878 W. G. Wills converted it
  into a drama of four acts, entitled _Olivia_.

  The real interest of the story lies in the development of the
  character of the amiable vicar, so rich in heavenly, so poor in
  earthly wisdom; possessing little for himself, yet ready to make that
  little less, whenever misery appeals to his compassion. With enough of
  worldly vanity about him to show that he shares the weakness of our
  nature; ready to be imposed upon by cosmogonies and fictitious bills
  of exchange, and yet commanding, by the simple and serene dignity of
  goodness, the respect even of the profligate.--_Encyc. Brit._, Art.

  =Victor Amade´us= (4 _syl._), king of Sardinia (1665, 1675-1732),
  noted for his tortuous policy. He was fierce, audacious, unscrupulous
  and selfish, profound in dissimulation, prolific in resources, and a
  “breaker of vows both to God and man.” In 1730 he abdicated, but a few
  months later wanted to regain the throne, which his son, Charles
  Emmanuel, refused to resign. On again plotting to recover the crown,
  he was arrested by D’Ormēa, the prime minister, and died.--R.
  Browning, _King Victor and King Charles Emmanuel_.

  =Victoria= (_Donna_), the young wife of Don Carlos. Don Carlos had
  given to Donna Laura (a courtezan) the deeds of his wife’s estate; and
  Victoria, to get them back, dressed in man’s apparel, assumed the name
  of Florio, and made love to Laura. Having secured a footing, she
  introduced Gasper as the rich uncle of Victoria, and Gasper persuaded
  Laura that the deeds were wholly worthless, whereupon Laura tore them
  to pieces. By this manœuvre the estate was saved, and Don Carlos
  rescued from ruin.--Mrs. Cowley, _A Bold Stroke for a Husband_ (1782).

  =Victorious= (_The_). Almanzor means “victorious.” The Caliph Almanzor
  was the founder of Bagdad.

       Thou, too, art fallen, Bagdad, city of peace!
         Thou, too, hast had thy day!...
       Thy founder The Victorious.
                   Southey, _Thalaba, the Destroyer_, v. 6 (1797).

  =Victory= (_The_), Nelson’s ship.

              At the head of the line goes the Victory,
                With Nelson on the deck,
              And on his breast the orders shine
                Like the stars on a shattered wreck.
                          Lord Lytton, _Ode_, iii. 9 (1839).

  =Vidar=, the god of wisdom, noted for his thick shoes, and not
  unfrequently called “The god with the thick shoes.”--_Scandinavian

  =Vienne= (_The archbishop of_), chancellor of Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Vifell=, father of Viking, famous for being the possessor of
  Angurva´del, the celebrated sword made in the East by dwarfs. Vifell
  won it from Björn Blœtand, and killed with it the giant Iernhös,
  whom he cleft from head to waist with a single stroke. Vifell left it
  to Viking, Viking to Thorsten, and Thorsten to his son, Frithjof. The
  hilt of the sword was gold, and the blade written with runes, which
  were dull in times of peace, but in war glittered “red as the crest of
  a cock when he fighteth.”--Tegnér, _Frithjof Saga_, iii. (1825).

  =Villalpando= (_Gaspar Cardillos de_), a Spanish theologian,
  controversialist and commentator (1505-1570).

  “Truly,” replied the canon, “I am better acquainted with books of
  chivalry than with Villalpando’s divinity.”--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_,
  I. iv. 17 (1605).

  =Ville´rius=, in Davenant’s _Siege of Rhodes_ (1656).

                  ... pale with envy, Singleton foreswore
              The lute and sword, which he in triumph bore,
              And vowed he ne’er would act Villerius more.
                          Dryden, _MacFlecknoe_ (1682).

  ⁂ This was a favorite part of Singleton.

  =Villers= (_Mr._), a gentleman who professed a supreme contempt for
  women, and declared, if he ever married, he should prefer Widow Racket
  to be his executioner.--Mrs. Cowley, _The Belle’s Stratagem_ (1780).

  =Villiard=, a villain from whose hands Charles Belmont rescued
  Fidelia.--E. Moore, _The Foundling_ (1748).

  =Vincent= (_Jenkin_), or “Jin Vin,” one of old Ramsay’s apprentices,
  in love with Margaret Ramsay.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_
  (time, James I.).

  =Vincent de la Rosa=, a boastful, vain, heartless adventurer, son of a
  poor laborer, who had served in the Italian wars. Coming to the
  village in which Leandra lived, he induced her to elope with him, and,
  having spoiled her of her jewels, money and other valuables, deserted
  her, and she was sent to a convent till the affair had blown over.

  He wore a gay uniform, bedecked with glass buttons and steel
  ornaments; to-day he dressed himself in one piece of finery, and
  to-morrow in another. He would seat himself upon a bench under a large
  poplar, and entertain the villagers with his travels and exploits,
  assuring them there was not a country in the whole world he had not
  seen, nor a battle in which he had not taken part. He had slain more
  Moors than ever Tunis or Morocco produced; and as to duels, he had
  fought more than ever Gante had, or Luna, Diego Garcia de Paredez, or
  any other champion, always coming off victorious, and without losing
  one drop of blood.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iv. 20 (“The
  Goat-herd’s Story,” 1605).

  =Vincen´tio=, duke of Vienna. He delegates his office to Angelo, and
  leaves Vienna for a time, under the pretence of going on a distant
  journey; but, by assuming a monk’s hood, he observes, incognito, the
  conduct of his different officers. Angelo tries to dishonor Isabella,
  but the duke re-appears in due time and rescues her, while Angelo is
  made to marry Mariana, to whom he was already betrothed.--Shakespeare,
  _Measure for Measure_ (1603).

  ⁂ Mariana was Angelo’s wife by civil contract, or, as the duke says to
  her, “He is thy husband by pre-contract,” though the Church had not
  yet sanctified the union and blessed it. Still, the duke says that it
  would be “no sin” in her to account herself his wife, and to perform
  towards him the duties of a wife. Angelo’s neglect of her was “a civil
  divorce,” which would have been a “sin” if the Church had sanctified
  the union, but which, till then, was only a moral or civil offence.
  Mariana also considered herself Angelo’s “wife,” and calls him “her
  husband.” This is an interesting illustration of the “civil contract”
  of matrimony long before “The Marriage Registration Act,” in 1837.

  _Vincentio_, an old gentleman of Pisa, in Shakespeare’s comedy called
  _The Taming of the Shrew_ (1593).

  _Vincentio_, the troth-plight of Evadne, sister of the marquis of
  Colonna. Being himself without guile, he is unsuspicious, and when
  Ludovico, the traitor, tells him that Evadne is the king’s wanton, he
  believes it and casts her off. This brings about a duel between him
  and Evadne’s brother, in which Vincentio falls. He is not, however,
  killed; and when the villainy of Ludovico is brought to light, he
  re-appears and marries Evadne.--Sheil, _Evadne_, or _The Statue_

  _Vincentio_ (_Don_), a young man who was music mad, and said that the
  _summum bonum_ of life is to get talked about. Like Queen Elizabeth,
  he loved a “crash” in music, plenty of noise and fury. Olivia de
  Zuniga disgusted him by maintaining the jew’s-harp to be the prince of
  musical instruments.--Mrs. Cowley, _A Bold Stroke for a Husband_

  =Vi´ola=, sister of Sebastian; a young lady of Messaline. They were
  twins, and so much alike that they could be distinguished only by
  their dress. Viola and her brother were shipwrecked off the coast of
  Illyria, Viola was brought to shore by the captain, but her brother
  was left to shift for himself. Being a stranger in a strange land,
  Viola dressed as a page, and, under the name of Cesario, entered the
  service of Orsīno, duke of Illyria. The duke greatly liked his
  beautiful page, and, when he discovered her true sex, married
  her.--Skakespeare, _Twelfth Night_ (1602).

  =Vi´ola and Hono´ra=, daughter of General Archas, “the loyal subject”
  of the great-duke of Muscovia.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Loyal
  Subject_ (1618).

  =Violan´te= (4 _syl._), the supposed wife of Don Henrique (2 _syl._),
  an uxorious Spanish nobleman.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Spanish
  Curate_ (1622).

  _Violante_, the betrothed of Don Alonzo, of Alcazar, but given in
  marriage by King Sebastian to Henri´quez. This caused Alonzo to desert
  and join the emperor of Barbary. As renegade, he took the name of
  Dorax, and assumed the Moorish costume. In the war which followed, he
  saved Sebastian’s life, was told that Henriquez had died in battle,
  and that Violante, who never swerved from his love, being a young
  widow, was free and willing to be his wife.--Dryden, _Don Sebastian_

  _Violante_, an attendant on the Princess Anna Comnēna, the
  historian.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

  _Violante_, (4 _syl._), wife of Pietro (2 _syl._), and putative mother
  of Pompilia. Violantê provided this suppositious child partly to
  please old Pietro, and partly to cheat the rightful heirs.--R.
  Browning, _The Ring and the Book_, ii.

  _Violante_ (_Donna_), daughter of Don Pedro, a Portuguese nobleman,
  who intends to make her a nun; but she falls in love with Don Felix,
  the son of Don Lopez. Isabella (sister of Don Felix), in order to
  escape a hateful marriage, takes refuge with Donna Violantê (4
  _syl._), who “keeps the secret” close, even at the risk of losing her
  sweetheart, for Felix discovers that a Colonel Briton calls at the
  house, and supposes Violantê to be the object of his visits.
  Ultimately the mystery is cleared up, and a double marriage takes
  place.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Wonder_ (1714).

  Mrs. Yates (in the last act), with Garrick as “Don Felix,” was
  admirable. Felix, thinking he has gone too far, applies himself to
  soothe his Violantê. She turns from him and draws away her chair; he
  follows, and she draws further away. At length, by his winning,
  entreating, and cajoling, she is gradually induced to melt, and
  finally makes it up with him. Her condescension ... was admirable; her
  dignity was great and lofty, ... and when by degrees she laid aside
  her frown, and her lips relaxed into a smile, ... nothing could be
  more lovely and irresistible.... It laid the whole audience, as well
  as the lover, at her feet.--William Goodwin.

  =Violen´ta=, any young lady nonentity; one who contributes nothing to
  the amusement or conversation of a party. Violenta is one of the
  _dramatis personæ_ of Shakespeare’s _All’s Well that Ends Well_, but
  she only enters once, and then she neither speaks nor is spoken to
  (1598). (See ROGERO.)

  _Violenta_, the fairy mother, who brought up the young princess, who
  was metamorphosed into a white cat for refusing to marry Migonnet (a
  hideously misshapen fairy).--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The
  White Cat,” 1682).

  =Violet=, the ward of Lady Arundel. She is in love with Norman, the
  “sea-captain,” who turns out to be the son of Lady Arundel by her
  first husband, and heir to the title and estates.--Lord Lytton, _The
  Sea-Captain_ (1839).

  _Violet_ (_Father_), a sobriquet of Napoleon I.; also called “Corporal
  Violet” (1769, 1804-1815, died, 1821).

  ⁂ Violets were the flowers of the empire, and when, in 1879, the
  ex-empress Eugénie was visited at Chislehurst by those who sympathized
  with her in the death of her son, “the prince imperial,” they were
  worn as symbols of attachment to the imperial family of France. The
  name was given to Napoleon on his banishment to Elba (1815), and
  implied that “he would return to France with the violets”.

  =Violet-Crowned City= (_The_). Athens is so called by Aristophănês,
  (ιοστέφανος) (see _Equites_, 1323 and 1329; and _Acharnians_, 637).
  Macaulay refers to Athens as “the violet-crowned city.” Ion (_a
  violet_) was a representative king of Athens, whose four sons gave
  names to the four Athenian classes; and Greece, in Asia Minor, was
  called Ionia. Athens was the city of “Ion crowned its king,” and hence
  was the “Ion crowned” or King Ion’s city. Translating the word Ion
  into English, Athens was the “Violet-crowned” or King Violet’s city.
  Of course, the pun is the chief point, and was quite legitimate in

  Similarly, Paris is called the “city of lillies,” by a pun between
  Louis and lys (_the flower-de-luce_), and France is _l’empire des lys_
  or _l’empire des Louis_.

  By a similar pun, London might be called “the noisy town,” from
  _hlúd_, “noisy.”

  =Violetta=, a Portuguese, married to Belfield, the elder brother, but
  deserted by him. The faithless husband gets betrothed to Sophia
  (daughter of Sir Benjamin Dove), who loves the younger brother. Both
  Violetta and the younger brother are shipwrecked and cast on the coast
  of Cornwall, in the vicinity of Squire Belfield’s estate; and Sophia
  is informed that her “betrothed” is a married man. She is therefore
  free from her betrothal, and marries the younger brother, the man of
  her choice; while the elder brother takes back his wife, to whom he
  becomes reconciled.--R. Cumberland, _The Brothers_ (1769).

  =Violin= (_The Angel with the_). Rubens’s “Harmony” is an angel of the
  male sex playing a bass-viol.

            The angel with the violin,
            Painted by Raphael, (?) he seemed.
                        Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (1863).

  =Violin-Makers= (_The best_): Gasparo di Salo (1560-1610); Nicholas
  Amati (1596-1684); Antonio Stradivari (1670-1728); Joseph A. Guarneri

  ⁂ Of these, Stradivari was the best, and Nicholas Amati the next best.

  The following are eminent, but not equal to the names given
  above:--Joseph Steiner (1620-1667); Matthias Klotz (1650-1696). (See
  Otto, _On the Violin_.)

  =Vipont= (_Sir Ralph de_) a knight of St. John. He is one of the
  knights challengers.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Virgil=, in the _Gesta Romanorum_, is represented as a mighty but
  benevolent enchanter, and this is the character that Italian romances
  give him.

  Similarly, Sir Walter Scott is called “The Great Wizard of the North.”

  _Virgil_, in Dantê, is the personification of human wisdom, Beatrice
  of the wisdom which comes of faith, and St. Bernard of spiritual
  wisdom. Virgil conducts Dantê through the Inferno and through
  Purgatory too, till the seven P’s (_peccata_ “sins”) are obliterated
  from his brow, when Beatrice becomes his guide. St. Bernard is his
  guide through a part of Paradise. Virgil says to Dantê:

              What _reason_ here discovers, _I_ have power
              To show thee; that which lies beyond, expect
              From Beatrice----_faith_ not reason’s task.
                          Dantê, _Purgatory_, xviii. (1308).

  _Virgil._ The inscription on his tomb (said to have been written by
  himself) was:

          Mantua me genuit; Calabri rapuere; tenet nunc
          Parthenope; cecini pascua, rura, duces.

                      In Mantua was I born; Calabria saw me die;
          Of sheep, fields, wars I sung; and now in Naples lie.

  _Virgil_ (_The Christian_), Giacomo Sannazaro (1458-1530).

  Marco Girolamo Vida, author of _Christias_ (in six books), is also
  called “The Christian Virgil” (1490-1566).

  ⁂ Aurelius Clemens Prudentius, of Spain, is called by Bentley “The
  Virgil and Horace of Christians” (348-*).

  =Virgil of our Dramatic Poets= (_The_). Ben Jonson is so called by
  Dryden (1574-1637).

  Shakespeare was the Homer or father of our dramatic poets; Jonson was
  the Virgil, and pattern of elaborate writing. I admire rare Ben, but I
  love Shakespeare.--Dryden.

  =Virgil of the French Drama= (_The_). Jean Racine is so called by Sir
  Walter Scott (1639-1699).

  =Virgil’s Courtship.= Godfrey Gobilyve told Graunde Amoure that
  Virgil, the poet, once made proposals to a lady of high rank in the
  Roman court, who resolved to punish him for his presumption. She told
  him that if he would appear on a given night before her window, he
  should be drawn up in a basket. Accordingly he kept his appointment,
  got into the basket, and, being drawn some twenty feet from the
  ground, was left there dangling till noon the next day, the laugh and
  butt of the court and city.--Stephen Hawes, _The Passe-tyme of
  Plesure_, xxix. (1515).

  =Virgil’s Gnat= (the _Culex_, ascribed to Virgil). A shepherd, having
  fallen asleep in the open air, was on the point of becoming the prey
  of a serpent, when a gnat stung him on the eyelid. The shepherd
  crushed the gnat, but at the same time alarmed the serpent, which the
  shepherd saw and beat to death. Next night the gnat appeared to the
  shepherd in a dream, and reproached him for ingratitude, whereupon he
  raised a monument in honor of his deliverer. Spenser has a free
  translation of this story, which he calls _Virgil’s Gnat_ (1580). (See

  =Virgile du Rabut= (_Le_), “The Virgil of the Plane,” Adam Bellaut,
  the joiner-poet, who died, 1662. He was pensioned by Richelieu,
  patronized by the “Great Condé,” and praised by Pierre Corneille.

  =Virgil´ia= is made by Shakespeare the _wife_ of Coriolanus, and
  Volumnia his _mother_; but historically Volumnia was his wife, and
  Vetu´ria his mother.--_Coriolanus_ (1610).

  The old man’s merriment in Menenius; the lofty lady’s dignity in
  Volumnia; the bridal modesty in Virgilia; the patrician and military
  haughtiness in Coriolanus; the plebeian malignity and tribunitian
  insolence in Brutus and Sicinius, make a very pleasing and interesting
  variety.--Dr. Johnson, _On Coriolanus_.

  =Virgil´ius=, Feargil, bishop of Saltzburg, an Irishman. He was
  denounced as a heretic for asserting the existence of antipodês
  (*-784). (See HERESY.)

  ⁂ Metz, in France, was so called in the Franco-Prussian war (1870-1).

  =Virgin Martyr= (_The_), a tragedy by Philip Massinger (1622).


  =Virgin Mary= (_The_), is addressed by the following titles:--“Empress
  and Queen of Heaven;” “Empress and Queen of Angels;” “Empress and
  Queen of the Earth;” “Lady of the Universe or of the World;” “Mistress
  of the World;” “Patroness of all Men;” “Advocate for Sinners;”
  “Mediatrix;” “Gate of Paradise;” “Mother of Mercies and of Divine
  Grace;” “Goddess;” “The only Hope of Sinners,” etc., etc.

  It is said that Peter Fullo, in 480, was the first to introduce
  invocations to the Virgin.

  =Virgin Modesty.= John Wilmot, earl of Rochester, was so called by
  Charles II., because of his propensity to blushing (1647-1680).

  =Virgin Queen= (_The_), Elizabeth (1533, 1558-1603).

  =Virgin Unmasked= (_The_), a farce by H. Fielding. Goodwill had
  acquired by trade £10,000, and resolved to give his daughter Lucy to
  one of his relations, in order to keep the money in the family. He
  sent for her bachelor relations, and told them his intention; they
  were Blister (the apothecary), Coupee (the dancing-master), and Quaver
  (the singing-master). They all preferred their professions to the
  young lady, and while they were quarrelling about the superiority of
  their respective callings, Lucy married Thomas, the footman. Old
  Goodwill says, “I don’t know but that my daughter has made a better
  choice than if she had married one of these booby relations.”

  =Virginians= (_The_), a sequel to Henry Esmond. It gives the story of
  Colonel Esmond’s twin grandsons, George and Harry Warrington, born and
  brought up in Virginia. George joins Braddock’s expedition, and is
  reported killed, Harry goes to England. George, escaping from Indian
  captivity, joins his brother, whom everybody had supposed the head of
  the family. Harry enters the army and George marries. One of the
  characters introduced in the book is George Washington, whom the twins
  believe to be in love with their widowed mother.--W. M. Thackeray,
  _The Virginians_.

  =Virgins= (_The Eleven Thousand_). Ursul or Hörsel in Swabia, like
  Hulda in Scandinavia, means “the moon,” and her eleven thousand
  virgins are the stars. The bones shown in Cologne, as those of the
  eleven thousand virgins are those of males and females of all ages,
  and were taken from an old Roman cemetery across which the wall of
  Cologne ran (1106).

  =Virginia=, a young Roman plebeian of great beauty, coveted by Appius
  Claudius, one of the decemvirs, and claimed as his slave. Her father,
  Virginius, being told of it, hastened to the forum, and arrived at the
  moment when Virginia was about to be delivered up to Appius. He seized
  a butcher’s knife, stabbed his daughter to the heart, rushed from the
  forum, and raised a revolt.

  This has been the subject of a host of tragedies. In _French_, by
  Mairet (1628), by Leclerc (1645), by Campistron (1683), by La
  Beaumelle (1760), by Chabanon (1769), by Laharpe (1786), by Leblanc du
  Guillet (1786), by Guiraud (1827), by Latour St. Ybars (1845), etc. In
  _Italian_, by Alfieri (1783). In _German_, by Gotthold Lessing
  (eighteenth century). In _English_, by John Webster, entitled _Appius
  and Virginia_ (1654); by Miss Brooke (1760); J. S. Knowles (1820),

  It is one of Lord Macaulay’s lays (1842), supposed to be sung in the
  forum on the day when Sextus and Licinius were elected tribunes for
  the fifth time.

  _Virginia_, the daughter of Mde. de la Tour. Madame was of a good
  family in Normandy, but, having married beneath her social position,
  was tabooed by her family. Her husband died before the birth of his
  first child, and the widow went to live at Port Louis, in the
  Mauritius, where Virginia was born. Their only neighbor was Margaret,
  with her love-child, Paul, an infant. The two children grew up
  together, and became strongly attached; but when Virginia was 15 years
  old, her wealthy great-aunt adopted her and requested that she might
  be sent immediately to France to finish her education. The aunt wanted
  her to marry a French count, and as Virginia refused to do so,
  disinherited her and sent her back to the Mauritius. When within a
  cable’s length of the island, a hurricane dashed the ship to pieces,
  and the corpse of Virginia was cast on the shore. Paul drooped, and
  died within two months.--Bernardin de St. Pierre, _Paul and Virginia_

  ⁂ In Cobb’s dramatic version of this story, Virginia’s mother is of
  Spanish origin, and dies committing Virginia to the charge of
  Dominique, a faithful old negro servant. The aunt is Donna Leonora de
  Guzman, who sends Don Antonio de Guardes to bring Virginia to Spain,
  and there to make her his bride. She is carried to the ship by force;
  but scarcely is she set on board when a hurricane dashes the vessel to
  pieces. Antonio is drowned, but Virginia is rescued by Alhambra, a
  runaway slave, whom she has befriended. The drama ends with the
  marriage between Virginia and Paul (1756-1818).

  =Virginius=, father of the Roman Virginia, the title of a tragedy by
  S. Knowles (1820). (For the tale, see VIRGINIA.)

  Macready (1793-1873) made the part of “Virginius” in Knowles’s drama
  so called, but the first to act it was John Cooper, in Glasgow (1820).

  =Visin=, a Russian who had the power of blunting weapons by a look.
  Starchat´erus, the Swede, when he went against him, covered his sword
  with thin leather, and by this means obtained an easy victory.

  =Vision of Judgment= (_The_), a poem in twelve parts, by Southey,
  written in hexameter verse (1820). The laureate supposes that he has a
  vision of George III., just dead, tried at the bar of heaven. Wilkes
  is his chief accuser, and Washington his chief defender. Judgment is
  given by acclamation in favor of the king, and in heaven he is
  welcomed by Alfred, Richard Cœur de Lion, Edward III., Queen
  Elizabeth, Charles I. and William III., Bede, Friar Bacon, Chaucer,
  Spenser, the duke of Marlborough and Berkeley the sceptic, Hogarth,
  Burke the infidel, Chatterton, who made away with himself, Canning,
  Nelson and all the royal family who were then dead.

  ⁂ Of all the literary productions ever issued from the press, never
  was one printed of worse taste than this. Byron wrote a quiz on it
  called _The Vision of Judgment_, in 106 stanzas of eight lines each

  =Visines, De= (_The_). The uncle, an emigrant abbé who teaches French
  in Philadelphia, to private pupils. One of these is Marguerite Howard,
  with whom the nephew, Henri De Visines, speedily falls in love. The
  girl, in skating, finds herself upon a floating cake of ice from which
  she is rescued by Henri De Visines. A series of revelations brings
  about the truth that Marguerite is of the De Visine blood, and in due
  time she marries her newly-found cousin.--S. Weir Mitchell, _Hephzibah
  Guinness_ (1880).

  =Vita´lis=, the pseudonym of Eric Sjöberg, a Swedish poet. (Latin,
  _vita lis_, “life is a strife.”)

  =Viti´za= or =Witi´za=, king of the Visigoths, who put out the eyes of
  Cordŏva, the father of Roderick. He was himself dethroned and blinded
  by Roderick.--Southey, _Roderick, the Last of the Goths_ (1814).

  =Vitruvius= (_The English_), Inigo Jones (1572-1652).

  =Vivian=, brother of Maugis d’Agremont, and son of Duke Bevis of
  Agremont. He was stolen in infancy by Tapinel, and sold to the wife of
  Sorgalant.--_Roman de Maugis d’Agremont et de Vivian son Frère._

  _Vivian_, son of Buovo (2 _syl._), of the house of Clarmont, and
  brother of Aldiger and Malagigi.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

  =Viviane= (3 _syl._), daughter of Dyonas, a vavasour of high lineage,
  and generally called the “Lady of the Lake.” Merlin, in his dotage,
  fell in love with her, and she imprisoned him in the forest of
  Brécéliande, in Brittany. Viviane induced Merlin to show her how a
  person could be imprisoned by enchantment without walls, towers, or
  chains, and after he had done so, she fondled him into a sleep under a
  whitethorn laden with flowers. While thus he slept, she made a ring
  with her wimple round the bush, and performed the other needful
  ceremonies, whereupon he found himself enclosed in a prison stronger
  than the strongest tower, and from that imprisonment was never again
  released.--_Merlin_ (a romance).

  ⁂ See the next article.

  =Viv´ien= or =Vivian=, the personification of shameless harlotry, or
  the crowning result to be expected from the infidelity of Queen
  Guin´evere. This wily wanton in Arthur’s court hated all the knights,
  and tried without success to seduce “the blameless king.” With Merlin,
  she succeeded better, for, being pestered with her importunity, he
  told her the secret of his power, as Samson told Delilah the secret of
  his strength. Having learnt this, Vivien enclosed the magician in a
  hollow oak, where he was confined as one dead, “lost to life, and use,
  and name, and fame.”--Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_ (“Vivien,”
  1858-9). (See VIVIANE.)

  ⁂ In Malory’s _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 60, Nimue (? _Ninive_) is
  the fée who inveigled Merlin out of his secret:

  And so upon a time it happened that Merlin shewed to her [_Nimue_] in
  a rock, whereas was a great wonder, and wrought by enchantment, which
  went under a stone. So by her subtle craft and working, she made
  Merlin to go under that stone, to let her wit of the marvels there;
  but she wrought so there for him that he came never out, for all his
  craft. And so she departed and left him there.

  =Voadic´ia= or =Boadice´a=, queen of the British Icēni. Enraged
  against the Romans, who had defiled her two daughters, she excited an
  insurrection against them, and while Suetonius Paulīnus, the Roman
  governor, was in Mona (_Anglesea_), she took Colchester and London,
  and slew 70,000 Romans. Being at length defeated by Suetonius
  Paulinus, she put an end to her life by poison (A.D. 61).

  Cowper has an ode on _Boadicea_ (1790).

  Brave Voadicĭa made with her resolvedest men
  To Virolam [_St. Alban’s_], whose siege with fire and sword she plyed
  Till levelled with the earth ... etc.
              Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

  =Voadine= (2 _syl._), bishop of London, who reproved Vortiger[n] for
  loving another man’s wife and neglecting his own queen, for which
  reproof the good bishop was murdered.

               ... good Voadine, who reproved
           Proud Vortiger, his king, unlawfully that loved
           Another’s wanton wife, and wronged his nuptial bed,
           For which by that stern prince unjustly murdered.
                       Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

  ⁂ This is very like the story of John the Baptist and Herod.

  =Voice= (_Human_). The following animals possessed both human voice
  and articulate speech, speaking in the language of their masters:--

  AL BORAK, the animal which conveyed Mahomet to the seventh heaven. He
  not only spoke good Arabic, but had also a human face.

  ARION, the wonderful horse which Herculés gave to Adrastos. It not
  only spoke good Greek, but both his near feet were those of a man.

  BALAAM’S ASS spoke Hebrew to Balaam on one occasion.--_Numb._ xxii.

  THE BLACK PIGEONS, one of which gave the responses in the temple of
  Ammon, and the other in Dodōna.--_Classic Story_.

  The BULBUL-HEZAR, which had not only human speech, but was oracular
  also.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Two Sisters”).

  COMRADE, Fortunio’s horse, spoke with the voice of a man.--Comtesse
  D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Fortunio”).

  The little GREEN BIRD which Fairstar obtained possession of, not only
  answered in words any questions asked it, but was also prophetic and
  oracular.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Cherry and Fairstar”).

  KATMÎR, the dog of the Seven Sleepers, spoke Greek.--_Al Korân_,

  SÄLEH’S CAMEL used to go about crying, in good Arabic, “Ho! every one
  that wanteth milk, let him come, and I will give it him.”--Sale, _Al
  Korân_, vii. (notes).

  The SERPENT which tempted Eve to eat of the forbidden fruit.--_Gen._

  TEMLIHA, the king of serpents, had the gift of human speech.--Comte de
  Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“History of Aboutaleb”).

  XANTHOS, one of the horses of Achillês, announced to the hero, in good
  Greek, his approaching death.--_Classic Fable._

  =Voiture= (2 _syl._), a French poet, idolized by his contemporaries in
  the reign of Louis XIV., but now only known by name (1598-1648).

            E’en rival wits did Voiture’s death deplore,
            And the gay mourned, who never mourned before;
            The truest hearts for Voiture heaved with sighs,
            Voiture was wept by all the brightest eyes.
                        Pope, _Epistle to Miss Blount_ (1715).

  =Voland= (_Squire_), the devil. (German, _Junker Voland_.)

  =Volan´te= (3 _syl._), one of the three daughters of Balthazar.
  Lively, witty, sharp as a needle and high-spirited. She loves the
  Count Montalban; but when the count disguises himself as a father
  confessor, in order to sound her love for him, she sees the trick in a
  moment, and says to him, “Come, count, pull off your lion’s hide, and
  confess yourself an ass.” Subsequently, all ends happily and well.--J.
  Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

  =Volet´ta=, Free-will personified.

      Whom neither man, nor fiend, nor God constrains.
                  Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vi. (1633).

  =Volksmährchen= (“_popular tales_”), in German, the best exponents
  being Ludwig Tieck (1773-1853), Musäus (1735-1787), De la Motte Fouqué
  (see UNDINE), Chamisso (see SCHLEMIHL, PETER), Wilhelm Hauff
  (1802-1827), Achim von Arnim (1781-1831), Clemens Brentano
  (1777-1842), Zschokke (1771-1848), Hoffmann (1776-1822), Gustav
  Freytag, “The German Dickens” (1816-1878), and the brothers Grimm.

  =Vol´pone= (2 _syl._), or THE FOX, a comedy by Ben Jonson (1605).
  Volpone, a rich Venetian nobleman, without children, feigns to be
  dying, in order to draw gifts from those who pay court to him under
  the expectation of becoming his heirs. Mosca, his knavish confederate,
  persuades each in turn that he is named for the inheritance, and by
  this means exacts many a costly present. At the end, Volpone is
  betrayed, his property forfeited, and he is sentenced to lie in the
  worst hospital in all Venice.

  Jonson has three great comedies: _Volpone_, or _The Fox_, _Epicene, or
  The Silent Woman_, and _The Alchemist_.--R. Chambers, _English
  Literature_, i. 192.

  =Volscius= (_Prince_), a military hero, who falls in love with the
  fair Parthenŏpê, and disputes with Prince Prettyman upon the
  superiority of his sweetheart to Cloris, whom Prince Prettyman sighs
  for.--Duke of Buckingham, _The Rehearsal_ (1671).

  Why, this is worse than Prince Volscius in love!--Sir W. Scott.

  Oh, be merry, by all means. Prince Volscius in love! Ha, ha, ha!--W.
  Congreve, _The Double Dealer_ (1694).

  =Volsunga Saga= (_The_), a collection of tales in verse about the
  early Teutonic heroes, compiled by Sæmund Sigfusson in the eleventh
  century. A prose version was made some 200 years later by Snorro
  Sturleson. This saga forms a part of the _Rhythmical_, or _Elder
  Edda_, and of the _Prose_, or _Younger Edda_.

  =Voltaire= (_The German_), Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1838).

  Christoph Martin Wieland is also called “The German Voltaire”

  _Voltaire_ (_The Polish_), Ignatius Krasicki (1774-1801).

  _Voltaire_ (_The Russian_), Alex P. Sumorokof (1727-1777).

  =Vol´timand=, a courtier in the court of Claudius, king of
  Denmark.--Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

  =Volumnia= was the _wife_ of Coriolanus, and Vetu´ria his _mother_;
  but Shakespeare makes Virgilia the wife, and Volumnia the
  mother.--_Coriolanus_ (1610).

  The old man’s merriment in Menenius; the lofty lady’s dignity in
  Volumnia; the bridal modesty in Virgilia; the patrician and military
  haughtiness in Coriolanus; the plebeian malignity and tribunitian
  insolence in Brutus and Sicinius, make a very pleasing and interesting
  variety.--Dr. Johnson.

  =Voluspa Saga= (_The_), the prophecy of Völa. It contains between 200
  and 300 verses, and resembles the Sibylline books of ancient Rome. The
  _Voluspa_ Saga gives, in verse, a description of chaos, the formation
  of the world, the creation of all animals (including dwarfs and
  giants, genii and devils, fairies and goblins), the final
  conflagration of the world and its renewal, when it will appear in
  celestial beauty, like the new Jerusalem described in the book of the

  =Vorst= (_Peterkin_), the sleeping sentinel at Powys Castle.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

  =Vortigern=, counsel of the Gewisseans, who crowned Constans, king of
  Britain, although he was a monk, but treacherously contrived to get
  him assassinated afterwards, and then usurped the crown. He married
  Rowen’a, daughter of Hengist, and was burnt to death in a tower set on
  fire during a siege by Ambrosius.--Geoffrey, _British History_, vi. 6;
  viii. 1 (1142).

  _Vortigern_, a drama put forward by Henry W. Ireland (1796) as a newly
  discovered play by Shakespeare. It was brought out at Drury Lane
  Theatre, by John Kemble. Dr. Parr declared it to be his opinion that
  the play was genuine.

  =Vortigern and Hengist.= The account of the massacre of the
  Long-Knives, given by Geoffrey, in his _British History_, vi. 15,
  differs greatly from that of the _Welsh Triads_ (See STONEHENGE, A
  TROPHY). Geoffrey says that Hengist came over with a large army, at
  which King Vortigern was alarmed. To allay this suspicion, Hengist
  promised to send back all the men that the king did not require, and
  begged Vortigern to meet him in conference at Ambrius (_Ambresbury_),
  on May-day. Hengist, in the meantime, secretly armed a number of his
  soldiers with “long-knives,” and told them to fall on the Britons
  during the conference, when he uttered the words, “Nemet oure Saxas.”
  This they did, and 460 “barons and consuls” fell. It does not appear
  from this narrative that the slaughter was due “to the treachery of
  Vortigern,” but was wholly the work of Hengist. Geoffrey calls the
  earl of Gloucester “Eldol,” and not “Eidiol.”

  =Vortigern’s Tower=, like Penelopê’s web, is a work ever beginning,
  and never ending. Vortigern was told by his magicians to build a
  strong tower for his own security; so he commanded his workmen to
  build one on Mount Erir, but whatever they built one day, was wholly
  swallowed up by the earth during the night.--Geoffrey, _British
  History_, vi. 17 (1142).

  =Vos non Vobis.= The tale is that Virgil wrote an epigram on Augustus
  Cæsar, which so much pleased the emperor that he desired to know who
  was the author. As Virgil did not claim the lines, one Bathyllus
  declared they were his. This displeased Virgil, and he wrote these
  four words, _Sic vos non vobis_ ... four times as the commencement of
  four lines, and Bathyllus was requested to finish them. This he could
  not do, but Virgil completed the lines thus:

            Sic vos non vobis nidificatis aves;
              Sic vos non vobis villera fertis oves;
            Sic vos non vobis mellificatis apes;
              Sic vos non vobis fertis aratra boves.

            Not for yourselves your nests ye song-birds build;
              Not for yourselves ye sheep your fleeces bear;
            Not for yourselves your hives ye bees have filled;
              Not for yourselves ye oxen draw the share.

  =Vox et præterea Nihil.= A Spartan, pulling a nightingale, and finding
  only a very small body, exclaimed, φωνὰ τύ τις ἐσσι, καὶ οὐδὲν ἄλλο
  (“Voice art thou, and nothing more”).--Plutarch, _Apophthegmata

  =Vox= (_Valentine_), enterprising ventriloquist, who figures in the
  novel called by his name.--Henry Cochton (1840).

  =Vran= (_Bendigeid_, _i.e._, “Blessed”), king of Britain, and father
  of Caradawc (_Caractacus_). He was called “Blessed,” because he
  introduced Christianity into this island. Vran had shared the
  captivity of his son, and had learned the Christian faith during his
  seven years’ detention in Rome.

  Vran or Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, first brought the faith of
  Christ to the nation of the Cymry, from Rome, where he was seven years
  a hostage for his son, Caradawc, whom the Romans made prisoner,
  through craft and the treachery of Aregwedd Fôeddawg [_Cartismandua_]
  _Welsh Triads_, xxxv.

  =Vran’s Caldron= restored to life whoever was put therein, but the
  revivified never recovered speech. (See MEDEA’S KETTLE.)

  “I will give thee,” said Bendigeid Vran, “a caldron, the property of
  which is that if one of thy men be slain to-day, and be cast therein
  to-morrow, he will be as well as he was at the best, except that he
  will not regain his speech.”--_The Mabinogion_ (“Branwen,” etc.,
  twelfth century).

  =Vrience= (_King_), one of the knights of the Round Table. He married
  Morgan le Fay, half-sister of King Arthur.--Sir T. Malory, _History of
  Prince Arthur_ (1470).

  =Vulcan= was the lawful offspring of Jupiter and Juno, but the former,
  upon beholding his homely son, kicked him out of heaven.

                              “From morn
                To noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve,
                A summer’s day, and with the setting sun
                Drop’t from the zenith like a falling star
                On Lemnos, the Ægean isle.”
                            Milton, _Paradise Lost_, I.

  His leg was broken, and he remained lame forever after. He was a
  blacksmith, and employed by the Cyclops to forge their thunderbolts.

  =Vulcan’s Badge=, the badge of cuckoldom. Vulcan was the husband of
  Venus, with whom Mars intrigued.

                  We know
    Better than he have worn Vulcan’s badge.
                Shakespeare, _Titus Andronicus_, act ii. sc. 1 (1593).

  =Vulnerable Parts.=

  ACHILLES was vulnerable only in the heel. When his mother, Thetis,
  dipped him in the river Styx, she held him by the heel, and the water
  did not touch this part.--_A Post-Homeric Story._

  AJAX, son of Telamon, could be wounded only behind the neck; some say
  only in one spot of the breast. As soon as he was born Alcīdês covered
  him with a lion’s skin, which rendered the whole body invulnerable,
  except in a part where the skin had been pierced by Herculês.

  ANTÆOS was wholly charmed against death so long as he touched the
  earth.--Lucan, _Pharsalia_, iv.

  FERRACUTE (3 _syl._) was only vulnerable in the navel.--Turpin,
  Chronicle of Charlemagne.

  He is called Ferrau, son of Landfūsa, by Ariosto, in his _Orlando

  MEGISSOGWON was only vulnerable at one tuft of hair on his head. A
  woodpecker revealed the secret to Hiawatha, who struck him there and
  killed him.--Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, ix.

  ORILLO was impervious to death unless one particular hair was cut off;
  wherefore Astolpho, when he encountered the robber, only sought to cut
  off this magic hair.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_.

  ORLANDO was invulnerable except in the sole of his foot, and even
  there nothing could injure him except the prick of a pin.--ITALIAN

  SIEGFRIED was invulnerable except in one spot between the shoulders,
  on which a leaf stuck when he dipped his body in the dragon’s
  blood.--_The Nibelungen Lied._

  ⁂ The Promethĕan unguent rendered the body proof against fire and
  wounds of any sort. Medea gave Jason some of this unguent.--_Classic

  =Vulture= (_The Black_), emblem of the ancient Turk, as the crescent
  is of the modern Ottoman empire.

     And that black vulture, which with dreadful wing
     O’ershadows half the earth, whose dismal sight
     Frightened the Muses from their native spring,
     Already stoops, and flags with weary wing.
                 Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vii. (1633).

  =Vulture Hopkins.= John Hopkins was so called from his rapacious mode
  of acquiring money. He was the architect of his own fortune, and died
  worth £300,000 (in 1732).

  ⁂ Pope refers to John Hopkins in the lines:

               When Hopkins dies, a thousand lights attend
               The wretch who, living, saved a candle end.

  =Wabster= (_Michael_), a citizen of Perth.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid
  of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

  =Wabun=, son of Mudjekeewis; the Indian Apollo. He chases darkness
  over hill and dale with his arrows, wakes man, and brings the morning.
  He married Wabun-Annung, who was taken to heaven at death, and became
  the morning star.--Longfellow, _Hiawatha_ (1855).

  =Wabun-Annung=, the morning star, a country maiden who married Wabun,
  the Indian Apollo.--Longfellow, _Hiawatha_ (1855).

  =Wackbairn= (_Mr._), the schoolmaster at Libberton.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

  =Wackles= (_Mrs._ and the _Misses_), of Chelsea, keepers of a “Ladies’
  Seminary.” English grammar, composition, geography, and the use of
  dumb-bells, by Miss Melissa Wackles; writing, arithmetic, dancing,
  music, and general fascination, by Miss Sophy Wackles; needlework,
  marking, and samplery, by Miss Jane Wackles; corporal punishment and
  domestic duties, by Mrs. Wackles. Miss Sophy was a fresh,
  good-natured, buxom girl of 20, who owned to a soft impeachment for
  Mr. Swiveller, but as he held back, she married Mr. Cheggs, a
  well-to-do market gardener.--C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_,
  viii. (1840).

  =Wade= (_Miss_), a handsome young woman, brought up by her
  grandmother, with a small independence. She looked at every act of
  kindness, benevolence, and charity with a jaundiced eye, and
  attributed it to a vile motive. Her manner was suspicious,
  self-secluded, and repellant; her temper proud, fiery, and
  unsympathetic. Twice she loved--in one case she jilted her lover, in
  the other she was herself jilted. The latter was Henry Gowan, who
  married Pet, the daughter of Mr. Meagles, and in consequence of this
  marriage Miss Wade hated Gowan, his wife, the Meagleses, and all their
  friends. She enticed Tattycoram away from Mr. Meagles, and the two
  beautiful young women lived together for a time, nursing their hatred
  of man to keep it warm.--C. Dickens, _Little Dorrit_, ii. 21 (1857).

  =Waddell= (_James_), the Blind Preacher, as he was familiarly called,
  was a marked character in the central counties of Virginia in the
  latter part of the eighteenth century. He performed all the offices of
  a clergyman up to the time of his death, preaching with power and
  unction every week. “I have never,” says William Wirt, “seen in any
  other orator such a union of simplicity and majesty. He has not a
  gesture, an attitude or an accent, to which he does not seem forced by
  the sentiment which he is expressing.... He is not only a very polite
  scholar, but a man of extensive and profound erudition.”--William
  Wirt, _The British Spy_ (1803).

  =Wadman= (_Widow_), a comely widow, who would full fain secure Uncle
  Toby for her second husband. Amongst other wiles, she pretends to have
  something in her eye, and gets Uncle Toby to look for it. As the
  kind-hearted hero of Namur does so, the gentle widow gradually places
  her face nearer and nearer the captain’s mouth, under the hope that he
  will kiss and propose.--Sterne, _The Life and Opinions of Tristram
  Shandy_ (1759).

  =Wagner=, the faithful servant and constant companion of Faust, in
  Marlowe’s drama called _The Life and Death of Dr. Faustus_ (1589); in
  Goethe’s _Faust_ (German, 1798); and in Gounod’s opera of _Faust_

  Wagner is a type of the pedant. He sacrifices himself to books as
  Faust does to knowledge ... the dust of folios is his element,
  parchment the source of his inspiration.... He is one of those who, in
  the presence of Niagara, would vex you with questions about
  arrow-headed inscriptions ... or the origin of the Pelasgi.--Lewes.

  =Wa´hela=, Lot’s wife, who was confederate with the men of Sodom, and
  gave them notice when a stranger came to visit her husband. Her sign
  was smoke by day and fire by night. Wahela was turned into a pillar of
  salt.--Jallâlo´ddin, _Al Zamakh_.

  =Wa´ila= (3 _syl._), wife of Noah, who told the people her husband was

  The wife of Noah [_Wâïla_] and the wife of Lot [_Wâhela_] were both
  unbelievers, ... and it shall be said unto them at the last day,
  “Enter ye into hell fire, with those who enter therein.”--_Al Korân_,

  =Wainamoi´nen=, the Orpheus of Finnish mythology. His magic harp
  performed similar wonders to that of Orpheus (2 _syl._). It was made
  of the bones of a pike; that of Orpheus was of tortoiseshell. The
  “beloved” of Wainamoinen was a treasure called Sampo, which was lost
  as the poet reached the verge of the realms of darkness; the “beloved”
  of Orpheus was Eurydi´cê, who was lost just as the poet reached the
  confines of earth, after his descent into hell.

  ⁂ See Kalewala, _Rune_, xxii. It is very beautiful. An extract is
  given in Baring Gould’s _Myths of the Middle Ages_, 440-444.

  =Waitwell=, the lackey of Edward Mirabell, and husband of Foible,
  governante of the household of Lady Wishfort. By his master’s request,
  Waitwell personates Sir Roland, and makes love to Lady Wishfort, but
  the trick is discovered before much mischief is done.--W. Congreve,
  _The Way of the World_ (1700).

  =Wakefield= (_Harry_), the English drover killed by Robin Oig.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Two Drovers_ (time, George III.).

  =Wakeman= (_Sir George_), physician to Henrietta Maria, queen of
  Charles I.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

  =Waldeck= (_Martin_), the miner, and hero of a story read by Lovel to
  a picnic party at the ruins of St. Ruth’s Priory.--Sir W. Scott, _The
  Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

  =Walde´grave= (2 _syl._), leader of the British forces which joined
  the Hurons in extirpating the Snake Indians, but he fell in the fray
  (pt. i. 18).

  _Julia Waldegrave_, wife of the above. She was bound to a tree with
  her child by some of the Indians during the attack. Outalissi, a Snake
  Indian, unbound them, took them home, and took care of them; but the
  mother died. Her last request was that Outalissi would carry her child
  to Albert of Wy´oming, her friend, and beg him to take charge of it.

  _Henry Waldegrave_, the boy brought by Outalissi to Albert. After
  staying at Wyoming for three years, his English friends sent for him
  (he was then 12 years old). When grown to manhood, he returned to
  Wyoming, and was married to Gertrude; but three months afterwards
  Outalissi appeared, and told them that Brandt was coming with his
  English soldiers to destroy the village. Both Albert and Gertrude
  were shot in the attack; and Henry joined the army of
  Washington.--Campbell, _Gertrude of Wyoming_ (1809).

  =Waldemar Fitzurse= (_Lord_), a baron following Prince John of Anjou
  (brother of Richard Cœur de Lion).--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time,
  Richard I.).

  =Waldstetten= (_The countess of_), a relative of the baron. He is one
  of the characters in Donnerhugel’s narrative.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
  Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Walk= (_Knave_) is meant for colonel Hewson, generally called “Walk,
  Knave, Walk,” from a tract written by Edmund Gayton, to satirize the
  party, and entitled _Walk, Knaves, Walk_.--S. Butler, _Hudibras_

  =Walker= (_Dr._), one of the three great quacks of the eighteenth
  century, the others being Dr. Rock and Dr. Timothy Franks. Goldsmith,
  in his _Citizen of the World_, has a letter (lxviii.) wholly upon
  these three worthies (1759).

  _Walker_ (_Helen_), the prototype of Jeanie Deans. Sir W. Scott caused
  a tombstone to be erected over her grave in Irongray churchyard,
  Kirkcudbright [_Ke.koo´.bry_].

  _Walker_ (_Hookey_), John Walker, outdoor clerk to Longman, Clementi
  and Co., Cheapside. He was noted for his hooked nose, and disliked for
  his official duties, which were to see that the men came and left at
  the proper hour, and that they worked during the hours of work. Of
  course, the men conspired to throw discredit on his reports; and hence
  when any one draws the “long-bow,” the hearer exclaims, “Hookey
  Walker!” as much as to say, “I don’t believe it.”

  =Walking Gentleman= (_A_). Thomas Colley Grattan published his
  _Highways and Byeways_ under this signature (1825).

  =Walking Stewart=, John Stewart, an English traveller, who walked
  through Hindûstan, Persia, Nubia, Abyssinia, the Arabian Desert,
  Europe, and the North American states; “crazy beyond the reach of
  hellebore, yet sublime and divinely benignant.... He had seen more of
  the earth’s surface, and had communicated more with the children of
  the earth, than any man before or since.”--De Quincey, (1856).

  =Walking-Stick= (_Henry VIII.’s_), the great Danish club shown in the
  armory of the Tower.

  =Walkingshaw= (_Miss_), mistress of the chevalier Charles Edward, the
  Young Pretender.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

  =Wallace’s Larder=, the dungeon of Ardrossan, in Ayrshire, where
  Wallace had the dead bodies thrown when the garrison was surprised by
  him in the reign of Edward I.

  “Douglas’s Larder” is a similar phrase, meaning that horrible compound
  of dead bodies, barrels of flour, meal, wheat, malt, wine, ale, and
  beer, all mixed together in Douglas Castle, by the order of Lord James
  Douglas, when, in 1306, the garrison was surprised by him.

  =Wallenrode= (_The earl of_), an Hungarian crusader.--Sir W. Scott,
  _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Wallenstein= (_Max_), German baron and general, eminent in the Thirty
  Years’ War. He was assassinated in 1634 by order of Ferdinand II. of
  Germany.--Schiller, _Wallenstein_ (1799).

  =Waller=, in love with Lydia, lady’s-maid to Widow Green. His love at
  first was not honorable, because his aristocratic pride revolted at
  the inferior social position of Lydia; but when he knew her real
  worth, he loved her, proposed marriage, and found that she was the
  sister of Trueworth, who had taken service to avoid an obnoxious
  marriage.--S. Knowles, _The Love-Chase_ (1837).

  =Waller’s Plot=, a plot organized in 1643 by Waller, the poet, against
  the parliamentary party. The object was to secure the king’s children,
  to seize the most eminent of the parliamentarians, to capture the
  Tower, and resist all taxes imposed for the support of the
  parliamentary army.

  =Walley= (_Richard_), the regicide, whose story is told by Major
  Bridgenorth (a roundhead) at his dinner-table.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril
  of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

  =Walnut Web.= When the three princes of a certain king were sent to
  find out “a web of cloth which would pass through the eye of a fine
  needle,” the White Cat furnished the youngest of the three with one
  spun by the cats of her palace.

  The prince ... took out of his box a walnut, which he cracked ... and
  saw a small hazel nut, which he cracked also ... and found therein a
  kernel of wax.... In this kernel of wax was hidden a single grain of
  wheat, and in the grain a small millet seed.... On opening the millet,
  he drew out a web of cloth 400 yards long, and in it was woven all
  sorts of birds, beasts, and fishes; fruits and flowers; the sun, moon,
  and stars; the portraits of kings and queens, and many other wonderful
  designs.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The White Cat,” 1682).

  =Walpurgis=, saint who converted the Saxons to Christianity.

  =Walpurgis Night.= May 1, when witches dance upon the Brocken in the
  Hartz Mountains.

  =Walsingham=, the affianced of Helen Mowbray. Deceived by appearances,
  he believed that Helen was the mistress of Lord Athunree, and
  abandoned her; but when he discovered his mistake he married her.--S.
  Knowles, _Woman’s Wit, etc._ (1838).

  _Walsingham_ (_Lord_) of Queen Elizabeth’s court.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Walter=, marquis of Saluzzo, in Italy, and husband of Grisilda, the
  peasant’s daughter (_q.v._).--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The
  Clerk’s Tale,” 1388).

  ⁂ This tale, of course, is allegorical; Lord Walter takes the place of
  deity, and Grisilda typifies the true Christian. In all her
  privations, in all her sorrows, in all her trials, she says to her
  lord and master, “Thy will be done.”

  _Walte_ (_Master_), “the hunchback,” guardian of Julia. A worthy man,
  liberal and charitable, frank and honest, who turns out to be the earl
  of Rochdale and father of Julia.--S. Knowles, _The Hunchback_ (1831).

  =Walter Debree=, a Protestant clergyman, who, driven as he imagines,
  by conscience, takes orders in the Roman Catholic Church. His wife
  seeks him out and makes an eloquent appeal to him in the name of their
  former love, their dead child, and their once common faith. His heart
  and conscience thus aroused, combine to urge reconsideration of his
  belief. He resolves to return to the Mother Church, and makes his
  plans to take the Lord’s Supper with his wife on a certain Sabbath. On
  his way to church, he is overtaken by a fierce snow-storm and buried
  in the drifts. It is his lifeless body which is taken to the waiting
  wife. “Is this all, Walter?” she sobbed. “Is this the end? Yes, and it
  is a good end.... I did not seek you for myself. It never was for
  myself!” The effort to subdue the human love to the Divine triumphed
  in the midst of tears.--Robert Lowell, _The New Priest of Conception
  Bay_ (1858).

  =Walter= [=Furst=], father-in-law of Tell.--Rossini, _Guglielmo Tell_
  (opera, 1829).

  =Walter Hartwright=, drawing-teacher and lover of Laura Fairlie. When
  the report of her death has been circulated by her husband, Sir
  Percival Glyde, Walter unravels the plot, restores Laura to her
  rightful place, and after the baronet’s death, marries her.--Wilkie
  Collins, _The Woman in White_.

  =Walter von der Vogelweide=, one of the German _minnesingers_,
  flourished in 1206.

  =Waltheof= (_The abbot_), abbot of St. Withold’s Priory.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

  _Waltheof_ (_Father_), a grey friar, confessor to the duchess of
  Rothesay.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

  =Walton= (_Lord_), father of Elvi´ra, who promised his daughter in
  marriage to Sir Richard Forth, a puritan officer; but Elvira had
  already plighted her love to Lord Arthur Talbot, a cavalier. The
  betrothal was set aside, and Elvira married Arthur Talbot at
  last.--Bellini, _Il Puritani_ (opera, 1834).

  _Walton_ (_Sir John de_), governor of Douglas Castle.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

  =Wamba=, “the son of Witless,” the jester of Cedric, the Saxon, of
  Rotherwood.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Wampum=, a string or belt of whelk-shells, current with the North
  American Indians as a medium of exchange, and always sent as a present
  to those with whom an alliance or treaty is made.

        Peace be to thee! my words this belt approve.
                    Campbell, _Gertrude of Wyoming_, i. 14 (1809).

               Our wampum league thy brethren did embrace.
                           Ibid, i. 15.

  =Wanda=, proud, high-bred German beauty, who loves and weds a man,
  believing him to be of noble birth. Accident reveals the mistake, and
  she drives him from her in anger. After long separation, he rescues
  their child from death, and dies in the arms of his remorseful
  wife.--Ouida, _Wanda_.

  =Wanderers.= It is said that gypsies are doomed to be wanderers on the
  face of the earth, because they refused hospitality to the Virgin and
  Child, when the holy family fled into Egypt. (See WILD
  HUNTSMAN.)--Aventinus, _Annalium Boiorum, libri septem_ (1554).

  =Wandering Jew= (_The_), Kartaph´ilos (in Latin, _Cartaphilus_), the
  door-keeper of the judgment hall, in the service of Pontius Pilate.
  The tradition is that this porter, while haling Jesus before Pilate,
  struck Him, saying, “Get on faster!” whereupon Jesus replied, “I am
  going fast enough; but thou shalt tarry till I come again.”

  ⁂ The earliest account of this tradition is in the _Book of the
  Chronicles of the Abbey of St. Alban’s_, copied and continued by
  Matthew Paris (1228). In 1242 Philip Mouskes, afterwards bishop of
  Tournay, wrote the “rhymed chronicle.”

  Kartaphilos, we are told, was baptized by Ananias, who baptized Paul,
  and received the name of Joseph.--See _Book of the Chronicles of the
  Abbey of St. Alban’s_.

  Another tradition says the Jew was Ahasue´rus, a cobbler, and gives
  the story thus: Jesus, overcome by the weight of the cross, stopped at
  the door of Ahasuerus, when the man pushed Him away, saying, “be off
  with you!” Jesus replied, “I am going off truly, as it is written; but
  thou shalt tarry till I come again.”

  ⁂ This legend is given by Paul von Eitzen, bishop of Schleswig, in
  1547.--See Greve, _Memoirs of Paul von Eitzen_, Hamburgh (1744).

  In _Germany_, the Wandering Jew is associated with John Buttadæus, who
  was seen at Antwerp in the thirteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth
  centuries, and at Brussels in 1774.

  ⁂ Leonard Doldius of Nürnberg, in his _Praxis Alchymiæ_ (1604), says
  the Jew Ahasuerus is sometimes called Buttadæus.

  In _France_, the name given to the Jew is Isaac Laquedem, or Lakedion.

  ⁂ See Mitternacht, _Dissertatio in Johan._, xxi. 19.

  Salathiel ben Sadi is the name of the Wandering Jew, in Croly’s novel
  entitled _Salathiel_ (1827).

  Eugène Sue introduces a Wandering Jew in his novel called _Le Juif
  Errant_ (1845). Galt has also a novel called _The Wandering Jew_.

  Poetical versions of the legend have been made by A. W. von Schlegal,
  _Die Warnung_; by Schubert, _Ahasuer_; by Goethe, _Aus Meinem Leben_,
  all in German. By Mrs. Norton, _The Undying One_, in English, etc. The
  legend is based on St. John’s _Gospel_ xxi. 22. “If I will that _he_
  tarry till I come, what is that to thee?” The apostles thought the
  words meant that John would not die, but tradition has applied them to
  some one else.

  =Wandering Knight= (_The_), El Donzel del Febo (“the Knight of the
  Sun”), is so called in the Spanish romance entitled _The Mirror of
  Knighthood_. Eumen´edês is so called in Peele’s _Old Wives’ Tale_

  =Wandering Willie=, the blind fiddler, who tells the tale about Sir
  Robert Redgauntlet, and his son, Sir John.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

  =Wandering Wood= which contained the den of Error. Error was a
  monster, like a woman upwards, but ending in a huge dragon’s tail with
  a venomous sting. The first encounter of the Red Cross Knight was with
  this monster whom he slew.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 1 (1590).

  ⁂ When piety (_the Red Cross Knight_) once forsakes the oneness of
  truth (_Una_), it is sure to get into “Wandering Wood,” where it will
  be attacked by “Error.”

  =Wantley= (_Dragon of_), a monster slain by More of More Hall, who
  procured a suit of armor studded with spikes, and, proceeding to the
  lair, kicked the dragon in its mouth, where alone it was
  vulnerable.--Percy, _Reliques of Ancient Poetry_.

  One of Carey’s farces is entitled _The Dragon of Wantley_.

  =War of Wartburg=, a poetic contest at Wartburg’s Castle, in which
  Vogelweid triumphed over Heinrich von Ofterdingen.

           They renewed the war of Wartburg,
             Which the bard had fought before.
                       Longfellow, _Walter von der Vogelweid_.

  =Warbeck= (_Perkin_) assumed himself to be Richard, duke of York, the
  younger son of Edward IV., supposed to be murdered by order of Richard
  III., in the Tower.

  _Parallel Instances._ The youngest son of Ivan IV. of Russia was named
  Dīmitri, _i.e._, Demetrius. He was born in 1581, and was mysteriously
  assassinated in 1591, some say by Godounov, the successor to the
  throne. Several impostors assumed to be Dimitri, the most remarkable
  appeared in Poland in 1603, was recognized as Czar in 1605, but
  perished the year following.

  Martin Guerre, in the sixteenth century, left his wife, to whom he had
  been married ten years, to join the army in Spain. In the eighth year
  of his absence one Arnaud du Tilh assumed to be Martin Guerre, and was
  received by the wife as her husband. For three years he lived with
  her, recognized by all her friends and relations, but the return of
  Martin himself dispelled the illusion, and Arnaud was put to death.

  The great Tichborne case was a similar imposition. One Orton assumed
  to be Sir Roger Tichborne, and was even acknowledged to be so by Sir
  Roger’s mother; but after a long and patient trial it was proved that
  the claimant of the Tichborne estates was no other than one Orton, of

  In German history, Jakob Rehback, a miller’s man, assumed, in 1345, to
  be Waldemar, an Ascanier margraf. Jakob was a menial in the service of
  the margraf.

  =Warburton= (_Lord_), handsome, well-bred and commonplace young
  nobleman, in love with Isabel Archer.--Henry James, Jr., _Portrait of
  a Lady_ (1881).

  =Ward= (_Artĕmus_), Charles F. Browne, of America, author of _His Book
  of Goaks_ (1865). He died in London in 1867.

  _Ward_ (_Dr._), a footman, famous for his “friars’ balsam.” He was
  called to prescribe for George II., and died, 1761. Dr. Ward had a
  claret stain on his left cheek, and in Hogarth’s famous picture, “The
  Undertakers’ Arms,” the cheek is marked gules. He forms one of the
  three figures at the top, and occupies the right hand side of the
  spectator. The other two figures are Mrs. Mapp and Dr. Taylor.

  =Warden= (_Henry_), _alias_ HENRY WELLWOOD, the Protestant preacher.
  In the _Abbot_ he is chaplain of the Lady Mary at Avenel Castle.--Sir
  W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

  _Warden_ (_Michael_), a young man of about 30, well-made and
  good-looking, light-hearted, capricious, and without ballast. He had
  been so wild and extravagant, that Snitchey and Craggs told him it
  would take six years to nurse his property into a healthy state.
  Michael Warden told them he was in love with Marion Jeddler, and her,
  in due time, he married.--C. Dickens, _The Battle of Life_ (1846).

  =Wardlaw=, land-steward at Osbaldistone Hall.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_
  (time, George I.).

  _Wardlaw_ (_Henry of_), archbishop of St. Andrew’s.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

  =Wardle= (_Mr._), an old country gentleman, who had attended some of
  the meetings of “The Pickwick Club,” and felt a liking for Mr.
  Pickwick and his three friends, whom he occasionally entertained at
  his house.

  _Miss_ [_Isabella_] _Wardle_, daughter of Mr. Wardle. She marries
  Augustus Snodgrass, M.P.C.

  _Miss Emily Wardle_, daughter of Mr. Wardle. She marries Mr.
  Trundle.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

  =Wardour= (_Sir Arthur_), of Knockwinnock Castle.

  _Isabella Wardour_, daughter of Sir Arthur. She marries Lord Geraldin.

  _Captain Reginald Wardour_, son of Sir Arthur. He is in the army.

  _Sir Richard Wardour_ or “Richard with the Red Hand,” an ancestor of
  Sir Arthur.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

  =Ware= (_Bed of_), a great bed, twelve feet square, assigned by
  tradition to the earl of Warwick, the “king maker.”

  A mighty large bed [_the bed of honor_], bigger by half than the great
  bed of Ware; ten thousand people may lie in it together and never feel
  one another.--G. Farquhar, _The Recruiting Officer_ (1707).

  _The bed of Og, king of Bashan,_ which was fourteen feet long, and a
  little more than six feet wide, was considerably smaller than the
  great bed of Ware.

  His bedstead was a bedstead of iron ... nine cubits was the length
  thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a
  man.--_Deut._ iii. 11.

  =Waring= (_Sir Walter_), a justice of the peace, whose knowledge of
  the law was derived from Matthew Medley, his factotum. His sentences
  were justices’ justice, influenced by prejudice and personal feeling.
  An ugly old hag would have found from him but scant mercy, while a
  pretty girl could hardly do wrong in Sir Walter’s code of law.--Sir H.
  B. Dudley, _The Woodman_ (1771).

  =Warman=, steward of Robin Hood, while earl of Huntingdon. He betrayed
  his master into the hands of Gilbert Hoode (or Hood), a prior, Robin’s
  uncle. King John rewarded Warman for this treachery by appointing him
  high sheriff of Nottingham.

  The ill-fac’d miser, bribed on either hand,
  Is Warman, one the steward of his house,
  Who, Judas-like, betraies his liberall lord
  Into the hands of that relentlesse prior
  Calde Gilbert Hoode, uncle of Huntington.
              Skelton, _Downfall of Robert, earl of Huntington_ (Henry

  =Warming-Pan Hero= (_The_), James Francis Edward Stuart (the first
  Pretender). According to the absurd story set afloat by the
  disaffected at the time of his birth, he was not the son of Mary
  d’Este, the wife of James II., but a natural child of that monarch by
  Mary Beatrice, of Modena, and he had been conveyed to the royal bed in
  a warming-pan, with the intention of palming him off upon the British
  people as the legitimate heir to the throne.

  =Warner=, the old steward of Sir Charles Cropland, who grieves to see
  the timber of the estate cut down to supply the extravagance of his
  young master.--G. Colman, _The Poor Gentleman_ (1802).


  ALASNAM’S MIRROR. This mirror remained unsullied when it reflected a
  chaste and pure-minded woman, but became dim when the woman reflected
  by it was faithless, wanton, or light.--_Arabian Nights_ (“Prince Zeyn

  ANTS. Alexander Ross says that the “cruel battle between the Venetians
  and Insubrians, and also that between the Liegeois and the
  Burgundians, in which 30,000 men were slain, were both presignified by
  combats between two swarms of ants.”--_Arcana Microcosmi._

  BAHMAN’S KNIFE (_Prince_). When Prince Bahman started on his exploits,
  he gave his sister, Parizādê, a knife which, he told her, would remain
  bright and clean so long as he was safe and well, but, immediately he
  was in danger, or dead, would become dull or drop gouts of
  blood.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Two Sisters”).

  BAY TREES. The withering of bay trees prognosticates a death.

              ’Tis thought the king is dead ...
              The bay trees in our country are all withered.
                          Shakespeare, _Richard II_. (1597).

  N.B.--The bay was called by the Romans “the plant of the good angel,”
  because “neyther falling sicknes, neyther devyll, wyll infest or hurt
  one in that place whereas a bay tree is.”--Thomas Lupton, _Syxt Book
  of Notable Thinges_ (1660).

  BEE. The buzzing of a bee in a room indicates that a stranger is about
  to pay the house a visit.

  BIRTHA’S EMERALD RING. The Duke Gondibert gave Birtha an emerald ring
  which, he said, would preserve its lustre so long as he remained
  faithful and true, but would become dull and pale if he proved false
  to her.--Wm. Davenant, _Gondibert_.

  BRAWN’S HEAD (_The_). A boy brought to King Arthur’s court a brawn’s
  head, over which he drew his wand thrice, and said, “There’s never a
  traitor or a cuckold who can carve that head of brawn.”--Percy,
  _Reliques_ (“The Boy and the Mantle”).

  CANACE’S MIRROR indicated, by its lustre, if the person whom the
  inspector loved was true or false.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The
  Squire’s Tale”).

  CANDLES. The shooting forth of a parcel of tallow, called a
  winding-sheet, from the top of a lighted candle, gives warning to the
  house of an approaching death; but a bright spark upon the burning
  wick is the promise of a letter.

  CATS on the deck of a ship are said to “carry a gale of wind in their
  tail,” or to presage a coming storm. When cats are very assiduous in
  cleaning their ears and head, it prognosticates rain.

  CATTLE give warning of an earthquake by their uneasiness.

  CHILDREN PLAYING SOLDIERS on a road is said to forebode approaching

  COALS. A cinder bounding from the fire is either a purse or a coffin.
  Those which rattle when held to the ear are tokens of wealth; those
  which are mute and solid indicate sickness or death.

  CORPSE CANDLES. The _ignis fatuus_, called by the Welsh _canhwyll
  cyrph_, or “corpse candle,” prognosticates death. If small and of pale
  blue, it denotes the death of an infant; if large and yellow, the
  death of one of full age.

  Captain Leather, chief magistrate of Belfast, in 1690, being
  shipwrecked on the Isle of Man, was told that thirteen of his crew
  were lost, for thirteen corpse candles had been seen moving towards
  the churchyard. It is a fact that thirteen of the men were drowned in
  this wreck.--Sacheverell, _Isle of Man_, 15.

  CRADLE. It forebodes evil to the child if any one rocks its cradle
  when empty.--_American Superstition._

  CRICKETS. Crickets in a house are a sign of good luck, but if they
  suddenly leave, it is a warning of death.

  CROW (_A_). A crow appearing to one on the left hand side indicates
  some impending evil to the person; and flying over a house, foretells
  evil at hand to some of the inmates. (See “Raven.”)

               Sæpe sinistra cava prædixit ab ilice cornex.
                           Virgil, _Eclogue_, i.

  CROWING OF A COCK. Themistoclês was assured of his victory over Xerxes
  by the crowing of a cock, on his way to Artemisium the day before the
  battle.--Lloyd, _Stratagems of Jerusalem_, 285.

  _Crowing of a hen_ indicates approaching disaster.


  1. _In Germany._ Several princes of Germany have their special
  warning-givers of death. In some it is the roaring of a lion, in
  others the howling of a dog. In some it is the tolling of a bell or
  striking of a clock at an unusual time, in others it is a bustling
  noise about the castle.--_The Living Library_, 284 (1621).

  2. _In Berlin._ A White Lady appears to some one of the household or
  guard, to announce the death of a prince of Hohenzollern. She was duly
  seen on the eve of Prince Waldemar’s death in 1879.

  3. _In Bohemia._ “Spectrum fœminium vestitu lugubri apparere solet
  in arce quadam illustris familiæ, antequam una ex conjugibus dominorum
  illorum e vita decebat.”--Debrio, _Disquisitiones Magicæ_, (592).

  4. _In Great Britain._ In Wales the corpse candle appears to warn a
  family of impending death. In Carmarthen scarcely any person dies but
  some one sees his light or candle.

  In Northumberland the warning light is called the person’s _waff_, in
  Cumberland a _swarth_, in Ross a _task_, in some parts of Scotland a

  King James tells us that the wraith of a person newly dead, or about
  to die, appears to his friends.--_Demonology_, 125.

  Edgewell Oak indicates the coming death of an inmate of Castle
  Dalhousie by the fall of one of its branches.

  5. _In Scotland._ The family of Rothmurchas have the Bodachau Dun, or
  the Ghost of the Hill.

  The Kinchardines have the Spectre of the Bloody Hand.

  Gartinbeg House used to be haunted by Bodach Gartin.

  The house of Tulloch Gorms used to be haunted by Maug Monlach, or the
  Girl with the Hairy Left Hand.

  DEATH-WATCH (_The_). The tapping made by a small beetle called the
  death-watch is said to be a warning of death.

          The chambermaids christen this worm a “Death-watch,”
          Because, like a watch, it always cries “click;”
          Then woe be to those in the house who are sick,
          For sure as a gun they will give up the ghost,
          If the maggot cries “click” when it scratches a post.

  DIVINING-ROD (_The_). A forked hazel rod, suspended between the balls
  of the thumbs, was at one time supposed to indicate the presence of
  water-springs and precious metals by inclining towards the earth
  beneath which these things might be found. Dousterswivel obtained
  money by professing to indicate the spot of buried wealth by a
  divining-rod.--Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_.

  DOGS. The howling of a dog at night forebodes death.

             A cane præviso funere disce mori.
                         R. Keuchen, _Crepundia_, 113 (1662).

  Capitolīnus tells us that the death of Maximīnus was presaged by the
  howling of dogs. Pausanias (in his _Messenĭa_) says the dogs brake
  into a fierce howl just before the overthrow of the Messenians.
  Fincelius says the dogs in Mysinia flocked together and howled just
  before the overthrow of the Saxons in 1553. Virgil says the same thing
  occurred just previous to the battle of Pharsalia.

  Dogs give warning of death by scratching on the floor of a house.


                    When dotterels do first appear,
                    It shows that frost is very near;
                    But when that dotterels do go,
                    Then you may look for heavy snow.
                                _Salisbury Saying._

  DREAMS. It will be remembered that Joseph, the husband of Mary, was
  warned by a dream to flee from Judæa, and when Herod was dead he was
  again warned by a dream to “turn aside into the parts of
  Galilee.”--_Matt._ ii. 13, 19, 22.

  In the Old Testament, Pharaoh had a warning dream of a famine which he
  was enabled to provide against.--_Gen._ xli. 15-36.

  Pharaoh’s butler and baker had warning dreams, one being prevised
  thereby of his restoration to favor, and the other warned of his
  execution.--_Gen._ xl. 5-23.

  Nebuchadnezzar had an historic dream, which Daniel explained.--_Dan._
  ii. 1, 31-45.

  Abimelech, king of Egypt was warned by a dream that Sarah was
  Abraham’s wife and not his sister.--_Gen._ xx. 3-16.

  Jacob had an historic dream on his way to Haran.--_Gen._ xxviii.

  Joseph, son of Jacob, had an historic dream, revealing to him his
  future greatness.--_Gen._ xxxvii. 5-10.

  Daniel had an historic dream about four beasts which indicated four
  kingdoms (_Dan._ vii.). Whether his “visions” were also dreams is
  uncertain (see chs. viii. x.).

  It would require many pages to do justice to this subject. Bland, in
  his _Popular Antiquities_, iii. 134, gives “A Dictionary of Dreams” in
  alphabetic order, extracted from _The Royal Dream-Book_.

  DRINKING-HORNS. King Arthur had a horn from which no one could drink
  who was either unchaste or unfaithful. The cuckold’s horn, brought to
  King Arthur’s court by a mysterious boy, gave warning of infidelity,
  inasmuch as no one unfaithful in love or unleal to his liege lord
  could drink therefrom without spilling the liquor. The _coupe
  enchantée_ possessed a similar property.

  EAGLE. Tarquinius Priscus was assured that he would be king of Rome by
  an eagle, which stooped upon him, took off his cap, rose in the air,
  and let the cap fall again upon his head.

  Aristander assured Alexander of his victory over Darius at the battle
  of Arbĕla, by the flight of an eagle.--Lloyd, _Stratagems of
  Jerusalem_, 290.

  EAR (_The_). If the left ear tingles or burns, it indicates that some
  one is talking evil of you; if the right ear, some one is praising
  you. The foreboded evil may be averted by biting the little finger of
  the left hand.

             Laudor et adverso, sonat auris, lædor ab ore;
               Dextra bono tinnit murmure, læva malo.
                         R. Keuchen, _Crepundia_, 113 (1662).

  EPITAPHS (_Reading_). If you would preserve your memory, be warned
  against reading epitaphs. In this instance the American superstition
  is the warning-giver, and not the act referred to.

  FIR TREES. “If a firr tree be touched, withered, or burned with
  lighting, it is a warning to the house that the master or mistress
  thereof shall shortly dye.”--Thomas Lupton, _Syxt Book of Notable
  Thinges_, iii. (1660).

  FIRE. The noise occasioned when the enclosed gas in a piece of burning
  coal matches fire, is a sure indication of a quarrel between the
  inmates of the house.

  FLORIMEL’S GIRDLE would loosen or tear asunder if any woman unfaithful
  or unchaste attempted to put it on.--Spenser, _Faëry Queen_.

  GATES OF GUNDOF´ORUS (_The_). No one carrying poison could pass these
  gates. They were made of the horn of the horned snake, by the apostle
  Thomas, who built a palace of sethym wood for this Indian king, and
  set up the gates.

  GROTTO OF EPHESUS (_The_) contained a reed, which gave forth musical
  sounds when the chaste and faithful entered it, but denounced others
  by giving forth harsh and discordant noises.--Lord Lytton, _Tales of
  Miletus_, iii.

  HARE CROSSING THE ROAD (_A_). It was thought by the ancient Romans
  that if a hare ran across the road on which a person was travelling,
  it was a certain omen of ill luck.

  Lepus quoque occurrens in via, infortunatum iter præsagit et
  ominosum.--Alexander ab Alexandro, _Genialium Dierum, libri VI._ v. 13
  p. 685.

               Nor did we meet, with nimble feet,
                 One little fearful _lepus_,
               That certain sign, as some divine,
                 Of fortune bad to keep us.
                           Ellison, _Trip to Benwell_, lx.

  HOOPOE (_The_). The country people of Sweden consider the appearance
  of the hoopoe as a presage of war.--Pennant, _Zoölogy_, i. 258.

  LIZARDS warn men of the approach of a serpent.

  LOOKING-GLASSES. If a looking-glass is broken, it is a warning that
  some one in the house will ere long lose a friend. Grose says it
  “betokens a mortality in the family, commonly the master.”

  To break a looking-glass is prophetic that the person will never get
  married; or, if married, will lose the person wedded.

  MAGPIES are prophetic birds. A common Lincolnshire proverb is, “One
  for sorrow, two for mirth, three for a wedding, four for death;” or
  thus: “One for sorrow, two for mirth, three a wedding, four a birth.”

            Augurs and understood relations have,
            By magotpies and choughs and rooks, brought forth
            The secret’st man of blood.
                        Shakespeare, _Macbeth_ (1606).

  Alexander Ross tells us that the battle between the British and
  French, in which the former were overthrown in the reign of Charles
  VIII., was foretold by a skirmish between magpies and
  jackdaws.--_Arcana Microcosmi._

  MANTLE (_The Test_). A boy brought to King Arthur’s court a mantle
  which no one could wear who was unfaithful in love, false in domestic
  life, or traitorous to the king. If any such attempted to put it on,
  it puckered up, or hung slouchingly, or tumbled to pieces.--Percy,
  _Reliques_ (“The Boy and the Mantle”).

  METEORS. Falling stars, eclipses, comets, and other signs in the
  heavens, portend the death or fall of princes.

      Meteors fright the fixed stars of heaven;
      The pale-faced moon looks bloody on the earth ...
      These signs forerun the death or fall of kings.
                  Shakespeare, _Richard II._, act ii. sc. 4 (1597).

  Consult _Matt._ xxiv. 29; _Luke_ xxi. 25.

  MICE AND RATS. If a rat or mouse, during the night, gnaw our clothes,
  it is indicative of some impending evil, perhaps even death.

  Nos autem ita leves, atque inconsiderati sumus, ut si mures
  corroserint aliquid quorum est opus hoc unum, monstrum putemus? Ante
  vero Marsicum bellum quod Clypeos Lanuvii--mures rosissent, maxumum id
  portentum haruspices esse dixerunt. Quasi vero quicquam intersit,
  mures diem noctem aliquid rodentes, scuta an cribra corroserint ...
  cum vestis a soricibus roditur, plus timere suspicionem futuri mali,
  quam præsens damnum dolere. Unde illud eleganter dictum est Catonis,
  qui cum esset consultus a quodam, qui sibi erosas esse Caligas diceret
  a soricibus, respondit; non esset illud monstrum; sed vere monstrum
  habendum fuisse, si sorices a Caligis roderentur.--Cicero,
  _Divinatio_, ii. 27.

  MOLE-SPOTS. A mole-spot on the _armpit_ promises wealth and honor; on
  the _ankle_ bespeaks modesty in men, courage in women; on the right
  _breast_ is a sign of honesty, on the left forebodes poverty; on the
  _chin_ promises wealth; on the right _ear_, respect; on the left
  forebodes dishonor; on the centre of the _forehead_ bespeaks
  treachery, sullenness and untidiness; on the right _temple_ foreshows
  that you will enjoy the friendship of the great; on the left _temple_
  forebodes distress; on the right _foot_ bespeaks wisdom, on the left,
  rashness; on the right side of the _heart_ denotes virtue, on the left
  side, wickedness; on the _knee_ of a man denotes that he will have a
  rich wife, if on the left knee of a woman she may expect a large
  family; on the _lip_ is a sign of gluttony and talkativeness; on the
  _neck_ promises wealth; on the _nose_ indicates that a man will be a
  great traveller; on the _thigh_ forebodes poverty and sorrow; on the
  _throat_, wealth and health; on the _wrist_, ingenuity.

  MOON (_The_). When the “mone lies sair on her back, or when her horns
  are pointed towards the zenith, be warned in time, for foul weather is
  nigh at hand.”--Dr. Jamieson.

  Foul weather may also be expected “when the new moon appears with the
  old one in her arms.”

              Late yestreen I saw the new moone
                Wi’ the auld moone in her arme,
              And I feir, I feir, my deir master,
                That we will come to harme.
                          _The Ballad of Sir Patrick Spens._

  To see a new moon for the first time on the right hand, and direct
  before you, is lucky; but to see it on the left hand or to turn round
  and see it behind you, is the contrary.

  If you first see a new moon through glass, your wish will come to

  NAILS. A white spot on the _thumb_ promises a present; on the _index
  finger_ denotes a friend; on the _long finger_, a foe; on the _third
  finger_, a letter or sweetheart; on the _little finger_, a journey to

  In America, white spots on the nails are considered lucky.

  NOURGEHAN’S BRACELET gave warning of poison by a tremulous motion of
  the stones, which increased as the poison approached nearer and
  nearer.--Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“The Four Talismans”).

  OPAL turns pale at the approach of poison.

  OWLS. The screeching of an owl forebodes calamity, sickness, or death.
  On one occasion an owl strayed into the Capitol, and the Romans, to
  avert the evil, underwent a formal lustration.

           The Roman senate, when within
           The city walls an owl was seen,
           Did cause their clergy with lustrations ...
           The round-faced prodigy t’ avert.
                       Butler, _Hudibras_, II. iii. 707 (1664).

  The death of Augustus was presaged by an owl singing [screeching] upon
  the top of the Curia.--Xiphilinus, _Abridgment of Dion Cassius_.

  The death of Commŏdus Antonius, the emperor, was forboded by an owl
  sitting on the top of his chamber, at Lanuvium.--Julius Obsequens,
  _Prodigies_, 85.

  The murder of Julius Cæsar was presaged by the screeching of owls.

              The bird of night did sit,
      Even at noonday, upon the market-place,
      Hooting and shrieking.
                  Shakespeare, _Julius Cæsar_, act i. sc. 3 (1607).

  The death of Valentinian was presaged by an owl, which perched on the
  top of a house where he used to bathe.--Alexander Boss, _Arcana

  Antony was warned of his defeat in the battle of Actium by an owl
  flying into the temple of Concord.--Xiphilinus, _Abridgment of Dion

  The great plague of Würtzburg, in Franconia, in 1542, was foreboded by
  the screeching of an owl.

  Alexander Ross says: “About twenty years ago I did observe that, in
  the house where I lodged, an owl groaning in the window presaged the
  death of two eminent persons, who died there shortly after.”--_Arcana

  PEACOCKS give warning of poison by ruffling their feathers.

  PERVIZ’S STRING OF PEARLS (_Prince_). When Prince Perviz went on his
  exploit, he gave his sister, Parizādê, a string of pearls, saying, “So
  long as these pearls move readily on the string, you may feel assured
  that I am alive and well; but if they stick fast, they will indicate
  to you that I am dead.”--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Two Sisters”).

  PIGEONS. It is considered by many a sure sign of death in a house if a
  white pigeon perches on the chimney.

  PIGS running about with straws in their mouths give warning of
  approaching rain.

  RATS forsaking a ship forebode its wreck, and forsaking a house
  indicate that it is on the point of falling down. (See “Mice.”)

  RAVENS. The raven is said to be the most prophetic of “inspired
  birds.” It bodes both private and public calamities. “To have the
  foresight of a raven” is a proverbial expression.

  The great battle fought between Beneventum and Apicium, was portended
  by a skirmish between ravens and kites on the same spot.--Jovianus

  An irruption of the Scythians into Thrace was presaged by a skirmish
  between crows and ravens.--Nicetas.

  Cicero was warned of his approaching death by some ravens fluttering
  about him just before he was murdered by Popilius Cænas.--Macaulay,
  _History of St. Kilda_, 176.

  Alexander Ross says: “Mr. Draper, a young gentleman, and my intimate
  friend, about four or five years ago had one or two ravens, which had
  been quarrelling on the chimney, fly into his chamber, and he died
  shortly after.”--_Arcana Microcosmi._

  RHINOCEROS’S HORNS. Cups made of this material will give warning of
  poison in a liquid by causing it to effervesce.

  SALT spilt towards a person indicates contention, but the evil may be
  averted by throwing a part of the spilt salt over the left shoulder.

             Prodige, subverso casu leviore salino,
               Si mal venturum conjicis omen; adest.
                         R. Keuchen, _Crepundia_, 215 (1662).

  SHEARS AND SIEVE (_The_), ordeals by fire, water, etc., single
  combats, the corsned or cursed morsel, the Urim and Thummim, the
  casting of lots, were all employed as tests of innocence or guilt in
  olden times, under the notion that God would direct the lot aright.
  (See JONAH, i. 7.)

  SHOES. It was thought by the Romans a bad omen to put a shoe on the
  wrong foot.

                   Augustus, having b’ oversight,
                   Put on his left shoe for his right,
                   Had like to have been slain that day
                   By soldiers mutin’ing for pay.
                               Butler, _Hudibras_.

  Auguste ... restoit immobile et consterné lorsqu’il lui arrivoit par
  mégarde de mettre le soulier droit au pied gauche.--ST. FOIX, _Essais
  sur Paris_, v. 145.

  SHOOTING PAINS. All sudden pains are warnings of evil at hand.

  Timeo quod rerum gesserim hic, ita dorsus totus prurit.--Plautus,
  _Miles Gloriosus_.

                    By the pricking of my thumbs,
                    Something wicked this way comes.
                        Shakespeare, _Macbeth_ (1606).

  SNEEZING. Once, a wish, twice, a kiss, thrice, a letter, and oftener
  than thrice, something better.

  _Sneezing before breakfast_ is a forecast that a stranger or a present
  is coming.

  _Sneezing at night-time_. To sneeze twice for three successive nights
  denotes a death, a loss, or a great gain.

  Si duæ sternutationes fiant omni nocte ab aliquo, et illud continuitur
  per tres noctes, signo est quod aliquis vel aliqua de domo morietur
  vel aliud damnum domui continget, vel maximum lucrum.--Hornmannus, _De
  Miraculis Mortuorum_, 163.

  Eustathius says that sneezing to the left is unlucky, but to the right
  lucky. Hence, when Themistoclês was offering sacrifice before his
  engagement with Xerxes, and one of the soldiers on his right hand
  sneezed, Euphrantīdês, the soothsayer, declared the Greeks would
  surely gain the victory.--Plutarch, _Lives_ (“Themistoclês”).

  SOOT ON BARS. Flakes of sheeted soot hanging from the bars of a grate
  foretell the introduction of a stranger.

       Nor less amused have I quiescent watched
       The sooty films that play upon the bars
       Pendulous, and foreboding ... some stranger’s near approach.
                   Cowper, _Winter Evening_.

  SOPHIA’S PICTURE, given to Mathias, turned yellow if the giver was in
  danger or in temptation; and black if she could not escape from the
  danger, or if she yielded to the temptation.--Massinger, _The Picture_

  SPIDERS indicate to gold-searchers where it is to be found.

  STAG’S HORN is considered in Spain to give warning of an evil eye, and
  to be a safeguard against its malignant influences.

  STONE. To find a perforated stone is a presage of good luck.

  SWALLOWS forecast bad weather by flying low, and the fine weather by
  flying high.

  TEETH WIDE APART warn a person to seek his fortune away from his
  native place.

  THUNDER. Thunder on Sunday portends the death of some learned man,
  judge, or author; on Monday, the death of women; on Tuesday, plenty of
  grain; on Wednesday, the death of harlots, or bloodshed; on Thursday,
  plenty of sheep, cattle, and corn; on Friday, the death of some great
  man, murder, or battle; on Saturday it forebodes pestilence or
  sickness.--Leonard Digges, _A Prognostication Everlasting of Ryght
  Good Effecte_ (1556).

  TOLLING BELL. You will be sure of tooth-ache if you eat while a
  funeral bell is tolling. Be warned in time by this American
  superstition, or take the consequences.

  VEIPSEY, a spring in Yorkshire, called “prophetic,” gives due warning
  of a dearth by rising to an unusual height.

  VENETIAN GLASS. If poison is put into liquor contained in a vessel
  made of Venetian glass, the vessel will crack and fall to pieces.

  WARNING STONES. Bakers in Wiltshire and in some other counties used to
  put a certain kind of pebble in their ovens, to give notice when the
  oven was hot enough for baking. When the stone turned white, the oven
  was fit for use.

  WATER OF JEALOUSY (_The_). This was a beverage which the Jews used to
  assert no adulteress could drink without bursting.--_Five
  Philosophical Questions Answered_ (1653).

  WHITE ROSE (_The_). A white rose gave assurance to a twin-brother of
  the safety or danger of his brother during his absence. So long as it
  flourished and remained in its pride of beauty, it indicated that all
  went well, but as it drooped, faded, or died, it was a warning of
  danger, sickness, or death.--_The Twin-Brothers._

  WITCH HAZEL. A forked twig of witch hazel, made into a divining-rod,
  was supposed, in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries,
  to give warning of witches, and to be efficacious in discovering them.

  WORMS. If, on your way to a sick person, you pick up a stone and find
  no living thing under it, it tells you that the sick person will die,
  but if you find there an ant or worm, it presages the patient’s

  Si visitans ægrum, lapidem inventum per viam attollat, et sub lapide
  inveniatur vermis se movens, aut formica vivens, faustum omen est, et
  indicium fore ut æger convalescat, si nihil invenitur res est
  conclamata et certa mors.--Buchardus, _Drecretorum, lib._ xix.

  =Warren= (_Widow_), “twice married and twice a widow.” A coquette of
  40, aping the airs of a girl; vain, weak, and detestable. Harry
  Dornton, the banker’s son, is in love with her daughter, Sophia
  Freelove; but the widow tries to win the young man for herself, by
  advancing money to pay off his friend’s debts. When the father hears
  of this he comes to the rescue, returns the money advanced, and
  enables the son to follow his natural inclinations by marrying the
  daughter instead of the designing mother.

  A girlish, old coquette, who would rob her daughter, and leave her
  husband’s son to rot in a dungeon, that she might marry the first fool
  she could find.--Holcroft, _The Road to Ruin_, v. 2, (1792).

  =Wart= (_Thomas_), a poor, feeble, ragged creature, one of the
  recruits in the army of Sir John Falstaff.--Shakespeare, _2 Henry
  IV._, act iii. sc. 2 (1598).

  =Warwick= (_The earl of_), a tragedy by Dr. T. Franklin. The theme is
  the last days and death of the “king maker” (1767).

  =Washington of Africa= (_The_). William Wilberforce is so called by
  Lord Byron. As Washington was the chief instrument in liberating
  America, so Wilberforce was the chief instigator of slave

                 Thou moral Washington of Africa.
                             _Don Juan_, xiv. 82 (1824).

  =Washington of Colombia=, Simon Bolivar (1785-1831).

  =Wasky=, Sir Iring’s sword.

                Right through the head-piece straight
                  The knight Sir Hagan paid,
                With his resistless Wasky,
                  That sharp and peerless blade.
                            _Nibelungen Lied_, 35 (1210).

  =Wasp=, in the drama called _Bartholomew Fair_, by Ben Jonson

  Benjamin Johnson, an actor [1665-1742], commonly called Ben Johnson,
  ... seemed to be proud to wear the poet’s name, being particularly
  great in all that author’s plays that were usually performed, viz.,
  “Wasp,” “Corbaccio,” “Morose,” and “Ananias.”--Chetwood, _History of
  the Stage_.

  ⁂ “Corbaccio,” in _The Fox_; “Morose,” in _The Silent Woman_; and
  “Ananias,” in _The Alchemist_.

  =Waste Time Utilized.=

  BAXTER wrote his _Saints’ Everlasting Rest_ on a bed of sickness

  BLOOMFIELD composed _The Farmer’s Boy_ in the intervals of shoemaking

  BRAMAH (_Joseph_), a peasant’s son, occupied his spare time when a
  mere boy in making musical instruments, aided by the village
  blacksmith. At the age of 16 he hurt his ankle while ploughing, and
  employed his time while confined to the house in carving and making
  woodwares. In another forced leisure from a severe fall, he employed
  his time in contriving and making useful inventions, which ultimately
  led him to fame and fortune (1749-1814).

  BUNYAN wrote his _Pilgrim’s Progress_ while confined in Bedford jail

  BURRITT (_Elihu_) made himself acquainted with ten languages while
  plying his trade as a village blacksmith (Hebrew, Greek, Syriac,
  Spanish, Bohemian, Polish, Danish, Persian, Turkish, and Ethiopic).
  His father was a village cobbler, and Elihu had only six months’
  education, and that at the school of his brother (1811-1879).

  CAREY, the missionary and Oriental translator, learnt the rudiments of
  Eastern languages while employed in making and mending shoes

  CLEMENT (_Joseph_), son of a poor weaver, was brought up as a
  thatcher, but, by utilizing his waste moments in self-education and
  works of skill, raised himself to a position of great note, giving
  employment to thirty workmen (1779-1844).

  COBBETT learnt grammar in the waste time of his service as a common
  soldier (1762-1835).

  D’AGUESSEAU, the great French chancellor, observing that Mde.
  D’Aguesseau always delayed ten or twelve minutes before she came down
  to dinner, began and completed a learned book of three volumes (large
  quarto), solely during these “waste minutes.” This work went through
  several editions (1668-1751).

  ETTY utilized indefatigably every spare moment he could pick up when a
  journeyman printer (1787-1849).

  FERGUSON taught himself astronomy while tending sheep in the service
  of a Scotch farmer (1710-1776).

  FRANKLIN, while working as a journeyman printer, produced his
  _Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain_

  MILLER (_Hugh_) taught himself geology while working as a mason

  PAUL worked as a tentmaker in intervals of travel and preaching.

  ⁂ This brief list must be considered only as a hint and heading for
  enlargement. Henry Cort, William Fairbairn, Fox of Derby, H. Maudslay,
  David Mushet, Murray of Leeds, J. Nasmyth, J. B. Neilson, Roberts of
  Manchester, Whitworth, and scores of others will occur to every
  reader. Indeed, genius for the most part owes its success to the
  utilization of waste time.

  =Wastle= (_William_), pseudonym of John Gibson Lockhart, in
  _Blackwood’s Magazine_ (1794-1854).

  =Wat Dreary=, _alias_ BROWN WILL, a highwayman, in Captain Macheath’s
  gang. Peachum says, “he has an underhand way of disposing of the goods
  he stole,” and therefore he should allow him to remain a little longer
  “upon his good behavior.”--Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_, i. (1727).

  =Water-Poet= (_The_), John Taylor, a Thames waterman (1580-1654).

  =Water-Wraith=, the evil spirit of the waters.

              By this the storm grew loud apace,
                The water-wraith was shrieking.
                          Campbell, _Lord Ullin’s Daughter_.

  =Waterman= (_The_), Tom Tug. It is the title of a ballad opera by
  Charles Dibdin (1774). (For the plot, see WILELMINA BUNDLE.)

  =Watkins= (_William_), the English attendant on the prince of
  Scotland.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

  =Watts= (_Dr. Isaac_). It is said that Isaac Watts, being beaten by
  his father for wasting his time in writing verses, exclaimed:

                     O, father, pity on me take,
                     And I will no more verses make.

  A similar anecdote is told of Ovid, the Latin poet:

             Parce, precor, genitor, posthac non versificabo.

  =Wauch= (_Mansie_), fictitious name of D. M. Moir, author of _The Life
  of Mansie Wauch, Tailor in Dalkeith, written by himself_ (1828).

  =Waverley=, the first of Scott’s historical novels, published in 1814.
  The materials are Highland feudalism, military bravery, and
  description of natural scenery. There is a fine vein of humor, and a
  union of fiction with history. The chief characters are Charles
  Edward, the Chevalier, the noble old baron of Bradwardine, the simple,
  faithful clansman, Evan Dhu, and the poor fool, Davie Gellatley, with
  his fragments of song and scattered gleams of fancy.

  Scott did not prefix his name to _Waverley_, being afraid that it
  might compromise his poetical reputation.--Chambers, _English
  Literature_, ii. 586.

  _Waverley_ (_Captain Edward_), of Waverley Honor, and hero of the
  novel called by his name. Being gored by a stag, he resigned his
  commission, and proposed marriage to Flora M’Ivor, but was not
  accepted. Fergus M’Ivor (Flora’s brother) introduced him to Prince
  Charles Edward. He entered the service of the Young Chevalier, and in
  the battle of Preston Pans saved the life of Colonel Talbot. The
  colonel, out of gratitude, obtained the pardon of young Waverley, who
  then married Rose Bradwardine, and settled down quietly in Waverley

  _Mr. Richard Waverley_, the captain’s father, of Waverley Honor.

  _Sir Everard Waverley_, the captain’s uncle.

  _Mistress Rachel Waverley_, sister of Sir Everard.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

  =Wax= (_A lad o’_), a spruce young man, like a model in wax. Lucretius
  speaks of _persona cerea_, and Horace of the waxen arms of Telĕphus,
  meaning beautiful in shape and color.

           A man, young lady! Lady, such a man
           As all the world----Why, he’s a man o’ wax!
                       Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet_ (1595).

  =Way of the World= (_The_), a comedy by W. Congreve (1700). The “way
  of the world” is to tie up settlements to wives, to prevent their
  husbands squandering their wives’ fortunes. Thus, Fainall wanted to
  get into his power the fortune of his wife, whom he hated, but found
  it was “in trust to Edward Mirabell,” and consequently could not be
  tampered with.

  =Way to Keep Him= (_The_), a comedy by A. Murphy (1760). The object of
  this drama is to show that women, after marriage, should not wholly
  neglect their husbands, but should try to please them, and make home
  agreeable and attractive. The chief persons are Mr. and Mrs. Lovemore.
  Mr. Lovemore has a virtuous and excellent wife, whom he esteems and
  loves; but, finding his home insufferably dull, he seeks amusement
  abroad; and those passions which have no play at home lead him to
  intrigue and card-playing, routes and dubious society. The under-plot
  is this: Sir Bashful Constant is a mere imitator of Mr. Lovemore, and
  Lady Constant suffers neglect from her husband and insult from his
  friends, because he foolishly thinks it is not _comme il faut_ to love
  after he has married the woman of his choice.

  =Ways and Means=, a comedy by Colman, the younger (1788). Random and
  Scruple meet at Calais two young ladies, Harriet and Kitty, daughters
  of Sir David Dunder, and fall in love with them. They come to Dover,
  and accidentally meet Sir David, who invites them over to Dunder Hall,
  where they are introduced to the two young ladies. Harriet is to be
  married next day, against her will, to Lord Snolts, a stumpy, “gummy”
  nobleman of five and forty; and, to avoid this hateful match, she and
  her sister agree to elope at night with the two young guests. It so
  happens that a series of blunders in the dark occur, and Sir David
  himself becomes privy to the whole plot, but, to prevent scandal, he
  agrees to the two marriages, and discovers that the young men, both in
  family and fortune, are quite suitable to be his sons-in-law.

  =Wayland= (_Launcelot_), or WAYLAND SMITH, farrier in the vale of
  Whitehorse. Afterwards disguised as a pedlar at Cumnor Place.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Wealtheow= (2 _syl._), wife of Hrothgar, king of Denmark.

  Wealtheow went forth; mindful of their races, she ... greeted the men
  in the hall. The freeborn lady first handed the cup to the prince of
  the East Danes.... The lady of the Helmings then went about every part
  ... she gave treasure-vessels, until the opportunity occurred that she
  (a queen hung round with rings) ... bore forth the mead-cup to Beowolf
  ... and thanked God that her will was accomplished, that an earl of
  Denmark was a guarantee against crime.--_Beowulf_ (Anglo-Saxon epic,
  sixth century).

  =Wealthy Hoogs.= Yankee housewife, “hungry for books, full of keen
  thought, energetic to preëminence even among Yankee notables”--“she
  lived here, simply where she had been put, made and packed her butter,
  wove her homespun, and loved faithfully--and forbearingly, for the
  most part--(were it praise worth a woman’s having to say more?) the
  man whose name and home she shared.”--A. D. T. Whitney, _The
  Gayworthys_ (1865).

  =Wealthy= (_Sir William_), a retired City merchant, with one son of
  prodigal propensities. In order to save the young man from ruin, the
  father pretends to be dead, disguises himself as a German baron, and,
  with the aid of coadjutors, becomes the chief creditor of the young

  _Sir George Wealthy_, the son of Sir William. After having run out his
  money, Lucy is brought to him as a courtezan; but the young man is so
  moved with her manifest innocence and tale of sorrow that he places
  her in an asylum where here distresses would be sacred, “and her
  indigent beauty would be guarded from temptation.” Afterwards she
  becomes his wife.

  _Mr. Richard Wealthy_, merchant, the brother of Sir William; choleric,
  straightforward, and tyrannical. He thinks obedience is both law and

  _Lucy Wealthy_, daughter of Richard. Her father wants her to marry a
  rich tradesman, and, as she refuses to do so turns her out of doors.
  She is brought to Sir George Wealthy as a _fille de joie_; but the
  young man, discerning her innocence and modesty, places her in
  safe-keeping. He ultimately finds out that she is his cousin, and the
  two parents rejoice in consummating a union so entirely in accordance
  with both their wishes.--Foote, _The Minor_ (1760).

  =Weary-all Hill=, above Glastonbury, to the left of Tor Hill. This
  spot is the traditional landing-place of Joseph of Arimathea; and here
  is the site (marked by a stone bearing the letters A. I. A.D. xxxi.)
  of the holy thorn.

  When the saint arrived at Glastonbury, _weary_ with his long journey,
  he struck his staff into the ground, and the staff became the famous
  thorn, the site being called “Weary-all Hill.”

  =Weatherport= (_Captain_), a naval officer.--Sir W. Scott, _The
  Pirate_ (time, William III.).

  =Weaver-Poet of Inverary= (_The_), William Thom (1799-1850).

  =Wea´zel= (_Timothy_), attorney-at-law at Lestwithiel, employed as the
  agent of Penruddock.--Cumberland, _The Wheel of Fortune_ (1778).

  =Wedding Day= (_The_), a comedy by Mrs. Inchbald (1790). The plot is
  this: Sir Adam Contest lost his first wife by shipwreck, and “twelve
  or fourteen years” afterwards he led to the altar a young girl of 18,
  to whom he was always singing the praises of his first wife--a
  phœnix, a paragon, the _ne plus ultra_ of wives and women. She did
  everything to make him happy. She loved him, obeyed him; ah! “he would
  never look upon her like again.” On the wedding day this pink of wives
  and women made her appearance, and told how she had been rescued, and
  Sir Adam was dumfounded. “He was happy to bewail her loss,” but to
  rejoice in her restoration was quite another matter.

  =Weeping Philosopher= (_The_), Heraclītos, who looked at the folly of
  man with grief (fl. B.C. 500). (See JEDDLER).

  =Wegg= (_Silas_), wooden-legged ballad-monger and humbug, who “reads”
  for the confiding Boffins, and does his best to ruin them.--Charles
  Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_.

  =Weir= (_Major_), the favorite baboon of Sir Robert Redgauntlet. In
  the tale of “Wandering Willie,” Sir Robert’s piper went to the
  infernal regions to obtain the knight’s receipt of rent, which had
  been paid; but no receipt could be found, because the monkey had
  carried it to the castle turret.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
  George III.).

  =Weird Sisters.= The three witches in Shakespeare’s play _Macbeth_.

  =Weissnichtwo= [_Vice-neckt-vo_], nowhere. The word is German for “I
  know not where,” and was coined by Carlyle (_Sartor Resartus_, 1833).
  Sir W. Scott has a similar Scotch compound, “Kennaquhair” (“I know not
  where”). Cervantes has the “island of Trapoban” (_i.e._, of
  “dish-clouts,” from _trapos_, the Spanish for “a dish-clout”). Sir
  Thomas More has “Utopia” (Greek, _ou topos_, “no place”). We might add
  the “island of Medăma” (Greek, “nowhere”), “the peninsular of
  Udamogês” (Greek, “nowhere on earth”), the country of “Kennahtwhar,”
  etc., and place them in the great “Nullibian” ocean (“nowhere”), in
  any degree beyond 180º long. and 90º lat.

  =Wel´ford=, one of the suitors of “the Scornful Lady” (no name is
  given to the lady).--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Scornful Lady_

  =Well.= Three of the most prominent Bible characters met their wives
  for the first time by wells of water, viz., Isaac, Jacob, and Moses.

  Eliezer met Rebekah by a well, and arranged with Bethuel for her to
  become Isaac’s wife.--_Gen._ xxiv.

  Jacob met Rachel by the well of Haran.--_Gen._ xxix.

  When Moses fled from Egypt into the land of Midian, he “sat down by a
  well,” and the seven daughters of Jethro came there to draw water, one
  of whom, named Zipporah, became his wife.--_Exod._ ii. 15-21.

  The Princess Nausicăa, daughter of Alcinŏos, king of the Phæacians,
  was with her maidens washing the household linen on the seashore when
  she first encountered Ulysses.--Homer, _Odyssey_, vi.

  =Well of English Undefiled.= So Spenser calls Chaucer.

            Dan Chaucer, well of English undefiled,
            On Fame’s eternal bead-roll worthy to be filed.
                        Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 2 (1596).

  =Well-Beloved= (_The_), Charles IV. of France, Le Bien-Aimé (1368,

  Louis XV. of France, _Le Bien-Aimé_ (1710, 1715-1774).

  =Well-Founded Doctor= (_The_), Ægidius de Colonna; also called “The
  Most Profound Doctor” (Doctor _Fundatissimus et Theologorum
  Princeps_); sometimes surnamed “Romānus,” because he was born in the
  Campagna di Roma, but more generally “Colonna,” from a town in the
  Campagna (1247-1316).

  =Wellborn= (_Francis_, usually called _Frank_), nephew of Sir Giles
  Overreach, and son of Sir John Wellborn, who “bore the whole sway” of
  Northamptonshire, kept a large estate, and was highly honored. Frank
  squandered away the property, and got greatly into debt, but induced
  Lady Allworth to give him her countenance out of gratitude and respect
  to his father. Sir Giles fancies that the rich dowager is about to
  marry his nephew, and, in order to bring about this desirable
  consummation, not only pays all his debts, but supplies him liberally
  with ready money. Being thus freed from debt, and having sown his wild
  oats, young Wellborn reforms, and Lord Lovell gives him a
  “company.”--Massinger, _A New Way to Pay Old Debts_ (1625).

  =Weller= (_Samuel_), boots at the White Hart, and afterwards servant
  to Mr. Pickwick, to whom he becomes devotedly attached. Rather than
  leave his master when he is sent to the Fleet, Sam Weller gets his
  father to arrest him for debt. His fun, his shrewdness, his
  comparisons, his archness, and his cunning on behalf of his master are

  _Tony Weller_, father of Sam; a coachman of the old school, who drives
  a coach between London and Dorking. Naturally portly in size, he
  becomes far more so in his great-coat of many capes. Tony wears
  top-boots, and his hat has a low crown and broad brim. On the
  stage-box he is a king, elsewhere he is a mere greenhorn. He marries a
  widow, landlady of the “Marquis of Granby inn,” and his constant
  advice to his son is, “Sam, beware of the vidders.”--C. Dickens, _The
  Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

  =Wellington of Gamblers= (_The_). Lord Rivers was called in Paris _Le
  Wellington des Joueurs_.

  =Wellington’s Horse=, Copenhagen. It died at the age of 27.

  =Wellon= (_Mr._), rector of English church at Conception Bay, and Mrs.
  Barre’s (Debrée’s) firm friend. He performs the service over her
  husband’s grave.--Robert Lowell, _The New Priest of Conception Bay_

  =Wemmick=, clerk of Mr. Jaggers, the lawyer. He lived at Walworth.
  Wemmick was a dry man, rather short in stature, with square, wooden
  face. “There were some marks in the face which might have been dimples
  if the material had been softer.” His linen was frayed; he wore four
  mourning rings, and a brooch representing a lady, a weeping willow and
  a cinerary urn. His eyes were small and glittering; his lips small,
  thin and mottled; his age was between 40 and 50 years. Mr. Wemmick
  wore his hat on the back of his head, and looked straight before him,
  as if nothing was worth looking at. Mr. Wemmick at home and Mr.
  Wemmick in his office were two distinct beings. At home he was his
  “own engineer, his own carpenter, his own plumber, his own gardener,
  his own Jack-of-all-trades,” and had fortified his little wooden house
  like Commodore Trunnion (_q.v._) His father lived with him, and he
  called him “The Aged.” The old man was very deaf, but heated the poker
  with delight to fire off the nine o’clock signal, and chuckled with
  joy because he could hear the bang. The house had a “real flag-staff,”
  and a plank which crossed the ditch some four feet wide and two feet
  deep was the drawbridge. At nine o’clock P.M., Greenwich time, the gun
  (called “The Stinger”) was fired.

  The piece of ordnance was mounted in a separate fortress, constructed
  of lattice-work. It was protected from the weather by an ingenious
  little tarpaulin contrivance in the nature of an umbrella.--C.
  Dickens, _Great Expectations_, xxv. (1860).

  =Wenlock= (_Wild Wenlock_), kinsman of Sir Hugo de Lacy, constable of
  Chester. His head is cut off by the insurgents.--Sir W. Scott, _The
  Betrothed_ (time Henry II).

  =Weno´nah=, mother of Hiawatha and daughter of Noko´mis. Nokomis was
  swinging in the moon, when some of her companions, out of jealousy,
  cut the ropes, and she fell to the earth “like a falling star.” That
  night was born her first child, a daughter, whom she named Wenonah. In
  due time, this lovely daughter was wooed and won by Mudjekee´wis (the
  west wind), and became the mother of Hiawatha. The false West Wind
  deserted her, and the young mother died.

             Fair Nokomis bore a daughter,
             And she called her name Wenonah.
                         Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, iii. (1855).

  =Wentworth= (_Eva_), the beau-ideal of female purity. She was educated
  in strict seclusion. De Courcy fell in love with her, but deceived
  her; whereupon she died calmly and tranquilly, elevated by religious
  hope. (See ZAIRA).--Rev. C. R. Maturin, _Women_ (a romance, 1822).

  =Werburg= (_St._), born a princess. By her prayer, she drove the wild
  geese from Weedon.

       She falleth in her way with Weedon, where, ’tis said,
       St. Werburg, princely born--a most religious maid--
       From those peculiar fields, by prayer the wild geese drove.
                   Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiii. (1622).

  =Were-wolf= (2 _syl._), a man-wolf, a man transformed into a wolf
  temporarily or otherwise.

             Oft through the forest dark,
             Followed the weir-wolf’s bark.
                         Longfellow, _The Skeleton in Armor_.

  =Werner=, the boy said to have been crucified at Bacharach, on the
  Rhine, by the Jews. (See HUGH OF LINCOLN.)

           The innocent boy who, some years back,
           Was taken and crucified by the Jews
           In that ancient town of Bacharach.
                       Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

  =Werner= or =Kruitzner= (_Count of Siegendorf_), father of Ulric.
  Being driven from the dominions of his father, he wandered about for
  twelve years as a beggar, hunted from place to place by Count
  Stral´enheim. At length, Stralenheim, travelling through Silesia, was
  rescued from the Oder by Gabor (_alias_ Ulric), and was lodged in an
  old tumble-down palace, where Werner had been lodging for some few
  days. Here Werner robbed the count of a rouleau of gold, the next day
  the count was murdered by Ulric (without the connivance or even
  knowledge of Werner). When Werner succeeded to the rank and wealth of
  Count Siegendorf, he became aware that his son, Ulric, was the
  murderer, and denounced him. Ulric departed, and Werner said, “The
  race of Siegendorf is past.”--Byron, _Werner_ (1821).

  (This drama is borrowed from “Kruitzner, or The German’s Tale,” in
  Miss H. Lee’s _Canterbury Tales_, 1797-1805).


  =Werther=, a young German student, of poetic fancy and very sensitive
  disposition, who falls in love with Lotte (2 _syl._), the betrothed
  and afterwards the wife of Albert. Werther becomes acquainted with
  Lotte’s husband, who invites him to stay with him as a guest. In this
  visit his love blazes out into a terrible passion, and after vainly
  striving to fight it down, he puts an end to his misery by shooting
  himself.--Goethe, _The Sorrows of Young Werther_ (1774).

  ⁂ Goethe represents himself, or rather one of the moods of his mind,
  in the character of Werther. The catastrophe, however, is borrowed
  from the fate of a schoolfellow of his named Jerusalem, who shot
  himself on account of a hopeless passion for a married woman. “Albert”
  and “Lotte” were sketched from his friends Albert and Charlotte
  Kestner, a young couple with whom he had relations not unlike those of
  Werther in the early part of the story with the fictitious characters.

  =Werther of Politics.= The marquis of Londonderry is so called by Lord
  Byron. Werther, the personification of maudlin sentimentality, is the
  hero of Goethe’s romance entitled _The Sorrows of Young Werther_

  It is the first time since the Normans that England has been insulted
  by a _minister_ who could not speak English, and that parliament
  permitted itself to be dictated to in the language of Mrs.
  Malaprop.... Let us hear no more of this man, and let Ireland remove
  the ashes of her Grattan from the sanctuary of Westminster. Shall the
  Patriot of Humanity repose by the Werther of Politics?--Byron, _Don
  Juan_ (preface to canto vi., etc., 1824).

  =Wessel= (_Peder_), a tailor’s apprentice, who rose to the rank of
  vice-admiral of Denmark, in the reign of Christian V. He was called
  Tor´denskiold (3 _syl._), corrupted into Tordenskiol (the “Thunder
  Shield”), and was killed in a duel.

             North Sea! a glimpse of Wessel rent
             Thy murky sky ...
             From Denmark thunders Tordenskiol;
             Let each to heaven commend his soul,
             And fly.
                         Longfellow, _King Christian_ [_V._].

  =West Indian= (_The_), a comedy by R. Cumberland (1771). Mr. Belcour,
  the adopted son of a wealthy Jamaica merchant, on the death of his
  adopted father came to London, to the house of Mr. Stockwell, once the
  clerk of Mr. Belcour, senior. This clerk had secretly married
  Belcour’s daughter, and when her boy was born it was “laid as a
  foundling at her father’s door.” Old Belcour brought the child up as
  his own son, and at death “bequeathed to him his whole estate.” The
  young man then came to London as the guest of Mr. Stockwell, the rich
  merchant, and accidentally encountered in the street Miss Louisa
  Dudley, with whom he fell in love. Louisa, with her father, Captain
  Dudley, and her brother, Charles, all in the greatest poverty, were
  lodging with a Mr. Fulmer, a small bookseller. Belcour gets
  introduced, and, after the usual mistakes and hairbreadth escapes,
  makes her his wife.

  =Western= (_Squire_), a jovial, fox-hunting country gentleman,
  supremely ignorant of book-learning, very prejudiced, selfish,
  irascible and countrified; but shrewd, good-natured, and very fond of
  his daughter, Sophia.

  Philip, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, was in character a Squire
  Western, choleric, boisterous, illiterate, selfish, absurd and
  cowardly.--Osborne, _Secret History_, i. 218.

  Squire Western stands alone; imitated from no prototype, and in
  himself an inimitable picture of ignorance, prejudice, irascibility
  and rusticity, united with natural shrewdness, constitutional good
  humor, and an instinctive affection for his daughter.--_Encyc. Brit._,
  Art. “Fielding.”

  _Sophia Western_, daughter of Squire Western. She becomes engaged to
  Tom Jones, the foundling.--Fielding, _Tom Jones_ (1749).

             There now are no Squire Westerns, as of old;
               And our Sophias are not so emphatic,
             But fair as them or fairer to behold.
                         Byron, _Don Juan_, xiii. 110 (1824).

  =Westlock= (_John_), a quondam pupil of Mr. Pecksniff (“architect and
  land surveyor”). John Westlock marries Ruth, the sister of Tom
  Pinch.--C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1843).

  =Westmoreland=, according to fable, is West-Mar-land. Mar or Marius,
  son of Arvirăgus, was king of the British, and overthrew Rodric, the
  Scythian, in the north-west of England, where he set up a stone with
  an inscription of this victory, “both of which remain to this
  day.”--Geoffrey, _British History_, iv. 17 (1142).

  =Westward Hoe=, a comedy by Thomas Dekker (1607). The Rev. Charles
  Kingsley published a novel in 1854, entitled _Westward Ho!_ or _The
  Voyages and Adventures of Sir Amyas Leigh in the Reign of Queen
  Elizabeth_. (See EASTWARD HOE.)

  =Wetheral= (_Stephen_), surnamed “Stephen Steelheart,” in the troop of
  Lord Waldemar Fitzurse (a baron following Prince John).--Sir W. Scott,
  _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Wetherell= (_Elizabeth_), Miss Susan Warner, authoress of _The Wide,
  Wide World_ (1852), _Queechy_ (1853), etc.

  =Wetzweiler= (_Tid_), or _Le Glorieux_, the court jester of Charles,
  “The Bold,” duke of Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time,
  Edward IV.).

  =Whachum=, journeyman to Sidrophel. He was Richard Green, who
  published a pamphlet of base ribaldry, called _Hudibras in a Snare_

             A paltry wretch he had, half-starved,
             That him in place of zany served,
             Hight Whachum.
                         S. Butler, _Hudibras_, ii. 3 (1664).

  =Whang=, an avaricious Chinese miller, who, by great thrift, was
  pretty well off, but, one day, being told that a neighbor had found a
  pot of money which he had dreamt of, began to be dissatisfied with his
  slow gains, and longed for a dream also. At length the dream came. He
  dreamt there was a huge pot of gold concealed under his mill, and set
  to work to find it. The first omen of success was a broken mug, then a
  house-tile, and at length, after much digging, he came to a stone so
  large that he could not lift it. He ran to tell his luck to his wife,
  and the two tugged at the stone, but, as they removed it, down fell
  the mill in utter ruins.--Goldsmith, _A Citizen of the World_, lxx.

  =Wharton= (_Eliza_), heroine of one of the first novels published in
  the United States, under the title of _The Coquette_, or _The History
  of Eliza Wharton_, by Hannah Webster Foster (1797).

  =Whartons= (_The_). _Henry Wharton_, young royalist captain, arrested
  as a spy while visiting his father’s house, which is within the
  American lines. He is assisted to escape by Harvey Birch.

  _Sarah Wharton_, the elder daughter, has royalist proclivities;
  _Frances_ is loyal to the colonial cause, and betrothed to Major

  _Mr. Wharton_ (_père_), fine specimen of the old English
  gentleman.--James Fenimore Cooper, _The Spy_ (1821).

  =What Next?= A farce by T. Dibdin. Colonel Clifford meets at Brighton
  two cousins, Sophia and Clarissa Touchwood, and falls in love with the
  latter, who is the sister of Major Touchwood, but thinks her Christian
  name is Sophia, and so is accepted by Sophia’s father, who is Colonel
  Touchwood. Now, it so happens that Major Touchwood is in love with his
  cousin, Sophia, and looks on Colonel Clifford as his rival. The major
  tries to outwit his supposed rival, but finds they are both in error,
  that it is Clarissa whom the colonel wishes to marry, and that Sophia
  is quite free to follow the bent of her own and the major’s choice.

  =Wheel of Fortune= (_The_), a comedy by R. Cumberland (1779).

  ⁂ For the plot and tale, see PENRUDDOCK.

  =Whetstone Cut by a Razor.= Accius Navius, the augur, cut a whetstone
  with a razor in the presence of Tarquin, the elder.

   In short, ’twas his fate, unemployed or in place, sir,
   To eat mutton cold, and cut blocks with a razor.
               Goldsmith, _Retaliation_ (“Burke” is referred to, 1774).

  =Whims= (_Queen_), the monarch of Whimdom, or country of whims,
  fancies, and literary speculations. Her subjects were alchemists,
  astrologers, fortune-tellers, rhymers, projectors, schoolmen, and so
  forth. The best way of reaching this empire is “to trust to the
  whirlwind and the current.” When Pantagruel’s ship ran aground, it was
  towed off by 7,000,000 drums quite easily. These drums are the vain
  imaginings of whimsyists. Whenever a person is perplexed at any knotty
  point of science or doctrine, some drum will serve for a nostrum to
  pull him through.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, v. 18, etc. (1545).

  =Whim´sey=, a whimsical, kind-hearted old man, father to Charlotte and
  “young” Whimsey.

  As suspicious of everybody above him, as if he had been bred a rogue
  himself.--Act i. 1.

  _Charlotte Whimsey_, the pretty daughter of old Whimsey; in love with
  Monford.--James Cobb, _The First Floor_.

  =Whip with Six Lashes=, the “Six Articles” of Henry VIII. (1539).

  =Whipping Boy.= A boy kept to be whipped when a prince deserved

  BARNABY FITZPATRICK stood for Edward VI.

  D’OSSAT and DUPERRON, afterwards cardinals, were whipped by Clement
  VIII. for Henry IV. of France.--Fuller, _Church History_, ii. 342

  MUNGO MURRAY stood for Charles I.

  RAPHAEL was flogged for the son of the marquis de Leganez, but, not
  seeing the justice of this arrangement, he ran away.--Lesage, _Gil
  Blas_, v. 1 (1724).

  =Whisker=, the pony of Mr. Garland, Abel Cottage, Finchley.

  /# There approached towards him a little, clattering, jingling,
  four-wheeled chaise, drawn by a little obstinate-looking, rough-coated
  pony, and driven by a little, fat, placid-faced old gentleman. Beside
  the little old gentleman sat a little old lady, plump and placid like
  himself, and the pony was coming along at his own pace, and doing
  exactly as he pleased with the whole concern. If the old gentleman
  remonstrated by shaking the reins, the pony replied by shaking his
  head. It was plain that the utmost the pony would consent to do was to
  go in his own way ... after his own fashion, or not at all.--C.
  Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_, xiv. (1840).

  =Whiskerandos= (_Don Fero´lo_), the sentimental lover of
  Tilburina.--Sheridan, _The Critic_, ii. 1 (1779).

  =Whist= (_Father of the game of_), Edmond Hoyle (1672-1769).

  =Whistle= (_The_). In the train of Anne of Denmark, when she went to
  Scotland with James VI., was a gigantic Dane of matchless drinking
  capacity. He had an ebony whistle, which, at the beginning of a
  drinking bout, he would lay on the table, and whoever was last able to
  blow it, was to be considered the “Champion of the Whistle.” In
  Scotland the Dane was defeated by Sir Robert Laurie, of Maxwelton,
  who, after three days’ and three nights’ hard drinking, left the Dane
  under the table, and “blew on the whistle his requiem shrill.” The
  whistle remained in the family several years, when it was won by Sir
  Walter Laurie, son of Sir Robert; and then by Walter Riddel, of
  Glenriddel, brother-in-law of Sir Walter Laurie. The last person who
  carried it off was Alexander Ferguson of Craigdarroch, son of “Annie
  Laurie” so well known.

  ⁂ Burns has a ballad on the subject, called _The Whistle_.

  _Whistle._ The blackbird, says Drayton, is the only bird that

              Upon his dulcet pipe the merle doth only play.
                          _Polyolbion_, xiii. (1613).

  =Whistler= (_The_), a young thief, natural son of Sir G. Staunton,
  whom he shot after his marriage with Effie Deans.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

  =Whistling.= Mr. Townley, of Hull, says, in _Notes and Queries_,
  August 2, 1879, that a Roman Catholic checked his wife, who was
  whistling for a dog: “If you please, ma’am, don’t whistle. Every time
  a woman whistles, the heart of the blessed Virgin bleeds.”

  Une poule qui chante, le coq et une fille qui siffle, portent malheur
     dans la maison.
  La poule ne doit point chanter devant le coq.

  A whistling woman and a crowing hen
  Are neither good for God or men.

  =Whitaker= (_Richard_), the old steward of Sir Geoffrey Peveril.--Sir
  W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

  =Whitchurch=, in Middlesex (or Little Stanmore), is the parish, and
  William Powell was the blacksmith, made celebrated by Händel’s
  _Harmonious Blacksmith_. Powell died in 1780.

  =White Cat= (_The_). A certain queen, desirous of obtaining some fairy
  fruit, was told she might gather as much as she would if she would
  give to them the child about to be born. The queen agreed, and the
  new-born child was carried to the fairies. When of marriageable age,
  the fairies wanted her to marry Migonnet, a fairy-dwarf, and, as she
  refused to do so, changed her into a white cat. Now comes the second
  part. An old king had three sons, and promised to resign the kingdom
  to that son who brought him the smallest dog. The youngest son
  wandered to a palace, where he saw a white cat endowed with human
  speech, who gave him a dog so tiny that the prince carried it in an
  acorn shell. The father then said he would resign his crown to that
  son who brought him home a web, 400 yards long, which would pass
  through the eye of a needle. The White Cat gave the prince a web 400
  yards long packed in the shale of a millet grain. The king then told
  his sons he would resign his throne to that son who brought home the
  handsomest bride. The White Cat told the prince to cut off its head
  and tail. On doing so, the creature resumed her human form, and was
  acknowledged to be the most beautiful woman on earth.

  Her eyes committed theft upon all hearts, and her sweetness kept them
  captive. Her shape was majestic, her air noble and modest, her wit
  flowing, her manners engaging. In a word, she was beyond everything
  that was lovely.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The White Cat,”

  =White Clergy= (_The_), the parish priests, in contradistinction to
  _The Black Clergy_ or monks, in Russia.

  =White Cross Knights=, the Knights Hospitallers. The Knights Templar
  wore a _red_ cross.

       The White Cross Knights of the adjacent isle.
                   Robert Browning, _The Return of the Druses_, i.

  =White Devil of Wallachia.= George Castriota, known as “Scanderbeg,”
  was called by the Turks “The White Devil of Wallachia” (1404-1467).

  =White Elephant= (_King of the_) a title of the kings of Ava and Siam.

  =White Friars= (_The_), the Carmelites, who dress in white.

  ⁂ There is a novel by Miss Robinson called _White Friars_.

  =White Heron.= Maurice Thompson thus describes the shooting of a white

  “Like twenty serpents bound together,
  Hissed the flying arrow’s feather.
  A thud, a puff, a feathery ring,
  A quick collapse, a quivering--
  A whirl, a headlong downward dash,
  A heavy fall, a sullen plash,
  And, like white foam, or giant flake
  Of snow, he lay upon the lake!”
              Maurice Thompson, _The Death of the White Heron, Songs of
                 Fair Weather_ (1883).

  =White Hoods= (or _Chaperons Blancs_); the insurgents of Ghent, led by
  Jean Lyons, noted for their fight at Minnewater to prevent the digging
  of a canal which they fancied would be injurious to trade.

     Saw the fight at Minnewater, saw the “White Hoods” moving west.
                 Longfellow, _The Belfry of Bruges_.

  =White Horse= (_Lords of The_), the old Saxon chiefs, whose standard
  was a white horse.

             And tampered with the lords of the White Horse.
                         Tennyson, _Guinevere_.

  =White Horse of the Peppers=, a sprat to catch a mackerel. After the
  battle of the Boyne, the estates of many of the Jacobites were
  confiscated, and given to the adherents of William III. Amongst
  others, the estate of the Peppers was forfeited, and the Orangeman to
  whom it was awarded went to take possession. “Where was it, and what
  was its extent?” These were all-important questions; and the Orangeman
  was led up and down, hither and thither, for several days, under
  pretence of showing him the land. He had to join the army by a certain
  day, but was led so far afield that he agreed to forego his claim if
  supplied with means of reaching his regiment within the given time.
  Accordingly, the “white horse,” the pride of the family, and the
  fastest animal in the land, was placed at his disposal, the king’s
  grant was revoked, and the estate remained in the possession of the
  original owner.--S. Lover, _Stories and Legends of Ireland_ (1832-34).

  =White Horse of Wantage= (Berkshire), cut in the chalk hills. The
  horse is 374 feet long, and may be seen at the distance of fifteen
  miles. It commemorates a great victory obtained by Alfred, over the
  Danes, called the battle of Æscesdun (_Ashdown_), during the reign of
  his brother Ethelred in 871. (See RED HORSE.)

  In this battle all the flower of the barbarian youth was there slain,
  so that neither before nor since was ever such a destruction known
  since the Saxons first gained Britain by their arms.--Ethelwerd,
  _Chronicle_, ii. A. 871. (See also Asser, _Life of Alfred_, year 871.)

  =White King=, the title of the emperor of Muscovy, from the white
  robes which these kings were accustomed to use.

  Sunt qui principem Moscoviæ _Album Regem_ noncupant. Ego quidem causam
  diligenter quærebam, cur _regis albi_ nomine appellaretur cum nemo
  principum Moscoviæ eo titulo antea [_Basilius Ivanwich_] esset
  usus.... Credo autem ut Persam nunc propter _rubea_ tegumenta capitis
  “Kissilpassa” (_i.e._, rubeum caput) vocant; ita reges Moscoviæ
  propter _alba_ tegumenta “Albos Reges” appellari.--Sigismund.

  ⁂ Perhaps it may be explained thus: Muscovy is always called “Russia
  Alba,” as Poland is called “Black Russia.”

  _White King._ So Charles I. is called by Herbert. His robe of state
  was white instead of purple. At his funeral the snow fell so thick
  upon the pall that it was quite white.--Herbert, _Memoirs_ (1764).

  =White Lady= (_The_), “La Dame d’Aprigny,” a Norman fée, who used to
  occupy the site of the present Rue de St. Quentin, at Bayeux.

  La Dame Abonde, also a Norman fée.

  Vocant dominam Abundiam pro eo quod domibus quas frequentant,
  abundantiam bonorum temporalium præstare, putantur non aliter tibi
  sentiendum est neque aliter quam quemadmodum de illis
  audivisti.--William of Auvergne (1248).

  _White Lady_ (_The_), a ghost seen in different castles and palaces
  belonging to the royal family of Prussia, and supposed to forebode the
  death of some of the royal family, especially one of the children. The
  last appearance was in 1879, just prior to the death of Prince
  Waldemar. Twice she has been heard to speak, _e.g._: In December,
  1628, she appeared in the palace at Berlin, and said in Latin, “I wait
  for judgment;” and once at the castle of Neuhaus, in Bohemia, when she
  said to the princess, in German, “It is ten o’clock;” and the lady
  addressed died in a few weeks.

  There are two white ladies, in fact--one the Countess Agnes, of
  Orlamunde, and the other the Princess Bertha von Rosenberg, who lived
  in the fifteenth century. The former was buried alive in a vault in
  the palace. She was the mistress of a margrave of Brandenburgh, by
  whom she had two sons. When the prince became a widower, Agnes thought
  he would marry her, but he made the sons an objection, and she
  poisoned them, for which crime she was buried alive. Another version
  is that she fell in love with the prince of Parma, and made away with
  her two daughters, who were an obstacle to her marriage, for which
  crime she was doomed to “walk the earth” as an apparition.

  The Princess Bertha is troubled because an annual gift, which she left
  to the poor, has been discontinued. She appears dressed in white, and
  carrying at her side a bunch of keys.

  It may interest those who happen to be learned in Berlin legends, to
  know that the White Lady, whose visits always precede the death of
  some member of the royal family, was seen on the eve of Prince
  Waldemar’s death. A soldier on guard at the old castle was the witness
  of the apparition, and in his fright fled to the guard-room, where he
  was at once arrested for deserting his post.--_Brief_, April 4, 1879.

  =White Lady of Avenel= (2 _syl._), a tutelary spirit.--Sir W. Scott,
  _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =White Lady of Ireland= (_The_), the banshee or domestic spirit of a
  family, who takes an interest in its condition, and intimates
  approaching death by wailing or shrieks.

  =White Moon= (_Knight of the_), Samson Carrasco. He assumed this
  cognizance when he went as a knight-errant to encounter Don Quixote.
  His object was to overthrow the don in combat, and then impose on him
  the condition of returning home, and abandoning the profession of
  chivalry for twelve months. By this means he hoped to cure the don of
  his craze. It all happened as the barber expected; the don was
  overthrown, and returned to his home, but soon died.--Cervantes, _Don
  Quixote_, II. iv. 12, etc. (1615).

  =White Queen= (_The_), Mary Queen of Scots (_La Reine Blanche_); so
  called by the French, because she dressed in white, in mourning for
  her husband.

  =White Rose= (_The_), the house of York, whose badge it was. The badge
  of the house of Lancaster was the Red Rose.

  Richard de la Pole is often called “The White Rose.”

  =White Rose of England= (_The_). Perkin Warbeck was so called by
  Margaret of Burgundy, sister of Edward IV. (*-1499).

  =White Rose of Raby= (_The_), Cecily, wife of Richard, duke of York,
  and mother of Edward IV. and Richard III. She was the youngest of
  twenty-one children.

  ⁂ A novel entitled _The White Rose of Raby_ was published in 1794.

  =White Rose of Scotland= (_The_), Lady Katherine Gordon, the [? fifth]
  daughter of George, second earl of Huntly, by his second wife,
  Princess Annabella Stuart, youngest daughter of James I. of Scotland.
  She married Perkin Warbeck, the pretender, self-styled Richard, duke
  of York. (See WARBECK.) She had three husbands after the death of

  As Margaret of York, duchess of Burgundy, who out of jealousy of the
  Lancastrian Henry VII., adopted the cause of Perkin Warbeck, always
  called him “The White Rose of York;” his wife, Lady Katharine Gordon,
  was called The White Rose of Scotland.

  =White Rose of York= (_The_), Edward Courtney, earl of Devon, son of
  the marquis of Exeter. He died at Padua, in Queen Mary’s reign (1553).

  =White Surrey=, the favorite charger of Richard III.

       Saddle White Surrey for the field to-morrow.
                   Shakespeare, _Richard III._ act v. sc. 3 (1597).

  =White Tsar of His People.= The emperor of Russia is so called, and
  claims the empire of seventeen crowns.

  =White Widow= (_The_), the duchess of Tyrconnel, wife of Richard
  Talbot, lord deputy of Ireland under James II. After the death of her
  husband she supported herself by her needle. She wore a white mask,
  and dressed in white.--Pennant, _Account of London_, 147 (1790).

  =White Witch= (_A_), a “witch” who employs her power and skill for the
  benefit and not the harm of her fellow-mortals.

  =Whites= (_The_), an Italian faction of the fourteenth century. The
  Guelphs of Florence were divided into the _Blacks_, who wished to open
  their gates to Charles de Valois, and the _Whites_, who opposed him.
  The poet Dantê, was a “White,” and when the “Blacks,” in 1302, got the
  upper hand, he was exiled. During his exile he composed his immortal
  epic, the _Divina Commedia_.

  =Whitecraft= (_John_), innkeeper and miller at Altringham.

  _Dame Whitecraft_, the pretty wife of the above.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

  =Whitfield of the Stage= (_The_). Quin was so called by Garrick
  (1716-1779). Garrick himself is sometimes so denominated also.

  =Whitney= (_James_), the Claude Duval of English highwaymen. He prided
  himself on being “the glass of fashion and the mould of form.”
  Executed at Porter’s Block, near Smithfield (1660-1694).

  =Whittington= (_Dick_), a poor orphan country lad, who heard that
  London was “paved with gold,” and went there to get a living. When
  reduced to starving point a kind merchant gave him employment in his
  family to help the cook, but the cook so ill treated him that he ran
  away. Sitting to rest himself on the roadside, he heard Bow bells, and
  they seemed to him to say, “Turn again, Whittington, thrice lord mayor
  of London;” so he returned to his master. By-and-by the master allowed
  him, with the other servants, to put in an adventure in a ship bound
  for Morocco. Richard had nothing but a cat, which, however, he sent.
  Now it happened that the king of Morocco was troubled by mice, which
  Whittington’s cat destroyed; and this so pleased his highness that he
  bought the mouser at a fabulous price. Dick commenced business with
  this money, soon rose to great wealth, married his master’s daughter,
  was knighted, and thrice elected lord mayor of London--in 1398, 1406
  and 1419.

  ⁂ A cat is a brig built on the Norwegian model, with narrow stern,
  projecting quarters and deep waist.

  Another solution is the word _achat_, “barter.”

  KEIS, the son of a poor widow of Siraf, embarked for India with his
  sole property, a cat. He arrived at a time when the palace was so
  infested by mice and rats that they actually seized the king’s food.
  This cat cleared the palace of its vermin, and was purchased for a
  large sum of money, which enriched the widow’s son.--Sir William
  Ouseley (a Persian story).

  ALPHONSO, a Portuguese, being wrecked on the coast of Guinea, had
  a cat, which the king bought for its weight in gold. With this
  money Alphonso traded, and in five years made £6000, returned to
  Portugal, and became in fifteen years the third magnate of the
  kingdom.--_Description of Guinea._

  ⁂ See Keightley, _Tales and Popular Fictions_, 241-266.

  =Whittle= (_Thomas_), an old man of 63, who wants to cajole his nephew
  out of his lady-love, the Widow Brady, only 23 years of age. To this
  end he assumes the airs, the dress, the manners, and the walk of a
  beau. For his thick flannels he puts on a cambric shirt, open
  waist-coat, and ruffles; for his Welsh wig he wears a pigtail and
  chapeau bras; for his thick cork soles he trips like a dandy in pumps.
  He smirks, he titters, he tries to be quite killing. He discards
  history and solid reading for the _Amorous Repository_, _Cupid’s
  Revels_, _Hymen’s Delight_, and Ovid’s _Art of Love_. In order to get
  rid of him, the gay young widow assumes to be a boisterous,
  rollicking, extravagant, low Irishwoman, deeply in debt, and utterly
  reckless. Old Whittle is thoroughly alarmed, induces his nephew to
  take the widow off his hands, and gives him £5000 for doing
  so.--Garrick, _The Irish Widow_ (1757).

  =Who’s The Dupe?= Abraham Doiley is a retired slop-seller, with
  £80,000 or more. Being himself wholly uneducated, he is a great
  admirer of “larning,” and resolves that his daughter Elizabeth shall
  marry a great scholar. Elizabeth is in love with Captain Granger, but
  the old slop-seller has fixed his heart on a Mr. Gradus, an Oxford
  pedant. The question is how to bring the old man round. Gradus is
  persuaded to change his style of dress to please the lady, and Granger
  is introduced as a learned pundit. The old man resolves to pit
  together the two aspirants, and give Elizabeth to the best scholar.
  Gradus quotes two lines of Greek, in which the word panta occurs four
  times; Granger gives some three or four lines of English fustian.
  Gradus tells the old man that what Granger said was mere English; but
  Doiley, in the utmost indignation, replies, “Do you think I don’t know
  my own mother tongue? Off with your _pantry_, which you call Greek!
  t’other is the man for my money;” and he gives his daughter to the
  captain.--Mrs. Cowley, _Who’s the Dupe?_

  =Whole Duty of Man= (_The_). Sir James Wellwood Moncrieff, bart., was
  so called by Jeffrey (1776-1851).

  =Wickfield= (_Mr._), a lawyer, father of Agnes. The “’umble” Uriah
  Heep was his clerk.

  _Agnes Wickfield_, daughter of Mr. Wickfield; a young lady of sound
  sense and domestic habits, lady-like and affectionate. She is the
  second wife of David Copperfield.--C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_

  =Wickam= (_Mrs._), a waiter’s wife. Mrs. Wickam was a meek, drooping
  woman, always ready to pity herself or to be pitied, and with a
  depressing habit of prognosticating evil. She succeeded Polly Toodles
  as nurse to Paul Dombey.--C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

  =Wicliffe=, called “The Morning Star of the Reformation” (1324-1384).

  =Widdrington= (_Roger_), a gallant squire, mentioned in the ballad of
  Chevy Chase. He fought “upon his stumps,” after he lost his legs. (See

  =Widenostrils= (in French _Bringuenarilles_), a huge giant, who had
  swallowed every pan, skillet, kettle, frying-pan, dripping-pan,
  saucepan and caldron in the land, for want of windmills, his usual
  food. He was ultimately killed by eating a lump of fresh butter at the
  mouth of a hot oven, by the advice of his physician.--Rabelais,
  _Pantagruel_, iv. 17 (1545).

  =Widerolf=, bishop of Strasbourg (997), was devoured by mice in the
  seventeenth year of his episcopate, because he suppressed the convent
  of Seltzen on the Rhine. (See HATTO.)

  =Widow=, in the _Deserted Village_ (_Goldsmith_). “All the bloomy
  flush of life is fled” from Auburn:

            All but yon widowed, solitary thing,
            That feebly bends beside the plashy spring;
            She, wretched matron, forced in age, for bread,
            To strip the brook, with mantling cresses spread,
            To pick her wintry faggot from the thorn,
            To seek her nightly shed, and weep till morn;
            She only left of all the harmless train,
            The sad historian of the pensive plain.

  Her name was Catherine Geraghty.

  _Widow_ (_The_), courted by Sir Hudibras, was the relict of Amminadab
  Wilmer or Willmot, an independent, slain at Edgehill. She was left
  with a fortune of £200 a year. The knight’s “Epistle to the Lady” and
  the “Lady’s Reply,” in which she declines his offer, are usually ap
  pended to the poem entitled _Hudibras_.

  =Widow Bedott=, relict of Hezekiah, and willing to be consoled.
  Garrulous, silly and full of sentimental affectations.--Francis M.
  Whitcher (1856).

  =Widow Blackacre=, a perverse, bustling, masculine, pettifogging,
  litigious woman.--Wycherly, _The Plain Dealer_ (1677).

  =Widow Flockhart=, landlady at Waverley’s lodgings in the
  Canongate.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

  =Wieland’s Sword=, Balmung. It was so sharp that it cleft Amilias in
  twain without his knowing it; when, however, he attempted to stir, he
  fell into two pieces.--_Scandinavian Mythology._

  =Wiever= (_Old_), a preacher and old conspirator.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

  =Wife= (_The_), a drama by S. Knowles (1833). Mariana, daughter of a
  Swiss burgher, nursed Leonardo in a dangerous sickness--an avalanche
  had fallen on him, and his life was despaired of, but he recovered,
  and fell in love with his young and beautiful nurse. Leonardo intended
  to return to Mantua, but was kept a prisoner by a gang of thieves, and
  Mariana followed him, for she found life intolerable without him. Here
  Count Florio fell in love with her, and obtained her guardian’s
  consent to marry her; but Mariana refused to do so, and was arraigned
  before the duke (Ferrardo), who gave judgment against her. Leonardo
  was at the trial disguised, but, throwing off his mask, was found to
  be the real duke supposed to be dead. He assumed his rank, and married
  Mariana; but, being called to the wars, left Ferrardo regent.
  Ferrardo, being a villain, hatched up a plot against the bride, of
  infidelity to her lord, but Leonardo would give no credit to it, and
  the whole scheme of villainy was fully exposed.

  ⁂ Shakespeare’s _Measure for Measure_ probably gave Knowles some hints
  for his plot.

  =Wife for a Month= (_A_), a drama by Beaumont and Fletcher (1624). The
  “wife” is Evanthê (3 _syl._), the chaste wife of Valerio, pursued by
  Frederick, the licentious brother of Alphonso, king of Naples. She
  repels his base advances, and, to punish her, he offers to give her to
  any one for one month, at the end of which time whoever accepts her is
  to die. No one appears, and the lady is restored to her husband.

  =Wife of Bath=, one of the pilgrims to the shrine of Thomas à
  Becket.--Chaucer. _Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

  =Wife of Bath’s Tale.= One of King Arthur’s knights was condemned to
  death for ill-using a lady, but Guinever interceded for him, and the
  king gave him over to her to do what she liked. The queen said she
  would spare his life, if, by that day twelve months, he would tell her
  “What is that which woman loves best?” The knight seeks far and wide
  for a solution, but in his despair he meets a hideous old woman who
  promises to give him the answer if he will grant her one request,
  which is, to marry her. The knight could not bring himself to embrace
  so gruesome a bride, but she persuaded him that it was better to have
  a faithful wife even if she were old and ugly, than one young and
  beautiful, but untrue. The knight yields, and in the morning he wakes
  to find a lovely woman by his side, who tells him that what a woman
  likes best is to have her own way.--Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The
  Wife of Bath’s Tale,” 1388).

  ⁂ This tale is a very old one, and appears in various languages;
  European and Oriental. It is one of those told by Gower in his
  _Confessio Amantis_, where Florent promises to marry a deformed old
  hag, who in reward for his complaisance helps him to the solution of a

  =Wigged Prince= (_The Best_). The guardian, uncle-in-law and first
  cousin of the duke of Brunswick was called “The Best Wigged Prince in

  =Wild= (_Jonathan_), a cool, calculating, heartless villain, with the
  voice of a Stentor. He was born at Wolverhampton, in Staffordshire,
  and, like Jack Sheppard, was the son of a carpenter.

  He had ten maxims: (1) Never do more mischief than is absolutely
  necessary for success; (2) Know no distinction, but let self-interest
  be the one principle of action; (3) Let not your shirt know the
  thoughts of your heart; (4) Never forgive an enemy; (5) Shun poverty
  and distress; (6) Foment jealousies in your gang; (7) A good name,
  like money, must be risked in speculation; (8) Counterfeit virtues are
  as good as real ones, for few know paste from diamonds; (9) Be your
  own trumpeter, and don’t be afraid of blowing loud; (10) Keep hatred
  concealed in the heart, but wear the face of a friend.

  Jonathan Wild married six wives. Being employed for a time as a
  detective, he brought to the gallows thirty-five highwaymen,
  twenty-two burglars and ten returned convicts. He was himself executed
  at last at Tyburn for house-breaking (1682-1725).

  Daniel Defoe has made _Jonathan Wild_ the hero of a romance (1725).
  Fielding did the same in 1743. The hero in these romances is a coward,
  traitor, hypocrite and tyrant, unrelieved by human feeling, and never
  betrayed into a kind or good action. The character is historic, but
  the adventures are in a measure fictitious.

  =Wild Boar of Ardennes=, William de la Marck.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin
  Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

  ⁂ The Count de la Marck was third son of John, count de la Marck and
  Aremberg. He was arrested at Utrecht, and beheaded by order of
  Maximilian, emperor of Austria, in 1485.

  =Wild Boy of Hameln=, a human being found in the forest of Hertswold,
  in Hanover. He walked on all fours, climbed trees like a monkey, fed
  on grass and leaves, and could never be taught to articulate a single
  word. He was discovered in 1725, was called “Peter, the Wild Boy,” and
  died at Broadway Farm, near Berkhampstead, in 1785.

  ⁂ Mdlle. Lablanc was a wild girl found by the villagers of Soigny,
  near Chalons, in 1731. She died in Paris in 1780.

  =Wild Goose Chase= (_The_), a comedy by Beaumont and Fletcher (1652).
  The “wild goose” is Mirabel, who is “chased” and caught by Oriana,
  whom he once despised.

  =Wild Horses= (_Death by_). The hands and feet of the victim were
  fastened to two or four wild horses, and the horses, being urged
  forward, ran in different directions, tearing the victim limb from

  METTIUS SUFFETIUS was fastened to two chariots, which were driven in
  opposite directions. This was for deserting the Roman standard (B.C.
  669).--Livy, _Annals_, i. 28.

  SALCĒDE, a Spaniard, employed by Henri III. to assassinate Henri de
  Guise, failed in his attempt, and was torn limb from limb by four wild

  NICHOLAS DE SALVADO was torn to pieces by wild horses for attempting
  the life of William, prince of Orange.

  BALTHAZAR DE GERRARD was similarly punished for assassinating the same
  prince (1584).

  JOHN CHASTEL was torn to pieces by wild horses for attempting the life
  of Henri IV. of France (1594).

  FRANÇOIS RAVAILLAC suffered a similar death for assassinating the same
  prince (1610).

  =Wild Huntsman= (_The_), a spectral hunter with dogs, who frequents
  the Black Forest to chase wild animals.--Sir W. Scott, _Wild Huntsman_
  (from Bürger’s ballad).

  ⁂ The legend is that this huntsman was a Jew, who would not suffer
  Jesus to drink from a horse-trough, but pointed to some water
  collected in a hoof-print, and bade Him go there and drink.--Kuhn von
  Schwarz, _Nordd. Sagen_, 499.

  The French story of _Le Grand Veneur_ is laid in Fontainbleau Forest,
  and is supposed to refer to St. Hubert.--Father Matthieu.

  The English name is “Herne, the Hunter,” once a keeper in Windsor
  Forest.--Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_, act iv. sc. 4.

  The Scotch poem called _Albania_ contains a full description of the
  wild huntsman.

  ⁂ The subject has been made into a ballad by Burger, entitled _Der
  Wilde Jäger_.

  =Wild Man of the Forest=, Orson, brother of Valentine, and nephew of
  King Pepin.--_Valentine and Orson_ (fifteenth century).

  =Wild Oats=, a drama by John O’Keefe (1798).

  =Wild Wenlock=, kinsman of Sir Hugo de Lacy, besieged by insurgents,
  who cut off his head.--Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry

  =Wildair= (_Sir Harry_), the hero of a comedy so called by Farquhar
  (1701). The same character had been introduced in the _Constant
  Couple_ (1700), by the same author. Sir Harry is a gay profligate, not
  altogether selfish and abandoned, but very free and of easy morals.
  This was Wilks’s and Peg Woffington’s great part.

  Their Wildairs, Sir John Brutes, Lady Touchwoods and Mrs. Frails are
  conventional reproductions of those wild gallants and demireps which
  figure in the licentious dramas of Dryden and Shadwell.--Sir W. Scott.

  ⁂ “Sir John Brute,” in _The Provoked Wife_ (Vanbrugh); “Lady
  Touchwood,” in _The Belle’s Stratagem_ (Mrs. Cowley); “Mrs. Frail,” in
  Congreve’s _Love for Love_.

  =Wildblood of the Vale= (_Young Dick_), a friend of Sir Geoffrey
  Peveril.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

  =Wilde= (_Johnny_), a small farmer of Rodenkirchen, in the isle of
  Rügen. One day he found a little glass slipper belonging to one of the
  hill-folk. Next day a little brownie, in the character of a merchant,
  came to redeem it, and Johnny Wilde demanded as the price “that he
  should find a gold ducat in every furrow he ploughed.” The bargain was
  concluded, but before the year was over he had worked himself to death
  looking for ducats in the furrows which he ploughed.--_Rügen

  =Wildenhaim= (_Baron_), father of Amelia. In his youth he seduced
  Agatha Friburg, whom he deserted. Agatha bore a son, Frederick, who in
  due time became a soldier. Coming home on furlough, he found his
  mother on the point of starvation, and, going to beg alms, met the
  baron with his gun, asked alms of him, and received a shilling. He
  demanded more money, and, being refused, collared the baron, but was
  soon seized by the keepers, and shut up in the castle dungeon. Here he
  was visited by the chaplain, and it came out that the baron was his
  father. As the baron was a widower, he married Agatha, and Frederick
  became his heir.

  _Amelia Wildenhaim_, daughter of the baron. A proposal was made to
  marry her to Count Cassel, but, as the count was a conceited puppy,
  without “brains in his head or a heart in his bosom,” she would have
  nothing to say to him. She showed her love to Anhalt, a young
  clergyman, and her father gave his consent to the match.--Mrs.
  Inchbald, _Lovers’ Vows_ (altered from Kotzebue, 1800).

  =Wildfire= (_Madge_), the insane daughter of old Meg Murdochson, the
  gypsy thief. Madge had been seduced when a girl, and this, with the
  murder of her infant, had turned her brain.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of
  Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

  =Wilding= (_Jack_), a young gentleman fresh from Oxford, who
  fabricates the most ridiculous tales, which he tries to pass off for
  facts; speaks of his adventures in America, which he has never seen;
  of his being entrapped into marriage with a Miss Sibthorpe, a pure
  invention. Accidentally meeting a Miss Grantam, he sends his man to
  learn her name, and is told it is Miss Godfrey, an heiress. On this
  incident the humor of the drama hinges. When Miss Godfrey is presented
  to him he does not know her, and a person rushes in who declares she
  is his wife, and that her maiden name was Sibthorpe. It is now
  Wilding’s turn to be dumbfounded, and, wholly unable to unravel the
  mystery, he rushes forth, believing the world is a Bedlam let
  loose.--S. Foote, _The Liar_ (1761).

  _Wilding_ (_Sir Jasper_), an ignorant but wealthy country gentleman,
  fond of fox-hunting. He dresses in London like a foxhunter, and speaks
  with a “Hoic! tally-ho!”

  _Young Wilding_, son of Sir Jasper, about to marry the daughter of old
  Philpot for the dot she will bring him.

  _Maria Wilding_, the lively, witty, high-spirited daughter of Sir
  Jasper, in love with Charles Beaufort. Her father wants her to marry
  George Philpot, but she frightens the booby out of his wits by her
  knowledge of books and assumed eccentricities.--Murphy, _The Citizen_,
  (1757 or 1761).

  =Wildrake=, a country squire, delighting in horses, dogs, and field
  sports. He was in love with “neighbor Constance,” daughter of Sir
  William Fondlove, with whom he used to romp and quarrel in childhood.
  He learned to love Constance; and Constance loved the squire, but knew
  it not till she feared he was going to marry another. When they each
  discovered the state of their hearts, they agreed to become man and
  wife.--S. Knowles, _The Love-Chase_ (1837).

  _Wildrake_ (_Roger_), a dissipated royalist.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

  =Wilhelmi´na= [BUNDLE], daughter of Bundle, the gardener. Tom Tug, the
  waterman, and Robin, the gardener, sought her in marriage. The father
  preferred honest Tom Tug, but the mother liked better the sentimental
  and fine-phrased Robin. Wilhelmina said he who first did any act to
  deserve her love should have it. Tom Tug, by winning the waterman’s
  badge, carried off the bride.--C. Dibdin, _The Waterman_ (1774).

  =Wilfer= (_Reginald_), called by his wife R. W., and by his fellow
  clerks Rumty. He was clerk in the drug-house of Chicksey, Stobbles and
  Veneering. In person Mr. Wilfer resembled an overgrown cherub; in
  manner he was shy and retiring.

  Mr. Reginald Wilfer was a poor clerk, so poor indeed that he had never
  yet attained the modest object of his ambition, which was to wear a
  complete new suit of clothes, hat and boots included, at one time. His
  black hat was brown before he could afford a coat; his pantaloons were
  white at the seams and knees before he could buy a pair of boots; his
  boots had worn out before he could treat himself to new pantaloons;
  and by the time he worked round to the hat again, that shining modern
  article roofed in an ancient ruin of various periods.--Ch. iv.

  _Mrs. Wilfer_, wife of Mr. Reginald. A most majestic woman, tall and
  angular. She wore gloves, and a pocket-handkerchief tied under her
  chin. A patronizing, condescending woman was Mrs. Wilfer, with a
  mighty idea of her own importance. “Viper!” “Ingrate!” and such like
  epithets were household words with her.

  _Bella Wilfer_, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Wilfer. A wayward, playful,
  affectionate, spoilt beauty, “giddy from the want of some sustaining
  purpose, and capricious because she was always fluttering among little
  things.” Bella was so pretty, so womanly, and yet so childish that she
  was always captivating. She spoke of herself as “the lovely woman,”
  and delighted in “doing the hair of the family.” Bella Wilfer married
  John Harmon (John Rokesmith), the secretary of Mr. Boffin, “the golden

  _Lavinia Wilfer_, youngest sister of Bella, and called “The
  Irrepressible.” Lavinia was a tart, pert girl, but succeeded in
  catching George Samson in the toils of wedlock.--C. Dickens, _Our
  Mutual Friend_ (1864).

  =Wilford=, in love with Emily, the companion of his sister, Miss
  Wilford. This attachment coming to the knowledge of Wilford’s uncle
  and guardian, was disapproved of by him; so he sent the young man to
  the Continent, and dismissed the young lady. Emily went to live with
  Goodman Fairlop, the woodman, and there Wilford discovered her in an
  archery match. The engagement Was renewed, and ended in marriage.--Sir
  H. B. Dudley, _The Woodman_ (1771).

  _Wilford_, secretary of Sir Edward Mortimer, and the suitor of Barbara
  Rawbold (daughter of a poacher). Curious to know what weighed on his
  master’s mind, he pried into an iron chest in Sir Edward’s library;
  but while so engaged, Sir Edward entered and threatened to shoot him.
  He relented, however, and having sworn Wilford to secrecy, told him
  how and why he had committed murder. Wilford, unable to endure the
  watchful and jealous eye of his master, ran away; but Sir Edward
  dogged him from place to place, and at length arrested him on the
  charge of theft. Of course, the charge broke down, Wilford was
  acquitted, Sir Edward confessed himself a murderer, and died. (See
  WILLIAMS, CALEB.)--G. Colman, _The Iron Chest_ (1796).

  ⁂ This is a dramatic version of Godwin’s novel called _Caleb Williams_
  (1794). Wilford is “Caleb Williams,” and Sir Edward Mortimer is

  _Wilford_, supposed to be earl of Rochdale. Three things he had a
  passion for: “the finest hound, the finest horse, and the finest wife
  in the three kingdoms.” It turned out that Master Walter, “the
  hunchback,” was the earl of Rochdale, and Wilford was no one.--S.
  Knowles, _The Hunchback_ (1831).

  _Wilford_ (_Lord_), the truant son of Lord Woodville, who fell in love
  with Bess, the daughter of the “blind beggar of Bethnal Green.” He saw
  her by accident in London, lost sight of her, but resolved not to rest
  night or day till he found her; and, said he, “If I find her not, I’m
  tenant of the house the sexton builds.” Bess was discovered in the
  Queen’s Arms inn, Romford, and turned out to be his cousin.--S.
  Knowles, _The Beggar of Bethnal Green_ (1834).

  =Wilfred=, “the fool,” one of the sons of Sir Hildebrand Osbaldistone,
  of Osbaldistone Hall.--Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

  =Wilfrid=, son of Oswald Wycliffe; in love with Matilda, heiress of
  Rokeby’s knight. After various villainies, Oswald forced from Matilda
  a promise to marry Wilfrid. Wilfrid thanked her for the promise, and
  fell dead at her feet.--Sir W. Scott, _Rokeby_ (1813).

  =Wilfrid= or =Wilfrith= (_St._). In 681, the Bishop Wilfrith, who had
  been bishop of York, being deprived of his see, came to Sussex, and
  did much to civilize the people. He taught them how to catch fish
  generally, for before they only knew how to catch eels. He founded the
  bishopric of the South Saxons at Selsey, afterwards removed to
  Chichester, founded the monastery of Ripon, built several
  ecclesiastical edifices, and died in 709.

          St. Wilfrid, sent from York into the realms received
          (Whom the Northumbrian folk had of his see bereaved),
          And on the south of Thames a seat did him afford,
          By whom the people first received the saving word.
                      Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xi. (1613).

  =Wilhelm Meister= [_Mice.ter_], the hero and title of a philosophic
  novel by Goethe. This is considered to be the first true German novel.
  It consists of two parts published under two titles, viz., _The
  Apprenticeship of Wilhelm Meister_ (1794-96), and _The Travels of
  Wilhelm Meister_ (1821).

  =Wilkins= (_Peter_), Robert Pultock, of Clement’s inn, author of _The
  Life and Adventures of Peter Wilkins, a Cornish Man_ (1750).

  The tale is this: Peter Wilkins is a mariner, thrown on a desert
  shore. In time he furnishes himself from the wreck with many
  necessaries, and discovers that the country is frequented by a
  beautiful winged race called glumms and gawreys, whose wings when
  folded, serve them for dress, and when spread, are used for flight.
  Peter marries a gawrey, by name Youwarkee, and accompanies her to
  Nosmnbdsgrsutt, a land of semi-darkness, where he remains many years.

  _Peter Wilkins_ is a work of uncommon beauty.--Coleridge, _Table Talk_

  =Wilkinson= (_James_), servant to Mr. Fairford, the lawyer.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

  =Will= (_Belted_), William, Lord Howard, warden of the western marches

       His Bilboa blade, by Marchmen felt,
       Hung in a broad and studded belt;
       Hence, in rude phrase, the Borderers still
       Called noble Howard “Belted Will.”
                   Sir W. Scott, _Lay of the Last Minstrel_ (1805).

  =Will Laud=, a smuggler, with whom Margaret Catchpole (_q.v._) falls
  in love. He persuades her to escape from Ipswich jail, and supplies
  her with a seaman’s dress. The two are overtaken, and Laud is shot in
  attempting to prevent the recapture of Margaret.--Rev. R. Cobbold,
  _Margaret Catchpole_.

  =Will and Jean=, a poetic story by Hector Macneill (1789). Willie
  Gairlace was once the glory of the town, and he married Jeanie Miller.
  Just about this time Maggie Howe opened a spirit shop in the village,
  and Willie fell to drinking. Having reduced himself to beggary, he
  enlisted as a soldier, and Jeanie had “to beg her bread.” Willie,
  having lost his leg in battle, was put on the Chelsea “bounty list;”
  and Jeanie was placed, by the duchess of Buccleuch, in an
  alms-cottage. Willie contrived to reach the cottage and

                   Jean ance mair, in fond affection,
                     Clasped her Willie to her breast.

  =Willet= (_John_), landlord of the Maypole inn. A burly man,
  large-headed, with a flat face, betokening profound obstinacy and
  slowness of apprehension, combined with a strong reliance on his own
  merits. John Willet was one of the most dogged and positive fellows in
  existence, always sure that he was right, and that every one who
  differed from him was wrong. He ultimately resigned the Maypole to his
  son, Joe, and retired to a cottage in Chigwell, with a small garden,
  in which Joe had a Maypole erected for the delectation of his aged
  father. Here at dayfall assembled his old chums, to smoke, and prose,
  and doze, and drink the evenings away; and here the old man played the
  landlord, scoring up huge debits in chalk to his heart’s delight. He
  lived in the cottage a sleepy life for seven years, and then slept the
  sleep which knows no waking.

  _Joe Willet_, son of the landlord, a broad-shouldered, strapping young
  fellow of 20. Being bullied and brow-beaten by his father, he ran away
  and enlisted for a soldier, lost his right arm in America, and was
  dismissed the service. He returned to England, married Dolly Varden,
  and became landlord of the Maypole, where he prospered and had a large
  family.--C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

  =William=, archbishop of Orange, an ecclesiastic who besought Pope
  Urban on his knees to permit him to join the crusaders, and, having
  obtained permission, led 400 men to the siege of Jerusalem.--Tasso,
  _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

  _William_, youngest son of William Rufus. He was the leader of a large
  army of British bowmen and Irish volunteers in the crusading
  army.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_, iii. (1575).

  ⁂ William Rufus was never married.

  _William_, footman to Lovemore, sweet upon Muslin, the lady’s maid. He
  is fond of cards, and is a below-stairs imitation of the high-life
  vices of the latter half of the eighteenth century.--A. Murphy, _The
  Way to Keep Him_ (1760).

  _William_, a serving-lad at Arnheim Castle.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
  Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  _William_ (_Lord_), master of Erlingford. His elder brother, at death,
  committed to his charge Edmund, the rightful heir, a mere child; but
  William cast the child into the Severn, and seized the inheritance.
  One anniversary, the Severn overflowed its banks, and the castle was
  surrounded; a boat came by, and Lord William entered. The boatman
  thought he heard the voice of a child--nay, he felt sure he saw a
  child in the water, and bade Lord William stretch out his hand to take
  it in. Lord William seized the child’s hand; it was lifeless and
  clammy, heavy and inert. It pulled the boat under water, and Lord
  William was drowned, but no one heard his piercing cry of agony.--R.
  Southey, _Lord William_ (a ballad, 1804).

  =William and Margaret=, a ballad by Mallet. William promised marriage
  to Margaret, deserted her, and she died “consumed in early prime.” Her
  ghost reproved the faithless swain, who “quaked in every limb,” and,

                He hy’d him to the fatal place,
                  Where Margaret’s body lay;
                And stretch’d him on the grass-green turf
                  That wrapt her breathless clay.

                And thrice he call’d on Margaret’s name,
                  And thrice he wept full sore;
                Then laid his cheek to her cold grave,
                  And word spake never more.

  =William, king of Scotland=, introduced by Sir W. Scott in _The
  Talisman_ (1825).

  =William of Cloudesley= (3 _syl._), a north country outlaw, associated
  with Adam Bell and Clym of the Clough (_Clement of the Cliff_). He
  lived in Englewood Forest, near Carlisle. Adam Bell and Clym of the
  Clough were single men, but William had a wife named Alyce, and
  “children three,” living at Carlisle. The three outlaws went to London
  to ask pardon of the king, and the king, at the queen’s intercession,
  granted it. He then took them to a field to see them shoot. William
  first cleft in two a hazel wand at a distance of 200 feet; after this
  he bound his eldest son to a stake, put an apple on his head, and, at
  a distance of “six score paces,” cleft the apple in two without
  touching the boy. The king was so delighted that he made William “a
  gentlemen of fe,” made his son a royal butler, the queen took Alyce
  for her “chief gentlewoman,” and the two companions were appointed
  yeoman of the bed-chamber.--Percy, _Reliques_ (“Adam Bell,” etc.), I.
  ii. 1.

  =William of Goldsbrough=, one of the companions of Robin Hood,
  mentioned in Grafton’s _Olde and Auncient Pamphlet_ (sixteenth

  =William of Norwich= (_Saint_), a child said to have been crucified by
  the Jews in 1137. (See HUGH OF LINCOLN and WERNER.)

            Two boys of tender age, those saints ensue,
            Of Norwich, William was, of Lincoln, Hugh.
            Whom th’ unbelieving Jews (rebellious that abide),
            In mockery of our Christ, at Easter crucified.
                        Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

  =William-with-the-Long-Sword=, the earl of Salisbury. He was the
  natural brother of Richard Cœur de Lion.--Sir W. Scott, _The
  Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Williams= (_Caleb_), a lad in the service of Falkland. Falkland,
  irritated by cruelty and insult, commits a murder, which is attributed
  to another. Williams, by accident, obtains a clue to the real facts;
  and Falkland, knowing it, extorts from him an oath of secrecy, and
  then tells him the whole story. The lad, finding life in Falkland’s
  house insupportable, from the ceaseless suspicion to which he is
  exposed, makes his escape, and is pursued by Falkland with relentless
  persecution. At last Williams is accused by Falkland of robbery, and,
  the facts of the case being disclosed, Falkland dies of shame and a
  broken spirit. (See WILFORD.)--W. Godwin, _Caleb Williams_ (1794).

  ⁂ The novel was dramatized by G. Colman, under the title of _The Iron
  Chest_ (1796). Caleb Williams is called “Wilford,” and Falkland is
  “Sir Edward Mortimer.”

  _Williams_ (_Ned_), the sweetheart of Cicely Jopson, farmer, near

  _Farmer Williams_, Ned’s father.--Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time,
  George II.).

  =Willie=, clerk to Andrew Skurliewhitter, the scrivener.--Sir W.
  Scott, =Fortunes of Nigel= (time, James I.).

  =Willieson= (_William_), a brig-owner, one of the Jacobite
  conspirators under the laird of Ellieslaw.--Sir W. Scott, _The Black
  Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

  =Williewald of Geierstein= (_Count_), father of Count Arnold of
  Geierstein, _alias_ Arnold Biederman (landamman of Unterwalden).--Sir
  W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Will-o’-the-Flat=, one of the huntsmen near Charlie’s Hope farm.--Sir
  W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

  =Willoughby= (_Lord_), of Queen Elizabeth’s court.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Willy=, a shepherd to whom Thomalin tells the tale of his battle with
  Cupid (Ecl. iii). (See THOMALIN.) In Ecl. viii. he is introduced
  again, contending with Perigot for the prize of poetry, Cuddy being
  chosen umpire. Cuddy declares himself quite unable to decide the
  contest, for both deserve the prize.--Spenser, _The Shepheardes
  Calendar_ (1579).

  =Wilmot.= There are three of the name in _Fatal Curiosity_ (1736), by
  George Lillo, viz., old Wilmot, his wife, Agnes, and their son, young
  Wilmot, supposed to have perished at sea. The young man, however, is
  not drowned, but goes to India, makes his fortune, and returns,
  unknown to any one of his friends. He goes in disguise to his parents,
  and deposits with them a casket. Curiosity induces Agnes to open it,
  and when she sees that it contains jewels, she and her husband resolve
  to murder the owner and appropriate the contents of the casket. No
  sooner have they committed the fatal deed than they discover it is
  their own son whom they have killed; whereupon the old man stabs first
  his wife and then himself.

  The harrowing details of this tragedy are powerfully depicted; and the
  agonies of old Wilmot constitute one of the most appalling and
  affecting incidents in the drama.--R. Chambers, _English Literature_,
  i. 592.

  Old Wilmot’s character, as the needy man who had known better days,
  exhibits a mind naturally good, but prepared for acting evil.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Drama_.

  _Wilmot_ (_Miss Arabella_), a clergyman’s daughter, beloved by George
  Primrose, eldest son of the vicar of Wakefield, whom ultimately she
  marries.--Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_ (1766).

  _Wilmot_ (_Lord_), earl of Rochester, of the court of Charles II.--Sir
  W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

  =Wilsa=, the mulatto girl of Dame Ursley Suddlechop, the barber’s
  wife.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

  =Wilson= (_Alison_), the old housekeeper of Colonel Silas Morton of
  Milnwood.--Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

  _Wilson_ (_Andrew_), smuggler; the comrade of Geordie Robertson. He
  was hanged.--Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

  _Wilson_ (_Bob_), groom of Sir William Ashton, the lord keeper of
  Scotland.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

  _Wilson_ (_Christie_), a character in the introduction of the _Black
  Dwarf_, by Sir W. Scott.

  _Wilson_ (_John_), groom of Mr. Godfrey Bertram, laird of
  Ellangowan.--Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

  =Wilton= (_Ralph de_), the accepted suitor of Lady Clare, daughter of
  the earl of Gloucester. When Lord Marmion overcame Ralph de Wilton in
  the ordeal of battle, and left him for dead on the field, Lady Clare
  took refuge in Whitby Convent. By Marmion’s desire she was removed
  from the convent to Tantallon Hall, where she met Ralph, who had been
  cured of his wounds. Ralph, being knighted by Douglas, married the
  Lady Clare.--Sir W. Scott, _Marmion_ (1808).

  =Wimble= (_Will_), a character in Addison’s _Spectator_, simple,
  good-natured, and officious.

  ⁂ Will Wimble in the flesh was Thomas Morecroft, of Dublin (*-1741).

  =Wimbledon= (_The Philosopher of_), John Horne Tooke, who lived at
  Wimbledon, near London (1736-1812).

  =Winchester= (_The bishop of_), Lancelot Andrews. The name is not
  given in the novel, but the date of the novel is 1620, and Dr. Andrews
  was translated from Ely to Winchester in February, 1618-19; and died
  in 1626.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

  =Wind Sold.= At one time the Finlanders and Laplanders drove a
  profitable trade by the sale of winds. After being paid they knitted
  three magical knots, and told the buyer that when he untied the first
  he would have a good gale; when the second, a strong wind; and when
  the third, a severe tempest.--Olaus Magnus, _History of the Goths,
  etc._, 47 (1658).

  King Eric of Sweden was quite a potentate of these elements, and could
  change them at pleasure by merely shifting his cap.

  Bessie Millie, of Pomo´na, in the Orkney Islands, helped to eke out
  her living (even so late as 1814) by selling favorable winds to
  mariners, for the small sum of sixpence per vessel.

  Winds were also at one time sold at Mont St. Michel, in Normandy, by
  nine druidesses, who likewise sold arrows to charm away storms. These
  arrows were to be shot off by a young man 25 years of age.

  ⁂ Witches generally were supposed to sell wind.

  ’Oons! I’ll marry a Lapland witch as soon, and live upon selling
  contrary winds and wrecked vessels.--W. Congreve, _Love for Love_,
  iii. (1695).

             In Ireland and in Denmark both,
             Witches for gold will sell a man a wind,
             Which, in the corner of a napkin wrapped,
             Shall blow him safe unto what coast he will.
                        Summer, _Last Will and Test_. (1600).

  ⁂ See note to the _Pirate_: “Sale of Winds” (_Waverley Novels_, xxiv.

  When Ulysses left the island of Æolus, whom Jupiter had made keeper of
  the winds, Æolus bound the storm-winds in an ox’s bladder, and tied it
  in the ship that not even a little breath might escape. Then he sent
  the west wind to waft the ship onward. While Ulysses was asleep his
  companions, thinking a treasure was concealed in the bladder, loosed
  the skin, and all the winds rushed out. The ship was driven back to
  the island of Æolus, who refused to let them land, believing that they
  must be hated by the gods.

  =Winds= (_The_), according to Hesiod, were the sons of Astræus and

            You nymphs, the winged offspring which of old
              Aurora to divine Astræus bore.
                        Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_(1767).

  =Winds and Tides.= Nicholas of Lyn, an Oxford scholar and friar, was a
  great navigator. He “took the height of mountains with his astrolobe,”
  and taught that there were four whirlpools like the Maelström of
  Norway--one in each quarter of the globe, from which the four winds
  issue, and which are the cause of the tides.

        One Nicholas of Lyn
        The whirlpools of the seas did come to understand, ...
        For such immeasured pools, philosophers agree,
        I’ the four parts of the world undoubtedly there be,
        From which they have supposed nature the winds doth raise,
        And from them too proceed the flowing of the seas.
                    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xix. (1622).

  =Windmill With a Weather-Cock Atop= (_The_). Goodwyn, a puritan
  divine, of St. Margaret’s, London, was so called (1593-1651).

  =Windmills.= Don Quixote, seeing some thirty or forty windmills,
  insisted that they were giants, and, running a tilt at one of them,
  thrust his spear into the sails; whereupon the sail raised both man
  and horse into the air, and shivered the knight’s lance into
  splinters. When Don Quixote was thrown to the ground, he persisted in
  saying that his enemy, Freston, had transformed the giants into
  windmills merely to rob him of his honor, but notwithstanding, the
  windmills were in reality giants in disguise. This is the first
  adventure of the knight.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 8 (1605).

  _Windmills._ The giant Widenostrils lived on windmills. (See
  WIDENOSTRILS.) Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, iv. 17 (1545).

  =Windsor= (_The Rev. Mr._), a friend of Master George Heriot, the
  king’s goldsmith.--Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

  =Windsor Beauties= (_The_), Anne Hyde, duchess of York, and her twelve
  ladies in the court of Charles II., painted by Sir Peter Lely, at the
  request of Anne Hyde. Conspicuous in her train of Hebês was Frances
  Jennings, eldest daughter of Richard Jennings of Standridge, near St.

  =Windsor Sentinel= (_The_), who heard St. Paul’s clock strike
  thirteen, was John Hatfield, who died at his house in Glasshouse Yard,
  Aldersgate, June 18, 1770, aged 102.

  =Wingate= (_Master Jasper_), the steward at Avenel Castle.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Wingfield=, a citizen of Perth, whose trade was
  feather-dressing.--Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry

  _Wingfield_ (_Ambrose_), employed at Osbaldistone Hall.

  _Lancie Wingfield_, one of the men employed at Osbaldistone Hall.--Sir
  W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

  =Wing-the-Wind= (_Michael_), a servant at Holyrood Palace, and the
  friend of Adam Woodcock.--Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Winifred=, heroine of _The Last Meeting_, by Brander Matthews. In
  defiance of all innuendoes and arguments, she remains true to her
  lover throughout the period of his mysterious absence.

  =Winifrid= (_St._), patron saint of virgins; beheaded by Caradoc, for
  refusing to marry him. The tears she shed became the fountain called
  “St. Winifrid’s Well,” the waters of which not only cure all sorts of
  diseases, but are so buoyant that nothing sinks to the bottom. St.
  Winifrid’s blood stained the gravel in the neighborhood red, and her
  hair became moss. Drayton has given this legend in verse in his
  _Polyolbion_ x. (1612).

  =Winkle= (_Nathaniel_), M.P.C., a young cockney sportsman, considered
  by his companions to be a dead shot, a hunter, skater, etc. All these
  acquirements are, however, wholly imaginary. He marries Arabella
  Allen.--C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

  _Winkle_ (_Rip Van_), a Dutch colonist of New York, who met a strange
  man in a ravine of the Catskill Mountains. Rip helped the stranger to
  carry a keg to a wild retreat among rocks, where he saw a host of
  strange personages playing skittles in mysterious silence. Rip took
  the first opportunity of tasting the keg, fell into a stupor, and
  slept for twenty years. On waking, he found that his wife was dead and
  buried, his daughter married, his village remodelled, and America had
  become independent.--Washington Irving, _Sketch-Book_ (1820).

  The tales of Epimenidês, of Peter Klaus, of the Sleeping Beauty, the
  Seven Sleepers, etc., are somewhat similar. (See SLEEPER.)

  =Winklebred= or =Winklebrand= (_Louis_), lieutenant of Sir Maurice de
  Bracy, a follower of Prince John.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time,
  Richard I.).

  =Winnie=, (_Annie_), an old sibyl, who makes her appearance at the
  death of Alice Gray.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time,
  William III.).

  =Winter=, the head servant of General Witherington, _alias_ Richard
  Tresham.--Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

  _Winter._ (See SEASONS.)

  =Winterbourne=, travelling American who makes a “study” of Daisy
  Miller.--Henry James, Jr., _Daisy Miller_ (1878).

  =Winter King= (_The_), Frederick V., the rival of Ferdinand II. of
  Germany. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James I. of England, and
  was king of Bohemia for just one winter, the end of 1619 and the
  beginning of 1620 (1596-1632). (See SNOW KING.)

  =Winter Queen= (_The_), Elizabeth, daughter of James I. of England,
  and wife of Frederick V. “The Winter King.” (See SNOW QUEEN.)

  =Winter’s Tale= (_The_), by Shakespeare (1604). Leontês, king of
  Sicily, invites his friend Polixenês to visit him. During this visit
  the king becomes jealous of him, and commands Camillo to poison him;
  but Camillo only warns Polixenês of the danger, and flees with him to
  Bohemia. When Leontês hears thereof, his rage is unbounded; and he
  casts his queen, Hermi´onê, into prison, where she gives birth to a
  daughter, which Leontês gives direction shall be placed on a desert
  shore to perish. In the mean time, he is told that Hermionê, the
  queen, is dead. The vessel containing the infant daughter being
  storm-driven to Bohemia, the child is left there, and is brought up by
  a shepherd, who calls it Perdĭta. One day, in a hunt, Prince Florizel
  sees Perdita and falls in love with her; but Polixenês, his father,
  tells her that she and the shepherd shall be put to death if she
  encourages the foolish suit. Florizel and Perdita now flee to Sicily,
  and being introduced to Leontês, it is soon discovered that Perdita is
  his lost daughter. Polixenês tracks his son to Sicily, and being told
  of the discovery, gladly consents to the union he had before
  forbidden. Pauli´na now invites the royal party to inspect a statue of
  Hermionê in her house, and the statue turns out to be the living

  The plot of this drama is borrowed from the tale of _Pandosto_, or
  _The Triumph of Time_, by Robert Greene (1583).

              We should have him back
            Who told the _Winter’s Tale_ to do it for us.
                        Tennyson, Prologue of _The Princess_.

  =Winterblossom= (_Mr. Philip_), “the man of taste,” on the managing
  committee at the Spa.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George

  =Wintersen= (_The count_), brother of Baron Steinfort, lord of the
  place, and greatly beloved.

  _The Countess Wintersen_, wife of the above. She is a kind friend to
  Mrs. Haller, and confidante of her brother, the Baron
  Steinfort.--Benjamin Thompson, _The Stranger_ (1797).

  =Winterton= (_Adam_), the garrulous old steward of Sir Edward
  Mortimer, in whose service he had been for forty-nine years. He was
  fond of his little jokes, and not less so of his little nips, but he
  loved his master and almost idolized him.--G. Colman, _The Iron Chest_

  =Win-the-Fight= (_Joachin_), the attorney employed by Major
  Bridgenorth, the roundhead.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_
  (time, Charles II.).

  =Winthrop= (_Madam_). One of the oddest chapters in a bona fide
  courtship is found in the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall, wherein he
  sets down in order the several stages of his wooing of Madame
  Winthrop. One extract must suffice.

  “I think I repeated again that I would go home and bewail my rashness
  in making more haste than good speed. I would endeavor to contain
  myself and not go on to solicit her to do that which she could not
  consent to. Took leave of her. As came down the steps, she bid me have
  a care. Treated me courteously. Told her she had entered the fourth
  year of her widowhood. I had given her the newsletter before. I did
  not bid her draw off her glove as sometime I had done. Her dress was
  not so clean as sometime it had been. Jehovah jireh!”--_Sewall Papers_

  =Wisdom= (_Honor paid to_).

  ANACHARSIS went from Scythia to Athens to see Solon.--Ælian, _De Varia
  Historia_, v.

  APOLLONIOS TYANÆUS (Cappadocia) travelled through Scythia and into
  India as far as the river Phison to see Hierarchus.--Philostrătos,
  _Life of Apollonios_.

  BEN JONSON, in 1619, travelled on foot from London to Scotland merely
  to see W. Drummond, the Scotch poet, whose genius he admired.

  LIVY went from the confines of Spain to Rome to hold converse with the
  learned men of that city.--Pliny the Younger, _Epistle_, iii 2.

  PLATO travelled from Athens to Egypt to see the wise men or magi, and
  to visit Archytas of Tarentum, inventor of several automatons, as the
  flying pigeon, and of numerous mechanical instruments, as the screw
  and crane.

  PYTHAGORAS went from Italy to Egypt to visit the vaticinators of
  Memphis.--Porphyry, _Life of Pythagoras_.

  SHEBA (_The queen of_) went from “the uttermost parts of the earth” to
  hear and see Solomon, whose wisdom and greatness had reached her ear.

  =Wisdom Persecuted.=

  ANAXAGORAS of Clazomēnæ held opinions in natural science so far in
  advance of his age that he was accused of impiety, cast into prison,
  and condemned to death. It was with great difficulty that Perĭclês got
  the sentence commuted to fine and banishment.

  AVERROIS, the Arabian philosopher, was denounced as a heretic, and
  degraded, in the twelfth Christian century (died 1226).

  BACON (_Friar_) was excommunicated and imprisoned for diabolical
  knowledge, chiefly on account of his chemical researches (1214-1294).

  BRUNO (_Giordano_) was burnt alive for maintaining that matter is the
  mother of all things (1550-1600).

  CROSSE (_Andrew_), electrician, was shunned as a profane man, because
  he asserted that certain minute animals of the genus _Acarus_ had been
  developed by him out of inorganic elements (1784-1855).

  DEE (_Dr. John_) had his house broken into by a mob, and all his
  valuable library, museum, and mathematical instruments destroyed,
  because he was so wise that “he must have been allied with the devil”

  FEARGIL. (See “Virgilius.”)

  GALILEO was imprisoned by the Inquisition for daring to believe that
  the earth moved round the sun and not the sun round the earth. In
  order to get his liberty, he was obliged to “abjure the heresy;” but
  as the door closed he muttered, _E pur si muove_ (“But it does move,
  though”), (1564-1642).

  GERBERT, who introduced algebra into Christendom, was accused of
  dealing in the black arts, and was shunned as a “son of Belial.”

  GROSTED or GROSSETESTE, bishop of Lincoln, author of some two hundred
  works, was accused of dealing in the black arts, and the pope wrote a
  letter to Henry III., enjoining him to disinter the bones of the
  too-wise bishop, as they polluted the very dust of God’s acre (died

  FAUST (_Dr._), the German philosopher, was accused of diabolism for
  his wisdom so far in advance of the age.

  PEYRERE was imprisoned in Brussels for attempting to prove that man
  existed before Adam (seventeenth century).

  PROTAGORAS, the philosopher, was banished from Athens, for his book
  _On the Gods_.

  SOCRATÉS was condemned to death as an atheist, because his wisdom was
  not in accordance with that of the age.

  VIRGILIUS, bishop of Saltzburg, was compelled by Pope Zachary to
  retract his assertion that there are other “worlds” besides our earth,
  and other suns and moons besides those which belong to our system
  (died 784).

  Geologists had the same battle to fight, and so had Colenso, bishop of

  =Wise= (_The_).

  Albert II., duke of Austria, “The Lame and Wise” (1289, 1330-1358).

  Alfonso X. of Leon and Castile (1203, 1252-1284).

  Charles V. of France, _Le Sage_ (1337, 1364-1380).

  Che-Tsou of China (*, 1278-1295).

  Comte de las Casas, _Le Sage_ (1766-1842).

  Frederick, elector of Saxony (1463, 1544-1554).

  James I., the “Solomon” of England (1566, 1603-1625).

  John V., duke of Brittany, “The Good and Wise” (1389, 1399-1442).

  =Wise Men= (_The Seven_): (1) Solon of Athens, (2) Chilo of Sparta,
  (3) Thalês of Milētos, (4) Bias of Priēnê, (5) Cleobūlos of Lindos,
  (6) Pittăcos of Mitylēnê, (7) Periander of Corinth, or, according to
  Plato, Myson of Chenæ. All flourished in the sixth century B.C.

            First SOLON, who made the Athenian laws;
            While CHILO, in Sparta, was famed for his saws;
              In Milētos did THALES astronomy teach;
            BIAS used in Priēnê his morals to preach;
            CLEOBULOS, of Lindos, was handsome and wise;
            Mitylenê ’gainst thraldom saw PITTACOS rise;
            PERIANDER is said to have gained, thro’ his court,
            The title that MYSON, the Chenian, ought.

  One of the chapters in Plutarch’s _Moralia_ is entitled, “The Banquet
  of the Seven Wise Men,” in which Periander is made to give an account
  of a contest at Chalcis between Homer and Hesiod. The latter won the
  prize, and caused this inscription to be engraved on the tripod
  presented to him:

                 This Hesiod vows to the Heliconian nine,
                 In Chalcis won from Homer the divine.

  =Wise Men of the East.= Klopstock, in _The Messiah_, v., says there
  were six “Wise Men of the East,” who, guided by the star, brought
  their gifts to Jesus, “the heavenly babe,” viz., Ha´dad, Selima,
  Zimri, Mirja, Be´led and Sun´ith. (See COLOGNE, THREE KINGS OF.)

  =Wisest Man.= So the Delphic oracle pronounced Soc´ratês to be.
  Socratês modestly made answer, ’Twas because he alone had learnt this
  first element of truth, that he knew nothing.

         Not those seven sages might him parallel;
         For he whom Pythian maid did whilome tell
       To be the wisest man that then on earth did dwell.
                   Phin. Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vi. (1633).

  =Wisheart= (_The Rev. Dr._), chaplain to the earl of Montrose.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

  =Wishfort= (_Lady_), widow of Sir Jonathan Wishfort; an irritable,
  impatient, decayed beauty, who painted and enamelled her face to make
  herself look blooming, and was afraid to frown lest the enamel might
  crack. She pretended to be coy, and assumed, at the age of 60, the
  airs of a girl of 16. A trick was played upon her by Edward Mirabell,
  who induced his lackey, Waitwell, to personate Sir Rowland, and make
  love to her; but the deceit was discovered before much mischief was
  done. Her pet expression was, “As I’m a person.”--W. Congreve, _The
  Way of the World_ (1700).

  =Wishing-Cap= (_The_), a cap given to Fortunatus. He had only to put
  the cap on and wish, and whatever he wished he instantly
  obtained.--Straparola, _Fortunatus_.

  =Wishing-Rod= (_The_), a rod of pure gold, belonging to the Nibelungs.
  Whoever possessed it could have anything he desired to have, and hold
  the whole world in subjection.--_The Nibelungen Lied_, 1160 (1210).

  =Wishing-Sack= (_The_), a sack given by our Lord to a man named
  “Fourteen,” because he was as strong as fourteen men. Whatever he
  wished to have he had only to say, “Come into my sack,” and it came

  ⁂ This is a Basque legend. In Gascoigne it is called _Le Sac de la
  Ramée_ (“Ramée’s Sack”).

  =Wit--Simplicity.= It was said of John Gay that he was

                    In wit a man, simplicity a child.

  ⁂ The line is often flung at Oliver Goldsmith, to whom, indeed, it
  equally applies.

  =Witch.= The last person prosecuted before the lords or justiciary (in
  Scotland) for witchcraft was Elspeth Rule. She was tried May 3, 1709,
  before Lord Anstruther, and condemned to be burned on the cheek, and
  banished from Scotland for life.--Arnot, _History of Edinburgh_, 366,

  =Witch-Finder=, Matthew Hopkins (seventeenth century). In 1645 he
  hanged sixty witches in his own county (Essex) alone, and received
  20s. a head for every witch he could discover.

             Has not the present parliament
             Mat Hopkins to the devil sent,
             Fully empowered to treat about,
             Finding revolted witches out?
             And has not he within a year
             Hanged three score of them in one shire?
                         S. Butler, _Hudibras_, ii. 3 (1664).

  =Witch of Atlas=, the title and heroine of one of Shelley’s poems.

  =Witch of Balwer´y=, Margaret Aikens, a Scotchwoman (sixteenth

  =Witch of Edmonton= (_The_), called “Mother Sawyer.” This is the true
  traditional witch; no mystic hag, no weird sister, but only a poor,
  deformed old woman, the terror of villagers, and amenable to justice.

          Why should the envious world
  Throw all their scandalous malice upon me?
  Because I’m poor, deformed, and ignorant,
  And, like a bow, buckled and bent together
  By some more strong in mischiefs than myself.
              _The Witch of Edmonton_, (by Rowley, Dekker and Ford,

  =Witch’s Blood.= Whoever was successful in drawing blood from a witch,
  was free from her malignant power. Hence Talbot, when he sees La
  Pucelle, exclaims, “Blood will I draw from thee; thou art a
  witch!”--Shakespeare, _1 Henry VI._ act i. sc. 5 (1592).

  =Witherington= (_General_), _alias_ Richard Tresham, who first appears
  as Mr. Matthew Middlemas.

  _Mrs. Witherington_, wife of the general, alias Mrs. Middlemas (born
  Zelia de Monçada). She appears first as Mrs. Middlemas.--Sir W. Scott,
  _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

  =Wititterly= (_Mr. Henry_), an important gentleman, 38 years of age;
  of rather plebeian countenance, and with very light hair. He boasts
  everlastingly of his grand friends. To shake hands with a lord was a
  thing to talk of, but to entertain one was to be in the seventh

  _Mrs. Wititterly_ [_Julia_], wife of Mr. Wititterly, of Cadŏgan Place,
  Sloane Street, London; a faded lady living in a faded house. She calls
  her page Alphonse (2 _syl._), “although he has the face and figure of
  Bill.” Mrs. Wititterly toadies the aristocracy, and, like her husband,
  boasts of her grand connections and friends.--C. Dickens, _Nicholas
  Nickleby_ (1838). (See TIBBS).

  =Witling of Terror=, Bertrand Barère; also called “The Anacreon of the
  Guillotine” (1755-1841).

  =Wittenbold=, a Dutch commandant in the service of Charles II.--Sir W.
  Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

  =Witterington= (_Roger_). (See WIDDRINGTON.)

  =Wittol= (_Sir Joseph_), an ignorant, foolish simpleton, who says that
  Bully Buff “is as brave a fellow as Cannibal.”--Congreve, _The Old
  Bachelor_ (1693).

  =Witwould= (_Sir Wilful_), of Shropshire, half-brother of Anthony
  Witwould, and nephew of Lady Wishfort. A mixture of bashfulness and
  obstinacy, but when in his cups as loving as the monster in the
  _Tempest_. He is “a superannuated old bachelor,” who is willing to
  marry Millamant; but as the young lady prefers Edward Mirabell, he is
  equally willing to resign her to him. His favorite phrase is, “Wilful
  will do it.”

  _Anthony Witwould_, half-brother to Sir Wilful. “He has good nature
  and does not want wit.” Having a good memory, he has a store of other
  folks’ wit, which he brings out in conversation with good effect.--W.
  Congreve, _The Way of the World_ (1700).

  =Wives as they Were and Maids as they Are=, a comedy by Mrs. Inchbald
  (1797). Lady Priory is the type of the former, and Miss Dorrillon of
  the latter. Lady Priory is discreet, domestic, and submissive to her
  husband; but Miss Dorrillon is gay, flighty, and fond of pleasure.
  Lady Priory, under false pretences, is allured from home by a Mr.
  Bronzely, a man of no principle and a rake; but her quiet, innocent
  conduct quite disarms him, and he takes her back to her husband,
  ashamed of himself, and resolves to amend. Miss Dorrillon is so
  involved in debt that she is arrested, but her father from the Indies
  pays her debts. She also repents, and becomes the wife of Sir George

  =Wives of Literary Men.= According to popular rumor the following were
  _unhappy_ in their wives:--Addison, Byron, Dickens, Dryden, Albert
  Dürer, Hooker, Ben Jonson, W. Lilly, Milton (first wife), Molière,
  More, Saadi, Scaliger, Shakespeare, Shelley, Socratês, Wycherly, etc.
  The following were _happy_ in their choice:--Thomas Moore, Sir W.
  Scott, Wordsworth, William Howitt, Robert Browning, S. C. Hall,
  Disraeli, Gladstone, etc., in England, and in America a great majority
  of literary men:--Longfellow, Lowell, Emerson, Hawthorne, to name only
  a few.

  =Wizard of the North=, Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832).

  =Wobbler= (_Mr._), of the Circumlocution Office. When Mr. Clennam, by
  the direction of Mr. Barnacle, in another department of the office,
  called on this gentleman, he was telling a brother clerk about a
  rat-hunt, and kept Clennam waiting a considerable time. When at length
  Mr. Wobbler chose to attend, he politely said, “Hallo, there! What’s
  the matter?” Mr. Clennam briefly stated his question; and Mr. Wobbler
  replied, “Can’t inform you. Never heard of it. Nothing at all to do
  with it. Try Mr. Clive.” When Clennam left, Mr. Wobbler called out,
  “Mister! Hallo, there! Shut the door after you. There’s a devil of a
  draught!”--Charles Dickens, _Little Dorrit_, x. (1857).

  =Woeful Countenance= (_Knight of the_). Don Quixote was so called by
  Sancho Panza, but after his adventure with the lions he called himself
  “The Knight of the Lions.”--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iii. 5; II.
  i. 17 (1605-15).

  =Wolf.= The NEURI, according to Herodŏtus, had the power of assuming
  the shape of wolves once a year.

  One of the family of ANTÆUS, according to Pliny, was chosen annually,
  by lot, to be transformed into a wolf, in which shape he continued for
  nine years.

  LYCA´ON, king of Arcādia, was turned into a wolf because he attempted
  to test the divinity of Jupiter by serving up to him “human flesh at

  VERET´ICUS, king of Wales, was turned by St. Patrick into a wolf.

  _Wolf._ When Dantê, in the first Canto of the _Divina Commedia_,
  describes the ascent of the hill (of fame?) he is met, first by a
  panther (_pleasure?_) then by a lion (_ambition?_) then by a she-wolf

            A she-wolf, ... who in her leanness seemed
          Full of all wants, ... with such fear
          O’erwhelmed me ... that of the height all hope I lost.
                      Dantê, _Inferno_, i. (1300).

  _Wolf_ (_To cry_), to give a false alarm.

  YÖW-WÂNG, emperor of China, was greatly enamoured of a courtezan named
  Pao-tse, whom he tried, by sundry expedients, to make laugh. At length
  he hit upon the following plan:--He caused the tocsins to be rung, the
  drums to be beaten, and the signal-fires to be lighted, as if some
  invader was at the gates. Pao-tse was delighted, and laughed
  immoderately to see the vassals and feudatory princes pouring into the
  city, and all the people in consternation. The emperor, pleased with
  the success of his trick, amused his favorite over and over again by
  repeating it. At length an enemy really did come, but when the alarm
  was given no one heeded it, and the emperor was slain (B.C. 770).

  =Wolf duke of Gascony=, one of Charlemagne’s paladins. He was the
  originator of the plan of tying wetted ropes round the temples of his
  prisoners, to make their eye-balls start from their sockets. It was he
  also who had men sewn up in freshly stripped bulls’ hides, and exposed
  to the sun till the hides, in shrinking, crushed their
  bones.--L’Epine, _Croquemitaine_, iii.

  =Wolf of France= (_She-_), Isabella _la Belle_, wife of Edward II. She
  murdered her royal husband “by tearing out his bowels with her own

               She-wolf of France, with unrelenting fangs,
               Thou tear’st the bowels of thy mangled mate.
                           Gray, _The Bard_ (1757).

  =Wol´fort=, usurper of the earldom of Flanders.--Beaumont and
  Fletcher, _The Beggars’ Bush_ (1622).

  =Wolfort Webber=, Old Knickerbocker, searcher for treasure buried by
  buccaneers.--Washington Irving, _Tales of a Traveller_.

  =Wolsey= (_Cardinal_), introduced by Shakespeare in his historic play
  of _Henry VIII._ (1601).

  =Woman Changed to a Man.= Iphis, daughter of Lygdus and Telethusa, of
  Crete. The story is that the father gave orders if the child about to
  be born proved to be a girl, it was to be put to death; and that the
  mother, unwilling to lose her infant, brought it up as a boy. In due
  time the father betrothed his child to Ianthê, and the mother, in
  terror, prayed for help, when Isis, on the day of marriage, changed
  Iphis to a man.--Ovid, _Metaph._ ix. 12; xiv, 699.

  CÆNEUS [_Se.nuce_], was born of the female sex, but Neptune changed
  her into a man. Ænēas, however, found her in the infernal regions
  restored to her original sex.

  TIRE´SIAS, was converted into a woman for killing one of two serpents
  he met in a wood and was restored to his original sex by killing the
  other serpent met again after seven years.

  D’EON DE BEAUMONT, the Chevalier, was believed to be a woman.

  HERMAPHRODITOS was of both sexes.

  =Woman killed with Kindness= (_A_), a tragedy by Thos. Heywood (1600).
  The “woman” was Mrs. Frankford, who was unfaithful to her marriage
  vow. Her husband sent her to live on one of his estates, and made her
  a liberal allowance; she died, but on her death-bed her husband came
  to see her, and forgave her.

  =Woman made of Flowers.= Gwydion, son of Don, “formed a woman out of
  flowers,” according to the Bard Taliesin. Arianrod had said that Llew
  Llaw Gyffes (_i.e._, “The Lion with the Steady Hand”), should never
  have a wife of the human race. So Math and Gwydion, two enchanters,

  Took blossoms of oak, and blossoms of broom, and blossoms of
  meadow-sweet, and produced therefrom a maiden, the fairest and most
  graceful ever seen, and baptized her Blodeuwedd, and she became his
  bride.--_The Mabinogion_ (“Math,” etc., twelfth century).

  =Woman’s Wit=, or =Love’s Disguises=, a drama by S. Knowles (1838).
  Hero Sutton loved Sir Valentine de Grey, but offended him by waltzing
  with Lord Athunree. To win him back she assumed the disguise of a
  Quakeress, called herself Ruth, and pretended to be Hero’s cousin. Sir
  Valentine fell in love with Ruth, and then found out that Ruth and
  Hero were one and the same person. The secondary plot is that of Helen
  and Walsingham, lovers. Walsingham thought Helen had played the wanton
  with Lord Athunree, and he abandoned her. Whereupon Helen assumed the
  garb of a young man named Eustace, became friends with Walsingham,
  said she was Helen’s brother; but in the brother he discovers Helen
  herself, and learnt that he had been wholly misled by appearances.

  =Women= (_The Nine Worthy_): (1) Minerva, (2) Semiramis, (3) Tomyris,
  (4) Jael, (5) Debŏrah, (6) Judith, (7) Britomart, (8) Elizabeth or
  Isabella of Aragon, (9) Johanna of Naples.

  By’r lady, maist story-man, I am well afraid thou hast done with thy
  talke. I had rather have herd something sayd of gentle and meeke
  women, for it is euill examples to let them understand of such studye
  manlye women as those have been which erewhile thou hast tolde of.
  They are quicke enow, I warrant you, noweadays, to take hart-a-grace,
  and dare make warre with their husbandes. I would not vor the price o’
  my coate, that Jone, my wife had herd this yeare; she would haue
  carried away your tales of the nine worthy women a dele zoner than our
  minister’s tales anent Sarah, Rebekah, Ruth, and the ministering
  women, I warrant you.--John Ferne, _Dialogue on Heraldry_ (“Columel’s
  reply to Torquatus”).

  ⁂ “Hart-a-grace,” a hart permitted by royal proclamation to run free
  and unharmed for ever, because it has been hunted by a king or queen.

  =Women of Abandoned Morals.=

  BARBARA of Cilley, second wife of the Emperor Sigismund, called “The
  Messalīna of Germany.”

  BERRI (_Madame de_), wife of the Duc de Berri (youngest grandson of
  Louis XIV.).

  CATHERINE II. of Russia, called “The Modern Messalina” (1729-1796).

  GIOVANNA or JEAN of Naples. Her first love was James, count of March,
  who was beheaded. Her second was Camicioli, whom she put to death. Her
  next was Alfonso of Aragon. Her fourth was Louis d’Anjou, who died.
  Her fifth was René, the brother of Louis.

  ISABELLE of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI., and mistress of the duke of

  ISABELLE of France, wife of Edward II., and mistress of Mortimer.

  JULIA, daughter of the Emperor Augustus.

  MAROZIA, the daughter of Theodora, and mother of Pope John XI. The
  infamous daughter of an infamous mother (ninth century.)

  MESSALI´NA, the wife of Claudius, the Roman emperor.

  =Wonder= (_The_), a comedy by Mrs. Centlivre; the second title being
  _A Woman Keeps a Secret_ (1714). The woman referred to is Violantê,
  and the secret she keeps is that Donna Isabella, the sister of Don
  Felix, has taken refuge under her roof. The danger she undergoes in
  keeping the secret is this: Her lover, Felix, who knows that Colonel
  Briton calls at the house, is jealous, and fancies that he calls to
  see Violantê. The reason why Donna Isabella has sought refuge with
  Violantê is to escape a marriage with a Dutch gentleman whom she
  dislikes. After a great deal of trouble and distress, the secret is
  unravelled, and the comedy ends with a double marriage, that of
  Violantê with Don Felix, and that of Isabella with Colonel Briton.

  =Wonder of the World= (_The_).

  GERBERT, a man of prodigious learning. When he was made pope, he took
  the name of Sylvester II. (930, 999-1003).

  OTTO III. of Germany, a pupil of Gerbert. What he did deserving to be
  called _Mirabilia Mundi_ nobody knows (980, 983-1002).

  FREDERICK II. of Germany (1194, 1215-1250).

  =Wonderful Doctor=, Roger Bacon (1214-1292).

  =Wood= (_Babes in the_), a baby boy and girl left by a gentleman of
  Norfolk on his death-bed to the care of his brother. The boy was to
  have £300 a year on coming of age, and little Jane £500 as a wedding
  portion. The uncle promised to take care of the children, but scarcely
  had a year gone by when he hired two ruffians to make away with them.
  The hirelings took the children on horseback to Wayland Wood, where
  they were left to die of cold and hunger. The children would have been
  killed, but one of the fellows relented, expostulated with his
  companion, and finally slew him. The survivor compromised with his
  conscience by leaving the babes alive in the wood. Everything went ill
  with the uncle from that hour; his children died, his cattle died, his
  barns were set on fire, and he himself died in jail.

  ⁂ The prettiest version of this story is one set to a Welsh tune; but
  Percy has a version in his _Reliques of Ancient English Poetry_.

  =Woodcock= (_Adam_), falconer of the Lady Mary at Avenel Castle. In
  the revels he takes the character of the “abbot of Unreason.”--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

  _Woodcock_ (_Justice_), a gouty, rheumatic, crusty, old country
  gentleman, who invariably differed with his sister, Deb´orah, in
  everything. He was a bit of a Lothario in his young days, and still
  retained a somewhat licorous tooth. Justice Woodcock had one child,
  named Lucinda, a merry girl, full of frolic and fun.

  _Deborah Woodcock_, sister of the justice; a starch, prudish old maid,
  who kept the house of her brother, and disagreed with him in
  everything.--Isaac Bickerstaff, _Love in a Village_ (1762).

  =Woodcocks= (_The_). _John Woodcock_, a rough, reckless colonist, who
  seems harsh to his motherless girl while she is a child, but
  subsequently betrays the depths of fatherly affection when she is
  persecuted by others.

  _Mary Woodcock_, wild, wayward, passionate girl, in trouble from her
  youth up. She marries a gentle-hearted fellow, Hugh Parsons; is tried
  for slandering a neighbor, and, driven insane by ill-treatment,
  murders her baby, believing it to be a changeling. She is tried for
  witchcraft, and acquitted; for child-murder, and sentenced to death,
  but dies before the sentence is carried into execution. Her father
  says over her lifeless body:

  “If I didn’t think the Lord would see just how she’s been abused and
  knocked round, and would allow for the way she was brung up, and would
  strike out all He’s got agin her, excepting that that didn’t come from
  bein’ meddled with and insulted and plagued, I should want to have her
  an’ me an’ everybody else I care anything about, blown into a thousand
  flinders, body and soul, and all the pieces lost.”--J. G. Holland,
  _The Bay Path_ (1857).

  =Woodcourt= (_Allan_), a medical man, who married Esther Summerson.
  His mother was a Welsh woman, apt to prose on the subject of
  Morgan-ap-Kerrig.--C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1852).

  =Wooden Horse= (_The_). Virgil tells us that Ulysses had a monster
  wooden horse, made by Epēos after the death of Hector, and gave out
  that it was an offering to the gods to secure a prosperous voyage back
  to Greece. By the advice of Sinon, the Trojans dragged the horse into
  Troy for a palladium; but at night the Grecian soldiers concealed
  therein were released by Sinon from their concealment, slew the Trojan
  guards, opened the city gates, and set fire to Troy. Arctīnos of
  Milētus, in his poem called _The Destruction of Troy_, furnished
  Virgil with the tale of “the Wooden Horse” and “the burning of Troy”
  (fl. B.C. 776).

  A remarkable parallel occurred in Saracenic history. Arrestan, in
  Syria, was taken in the seventh century by Abu Obeidah by a similar
  stratagem. He obtained leave of the governor to deposit in the citadel
  some old lumber which impeded his march. Twenty large boxes filled
  with men were carried into the castle. Abu marched off; and, while the
  Christians were returning thanks for the departure of the enemy, the
  soldiers removed the sliding bottoms of the boxes and made their way
  out, overpowered the sentries, surprised the great church, opened the
  city gates, and Abu, entering with his army, took the city without
  further opposition.--Ockley, _History of the Saracens_, i. 185 (1718).

  The capture of Sark affords another parallel. Sark was in the hands of
  the French. A Netherlander, with one ship, asked permission to bury
  one of his crew in the chapel. The French consented, provided the crew
  came on shore wholly unarmed. This was agreed to, but the coffin was
  full of arms, and the crew soon equipped themselves, overpowered the
  French, and took the island.--Percy, _Anecdotes_, 249.

         Swoln with hate and ire, their huge, unwieldy force
         Came clustering like the Greeks out of the wooden horse.
                     Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).

  _Wooden Horse_ (_The_), Clavilēno, the wooden horse on which Don
  Quixote and Sancho Panza got astride to disenchant Antonomas´ia and
  her husband, who were shut up in the tomb of Queen Maguncia of
  Candaya.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iii. 4, 5 (1615).

  Another _wooden horse_ was the one given by an Indian to the shah of
  Persia as a New Year’s gift. It had two pegs; by turning one it rose
  into the air, and by turning the other it descended wherever the rider
  wished. Prince Firouz mounted the horse, and it carried him
  instantaneously to Bengal.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Enchanted Horse”).

  Reynard says that King Crampart made for the daughter of King
  Marcadigês a wooden horse which would go a hundred miles an hour. His
  son, Clamadês, mounted it, and it flew out of the window of the king’s
  hall, to the terror of the young prince.--Alkman, _Reynard the Fox_
  (1498). (See CAMBUSCAN.)

  =Wooden Walls=, ships made of wood. When Xerxes invaded Greece, the
  Greeks sent to ask the Delphic oracle for advice, and received the
  following answer (B.C. 480):--

            Pallas hath urged, and Zeus, the sire of all,
            Hath safety promised in a wooden wall;
            Seed-time and harvest, sires shall, weeping, tell
            How thousands fought at Salamis, and fell.

  =Woodman= (_The_), an opera by Sir H. Bate Dudley (1771). Emily was
  the companion of Miss Wilford, and made with Miss Wilford’s brother “a
  mutual vow of inviolable affection;” but Wilford’s uncle and guardian,
  greatly disapproving of such an alliance, sent the young man to the
  Continent, and dismissed the young lady from his service. Emily went
  to live with Goodman Fairlop, the woodman, and there Wilford
  discovered her in an archery match. The engagement was renewed, and
  terminated in marriage. The woodman’s daughter, Dolly, married Matthew
  Medley, the factotum of Sir Walter Waring.

  =Woodstal= (_Henry_), in the guard of Richard Cœur de Lion.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Woodstock=, a novel by Sir W. Scott (1826). It was hastily put
  together, but is not unworthy of the name it bears.

  =Woodville= (_Harry_), the treacherous friend of Penruddock, who
  ousted him of the wife to whom he was betrothed. He was wealthy, but
  reduced himself to destitution by gambling.

  _Mrs. Woodville_ (whose Christian name was Arabella), wife of Harry
  Woodville, but previously betrothed to Roderick Penruddock. When
  reduced to destitution Penruddock restored to her the settlement which
  her husband had lost in play.

  _Captain Henry Woodville_, son of the above; a noble soldier, brave
  and high-minded, in love with Emily Tempest, but, in the ruined
  condition of the family, unable to marry her. Penruddock makes over to
  him all the deeds, bonds and obligations which his father had lost in
  gambling.--Cumberland, _The Wheel of Fortune_ (1779).

  _Woodville_ (_Lord_), a friend of General Brown. It was Lord
  Woodville’s house that was haunted by the “lady in the Sacque.”--Sir
  W. Scott, _The Tapestered Chamber_ (time, George III.).

  =Woolen.= It was Mrs. Oldfield, the actress, who revolted at the idea
  of being shrouded in woolen. She insisted on being arrayed in chintz
  trimmed with Brussels lace, and on being well rouged to hide the
  pallor of death. Pope calls her “Narcissa.”

            “Odious! In woolen! ’Twould a saint provoke!”
            Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke.
            “No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace
            Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless face;
            One would not, sure, be frightful when one’s dead!
            And, Betty, give this cheek a little red.”
                       Pope, _Moral Essays_, i. (1731).

  =Wopsle= (_Mr._), parish clerk. He had a Roman nose, a large, shining,
  bald forehead, and a deep voice, of which he was very proud. “If the
  Church had been thrown open,” _i.e._, free to competition, Mr. Wopsle
  would have chosen the pulpit. As it was, he only punished the “Amens”
  and gave out the psalms; but his face always indicated the inward
  thought of “Look at this and look at that,” meaning the gent in the
  reading-desk. He turned actor in a small metropolitan theatre.--C.
  Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

  =Work= (_Endless_), Penelopê’s web; Vortigern’s Tower; washing the
  blackamoor white; etc.

  =Work-room= (_My_).

               “Yet the world is thy field, thy garden,
                 On earth art Thou still at home.
             When thou bendest hither thy hallowing eye,
             My narrow work-room seems vast and high,
                 Its dingy ceiling, a rainbow dome--
               Stand ever thus at my wide swung door,
                 And toil will be toil no more.”
                        Lucy Larcom, _Poetical Works_ (1885).

  =World= (_End of the_). This ought to have occurred, according to
  Cardinal Nicolas de Cusa, in 1704. He demonstrates it thus: The Deluge
  happened in the thirty-fourth jubilee of fifty years from the Creation
  (A.M. 1700), and therefore the end of the world should properly occur
  on the thirty-fourth jubilee of the Christian era, or A.D. 1704. The
  four grace years are added to compensate for the blunder of
  chronologists respecting the first year of grace.

  The most popular dates of modern times for the end of the world, or
  what is practically the same thing, the Millennium, are the
  following:--1757, Swedenborg; 1836, Johann Albrecht Bengel, _Erklärte
  Offenbarung_; 1843, William Miller, of America; 1866, Dr. John
  Cumming; 1881, Mother Shipton.

  It was very generally believed in France, Germany, etc., that the end
  of the world would happen in the thousandth year after Christ; and
  therefore much of the land was left uncultivated, and a general famine
  ensued. Luckily, it was not agreed whether the thousand years should
  date from the birth or the death of Christ, or the desolation would
  have been much greater. Many charters begin with these words, _As the
  world is now drawing to its close_. Kings and nobles gave up their
  state: Robert of France, son of Hugh Capet, entered the monastery of
  St. Denis; and at Limoges, princes, nobles, and knights proclaimed
  “God’s Truce,” and solemnly bound themselves to abstain from feuds, to
  keep the peace towards each other, and to help the oppressed.--Hallam,
  _The Middle Ages_ (1818).

  Another hypothesis is this: As one day with God equals a thousand
  years (_Psalm_ xc. 4), and God labored in creation six days, therefore
  the world is to labor 6000 years, and then to rest. According to this
  theory, the end of the world ought to occur A.M. 6000, or A.D. 1996
  (supposing the world to have been created 4004 years before the birth
  of Christ). This hypothesis, which is widely accepted, is quite safe
  for another century at least.

  =Worldly Wiseman= (_Mr._), one who tries to persuade Christian that it
  is very bad policy to continue his journey towards the Celestial City.
  Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, i. (1678).

  =Worms= (_Language of_). Melampos the prophet was acquainted with the
  language of worms, and when thrown into a dungeon, heard the worms
  communicating to each other that the roof overhead would fall in, for
  the beams were eaten through. He imparted this intelligence to his
  jailers, and was removed to another dungeon. At night the roof did
  fall, and the king, amazed at this foreknowledge, released Melampos,
  and gave him the oxen of Iphiklos.

  =Worse than a Crime.= Talleyrand said of the murder of the Duc
  d’Enghien by Napoleon I. “It was worse than a crime, it was a

  =Worthies= (_The Nine_). Three _Gentiles_: Hector, Alexander, Julius
  Cæsar; three _Jews_: Joshua, David, Judas Maccabæus; three
  _Christians_: Arthur, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon.

  =Worthies of London.= (_The Nine_).

  1. SIR WILLIAM WALWORTH, fishmonger, who stabbed Wat Tyler, the rebel.
  For this service King Richard II. gave him the “cap of maintenance”
  and a “dagger” for the arms of London (_Lord Mayor_, 1374, 1380).

  2. SIR HENRY PRITCHARD or PICARD, vintner, who feasted Edward III.,
  the Black Prince, John, king of Austria, the king of Cyprus, and David
  of Scotland, with 5000 guests, in 1356, the year of his mayoralty.

  3. SIR WILLIAM SEVENOKE, grocer. “A foundling, found under seven
  oaks.” He fought with the dauphin, and built twenty almshouses, etc.
  (_Lord Mayor_, 1418).

  4. SIR THOMAS WHITE, merchant tailor, who, during the mayoralty in
  1553, kept London faithful to Queen Mary during Wyatt’s rebellion. Sir
  Thomas White was the son of a poor clothier, and began trade as a
  tailor with £100. He was the founder of St. John’s College, Oxford, on
  the spot where two elms grew from one root.

  5. SIR JOHN BONHAM, mercer, commander of the army which overcame
  Solyman the Great, who knighted him on the field after the victory,
  and gave him chains of gold, etc.

  6. SIR CHRISTOPHER CROKER, vintner, the first to enter Bordeaux, when
  it was besieged. Companion and friend of Edward the Black Prince.

  7. SIR JOHN HAWKWOOD, tailor, knighted by the Black Prince. He is
  immortalized in Italian history as _Giovanni Acuti Cavaliero_. He died
  in Padua.

  8. SIR HUGH CAVERLEY, silk-weaver, famous for ridding Poland of a
  monstrous bear. He died in France.

  9. SIR HENRY MALEVERER, grocer, generally called “Henry of Cornhill,”
  a crusader in the reign of Henry IV., and guardian of “Jacob’s
  Well.”--R. Johnson, _The Nine Worthies of London_ (1592).

  =Worthington= (_Lieutenant_), “the poor gentleman;” a disabled officer
  and a widower, very poor, “but more proud than poor, and more honest
  than proud.” He was for thirty years in the king’s army, but was
  discharged on half-pay, being disabled at Gibraltar by a shell which
  crushed his arm. His wife was shot in his arms when his daughter was
  but three years old. The lieutenant put his name to a bill for £500;
  but his friend dying before he had effected his insurance Worthington
  became responsible for the entire sum, and if Sir Robert Bramble had
  not most generously paid the bill the poor lieutenant would have been
  thrown into jail.

  _Emily Worthington_, the lieutenant’s daughter; a lovely, artless,
  affectionate girl, with sympathy for every one, and a most amiable
  disposition. Sir Charles Cropland tried to buy her, but she rejected
  his proposals with scorn, and fell in love with Frederick Bramble, to
  whom she was given in marriage.--C. Colman, _The Poor Gentleman_

  =Worthy=, in love with Melinda, who coquets with him for twelve
  months, and then marries him.--G. Farquhar, _The Recruiting Officer_

  _Worthy_ (_Lord_), the suitor of Lady Reveller, who was fond of play.
  She became weary of gambling, and was united in marriage to Lord
  Worthy.--Mrs. Centlivre, _The Basset Table_ (1706).

  =Wouvermans= (_The English_), Abraham Cooper. One of his best pieces
  is “The Battle of Bosworth Field.”

  Richard Cooper is called “The British Poussin.”

  =Wrangle= (_Mr. Caleb_), a hen-pecked young husband, of oily tongue
  and plausible manners, but smarting under the nagging tongue and
  willful ways of his fashionable wife.

  _Mrs. Wrangle_, his wife, the daughter of Sir Miles Mowbray. She was
  for ever snubbing her young husband, wrangling with him, morning,
  noon, and night, and telling him most provokingly “to keep his
  temper.” This couple lead a cat-and-dog life: he was sullen, she quick
  tempered; he jealous, she open and incautious.--Cumberland, _First
  Love_ (1796).

  =Wrath’s Hole= (_The_), Cornwall. Bolster, a gigantic wrath, wanted
  St. Agnes to be his mistress. She told him she would comply when he
  filled a small hole, which she pointed out to him, with his blood. The
  wrath agreed, not knowing that the hole opened into the sea; and thus
  the saint cunningly bled the wrath to death, and then pushed him over
  the cliff. The hole is called “The Wrath’s hole” to this day, and the
  stones about it are colored with blood-red streaks all
  over.--Polwhele, _History of Cornwall_, i. 176 (1813).

  =Wray= (_Enoch_), “the village patriarch,” blind, poor, and 100 years
  old; but reverenced for his meekness, resignation, wisdom, piety, and
  experience.--Crabbe, _The Village Patriarch_ (1783).

  =Wrayburn= (_Eugene_), barrister-at-law; an indolent, idle, moody,
  whimsical young man, who loves Lizzie Hexam. After he is nearly killed
  by Bradley Headstone, he reforms, and marries Lizzie, who saved his
  life.--C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

  =Wren= (_Jenny_), whose real name was Fanny Cleaver, a doll’s
  dressmaker, and the friend of Lizzie Hexam, who at one time lodged
  with her. Jenny was a little, deformed girl, with a sharp, shrewd
  face, and beautiful golden hair. She supported herself and her drunken
  father, whom she reproved as a mother might reprove a child. “Oh,” she
  cried to him, pointing her little finger, “you bad, old boy! Oh, you
  naughty, wicked creature! What do you mean by it?”--C. Dickens, _Our
  Mutual Friend_ (1864).

  =Wrong= (_All in the_), a comedy by A. Murphy (1761). The principal
  characters are Sir John and Lady Restless, Sir William Bellmont and
  his son, George, Beverley and his sister, Clarissa, Blandford and his
  daughter, Belinda. Sir John and Lady Restless were wrong in suspecting
  each other of infidelity, but this misunderstanding made their lives
  wretched. Beverley was deeply in love with Belinda, and was wrong in
  his jealousy of her, but Belinda was also wrong in not vindicating
  herself. She knew that she was innocent, and felt that Beverley ought
  to trust her, but she gave herself and him needless torment by
  permitting a misconception to remain which she might have most easily
  removed. The old men were also wrong: Blandford in promising his
  daughter in marriage to Sir William Bellmont’s son, seeing she loved
  Beverley; and Sir William, in accepting the promise, seeing his son
  was plighted to Clarissa. A still further complication of wrong
  occurs. Sir John wrongs Beverley in believing him to be intriguing
  with his wife; and Lady Restless wrongs Belinda in supposing that she
  coquets with her husband; both were pure mistakes, all were in the
  wrong, but all in the end were set right.

  =Wronghead= (_Sir Francis_), of Bumper Hall, and M.P. for Guzzledown;
  a country squire, who comes to town for the season, with his wife,
  son, and eldest daughter. Sir Francis attends the House, but gives his
  vote on the wrong side; and he spends his money on the hope of
  obtaining a place under Government. His wife spends about £100 a day
  on objects of no use. His son is on the point of marrying the “cast
  mistress” of a swindler, and his daughter of marrying a forger; but
  Manly interferes to prevent these fatal steps, and Sir Francis returns
  home to prevent utter ruin.

  _Lady Wronghead_, wife of Sir Francis; a country dame, who comes to
  London, where she squanders money on worthless objects, and expects to
  get into “society.” Happily, she is persuaded by Manly to return home
  before the affairs of her husband are wholly desperate.

  _Squire Richard_ [_Wronghead_], eldest son of Sir Francis, a country

  _Miss Jenny_ [_Wronghead_], eldest daughter of Sir Francis; a silly
  girl, who thinks it would be a fine thing to be called a “countess,”
  and therefore becomes the dupe of one Basset, a swindler, who calls
  himself a “count.”--Vanbrugh and Cibber, _The Provoked Husband_

  =Wyat.= Henry Wyat was imprisoned by Richard III., and when almost
  starved a cat appeared at the window-grating and dropped a dove into
  his hand. This occurred day after day, and Wyat induced the warder to
  cook for him the doves thus wonderfully obtained.

  Elijah, the Tishbite, while he lay hidden at the brook Cherith, was
  fed by ravens, who brought “bread and flesh” every morning and
  evening.--_1 Kings_ xvii. 6.

  =Wylie= (_Andrew_), ex-clerk of bailie Nicol Jarvie.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

  _Wylie_ (_Joe_), mate of the _Proserpine_, hired by Arthur Wardlaw to
  scuttle that vessel, that the insurance-money may be used to conceal
  the fact of Wardlaw’s defalcations.--Charles Reade, _Foul Play_.

  =Wynebgwrthucher=, the shield of King Arthur.--_The Mabinogion_
  (“Kilhwch and Olwen,” twelfth century).

  =Wynkyn de Worde=, the second printer in London (from 1491-1534). The
  first was Caxton (from 1476-1491). Wynkyn de Worde assisted Caxton in
  the new art of printing.


   Wynken, Blynken and Nod one night,
     Sailed off in a wooden shoe--
   Sailed on a river of misty light
     Into a sea of dew.
   “Where are you going, and what do you wish?”
     The old moon asked the three.
   “We have come to fish for the herring-fish
     That live in this beautiful sea,
   Nets of silver and gold have we,”
     Said Wynken, Blynken and Nod.
               Eugene Field, _A Little Book of Western Verse_, (1889).

  =Wyo´ming=, in Pennsylvania, purchased by an American company from the
  Delaware Indians. It was settled by an American colony, but being
  subject to constant attacks from the savages the colony armed in
  self-defence. In 1778 most of the able-bodied men were called to join
  the army of Washington, and in the summer of that year an army of
  British and Indian allies, led by Colonel Butler, attacked the
  settlement, massacred the inhabitants, and burnt their houses to the

  ⁂ Campbell has made this the subject of a poem entitled _Gertrude of
  Wyoming_, but he pronounces the name Wy´oming, and makes Brant,
  instead of Butler, the leader of the attack.

  =Wyvill= (_William de_), a steward of the field at the
  tournament.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Xan´adu=, a city mentioned by Coleridge in his fragment, _Kubla
  Khan_. The idea of this poem is borrowed from the _Pilgrimage_ by
  Purchas (1613), where Xanadu is called “Xaindu.” Coleridge says that
  he composed the poem in a dream, after reading Purchas’ _Pilgrimage_.

  =Xanthos=, the horse of Achillês. He spoke with a human voice, like
  Balaam’s ass, Adrastos’s horse (Arīon), Fortunio’s horse (Comrade),
  Mahomet’s “horse” (Al Borak), Sâleh’s camel, the dog of the seven
  sleepers (Katmîr), the black pigeons of Dodona and Ammon, the king of
  serpents (Temliha), the serpent which was cursed for tempting Eve, the
  talking-bird called bulbul-hēzar, the little green bird of Princess
  Fairstar, the White Cat _cum quibusdam aliis_.

    The mournful Xanthus (says the bard of old)
      Of Peleus’ warlike son the fortune told.
                Peter Pindar [Dr. Wolcott], _The Lousiad_, v. (1809).

  =Xantippe= (3 _syl._), wife of Socrătês; proverbial for a scolding,
  nagging, peevish wife. One day, after storming at the philosopher, she
  emptied a vessel of dirty water on his head, whereupon Socratês simply
  remarked, “Aye, aye, we always look for rain after thunder.”

  _Xantippe_ (3 _syl._), daughter of Cimo´nos. She preserved the life of
  her old father in prison by suckling him. The guard marvelled that the
  old man held out so long, and, watching for the solution, discovered
  the fact.

  Euphra´sia, daughter of Evander, preserved her aged father while in
  prison in a similar manner. (See GRECIAN DAUGHTER.)

  =Xavier= (_François_), Florentine priest, son of a cameo cutter, who
  finds on the shore of Lake Superior an uncut onyx stone, called by
  Black Beaver, the Indian owner, “the devil-stone.” Black Beaver will
  not sell it, but his daughter, Marie, in love with Xavier, persuades
  him to offer it to the Virgin. Xavier engraves upon it an exquisite
  representation of Venus rising from the sea. Black Beaver, seeing his
  daughter pining for love of Xavier, offers her to the chief priest of
  the mission as Xavier’s wife, and learns that Romish priests cannot
  marry. He drinks heavily all night, and the next day departs on a
  journey “for stores.” That evening Marie, kneeling at prayer, sees
  that the cameo has disappeared from the Virgin’s breast. Next day
  François Xavier is found dead in the forest, an arrow in his heart.
  When the shaft is withdrawn, the arrow-head remains in his bosom. A
  century later, within the skeleton of a man exhumed near Starved Rock,
  Illinois, is found a rarely beautiful cameo. “The uncanny thing
  rattled within the white ribs.”--Elizabeth W. Champney, _The
  Heartbreak Cameo_.

  =Xavier de Belsunce= (_H. François_), immortalized by his
  self-devotion in administering to the plague-stricken at Marseilles

  ⁂ Other similar examples are Charles Borro´meo, cardinal and
  archbishop of Milan (1538-1584). St. Roche, who died in 1327 from the
  plague caught by him in his indefatigable labors in ministering to the
  plague-stricken at Piacenza. Mompesson was equally devoted to the
  people of Eyam. Sir John Lawrence, lord mayor of London, is less
  known, but ought to be held in equal honor, for supporting 40,000
  dismissed servants in the great plague.

  =Xenoc´rates= (4 _syl._), a Greek philosopher. The courtezan Laïs made
  a heavy bet that she would allure him from his philosophy; but after
  she had tried all her arts on him without success, she exclaimed, “I
  thought he had been a living man, and not a mere stone.”

  Do you think I am Xenocrates, or like the Sultan with marble legs?
  There you leave me tête-à-tête with Mrs. Haller, as if my heart were a
  mere flint.--Benjamin Thompson, _The Stranger_, iv. 2 (1797).

  =Xerxes denounced.=--See Plutarch, _Life of Themistoclês_, art.
  “Sea-Fights of Artemisium and Salamis.”

                      Minerva on the bounding prow
      Of Athens stood, and with the thunder’s voice
      Denounced her terrors on their impious heads [_the Persians_].
      And shook her burning ægis. Xerxes saw
      From Heracle´um on the mountain’s height,
      Throned in her golden ear, he knew the sign
      Celestial, felt unrighteous hope forsake
      His faltering heart, and turned his face with shame.
                  Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_ (1767).

  =Xime´na=, daughter of Count de Gormez. The count was slain by the Cid
  for insulting his father. Four times Ximēna demanded vengeance of the
  king; but the king, perceiving that the Cid was in love with her,
  delayed vengeance, and ultimately she married him.

  =Xit=, the royal dwarf of Edward VI.

  =Xury=, a Moresco boy, servant to Robinson Crusoe.--Defoe, _Adventures
  of Robinson Crusoe_ (1719).

  =Ya´hoo=, one of the human brutes subject to the Houyhnhnms
  [_Whin.hims_], or horses possessed of human intelligence. In this tale
  the horses and men change places; the horses are the chief and ruling
  race, and man the subject.--Swift, _Gulliver’s Travels_ (1726).

  =Yajûi and Majûj=, the Arabian form of Gog and Magog. Gog is a tribe
  of Turks, and Magog of the Gilân (the Geli or Gelæ of Ptolemy and
  Strabo). Al Beidâwi says they were man-eaters. Dhu´lkarnein made a
  rampart of red-hot metal to keep out their incursions.

  He said to the workmen, “Bring me iron in large pieces till it fill up
  the space between these two mountains ... [_then_] blow with your
  bellows till it make the iron red hot.” And he said further, “Bring me
  molten brass that I may pour upon it.” When this wall was finished Gog
  and Magog could not scale it, neither could they dig through it.--_Al
  Korán_, xviii.

  =Yakutsk=, in Siberia, affords an exact parallel to the story about
  Carthage. Dido, having purchased in Africa as much land as could be
  covered with a bull’s hide, ordered the hide to be cut into thin
  slips, and thus enclosed land enough to build Byrsa upon. This Byrsa
  (“bull’s hide”) was the citadel of Carthage, round which the city

  So with Yakutsk. The settlers bought as much land as they could
  encompass with a cow-hide, but, by cutting the hide into slips, they
  encompassed enough land to build a city on.

  =Yama=, a Hindû deity, represented by a man with four arms, riding on
  a bull. He gave the horse to India.

  Whether thou didst first spring from the firmament or from the water,
  thy great birth, O horse, is to be glorified, inasmuch as thou hast
  neighed, thou hast the wings of the falcon, thou hast the limbs of the
  deer. Trita harnessed the horse which was given by Yama; Indra first
  mounted him; Gandharba seized his reins. Vasus, you fabricated the
  horse from the sun. Thou, O horse, art Yama; thou art Aditya; thou art
  Trita; thou art Soma.--_The Rig Veda_, ii.

  =Ya´men=, lord and potentate of Pandălon (_hell_).--_Hindû Mythology._

           What worse than this hath Yamen’s hell in store?
                       Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, ii. (1809).

  =Yar´ico=, a young Indian maiden with whom Thomas Inkle fell in love.
  After living with her as his wife, he despicably sold her in Barbadoes
  as a slave.

  ⁂ The story is told by Sir Richard Steele in _The Spectator_, 11; and
  has been dramatized by George Colman under the title of _Inkle and
  Yarico_ (1787).

  =Yarrow= (_The Flower of_). Mary Scott was so called.

  =Yathreb=, the ancient name of Medīna.

  When a party of them said, “O, inhabitants of Yathreb, there is no
  place of security for you here, wherefore return home;” a part of them
  asked leave of the prophet to depart.--_Al Korân_, xxxiii.

  =Yeardley= (_Lady_), an Englishwoman, living in the American colonies,
  receives on Christmas Eve as a guest, an Indian, who brings his
  four-year-old boy “to be made like English children.” The lady takes
  her dark-skinned visitors to church next day, and a tumult arises that
  the Indian father is a spy. A rush is made upon him, but Lady Yeardley
  shields the chief, claiming him as her guest.

   “They dropped, at her word, their weapons,
     Half-shamed as the lady smiled,
   And told them the red man’s story,
     And showed them the red man’s child;
   And pledged them her broad plantations,
     That never would such betray
   The trust that a Christian woman
     Had shown on a Christmas-Day.”
               Margaret Junkin Preston, _Lady Yeardley’s Guest_ (1887).

  =Yellow Dwarf= (_The_), a malignant, ugly imp, who claimed the
  Princess Allfair as his bride; and carried her off to Steel Castle on
  his Spanish cat, the very day she was about to be married to the
  beautiful king of the Gold-Mines. The king of the Gold-Mines tried to
  rescue her, and was armed by a good siren with a diamond sword of
  magic power, by which he made his way through every difficulty to the
  princess. Delighted at seeing his betrothed, he ran to embrace her,
  and dropped his sword. Yellow Dwarf, picking it up, demanded that
  Gold-Mine should resign the lady, and, on his refusing to do so, slew
  him with the magic sword. The princess, rushing forward to avert the
  blow, fell dead on the body of her dying lover.

  Yellow Dwarf was so called from his complexion and the orange tree he
  lived in.... He wore wooden shoes, a coarse, yellow stuff jacket, and
  had no hair to hide his large ears.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_
  (“The Yellow Dwarf,” 1682).

  =Yellowley= (_Mr. Triptolemus_), the factor, an experimental
  agriculturist of Stourburgh or Harfra.

  _Mistress Baby_ or _Barbary Yellowley_, sister and housekeeper of

  _Old Jasper Yellowley_, father of Triptolemus and Barbary.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

  =Yenadiz´ze=, an idler, a gambler; also an Indian fop.

             With my nets you never help me;
             At the door my nets are hanging.
             Go and wring them, Yenadizze.
                         Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, vi. (1855).

  =Yendys= (_Sydney_), the _nom de plume_ of Sydney Dobell (1824-1874).

  ⁂ “Yendys” is merely the word _Sydney_ reversed.

  =Yeru´ti=, son of Quiāra and Monnĕma. His father and mother were of
  the Guarāni race, and the only ones who escaped a small-pox plague
  which infested that part of Paraguay. Yerūti was born after his
  parents migrated to the Mondai woods, but his father was killed by a
  jagŭar just before the birth of Mooma (his sister). When grown to
  youthful age a Jesuit pastor induced the three to come and live at St.
  Joăchin, where was a primitive colony of some 2000 souls. Here the
  mother soon died from the confinement of city life. Mooma followed her
  ere long to the grave. Yeruti now requested to be baptized, and no
  sooner was the rite over, than he cried, “Ye are come for me! I am
  quite ready!” and instantly expired.--Southey, _A Tale of Paraguay_

  =Yezad= or =Yezdam=, called by the Greeks Oroma´zês (4 _syl._), the
  principle of good in Persian mythology, opposed to Ahriman or
  Arimannis, the principle of evil. Yezad created twenty-four good
  spirits, and, to keep them from the power of the evil one, enclosed
  them in an egg; but Ahriman pierced the shell, and hence there is no
  good without some admixture of evil.

  =Ygerne= [_E-gern´_], wife of Gorloïs, lord of Tintag´il Castle, in
  Cornwall. King Uther tried to seduce her, but Ygerne resented the
  insult; whereupon Uther and Gorloïs fought, and the latter was slain.
  Uther then besieged Tintagil Castle, took it, and compelled Ygerne to
  become his wife. Nine months afterwards Uther died, and on the same
  day was Arthur born.

              Then Uther, in his wrath and heat, besieged
              Ygerne within Tintagil ... and entered in ...
              Enforced she was to wed him in her tears,
              And with a shameful swiftness.
                          Tennyson, _Coming of Arthur_.

  =Yguerne.= (See YGERNE.)

  =Yn´iol=, an earl of decayed fortune, father of Enid. He was ousted
  from his earldom by his nephew, Ed´yrn (son of Nudd), called “The
  Sparrow-Hawk.” When Edyrn was overthrown by Prince Geraint, in single
  combat, he was compelled to restore the earldom to his uncle. He is
  described in the _Mabinogion_ as “a hoary-headed man, clad in tattered
  garments.”--Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_ (“Enid”).

  He says to Geraint: “I lost a great earldom as well as a city and
  castle, and this is how I lost them: I had a nephew, ... and when he
  came to his strength he demanded of me his property, but I withheld it
  from him. So he made war upon me, and wrested from me all that I
  possessed,”--_Mabinogion_ (“Geraint, the Son of Erbin,” twelfth

  =Yoglan= (_Zacharias_), the old Jew chemist, in London.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

  =Yohak=, the giant guardian of the caves of Babylon.--Southey,
  _Thalaba, the Destroyer_, v. (1797).

  =Yone=, bewitching heroine of Edward H. House’s story, “_A Child of
  Japan_” (1888).

  =Yone=, diminutive of Giorgione Willoughby, a self-willed, selfish,
  fascinating woman, who deliberately allures her cousin’s lover away
  from her, and finds when he has married her (Yone) that she has
  dazzled his fancy, not won his heart.--Harriet Prescott Spofford, _The
  Amber Gods_ (1863).

  =Yor´ick=, the king of Denmark’s jester; “a fellow of infinite jest,
  of most excellent fancy.”--Shakespeare, _Hamlet, Prince of Denmark_

  _Yorick_ (_Mr._) is the name used by the Rev. Laurence Sterne,
  1713-1768, in _A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy_ (1768)
  as that of the author. In his other book, _The Life and Opinions of
  Mr. Tristram Shandy_ (1759), where the _Sentimental Journey_ appears,
  as it were, in embryo, Yorick is the name of one of the principal
  characters, and, as Sir Walter Scott remarks, “Yorick, the lively,
  witty, sensible and heedless parson is--Sterne himself.” The name was
  borrowed by Sterne from the Yorick of Shakespeare’s _Hamlet_.

  =York= (_Geoffrey, archbishop of_), one of the high justiciaries of
  England in the absence of Richard Cœur de Lion.--Sir W. Scott, _The
  Talisman_ (time Richard I.).

  _York_ (_James, duke of_), introduced by Sir W. Scott, in _Woodstock_
  and in _Peveril of the Peak_.

  =Yorke= (_Oliver_), pseudonym of Francis Sylvester Mahony, editor of
  _Fraser’s Magazine_. It is still edited under the same name.

  =Yorkshire Tragedy= (_The_), author unknown (1604), was at one time
  printed with the name of Shakespeare.

  =Young America.= J. G. Holland says: “What we call _Young America_ is
  made up of about equal parts of irreverence, conceit, and that popular
  moral quality familiarly known as _brass_.”

  =Young Chevalier= (_The_), Charles Edward Stuart, grandson of James
  II. He was the second pretender (1720-1788).

  =Young England=, a set of young aristocrats, who tried to revive the
  courtly manners of the Chesterfield school. They wore white
  waistcoats, patronized the pet poor, looked down upon shopkeepers, and
  were imitators of the period of Louis XIV. Disraeli has immortalized
  their ways and manners.

  =Young Germany=, a literary school, headed by Heinrich Heine
  [_Hi.ny_], whose aim was to liberate politics, religion, and manners
  from the old conventional trammels.

  =Young Ireland=, followers of Daniel O’Connell in politics, but wholly
  opposed to his abstention from war and insurrection in vindication of
  “their country’s rights.”

  =Young Italy=, certain Italian refugees, who associated themselves
  with the French republican party, called the _Carbonnerie
  Democratique_. The society was first organized at Marseilles by
  Mazzini, and its chief object was to diffuse republican principles.

  =Young Roscius=, William Henry West Betty. When only 12 years old he
  made £34,000 in fifty-six nights. He appeared in 1803, and very wisely
  retired from the stage in 1807 (1791-1874).

  =Young-and-Handsome=, a beautiful fairy, who fell in love with
  Alidōrus, “the lovely shepherd.” Mordicant, an ugly fairy, also loved
  him, and confined him in a dungeon. Zephyrus loved Young-and-Handsome,
  but when he found no reciprocity he asked the fairy how he could best
  please her. “By liberating the lovely shepherd,” she replied.
  “Fairies, you know, have no power over fairies, but you, being a god,
  have full power over the whole race.” Zephyrus complied with this
  request, and restored Alidorus to the Castle of Flowers, when
  Young-and-Handsome bestowed on him perpetual youth, and married
  him.--Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Young-and-Handsome,” 1682).

  =Youwarkee=, the name of the gawrey that Peter Wilkins married. She
  introduced the seaman to Nosmnbdsgrsutt, the land of flying men and
  women.--R. Pultock, _Peter Wilkins_ (1750).

  =Ysaie le Triste= [_E.say´ lĕ Treest_], son of Tristram and Ysolde
  (wife of King Mark of Cornwall). The adventures of this young knight
  form the subject of a French romance called _Isaie le Triste_ (1522).

  I did not think it necessary to contemplate the exploits ... with the
  gravity of Isaie le Triste.--Dunlop.

  =Ysolde= or =Ysonde= (2 _syl._), surnamed “The Fair,” daughter of the
  king of Ireland. When Sir Tristram was wounded in fighting for his
  uncle, Mark, he went to Ireland, and was cured by the Fair Ysolde. On
  his return to Cornwall he gave his uncle such a glowing account of the
  young princess that he was sent to propose offers of marriage, and to
  conduct the lady to Cornwall. The brave young knight and the fair
  damsel fell in love with each other on their voyage, and, although
  Ysolde married King Mark, she retained to the end her love for Sir
  Tristram. King Mark, jealous of his nephew, banished him from
  Cornwall, and he went to Wales, where he performed prodigies of valor.
  In time his uncle invited him back to Cornwall, but, the guilty
  intercourse being renewed, he was banished a second time. Sir Tristram
  now wandered over Spain, Ermonie, and Brittany, winning golden
  opinions by his exploits. In Brittany he married the king’s daughter,
  Ysolde or Ysonde _of the White Hand_, but neither loved her nor lived
  with her. The rest of the tale is differently told by different
  authors. Some say he returned to Cornwall, renewed his love with
  Ysolde _the Fair_, and was treacherously stabbed by his uncle Mark.
  Others say he was severely wounded in Brittany, and sent for his aunt,
  but died before her arrival. When Ysolde _the Fair_ heard of his
  death, she died of a broken heart, and King Mark buried them both in
  one grave, over which he planted a rose bush and a vine.

  =Ysolde= or =Ysonde= or =Ysolt= _of the White Hand_, daughter of the
  king of Brittany. Sir Tristram married her for her _name’s_ sake, but
  never loved her nor lived with her, because he loved his aunt, Ysolde
  _the Fair_ (the young wife of King Mark), and it was a point of
  chivalry for a knight to love only one woman, whether widow, wife, or

  =Yuhid´thiton=, chief of the Az´tecas, the mightiest in battle and
  wisest in council. He succeeded Co´anocot´zin (5 _syl._), as king of
  the tribe, and led the people from the south of the Missouri to
  Mexico.--Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

  =Yvetot= [_Eve.toe_], a town in Normandy; the lord of the town was
  called _le roi d’Yvetot_. The tale is that Clotaire, son of Clovis,
  having slain the lord of Yvetot before the high altar of Soissons,
  made atonement to the heirs by conferring on them the title of _king_.
  In the sixteenth century the title was exchanged for that of _prince
  souverain_, and the whole fiction was dropped not long after. Béranger
  has a poem called “Le Roi d’Yvetot,” which is understood to be a
  satirical fling at the great Napoleon. The following is the first

                 Il était un roi d’Yvetot
                   Peu connu dans l’histoire;
                 Se levant tard, se couchant tôt,
                   Dormant, fort bien sans gloire,
                 Et couronné par Jeanneton
                 D’un simple bonnet de coton.
                               Dit on:
                 Oh! oh! oh! oh! Ah! ah! ah! ah!
                 Quel bon petit roi c’etait; là! là! là!

                 It was a King of Yvetot
                   Whom few historians name;
                 A sleeper sound, a waker slow,
                   No dreams had he of fame.
                 By Betty’s hand with nightcap crown’d,
                 He snored in state the whole clock round
                 Ha! ha! ha! ha! Ho! ho! ho! ho!
                 A Kingdom match for Yvetot!
                               Ho! ho!

  =Ywaine and Gawin=, the English version of “Owain and the Lady of the
  Fountain.” The English version was taken from the French of Chrestien
  de Troyes (twelfth century), and was published by Ritson. The Welsh
  tale is in the _Mabinogion_. There is also a German version by Hartman
  von der Aue, a minnesinger (beginning of thirteenth century). There
  are also Bavarian and Danish versions.

  =Zabarell=, a learned Italian commentator on works connected with the
  Aristotelian system of philosophy (1523-1589).

             And still I held converse with Zabarell ...
             Stufft noting-books; and still my spaniel slept.
             At length he waked and yawned; and by yon sky
             For aught I know, he knew as much as I.
                         Marston (died 1634).

  =Zabidius=, the name in Martial for which “Dr. Fell” was substituted
  by Tom Brown, when sent by the dean of Christ Church to translate the

               Non amo te, Zabidi, nec possum dicere quare,
               Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te.

               I love thee not, Zabidius--
                 Yet cannot tell thee why;
               But this I may most truly say,
                 I love thee not, not I.

  Imitated thus:

        I do not like thee, Dr. Fell--
        The reason why, I cannot tell;
        But this I know, and know full well,
        I do not like thee, Dr. Fell.
                    Tom Brown (author of _Dialogues of the Dead_).

  =Zab´ulon=, a Jew, the servant of Hippolyta, a rich lady wantonly in
  love with Arnoldo. Arnoldo is contracted to the chaste Zeno´cia, who,
  in turn, is basely pursued by the governor, Count Clo´dio.--Beaumont
  and Fletcher, _The Custom of the Country_ (1647).

  =Zab´ulus=, same as Diabolus.

             Gay sport have we had to-night with Zabulus.
                         Lord Lytton, _Harold_, viii. (1850).

  =Zaccoc´ia=, king of Mozambique, who received Vasco da Gama and his
  crew with great hospitality, believing them to be Mahommedans; but
  when he ascertained that they were Christians he tried to destroy
  them.--Camoens, _Lusiad_, i., ii. (1569).

  =Zacharia=, one of the three anabaptists who induced John of Leyden to
  join the revolt of Westphalia and Holland. On the arrival of the
  emperor, the anabaptists betrayed their dupe but perished with him in
  the flames of the burning palace.--Meyerbeer, _Le Prophète_ (1849).

  =Zadig=, the hero and title of a novel by Voltaire. Zadig is a wealthy
  young Babylonian, and the object of the novel is to show that the
  events of life are beyond human control.

  =Zad´kiel= (3 _syl._), angel of the planet Jupiter.--_Jewish

  _Zadkiel_, the pseudonym of Lieutenant Richard James Morrison, author
  of _Prophetic Almanac_, _Handbook of Astrology_, etc.

  =Zadoc=, in Dryden’s satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, is Sancroft,
  archbishop of Canterbury.

            Zadoc, the priest whom, shunning power and place,
            His lowly mind advanced to David’s grace.
                        Pt. i. (1681).

  =Zadoc Pine=, man who makes a good living by attending to his own
  business and disregarding the admonitions of “Trades Unions” and
  officious wiseacres. “Man must earn his bread in the sweat of his
  brow; but some men sweat inside o’ their heads, an’ some outside. I’m
  workin’ my brain.”--H. C. Bunner, _Zadoc Pine_ (1891).

  =Zaïde= (2 _syl._), a young slave who pretends to have been
  ill-treated by Adraste (2 _syl._), and runs to Don Pèdre for
  protection. Don Pèdre sends her into the house while he expostulates
  with Adraste “for his brutality.” Now, Adraste is in love with
  Isidore, a Greek slave kept by Don Pèdre, and when Zaïde is called
  forth, Isidore appears, dressed in Zaïde’s clothes. “There,” says Don
  Pèdre, “take her home and use her well.” “I will,” says Adraste, and
  leads off Isidore.--Molière, _Le Sicilien_ ou _L’Amour Peintre_

  =Zaira=, the mother of Eva Wentworth. She is a brilliant Italian,
  courted by de Courcy. When deceived by him she meditates suicide, but
  forbears, and sees Eva die tranquilly, and the faithless de Courcy
  perish of remorse.--Rev. C. R. Maturin, _Women_ (a novel, 1822).

  =Zambullo= (_Don Cleophas Leandro Perez_), the person carried through
  the air by Asmodēus to the steeple of St. Salvādor, and shown, in a
  moment of time, the interior of every private dwelling
  around.--Lesage, _The Devil on Two Sticks_ (1707).

  Cleaving the air at a greater rate than Don Cleophas Leandro Perez
  Zambullo and his familiar.--C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_

  =Zam´ora=, youngest of the three daughters of Balthazar. She is in
  love with Rolando, a young soldier, who fancies himself a woman-hater,
  and, in order to win him she dresses in boy’s clothes and becomes his
  page, under the name of Eugenio. In this character Zamōra wins the
  heart of the young soldier by her fidelity, tenderness and affection.
  When the proper moment arrives she assumes her female attire, and
  Rolando, declaring she is no woman, but an angel, marries her.--J.
  Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

  =Zamti=, the Chinese mandarin. His wife was Mandănê, and his son
  Hamet. The emperor of China, when he was about to be put to death by
  Ti´murkan´, the Tartar, committed to Zamti’s charge his infant son,
  Zaphimri, and Zamti brought up this “orphan of China” as his own son,
  under the name of Etan. Twenty years afterwards Zamti was put to the
  rack by Timurkan, and died soon afterwards.--Murphy, _The Orphan of
  China_ (1761).

  =Zanga=, the revengeful Moor, the servant of Don Alonzo. The Moor
  hates Alonzo for two reasons: (1) because he killed his father, and
  (2) because he struck him on the cheek; and, although Alonzo has used
  every endeavor to conciliate Zanga, the revengeful Moor nurses his
  hate and keeps it warm. The revenge he wreaks is: (1) to poison the
  friendship which existed between Alonzo and Don Carlos by accusations
  against the don, and (2) to embitter the love of Alonzo for Leonora,
  his wife. Alonzo, out of jealousy, has his friend killed, and Leonora
  makes away with herself. Having thus lost his best beloved, Zanga
  tells his dupe he has been imposed upon, and Alonzo, mad with grief,
  stabs himself. Zanga, content with the mischief he has done, is taken
  away to execution.--Edward Young, _The Revenge_ (1721).

  ⁂ “Zanga” was the great character of Henry Mossop (1729-1773). It was
  also a favorite part with J. Kemble (1757-1823).

  =Zanoné=, Jepththa’s daughter, doomed by her father’s rash vow, to
  perpetual celibacy.--Margaret J. Preston, _Old Song and New_ (1870).

  =Zano´ni=, hero and title of a novel by Lord Bulwer Lytton. Zanoni is
  supposed to possess the power of communicating with spirits,
  prolonging life, and producing gold, silver, and precious stones

  =Zany of Debate.= George Canning was so called by Charles Lamb in a
  sonnet printed in _The Champion_ newspaper. Posterity has not endorsed
  the judgment or wit of this ill-natured satire (1770-1827).

  =Zaphimri=, the “orphan of China,” brought up by Zamti, under the name
  of Etan.

                    Ere yet the foe burst in,
        “Zamti,” said he, “preserve my cradled infant;
        Save him from ruffians; train his youth to virtue....”
        He could no more; the cruel spoiler seized him,
        And dragged my king, from yonder altar dragged him,
        Here on the blood-stained pavement; while the queen
        And her dear fondlings, in one mangled heap,
        Died in each other’s arms.
                    Murphy, _The Orphan of China_, iii. 1 (1761).

  =Zaphna=, son of Alcānor, chief of Mecca. He and his sister, Palmira,
  being taken captives in infancy, were brought up by Mahomet, and
  Zaphna, not knowing Palmira was his sister, fell in love with her, and
  was in turn beloved. When Mahomet laid siege to Mecca, he employed
  Zaphna to assassinate Alcanor, and when he had committed the deed
  discovered that it was his own father he had killed. Zaphna would have
  revenged the deed on Mahomet, but died of poison.--James Miller,
  _Mahomet the Impostor_ (1740).

  =Zara=, an African queen, widow of Al-buca´cim, and taken captive by
  Manuel, king of Grana´da, who fell in love with her. Zara, however,
  was intensely in love with Osmyn (_alias_ Prince Alphonso of
  Valentia), also a captive. Alphonso, being privately married to
  Alme´ria, could not return her love. She designs to liberate Osmyn;
  but, seeing a dead body in the prison, fancies it to be that of Osmyn,
  and kills herself by poison.--W. Congreve, _The Mourning Bride_

  ⁂ “Zara” was one of the great characters of Mrs. Siddons (1755-1831).

  _Zara_ (in French _Zaïre_), the heroine and title of a tragedy by
  Voltaire (1733), adapted for the English stage by Aaron Hill (1735).
  Zara is the daughter of Lusignan d’Outremer (king of Jerusalem) and
  sister of Nerestan. Twenty years ago Lusignan and his two children had
  been taken captives. Nerestan was four years old at the time; and
  Zara, a mere infant, was brought up in the seraglio. Osman the sultan
  fell in love with her, and promised to make her his sultana; and as
  Zara loved him for himself, her happiness seemed complete. Nerestan,
  having been sent to France to obtain ransoms, returned at this crisis,
  and Osman fancied that he observed a familiarity between Zara and
  Nerestan, which roused his suspicions. Several things occurred to
  confirm them, and at last a letter was intercepted, appointing a
  rendezvous between them in a “secret passage” of the seraglio. Osman
  met Zara in the passage, and stabbed her to the heart. Nerestan was
  soon seized, and being brought before the sultan, told him he had
  slain his sister, and the sole object of his interview was to inform
  her of her father’s death, and to bring her his dying blessing. Osman
  now saw his error, commanded all the Christian captives to be set at
  liberty, and stabbed himself.

  =Zaramilla=, wife of Tinacrio, king of Micomicon, in Egypt. He was
  told that his daughter would succeed him, that she would be dethroned
  by the giant Pandafilando, but that she would find in Spain the
  gallant knight of La Mancha, who would redress her wrongs, and restore
  her to her throne.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iv. 3 (1605).

  =Zaraph=, the angel who loved Nama. It was Nama’s desire to love
  intensely and to love holily, but as she fixed her love on an angel
  and not on God, she was doomed to abide on earth till the day of
  consummation; then both Nama and Zaraph will be received in the realms
  of everlasting love.--T. Moore, _Loves of the Angels_ (1822).

  =Zauberflöte= (_Die_), a magic flute, which had the power of inspiring
  love. When bestowed by the powers of darkness, the love it inspired
  was sensual love; but when by the powers of light, it became
  subservient to the very highest and holiest purposes. It guided
  Tami´no and Pami´na through all worldly dangers to the knowledge of
  divine truth (or the mysteries of Isis).--Mozart, _Die Zauberflöte_

  =Zayde=, the chief character in a French romance by Mde. Lafayette
  (seventeenth century).

  =Zeal= (_Arabella_), in Shadwell’s comedy _The Fair Quaker of Deal_

  This comedy was altered by E. Thompson in 1720.

  =Zedekiah=, one of General Harrison’s servants.--Sir W. Scott,
  _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

  =Ze´gris and the Abencerra´ges= [_A´.ven.ce.rah´.ke_], an historical
  romance, professing to be history, and printed at Alca´la in 1604. It
  was extremely popular, and had a host of imitations.

  =Zeid=, Mahomet’s freedman. “The prophet” adopted him as his son, and
  gave him Zeinab (or Zenobia) for a wife; but falling in love with her
  himself, Zeid gave her up to the prophet. She was Mahomet’s cousin,
  and within the prohibited degrees, according to the _Korân_.

  =Zeinab= or ZENOBIA, wife of Zeid, Mahomet’s freedman and adopted son.
  As Mahomet wished to have her, Zeid resigned her to the prophet.
  Zeinab was the daughter of Amîma, Mahomet’s aunt.

  _Zei´nab_ (2 _syl._), wife of Hodei´rah (3 _syl._), an Arab. She lost
  her husband and all her children, except one, a boy named Thal´aba.
  Weary of life, the angel of death took her, while Thalaba was yet a
  youth.--Southey, _Thalaba, the Destroyer_ (1797).

  =Zeleu´cus= or =Zaleucus=, a Locrensian lawgiver, who enacted that
  adulterers should be deprived of their eyes. His own son being proved
  guilty, Zeleucus pulled out one of his own eyes, and one of his son’s
  eyes, that “two eyes might be paid to the law.”--Valerius Maximus, _De
  Factis Dictisque_, v. 5, exl. 3.

         How many now will tread Zeleucus’ steps?
                     G. Gascoigne, _The Steele Glas_ (died 1577).

  =Zeli´ca=, the betrothed of Azim. When it was rumored that he had been
  slain in battle, Zelĭca joined the harem of the Veiled Prophet as “one
  of the elect of paradise.” Azim returned from the wars, discovered her
  retreat, and advised her to flee with him, but she told him that she
  was now the prophet’s bride. After the death of the prophet Zelica
  assumed his veil, and Azim, thinking the veiled figure to be the
  prophet, rushed on her and killed her.--T. Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (“The
  Veiled Prophet,” etc., 1817).

  =Zelis=, the daughter of a Persian officer. She was engaged to a man
  in the middle age of life, but just prior to the wedding he forsook
  her for a richer bride. The father of Zelis challenged him, but was
  killed. Zelis now took lodging with a courtezan, and went with her to
  Italy; but when she discovered the evil courses of her companion she
  determined to become a nun, and started by water for Rome. She was
  taken captive by corsairs, and sold from master to master, till at
  length Hingpo rescued her, and made her his wife.--Goldsmith, _A
  Citizen of the World_ (1759).

  =Zelma´ne= (3 _syl._), the assumed name of Pyr´oclês, when he put on
  female attire.--Sir Philip Sidney, _Arcadia_ (1590).

  Sir Philip has preserved such a matchless decorum that Pyroclês’
  manhood suffers no stain for the effeminacy of Zelmanê.--C. Lamb.

  =Zelu´co=, the only son of a noble Sicilian family, accomplished and
  fascinating, but spoilt by maternal indulgence, and at length rioting
  in dissipation. In spite of his gayety of manner, he is a standing
  testimony that misery accompanies vice.--Dr. John Moore, _Zeluco_ (a
  novel, 1786).

  =Ze´mia=, one of the four who, next in authority to U´riel, preside
  over our earth.--Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iii. (1748).

  =Zemzem=, a fountain at Mecca. The Mohammedans say it is the very
  spring which God made to slake the thirst of Ishmael, when Hagar was
  driven into the wilderness by Abraham. A bottle of this water is
  considered a very valuable present, even by princes.

  There were also a great many bottles of water from the fountain of
  Zemzem, at Mecca.--_Arabian Nights_ (“The Purveyor’s Story”).

  =Zenel´ophon=, the beggar-girl who married King Cophet´ua of Africa.
  She is more generally called Penel´ophon.--Tennyson, _King Cophetua
  and the Beggar-maid_.

  =Zenobia=, queen of Palmyra, who claimed the title of “Queen of the
  East.” She was defeated by Aurelian and taken prisoner in A.D. 273.

  _Zenobia_, brilliant and beautiful woman, the most striking figure in
  the group of remarkable people who compose the Blithedale Farm
  household. She has a dark history which she would forget in a later
  love. This fails her and she drowns herself. “Being the woman that she
  was, could Zenobia have foreseen all these ugly circumstances of
  death, how ill it would become her ... she would no more have
  committed the dreadful act than have exhibited herself to a public
  assembly in a badly-fitting garment.... She was not quite simple in
  her death.”--Nathaniel Hawthorne, _The Blithedale Romance_ (1850).

  =Zeno´cia=, daughter of Chari´no, and the chaste troth-plight wife of
  Arnoldo. While Arnoldo is wantonly loved by the rich Hippol´yta,
  Zenocia is dishonorably pursued by the governor, Count
  Clo´dio.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Custom of the Country_ (1647).

  =Zephalinda=, a young lady who has tasted the delights of a London
  season, but is taken back to her home in the country, to find
  enjoyment in needlework, dull aunts, and rooks.

            She went from opera, park, assembly, play,
            To morning walk, and prayers three hours a day;
            To part her time ’twixt reading and Bohea,
            To muse, and spill her solitary tea,
            O’er her cold coffee trifle with her spoon,
            Count the slow clock and dine exact at noon.
                        Pope, _Epistle to Miss Blount_ (1715).

  =Zeph´on=, a cherub who detected Satan squatting in the garden, and
  brought him before Gabriel, the archangel. The word means “searcher of
  secrets.” Milton makes him “the guardian angel of paradise.”

           Ithuriel and Zephon, with winged speed
           Search thro’ this garden, leave unsearched no nook;
           But chiefly where those two fair creatures lodge,
           Now laid perhaps asleep, secure of harm.
                       Milton, _Paradise Lost_ (1665).

  =Zephyr.= (See MORGANE.)

  =Zerbinette= (3 _syl._), the daughter of Argante (2 _syl._), stolen
  from her parents by gypsies when four years old, and brought up by
  them. Léandre, the son of Seigneur Géronte fell in love with her, and
  married her; but the gypsies would not give her up without being paid
  £1500. Scapin wrung this money from Géronte, pretending it was to
  ransom Léandre, who had been made a prisoner by some Turks who
  intended to sell him in Algiers for a slave unless his ransom was
  brought within two hours. The old man gave Scapin the money
  grudgingly, and Scapin passed it over to the gypsies, when a bracelet
  led to the discovery that Zerbinette was the daughter of Seigneur
  Argante, a friend of Léandre’s father, and all parties were delighted
  at the different revelations.--Molière, _Les Fourberies de Scapin_

  ⁂ In the English version, called _The Cheats of Scapin_, by Thomas
  Otway, Zerbinette is called “Lucia,” her father, Argante, is called
  “Thrifty,” Léandre is Anglicized into “Leander,” Géronte becomes
  “Gripe” and the sum of money is £200.

  =Zerbi´no=, son of the king of Scotland, and intimate friend of
  Orlando.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

  =Zerli´na=, a rustic beauty, about to be married to Massetto, when Don
  Giovanni allures her away under the promise of making her a fine
  lady.--Mozart, _Don Giovanni_ (opera, 1787).

  _Zerlina_, in Auber’s opera of _Fra Diavolo_ (1830).

  =Zesbet=, daughter of the sage Oucha, of Jerusalem. She had four
  husbands at the same time, viz., Abdal Motallab (the sage), Yaarab
  (the judge), Abou´teleb (a doctor of law), and Temimdari (a soldier).
  Zesbet was the mother of the Prophet Mahomet. Mahomet appeared to her
  before his birth, in the form of a venerable old man, and said to her:

  “You have found favor before Allah. Look upon me; I am Mahomet, the
  great friend of God, he who is to enlighten the earth. Thy virtues,
  Zesbet, and thy beauty have made me prefer thee to all the daughters
  of Mecca. Thou shalt for the future be named Aminta [_sic_].” Then,
  turning to the husbands, he said, “You have seen me; she is yours, and
  you are hers. Labor then with a holy zeal to bring me into the world
  to enlighten it. All men who shall follow the law which I shall preach
  may have four wives; but Zesbet shall be the only woman who shall be
  lawfully the wife of four husbands at once. It is the least privilege
  I can grant the woman of whom I choose to be born.”--Comte Caylus,
  _Oriental Tales_ (“History of the Birth of Mahomet,” 1743).

  (The mother of Mahomet is generally called Amina, not Aminta.)

  =Zethus=, son of Jupiter and Antiope.

  =Zeus= (1 _syl._), the Greek Jupĭter. The word was once applied to the
  blue firmament, the upper sky, the arch of light; but in Homeric
  mythology Zeus is king of gods and men; the conscious embodiment of
  the central authority and administrative intelligence which holds
  states together; the supreme ruler; the sovereign source of law and
  order; the fountain of justice, and final arbiter of disputes.

  =Zeuxis and Parrhas´ios.= In a contest of skill Zeuxis painted some
  grapes so naturally that birds pecked at them. Confident of success,
  Zeuxis said to his rival, “Now let Parrhasios draw aside his curtain,
  and show us _his_ production.” “You behold it already,” replied
  Parrhasios, “the curtain is the picture.” Whereupon, the prize was
  awarded to him, for Zeuxis had deceived the _birds_, but Parrhasios
  had deceived _Zeuxis_.

  MYRON’S statue of a cow was mistaken by a herd of bulls for a living
  animal; and Apellês’s painting of the horse Bucephalos deceived
  several mares, who ran about it neighing.

  QUINTIN MATSYS, of Antwerp, fell in love with Lisa, daughter of Johann
  Mandyn; but Mandyn vowed his daughter should marry only an artist.
  Matsys studied painting, and brought his first picture to show Lisa.
  Mandyn was not at home, but had left a picture of his favorite pupil,
  Frans Floris, representing the “fallen angels,” on the easel. Quintin
  painted a bee on an outstretched leg, and when Mandyn returned he
  tried to brush it off, whereupon the deception was discovered. The old
  man’s heart was moved, and he gave Quintin his daughter in marriage,
  saying, “You are a true artist, greater than Johann Mandyn.” The
  painting is in Antwerp Cathedral.

  VELASQUEZ painted a Spanish admiral so true to life that King Philip
  IV., entering the studio, thought the painting was the admiral, and
  spoke to it as such, reproving the supposed officer for being in the
  studio wasting his time, when he ought to have been with the fleet.

  =Zillah=, beloved by Hamuel, a brutish sot. Zillah rejected his suit,
  and Hamuel vowed vengeance. Accordingly, he gave out that Zillah had
  intercourse with the devil, and she was condemned to be burnt alive.
  God averted the flames, which consumed Hamuel, but Zillah stood
  unharmed, and the stake to which she was bound threw forth white
  roses, “the first ever seen on earth since paradise was
  lost.”--Southey. (See ROSE.)

  =Zimmerman= (_Adam_), the old burgher of Soleure, one of the Swiss
  deputies to Charles “the Bold” of Burgundy.--Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
  Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

  =Zim´ri=, one of the six Wise Men of the East led by the guiding star
  to Jesus.

  Zimri taught the people, but they treated him with contempt; yet, when
  dying, he prevailed on one of them, and then expired.--Klopstock, _The
  Messiah_, v. (1771).

  _Zimri_, in Dryden’s satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, is the second
  duke of Buckingham. As Zimri conspired against Asa, king of Judah, _1
  Kings_, xvi. 9, so the duke of Buckingham “formed parties and joined

               Some of the chiefs were princes in the land:
               In the first rank of these did Zimri stand--
               A man so various that he seemed to be
               Not one, but all mankind’s epitomê;
               Stiff in opinion, always in the wrong,
               Was everything by turns, and nothing long.
                           Pt. i. (1681).

  =Zine´bi= (_Mohammed_), king of Syria, tributary to the caliph
  Haroun-al-Raschid; of very humane disposition.--_Arabian Nights_
  (“Ganem, the Slave of Love”).

  =Zineu´ra=, in Boccaccio’s _Decameron_ (day 11, Nov. 9), is the
  “Imogen” of Shakespeare’s _Cymbeline_. She assumed male attire with
  the name of Sicurano da Finalê (Imogen assumed male attire and the
  name Fidelê); Zineura’s husband was Bernard Lomellin, and the villain
  was Ambrose (Imogen’s husband was Posthŭmus Leonātus, and the villain
  Iachimo). In Shakespeare, the British king Cymbeline takes the place
  assigned by Boccaccio to the sultan.

  =Ziska= or =Zizka=, John of Trocznov, a Bohemian nobleman, leader of
  the Hussites. He fought under Henry V. at Agincourt. His sister had
  been seduced by a monk; and whenever he heard the shriek of a Catholic
  at the stake, he called it “his sister’s bridal song.” The story goes
  that he ordered his skin at death to be made into a drum-head

  ⁂ Some say that John of Trocznov was called “Ziska” because he was
  “one-eyed;” but that is a mistake--Ziska was a family name, and does
  not mean “one-eyed,” either in the Polish or Bohemian language.

               For every page of paper shall a hide
               Of yours be stretched as parchment on a drum
               Like Ziska’s skin, to beat alarm to all
               Refractory vassals.
                           Byron, _Werner_, i. (1822).

     But be it as it is, the time may come
     His name [_Napoleon’s_] shall beat th’ alarm like Ziska’s drum.
                 Byron, _Age of Bronze_, iv. (1819).

  =Zobeide= [_Zo-bay´de_], half-sister of Amīnê. She had two sisters,
  who were turned into little black dogs by way of punishment for
  casting Zobeidê and the prince from the petrified city into the sea.
  Zobeidê was rescued by the fairy serpent, who had metamorphosed the
  two sisters, and Zobeidê was enjoined to give the two dogs a hundred
  lashes every day. Ultimately, the two dogs were restored to their
  proper forms, and married two calenders, sons of kings; Zobeidê
  married the Caliph Haroun-al-Raschid; and Aminê was restored to Amin,
  the caliph’s son, to whom she was already married.--_Arabian Nights_
  (“History of Zobeidê”).

  While the caliph was absent from Bagdad, Zobeidê caused his
  favorite (named Fetnab) to be buried alive, for which she was
  divorced.--_Arabian Nights_ (“Ganem, the Slave of Love”).

  =Zohak=, the giant who keeps the “mouth of hell.” He was the fifth of
  the Pischdadian dynasty, and was a lineal descendant of Shedâd, king
  of Ad. He murdered his predecessor, and invented both flaying men
  alive and killing them by crucifixion. The devil kissed him on the
  shoulders, and immediately two serpents grew out of his back and fed
  constantly upon him. He was dethroned by the famous blacksmith of
  Ispahan´, and appointed by the devil to keep hell-gate.--D’Herbelot,
  _Bibliothèque Orientale_ (1697).

  =Zohara=, the queen of love, and mother of mischief. When Harût and
  Marût were selected by the host of heaven to be judges on earth, they
  judged righteous judgment till Zohara, in the shape of a lovely woman,
  appeared before them with her complaint. They then both fell in love
  with her and tried to corrupt her, but she flew from them to heaven;
  and the two angel-judges were for ever shut out.

  The Persian Magi have a somewhat similar tradition of these two
  angels, but add that after their “fall,” they were suspended by the
  feet, head downwards, in the territory of Babel.

  The Jews tell us that Shamhozai, “the judge of all earth,” debauched
  himself with women, repented, and by way of penance was suspended by
  the feet, head downwards, between heaven and earth.--Bereshit rabbi
  (in _Gen._ vi. 2).

  =Zohauk=, the Nubian slave; a disguise assumed by Sir Kenneth.--Sir W.
  Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

  =Zoilos= (in Latin _Zoïlus_), a grammarian, witty, shrewd and
  spiteful. He was nicknamed “Homer’s Scourge” (_Homēro-mastix_),
  because he assailed the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ with merciless severity.
  He also flew at Plato, Isoc´ratês, and other high game.

  _The Sword of Zoïlos_, the pen of a critic.

  =Zoilus.= J. Dennis, the critic whose attack on Pope produced _The
  Dunciad_, was so called (1657-1733).

  =Zoleikha= (3 _syl._), Potiphar’s wife.--Sale, _Al Korân_, xii.

  =Zophiel= [_Zo.fel_], “of cherubim the swiftest wing.” The word means
  “God’s spy.” Zophiel brings word to the heavenly host that the rebel
  crew are preparing a second and fiercer attack.

              Zophiel, of cherubim the swiftest wing,
              Came flying, and in mid-air aloud thus cried:
              “Arm, warriors, arm for fight.”
                          Milton, _Paradise Lost_ (1665).

  =Zorai´da= (3 _syl._), a Moorish lady, daughter of Agimora´to, the
  richest man in Barbary. On being baptized she had received the name of
  Maria; and, eloping with a Christian captive, came to
  Andalusi´a.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iv. 9-11 (“The Captive,”

  =Zorphee= (2 _syl._), a fairy in the romance of _Amadis de Gaul_
  (thirteenth century).

  =Zosimus=, the patriarch of the Greek Church.--Sir W. Scott, _Count
  Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

  =Zuleika= [_Zu.lee´.kah_], daughter of Giaffer [_Djaf´fir_], pacha of
  Aby´dos. Falling in love with Selim, her cousin, she flees with him,
  and promises to be his bride; but the father tracks the fugitives and
  shoots Selim, whereupon Zuleika dies of a broken heart.--Byron, _Bride
  of Abydos_ (1813).

  Never was a faultless character more delicately or more justly
  delineated than that of Lord Byron’s “Zuleika.” Her piety, her
  intelligence, her strict sense of duty, and her undeviating love of
  truth, appear to have been originally blended in her mind, rather than
  inculcated by education. She is always natural, always attractive,
  always affectionate; and it must be admitted that her affections are
  not unworthily bestowed.--George Ellis.

  =Zulichium= (_The enchanted princess of_), in the story told by
  Agelastes, the cynic, to Count Robert.--Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of
  Paris_ (time, Rufus).

  =Zulzul=, the sage whose life was saved in the form of a rat by Gedy,
  the youngest of the four sons of Corcud. Zulzul gave him, in
  gratitude, two poniards, by the help of which he could climb the
  highest tree or most inaccessible castle.--Gueulette, _Chinese Tales_
  (“Corcud and His Four Sons,” 1723).



                              APPENDIX I.



  =Abbott= (Edwin Abbott), London, 1838-
    Bible Lessons, 1872.
    Cambridge Sermons, 1875.
    Concordance to Pope, 1875.
    Parables for Children, 1880.
    Shakesperian Grammar (A), 1870.
    Through Nature to Christ, 1877.
  =Abbott= (Jacob), born at Hallowel, Maine, 1803-1879.
    Corner Stone (The), 1826.
    Way to do good (The), 1836.
    Young Christian (The), 1825.
  =Abbott= (Rev. John S. C.), brother of Jacob Abbott, 1806-1877.
    Kings and Queens, or Life in a Palace, 1839.
    Life of Napoleon, 1855.
    Mother at Home (The), 1845.
  =Abercrombie= (John), Aberdeen, 1781-1844.
    Inquiry Concerning the Intellectual Powers, 1830, 1833.
    Philosophy of Moral Feeling, 1833.
    Researches on Diseases of the Brain, etc., 1828.
  =Addison= (Joseph), born at Milston, in Wiltshire, 1672-1719.
    Freeholder (The), 1715-16.
    Guardian (The), 1713.
    Spectator (The), 1711-12, 1714.
    Tatler (The), 1709-11.
    Cato (a tragedy), 1713.
    Divine Poems, 1728.
    Evidences of the Christian Religion, 1807.
    Poems, 1712, 1719.
  =Agassiz= (Louis), born at Orbe, in Switzerland, 1807-1873.
    Elements of Zoölogy, 1854.
    Essay on Classification, 1859.
    Fossil Fish, 1833-42.
    Lake Superior; its Physical character, Vegetables and Animals, 1850.
    Salmonidæ, 1839.
    Studies on Glaciers, 1840.
    System of Glaciers, or Researches on Glaciers, 1847.
    Zoölogical Bibliography, 1848-50.
  =Ainsworth= (William Harrison), Manchester, 1805-1882.
    Auriol and other Tales, 1880.
    Beatrice Tyldesley, 1878.
    Beau Nash, 1880.
    Boscobel, or the Royal Oak, 1872.
    Cardinal Pole, 1863.
    Chetwynd Calverley, 1876.
    Constable de Bourbon, 1866.
    Constable of the Tower, 1861.
    Crichton, 1837.
    Fall of Somerset, 1877.
    Flitch of Bacon (The), 1854.
    Goldsmith’s Wife (The), 1875.
    Good Old Times (The), 1873.
    Guy Fawkes, 1841.
    Hilary St. Ives, 1869.
    Jack Sheppard, 1839.
    John Law, the Projector, 1864.
    Lancashire Witches, 1848.
    Leaguer of Lathom (The), 1876.
    Lord Mayor of London (The), 1862.
    Manchester Rebels (The), 1873.
    Merry England, 1874.
    Mervyn Clitheroe, 1857.
    Miser’s Daughter (The), 1842.
    Myddleton Pomfret, 1865.
    Old Court (The), 1867.
    Old St. Paul’s, 1841-43.
    Ovingdean Grange, 1850.
    Preston Fight (The), 1875.
    Rookwood, 1834.
    St. James’s, or Court of Queen Anne, 1844.
    Sir John Chiverton, 1825.
    South Sea Bubble, 1868.
    Spanish Match (The), 1865.
    Spendthrift (The), 1856.
    Stanley Brereton, 1881.
    Star Chamber (The), 1854.
    Talbot Harland, 1870.
    Tale of the Plague, 1841.
    Tower Hill, 1871.
    Tower of London, 1843.
    Windsor Castle, 1843.
  =Akenside= (Mark), born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1721-1770.
    British Philippic, 1738.
    Epistle to Curio, 1744.
    Naiades (Hymn to the), 1746.
    Odes, 1740.
    Pleasures of the Imagination, 1744.
  =Aldrich= (Thomas Bailey), born at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1836.
    Ballad of Baby Bell, and other Poems, 1856.
    Cloth of Gold, and other Poems, 1874.
    Marjorie Daw, 1873.
    Prudence Palfrey, 1874.
    Queen of Sheba, 1877.
    Story of a Bad Boy, 1870.
  =Alford= (Henry), dean of Canterbury, London, 1810-1871.
    Chapters on the Poets of Greece, 1841.
    Greek Testament edited, 1841-61.
    New Testament for English Readers, 1863-69.
    Queen’s English (The), 1864.
    Abbot of Muchelnage, and other Poems, 1841.
    Poems and Poetical Fragments, 1831.
    School of the Heart, and other Poems, 1835.
  =Alison= (Sir Archibald), born at Kenley, in Shropshire, 1792-1867.
    Essays, 1850.
    History of Europe during the French Revolution, 1833-1842.
    History of Europe from the fall of Napoleon, 1853-59.
    Life of Marlborough, 1848.
    Lives of Lord Castlereagh and Sir C. Stewart, 1861.
  =Alleine= (Joseph), Devizes, 1633-1668.
    Alarm to the Unconverted, 1672.
  =Allibone= (Samuel Austen), born in Philadelphia, 1816-1889.
    A Critical Dictionary of English Literature, and British and
       American Authors, 1858-1875.
  =Allingham= (William), Ballyshannon, 1824-1889.
    Day and Night Songs, 1854-55.
    Fifty Modern Poems, 1865.
    Music-master (The), and other Poems, 1857.
    Poems, 1850.
    Songs, Ballads, and Stories, 1877.
      (Editor of _Frazer’s Magazine_, 1874.)
  =Argyll= (George John Douglas Campbell, duke of), 1823-
    Primeval Man, 1869.
    Reign of Law (The), 1867.
  =Arnold= (Sir Edwin), 1832-
    Feast of Belshazzar (Newdegate prize), 1852.
    Griselda (a drama), 1856.
    Poems, Narrative and Lyrical, 1853.
    Indian Song of Songs, 1875;
      the Gîta Govinda.
    Light of Asia, 1879.
    Poets of Greece, 1869.
  =Arnold= (Matthew), born at Laleham, Middlesex, 1822-1888.
    New Poems, 1868.
    Poems, 1854-1877.
    Essays on Criticism, 1865.
    God and the Bible, 1875.
    Last Words on Translating Homer, 1863.
    Literature and Dogma, 1873.
    Popular Education of France, 1864.
    Schools and Universities on the Continent, 1868.
    St. Paul and Protestantism, 1870.
    Study of Celtic Literature, 1867.
    Three Lectures on Translating Homer, 1861-1862.
  =Arnold= (Thomas), born at West Cowes, Isle of Wight, 1795-1842.
    History of Rome, 1838-42.
    Lectures on Modern History, 1842.
  =Ascham= (Roger), born at Kirby-Wiske, Yorkshire, 1515-1568.
    Scholemaster (The), 1570.
  =Audubon= (John James), born in Louisiana, 1780-1851.
    American Ornithological Biography, 1831-39.
    Birds of America, 1830-39, 1844.
    Quadrupeds of America (with Dr. Buchanan).
  =Austen= (Jane), born at Steventon, Hampshire, 1775-1817.
    Emma, 1816.
    Mansfield Park, 1814.
    Northanger Abbey, posthumous, 1818.
    Persuasion, posthumous, 1818.
    Pride and Prejudice, 1813.
    Sense and Sensibility, 1811.
  =Austin= (Alfred), born at Headingley, near Leeds, 1835-
    Golden Age (The), 1871.
    Human Tragedy (The), 1862.
    Interludes, 1872.
    Leszko, the Bastard, 1877.
    Madonna’s Child, 1873.
    My Satire and its Censors, 1861.
    Randolf, 1858.
    Rome or Death, 1873.
    Season (The), 1861.
    Tower of Babel (The), 1874.
    Artist’s Proof (An), 1864.
    Five Years of it, 1858.
    Won by a Head, 1866.
    England’s Policy and Peril, 1877.
    Note of Admiration, etc., 1861.
    Poetry of the Period (The), 1870.
    Russia before Europe, 1876.
    Tory Horrors, 1876.
    Vindication of Lord Byron, 1869.
  =Aytoun= (William Edmonstoune), born in Edinburgh, 1813-1865.
    Ballads of Scotland, 1858.
    Bothwell, 1856.
    Firmilian, 1854.
    Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers, and other Poems, 1849.
    Poland, and other Poems.
    Glenmutchkin Railway.
    How I became a Yeoman.
    Life and Times of Richard I, 1840.
    Norman Sinclair, 1861.

  =Bacon= (Francis, Baron Verulam and Viscount St. Albans), London,
    Advancement of Learning, 1605.
    Essays (fifty-eight), 1597; enlarged, 1625.
    Novum Organum, 1620.
  =Bacon= (Roger), a friar, born at Ichester, in Somersetshire,
    Opus Majus, 1267.
  =Bailey= (Philip James), Nottingham, 1816-
    Festus, 1839.
  =Baillie= (Joanna), born at Bothwell, 1762-1851.
    Plays of the Passions, 1st series, 1798;
      2d series, 1802;
      3rd series, 1812.
  =Bain= (Alexander), born at Aberdeen, 1818-
    Emotions and the Will, 1859.
    Senses and the Intellect (The), 1855.
  =Baird= (Spenser Fullerton), born at Reading, Pennsylvania, 1823-1887.
    Birds of North America, 1860 (with J. Cassin).
    Mammals of North America, 1861 (with J. Cassin).
    Review of American Birds, 1864 (with Dr. T. M. Brewer).
    Editor and Translator of the _Iconographic Encyclopædia_, 1851.
  =Baker=, (Sir Samuel White), 1821-1880.
    Albert N’yanza (The), Great Basin of the Nile, and Exploration of
       the Nile Sources, (2 vols.), 1866.
    Cast Up by the Sea, 1869.
    Eight Year’s Wanderings in Ceylon, 1855.
    Ismaïlia, 1874.
    Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia (The), 1867.
    Rifle and Hound of Ceylon (The), 1854.
  =Bancroft= (George), born at Worcester, Massachusetts, 1800-1891.
    History of the United States, vol. 1st, 1834;
      3rd, 1840;
      7th, 1858;
      8th, 1860;
      10th, 1874.
    Plea for the Constitution of the United States, 1886.
    Martin Van Buren to the End of his Public Career, 1889.
  =Banim= (John), near Kilkenny, 1800-1842.
    Tales of the O’Hara Family, 1825.
  =Barbauld= (Mrs.), born at Kibworth-Harcourt, in Leicestershire,
    Devotional pieces, 1775.
    Early Lessons for Children, 1774.
    Evenings at Home, 1792-95 (with Dr. Aikin).
    Female Spectator (The), 1811.
    Hymns in Prose, 1774.
    Life of Samuel Richardson, 1805.
    Miscellaneous Poems, 1773.
    Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose, 1773.
  =Barham= (Richard Harris), born at Canterbury, 1788-1845.
    Ingoldsby Legends (in verse and prose), 1837.
  =Baring-Gould= (Rev. Sabine), Exeter, 1834-
    Book of Were Wolves (The), 1865.
    Curiosities of the Olden Time, 1869.
    Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, 1866-67.
    Difficulties of the Faith (The), 1874.
    Germany, Past and Present, 1879.
    Golden Gate (The), 1869-70.
    Iceland, its Scenes and Sagas, 1861.
    In Exitu Israel, 1870.
    Life of the Rev. R. S. Hawker, 1876.
    Lives of the Saints, 1872-77.
    Lost and Hostile Gospels (The), (1874).
    Mystery of Suffering (The), 1877.
    Origin and Development of Religious Belief (The), 1869-70.
    Path of the Just (The), 1854.
    Post Mediæval Preachers, 1865.
    Silver Store (The), 1868.
    Some Modern Difficulties, 1875.
    Village Sermons for a Year, 1875.
    Yorkshire Oddities, 1874.
  =Barlow= (Joel), born at Reading, Connecticut, 1755-1812.
    Vision of Columbus (The), a poem, 1787.
    (Afterwards enlarged into _The Columbiad_, 1805.)
  =Barnes= (Albert), New York, 1798-1870.
    Notes on the New Testament, 1832-48.
    Notes on the Old Testament, 1851.
  =Barnum= (Phineas Taylor), born at Bethel, Connecticut, 1810-1891.
    Humbugs of the World, 1865.
    Struggles and Triumphs, 1869.
  =Barrow= (Sir John), born near Ulverstone, in Lancashire, 1764-1848.
    Mutiny of the _Bounty_, 1831.
  =Baxter= (Richard), born at Rowton, in Shropshire, 1615-1691.
    Saints’ Everlasting Rest (The), 1650.
  =Beattie= (James), born at Laurencekirk, in Scotland, 1735-1803.
    Judgment of Paris, 1765.
    Minstrel (The), in two parts. Part i. 1771;
      part ii. 1774.
    Poems and Translations, 1760.
    Dissertations, 1783.
    Elements of Moral Sciences (The), 1790-93.
    Essay on Poetry and Music, 1778.
    Essay on Truth, 1770.
    Essays, 1776.
    Evidences of Christianity, 1786.
  =Beckford= (William), 1761-1844.
    Vathek (an Eastern tale), 1786.
  =Bede= (“The Venerable”), born at Jarrow, in Durham, 672-735.
    A Book on Metrical Art;
      another on Orthography;
      lives of the abbots of Wearmouth;
      Commentaries on the Bible;
      De Sex Ætatibus Mundi.
      (All in Latin.)
    Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum, 734.
    Homilies, Hymns, Epigrams, etc.
  =Beecher= (Catherine Esther), born at East Hampton, New York,
    Common Sense applied to Religion, 1857.
    Duty of American Women to their Country, 1845.
    The True Remedy for the Wrongs of Women, 1851.
  =Beecher= (Rev. Henry Ward), born at Litchfield, Connecticut,
    Lectures to Young Men, 1850.
    Life Thoughts, 1858.
    Star Papers (The), 1858.
  =Beecher-Stowe= (Mrs.), born at Litchfield, Connecticut, 1812-
    Agnes of Sorrento, 1862.
    Chimney Corner (The), 1868.
    Christian Slave (The), a drama, 1855.
    Daisy’s First Winter, and other Stories, 1867.
    Dred, a Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp, 1856.
    House and Home Papers, 1864.
    Lady Byron’s Vindication, 1870.
    Little Foxes, 1865.
    Little Pussy Willows, 1870.
    Men of Our Times, 1868.
    Minister’s Wooing (The), 1859.
    My Wife and I, 1872.
    Old Town Folks, 1869.
    Our Charley, and what to do with him, 1859.
    Pearl of Orr’s Island (The), 1862.
    Pink and White Tyranny, 1871.
    Poganuc People, their Loves and Lives, 1878.
    Queer Little People, 1867.
    Ravages of a Carpet (The), 1864.
    Religious Rhymes, 1865.
    Stories about our Dogs, 1865.
    Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands, 1854.
    True Story of Lord Byron, 1869.
    Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852.
  =Bellows= (Rev. Henry Whitney), born at Boston, 1814-1882.
    Defence of the Drama, 1857.
    Old World in its New Face (The), 1868-69.
  =Benton= (Thomas Hart), born in Orange county, North Carolina,
    Thirty Years’ Views, 1853.
  =Bickersteth=, (Rev. Edward Henry), born at Islington, 1825-
    Yesterday, To-day, and For Ever, 1866.
  =Black= (William), born at Glasgow, 1841-
    Daughter of Heth (A), 1871.
    Green Pastures and Piccadilly, 1877.
    In Silk Attire, 1869.
    Kilmeny, 1870.
    Lady Silverdale’s Sweetheart, 1876.
    Macleod of Dare, 1878.
    Madcap Violet, 1876.
    Maid of Killeena (The), and other Stories, 1874.
    Monarch of Mincing Lane (The), 1871.
    Princess of Thule (A), 1873.
    Strange Adventures of a Phaeton, 1872.
    Sunrise, 1881.
    Three Feathers, 1875.
    White Wings, 1880.
    Life of Oliver Goldsmith, 1878.
  =Blackburn= (Henry), 1830-
    Art in the Mountains, 1870.
    Artists and Arabs, 1868.
    Harz Mountains, 1873.
    Normandy Picturesque, 1869.
    The Pyrenees, 1867.
    Travelling in Spain, 1866.
  =Blackie= (John Stuart), born at Glasgow, 1809-
    Democracy, 1867.
    Discourses on Beauty, 1858.
    Four Phases of Morals, 1871.
    Homer and the Iliad, 1866.
    Horæ Hellenicæ, 1874.
    Lays and Legends of Ancient Greece, 1857.
    Lays of the Highlands and Islands, 1872.
    Lyrical Poems in English and Latin, 1860.
    Natural History of Atheism, 1878.
    Poems, chiefly Mythological, 1857, 1860.
    Self-culture, 1873.
    War-Songs of Germany, 1870.
  =Blackmore= (Richard Doddridge), born at Longworth, in Berkshire,
    Alice Lorraine, 1875.
    Christowell, 1882.
    Clara Vaughan, 1864.
    Cradock Nowell, 1866.
    Cripps, the Carrier, 1876.
    Eréma, or My Father’s Sin, 1877.
    Fate of Franklin (The), a poem, 1860.
    Lorna Doone, 1869.
    Maid of Sker, 1872.
  =Blackstone= (Sir William), London, 1723-1780.
    Commentaries on the Laws of England (4 vols.), 1765-69.
  =Blackwell=, M.D. (Elizabeth), born at Bristol, 1821. The first woman
     that ever obtained a medical diploma, 1849.
    Laws of Life considered with reference to the Physical Education of
       Girls, 1852.
  =Blair= (Hugh), born at Edinburgh, 1718-1800.
    Lectures on Rhetoric, 1783.
  =Blake= (William), “Pictor Ignotus,” London, 1757-1827.
    America (a prophecy), 1793.
    Book of Ahania, 1795.
    Book of Thiel, 1789.
    Europe (a prophecy), 1794.
    Gates of Paradise, 1793.
    Jerusalem, 1804.
    Marriage of Heaven and Hell, 1800.
    Milton, 1804.
    Poetical Sketches, 1783.
    Songs of Experience, 1794.
    Songs of Innocence, 1789.
    Urizen, 1800.
    Visions of the Daughters of Albion, 1793.
  =Blessington= (Marguerite, countess of), born near Clonmel, in
     Ireland, 1789-1849.
    Conversations with Lord Byron, 1832.
    Desultory Thoughts, 1838.
    Idler in France, 1841.
    Idler in Italy, 1839.
    Belle of the Season (The), 1840.
    Confessions of an Elderly Gentleman, 1835.
    Confessions of an Elderly Lady, 1836.
    Country Quarters, 1850.
    Governess (The), 1841.
    Repealers (The), 1833.
    Two Friends (The), 1834.
    Victims of Society, 1837.
  =Bloomfield= (Robert), born at Honington, in Suffolk, 1766-1823.
    Farmer’s Boy, 1798.
  =Borrow= (George), born at East Dereham, in Norfolk, 1803-1881.
    Bible in Spain (The), 1843.
    Lavengro, the Scholar, Gypsy and Priest, 1851.
    Romany Rye (The), a sequel to Lavengro, 1857.
  =Boswell= (James), born in Auchinleck, in Scotland, 1740-1795.
    Journal of a tour to the Hebrides with Dr. Johnson, 1785.
    Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson, 1791.
  =Boucicault= (Dion), born in Dublin, 1820-1890.
    Author of more than 150 dramatic pieces.
    (See APPENDIX III., under the title of each.)
  =Bowditch= (Nathaniel), born at Salem, Massachusetts, 1773-1838.
    Méchanique Céleste, 1829-38.
    Practical Navigator, 1802.
  =Bowen= (Francis), born at Charleston, 1814-
    Critical essays on the History and Present Condition of Speculative
       Philosophy, 1842.
  =Braddon= (Mary Elizabeth), London, 1837-
    Aurora Floyd, 1864.
    Barbara, etc., 1880.
    Birds of Prey, 1870.
    Captain of the Vulture (The), 1870.
    Charlotte’s Inheritance, 1871.
    Cloven Foot (The), 1878.
    Dead Men’s Shoes, 1876.
    Dead Sea Fruit, 1872.
    Doctor’s Wife (The), 1867.
    Eleanor’s Victory, 1865.
    Fenton’s Quest.
    Henry Dunbar, 1865.
    Hostages of Fortune, 1875.
    John Marchmont’s Legacy, 1866.
    Joshua Haggard’s Daughter, 1876.
    Lady Audley’s Secret, 1862.
    Lady Lisle, 1869.
    Lady’s Mile (The), 1869.
    Lost for Love, 1874.
    Lovells of Arden, 1871.
    Lucius Davoren, 1873.
    Milly Darrell, 1872.
    Only a Clod, 1868.
    Open Verdict (An), 1878.
    Ralph the Bailiff.
    Robert Ainsleigh, 1871.
    Run to Earth, 1872.
    Rupert Godwin, 1871.
    Sir Jasper’s Tenant, 1868.
    Strange World (A), 1875.
    Strangers and Pilgrims, 1873.
    Taken at the Flood, 1874.
    To the Bitter End, 1872.
    Trail of the Serpent (The), 1868.
    Weavers and Weft, 1877.
    Vixen, 1879.
    Garibaldi, and other Poems, 1861.
    Griselda (a drama), 1873.
    Loves of Arcadia (a comedietta), 1860.
  =Bradford= (William), born at Austerfield, in Lancashire, 1588-1657.
    History of Plymouth Colony, 1656.
  =Bradley= (Rev. Edward), born at Kidderminster, in Worcestershire,
    Adventures of Verdant Green (a tale), 1853.
  =Brande= (William Thomas), born 1786-1866.
    Dictionary of Materia Medica, 1839.
    Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art, 1842.
    Manual of Chemistry, 1819.
  =Bray= (Mrs.), born in Surrey, 1791-1883.
    Life of Thomas Stothard, R.A., 1851.
  =Brewer= (Rev. E. Cobham), 1810-
    Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 1868.
    Reader’s Handbook (The), 1880.
  =Bronte= (Charlotte), born at Thornton, in Yorkshire, 1816-1855.
    Jane Eyre, 1847.
    Professor (The), 1856.
    Shirley, 1849.
    Villette, 1853.
  =Brooke= (Henry), born in Ireland, 1706-1783.
    Fool of Quality (The), a novel, 1767.
  =Brooke= (Rev. Stopford Augustus), of Dublin, 1832-
    Christ in Modern Life, 1881.
    Life of Frederick W. Robertson, 1865.
    Milton, 1879.
    Primer of English Literature, 1878.
    Theology in the English Poets, 1874.
  =Brooks= (Charles Shirley), born at Brill, in Oxfordshire, 1815-1874.
    Aspen Court, 1855.
    Gordian Knot (The), 1858.
    Silver Cord (The), 1841.
    Sooner or Later, 1869.
    Creole (The), 1853.
    Daughter of the Stars (The).
    Honors and Tricks.
    Our New Governess.
    Naggletons (The).
    Poems of Wit and Humor, 1875.
  =Brougham= and =Vaux= (Henry, Lord), born in Edinburgh, 1779-1868.
    Works, 1855-57.
  =Brown= (Charles Brockden), of Philadelphia, 1771-1810.
    Arthur Mervyn, 1796.
    Clara Howard, 1801.
    Edgar Huntly, 1801.
    Jane Talbot, 1804.
    Ormond, 1799.
    Wieland, 1798.
  =Brown=, M.D. (John), born at Biggar, in Scotland, 1810-1882.
    Horæ Subsecivæ, 1858.
    Rab and his Friends, 1858-60.
    Our Dogs.
  =Browne= (Charles Farrar), pseudonym “Artĕmus Ward,” born in Maine,
    Artemus Ward among the Fenians, 1866.
    Artemus Ward among the Mormons, 1864.
    Artemus Ward his Book, 1862.
    Artemus Ward in London, 1868.
    Artemus Ward’s Complete Works, 1870.
  =Browne= (Sir Thomas), London, 1605-1682.
    Religio Medici, 1642.
  =Browning= (Mrs. Elizabeth Barrett), 1809-1861.
    Aurora Leigh, 1856.
    Battle of Marathon, 1822.
    Casa Guidi Windows, 1851.
    Drama of Exile, 1840.
    Essay on Mind, and other Poems, 1826.
    Greek Christian Poets, 1863.
    Lady Geraldine’s Courtship, 1850.
    Poems, 1844.
    Poems before Congress, 1860.
    Prometheus Bound, 1833.
    Romaunt of the Page (The), 1839.
    Seraphim, and other Poems (The), 1838.
  =Browning= (Robert), London, 1812-1889.
    Agamemnon of Æschylus, 1877.
    Aristophanes’ Apology, 1875.
    Balaustion’s Adventure, 1871.
    Blot on the ’Scutcheon, 1843.
    Christmas Eve, 1850.
    Dramatic Idylls, 1879-80.
    Dramatic Lyrics, 1881.
    Dramatic Romances.
    Dramatis Personæ, 1864.
    Fifine at the Fair, 1872.
    Inn Album (The), 1875.
    King Victor and King Charles.
    La Saisiaz, 1878.
    Men and Women, 1855.
    Pacchiarotto, 1876.
    Paracelsus, 1836.
    Pippa Passes, 1842.
    Prince Hohenstïel-Schwangau, 1871.
    Red-cotton Nightcap Country (The), 1873.
    Return of the Druses.
    Ring and the Book (The), 1868.
    Romances and Lyrics, 1845.
    Sordello, 1839.
    Soul’s Tragedy (A), 1846.
    Strafford, 1837.
    Two Poets of Croisic (The), 1878.
  =Bruce= (James), born at Kinnaird, in Scotland, 1730-1794.
    Travels to discover Sources of the Nile, 1790.
  =Bryant= (William Cullen), born at Cummington, 1794-1878.
    Ages (The), 1821.
    Embargo (The), 1807.
    Fountain (The), and other Poems, 1842.
    Hymn of the City.
    Indian at the Burying-place of his Fathers.
    Poems collected, 1832.
    Thanatopsis, 1812.
  =Buchanan= (Robert), born at Caverswall, in Staffordshire, 1841-
    Balder the Beautiful, 1877.
    Ballad Stories of the Affections, 1866.
    Book of Orm, 1870.
    Child of Nature, 1870, printed 1881.
    David Gray, and other Essays, 1868.
    Drama of Kings (The), 1871.
    God and the Man, 1881.
    Idyls and Legends of Inverburn, 1865.
    Land of Lorne (The), 1871.
    London Poems, 1866; Poems, 1860.
    Master Spirits, 1873.
    Martyrdom of Madeline, 1882.
    North Coast, and other Poems, 1867.
    Poetical Works, 1874.
    Shadow of the Sword, 1875.
    White Rose and Red, 1873.
    Undertones, 1860.
    Madcap Prince (A), a comedy, 1874.
    Witch-finder (The), a tragedy.
  =Buckle= (Henry Thomas), 1822-1862.
    History of Civilization in Europe, 1857-61.
  =Bunyan= (John), born at Elstow, in Bedfordshire, 1628-1688.
    Barren Figtree (The), 1683.
    Grace Abounding, 1666.
    Holy City (The), 1665.
    Holy War, 1682.
    Pilgrim’s Progress, part i., 1678;
      part ii., 1684.
  =Burke= (Edmund), of Dublin, 1730-1797.
    Inquiry into our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, 1756.
    Present State of the Nation (The), 1769.
    Reflections on the French Revolution, 1790.
    Speeches, posthumous, 1801.
  =Burnaby= (Frederick), born at Bedford, 1842-1885.
    On Horseback through Asia Minor, 1877.
    Ride to Khiva, 1873.
  =Burnet= (Gilbert), bishop of Salisbury, born in Edinburgh, 1643-1715.
    History of his own Time, posthumous, 1723-34.
    History of the Reformation, vol. i., 1679; vol. ii., 1681; vol.
       iii., 1714.
  =Burney= (Frances), afterwards Mde. D’Arblay, 1752-1840.
    Diary and Letters, posthumous, 1841-46.
  =Burns= (Robert), born at Ayr, 1759-1796.
    Auld Lang Syne, 1793.
    Cotter’s Saturday Night, 1787.
    Death and Dr. Hornbook, 1787.
    Duncan Gray, 1792.
    For a’ that an’ a’ that, 1796.
    Green grow the Rashes O, 1787.
    Halloween, 1787.
    Highland Mary, 1792.
    Mary Morison, 1793.
    Scots wha hae, 1793.
    Tam O’Shanter, 1791.
    To Mary in Heaven, 1788.
    To a Mountain Daisy, 1786.
    To a Mouse, 1785.
    Twa Dogs, 1787.
  =Burritt= (Elihu), of Connecticut, 1811-1879.
    Chips from Many Blocks, 1878.
    Olive Leaves, 1853.
    Sparks from the Anvil, 1848.
    Voice from the Forge (A).
    Walk from John o’ Groat’s to Land’s End, 1865.
  =Burton=, (John Hill), of Aberdeen, 1809-1881.
    Book-hunter (The), 1862.
  =Burton= (Richard Francis), born in Norfolk, 1821-1890.
    Abeokuta, or the Cameroon Mountains, 1863.
    Canoeing ... from Sabarà to the Sea, 1868.
    City of the Saints (The), 1861.
    Etruscan Bologna, 1876.
    Falconry in the Valley of the Indus, 1852.
    First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856.
    Goa and the Blue Mountains, 1851.
    Lake Regions of Central Africa, 1860.
    Mission to Gelile, King of Dahomey, 1864.
    Nile Basin (The), 1864.
    Personal Narrative of a Pilgrim to ... Mecca, 1855.
    Sind revisited, 1877.
    Trips to Gorilla Land, 1875.
    Ultima Thule, 1875.
    Vikram and the Vampire (Hindu tales), 1869.
    Zanzibar, 1872.
  =Burton= (Robert), born at Lindley, in Leicestershire, 1576-1639.
    Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621.
  =Butler= (Joseph), bishop of Durham, born at Wantage, in Berkshire,
    Analogy of Religion, 1736.
  =Butler= (Samuel), born at Strensham, in Worcestershire, 1612-1680.
    Hudibras, part i., 1663;
      part ii., 1664;
      part iii., 1678.
  =Byron= (George Noel Gordon, lord), London, 1788-1824.
    Beppo, 1818.
    Bride of Abydos, 1813.
    Cain, 1821.
    Childe Harold, canto i., 1809;
      ii., 1810;
      iii., 1816;
      iv., 1818.
    Corsair (The), 1814.
    Curse of Minerva, 1812.
    Deformed Transformed (The), 1824.
    Don Juan, cantos i., ii., 1819;
      iii.-v., 1821;
      vi.-viii., 1823;
      ix.-xi., 1823;
      xii.-xiv., 1823;
      xv., xvi., 1824.
    English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, 1809.
    Giaour (The), 1813.
    Heaven and Earth: a Mystery, 1822.
    Hebrew Melodies, 1815.
    Hours of Idleness, 1807.
    Island (The), 1823.
    Lament of Tasso, 1817.
    Lara, 1814.
    Manfred, 1817.
    Marino Faliero, 1821.
    Mazeppa, 1819.
    Memoirs of my own Life, 1825.
    Monody on Sheridan, 1817.
    Morgante Maggiore, etc., 1823.
    Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte, 1814.
    Parisina, 1816.
    Prisoner of Chillon, 1816.
    Prophecy of Dante, 1821.
    Sardanapalus, 1821.
    Siege of Corinth, 1816.
    Werner, 1822.
    Letters and Journal, 1831.
  =Byron= (Henry James), born at Manchester, 1835-1884.
    American Lady (An), 1874.
    Fra Diavolo, 1858.
    Ill-treated Il Trovatore, 1855.
    Not such a Fool as he looks, 1869.
    Old Sailors, 1874.
    Our Boys, 1878.
    War to the Knife, 1865.

  =Cædmon=, first English poet, died at Whitby, 680.
    Paraphrasis Poetica Geneseos, printed 1655.
  =Campbell= (John, lord), born near Cupar, in Scotland, 1779-1861.
    Lives of the Chief Justices, 1849.
    Lives of the Lord Chancellors, 1845-47.
  =Campbell= (Thomas), of Glasgow, 1777-1844.
    Battle of the Baltic, 1801.
    Exile of Erin, 1801.
    Gertrude of Wyoming, 1809.
    Hohenlinden, 1801.
    Pilgrim of Glencoe, and other Poems, 1842.
    Pleasures of Hope, 1799.
    Reullura, the Beautiful Star, 1817.
    Theodoric, and other Poems, 1824.
    Ye Mariners of England, 1801.
  =Carey= (Henry), 1696-1743.
    Sally in our Alley, 1737.
  =Carleton= (William), of Ireland, 1798-1869.
    Black Prophet (The), 1847.
    Tales, 1841.
    Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, 1830-32.
    Valentine M’Clutchy, 1845.
    Willie Reilly, 1855.
  =Carlyle= (Thomas), of Dumfriesshire, in Scotland, 1795-1881.
    Chartism, 1839.
    French Revolution (The), 1837.
    Friedrich II. the Great, vol. i., ii., 1858;
      iii., iv., 1862.
    Heroes and Hero-worship, 1840.
    Life of Schiller, 1823-24;
      recast 1825.
    Life of John Sterling, 1851.
    Oliver Cromwell’s Letters and Speeches, 1845.
    Past and Present, 1843.
    Reminiscences, 1881.
    Sartor Resartus, 1833-34.
  =Cary= (Rev. Henry Francis), born at Birmingham, 1772-1844.
    Dante (translated), 1805-14.
  =Cass= (Lewis), born at Exeter, in New Hampshire, 1782-1866.
    King, Court, and Government of France, 1840.
  =Cavendish= (George), a pseudonym.
    Life of Cardinal Wolsey, 1825.
  =Chalmers= (Alexander), of Aberdeen, 1759-1834.
    British Essayist, 1803.
    English Poets, 1810.
    General Biographical Dictionary, 1812-17.
  =Chalmers= (Thomas), born at Anstruther, in Scotland, 1780-1847.
    Adaptation of Nature to the Constitutions of Man, 1833.
  =Chambers= (Robert), born at Peebles, in Scotland, 1802-1871.
    Book of Days (The), 1863-64.
  =Chambers= (William), brother of the above, 1800-1883.
    Ailie Gilroy, 1872.
    Book of Scotland, 1830.
    Memoir of Robert Chambers, 1872.
      _The Two Brothers._
    Cyclopædia of English Literature, 1842-44.
    Domestic Annals of Scotland, 1858.
    Essays, 1866.
    Edinburgh Journal, started 1832.
    Information for the People, commenced 1834.
    Gazetteer of Scotland, 1829-30.
  =Chamier= (Frederic), London, 1796-1870.
    Ben Brace, 1835.
    Tom Bowline, 1839.
  =Channing= (William Ellery), born at Boston, 1818-
    Poems, 1843, 1847.
    Wanderer (The), 1872.
    Woodman (The), 1849.
    Thoreau, the Poet-Naturalist, 1873.
  =Chapman= (Dr. George), born at Hitching Hill, in Hertfordshire,
    Homer’s _Iliad_, 1603.
    Homer’s _Odyssey_, 1614.
  =Chatterton= (Thomas), of Bristol, 1752-1770.
    Rowley Correspondence begins 1768.
    Godwin, 1771.
    Miscellanies, 1778.
      Supplement, 1784.
    Poems, 1771.
    Rowley Pieces in a Collective Form, 1777.
  =Chaucer= (Geoffrey), born in London, 1328-1400.
    Boke of Cupid, or the Cuckow and the Nightingale, 1364;
      first printed 1532.
    Boke of Fame (The), printed by Caxton, no date;
      by Pynson, 1526.
    Boke of the Duchesse (The), 1371;
      printed 1532.
    Canterbury Tales (The), 1383;
      printed by Caxton, 1475.
    Compleynte of a Loveres Lyfe (The), 1362.
    Compleynte of Chaucer to his Purse (The), 1377;
      first printed 1532.
    Compleynte of Mars and Venus (The), 1364.
    Flower and the Leaf (The), first printed 1598.
    House of Fame (The), 1373;
      first printed 1532.
    Jacke Upland, first printed 1602.
    Parlement of Briddes, or Assembly of Fowles (The), 1358;
      or Scipio’s Dream, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 1530.
    Ploughman’s Tale (The), first printed 1542.
    Praise of Women (A), 1366;
      first printed 1532.
    Romaunt of the Rose (The), 1360;
      printed 1532.
    Treatise on the Astrolabie, 1391-92.
    Troylus and Creseyde, 1369;
      printed by Caxton, no date;
      Wynkyn de Worde, 1517.
  =Chavasse= (Pye H.), 19th century.
    Advice to a Mother on the Management of her Children, 1849.
    Advice to a wife on the Management of her Own Health, 1850.
  =Chesterfield= (Philip Dormer Stanhope, earl of), born in London,
    Letters to his Son, posthumous, 1774;
      supplement, 1777.
  =Child= (Mrs. Lydia Maria), born at Medford, 1802-1880.
    Autumnal Leaves, 1860.
    Fact and Fiction, 1846.
    Flowers for Children, 1852.
    Hobomok, a Story of the Pilgrims, 1824.
    Isaac T. Hopper, a True Life, 1853.
    Looking towards Sunset, 1860.
    Philothea, a Greek Romance, 1836.
    Progress of Religious Ideas, etc., 1855.
    Rebels (The), 1825.
    Romance of the Republic (A), 1867.
  =Church= (Rev. Richard William), 1815-1890.
    Beginning of the Middle Ages, 1877.
    Civilization before and after Christianity, 1872.
    Influences of Christianity upon National Character, 1873.
    Sacred Poetry of Early Religions, 1874.
  =Cibber= (Colley), of London, 1671-1757.
    Apology for his own Life, 1740.
    Works, 1721.
  =Clarendon= (Henry Hyde, earl of), born at Dinton, in Wiltshire,
    History of the Rebellion and Civil War in England, 1702-4.
  =Clarke= (Charles Cowden), born at Enfield, in Middlesex, 1787-1877.
    Molière Characters, 1865.
    Shakespeare Characters, 1863.
    Tales from Chaucer, 1833.
  =Clarke= (Mrs. Cowden), 1809-
    Complete Concordance to the Works of Shakespeare (A), 1845.
    Girlhood of Shakespeare’s Heroines (The), 1850.
  =Clarke= (James Freeman), born in Hanover, 1810-1888.
    Christian Doctrine of Forgiveness (The), 1852.
    Christian Doctrine of Prayer (The), 1854.
    Essentials and Non-essentials in Religion, 1878.
    Orthodoxy, 1866.
    Steps of Belief, 1870.
    Ten Great Religions (The), 1870.
  =Clemens= (Samuel Langhorne), pseudonym “Mark Twain,” born in Florida,
    An Idle Excursion, 1878.
    Gilded Age (The), 1874.
    Innocents Abroad (The), 1869.
    Jumping Frog (The), 1867.
    Prince and Pauper, 1881.
    Roughing it, 1872.
    Tom Sawyer, 1876.
    Tramp Abroad, 1880.
  =Clough= (Arthur Hugh), born in Liverpool, 1819-1861.
    Poems and Essays, 1871.
  =Cobbe= (Frances Power), born in the county of Dublin, 1822-
    Cities of the Past, 1864.
    Criminals, Idiots, Women and Minors, 1869.
    Dawning Lights, 1868.
    Essays on the Pursuits of Women, 1863.
    Female Education, 1862.
    Friendless Girls and How to Help Them, 1861.
    Hours of Work and Play, 1867.
    Religious Duty, 1864.
    Studies of Ethical and Social Subjects, 1865.
    Thanksgiving, 1863.
    Workhouse as an Hospital (The), 1861.
  =Cobbett= (William), born at Farnham, in Surrey, 1762-1835.
    Advice to Young Men, 1831.
    Cottage Economy, 1822.
    History of the Protestant Reformation in England, etc., 1810.
    Parliamentary History of England, 1803.
    Political Registers, 1802-13.
    Poor Man’s Friend (The), 1826.
    Works of Peter Porcupine, 1801.
  =Cobbold= (Rev. Richard), 1797-1877.
    Margaret Catchpole, 1845.
  =Cockburn= (Henry Thomas, lord), Edinburgh, 1779-1854.
    Life of Lord Jeffrey, 1852.
  =Coke= (Sir Edward), born at Milenam, in Norfolk, 1551-1633.
    Institutes, part i. (Coke upon Littleton), 1628;
      part ii. (Magna Charta), 1642;
      part iii. (High Treason), 1644;
      part iv. (Jurisdiction of Courts), 1644.
  =Colenso= (John William), 1814-1883.
    Criticism on _The Speaker’s Commentary_, 1871.
    _Epistle to the Romans_ (The), 1861.
    Lectures on the Pentateuch, 1873.
    Natal Sermons, 1866.
    Pentateuch and Book of Joshua critically examined (The), 1862-72.
  =Coleridge= (Samuel Taylor), born at Ottery St. Mary, in Devonshire,
    Ancient Mariner (in seven parts), 1798.
    Christabel, part i., 1797;
      part ii., 1800;
      published 1816.
    Kubla Khan (a vision), 1816.
    Poems, 1796.
    Translation of Wallenstein, 1800.
    Aids to Reflection, 1825.
    Biographia Literaria, 1817.
    Essays on his own Times, 1850.
    Friend (The), 27 numbers, 1809-10.
    Lay Sermons, 1816-17.
    Notes and Lectures on Shakespeare, etc., 1849.
    Table Talk, 1835.
  =Collier= (Jeremy), born at Stow Quy, in Cambridgeshire, 1650-1726.
    Ecclesiastial History of Great Britain, 1708-14.
    Essays on Moral Subjects, 1697, 1705, 1709.
  =Collier= (John Payne), London, 1789-1883.
    Bibliographical Account of Rare Books, 1865.
    History of English Dramatic Poetry, 1831.
    Memoirs of Actors in the Plays of Shakespeare, 1846.
    New Facts regarding Shakespeare, 1835, 1836, 1839.
    Notes and Emendations to the Text of Shakespeare’s
    Plays, 1852.
    Poetical Decameron, 1820.
    Poet’s Pilgrimage (The), 1822.
    Sculptor (The), 1878.
  =Collins= (Mortimer), of Plymouth, in Hampshire, 1827-1876.
    Blacksmith and Scholar, 1875.
    Fight with Fortune (A), 1876.
    Frances, 1874.
    Idyls and Rhymes, 1855.
    Ivory Gate (The), 1869.
    Marquis and Merchant, 1871.
    Miranda, 1873.
    Mr. Carington, 1873.
    Princess Clarice, 1872.
    Squire Silchester’s Whim, 1873.
    Summer Songs, 1860.
    Sweet and Twenty, 1875.
    Sweet Anne Page, 1868.
    Transmigration, 1873.
    Two Plunges for a Pearl, 1872.
    Village Comedy (The), 1877.
    Vivian Romance (The), 1870.
    Who is the Heir? 1865.
  =Collins= (William), of Chichester, 1720-1756.
    Odes, 1745-46.
    Ode to Evening, 1746.
    Oriental Eclogues, 1742.
    Passions (Ode on the), 1746.
    Poems, 1765.
  =Collins= (William Wilkie), London, 1824-1889.
    After Dark, and other Stories, 1856.
    Antonina, or the Fall of Rome, 1850.
    Armadale, 1866.
    Basil, 1852.
    Black Robe (The), 1881.
    Dead Secret (The), 1857.
    Fallen Leaves (The), 1880.
    Frozen Deep (The), 1873.
    Haunted Hotel (The), 1879.
    Hide and Seek, 1854.
    Law and the Lady (The), 1875.
    Man and Wife, 1870.
    Miss or Mrs.? and other Stories, 1873.
    Mr. Wray’s Cash-box (a Christmas tale), 1852.
    Moonstone (The), 1868.
    My Miscellanies, 1863.
    New Magdalen (The), 1873.
    No Name, 1862.
    Poor Miss Finch, 1872.
    Queen of Hearts (The), 1859.
    Rambles beyond Railways, 1851.
    Two Destinies, 1876.
    Woman in White (The), 1860.
    Black and White.
    Frozen Deep (The), 1857.
    Lighthouse (The), 1855.
  =Colman= (George), 1762-1836.
    Broad Grins, 1802.
    Eccentricities for Edinburgh, 1820.
    My Nightgown and Slippers, 1797.
    Poetical Vagaries, 1812.
    Random Records, 1830.
    Vagaries vindicated, 1814.
    ⁂ For his plays, see APPENDIX III.
  =Colton= (Rev. Caleb C.), *-1832.
    Lacon, or Many Things in Few Words, 1822.
  =Congreve= (William), born at Stafford, 1670-1729.
    Poems, 1710.
    ⁂ For his plays, see APPENDIX III.
  =Conington= (John), born at Boston, in Lincolnshire, 1825-1869.
    Translations into English verse of the _Æneid_ of Virgil, 1866;
      of the _Agamemnon_ of Æschylus, 1848;
      of the _Odes_ of Horace, 1863.
  =Cook= (Eliza), 1812-1889.
    Journal, 1849-54.
    New Echoes, and other Poems, 1864.
    Poems, 1840.
  =Cook= (Captain James), born at Marton, in Yorkshire, 1728-1779.
    Three Voyages around the World, first published in 1773;
      second in 1777;
      third in 1784.
  =Cooke=(John Esten), born at Winchester, in Virginia, 1830-1886.
    Henry St. John, Gentleman, 1856.
    Her Majesty the Queen, 1873.
    Hilt to Hilt, 1869.
    Leather Stockings and Silk, 1854.
    Life of Robert E. Lee, 1871.
    Life of Stonewall Jackson, 1866.
    Mohun, or the Last Days of Lee and his Paladins, 1868.
    Virginia Comedians (The), 1855.
  =Cooley= (Thomas McIntyre), born at Attica, in New York, 1824-
    Constitutional Limitations ... of the American Union, 1868, 1871.
  =Coombe= (William), born at Bristol, 1741-1823.
    Tour in Search of the Picturesque, 1812.
    Tour in Search of Consolation, 1820.
    Tour in Search of a Wife, 1821.
    Tour of Dr. Syntax through London, 1810.
  =Cooper= (James Fenimore), born at Burlington, 1789-1851.
    Afloat and Ashore, 1844.
    Bravo (The), 1831.
    Chainbearer (The), 1845.
    Deer-slayer (The), 1841.
    Headsman of Berne, 1833.
    Home as Found, 1838.
    Homeward Bound, 1838.
    Jack Tier, 1848.
    Last of the Mohicans (The), 1826.
    Lionel Lincoln, 1825.
    Mercedes of Castile, 1840.
    Miles Wallingford, 1844.
    Ned Myers, 1843.
    Oak Openings, 1848.
    Outward Bound, 1836.
    Pathfinder, 1840.
    Pilot (The), 1823.
    Pioneers (The), 1823.
    Prairie (The), 1827.
    Precaution, 1821.
    Red Rover (The), 1827.
    Red Skins (The), 1846.
    Satanstoe, 1845.
    Sea Lions, 1849.
    The Spy, 1821.
    Two Admirals (The), 1842.
    Water Witch (The), 1830.
    Ways of the Hour, 1850.
    Wept of Wishton-Wish (The), 1829.
    Wing and Wing, 1842.
    Wyandotte, 1843.
  =Cotton= (Charles), born at Beresford Hall, in Staffordshire,
    Complete Angler, 1676.
  =Coverdale= (Miles), bishop of Exeter, born at Coverham, in Yorkshire,
    Cranmer’s (or the Great) Bible, 1539.
    Translation of the Bible, 1535.
  =Cowper= (William), born at Great Berkhampstead, in Hertford,
    John Gilpin, 1782.
    Miscellaneous Poems, 1793.
    On the Receipt of My Mother’s Picture, 1798.
    Table Talk, 1781;
      published 1782.
    Task (The), in six books, 1783-85.
  =Cox= (Rev. Sir George William), 1827-
    Crusades (The), 1874.
    History of Greece (A), 1874.
    Great Persian War (The), 1861.
    Introduction to the Science of Comparative
    Mythology and Folk Lore, 1881.
    Mythology of the Aryan Nations (The), 1870.
    Poems, Legendary and Historical, 1850.
    Tales of Ancient Greece, 1868, 1877.
    Tales of Thebes and Argos, 1863.
    Tales of the Gods and Heroes, 1862.
  =Cox= (Samuel Sullivan), born at Zanesville, Ohio, 1824-1889.
    Buckeye Abroad (The), 1852.
    Eight Years in Congress, 1865.
    Search for Winter Sunbeams, 1870.
  =Coxe= (Rev. Arthur Cleveland), born at Mendham, New Jersey, 1818-.
    Advent, a Mystery, 1837.
    Athanasion, and other Poems, 1842.
    Athwold, 1838.
      (Recast and reproduced under the title of “The Ladye Chase.”)
    Christian Ballads, 1840.
    Halloween, 1844.
    Saul, a Mystery, 1845.
  =Craik= (George Lillie), of Fifeshire, Scotland, 1799-1866.
    Bacon, his Writings and Philosophy, 1846-47.
    English of Shakespeare (The), 1857.
    History of British Commerce, 1844.
    Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties, 1831.
    Romance of the Peerage, 1848-50.
    Outlines of the History of the English Language, 1855.
    Sketches of the History of Literature and
    Learning in England, 1844-45.
    Spenser and his Poetry, 1845.
  =Craik= (Mrs. Dinah Maria Mulock), born at Stoke-upon-Trent, in
     Staffordshire, 1826-1887.
    Agatha’s Husband, 1852.
    Avilion, and other Tales, 1854.
    Christian’s Mistake, 1865.
    Hannah, 1871.
    Head of the Family (The), 1851.
    John Halifax, Gentleman, 1857.
    Laurel Bush (The), 1877.
    Legacy (A), 1878.
    Life for a Life (A), 1859.
    Mistress and Maid, 1863.
    Noble Life (A), 1866.
    Ogilvies (The), 1849.
    Olive, 1850.
    Poems, 1872.
    Sermons out of Church, 1875.
    Studies from Life, 1869.
    Woman’s Kingdom (The), 1870.
  =Creasy= (Sir Edward Shepherd), born at Bexley, in Kent, 1812-1878.
    Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World (The), 1851.
  =Croly= (Rev. George), born at Dublin, 1780-1860.
    Salathiel, 1827.
  =Crosby= (Howard), born in New York, 1826-1890.
    Lands of the Moslem, 1850.
    Life of Christ, 1871.
    Notes on the New Testament, 1861.
  =Crowe= (Mrs.), born at Borough Green, in Kent, 1800-1876.
    Night Side of Nature (ghost stories), 1848.
  =Crowe= (Joseph Arthur), London, 1825-
    Early Flemish Painters, 1857, 1872.
    History of Painting in Italy, 1864.
    History of Painting in North Italy, 1871.
    Life of Titian, 1877.
  =Cruden= (Alexander), of Aberdeen, 1700-1770.
    Concordance of the Holy Scriptures, 1737.
    Scripture Dictionary, 1770.
  =Cumming= (Roualeyn George Gordon), born in Scotland, 1820-1866.
    Hunter’s Life in South Africa (A), 1850.
  =Cunningham= (Alexander), born at Ettrick, in Scotland, 1654-1737.
    History of Great Britain, etc., 1787.
  =Cunningham= (Allan), born at Blackwood, in Scotland, 1785-1842.
    Lives of British Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, 1829-33.
  =Curtis= (George Ticknor), born at Watertown, in Massachusetts, 1812-
    History of the Origin, Formation, and Adoption of the Constitution
       of the United States, 1855-58.
    Life of Daniel Webster, 1855-58.
  =Curtis= (George William), born at Providence, in Rhode Island, 1824-
    Howadji in Syria, 1852.
    Lotus Eaters, 1852.
    Nile Notes of a Howadji, 1850.
    Potiphar Papers (The), 1853.
    Prue and I, 1862.
  =Cushing= (Caleb), born at Salisbury, in Massachusetts, 1800-1879.
    Review of the Three Days’ Revolution in France, 1833.

  =Dana= (James Dwight), born at Utica, in New York, 1813-
    Corals and the Coral Islands, 1872.
    Manual of Geology, 1862.
    On Crustacea, 1852-54.
    On the Geology of the Pacific, 1849.
    On Zoöphytes, 1846.
    Text-book of Geology, 1864.
  =Dana= (Richard Henry), born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1815-1882.
    To Cuba and Back, 1859.
    Two Years before the Mast, 1869.
  =Darwin= (Charles), born at Shrewsbury, 1809-1882.
    Cross and Self Fertilization, etc., 1876.
    Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (The), 1871.
    Different Forms of Flowers in Plants of the same Species, 1877.
    Domesticated Animals and Cultivated Plants, etc., 1867.
    Effects of Cross-fertilization in Plants, 1876.
    Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals (The), 1872.
    Fertilization of Orchids, 1862.
    Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, 1881.
    Fossil Lepodidæ of Great Britain (The), 1855.
    Geological Observations on South America, 1846.
    Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands, 1844.
    Insectivorous Plants, 1875.
    Journal of Researches in Various Countries visited by H.M.S.
       _Beagle_ in 1831.
    Monograph of the Family Cirripedia, 1851.
    Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants, 1875.
    Nutation of Plants, 1880.
    Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (The), 1859.
    Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs (The), 1842.
    Voyage of a Naturalist, 1845.
    Zoölogy of the Voyage of H.M.S. _Beagle_, 1840-43.
  =Davy= (Sir Humphrey), born at Penzance, in Cornwall, 1778-1829.
    Researches, Chemical and Philosophical, 1800.
  =Dawson= (John William), born at Picton, in Nova Scotia, 1820-
    Archaia, or Studies on the Cosmogony, etc., of the ... Scriptures,
    Story of the Earth and Man, 1872.
  =Day= (Thomas), London, 1748-1789.
    History of Sandford and Merton, 1783-89.
  =Defoe= (Daniel), London, 1661-1731.
    Colonel Jack, 1721.
    Jonathan Wild, 1725.
    Journal of the Plague Year, 1722.
    Memoirs of a Cavalier, 1724.
    Moll Flanders, 1721.
    Political History of the Devil (The), 1726.
    Robinson Crusoe, 1719.
  =De la Ramé= (Louisa), _nom de plume_ “Ouida,” born at Bury St.
     Edmunds, 1840-
    Ariadne, 1877.
    Cecil Castlemaine’s Gage, 1867.
    Chandos, 1866.
    Dog of Flanders (A), 1872.
    Folle Farine, 1871.
    Friendship, 1878.
    Held in Bondage, 1863.
    In a Winter City, 1876.
    Leaf in a Storm (A), 1873.
    Moths, 1880.
    Pascarel, 1873.
    Pipistrello, and other Stories, 1880.
    Puck, his Vicissitudes and Adventures, 1869.
    Signa, 1875.
    Strathmore, 1865.
    Tricotrin, a Story of a Waif and Stray, 1860.
    Two Little Wooden Shoes, 1874.
    Under Two Flags, 1868.
    Village Commune (A), 1881.
  =De Quincey= (Thomas), Manchester, 1786-1859.
    Confessions of an English Opium Eater, 1821.
  =Dewey= (Orville), born at Sheffield, Massachusetts, 1794-
    Old World and the New (The), 1836.
    On the Education of the Human Race, 1855.
  =Dexter= (Henry Martyn), born at Plympton, 1821-
    Banishment of Roger Williams (The), 1876.
    Church Policy of the Pilgrims, 1866.
    History of King Philip’s War (The), 1870.
    History of the Plymouth Colony, 1877.
  =Dibdin= (Charles), Southampton, 1745-1814.
    Complete History of the English Stage (A), 1795.
    Sea-songs, 1790.
    Shepherd’s Artifice (The), an opera, 1761.
  =Dicey= (Edward), born at Claybrook Hall, in Leicestershire, 1832-
    Battlefields of 1866 (The), 1866.
    Memoir of Cavour, 1859.
    Month in Russia (A), 1867.
    Morning Land (The), 1870.
    Rome in 1860.
    Schleswig-Holstein War (The), 1864.
  =Dick= (Thomas), born at Dundee, in Scotland, 1774-1857.
    Celestial Scenery, 1838.
    Christian Philosopher (The), 1823.
    Philosophy of Religion (The), 1825.
    Philosophy of a Future State (The), 1828.
    Practical Astronomer (The), 1845.
  =Dickens= (Charles), born at Portsmouth, 1812-1870.
    Barnaby Rudge, 1841.
    Battle of Life, 1846.
    Bleak House, 1852.
    Chimes (The), 1844.
    Cricket on the Hearth (The), 1846.
    Christmas Carol (A), 1843.
    David Copperfield, 1849.
    Dr. Marigold’s Prescriptions, 1868.
    Dombey and Son, 1846-47.
    Great Expectations, 1860.
    Hard Times, 1854.
    Haunted House (The), 1859.
    Haunted Man (The), 1848.
    Holly-tree Inn (The), 1855.
    Hunted Down, 1860.
    Little Dorritt, 1857.
    Martin Chuzzlewit, 1843.
    Master Humphrey’s Clock, 1840-41.
    Message from the Sea (A), 1860.
    Mrs. Lirriper’s Lodgings, 1863.
    Mugby Junction, 1866.
    Mystery of Edwin Drood, 1870.
    Nicholas Nickleby, 1838.
    No Thoroughfare, 1867.
    Old Curiosity Shop (The), 1840.
    Oliver Twist, 1837.
    Our Mutual Friend, 1864.
    Pickwick Papers (The), 1836.
    Round of Stories (A), 1852.
    Sketches by Boz, 1835.
    Somebody’s Luggage, 1862.
    St. George and the Dragon, 1866.
    Strange Gentleman (The), 1836.
    Tale of Two Cities (A), 1859.
    Tenants at Will, 1864.
    Tom Tiddler’s Ground, 1867.
    Village Coquettes (The), 1836.
    Uncommercial Traveller (The), 1860.
    American Notes, 1842.
    Child’s History of England (The), 1851.
    Sunday under Three Heads, 1836.
  =Dilke= (Charles Wentworth), 1843-
    Greater Britain, 1868.
  =Disraeli= (Benjamin, earl of Beaconsfield), 1805-1881.
    Alarcos, 1839.
    Alroy (The Wondrous Tale of), 1833.
    Coningsby, or the New Generation, 1844.
    Contarini Fleming, 1832.
    Endymion, 1881.
    Henrietta Temple, 1837.
    Ixion in Heaven, 1833.
    Lothair, 1871.
    Revolutionary Epic (The), 1834.
    Rise of Iskander (The), 1833.
    Sybil, or the Two Nations, 1845.
    Tancred, or the New Crusade, 1847.
    Venetia, 1837.
    Vivian Grey, 1826-27.
    Voyage of Captain Popanilla (The), 1828.
    Young Duke (The), 1831.
  =Disraeli= (Isaac), born at Bradenham House, in Buckinghamshire,
    Amenities of Literature, 1841.
    Calamities of Authors, 1812.
    Curiosities of Literature, 1791, 1793, 1823.
    Defence of Poetry (A), 1790.
    Dissertation on Anecdotes, 1793.
    Miscellanies of Literature, 1812-22.
    Quarrels of Authors (The), 1814.
  =Dixon= (William Hepworth), born at Newton Heath, in Yorkshire,
    British Cyprus, 1879.
    Diana, Lady Lyle, 1877.
    Free Russia, 1870.
    Her Majesty’s Tower, 1871.
    Holy Land (The), 1865.
    John Howard, 1849.
    Life of Lord Bacon, 1860.
    Life of Admiral Blake, 1852.
    Life of William Penn (A), 1851.
    New America, 1867.
    Personal History of Lord Bacon (The), 1860.
    Robert Blake, Admiral, etc., 1852.
    Royal Windsor, 1878.
    Ruby Grey, 1878.
    Spiritual Wives, 1868.
    Switzers (The), 1872.
    Two Queens, 1873.
    White Conquest, 1875.
  =Dobell= (Sydney), London, 1824-1874.
    England in Time of War, 1856.
    Poetical Works, 1875.
  =Dodd= (Rev. William), born at Bourne, in Lincolnshire, 1729-1777.
    Beauties of _Shakespeare_, 1752.
  =Doddridge= (Philip), London, 1702-1751.
    Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul, 1750.
  =Doran= (John), 1807-1878.
    Monarchs Retired from Business, 1857.
  =Drake= (Samuel), born at Pittsfield, New Hampshire, 1798-1875.
    Book of the Indians, 1833.
    History of Boston, 1852.
  =Draper= (John William), born at St. Helen’s, near Liverpool,
    Forces which Produce the Organization of Plants (The), 1844.
    History of the American Civil War, 1867-70.
    History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, 1874.
    History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, 1862.
    Thoughts on the Future Policy of America, 1865.
  =Drayton= (Michael), born at Hartshill, in Warwickshire, 1563-1631.
    Barons’ Wars (The), 1596.
    Nymphidia, or the Court of Fairy, 1627.
    Polyolbion, songs i.-ix., 1612;
      xi.-xviii., 1613;
      xix.-xxx., 1622.
  =Dryden= (John), born at Aldwinkle, in Northamptonshire, 1631-1701.
    Absalom and Achitophel, part i., 1681;
      part ii., 1682.
    Alexander’s Feast, 1697.
    Annus Mirabilis, 1667.
    Astræa Redux, 1660.
    Britannia Rediviva, 1689.
    Cromwell (Death of), an elegy, 1658.
    Fables, 1698-1700.
    Hind and the Panther (The), 1687.
    Lord Hastings (An Elegy on).
    MacFlecknoe, 1682.
    Medal (The), 1681.
    Ovid’s Epistles translated, 1679.
    Religio Laici, 1682.
    Song of St. Cecilia, 1687.
    Virgil translated, 1694-96.
    Essay on Dramatic Poets, 1667.
    Essay on Heroic Plays, 1672.
    ⁂ For his 28 dramas, see APPENDIX III.
  =Duffy= (Sir Charles Gavan), born in Monaghan, Ireland, 1816-
    Ballad Poetry of Ireland, 1870.
  =Dwight= (Timothy), born in Massachusetts, 1752-1817.
    Conquest of Canaan, 1785.
    Sermons, 1828.
    Theology explained and defended (173 sermons), 1819.
    Travels in New England and New York, 1821.

  =Edgeworth= (Maria), born at Hare-hatch, in Berkshire, 1767-1849.
    Belinda, 1803.
    Castle Rackrent, 1801.
    Early Lessons, 1801.
    Essays on Practical Education, 1798.
    Harrington and Ormond, 1817.
    Helen, 1834.
    Irish Bulls (An Essay on), 1801.
    Leonora, 1806.
    Moral Tales, 1806.
    Popular Tales, 1804.
    Practical Education, 1798.
    Tales and Novels, 1812.
    Tales of Fashionable Life, 1809, 1812.
  =Edwards= (Mrs. Annie), *-*.
    Archie Lovell, 1866.
    Blue Stocking (The), 1877.
    Creeds, 1859.
    Jet, 1878.
    Leah, 1875.
    May Fair, 1858.
    Miss Forrester, 1865.
    Ordeal for Wives, 1865.
    Ought we to Visit Her? 1871.
    Point of Honor (A).
    Steven Lawrence, 1868.
    Susan Fielding, 1869.
    Vagabond Heroine, 1873.
    Vivian the Beauty, 1879.
    World’s Verdict (The), 1861.
  =Edwards= (Amelia Blandford), 1831-1892.
    Barbara’s History, 1864.
    Debenham’s Vow, 1870.
    Half a Million of Money, 1865.
    Hand and Glove, 1859.
    In the Days of my Youth, 1873.
    Miss Carew (short tales), 1865.
    Mons. Maurice, 1873.
    My Brother’s Wife, 1855.
    Thousand Miles up the Nile (A), 1877.
    Untrodden Peaks, etc., 1873.
  =Edwards= (Edward), London, 1812-
    Economy of the Fine Arts in England, 1840.
    Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, 1868.
  =Edwards= (Jonathan), born at Windsor, Connecticut, 1703-1758.
    Doctrine of Original Sin, 1758.
    Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will, 1754.
    Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, 1740.
    Works, including Sermons and Life (in 10 vols.), 1830.
  =Egan= (Pierce), of Ireland, 1772-1849.
    Anecdotes of the Turf, etc., 1827.
    Book of Sports and Mirror of Life, 1832.
    Life in London (Tom and Jerry), about 1824.
    Life of an Actor, 1825.
    Panorama of the Sporting World, 1827.
    Pilgrims of the Rhine, 1828.
    Pilgrims of the Thames, 1838.
    Show Folks (The), 1831.
    Trial of J. Thurtell, etc., 1824.
    Walks in Bath, 1834.
  =Egan= (Pierce), London, 1814-1880.
    Adam Bell, 1842.
    Black Prince (The).
    Clifton Grey.
    Paul Jones, 1842.
    Quintin Matsys, 1839.
    Robin Hood and Little John, 1840.
    Wat Tyler, 1841.
  =Eliot= (George). See EVANS (Marian).
  =Eliot= (Samuel), born at Boston, 1821-
    History of Liberty, 1849, 1853.
    Manual of the United States between 1492 and 1850, published in
  =Ellicott= (Charles John), bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, born at
     Whitwell, near Stamford, 1819-
    Commentaries on the Pauline Epistles, 1854, 1855, 1858.
    History and Obligation of the Sabbath, 1844.
    On the Life of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1860.
    Sermons preached at St. Mary’s, Cambridge, 1858.
  =Elliott= (Charles Wyllys), born at Guildford, Connecticut, 1817-1883.
    Cottages and Cottage Life, 1848.
    Mysteries, or Glimpses of the Supernatural, 1852.
    New England History (The), from 986 to 1776, published in 1857.
    St. Domingo, its Revolution and its Hero, 1855.
    Remarkable Characters and Places in the Holy Land, 1867.
    Wind and Whirlwind (a novel), 1868.
  =Ellis= (George Edward), born at Boston, 1814-
    Half a Century of the Unitarian Controversy, 1857.
    Memoir of Jared Sparks, 1869.
    Memoirs of Count Rumford, 1871.
  =Ellis= (Mrs.), 1812-
    Daughters of England, 1842.
    Hearts and Homes, 1848-49.
    Mothers of Great Men (The), 1859.
    Pictures of Private Life, 1845.
    Social Distinction, 1854.
    Wives of England, 1843.
    Women of England, 1838.
  =Ellwood= (Thomas), born at Crowell, in Oxfordshire, 1639-1713.
    Autobiography, 1714.
  =Emerson= (Ralph Waldo), born at Boston, 1803-1879.
    Conduct of Life (The), 1860.
    English Traits, 1856.
    Essays, 1844, 1847.
    Literary Ethics, 1838.
    Man the Reformer, 1841.
    May-day, and other Poems, 1867.
    Nature and Man thinking, 1837.
    Poems, 1846.
    Representative Men, 1849.
  =Evans= (Marian), _nom de plume_ “George Eliot,” 1820-1880.
    Adam Bede, 1859.
    Agatha, 1869.
    Daniel Deronda, 1876.
    Felix Holt, the Radical, 1866.
    Impressions of Theophrastus Such, 1879.
    Legend of Jubal, and other Poems, 1874.
    Middlemarch, 1871-72.
    Mill on the Floss, 1860.
    Romola, 1863.
    Scenes of Clerical Life, 1858, 1861.
    Silas Marner, the Weaver of Raveloe, 1861.
    Spanish Gypsy (The), a poem, 1868.
    Essence of Christianity, by Feuerbach, 1853.
    Life of Jesus, by Strauss, 1846.
  =Evelyn= (John), born at Wotton, in Surrey, 1620-1706.
    Diary and Correspondence, posthumous, 1818.
  =Everett= (Edward), born at Dorchester, 1794-1865.
    Defence of Christianity (A), 1814.
    Orations and Speeches, 1825-50.

  =Fairfax= (Edward), of Yorkshire, *-1632.
    Tasso’s _Jerusalem Delivered_ translated into English verse, 1600.
  =Fairholt= (Frederick William), London, 1814-1866.
    Dictionary of Terms of Art, 1854.
    England under the House of Hanover, 1848.
    History of Costume in England, 1846.
    Up the Nile, 1861.
  =Faraday= (Michael), London, 1791-1867.
    Experimental Researches in Electricity, 1839, 1844, 1855.
  =Farrar= (Frederick William), born in Bombay, 1831-
    Chapters on Language, 1865.
    Eternal Hope, 1878.
    Families of Speech, 1870.
    Life of Christ (The), 1874.
    Life and Work of St. Paul, 1879.
    Origin of Language, 1860.
    Saintly Workers, 1878.
    Seekers after God, 1869.
    Silence and Voices of God (The), 1873.
    Witness of History to Christ (The), 1871.
  =Fawcett= (Henry), of Salisbury, 1833-1884.
    Economic Position of the British Laborer (The), 1867.
    Free Trade and Protection, 1878.
    Manual of Political Economy (A), 1863.
    Pauperism, its Causes and Remedies, 1871.
  =Ferrier= (Susan Edmonston), of Edinburgh, 1782-1854.
    Destiny, or the Chief’s Daughter, 1831.
    Inheritance (The), 1824.
    Marriage, 1818.
    Works, 1841.
  =Fielding= (Henry), born near Glastonbury, in Somersetshire,
    Amelia, 1752.
    Jonathan Wild (The History of), 1754.
    Joseph Andrews (The Adventures of), 1742.
    Journey from this World to the Next, 1743.
    Tom Jones (The History of), 1750.
  =Filmer= (Sir Robert), *-1647.
    Patriarcha, 1680.
  =Fleetwood= (John), *-*.
    Christian Dictionary, 1773.
    Life of Christ, about 1770, but the editions are numerous.
  =Flint= (Austin), born at Petersham, Massachusetts, 1812-1886.
    Practical Treatise on the Diseases of the
    Heart, 1859.
    Practice of Medicine (The), 1856.
  =Flint= (Austin), born at Northampton, Massachusetts, 1836-
    Physiology of Man, 1866-74.
    Sources of Muscular Power, 1878.
  =Forbes= (James David), of Edinburgh, 1809-1868.
    Norway and its Glaciers, 1853.
    Theory of Glaciers (The), 1859.
    Tour of Mont Blanc, 1855.
    Travels in the Alps of Savoy, 1843.
  =Forster= (John), born at Newcastle, 1812-1876.
    Arrest of the Five Members by Charles I., 1860.
    Biographical and Historical Essays, 1859.
    Life of Charles Dickens, 1872-74.
    Life of Sir John Eliot, 1864.
    Life of Oliver Goldsmith, 1848.
    Life of Walter Savage Landor, 1868.
    Life of Jonathan Swift, 1876.
    Statesmen of the Commonwealth of England, 1831-34.
  =Foxe= (John), born at Boston, in Lincolnshire, 1517-1587.
    Acts and Monuments (the Book of Martyrs), part i., 1554;
      Complete Edition, 1563.
  =Franklin= (Benjamin), born at Boston, 1706-1790.
    Poor Richard’s Almanac, 1732-57.
    Way to Wealth (The), 1795.
    Works, 1836-40.
  =Franklin= (Sir John), born at Spilsby, in Lincolnshire, 1786-1847.
    Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, 1823.
    Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Polar Sea, 1828.
  =Freeman= (Edward Augustus), born at Harborne, in Staffordshire, 1823-
    Ancient Greece and Mediæval Italy, 1858.
    Architecture of Llandaff Cathedral, 1851.
    Cathedral Church of Wells (The), 1870.
    Church Restoration, 1846.
    Comparative Politics, 1873.
    Disestablishment and Disendowment, 1874.
    Essay of Window Tracery, 1850.
    General Sketch of European History, 1872.
    Growth of the English Constitution, 1872.
    Historical and Architectural Studies, 1876.
    Historical Essays, 1872-73.
    Historical Geography of Europe, 1881.
    History and Antiquities of St. David, 1860.
    History and Conquests of the Saracens, 1856.
    History of Architecture, 1849.
    History of Federal Government, 1863.
    History of the Norman Conquest, 1867-76.
    Old English History for Children, 1869.
    Ottoman Power in Europe (The), 1877.
    Unity of History (The), 1872.
  =Froude= (James Anthony), born at Dartington, in Devonshire,
    English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century (The), 1871-74.
    History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Queen
       Elizabeth, 1856-70.
    Life of Bunyan, 1880.
    Life of Julius Cæsar, 1876.
    Lives of the English Saints, 1844.
    Nemesis of Faith (The), 1848.
    Shadows of the Clouds, 1847.
    Short Studies on Great Subjects, 1867, 1872, 1877.
  =Fuller= (Thomas), born at Aldwinkle, in Northamptonshire, 1608-1661.
    History of the Worthies of England (The), 1662.
  =Fullerton= (Lady), Georgiana, 1814-1885.
    Constance Sherwood, 1865.
    Ellen Middleton, 1844.
    Grantley Manor, 1846.
    Lady Bird, 1852.
    La Comtesse de Bonneval, 1857.
    Laurentia, 1861.
    Life of Father Henry Young, 1874.
    Life of Louisa de Carvajal, 1873.
    Life of St. Frances of Rome, 1857.
    Mrs. Gerald’s Niece, 1869.
    Rose Leblanc, 1860.
    Stormy Life (A), 1867.
    Too Strange not to be True (a novel), 1864.
    Will and a Way (A), a novel, 1881.
  =Garrick= (David) born at Hereford, 1716-1779.
    Clandestine Marriage, 1796.
    Guardian (The), 1759.
    Irish Widow (The), 1757.
    Lethe, 1743.
    Lying Valet, 1740.
    Miss in her Teens, 1747.
    With about 30 other dramatic pieces, most of them adaptations.
    His Works were compiled and published 1785-1798.
  =Gascoigne= (George), 1530-1577.
    Complaynt of Philomene (The), 1576.
  =Gaskell= (Mrs.), born at Chelsea, 1810-1866.
    Cranford, 1853.
    Lizzie Leigh, 1857.
    Mary Barton, 1848.
    Moorland Cottage (The), 1850.
    North and South, 1855.
    Round the Sofa, 1859.
    Ruth, 1853.
    Sylvia’s Lovers, 1860.
    Wives and Daughters, 1866.
    Life of Charlotte Bronté, 1857.
  =Gay= (John), born at Barnstaple, in Devonshire, 1688-1732.
    Ballads, 1725.
    Beggar’s Opera (The), 1727.
    Black-eyed Susan, 1725.
    Captives (The), 1724.
    Epistles, 1709-22.
    Fables, 1727-38.
    Fan (The), 1713.
    Polly, 1729.
    Rural Sports, 1711.
    Shepherd’s Week, 1714.
    Three Hours after Marriage, 1715.
    Trivia, 1712.
    Wife of Bath (The), 1713.
  =Geikie= (Archibald), Edinburgh, 1835-
    Memoir of Sir Roderick I. Murchison, 1874.
    Phenomena of the Glacial Drift of Scotland, 1863.
    Life of Edward Forbes, 1861.
    Scenery of Scotland, viewed in Connection with its Physical
       Geography, 1865.
    Story of a Boulder (The), 1858.
    Student’s Manual of Geology, 1871.
  =Gibbon= (Charles).
    A Heart’s Problem, 1881.
    Braes of Yarrow, 1881.
    Dangerous Connections, 1873.
    Dead Heart, 1874.
    For Lack of Gold, 1875.
    For the King, 1878.
    In Honor Bound, 1877.
    In Love and War, 1877.
    In Pastures Green, 1880.
    Queen of the Meadow, 1879.
    Robin Gray, 1876.
    What Will the World say? 1878.
  =Gibbon= (Edward), born at Putney, in Surrey, 1737-1794.
    Autobiography, 1799.
    Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776-1788.
  =Gilbert= (Sir Humphrey), of Devonshire, 1539-1583.
    Possibility of a North-west Passage, 1576.
  =Gilbert= (William Schwenck), London, 1836-
    Bab Ballads (The).
    Broken Hearts, 1876.
    Charity, 1874.
    Dulcamara, 1866.
    H.M.S. _Pinafore_, 1873.
    Ne’er-do-Weel (The), 1878.
    On Bail, 1877.
    Palace of Truth, 1871.
    Patience, 1881.
    Pygmalion and Galatea, 1871.
    Sweethearts, 1874.
    Trial by Jury, 1875.
    Wicked World (The), 1873.
  =Gladstone= (William Ewart), born at Liverpool, 1809-
    Chapter of Autobiography (A), 1868.
    Church considered in relation with the State, 1840.
    Church Principles, etc., 1841.
    Ecce Homo, 1868.
    Gleanings of Past Years, 1879.
    Homeric Synchronisms, 1876.
    Juventus Mundi, 1869.
    Letters to the Earl of Aberdeen, 1850-51.
    Remarks on Recent Commercial Legislation, 1845.
    Rome and the Latest Fashions in Religion, 1875.
    State considered in its relation to the Church (The), 1838.
    Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age, 1858.
    Turk in Europe (The), 1876.
    Vatican Decrees (The), 1874.
    Vaticanism, 1875.
  =Gleig= (Rev. George Robert), born at Stirling, in Scotland,
    Campaigns of Washington and New Orleans, 1821.
    Life of the Duke of Wellington, 1859.
    Subaltern (The), a novel, 1825.
  =Gliddon= (George Robins), born in Egypt, 1807-1857.
    Ancient Egypt, her Monuments, Hieroglyphics, History, etc., 1840.
  =Godwin= (William), born at Wisbeach, in Cambridgeshire, 1756-1836.
    Caleb Williams, 1794.
  =Goldsmith= (Oliver), born at Pallas, in Ireland, 1728-1774.
    Bee (The), 1759-60.
    Citizen of the World (The), 1759.
    Deserted Village (The), 1770.
    Double Transformation (The), 1765.
    Edwin and Angelina, 1765.
    Elegy on a Mad Dog, 1765.
    Essays, 1758-65.
    Good-natured Man (The), 1767.
    Haunch of Venison (The), 1765.
    Hermit (The), 1765.
    History of the Earth and Animated Nature, 1774.
    Life of Bolingbroke, 1770.
    Life of Richard Nash, 1762.
    Life of Voltaire, 1759.
    Present State of Literature in Europe, 1759.
    Retaliation, 1774.
    She Stoops to Conquer, 1773.
    Traveller (The), 1764.
    Vicar of Wakefield (The), 1766.
  =Gore= (Mrs.), born at East Retford, in Nottinghamshire, 1799-1861.
    Ambassador’s Wife (The), 1842.
    Banker’s Wife (The), or Court and City, 1843.
    Book of Roses (The), a rose manual, 1838.
    Cabinet Minister (The), 1839.
    Cecil, or the Adventures of a Coxcomb, 1841.
    Cecil, a Peer.
    Courtier of the Days of Charles II., 1839.
    Diary of a Désennuyée, 1838.
    Dowager (The), or the New School for Scandal, 1840.
    Fair of May-Fair (The), 1832.
    Fascination, 1842.
    Greville, or a Season in Paris, 1841.
    Heir of Selwood (The), 1838.
    Hungarian Tales, 1829.
    Lettre de Cachet, 1827.
    Mary Raymond, 1837.
    Mothers and Daughters, 1831.
    Mrs. Armytage, 1836.
    Preferment, or My Uncle the Earl, 1839.
    Reign of Terror (The), 1827.
    Theresa Marchmont, or the Maid of Honor, 1823.
    Woman of the World (The), 1838.
    Women as they are, 1830.
    Her _dramatic works_:
      The Bond;
      Lord Dacre of the South;
      School for Coquettes.
  =Gosse= (Edmund William), London, 1849-
    King Erik, 1876.
    Madrigals, Songs and Sonnets, 1870.
    On Viol and Flute, 1873.
    Unknown Lover (The), 1878.
  =Gower= (John), 1327-1402.
    Balades (in French), 1350.
    Confessio Amantis, 1393.
  =Grant= (James), of Edinburgh, 1822-1887.
    Adventures of an Aide-de-Camp, 1848.
    Adventures of Rob Roy, 1863.
    Arthur Blane, or the Hundred Cuirassiers, 1858.
    Bothwell, or the Days of Mary Queen of Scots, 1851.
    British Battles on Land and Sea, 1873.
    British Heroes in Foreign Wars, 1873.
    Captain of the Guard (The), 1862.
    Cavaliers of Fortune (The), 1858.
    Constable of France (The), 1866.
    Dick Rodney, or the Adventures of an Eton Boy, 1861.
    Edinburgh Castle, 1850.
    Fairer than a Fairy, 1874.
    First Love and Last Love, 1868.
    Frank Hilton, or the Queen’s Own, 1855.
    Girl he married (The), 1869.
    Harry Ogilvie, or the Black Dragoon, 1856.
    Highlanders in Belgium (The), 1847.
    History of India, 1880-81.
    Jack Manly, his Adventures, 1870.
    Jane Seton, or the King’s Advocate, 1853.
    King’s Own Borderers (The), 1865.
    Lady Gwendonwyn, 1881.
    Lady Wedderburn’s Wish, 1870.
    Laura Everingham, 1857.
    Legends of the Black Watch, 1859.
    Letty Hyde’s Lovers, 1863.
    Lucy Arden, 1859.
    Mary of Lorraine, 1860.
    Memoirs of Kirkcaldy of Grange, 1849.
    Memoirs of Morley Ashton, 1876.
    Memoirs of Sir John Hepburn, etc., 1851.
    Memoirs of the Marquis of Montrose, 1858.
    Memorials of Edinburgh Castle, 1850.
    Oliver Ellis, or the Fusiliers, 1861.
    One of the Six Hundred, 1876.
    Only an Ensign, 1871.
    Phantom Regiment (The), 1856.
    Philip Rollo, or the Scottish Musketeers, 1854.
    Romance of War, or Highlanders in Spain, 1846.
    Second to None, 1864.
    Secret Despatch (The), 1868.
    Shall I win her? 1874.
    Six Years ago, 1877.
    Yellow Frigate (The), 1855.
    Under the Red Dragon, 1872.
    Walter Fenton, or the Scottish Cavalier, 1850.
    White Cockade, or Faith and Fortitude, 1867.
  =Gray= (Asa), born at Paris, New York, 1810-1888.
    Botany of the United States, 1840.
    Elements of Botany, 1836.
    Flora of North America, begun 1838.
    Manual of Botany for the Northern States, 1848.
    Pacific Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes, 1854.
  =Gray= (Thomas), London, 1716-1771.
    Bard (The), 1757.
    Elegy in a Country Churchyard, 1749.
    Eton College, 1742.
    Progress of Poesy, 1757.
    Spring, 1751.
  =Greeley= (Horace), born at Amherst, New Hampshire, 1811-1872.
    History of the Struggle for Slavery Extension, etc., 1856.
  =Green= (John Richard). *-*.
    History of the English People, 1877-79.
    Stray Studies from England and Italy, 1876.
  =Greene= (George Washington), born in Rhode Island, 1811-1883.
    American Revolution (The), 1865.
    Biographical Studies, 1860.
    History and Geography of the Middle Ages, 1860.
    Life of General Nathaniel Greene, 1867-68.
  =Greg= (William Rathbone), of Manchester, 1809-1881.
    Creed of Christendom, 1851.
    Enigmas of Life, 1872.
  =Griffin= (Gerald), 1803-1840.
    Collegians (The), 1828.
    Gisipus, 1842.
    Hollandtide, 1827.
    Rivals (The), 1830.
    Tales of the Five Senses, 1832.
    Tales of the Minister Festivals, 1827.
    Tracy’s Ambition, 1830.
  =Griswold=, (Rufus Wilmot), New York, 1815-1857.
    Curiosities of American Literature, 1851.
    Female Poets of America, 1849.
    Prose Writers of America (The), 1847.
  =Gross= (Samuel D.), of Pennsylvania, 1805-1884.
    American Medical Biography, 1861.

  =Habberton= (John), born at Brooklyn, 1842-
    Canoeing in Kanuckia, 1878.
    Helen’s Babies, 1876.
    Other People’s Children, 1877.
    Some Folks, 1877.
  =Hakluyt= (Rev. Richard), of Herefordshire, 1553-1616.
    Divers Voyages touching the Discoverie of America ... 1582.
    Four Voyages to Florida, 1587.
    Historie of the West Indies (in Latin), translated by Saunders,
    Principal Navigations and Discoveries of the English Nation, 1589;
      supplement compiled from his MSS., 1812.
  =Hale= (Edward Everett), 1822-
    Daily Bread, and other Stories, 1870.
    Margaret Perceval in America, 1850.
    Rosary (The), 1848.
    Sketches of Christian History, 1850.
  =Hale= (Sir Matthew), born at Alderley, in Gloucestershire, 1609-1678.
    Analysis of the Law, 1739.
    Contemplations, 1676.
  =Haliburton= (Thomas Chandler), born at Windsor, Nova Scotia,
    Attaché (The), or Sam Slick in England, 1843-1844.
    English in America (The), 1851.
    Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia, 1829.
    Letter bag of the Great Western, 1839.
    Nature and Human Nature, 1855.
    Old Judge (The), 1847.
    Sam Slick, the Clockmaker, 1835, 1838-40.
    Sam Slick’s Wise Saws and Modern Instances, 1853.
    Traits of American Humor, 1852.
    Yankee Stories, 1852.
  =Hall= (Captain Basil), born at Edinburgh, 1788-1844.
    Extracts of a Journal written on the Coasts of Chili, Peru and
       Mexico, 1824.
    Fragments of Voyages and Travels, 1831-33.
    Patchwork, or Travels in Stories, 1841.
    Travels in North America, 1830.
    Voyage of Discovery to the Western Coast of Corea, etc., 1818.
  =Hall= (Mrs. S. C.), born in Dublin, 1802-1881.
    Buccaneers (The), 1832.
    Can Wrong be Right? 1862.
    Chronicles of a Schoolroom, 1830.
    Digging a Grave with a Wine-glass, 1871.
    Fight of Faith (The), 1868-69.
    French Refugee (The), 1836.
    Groves of Blarney, 1838.
    Ireland, its Scenery, etc., 1840.
    Lights and