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Title: Notes on Diseases of Cattle - Cause, Symptoms and Treatment
Author: Korinek, Charles James
Language: English
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               VETERINARY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA



                                NOTES ON
                           DISEASES OF CATTLE
                     CAUSE, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT


                                   BY

                        CHARLES J. KORINEK, V.S.

_Graduate of the Ontario Veterinary College, in affiliation with the
University of Toronto, Canada. Hon. Member of the Ontario Veterinary
Medical Society. Ex. State Veterinarian for Oregon. Ex. President of the
Oregon State Veterinary Medical Board of Examiners. Author of “The
Veterinarian”. Principal of the Veterinary Science Association of
America. Sixteen years of Practical Experience as a Veterinary Surgeon._

[Illustration]

                            PUBLISHED BY THE

                     VETERINARY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
                               OF AMERICA



                             COPYRIGHT 1917

                                 by the

                     VETERINARY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
                               OF AMERICA



                              DISEASES OF
                                 CATTLE


[Illustration]

                     CAUSE, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT

[Illustration: LOCATION OF PARTS OF DAIRY COW.]

                     LOCATION OF PARTS OF DAIRY COW

 1.  Mouth.

 2.  Nostrils.

 3.  Muzzle.

 4.  Face.

 5.  Eyes.

 6.  Forehead.

 7.  Ears.

 8.  Poll.

 9.  Horns.

 10. Jaws.

 11. Dewlap.

 12. Brisket.

 13. Neck.

 14. Withers.

 15. Crops.

 16. Shoulders.

 17. Heart girth.

 18. Fore flank.

 19. Legs.

 20. Feet.

 21. Dew claws.

 22. Belly.

 23. Milk wells.

 24. Milk veins.

 25. Fore udder.

 26. Teats.

 27. Barrel or ribs.

 28. Back.

 29. Coupling.

 30. Rear flanks.

 31. Hook points.

 32. Tail-head.

 33. Pin bones or thurls.

 34. Rump.

 35. Escutcheon.

 36. Tail.

 37. Thighs.

 38. Rear udder.

 39. Switch.



                                PREFACE


In offering this work to the consideration of Students of Veterinary
Science, as well as to the Veterinary Profession and others who are
interested in the study and advancement of Veterinary Science, I feel it
will suffice to say that I have endeavored to the best of my ability to
render the matter contained in the following pages of as great
_practical_ value as possible, to present in the most plain and concise
manner the nature, cause, symptoms and treatment of each disease in the
form in which it most frequently occurs.

I wish to express a hope that this work will be favorably welcomed by
all into whose hands it may find its way, more particularly by Students
of Veterinary Science.

                                               CHARLES J. KORINEK, V. S.



                               ABCESSES.


CAUSE.—Bruises and injuries. They are also seen in complication with
various other diseases, as Laryngitis, Pharyngitis, Tuberculosis, Lump
Jaw, Blood Poison or Pyemia and Septicemia.

SYMPTOMS.—Symptoms will vary according to the nature of the disease or
injury. It may not be noticed at first, but upon careful examination
swollen lines will be observed running from the point of swelling. In
many cases a swelling is noticed which is hot, painful and throbbing,
which enlarges rapidly in two or three days. The swelling and heat
gradually disappear, but the Abscess continues to grow. The hair falls
from the point of swelling and in a short time breaks and discharges
pus. The cavity gradually fills up and heals by granulation.

TREATMENT.—In all cases hasten the ripening process as much as possible
by applying hot water packs or hot bran, flaxseed or vegetable
poultices. When opened, do not squeeze the Abscess to any extent, but
press gently with clean hands or cloth to remove the core or clot. After
this, just simply keep the Abscess open by washing with a three per cent
Carbolic Acid solution, or Bichloride of Mercury, one in one thousand
solution. Hyposulphite of Soda in ounce doses should be given two or
three times a day in their drinking water. This will prevent the
absorption of impurities from the abscess into the blood circulation.



                               ABORTION.

                           (_Non-Contagious_)


CAUSE.—Injuries from slipping or falling on icy roads, in box cars, and
deep gutters; receiving blows on the body, keeping the animal in
insanitary stables, eating poor food that may be irritating or
poisonous, etc. In such cases, the cow’s vitality is low so that the
foetus dies and is expelled as a result. Losing large quantities of
blood also produces Abortion, or a cow heavy with calf, on being placed
in the same quarters with the cows that retain their afterbirth, is
liable to abort. Intestinal worms, lung worms, liver flukes, causing an
excessive drain upon the system or producing irritation of the digestive
organs, in consequence of which cow gets very poor and emaciated. The
above mentioned are perhaps the most common causes of “Non-Contagious
Abortion.”

SYMPTOMS.—The cow is uneasy, becomes separated from the herd, the bag
and vagina may be slightly inflamed and perhaps the latter discharging.
If a cow heavy with calf craves the chewing and eating of dirt, rags,
nails, etc., this is a sign of a lack of iron or phosphorus in her
system and food containing these elements should be provided.

PREVENTIVE TREATMENT.—Provide clean, warm, comfortable quarters, good
food, pure water to drink, do not subject her to any injuries, do not
permit her coming in contact with cows retaining their afterbirth.

The above mentioned is very important, especially if the cows are
valuable and a large yield of milk is expected. If they have worms,
treat the same as under their special heading. If they have a loss of
blood or a lack of mineral matter in their system, the following is very
efficient: Pulv. Ferri Sulphate, four ounces; Pulv. Nux Vomica, two
ounces; Pulv. Fenugreek Seed, four ounces. Mix and make into sixteen
powders. Give one powder two or three times a day in feed or place in a
gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun.



                         AMOUROSIS OF THE EYE.


CAUSE.—Paralysis of the optic nerve.

SYMPTOMS.—Pupil fully dilated and of a glassy appearance. This condition
is sometimes called “Glass Eye.” The cow carries the head high and steps
high. This condition is very uncommon in cattle.

TREATMENT.—Nothing can be done for a cow if she is blind, but this
condition may be prevented if detected in its early stages of
development by the proper feeding of nourishing food, good clean
surroundings and the administration of nerve tonics, as Pulv. Nux
Vomica, four ounces; Pulv. Gentian Root, four ounces; Potassium Iodide,
three ounces. Make into twenty-four powders and place one powder in feed
two or three times daily; or make into twenty-four capsules and give one
capsule two or three times a day with capsule gun.



                                ANTHRAX.


Anthrax is a very contagious disease and is communicable to all warm
blooded animals and man.

CAUSE.—Due to the presence of a germ called the Bacillus of Anthrax and
is one of the oldest diseases attributed to germs. These Bacilli thrive
in warm climates, although found in cold countries. The infection is
carried to various parts of the world by box cars, ships, hides, hoofs,
horns, wool and hair taken from sick or dead animals affected with
Anthrax. This, perhaps, is the most common method of spreading the
disease.

SYMPTOMS.—Loss of appetite, grinding of teeth indicating great pain,
trembling of the muscles, temperature elevated to 104° or 106° F.,
breathing very rapid, pulse fast and weak, hair rough. There are some
cases where the animals are seized quickly with the disease and die very
suddenly. This form resembles apoplexy. Carbuncles or Abscesses are seen
on the surface of the body in nearly all cases, also a bloody discharge
from the mouth and nose. The animal may stamp the ground, rear in the
air, run and finally go into convulsions and die. This is termed “the
furious form of Anthrax.”

TREATMENT.—Prevention is the most important. Fields or pastures that are
infected with this disease should be burned every summer if possible, to
destroy the germs. The animals that succumb to the disease should be
buried deeply and quicklime thrown upon them, also any blood stains upon
the ground should have a strong disinfectant thrown upon them. The hide
of such an animal should not be used as the person removing it is likely
to contract the same disease, especially if an abrasion is present on
the hand, or such a hide or any portion thereof is likely to spread the
infection after reaching the tannery, etc.

MEDICAL TREATMENT OR SERUM TREATMENT.—This is the only thorough method
of eradicating the disease, and when this disease once becomes prevalent
in a locality all animals should be inoculated with vaccine.



                              BARRENNESS.

                          (_Failure to Breed_)


CAUSE.—Wasting or Atrophy, chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane
lining the organs of generation, Whites, absence or excessive secretions
of the organs of generation, contraction or displacement of the womb,
horns being telescoped or twisted, cysts or growths on the ovaries,
in-breeding or being a twin, are the predisposing causes of Barrenness.

TREATMENT.—Unsuccessful as a rule. Unless the cow is very valuable,
treatment is not advisable. A careful examination, however, is
recommended. If due to contraction of the neck of the womb it can be
readily dilated by the use of the hand, which should be greased with
Carbolated Sweet Oil before attempting to perform the operation.



                               BLACK LEG.

                 (_Symptomatic Anthrax—Black Quarter_)


CAUSE.—Due to germs. The Bacillus of Black Leg perhaps gains entrance to
the blood by wounds of the skin or the mucous membranes lining the mouth
and the intestines. This disease principally affects cattle, although
sheep and goats may become affected with the same disease.

SYMPTOMS.—This disease affects cattle that are in good condition between
the ages of six months and two years. In most cases death is very
sudden, and perhaps the animal is found dead. The first symptoms are
high temperatures from 104° to 108°F., loss of appetite, the animal
stops chewing the cud, breathing considerably hurried, the joints of the
limbs become swollen, also the chest and shoulders. All the swellings
are painful on pressure and spread very rapidly over the body. The
affected animals move with great difficulty and lie down frequently. If
the hand is passed over the body, there is a peculiar crackling sound
due to the gas developing under the skin. At the most distended portions
of the swellings the skin becomes dry and the animal apparently has no
sense of feeling. If the skin is punctured at this place, there will be
a dark red, frothy discharge which has a very disagreeable odor. There
will be a shivering of the muscles and the animal dies in convulsions.

TREATMENT.—Remove non-affected animals to non-infected pastures, and
confine affected animals to as small a territory as possible. The
carcasses of the dead animals should be buried deep and covered with
lime or burned, being very careful that all blood stains on the ground
where the animals have been skinned are thoroughly disinfected.
Inoculation is necessary, and is the best form of treatment in
localities where Black Leg exists. Inoculate or vaccinate the calves
when six months old or over, although after the animal reaches the age
of two years or over they generally become immune from this disease.



                               BLEEDING.

                             (_Hemorrhage_)


CAUSE.—Sometimes bleeding follows dehorning, castration, and wounds due
to various other causes.

TREATMENT.—When bleeding from a large artery, it should be tied with a
clean silk or linen thread or twisted with a pair of forceps or
cauterized with a hot iron. Sometimes compression by the use of tightly
bound bandages proves effective, although the former appliances are more
practical. Tincture Chloride of Iron applied to small arteries or veins
causes the blood to clot in the arteries or veins and hence stops the
hemorrhage. It is very essential that all wounds should be treated
antiseptically and I cannot say that I favor washing a wound with water
only in cases where the wound is very filthy, and I prefer powder
applications in preference to any other antiseptics. The following will
be found very effective in the treatment of the majority of wounds:
Boracic Acid, two ounces; Iodoform, two drams; Tannic Acid, one-half
ounce; Calomel, one dram. Powder finely and mix well. Place in sifter
top can and apply two or three times daily.



                               BLOATING.


A very common disorder in cattle and characterized by a puffed up
appearance of the left flank. The cow has four stomachs, of which the
rumen is the largest, its capacity being about fifty gallons in the
average cow, and it is this stomach which fills with gas when a cow
bloats.

CAUSE.—Eating green clover or alfalfa; even when a cow is accustomed to
this diet, it may cause bloating if wet with dew or rain; cured alfalfa,
moldy or frozen mangles will also produce bloating; the above mentioned
foods undergo a process of fermentation which causes excessive formation
of gas, and death may result very quickly and may be due to rupture of
the stomach or the diaphragm (muscle separating the abdominal and lung
cavities), but is more often due to suffocation caused by the distension
of the stomach, which becomes so large that it presses the diaphragm
forward against the lungs in such a manner as to stop their movement and
the animal smothers. When the cow falls, it indicates that one of these
possibilities has occurred and death follows quickly.

SYMPTOMS.—Cattle usually bloat suddenly and without warning; the left
flank becomes abnormally swollen, back is arched, breathing labored;
sometimes the tongue hangs out and the animal bellows. When rupture or
suffocation occurs the animal reels, staggers and falls, after which
nothing more can be done.

TREATMENT.—No time should be lost. Where the stomach is enormously
distended with gas so as to cause the animals to stagger and breathe
very rapidly, they should be gagged. This can be easily accomplished by
taking a piece of wood about two inches in diameter, and eight inches to
one foot long, placing it in their mouth and retaining it in that
position by tying a string on each end and placing it back of the ears.
If this does not give relief immediately, puncture the left flank about
five inches downward and forward from the angle of hip bone. However,
puncturing should not be resorted to only in cases where death threatens
the animal, as abscesses, infection and severe hemorrhage may follow. A
very reliable medical treatment for this condition should be in the
medicine chest of every veterinary, such as Pulv. Asafetida, Oil of
Turpentine, each one ounce. Place in gelatin capsules. This is a very
efficient remedy for the eradication of excessive fermentation of gases
in the stomach or intestines.



                             BLOOD POISON.

                         (_Pyemia—Septicaemia_)


CAUSE.—Due to a septic infection taken into the blood, frequently found
in cows with retained afterbirths, following inflammation of the womb or
intestines, wounds and bruises of the skin and frequently found in
calves affected with Joint Ill.

SYMPTOMS.—High temperature 103° to 107°F., pulse rapid and feeble,
breathing increased, grinding of the teeth, the animal refusing to eat
in most cases and ceasing to chew the cud, although there may be great
thirst present. Abscesses may form in various parts of the body, the
membranes of the eyes and mouth will be injected with blood, giving them
a dark red appearance, although in the latter stages of Blood Poison
this may change to a yellowish tinge. Constipation or Diarrhoea may be
connected with the disease. The animal dies by general emaciation from
four to six days after the first symptoms are noticed.

TREATMENT.—Unsuccessful, as when the infection once becomes absorbed in
the blood it is always certain that death will follow. If due to
injuries or wounds, wash them with Bichloride solution, one part to one
thousand parts of water, but if due to retained afterbirth or
inflammation of the womb, inject one gallon of distilled water
containing five per cent Carbolic Acid. If in young calves, treat the
same as under the heading of Joint Ill. If due to inflammation of the
intestines, give Hyposulphite of Soda, two ounces; Potassi Iodide, one
dram, two or three times a day in their drinking water. When abscesses
form, lance them with a clean, sharp knife. If the animal is
constipated, place two drams of Aloin, two drams of Pulv. Gentian Root
in a capsule and give with capsule gun. If Diarrhoea is present, give
Gum Catechu, two drams; Protan, three drams; Zinc Sulphocarbolates, one
grain. Place in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. Feed warm
wheat bran mashes, steamed rolled oats, vegetables and green grass, if
possible.



                              BLOODY FLUX.

                             (_Dysentery_)


CAUSE.—Chilling of the outer surface of the body. Improper feeding, as
contaminated food or water, sometimes connected with parasitic diseases
of the intestines.

SYMPTOMS.—Dysentery is a sign of some irritation of the intestines
terminating with increased contractions of muscular fibers of the
bowels. The fecal matter, if frequently expelled, at first consists of a
thick feces, but as the disease progresses the fecal matter becomes very
thin and watery tinged with blood and very offensive. When the first
signs are noticed the animals show no constitutional disturbances, but
later they exhibit abdominal pain by looking around to the flank. At
this stage they are very weak, throwing the feet well together, giving
the back an arched appearance, and are very uneasy although they may lie
down frequently. Temperature elevated from one to three degrees. The
animal becomes emaciated and eventually dies.

TREATMENT.—Determine the cause and remove it if possible. Keep the
animal quiet. Give pure water to drink in small quantities but often. If
the animal will eat, feed steamed rolled oats, etc. Flaxseed tea is very
beneficial, as it is soothing to the intestines and assists in removing
the irritations. Pour one quart of boiling water on one-half pint of
pure Flaxseed, allowing it to cool, then compel the animal to drink it.
The following prescription will be found very effective in all forms of
Diarrhoea: Tannic Acid, one ounce; Protan, two ounces; Gum Catechu, two
ounces; Beechwood Creosote, four scruples; Zinc Sulphocarbolates, eight
grains. Make into eight capsules and give one capsule every three or
four hours with capsule gun.



                              BLOODY MILK.


CAUSE.—Bloody Milk may be the result of injury, congestion, inflammation
of the udder. Feeding on rich milk-producing food suddenly may produce
it. Bloody Milk is also produced in a cow by excitement when in heat or
from eating resinous plants or shrubs.

TREATMENT.—It is advisable in most cases to give a physic consisting of
two drams of Aloin and Ginger two drams. Also administer Potassium
Nitrate, four ounces; Potassium Chlorate, two ounces, made into eight
capsules and give one capsule twice daily with capsule gun. If due to
rich food, reduce it. If due to eating resinous plants, remove them from
the pasture containing such shrubbery. Where congestion or inflammation
of the bag is thought to produce it, apply Hot Water Packs, then dry and
apply Blue Ointment and Zinc Ointment, equal parts, two ounces. Mix well
and rub on thoroughly two or three times a day.



                               BLUE MILK.


CAUSE.—This condition is due to a germ (the Bacillus Cyanogenes) which
may occur in rich milk or cream immediately after being drawn or the
germ may find its way into the opening of the teat.

TREATMENT.—Injections into the teat of a solution composed of the
following: Hyposulphite of Soda, two drams; Boracic Acid, one dram,
dissolved in one pint of boiling water. Permit to cool and inject a
small quantity in each teat once or twice a day for three or four days.
This will destroy the Blue Milk producing germ without any injuries to
the cow udder, or teats.



                              BRONCHITIS.


CAUSE.—Inhaling irritating gases or foreign bodies. It is commonly seen
after drenching from liquid escaping into the windpipe instead of going
down the gullet. Animals exposed to cold, wet weather when not
accustomed to it frequently develop Bronchitis.

SYMPTOMS.—Loss of appetite, chilling, temperature elevated two or three
degrees above normal, ears and legs cold, nose hot and dry, breathing
short and labored, painful coughing, slight discharge from the nostrils
and saliva oozing from the mouth. If the ear is placed over the lower
portion of the neck, a crepitating sound can be heard.

TREATMENT.—Place the animal in a clean, comfortable stall where there is
pure air and light but no drafts. Clothe the body if the weather is
cold. Hand rub the legs and bandage with woolen cloths. Give inhalations
of steam from Hot Water and Pine Tar for twenty minutes two or three
times a day. Also administer Nux Vomica, four ounces; Ginger, four
ounces; Nitrate of Potash, four ounces. Make into sixteen capsules and
give one capsule every four hours. Applications of the following
liniment are of some value: Aqua Ammonia Fort., three ounces; Oil of
Turpentine, three ounces; Sweet Oil, six ounces. Apply over the region
of the windpipe the full length of the neck.



                              CALF SCOURS.

                  (_Cholera—White Scours—Bloody Flux_)


CAUSE.—It is produced by a specific germ and is communicated by direct
or indirect contact with the germ which may gain entrance into the blood
by the umbilical cord at or shortly after birth or through the digestive
canal by drinking milk or eating food contaminated with the
disease-producing germ. The more common means of spreading the disease
is through pails, drinking troughs, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—One of the most deadly forms of Diarrhoea. This usually
appears a few days after birth, although in some cases it takes several
days for it to develop. Every sign of Diarrhoea is present, as frequent
passages of feces of a yellowish-white color, frothy and very offensive
in odor. The calf is very dull, weak, back arched, hair rough, eyes
glassy and sunken back in their sockets, belly retracted, breathing
short and fast. The calf finally lies flat on the side, head resting on
the floor or ground with a temperature generally below normal. The calf
finally becomes unconscious and death follows.

TREATMENT.—Give Protan, three ounces; Zinc Sulphocarbolates, eight
grains; Gum Catechu, powdered, two ounces; Ginger, one ounce; Beechwood
Creosote, one dram. Make into eight capsules and give one capsule every
two hours until relieved. When the calf will take its feed, if not
nursing its mother, see that the milk is pure and the utensil containing
it thoroughly scalded with hot water. Keep the animal in clean, sanitary
quarters, as quiet as possible for a few days, and if the disease is not
too far advanced a good recovery will follow.



                                CALVING.


Signs of Normal Calving are firmness and enlargement of the udder,
extending well forward following the milk veins. The teats as a rule
discharge a thin milky fluid, relaxation of the muscles on each side of
the croup or the base of the tail. The outer surfaces of the womb
becomes swollen and inflamed, discharging sticky, stringy, transparent
mucus. The cow becomes uneasy, stops eating, and if in a pasture becomes
separated from the rest of the herd; will lie down and get up
alternately as if in great agony. When birth pains start, the back is
arched, and a severe straining follows the contraction of the abdominal
muscles. The membranes covering the fœtus will be the first to make
their appearance, engorged with a fluid from the womb. This is commonly
known as the water bag, which eventually bursts and the two fore feet
can be seen, and, as the animal continues to strain, the nose and head
will be next to be seen. When the calf’s shoulders are exposed, the cow
as a rule rises suddenly to her feet and the entire calf is expelled,
also the membranes surrounding it, but the membranes next to the womb,
as a general rule, remain longer and sometimes require artificial
assistance to remove them. (See Retention of the Afterbirth.) Destroy
the fœtal membranes by burning or burying them deeply. Do not permit the
cow to eat them. Wash the calf’s navel with Bichloride of Mercury, one
part to one thousand parts water, once or twice a day until the navel is
thoroughly dry, or an infection may follow, producing Joint Ill or
Scours, from which death may result.

ABNORMAL CALVING.—This is a condition where the fœtus is not normally
presented, as that just described. Their feet may be presented in a
normal manner, but the head and neck twisted back or to one side, or the
head and one fore foot may be presented normally, while the other fore
foot is doubled back, or there may be a breech presentation as the rump
of a fœtus with both hind feet thrown close to its body. This is a very
difficult presentation, especially if in a young animal. A fœtus
abnormally presented requires good judgment and cleanliness, also
lubrication of the walls of the womb with unsalted Lard, Cotton or Sweet
Oil. Endeavor to place the fœtus in as near a normal position as
possible before any force is used in its delivery, although where both
hind feet are presented, it is advisable to remove it in this position.
The hands and ropes should be clean and washed with a five per cent
solution of Carbolic Acid. It is not only dangerous to the animal, but
to the operator as well, if proper antiseptic precautions are not
practiced.

Space does not permit me going into details on various fœtal
presentations nor does it permit me to explain the exact methods or
operations I would use in each particular case. Nevertheless, good
judgment and cleanliness are important. Do not hurry. Take your time,
and you will be successful in most cases.

When the fœtus is removed, and the afterbirth does not come away within
twelve or eighteen hours, remove it. (See Retention of Afterbirth, which
will describe its means of attachment and its removal.)



                          CASTING THE WITHERS.

                        (_Eversion of the Womb_)


CAUSE.—Failure of the womb to contract after Calving. If the womb
contracts naturally and the afterbirth expelled, the cavity of the womb
is nearly closed and the neck of the womb becomes so narrow that the
hand cannot be inserted. When the womb fails to contract, one or both
horns of the womb become so relaxed that they fall into the cavity
causing straining and contraction of the abdominal muscles, forcing the
womb out gradually until the organ is turned inside out. The womb can be
easily distinguished from the other membranes on account of the presence
of sixty to eighty mushroom-like bodies (cotyledons) two to four inches
in diameter attached to the walls of the womb by a narrow neck. The womb
when hanging out becomes engorged with blood and inflamed until it is as
large as a grain sack, very dark in color, tears and bleeds with the
slightest touch. Later it becomes lacerated and gangrenous.

SYMPTOMS.—At first, the general health is not very much interfered with,
but the inflammation which is marked by an elevation in temperature
becomes very noticeable, accompanied by severe straining and exhaustion.
The animal lies down, but continues to strain until death, unless relief
is afforded the animal at once.

TREATMENT.—Great care must be exercised. The parts of the womb coming in
contact with the cow’s hips, tail or floors must be thoroughly washed
with a five per cent solution of Carbolic Acid, using a soft cloth or
sponge to remove dirt, clots, etc. Place the cow in a position so as to
have her hind quarters much higher than the head, and then endeavor to
replace the womb. After washing as stated above, bandage the tail with a
clean cloth; have an assistant hold up the womb and the operator use
gentle manipulation and pressure with clean hands; this perhaps is the
best method of replacing the womb. Then follow by flushing out the womb
with a weak Carbolic Acid solution and luke warm water. This has a
tendency to straighten out the horns of the uterus and prevent
infection. If the cow continues to strain, give Potassium Bromide in
ounce doses every two or three hours in her drinking water, or place in
capsule and give with capsule gun.

Sometimes stimulants and tonics are necessary and the following will be
found very effective: Pulv. Nux Vomica, four ounces; Pulv. Gentian Root,
four ounces; Pulv. Ferri Sulphate, four ounces. Make into sixteen
capsules and give one capsule every six hours with capsule gun.

It is well to compel the animal to stand or lie with the hind parts
elevated, until the signs of straining have ceased.



                          CATARACT OF THE EYE.


CAUSE.—Is due to deep seated inflammation of the eye produced by an
injury or weakened condition of the optic nerve.

SYMPTOMS.—If the pupil of one of the eyes appears larger than the other
it is well to make a careful examination, as this is the first sign of
Cataract. If such a condition is neglected, partial or complete
blindness will follow and a white, pearly deposit can be seen on the
lens of the eye.

TREATMENT.—Very unsatisfactory unless treated carefully when the first
signs are noticed. Place the animal in a darkened stable. Feed clean,
sloppy food and it may be necessary to give a physic consisting of two
drams of Aloin, two drams of Pulv. Ginger, placed in a capsule and given
with capsule gun. The following ointment: Yellow Oxide of Mercury, four
grains; Lanolin, one ounce, should be mixed well and applied to the eye
two or three times a day.



                                CATARRH.


CAUSE.—Ill ventilated stables, inhalations of irritating gases or sudden
exposure to cold, wet weather, after being accustomed to warm stables.
Most commonly seen in the Spring or Fall.

SYMPTOMS.—Chilling and temperature elevated one or two degrees, pulse
not much affected, breathing hurried to some extent, sneezing, coughing,
dullness and the appetite is slightly impaired. In the first stages the
nostrils are very dry and considerably inflamed, but in the course of a
few days the fever subsides and a profuse discharge from the nose is
observed.

TREATMENT.—Place the animal in dry, well ventilated stall, blanket well
and supply a good quality and quantity of bedding. Give inhalations from
steam and hot water and Pine Tar. If the animal is constipated, give
rectal injections of Soap and Warm Water two or three times a day. Also
administer Potassium Nitrate, Pulv. Nux Vomica, each four ounces;
Capsicum, two ounces, and Pulv. Ginger two ounces. Make into twenty-four
capsules and give one capsule three or four times a day. This should not
be neglected, as neglected Catarrh is liable to be followed by
Laryngitis, Bronchitis, Pneumonia, Pleurisy or other diseases of the
organs of breathing, which are very serious and sometimes cause the
death of the animal.



                             CHAPPED TEATS.


CAUSE.—Anything that tends to irritate them. A sudden chilling of the
teat in cold weather after the calf has just let it go, or after the
operation of milking with wet hands or from an animal wading through
deep water or tall wet grass. Also filth or irritants coming in contact
with teats when lying down.

TREATMENT.—Remove the cause if possible and dry the teats well after
each milking and apply Zinc Oxide ointment. Feed laxative food that is
easily digested, as it has a very good effect on the blood, consequently
it promotes the healing of wounds.



                                CHOKING.

                    (_Obstruction of the Esophagus_)


CAUSE.—An obstruction of the Esophagus (gullet) produced by an animal
attempting to swallow apples, potatoes, roots, dry grain, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—A stringy discharge of saliva from the mouth, violent
coughing, wrenching of the head and neck. The animal will bloat very
quickly if the Esophagus or gullet is completely obstructed.

TREATMENT.—The obstruction as a rule is easily located, and as quickly
as possible withdraw the obstruction by inserting the hand and
extracting the object. Do not attempt to push the object down into the
stomach, except as a last resort, as there is a great deal of danger of
rupturing the Esophagus or gullet. Push the object upward by gentle
manipulation from the outside. If this fails, a smooth piece of hose
about eight or nine feet long, well greased with Lard, Butter or Oil,
should be passed down the Esophagus or gullet. A block of wood about two
inches in diameter with a hole bored through the center just a little
larger than the hose, placed in the mouth, will prevent the animal from
biting the hose, and make the operation easier.

When the animal is bloated severely, puncture with a knife about four or
five inches from the point of the hip downward and forward.



                           CHRONIC DYSENTERY.

                (_Bacterial Dysentery—Johne’s Disease_)


CAUSE.—Acid-fast Bacillus resembling the Tubercular Bacillus that invade
the intestines by the way of the animal drinking water or eating food
containing the Acid-fast Bacteria.

SYMPTOMS.—Diarrhoea, loss of flesh, although the appetite is good, hair
becomes dry and harsh, temperature remains about normal. The Diarrhoea
becomes persistent and tinged with blood. The animal becomes emaciated
and anemic, exhausted, and death follows. This disease may continue for
a month or even a year before death takes place. However this is very
uncommon. They generally die very shortly.

TREATMENT.—Separate the affected cattle from the healthy ones. All fecal
matter should be deeply buried or burned, the stalls, barnyards, also
thoroughly disinfected. Administration of medicine thus far has been
unsatisfactory, although a treatment should be directed toward the
intestines with internal antiseptics such as Zinc Sulphocarbolates, one
and one-half grains; Protan, three drams; Pulv. Nux Vomica, one dram;
Bismuth Subnitrate, one dram. Place in gelatin capsule and give with
capsule gun. This dose should be repeated three or four times a day.
Feed a good quality of food, such as wheat bran mashes or steamed rolled
oats and see that the water supply is fresh and non-contaminated.



                                 COLIC.


CAUSE.—Drinking large quantities of cold water when overheated. However,
this disorder is very uncommon in cattle owing to the fact that they are
not worked, seldom overheated, and drink water very slowly.

SYMPTOMS.—Kicking or raising of the feet to the belly. Lying down and
getting up alternately. Distention of the stomach or paunch with gas.
The animal chills or shivers, etc.

TREATMENT.—Strong stimulants or tonics as the following will give
immediate results if administered in its first stages: Pulv. Nux Vomica,
two ounces; Pulv. Ginger, two ounces; Pulv. Capsicum, two ounces. Make
into eight capsules and give one capsule every two hours until relieved.
Give the capsules with capsule gun. If severe bloating accompanies a
case of Colic in cattle place one ounce dose of Oil of Turpentine in
ounce capsules and give with capsule gun.



                        CONGESTION OF THE LUNGS.


CAUSE.—Cattle permitted to stand in drafts when warm after being driven,
etc., irritating drugs escaping into the lungs when drenching, as it is
very difficult for cattle to swallow when their heads are elevated.

SYMPTOMS.—Dullness. The animal loses its spirits, so to speak, usually
shivers or trembles. When this ceases, the temperature rises to perhaps
105° to 106° F. The ears and legs grow cold, the nose hot and dry, pulse
rapid but firm, breathing short and labored, a short hacking cough will
be present. Such animals generally remain standing.

Other symptoms are constipation, the feces covered with mucus or a
slime, great thirst. The eyes are inflamed and look glassy. The
secretions of milk are suppressed, if these symptoms develop in milking
cows.

TREATMENT.—Place the animal in clean, warm, comfortable quarters
permitting light and as much pure air as possible, but avoid drafts and
blanket the animal if chilly. Hand rub the legs and bandage with woolen
cloths. Administer Pulv. Carbonate of Ammonia, four ounces; Pulv. Nux
Vomica, three ounces; Quinine, two ounces; Nitrate of Potash, two
ounces; Potassium Iodide one ounce. Make into twenty-four capsules and
give one capsule every four hours with capsule gun. Also apply a paste
made from Mustard and cold water over the lung cavities just back of the
fore legs. Apply once a day and perhaps one or two applications will be
sufficient.

If this disease is treated when the first symptoms develop, a good
recovery will follow. Feed easily digested food as hot wheat bran mashes
or steamed rolled oats, vegetables and green grass if possible.



                          CONTAGIOUS ABORTION.

                        (_Infectious Abortion_)


CAUSE.—Due to germ (Bacollus Abortus) coming in direct contact with the
genital organs of a bull or cow and can be indefinitely transmitted from
one herd to another by infected bulls serving healthy cows, or infected
cows when served transmit the infection to healthy bulls. Healthy cows
become infected by their genital organs coming in contact with litter on
floors when lying down or rubbing against fences, walls or posts
previously soiled by aborting cows. Cattle licking one another is also a
prolific cause.

SYMPTOMS.—The signs of calving are not so well marked as in normal
calving, especially where the aborting animal is a heifer and the
gestation period has not exceeded three or four weeks. In cows,
especially where the gestation period has advanced to five or seven
months, the symptoms are easily detected as a rule by a swelling of the
udder, or what is commonly termed “making bag,” the outer portions of
the womb swollen and inflamed as in normal calving. As the period of
abortion approaches, there will be a discharge of mucus and blood from
the womb. Labor pains are not as severe as in normal calving, owing to
the absence of hair on the foetus and being smaller; although the
afterbirth (fœtal membranes), may be retained the same as in normal
calving.

PREVENTIVE TREATMENT.—This perhaps is the cheapest and best method of
treating Contagious Abortion. When purchasing bulls or cows, ascertain
whether the farm you purchased from has Contagious Abortion. An
investigation of this kind often saves labor, time and money.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—When once Contagious Abortion makes its appearance,
separate infected from non-infected animals, remove all litter, manure,
etc., from barns, corrals, and burn or bury deeply. The conveyances used
should be tight so as to prevent scattering. Scrub and disinfect floors,
fences, walls and barns and rubbing posts with a solution made from
three pounds of Copper Sulphate to ten gallons of water, permitting it
to thoroughly dissolve before using. Use an ordinary barrel and cover so
as to prevent any cattle drinking same, as it is very poisonous. When a
cow aborts, remove the calf and afterbirth in a tight receptacle that
will prevent any portion from being scattered, and burn or bury deeply;
disinfect the floor and walls of stall where the abortion took place as
long as the cow is discharging any fluids from the womb. A gallon of
distilled or boiled water containing about one per cent Carbolic Acid
should be injected into the womb with an ordinary hose and funnel. This
should be repeated once a day for a week. Use a solution of the same
strength for washing the tail and parts around the outer part of the
womb, or in fact any part that the discharge of an aborting cow may come
in contact with.

Internally, give Methylen Blue in thirty grain doses, every other day
for two weeks. This is an exceptionally disagreeable drug to administer
as it stains everything it comes in contact with. Place it in a gelatin
capsule or have your druggist prepare six or seven capsules containing
thirty grains each. Then administer with capsule gun. Insist on pure
Methylen Blue, accept no substitute. This treatment has proven very
effective in many localities where strict aseptic precautions were
carried out, as washing out the womb or any parts that the discharge of
an aborting cow may come in contact with and proper cleanliness and
disinfection of stables, etc. Cows should not be bred for several weeks
following abortion or as long as there is a discharge present. Bulls
should be treated in much the same way, as administering Methylen Blue
in same size doses for the same length of time as that of the cow. But
in addition to this, use a one per cent solution of Carbolic Acid for
injecting into the bull’s sheath, holding the end of the sheath while
the solution is being injected, until it is well distended; holding the
opening of the sheath allowing the solution to remain as long as
convenient. Also, wash belly, muzzle, etc., with a solution of the same
strength.



                                 COUGH.

                         (_Acute and Chronic_)


As a cough is a symptom of various diseases, these in addition to the
cough should be treated.

KINDS OF COUGH.—Many writers give several different varieties, but for
the sake of convenience I will divide them into two forms, namely: Acute
and Chronic.

CAUSE.—Acute coughs are generally due to sudden exposure of cold, drafts
and are the forerunning symptom of a disease of the organs of breathing.

Chronic Coughs are associated with, and are a result of sore throat,
lung fever, pleurisy, bronchitis, catarrh and tuberculosis.

TREATMENT.—Under each disease, of which a cough is a symptom, I have
also prescribed to include its supprice, yet very effective in all forms
of cough: Tannic pression. The following prescription is reasonable in
Acid, one ounce; Potassi Chlorate, four ounces; Potassi Nitrate, four
ounces. Powder well and mix with Black Strap Molasses, one pint, placing
container with contents in hot water, which assists in dissolving. When
this is thoroughly mixed, add Pine Tar, one pint, and place one
tablespoonful well back on the tongue with a wooden paddle every three
or four hours, according to the severity of the cough.

Sometimes a liniment applied to the throat and windpipe has a good
effect, and I would recommend the following on account of its
penetrating qualities: Aqua Ammonia Fort., two ounces; Turpentine, two
ounces; Raw Linseed Oil, four ounces. Mix and apply twice daily, shaking
the contents of the bottle well before using.



                                COWPOX.

                              (_Variola_)


CAUSE.—Investigations lead us to believe that it is due to protozoa. So
far, the true micro-organism has not been discovered. This disease is
very contagious and is transmitted by direct communication but not
through the air. Perhaps the most common way of transmitting the disease
is by the hands of the milker.

SYMPTOMS.—A slight rise in the temperature, especially that of the udder
and teats. They are red, swollen and tender and after three or four days
small pimples or pustules will appear on the teats, about the size of a
pea. The pimples or pustules become larger and within a few days may
attain the size of one-half inch in diameter. At the end of the second
week the pimples or pustules burst and discharge an amber colored fluid
leaving raw sores, which cause the animal to suffer intensely when being
milked. The supply of milk is also markedly decreased in this condition.

PREVENTION.—A person should not milk both healthy and diseased cows
unless the hands are thoroughly washed in a Carbolated Solution; the
clothes that are likely to come in contact with the udder, coat sleeves,
etc., changed.

TREATMENT.—It is advisable to give a physic as it has a very good effect
on the blood, such as Aloin, two drams, and Ginger, two drams, which is
easily prepared and administered by placing in capsule and giving with
capsule gun.

Also, the application of Zinc Ointment two or three times a day affords
immediate relief and causes the sores to heal rapidly. Good results are
also obtained by feeding food that is easily digested, as bran mashes,
steamed rolled oats and vegetables.



                               DIARRHOEA.


CAUSE.—Giving rich succulent foods after being fed on stimulating diets
for some time, and such a case may be a benefit to the animal instead of
an injury. Turnips, carrots, etc., especially if frozen slightly, are
apt to produce it. Also impure and stagnant water which acts as a poison
or some irritant in the food, as sand, clay, etc., or it may result from
excitement, as driving cattle or shipping cattle in cars when not
accustomed to it. Or, it may be the result of an overdose of irritating
medicines. Diarrhoea as a rule is not fatal. It is often an effort of
nature to relieve the system of some disease, as poison in the blood.
The easiest way to get rid of it is by way of the bowels.

SYMPTOMS.—It is easily detected. An animal has frequent passages which
are of a liquid nature. At first the pulse is but little affected, but
after a day or two it becomes weak and slightly increased. If it
continues for a few days the pulse increases, the ears and legs get
colder than normal, there are slight gripping pains in some cases due to
slight irritation or perhaps to slight spasm of the intestines. These
pains may increase and result in inflammation of the bowels, especially
if the cause is due to stagnant water or irritating drugs.

TREATMENT.—In many cases all you have to do is to change the food and
clothe the body according to the temperature. Do not let the animal
drink large quantities of water at one time. Give pure water in small
quantities, but often, and it may be necessary to give medicines.
Endeavor to find out the cause and if due to some irritant in the
intestines, prepare Flaxseed tea by pouring a quart of boiling water on
a half pint of pure Flaxseed, allowing it to cool. Compel the animal to
drink it. This is very soothing to the bowels when irritated and also
beneficial in removing the irritant; in cases where the Diarrhoea
continues for some time, it is necessary to stop it by administering Gum
Catechu, two ounces; Protan, two ounces; Zinc Sulphocarbolates, eight
grains. Mix and make into eight capsules and give one capsule every four
hours with capsule gun. Keep the animal as quiet as possible and feed
non-irritating food that is easily digested, as steamed barley or oats.



                               DEHORNING.


Dehorning is not considered a cruelty as some people hold it, as horns
on cattle not only add discomfort to themselves but add to the owner’s
risk. It is much better, safer and I think more humane to prevent the
growth of horns on calves after they are three or four days old by
rubbing the elevations where the horns make their appearance with a
pencil of Caustic Potash after being moistened with cold water. Repeat
this application two or three times, which is generally sufficient.

When dehorning cattle with clippers or saw, it is well to remove about
one-half inch of the flesh with the horn. This gives their head a much
better appearance after the horns are removed and wounds healed. When a
horn is freshly amputated, apply Oil of Tar occasionally, as it is an
antiseptic and prevents infection and the annoyance of flies. However,
this should be performed during the season when the flies are less
numerous.



                                DROPSY.

                              (_Ascities_)


CAUSE.—Usually seen in aged cattle fed on poor food where the blood
becomes so poor, so to speak, that Dropsy follows. The presence of worms
frequently stimulates excessive secretions of fluid, producing Dropsy.

SYMPTOMS.—The abdomen is abnormally increased in size, flanks are gaunt,
paleness of the membranes of the mouth and eyes and a general weakness.
Pressure with the hand on the abdominal walls will produce a splashing,
watery sound.

TREATMENT.—The cause at first should be determined and the disease
treated accordingly. If due to worms, withhold all food for twenty-four
hours. Place two ounces of Oil of Turpentine in gelatin capsules and
give with capsule gun. Follow this in six hours with two drams of Aloin,
three drams of Ginger in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. Feed
nourishing food as wheat bran mashes and one cup of Flaxseed meal once a
day. In their drinking water place one dram of Potassium Iodide two or
three times a day. See that this water is drunk and give no other until
this is consumed by the animal.



                                ECZEMA.


CAUSE.—Insanitary surroundings, as warm, damp stables. Overfeeding,
swills, decomposed vegetables. Applying irrigating drugs to the skin.

SYMPTOMS.—Redness of the skin and the animal rubs itself; is usually
confined to a small area at first, but eventually spreads. Considerable
inflammation is present, also eruptions of the skin which discharge
white, serous, sticky fluid, terminating in scabs and thickness of the
skin. Sometimes suppuration or formation of pustules containing pus are
present. These symptoms do not always occur in regular succession; in
some cases the serums oozing from the skin will be more prominent than
in others.

TREATMENT.—Determine the cause and remove it. If due to poor food,
improve the quality. Also feed laxative food, as hot bran mashes,
steamed rolled oats. If the bowels do not act freely, administer Aloin,
two drams, and Ginger, three drams. Place in gelatin capsule and give
with capsule gun. An ointment made from the following is very effective
as an application in this condition: Blue Ointment, one ounce; Zinc
Oxide, three ounces. Mix well and apply two or three times a day. A
tonic usually has a very good effect in the treatment of this disease,
and I would recommend the use of the following: Pulv. Gentian Root, four
ounces; Potassium Nitrate, four ounces; Ferri Sulphate, four ounces. Mix
and make into twelve capsules and give one capsule two or three times a
day with capsule gun.



                             ERGOT POISON.

                              (_Ergotism_)


CAUSE.—Ergotism is produced by cattle eating fungoid growths which
attack kernels and seeds of rye and blue grass, etc. These kernels or
seeds grow dark in color and become abnormally large and curved in
shape. The infected grass or hay when eaten by cattle contract the
arteries, especially those of the legs, just above the feet, although
all the arteries in the body are contracted to a certain extent. This
disease is frequently seen in Spring and Summer.

SYMPTOMS.—Ergot is prescribed in cases of bleeding, because of its
contracting effect upon the arteries (closing or stopping the flow of
blood) where the blood supply is the weakest, as in the extremities. It
is cut off and this, of course, causes the skin just above the hoofs to
break or crack as though it were cut with a knife. This shuts off the
entire supply of blood to the foot, which mummifies, and the lower
portion becomes gangrenous and eventually sloughs off. One of the first
effects of Ergot Poison in pregnant cattle is abortion, due to the blood
supply to the womb being shut off by its contracting effect on the
arteries. Cattle are particularly susceptible to Ergotism.

TREATMENT.—When Ergotism is so advanced as to produce sloughing of the
feet it is best to destroy the animal. If other animals are affected
slightly, find out the cause and remove it. Look to the hay or pasture
as the producer. Administer one-half ounce of Chloral Hydrate, two or
three times a day in their drinking water or mix it with sufficient
quantity of Flaxseed meal to fill an ounce gelatin capsule and give with
capsule gun. If the skin is slightly broken above the foot, wash with
five per cent solution of Carbolic Acid. Where the feet have become
gangrenous amputation of the foot or feet is necessary, which is not
advisable unless the animal is very valuable.



                                 FLUKE.

                          (_Liver and Lungs_)


CAUSE.—This disease is contracted by cattle grazing on marshy lands.
There are two different species of Fluke that affect the liver and lungs
of cattle. They are both flat, leaf-like worms. The Common Liver Fluke
is about one-half inch long, while the so-called American Fluke is
somewhat larger. In their life history these Flukes depend on snails as
intermediate hosts. At a certain stage of development the young Flukes
live on snails. They become encysted on stalks and blades of grass which
are finally swallowed by grazing cattle. This disease is most frequently
seen in young cattle.

SYMPTOMS.—The animal shows no marked signs at first, but eventually the
appetite diminishes, rumination or chewing of the cud becomes irregular,
the animal becomes dull, hide-bound, hair standing, the visible mucous
membranes of the mouth and eyes become pale and bloodless, the eyes
discharge watery fluids which ooze down the face, temperature varies
from two to three degrees above normal and milk supply, if in aged
cattle, remarkably reduced. In all cases there is great thirst and the
animal becomes very much emaciated and refuses to eat. Swellings about
the belly and breast, etc. Diarrhoea at first, alternating with
constipation, but finally becomes continuous. The diseased animal
succumbs to the malady in from two to six months.

TREATMENT.—Medical treatment is unsatisfactory. The disease will be
prevented to a considerable extent by giving animals plenty of salt and
in the marshes containing pools of water introduce or plant carp, frogs
and toads into the infected tracts. These will destroy the young
parasites and feed upon the snails which serve as their intermediate
hosts. Or, prevent the cattle from grazing upon swampy marshes by
fencing them out.



                        FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE.

                (_Infectious Aphtha—Epizootica Eczema_)


CAUSE.—This disease is produced by a specific agent or germ, the exact
nature of which is not known. It will pass through the Berkfelt filter,
which is the most minute filter known to science, and is therefore known
as a filterable virus. This is an eruptive fever and belongs to the
class of Exanthematous diseases such as smallpox, measles, scarlet
fever, etc. Every outbreak starts from some pre-existing infection. The
infection is distributed by manure, pastures, barnyards, hay, drinking
troughs, box cars, ships, boats which have been previously occupied by
animals affected with this disease, travel over public highways or man
may carry the infection of this disease on his clothing and transmit it
to healthy cattle, etc. Foot and Mouth Disease not only affects cattle,
but attacks a variety of animals, as the horse, sheep, goat, hog, dog,
cat, also wild animals as buffalo, deer, antelope, and man himself is
not immune from this disease. Children also suffer from Foot and Mouth
Disease, resulting from drinking unboiled milk from infected cattle.
Therefore, when purchasing cattle be very careful, as you may be buying
an infectious disease. Keep the newly purchased animals to themselves
for two or three weeks, if possible. This will give ample time for the
majority of infectious diseases to develop.

SYMPTOMS.—The disease usually makes its first appearance in three to six
days after being exposed, by chilling, rise of temperature, and in a day
or so pustules varying in size from that of a pin head to that of a pea
appear. They appear upon the inner surface of the lips, gums and upper
surface of the tongue. The feet also become affected between the digits.
The udder usually becomes affected, especially in milking cows. As soon
as this disease becomes well established the affected animal evinces
great pain when attempting to eat. The animal generally refuses food. In
many instances they shut and open the mouth with a smacking sound owing
to the stringy saliva flowing from the mouth. The ulcers in the mouth
continue to enlarge until they attain the size of one-half to two inches
in diameter. The mucous membrane covering these ulcers breaks and a
watery discharge escapes. In a few days the surface of the ulcers takes
on a whitish appearance. The same changes take place in the feet and the
animal becomes very lame and the udder very much swollen, the ulcers
discharge, etc.

PREVENTION.—When any of the above mentioned symptoms are noticed,
non-affected animals should immediately be removed to non-affected
quarters. This disease is not communicated through the atmosphere but by
the animal coming into direct contact with the infection or virus; hence
it is not necessary to move unaffected animals any great distance but
merely to clean, sanitary quarters which have not been subjected to any
possible infection from the diseased animals. It must be borne in mind
that the attendant or helper cannot be too careful in the matter of his
own actions and dress as the infection is easily carried through
clothes, fecal matter, etc., adhering to shoes or any matter or
articles, such as buckets, brushes, rub-rags, blankets, etc.

The existence of this disease should at once be reported to the State
Veterinarian of your State or to the United States Bureau of Animal
Industry at Washington, D. C.

TREATMENT.—I cannot recommend any treatment as being satisfactory or a
cure, for although under some treatments the animal appears to make a
good recovery, in the majority of cases the feet are disfigured and
crippled, the udder permanently injured with growths, animal unfit for
milking purposes, and the mouth, tongue and teeth left impaired; the
mouth and tongue strictured from wounds and the teeth loosened from the
gums. Furthermore, should an animal make apparent recovery, it is not
immune from a recurrence of the disease. In treating the disease, there
is not only danger of spreading the disease to other animals, but to
man. The flesh or milk from animals apparently cured should never be
used unless first examined by a qualified meat inspector.

Without question, all animals showing severe symptoms as above described
should be at once slaughtered and buried six feet or deeper, covering
carcass with Quicklime and then promptly filling grave, according to the
Government regulations, which should be followed explicitly. Be careful
to disinfect scene of slaughter, as bloodstains, etc. The United States
Bureau of Animal Industry regulates the disinfectants to be used and the
strength thereof, and as these are subject to change from time to time,
I must refer you in this matter to the proper Government authorities.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—If permitted by Government authorities, I would
suggest the following treatment as being beneficial: In mild attacks of
Foot and Mouth Disease benefits may be derived by cleanliness and the
applications of antiseptics as placing Boracic Acid, one dram; Potassium
Chlorate, two drams, in a bucket of water, compelling the animal to
drink it. Repeat this dose two or three times a day. Also compel the
animals to stand in tubs or troughs containing a one in one thousandth
solution of Bichloride of Mercury for at least five minutes, twice
daily. When other parts of the body become affected, as the cow’s udder,
apply Carbolated Vaseline twice daily. This treatment should be
continued until all ulcers have ceased to discharge. Always keep in mind
that this disease is contagious and is transmitted to other animals, as
well as to man. For disinfecting corrals, barns, clothing, hands and
anything which the diseased animal might come in contact with, I would
recommend Coal Tar products, diluted one part to fifty parts warm water.
Spray, sprinkle or scrub.



                               FOOT ROT.

                            (_Foul in Foot_)


CAUSE.—Due to filth or from hard substances accumulating between the two
digits, producing irritation and inflammation and suppuration.

SYMPTOMS.—Lameness. On examination the foot is swollen, hot and painful
to the touch. When the case is of long standing, suppuration occurs and
pus will ooze from between the digits, and is very offensive in smell.
This condition causes the digits to slough off, if no attempt is made to
relieve it.

TREATMENT.—Cleanliness. Where there is considerable inflammation
present, apply Hot Bran or Flaxseed poultices. Keep clean and treat as
an ordinary wound. The following prescription will be found very
effective in Foot Rot: Oil of Origanum, four ounces; Oil of Pisis, four
ounces; Oil of Turpentine, four ounces. Saturate oakum or cotton with
the above liniment placing between the digits and bandage. Feed laxative
food, as hot wheat bran mashes and vegetables.



                                FOUNDER.

                             (_Laminitis_)


Inflammation of the internal, sensitive structure of the foot.

CAUSE.—Overfeeding, overheating, driving on rough, stony soil. Cattle
compelled to stand on hard floors without exercise frequently suffer
from Founder.

SYMPTOMS.—The animals lie down a great part of the time. Feet hot and
tender and if made to walk they do so with great difficulty. One or all
four feet may become affected, although it is more frequently found in
the front feet. The temperature is somewhat elevated, varying from 104°
to 106° F., breathing very rapid, appetite fairly good and there will be
great thirst. Founder in cows reduces the milk secretion, owing to the
great fever that is present.

TREATMENT.—Apply cold packs to the feet, ice packs preferred. If the
animal can be made to stand in a stream of water having a soft bottom,
it, perhaps, is the best method of cooling off the feet. Give a physic
of Aloin, three drams; Pulv. Gentian Root, two drams. Place in a gelatin
capsule and give with capsule gun. To their drinking water add two or
three drams of Potassi Nitrate three or four times daily. Animals
suffering with Founder should be provided with soft ground to stand on,
as their feet will be tender and subject to the chronic form of the
disease.



                                GARGET.

                      (_Congestion of the Udder_)


CAUSE.—Very common in heavy milkers before or just after calving when
the bag is very much enlarged and very sensitive; exposure to chill or
standing in drafts or even neglected for too long a time in milking.
Injuries may also cause Garget.

SYMPTOMS.—The bag is very much enlarged, showing signs of inflammation.
The swelling extends well forward following the milk veins. The cow has
great difficulty in walking due to sensitiveness of the bag. When milked
for two or three days the swelling disappears after the secretion is
fully established, but as a rule is tinged with blood. Sometimes small
clots of milk or cheese-like particles are ejected with the milk.

TREATMENT.—Give a physic consisting of Aloin, two drams; Pulv. Ginger,
three drams. Place in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun:
Hyposulphite of Soda, sixteen ounces; Nitrate of Potassi, four ounces.
Mix and make into sixteen powders. Give one powder three times a day in
drinking water or place in gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun.
Also dissolve Bichloride of Mercury, two grains; Boracic Acid, two
drams, in one quart of boiling hot water. When this solution cools to
about blood temperature, after stripping all milk fluid or pus from the
affected teat or teats, inject with an ordinary bulb injection syringe
after placing a teat tube into the end from which the air escapes when
the bulb is pressed. Now, place the end of the syringe retaining the
teat tube in the affected teat, the other end place in a bottle or
vessel containing the solution and gently press the bulb and inject
about a pint of the solution in each affected quarter. Leave the
solution in the teat for only fifteen to twenty minutes and milk out
thoroughly. Repeat this treatment two or three times a day.

For an external application the following ointment has given remarkably
good results: Blue Ointment and Zinc Ointment, equal parts. Mix well and
apply two or three times daily.



                             HARD MILKERS.


CAUSE.—A thickness or contraction of the mucous membranes lining the
teat, or growths inside the teat.

TREATMENT.—All antiseptic precautions should be carried out in this
operation, as boiling the instruments and then covering them with
Carbolated Vaseline. Then with a hidden bistoury or a knife concealed in
a tube, force upward into the teat, then press out the little blade and
draw the instrument down the teat, making about four incisions equal
distance apart around the inner surface of the teat. The use of
self-retaining teat dilators prevents the contraction of the cut
surface. Permit them to remain in the teat for two weeks, removing them
only when the milk is being stripped from the teat. Always place them in
boiling water and cover with Carbolated Vaseline before inserting.



                              HOLLOW HORN.


Horns of the cattle tribe are normally hollow, although a core extends
well into the horn. This, however, is merely a prolongation of a porous
bone of the head which affords a point for the horns’ attachment,
consequently when a cow is sick and the temperature is elevated, the
horns are naturally hot, it being the symptom of a disease and not a
disease of itself, should be treated under its special heading.

The supposed disease “Hollow Horn” once upon a time was treated by
boring a hole into the horn with a small gimlet and pouring Turpentine
into the opening. This treatment is useless and harmful. It produces
inflammation of the frontal sinuses of the head and chances are death of
the animal will follow as a result of the treatment and not of the
disease.



                              INDIGESTION.


CAUSE.—Animals with a voracious appetite will overload their stomachs
with food that is hard to digest or is decomposed, causing the organs of
assimilation to become weakened, sluggish and incapable of doing their
proper work.

SYMPTOMS.—The animal ceases to ruminate (chew its cud); stands quietly,
hair rough, nose dry, temperature elevated one to two degrees, breathing
usually faster than normal with slight grunts at each expiration of air
from the lungs. The secretions of milk are suddenly diminished. If the
hand is placed against the left side and quickly removed, a marked
depression or pit will remain, which shows that the paunch is full of
undigested food. Bloating is also frequently accompanied by indigestion.

TREATMENT.—Administer Aloin, three drams; Ginger, three drams. Place in
capsule and give with capsule gun. Permit the animal to drink all the
water possible. If bloating is present give two-ounce capsules filled
with Turpentine with capsule gun. A tonic is quite necessary in this
condition, and the following I am sure will be followed by good results
if the case is not of too long a standing: Sodium Bicarbonate, eight
ounces; Pulv. Nux Vomica, four ounces; Pulv. Gentian Root, four ounces;
Pulv. Ginger, four ounces. Place two tablespoonfuls in gelatin capsule
and give with capsule gun every six hours. Very good results are also
obtained from rectal injections of soap and warm water. Feed good
nourishing food sparingly, compelling the animal to exercise, etc.



                        INFLAMMATION OF THE BAG.

                          (_Simple Mammitis_)


CAUSE.—Injuries, as blows, kicks, etc.; lying on cold, rough ground or
floor, standing in drafts, sudden change of weather. Derangement of the
system is likely to affect the udder; poorly milked or stripped cows are
often victims of Mammitis. Infections in the teat from inserting dirty
instruments, as using a bicycle pump for the treatment of Milk Fever.
Cows with a retained afterbirth are likely to infect the udder by
switching their tail. This condition is very common in heavy milkers
following calving.

SYMPTOMS.—The animal chills, hair stands, temperature elevated from one
to three degrees above normal; ears, horns and legs cold, which may
suddenly become very hot; pulse rapid, breathing hurried, bag hard and
swollen and very tender on pressure. When attempts are made to milk, a
watery substance comes away, almost colorless at first, but later
becomes tinged with blood and pus and has a fetid color. The cow’s
muzzle is dry, appetite poor, but great thirst exists. This condition
may affect one or more quarters of the udder. Abscesses may form and the
udder break and a thick yellowish pus oozes out or the milk glands may
solidify and cause hard, lumpy growths in the udder.

TREATMENT.—Prevention. If an animal is once slightly affected with
inflammation of the bag, it is likely to develop a bad case of Mammitis
from the slightest injury or exposure as stated above, which depreciates
a cow considerably as a milk producer, especially on the market. Great
care should be exercised when purchasing a cow for milking purposes. See
that the teats and udder are sound, free from lumps, etc.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—Hyposulphite of Soda, sixteen ounces; Nitrate of
Potassi, four ounces. Mix and make into sixteen powders. Give one powder
three times a day in drinking water or place in a gelatin capsule and
give with a capsule gun. Also, dissolve Bichloride of Mercury, two
grains; Boracic Acid, two drams, in one quart of boiling hot water. When
this solution cools to about blood temperature, after stripping all milk
fluid or pus from the affected teat or teats, inject with an ordinary
bulb injection syringe after placing a teat tube into the end from which
the air escapes when the bulb is pressed. Now, place this end of the
syringe retaining the teat tube in the affected teat; the other end
place in a bottle or vessel containing the solution and gently press the
bulb and inject about a pint of the solution into each affected quarter.
Leave the solution in the teat for only fifteen to twenty minutes and
milk out thoroughly. Repeat this treatment two or three times a day.

For an external application, the following ointment has given remarkably
good results: Blue Ointment, two ounces; Lard, two ounces. Mix well and
apply twice daily.



                        INFLAMMATION OF THE EYE.

                           (_Conjunctivitis_)


CAUSE.—Injuries, irritating gases, standing in dark and poorly
ventilated stables or foreign bodies in the eye, as chaff, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—A constant flow of tears from the eye running down the
animal’s face, which are due to the inflammation of the lining membranes
of the eye. The eye is partially or completely closed.

TREATMENT.—If due to a foreign body, remove it. In order to accomplish
this, the animal must be placed in a stanchion, the head twisted and the
eyelid turned back. Do not use burnt alum as this will only make the
condition worse. Use Boracic Acid, thirty grains; distilled water, one
ounce. Apply to the eye three or four times daily, using an ordinary
eye-dropper.



                    INFLAMMATION OF THE HEART SACK.

                            (_Pericarditis_)


CAUSE.—Cattle being ruminants, do not masticate their food finely before
swallowing; consequently foreign bodies, such as nails, wire, etc., are
picked up with the food and taken into the rumen or paunch. These sharp
objects penetrate the walls of the paunch, rumen or first stomach and
pierce the membrane or sack surrounding the heart, which produces an
inflammation of the heart sack, or Pericarditis.

SYMPTOMS.—Symptoms develop very slowly or indications of indigestion
will be present as the appetite is variable, temperature elevated,
breathing labored, the animal avoids walking down hill as it causes pain
from the stomach and intestines pressing the lungs against the heart.
The symptoms, however, are so slight that they may easily escape the
notice of a casual observer. The animal eventually becomes poor,
emaciated and dies. If you open the heart sack, it will be found full of
watery pus.

TREATMENT.—Unsuccessful, as this disease is seldom diagnosed correctly,
and if it is an operation is necessary and this does not prove
successful in the majority of cases.



                      INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS.


CAUSE.—Injuries in the region of the kidneys, exposure to cold weather,
especially in cows soon after calving. Eating poisonous plants,
decomposed food or drinking stagnant water, irritating medicines given
ignorantly of their bad effects are frequently followed by inflammation
of the kidneys.

SYMPTOMS.—The attack will first be noticed by slight shivering or
chilling followed by an increased temperature, breathing increased. The
animal attempts to urinate frequently and the amount passed is small and
of a dark amber color and may be flaked with blood. There will be
stiffness and straddling of the hind legs which is always present during
urinary disorders. There may be slight swelling and tenderness over the
kidneys. As the disease progresses the animal grows weak and finally
dies if prompt relief is not afforded. Fortunately this disease is not
common among cattle.

TREATMENT.—Clothe the animal if the weather is cold. Mild physics are
beneficial, as Aloin, one and one-half drams; Ginger, two drams; Nux
Vomica, two drams, placed in a gelatin capsule and given with capsule
gun. Also, the following, which is very soothing to the urinary tract:
Potassium Acetate, Potassium Bromide, each four ounces, made into
sixteen powders. Give one powder every four hours in their drinking
water. Feed nitrogenous food as hot wheat bran mashes, steamed rolled
oats, and see that the animal has pure water to drink.



                       INFLAMMATION OF THE PENIS.


CAUSE.—Injuries received from snags, walking through underbrush, jumping
fences, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Arched back, swelling of the sheath and in some cases a
discharge. It may be serious enough to affect the appetite and cause
fever.

TREATMENT.—Wash out the sheath two or three times daily with a three per
cent solution of Boracic Acid. If the inflammation extends pretty well
back in the sheath, it is advisable to inject this solution with a
syringe, carefully, as far back as possible. Withdraw the syringe,
holding the opening of the sheath so as to retain the solution for a few
minutes before allowing it to escape.

Feed laxative food and supply the animal with fresh water to drink. If
there is considerable fever, administer Potassium Nitrate, Pulv. Nux
Vomica, each two ounces. Make into eight capsules and give one capsule
two or three times a day.



                       INFLAMMATION OF THE WOMB.


CAUSE.—Injuries, as bruises, laceration, sustained during calving,
especially where the cow is assisted with instruments or hands that are
not thoroughly aseptic, an animal retaining the afterbirth which
undergoes putrefaction, and consequently sets up an inflammation of the
womb, or perhaps the animal may become infected during the act of
removing the afterbirth if the operator is neglectful about washing his
hands or washing the womb out thoroughly.

SYMPTOMS.—The animal will chill, the temperature elevated two or three
degrees, the back will be arched, stiffness of the hind parts, legs,
ears and horns cold, nose hot and dry, grinding of the teeth, the cow
usually remains standing, ceases to chew her cud, the secretions of milk
will be markedly reduced and a day or so after the symptoms appear,
there will be a discharge from the womb of a reddish lumpy nature. This
becomes thick and yellow containing small particles of flesh, showing
that the inner lining of the womb is sloughing. This discharge is very
offensive in odor. A cow in this condition requires the best of care or
she will die as the decomposed substance in the womb may be absorbed
into the circulation and produce Pyemia or Septicemia (Blood Poison).

TREATMENT.—Give Aloin, two drams; Pulv. Ginger, three drams, place in a
gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. Flush out the womb thoroughly
with a tablespoonful of Carbolic Acid to one gallon of water two or
three times a day. A convenient instrument for flushing out the womb can
be made from an ordinary funnel and a clean hose about four feet long.
This answers the purpose of an injection syringe very well. In their
drinking water add the following: Hyposulphite of Soda, sixteen ounces;
Potassium Iodide, two ounces. Make into sixteen powders and give one
powder two or three times a day.

In addition to the above treatment it is necessary to give alteratives
and bitter tonics to build up the condition of the animal as soon as
possible. The following will be found very effective: Pulv. Gentian
Root, four ounces; Pulv. Ferri Sulphate, four ounces; Nitrate of Potash,
four ounces. Mix and make into sixteen powders and give one powder three
times a day. Place in a gelatin capsule and administer with a capsule
gun.

My reasons for giving animals medicine in capsules are:

1. There is no danger of liquids escaping into the lungs, as in
drenching.

2. Any drug having any beneficial effects as a tonic is very bitter,
consequently the only way the animal will take it is by placing in
capsule.



                         JOINT ILL, NAVEL ILL.

                  (_Umbilical Pyemia and Septicemia_)


CAUSE.—This disease is produced by various germs entering the navel cord
of newly born calves when dropped, the navel being freshly severed and
coming in contact with filth and manure where germs are numerous,
consequently germs adhere and enter the blood stream. Calf Scours as a
rule is associated with this disease.

SYMPTOMS.—Swelling of the joints which are very hot and painful on
pressure, and when the calf is made to move it walks stiffly and slowly,
does not care to nurse its mother or take any food, temperature elevated
from 105° to 108° F., breathing hurried, pulse very weak and quick.
There will be an offensive discharge from the navel cord of a yellowish
color and swollen joints finally break and also discharge a thick yellow
pus. The calf becomes emaciated and finally dies from exhaustion.

TREATMENT.—Prevention. Provide clean surroundings for cows when calving,
and in addition to this have a one in one thousandth solution of
Bichloride of Mercury on hand. Wash the navel well in the solution once
a day until the cord is thoroughly dried.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—Unsuccessful. Sometimes the calf recovers, but at
best the calf is badly stunted and is very seldom worth keeping.
However, the following method of treatment has been followed with fairly
good results: Wash the navel cord well in a one thousandth solution of
Bichloride of Mercury two or three times a day and give Zinc
Sulphocarbolates, one-fourth grain; Potassi Iodide, five grains, in a
little water or milk three or four times a day. Feed them three or four
eggs a day, molasses, fresh milk. This will keep up the strength and
vitality and a good recovery may follow, although it is an exception and
not a rule.



                       LACERATION OF THE EYELID.


CAUSE.—An eyelid may be torn on the manger, rubbing post or barb wire
fence, etc.

TREATMENT.—Wash the lacerated portions of the eye thoroughly with a five
per cent solution of Carbolic Acid. It may be necessary to take a few
stitches in the wound or the torn edges may be cut off with a pair of
sharp scissors. If stitches have been taken, they should be removed
after the parts have united and the eye kept clean. A very convenient
application for the eye in this condition is Boracic Acid, one dram;
Distilled Water, four ounces. Apply liberally to the eye.



                                LEECHES.

                           (_Blood Suckers_)


Leeches which suck blood of cattle are sometimes taken up by the animals
when drinking water from ponds, etc. The leeches attach themselves to
the inner surface of the mouth or nose, and sometimes reach the upper
part of windpipe or the gullet. Bleeding at the mouth or nose may be
noticed, the membranes where the leeches attach themselves become
congested and swollen, and as a result of the loss of blood anemic
condition follows.

                  *       *       *       *       *

TREATMENT.—If the leeches can be reached, they are easily destroyed by
cutting them in two with a pair of scissors or they may be removed with
a pair of forceps or with the fingers after wrapping a piece of cloth
around them so as to prevent slipping.

Steam from boiling hot water containing Pine Tar or Oil or Turpentine
may cause leeches to release their hold if they cannot be removed by
other means. In ponds where leeches are numerous, eels should be
introduced as they feed upon blood suckers of this species.



                               LUMPY JAW.

             (_Wooden Tongue_, _Big Head_, _Actinomycosis_)


CAUSE.—The Ray Fungus. This organism which occurs in the tissues in the
form of russets is directly transmitted from one animal to another. It
seems apparent that the fungus is conveyed into the tissues of the mouth
by various food stuff through slight wounds of the mucous membranes of
the mouth or an animal that has decayed teeth or during the shedding of
milk teeth. The Ray Fungus is found naturally vegetated or clinging on
the awns of barley, the spears of oats and on other grains. Quantities
of fungi have been found between the vegetable fibers of barley which
had penetrated the gums of cattle and on the awns of grain imbedded in
their tongues.

Lumpy Jaw can also be transmitted by coming in contact with or eating
food over which lumpy jawed cattle have slobbered. A healthy animal
eating such food with very slight bruises or abrasions of the mouth will
contract the disease very readily. This disease is misleading as other
organs are affected with the Ray Fungi or the Bacillus of Actinomycosis,
as the lungs and even the digestive organs have been found to be
affected with this disease.

SYMPTOMS.—External symptoms or signs are the only means by which to
ascertain the disease. Its exact location is on the lower jaw bone near
its angle. It may also affect the upper jaw, but this is an exception
and not a rule. Internally it may affect the tongue, mouth, throat or
lungs, but rarely the intestines. This enlargement continues to grow
until it reaches the size of that of a man’s head, breaks and discharges
pus. The animal becomes poor and emaciated, the hair takes on a dull
roughened appearance and in many cases it is very difficult for it to
eat, especially where the disease separates the gums and bone from the
teeth and causes them to become very loose or to drop out. The animal in
the latter stages of this disease generally dies from starvation.

TREATMENT.—Successful in its first stages. Soft, nitrogenous food should
be fed, such as wheat bran mashes, steamed rolled oats or barley, hay
dampened with clean water, so as to make it pliable. Hay containing
woody matter as stems, etc., should not be fed to an animal affected
with Lumpy Jaw as it tends to aggravate the disease. Internally in their
drinking water give two drams of Potassium Iodide morning and night.
This treatment, however, should be omitted when the animal’s skin
becomes scaly or when an excessive watery discharge flows from the eyes.
On the outer surface over the enlargement apply the following ointment:
Red Iodide of Mercury, four drams; Lard, two ounces. Mix well and rub in
briskly for twenty minutes every five or six days for three weeks. The
cure can generally be ascertained by the animal gaining in flesh,
although the lump may remain. Where Lumpy Jaw is of long standing so as
to impair the use of the animal’s tongue or teeth, it is best to destroy
the animal, as this lessens the possibility of infecting healthy
animals.



                              LUNG FEVER.

                             (_Pneumonia_)


CAUSE.—Generally follows congestion of the lungs. It may be due to
parasitic organisms or exposure to cold, drafts when warm after being
driven, etc. Drenching perhaps is the most common cause as it is very
difficult for a cow to swallow when the head is elevated; inhaling
smoke, gases, etc., also tend to produce pneumonia.

SYMPTOMS.—Chilling or shivering, temperature elevated to 105° or 106°
F., nose hot and dry, horns and legs cold. Pulse rapid though strong,
breathing fast and the appetite very good in some cases. The animal
urinates small quantities of urine but often, of a dark amber color. A
discharge from the nose follows, also a cough. If the ear is placed back
of the fore leg, a dry crackling sound can be heard something on the
order of rubbing hair between the fingers.

TREATMENT.—Place the animal in a dry, well lighted and ventilated
stable, but avoid drafts. Give Pulv. Iodide of Ammonia, one ounce; Pulv.
Potassium Nitrate, four ounces; Pulv. Nux Vomica, four ounces; Pulv.
Capsicum, one ounce; Quinine, one ounce. Mix well and make into
thirty-two powders. Place one powder in gelatin capsule and administer
every three or four hours with capsule gun. Supply the animal with fresh
water at all times. Feed laxative food as hot wheat bran mashes or
steamed rolled oats. Also feed vegetables, such as potatoes, apples,
carrots and kale. It is also advisable to apply the following over the
region of the lungs just back of the fore legs: Aqua Ammonia Fort., four
ounces; Oil or Turpentine, four ounces; Raw Linseed Oil, six ounces. Mix
and shake well and apply two or three times daily. It is also advisable
to hand rub the legs and bandage them with woolen cloths.

If the above treatment is properly carried out, the animal will make a
complete recovery in a week or ten days.



                              LOSS OF CUD.


CAUSE.—This condition cannot always be traced to a definite cause, as it
is a symptom of all diseases where the process of rumination is
interfered with. The only method by which a cow will again chew her cud
is to restore her to health by the proper medical treatment. Artificial
cuds are of no value and frequently are a detriment to the animal. Other
symptoms aside from those of the animal not chewing cud will always make
their appearance, as constipation, diarrhoea, elevation of the
temperature, etc. The animal should be thoroughly examined and the
disease treated under its special heading.



                                 MANGE.

                              (_Scabies_)


CAUSE.—There are four different parasites which produce Mange or Scabies
in cattle. However, three of these parasites are rarely seen. The
Symbotis Communis is the parasite commonly seen in American cattle.
These parasites multiply very rapidly and are conveyed from diseased
animals to healthy ones by their bodies coming in contact with one
another and by healthy animals rubbing against fences, walls, posts,
etc., where mangy cattle have previously rubbed.

SYMPTOMS.—Scabs, loss of hair, intense itching, the animals are
constantly rubbing or licking themselves. The parts showing the first
signs of Mange are those about the croup, or the root of the tail, the
neck and withers, but as the disease progresses and no attempts are
offered for its eradication, it finally spreads and covers the entire
body. The scabs become ulcerated, the animal becomes weakened, emaciated
and eventually dies.

TREATMENT.—Dipping in wood or concrete vats is the most satisfactory
method of treating Mange. The regular lime and sulphur dip as
recommended by the United States Bureau of Animal Industry is
inexpensive and effective.



                              MEASLY BEEF.


It is produced by a larva of common tapeworm of man. These small
tapeworm cysts (tænia saginata) are about the size of a pea and found in
the flesh of cattle, which become infected by eating food or drinking
water which has been contaminated by the feces of persons harboring
adult tapeworms. Then again, the person becomes infected by eating raw
or rare flesh of cattle infected with the larva stage of Measly Beef.
Great care should be exercised to prevent cattle from becoming infested
with this parasite. Persons’ feces should not be placed where it will
infect food or drinking water that is consumed by cattle.



                              MILK FEVER.

                        (_Parturient Apoplexy_)


CAUSE.—Certain conditions predispose cows to Milk Fever, as being heavy
milk producers, cows having enormous digestive power and being heavily
fed on nitrogenous food naturally are in a good condition, consequently
at the time of calving, or shortly after, they are likely to develop a
case of Milk Fever. It is more common during the summer months, although
this condition may develop at any time of the year in the type of cow
described above.

SYMPTOMS.—At or a few days after calving, the cow is noticed hanging
back in the stall, dull, languid, with an unsteady movement of the hind
legs. If the cow is made to walk, she steps unsteadily or staggers, pays
no attention to her calf; she finally becomes so paralyzed that she
falls and is unable to rise. The pupils of the eyes are dilated and the
membranes reddened or congested with blood. The cow may lie on her
breast or flat on her side, but most likely upon her breast and her head
turned in the region of the flank. She apparently is sound asleep. If
the eyeball is touched with the fingers she does not close the eye, nor
will she evince any pain when being pricked with a pin on any part of
the body. The nose is dry, the temperature is below normal in most
cases.

TREATMENT.—When the above signs are noticed, whether the cow is standing
or lying down in a paralyzed condition, obtain an ordinary bulb
injection syringe; insert a tube in the end from which the air escapes.
After washing both syringe and teat tube in a five per cent solution of
Carbolic Acid, milk or strip out all the milk possible from the bag,
then insert the teat tube that is connected to the syringe in each teat,
filling them well with air, and repeat this treatment every hour until
the cow stops staggering, or if lying down, stands on her feet. It is
necessary to strip the milk from the bag before giving an injection of
air. If the cow is lying flat on her side, prop her up by placing bags
of hay or straw against her side, also make her as comfortable as
possible. If lying in the hot sun, provide shade by placing a canopy
over her made from burlap; if the weather is chilly, blanket; if flies
annoy her, use some fly repellant.

This disease is satisfactorily treated. Where ninety per cent of the
cows died at one time, ninety per cent can be saved by the above
treatment. It is a custom with some people to use an ordinary bicycle
pump for treatment of Milk Fever. This should not be practiced, as there
is great danger of infecting the bag and producing serious complication.

MEDICAL OR AFTER TREATMENT.—Never drench a cow. Give physic consisting
of Aloin, two drams; Ginger, three drams. Place in a gelatin capsule and
give with a capsule gun. Also, give tonics as Pulv. Gentian Root, two
ounces; Pulv. Capsicum, one ounce; Pulv. Nux. Vomica, two ounces. Mix
and place into eight gelatin capsules. Give one capsule every eight
hours. This tonic is quite necessary, as it stimulates their appetite,
braces up their nervous system and prevents any complications that might
otherwise follow.



                               PARALYSIS.

               (_Congestion of the Brain or Spinal Cord_)


CAUSE.—May be due to a morbid condition of the brain or spinal cord,
concussion of the spinal cord, fractures of the bones of the spinal
column, or violent shocks or jars of the brain, or pressure due to
fractures of the skull, or dilated or ruptured blood vessels. Paralysis
also occurs in poorly fed, weak cows when exposed to cold or wet weather
during the latter stages of pregnancy. Sometimes the back portion of the
bowels (the rectum) becomes paralyzed so as to interfere with the
expulsion of the feces which becomes dry and more or less impacted. This
condition may also occur in connection with Ergot, Forage or Lead
Poisoning, Milk Fever or Parturient Apoplexy.

SYMPTOMS.—Appear very suddenly. The animal is unable to stand, lies
quietly and groans occasionally. Constipation generally accompanies this
condition. Sometimes great pain is present, especially if due to
fracture or pressure, as above mentioned.

TREATMENT.—If just due to weakness; exposure to cold, wet weather; cows
prior to calving; slight injuries or mild effect of poisons, it is
successfully treated by placing the animal in a comfortable, well
lighted stall, omitting drafts, feeding nourishing food, as warm wheat
bran mashes, steamed rolled oats or barley and linseed meal; tea to
drink prepared as follows: Pour one quart of boiling water on one-half
pint of Pure Flaxseed, allowing it to cool, compel the animal to drink
it. Repeat this once or twice daily, especially if the animal is
pregnant. A physic consisting of Aloin, two drams; Ginger, two drams;
prepared in capsule and given with a capsule gun is very effective, but
this, however, should not be administered to heavily pregnant cows.
Endeavor to move their bowels by careful feeding of laxative food and
rectal injections of soda and water. Nerve stimulants are necessary and
I have derived good results from the following: Pulv. Nux Vomica, four
ounces; Pulv. Ginger, four ounce; Pulv. Gentian Root, four ounces. Make
into sixteen capsules and give one capsule every four to six hours. Also
apply powdered mustard, moistened with a sufficient quantity of water to
make a paste, and rub over the full length of the spine about eight
inches in width. This should be covered with paper which will adhere
readily to the mustard and water. This application can be repeated every
twenty-four hours until satisfactory results have been obtained.



                               RED WATER.

                             (_Hematuria_)


CAUSE.—Marshy pastures, water from rich decomposed soil. Vegetation also
has a tendency to produce it as cattle eating green shoots from oak,
ash, hellebore, hazel and other resinous plants, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Bloody urine containing no blood clots. This condition is not
noticed as a general rule until the cow loses flesh and the production
of milk is considerably decreased. One particular symptom of this
disease is the milk being exceptionally foamy and perhaps tinged with
blood. If the disease is left to run its course, the cow will become
emaciated and eventually dies.

TREATMENT.—Find out the cause and remove it if possible. See that the
water supply is clean, feed nitrogenous food, as wheat bran mashes or
steamed rolled oats. Do not permit the animal to eat resinous plants as
stated above.

Administer Pulv. Gentian Root, four ounces; Pulv. Nux Vomica, four
ounces; Pulv. Ferri Sulphate, four ounces. Mix and make into sixteen
capsules and give one capsule two or three times a day with capsule gun.
If the animal is constipated, give two drams of Aloin, three drams of
Ginger. Place in capsule and give with capsule gun.



                          RETAINED AFTERBIRTH.


CAUSE.—Retained afterbirth may follow normal or abnormal calving where
there has been more or less inflammation of the womb prior to giving
birth, which causes the afterbirth to adhere firmly to its attachments.
Cows in poor condition fed on poor food during cold weather are very
susceptible to this accident; also very common in aged cows.

SYMPTOMS.—Very easily detected by portions of the membranes (afterbirth)
protruding from the Womb or Vulva, which becomes decomposed very shortly
and offensive in odor. This accident is very serious when absorption is
produced, ill health, drying up of the milk in addition to producing
inflammation of the womb, Whites, etc. It may produce blood-poisoning
and chances are you will lose your animal.

PREVENTION.—Very important. Feed the cow on food that is easily digested
and supply her with fresh water to drink that is not too cold. Flaxseed
Tea is very beneficial if given a day or so prior to calving and is
prepared by pouring a quart of boiling hot water on one-half pint of
Flaxseed, permitting it to cool of its own accord. Then compel the
animal to drink it. This appears to have a very good effect on
separating the afterbirth from the mushroom-like bodies of the womb to
which it is attached.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—The afterbirth should not be pulled away by force, as
it may tear, leaving small portions unremoved that perhaps would result
in Inflammation of the Womb or Whites. To remove the afterbirth insert
the hand and carefully detach it from its attachments, being very
careful that the cotyledons are not torn off. After this has been
carefully removed, wash out the womb with Carbolic Acid solution about
two and one-half per cent. An instrument can be made for this purpose
very easily from a clean piece of hose about four feet long and an
ordinary funnel. Sometimes it is necessary to give physics, as Aloin,
two drams; Ginger, two drams. Place in a gelatin capsule and give with a
capsule gun.

In addition to the above, stimulants are also advisable such as powdered
Nux Vomica, powdered Capsicum, powdered Ginger, powdered Nitrate of
Potash, equal parts four ounces. Make twenty-four capsules and give one
capsule three times a day.



                              RHEUMATISM.


CAUSE.—Exposure, especially when the animal is permitted to lie on cold
damp soils or floors. Another common cause is an animal exposed to cold
drafts after perspiring or weakened after severe physical exercise.

SYMPTOM.—Stiffness when walking, variable appetite, constipation, hair
unthrifty looking. Passage of urine is scant and of an amber color,
usually slight elevation in temperature and the animal lies down a great
part of the time. There are two forms of rheumatism—muscular and
articular. The former affects the muscles of the body, while the latter
affects the joints. There will be swellings that are tender on pressure,
which may shift to different parts of the body.

TREATMENT.—Place the animal in warm dry quarters with a sufficient
quantity of clean bedding. Feed foods that are easily digested, as wheat
bran mashes and steamed rolled oats and vegetables. Keep pure, cold
water within the animal’s reach at all times. The following prescription
has been found very effective in the treatment of this disease: Sodium
Salicylate, six ounces; Nux Vomica, two ounces; Pulv. Gentian Root, two
ounces; Nitrate of Potash, two ounces. Mix and make into sixteen
capsules and give one capsule three times daily with capsule gun. If the
bowels are constipated give Aloin, two drams; Ginger, three drams. Place
in capsule and give with capsule gun. When the joints or muscles become
swollen and inflamed, the following liniment will be found very
effective in reducing the swellings: Aqua Ammonia Fort., two ounces; Oil
of Turpentine, three ounces; Sweet Oil, six ounces. Mix and apply by
rubbing in well two or three times a day.



                               RINGWORM.


CAUSE.—Due to a vegetable parasite. It affects the hair and the outer
layer of skin and is highly infectious, being transmitted from one
animal to another.

SYMPTOMS.—The disease usually appears in the form of circular patches of
the skin, which soon become denuded of hair. Sometimes a white sticky
discharge and the formation of scaly, brittle crusts on the patches
appear, silvery gray in color. They are generally confined to the head
and neck. It is a common disease among young cattle in the Winter and
Spring. This disease is attended with more or less itching and is
communicable to man.

TREATMENT.—Remove the scabs or crusts with soap and warm water. However,
the surface of the body should be well dried after washing each time.
Apply Tincture of Iodine with a camel-hair brush to the spots denuded of
hair. It is quite necessary that the barn and rubbing posts be
disinfected by spraying or washing them with a twenty-five per cent
solution of Carbolic Acid.



                              ROUND WORM.


CAUSE.—An animal swallowing the eggs of the parasite in food or water
which has been contaminated with the feces of infected cattle. There are
two species, the large Roundworm measuring from five to fourteen inches
in length, the small Roundworm varying in size from one-quarter of an
inch to two inches in length. Both the small and large Roundworms infest
the intestines of cattle and calves. These worms, especially small
Roundworms, irritate the mucous lining of the intestines, which may
cause severe inflammation.

SYMPTOMS.—Anemia, appetite variable, diarrhoea, general weakness,
dullness and excessive thirst; also a paleness of the visible membranes
of the mouth, nose and eye. Worms frequently pass with the feces and can
be readily seen by a close observer.

PREVENTIVE TREATMENT.—See prevention of Twisted Stomach Worm.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—Withhold all food from eighteen to twenty-four hours.
To calves, two to eight months old, give two teaspoonfuls of Turpentine
in a pint of milk; to yearlings, give one tablespoonful. Place in
gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. To cattle one year old and
over place one ounce in a gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun.
This treatment is to be repeated twice during the intervals of ten days
or two weeks, which insures the expulsion of the eggs of worms that
escaped the first treatment. Also keep salt where cattle can lick
frequently.



                                RUPTURE.

                          (_Abdominal Hernia_)


CAUSE.—This disease occasionally occurs in calves by receiving blows
from the cow’s horns on the right flank. After such an accident a
swelling forms near the last ribs. This swelling may be either hot and
painful or soft to the touch. It can be made to disappear by careful
pressure when the sides of the rupture through which it has passed can
be felt. On removing the pressure the rupture soon regains its swollen
appearance. Similar conditions may also occur in aged cattle, usually
due to injuries, such as being kicked by a horse, etc., or due to a
weakness of the muscles that are ruptured sometimes during difficult
birth.

TREATMENT.—Feed the animal on laxative food and feed sparingly on bulky
food such as hay, straw and grass. Round the edges of a block of wood a
little smaller, but the same shape as the rupture. After wrapping with
cloth nicely, place it over the rupture, then place bandage around the
body. This permits the ruptured muscles to grow together, providing the
animal is properly dieted as stated above.

Sometimes a rupture of long standing or a newly produced rupture may be
treated by injecting strong solutions of Common Salt around the torn
edges of the muscles. This causes the swelling and inflammation, which
respectively forces the protruded intestines back and closes the
opening. There is some danger attached to this method of treatment, and
if attempted I would advise that great care be exercised.



                           SCUM OVER THE EYE.


CAUSE.—See Inflammation of the Eye.

SYMPTOMS.—The eye has a smoke-colored appearance.

TREATMENT.—Silver Nitrate, two grains, thoroughly dissolved in one ounce
of Distilled Water. Apply with dropper two or three times a day. Feed
the animal on food that is easily digested and confine the animal to a
cool, clean, dark stall.



                              SORE THROAT.

                     (_Laryngitis and Pharyngitis_)


CAUSE.—Sudden cooling of the surface of the body, as when cattle are
exposed to cold weather or cold rain or the inhaling of irritating
gases.

SYMPTOMS.—The muzzle is dry, temperature slightly elevated and saliva
dribbles from the corners of the mouth. The animal either does not
swallow, or swallows with great difficulty, and holds its head in a
stiff, straight position, moving it as little as possible. The eyelids
are half-closed and bloodshot, and the animal occasionally grinds the
teeth. After masticating the food the animal drops it out of its mouth
as if to avoid the pain of swallowing, and also evinces great pain when
pressure is applied from the outside. In acute attacks of sore throat,
the animal coughs with great difficulty and breathes very noisily. The
nostrils are dilated and nose extended.

TREATMENT.—Place the animal in as comfortable a place as possible,
permitting plenty of fresh air, but avoiding drafts. Blanket the animal
if the weather is chilly, also hand rub the legs and bandage with woolen
cloths.

Administer Chlorate of Potash, two ounces; Nitrate of Potash, two
ounces; Tannic Acid, one-half ounce; Molasses, eight ounces. Mix well
and place one tablespoonful on the tongue every three or four hours.
Feed soft food, as wheat bran mashes and steamed rolled oats, or boiled
vegetables. Give drinking water with the chill taken off.

It is always necessary to apply liniments to the throat, and I would
advise the application of Aqua Ammonia Fort., four ounces; Oil of
Turpentine, four ounces, and Sweet Oil, four ounces. Apply and rub in
well two or three times a day.



                             STRINGY MILK.


CAUSE.—Cows wading or standing in stagnant pools of water. Frequently
stringy milk results from fungi entering the udder. This takes on an
infectious form, and several cows may become affected at one time.

SYMPTOMS.—Although the milk appear perfectly normal when first milked,
it becomes stringy after standing for a few hours. If a needle is
inserted in the milk and slowly withdrawn, the milk will adhere to the
point and have a stringy appearance. If the cow is examined carefully,
the temperature will be found to be elevated a degree or two, the
appetite poor and the nose dry.

TREATMENT.—Feed laxative food and see that they have fresh water to
drink. Also place two drams of Soda Bisulphite once or twice a day in a
gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. Do not permit the cow to come
in contact with stagnant pools of water that carry this infection.
Perhaps the best plan is to fence out all such stagnant pools of water.



                          SUPPRESSION OF MILK.

                          (_Absence of Milk_)


CAUSE.—Usually due to poor health, debility, emaciated, chronic disease
of the bag, or wasting of its glands from various diseases or impure
food. Sometimes this condition is produced without any apparent cause.

TREATMENT.—Determine the cause, if possible, and remove it. Feed warm
wheat bran mashes, steamed rolled oats or barley. Administer Pulv. Anise
Seed, one-half ounce, two or three times a day. This has a very good
effect in this particular condition. Also rub the bag and strip the
teats often, and apply Oil of Lavender. The majority of cases respond to
this treatment if not due to chronic disease of the bag.



                               TAPEWORM.


CAUSE.—Small portions of tapeworms, consisting of one or more segments,
are occasionally seen in the droppings of infected cattle. The infection
is undoubtedly taken in with the food or water, infection being spread
by the eggs of the parasite, and being expelled with the feces of an
infected animal. The eggs being swallowed by insects, worms or snails,
which act as an intermediate host, and which when swallowed accidentally
by cattle while grazing or drinking carry with them into the animal’s
stomach the infectious stage of the tapeworm. Aged cattle do not seem to
suffer much from tapeworms, but in calves these parasites cause scours
and rapid emaciation.

SYMPTOMS.—Emaciation, diarrhoea, loss of flesh, ravenous appetite,
paleness of the mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes, and the segments
of the tapeworms can occasionally be seen in the droppings.

TREATMENT.—Withhold all food from eighteen to twenty-four hours, and to
calves from two to eight months old give two teaspoonfuls of gasolene in
a pint of milk. To yearlings, place one tablespoonful in a gelatin
capsule and give with capsule gun. To cattle one year and over, place
one ounce in capsule and give with capsule gun. Repeat this treatment
two or three times during intervals of a week or two.



                              TEXAS FEVER.


CAUSE.—Due to a micro-organism (Pirophalasna Bigenium) which imbeds
itself in the red blood corpuscles. This disease is transmitted or
scattered by means of a tick which drops from the affected animal. The
disease has various names, according to the locality in which it
appears. Among them are: Spanish Fever, Red Water, Black Water, Red
Murrian, Australian Cattle Tick Fever, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Loss of appetite. The animal ceases to ruminate or does not
chew the cud, and every sign of unthriftiness is displayed; a high
temperature, and when the animal is standing the back is arched, but the
animal however, prefers to lie down most of the time and shows desire
for solitude. The urine is very dark in color, hence the name “Red or
Black Water.” The disease is usually fatal, the animal dies within a few
weeks.

TREATMENT.—My advice is, when this disease once develops, or an animal
shows any of the particular signs that I have mentioned, examine
carefully and immunize by the use of serums, disinfectants, etc.



                                 TICKS.


Ticks are very difficult to kill, on account of their protected
location, as ear ticks are not affected by dipping, and remedies strong
enough for this purpose are liable to injure the animal, but these
parasites may be expelled by pouring into the ear Carbolated Cottonseed
Oil with favorable results.



                             TUBERCULOSIS.


CAUSE.—The bacilli of Tuberculosis thrive in animals, especially those
in a weakened condition, or when exposed to atmospheric changes,
unwholesome food, dark and poorly ventilated stables. They gain entrance
into the body through the lungs or the intestinal canal. They lodge in
various portions of the lungs or intestines, and multiply very rapidly,
causing irritations and formations, nodules, cysts or abcesses. They are
the means of the bacillus entering the blood, which carries the
infection to other parts of the body, as the spleen, liver, udder, womb,
etc. Cows affected with generalized tuberculosis, that is to say the
infection being confined to not only a small portion of the lungs, but
also to any of the above mentioned organs, etc., may give birth to a
calf having general tuberculosis at birth, or shortly after, due to the
cow’s blood circulating through the body of the calf before birth.

SYMPTOMS.—This disease may pass a casual observer unnoticed, although in
some instances we notice a slight cough, unthriftiness, dullness. The
coughing is best marked after taking a drink of water in the morning and
then being exercised. Some animals keep up in good condition and look
perfectly healthy while some get emaciated, have constipation, variable
appetite, and sometimes growths or abcesses can be felt or seen in the
udder or glands of the body and neck.

However, cattle showing any weakness, or the above symptoms should be
tested for tuberculosis by the administration of tuberculin.

TREATMENT.—It is not advisable to treat tuberculosis. Thus far, medicine
has failed to relieve the affected animal, or kill the bacillus of
tuberculosis in a living animal. The infected animals should be disposed
of on account of tubercular cows giving birth to tubercular calves, the
milk being unfit for human consumption, unless it is thoroughly
pasteurized. Infected cattle should be separated from healthy ones, as
the disease spreads very rapidly. Drinking and feeding troughs are a
means of spreading the infection, therefore, suspected cases of
tuberculosis should be tested and if the animals react, they should be
slaughtered, and if the disease is localized, passed for human
consumption. The meat of animals suspected of having tuberculosis, or
reacting from tuberculin test, should be well cooked.



                         TWISTED STOMACH WORM.


CAUSE.—Cattle become affected with this worm by grazing in pastures in
which infected cattle have grazed and scattered their droppings. The
worms in the stomach produce a multitude of eggs of microscopic size,
which pass out of the body with the feces. In warm weather, these eggs
hatch in a few hours; if the temperature remains about freezing point,
they soon die. The eggs are also destroyed by dryness, but, on the other
hand, moisture, if the weather is warm, favors their development. The
twisted worm measures one-half inch to one and one-half inches in
length.

SYMPTOMS.—General weakness, loss of flesh, anemia, dullness, capricious
appetite, excessive thirst, paleness of the skin and mucous membranes of
the mouth and eyes, and dropsical swelling, especially that of the lower
jaw. Diarrhoea always accompanies this condition and if the feces is
carefully examined the small worms may be seen wriggling about like
little snakes, or when the animal dies, and the fourth stomach is
opened, these worms can be seen in large quantities.

TREATMENT.—Preventative measures are important, as damp, marshy soil
favors the development of the embryos. High sloping ground is preferable
for pasture. If low ground is used it should be properly drained;
burning over the pasture will destroy most of the young worms on the
grass and on the ground. Cattle should be supplied with water from
flowing streams or wells and not stagnant ponds.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—Withhold all food for twenty-four hours, then
administer Oil of Turpentine, placing it in an ounce capsule and give
with capsule gun. Follow in six hours with a physic consisting of Aloin,
two drams; Ginger, two drams. Place in capsule and give with capsule
gun. When this worm develops in calves, give as follows: One dram
Turpentine to a calf three months old, four drams to a calf six months
old, six drams to a yearling. To cattle two years and over, give
equivalent dose, or an ounce. The physic should be reduced in the same
proportions as that of Turpentine.



                         VERMINOUS BRONCHITIS.

                             (_Lung Worms_)


CAUSE.—Due to worm or parasite called Strongylus Micrurus, a small
thread-like worm two to four inches in length, found in the bronchial
tubes, a portion of the lungs. The life history of this parasite is not
known, but infection is apparently derived through the medium of
pastures where infested cattle have grazed. Young cattle are more
seriously affected than old animals. These parasites are especially
common in low marshy pastures.

SYMPTOMS.—This form of bronchitis usually affects the entire herd; the
animals become poor, unthrifty, hacking, coughing, especially at night,
and sometimes animals actually cough up worms.

TREATMENT.—Various treatments have been recommended for Verminous
Bronchitis, or Lung Worm, as injecting Turpentine into the windpipe or
fumigating animals by placing them in a closed shed or barn and burning
sulphur, compelling the affected animals to inhale the fumes. This
treatment perhaps is the safest and the most effective. A person should
remain in the enclosed shed and when the fumes become so strong that
there is danger of suffocation, open the doors and windows. This
treatment should be repeated every week until coughing ceases.



                           WARBLES OR GRUBS.


CAUSE.—By the heel-fly or warble-fly. They deposit their eggs on the
legs of cattle during the fall. The animal, licking the parts, takes the
eggs into its mouth. These eggs gradually migrate into the gullet, where
they hatch and burrow through the tissues, and in the early spring will
be found in the region of the back in the form of small lumps under the
skin.

SYMPTOMS.—Warbles are frequently seen under the skin in the region of
the back and over the loins, and are very tender to the touch. When they
are fully developed they work their way through the skin, which usually
occurs in the early part of the summer. Examine your cattle in the
winter and spring for the presence of grubs. They can be easily found by
running the hand over the loins, by abrupt swellings or bunches on the
skin. Pressure on the swelling will perhaps cause the grubs to pop out.

TREATMENT.—Remove the grubs by making a small incision with a clean,
sharp knife in the center of the swelling. Then press them out and into
each cavity from which the grub has been extracted, or squeezed out,
should be injected a five per cent solution of Carbolized Sweet Oil to
prevent any further development of flies or grubs. Cattle sprayed with
fly repellants during the spring and summer are very seldom bothered
with warbles or grubs. However, this is not practical in range cattle;
dipping instead should be resorted to, and it is surprising what results
will be derived from fly repellants in a year or two. They will
practically exterminate the pest, and consequently the cattle are
thrifty and look much better.



                                 WARTS.


CAUSE.—Warts may appear on various parts of the body, and are due to an
abnormal growth of cells growing upon the outer surface of healthy skin,
or they may grow upon skin that is deprived of the proper blood supply.

TREATMENT.—If the wart is located where there is hair surrounding it,
cut away the hair, then wash the wart and surrounding parts with a five
per cent solution of Carbolic Acid and clip the wart off with a sharp
pair of scissors or knife. After the wart is removed, cauterize the cut
surface with a hot iron. Caustic Potash or Silver Nitrate should be
applied two or three times at the intervals of two or three days to
insure the entire extermination of the wart. This treatment applies to
all classes of warts located in various places.



                                WHITES.

                             (_Leucorrhea_)


CAUSE.—Continual chronic inflammation of the womb, or due to irritations
from a retained afterbirth. Injuries or wounds inflicted by hands or
instruments in difficult calving, diseases of the ovaries, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—A garish, white discharge from the womb. When cow is lying
down it flows more abundantly, soiling the tail, etc. The general health
may not be much affected at first, but if the discharge continues and is
putrid, the health fails, the milk shrinks, and there is a great loss of
flesh. In some cases heat is more frequent or intense than natural, but
the animal rarely conceives when served, and if she does, is likely to
abort.

TREATMENT.—Feed nitrogenous food. Wash the womb out with a solution
consisting of five grains of Permanganate of Potash to one quart of
water. This should be repeated once or twice a day. If the animal is
constipated, give two drams of Aloin, three drams of Ginger. Place in
gelatin capsule and give with capsule gun. Also place Potassium Iodide
one dram, Hyposulphite of Soda one ounce in the drinking water two or
three times a day. This not only diminishes the discharge, but has a
good effect on the blood, particularly where there is more or less
decomposition of the flesh.



                           WOLF IN THE TAIL.


This condition is imaginary, although the muscles of the tail relax or
soften, especially those of its extremity, due to ill health;
consequently the condition of the cow should be treated, and not the
tail.

TREATMENT.—Remove the cause. Perhaps the animal has indigestion, or a
cold, etc. Determine the malady by careful examination and treat the
disease under its special heading.

It has been the custom among the so-called cow doctors to split the tail
with a sharp knife, then fill the wound with salt and pepper and bandage
with a cloth. This is a fallacy, and should not be practiced.



                                 INDEX


                   Abdominal Hernia               62

                   Abortion, Contagious           26

                   Abortion (non-contagious)       8

                   Abortion, Infectious           26

                   Abscesses                       7

                   Absence of Milk                64

                   Actinomycosis                  50

                   Acute Cough                    28

                   Afterbirth, Retained           58

                   Amourosis of the Eye            9

                   Anthrax                         9

                   Apoplexy, Parturent            54

                   Ascities                       32


                   Bacterial Dysentery            24

                   Bag Inflammation               43

                   Barrenness                     10

                   Beef, Measly                   54

                   Big Head                       50

                   Black Leg                      11

                   Black Quarter                  11

                   Bleeding                       12

                   Bloating                       12

                   Blood Poison                   14

                   Blood Suckers                  50

                   Bloody Flux                    15

                   Bloody Milk                    16

                   Blue Milk                      16

                   Brain Congestion               56

                   Bronchitis                     17

                   Bronchitis, Verminous          69


                   Calf Cholera                   17

                   Calf Scours                    17

                   Calving                        18

                   Casting the Withers            20

                   Catarrh                        22

                   Cataract of the Eye            21

                   Chapped Teats                  23

                   Choking                        23

                   Cholera, Calf                  17

                   Chronic Cough                  28

                   Chronic Dysentery              24

                   Congestion of the Brain        56

                   Congestion of the Lungs        25

                       Congestion of the Spinal
                   Cord                           56

                   Congestion of the Udder        40

                   Conjunctivitis                 44

                   Colic                          25

                   Contagious Abortion            26

                   Cough, Acute                   28

                   Cough, Chronic                 28

                   Cowpox                         29

                   Cud, Loss of                   53


                   Dehorning                      31

                   Diarrhoea                      30

                   Dropsy                         32

                   Dysentery                      15

                   Dysentery, Bacterial           24

                   Dysentery, Chronic             24


                   Eczema                         32

                   Eczema, Epizootic              35

                   Epizootica Eczema              35

                   Ergot Poison                   33

                   Ergotism                       33

                   Esophagus Obstruction          23

                   Eversion of the Womb           20

                   Eye Amourosis                   9

                   Eye Cataract                   21

                   Eye Inflammation               44

                   Eyelid Laceration              49

                   Eye Scum                       62


                   Failure to Breed               10

                   Fluke, Liver                   34

                   Fluke, Lung                    34

                   Foot and Mouth Disease         35

                   Foot Rot                       38

                   Foul in Foot                   38

                   Founder                        39


                   Garget                         40

                   Grubs                          69


                   Hard Milkers                   41

                   Heart Sack Inflammation        45

                   Hematuria                      57

                   Hemorrhage                     12

                   Hernia, Abdominal              62

                   Hollow Horn                    41

                   Horn, Hollow                   41


                   Indigestion                    42

                   Infectious Abortion            26

                   Infectious Aphtha              35

                   Inflammation of the Bag        43

                   Inflammation of the Eye        44

                   Inflammation of the Heart Sack 45

                   Inflammation of the Kidneys    45

                   Inflammation of the Penis      46

                   Inflammation of the Womb       47


                   Johne’s Disease                24

                   Joint Ill                      48


                   Kidney Inflammation            45


                   Laceration of the Eyelids      49

                   Laminitis                      39

                   Laryngitis                     63

                   Leeches                        50

                   Leucorrhea                     71

                   Loss of Cud                    53

                   Liver Fluke                    34

                   Lumpy Jaw                      50

                   Lung Congestion                25

                   Lung Fever                     52

                   Lung Fluke                     34

                   Lung Worms                     69


                   Mammitis, Simple               43

                   Mange                          53

                   Measly Beef                    54

                   Milk Fever                     54

                   Milk Suppression               64

                   Milk, Stringy                  64


                   Navel Ill                      48

                   Normal Calving                 19


                   Obstruction of the Esophagus   23


                   Paralysis                      56

                   Parturent Apoplexy             54

                   Penis Inflammation             46

                   Pericarditis                   45

                   Pharyngitis                    63

                   Pneumonia                      52

                   Poison, Ergot                  33

                   Pyemia                         14


                   Red Water                      57

                   Retained Afterbirth            58

                   Rheumatism                     59

                   Ringworm                       60

                   Round Worm                     61

                   Rupture                        62


                   Scabies                        53

                   Scours in the Calf             17

                   Scours, White                  17

                   Scum Over the Eye              62

                   Septicemia                     14

                   Simple Mammitis                43

                   Sore Throat                    63

                   Spinal Cord Congestion         56

                   Stomach Worm                   68

                   Stringy Milk                   64

                   Suppression of Milk            64

                   Symptomatic Anthrax            11


                   Tapeworm                       65

                   Teats, Chapped                 23

                   Texas Fever                    65

                   Ticks                          66

                   Tuberculosis                   66

                   Twisted Stomach Worm           68


                   Udder Congestion               40

                   Umbilical Pyemia               48

                   Umbilical Septicemia           48


                   Variola                        29

                   Verminous Bronchitis           69


                   Warbles                        69

                   Warts                          70

                   Whites                         71

                   White Scours                   17

                   Wolf in the Tail               72

                   Womb Eversion                  20

                   Womb Inflammation              47

                   Wooden Tongue                  50

                   Worm, Round                    61

                   Worm, Stomach                  68

                   Worm, Tape                     65

                   Worms, Lung                    69

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES


 1. P. 26, changed “Potassium Io-” to “Potassium Iodide”.
 2. Silently corrected typographical errors and variations in spelling.
 3. Retained anachronistic, non-standard, and uncertain spellings as
      printed.
 4. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.
 5. Enclosed bold font in =equals=.





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