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´╗┐Title: USDA Farmers' Bulletin No. 1738: Farmhouse Plans
Author: Ashby, Wallace
Language: English
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Transcriber Note

Text emphasis is denoted by _Italics_ and =Bold=. Whole and fractional
parts of numbers as 12-3/4.


                           U. S. DEPARTMENT OF
                               AGRICULTURE

                       FARMERS' BULLETIN No. 1738


                             FARMHOUSE PLANS

                             [Illustration]


The Farmhouse Plans presented in this bulletin were developed in
connection with the Farm Housing Survey made in the spring of 1934 by the
United States Department of Agriculture and the agricultural colleges of
46 States, with funds provided by the Civil Works Administration. These
plans were selected from more than 100 prepared under the cooperation of
the following agencies and persons:

  United States Department of Agriculture: Bureau of Agricultural
     Engineering, S. H. McCrory, Chief; Bureau of Home Economics, Louise
     Stanley, Chief, and Director of the Rural Housing Survey.

  Alabama Polytechnic Institute: J. B. Wilson, extension engineer,
     department of agricultural engineering.

  University of Arkansas: Deane G. Carter, head, department of
     agricultural engineering.

  University of California: H. B. Walker, head, division of agricultural
     engineering.

  University of Georgia: R. H. Driftmier, professor of agricultural
     engineering.

  University of Illinois: E. W. Lehmann, head, and W. A. Foster,
     assistant chief in rural architecture, department of agricultural
     engineering.

  Purdue University (Indiana): William Aitkenhead, head, department of
     agricultural engineering.

  Iowa State College: Henry Giese, professor, department of agricultural
     engineering.

  Kansas State Agricultural College: H. E. Wichers, rural architect,
     department of architecture.

  Massachusetts Agricultural College: C. I. Gunness, head, department of
     agricultural engineering.

  University of Minnesota: H. B. White, assistant professor, division of
     agricultural engineering.

  University of Missouri: J. C. Wooley, chairman, department of
     agricultural engineering.

  Ohio State University: R. C. Miller, professor, department of
     agricultural engineering.

  Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas: D. Scoates, head,
     department of agricultural engineering.

  Virginia Polytechnic Institute: C. E. Seitz, head, department of
     agricultural engineering.

  State College of Washington: L. J. Smith, head, department of
     agricultural engineering.

  University of Wisconsin: S. A. Witzel, extension instructor,
     department of agricultural engineering.

At each of the cooperating institutions, home economics specialists were
consulted by the designers in regard to the arrangement of the kitchen
and other parts of the home.

Working drawings for building the houses shown in this bulletin are
available from the extension services of the State agricultural colleges.
In most cases a small charge is made for the drawings.

  Washington, D.C.                                    October, 1934



FARMHOUSE PLANS


By Wallace Ashby, _Chief, Division of Structures, Bureau of Agricultural
Engineering_[1]

[1] Acknowledgment is made of the extended collaboration of Louise
Stanley, Chief. Bureau of Home Economics, in selecting and reviewing the
plans presented herein; and of the helpful assistance of W. H. Nash,
architect, Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, in the preparation of both
the manuscript and illustrations for publication. Mary Rokahr, senior
home-management specialist, Extension Service, and Eloise Davidson,
director of domestic electric service program, Electric Home and Farm
Authority, made valuable suggestions regarding arrangement of kitchens
and other equipment. Helpful comments and suggestions have been received
from many other persons. Many of the perspective sketches illustrating
the house plans shown in this bulletin were drawn by C. W. Mead, Bureau
of Agricultural Engineering,



CONTENTS


                                               Page
  Farmhouse requirements                          1
    Size                                          1
    Comfort and convenience                       2
    Relation to other buildings and highway       3
    Appearance                                    4
    Safety                                        4

  Construction materials                          4

  Costs                                           5
    Cellars                                       5
    Superstructures and porches                   5
    Estimating by unit costs                      6

  Working drawings                                7
    Caution regarding changes                     7

  Plans for houses                                7
    One-story growing houses                      7
    Moderate-sized one-story houses              34
    Houses of more than one story                45
    Very small houses                            60


The principal purpose of this bulletin is to supply plans A for low-cost
farm dwellings designed to meet the requirements of the farm operator and
his family. Some of the plans may be useful in eases where, in addition
to the main dwelling, smaller homes are needed for relatives, tenants,
or unmarried farm hands. Still others will be found useful in the
construction of low-cost houses for temporary use.

A well-built farmhouse should last for 60 years or more. In the ordinary
course of events at least two generations of children will be brought up
in it. During these years the family operating the farm probably will
have no other choice of dwelling. The builder should, therefore, think
both of present needs and possible future requirements when selecting a
plan for a new farmhouse.



FARMHOUSE REQUIREMENTS


SIZE

The first requirement of a satisfactory farmhouse is adequate size to
provide needed working area, storage space, and living and sleeping
quarters. For the average family at least three sleeping rooms are
needed,[2] one for the parents, one for the boys, and one for the girls.

[2] Sometimes the living room must serve as one of the sleeping rooms.

All the space may not be needed at the time the house is built, but
the chances are that it will be needed before many years. On the other
hand, many families find that after the children have grown up and left
home it is not necessary to use the entire house. For this reason it is
desirable to have it arranged so that part of the rooms may be closed off
or may be rented to tourists.


COMFORT AND CONVENIENCE

Adequate, well-used space for both the family and the furniture is
a large factor in farmhouse comfort. The proper number, size, and
placement of windows, doors, and stairs, and good construction are
important. These matters have been carefully worked out in the plans
shown in this bulletin. Comfort also depends to a large extent on good
heating, plumbing, lighting, and screening. Information on some of these
subjects is given in Farmers' Bulletin 1698, Heating the Farm Home; 1448,
Farmstead Water Supply; 1426, Farm Plumbing; 1227, Sewage and Sewerage of
Farm Homes; Department Circular 405, The Domestic Oil Burner; and in U.S.
Department of Commerce bulletin, Insulation on the Farm, price 10 cents.

The convenient arrangement of the farmhouse begins with its relationship
to the other farm buildings and to the highway. Unlike the city house,
the farmhouse has its main line of communication through the back or side
door. Therefore outside doors and porches should be located so as to give
convenient entrance from the farm driveway and the path to the barn, and
wherever possible should be on the sheltered side of the house.

If possible, there should be a convenient place near the rear entrance
for men to leave their outer wraps and to wash before going into the
house. These facilities are often provided in a washroom or in one corner
of the workroom, but if there is no washroom or workroom in the house,
there should at least be clothes hooks and a bench and washbasin for
summer use on the back porch.

It is also desirable that the work portions of the house, where the
housewife spends much of her time, look out over the farm buildings and
the entrance roadway. Most farm women like also a glimpse of the highway
from the kitchen window.

Preferably the traffic way from the rear entrance to the main portion of
the house should not lead through the kitchen. If the kitchen must be
used as a passageway, the doors should be so arranged that the traffic
does not cross the work area. This not only decreases the possibility
of interference with household activities but also makes possible a
more compact and convenient arrangement of work equipment. An important
factor is a workroom or porch, on about the same level as the kitchen,
for laundry, canning, care of milk, and other farm activities and for
supplementary food storage. This saves much clutter in the kitchen itself
and contributes to more efficient arrangement.

At least one bedroom should be provided on the first-floor of the
farmhouse, not too far from the kitchen, so that small children or
sick persons may be cared for conveniently. The bathroom should be
convenient to both downstairs and upstairs bedrooms, but preferably on
the first-floor. A space for a bathroom is very desirable even if the
fixtures cannot be put in at once.

Ample storage space should be provided for clothing, bedding and linen,
wraps, food, dishes and utensils, cleaning equipment, toys, and fuel. In
general, these needs have been met in the plans given in this bulletin
by closets in halls and bedrooms, kitchen cabinets, shelves or pantries,
and cellar storage. Closet, cabinet, and shelf space adds greatly to the
convenience and comfort of a house and should not be omitted.[3]

[3] Plans for closets and storage spaces can be obtained from the Bureau
of Home Economics.

In the smaller plans shown here, an alcove or an end of the kitchen is
indicated for use as a dining area. In the larger plans, either a dining
room or a space for dining in the living room is provided, and in most
cases there is also space in the kitchen for "hurry-up" meals.

The following points have been kept in mind in planning the kitchens.

A sink in every house is recommended. Even when water must be carried
into the house, the sink and drain add much to the convenience of the
kitchen and may be installed very cheaply. Where running water is not
available, a pump may be installed beside the sink. However, running
water, hot and cold, adds more to the convenience of the farm-home than
almost any other factor.

The sink should be well-lighted, with windows over or at one end of it.
Windows over the sink should have the sills higher than the back of the
sink. Such windows will need to be shielded from sun glare unless on the
north side of the house. The sink should have a drain board at the left
end, at the right a flat shelf for stacking dishes if there is no drain
board there. Dish storage should be near enough the left end of the sink
for the dishes to be put away without unnecessary steps.

The cookstove should be conveniently near the sink, preferably against
the side wall, or across from it if the kitchen is narrow.

A small food-preparation surface, table or shelf, should be placed next
to the stove at the same height as the cooking surface. There should be
cupboard space near the stove for the storage of cooking utensils. A
worktable should be provided for long mixing jobs; it should have knee
space and toe space. Staple supplies should be stored near this table
and, if possible, should be near the refrigerator and not too far from
the stove.

The refrigerator should, for convenient use, be as near as possible
to the worktable and stove; however, the higher the surrounding
temperature the greater the cost of operating the refrigerator. If an
ice refrigerator is used, a location near the outside door lessens the
tracking of dirt into the house. A ventilated cupboard near the worktable
is convenient for storing the less perishable foods and reduces the
season during which ice is needed.


RELATION TO OTHER BUILDINGS AND HIGHWAY

A house designed for the south or west side of the highway should be
reversed if it is to be built on the north or east. For example, plan
6521 (p. 24) would fit nicely on either the south or the west side of
the main road. If it were south of the highway, with the drive as shown,
the kitchen would be on the east where it would have the advantage of
the morning sunlight and in most localities the screened porch would be
sheltered from the coldest winds. If the house were on the west side of
the road, the kitchen would still get morning sunlight, and the porch
would protect it from the afternoon sun. On the other hand, if the house
were to be built on the north or east side of the road, the kitchen
would be badly sheltered and lighted, but reversing the plan so that the
kitchen would be on the right instead of the left side of the house would
remedy these conditions.

Before deciding to build any house the plan should be studied carefully
to see how it will best fit the location and the arrangement of the rest
of the farmstead.


APPEARANCE

Attractive appearance of a farmhouse is to be obtained by:

  Good taste in its proportions and exterior design.

  Materials chosen to suit the local environment and type of house,
    effectively employed.

  A pleasing color scheme for the house, in harmony with its
    surroundings.

  Proper planning with relation to the natural features of the site,
    the other farm buildings, and the highway.

  Grading the site and planting trees, shrubs, and flowers.

If the homes shown in this bulletin are carefully built according to the
drawings, they will be satisfactory with respect to the first two points.

Proper location of the house is exceedingly important and must be worked
out on the ground. Farmers' Bulletin 1132, Planning the Farmstead, and
1087. Beautifying the Farmstead, will be found helpful in this and in the
planting of trees and shrubs around the house. Farmers' Bulletin 1452,
Painting on the Farm, discusses kinds and uses of paints. Other bulletins
on these subjects are available from several of the State agricultural
colleges.


SAFETY

Safety in the farmhouse depends first on good construction for protection
from damage by wind, fire, decay, and termites. Safety is promoted
also by planning to avoid hazards from low beams, steep or unguarded
stairways, or badly placed doors and windows. The working drawings for
the houses illustrated herein embody good practice in these matters. The
welfare and convenience of the occupants will be further permanently
safeguarded through rat-proof construction, which eliminates "rat
harbors", and denies easy entrance of the rodents to the building.
Additional safety may be secured at slight cost by following the
recommendations in Farmers' Bulletins 1590, Fire Protective Construction
on the Farm; 1638, Rat Proofing Buildings and Premises; and 1649,
Construction of Chimneys and Fireplaces; Leaflet 87, Wind-Resistant
Construction for Farm Buildings, and Leaflet 101, Injury to Buildings by
Termites.



CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


The houses shown in this bulletin may, with slight changes, be built of
wood, stone, concrete, brick, tile, earth, steel, or other materials.
The choice depends largely on owner's preference, local availability and
price, and the skill of local builders in using one or another. Many new
materials for various purposes such as roofing, flooring, and insulation
are on the market and deserve consideration.

The practice common among farmers of hauling their own stone or concrete
materials, cutting their own logs where possible, having their lumber
sawed at local mills, and doing part of the actual construction work, aid
in reducing the cash outlay and in making possible a better house for the
same money expenditure. This is especially true where lumber is sawed
long enough before building starts to allow thorough seasoning. This
seasoning of lumber is important and is too often disregarded.



COSTS


The most satisfactory way to learn the probable cost of a house is to
obtain estimates from one or more local builders. Approximate costs may,
of course, be obtained by comparing the proposed house with one built
recently in the same community, or rough estimates may be based on the
size of the house and typical unit costs for the locality.

Unit costs based on prices and wages prevailing in the spring of 1934 for
houses suitable for the localities were obtained for about 300 counties
by the Farm Housing Survey, A summary of the figures is as follows:


CELLARS

Costs for ordinary cellars were reported for most sections as varying
from 50 cents to $1 per square foot of floor space. The cost per square
foot is, of course, less for a large than for a small cellar, other
things being equal. Easy excavation and low-cost materials also make
for low unit cost. Costs of nearly $2 per square foot were reported in
some sections where the ground-water level is high and cellar walls and
floor must be carefully waterproofed. In sections where cellars are not
ordinarily used the cost of the foundation was reported as part of the
cost of the house superstructure.


SUPERSTRUCTURES AND PORCHES

Reported costs of one-story frame superstructures, including heating,
plumbing, and lighting equipment ordinarily used in the locality, ranged
from $1.25 to $2.25 per square foot of floor space in the South, from
$2.25 to $3.50 in the West and Southwest, from $2.50 to $4 in the North,
and from $3 to $4.50 in New England. Costs in Maryland, Virginia, and
West Virginia and in a narrow belt along the east coast, including
Florida, were reported from $2 to $3.25, and in the timber-producing
sections of the Northwest at about $2 per square foot. Costs in any
locality are influenced by local factors, generally being relatively high
near cities and in thickly settled sections and relatively low in places
where there are local supplies of lumber or other materials.

Differences in cost between the various sections are due to differences
in the kinds of houses built, as well as to differences in material
costs and wages. The typical house in the North is much more compact and
substantial and provided with more expensive heating equipment than the
typical house in the South.

The cost per square foot of floor area of two-story frame houses was
reported as being 5 to 15 percent less than that of one-story houses in
the same locality.

The costs of typical masonry superstructures were generally reported
at $2 to $3 per square foot of floor area in the southern third of the
United States, from $3 to $4 per square foot in the central third, and
more than $4 per square foot in the northern third of the country. There
were many variations from these general levels, however, costs of about
$2 per square foot being reported in many localities in the States
bordering on or south of the Ohio River. Costs reported for counties
along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts were generally higher than for those
in the interior. Little difference in cost per square foot of floor area
in one-story and in two-story masonry houses was reported. The higher
costs reported for masonry houses as compared with frame are probably
due in part to better grades of finish and equipment used in the masonry
houses.

The costs per square foot of floor space of open porches were reported as
being about half the costs per square foot of floor space in one-story
houses of similar materials.


ESTIMATING BY UNIT COSTS

The floor areas of the cellar, the porches, and the house itself (the
superstructure) are shown with each plan. They do not include unexcavated
cellar space nor unfinished space in attics. The areas were figured from
the working drawings (see p. 7) because in some cases the dimensions
given in the plans herein are approximate only. The superstructure area
of a house of more than one story is given here as the area of the
first-floor plus the usable area of the second-floor. Stairways, halls,
and closets are included. To estimate very roughly what a house might
cost, multiply the number of square feet of cellar floor space by a cost
per square foot based on the costs stated above. Do the same for the
house superstructure and the porches, and add the figures together. This,
with allowance for price changes since the spring of 1934, will give
a rough estimate of total cost of the house. The actual cost will, of
course, be affected by the materials and home equipment which the owner
selects and by the skill and efficiency of the builders.

If the owner can furnish part of the material or labor, or if interior
finish or equipment is omitted, the initial cash outlay may be reduced.
Estimates based on local prices and wage rates are to be preferred to
those based on the cost figures given above.

Little study has been given to what amounts farm people are justified
in spending for their houses, but several investigations have been
made of expenditures for housing by people with fixed incomes. It is
generally agreed that the house ordinarily should not cost more than two
and one-half times the average annual net income of the family. In the
case of the farm family the value of the living furnished by the farm
should be considered as part of the income. Another generally accepted
rule, which perhaps is more nearly applicable to farm conditions, is
that not more than 25 percent--usually not more than 20 percent--of the
average annual net income of the family should be required for housing,
including principal payments, interest, taxes, insurance, repairs, and
miscellaneous costs.



WORKING DRAWINGS


Working drawings have been prepared giving all necessary dimensions
and details for building these homes. Farmers may obtain copies of
these drawings from the agricultural extension services of the State
agricultural colleges. The State extension services will supply only
those plans which are suitable in their respective States, and usually
will make a small charge to cover printing and mailing.


CAUTION REGARDING CHANGES

These plans have been carefully prepared by competent architects in
consultation with home-management specialists and agricultural engineers
familiar with farm conditions in all parts of the United States. It is
urged that the plans be studied carefully before making a selection,
but that no changes be made in them except for alternate arrangements
indicated by the drawings or descriptions. Changing the size of a room or
the location of a door or window may spoil some other valuable feature,
and is almost certain to harm the appearance of the house. Doors and
windows should be selected according to the descriptive material on the
drawings. Sizes should be closely adhered to for best appearance.

The prospective builder should not try to obtain too much originality,
but rather should base his selection on those features of the plan which
will give the utmost satisfaction in the long run. Differences in slope
of ground, location of the drive and farm buildings, and position and
amount of trees and shrubbery, all will contribute to the distinctive
appearance of the home.

For homes of the type offered in this bulletin, the surroundings should
be kept free from distracting adornments. As a general rule, a few trees
to provide shade, some flowering shrubs of native growth grouped close to
the building to break harsh lines, and a bed or two of flowers selected
for their color value, will be sufficient decorative relief.



PLANS FOR HOUSES


The 40 house plans shown in this bulletin have been arranged in four
groups representing, respectively, (1) 1-story growing houses; (2)
1-story houses originally built with two or more separate bedrooms; (3)
houses of 1-1/2 or 2 stories; and (4) very small houses. Some of the
plans might have been placed in another group about as well as in that in
which they are shown.


ONE-STORY GROWING HOUSES

There are many arguments in favor of the growing house for the farm. The
first unit can be erected at a moderate cost, yet the finished house may
have all the features considered important. As more space is needed the
owner often can build the additions himself, taking advantage of slack
times to cut lumber from his own land, haul sand and gravel for concrete,
and in other ways reduce the cost of the additions. The chief difficulty
with the growing house is that it is likely to grow very slowly. By the
time additions are made the house is considered old by its occupants,
and the additions are likely not to receive as careful attention as the
original house.

The growing houses in this bulletin have been carefully planned so
that both the first units and the final structure are satisfactory in
usefulness and in appearance. The additions fit into the original units
with a minimum of ripping out and rearrangement.


PLAN 6511,[4] FOR THE SOUTHWEST

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first unit 605 square feet; with
  1-bedroom addition 815 square feet; with 2-bedroom addition 960 square
  feet.

[Illustration: ORIGINAL HOUSE]

This plan is for a permanent dwelling of frame, stucco, stone, adobe,
or other construction. If desired, the first unit may be built without
bedrooms, as shown, and the living room used for sleeping quarters until
the house is completed. The two large closets of this living room add
much to its value, and the arrangement with all doors at one end of the
room permits efficient use of the space.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

If the first unit is to be used for several years before the bedrooms are
added, the small bathroom with shower will be especially desirable. That
space must be used for other purposes, however, and the bathroom fixtures
moved when one or both bedrooms are added.

An alternate kitchen arrangement suggested by the Bureau of Home
Economics for houses in which only an oil, gas, or electric stove is
needed and meals will usually be eaten in the living-dining room is shown
on page 9.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSES]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLANS]

[4] Prepared by W. K. Bartges and Earl Barnett for the department of
agricultural engineering, University of California.


PLAN 6512,[5] FOR THE SOUTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first stage 715 square feet; second stage
  with one bedroom 1,085 square feet; third stage 1,515 square feet.
  Porch, 250 square feet.

[Illustration: VIEW OF ORIGINAL HOUSE]

Plan 6512 is designed for southern conditions, to afford ample shade from
a glaring summer sun. The arrangement of rooms permits the building to
face toward the south, thus taking advantage of the summer breezes from
that direction. The glazed porch on the north side offers a cool spot for
summer meals, while the meals served during cold weather would naturally
be more enjoyable in front of a blazing fire at the west end of the
living room.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

The second stage of the house adds the center bedroom of the three shown
in the third stage. The partitions for the hall and the closets near the
south porch are not needed until the third stage. If at all possible,
the center bedroom should be built with the original unit to provide
more sleeping space; but if it is necessary to watch the budget closely,
the large living room or the glazed porch can be pressed into temporary
service as sleeping quarters.


[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN WITH ADDED BEDROOM]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN WITH TWO ADDED BEDROOMS]

[5] Prepared by J. B. Atkinson and J. E. Hudson for the department of
agricultural engineering, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas.


PLAN 6513,[6] FOR THE SOUTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first unit 490 square feet; with first
  addition 705 square feet; completed house 1,015 square feet. Porches,
  first unit 25 square feet; with first addition 240 square feet.

The first unit of house 6513 is modest, and yet provides complete kitchen
equipment, toilet facilities, a workroom or laundry, and g bedroom of
comfortable size. The first addition increases the living accommodations
and, with its front and rear porches, offers a cool retreat in hot
weather. The second addition provides two more bedrooms and an adjoining
bath, thus completing the six-room house. If desired, these two bedrooms
may be made larger than shown in the plans.

[Illustration: VIEW OF INTERIOR]

The interior view shows the compact arrangement of kitchen cabinets and
sink, and indicates the bright work area that is planned to lighten the
duties of the housewife. An alternate arrangement of the kitchen, with no
workroom, is shown on page 13.

During the first two stages of development adequate space will be found
in the kitchen for dining; but when two bedrooms are added in the final
wing, the original bedroom (adjoining the kitchen) might be converted
into a dining room. On the other hand, if at times the entire house is
not needed by the family, the last wing of the house will make very
desirable rooms for renting to tourists or summer boarders, or may be
closed.

In some parts of the South the fireplace will not provide sufficient
heat in cold weather, but a circulator heater may be set in front of the
fireplace and connected to the chimney through a metal shield. If the
plan is used in the North, a cellar may be constructed under the second
unit, with stairs leading down from the rear porch, which should be
enclosed.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLANS]

[6] Prepared by W. H. Nash for the Bureaus of Agricultural Engineering
and Home Economics, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


PLAN 6514,[7] FOR THE MIDDLE WEST

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original house 670 square feet; with
  addition 940 square feet. Cellar, 255 square feet. Porches, 120 square
  feet.

House 6514, with basement and furnace, is well adapted to northern or
mid-western conditions. The steps to the basement may be outside the
building as shown, or the washroom may be extended so as to include the
steps and provide greater protection during stormy weather.

The original house, in order to come in the class of low-cost houses,
does not contain a bath. A pump at the kitchen sink provides water until
funds permit of the installation of a modern plumbing system.

The first unit of the house may be heated either by a circulator heater
in the living room or by a furnace. The furnace will be especially
desirable after the second unit is added.

The added bedroom wing is recessed from the main building line to permit
cross ventilation through the bedroom in the original house.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETE HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[7] Prepared by W. E. Pettit and Fred Riebel for the department of
agricultural engineering, Ohio State University.


PLAN 6515,[8] FOR THE SOUTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first unit 565 square feet; with first
  addition 900 square feet; completed house 1,255 square feet. Porches,
  175 square feet.

This begins as a three-room house but is planned so that eventually three
bedrooms and a bath may be added. The kitchen in the original house is
nicely arranged, as shown in the plan. When the house is completed, the
first bedroom may be used as a dining room, with a door cut through from
the kitchen. The range should then be placed against the living room
wall. The fireplace and range will heat the first three rooms. Hall space
for a circulator heater is provided in the first addition.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETE HOUSE]

[8] Prepared by C. W. Heery, Fred J. Orr, and B. G. Danner for the
department of agricultural engineering, University of Georgia.


PLAN 6516,[9] FOR THE SOUTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original unit 685 square feet; with
  first addition 1,035 square feet; completed house 1,345 square feet.
  Porches, original 90 square feet; completed house 155 square feet.

The original unit of house 6516 is a two-room structure of ample size.
The dining room and kitchen are combined in one room, while the other
room is temporarily both bedroom and living room. A porch leading
directly into the kitchen affords entrance during the initial stage. In
the center of the first unit are an unusually large storage closet and a
chimney reminiscent of colonial Virginia. In localities where firewood is
not readily available the fireplace may be omitted and a stove used for
heating the bedroom.

[Illustration: PLAN SHOWING FUTURE ADDITIONS]

Additions to the house are indicated on both sides of the original; the
first addition undoubtedly would be that with the bedroom and bath. The
rear porch can be enclosed if needed, and will then serve for laundering
and other work that is more convenient not to do in the kitchen. The
second addition will complete the house with a living room and front
porch.

The addition of the living room and front porch requires considerable
change in the arrangement of the kitchen to keep traffic from the back
door to the living room from passing directly in front of the range. It
will be best to set the range against the end wall, and preferably to
use an electric or oil range so that no new chimney will be required.
After the living room is added, less dining space will be needed in the
kitchen.

[Illustration: VIEW OF ORIGINAL UNIT]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED UNIT]

[9] Prepared by H. B. Boynton and J. M. Thompson for the department of
agricultural engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute.


PLAN 6517,[10] FOR THE SOUTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original house 660 square feet; completed
  house 1,025 square feet. Porches, 300 square feet.

In plan 6517 a large amount of space is provided at low-cost by using
the cheapest type of construction and omitting the interior finish at
the time of building, for when a large family must be housed and funds
are limited space is often more desirable than good finish and ease of
heating. The exterior walls are of vertical boards and battens, and the
roof is of galvanized corrugated metal. The house may be improved at
any time by lining the walls and ceiling. The kitchen arrangement shows
a treatment recommended by home economists, the sink and worktable at
right angles to the wall, with shelves above them. This scheme has the
advantage of separating the working and dining areas, yet it does not
hamper easy communication between the rooms at meal hours. If desired, a
bed may be placed in the living room, yet the house is so arranged that
each sleeping room will have complete privacy. The side wall of the small
bedroom next to the kitchen is intended to be made of 1-inch boards with
battens on both sides.

The addition of bedrooms with closets and a bathroom is suggested.
This addition will provide space for a circulator heater, which is a
convenience when no cellar is planned.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN AND COMPLETED HOUSE]

[10] Prepared by the Bureaus of Agricultural Engineering and Home
Economics, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


PLAN 6518[11]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first stage 835 square feet; with
  addition 1,160 square feet. Porches, 120 square feet.

Several novel features about this small dwelling will appeal to the
farm-home builder. A heater room on the main floor near the rear entrance
and the kitchen avoids the need for a cellar. A kitchen like this, with
three outside walls to give light and cross ventilation and a better view
of the farmstead and highway, is often desirable. The end of the living
room next the kitchen is narrowed to a dining alcove, and when more space
is needed the dining table may be extended into the living room. The
completed bungalow has three bedrooms, with ample closet space. The rear
porch will provide a comfortable, shady place to work outside during the
warm summer days.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

In the first stage of construction the two bedrooms at the rear may
be omitted. This would still leave one bedroom and the bathroom and
temporary closet space in the original bungalow. Then the two other
bedrooms can be added later, when funds become available, or a screened
and glazed sleeping porch with outside entrance could be built instead. A
porch off the living room could also be added.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[11] Prepared by L. J. Smith for the department of agricultural
engineering, State College of Washington.


PLAN 6519,[12] FOR THE SOUTHWEST

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original house 775 square feet; with
  addition 1,075 square feet. Porches, 160 square feet.

The plans and perspectives on these pages show two methods of roofing
this house. In each plan the original unit of the house is complete, and
pleasing in appearance, and the additions fit the house gracefully with
very little tearing out or rearrangement.

As in some other plans, the kitchen is designed for the use of an oil,
gas, or electric cookstove. The house may be heated by a circulator
hot-air heater, by a hot-water system with a radiator boiler in the
living room, or possibly by radiant gas or electric heaters in the
bedrooms.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

The type of design favors keeping the house close to the ground. If
floor-joist construction is used, the topsoil should be removed from
under the house so that joists will not come too close to the ground
surface. A concrete subfloor could be placed directly on the ground,
supporting wood sleepers and wood floors.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[12] Prepared by H. E. Wichers, O. S. Ekdahl, and N. F. Resch for the
department of architecture, Kansas State Agricultural College.


PLAN 6520[13]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first unit 450 square feet; with first
  addition 730 square feet; completed house 985 square feet. Porches,
  255 square feet.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

With their low-pitched roofs, and modest design both inside and out,
plans 6520 and 6521 represent very desirable types of farmhouses.
Such buildings blend with their surroundings to produce a real homey
atmosphere. Originally planned for southern conditions, where a
circulator heater placed in the hall should be adequate, these plans are
adapted to colder regions if the houses are well constructed and are
provided with basements and central heating plants as indicated on the
working drawings.


PLAN 6521[13]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first unit 630 square feet; with first
  addition 985 square feet; completed house 1,285 square feet. Porches,
  385 square feet.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

In both designs the development from two large rooms progresses
logically, the main difference being that in plan 6520 the additions are
made at the side, while in plan 6521 the new rooms are added at the rear
of the first unit. Although all the rooms of 6521 a r e shown as larger
than those of 6520, by slight alterations either size of house may be
built from either plan. The choice should be determined largely by the
slope of the building site.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

In each original house a temporary partition provides 2 bedrooms in place
of a living room. The first addition adds 2 other bedrooms, and the
removal of the partition between the temporary bedrooms provides a large
living room. The second addition increases the total number of bedrooms
to 3 by adding 2 and refitting 1 in the first addition as a bathroom.

Each kitchen is ideally located to command a view of the driveway,
highway, and farm buildings. Closets, pantry, and other equipment utilize
the darker part of the room, leaving the lighter portions for working
area and dining table. These arrangements are complete in the original
house.

On the screened back porch, which is equipped with laundry trays and
closet, men coming from the fields may hang their outside work garments
and, except in cold weather, wash before entering the house. Here a great
deal of the dirty and messy work in preparing fruits and vegetables for
canning may be done. Entrance from the screened porch to the bath or
bedrooms reduces to a minimum the traffic through the kitchen and living
room. In plan 6520 the screened porch might be divided by a lattice into
work and living spaces.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[13] Prepared by Eldred Mowery and C. E. Cope for the Bureaus of
Agricultural Engineering and Home Economics, U.S. Department of
Agriculture.


PLAN 6522[14]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original house 640 square feet; with
  addition _A_. 950 square feet; with addition _B_ 930 square feet.
  Porch, addition _B_, 120 square feet.

On account of its compact arrangement, this low-cost house furnishes a
very satisfactory amount of usable space for the small family and may be
enlarged to three-bedroom size, as indicated on the plans. The kitchen is
well-arranged, with moderate storage space, and a wood box filled from
outside, with a ventilated cupboard or cooler above it. The workroom,
unusually large for a small house, is a good place for laundry or canning
and for men to clean up before coming in to meals. Dining space is
provided at the rear of the living room. This house should be compared
with no. 6527 (p. 36).

Board and batten construction is very suitable for a low-cost house, but
any other type of construction may be used for plan 6522 if preferred.
If the house is built in a cold climate, probably it will be desirable
to omit the fireplace and heat the living and bedrooms with a circulator
heater.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN WITH ADDITION A]

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN WITH ADDITION D]

[14] Prepared by the Bureaus of Agricultural Engineering and Home
Economics, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


PLAN 6523,[15] FOR THE SOUTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first unit 990 square feet; with addition
  _A_ 1,420 square feet; with addition _B_ 1,375 square feet. Cellar,
  350 square feet. Porches, 100 square feet.

Communication between rooms is an important consideration in modern house
planning. This has been provided in house 6523 by a small hall, which
permits access not only from one room to another but also to the outside,
the basement stairs, the washroom, the bathroom, and the linen closet,
thus eliminating the necessity of using any room as a passageway.

Alternate extensions are shown, the choice probably depending upon
the surrounding ground contour. Addition _B_ should receive first
consideration, because it brings the two new bedrooms into closer
relation with the bathroom and does not destroy the washroom adjoining
the rear entrance. It does, however, reduce the size of one of the first
bedrooms.

If addition _A_ is contemplated, the window at _X_ should be located at
_Y_ when the first unit is built. The steps in the hall of addition A may
be omitted if the ground slopes down at the rear so that the floor of the
addition can be built at a lower level than the floor of the original
house.

If addition _B_ is to be used, the window at _Z_ should be located so as
to come in the hall of the addition.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN WITH ADDITIONS]

[15] Prepared by C. W. Heery and B. G. Banner for the department of
agricultural engineering, University of Georgia,


PLAN 6524[16]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first unit 1,245 square feet; with
  addition 1,735 square feet. Porches, 25 square feet. Cellar, 400
  square feet.

The charm of house 6524 lies in its informality and simplicity. It is
built for comfort and service. The broad expanse of roof, relieved by a
gable, gives it a substantial yet homelike appearance. This is an easy
house to move around in, and the kitchen is very nicely arranged. The
screened porch, in addition to providing a cool and inviting summer
dining and work space, affords ready access to all the rooms of the
house. If the future addition of bedrooms is contemplated, the hall
window in the first unit should be replaced with a door. This will not
only provide an extra exit from the house but obviate unnecessary cutting
and tearing out when the addition is built.

The cellar provides space for a central heating plant, it desired.

[Illustration: VIEW COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: VIEW OF KITCHEN]

[16] Prepared by C. W. Heery, Fred J. Orr and B. G. Banner for the
department agricultural engineering, University of Georgia.


PLAN 6525[17]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first unit 795 square feet; with bedroom
  addition 1,080 square feet; with both additions 1,375 square feet.
  Porches, 105 square feet. Cellar, 795 square feet.

This simple farmhouse develops into a home of dignity and charm. The
original unit furnishes all modern conveniences and an ample basement.
Future bedrooms may be added as required, while the extended living room
might be built as the final touch of growing prosperity.

It will be of interest to the reader to note the similarity of
arrangement of this house and no. 6519 (p. 20). These plans were
developed independently, but the coincidence emphasizes the
practicability of having the work and living areas on the side of the
building next to the driveway and the bedrooms toward the rear, with the
bathroom located as centrally as possible. The design of a small house
for farm use is greatly influenced by the rather fixed location of the
kitchen.

[Illustration: MAIN FLOOR PLAN SHOWING FUTURE ADDITIONS]

[Illustration: BASEMENT PLAN]

[Illustration: VIEW OF ORIGINAL UNIT]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETE HOUSE]

[17] Prepared by H. B. Boynton and J. M. Thompson for the department of
agricultural engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute.


MODERATE-SIZED ONE-STORY HOUSES

Houses of this group can best be built complete at one time, though in
several cases it is noted that rooms may be omitted from the original
building or extra rooms added. The larger houses of this group provide
about the same features as the completed growing houses. The more compact
two-bedroom houses are well adapted to farms where two or more separate
dwellings are needed.


PLAN 6526,[18] FOR TIMBERED SECTIONS

  Floor areas; Superstructure, 845 square feet. Porches, 300 square feet.

In spite of present-day improvements in building materials, there is
something about the rugged appearance of a log cabin that harmonizes with
rural settings. Log construction blends into wooded surroundings more
intimately than boards, bricks, or stucco.

House 6526 will accommodate 4 persons comfortably, or even 5 or 6 persons
if a couch is placed in a corner of the living room.

The location of the bathroom not only serves the bedrooms but is
convenient to the kitchen and the rear porch.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

The central chimney serves the kitchen range, circulator heater, and
fireplace. The ample size of the kitchen, and its built-in cupboards,
dish cabinets, and other conveniences add greatly to the desirability
of the design. If a pass cupboard between kitchen and living room is
desired, it may be arranged in the cabinet next to the outer wall.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[18] Prepared by N. G. Napier for the department of agricultural
engineering, University of Arkansas.


PLAN 6527[19]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, main house, 915 square feet; with storage
  addition 1,120 square feet. Cellar, 115 square feet. Porches, 130
  square feet.

This house is similar in many respects to the first unit of 6522 (p. 26),
but is enlarged to provide for the bathroom. A shallow root cellar with
room above is added at the rear of the house to provide extra storage if
needed in localities where a cellar is not practicable. As in the case of
plan 6522, two more bedrooms may be added to the left side of the house
by taking space from the rear bedroom for a hallway.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

The house is planned to be heated by a jacketed heater in the workroom
with a cold-air return duct under the floor and cold-air registers in the
living room and bedrooms. This arrangement will keep all handling of coal
and ashes out of the living parts of the house.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[19] Prepared by O. R. S. Trabor for the department of agricultural
engineering, University of Missouri.


PLAN 6528,[20] FOR THE NORTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 800 square feet. Cellar, 800 square feet.

House 6528 is intended for use in cold, snowy regions, where farmers need
cellars for storing fuel and vegetables. The hip roof helps to brace the
house against the wind and is economical of material. A well-insulated
ceiling is recommended to help keep the house comfortable. The
substantial chimney in the center of the house, with separate flues for
furnace, kitchen range, and fireplace, insures good draft and no wasted
heat. The vestibule at the front and the hall arrangement at the side
door also aid in keeping the house warm. Both doors are convenient to the
driveway and the path to the barn.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

The washroom and laundry of this house are in the cellar. This is a
satisfactory and economical arrangement where there is good drainage
for both the cellar and the plumbing fixtures, and is particularly
advantageous on rolling ground. But one should beware of putting a deep
cellar in a poorly drained location. (See Farmers' Bulletin 1572, Making
Cellars Dry.)

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[20] Prepared by S. A. Witzel for the department of agricultural
engineering, University of Wisconsin.


PLAN 6529[21]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 740 square feet. Porches, 250 square feet.

This house was designed to meet the needs of a family of 4 to 6 people.
The porch faces the highway, and paths from the front and side porches
lead to the farm drive.

The kitchen is complete and compact. The extra space found in many farm
kitchens has been omitted and a workroom added to provide for laundry and
other rough work. This also provides a place for men to leave their outer
wraps and wash before entering the living room. Storage space can be
obtained in the attic by the use of a disappearing stair in the workroom
ceiling.

No wood or coal range is provided for in this plan, because the
use of an oil, gas, or electric stove saves space in the kitchen
and correspondingly reduces the cost of the house. This saving and
the convenience of a small, compact cooking unit deserve careful
consideration in localities where these fuels are cheaply available.
Heating is accomplished by means of a circulator heater in the living
room.

The designer of this plan states:

  The bedrooms are small. They are little used during waking hours, thus
  they can be reduced with less injury to family comfort than any other
  room. The large living room more than compensates for this.

  When funds are limited it is always debatable, in a great portion of
  the United States, whether spending money for a porch is wise, because
  the same money could be used instead to increase the area of the house
  proper. In this particular case the porch could be left off without
  harm.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOME AND FLOOR PLAN]

[21] Prepared by H. E. Wichers and O. S. Ekdahl for the department of
architecture, Kansas State Agricultural College.


PLAN 6530[22]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 1,155 square feet. Porches, 245 square
  feet.

The well-known economy of square house construction is illustrated by
this plan. A choice of heating methods without a cellar is indicated. If
a circulator heater is used in the hall, as shown, the chimney between
the bedrooms will not be needed, and if extra bedrooms are wanted they
may be added as in plan 6517 (p. 18). A fireplace in the back bedroom
would, of course, interfere with taking a hall off this room.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

Kitchen doors are located to permit easy communication between the
screened porch and the hall without interference with the work area
while the screened porch is useful as both work and dining area. This
latter feature, together with the ample size of the bedrooms, living room
kitchen, makes the dwelling especially suitable for the small family in
the South. The addition of a cellar under one-half of the house and of
a central heating plant would adapt this plan to other sections of the
country, though the rooms are rather larger than is common in the North.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOME]

[22] Prepared by W. C. Breithaupt and H. W. Dearing for the department of
agricultural engineering, Alabama Polytechnic Institute.


PLAN 6531[23]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 1,185 square feet. Porches, 155 square
  feet.

House 6531 should be compared with no. 6533. The two plans were developed
independently, but are very similar and illustrate a logical grouping of
rooms for a farmhouse. In some respects the arrangement of 6531 works
out more satisfactorily because it is not restricted by the structural
details of framing a pitched roof.

This house is a model of compactness and efficiency. Note the simple but
effective way in which the kitchen and heater room are located back to
back. The floor of the heater room is a concrete slab, two steps below
the main floor level. A pass cupboard between the kitchen and dining room
is handy for serving meals. It also provides storage space beneath its
counter. The entire bedroom side may be omitted from the original house,
in which case the workroom would serve for dining and the dining room for
a bedroom.

All dimensions of this house are multiples of 3-1/2 feet. Wall, door, and
window sections might be prefabricated so that erection would consist
merely of bolting the sections together, or the house can be built in the
ordinary way. The sketch at the top of page 41 illustrates the use of
sheet metal as an exterior covering, the one in the center shows concrete
blocks, and the bottom view shows the walls covered with a combination of
lap siding and shingles or wide boards.

The flat roof should be covered with good roofing and well-insulated for
comfort in both summer and winter as described in the working drawings.
The cost of the insulated flat roof should not be greater than that of an
ordinary pitched roof without insulation. The accumulation of snow will
help to keep the building warm.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOME]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOME]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOME]

[23] Prepared by Albert Frey for the Bureaus of Agricultural Engineering
and Home Economies, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


PLAN 6532[24]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 1,125 square feet Porches, 35 square feet.

This is a new type of low-cost house designed to provide five small
single bedrooms or sleeping compartments and one bedroom of average size.
The sleeping compartments are not very large, but to secure privacy and
yet maintain economy of construction, something must be sacrificed. In
this case it is unnecessary space.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOME AND FLOOR PLAN]

The sketch showing the arrangement of bunks illustrates an interesting
feature of this house. In the right-hand room the bunk is near the floor,
and wardrobe and dresser space is obtained in the partition between the
two rooms. In the left-hand room the bunk is 4 feet above the floor and
projects over the one on the other side of the partition. Wardrobe space
is arranged under the bunk. This room is especially suitable for a boy.
A folding study table is provided under the window in each room. On warm
nights air circulation would be obtained by opening the bedroom doors to
the hall, which is ventilated by the windows above the lower roof. By
omitting all but one of the partitions forming the five small bedrooms
two good-sized rooms can be obtained.

[Illustration: CROSS SECTION OF BEDROOMS AND WARDROBE AT B-B]

[Illustration: SIDE VIEW OF BUNK AT A-A]

The exterior appearance may seem, at first glance, unusually severe,
but by omitting a pitched roof and the ornamental features of cornice
moldings and trim decorations, the cost of construction is materially
lowered. Here everything has been reduced to the simplest form possible.

With the heater room adjoining the kitchen, there is little need for a
basement, thus an important item of expense is eliminated. The kitchen
and workroom form a compact and very convenient unit along the driveway
side of the house, while the large living room commands a good view of
the highway. The living room and halls are lighted and ventilated by the
small windows above the lower roofs. Closet space is provided in every
room.

As in plan 6531 (p. 40), all dimensions are multiples of 3-1/2 feet so
that the house can be either prefabricated or built in the ordinary way.

[24] Prepared by Albert Frey and R. G. Allen for the Bureaus of
Agricultural Engineering and Home Economics, U.S. Department of
Agriculture.


PLAN 6533[25]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 1,130 square feet. Porch, 80 square feet.
  Cellar, 280 square feet.

House 6533 is one of the few designs in which a separate dining space was
allotted. Many people do not consider a separate dining room essential in
the small farmhouse, and additional space adds to the cost, but in this
case the arrangement adds to the spaciousness of the interior without
greatly increasing the cost.

The rear entry is large enough to serve as laundry and washroom, and
constitutes a back way from the kitchen to the bedrooms and bathroom
without passing through the living room.

The kitchen, with cross ventilation and ample cupboard and counter space,
is a pleasant workshop for the housewife, and is so arranged that easy
service to the dining alcove is possible.

The bedrooms and adjoining bath are grouped together, allowing that
portion of the house to be closed off from the living portion.

In the cellar is the heating plant, with fuel bin.

The house is kept low to give it an appearance of hugging the ground, but
in no case should the joists be below the ground level. Shingles, beveled
siding, or clapboards may be used for the exterior surface.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[25] Prepared by Max Uhlig for the department of agricultural
engineering, Massachusetts Agricultural College.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

       *       *       *       *       *


HOUSES OF MORE THAN ONE STORY

In many respects houses of more than one story are better suited for
farm use in the Northern States than single-story buildings. They are
more economical in foundation and roof construction, and are easier to
heat. They should be arranged with one bedroom and a bath, or at least
a toilet, on the ground floor. A cellar for fuel and vegetable storage
and a central heating plant are usually needed with this type of house.
The laundry may also be located in the cellar if suitable drainage and
a grade door to the outside can be obtained, but in a poorly drained
location it is best to keep the laundry above-ground. In building a
cellar advantage should be taken of the slope of the ground to obtain
good lighting and an easy entrance on the low side of the slope.

To avoid uncomfortably warm second-floor bedrooms in summer cross
ventilation should be provided in each room. Insulation of the ceiling is
valuable both in summer and in winter.

It is very convenient to have a bathroom on the second-floor as well as
one on the first-floor, especially if rooms are to be rented to tourists
when the family does not need the whole house.


PLAN 6534[26]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original house, 1,420 square feet; with
  living room addition, 1,720 square feet. Cellar, 775 square feet.
  Porches, 285 square feet.

[Illustration: MAIN FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN]

The first-floor and cellar plans of house 6534 are almost the same as the
original unit of no. 6525 (p. 32), but there are comfortable bedrooms,
a bath, and closet space on the second-floor. If funds are available to
build the living room wing indicated, the entire dwelling will breathe
the traditional southern spirit of hospitable spaciousness.

The hall and stair arrangements of this house are very good. Persons
coming in at the back door can leave wraps in the vestibule at the head
of the cellar stairs and go directly to any downstairs room or to the
cellar, yet there is little lost space.

If the house should at some time be occupied by a small family, the
entire upstairs could be shut off. Persons wishing rooms for tourists
will find either the upstairs bedrooms or the downstairs bedroom and bath
very suitable for this purpose.

[Illustration: VIEW OF ORIGINAL UNIT]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[26] Prepared by H. B. Boynton and J. M. Thompson for the department of
agricultural engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute.


PLAN 6535[27]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 820 square feet. Porch, 30 square feet.

This might well be considered the smallest story-and-a-half farmhouse
that could be practicably built. The designer has utilized the space to
good advantage, omitting a bath in the original structure for the sake of
economy. The working drawings show a future addition to the house which
provides a bedroom and bath on the first-floor. The alternate floor plan
shows a dormer in the rear like the one on the front, to make room for a
second-floor bath.

A distinctive feature of this compact design is the =L=-shaped
kitchen with its well-grouped and well-lighted working surfaces and
dining table. The arrangement of an =L=-shaped room is often a
problem when enlarging or remodeling. The living room is arranged for
both day and night use, with a folding bed in a closet.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: ALTERNATE FIRST FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: ALTERNATE SECOND FLOOR PLAN]

[27] Prepared by C. T Bridgman for the department of agricultural
engineering, Iowa State College.


PLAN 6536,[28] FOR THE NORTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 1560 square feet. Cellar, 400 square
  feet. Porch, 210 square feet.

This design illustrates a type of farmhouse frequently built in recent
years because of its simple lines and economy of construction. It
illustrates the pleasing possibility of fitting the farmhouse to sloping
ground, with ample light in the basement and easy flights of steps
between the house proper, the large workroom at the rear, and the cellar.

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN]

The partition between the main rooms downstairs is carried up to divide
the second-floor, giving these bedrooms ample size and good cross
ventilation and making a strong construction that will not sag in years
to come. A second bathroom may be provided in the storage space by the
chimney, thus adding to the comfort of the home and making the upstairs
rooms suitable for rental to tourists if desired. The roof should be
insulated to give comfort both in summer and in winter.

[Illustration: INTERIOR VIEW OF KITCHEN]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN]

The downstairs hall, lighted by the windows on the stairs, is compact
and provides easy communication between all rooms. The living room is
well-lighted and has good wall spaces for furniture. The combined kitchen
and dining room, with the sink at right angles to the outside wall, as
shown in the interior view, gives the housewife three walls of continuous
work surfaces and in addition light and the view from all the windows of
the room. Children can play or older members visit in the dining end with
slight interference to the housewife's work. This is especially helpful
on chilly days in the fall and spring when the kitchen stove provides the
only heat in the house.

The part basement furnishes space for a furnace and for storage of fruits
and vegetables.

[28] Prepared by C. J. Poiesz and Eldred Mowery for the Bureaus of
Agricultural Engineering and Home Economics, U.S. Department of
Agriculture.


PLAN 6537[29]

  Floor areas: Superstructure (including enclosed porch) 1,520 square
  feet. Cellar, 840 square feet. Terrace and steps, 100 square feet.

House 6537 is similar in many respects to no. 6536, and has much the same
advantages, though the rooms are somewhat smaller. A second downstairs
bedroom can be added beside the bathroom, if needed, or the two bedrooms
on the second-floor can be left unfinished if funds are not on hand to
complete the building in the beginning.

The sketch indicates the roof line sweeping down snug over the window
of the first-floor bedroom, a feature which is carried out with similar
success in plan 6538. Designs of this type help to keep a two-story
home from appearing too tall and make it a more harmonious unit in the
farmstead scheme.

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN]

[29] Prepared by T. A. Zink for the department of agricultural
engineering, Purdue University.


PLAN 6538[30]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 1,740 square feet. Cellar, 385 square
  feet. Stoops, 80 square feet.

House 6538 may be roofed in a number of ways, with slight alterations
in the arrangement of the second-floor. The appearance is, of course,
greatly altered; but in each case is pleasing. With the modernistic
flat roof, any waste spaces caused by the sloping roofs in the other
designs are eliminated. The storage room on the second-floor then becomes
suitable for a child's bedroom, a sewing room, or an office, and the
flat-deck porch roof will serve as a sleeping porch.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

The plan is simple and well proportioned. Since the arrangement of the
entrance is a little unusual, the location of the driveway and the path
to the barn should be given careful study before deciding upon the site
and placing of the house.

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSES]

Construction should be simple. In the case of the modernistic house,
concrete or stucco is suggested for the first story and boards and
battens for the second.

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN]

[30] Prepared by W. K. Bartges and Earl Barnett for the department of
agricultural engineering. University of California..


PLAN 6539,[31] FOR THE NORTH

[Illustration: VIEW OF FIRST STAGE]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original house, 1,100 square feet; with
  kitchen addition, 1,270 square feet; with all additions shown, 1,620
  square feet. Porches, original house, 90 square feet; completed house,
  285 square feet. Cellar, 565 square feet.

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN]

Thousands of farmhouses in all parts of the North and Middle West have
begun like house 6539, and the development illustrated for this one
should offer helpful suggestions both to farmers who plan to build new
and those who expect to remodel present houses. It is a very practical
design, expressing honest dignity.

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN]

The plans on this page show the original unit, which would supply a
comfortable yet economical dwelling, with a basement for fuel and
storage. The first addition might be either the new 7 kitchen and porch
or the downstairs bedroom, bath, and laundry. If needed, a third upstairs
bedroom and a bathroom can be added over those in the first-floor
addition, as shown in the working drawings, with little loss of material
or work, because the downstairs bedroom has a flat-deck roof. This would
increase the floor area of the superstructure to 1,900 square feet.

[Illustration: VIEW OF COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN WITH ADDITIONS]

[31] Prepared by J. M. Deibert for the Bureaus of Agricultural
Engineering and Home Economics, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


PLAN 6540[32]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 1,380 square feet. Porch, 70 square feet.
  Cellar, 760 square feet.

This plan is intended for use in the North, where the compact floor plan
with cellar and inside chimney and the front vestibule will simplify
the heating problem. The first-floor level is above the ordinary
height of packed snow in winter, but the grade entrance gives easy
communication with both the cellar and the main part of the house. This
permits convenient use of the cellar as a washroom and laundry, if in a
well-drained location, as well as for storage purposes.

The house is roomy and well-arranged, with a downstairs bedroom and
bathroom. By a slight change to make the second-floor like the first, a
bathroom or toilet could be arranged in the large closet by the stairs.
Storage space is provided in the attic.

All second-floor partitions are directly above those of the first floor,
thus making a strong, rigid house with the least framing material.

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[32] Prepared by H. W. Orth and R. A. Gmeinder for the division of
agricultural engineering, University of Minnesota.


VERY SMALL HOUSES

The dimensions of the houses in the very-small-house group are kept to
the minimum by using the living rooms for sleeping rooms at night. These
houses cannot be considered adequate for the typical farm family, but
will serve for young married couples or for tenants with small families.


PLAN 6501[33]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 325 square feet. Stoop, 15 square feet.

In plan 6501, sleeping space is provided in double-deck beds screened
from the living room by draw curtains. If more space is wanted later, a
bedroom wing can be added at the end of the living room. To save space,
the kitchen is planned for an oil, gas, or electric stove. With a house
of this size, part of the housework would have to be done outdoors,
and a paved or graveled space under a tree near the house would be a
convenience.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[33] Prepared by H. E. Wichers, N. F. Resell, and O. S. Ekdahl, for
Kansas State College.


PLAN 6502[34]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 600 square feet. Stoop, 35 square feet.

The special feature of plan 6502 is the well-arranged kitchen, with good
storage space and a compact work area at one side of the direct line
of travel from the back door. Some privacy at night is afforded by the
double wardrobes and folding screen between the two beds in the living
room. The side porch will serve the double purpose of workroom and
sleeping porch. It should be screened and have curtains to keep out the
rain. By adding 4 feet to the living room and an additional partition, a
third room could be provided. A shower bath may be installed in the large
closet as shown.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[34] Prepared by A. L. Matthews and N. G. Napier for the department of
agricultural engineering, University of Arkansas,


PLAN 6503[35]

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original house 520 square feet; with
  addition, 825 square feet.

Small homes are often cut up into several rooms, with the result that in
them a person has a "boxed-in" feeling. In plan 6503 the rooms are few,
and each is used for more than one purpose. If the cost must be kept to
a minimum, the bedroom and sleeping porch may be omitted in the original
construction. The kitchen-dining room is unusually large for a house of
this size, and the equipment is grouped in the front part of the room
where the housewife can have a good view of the highway.

When the bedroom and sleeping porch are built, the bunk in the
kitchen-dining room may be taken out to provide more dining space; or
if one desires a cellar under part of the house, the cellar stairway
may replace the bunk space. A large window and high-beamed ceiling are
features of the living room. The chimney must not be too small; it is a
feature of the house.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[35] Prepared by R. A. Deal and W. W. DeNeff for the department of
agricultural engineering, State College of Washington.


PLAN 6504,[36] FOR THE SOUTHWEST

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 430 square feet. Porches, 145 square feet.

Plans 6504 and 6505 were designed for the central valleys of California,
where outdoor sleeping is invited, by the mild nights.

These were designed for temporary homes to be used later as shops, bunk
houses, storage buildings, or for other uses, so concrete floors are
recommended. Low-cost "frameless" construction is shown in the working
drawings. There are no ceilings. The shower baths shown in the plans can
be installed cheaply.

The kitchens and work porches are large enough for the needs of a
good-sized family. Plenty of windows are provided for ventilation. The
kitchen arrangement shows a wood-burning stove, and a large refrigerator
placed against an inside wall for protection from the outdoor heat. It is
expected that meals will ordinarily be eaten in the kitchen or outdoors.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]


PLAN 6505,[36] FOR THE SOUTHWEST

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 410 square feet. Porches, 125 square feet.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[36] Prepared by W. K. Bartges and Earl Barnett for the department of
agricultural engineering, University of California.


PLAN 6506,[37] FOR NEW ENGLAND

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 540 square feet. Porches, 60 square feet.

Though the rooms in plan 6506 have been kept as small as possible in
order to reduce cost, good use of space is realized in the arrangement.
Additions to the house would enable it to accommodate an average-sized
family.

A work-porch addition beside the kitchen and living room, between the
windows, would provide a place for laundry work and for hanging outer
wraps. A bathroom might be built by enclosing a portion of the front
porch and enlarging the window to make a doorway from the hall. If
desired, a third bedroom could be added at the end of the living room.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[37] Prepared by Bernhard Dirks for the department of agricultural
engineering, Massachusetts State College.


PLAN 6507,[38] FOR THE NORTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, original house, 380 square feet; with
  first addition 600 square feet. Porches and entrances, 50 square feet.
  Cellar, first unit 380 square feet; with addition 600 square feet.

Plan 6507 is intended for snowy sections, and the first-floor is
purposely raised above the winter snow level. The house can be built in
either one or two stages.

No partition divides the kitchen and living room, which permits
heating the house with the kitchen range in mild weather. It also aids
ventilation in summer and facilitates serving of meals in the living room.

The steps to the cellar are outside the house, protected by a storm door.
There is ample space in the cellar for laundry and storage. A cistern
under the kitchen provides soft water.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN AND COMPLETED HOUSE]

[38] Prepared by S. A. Witzel for the department of agricultural
engineering, University of Wisconsin.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]


PLAN 6508,[39] FOR THE NORTHWEST

  Floor areas: Superstructure, first stage 385 square feet; second stage
  605 square feet; third stage 755 square feet. Porches and steps, first
  stage 20 square feet; second and third stages 70 square feet.

This house is designed for the minimum requirements of beginners on the
land, the first portion being 16 by 24 feet outside. It may either be
enlarged for a permanent dwelling or later used as a service building.
The bedroom is ample in size, but the living room, because it must also
be used temporarily as a kitchen and dining room, will be crowded. This
unit may be made 18 feet instead of 16 feet wide. Later the kitchen and
a small bedroom may be added at the rear of the first unit, with a side
porch off the kitchen. The door between the kitchen and living room will
then be changed to the right of the chimney, and a narrow hall taken off
the rear of the front bedroom.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

If an additional bedroom is desired, it can be added to the left of
the bathroom, making the third stage for this house. The closet in the
kitchen should be removed and a door cut through to allow easy access
from the kitchen to the bath and bedrooms. The bedroom closets must be
rearranged to allow for these changes.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

[39] Prepared by R. A. Deal and W. W. DeNeff for the department of
agricultural engineering, State College of Washington.


PLAN 6509,[40] FOR THE SOUTH

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 525 square feet. Porches and steps, 90
  square feet.

[Illustration: COMPLETED HOUSE]

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN]

Plans 6509 and 6510, for the South and the Middle West, respectively, are
low-cost houses for families that need only one bedroom. The kitchens are
well-arranged and have good storage space. Closet space also is ample for
houses of this size.

A storage and workroom, as shown in plan 6510, is a good feature for
the North but is not so much needed in the South, where mild weather
permits doing much housework outdoors. The living room fireplace and
kitchen range should heat house 6509 comfortably under ordinary southern
conditions, but in the North arrangements should be made for a stove or
circulator heater as in plan 6510.

[40] Prepared by W. C. Breithaupt and H. W. Dearing for the department of
agricultural engineering, Alabama Polytechnic Institute.


PLAN 6510,[41] FOR THE MIDDLE WEST

  Floor areas: Superstructure, 740 square feet. Porches and steps, 60
  square feet.

[Illustration: FLOOR PLAN AND COMPLETED HOUSE]

[41] Prepared by H. J. McKee and Arthur Wupper for the department of
agricultural engineering, University of Illinois.


       *       *       *       *       *


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1934



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C.



Price 10 cents


       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber Notes


All illustration were move so that paragraphs were not split. All plan
footnotes were moved to the end of that plan. All plan illustrations were
captioned and standardized to ALL CAPS.





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