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Title: Coronation Rites
Author: Woolley, Reginald Maxwell
Language: English
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The Cambridge Handbooks of Liturgical Study


    H. B. SWETE, D.D.
    J. H. SRAWLEY, D.D.


    London: FETTER LANE, E.C.
    Edinburgh: 100 PRINCES STREET


    New York: G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS
    Bombay, Calcutta and Madras: MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD.
    Toronto: J. M. DENT AND SONS, LTD.

    _All rights reserved_

[Illustration: The Coronation of Henry I of England]

                            CORONATION RITES

                     REGINALD MAXWELL WOOLLEY, B.D.

                       Rector and Vicar of Minting
            Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Lincoln

                         at the University Press

                       PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.
                         AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS


The purpose of _The Cambridge Handbooks of Liturgical Study_ is to offer
to students who are entering upon the study of Liturgies such help as may
enable them to proceed with advantage to the use of the larger and more
technical works upon the subject which are already at their service.

The series will treat of the history and rationale of the several rites
and ceremonies which have found a place in Christian worship, with some
account of the ancient liturgical books in which they are contained.
Attention will also be called to the importance which liturgical forms
possess as expressions of Christian conceptions and beliefs.

Each volume will provide a list or lists of the books in which the study
of its subject may be pursued, and will contain a table of Contents and
an Index.

The editors do not hold themselves responsible for the opinions expressed
in the several volumes of the series. While offering suggestions on
points of detail, they have left each writer to treat his subject in his
own way, regard being had to the general plan and purpose of the series.

                                                                 H. B. S.
                                                                 J. H. S.


While it is hoped that this book may prove of service to those who wish
to study the history and structure of the Coronation Rite, it will be
evident that a subject so large can only be treated, in the space at my
disposal, in outline. Those who wish for more detailed information must
be referred to the texts themselves.

May I also here point out that since the Rite was probably never used
twice in identically the same form in any country, and since it was thus
in a continually fluid state, the ‘Recensions’ into which the rites of
the different countries are here and generally divided, are to a certain
extent arbitrary, and must be taken as marking periods at which the rites
reached certain stages of developement?

Both Dr Swete and Dr Srawley have by their criticisms added considerably
to the accuracy of the book. To Dr Srawley in particular I am much
indebted for his patience in the discussion of various doubtful points
that arose, and also for the trouble he has taken with the proof during
the passage of the book through the Press. I am indebted, too, to the
Rev. Chr. Schmidt for going over my translation of the Scandinavian
documents. I have to thank M. H. Omont for permission to reproduce the
miniature of Nicephorus Botoniates, and Mr H. Yates Thompson for like
permission in the case of the picture of St Louis. All the photographs,
except of this last named picture, were made by Mr Donald Macbeth. Lastly
I must express my sense of obligation to the readers and printers of the
University Press for the care with which they have printed the book.

                                                                 R. M. W.

_August 23, 1915._



    BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                        xi


       I. Early conceptions of Kingship, and religious rites in
            connection with a King’s accession                           1

      II. Ceremonies in connection with the Inauguration of a
            Roman Emperor in pre-Christian times. The Origin of
            the Christian Coronation Rite in the fifth century.
            The Byzantine Rite of the tenth century and its
            developements. The Coronation of a Russian Czar.
            The Abyssinian Rite                                          7

     III. The Origin of the Rite in the West. A twofold source.
            The seventh-century Rite of the Consecration of a
            King in Spain, and the Imperial Rite of the Holy
            Roman Empire                                                32

      IV. The Western Imperial Rite of the Coronation of an
            Emperor at Rome. The accounts of the Coronation of
            Charlemagne. The earliest forms and their later
            developements                                               37

       V. The Coronation of a King. The Anglo-Saxon Consecration.
            The Rite of the so-called Pontifical of Egbert, and
            the developement of the English Rite                        56

      VI. The French Rite and its developements. The Coronation
            of Napoleon                                                 91

     VII. The Roman Rite of the Coronation of a King and its
            developements                                              109

    VIII. The Rite of Milan and its developements                      114

      IX. The German Rite                                              120

       X. The Hungarian Rite                                           126

      XI. The early accounts of the Rite of the Consecration of
            a King in Visigothic Spain. The Rites of Aragon and
            Navarre                                                    128

     XII. Other countries. Protestant Rites. Scotland. Bohemia.
            The Prussian Rite of 1701. Denmark. Sweden. Norway         137

    XIII. The Papal Coronation                                         159

     XIV. The Inter-relation of the different Rites                    165

      XV. The Unction, the Vestments, and the Regalia                  177

     XVI. The Significance of the Rite                                 188

    GENERAL INDEX                                                      200

    INDEX OF FORMS                                                     203


      I. The Coronation of Henry I of England                _Frontispiece_

        (Reproduced from B.M. Royal MS. 15. E. iv.
          Photograph by Donald Macbeth.)

     II. The Emperor Nicephorus Botoniates in his imperial
           robes                                           _to face_ p. 25

        (MS. Coislin 79 fol. 2, bibl. nationale Paris.
          Reproduced from Omont, H., _Fac-similés des
          miniatures des plus anciens MSS grecs de la
          bibliothèque nationale_. Photograph by Donald

    III. The Emperor Charles V in his Coronation robes     _to face_ p. 55

        (Reproduced from F. Bock, _Kleinodien des heiligen
          römischen Reiches deutscher Nation_. Photograph
          by Donald Macbeth.)

     IV. The Anointing of St Louis of France               _to face_ p. 99

        (Reproduced from H. Yates Thompson, _Book of Hours
          of Joan II, Queen of Navarre_.)




1. Constantinople.

CODINUS CUROPALATES. _De officiis Constantinopolitanis._ (Bonn, 1839.)

CONSTANTINUS PORPHYROGENITUS. _De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae._ (Bonn,

GOAR, J. _Euchologion._ (Paris, 1647.)

THEOPHANES. _Chronographia._ (Bonn, 1839.)

2. Russia.

MALTZEW, A. _Die heilige Krönung._ In _Bitt-Dank- und Weihe-Gottesdienste
der orthodox-katholischen Kirche des Morgenlandes_. (Berlin, 1897.)

METALLINOS, E. _Imperial and Royal Coronation._ (London, 1902.)

3. Abyssinia.

LOBO, JERONYMO. _Voyage Historique d’Abissinie, Traduite du Portugais,
continuée et augmentée de plusieurs Dissertations, Lettres, et Mémoires.
Par M. Le Grand, Prieur de Neuville-les-Dames et de Prevessin._ (Paris,

TELLEZ, BALTHASAR. _The Travels of the Jesuits in Ethiopia translated
into English._ (London, 1710.)



DUCHESNE, L. _Liber Pontificalis._ 2 vols. (Paris, 1886-92.)

HITTORP, MELCHIOR. _De divinis Catholicae Ecclesiae officiis._ Paris,

MABILLON, J. _Museum Italicum_, 2 vols. (Paris, 1687-9.) For _Ordines
Romani_, see also Migne, _P.L._ LXXVIII.

MARTÈNE, E. _De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus._ (Antwerp, 1763.)

(The first edition of this work published in 1702 does not contain all
the documents which are found in the editions of 1736 onwards.)

PANVINIUS and BEUTHER. _Inauguratio, Coronatio, Electioque aliquot
Imperatorum_, etc. (Hanover, 1612.)

PERTZ, G. H. _Monumenta Germaniae Historica._ (Hanover, 1826.)

_Pontificale Romanum._ (Venice, 1520.)

_Pontificale Romanum Clementis VIII et Urbani PP. VIII auctoritate
recognitum._ (Louvain, n.d. Other edd., Paris, 1664, Rome, 1738-40.)

WAITZ, G. _Die Formeln der deutschen Königs- und der römischen
Kaiser-Krönung._ (Göttingen, 1872.)


(_a_) England.

GREENWELL, W. _The Pontifical of Egbert Archbishop of York._ (Surtees
Soc., vol. XXVII. 1853.)

WICKHAM LEGG, J. _Missale ad usum Ecclesiae Westmonasteriensis_, vols.
II. and III. (H.B.S., 1893-6.)

WICKHAM LEGG, J. _Three Coronation Orders._ (H.B.S., 1900.)

WICKHAM LEGG, J. _The Order of the Coronation of King James I._ (Russell
Press, London, 1902.)

WICKHAM LEGG, L. G. _English Coronation Records._ (Westminster, 1901.)

WORDSWORTH, CHR. _The Manner of the Coronation of King Charles I of
England._ (H.B.S., 1892.)

_The Form and Order of the Service that is to be performed and of the
Ceremonies that are to be observed in the Coronation of Their Majesties
King Edward VII and Queen Alexander in the Abbey Church of S. Peter,
Westminster, on Thursday, the 26th day of June, 1902._ (Cambridge, 1902.)

_The Form and Order of the Service that is to be performed and of
the Ceremonies that are to be observed in the Coronation of Their
Majesties King George V and Queen Mary in the Abbey Church of S. Peter,
Westminster, on Thursday, the 22nd day of June, 1911._ (Oxford, 1911.)

(_b_) France.

MÉNARD, H. _D. Gregorii Papae I. Liber Sacramentorum._ Paris, 1642.
(Reprinted in Migne, _P.L._ LXXVIII.)

DEWICK, E. S. _The Coronation Book of Charles V of France._ (H.B.S.,

_Francorum Regum Capitularia_, in Migne, _P.L._ CXXXVIII.

GODEFROY, T. _Le Cérémonial François._ (Paris, MDCXLIX.)

MARTÈNE, _op. cit._

MASSON, F. _Le sacre et le couronnement de Napoléon._ (Paris, 1908.)

_Procès-Verbal de la Cérémonie du Sacre et du Couronnement de LL. MM.
L’Empereur Napoléon et L’Impératrice Joséphine._ (Paris, An XIII. = 1805.)

(_c_) Rome.

HITTORP, _op. cit._

MARTÈNE, _op. cit._

MABILLON, _op. cit._

_Pontificale Romanum._

(_d_) Milan.

MAGISTRETTI, M. _Pontificale in usum eccles. Mediolanensis necnon Ordines
Ambrosiani._ (Milan, 1897.)

PERTZ, _op. cit._

(_e_) Germany.

PERTZ, _op. cit._

MARTÈNE, _op. cit._

(_f_) Hungary.

MARTÈNE, _op. cit._

PANVINIUS and BEUTHER, _op. cit._

(_g_) Spain.

DE BLANCAS, J. _Coronaçiones._ (Çaragoça, 1641.)

ÇURITA, GERONYMO. _Los cinco libros primeros de la segunda parte de los
anales de la corona de Aragon._ (Çaragoça, MDCX.)

FÉROTIN, M. _Liber ordinum._ (Paris, 1904.)

YANGUAS Y MIRANDA, J. M. _Cronica de los Reyes de Navarra._ (Pamplona,

(_h_) Papal.

LECTOR, LUCIUS. _Le Conclave._ (Paris, 1894.)

LECTOR, LUCIUS. _L’Élection papale._ (Paris, 1896.)

MABILLON, _op. cit._

GRISSELL, H. DE LA G. _Sede vacante._ (Oxford, 1903.)

_Sacrarum caerimoniarum sive rituum ecclesiasticorum S. Rom. Ecclesiae
Libri tres._ (Venetiis, MDLXXXII.)

(_i_) Other Countries.

_Acta Bohemica._ ([Prague], 1620.)

_Actus Coronationis seren. Dn. Frederici Com. Pal. Rheni ... et Dom.
Elisabethae ... in Regem et Reginam Bohemiae._ (Prague, 1619.)

_Allernaadigst approberet Ceremoniel ved Deres’ Majestæter Kong Christian
den Ottendes og Dronning Caroline Amalias forestaaende, höie Kronings-og
Salvings-Act paa Frederiksborg Slot, Sondagen den 28ᵈᵉ Juni, 1840. Hendes
Majestæt Dronninges allerhöieste Födselsdag._ A. Seidelin. (Kjöbenhavn,

BUTE, JOHN MARQUESS OF. _Scottish Coronations._ (Alex. Gardner, 1902.)

COOPER, J. _Four Scottish Coronations._ (Aberdeen, 1902.)

_Ceremoniel ved deres Majestæter Kong Haakon den Syvende’s og Dronning
Maud’s Kroning i Trondhjem’s Domkirke Aar 1906._ Steen’ske Bogtrykkeri,
Kr. A., 1906.

_Kurtze Beschreibung wie Ihr. Königl. Majest. zu Schweden Karolus XI: zu
Upsahl ist gekrönet worden. Aus dem Schwedischen verdeutschet._ (1676.)

_Ordning vid Deras Majestäter Konung Carl den Femtondes och Drottning
Wilhelmina Frederika Alexandra Anna Lovisas Kröning och Konungens
Hyllning vid Riksdagen i Stockholm._ 1860.

WICKHAM LEGG, J. _An Account of the Anointing of the First King of
Prussia in 1701_, in _Arch. Journ._ LVI. pp. 123 ff. 1899.



BOCK, F. _Die Kleinodien des heil. römischen Reiches deutscher Nation._
(Leipzig, 1864.)

BRIGHTMAN, F. E. _The Coronation Vestments._ In _The Pilot_, vol. VI. pp.
136, 137.

WICKHAM LEGG, L. G., _op. cit._


BOUQUET, M. _Recueil des historiens des Gaules._ (Paris, 1738.)

BRIGHTMAN, F. E. _Byzantine Imperial Coronations._ In _Journal of
Theological Studies_, II. 369 f. (Cited as _J. Th. St._)

DESDEVISES DU DEZERT, G. _Don Carlos d’Aragon._ (Paris, 1889.)

DIEMAND, A. _Das Ceremoniell der Kaiserkrönungen von Otto I bis Friedrich
II._ (München, 1894.)

HEYLIN, P. _Cyprianus Anglicus._ (London, MDCLXVIII.)

LECLERCQ, H. _Dictionnaire d’archéologie et de liturgie chrétienne._
(Paris. In progress.) Cited as _DACL_, ‘Charlemagne.’

LIEBERMANN, F. _Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen._ (Halle, 1903.)

PRYNNE. _Canterburie’s Doome._ (London, 1646.)

WILSON, H. A. _The English Coronation Orders. J. Th. St._ II. 481 ff.



Kingship is one of the most ancient institutions of civilisation. At
the very dawn of history the king is not only already existent, but is
regarded with a reverential awe that shews that the institution must have
had its beginnings in very remote times. His functions are twofold, civil
and religious; not only is he set apart from those over whom he rules,
but by virtue of his other function, that of mediator between God and his
people, we find him invested as it were with a halo of quasi-divinity.
And so in early times we find the king possessing certain priestly
prerogatives. Pharaoh was not an ordinary man but the son of Horus, and
almost as one of the Gods. The kings of the Semites were priest-kings.
In Homer the king is Θεῖος[1], he is set upon his throne by Zeus, he is
invested with the divine sceptre as in the case of Agamemnon[2] and
stands in a very special relation to the Deity. In ancient Rome it was
the same; and when in Rome and Athens kingship was abolished, still it
was necessary to have an ἄρχων βασιλεύς or a Rex Sacrorum to perform the
special priestly functions hitherto belonging to the king.

In view then of the sacred character of the king it is only natural to
expect to find some religious ceremonial accompanying his accession
to his office, and although in the West there is little or no direct
evidence of this, in the East there is found in very early times a solemn
religious ceremony consecrating the king to his office.

The first actual reference to the consecration of a king occurs in the
Tel-el-Amarna correspondence. In one of the letters Ramman-Nirari a
Syrian king writing to Pharaoh speaks of the consecration of his father
and grandfather, and that by unction with oil[3].

In the Old Testament there are a number of instances of the consecration
of a king by anointing with oil, a rite parallel to the consecration of
a priest or prophet. In the parable of the trees of Lebanon in the Book
of Judges (ix. 15), the consecration of a king by anointing with oil
is regarded as the general and accepted custom. Accordingly we read (1
Sam. ix-xi) of the first Israelitish king Saul being solemnly anointed
by the prophet Samuel on his election as king. In the account of the
inauguration of Saul, if we may use the term, three distinct features are

(1) He is anointed with oil, and so is endowed with special gifts, for
the Spirit of the Lord comes upon him.

(2) There is a ‘Recognition’ or acceptance of him as king by the people.

(3) King and people make a joint covenant with God.

David was anointed at first privately by Samuel, and by this unction
he was endowed with the Spirit of the Lord ‘from that day forward’ (1
Sam. xvi. 13). But he was twice again anointed as king publicly, and in
each case in connection with his recognition by the people, on the first
occasion when he was made king by the men of Judah (2 Sam. ii. 4), and on
the second when he was made king over all Israel (2 Sam. v. 3). Moreover
on the second occasion we read of a covenant being made—‘King David made
a league with them in Hebron before the Lord: and they anointed David
king over Israel.’ In the case of Solomon (1 Kings i. 38-40), we are
given more information as to the ceremonial used. Solomon riding on the
royal mule goes in procession to Gihon; he is anointed from a horn of
oil out of the tabernacle by Zadok the high-priest; trumpets are blown
and the people acclaim him with the cry ‘God save King Solomon.’ He is
brought and enthroned on David’s throne.

In Israel and Syria we find kings consecrated in like manner by unction.
Thus we read of Elijah being charged to anoint Hazael to be king over
Syria and Jehu king over Israel (1 Kings xix. 15, 16). The somewhat
informal manner in which Jehu was anointed by a son of the prophets (2
Kings ix. 1 ff.) may have been due to the special circumstances of the
case, or it is possible that there was a more gradual development of the
ceremonial in Israel than in orthodox Judah.

The fullest account given in the Old Testament of a coronation is that of
Jehoiada (2 Kings xi. 12 ff.). Here is the first actual mention of the
crowning, and there are a number of separate ceremonial acts.

(1) The crown is set on the king’s head by the high-priest.

(2) The king is given the ‘testimony,’ for which we should probably read
the regal ‘bracelets[4].’

(3) He is made king and anointed.

(4) He is acclaimed by the people, ‘God save the King.’

(5) A covenant is made not only between the Lord and the king and the
people, but also between the king and the people.

Here then we have investiture with crown and perhaps with other regal
ornaments. A recognition is probably implied in the expression ‘they made
him king.’ He is anointed and acclaimed. The covenant made between king
and people is, to use a later phraseology, the coronation oath. It was
his refusal to make a satisfactory covenant with his people that was the
occasion of trouble between Rehoboam and Israel.

At a much later period Isaiah refers to Cyrus as ‘the Lord’s anointed.’
The prophet’s language may be merely metaphorical, but on the other
hand may imply that the anointing of a king at his accession was a rite
common to the whole East. In later times there was a ceremonial crowning
of a Persian king, as we happen to know from Agathias’ story of unusual
circumstances attendant upon the coronation of Sapor[5].

Reference has been made above to certain regal ornaments mentioned in the
accounts of the coronations of various Jewish kings. The crown and regal
bracelets are mentioned among Saul’s kingly ornaments (2 Sam. i. 10). To
these may perhaps be added the shield (2 Sam. i. 21), and the spear (1
Sam. xviii. 10, xxvi. 7, 22)[6].

Ezekiel (xxi. 26) mentions the crown and diadem in connection with
Zedekiah as the special insignia of the king. There is also special
reference made to royal robes distinctive of kingly rank (1 Kings xxii.
10, 30), but there is no evidence as to the nature of these robes.

If the book of Esther can be relied on, there was a definite royal
apparel used by the Persian kings as well as a ‘crown royal’ (Esth.
vi. 8); and a ‘crown royal’ is also mentioned in connection with the
queen, in the case of both Vashti and Esther (i. 11, ii. 17). There can
be little doubt that crown and royal vesture reach back to remotest



The Christian rite of the sacring of kings does not derive its origin
from the older Jewish rite, though doubtless during the process of its
developement it borrowed details from the older ceremony.

The origin of the rite must be sought in Constantinople, and from the
Byzantine ritual the idea of the Western rite is ultimately derived.
But what then is the origin of the Byzantine rite itself? It is the
Christian developement of the ceremonies connected with the inauguration
of the Roman Emperors in pre-Christian times. Of these ceremonies we
have no very full or detailed account, but although we have no exact and
complete record of the actual ritual used, yet certain historians tell us
in somewhat general terms of what happened on the accession of various
Emperors. For example, the circumstances of the election of Tacitus to
the Empire in 275 were as follows[7].

The Senate was convoked and asked to elect an Emperor, and Tacitus the
Princeps Senatus on rising to give his opinion was suddenly acclaimed
Emperor by the whole Senate, with the acclamation ‘Tacitus Augustus, the
Gods preserve you. You are our choice, we make you Princeps, to you we
commit the care of the republic and the world. Take up the Empire by the
Senate’s authority. The honour which you deserve is in keeping with your
life, your rank, your character’ etc., and the acclamations conclude with
the repetition of the formal words, ‘Tacitus Augustus, the Gods preserve
you.’ He was thereupon elected, and the Senate proceeded to the Campus
Martius, where its choice is announced to the people in these words, ‘You
have here, Sanctissimi Milites et Sacratissimi Quirites, the prince whom
the Senate has elected in pursuance of the vote of all the armies, I mean
the most august Tacitus; so that he who has hitherto helped the republic
by his votes, will now help it by his commands and decrees.’ The people
greet the announcement with the acclamation: ‘Most fortunate Augustus
Tacitus, the Gods preserve you,’ and the rest that it is customary to
say. Lastly the Senate’s choice is proclaimed to the army, and the
customary Donative is given.

Pertinax was suddenly and irregularly acclaimed by army and populace
without waiting for the Senate to make an election. Thereupon he
proceeded to the Senate, and after delivering an address to the
senators he was acclaimed by all, and received from them all honour
and reverence, and ‘was sent to the temple of Jupiter and the other
sanctuaries, and having celebrated the sacrifice for the Empire, he
returned to the palace[8].’

Thus we see that in theory the new Emperor was first elected by the
Senate, and then accepted or recognised in the Campus Martius by the
people and army with acclamations which followed a definite and fixed
ritual, and finally the Donative originated by the Emperor Claudius, and
followed by his successors, was bestowed. But in actual fact the election
by the Senate tended to become more and more a very perfunctory affair,
and the choice of an Emperor came more and more to fall into the hands of
the armies.

The Emperor had, however, some power in providing his successor. He could
and often did nominate a colleague who would normally possess a right
of succession. But while he was merely colleague in the Empire, though
he was invested with some of the marks and functions of the Imperial
dignity, he had no actual ‘imperium.’

There were also certain definite imperial insignia, such as the purple
cloak, once the mark of a general in the field; the laurel wreath, which
the Emperor habitually wore; the purple-striped toga and tunic; and the
scarlet senatorial shoes.

The ceremonies of the inauguration naturally tended in process of
time to develope. The election by the Senate, as has been remarked,
became more and more of a form, and new customs gradually came into
being. A considerable developement is noticeable in the account of
the inauguration of Julian, though the whole ceremony in his case was
under the circumstances somewhat informal and makeshift. It is the army
which elects him. In spite of his protests he is acclaimed as Emperor;
he is then elevated on a shield; and finally he is crowned, a torque
serving temporarily to represent the diadem. Afterwards, we are told,
he assumed a gorgeous diadem at Vienne[9]. The elevation on a shield,
which henceforward always occurs in the inauguration ceremonies, appears
for the first time at Julian’s accession to the imperial throne. It
was a custom followed among the Teutonic tribes[10], and was doubtless
introduced by the Teutonic soldiers who formed so important a part of the
Roman armies at this time. The diadem, which is of oriental origin, was
perhaps introduced by Aurelian. It seems to have been habitually used by
Constantine, and there was a gradual advance during this period in the
matter of ceremonial and the sumptuousness of the imperial vestments.

There is no sign, for some time after the acceptance of Christianity as
the religion of the Empire, of any Christian influence on the rites of
inauguration. It is not until the time of the Emperor Leo I that we meet
with the coronation rite in the religious sense of the term. In the year
457 the Emperor Leo I was formally crowned and invested as Emperor with
religious rites. Constantine Porphyrogenitus[11], to whom we owe so much
of our knowledge of the court functions and ceremonial of the Byzantine
period, describes the rite which took place at the accession of Leo.
The new Emperor, accompanied by the high officials of the Empire, went
down in state to the Hippodrome, in which was gathered together a vast
concourse of people. Here he ascended a lofty tribunal in view of all
the people and was greeted with acclamations. A _maniakis_ (apparently a
kind of fillet) is placed upon his head, and another in his hand, amid
the cheers of the people. Then under the cover of a _testudo_, raised by
the _candidati_, he is arrayed in the imperial vestments, and so shews
himself to the people, with the diadem on his head and the imperial
shield and spear in his hands. He is thereupon greeted with the ritual
formula, _Mighty and victorious and august, prosperously, prosperously.
Many years, Leo Augustus, thou shalt reign. God will keep this realm, God
will keep this Christian realm_, and other such things. The Emperor then
makes a speech to the people, and promises the customary Donative.

Nicephorus, Theodore the Reader, and Theophanes, assert that Leo was
elected by the Senate, and that the diadem was set upon his head by the
Patriarch Anatolius[12], but Constantine does not make any reference to
any act of coronation by the Patriarch, and does not mention him at all,
except as being among the high officials who accompanied the Emperor to
the Hippodrome. Evidently as yet the Patriarch took no very public or
prominent part in the ceremonial.

We are told more, however, in connection with the inauguration of the
Emperor Anastasius I in 491[13]. On the death of Zeno, the choice of his
successor to the Empire was left in the hands of the Empress Ariadne.
The Senate summoned the Patriarch to exhort her to make a worthy choice,
and she chose as Emperor Anastasius the Silentiary. After the funeral
of Zeno, Anastasius takes up his position before the portico of the
great Triclinium and the magistrates and Senate require of him an oath
that he will retain no private grudge against anyone, and that he will
rule the Empire well and justly. The Patriarch Euthymius then demands
an oath in writing[14] that he will make no change in the Faith or
Church, and that he shall sign the Chalcedonian dogmas. Anastasius then
proceeds to the Hippodrome and enters the triclinium from which the
Emperor is wont at race times to receive the adoration of the Senate.
He is clothed in the golden-striped Dibetesion (a tunic reaching to the
knees), girdle, greaves, and royal buskins, his head being uncovered.
The military standards are in the meanwhile lying on the ground, to
signify, apparently, the vacancy of the throne. The people acclaim him,
he is raised on a shield, and a campiductor places a torque about his
head. This last is perhaps a perpetuation of the makeshift coronation
of Julian with a military torque. The standards are then lifted up, and
people and soldiery together acclaim the Emperor. The Emperor re-enters
the triclinium, and is invested with the regalia. The Patriarch says a
prayer which is followed by the _Kyrie eleeson_, and then the Patriarch
invests the Emperor with the imperial chlamys (the purple robe), and
sets a gorgeous crown upon his head. After this the Emperor goes to the
Kathisma and shews himself to the people, who greet him with the cry
_Auguste_, Σεβαστέ. The Emperor then proceeds to address the people in a
special ritual formulary, a book containing which is put into his hand
for the purpose.

EMPEROR. _It is manifest that human power depends on the will of the
supreme Glory._

PEOPLE. _Abundance to the world! As thou hast lived, so rule. Incorrupt
rulers for the world!_ and so on.

EMP. _Since the most serene Augusta Ariadne with the assent of the
illustrious nobles and by the election of the glorious Senate and mighty
armies, and the consent of the sacred people, have advanced me, though
unwilling and hesitating, that I should assume the care of the Empire of
the Romans, agreeably to the clemency of the Divine Trinity...._

PEO. _Kyrie eleeson. Son of God, have mercy upon him. Anastasie Auguste,
tu vincas! God will keep the pious Emperor. God gave thee, God will keep
thee!_ and so on.

EMP. _I am not ignorant how great a weight is laid upon me for the common
safety of all._

PEO. _Worthy of the Empire! Worthy of the Trinity! Worthy of the City.
Out with the informers._ (This last is doubtless an unauthorised

EMP. _I pray Almighty God that as ye hoped me to be, in this common
choice of yours, so ye may find me to be in the conduct of affairs._

PEO. _He in whom thou believest will save thee. As thou hast lived, so
reign. Piously hast thou lived, piously reign. Ariadne, thou conquerest!
Many be the years of the Augusta! Restore the army, restore the forces.
Have mercy on thy servants. As Marcian reigned, so do thou_ ... (and much
more to the same effect).

EMP. _Because of the happy festival of our Empire, I will bestow 5 solidi
and a pound of silver on each man._

PEO. _God will keep the Christian Emperor. These are the prayers of
all. These are the prayers of the whole world. Keep, O Lord, the pious
Emperor. Holy Lord, raise up thy world. The fortune of the Romans
conquers. Anastasius Augustus, thou conquerest! Ariadne Augusta, thou
conquerest! God hath given you, God will keep you._

EMP. _God be with you._

The Emperor then proceeds to the church of St Sophia and lays aside his
crown in the Mutatorium, and it is deposited in the sanctuary. He then
offers his gifts, and returning to the Mutatorium reassumes his crown,
and thence returns to the palace.

In the account which he gives of the inauguration of Leo the Younger
in 474[15], Constantine illustrates the ceremonies observed at the
inauguration of one associated in the Empire during his father’s lifetime.

The reigning Emperor, accompanied by the Senate and by the Patriarch
Acacius, proceeds to the Hippodrome, where the populace and soldiery
are already assembled. The Emperor standing before his throne begins
to address the troops, who pray him to be seated. Saluting the people
the Emperor seats himself and the concourse greeting him with cries of
‘Augustus,’ beseeches him to crown the new Emperor. The Magister and
Patricians then lead forward the Caesar, and place him on the Emperor’s
left hand. The Patriarch recites a prayer to which all answer ‘Amen.’
The Praepositus then hands a crown to the Emperor, who himself sets it
on the Caesar’s head, the people shouting ‘Prosperously, prosperously,
prosperously.’ The Emperor seats himself, while the new Emperor addresses
the people who greet him with shouts of ‘Augustus.’ The Eparch of the
city and the Senate come forward and present the new Emperor, according
to custom, with a _modiolon_, or crown of gold. Finally the Emperor
addresses the soldiery, and promises the usual Donative.

In these descriptions we still find a reminiscence of the old election by
the Senate, ratified by the soldiery and people. The military assent is
signified by the raising aloft on the shield, and by the imposition of
the military torque, which was retained as late as the time of Justin II.
Leo I also received a second torque in his right hand, which may perhaps
be identified with the second golden crown given to Leo II. The meaning
of this second crown is not clear, but Mr Brightman[16] has suggested
that it may represent authority to crown consorts in the Empire. The
acclamations evidently follow a fixed ritual, and the imperial speech is
a written document.

    We are told in these accounts of inaugurations something of
    the imperial insignia. The imperial tunic (στιχάρις διβητήσις
    αὐρόκλαβος, αὐρόκλαβον διβητήσιον) was of white, and when
    girded with the belt reached to the knees. The belt (ζωνάριον)
    was a cincture of gold jewelled. The gaiters (τουβία) were
    purple hose. The buskins (καμπάγια) were of crimson, with gold
    embroideries and rosettes. The purple paludamentum reached to
    the ankles, was apparelled with gold, and was fastened on the
    right shoulder with a jewelled morse. The diadem was a broad
    gold jewelled circlet with pendants over the ears.

It is to be noticed that the inauguration of an Emperor took place at
first in the Hippodrome. It is not until the days of Phokas (602) that
we find the ceremony being performed in a church. The Emperor Phokas was
crowned by the Patriarch Cyriacus in St John in the Hebdomon; Heraclius
(610) by the Patriarch in St Philip in the Palace; Heraclius II in
St Stephen in Daphne. The Empress, unless crowned with her consort or
father, was not crowned in church, and if crowned at all, the ceremony
was of a private and domestic nature and took place in the palace, the
Emperor himself setting the diadem upon the head of the Empress.

We have not much information as to the developement of the rite during
the seventh and eighth centuries. The following description is given by
Theophanes of the coronation of Constantine VI by his father Leo IV in

On Good Friday an oath of allegiance was taken to the new Emperor by all
classes in writing. On the Saturday the imperial procession went down to
St Sophia. There the Emperor, according to custom, arrayed himself in the
imperial vestments, and accompanied by his son and the Patriarch ascended
into the Ambo, the written oaths of allegiance being deposited on the
Holy Table. The Emperor informed the people that he had acceded to their
request, and had associated his son with himself in the Empire. ‘Lo, ye
receive him from the Church and from the hand of Christ.’ The people
respond, ‘Answer us, Son of God; for from thy hand we receive the Lord
Constantine as Emperor, to guard him and to die for him.’ On Easter Day
the Emperor proceeds to the Hippodrome, where an antiminsion (a portable
altar) having been set up, in the sight of all the people the Patriarch
recites a prayer, and the Emperor sets the crown on the head of his son.
Thereupon the procession returns to the Great Church.

In the tenth century we have from the pen of Constantine
Porphyrogenitus[18] a full description of the ceremonial of the
coronation of an Emperor, except for the actual prayers used. These
however can be found elsewhere, for there are extant two patriarchal
Euchologia belonging to this same period, one of the end of the eighth
century, the famous Barberini uncial codex, and the other the Grotta
Ferrata codex of the twelfth century[19]. These both contain the rite,
and it is noticeable that it is the same in both books, except for the
fact that the second includes the coronation of an Empress. The rite
therefore had remained unchanged from at least the end of the eighth
century until the twelfth.

The description given by Constantine is as follows.

The Emperor proceeds to the church of St Sophia and enters the
Horologion, and the veil being raised, passes into the Metatorion, where
he vests himself with the Dibetesion and the Tzitzakion (a mantle,
probably flowered), and over them the Sagion (a light cloak). Entering
the church with the Patriarch he lights tapers at the silver gates
between the narthex and the nave, and passes down the nave until he
comes to the platform before the sanctuary, which is called the Soleas.
Here before the Holy Doors leading through the Eikonostasis he prays and
lights more candles. The Emperor and the Patriarch then go up into the
Ambo, where the Chlamys or imperial robe, and the Stemma or crown, have
already been set out on a table. The Patriarch then says the ‘Prayer over
the Chlamys,’ and the chamberlains put it on the Emperor. The Patriarch
next says the ‘Prayer over the Crown,’ and at the end of it takes the
crown and sets it on the Emperor’s head, and the people cry _Holy, holy,
holy, Glory be to God on high and on earth peace_, three times; and then
acclaim him, _Many be the years of N., the great Emperor and Augustus_.

If it is the son of a reigning Emperor who is being crowned as an
associate Emperor, the Patriarch gives the crown into the hands of the
Emperor, who himself sets it on his son’s head, the people crying, _He is
worthy_, and the standards are dipped in obeisance.

After the Coronation the ‘Laudes’ follow.

CANTORS. _Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace._ The people
likewise thrice.

CANT. _Goodwill among Christian men._ The people likewise thrice.

CANT. _God has had mercy on his people._ The people likewise thrice.

CANT. _This is the great day of the Lord._ The people likewise thrice.

CANT. _This is the day of the life of the Romans._ The people likewise

CANT. _This is the joy and glory of the world._ The people likewise.

CANT. _On which the crown of the kingdom...._ The people likewise.

CANT. _... has worthily been set upon thy head._ The people likewise

CANT. _Glory be to God the Lord of all._ The people likewise.

CANT. _Glory be to God who hath crowned thy head._ The people likewise.

CANT. _Glory be to God who declared thee_ (τῷ ἀναδείξαντί σε) _Emperor._
The people likewise.

CANT. _Glory be to God who hath thus glorified thee._ The people likewise.

CANT. _Glory be to God who hath thus approved thee._ The people likewise.

CANT. _And He who hath crowned thee, N., with his own hand...._ The
people likewise.

CANT. _... will preserve thee long time in the purple._ The people

CANT. _With the consort Augustae and the Princes born in the purple._ The
people the same.

CANT. _Unto the glory and uplifting of the Romans._ The people the same.

CANT. _May God hear your people._ The people likewise.

CANT. _Many, many, many._

℟. _Many years, for many years._

CANT. _Long life to you, N N., Emperors of the Romans._

℟. _Long life to you._

CANT. _Long life to you, servants of the Lord._

℟. _Long life to you._

CANT. _Long life to you, N N., Augustae of the Romans._

℟. _Long life to you._

CANT. _Long life to you: prosperity to the sceptres._

℟. _Long life to you._

CANT. _Long life to you, N., crowned of God._

℟. _Long life to you._

CANT. _Long life to you, Lords, and to the Augustae, and to the Princes
born in the purple._

℟. _Long life to you._

The cantors proceed; _But the Creator and Lord of all things_, (the
people repeat) _who hath crowned you with his own hand_, (the people
repeat) _will multiply your years with the Augustae and the Princes born
in the purple_, (the people repeat) _unto the perfect stabiliment of the

Both choirs then chant _Many be the years of the Emperors_, etc., and
the Emperor descends, wearing the crown, into the Metatorion, and seated
upon his throne, the nobles come and do homage, kissing his knees. After
which the Praepositus says _At your service_, and they wish him _Many and
prosperous years_.

The Liturgy now proceeds, and the Emperor makes his Communion.

The ceremonial at the coronation of an Empress[20] was much the same as
that observed in the case of the Emperor. The coronation act, however,
was performed not by the Patriarch but by the Emperor himself. If the
Emperor was married after his accession, the whole ceremony of the
crowning of his consort took place immediately after the wedding, and not
publicly in the church of St Sophia, but as a private court function in
the Augusteum.

The Euchologia, as has been mentioned above, give the text of the prayers
used, which Constantine only indicates. They are as follows[21].

As the Emperor stands with bowed head with the Patriarch in the Ambo a
deacon says the Ectene or Litany.

The Patriarch then says the prayer over the Chlamys, secretly:

_O Lord our God, King of kings, and Lord of lords, who through Samuel the
prophet didst choose thy servant David, and didst anoint him to be king
over thy people Israel; hear now the supplication of us though unworthy,
and look forth from thy holy dwelling place, and vouchsafe to anoint with
the oil of gladness thy faithful servant N., whom thou hast been pleased
to establish as king over thy holy people which thou hast made thine own
by the precious blood of thine Only-begotten Son. Clothe him with power
from on high; set on his head a crown of precious stones; bestow on him
length of days; set in his right hand a sceptre of salvation; stablish
him upon the throne of righteousness; defend him with the panoply of
thy Holy Spirit; strengthen his arm; subject to him all the barbarous
nations; sow in his heart the fear of Thee, and feeling for his subjects;
preserve him in the blameless faith; make him manifest as the sure
guardian of the doctrines of thy Holy Catholic Church; that he may judge
thy people in righteousness, and thy poor in judgement, (and) save the
sons of those in want; and may be an heir of thy heavenly kingdom._ (He
goes on aloud) _For thine is the might, and thine is the kingdom and the
power. Amen._

The Patriarch then hands the Chlamys with its fibula to the Vestitores,
who array the Emperor in it. (If however it is the son, or daughter, or
the wife of an emperor who is to be crowned, the Patriarch hands the
vestment to the Emperor, who himself puts it on the person to be crowned.)

The Patriarch then says the ‘Prayer over the Crown.’

PATRIARCH. _Peace be to all._

DEACON. _Bow your heads._

PATRIARCH. _To Thee alone, King of mankind, has he to whom thou hast
entrusted the earthly kingdom bowed his neck with us. And we pray Thee,
Lord of all, keep him under thine own shadow; strengthen his kingdom;
grant that he may do continually those things which are pleasing to Thee;
make to arise in his days righteousness and abundance of peace; that in
his tranquillity we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness
and gravity. For Thou art the King of peace, and the Saviour of our souls
and bodies, and to Thee we ascribe glory. Amen._

The Patriarch then takes the crown from the table, and sets it on the
Emperor’s head, saying:

_In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost._

The Emperor is then communicated.

Here however there is apparently a disagreement between the Euchologia
and the account of Constantine Porphyrogenitus. The Barberini Euchologion
of the eighth century states that the Patriarch ‘celebrating the liturgy
of the Presanctified administers to him the lifegiving communion,’
and the Grotta Ferrata Euchologion of the twelfth century speaks of
the communicating the Emperor with the presanctified Sacrament, while
Constantine says nothing of the Emperor being communicated in the
reserved Sacrament, but implies that he was communicated in the ordinary
course of the Liturgy. It has been suggested by Mr Brightman[22]
that ‘the apparent discrepancy may be explained by supposing that
the ecclesiastical rubrics are drawn up on the assumption that the
Coronation will not necessarily be a festival with a Mass, while the
Court ceremonial assumes that it will be.’ He goes on to point out that
‘in ordinary cases of accession the coronation was generally performed
at once, festival or no festival: in the case of a consort, when the day
could be chosen, it was generally a festival.’

The Greek rite in its final development is found in the writings
attributed to Codinus Curopalates[23] (c. 1400).

[Illustration: The Emperor Nicephorus Botoniates in his imperial robes]

The Emperor proceeds to the church of St Sophia, and there makes his
profession of faith both in writing and orally, reciting the Nicene
Creed and declaring his adhesion to the seven Oecumenical Councils,
professing himself a servant and protector of the Church, and promising
to rule with clemency and justice. Then he proceeds to the triclinium
called the Thomaite[24], and medals are scattered among the people, and
he is raised aloft on a shield. He then proceeds once more to St Sophia,
where screened by a wooden screen erected for the purpose he is clothed
in the imperial vestments; the Sakkos (the dibetesion or dalmatic), and
the Diadema (girdle)[25], which have already been blessed by bishops. The
Liturgy is now begun, and before the Trisagion, at the Little Entrance,
the Patriarch enters the Ambo and summons the Emperor. There in the
Ambo the Patriarch recites the ‘Prayers composed for the anointing of
Emperors,’ part secretly and part aloud, and the Emperor having uncovered
his head, the Patriarch anoints him in the form of a cross saying, ‘He is
holy,’ the people repeating the words thrice. The Patriarch then sets the
crown on the Emperor’s head saying, ‘He is worthy,’ the people repeating
this also thrice. Thereupon the Patriarch again recites prayers,
doubtless the second prayer ‘To Thee alone.’ If however the Emperor
to be crowned is a consort, associated during his father’s lifetime,
the Patriarch gives the crown to the Emperor, who himself crowns his

If the Empress is to be crowned, she takes up her position in front of
the Soleas, and the Emperor receiving the already consecrated crown from
the Patriarch, himself sets it on her head.

The Emperor and Empress being now crowned, they go to their thrones, the
Emperor holding in his hand the Cross-sceptre; the Empress her Baion
or wand, both remaining seated except at the Trisagion, Epistle, and
Gospel. When the Cherubic Hymn is begun at the Great Entrance the chief
deacons summon the Emperor to the entrance of the Prothesis and he is
invested with the golden Mandyas (a vestment something like a cope)
over his Sakkos and Diadema, and so vested, holding in his right hand
the Cross-sceptre and in his left a Narthex or wand[26], he leads the
procession at the Great Entrance in virtue of his ecclesiastical rank as
Deputatus or Verger. He goes up to the Patriarch and salutes him, and is
then censed by the second deacon, who says, ‘The Lord God remember the
might of thy kingdom in his Kingdom, always, now and ever, and for ever
and ever,’ all the clergy repeating the words. The Emperor greets the
Patriarch, and putting off the mandyas returns to his throne, rising only
at the Creed, the Lord’s Prayer, and the Elevation. If he is not prepared
to communicate he remains seated until the end of the Liturgy. If however
he is prepared to communicate, he is escorted to the sanctuary by the
deacons, and censes the altar and the Patriarch, and is censed by the
Patriarch. Then committing his crown to the deacons he is communicated
after the manner of a priest. When he has made his communion, he
replaces his crown and returns to his throne. After the Liturgy is
over, he receives the Antidoron, and is blessed by the Patriarch and by
the bishops present, and kisses their hands. The choirs sing an anthem
called the ἀνατείλατε, and the Emperor is acclaimed by the people, and so
returns in procession to the palace.

In this account the most important feature is the explicit mention of the
unction. There is no definite allusion hitherto in any account to any
anointing in the Eastern rite, until the time of the intruding emperor
Baldwin I, who was crowned with a Latin rite in 1214.

In 1453 Constantinople was taken by the Turks, and the Greek Empire came
to an end. But the Greek coronation rite still survives, and is used in
the Russian tongue at the coronation of the Czars of Russia[27], who
regard themselves as the successors of the Greek Caesars.

The Russian Czar is crowned at Moscow in the Cathedral of the Assumption
(Uspenski Sobor). The imperial procession is met at the church door
by the Metropolitan, who blesses the Emperor and Empress with holy
water and censes them. Entering the church they make their devotions
and ascend to their thrones. The 101st Psalm is sung, after which the
Emperor is interrogated as to his belief, and recites in a loud voice
the Nicene Creed. Then is sung the hymn ‘O Heavenly King, O Paraclete,’
and after the Litany (Synapte) the hymn, ‘O Lord, save thy people’ is
sung thrice, and the lections follow at once; the Prophecy (Is. xlix.
13-19), the Epistle (Ro. xii. 1-7), and the Gospel (Matt. xxii. 15-22).
The Emperor now assumes the purple robe, assisted by the Metropolitan
who says, ‘In the name of the Father,’ etc. The Emperor bares his head
and the Metropolitan making the sign of the cross over it and laying
on his hand recites the prayer, ‘O Lord our God’ (cp. p. 22), and then
the prayer of the Bowing of the head, ‘To Thee alone’ (cp. p. 23). The
Metropolitan now presents the Crown to the Emperor, who puts it on his
head, the Metropolitan saying, ‘In the name of the Father,’ etc., and
then proceeding to explain the symbolical meaning of the crown. Next the
Metropolitan gives the Sceptre into the Czar’s right hand and the Orb
into his left, saying, ‘In the name of the Father,’ etc., and explaining
the symbolical meaning of these ornaments.

The Czar then seats himself on his throne and the Czarina is summoned.
The Czar takes off his Crown and with it touches the brow of the Czarina,
and then replaces it on his head. He then sets a smaller Crown on the
Czarina’s head, and she immediately assumes the purple robe and the Order
of St Andrew.

Thereupon the Archdeacon proclaims the titles of the Czar and Czarina,
and the clergy and the assembled company do homage by making three
obeisances to the Czar.

The Czar then gives the Sceptre and Orb to the appointed officers, and
kneeling down says a prayer for himself that he may worthily fulfil his
high office, after which the Metropolitan says a prayer on his behalf.
_Te Deum_ is sung and the Liturgy proceeds.

The Anointing takes place after the Communion hymn (κοινωνικόν). Two
bishops summon the Czar, who takes his stand near the Royal Gates, the
Czarina a little behind him, both in their purple robes, and there the
Czar is anointed on the forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, breast,
and on both sides of his hands by the senior Metropolitan, who says: ‘The
seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost.’ The Czarina is then anointed with
the same words, but on her forehead only.

After he has been anointed, the Czar is conducted through the Royal Gates
and receives the Holy Sacrament in both kinds separately, as if he were
a priest, and then are given the Antidoron and wine with warm water, and
water to wash his mouth and hands. The Czarina is communicated in the
usual manner at the Royal Gates, and is given the Antidoron, wine, and

The Father Confessor reads before the imperial pair, who have returned
to their seats, the Thanksgiving for Communion. After the dismissal
the Archdeacon says the royal anthem, πολυχρόνιον, the choir repeating
thrice the last part, ‘Many years,’ and the clergy and laity then
present congratulate their Majesties, bowing thrice towards them. The
Metropolitan presents the cross for the Czar and Czarina to kiss, and the
imperial procession leaves the church.


A curious and unique variety of the Eastern rite survives to this day in

The Negus enters Axum in state, accompanied by his principal officers.
At a little distance from the church he alights, and his progress is
barred by a cord held across the road by young girls. Thrice they ask
him who he is, and at first he answers that he is King of Jerusalem, or
King of Sion, and at the third interrogation he draws his sword and cuts
the cord, the girls thereupon crying out that he verily is their king,
the King of Sion. He is met at the entrance of the church (or sometimes
apparently in a tent which is perhaps a moveable church)[29] by the Abuna
and the clergy, and enters to the accompaniment of music. He is anointed
by the Abuna with sweet oil, all the priests present singing psalms the
meanwhile. He is next invested with a royal mantle. Finally a crown of
gold and silver, in the shape of a tiara and surmounted by a cross, is
set on his head, and a naked sword denoting Justice is placed in his
hand. The liturgy is then celebrated, and the Negus receives the Holy
Sacrament. When he leaves the church the first chaplain ascends a lofty
place and proclaims to the people that N. has been made to reign, and the
assembly greet the new monarch with acclamations and good wishes, and
come forward in order to kiss his hand.

Unfortunately none of the forms of this rite are accessible. The chief
point of interest in it lies in the fact that the Negus is anointed.
In view of the obscurity which shrouds the history of Abyssinia during
the six centuries which followed the Arab conquest of Egypt it would
be precarious to say whence this rite with the accompanying anointing
was derived. It may have been an independent development in Abyssinia,
derived from the accounts of the anointing of kings found in the Old
Testament, more especially as many Judaising practices survive in



The Eastern rite was one and one only. There was only one monarch in the
East to be crowned, and therefore the rite was subject only to a natural
and internal development.

When, however, we turn to the history of the Western rite, we approach a
very much more intricate matter, for the contemporary western documents
give only general accounts and are not explicit as to details.

In the old Empire the coronation of the Emperor took place always
at Constantinople and never at Rome, and therefore the old rite was
essentially Eastern. When, however, the Neo-Roman Western Empire came
into existence, and Charlemagne was crowned at Rome on Christmas day 800,
there came into existence a Western Imperial rite. There is no record
of the forms used, nor do we even know for certain what took place on
that occasion, but we may perhaps presume that the Pope intended to
do what was proper on the occasion of the accession of an emperor,
and followed the Constantinopolitan ritual in outline, while it seems
probable that the actual prayers used were Roman compositions made for
the occasion. Here, at any rate, in the coronation of Charlemagne we have
the beginnings of the Roman Imperial rite.

But if the coronation of Charlemagne marks the origin of the Western
imperial rite, it does not mark the introduction into the West of the
rite of the consecration of a king, for such a rite had already been in
existence in Spain some two centuries before this time. Whether this
Spanish rite, which appears to have been well established in the seventh
century, was an independent religious developement of the ceremonies
which seem to have been observed at the inauguration of a new chieftain
among most of the northern peoples, or whether the idea of it was in any
way borrowed from Constantinople, there is not sufficient evidence to

The Spanish rite was, as has been said, well established in the seventh
century. In the canons of the sixth council of Toledo in 638 a reference
is made to the oath taken by a Spanish monarch. Julian Bishop of Toledo
in his _Historia Wambae_[30] gives a short description of the anointing
of King Wamba, at which he himself was present in 672, and in his account
speaks of the customs observed on such occasions. It is then abundantly
clear that a consecration ceremony was observed at the accession of the
kings of Spain some two centuries before the rite of the coronation was
introduced at Rome.

But not only in Spain did such a rite exist before the introduction of
the imperial rite at Rome. It is found in existence in the eighth century
in France, and probably it was used there before this date. We read how
the first of the Carolingian kings sought the official recognition of
his dynasty from the Church, and that in response to his appeal Pope
Zacharias, ‘lest the order of Christendom should be disturbed, by his
apostolic authority ordered Pippin to be created king and to be anointed
with the unction of holy oil[31].’ He was accordingly consecrated in 750
by St Boniface, on which occasion we are told that he was elected king
according to the custom of the Franks[32]; and to make assurance doubly
sure he was a second time consecrated by Pope Stephen himself, who came
over the Alps for the purpose and ‘confirmed Pippin as king with the holy
unction, and with him anointed his two sons Carl and Carloman to the
royal dignity[33].’

For England, if we leave out of consideration the Pontifical of Egbert,
which cannot be ascribed to Egbert with any confidence, and of which the
date is uncertain, we have only scanty evidence of the existence of
any coronation ceremony before the tenth century, though we read of two
isolated instances in which, in Northumbria and in Mercia, under special
circumstances, kings are said to have been ‘consecrated’ during the
eighth century[34].

There remains the fact, then, that in Spain in the seventh century it was
the custom to consecrate the Visigothic kings with unction, and a similar
practice appears in France during the eighth century in connection
with the new dynasty inaugurated by Pippin. For England the evidence
is slight, though we read of kings being consecrated in two isolated
instances. This evidence is earlier in date than the period at which the
exigencies of the Roman Empire called an imperial rite into existence at
Rome. Thus there were in the West two separate and distinct introductions
of the consecration rite, the first into the Visigothic kingdom of Spain
from which, in all probability, the Frankish and Anglo-Saxon rites were
derived; the second in Rome on the occasion of the renaissance of the
Western Empire. About the end of the ninth century these two rites began
to influence one another, and from the Roman rite of the coronation of an
Emperor a Roman rite of the coronation of a King was produced.

In the consideration of the different Western rites and their
developements, perhaps the method most convenient to follow is, first to
treat of the imperial rite, and then of the royal. Though this method has
its disadvantages from the point of view of the interaction of the two
rites upon each other, yet on the whole it is the simplest and clearest
way of treating the many varieties of rite that accumulated in process of


There seems to be no evidence of the existence of any coronation rite
among the Britons. Gildas is sometimes quoted as evidencing the existence
of a British rite. He says as follows; ‘Kings were anointed, and not by
God, but such as stood out more cruel than other men; and soon they would
be butchered, not in accordance with the investigation of the truth, for
others more cruel were chosen in their place[35].’ It is plain that this
language is merely metaphorical.

There is a passage occurring in Adamnan’s life of St Columba which is
more to the point[36]. It speaks of an ‘ordination’ (_ordinatio_) of King
Aidan by the saint. ‘And there (i.e. in Iona) Aidan coming to him in
those same days he ordained (_ordinavit_) as king, as he had been bidden.
And among the words of ordination he prophesied things to be of his sons
and grandsons. And laying his hands upon his head, ordaining him, he
blessed him.’

I do not think that this occurrence can be regarded in any sense of the
word as a consecration of Aidan. It appears to be nothing more than a
very solemn blessing. The word _Ordinatio_ is curious, but it is probably
referring to the laying on of the hand in benediction.



The Western coronation rite came into existence on the foundation of
the Neo-Roman or Holy Roman Empire by Charlemagne. The rite by which he
was crowned was evidently regarded as the equivalent to that used at
Constantinople, for the contemporary accounts claim that the ceremony was
carried out ‘more antiquorum.’

The two earliest accounts of the coronation of Charlemagne agree closely
but give only scanty details. The _Chronicle of Moissac_[37] describes
the event thus. ‘Now on the most holy day of the Nativity of the Lord,
when the king arose from prayer at Mass before the tomb of the blessed
apostle Peter, Leo the Pope with the counsel of all the bishops and
priests and the Senate of the Franks and also of the Romans, set a golden
crown on his head, in the presence also of the Roman people, who cried:
“To Charles the Augustus crowned of God, great and pacific Emperor of
the Romans, life and victory.” And after the Laudes had been chanted by
the people, he was also adored by the Pope after the manner of the former

Very much the same is the account given by the _Liber Pontificalis_[38].
‘After these things, the day of the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ
arriving, they were all again gathered together in the aforesaid basilica
of the blessed Apostle Peter. And then the venerable and beneficent
pontiff with his own hands crowned him with a most precious crown. Then
all the faithful Romans, seeing the great care and love he had towards
the holy Roman Church and its Vicar, unanimously with loud voice cried
out, by the will of God and the blessed Peter, key-bearer of the kingdom
of the heavens, “To Charles, the most pious Augustus crowned of God,
great and pacific Emperor of the Romans, life and victory.” Before the
sacred tomb of the blessed Apostle Peter, invoking many saints[39],
thrice was it said; and he was constituted by all Emperor of the Romans.
In the same place the most holy priest and pontiff anointed with holy
oil Charles, his most noble son, as king, on that same day of the
Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ.’

The forms by which Charlemagne was crowned have not survived and we
have only such short descriptions as these as to what took place, and a
comparison in other cases of such descriptions with the rites actually
used warns us how precarious it is to rely too much on the accounts even
of eyewitnesses.

In the two accounts given above it will be noticed that the _Chronicle of
Moissac_ seems to desire to keep up the old fiction of a constitutional
election when it speaks of the coronation as taking place ‘with the
counsel of all the bishops and priests, and the Senate of the Franks and
also of the Romans’; and also some sort of recognition by the people
seems to be implied by the statement of the _Liber Pontificalis_ that
Charlemagne ‘was constituted by all Emperor of the Romans.’

Einhard[40], in his _Life of Charles_, expressly states that Charles had
no idea beforehand of the intention of the Pope to crown him as Emperor,
and that if he had known he would not have entered St Peter’s on that
eventful Christmas Day. But the words of the _Chronicle of Moissac_
certainly imply that it was a prearranged thing, and if Charlemagne was
really taken by surprise, it was probably the method of the coronation,
at the hands of the Pope, which constituted the surprise. The occurrence
of the Laudes need not present any difficulties to the view that the
whole affair was unexpected, for as we have seen they were a familiar
part of great public functions, and it is possible that the people were
led on such occasions by official cantors, as we know was the practice at

But the most important question connected with Charlemagne’s coronation
is, Was Charles anointed? There is no reference whatever to any anointing
in the contemporary accounts of the _Chronicle of Moissac_ and the _Liber
Pontificalis_, nor yet in other almost contemporary matter such as the
verses of the _Poeta Saxo_[41], or the _Chronicle of Regino_[42]. To this
must be added the fact, inconclusive in itself, that there is no mention
of any unction in the earliest extant Order of the Western imperial rite,
that of the Gemunden Codex. On the other hand it is expressly stated by a
contemporary eastern historian, Theophanes, that Charlemagne was anointed
‘from head to foot[43],’ and this statement is repeated by a later Greek
writer of the twelfth century, Constantine Manasses, who adds, ‘after the
manner of the Jews[44].’

If Charlemagne was not anointed but only crowned by the Pope, then his
coronation was strictly in accordance with the rite of Constantinople,
for it is probable that there was no unction in the Eastern rite at this
date, and thus the Western rite on its first introduction into the West
would be similar in its outstanding feature to the Eastern rite.

Of course the use of an unction at the consecration of a king had long
been the central feature of the Western rite of the consecration of a
_King_. But it must be borne in mind that Charlemagne was here being
crowned as Roman Emperor, and that he had been anointed as King of the
Franks on the occasion long ago of his father Pippin’s anointing as
Frankish King at the hands of Pope Stephen. Moreover it is added in
the _Liber Pontificalis_ that after the coronation of Charlemagne as
Emperor, the Pope anointed his son Charles as King. Duchesne finds here
the explanation of the statement of Theophanes that Charlemagne was
anointed, and thinks that he has confused the two events which took place
on the same occasion, the coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor, and the
anointing of the younger Charles as King.

It may be noticed, before we leave Charlemagne, that at the coronation
of his grandson Louis the Pious in 813 as associate in the Empire,
he himself crowned Louis with his own hands, thus following exactly
the Eastern precedent in such a case. It may be that here we have the
explanation of the alleged dissatisfaction and surprise of Charlemagne
at his coronation on Christmas Day, 800. He may have intended to crown
himself instead of being crowned by the Pope.


The earliest Roman forms used at the coronation of an Emperor are found
in the Gemunden Codex, and constitute Martène’s Ordo III[45]. This rite
is very early, being of the ninth century, and it is possible that with
some such forms as these Charlemagne himself was crowned.

The rite begins with a short prayer for the Emperor: _Exaudi Domine
preces nostras et famulum tuum illum_, etc., and then follows at once
the prayer _Prospice Omnipotens Deus serenis obtutibus hunc gloriosum
famulum tuum illum_, etc., at the end of which the Emperor is crowned
with a golden crown with the words, _Per eum cui est honor et gloria per
infinita saecula saeculorum. Amen._ Next follows the _Traditio Gladii_,
with the form _Accipe gladium per manus episcoporum licet indignas, vice
tamen et auctoritate sanctorum Apostolorum consecratas tibi regaliter
impositum, nostraeque benedictionis officio in defensione sanctae
ecclesiae divinitus ordinatum; et esto memor de quo Psalmista prophetavit
dicens: Accingere gladio super femur tuum potentissime, ut in hoc per
eundem vim aequitatis exerceas_.

The Laudes[46] are then chanted.

CANTORS. _Exaudi Christe._

R. _Domino nostro illi a Deo decreto summo Pontifici et universali Papae

C. _Exaudi Christe._

R. _Exaudi Christe._

C. _Salvator mundi._

R. _Tu illum adiuva._

C. _Exaudi Christe._

R. _Domino nostro illi Augusto, a Deo coronato magno et pacifico
imperatori vitam._

C. _Sancta Maria_ (thrice).

R. _Tu illum adiuva._

C. _Exaudi Christe._

R. _Tuisque praecellentissimis filiis regibus vitam._

C. _Sancte Petre_ (thrice).

R. _Tu illos adiuva._

C. _Exaudi Christe._

R. _Exercitui Francorum, Romanorum, et Teutonicorum vitam et victoriam._

C. _Sancte Theodore_ (thrice).

R. _Tu illos adiuva._

C. _Christus vincit, Christus regnat, Christus imperat._ (Twice, and _R._
the same.)

C. _Rex regum, Christus vincit, Christus regnat._ (_R._ the same.)

Here follow a series of acclamations.

_Rex noster Christus vincit, Christus regnat. Spes nostra Christus
vincit. Gloria nostra Christus vincit. Misericordia nostra Christus
vincit. Auxilium nostrum Christus vincit. Fortitudo nostra Christus
vincit. Victoria nostra Christus vincit. Liberatio et redemptio nostra
Christus vincit. Victoria nostra Christus vincit. Arma nostra Christus
vincit. Murus noster inexpugnabilis Christus vincit. Defensio nostra et
exaltatio Christus vincit. Lux, via, et vita nostra Christus vincit. Ipsi
soli imperium, gloria, et potestas per immortalia saecula, Amen. Ipsi
soli virtus, fortitudo, et victoria per omnia saecula saeculorum, Amen.
Ipsi soli honor, laus, et iubilatio per infinita saecula saeculorum,

In conjunction with this rite Martène gives another very close to it
but differing in some respects. The form at the crowning is different,
_Accipe coronam a Domino Deo tibi praedestinatam. Habeas, teneas,
possideas, ac filiis tuis post te in futurum ad honorem, Deo auxiliante,
derelinquas._ Then follows at once the prayer _Deus Pater aeternae
gloriae_. The Collect is given of the Mass, _Deus regnorum_. It is to be
noted that the earliest Milanese rite[47] of the coronation of a king,
of the ninth century, is almost identical with this rite of the Gemunden


What may be regarded as a second recension of the Roman rite is the Order
of the Coronation of an Emperor given in Hittorp’s Ordo Romanus[48].
This is of the tenth or eleventh century. It differs considerably from
the last recension, and is more fixed and definite in character, but is
still definitely Roman.

First the Emperor takes the oath as follows: _In nomine Christi promitto,
spondeo, atque polliceor ego N. imperator coram Deo et beato Petro
apostolo, me protectorem ac defensorem esse huius ecclesiae sanctae
Romanae in omnibus utilitatibus in quantum divino fultus fuero adiutorio,
secundum scire meum ac posse._

As he enters St Peter’s the Cardinal Bishop of Albano meets him at the
silver door, and recites the prayer, _Deus in cuius manu corda sunt
regum_, a new form. Inside the church the Cardinal Bishop of Porto
says the prayer _Deus inenarrabilis auctor mundi_, another new form,
and after the Litany has been said, before the Confessio of St Peter,
the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia anoints the Emperor on the right arm and
between the shoulders with the oil of catechumens, using the form _Domine
Deus Omnipotens cuius est omnis potestas_—again another new form, which
however is found in the rite by which Pope John VIII crowned Louis II of
France at Troyes in 877. The Pope then crowns the Emperor, using one of
three forms which are given, _Accipe signum gloriae in nomine Patris_,
etc., or (alia) _Accipe coronam a Domino Deo praedestinatam_, or (alia)
with the prayer _Deus Pater aeternae gloriae_.


A third recension of the Roman rite may be seen in a group of orders of
the twelfth century, that of the Pontifical of Apamea[49], the Order of
the Pontifical of Arles[50], and Ordo III of Waitz[51]. It must be borne
in mind that the rite was in a continual process of developement in all
lands, and therefore however convenient it may be to trace its history
by means of recensions, yet these ‘recensions’ must be to some extent
arbitrary, and indeed even in a group chosen to illustrate any given
recension the documents vary to some extent from each other.

The second of the orders mentioned above was that by which the Emperor
Frederick I was crowned in 1155.

The Emperor first takes the oath on the Gospels in the church of St
Mary in Turri to defend the Roman Church; thither he is attended by two
archbishops or bishops of his own realm, and thence he proceeds to St
Peter’s, where he is met at the entrance by the Bishop of Albano, who
says the prayer _Deus in cuius manu_. Inside the church the Bishop of
Porto says the prayer _Deus inenarrabilis auctor mundi_. The Emperor
then goes up into the choir, and the Litany is said, he lying prostrate
the while before the altar of St Peter. The Litany over, he is anointed
by the Bishop of Ostia on the right arm and between the shoulders,
before the altar of St Maurice. The three orders do not quite agree in
the prayers of consecration. In the two orders of Martène the prayer
of anointing is _Domine Deus cuius est omnis potestas_, or _Deus Dei
Filius_, this latter perhaps a non-Roman form, and here first found in
the Roman rite. In the Ordo of Waitz the consecration prayer is _Deus
qui es iustorum gloria_, the unction being made at the words _Accende,
quaesumus, cor eius ad amorem gratiae tuae per hoc unctionis oleum, unde
unxisti sacerdotes_, etc., followed by _Domine Deus omnipotens cuius
est_, etc. Then the Pope sets the crown on his head, with the form (M.
VIII and W.) _Accipe signum gloriae_, W. also adding the prayer _Coronet
te Deus_.

M. VI is more developed here. After the anointing the Pope gives the
Emperor the sword at the altar of St Peter, _Accipe gladium imperialem
ad vindictam quidem malorum_, etc., and kisses him; he then girds the
sword on him with the words _Accingere gladio tuo super femur_, etc.,
and kisses him; and the Emperor brandishes it and then returns it to its
sheath. Then the sceptre is delivered with the words _Accipe sceptrum
regni, virgam videlicet virtutis_; and finally the Pope crowns him,
saying: _Accipe signum gloriae_, and once more kisses him. The Teutons
then chant the _Laudes_ in their own tongue, and Mass is celebrated.

The rite is still simple at this period, but two developements in the
ceremonial have taken place. The Emperor from this time forward takes
the oath in the church of St Mary in Turri; and is no longer anointed
before the Confessio of St Peter, but in the chapel of St Maurice, no
one henceforth being anointed before the Confessio but the Pope at his


The account given by Robert of Clary[53] of the coronation of the first
Latin Emperor of Constantinople, Baldwin of Flanders, in 1204, shews it
to have been a purely Western ceremony.

The Emperor accompanied by the clergy and nobles went in procession from
the imperial palace to the church of St Sophia. Here he was arrayed
in his royal vesture in a chamber specially prepared for him. He was
anointed kneeling before the altar, and was then crowned by all the
bishops. There is no mention of any other investiture, though the sword,
sceptre, and orb are all referred to. Finally he was enthroned holding
the sceptre in his right hand and the orb in his left, and Mass was

The account given by Robert is very meagre, but the rite described is
clearly Western, and apparently one very similar to the third recension
of the Roman rite.


The end of the twelfth century is marked by a further developement in
the rite contained in the _Liber Censuum_ of Cardinal Cenci[54]. This
particular rite was probably used at the coronation of Henry VI and the
Empress Constantia by Pope Celestine III in 1191[55].

The Emperor and Empress go in procession to St Mary in Turri, the choir
singing _Ecce mitto angelum_, and there the Emperor takes the oath to
defend the Roman Church. The oath has become longer and the Emperor
swears fealty to the Pope and to his successors and that he will be a
defender of the Roman Church[56], and kisses the Pope’s foot. The Pope
gives him the Peace, and the procession sets out to St Peter’s, singing
_Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel_. At the silver door of St Peter’s the
Bishop of Albano meets the Emperor and recites the prayer _Deus in cuius
manu sunt corda regum_. As the Pope enters the Responsory _Petre amas
me_ is sung. Then under the Rota the Pope puts to the Emperor a series
of questions concerning his faith and duty, and while the Pope retires
to vest, the Bishop of Porto recites the prayer _Deus inenarrabilis
auctor mundi_. Next the Emperor is vested in the chapel of St Gregory
with amice, alb and girdle, and is led to the Pope, who ‘facit eum
clericum,’ and he is thereupon vested with tunic, dalmatic, pluviale,
mitre, buskins, and sandals. The Bishop of Ostia then proceeds to the
silver door, where the Empress has been waiting, and recites the prayer
_Omnipotens aeterne Deus fons et origo bonitatis_, and she is then led
to St Gregory’s altar to await the Pope’s procession. The Pope proceeds
to the Confessio of St Peter and Mass is begun. After the Kyrie the
Litany is said by the archdeacon, the Emperor and Empress lying prostrate
the while. The Emperor is then anointed (apparently before the altar
of St Maurice)[57] by the Bishop of Ostia with the oil of exorcism on
the right arm and between the shoulders with the prayer _Dominus Deus
Omnipotens cuius est omnis potestas_, followed by the prayer (once an
alternative) _Deus Dei Filius_. The benediction of the Empress follows,
_Deus qui solus habes immortalitatem_, and she is anointed on the breast
with the form _Spiritus Sancti gratia humilitatis nostrae officio
copiosa descendat_, etc. The Pope, the anointing over, descends to
the altar of St Maurice, on which the crowns have been deposited, and
delivers a ring to the Emperor with the form _Accipe anulum signaculum
videlicet sanctae fidei_, etc., followed by a short prayer, _Deus cuius
est omnis potestas_, a much shortened form of the prayer already used
at the anointing; next the sword is girt on with the form _Accipe hunc
gladium cum dei benedictione tibi collatum_, and the prayer _Deus qui
providentia_; and he crowns the Emperor with the form _Accipe signum
gloriae_, etc. The Empress is then crowned with the form _Accipe coronam
regalis excellentiae_, etc. The Pope delivers the sceptre to the Emperor
with the form _Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis, virgam scilicet rectam
regni, virgam virtutis_, etc., followed by the prayer _Omnium Domine fons
bonorum_. Then at the altar of St Peter the _Gloria in excelsis_ is sung,
and the special collect _Deus regnorum omnium_ follows. The _Laudes_ are
now sung and then the Mass proceeds, the Emperor offering bread, candles,
and gold; and the Emperor offering wine, the Empress the water for the
chalice. Both communicate, and on leaving St Peter’s the Emperor swears,
at three different places, to maintain the rights and privileges of the
Roman people.

The most noticeable thing in this recension is the appearance of the
investiture with the ring, which comes from non-Roman sources and
disappears again in the next recension.


In the fourteenth century further developements appear. The order
used at the coronation of Henry VII[58], and the Ordo Romanus XIV of
Mabillon[59], may be taken as representative of this period.

The oath is slightly varied. It is made, as usual, in the church of St
Mary in Turri, where the Emperor is received by the canons as a brother
canon, and the Emperor swears that he will be the protector of the
Roman Church, but does not swear fealty to the Pope and his successors
as in the preceding recension. In St Peter’s the Bishops of Albano and
Porto say their accustomed prayers, and the Litany is said before St
Peter’s altar. Then the Bishop of Ostia, before the altar of St Maurice,
anoints the Emperor on the right arm and between the shoulders with the
prayers _Domine Deus Omnipotens cuius est omnis potestas_ and _Deus Dei
Filius_. After the anointing the Pope kisses the Emperor ‘sicut unum
ex diaconibus’ and Mass is begun at the altar of St Peter, the collect
_Deus regnorum omnium_ being said after the collect for the day. After
the gradual the Pope first sets a mitre on the Emperor’s head, and then
crowns him with the form _Accipe signum gloriae_: the Sceptre and Orb
are then delivered, though no forms of delivery are given, and lastly
the Sword is delivered with the form _Accipe gladium ad vindictam_,
etc., a longer form than hitherto used containing the words ‘per nostras
manus, licet indignas, vice tamen et auctoritate beatorum apostolorum
consecratas imperialiter tibi concessum,’ and girt on with the words
_Accingere gladio tuo super femur_, etc., and the Emperor thereupon
kisses the Pope’s feet. After the gradual the Laudes are sung. At the
offertory the Emperor offers first gold, and then acting as sub-deacon
(more subdiaconi) offers the chalice and water-cruet to the Pope.

The Empress is met at the entrance of St Peter’s and the prayer
_Omnipotens sempiterne Deus fons et origo_, etc., is there said. When the
Empress has been crowned she is brought to the Pope, who, after reciting
the prayer _Deus qui solus habes immortalitatem_, anoints her with the
form _Spiritus Sancti gratia_, this form being longer than in the last
recension. Then he places the mitre on her head ‘ita quod cornua mitrae
sint a dextris et a sinistris,’ and finally crowns her with the form
_Officio nostrae indignitatis in imperatricem solemniter benedicta accipe
coronam imperialis excellentiae_, etc.

After the Communion it is added that the Pope may, if he wish, say the
prayers _Prospice, quaesumus, Domine Omnipotens Deus serenis obtutibus_,
_Benedic, Domine, quaesumus, hunc principem_, or (alia) _Deus Pater
aeternae gloriae_, all of which occur in earlier Roman rites.


The final recension of the Roman rite appears in the Pontifical of
1520[60]. There is very little difference between this and the last
recension. It is mentioned that the Emperor is clad in surplice and
almuce at his reception as a canon at St Mary in Turri. The old
privileges of the Cardinal bishops of Albano, Porto, and Ostia have
passed away, and any Cardinal bishop may officiate in their place. The
order of the investitures is different, first the delivery of the Sword,
which the Emperor thrice brandishes after it has been girt on him;
secondly the Sceptre and Orb, which are delivered, the Orb in his right
hand and the Sceptre in his left, under one form, _Accipe virgam virtutis
atque veritatis_; lastly the Crown, after which the Emperor kisses the
Pope’s feet. The Empress is crowned as before. At the offertory the
Emperor serves the Pope as a sub-deacon. After the Communion the Emperor
kisses the Pope’s cheek and the Empress his hand, and the Pope can
say, if he wish, the three prayers allowed in this place in the last

[Illustration: The Emperor Charles V in his Coronation robes]

Here we leave the Roman imperial rite at the last stage of its
developement. It may be noted that the Roman Emperor was three times
crowned; first at Aachen, later sometimes at Frankfort, as King of the
Eastern Franks, or after the time of Henry II as King of the Romans[61];
secondly at Milan (or more often as a matter of fact at Monza) as King
of Italy or King of the Lombards; thirdly at Rome by the Pope as Roman
Emperor. Until he had been crowned at Rome he was only Imperator Electus
or Erwählter Kaiser. As a matter of fact no Emperor was crowned at Rome
after the time of Frederick III (1440), though Charles V was crowned as
Emperor at Bologna.




As we have seen, the coronation rite is found existing in the new
kingdoms of the West some two centuries before an imperial coronation
rite was called into existence in the West at the resuscitation of the
Empire by Charlemagne. In Spain the rite is found in use in the seventh
century, in Frankish lands it was already well established in the
eighth century, and in England a rite was used at the end of the same
century certainly on two occasions though under special and abnormal

In the ninth century a Roman rite for the coronation of a king came
into being, partly derived from the Roman imperial forms but largely
influenced also by the other existing royal rites. From this time there
was a continual reaction of the Roman and the national rites upon each
other, and it is safe to say that on no two occasions even in the same
country was the rite used in exactly the same form, so unceasing was the

The classifying of the different developements of the rite even of one
country is a work of considerable difficulty. The ‘Recensions’ by means
of which the developement of each rite is marked are, to a certain
extent, arbitrary, and simply mark periods at which the process of
developement has evolved definite changes. There is a vast number of
forms in existence, many of which were probably never used but simply
served to render the Pontificals in which they occur complete.

The history of the rite is most easy to follow in the older kingdoms of
England and France, in which both the monarchical and the national spirit
were most marked, and which accordingly were inclined to shew a somewhat
independent spirit towards the Papacy. Germany and Hungary were largely
influenced in their rite by the Roman, while those lands, such as the
Scandinavian kingdoms and Scotland, which emerged somewhat late from a
condition of semi-barbarity, only attained to the dignity of possession
of a coronation rite at a time when the prestige of things Roman was well
established, with the result that their rite appears to have been more or
less Roman.


There are six well-marked recensions of the English rite.

(1) The Order of the so-called Pontifical of Egbert.

(2) The so-called Order of Ethelred II.

(3) The Order of the twelfth century.

(4) The Order of the _Liber Regalis_, which lasted (in English from the
time of James I) until the reign of James II.

(5) The Order of James II.

(6) The Order of William and Mary, which with comparatively unimportant
changes has been used down to the present time.


The earliest form of the English rite is that which is found in the
so-called Pontifical of Egbert, Archbishop of York 732-766. Of this rite
Dom Cabrol[63] says that it is ‘sans doute le plus ancien qui existe.’
But the whole question of the date of this Pontifical, and its connection
with Egbert is one that much needs investigation, and in the absence of
any recent and thorough discussion of these points, it is precarious to
deal with this document as belonging to the eighth century.

As to the existence of a coronation rite among the Anglo-Saxons, we
find two allusions to a religious ceremony in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
at the end of the eighth century. Thus under the year 785 we are told
that Ecgferth, who was associated on the throne by his father Offa, was
in that year ‘hallowed as king[64]’ (to cyninge gehalgod). The same
authority speaks of the consecration of Eardwulf on his accession to the
Northumbrian throne in the year 795; ‘he was then consecrated and raised
to his throne’ (geblestod ⁊ to his cinestole ahofen). Eardwulf who was of
the old line of kings had been called to the throne after a usurpation.

Both these kings were, however, raised to the throne under peculiar
circumstances, and we cannot therefore regard this evidence as proof
that a coronation rite was definitely established in England by the end
of the eighth century because of these isolated instances occurring in
the two Saxon kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, all the more so as in
both cases it was the influence of the Church that set these kings on the
throne. We are also told by Asser a story of the consecration of Alfred
as king by Pope Leo IV at Rome, whither he had been sent by his father
Ethelwulf. This story is embellished and repeated by other writers[65],
who add that Alfred retained the regalia and vestments used at this Roman
coronation, and that they were preserved henceforward among the English
regalia. But a fragment of a letter from Pope Leo to Ethelwulf disposes
of this legend altogether, for in it he informs King Ethelwulf that he
has invested his son Alfred with the insignia of a Roman consul[66].
Asser makes no mention of any coronation of Alfred in England.

The Order then of the Pontifical of Egbert must be used with caution. All
that we can say with respect to its date is that a comparison between
it and the so-called Order of Ethelred, which is of the tenth century,
shews that the former is an earlier compilation than the latter, and much
simpler and less fixed in character.

The Order[67] is called _Benedictio super regem noviter electum_, and
the Mass into which it is inserted is called _Missa pro regibus in die
benedictionis_. The Mass collect is _Deus regnorum omnium et Christiani
maxime protector imperii, da servo tuo regi nostro N. triumphum virtutis
suae scienter excolere, ut cuius constitutione sunt principes eius semper
munere sint potestates_.

The Epistle is Lev. xxvi. 6-9, and the Gospel is that which is used in
the English rite to this day, Matt. xxii. 15-22. After the Gospel the
coronation service begins, and seven prayers are contemplated as being

1. _Te invocamus._

2. _Deus qui populis tuis_, or (alia)[68] _In diebus eius oriatur_.

3. _Deus electorum fortitudo._ This is the consecration prayer, and while
one bishop says it all the other bishops anoint the king on the head.
During the unction is sung the anthem _Unxerunt Salomonem_ and the Ps.
_Domine in virtute tua_.

4. A series of 15 benedictions, said probably by different bishops,
following the delivery of the Sceptre to the king: _Benedic Domine hunc
praesulem_, etc.

5. The Verge or baculus is delivered to the king with the form
_Omnipotens det tibi Deus de rore caeli_.

6. The crowning takes place. All the bishops set the Crown on the king’s
head with the prayer _Benedic Domine fortitudinem regis_. The people
immediately acclaim the king with the cry _Vivat rex N. in sempiternum_,
and the nobles salute him with a kiss[69].

7. The last prayer is _Deus perpetuitatis auctor_.

After this the Mass proceeds, and there is a special Preface. It is
noticeable that all the variable Mass prayers are Roman.

At the end of the rite there is appended a short charge on the three
chief duties of a king, _Rectitudo regis est noviter ordinati ... haec
tria praecepta populo Christiano sibi subdito praecipere_, namely to
secure the peace of Church and people, to repress violence and rapine,
and to be just and merciful. Probably in such words as these the king’s
oath ran. The oath in the next recension is in almost the same words, and
most of the prayers reappear later in other rites. There is no provision
made for the coronation of a Queen consort, just as in the Eastern rite
there is no provision made for the ceremonial crowning of the Empress.
But there seems to have been some prejudice among the Anglo-Saxons
against any very close association of the king’s consort with him on the
throne[70], apparently on account of the matrimonial irregularities of
which Saxon kings were guilty in common with most other Teutonic monarchs.

It is to be noticed that the crown is called the Galeus, a word which
recalls the περικεφάλαιον Καισαρίκιον of the Eastern Emperor. The Saxon
kings of later date called themselves βασιλεῖς. And in the charter of
Burgred and Aethelswyth, to which reference has already been made, one
of the regular Greek terms for the imperial crown is actually used ‘Ego
Burgred rex necnon ego Aethelswytha pari coronata stemma regali Anglorum
regina.’ These facts may possibly indicate the influence of the Eastern
Empire on the courts of the West, though they may simply illustrate the
Latin of the period.


The order that marks the second recension of the English rite, and which
is called the Order of King Ethelred, was in all probability that used at
the coronation of Edgar in 973.

In this second recension of the English rite every portion of the older
is represented but there is more solemnity. In the delivery of the
insignia there is a greater formality; and whereas the rite in ‘Egbert’s’
book is simply called _Benedictiones super regem_, in this order it is
called _Consecratio Regis_. Alternative forms are provided, and whereas
in ‘Egbert’ the rite is inserted into the Mass, in later recensions the
whole rite precedes the Mass.

As the king enters the church the anthem _Firmetur manus_ is sung. Then
the king prostrates himself before the altar during the singing of _Te
Deum_. After this the king takes the oath, which is the charge at the
end of ‘Egbert’s’ order transformed into a direct oath by a slight
alteration of the first few words[71]. Then is said _Te invocamus_,
(alia) _Deus qui populis_, (alia) _In diebus eius oriatur_. Here
probably the ‘alia’ means ‘or’ though it may mean ‘also.’ Now comes the
Consecratio, _Omnipotens sempiterne Deus creator ac gubernator_, (alia)
_Deus electorum fortitudo_, (item alia) _Deus Dei Filius_. Of these
three prayers the first is found in the rite used by Abp Hincmar at the
coronation of Louis II in 877, and also in the Ordo Romanus of Hittorp of
about the same date; the second is the consecration prayer of ‘Egbert’;
the third is an early Roman form, and is found in nearly all subsequent
rites. Then follows a new feature, the investiture with the Ring, with
the form _Accipe anulum signaculum videlicet sanctae fidei_ and the
prayer _Deus cuius est omnis potestas_, both of them found in Hittorp’s
Ordo Romanus. The king is then girt with the Sword with the form _Accipe
hunc gladium_, which is different from the Roman form, and now first
occurs, and the prayer _Deus qui providentia tua_, which also now first
appears, and is based on a collect in the Gregorian Sacramentary for use
in time of war. The king is crowned with the form _Coronet te Deus_,
which was used at the coronation of Charles the Bald at Metz in 869; and
the prayer _Deus perpetuitatis_ follows. The Sceptre is delivered with
the form _Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis_ followed by the prayer
_Omnium Domine fons bonorum_, both of which occur first here and in the
contemporary French order of Ratold. The Verge is then delivered with the
form _Accipe virgam virtutis atque aequitatis_[72], which first occurs
in the Ordo Romanus of Hittorp. A series of nine benedictions follows,
six of which occur in the orders of Charles the Bald (869) and Louis
II (877), and the last three in ‘Egbert’s’ rite. Finally the king is
enthroned with the form _Sta et retine_, a form which first occurs here
and in Ratold’s rite, followed by the blessings _Omn. det tibi Deus de
rore_, (_alia_) _Benedic Domine fortitudinem principis_, both of which
occur in the forms of ‘Egbert.’

The Mass prayers, which are different from those of ‘Egbert,’ are found
in the _Missa quotidiana pro rege_ of the Gregorian Sacramentary.

In this recension the coronation of the queen consort first occurs. She
is anointed on the head with the form _In nomine Patris ... prosit tibi
haec unctio olei in honorem_, etc., and the prayer _Omn. semp. Deus
affluentem spiritum_[73]. Both these forms here first occur. The Ring
is then given with the form _Accipe anulum fidei signaculum sanctae
Trinitatis_, and the prayer _Deus cuius est omnis potestas_ (which is
not the same prayer as that found elsewhere with the same beginning in
the coronation of a king), both of which appear now for the first time.
Lastly the queen is crowned with the form _Accipe coronam gloriae_,
and the prayer _Omnium Domine fons bonorum_; the second of which is
a shortened form of the corresponding prayer in the order for the
coronation of the king, while the former is a slightly different edition
of the form in Hittorp’s Ordo Romanus. It may be noted that the forms for
the coronation of a queen given in the order of Ratold, and forming the
second recension of the French rite, are almost identical with those of
the English recension.

The developement of the rite in this second recension is most marked, and
it is interesting to note that the same influences have been at work on
the French rite of this period, which is very close to the second English


In the twelfth century a third recension of the English rite[74] appears,
in which the rite has been subjected to a very considerable Roman
influence. The Ordo Romanus of Hittorp or some kindred order has been
followed to a large extent in preference to the old national order.

As the king enters the church the anthem _Firmetur manus_ is sung,
and the king lies prostrate before the altar during the Litany. The
introduction of the Litany is a new feature and Roman. After the Litany
the king takes the oath, _In Christi nomine promitto haec tria populo
Christiano_. A bishop then asks the people whether they accept the
Elect as king, _Si tali principi_, etc., and they answer _Volumus et
concedimus_. This recognition is a new formal feature, but informally
it had taken place long before, e.g. at the coronation of William I. It
also appears in the French order of Louis VIII, but disappears again from
the French rite later on. Then is said the prayer _Omn. aeterne Deus
creator omnium_, followed by a series of benedictions, the same as those
which follow the delivery of the sceptre in ‘Egbert,’ but in a shorter
form. Next is said the prayer _Deus ineffabilis auctor mundi_, which
is first found in the order by which Pope John VII crowned Louis II at
Troyes in 877. It occurs henceforward in practically every order, but
whereas the word _ineffabilis_ is always used in the English orders (and
the German Aachen order) elsewhere _inenarrabilis_ is always found. The
anointing is much more elaborate than heretofore; first the hands are
anointed _Unguantur manus istae_, etc., then follows the consecration
prayer (Roman) _Prospice omnipotens Deus_, after which the king is
anointed on head, breast, shoulders and bends of arms, _Unguantur caput
istud, pectus_, etc., and during the anointing the Responsory _Deum time_
is sung. This elaborate unction is identical with that prescribed in
Hittorp’s order, though the forms are not the same. After the anointing
is said _Deus Dei Filius_, (alia) _Deus qui es iustorum gloria_. The
investitures are then made; the Sword with the Roman form _Accipe
gladium per manus_, etc.; the Armills and the Pallium with forms now
first appearing, _Accipe armillas sinceritatis_, and _Accipe pallium_,
etc. Then comes the coronation, the crown being blessed with the prayer
_Deus tuorum corona_, and the king being crowned with the form _Coronet
te Deus_, which is first found at the coronation of Charles the Bald in
869. The prayer _Deus perpetuitatis_ follows the coronation. The ring is
given with the Roman form _Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum_; the sceptre
with the old form _Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis_, and the prayer
_Omnium Domine fons bonorum_; and lastly the verge with the old form. The
benedictions which follow are those contained in Hittorp’s order, and
finally the king is enthroned with the form _Sta et retine_.

The queen’s coronation follows in substance Hittorp’s order, while
retaining some of the features of the last English recension.

The first prayers _Omn. semp. Deus fons et origo_ and _Deus qui solus
habes_ both follow the Roman order. At the unction the Roman prayer
_Spiritus sancti gratia_ is found, while the actual form of anointing _In
nomine Patris_ and following, _Omn. semp. Deus affluentem_, etc., are
of the last English order. The ring is given with the old English form
slightly altered and the prayer _Deus cuius est omnis potestas_, also
from the English rite. There is the same benediction of the queen’s crown
as of the king’s, and she is crowned with the old form or (_alia_) the
Roman _Officio nostrae indignitatis_, and the rite ends with the English
_Omnium Domine fons bonorum_.


A fourth recension is that of the _Liber Regalis_[75], and was probably
the order used for the first time at the coronation of Edward II. This
recension, which represents the English rite in its most elaborate
form, returns in part to the second recension and combines it with the
Romanised rite of the last recension. This conflation renders it very
long. This fourth recension remained more or less unchanged until the
time of James II, although in English for James I onward.

The recognition takes place as a preliminary to the rite, and then
the rite begins with the anthem _Firmetur manus_ as in the last
recension, and the king makes his first oblation, and then is said a
prayer now first appearing, _Deus humilium visitator_, which is adapted
from a collect in the Gregorian sacramentary ‘in adventu fratrum
supervenientium.’ A sermon is now introduced, after which the king takes
the oath, no longer directly, but in answer to interrogations as in the
Roman rite. _Finito quidem sermone ... metropolitanus ... interroget, Si
leges et consuetudines ab antiquis iustis et Deo devotis regibus plebi
Anglorum concessas cum sacramenti confirmatione eidem plebi concedere et
servare voluerit; et praesertim leges, consuetudines, et libertates a
glorioso rege Edwardo clero populoque concessas._

The king promising that he will maintain these rights, the Archbishop
then puts to him the following questions:

_Servabis ecclesiae Dei cleroque et populo pacem ex integro et concordiam
in Deo secundum vires tuas?_ Resp., _Servabo_.

_Facies fieri in omnibus iudiciis tuis aequam et rectam iustitiam et
discretionem in misericordia et veritate secundum vires tuas?_ R.

_Concedis iustas leges et consuetudines esse tenendas, et promittis
eas per te esse protegendas, et ad honorem Dei roborandas quas vulgus
elegerit secundum vires tuas?_ R. _Concedo et promitto._

Then follows the bishops’ petition _Domine Rex a vobis perdonari_ and the
king’s promise to preserve the rights and privileges of the Church, which
is probably derived from the French rite. After this _Veni Creator_ is
sung, and then is said the old prayer _Te invocamus_—reintroduced into
the rite—and the Litany, after which are sung the Penitential psalms—a
new feature.

The consecration section of this recension is a curious conflation of a
number of consecration prayers. _Omn. semp. Deus creator omnium_[76],
(_alia_) _Benedic Domine hunc regem_, (_alia_) _Deus ineffabilis_,
followed by the restored _Deus qui populis tuis_, and then the actual
consecration prayer, the old _Deus electorum fortitudo_, introduced by
_Sursum corda_ and Preface. The king is now anointed on the hands with
the form _Unguantur manus_, the anthem _Unxerunt Salomonem_ being sung
the while, and after the prayer _Prospice omn. Deus serenis obtutibus_
(the Roman consecration prayer) the king is anointed in the form of a
cross on the breast, each shoulder, between the shoulders, at the bend
of each arm, and on the head. After the anointing the prayers _Deus Dei
Filius_ and _Deus qui es iustorum_ are said. The king is now arrayed
in the ‘Colobium sindonis,’ and the Archbishop proceeds to bless the
regalia, using for the purpose the prayer here first occurring, _Deus rex
regum_. The king is then arrayed in tunic, hose, and buskins, and the
Archbishop then blesses the sword, using the prayer _Exaudi Domine preces
nostras_, which now appears for the first time. The investiture with
sword, armills, pallium, and crown then takes place, the accompanying
forms being those of the last recension. After the crowning the anthem
_Confortare et esto vir_ is sung, and the ring is first blessed with
two prayers now first occurring, _Deus caelestium terrestriumque_ and
_Benedic Domine et sanctifica anulum_, and then delivered with the form
of the last recension followed by the prayer _Deus cuius est omnis
potestas_. The sceptre and verge are then delivered with the forms of the
last recension, and finally after the three benedictions and _Te Deum_
comes the enthronisation. The king being enthroned the homage is done.

In this recension the coronation of the queen consort is very similar
to the rite of the last recension, the differences being that the
first prayer in the third recension, _Omn. semp. Deus fons et origo_,
is omitted, the prayer _Spiritus Sancti gratia_ before the unction
disappears, and _Officio indignitatis_ is no longer an alternative form,
but is said after the coronation has taken place with the older English
form. The queen is anointed on head and breast.

The Mass prayers are similar to those of the second recension, but there
are some differences; a collect is said for the queen as well as for the
king; the two prayers _Omn. Deus det tibi de rore_ and _Benedic Domine
fortitudinem_ (which are said immediately after the enthronisation in
the second recension, but had disappeared from the third) are said at
the king’s second oblation of a mark of gold; an alternative Secret is
given, that of the Roman _Missa pro Imperatore_; a blessing of the king
and people is inserted before the _Agnus Dei_; and the alternative
Postcommunion is different from the alternative of the second recension.

The rite of the _Liber Regalis_ was used, as has been said, until the
time of James II. It was rendered into English for James I[77], and
served in an almost identical form for the coronations of Charles I and
Charles II. The version is not very elegant, but it is certainly as
good an English composition as the original is a Latin. The miraculous
chrism[78] was last used at the coronation of Elizabeth, and was then
either exhausted or had become unfit for further use. The form with which
Archbishop Laud consecrated the chrism for the coronation of Charles I
still exists[79].

The Recognition becomes at this time an integral part of the rite, and
is introduced by an anthem. Immediately after the Recognition the anthem
_Firmetur manus_ and Ps. lxxxix are sung. The king then makes his first
oblation and the Archbishop says the prayer _O God which visitest those
that are humble_ (_Deus visitator humilium_). The king now takes the
oath, which is given in Latin and French as well as English, and the
petition of the bishops, _Domine Rex a vobis perdonari_, which is left
untranslated. _Veni Creator_ is then sung, followed by _We beseech thee,
O Lord, Holy Father_ (_Te invocamus_), and the Litany in English with a
special petition proper to the occasion. Then are said the four prayers
_O Almighty and everlasting God, Creator of all things_ (_Omn. semp. Deus
creator omnium_); _O Lord, thou that governest all kingdoms_ (_Benedic
Domine_); _God the unspeakable Author_ (_Deus ineffabilis_); and _God
which providest for thy people_ (_Deus qui populis_). The consecration
follows, _God the strength of thy chosen_ (_Deus electorum fortitudo_),
introduced by _Sursum corda_ and Preface, the prayer being slightly
altered in some of its phrases. The king’s hands are then anointed with
the form _Let these hands be anointed_ (_Unguantur manus_), followed
by the anthem _Zadok the priest_ (_Unxerunt Salomonem_) and the prayer
_Look down, Almighty God_ (_Prospice omnipotens_); the king is then
anointed[80] on the breast, between the shoulders, on both shoulders,
on the boughts of the arms, and on the crown of the head. Then follow
the prayers _God the Son of God_ (_Deus Dei Filius_) and _God which art
the glory of the righteous_ (_Deus qui es iustorum gloria_). The king is
now vested with Colobium and Dalmatic, after which the Archbishop says
the prayer _O God the King of kings_ (_Deus Rex regum_); then with the
Supertunica or close pall, hose, and sandals by the Dean of Westminster,
and with the spurs by a nobleman. The Sword is blessed with the form
_Hear our prayers_ (_Exaudi quaesumus_), and is delivered to the king
with the form _Receive this kingly sword_ (_Accipe gladium_). He is
invested with the Armill, _Receive the armill_ (_Accipe armillas_); with
the Mantle or open pall, _Receive this pall_ (_Accipe pallium_); with
the Crown, the Archbishop taking it in his hands and saying _God the
crown of the faithful_ (_Deus tuorum_), and _O God of eternity_ (_Deus
perpetuitatis_), and crowning the king with the form _God crown thee_
(_Coronet te Deus_). The choir in the mean time sings the anthems _Be
strong_ (_Confortare_) and _The king shall rejoice_ (_Deus in virtute_).
The Archbishop now blesses the Ring with the prayers _O God the creator
of all things in heaven_ (_Deus caelestium_) and _Bless, O Lord, and
sanctify_ (_Benedic Deus_), and places it on the king’s right wedding
finger, saying _Receive the ring of kingly dignity_ (_Accipe regiae
dignitatis anulum_). Then the prayer _O God, to whom belongeth all
power_ (_Deus cuius est_), after which the king offers the sword and it
is redeemed. The Archbishop delivers the Sceptre, _Receive the sceptre_
(_Accipe sceptrum_), and prays _O Lord, the fountain of all good things_
(_Omnium Domine fons_); likewise the Verge, _Receive the rod_ (_Accipe
virgam_). The Archbishop then blesses the king, _The Lord bless thee_
(_Benedicat tibi_); _Te Deum_ is sung, and the king is enthroned with the
form _Stand and hold fast_ (_Sta et retine_), after which the peers do
their homage.

The order of the queen’s coronation follows that of the _Liber Regalis_.
First is said by a bishop at the west door of the Abbey the prayer _O
Almighty and everlasting God, the fountain_ (_Omn. semp. Deus fons et
origo_), then at the altar _God, which only hast immortality_ (_Deus qui
solus_). She is then anointed on the crown of her head with the form
_In the name of the Father_ (_In nomine_), and then on the breast, the
same form being repeated, after which is said the prayer _O Almighty
everlasting God, we beseech thee_ (_Omn. semp. Deus affluentem_). She is
then given the Ring with the form _Receive this ring_ (_Accipe anulum_),
and the prayer _God, to whom belongeth all power_ (_Deus cuius est omnis
potestas_). The Archbishop blesses the Crown saying _O God the crown of
the faithful_ (_Deus tuorum_), and crowns her with the form _Receive
the crown of glory_ (_Accipe coronam_), adding: _Seeing you are by our
ministry solemnly consecrated_ (_Officio indignitatis_), after which he
says the prayer _O Lord, the fountain_ (_Omnium Domine fons_), and so
ends the queen’s coronation.

The Communion service follows, beginning at the collect _O Almighty
God, we beseech thee that this thy servant_ (_Quaesumus omn. Deus ut
famulus_). The epistle and gospel are the same as in the _Liber Regalis_.
The offertory is sung, and the king offers bread and wine and a mark of
gold. At this point are inserted the two blessings _Almighty God give
thee_ (_Omn. Deus det tibi_) and _Bless, O Lord, the virtuous carriage_
(_Benedic Domine fortitudinem_), which occur in the _Liber Regalis_ after
the enthronisation. The Secret is the old prayer _Bless, we beseech
thee, O Lord, these thy gifts_ (_Munera Domine quaes. oblata_). There is
no longer a special preface as heretofore.

In the Order of Charles I there are a few unimportant variations. A
sermon is introduced before the king takes the oath. In the Consecration
prayer (_God the strength_) a return is made to the original, which had
been slightly altered for James I. The old order of the prayers _God
crown thee_ and _O God of eternity_ is reverted to. The first of the two
blessings of the ring disappears. Perhaps the prayer _God the unspeakable
author_ was not used[81], as it does not occur in the copy of the order
which the king himself used on his coronation day. In the Eucharist the
two blessings after the offertory are said after, instead of before, the

Queen Henrietta Maria was not crowned.

At his trial, among the many accusations brought against him, Laud
was accused of having tampered with the coronation oath[82] in two
particulars. He was charged with adding to the first section the
qualifying words ‘agreeable to the King’s prerogative,’ and of omitting
from the last section the words ‘quae populus elegerit.’

There was an alteration made in the first section. This concludes in
the old oath of the _Liber Regalis_, which was used in English at the
coronation of James I, with the words ‘granted to the clergy and people
by the glorious King, Saint Edward your predecessor.’ In the oath as
taken by Charles I the words ‘and people’ were omitted, while there was
added at the end of the section ‘according to the laws of God, the true
profession of the Gospel established in this kingdom, and agreeing to the
prerogative of the kings thereof and the ancient customs of this realm.’
Laud denied any knowledge of this alteration.

In the last section of the oath the _Liber Regalis_ has _Concedis iustas
leges et consuetudines esse tenendas, et promittis per te eas esse
protegendas quas vulgus elegerit?_ Here again in the oath of Charles
there is a modification of the wording, _Sir, will you grant to hold
and keep the rightful customs which the commonalty of this your kingdom
have?_ But this alteration had as a matter of fact been made at the
time of the last coronation, for this passage is almost identical with
the oath taken by James I. That there was in Stuart times a deliberate
attempt to weaken the force of some of the language in the oath is
evident. Henry VIII had been dissatisfied with the terms of the oath
and made some attempt to alter it by the insertion of such modifying
expressions as ‘not prejudicial to his jurisdiction,’ ‘not prejudicial
to his crown,’ ‘which the nobles and people have made and chosen _with
his consent_.’ But his attempted revision came to nothing, and both he
and Edward VI took the oath at their coronation in the form in which it
stands in the _Liber Regalis_[83].

It may also be noted here, as a matter connected with the oath, that up
to the time of Henry VII the years of a king’s reign were reckoned from
the day of his coronation, the oath being regarded as the compact or
covenant made between him and his people, sealing as it were his election
to the throne. From the time of Henry VIII onwards the king’s reign has
been reckoned from the death of his predecessor[84].

Laud took infinite pains in the preparation of the coronation ceremony,
in which he acted in the place of the Dean of Westminster. His copy of
the Order with his MS. annotations still exists in the library of St
John’s College, Cambridge. No detail is neglected and some of his notes
are very amusing; for example, in connection with the putting on of hose
and sandals he remarks, ‘These both—Hose and Shews the K: would haue putt
on vpõ his other shoes: wᶜʰ had almost indaingered yᵉ tearinge of yᵉ old
Tinsin Hose. It is safer to vnlase them before hand when they be vsed

The recipe for the preparation of the chrism used is preserved. The
chrism was consecrated by Laud, who was at that time Bishop of St
David’s, and who was acting for the Dean of Westminster. It is the dean’s
function to bless the chrism if he is a bishop. If he is not a bishop the
archbishop himself consecrates it.

It is perhaps most convenient at this point to deal with the coronation
of King Charles at Holyrood by Abp Spotiswoode on June 18, 1633, for the
rite then used was manifestly based on the English order, and was the
work of Abp Laud. There are in it certain variations from the English
rite, which were probably deliberately made with the intention of
imparting a special Scottish character to the ceremony.

After the Litany, instead of the four prayers of the English order only
one occurs, which is a combination of the two English prayers _O Almighty
and everlasting God, creator of all things_ and _O Lord, thou that
governest all kingdoms_. The prayer after the anointing, _God the Son of
God_, is shortened. At the investitures the prayer _O God, the King of
kings_, a prayer of benediction of the ornaments, becomes a benediction
of the king. The form accompanying the investiture of the Sword is
shortened, and _O God of eternity_ disappears at the crowning. On the
other hand there appears after the crowning what may be a feature of the
old Scottish rite, the ‘Obligatory oath of the people,’ which is read out
by the Earl Marshal: _We swear, and by the holding up of our hands do
promise all subjection and loyalty to king Charles our dread sovereign:
and as we wish God to be merciful to us, shall be to his majesty true
and faithful, and be ever ready to bestow our lives and lands and what
else God hath given us, for the defence of his sacred person and crown_.
The form at the delivery of the Sceptre is slightly shortened. After the
benediction, as in the English rite, the king kisses the archbishop and
the bishops. The form of enthronisation is slightly altered, and after
the enthronisation a royal pardon is proclaimed and the homage of the
peers is done. Of the Communion service which follows no details whatever
are given.


With the accession of James II we come to an important point in the
developement of the English rite. Since James was a member of the Roman
Church he was not allowed to receive the Holy Sacrament after the use
of the English Church, and Abp Sancroft was accordingly commissioned to
edit the rite and omit the Communion altogether. Unhappily Sancroft in
his work of editing made many and considerable alterations in the rite
itself, which have never subsequently been properly rectified[86].

After the Recognition the king and queen make their first oblation,
and then is said the prayer _O God, who dwellest in the high and holy
place_, which is a much altered version of _Deus visitator humilium_. The
Litany is said, and then follow the prayers _Almighty and everlasting
God, creator of all things_, which has been altered and shortened, and
_O God, who providest_, practically unchanged. The two prayers _O Lord,
thou that governest_ and _God the unspeakable author_ are omitted. Here
follows the sermon, and the sermon over, the king takes the oath, which
is the same as that of Charles I, except that in the first question ‘The
Gospel established in the Church of England’ is changed to ‘The Gospel
established in this kingdom’; after which is sung the _Veni Creator_
in the version now in use. Then is said _We beseech thee, O Lord, Holy
Father_ (unaltered), and then, introduced by _Sursum corda_ and Preface,
the consecration prayer _God, the exalter of the humble and strength
of thy chosen_ (shortened), after which the choir sings _Zadok the
priest_. The king is then anointed as hitherto with the form _Be this
head anointed with holy oil; and as kings and prophets were anointed_,
etc.; and the archbishop says the prayer _God the son of God_; the
prayer _God which art the glory of the righteous_ being omitted. Certain
changes are made in the forms of investiture; the prayer said after the
vesting with the _Colobium_ is changed into a benediction of the king;
from the form with which the Sword is delivered it is noticeable that
the words _for the defence of Christ’s holy church_ are omitted, and the
reference to the persecution of infidels and heretics also disappears;
the form accompanying the investiture with the _Pallium_ is made to
include the delivery of the Orb, an unfortunate innovation which has been
retained to this day, for the orb is perhaps but another form of the
sceptre; at the crowning _O God, the crown of the faithful_ appears in
its present form, much altered from the original, and the prayers _God
crown thee_ and _O eternal God_ (_O God of eternity_) are also altered;
the archbishop reads the first anthem _Be strong_, and the choir sings
the second _The king shall rejoice_; the blessing of the Ring is omitted,
and the prayer following its delivery, _O God, to whom belongeth all
power_, also disappears; the form of the investiture with the Verge is
much changed. At this point the king makes his second oblation, which
should have taken place at the offertory, and the archbishop blesses the
king with the blessing _The Lord give thee of the dew of heaven_, a much
altered edition of the older form, which in the previous order followed
the Secret; and then curiously enough there reappears a short edition of
the old _In diebus eius_ (_In thy days may justice flourish_), which last
was used in the second recension of the English rite. A new benediction
appears, _The Lord preserve thy life_, and the old, _The Lord bless
thee and keep thee_, is altered, the last prayer for clergy and people
acquiring much of its present form, _And the same good Lord grant that
the clergy and people_, etc. After _Te Deum_ the king is enthroned in
much the present form, and after the homage a final anthem is sung.

At the queen’s coronation the prayer _Almighty and everlasting God, the
fountain of all goodness_ is somewhat altered, and the next prayer _God,
which only hast immortality_ is omitted. In the prayer following the
anointing the words _that as by the imposition of hands she is this day
crowned queen_ becomes _that as by our office and ministry she is this
day anointed and solemnly consecrated our queen_. The form with which
the ring is given is quite different from the form hitherto used after
the opening words, and the prayer following, _God, to whom belongeth all
power_, is omitted. At the crowning _God, the crown of the faithful_ is
omitted, and the forms _Receive the crown of glory_ and _Seeing you are
by our ministry_ are combined into one. The order ends with the prayer _O
Lord, the fountain of all good things_ and a final anthem.

There was no Communion service, and after the crowning of the queen three
final collects were said and then the Blessing.

Archbishop Sancroft has been much blamed for his handiwork on the
coronation rite, and it is certainly much to be regretted that he made so
many and unnecessary alterations in the language of the old prayers. On
the other hand it is a question whether the rite has not gained by the
omission of some of the prayers, for the order as he found it was very
conflate, many of the prayers being originally alternatives, which in
process of time had become additional prayers in such a way as to cause a
great deal of repetition and to make the service unnecessarily long and


At the election of William and Mary as King and Queen the rite was once
more subjected to revision, and this time by one less fitted for the work
than Sancroft, Henry Compton, Bp of London. The Order of William and
Mary[87] is practically that which has been handed down to the present

There is prefixed to the order a feature unique among English coronation
rites, an Order of Morning Prayer to be said on the morning of the
coronation because ‘it is fit and congruous, and accordingly the king is
to be desired that he will be present at Morning Prayer in Whitehall, and
so begin that glorious day with Him by whom kings reign.’ The Order is
derived from the Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving authorized by James II
for the day of his accession.

Another unique feature in this rite is that by it two joint monarchs were
crowned, for both William and Mary were regnant.

The order begins with the anthem _I was glad_. The Recognition is
somewhat apologetic in tone, and in the place of ‘King James the rightful
inheritor of this crown’ appears ‘King William and Queen Mary, undoubted
King and Queen of this realm.’ The new anthem _Blessed art thou, O Lord_,
is then sung in the place of the old, _Let thy hand be strengthened_,
and the king and queen make their first oblation, after which the Bp of
London (acting in the place of Abp Sancroft) says the prayer _O God, who
dwellest in the high and holy place_, and the Litany is sung, with the
prayer _O God, who providest for thy people_ in the place of the prayer
of St Chrysostom. The Communion service is now begun, the commandments
being omitted and the two collects for the king combined into one. After
the Creed the sermon is preached, and then the king and queen take the
oath. This was altered from the form in which it was taken by James
II, and the expression ‘Protestant reformed religion’ makes its first
appearance; the petition of the bishops also vanishes at this time. There
were also noticeable changes in the consecration; _Veni Creator_ is sung,
and then is said the consecration prayer _O Lord, holy Father, almighty
and everlasting God, the exalter of the humble and the strength of thy
chosen_, but without _Sursum corda_ and Preface. There is moreover a
great deal of alteration in the prayer itself, which is made to include
a blessing of the oil, and has the conclusion of the prayer said before
the laying on of hands in the Order of Confirmation. The anthem _Zadok
the priest_ is retained. The king and queen were anointed on the crown of
the head, breast, and palms of the hands only, the hands being anointed
last instead of first as hitherto, the anointing being followed by the
prayer _Our Lord, Jesus Christ, the Son of God_, and then the anthem
_Behold, O God, our defender_. Certain changes are also made in the
forms of investiture; at the investiture of the Sword the prayer _Hear
our prayers_ is slightly altered; _Receive this kingly sword_ appears
as in the present rite; at the girding _Remember him of whom the royal
psalmist did prophesy_ is also slightly changed; there is no mention
of any delivery of the Armill; the form with which the Pall and Orb
are delivered is much expanded; the investitures with Ring and Verge
precede the crowning instead of following it as hitherto, and the form
with which the Verge is delivered is much enlarged; at the crowning the
prayer _O God, the crown of the faithful_ is more or less unchanged, but
that following the crowning, _God crown you_, is considerably altered.
Then comes a new anthem, _Praise the Lord, O Jerusalem_. At this point
is introduced an entirely new feature, the delivery of a copy of the
Bible with a form consisting of two parts, _Thus saith the Lord of old_,
etc., and _To put you in mind of this rule and that you may follow it,
we present you with this book_, etc. Then comes the Aaronic blessing,
followed by the four benedictions as in the order of James, and the
prayer for clergy and nobles. After the _Te Deum_ the king and queen
are enthroned, the words ‘Whereof thou art the lawful and undoubted
heir by succession from thy forefathers’ being omitted from the form
of enthronisation _Stand firm and hold fast_. After the homage a final
anthem is sung, which is really the introit out of place. The Communion
service now proceeds, the king and queen offering bread and wine, and
the Bp of London, who was celebrant, saying the Secret, _Bless, O Lord,
we beseech thee, these thy gifts_. The king and queen then make the
second oblation, the same prayer being used, _O God, who dwellest in the
high and holy place_, as at the first oblation. A proper preface appears
again, _By whom kings reign and princes rule_, etc. Before the blessing
three final collects are said, two of them from those in the Communion
office, and the other that for the king and royal family used in the
corresponding place in the Order of James II.

The most interesting feature about the rite of William and Mary is its
position in the Eucharist, a return to the old arrangement of the rite of
‘Egbert,’ which has been preserved at all subsequent coronations.

The recension of William and Mary is that which has been followed up to
the present time. There have been certain changes, but none of a far
reaching character.

The anthem after the Recognition from Anne to George II, _The Queen_
(_King_) _shall rejoice_, was at the coronation of George III and onwards
sung after the crowning. In the Communion service the commandments were
said from George II till Edward VII, but in the rite of George V, after
the introit _Let my prayer come up into thy presence_, the Communion
service begins with _The Lord be with you_, and proceeds at once to
the proper collect _O God, who providest for thy people_. From William
and Mary till George III there was no introit, but from George IV till
Victoria the _Sanctus_ was used for the purpose. The declaration against
transsubstantiation had a place in the coronation oath from the time
of Anne till George III, but since that time has been made (now in a
milder form) before Parliament at the time of the king’s accession. The
anointing on the breast was omitted from motives of delicacy at the
coronation of Victoria (and of the queen consort Adelaide), but has
since been restored in the case of the king. The consecration prayer _O
Lord, holy Father, who by anointing with oil_ (the old _Deus electorum
fortitudo_) has commenced as at present since the time of George III,
and still bears signs of the preface that once introduced it. From the
time of Anne the sentence blessing the chrism has been omitted, but the
chrism was certainly consecrated beforehand for the anointing of George
II. The chrism used in the case of Edward VII was consecrated before the
ceremony with the form used by Abp Sancroft, and King George was anointed
with chrism of that consecration. The Armill was delivered with a form
in the case of the four Georges, but is not mentioned in the rite of
Victoria, though it was used; it has since been delivered without any
form. The vesting with sandals and buskins has been discontinued since
the time of George II. At the crowning the prayer _O God, the crown
of the faithful_ was restored for Edward VII to the form in which it
appears in the rite of James II, and the prayer after the crowning, _God
crown you with a crown of glory_, which had been omitted from Anne till
George III, restored for George IV and then again omitted, was brought
back once more for George V; also the old anthem _Be strong_, which had
become an admonition from the time of William and Mary, became once more
an anthem for our present king. At the delivery of the Bible only the
second section of the form, and that shortened, has been used from the
time of King Edward VII. Of the benedictions only two remain, the Aaronic
blessing and _The Lord give you a fruitful country_. The final anthem has
been subjected to many changes. In the Communion service the benedictions
of the king after the Secret have disappeared and a proper preface, which
was for some reason omitted from the rite of Edward VII, was restored to
the rite of George V.

Certain changes have also taken place in the coronation of the queen
consort. From the time of Queen Adelaide there has only been one
anointing, on the crown of the head. The prayer after the anointing,
_Almighty and everlasting God, we beseech thee of thy abundant goodness_,
has vanished from the time of Edward VII onwards, and the prayer at the
delivery of the sceptre loses its first sentence and begins _O Lord,
the giver of all perfection_. The final anthem has also disappeared in
the rite of King Edward VII. In the order of George V the _Te Deum_ is
ordered to be sung after the Blessing.




As we have seen, there was in all probability a Frankish coronation rite
in existence in the time of the Merovingians, and certainly in the time
of the Carolingian kings, but it seems to have been very variable and
without much stability before the tenth century.

A group of orders of the end of the ninth and the beginning of the tenth
century may be taken as representing the Frankish or French rite in its
earliest and unfixed stage.

Charles the Bald was crowned as king of Lotharingia in 869. The rite[88]
begins with an address from Adventius, Bp of Metz, after which the king
takes the oath to preserve the rights of Church and people. Another
address is then delivered by Hincmar of Rheims, which perhaps is
additional and exceptional. Adventius says the prayer _Deus qui populis_,
and then follows a series of nine benedictions said by different bishops,
four of the benedictions being identical with forms occurring in the
second English recension. The unction follows, Bp Hincmar anointing the
king on his right ear, from his forehead to his left ear, and on the
crown of his head, with a form beginning _Coronet te Deus_, which does
not occur again and is not to be confounded with the coronation prayer
beginning with the same words. Hincmar then recites two benedictions,
identical with the last two of the second English rite, and the prayer
_Clerum ac populum_, which here appears for the first time. The king is
now crowned, all the bishops uniting, as in ‘Egbert’s’ order, to set the
crown on his head, the form used being _Coronet te deus corona gloriae_,
which is found in the second English order and in most subsequent rites.
The bishops then give the Sceptre and the Palm, with a form commencing
_Det tibi Dominus velle et posse_.

The Mass which follows the coronation is the Mass for the day.

A second example of the Frankish rite may be seen in that by which
Louis II (the Stammerer) of France was crowned at Compiègne in 877[89].
First of all the bishops ask that the rights of their churches shall
be maintained, _A vobis perdonari nobis petimus_, and the king grants
their petition _Promitto et perdono vobis_, a section which is found
henceforward regularly in the French orders. Next is said the prayer
_Deus qui populis_, and then follows the anointing, the king being
anointed during the prayer _Omnipotens sempiterne Deus creator et
gubernator_, which occurs in the second English order and in Hittorp’s
Roman order. The crowning then takes place with the form _Coronet te
Deus_, and the sceptre is given with the form used in the second English
order and henceforward, _Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis_. The order
ends with a benediction consisting of fourteen prayers, among which occur
all those used in the order of Charles the Bald.

These two orders are very simple, and while the former is manifestly
in an unfixed stage, the latter is the first recension of the definite
French rite. It is noticeable that it presents many points of similarity
with the second English rite, and this is probably due to the influence
of the Roman rite.

Louis II was crowned a second time in 877 at Troyes by Pope John VIII.
The order used on this occasion[90] is quite different from that used at
Compiègne, and is, as might be expected under the circumstances, somewhat
Roman in character, but otherwise it is rather puzzling; perhaps it was
specially composed for the occasion, or else it belongs to the unfixed
stage and may be classed with the order of Charles the Bald.

The first prayer _Deus cui omnis potestas et dignitas famulatur_ (an
early form of the familiar _Deus cuius est omnis potestas_) occurs here
for the first time and is found later in most French orders and in the
English second and fourth recensions. Then follows _Omnium, Domine, fons
bonorum_, also found in the second English recension, after which come
the first ten of the benedictions which accompany the delivery of the
Sceptre in ‘Egbert.’ Then comes the prayer _Deus inenarrabilis_, which
here first occurs; and finally a prayer, evidently composed for the
occasion, _Oratio qua benedixit Apostolicus Johannes regem nostrum_,
and _Spiritum sanctificationis quaesumus Domine, Hludowico regi nostro
propitiatus infunde_, which does not occur elsewhere.

There are two examples of the coronation of queens in Frankish lands at
this time, the earliest examples of the rite in the case of queens in the

In 856 Judith[91], the daughter of the Emperor Charles II, was married to
Ethelwulf, king of England, and was crowned at the time of her marriage.
The actual coronation prayers, which are inserted in the marriage rite,
are as follows: _Te invocamus_, and then, preceded by _Sursum corda_ and
Preface, _Deus electorum fortitudo_, in which however are inserted a few
lines proper to the occasion. The queen is then crowned with the form
_Gloria et honore coronet te Dominus_, etc.

The coronation of Queen Hermintrude[92] at Soissons in 866 is still
more a special adaptation of the nuptial ceremony. There is first of
all a very long allocution made by two bishops, after which follows the
marriage prayer containing allusions to the royal position and duties
of the bride, and then the queen is crowned with the words _Coronet te
Dominus gloria et honore et sempiterna protectione, qui vivit et regnat_.

In England there was no coronation of the queen consort at this time,
and the same was probably the case ordinarily in France. It will be
remembered that in the Eastern Empire if an emperor was married after
his accession his bride was crowned at the time of her wedding not only
with the nuptial crown but also as empress. It is noticeable that both
these coronations of Frankish queens took place at the time of their
marriage, and it is most probable that there was some such adaptation
of the nuptial coronation (which was at this time used in the West) to
the special circumstances of the royal bride. The occurrence of _Sursum
corda_ and Preface before the consecration prayer in the case of Judith
is the first occasion of their use in this connection, but probably this
too is due to the influence of the special Preface of the nuptial rite
with which it is combined.


In the tenth century there appears a definite French rite. This is
represented by the orders contained in the codex of Ratold of Corbey[93]
and Martène’s Ordo VII[94], which are very close to the almost
contemporary second English recension, and manifestly derived from an
English source.

It begins, as does the rite of Louis II in 877, with the petition of
the bishops, _A vobis perdonari_, and the king’s promise, _Promitto
vobis_. Here in M. VII comes the Oath _Haec tria_[95], which has been
lengthened by the insertion of a promise to persecute heretics. Then
comes the Recognition, two bishops asking the people if they will accept
the king as the ruler, and _Te Deum_ is sung, followed by the prayers
_Te invocamus_, _Deus qui populis_ and (alia) _In diebus eius_. In M.
VII the investiture with the sword followed by _Deus qui providentia_
and the Litany are inserted after _Te Deum_. Now comes the _Consecratio
regis_, consisting of the prayer _Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, creator
et gubernator_, during which the king is anointed, the anthem _Unxerunt
Salomonem_ being sung at the time of the anointing, (alia) _Deus
electorum fortitudo_, (alia) _Deus Dei Filius_. There is no indication
of the number of anointings in Ratold’s order, but in M. VII there are
five, the head, breast, between the shoulders, on the shoulders, and
the bend of the arms being specified. The investitures follow; the Ring
with the form _Accipe anulum signaculum_ and the prayer _Deus cuius est
omnis potestas_, and the rest of the regalia, Sword, Crown, Sceptre, and
Verge, are delivered in the same order and with the same forms as in
the second English recension. After the investitures comes a series of
six benedictions, all of which already occur in the orders of Charles
the Bald (869) and Louis II (877), followed (item alia) by three more
that are found in ‘Egbert’s’ rite. The king is then enthroned with the
form _Sta et retine_, and last of all occurs in Ratold the charge as to
the duties of a king, not yet in the form of an oath, but as in Egbert,
_Rectitudo est regis noviter ordinati_. In M. VII the enthronisation is
followed by two prayers, _Omn. Deus det tibi de rore_ and _Benedic Domine

As has been remarked, there is a very close similarity between this
order and the almost contemporary English rite, and it is evident that
the compiler of Ratold’s order had before him one or more English
orders; for in the consecration prayer, where in the English order the
words occur, ‘famulum tuum N. quem ... in regnum Anglorum vel Saxonum
eligimus,’ in Ratold’s order, in the corresponding position, are found
the words, ‘quem ... in regnum N. Albionis totius videlicet Francorum,’
and elsewhere in the same prayer the words ‘totius Albionis ecclesiam.’
Probably the passages occur in this form in Ratold’s order as the result
of an oversight on the part of the compiler. But this explanation is
not altogether satisfactory, for in M. VII and in the order of Louis
VIII (1223) the sentence in Ratold’s consecration prayer ‘ut regale
solium vid. Francorum sceptra non deserat’ appears as ‘ut regale solium
Saxonum, Merciorum, Nordanhymbrorum sceptra non deserat,’ which can only
be explained as being retained for the purpose of making a claim to the
English throne[96]. A further proof of the English origin of this rite
is the occurrence of the name of ‘St Gregory the Apostle of the English.’
The clause ‘Rectitudo regis’ of Egbert is also found here. But while no
really satisfying explanation of these features in the French rite of
this period has as yet been forthcoming, they at least bear witness to
the influence of the English rite on the French at this time.

The sacring of the queen is exactly like that of the second English order
except that in the French order the prayer _Adesto supplicationibus_,
which is said before the anointing, does not appear at all in the English.


The French rite in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was subjected, as
was the English rite of the same period, to considerable Roman influence.
Of this recension Martène’s Ordo VI[97], and the order of Louis VIII[98]
(1223) may be taken as examples.

[Illustration: The Anointing of St Louis of France]

In this recension appear first the preliminary prayers as in the Roman
order of Hittorp; the prayer _Deus qui scis humanum genus_ on his
entrance into church, and on his entrance into the choir _Omn. semp. Deus
caelestium terrestriumque moderator_. Between Prime and Terce (the king
enters the church after Prime) the Abbot of St Rémi goes in procession to
fetch the holy chrism.

The order begins with the petition of the bishops, _A vobis perdonari_,
after which the recognition takes place and _Te Deum_ is sung. The king
then takes the oath in the old form, _Haec tria populo christiano_. Then
follows a section directly taken from the Roman rite, and largely a
repetition of what has already taken place; the Litany, the king lying
prostrate the while, an oath in answer to interrogations, and another
recognition in the Roman form, _Si tali principi_, followed by a series
of benedictions all of which occur in the Roman rite.

For the consecration three choices are given as to the forms to be

(1) _Deus inenarrabilis_, during which the king is anointed, the anthem
_Unxerunt Salomonem_ being sung at the time of anointing.

(2) Alia Oratio. _Deus Dei Filius._ Then the anointing of the hands with
the form _Unguantur manus istae_. Then the prayer from the Roman rite
_Prospice Omnipotens_.

(3) Alia. _Deus qui es iustorum gloria_, and, introduced by _Sursum
corda_ and _Preface_, _Deus creator ac gubernator_.

The unction of the hands here first occurs and is found henceforward in
the French rite. It is first found in the English rite at this same time
in the third recension, but in the English rite it always precedes,
while in the French it comes after, the unction proper.

The investitures of Sword, Ring, Sceptre, Verge, and Crown follow the
order of Hittorp’s rite, and the old forms used at the delivery of
Sword, Ring, and Crown give place to the forms of the Roman order. The
Sceptre is given at the same time as the Verge and has no special form
of its own, here again showing the Roman influence. The investitures are
followed by three benedictions derived from the Roman rite, and then
follows the enthronisation, _Sta et retine_. In Martène VI the king takes
another oath, Roman in form, at this point and _Te Deum_ is sung, again
shewing that there was already a tendency to transfer the latter to this,
the Roman position, from its original place at the beginning of the rite.

The consecration of the queen is different from that of the last
recension. It begins with the prayer _Adesto Domine supplicationibus
nostris_ and follows exactly the ordo of Hittorp, with the exception that
the form used at the crowning exhibits slight verbal variations.


There are two orders[100] given by Martène, VIII and XI, which stand
quite by themselves, and are not easily placed. Ordo VIII is taken from
an Arles pontifical, dated by Martène c. 1200-1300. The rite is short
and shews Roman influence. It begins with _Te Deum_, after which the
king takes the oath in the later Roman form _Profiteor coram Deo et
angelis_. The king is then presented to the metropolitan by two bishops
and the consecration begins with the prayer _Omnipotens sempiterne Deus
creator omnium_, followed by _Deus Dei filius_, during which the king
is anointed on the head. He is then crowned with the Roman form _Accipe
igitur coronam regni_, invested with the Verge, _Accipe virgam_, and
enthroned with the _Sta et retine_. After the enthronisation is said
either _Deus qui victrices Moysi_, a Roman form here first appearing, or
_Deus inenarrabilis_. The forms of the coronation of the queen are almost
identical with those of the Roman pontifical of 1520.

The Archbishop of Arles had no official part in the coronation of the
French monarch. On the other hand, in strict theory, the emperor should
be crowned at Arles as King of Burgundy, as well as at Aachen, Milan, and
Rome; it is possible therefore that this order may represent the rite
used on such an occasion, though but few emperors were actually crowned
at Arles.

Ordo IX is still more puzzling. It is found in the Pontifical of Peter,
Bishop of Senlis, who died in the year 1356. The consecration of the
king is introduced by _Benedic Domine hunc regem_, then follows _Deus
inenarrabilis_, after which the king is anointed, during the _Deus
qui es iustorum gloria_, on feet, shoulders, and arms. The forms of
the investitures with Sword (after which is said the prayer _Deus qui
providentia_, which however is given out of place), Ring, Sceptre (which
is followed by the benediction of the Oriflamme), and Crown follow
more or less the Romanized third recension, but the benediction of the
Oriflamme is inserted among them. The anointing of the feet is unique,
and there can be very little doubt that this ceremony has never had a
place in any rite. The probabilities are that both these orders are quite
unauthoritative and were never used.


We come now to the final recension of the French rite, which is
represented by the order of Charles V, who was crowned in 1364[101]. This
recension, like the corresponding fourth recension of the English rite,
returns to the older rite anterior to the Romanized third recension in so
far as it is a conflation of the second and third recensions, containing
nearly everything that had appeared in all previous rites, and therefore
much matter that was originally alternative.

There is the short preliminary service. At the end of the prayers said
at the king’s entrance into the choir, in the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries, _Veni Creator_ was sung. The king enters the church between
Prime and Terce, and while waiting for the arrival of the Sainte Ampoule
Terce was sung. The rite begins as usual with the bishop’s petition and
the king’s reply, and then follows the oath _Haec populo christiano_,
in which is inserted, in this order, a clause, which vanishes finally in
1484, promising to maintain the rights of the French crown (doubtless
against English claims). _Te Deum_ is then sung, though a note remarks
that this should be sung, according to Roman use, after the enthroning.
_Deus inenarrabilis_ is now said, and the Buskins are put on and the
Spurs. Then follows the investiture with the Sword in the position it
occupies in the Roman orders, with a benediction, and a conflate form
combining the old French _Accipe gladium_ with the Roman _Accipe gladium
per manus nostras_. Then follow the anthem _Confortare_ and the prayers
_Deus qui providentia_, _Prospice omnipotens_, _Benedic Domine quaesumus
hunc principem_, and _Deus pater aeternae gloriae_. While the unction is
preparing, a series of versicles and responses peculiar to the French
rite, and beginning _Gentem Francorum inclitam_, and a collect are said.
The Chrism was miraculous. Brought down from heaven by an angel for the
coronation of Clovis, it was carefully preserved in the Abbey of St
Rémi, and brought in solemn procession from the Abbey at the time of the
coronation. A tiny particle of the contents of the ampoule was mixed with
Chrism. The Litany is now said, closing with the prayers _Te invocamus_,
_Deus qui populis_, (alia) _In diebus eius_. Then comes the consecration.
The king is anointed during the prayer _Omn. sempiterne Deus creator ac
gubernator_, which is followed by the prayers _Deus electorum fortitudo_
and _Deus Dei filius_, the anthem _Unxerunt Salomonem_ being sung during
the anointing. He is anointed on the head, breast, between the shoulders,
and at the bend of both arms. The king’s hands are then anointed with
the form _Unguantur manus_, and he then puts on gloves blessed with two
forms adapted from the benediction of a bishop’s gloves. The investitures
follow; the Ring, with a benediction and the old form _Accipe anulum_
restored in place of the Roman form introduced into the last recension,
and the prayer _Deus cuius est omnis potestas_; the Sceptre, with the
usual form and the prayer _Omnium Domine fons bonorum_; the Verge, with
the usual form; the Crown, with the prayer _Coronet te Deus_, and a
conflate form combining the French _Accipe coronam_ and the Roman _Accipe
inquam coronam_, which is followed by _Deus perpetuitatis_. A series of
benedictions are now said, all of which are found elsewhere. After the
enthronisation with the usual form the anthem _Firmetur manus_ is sung
and the Roman prayer _Deus qui victrices Moysi_ is said, and finally the
archbishop kisses the king, saying _Vivat Rex in aeternum_, and the cry
is taken up by the Peers. The Mass, as in the English corresponding rite,
is a Mass for the king, and before the Pax the benedictions _Benedicat
tibi Deus custodiatque_, _Clerum ac populum_ and _Quatenus divinis
monitis_ are said over king and people. The king communicates, as did the
French kings always at a coronation, in both kinds[102].

The queen’s coronation begins with the prayers _Adesto Domine
supplicationibus_, _Omn. aeterne Deus fons et origo_, _Deus qui solus
habes_ and _Omn. semp. Deus hanc famulam_. She is anointed on head and
breast as of old, _In nomine_, etc., and then follow _Spiritus sancti
gratia_ and _Deus Pater aeternae gloriae_. The Ring is given with the
form _Accipe anulum_, as in the second recension, followed by _Deus
cuius est omnis potestas_; the Verge with the form _Accipe virgam_ and
the prayer _Omn. semp. Deus affluentem_. Lastly she is crowned with the
form of the second recension, and the prayer follows _Omnium Domine fons

After the sacring of the queen the benediction of the Oriflamme takes

This order remained in use, with small and unimportant variations, as
long as the monarchy lasted in France. But the coronation of the queen
was dispensed with for some reason. The last queen to be anointed and
crowned was Marie de Médicis in 1610, and probably a sacring took place
in her case only because there was every prospect of her being left
Regent and so virtual monarch.



The rite by which Napoleon[103] was crowned stands by itself. The
arrangement was that he should be crowned according to the rite of the
Roman Pontifical, but at the last moment changes were introduced from the
French rite itself.

Napoleon came into church already clad in the imperial robes, the Pope
having already heard Terce. According to the Roman order the metropolitan
should, after certain questions, address the monarch on his duties,
and then the oath should be taken. But in place of this _Veni Creator_
was here sung, as in the French rite, and after the versicle _Emitte
Spiritum_ and its Response, and the Whitsunday collect _Deus qui corda
fidelium_, Napoleon took the oath. This was much modified, for the
Emperor refused to confirm the Church in property which it did not
possess, and indeed refused to recite the oath itself, simply saying
_Profiteor_ when it was read. Then followed, as in the Pontifical,
_Omn. semp. Deus creator omnium_ with the necessary alterations, such
as _imperatorem_ for _regem_, and the addition of _et consortem eius_
whenever the Emperor was named. During the Litany the Emperor and Empress
remained seated, and only knelt at the special petitions. According
to the Pontifical the anointings should be on neck and right hand, but
Napoleon ordained that it should be on the head and hands, and he was
so anointed with Chrism with the prayers from the Pontifical, _Deus
Dei filius_ and _Omn. semp. Deus qui Hazael super Syriam_, the anthem
_Unxerunt Salomonem_ being sung the while. Josephine was anointed in the
same places immediately after the Emperor with the prayer _Deus pater
aeternae gloriae_. At the Mass, at the Emperor’s request, a collect of
the Blessed Virgin as patron of the Church was used instead of the proper
collect. After the epistle the benediction and delivery of the ornaments
took place. As the Pontifical has no forms of benediction of ornaments,
the forms for the blessing of Sword, Rings, and Gloves were taken from
the _Cérémoniel françois_, and from the same source were derived forms
for the delivery of Main de justice (Verge) and Sceptre, while forms
for the benediction of the Orb and the delivery of the Mantles were
composed for the occasion. The form for the delivery of Ring and Mantle
were used in the plural for Emperor and Empress at once. At the time of
the crowning the Emperor ascended to the altar and taking from off it
the imperial Crown crowned himself, and then crowned Josephine, the Pope
saying _Accipe coronam regni_ and _Coronet vos Deus corona gloriae_.
At the enthronisation the French form of the _Sta et retine_ was used
instead of the Roman, as affirming the independence of the sovereign.
_Te Deum_ was then sung, followed by the anthem _Firmetur manus_ and
the prayers _Victrices Moysis_ and _Deus inenarrabilis_, and Mass
proceeds. Neither Emperor nor Empress communicated. After Mass, while
the Pope was unvesting in the Chapelle du Trésor, Napoleon took the
constitutional oath at which the Pope had refused to be present, and was
proclaimed ‘Le très glorieux et très auguste Empereur Napoléon Empereur
des français, sacré et intronisé.’ The Emperor and Empress then proceeded
to the Archevêché whither they were followed by the Pope, during whose
procession the anthem _Tu es Petrus_ was sung.




The Roman rite of the coronation of kings is based on the imperial rite,
but at the same time owes much to the various national rites which had
been in existence some time before the genesis of the Roman. The earliest
known Roman rite of the coronation of a king is that contained in the
Ordo Romanus of Hittorp[104], and is probably of the tenth or eleventh

It begins with the preliminary prayer _Omn. semp. Deus qui famulum_ and
the responsory _Ecce mitto angelum_ and the prayer _Deus qui scis humanum
genus_ as the king enters the church. This is all purely Roman. The order
begins with the prayer _Omn. semp. Deus caelestium terrestriumque_,
which is first found here, after which is said the Litany, another Roman
feature. The oath is put to the king in interrogatory form, _Vis sanctam
fidem_, etc., _Vis sanctis ecclesiis_, etc., _Vis regnum_, etc., and the
king answers _Volo_. The people are then asked whether they will accept
the king, and they answer _Fiat, fiat_.

The consecration of the king is preceded by a benediction, _Benedic
Domine hunc regem_, and two alternative forms of consecration are given.

(1) _Omn. aeterne Deus creator omnium_, which is found in the rite by
which Louis II was crowned in 877, and after this is said by another
bishop _Deus inenarrabilis_, after which the king is anointed on head,
breast, shoulders, and bends of arms with the form _Ungo te in regem de
oleo sanctificato in nomine_, etc., and finally on the hands, _Unguantur
manus_. Then is said _Prospice Omnipotens_, which appears in the
earliest form of the imperial rite and in the Milanese rite of the ninth

(2) The alternative consecration consists of the prayers _Deus qui es
iustorum gloria_, a Roman prayer, and _Sursum corda_, _Preface_, and the
_Deus creator omnium_ of the first alternative.

The investitures follow; the Sword with the form _Accipe gladium per
manus episcoporum_; the Ring with the form _Accipe regiae dignitatis
anulum_, both these forms occurring here for the first time; the Verge
with the form, found in all orders but that of ‘Egbert,’ _Accipe virgam
virtutis_; and lastly the Crown with the form, here first occurring,
_Accipe coronam regni_. The three benedictions which follow the
investitures, _Benedicat tibi_, _Clerum ac populum_, and _Quatenus
divinis_, also appear for the first time in this order. After the
responsory _Desiderium animae_ the king is enthroned with the _Sta et
retine_, which is found with variations in all orders except that of
‘Egbert,’ the metropolitan gives the king the kiss of peace, and finally
_Te Deum_ is sung.

At the consecration of the queen, after the prayers _Omn. aet. Deus fons
et origo_, and _Deus qui solus habes immortalitatem_, she is anointed
with the form _Spiritus Sancti gratia_, and she is then crowned with the
form _Officio indignitatis_.

The Mass prayers are not specified.

There is a large number of Roman orders varying in places, but in general
agreement with the Ordo of Hittorp.


The Roman rite does not seem to have undergone the number of revisions to
which the national rites were subjected, and what revision it did undergo
was all in the direction of simplicity.

The rite of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries is very close to that
which is found in the present Pontificale Romanum. An order[106] of this
period is as follows. The king is led by bishops to the metropolitan
with the request that he be crowned, and in answer to the metropolitan’s
question they declare that he is worthy. The king then takes the oath,
which has become direct, _Ego N. profiteor coram Deo et angelis_. The
oath is rather shorter in the Pontifical of 1520. After the prayer _Omn.
aeterne Deus Creator_ (a variant form of _Omn. semp. Deus caelestium
terrestriumque_) the Litany is said, the king lying prostrate before
the altar. The metropolitan[107] then anoints the king on the right
arm[108] and between the shoulders with the prayers _Deus Dei filius_ and
(_alia_ in the Munich order) _Omn. semp. Deus qui Azahel_[109]. Mass is
then begun, the Mass for the day being said with a second collect _Deus
regnorum omnium_. In the present Pontifical of Clement VIII, the special
collect is that of the ‘Missa pro rege.’ The king is invested with Sword,
Verge, and Crown; in the Pontifical of 1520, and that at present in use,
after he has been invested with the sword the king brandishes it thrice,
and in the present Roman order the form of the investiture with the sword
is the old form with which it was girded on, _Accingere gladium tuum_.
The king is then enthroned with _Sta et amodo retine_, _Te Deum_ is
sung, and finally after the responsory _Firmetur manus_, the two prayers
_Deus qui victrices Moysi_ and _Deus inenarrabilis_ (this latter under
an _alia_ in the Munich order) are said. The Secret and Postcommunion
are the same as in ‘Egbert,’ except that in the present rite the
Postcommunion is that of the ‘Missa pro rege.’

The later forms of the queen’s coronation have changed considerably. In
the Pontifical of 1520, followed by that in use at present, the king
presents his consort to be crowned, and a short Litany is said. Then
comes a benediction and _Sursum corda_, _Preface_, and _Deus honorum
cunctorum auctor_. She is anointed in the same way as the king with the
prayer _Deus pater aeternae gloriae_, and then comes the crowning and, a
new feature, investiture with the Sceptre.




The rite of Milan, in which city the Emperor was crowned as king of
Italy, appears in its earliest form[110] in the ninth century. It is very
simple and short, being almost identical with the earliest Roman imperial
rite. The whole consists of four prayers only; _Exaudi Domine preces
nostras_; the ‘Consecratio’ _Prospice Omn. Deus serenis obtutibus_;
the crowning form _Accipe coronam_; and lastly _Deus Pater aeternae
gloriae_. Of these prayers the first three occur in the imperial rite
of the Gemunden codex, and the last is found in Hittorp’s order. It
is also interesting to note that there is no mention in any rubric of
the anointing, which, if it occurred, doubtless took place during the
consecration prayer[111]. There is no reference to any coronation of the
queen consort. The Mass prayers are those which are found in ‘Egbert’s’
rite and are Roman.


A second stage of the Milanese rite, as found in an order[112] which
Dr Magistretti assigns to the eleventh century, shews an interesting
development. It is much longer than the older rite and is an amalgamation
of the Anglo-Frankish rite as represented by ‘Egbert’ and the Roman. The
whole of ‘Egbert’s’ order is found in it, the remaining forms being Roman.

This order begins with the prayer _Omn. aeterne Deus creator omnium_.
Then follows the ‘Consecratio seu Benedictio regis,’ consisting of the
forms in ‘Egbert’ _Te invocamus_ and _In diebus eius_ combined into
one, and the king is anointed with the form _Deus Dei filius_, (alia)
_Deus electorum fortitudo_. The investitures follow in unusual order:
the Crown, _Accipe coronam regni licet ab indignis_; the Verge, _Accipe
virgam virtutis atque aequitatis_; the Sword, _Accipe gladium per manus
episcoporum_; and the Ring, _Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum_; all the
forms being those of Hittorp’s order. A series of benedictions follow the
enthronisation, all of which are to be found in ‘Egbert,’ and then comes
the acclamation _Vivat rex ille in sempiternum_, the kiss of the nobles,
the prayer _Deus perpetuitatis_, and the charge _Rectitudo regis est
noviter ordinati_, all as in ‘Egbert.’

The queen was also crowned in this order, but the MS. which contains
it is mutilated and gives only the two first prayers, _Omn. semp. Deus
fons et origo_ and _Deus qui solus_, which are the first two prayers of
Hittorp’s order.


A third recension of the Milanese rite may be seen in the order used at
the coronation of Henry VII and his Queen, Catharina[113], at Milan in
1311. This order represents the most elaborate stage of the Milanese rite
and seems to have been subject to both French and Roman influence.

The short preliminary service now first appears from the Roman rite.
As the king enters the choir the prayer _Omn. semp. Deus caelestium
terrestriumque_ is said, and then the king’s oath is put to him in
interrogatory form. Then appears a French feature, the petition of the
bishops _A vobis perdonari_, and the king’s reply. The Recognition
follows, the people answering _Kyrie eleison_. The Litany concludes with
the three prayers _Te invocamus_, _Deus qui populis_ and _In diebus
eius_, the second of which appears in this recension only of the rite of
Milan. The consecration prayer is that of the English and French rites,
_Omn. semp. Deus creator ac gubernator_ (in which there still remains the
allusion to the Saxons), the anthem _Dilexisti iustitiam_ or _Unxerunt
Salomonem_ being sung during the anointing, which seems to have been
only on the shoulders, and after which was said _Deus Dei filius_.
The Ring is given with the form of the last recension, followed by the
prayer _Deus cuius est omnis potestas_; the Sword with the non-Roman form
_Accipe gladium_ and the prayer _Deus qui providentia_; the Crown with
the form _Accipe coronam regni_ and the prayer _Deus perpetuitatis_;
the Sceptre with the form _Accipe sceptrum regiae potestatis_ and the
prayer _Omnium Domine fons bonorum_; and the Verge with the usual form.
Then follow six benedictions, of which the first two are found in the
old French and English rites, and the others in the last recension.
After the enthronisation an Orb and Cross is delivered to the king with
a form beginning _Accipe pomum aureum quod significat monarchiam omnium
regnorum_. The king answers _Fiat_ to the charge _Rectitudo regis_, and
then _Te Deum_ is sung.

The order of the queen’s coronation begins with the prayer _Omn. semp.
Domine fons et origo_, then follows the consecration prayer _Deus qui
solus_, and the queen is anointed with the form _In nomine ... prosit
tibi haec unctio_, which is followed by _Spiritus sancti gratia_.
The anointing is made on the shoulders. She is then invested with a
Ring, which is an entirely new feature, the form _Accipe anulum fidei
signaculum s. Trinitatis_ and the prayer _Omnium fons bonorum Domine_
being those of the French rite, from which this is probably derived.
She is crowned with the form _Accipe coronam gloriae_, and finally are
said the two prayers _Officio nostrae indignitatis_ and _Omn. semp. deus
affluentem spiritum_, the last of which is French.


A fourth recension is found in a Milanese order of the fifteenth
century[114], and is a revised and shortened edition of the last.

On the king’s entry into church _Deus cuius in manu_ is said, and the
oath follows at once as in the last order. The petition of the bishops
has disappeared, and immediately after the taking of the oath Mass
is begun ‘with the saying of the Confiteor by the aforesaid Pontiff
together with the aforesaid King,’ after which the Litany is sung and
then follows the _Introit_. The collect of Pentecost is used, followed
by _Deus regnorum omnium_. After the epistle the archbishop anoints the
king on the head, the clerks singing meanwhile _Dilexisti iustitiam_.
The consecration prayer itself is omitted, probably by an oversight, but
doubtless it was the same as was used in the last recension. After the
anointing come the prayers _Dom. Deus Omn. cuius est omnis potestas_ and
_Deus Dei filius_. The investitures with Sword, Ring, Crown, Sceptre, and
Orb (under one form) are all as in the last recension, except that the
prayers following the delivery of the ornaments are omitted, and the form
of investiture with Sword gives place to the Roman form _Accipe gladium
per manus_. After the investitures come three of the benedictions of the
last recension, but in different order, and _Te Deum_.

Alternative Mass prayers are given, either those of the Ambrosian _Missa
pro imperatore_ as in the order of Henry VII, or a combination of those
of the Vigil of Pentecost, and of Pentecost according to the Ambrosian

The order of the queen’s coronation is identical with that of the last




The earliest account of a German coronation rite is Widukind’s
description of the coronation of Otto of Saxony at Aachen in 936.
Widukind[115] relates that Otto was first elected king by the nobles,
who then swore allegiance to him and ‘more suo’ made him king. The royal
procession went to the church of Charlemagne, where it was met by the
metropolitan, who presented the new king to the people and demanded
whether they accepted Otto as their king, on which the people lifting
their right hands acclaimed him king with loyal cries. The Recognition
over, the procession went up to the altar, on which the regalia were
already deposited. The archbishop then invested Otto with Sword and belt,
using a form beginning _Accipe hunc gladium_, which, though shorter, is
very similar to the corresponding form of the second English and French
recensions. Then follows the investiture with Armills and Chlamys under
one form, which does not occur elsewhere; the Sceptre and Staff (baculus)
are then delivered also under one form, and that again is unique. The
king is then anointed with holy oil and crowned with a golden diadem by
the Archbishops Hildiberht and Wicfrid together, but the forms used are
not given, and the king is enthroned by the same bishops. _Te Deum_ is
then sung (divina laude dicta)[116] and Mass follows.

This rite is manifestly very far from being fixed, and is to be classed
with the earliest examples of the Frankish rite. It is independent of the
Roman rite, belonging to the Hispano-Frankish family. The Greek names of
two of the regal ornaments, the Diadema and the Chlamys, are instructive.

There is no reference to any coronation of the queen.


The German rite proper comes into prominence in the thirteenth century,
and is the rite by which the Roman Emperor elect was crowned at Aachen as
king of Germany. The Emperor was in theory crowned three times, first at
Aachen as German king, secondly at Milan as king of Italy, and thirdly at
Rome as Roman Emperor. In later times the German coronation often took
place at Frankfort, where he was elected. The officiating Prelates were
the three ecclesiastical Electors, the Archbishops of Cologne, Mayence,
and Trier. The German rite changed hardly at all, for there is scarcely
any difference between the order used at the coronation of Rudolf I in
1273, and that of Matthias II at Frankfort in 1612.

The order used in the case of Rudolf I[117] is as follows. The
consecrator, the Archbishop of Cologne, assisted by the Archbishops of
Mayence and Trier, receive the Emperor elect at the entrance of the
church, and the Archbishop of Cologne says the prayer, _Omn. semp.
Deus qui famulum tuum_; then is sung _Ecce mitto angelum_, and the two
prayers follow, _Deus qui scis genus humanum_, and _Omn. semp. Deus
caelestium terrestriumque_. These are the preliminary prayers of the
Roman rite which seem here to have become part of the rite proper. Mass
now is begun, and the Mass used on this occasion in the German rite is
the Mass of the Epiphany. In Rudolf’s order this collect was followed by
the collect of St Michael. After the Sequence Litany is sung, and the
Archbishop of Cologne puts a series of six questions to the king, to
which he answers _Volo_. The first three of these are found in Hittorp’s
order; the fourth asks whether he will maintain the laws of the Empire;
the fifth whether he will maintain justice. The sixth demands whether he
will shew due submission to the Pope. It runs thus: _Vis sanctissimo in
Christo Patri et Domino Romano Pontifici et sanctae Romanae ecclesiae
subiectionem debitam et fidem reverenter exhibere?_ This question bears
traces of the long struggle between the Empire and the Papacy, and is
an oath such as the kings of England and France never took. At the end
of the questions the king lays two fingers on the altar and swears.
At the Recognition the people answer _Fiat_ thrice. The Consecration
follows, after the prayers _Benedic Domine hunc regem_, as in the order
of Hittorp, and _Deus ineffabilis_. Here the German Order agrees with
the English Orders in using the word ‘ineffabilis’ in the place of
‘inenarrabilis’ which always occurs elsewhere. At the end of this prayer
the Archbishop anoints the king on head, breast and shoulders, with
the oil of catechumens, saying _Ungo te in regem de oleo sanctificato
in nomine_, etc. and then on the hands with the form _Unguantur manus
istae_. The anointing is followed by a number of prayers, _Prospice
Omn. deus serenis obtutibus_, _Spiritus Sancti gratia_, _Deus qui es
iustorum_, _Sursum corda_, _Preface_, and _Creator omnium_, and _Deus
Dei filius_. Of these _Spiritus Sancti gratia_ in the Roman rite follows
the anointing of the Queen; the others are an example of a conflation
of consecration prayers; perhaps they were not all actually used, for
it is difficult to imagine that so manifest a consecration form as a
prayer with a preface should be used after the consecration had already
taken place. The forms with which the king is invested with Sword, Ring,
Sceptre and Orb, and Crown, are all Roman. The Sword is delivered with
the form _Accipe gladium per manus episcoporum_, as in Hittorp’s Ordo
Romanus; the Ring with the form _Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum_, as
in Hittorp; the Sceptre and Orb together under the form _Accipe virgam
virtutis atque aequitatis_ which is used in Hittorp’s and other orders
for the delivery of the _Verge_; and the Crown with the form _Accipe
coronam regni_, as in Hittorp’s order. After the investitures the
king takes the oath again in the direct form of the later Roman rite,
_Profiteor et promitto coram Deo_, etc. in Latin and German—another
example of conflation. Then the responsory _Desiderium animae_ is sung
and the king is enthroned with the _Ita retine_[118]. Here in the
coronation rite of Charles V the Archbishop of Mayence delivered a long
address of congratulation in German.

The coronation of the queen, which was performed by the Archbishops of
Mayence and Trier conjointly, follows exactly that of Hittorp’s order.
After the Queen’s coronation _Te Deum_ was sung.

The rite in the later days[119] hardly varied at all from this. Thus the
orders according to which Maximilian I was crowned in 1486, Charles V at
Aachen in 1519, Matthias II[120] at Frankfort in 1612, differ only in the
slightest details from the order of Rudolf I.

The Crown and the imperial vestments with which the Emperor elect was
crowned in Germany were those of Charlemagne, which were most carefully
preserved. An eye-witness[121] of the coronation of Leopold II at the end
of the eighteenth century says that they were still in use, and that the
Emperor adapted his coiffure and beard to the style of Charlemagne, and
appeared like a man of the seventh (_sic_) century. During the singing
of _Te Deum_ Charles V created a number of knights with the sword of
Charlemagne, but in later days the creation of knights took place after
the service. In England the creation of knights of the Bath took place
the day before the coronation.



We have very little material for the Hungarian rite. Martène gives us the
order by which Albert II (afterwards Emperor) was crowned in 1438[122],
and Panvinio and Beuther give us a general account of the coronation of
Matthias II (afterwards Emperor) as king of Hungary in 1612[123].

The Hungarian rite is very close to the later Roman rite. The king is
presented to the metropolitan by a bishop who requests him in the name
of the Church to proceed to the coronation. After the usual questions
and answers the king takes the oath, _Ego Albertus profiteor et promitto
coram Deo_. Then is said the prayer _Omn. semp. Deus creator omnium_,
which is followed by the Litany, and the king is then anointed on the
right arm and between the shoulders with ‘oleum exorcizatum,’ the
metropolitan saying the prayer _Deus Dei filius_. The metropolitan
begins the Mass, which is that for the day, the collect _Deus regnorum
omnium_ being also said. After the Gradual and Alleluia the investitures
of Sword, Crown, and Verge take place, the forms used being those of
Hittorp’s order, and the king is enthroned with _Sta et retine_. Then
is sung _Firmetur manus_, and the prayer _Deus qui victrices Moysi_ is
said or (_Alia benedictio_) _Deus inenarrabilis_, and Mass proceeds, the
Secret and Postcommunion being those of the Roman rite of the fifteenth

Panvinio and Beuther give us a few additional details. After the king
is girt with the sword of St Stephen he brandishes it thrice. The
Recognition takes place dramatically just before the coronation itself,
the officiating Cardinal handing the crown to the Court Palatine who
lifts it up, and shews it to the people, and asks according to ancient
custom whether they bid the elect to be made king; and the people answer
_Placet, fiat, vivat Rex_. After the delivery of the Verge, the Orb
and Cross is put into the king’s left hand without any form. According
to this account, after the enthronisation _Laudetur Deus_ is sung, by
which is probably meant _Te Deum_, which occurs here in the Roman rite,
and they greet the king with the acclamation _Vita, Salus, Felicitas,

The last coronation of a king of Hungary, that of the Emperor Francis
Joseph in 1867, was according to the rite of the present _Pontificale



It was in Spain that the coronation rite first appeared in the West.
The actual date at which the rite was first used in Spain is not known,
but in the seventh century it was evidently well established. Thus in
the Canons of the sixth Council of Toledo (638) reference is made to
the oath which the king takes on his accession, in which he swears to
persecute the Jews, and in the Canons of the eighth Council this oath is
again referred to. Julian, Bishop of Toledo[124], has left us a short
description of the coronation of King Wamba in 672, at which ceremony he
was himself present. He tells us that the king, standing in his royal
robes (_regio iam cultu conspicuus_) before the altar of the Church of
St Peter and St Paul in Toledo, ‘according to custom made his oath to
the people, and then on bended knees the oil of benediction is poured on
his head by the hands of the holy bishop Quiricius and an abundance of
benediction is manifested.’ Here we have the oath, the anointing, and the
curious expression ‘benedictionis copia,’ which probably means a series
of benedictions. There are no early Spanish forms extant, though there
are slight traces of the rite and evidence that there was a proper Mass
for the occasion in the old Spanish service books[125].

From the time of the Arab conquest until the reigns of Ferdinand and
Isabella, Spain was little more than a geographical term. Three small
Christian states, Aragon, Castile, and Navarre, maintained their
independence against the flourishing Arab kingdom of Granada. The
realm of Aragon was in itself a confederation of different states, and
therefore in strict theory the king should, to obtain due recognition,
be crowned in each state. But, probably owing to the inconvenience of an
oft-repeated coronation, the rite seems to have been discarded altogether
in Aragon by the fifteenth century. Nevertheless the order used at the
coronation of Dom Pedro IV of Aragon in 1336 is still preserved. Castile
was even more than Aragon a confederation of different states, and the
king of Castile was king also of Léon, Galice, Toledo, Jaen, Murcia,
etc. Here again, doubtless from considerations of convenience, the rite
seems to have passed out of existence early, being replaced by a series
of proclamations, and the taking of the oath by the new king before the

The third Christian state in Spain was the kingdom of Navarre. In this
state, up to the fifteenth century, a coronation rite was used which
possessed even more clearly marked characteristics than the rite of

After the union of the Spanish states into the one Spain under Ferdinand
and Isabella, the rite seems to have passed out of existence altogether,
the custom of Castile serving for the whole of Spain.

The order of the coronation of Dom Pedro IV of Aragon[126] in 1336, while
shewing Roman influence, on the other hand exhibits, with the rite of
Navarre, more clearly marked national characteristics than any other
Western rite.

The order of the coronation of Dom Pedro is as follows. The day before
the ceremony the king entered the church in which he was to be crowned
on the morrow, and kneeling down said a prayer for himself in Spanish.
The Sword, Shield, and Helmet were then set on the altar, where they
remained through the night watched by nobles, the king reposing in the
Sacristy. Next morning he hears Mass privately, and at the time appointed
he is summoned by the archbishop and other bishops, and is arrayed in
his royal vesture; an ample linen camisa, like a Roman rochet; an amice
of linen; a long camisa of white linen; a girdle; a stole over the left
shoulder hanging before and behind; a maniple on his left wrist; a
tunicle; and a dalmatic. The king thus arrayed goes in procession to the
altar, and the Litany is said, followed by a prayer for the king and the
collect _Actiones nostras_. At this point comes a section peculiar to the
Spanish rite, the _Benedictio super omnia arma regis_; first a general
benediction, then the _Benedictio super scutum_, the _Benedictio super
lanceam_, and the _Benedictio super ensem_. After these benedictions,
if he is not already a knight, the king is invested with the Sword, the
archbishop saying _Accipe ensem desuper altare_, as in the Roman rite,
and the king says a prayer for himself in Spanish. The Mass for the day
is then begun, and after the Epistle the king takes the oath in the
direct form, _Nos N. profitemur et promittimus coram Deo_[127]. The more
important bishops now lead the king to the archbishop and ask that he may
be crowned, as in the Roman rite, except that the petition is made in
Spanish. The archbishop then says _Deus in cuius manu corda sunt regum_,
and there follow three prayers under the heading _Alia oratio_ which are
probably to be regarded as alternative to the foregoing, _Omn. semp.
Deus qui famulum tuum N._, _Deus qui scis omne humanum_, and _Omn. semp.
Deus caelestium terrestriumque_. The archbishop then puts the questions
to the king _Vis fidem sanctam_, etc., and asks the people whether they
will accept him as king, as in Hittorp’s order. The archbishop blesses
the king with the prayer _Benedic Domine hunc regem_, and proceeds to the
consecration; after _Sursum corda_, _Preface_, and the prayer _Creator
omnium Imperator angelorum_ he anoints him in the threefold Name on the
breast and each of his shoulders, and then says _Prospice Omn. Domine
hunc gloriosum regem nostrum serenis obtutibus_. At this point under the
heading _Alia oratio_ are given a number of prayers _Domine Deus Omn.
cuius est omnis potestas_, in a longer version than usual, _Omn. semp.
Deus qui Azahel super Syriam_, _Spiritus Sancti gratia_, _Deus qui es
iustorum gloria_, and _Deus Dei filius_.

The king is now crowned, the archbishop saying the form _Accipe igitur
coronam regni_, as in Hittorp’s order except for a few words, and
the king takes the Crown from off the altar and crowns himself, the
archbishop saying _Accipe signum gloriae, diadema et coronam regni_, as
in the Roman rite of the coronation of an emperor. The king then takes
the Sceptre from the altar, the archbishop saying _Accipe virgam_, etc.;
then the Orb, the archbishop saying _Accipe dignitatis pomum et per id_,
etc., which is the form with which the Ring is delivered in Hittorp’s
order with the necessary changes. After the investitures, under the
heading _Alia oratio_ come the two prayers, _Benedic Domine quaesumus
hunc regem_, and _Deus pater aeternae gloriae_, and the king is then
enthroned with the _Sta et retine_, the anthem _Desiderium animae_ being
sung the while.

The queen’s coronation now follows. After the prayers _Omn. semp. Deus
fons et origo_, and _Deus qui solus_, she retires to the sacristy,
where she is arrayed in a camisa romana; a camisa of white silk; a
girdle of white silk; a maniple on the left arm; and a dalmatic. Then
the Litany is sung, followed by two prayers for the queen, _Praetende,
quaesumus, Domine, famulae tuae_, and _Omn. semp. Deus hanc famulam_.
The consecration prayer follows, _Deus bonorum cunctorum auctor_ with its
preface, and the queen is anointed on head, breast, and on one shoulder,
and after the anointing are said the prayers, _Deus pater aeternae
gloriae_, and _Spiritus Sancti gratia_. The king now takes the Crown from
off the altar and sets it on the queen’s head, the archbishop saying the
short Roman form, _Accipe coronam gloriae_, or the form of Hittorp’s
order _Officio indignitatis_. The king then gives the Sceptre into the
queen’s right hand, the archbishop saying _Accipe virgam virtutis_, and
the Orb into her left hand, the same form being used as in the case of
the king. The coronation of king and queen now over, _Te Deum_ is sung,
and Mass is begun. The Postcommunion is the old Roman form adapted,
_Deus qui ad defendendum aeterni regni evangelium regium Aragonum solium
praeparasti_, and before the Mass blessing are said _Omn. semp. Deus
qui te populi sui voluit esse rectorem_, and _Haec Domine salutaris
sacrificii perceptio_, this latter, which is the Postcommunion of the
_Missa pro imperatoribus_, being evidently a Postcommunion out of place.

It will be seen that at this stage the Spanish rite had been considerably
influenced by the Roman rite. On the other hand it still retained very
ancient features. The Shield and Spear are among the insignia of the
Eastern emperors[128]. The Crown is still called the ‘Helmet,’ as in the
Order of ‘Egbert.’ The taking of the insignia by the king himself, and
his investing the queen with her insignia, of which usages there are
signs in some of the early Frankish rites, all are reminiscent of the
old Eastern rite, as are the private prayers of the king himself, which
have their parallel in the living form of the Eastern Imperial rite, that
which exists in Russia at the present day. The use of the vernacular,
too, is very noticeable. Indeed the parallels between their rite and the
earlier Eastern rite raise the question whether there has been at any
stage a borrowing by the former of elements from the latter.

The coronation rite seems to have lasted longest in Navarre of all the
Spanish kingdoms. Moreover the rite of Navarre, though very similar to
the rite of Aragon, is still more peculiarly Spanish than that of Aragon.
The general character of the rite of Navarre is seen in the description
of the coronation of Charles the Noble in 1390, though unfortunately
the actual forms used are not available[129]. The ceremony took place
at Pamplona, and is begun by the Archbishop of Pamplona requesting the
king, ‘before you approach the sacrament of your unction,’ to take the
oath to the people which custom requires. The king accordingly laying his
hand on cross and gospels, swears to maintain the rights and privileges
of the people and to maintain justice. Then in their turn the nobility
and gentry present with one voice swear to be loyal and obedient to the
king, and lastly the officials of the towns, etc., take the oath of
fealty. The king then proceeds to the chapel of St Stephen, disrobes, and
is arrayed in white vestments designed with special openings to admit of
the anointing. The Archbishop of Pamplona proceeds to anoint him in front
of the high altar according to custom, but unfortunately what the custom
is is not specified. The king after the anointing changes his raiment
for precious vestments, and returns to the high altar. The archbishop
then proceeds with the accustomed prayers, and the king takes the Sword
off the altar and girds it on himself. He draws it, brandishes it, and
returns it to its sheath. The king next takes the Crown from off the
altar and sets it on his head, the archbishop saying the special form for
the crowning; and then in the same way he takes the Sceptre. Finally,
with Crown on head and Sceptre in hand, he is raised aloft on a large
shield by twelve barons and deputies of various towns, who thrice shout
‘Real, real, real.’ Certain prayers follow, and _Te Deum_ is sung. High
Mass is then begun, the king offering certain palls of cloth of gold, and
money according to custom. He makes his communion.

The rite by which John and Blanche were crowned in 1429 is more or less
the same[130]. The oaths were made as usual, and the elevation on the
shield took place, both John and Blanche being elevated, ‘according as
the Gothic Kings of Spain were wont to be elevated, and before them
certain Emperors of the Roman Empire.’

There are certain features of the Spanish rite which are very reminiscent
of the Byzantine rite. For example, the Crown is called the ‘Helmet.’
The Shield and Spear are among the regalia. The monarch is elevated on
a shield. And again the king invests himself with the various regal
ornaments as was done in some circumstances at Constantinople. On the
other hand it is to be remembered that after all the Shield and Spear
were arms in general use and common to all nations. The elevation
on the shield at Constantinople was without doubt derived from the
practice of the Teutonic tribes who furnished the Empire with so many
of her soldiers, and may well have been the custom of the Goths. The
self-investiture by the king is curious in a land so much under the
domination of the Church as was Spain from earliest Visigothic times.
And there is no definite evidence of any derivation of the rite of the
Spanish kingdoms from the rite of Constantinople.



The Scottish pre-reformation rite has not been preserved. It was not
until the time of Pope John XXII that the kings of Scotland were crowned
with an anointing, but in 1329 there was conferred upon the kings of
Scotland ‘the right to receive anointing and coronation by the sacred
hands of a Pontiff,’ a privilege which most of the kings of Europe at
that time enjoyed. There was, however, long before this time some sort of
inauguration ceremony. The ‘Ordination’ of King Aidan by St Columba has
been mentioned, and there is reference fairly frequently in the Scottish
annals to a ‘Custom of the nation,’ some ceremony that took place at the
accession of a king, but of the details of which we have no knowledge.
It was probably of the nature of an enthronisation. Again we can perhaps
obtain some information on a detail of the coronation rite in general
from a question that came up over the inauguration of Alexander III in
1249. The king was eight years old, and a dispute arose whether the king
should be knighted before he was made king. It will be remembered that in
the rite of Aragon the king was invested with the Sword at his coronation
only if he had not been knighted before. It would seem that originally
the investiture with the Sword was no part of the coronation ceremony,
but was in process of time taken into the rite from the order for making
a knight. Perhaps, too, we may see in the obligatory oath of the people
of the post-reformation Scottish rite a survival of a peculiarity of the
old rite.

Four coronations took place in Scotland subsequent to the

In 1567 James VI was crowned during the lifetime of his mother, when he
was one year old. The rite on this occasion was the old one, except that
there was no Mass, and the officiating prelate was Adam Bothwell, Bishop
of Orkney, the king being duly anointed, and the usual ceremonies taking
place. The sermon was preached by John Knox, and the Earl of Morton
acted as sponsor for the king. In the oath the king swore to extirpate
heretics, but this was probably in accordance with the old form, the
only difference being that heretics were now those who did not hold the
doctrines of the ‘true Kirk.’

The second occasion on which a coronation ceremony took place in Scotland
in post-reformation times was when Anne of Denmark was crowned as
Queen-consort in 1590. This was the first occasion on which a definitely
protestant rite was used. The service was of appalling length and lasted
from 10 a.m. till 5 p.m. There was no singing of any kind, not even of a
psalm, and the unfortunate Anne had to listen to six discourses, three
addresses, and three sermons, the last being in English, French, and
Latin. After these Mr Andrew Melville recited two hundred lines of a poem
of his own composing. The Queen took an oath against Popery. She was then
anointed on the breast, and the method of anointing must have been very
unpleasant, for we are told that ‘Mester Robert Bruce immediately puires
furthe upon thois partis of hir breist and arme of quhilk the clothes
were remowit, a bonye quantitie of oyll.’ Pressure had to be put on the
Kirk to consent to use any anointing at all, and it was only when James
threatened to procure a Prelate to perform the rite, if the Kirk was
obdurate, that it was agreed to perform the obnoxious ceremony, and then
on the understanding that it should be regarded as a civil and not as a
religious act, and should be done without any form of words. After the
anointing the Sceptre was delivered into her hands by Mr Melville, and
the Duke of Lennox, receiving the Crown from the King’s hands, set it
upon her head. And so the rite was concluded.

In 1651 Charles II was crowned as king of Scotland at Scone. The rite
used[132] on this occasion was purged of ‘superstition’ inasmuch as no
anointing was used. Otherwise it is based to some extent on the old rite
and probably owes something to the English-Scottish order used at the
coronation of Charles I at Holyrood.

Before the procession started, the king was addressed by the Lord
Chancellor to the effect that his subjects desired him to be crowned and
to maintain the Covenant and to defend their rights, and Charles having
given the required promise the procession set forth. During the first
part of the proceedings in the church the king occupied a chair by the
pulpit, the regalia being deposited on a table. The ceremony began with
a sermon of inordinate length, preached by Mr Robert Douglas, Moderator
of the Assembly. Basing his discourse on the narrative of the crowning
of Jehoiada, the preacher dealt with many subjects, the meaning of the
Coronation ceremony, the need of a reformation of their ways on the part
of the king and his family, the freedom and independence of the Kirk and
of the king’s duties towards it. The sermon being over, the king swore to
maintain the Solemn League and Covenant. The Recognition then followed,
the king ascending a stage and being presented to the people at the four
sides by the Lord Great Constable and the Marischal, the people crying
_God save King Charles II_. The oath was then tendered by Mr Douglas, and
the king swore to maintain the established religion, to defend the rights
of the crown of Scotland, and to extirpate heretics.

The oath taken, the Lord Great Chamberlain divested the king of his
purple mantle in which he was arrayed from the first, and girt on him
the Sword, saying: _Sir, receive this kingly sword for the defence of
the faith of Christ and protection of his kirk and of the true religion
which is presently professed in this Kingdom and according to the
National Covenant and League and Covenant, and for executing equity and
justice, and for punishment of all iniquity and injustice_. This is based
on the old form. The king was then crowned by the Marquis of Argyll,
the minister praying that the crown might be purged of the sin of his
predecessors, and firmly settled on the king’s head. The homage follows,
the Lyon king of Arms summons the nobles to come and touch the crown
and swear faithful allegiance, and then takes place what is perhaps a
feature peculiar to the old Scottish rite, the obligatory oath of the
people. The Lyon king of Arms dictates the oath at the four corners
of the stage, and the people holding up their hands repeat: _By the
Eternal Almighty God who liveth and reigneth for ever, we become your
liegemen, and truth and faith will bear with you, and live and die with
you against all manner of folk whatsoever in your service, according to
the National League and Solemn League and Covenant_. The Earl of Crawford
next delivers the Sceptre, saying: _Sir, receive this Sceptre of royal
power of the Kingdom, that you may govern yourself right and defend all
the Christian people committed by God to your charge, punishing the
wicked and protecting the just_. This again is based on the old form. The
king is then enthroned by the Marquis of Argyll with a very short form
based on the _Sta et retine_, _Stand and hold fast from henceforth the
place whereof you are the lawful and righteous heir by a long and lineal
descent of your fathers which is now delivered unto you by authority of
Almighty God_. The minister then delivers a ‘word of exhortation,’ after
which one by one the lords kneel and swear allegiance, and finally the
minister blesses the king and closes the proceedings with a long address
to the people.


In 1619 Frederick Count Palatine of the Rhine and the Princess Elizabeth
(daughter of James I) were crowned with a reformed rite at Prague[133].

The king goes in procession to the parish church of Prague, and arrays
himself in his regal vestments in the chapel of St Wenceslaus. As he
enters the choir from the chapel he is blessed by the Administrator (the
officiating minister) and, preceded by the procession of the Regalia,
goes up to the high altar. The _Veni Creator_ is sung[134], and then is
said a collect for the king, in Bohemian, after which the king goes to
his seat and the sermon is preached. After the sermon a Litany is sung
in Latin with special petitions for the king, then a lesson is read, and
the Administrator says a prayer for the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
Here comes the Recognition; the Burggraf demands of the people whether
it is their wish that the king be crowned, and on their signifying their
desire, the king takes the oath in the vulgar tongue, after which another
prayer is said. The Administrator then anoints the king in the form of a
cross on the forehead with an explanatory form which has no connection
with the old forms. The investitures follow, and the king is invested
with the Sword with the form _Accipe gladium Rex electe a Deo_, etc.,
which is based on the old Catholic form; then with Ring[135], Sceptre,
Orb or Reichsapfel, and with the Crown, the forms in all cases being new.
The enthronisation then takes place, after which the Burggraf summons
all present to take the oath of allegiance, during the taking of which
all who could laid two fingers on the Crown, and all others held up two
fingers, the oath being repeated in common. A long benediction[136] of
the king then takes place. The coronation of the queen is now proceeded
with. As she comes from the sacristy she is blessed by the Administrator
and kneels before the high altar while a prayer is said. The king then
asks the Administrator to crown his Consort. Litany is sung, with special
petitions for the queen, and the lesson read before is read again. A
prayer is said, and then the Administrator anoints her in the same way
as the king was anointed. The Sceptre is delivered to her with a form
which is based on the old Catholic form, and the Reichsapfel and Crown
with the same forms as were used in the case of the king. There is no
mention of a Ring. A long benediction[137] of the queen follows here, and
then the queen returns to her throne, and the proceedings close with the
singing of _Te Deum_.


In 1701, on the transformation of Frederick Elector of Brandenburg
into the first King of Prussia, a consecration rite was provided for
the occasion[138]. The ceremony took place at Königsberg, and two
court-preachers, one Lutheran and the other Evangelical, were appointed
to act as Consecrator and assistant-Consecrator. On the morning of
January 18th, the king, already vested in his royal robes, betakes
himself to the Hall of Audience and there crowns himself with his
own hands, and then proceeding to her apartments crowns the queen. A
procession then sets out to the Lutheran Schloss-Kirche, at the entrance
of which they are met by the Consecrator and blessed by him, and they
proceed to their thrones. A psalm (67) is sung and the Consecrator says
a prayer at the altar, praying that the king and queen may receive by
the anointing the gift of the Holy Spirit. A hymn is then sung, after
which comes the sermon. After the sermon _Veni Creator_ is sung, and the
Grand-Chamberlain hands to the assistant-Consecrator a vessel containing
the oil of unction, from which the Consecrator anoints the king (who has
in the meantime laid aside his Crown and Sceptre) on the forehead and on
both wrists, saying: _Let your royal Majesty receive this unction as a
divine sign and token whereby God formerly by His priests and prophets
did testify to the Kings of His people that He Himself alone is the most
high God: and that He makes, sets up, and appoints Kings; and let the
Lord our God Himself herewith anoint your royal Majesty with the Holy
Ghost, that you, as an anointed of the Lord, with a resolute, courageous
and willing heart may rule and govern this your people and Kingdom; and
in good health and prosperity for many years and times to come may serve
the counsel and will of your God: through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen._
The anointing is not in the form of a cross, but of a circle as being the
most perfect figure known to mathematicians! Then the choir sings _Amen,
Amen. Prosperity to the king. Prosperity to the king. God grant him
length of days._ After this anthem the queen is anointed in the same way
as the king with the form: _Let your royal Majesty receive this unction
as a divine sign and token that your Majesty has this anointing and
appointment to your royal Dignity and Majesty from God; who espoused you
to your King, that he should have from you both joy and comfort: and the
Lord our God anoint you more and more with His Holy Ghost, that you may
be courageous and willing to glorify God and serve Him, for Jesus Christ
our Lord_. After which the anthem _Amen, Amen. Prosperity to the Queen_,
etc., is sung. A fanfare is then blown on the trumpets, and the ministers
make a deep reverence to the king and queen, and then the Consecrator
blesses the king saying: _Prosperity to the King, King Frederick, King of
Prussia, and the Lord the God of our Lord the King say so: as the Lord
hath been with him hithertowards, so let Him be with him for the time to
come: that his royal throne may daily be greater and greater. Amen._ The
anthem is then once more sung. The Consecrator then blesses the queen in
similar terms, and the anthem is once more sung. Then the choir sings
_Glory be to God on high_, and the Consecrator addresses the people,
saying, _Fear God, honour your King and Queen_, and blesses the king and
queen. An anthem follows, then a hymn, and then the assistant-Consecrator
makes a prayer of thanksgiving for the erection of the kingdom and the
anointing of the king. The usual blessing is given and the ceremony ends
with the _Te Deum_.


There is no evidence as to the coronation rite in the Scandinavian
kingdoms before the reformation, but as these nations only obtained
the privilege of a coronation ceremony comparatively late and at a
time when the Roman rite had become predominant, it is fairly certain
that the rite, when introduced, was Roman, with perhaps a few national

In Denmark a coronation ritual continued to be used until the year 1840,
since which date it has been entirely given up. Until then each Danish
monarch was crowned on his accession.

We have an account of an early post-reformation rite in the case of
Frederick II in 1559. The description is unfortunately written in verse
by the Poet Laureate, Hieronymus Hosius[139], and of course no forms are
given. The description given by Hosius is as follows. The king goes in
procession to church, accompanied by the nobles by whom the regalia are
carried. The church is decorated with red hangings for the occasion, and
a throne set up in front of the altar. The king enters the church and
proceeds to his throne, and the regalia are deposited on the altar. The
king having made his private devotions, the officiating minister delivers
an admonition to him, and then is sung _Veni Creator_ or _Veni Sancte
Spiritus_[140]. After the hymn, the king and nobles standing before the
minister who remains seated, the Lord Chancellor presents the king as
lawful inheritor of the throne, and demands that he be crowned, and the
minister replies that in response to their demand he will proceed with
the coronation. He then once more addresses an admonition to the king on
his kingly duties, and the king then takes the oath, in which he swears
to preserve the peace of the Church, to defend the realm, and to maintain
justice. An anthem is then sung praying for the king’s prosperity. The
minister then anoints Frederick between the shoulders and on both wrists,
using a form which expresses the signification of the unction. After the
anointing during the singing of _Te Deum_[141] (?) the king is arrayed in
his regal vestments. The minister delivers the Sword, with an admonitory
form which contains something of the ideas of the old form of the Church,
and girds it on the king. He then addresses the people, warning them of
the king’s power and authority to punish, and the king draws the Sword
and brandishes it towards the four corners of the compass. The king is
then crowned, the minister and as many of the nobles as conveniently may
setting the Crown on the king’s head together, and the minister delivers
the Sceptre into the king’s right hand, charging him to rule well,
and the Orb and Cross into his left, with a long address, in which he
explains the meaning of the ornament. The singing is then resumed, and
the king delivers the regalia to the nobles appointed, and returns to his
throne. Homage is done, and the king, according to custom, creates eight

It will be noticed that this order is based on the Roman rite. The
presentation of the king by the Chancellor has taken the place of the
presentation by bishops; the king is anointed as in the Roman rite; the
brandishing of the Sword is Roman, and there is no Ring.

There is no mention of the Communion, nor is there any reference to the

The later history of the rite is somewhat obscure, and by the nineteenth
century it had been subjected to considerable alterations and omissions.
As used (for the last time) at the accession of Christian VIII in
1840[142] it is very similar to the Prussian rite of 1702.

The king and the queen come to the church in separate processions. Three
bishops meet the king at the entrance of the church and conduct him to
his throne during the singing of the Introit, and then three bishops meet
the queen’s procession and conduct her to her throne. The Introit over
the Bishop of Sjaelland delivers a first address, and after it the Bishop
Olgaard reads a lesson, which is expounded by the Bishop of Sjaelland. A
copy of the Statutes and the anointing vessels are then deposited on the
altar, and the Bishop of Sjaelland delivers another address with special
reference to the Constitution. The three bishops then kneeling before
the altar, the Bishop of Sjaelland begins the Lord’s Prayer. The king in
the meanwhile lays aside his royal ornaments, Crown, Sceptre, and Orb,
with which he has entered the church in preparation for the anointing.
First is sung in Latin _Veni Sancte Spiritus_, and ℣. _Emitte Spiritum
Sanctum Domine_, ℟. _Et renovabis faciem terrae_, etc., followed by the
collect of Pentecost, _Deus qui corda fidelium_. A hymn is then sung,
during which the Bishop of Sjaelland goes up to the altar, opens the
vessel containing the oil, and consecrates it with a secret prayer. The
king during the singing and the prayers has reassumed his ornaments. The
Bishop of Sjaelland now summons the king to be anointed, and the king
goes up to the altar with his Crown on his head, the Sceptre in his right
hand and the Orb in his left. Again the king lays aside the regalia and
takes off his right-hand glove, while the Lord Chamberlain unfastens the
clothing over his breast. Then as the king kneels before the altar the
bishop, dipping the tips of two fingers in the oil, anoints him in the
form of a cross on forehead, breast, and right wrist, using a suitable
form. The king then resumes his ornaments. General Superintendent
Callisen reads _Ps._ xxi. 2-8, and the Bishop of Sjaelland delivers
another discourse, after which a hymn is sung. The Bishop of Sjaelland
now summons the queen and anoints her on forehead and breast, using a
suitable form; a hymn is sung, the bishop delivers a last discourse, and
the Hymn of Praise is sung. The king once more lays aside the regalia,
and the bishop intones _The Lord be with you_, ℟., _And with thy spirit_,
and sings the special collect, and then immediately gives the blessing.
A hymn is sung and, the king resuming his ornaments, the royal procession
leaves the church.

The degenerate nature of this rite is very evident. Like the Prussian
order it has no investitures at all, only the central feature of the
anointing remaining, and that is done apparently without any fixed forms.
Indeed the rite is more or less a series of preachings.


The post-reformation Swedish rite seems to have undergone very little
variation. It was however discontinued at the accession of the present
king of Sweden.

The coronation of Carl XI on August 23, 1675, took place as follows[143].
The king goes in procession to the Domkirche, and passing to his seat in
the midst of the choir kneels and makes his private devotions. A hymn is
then sung, after which a sermon is preached by Basilius Bishop of Skara.
The sermon ended, the king goes up to the altar, and taking off the
mantle in which he has come to the church is anointed by the Archbishop
of Upsala on breast, shoulders, and hands, the archbishop using a special
form during the anointing. The king is then invested in the Royal Mantle.
The accustomed oath is then taken by him, after which, sitting on a seat
in front of the altar he is invested with the royal ornaments, which are
brought down from the altar on which they have been deposited. First he
is crowned, the king himself setting the Crown on his head. Next he is
invested with the Sceptre, Apple, Key, and Sword, the archbishop using
a special form at the delivery of each ornament. After the investitures
the king returns the ornaments to the lords, to whose charge they belong,
except the Crown and Sceptre, and returns to his seat in the choir. A
herald proclaims _Carl has been crowned King of Sweden and no other_, a
fanfare of trumpets is sounded, and the choir sings _Vivat Rex Carolus_.
The Litany is then sung by the bishops and congregation, and after
certain prayers and hymns the ceremony comes to an end. The various
nobles and officials then swear allegiance and the royal procession takes
its departure.

The most noticeable feature in this order is perhaps the occurrence of
the Key among the regalia, an ornament peculiar to the Swedish rite, and
evidently an ancient peculiarity. It is possible that in this account the
taking of the oath is wrongly described as occurring after the anointing
instead of before it, for in subsequent orders it occurs in its proper
place, before the anointing. Also the king is stated to have crowned
himself, whereas in a contemporary engraving of the coronation of King
Carl Gustaf in 1654, the king is represented as being crowned by the
archbishop and the Princeps Senatus, Count Drotzel, conjointly, and
this has been the practice down to the last celebration of a coronation
ceremony in Sweden.

The coronation of a Swedish king in modern times may be illustrated by
the order used when Carl XV and Queen Wilhelmina Frederika were crowned
in 1860[144].

The king and queen proceed to the church in separate processions. The
king is met by the archbishop in his canonicals and the bishops in
their copes, the archbishop greeting him with the words _Blessed be he
that cometh in the name of the Lord_, and the Bishop of Skara saying a
prayer that the king may be endowed with grace to rule his people well.
The archbishop and bishops then escort the king to his seat before the
altar with the Royal Standard on his right hand and the banner of the
Order of the Seraphim on his left. The Bishop of Strengnäs and the other
bishops await the coming of the queen, and when she enters the Bishop
of Strengnäs greets her with the words _Blessed be she that cometh in
the name of the Lord_, and the Bishop of Hernosänd says a prayer almost
identical with that said at the king’s entrance. She is conducted to her
seat on the left side of the choir, and their Majesties kneel and make
their private devotions, while the regalia are deposited on the altar.

The archbishop begins the service singing _Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God
of Sabaoth_, with which the Swedish ‘High Mass’ commences; the Bishop
of Skara recites the Creed before the altar, and the hymn _Come thou
Holy Spirit, come_, is sung, and the sermon is preached by the Bishop of
Götheborg. The Litany is then said and after this, during the singing
of an anthem, the king goes to his throne on a dais before the altar,
with the Royal Standard borne on his right hand and the banner of the
Seraphim on his left, followed by a procession of the regalia. There
before the altar his mantle and princely coronet are taken off and
deposited on the altar, and kneeling he is invested in the Royal Mantle
by a state minister, and the Archbishop of Upsala reads the first chapter
of St John. The Minister of Justice then dictates the oath to the king,
which he takes, laying three fingers on the Bible. Immediately after the
taking of the oath the archbishop anoints the king on forehead, breast,
temples, and wrists, saying, _The Almighty everlasting God pour out His
Holy Spirit into your soul and mind, plans and undertakings, by whose
gift may you so rule land and kingdom, as to redound to the honour and
glory of God, maintain justice and equity, and be for the good of the
land and people_. The king then resumes his seat, and the archbishop and
Minister of Justice crown him conjointly, the archbishop praying in a set
form that his rule may be good and prosperous. The king is next invested
with the Sceptre by the archbishop and the Minister for Foreign Affairs,
and the Apple is delivered to him by Count Hamilton, the archbishop
using a set form in both cases. The Key is then delivered to the king
by Major-General af Nordin, the archbishop saying the following prayer:
_God the Almighty who of His divine providence hath raised you to this
royal dignity, grant you grace to unlock treasures of wisdom and truth
for your people, to lock out error, vices, and sloth from your kingdom,
and to provide for the industrious prosperity and increase, relief and
comfort for the suffering and afflicted_. Finally a naked sword is put
into the king’s hand, the archbishop saying a prayer that he may use his
power well and justly. The archbishop then returns to the altar, and
the king having his Crown on his head and holding the Sceptre in his
right hand and the Apple in his left, a herald proclaims _Now has Carl
XV been crowned king over the lands of Sweden, Gotha, and the underlying
provinces. He and no other._ A hymn is sung and the archbishop says a
prayer and gives the Benediction.

The queen is now led up to her throne before the altar. She is invested
in the Royal Mantle, anointed on forehead and wrists, crowned, and
invested with Sceptre and Apple, the forms used being those employed for
the king and adapted to the queen. She is then proclaimed by a herald,
and the choir sings, _Prosperity to the Queen_, and then part of a hymn,
and the archbishop recites the last prayer as over the king. As in all
other protestant rites there is no communion, only the first part of the
‘High Mass’ being used in this case. After the coronation of the queen
homage is done, and during the singing of the hymn _Now thank we all our
God_, the royal procession leaves the church.

The order used for the coronation of King Oscar II in 1872 is identical
with the above. This was the last occasion on which a coronation rite was
observed in Sweden.


There is no sign of any ancient rite belonging to the kingdom of Norway,
and perhaps none ever existed, for Norway was united with the kingdom of
Denmark from the fourteenth century until 1814, and since that date until
quite recent times with the kingdom of Sweden. According to the law of
1814, however, a separate coronation of the king as King of Norway took
place in the cathedral of Trondhjem where the king was solemnly anointed
by the Lutheran Superintendent, and crowned by the Superintendent and the
Prime Minister conjointly.

The following is the account of the ceremonial observed at the coronation
of King Haakon VII and Queen Maud in 1906[145]. It will be observed that
the order used is very close to that used in Sweden, though the forms
used are differently worded.

The royal procession goes in due order with the regalia to the Domkirke,
at the entrance of which it is met by the Bishops of Trondhjem,
Kristiania, and Bergen, and their attendant clergy, and the king and
queen are greeted with the words _The Lord preserve thy comings in and
goings out both now and for ever_. When they have taken their places
the service begins, the Bishop of Trondhjem intoning the first line of
the Introit hymn, of which the first verse is sung by choir and people.
The Bishop of Kristiania then reads the Creed, and the Bishop of Bergen
begins _Te Deum_, of which the first six verses only are sung. The sermon
is preached by the Bishop of Kristiania. After the sermon a verse of a
hymn is sung by a priest and choir antiphonally, and this is followed by
the first part of the anthem. The king now proceeds to his throne, which
is erected on a dais before the altar, the Royal Standard being held on
his right hand. He is divested of the mantle which he has been wearing,
it being laid on the altar, and he is invested by the Lord Chief Justice
and the Bishop of Trondhjem in the Royal Mantle which has been lying
on the altar. The Bishop of Trondhjem then anoints him on forehead and
wrist with a special form, the king kneeling during the anointing. The
king rises and takes his seat on the throne and is crowned by a Minister
of State and the bishop conjointly, the bishop using a special form of
words. He is then invested with the Sceptre by the Minister of Foreign
Affairs and the bishop; with the Orb by a Councillor of State and the
bishop; and with the Sword by another Councillor of State and the bishop,
the bishop using a special form at each investiture. The second part of
the anthem is sung and part of a hymn, and the Bishop of Trondhjem says a
last prayer for the king and then gives the blessing.

The king now returns to his seat in the choir, with his Crown on his
head, the Sceptre in his right hand, and the Orb in his left. The third
part of the anthem is sung, during which the queen passes to her throne
before the altar. She is arrayed in the Royal Mantle, anointed on
forehead and wrist, and duly invested with Crown, Sceptre, and Orb, the
forms used in each case being adapted from those employed for the king.
The fourth part of the anthem is sung and part of a hymn, and the Bishop
of Trondhjem says the last prayer, which is slightly adapted from the
corresponding prayer used in the case of the king; he gives the blessing,
and the queen returns to her seat in the choir. The President of the
Storthing then proclaims the Coronation Act to be duly consummated. Two
verses of the hymn _God bless our dear Fatherland_ are sung, and during
the last part of the anthem the bishops and clergy leave the altar, and,
the anthem being finished, the royal procession takes its departure from
the church.



The rite of the coronation of a Pope seems to date from the time when
the western Patriarchs began to make definite claims to a temporal
sovereignty. The rite does not appear till the ninth century, but
probably existed in some form for a century before this date. Already in
the _Liber Pontificalis_[146] it is stated that Pope Constantine wore
during his visit to Constantinople a head-dress peculiar to the Roman
Pope. This is called the Camelaucus, and is evidently the original form
of the Tiara. In the ‘Donation of Constantine’ of the pseudo-Isidorian
decretals[147], in which the Papal temporal claims were first formulated,
Constantine the Great is said to have granted to the Pope the sovereignty
of the West and to have bestowed on him and his successors a special
royal diadem, which is described as ‘phrigium candido nitore splendidum,’
evidently the camelaucus under a different name, a closed head-dress
something of the shape of a Phrygian cap, and probably related to the
Crown of the eastern bishop. Although the ‘Donation’ does not mention any
ceremony of coronation, perhaps one is implied by this claim that the
Papal head-gear is a temporal crown.

In the ninth century the rite existed and is described in Mabillon’s
Ordo Romanus IX[148]. The ceremony never became so elaborate as a royal
coronation. The Pope elect, who must not be a bishop, enters St Peter’s
during the Introit _Elegit te Dominus_. His consecration as a bishop then
takes place. Three special prayers are said for him by three different
bishops[149]. The archdeacon then invests him with the Pallium (i.e. the
ecclesiastical vestment), and he is enthroned on a specially prepared
throne. The new Pope celebrates Mass himself, and after the _Gloria in
excelsis_ the Laudes are sung. When Mass is over he is enthroned upon the
apostolic throne. Then he proceeds to the steps at the west end of St
Peter’s, and after the acclamation thrice repeated _Domnus Leo Papa quem
Sanctus Petrus elegit in sua sede multis annis sedere_, he is crowned
with the Regnum or Tiara, which is described as being white and shaped
like a helmet. He then mounts a horse and returns to his palace amid the
acclamations of the people.

The rite seems to have changed very little in the process of time.
Ordo XII[150], which is of the twelfth century, gives a little more
information. On the Sunday after his election the Pope proceeds to St
Peter’s, and there before the high altar is consecrated bishop by the
Bishop of Ostia and other bishops. The consecration over, the Cardinal
Deacon of St Laurence places the Pallium on the high altar, whence the
Archdeacon takes it and invests the Pope in it saying: _Accipe pallium,
plenitudinem scilicet pontificalis officii, ad honorem omnipotentis Dei
et gloriosissimae Virginis eius genitricis et beatorum apostolorum Petri
et Pauli et sanctas Romanae ecclesiae_. The Pope then celebrates Mass.
After the Laudes, the Epistle and Gospel are read both in Latin and
Greek. Mass being finished, the Pope returns to his palace with the Tiara
on his head, but there is no indication of any ceremonial crowning having
taken place.

Ordo XIV[151] of the fourteenth century is fuller. The Pope is now
generally already a bishop at the time of his election. The newly-elected
Pope proceeds to St Peter’s and begins Mass. After the _Confiteor_ he
takes his seat before a faldstool between his throne and the altar,
and there prayers are said for him by the Cardinal Bishops of Albano,
Porto and Ostia. First the Bishop of Albano says the prayer: _Deus qui
adesse non dedignaris ubicumque devota mente invocaris, adesto quaesumus
invocationibus nostris et huic famulo tuo N. quem ad culmen apostolicum
commune iudicium tuae plebis elegit ubertatem supernae benedictionis
infunde, ut sentiat se tuo munere ad hunc apicem pervenisse_. Next the
Bishop of Porto says the second prayer, _Supplicationibus, Omnipotens
Deus, effectum consuetae pietatis impende, et gratia Spiritus Sancti hunc
famulum tuum N. perfunde; ut qui in capite ecclesiarum nostrae servitutis
mysterio constituitur, tuae virtutis soliditate roboretur_. The Bishop
of Ostia says the third prayer, _Deus qui Apostolum tuum Petrum
inter caeteros coapostolos primatum tenere voluisti, eique universae
Christianitatis molem superimposuisti; respice propitius quaesumus
hunc famulum tuum N. quem de humili cathedra violenter sublimatum in
thronum eiusdem apostolorum principis sublimamus: ut sicut profectibus
tantae dignitatis augetur, ita virtutum meritis cumuletur; quatenus
ecclesiasticae universitatis onus, te adiuvante, digne ferat, et a te qui
es beatitudo tuorum meritam vicem recipiat_.

The Pope now receives the reverence of the Cardinals and Prelates
present, who kiss his foot and face. He then goes to the altar where the
Cardinal Deacon of St Laurence invests him in the Pallium, with the form
already given. He then goes up to the altar and censes it, and returns
to his seat, where he receives again the reverence of the Cardinals and
Prelates. He then begins _Gloria in excelsis_, and says _Pax vobis_
and the Collect for the day and says secretly for himself another
prayer[152]. Then he returns to his seat and the Laudes are sung:

_Exaudi Christe._

_Domino nostro N. a Deo decreto summo Pontifici et universali Papae vita._

_Salvator mundi._ ℟. _Tu illum adiuva (ter)._

_Sancta Maria._ ℟. _Tu illum adiuva (bis)._

_Sancte Michael._ ℟. _Tu illum adiuva, etc., etc._

After the Laudes have been sung, Mass proceeds, the Epistle and Gospel
being read in Greek as well as in Latin. At the conclusion of the Mass
the Pope goes in procession to the staging erected on the steps at
the west end of the Basilica of St Peter. There the ‘Prior diaconorum
cardinalium’ removes his mitre, and sets the Tiara or Regnum, which
is by this time adorned with three crowns, on his head, the people
crying _Kyrie eleison_. The Pope then blesses the people and returns on
horseback to the Lateran.

This represents the final stage of the rite, except for one picturesque
feature added in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. As the Pope leaves
the chapel of St Gregory for his consecration, the Ceremoniarius lights a
piece of tow on the end of a reed which flares for a moment and then goes
out, saying, _Pater Sancte, sic transit gloria mundi_[153].

It will be seen that the Papal rite is very simple. It is clear that the
ceremonies, with the Laudes and other acclamations[154], owe much to the
Imperial coronation rite of early times, but have undergone very little
change or development since the ninth century.



The coronation rite first appears in Constantinople, and was there
a developed and religious form of the old ceremonies with which the
accession of a new Emperor had always been observed. In the West a
religious ceremony in connection with the accession of a king first
appears in the seventh century in the Visigothic kingdom of Spain. Here
we are told that the kings on their accession to the throne took an oath
to govern justly, and were then solemnly anointed. But there is this
noticeable point, that no mention is made of any crowning, and though the
royal gear (_regius cultus_) is mentioned, there is no reference to an
investiture of any kind.

Whence did this Spanish rite come? There is no definite evidence which
will permit us to say for certain. It may be that the idea of a religious
ceremony of inauguration was borrowed from Constantinople. The barbarian
peoples, as they became the new nations, imitated so far as possible the
institutions of the Empire, and so it is possible that the Visigoths
adopted their coronation rite in imitation of the imperial rite of
Constantinople. But if this was so, it is no more than the idea of a
religious rite of inauguration which they borrowed. We have seen that
the central feature of the Eastern rite was the coronation, and there is
no evidence of any unction before the latter part of the ninth century,
while on the other hand the central feature of the Visigothic rite was
the anointing, and there is no reference to any crowning in Visigothic
times. It is true, again, that in the later Spanish rites of Aragon and
Navarre there appear very special and peculiar features which we may
be tempted to refer to a Byzantine origin, but as we have seen, these
features will bear quite well another interpretation. Until we have
definite evidence of any connection between the two, it is unsafe to
derive the Spanish rite from the Eastern. The outstanding fact is that
here in Spain we have, so far as the West is concerned, the beginnings
of the coronation or consecration rite of kings, and that its central
characteristic clearly consists of the anointing.

In the middle of the eighth century we find France also using an
inaugurating rite. In 750 Pippin-le-bref was consecrated by St Boniface
as king of the Franks, and at the end of the eighth century we find
on two occasions, both of which were exceptional, Saxon kings being

The question now arises, where did the French rite, and the rite used in
England originate? We have no definite evidence and can only surmise.
The fact that Boniface the anointer of Pippin was an Englishman, together
with the fact that it has generally been taken for granted that the
so-called Pontifical of Egbert is really Egbert’s, and therefore belongs
to the middle of the eighth century, has led to the tempting theory that
the French rite was imported from England by St Boniface on the occasion
of Pippin’s consecration as king of the Franks. But there is no evidence
in support of this theory, and above all there is no evidence of the
existence of an Anglo-Saxon rite of this period for St Boniface to import
into France.

The consecration of Pippin is referred to, not as a coronation but as an
unction. Of it we are told that ‘Pippin was elected as king according
to the custom of the Franks, and was anointed by the hand of Boniface,
archbishop of Mayence of holy memory, and was raised by the Franks to the
kingdom in the city of Soissons[155].’ Here no formal act of coronation
is mentioned. Pippin was elected ‘according to the custom of the Franks,’
and it is possible that this same ‘custom’ covers the unction, and refers
the ceremony of inauguration back to pre-Carolingian times, but it is not
probable, for everything points to the importation of an inauguration
rite to give recognition to the new dynasty of Pippin. Possibly again in
the expression ‘was raised to the kingdom’ we may see some reminiscence
of an enthronization. But the central feature of the rite is clearly the
anointing, and this is the only feature mentioned in the account of the
second consecration of Pippin by Pope Stephen, where we are told ‘Pope
Stephen confirmed Pippin as king with holy unction, and together with him
anointed his two sons, Charles and Carloman, to the royal dignity[156].’

And so we find the same feature, the unction, the central point of the
rite both in Spain and France. It is natural to draw the conclusion that
the French rite was brought from Spain and was of the same type as the
Spanish, just as the other liturgical books of France and Spain are of
the same type, commonly called the ‘Gallican.’ The rite, when it was
introduced into England, most probably was brought over from France,
for there was considerable intercourse between the Saxon and Frankish
kingdoms, and some intermarriages between the Frankish and Saxon reigning

To a Frankish origin may also probably be assigned the early German
rites, such for example as that by which Otto of Saxony was crowned in
the tenth century.

In the year 800 Charlemagne was crowned by the Pope at Rome as Roman
Emperor. For this purpose it was necessary to have a coronation rite, and
hitherto no Roman Emperor had ever been crowned at Rome, though a Pope
had travelled into France to consecrate a Frankish king.

But this was the case of a Roman Emperor. We are told little of the
details of the rite by contemporary writers. None of the Western
contemporary historians mention any anointing, though they all speak of
the crowning. On the other hand a contemporary Greek writer, Theophanes,
does definitely speak of the unction, but it has been suggested that
he is here confusing the coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor with the
anointing of his son Charles as king of the Franks, which took place on
the same occasion.

The central feature of the coronation rite was his crowning, and this is
a feature that seems to have been lacking in the Western rites for the
consecration of a king, while on the other hand it is in strict agreement
with the Byzantine procedure. Charlemagne always pretended that the
whole affair was unexpected by him, and that the Pope alone arranged the
coronation and took him by surprise. But there can be little doubt that
the whole business, except perhaps as to the details of the rite, was
premeditated and arranged beforehand. Charlemagne was crowned as Roman
Emperor, and therefore in theory was the colleague and the equal of the
Emperor at Constantinople. Hence it would seem natural that the ceremony
by which Charlemagne was crowned should follow in essential details
the rite used on such an occasion at Constantinople. It may be added
that there is no mention of any anointing in the earliest forms for the
coronation of an Emperor at Rome. It would seem, then, that the rite by
which Charlemagne was crowned, was, so far as the West was concerned, an
entirely new rite, following in outline the rite used at Constantinople.

Thus then, in the West, in the ninth century, we find two groups of
rites, quite independent of each other, (1) The Spanish-Frankish rite,
(2) The Roman Imperial rite. In later days these two groups speedily
reacted on each other, and produced a definite type of Western rite.

The forms of the first group, French and English (no early Spanish forms
are extant), probably do not represent their earliest state. There is
not only an unction but a coronation, and also a formal delivery of
kingly insignia, in the English rite, of Sceptre, Verge, and Crown; in
the French rite, of Crown and Sceptre. It will be noticed that if the
act of crowning was first observed in the West at the coronation of
Charlemagne, it was very speedily introduced into the Western rite for
the consecration of a king.

There is no Roman coronation rite for a king at this date, but there is
a Milanese rite of the ninth century, and with some such rite probably
Berengar Margrave of Friuli was crowned at Milan in 887. It is noticeable
that this Milanese rite for the coronation of a king is more or less
identical with the imperial rite of the same date. It is very simple,
the king being crowned and invested with a sword. This Milanese rite may
perhaps be taken as representing the Roman rite of the coronation of a
king in its earliest form.

It is at the second stage of the rite where the interaction of the
two groups of rites is most clear and evident. In the tenth century
the second recensions of the English and French rite not only shew
considerable developements and a much more fixed and definite form,
but they are almost identical, and the French order bears certain marks
of English influence. Whence did this elaboration come? In the first
place the English and French rites can be taken together from this time
forward. Recension by recension they have been subjected to much the
same influences and are very close to each other. This was only natural
considering the closeness of the communications between England and
France. Between the Saxon royal families and the Court of Rome there was
considerable intercommunication, and on several occasions we hear of
Saxon princes going to Rome. Of Alfred we are told that he was invested
by the Pope at Rome with the insignia of a Roman consul, an investiture
which the Saxons seem to have mistaken for a coronation rite; and we are
also told that the insignia were preserved henceforth among the royal
ornaments. Of the Roman rite at this time we have no forms, in fact
nothing between the simple forms of the first imperial recension and
of the Milanese order and the elaborate order of Hittorp of the tenth
or eleventh centuries. Yet whereas in the former of these there were
investitures of Sword and Crown only, in the latter the king is invested
with Sword, Ring, Verge, and Crown, and the unction is elaborate, being
made on head, breast, shoulders, bends of arms, and hands. It is clear
that influences have been at work in the intervening period. We know that
France had great influence on the Liturgical books of Rome in the ninth
and tenth centuries, and it would seem that here is yet another instance
of this influence, and that the elaborations in the Roman rite were at
some time adopted from France and at Rome reduced into order and fixity.
Doubtless at Rome even the rite underwent some developement, but it is
noticeable that after the time of the rite of Hittorp’s order the rite at
Rome returned to something of its earlier simplicity and drops out many
of the elaborations which we find in Hittorp’s order. Thus we may perhaps
presuppose an intermediate order at Rome similar to Hittorp’s order.

In the case of Edgar of England, the English writers made much of his
coronation in the year 973. It was an occasion which called for special
pomp and circumstance, and much stress is laid on the magnificence of
the whole ceremony. It is likely that this is the occasion for which
the second recension was composed, and the natural source of this
developement and revision would seem to be a Roman order similar in
character to that of Hittorp. This rite of the second English recension
was adopted almost word for word in France in the order of Ratold.

In England and France the third recension of each country is clearly
influenced from Rome, to the extent even of replacing with Roman forms
some of the forms of the old national rites. In the fourth recension in
both lands there is a return to the older national forms by the simple
means of conflating the second and third recensions, and this fourth
recension marks the final form of the rite, except in so far as in
England in its English form it has since been modified as circumstances
have required.

The earliest German rite, that of Otto of Saxony in the tenth century, is
unfixed in character, and approximates perhaps to the earliest Frankish
rites. There are investitures with Sword and Belt, Armills and Chlamys
under a unique form, Sceptre and Verge, again with a unique form, and
then after the anointing, with the Crown. The use of the word _Chlamys_
is very striking and bears witness to at least a knowledge of Eastern
imperial vestments. By the thirteenth century the German rite had been
subjected to considerable Roman influence, as would naturally be expected
from the close connection existing between Germany and Italy. The
unctions are on head, breast, and shoulders, and the investitures are
with Sword, Ring, Sceptre and Orb, and Crown. The German rite changed
very little after this date.

The Spanish rite, as we have seen, contains much that is very ancient and
also has been subjected by the fourteenth century to Roman influence,
none the less preserving much of its ancient peculiar characteristics.
Unfortunately we have only few forms of this rite, and it was early
discontinued altogether.

The Roman imperial rite in its first state is short and simple. There
are investitures with Sceptre and Crown only. No mention is made of
the unction, and this fact, inconclusive in itself, accords with the
absence of any mention of unction in the contemporary Western accounts
of Charlemagne’s coronation. The imperial rite served as a model for
the order for crowning a king when need arose, as is evident from the
fact that the early ninth-century Milanese order for the crowning of
a king is almost identical with it. In the process of its developement
the order for crowning an Emperor was influenced to some extent by the
order for the crowning of a king, which had been subjected early to
considerable outside influences. Then in the twelfth century we find in
the imperial rite investitures with Sword, Sceptre, and Crown; a little
later with Ring, Crown, and Sceptre. The Ring is quite non-Roman and has
been introduced from the rite for the crowning of a king, into which it
has come from outside sources. The Ring however soon disappears once
more from both Roman rites. In the fourteenth century the investitures
are with Crown, Sceptre and Orb (without a form), and Sword. In the
sixteenth century, after which date the order has varied very little, the
investitures are with Sword, Sceptre and Orb (under one form), and Crown.

We have seen that in the ninth century the Milanese rite was very
simple and almost identical with the Roman imperial rite. Here at Milan
the Roman Emperor was nominally crowned as king of Italy, before his
coronation at Rome as Emperor. In the eleventh century this rite has
become very elaborate, containing the whole of the matter of ‘Egbert’s’
order, and also much that is Roman. There are investitures, of Crown,
Sword, Verge, and Ring, an unusual order, which are made with Roman
forms. In the fourteenth century we find the unctions restricted to
the shoulders only, and the investitures are of Ring, Sword, Crown,
Sceptre, and Verge. In the last Milanese recension, that of the fifteenth
century, the unction is made on the head, and the investitures are
of Sword, Ring, Crown, and (under one form) Sceptre and Orb. Thus the
Milanese rite was subjected to the same early influences as the Roman,
but never regained so much of its earlier simplicity as did the Roman

The coronation rite was introduced into other lands only at a time when
the Roman rite had gained a position of special prestige, and therefore
these rites seem to have been more or less Roman, and yet contained
some national characteristics. Of these we have only the Hungarian
rite extant. Of the Scandinavian countries, and of Scotland no rite of
pre-reformation date survives, but the post-reformation rites, which
are based to some extent on the older rites, perhaps contain some of
the older features, for example, the retention in Sweden of a key of
knowledge among the Regalia.

The general conclusions as to the inter-relation of the rites would
seem to be as follows. There are in the West two original groups, both
independent compositions:

(1) The Spanish-French-English, derived from Spain.

(2) The Roman Imperial, which was called into existence on the occasion
of the coronation of Charlemagne as Roman Emperor. From this latter is
derived the Roman rite for the coronation of a king.

There seems to have been from an early date until the fourteenth
century a continuous interaction of these groups upon each other, and
beyond that date outside influences ceased to be exerted, and whatever
developement may have taken place in any particular rite was due to
natural and internal developement.

At this day in the West the rite is retained in England and Austria, that
used in Austria being the order of the Roman Pontifical.

The only other country, except Russia, in which a coronation rite
survives is Norway.




The date at which an unction was introduced into the Eastern rite is a
matter of uncertainty. There is no definite statement to be found that
the Eastern Emperors were anointed before the time of the intruding Latin
Emperor Baldwin I who was crowned in 1214, and the rite by which Baldwin
was crowned was a Western rite. There is no mention of any anointing even
in the rubrics of the twelfth century Euchologion. The first definite
reference to the anointing of the Eastern Emperor is found in the account
of the rite given by Codinus, in which we are told that he was anointed
on the head in the form of a cross.

Mr Brightman thinks that there was no anointing in the Greek rite before
the twelfth century, but it is difficult to believe that this was the

In the earliest accounts of the Eastern Coronations there is nothing at
all said that can be in any way construed as implying any anointing.
In the year 602 Theodosius the son of the Emperor Maurice, fleeing for
refuge to the Persian monarch Chosroes, ‘was received with great honour
by the king, and he (Chosroes) commanded the Catholicos to bring him
to the Church, and that the crown of the Empire should be set upon
the altar, and then set upon his head, according to the custom of the
Romans[158].’ Since the detail of the crown being deposited on the altar
is given in this passage, it is most improbable that all reference to an
anointing would have been passed over, had such anointing been at this
date ‘the custom of the Romans.’

On the other hand St Gregory the Great, commenting on the anointing of
Saul, speaks of the anointing of kings in his own day; ‘“Then Samuel took
a vial of oil and poured it upon his head.” This, surely, is signified by
this unction, which is even now actually seen (materialiter exhibetur)
in holy Church; for he who is set at the head of affairs (qui in culmine
ponitur) receives the sacraments of unction.... Let the head of the king,
then, be anointed, because the mind is to be filled with spiritual grace.
Let him have oil in his anointing, let him have abundant mercy, and let
it be preferred by him before other virtues[159].’

Here the expression ‘materialiter exhibetur’ is hardly compatible
with figurative language. But if St Gregory is thinking of unction in
a coronation rite, what is the rite which he has in his mind? Is he
thinking of the rite as used in the Spanish Visigothic kingdom[160], in
which in all probability unction already found a place? Or is he thinking
of the imperial rite of Constantinople? It seems hardly likely that he
should speak in such general terms with only the Spanish practice in
his mind; but on the other hand there is not a vestige of any other
evidence in favour of any Constantinopolitan use of unction. It is true
that the ‘Prayer over the Chlamys’ would quite cover the use of an
anointing, including as it does such an expression as χρίσαι καταξίωσον
τῷ ἐλαίῳ ἀγαλλιάσεως, but it is equally true that these words might quite
naturally bear a merely metaphorical significance.

It is not until the ninth century that we seem to get upon more solid
ground, when Photius, in a letter written during his exile to the Emperor
Basil the Macedonian (867-886), speaks of the χρίσμα καὶ χειροθεσίαν
βασιλείας[161]. These words, taken in connection with a sentence at the
end of the same letter in which he speaks of himself as ‘he at whose
hands both he (Basil) and the Empress were anointed with the Chrism of
the Empire (αὐτός τε καὶ ἡ βασιλὶς τὸ χρίσμα τῆς βασιλείας ἐχρίσθη),’
make it very difficult to believe that Photius is here using simply
figurative language[162]. It is much more natural to take his words
literally and to conclude from them that in the ninth century unction was
already included in the rite of Constantinople.

The references of Eastern writers to the unction of Charlemagne have
already been mentioned. But since they all lay stress on the manner of
that anointing no conclusion can safely be drawn from their language that
unction was unknown at that time in the Eastern rite.

There remains the consideration of the Abyssinian use. Abyssinia was
cut off by the Arab conquest of Egypt in the seventh century from all
communication with Constantinople, and there is no evidence of the use
of unction in coronations at Constantinople at that time. It is on the
whole, as has been suggested in a preceding chapter, more probable that
the Abyssinian unction was an independent Abyssinian developement, more
especially as at one time there were strong Jewish influences at work in
that country, the effect of which remains to this day clearly stamped on
the face of Abyssinian Christianity.

As regards the West, we know that Unction was used at the sacring of
the Visigothic kings in the eighth century and that it was used at the
coronation of Pippin by Archbishop Boniface in the middle of the eighth
century. In fact from the time of the original introduction of the
coronation rite into the West, an unction seems to have been one of its
features, and it is quite possible that it may have been an independent
developement in the West. But is it so easy to think of the unction in
the Eastern coronation rite as a feature borrowed from the West?

So we must leave it at this, that while an unction was used in Spain in
the seventh century, and is found in all Western coronation rites, on
the other hand with regard to the East we can only say that it appears
probably in the ninth century in the case of Basil the Macedonian,
whatever may be the probabilities or possibilities of any earlier use of


All the Western coronation vestments are ultimately derived from
the Byzantine use. The imperial Byzantine vestments[163] seem to be
elaborations of the older official Roman dress. They appear to have
become more or less fixed by the ninth century, and comprised the

1. The purple Buskins or Leggings.

2. The scarlet Shoes, originally a senatorial badge.

3. The Tunic or χιτών, probably white.

4. The Dibetesion or Sakkos, a gorgeous tunic very much like a dalmatic.

5. The Loros or Diadema, which was originally a folded _toga picta_, but
became a long embroidered scarf folded about the neck and body with one
end pendent in front and the other over the left arm.

6. The Chlamys, or imperial purple, by the thirteenth century a great
cloak powdered with eagles and fastened on the right shoulder. In the
time of Constantine Porphyrogenitus the Loros and Chlamys were not worn
together, perhaps for the sake of convenience, but they were so worn
together in the thirteenth century, though by the fourteenth century the
Chlamys was again abandoned and the Sakkos sufficed for the imperial

There can be no doubt that the Western regal and imperial vestments are
derived from the Eastern robes, for there is a close similarity between
the two, though in process of time some of the least convenient have been
gradually abandoned.

The English vestments are as follows[164]:

1. Buskins and Hose, now no longer used.

2. Gloves.

3. The Colobium sindonis, a linen vestment of the shape of an alb, the
Eastern χιτών. This vestment, which had sleeves up to the time of James
II, is now sleeveless, and is also now divided at the side so that it can
be put on the monarch, without being put over his head, and fastened on
the shoulder.

4. The Tunicle or Dalmatic, which is the vestment worn by sub-deacon,
deacon and bishop at mass. This again has in modern times been divided
down the middle for convenience in putting on. This vestment is the
Eastern Sakkos.

5. The Armill, or Armills. This is very like a stole, and is put round
the neck and fastened at the elbows. It is the Eastern Loros[165].
There is however some confusion in the name of this ornament, for it
is sometimes used in the plural, and perhaps in that case of the royal
Bracelets, which have been long discarded.

6. The imperial Mantle or Pall is more like a cope than anything else. It
is the Eastern Chlamys.

The German imperial vesture was much the same. The Emperor Charles V was
arrayed at his coronation as follows[166]:

1. The Tunica talaris, a close undergarment of red.

2. The Alba camisia, a rochet or alb-like vestment with sleeves.

3. The Dalmatic.

4. The Armill, like but broader than a stole.

5. The purple Pallium.

6. Red Gloves.

7. Scarlet Buskins.

It may be mentioned that the Greek word _Chlamys_ is actually used for
the imperial mantle in the account of the coronation of Otto of Saxony in
the tenth century.

The French vestments as used at the coronation of Charles V of France are
described in the order used on the occasion[167].

1. A Tunica serica, which is apparently part of his ordinary habit and is
the tunica talaris.

2. Tunica, in modum tunicalis quo utuntur subdiaconi.

3. Sokkos, ‘fere in modum cappe.’

4. Buskins.

5. Gloves.

The ornaments of the kings of Aragon were[168]:

1. An ample Camisa like a ‘Roman rochet,’ evidently an undergarment.

2. An Amice of linen.

3. A long Camisa of white linen.

4. A Girdle.

5. A Maniple on the left wrist.

6. A Stole over the left shoulder hanging before and behind, i.e., an

7. A Tunicle.

8. A Dalmatic.

The Regalia in the East seem to have consisted of the Crown and the
Shield and Spear. Symeon of Thessalonica (c. 1400) also speaks of a Rod
of light wood, and also of the Akakia among the imperial ornaments. The
Akakia was a purple bag containing earth which was put into the hand of
the Emperor as a reminder of corruptibility, of which the Western Orb
is perhaps the descendant[169]. The Crown was shaped like a helmet and
partially closed in at the top.

The Western Regalia comprise:

1. The Crown, called still among the Anglo-Saxons Stemma or Galeus,
sufficiently shewing the provenance of this ornament. The Roman imperial
Crown seems to have been much after the shape of the Eastern Stemma. The
English Crown is a fairly narrow band surmounted by a cross.

2. The Sceptre.

3. The Verge or Staff. In France the Staff was a rod of ivory surmounted
by an open hand and called the Main de justice.

4. The Orb, which is generally held to be another form of the Sceptre,
but is more probably an elaborated form of the Greek Akakia. The Orb was
given at first without any form, but in the English use a form has been
introduced comparatively lately.

5. The Ring, which was placed on the ‘medicinal,’ or marriage finger.

6. The Sword and Spurs, which perhaps originally belonged to the order
for the making of a knight which was early incorporated into the
coronation rite. It may be noticed that in the conservative rite of
Aragon the Shield and Spear, the arms of the Eastern emperors, still
appear among the regal weapons as well as the sword.

The question arises as to how far the vestments mentioned in the above
lists are to be regarded as ecclesiastical. Many have seen in them an
ecclesiastical vesture stamping the monarch after his anointing as at
least a quasi-ecclesiastical person. The vestments are undoubtedly
very similar to the mass vestments, and this similarity was noticed
and remarked upon even in the middle ages. Both in England and France
the appearance of the king vested in the royal vestments has been
compared to a bishop vested for mass, and to the ordinary beholder this
comparison would most naturally occur. But as a matter of fact, if one
vesture is to be regarded as descended from another, it is the episcopal
which is descended from the imperial, and not vice versa. The true fact
however seems to be that both are descended from a common ancestor.
The ecclesiastical vestments represent a conservative retention on the
part of the Church of a vesture which the clergy and laity once used in
common. The Church has retained the old lay vestments, and has elaborated
them in the process of time. The imperial vestments are derived from the
official dress of the Roman republic, again elaborated. The official
dress of the Roman republic was itself an elaboration of the ordinary
dress of the Roman citizen. Of ecclesiastical vestments the chasuble and
cope seem to have been derived from the ordinary lay vesture, while on
the other hand the dalmatic and pallium and perhaps the stole are derived
from the official dress, and have always appeared in a gorgeous form
among the vestments of the Eastern Emperor. The dalmatic, familiar in the
West as the dress of the deacon, and originally granted as a privilege
to the deacons of the Roman Church only, is in the East the distinctive
vestment of the bishop. The pallium or loros, once the badge of the Roman
Consul, and later of the Emperor, granted at first by imperial permission
to the most eminent prelates of the Church, still appears as the royal
Armill on the one hand, and as a distinguishing badge of a bishop in the
East, while in the West it has long been granted by the Pope chiefly to
metropolitans as a mark of honour and a symbol of jurisdiction.

Thus really the episcopal and the imperial vestments are cousins:
and just as the rites, outwardly similar, of the consecration of a
bishop and the consecration of a king, tended to be assimilated, so
the vestures, in their very origin derived ultimately from the same
source, shewed a natural tendency to influence each other: and it is
doubtless this similarity of rite and vesture that is the chief reason
for the theory that has been held by some, that the anointed monarch is
a quasi-ecclesiastical personage, or to use technical language, a Mixta



There remains to be considered the meaning of the rite of the
consecration or coronation of a king. We have seen that an exalted idea
of kingship was more or less universal before the times of Christianity.
In pre-Christian times the king was regarded as far above ordinary
men by virtue of his office, which embraced priestly functions, and
was looked upon as being the vice-gerent of God. In the Roman Empire
from the time of Julius and Augustus the Emperor was also Pontifex
Maximus, the spiritual as well as the civil head of the Empire; his
effigy was sacred; temples were erected to him or to his Genius; during
his lifetime he received semi-divine honours, and on his death he was
solemnly enrolled among the company of the gods. The autocrat of the
world was the representative of God on earth. The Roman Empire itself was
mysterious, sacred, and eternal. The Christians also accepted this theory
and followed St Paul’s teaching that ‘the powers that be are ordained by
God,’ equally with their non-Christian fellow-citizens regarding Caesar
in some sense at least as the representative of divine law and order in
the natural world, and as being therefore the vice-gerent of God[170].
When the Emperors became Christian the Church naturally found herself
able to accept this doctrine with enthusiasm and without restriction, and
the Emperor was acknowledged as spiritual as well as civil ruler. Thus we
find that the Council of Nicea had no hesitation in admitting the right
of the Emperor to control the Church, and Constantine claiming to be a
sort of _Episcopus episcoporum_ appointed by God[171]. This conception of
the Emperor has never been lost by the Eastern Church.

We have seen that there was a ceremonial in pre-Christian times on the
accession of an Emperor. The Church very naturally transformed this
inauguration ceremony into a Christian rite in much the same way as the
civil marriage ceremony was made religious by the addition to it of the
benediction of the Church. The accession of an Emperor was by the will
of God. The Church gave him her solemn benediction at the outset of
his career. It is the idea of a benediction rather than a consecration
that the earliest Eastern rites, and even the earlier Western rites,
seem to contemplate. At the same time the Church by her benediction
proclaimed the new Emperor as the chosen of God, thereby affording
a certain stability to his throne and in some degree offering some
assurance of peace to Empire and Church. The idea of a consecration
gradually evolved itself, and rapidly developed when the use of an
unction was introduced. We have seen that there is some uncertainty as to
the date of this introduction. St Gregory the Great not only speaks of
the anointing of rulers as a well-known fact, but certainly regards it
as being in some sort sacramental, just as St Augustine had long before
asserted that the Jewish unction conferred grace on its recipients[172].
Photius evidently regarded the Emperor as being in some way set apart
and solemnly consecrated by the inauguration rite. But there still
remained the practical idea of obtaining general recognition as Emperor
by the performance of the ceremony, for the Emperors were crowned
immediately on their accession. This idea is just as manifest in the
West as in the East. There we see that Pippin in his anxiety to obtain a
definite recognition and acceptance of his dynasty when the Merovingian
_fainéants_ were set aside, was anointed or consecrated on two different
occasions, by St Boniface, and secondly by the Pope himself, who came
across the Alps for the purpose. In the same way we find Richard I of
England being crowned a second time on his return from his captivity,
this second coronation being apparently regarded as necessary in view of
the fact that his brother John had acted at least as king _de facto_.
Henry II was crowned no less than three times. Henry III was crowned
twice. All these cases of repeated coronations were intended to procure
the firm establishment of the king upon his throne rather than for any
other reason. Or again a king might be held to have forfeited his throne
by some grievous crime, as in the case of Lothair II of Lotharingia, but
on amendment might be confirmed upon his throne by a reconsecration, as
was Lothair by Archbishop Hincmar.

But in process of time in the two oldest monarchical states, England and
France, a theory came to be held that the consecration of a king was a
consecration proper, and was to be ranked with the Sacrament of Order
as conferring character, and that after his consecration the king was
no longer a layman but at least a _Mixta Persona_. This view, popular
though it was in England and France, was never accepted by authority, and
Lyndwood mentions it as being taught only ‘secundum quosdam’; while St
Thomas lays down that only the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and
Order confer character, thus excluding the consecration of a king. On
the other hand, in the rite of Navarre the unction is spoken of as ‘the
Sacrament of unction.’

We find an excellent example of the popular belief in the effect of the
consecration in the French and English rite of the Healing. In France
the power of the king to heal by his touch was certainly generally
attributed to the fact that he had been anointed. Though this theory was
also largely held in England, there was also the counter and perhaps more
general view held, that the power of healing was possessed in virtue of
rightful succession from the Confessor; on the other hand the kings of
England blessed cramp rings by rubbing them in their anointed hands, with
a prayer for their consecration.

Three facts may be regarded as contributing towards this common belief
in England and France that the consecration of a king was a sort of
ordination; the fact that he was anointed ‘as prophets, priests and
kings were anointed,’ according to the language of the form in most of
the orders; the fact that the regal vestments were very like those of
a bishop; and the fact that there is considerable similarity between
the rite of the consecration of a king and that of the consecration of
a bishop. The king was anointed ‘as prophets, priests and kings were
anointed.’ Unction was used in the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation
and Order, all of which conferred character. It was difficult to explain
what was the meaning of the unction of a king. Grosseteste[173] held
that it bestowed grace, the sevenfold gift of the Holy Spirit. So far as
there was any official doctrine on the subject, it seems that it was that
the unction of a king was a Sacramental, a means by which grace might be
obtained. The Roman Church seems to have always discouraged the theory
that it was in any way an ordination. The fact that in the East the
Emperor took part in the procession as a Deputatus proves very little,
and the fact that the Western Emperors sometimes read the Epistle at
their coronation if anything goes against the theory of ordination, for
if the Emperor was to be regarded as in any way ‘in Orders,’ surely his
Orders would have ranked above the sub-diaconate.

We have already seen that the royal and sacerdotal vestments are closely
related in their origin, and many of them more or less identical both
in form and name, and therefore it is not surprising that men should
have thought that this must mean that the king was in some way a
minister of the Church. For example, a French order describes the Tunic,
Dalmatic, and Pallium (Royal Mantle) of a king as ‘celuy qui représente
le soubsdiacre, celuy qui représente le diacre, et le manteau royal
représentant la chasuble.’ Again an English king is described by a lay
witness as being arrayed at the time of his coronation like a bishop
vested for Mass.

There is certainly a general similarity between the rite of the
consecration of a bishop, and the rite of the consecration of a king.
It was undoubtedly this similarity that was the chief ground for the
doctrine that an anointed king was a ‘mixta persona,’ a view that is
still maintained by some. The closeness of the structure of the two rites
is seen at a glance.

    _Consecration of a bishop._       _Consecration of a king._

         Oath of canonical             Oath to maintain Church
             obedience.                     and justice.

              Litany.                          Litany.

        Laying on of hands.

           Veni Creator.                    Veni Creator.

             Collect.                         Collects.

     Preface and Consecration         Preface and Consecration
              prayer.                          prayer.

            Anointing.                       Anointing.

     Delivery of Crozier, Ring,      Delivery of Sword, Pallium,
      Mitre, and Gospel-book.       Crown, Ring, Sceptre and Rod.

               Mass.                             Mass.

It will be seen that the similarity in the structure of the rites is
striking, and the closeness in the forms of the two rites is equally

The bishop, after the consecration prayer, is anointed on the head
with chrism. The king, after the consecration prayer, is anointed on
head, breast, etc., with chrism according to the English and French
rites, with oil according to the Roman use. The Roman form used at the
anointing of a bishop is _Ungatur et consecretur caput tuum caelesti
benedictione, ordine pontificali, in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus
Sancti_; a Roman form at the anointing of a king runs _Ungo te in regem
de oleo sanctificato in nomine_, etc. The hands of a bishop are anointed
with the form _Ungantur manus istae de oleo sanctificato et chrismate
sanctificationis sicut unxit Samuel David Regem et Prophetam, ita
ungantur et consecrentur_; in the case of a king the general form runs
_Ungantur manus istae de oleo sanctificato unde uncti fuerunt reges et
prophetae et sicut unxit David in regem_, etc. The Ring is delivered to
a bishop with the words _Accipe anulum discretionis et honoris fidei
signum_, etc.; to a king with the words _Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum
et per hunc in te catholicae fidei cognosce signaculum_, etc. The
Pastoral staff is delivered to a bishop with the words _Accipe baculum
regiminis signum, ut imbecilles consolides, titubantes confirmes, pravos
corrigas, rectos dirigas_, etc.; compare with this the form with which
the Verge or Rod is delivered to the king, _Accipe virgam virtutis atque
aequitatis, qua intelligas mulcere pios et terrere reprobos_, etc.
Finally the bishop is seated ‘in capite sedium episcoporum’ and the king
is enthroned.

These instances are sufficient to shew unmistakably that one rite
influenced the other. But the stage at which the similarity is so
noticeable is a late stage in the history of both rites, and at an
earlier date when both were more simple, much of the later parallelism
is not to be found. In the process of the great liturgical developements
of the middle ages there was naturally an assimilation in the case of
the consecration of persons, and there seems to have been a good deal of
experimenting in the case of the rite of the consecration of a king, many
pontificals containing orders with various peculiarities, which certainly
were never used. But on the other hand there is also to be noticed a
careful differentiation between the two rites, and this especially in
the Roman orders. The Roman rite was never elaborate and in process of
time tended to a greater simplicity. Thus the investiture of a king with
the Ring does not appear in it except for a very short time, and then
from outside sources; in the same rite the unctions are only two in
number, and there is a difference in the parts anointed in the case of
a king, he being anointed only between the shoulders and on the wrist.
If, as is most likely, kings in the West were anointed on the head,
this differentiation between the anointing of a bishop and a king seems
deliberate on the part of the Roman Church. Moreover, while it is true
that in England and France chrism was used for the unction of a king as
for a bishop, in the Roman rite chrism was never so used in the case of a
king, but only the ‘oleum catechumenorum.’

Officially then the Church denied the name of Sacrament to the royal
consecration, allowing it the rank of a Sacramental only. In practice the
repetition of the rite which so often occurred, and in the case of the
Roman Emperor was normally performed three times, proves sufficiently
that it was not an ordination conferring character.

Historically considered the rite proves itself to be in origin a special
benediction elaborated and developed almost out of recognition as such.
A careful examination of the construction of the rite shews that in it
there are three well marked divisions.

1. The election of the king.

2. The oath taken by the king to rule in accordance with law and justice.

3. The benediction superadded to the covenant so made between king and

Of the election the Recognition is the surviving trace. It may be noted
that the idea of the election of the king is retained till quite late
in the developement of the rite. Until the time of the fourth English
recension, these words still appeared, _Quem in huius regni regem pariter
eligimus_. In the fourth English recension _eligimus_ was changed to
_consecramus_, but in the French rite this change was never made and the
word _eligimus_ was used without alteration.

The oath was at first quite simple, short, and direct. It developed into
an interrogatory form, the king swearing in answer to questions put to
him by the consecrating prelate. In England and France the oath covered
the king’s duties to Church and State and People, but elsewhere it
frequently included a promise of subjection to the See of Rome.

The benediction of the Church was subjected to the greatest developement.
An unction was introduced, and the porrection of the royal ornaments,
Sword, Crown, Ring, Sceptres, and Verge, which naturally lent themselves
to spectacular effect, tended to become more and more elaborate. Thus in
process of time each ornament was delivered with its own form and prayer.
Added to this, the conflation of prayers, originally alternative, has
increased this portion of the rite until it comprises the greater part of
the whole ceremonial. It appealed to sentiment, and the Church was always
ready to make use of sentiment.

If it is desired to make a comparison between this and any other rite of
the Church, it is the marriage rite which is really the closest to it.
So King Charles I felt, of whom we are told that ‘His Majesty on that
day was cloathed in white contrary to the custom of his predecessors who
were on that day clad in purple. And this he did ... at his own choice
only, to declare that Virgin Purity with which he came to be espoused
unto his Kingdom[174].’ In marriage a covenant is made with vows between
the two contracting parties. To the covenant so made the Church adds her
benediction. In the giving of her benediction she makes use of emblems,
a Crown and Ring, investing the contracting parties with insignia, as it
were, which are highly significant of the covenant betwixt them made. Of
these the nuptial Crown, still used throughout Eastern Christendom, has
long been dispensed with in the West, the Ring alone remaining.

The rite of the coronation of a queen consort is not really in the same
category with the consecration of a king. It is merely complimentary.
As we have seen it had no place in the earliest English order, nor yet
in the corresponding rite of Milan, and perhaps the same is true of the
oldest Frankish forms. The second English recension gives a form for the
coronation of the queen with the preliminary explanation that the office
is performed out of consideration for her honourable position as consort
of the king. This is borne out by the earlier forms at her unction, ‘Let
the anointing with this oil increase thine honour.’

In the earlier Frankish orders there is a noticeable similarity to the
nuptial rite, and the general idea underlying the benediction of the
queen is that she may be worthy of her high dignity and bear a numerous
royal progeny. This last idea has in recent times, temporarily at least,
disappeared. The comparative unimportance of the coronation of the
queen consort is shewn by the fact that many were not crowned at all,
among others being Henrietta Maria, Catherine of Braganza, and Mary of
Modena. It is true that these three belonged to the Roman communion, but
notwithstanding this same circumstance, it was necessary for the king
regnant James II to submit to the rite.

In France the coronation of the queen, since the time of Marie de
Médicis, was dispensed with altogether, until Josephine was crowned as
Empress with the Emperor Napoleon.


[1] _Od._ IV. 691.

[2] _Il._ II. 101.

    ἔστη σκῆπτρον ἔχων τὸ μὲν Ἥφαιστος κάμε τεύχον.
    Ἥφαιστος μὴν δῶκε Διὶ Κρονίωνι ἄνακτι,
    Αὐτὰρ ἄρα Ζεὺς δῶκε διακτόρῳ Ἀργειφόντῃ;
    Ἑρμείας δὲ ἄναξ δῶκεν Πέλοπι πληξίππῳ
    Αὐτὰρ ὁ αὖτε Πέλοψ δῶκ’ Ἀτρέι ποιμένι λαῶν;
    Ἀτρεὺς δὲ θνήσκων ἔλιπεν πολύαρνι Θυέστῃ,
    Αὐτὰρ ὁ αὖτε Θυέστ’ Ἀγαμέμνονι λεῖπε φορῆναι.

Cf. l. 205, and Soph. _Phil._, 137-140.

              τέχνα γὰρ
    τέχνας ἑτέρας προὔχει
    καὶ γνώμα, παρ’ ὅτῳ τὸ θεῖον
    Διὸς σκῆπτρον ἀνάσσετια.

[3] Winckler, _The Tel-el-Amarna letters_, p. 99.

[4] Wellhausen’s emendation ‎‏האצעדה‏‎ ‘the bracelet’ for ‎‏העדה‏‎ ‘the
testimony’ is very tempting. If ‘testimony’ stands, it probably refers to
some document containing the laws and customs of the kingdom.

[5] Agathias, _Hist._, IV. 25.

[6] In 1 Sam. xviii. 10, where the A.V. reads ‘there was a javelin in
Saul’s hand,’ ‘a javelin’ should be ‘the spear,’ which seems to imply
that the spear in question was a special weapon. The word used here
‎‏חנית‏‎ is the same as in 1 Sam. xxvi. 7, 22, is translated ‘spear.’

[7] Vopiscus, _Tacitus_, 3-9.

[8] Herodian, _Hist._, II. 3.

[9] Ammianus Marcellinus, XX. 4. 17, and XXI. 1. 4.

[10] Tacitus, _Hist._, IV. 15.

[11] _De caerim._, I. 91.

[12] Nicephorus, _H. E._, XV. 15, Theodorus Lector, _H. E._, II. 65,
Theophanes, _Chronographia_, I. 170 (ed. Bonn, 1839).

[13] Constant. Porphyr., _de caerimoniis_, I. 92. These accounts of
early inaugurations are probably taken by Constantine from contemporary

[14] Theophanes, _Chron._, I. p. 210.

[15] _De caerim._ I. 94, pp. 431 ff.

[16] _J. Th. St._, II. p. 375.

[17] Theoph., _Chronograph._, I. 695 f.

[18] _De caerimoniis_, I. 38.

[19] Goar, _Euchologion_ (1647), pp. 924 ff. The text given is that of
the Grotta Ferrata codex, showing the variations between it and the
Barberini text.

[20] _De caerimoniis_, I. 39.

[21] Goar, _Euchologion_ (1647), pp. 924 ff.

[22] _J. Th. St._, II. p. 383 and n. 2.

[23] _De officiis Constantinopolitanis_, c. xvii. (Bonn, 1839).

[24] The Thomaite triclinium was a part of the imperial palace adjoining
St Sophia.

[25] It is to be noticed that some of the imperial insignia have changed
their names. The διάδημα was once equivalent to the στέμμα; it is now
synonymous with the ζώνη.

[26] Probably the badge of his office as Deputatus.

[27] See Maltzew ‘Die heilige Krönung’ in _Bitt-Dank- und
Weihe-Gottesdienste der orthodox-katholischen Kirche des Morgenlandes_
(Berlin 1897) pp. 1-60; E. Metallinos, _Imperial and Royal Coronation_
(London 1902).

[28] _Voyage historique d’Abissinie du R. P. Jerome Lobo, traduite du
Portugais, continuée et augmentée de plusieurs dissertations, etc. par
M. Le Grand_ (Paris MDCCXXVIII) p. 252 f.; _The travels of the Jesuits
in Ethiopia_, by F. Balthasar Tellez (London 1710), pp. 49 f., 184.
The former of these writers has made use of the latter, and so the two
authorities are not independent.

[29] I am using here the account given by Tellez of two different

[30] _c._ 4 (_P. L._ XCVI. 766).

[31] _Reginonis Chron._, s.a. 749. Pertz, _M. G. Hist. Script._, I. 556.

[32] Ibid. s. a. 753. Dom Cabrol, _DACL_, ‘Bretagne (grande-),’ col.
1238, thinks that it was from England that the custom of unction passed
into France, and that it was imported there by Boniface, himself an
Englishman. But this is a very precarious theory in view of the scanty
evidence for English coronations during this period. See pp. 58-60.

[33] _Regin. Chron._, s.a. 752. (Pertz, _l.c._)

[34] See p. 58 f.

[35] Gildas, _de excidio Britanniae_, c. XIX.

[36] Adamnan, _Vit. S. Columbani_, III. 5.

[37] _Chron. Moiss._, s.a. 801 (for 800), Pertz, _M. G. H. Script._, I.

[38] Duchesne, _Lib. Pontificalis_, II. p. 7.

[39] ‘Plures sanctos invocantes,’ i.e. the Laudes spoken of in the
_Chron. of Moissac_. “Les ‘Laudes’ sont une série d’acclamations dans
lesquelles on invoque le Christ, les anges, et les saints pour la
personne qui est l’objet de la cérémonie.” Duchesne, _op. cit._ II. 37,
n. 33. The Laudes were not exclusively a feature of the coronation rite,
but had a place in any public function of which any great personage was
the centre. Laudes in very much the same form as usual here had been used
on a previous occasion in honour of Charles as King of the Franks and
Roman Patrician. See Dom Leclercq, _DACL_, ‘Charlemagne,’ col. 786. An
example of the Laudes will be found on p. 43.

[40] Einhard, _Vita Caroli_, c. XXVIII.

[41] Poeta Saxo, _de gestis Caroli_.

    Post laudes igitur dictas et summus eundem
    Praesul adoravit, sicut mos debitus olim
    Principibus fuit antiquis.

[42] _Regin. Chron._, s.a. 801, ‘Leo Papa coronam capiti imposuit; et a
cuncto Romanorum populo ter acclamatum est,’ etc. (Pertz, _l.c._ 562.)

[43] _Chronographia_, I. p. 733.

[44] _Compend. Chron._, _P. G._ CXXVII. 389.

[45] _De antiquis rit. ecclesiae_, II. p. 207. (Ed. 1763.)

[46] See p. 38, n. 2.

[47] See below, p. 114.

[48] Melchior Hittorp, _De divinis cath. eccles. officiis_ (Paris
1610), p. 153. Cp. the Ordo I of A. Diemand, _Das Ceremoniell der
Kaiserkrönungen von Otto I bis Friedrich II_, pp. 124, 125. Almost
identical with this is the _Ordo ad benedicendum imperatorem quando
coronam accipit_, of _O. R._ XII., _P. L._ LXXVII. coll. 1101, 1102.

[49] Martène’s Ordo VI, _op. cit._ II. p. 211.

[50] Martène’s Ordo VII, ibid. p. 212; Pertz, _M. G. Legg._, II. 97.
Diemand (_op. cit._ p. 30) thinks that the title of this order ‘Incipit
Ordo qualiter rex _Teutonicus_’ etc. shews that this order is not
official. But the ‘Exercitus Teutonicus’ is prayed for in the Laudes of
the Gemunden Codex. See above.

[51] G. Waitz, _Die Formeln der Deutschen Königs- und der Römischen
Kaiser-Krönung_ (Göttingen, 1872), pp. 67, 68.

[52] Diemand (_op. cit._) divides the whole period from Otto I
(962)—Frederick II (1220) into three recensions only, in the first of
which he classes all those orders in which the anointing takes place
before the ‘Confessio’ of St Peter.

[53] Hopf, _Chroniques_, p. 73 f.

[54] Pertz, _M. G. Legg._ II. 187 ff.

[55] So Pertz, _l.c._, but Diemand (_op. cit._ p. 35) takes it to be the
Order used in the coronation of Henry III by Pope Clement II. This is
without doubt an official Order.

[56] In nomine domini nostri Jesu Christi. Ego N. rex, et futurus
imperator Romanorom, promitto, spondeo, polliceor, atque per haec
evangelia iuro coram Deo et beato Petro apostolo, tibi N. beati Petri
apostoli vicario fidelitatem, tuisque successoribus canonice intrantibus;
meque amodo protectorem ac defensorem fore huius sanctae Romanae
ecclesiae, et vestrae personae, vestrorumque successorum in omnibus
utilitatibus, in quantum divino fultus fuero adiutorio, secundum scire
meum ac posse, sine fraude et malo ingenio. Sic me Deus adiuvet et haec
sancta Dei evangelia.

[57] There is no mention of the place where the Emperor is anointed, but
as he is invested before the altar of St Maurice it seems probable that
here too he was anointed by the Bishop of Ostia as in the last recension.
Diemand seems not to have noticed where the investitures took place, and
assumes that the unction was made before the Confessio of St Peter.

[58] Pertz, _M. G. Legg._ pp. 528 ff.

[59] _P. L._ LXXVIII. coll. 1238 ff. Almost identical is Muratori’s
Order. See _Lit. Rom. Vetus_, Vol. II. p. 455.

[60] _Pontificale Romanum_ (1520). De coronatione Romani Imperatoris.

[61] _Rex Teutonicorum_ occurs often in the tenth and eleventh centuries.
_Rex Germanicorum_ occurs once or twice in early times. Maximilian I
first added the title _Rex Germaniae_. Bryce says that there is reason
to think that in later times _Erwählter_ began to acquire the meaning of
‘elective’ in the place of ‘elect.’ See _Roman Empire_, p. 531, note _b_.
(Ed. 1910.)

[62] The first reference to the consecration of a Saxon king is found
in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the year 785, when Ecgferth was
associated as king by his father Offa.

[63] _DACL_, art. Bretagne (grande-), col. 1238.

[64] Dom Cabrol, _loc. cit._, giving the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as his
authority, most unjustifiably states that Ecgferth was ‘couronné et
oint.’ In the case of Ecgferth the A.-S. Chronicle account goes back to
the compiler of the Winchester Annals drawn up under Alfred. What his
sources were we do not know. In the case of Eardwulf of Northumbria we
have the contemporary Northumbrian Annals embedded in Simeon of Durham
and known through him and certain passages common to him and the A.-S.
Chronicle, extending from the death of Bede to 802.

[65] Rich. de Cirencestria, _Speculum Historiale_ (Rolls Series), II.
p. 27. We have the evidence of a charter of Burgred and Aethelswyth to
show that crowns were among the regalia of the Mercian kings in the ninth
century, but this does not necessarily imply any religious ceremony of
coronation. J. M. Kemble, _Codex Diplom._, II. 94.

[66] See Stubbs’ Introd. to William of Malmesbury, _Gesta Regum_ (Rolls
Series), II. p. xlii, n. 4. ‘Filium vestrum Erfred quem hoc in tempore ad
sanctorum apostolorum limina destinare curastis, benigne suscepimus et
quasi spiritalem filium consulatus cingulo, honore, vestimentisque, ut
mos est Romanis consulibus, decoravimus, eo quod in nostris se tradidit

[67] Henderson, _Pontificale of Egbert_ (Surtees Soc., Vol. XXVII.), pp.
100 ff. Another text of the same Order is printed from the _Pontificale
Lanalatense_ by L. G. Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_,
Westminster, 1901, pp. 3 ff., who also gives the unimportant variations
of the text of the Order as it appears in the Leoffric Missal.

[68] Reference is made in this rite to seven prayers used, and _In
diebus_ is therefore evidently regarded as an alternative. Sometimes it
is very uncertain whether Alia means ‘or,’ or ‘also.’

[69] This detail follows the text of the Leoffric Missal. In the other
two texts it is apparently stated that the people kiss the king, but the
rubric is in all three texts confused and probably corrupt.

[70] ‘For the nation of the West-Saxons does not allow a queen to sit
beside the king, nor to be called a queen, but only the king’s wife.’
Asser, _De rebus gestis Aelfredi_, s.a. 856 (Petrie, _Mon. Hist. Brit._
p. 471). The _Annales Bertiniani_, which s.a. 856 recount the coronation
of Judith in France, definitely state that the coronation of a queen
was not practised among the Saxons. See Pertz, _M.G.H. Script._ I. 450.
For the position accorded to the consorts of Anglo-Saxon kings, see
Liebermann, _Gesetze der Angelsachsen_, II. s.v. ‘Königin.’

[71] _Haec tria populo Christiano et mihi subdito in Christi promitto
nomine. In primis ut ecclesia Dei et omnia populus Christianus veram
pacem nostro arbitrio in omni tempore servet. Aliud ut rapacitates
et omnes iniquitates omnibus gradibus interdicam. Tertium ut omnibus
iudiciis aequitatem et misericordiam praecipiam, ut mihi et vobis
indulgeat suam misericordiam clemens et misericors deus. Qui vivit._

[72] In the text of this recension given in Dr Wickham Legg’s _Three
Coronation Orders_ (H. B. S. 1900), p. 59, the form with which the verge
is delivered is followed by a prayer, _Ineffabilem misericordiam tuam_;
and then the pallium is given with the form, _Accipe nunc vestem summi
honoris_, and a prayer, _Omn. Deus cuncti honoris iustus dispositor_.
None of these forms appear elsewhere.

[73] In this prayer occur the words, _quae per manus nostrae impositionem
hodie regina instituitur_. These words have been regarded by some as
evidence, lingering on only in the forms for the crowning of a queen,
that originally there was a laying on of hands at the consecration of a
king. The ‘ordinatio’ of King Aidan by St Columba is adduced as further
evidence, and the expression of Photius χειροθεσία βασιλείας might
also be adduced. Both, if they have any other than a general meaning,
doubtless refer to the laying on of hands always anciently observed in
blessing. But in this particular passage the words evidently refer simply
to the setting of the crown on the queen’s head.

[74] See L. G. Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_, pp. 30 ff.

[75] L. G. Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_, pp. 81 ff. For
other forms of this fourth recension cp. J. Wickham Legg, _Missale
Westmonasteriense_ (H. B. S.), II. coll. 673 ff., and Maskell, _Monumenta
Ritualia_, III. pp. 1-81.

[76] In this recension the words ‘quem in huius regni regem pariter
eligimus’ in this prayer are altered to ‘quem ... consecramus.’ The
change was never made in the same prayer in the French rite.

[77] J. Wickham Legg, _The Order of the Coronation of King James I_
(Russell Press, London, 1902).

[78] The miraculous chrism first appears in the fourteenth century. It
was given by the Virgin to St Thomas Becket. Probably the miraculous
chrism of England owes its existence to the desire of the English not to
be outdone by the French who possessed a chrism supplied by an angel for
the coronation of Clovis.

[79] Chr. Wordsworth, _Coronation of King Charles I_, 1626, pp. xix, xx.

[80] _Faciendo signum crucis_ is struck out, but the queen is anointed
‘in the manner of a cross.’

[81] The MS. copy of the order which the king himself used is now in
the library of St John’s College, Cambridge. Prynne (_Canterburie’s
Doome_, p. 70) accuses Abp Laud of having inserted divers prayers into
the order from the Roman Pontifical, an assertion due to either his
ignorance or his malice, for the examples which he gives are all in the
old English rite. Heylin (_Cyprianus Anglicus_, ed. 1668, p. 142) states
that there was used at the coronation of Charles I a prayer ‘which had
been intermitted since Henry VI and was that that followeth: “Let him
obtain favour for the people like Aaron in the tabernacle, Elisha in
the waters, Zacharias in the temple; give him Peter’s key of discipline
and Paul’s doctrine,” which clause had been omitted in times of Popery,
as intimating more ecclesiastical jurisdiction to be given to our kings
than the Popes allowed of.’ But this prayer does not occur in any of the
extant copies of Charles’ rite, nor does it occur in any English order
whatsoever, but it does occur in the Roman rite. Heylin seems to have
confused this prayer with some other actually in the order.

[82] See Chr. Wordsworth, _Coronation of King Charles I_, 1626 (H. B. S.
1892), pp. lx ff., 18 ff.

[83] L. G. Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_, pp. 240, 241.

[84] Sir Harris Nicolas, _Chronology of History_ (London, 1833), pp. 272

[85] Chr. Wordsworth, _op. cit._, p. 36, n. 5.

[86] L. G. Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_, pp. 287 ff.

[87] L. G. Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_, pp. 317 ff.; J.
Wickham Legg, _Three Coronation Orders_, pp. 3 ff.

[88] _P. L._ CXXXVIII. coll. 737-742.

[89] _P. L._ CXXXVIII. coll. 783 ff.

[90] Martène’s Ordo III; II. p. 216.

[91] _P. L._ CXXXVIII. coll. 639-642.

[92] Ibid., coll. 727-731.

[93] _P. L._ LXXVIII. coll. 255 ff.

[94] II. pp. 622-634.

[95] The word ‘tria’ is omitted because with the addition there are now
four promises.

[96] It will be remembered that Louis, then the Dauphin, was offered the
English Crown and then driven out of England on John’s death. He always
afterwards claimed to be King of England.

[97] _De ant. rit._ II. 219 ff.

[98] Godefroy, _Le cérém. François_, I. 13 (1649). Professor Hans
Schreuer thinks that this order was never actually used. See _Über
altfranzösische Krönungsordnungen_ (Weimar, 1909), pp. 2 ff.

[99] The conflation of three distinct forms of unction is self-evident.
They can hardly have all been used, but here as elsewhere the meaning of
_Alia_ is not clear.

[100] _De ant. rit._, II. pp. 227-229.

[101] _The Coronation Book of Charles V of France_, by E. S. Dewick,
M.A., F.S.A. (H.B.S.)

[102] The English kings however only communicated in one kind previous to
the Reformation.

[103] _Procès-verbal de la Cérémonie du sacre et du couronnement de LL.
MM. L’Empereur Napoléon et l’Impératrice Joséphine._ Paris, An XIII,
1805. F. Masson, _Le sacre et le couronnement de Napoléon_, Paris, 1908.

[104] M. Hittorp, _De divinis ecclesiae officiis_, etc., in Biblioth.
Vet. Patrum, x (Paris, 1610), pp. 147-152.

[105] See below p. 114.

[106] G. Waitz, _Die Formeln der deutschen Königs- und der römischen
Kaiser-Krönung_ (Göttingen, 1872), pp. 87 ff. The order is from a Munich
MS. of 1409.

[107] The rubric of the Pontifical of 1520 says ‘etiam dicunt omnes
pontifices ... dicunt etiam alias benedictiones.’

[108] A rubric in the Rite contained in _O.R._ XIV takes into
consideration national sentiment by allowing also the anointing of hands,
breasts, shoulders, and bends of arm.

[109] Waitz only gives the beginning and end of this prayer, but it is
evidently this prayer that he indicates.

[110] M. Magistretti, _Pontificale in usum ecclesiae Mediolanensis necnon
Ordines Ambrosiani_ (Milan, 1897), pp. 62-64.

[111] Whether there was any anointing or not in this rite depends on
whether Charlemagne was anointed or not. If he was, then an unction,
though not mentioned, certainly had a place in the Gemunden Order, and in
this. See pp. 30 ff.

[112] M. Magistretti, _op. cit._, pp. 112 ff.

[113] Pertz, _M. G. Legg._, II. pp. 503 ff.

[114] Magistretti, _op. cit._, pp. 121 ff.

[115] _Res gestae Saxonicae_ in Pertz, _M.G.H. Script._ III. 437-438.

[116] Possibly this means the ‘Laudes.’

[117] Pertz, _M.G.H., Legg._ II. pp. 384 ff.

[118] The _Ita_ is almost certainly a scribal error for _Sta_. But error
or not this form is found also in the orders by which Maximilian I and
Charles V were crowned, though subsequently _Sta et retine_ is restored
in German Rites.

[119] See Panvinius and Beuther, _Inauguratio, coronatio, etc._, pp.
8 ff., 81 ff., 180 ff. The ‘Order’ of the coronation of Maximilian II
(1562), pp. 102 ff., is simply an account of the rite written down from

[120] The form however of enthronisation at the Coronation of Matthias II
begins _Sta et retine_.

[121] Comte de Bray, _Mémoires_ (Paris, 1911), pp. 97-117

[122] II pp. 234 ff. _Ritus benedicendi et coronandi reges Hungariae qui
obtinuit dum Albertus V Dux Austriae in regem Hungariae coronaretur._

[123] _Op. cit._, pp. 154 ff.

[124] _Lib. de Hist. Gall._, _P.L._ XCVI. coll. 765-766.

[125] _Liber Ordinum_. Ed. M. Férotin (Paris, 1904). App. III. pp. 499 ff.

[126] de Blancas, _Coronaçiones_, pp. 117 ff. (Çaragoça, 1641.)

[127] de Blancas states that Dom Pedro swore fidelity to the Pope (p. 5),
but this does not appear in the oath in the coronation order of Dom Pedro.

[128] Cf. Constantine Porphyr. _de caer_. I. 91 (coronation of Leo the
Great), ‘He was adored by all and held the spear and shield.’

[129] José Maria Yanguas y Miranda, _Cronica de los Reyes de Navarra_
(Pamplona, 1843), pp. 192-199; Martène, II. pp. 236 ff.

[130] Geronymo Çurita, _Los cinco libros primeros de la segunda parte de
los anales de la corona de Aragon_. (Çaragoça, MDCX.) Tomo tercero, Libr.
XIII. c. li. pp. 185, 186.

[131] J. Cooper, _Four Scottish Coronations_. (Aberdeen, 1902.)

[132] John Marquess of Bute, _Scottish Coronations_, pp. 140 ff.

[133] _Actus Coronationis seren. Dn. Frederici Com. Pal. Rheni ... et
Dom. Elisabethae ... in regem et reginam Bohemiae._ (Prague, 1619.) _Acta
Bohemica_ ([Prague], 1620), pp. 139 ff. The two documents do not always
agree in detail.

[134] The _Actus Coronationis_ does not mention _Veni Creator_, but the
_Acta Bohemica_ definitely state that the hymn was sung.

[135] The Ring is not mentioned in the _Acta Bohemica_.

[136] This benediction is not mentioned in _A.B._

[137] In the _Actus Coronationis_ the benediction is spoken of as
following _Te Deum_, but it is evidently out of place. The _A.B._ (which
omit all reference to the Queen) state that the _Te Deum_ was sung at the
close of the ceremony.

[138] _An account of the anointing of the First King of Prussia in 1701._
J. Wickham Legg, F.R.C.P., F.S.A. _Archaeol. Jour._ LVI. pp. 123 ff.

[139] _Regis Friderici Coronatio descripta carmine ab Hieronymo Hosio_,
in _Schiardius Redivivus sive Rerum Germanarum scriptores varii_, T. III.
pp. 65 ff.

[140] The metre requires that the hymn should be paraphrased and it is
not clear which of the two is meant. Though _Veni Creator_ is used in
most orders, the other is found in the later Danish and Swedish orders.


    Turba Deum interea solemni musica cantu

Probably this means that _Te Deum_ is sung.

[142] _Allernaadigst approberet Ceremoniel ved Deres Majestæter Kong
Christian den Ottendes og Dronning Caroline Amalias forestaaende, höie
Kronings-og Salvings-Act paa Frederiksborg Slot_, etc. A. Seidelin,
Copenhagen [1840].

[143] _Kurtze Beschreibung wie Ihr. Königl. Majest. zu Schweden Carolus
XI zu Upsahl ist gekrönet worden. Aus dem Schwedischen verdeutschet_,
1676. Unfortunately none of the forms are given in this account.

[144] _Ordning vid Deras Majestäter Konung Carl den Femtondes och
Drottning Wilhelmina Frederika Alexandra Anna Lovisas Kröning och
Konungens Hyllning vid Riksdagen i Stockholm_, 1860.

[145] _Ceremoniel ved deres Majestæter Kong Haakon den Syvende’s og
Dronning Maud’s Kroning i Trondhjem’s Domkirke Aar_ 1906. Steen’ske
Bogtrykkeri, Kr. A., 1906.

[146] I. p. 390.

[147] _P.L._ cxxx. 250.

[148] _P.L._ LXXVIII. 1006, 1007.

[149] The description is not clear, but the above probably represents
its meaning. The text is ‘et tenent evangelium super caput vel cervicem
ipsius. Et accedit unus episcopus et dat orationem super eum et recedit,
et alter similiter. Accedit tertius et consecrat illum.’ The word
‘consecrat’ is curious, but these are evidently the three special prayers
said for the Pope, of which the text is given in the later descriptions.

[150] _P.L._ LXXVIII. pp. 1098, 1099.

[151] _P.L._ LXXVIII. pp. 1127 ff.

[152] The _Caerimoniale Romanum_ adds that this prayer is from the Order
of the Consecration of a Bishop.

[153] _Sacrarum caerimoniarum sive rituum ecclesiasticorum S. Rom.
Ecclesiae Libri tres_ (Venetiis, MDLXXXII). Various details are given
more fully here than in the older accounts. For the Rite as used at the
present day see Grissell, _Sede Vacante_, Parker, 1903.

[154] It is quite possible that the Laudes at the Papal Coronation may
originally have been the development of the ceremonial reception of a new
Bishop, such as obtained in France in early times—see Martène, II. p. 29.
If so, the forms have been assimilated to the Imperial ‘Laudes.’

[155] _Reginonis Chronicon_, _s.a._ 750. (Pertz, _M. G. H. Script._ I.

[156] _Reginonis Chronicon_, _s.a._ 752. (Pertz, _l.c._)

[157] _J.Th.S._ II. pp. 383 ff.

[158] _Chronicon Anonymum_ in Guidi, _Chronica Minora_, p. 21.

[159] _In I Reg. Expos._ iv. 5 (_P. L._ LXXIX. 278).

[160] St Gregory’s expression ‘qui in culmine ponitur’ is somewhat
unusual, and it may be noted that a similar expression is found in Can.
1 of the 12th Council of Toledo (681) ‘etenim sub qua pace vel ordine
serenissimus Ervigius princeps regni conscenderit culmen regnandique per
sacrosanctam unctionem susceperit potestatem,’ etc.

[161] Photius, _Epp._ I. 16.

[162] Brightman considers that the language of Photius is metaphorical
only and gives later instances of the figurative use of such words as
χρίσμα and χρίειν. _Loc. cit._, pp. 384, 385.

[163] Brightman, _Byzantine Imp. Coronation_, in _J. Th. St._ II. pp. 391
f. and _The Coronation Order and the Regal Vestments_, in _The Pilot_,
VI. p. 136.

[164] See the various English orders, most of which are given in L. G.
Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_.

[165] See below, p. 187.

[166] Bock, _Die Kleinodien des heil. römischen Reiches deutsch. Nation_.
In the plate of the Emperor Charles V the Dalmatic has been omitted. Also
it is to be doubted whether the Emperor wore the Armill crosswise like a
stole as there represented.

[167] Dewick, _The Coronation Book of Charles V of France_.

[168] de Blancas, _Coronaçiones_.

[169] It is usually held that the Orb is another form of the Sceptre.
In rites in which it is referred to it is generally given without
any accompanying form. It is variously named the Orb, Pome, Apfel or

[170] Tertull., _Apol._ XXXII.; _Ad Scap._ II.

[171] Eusebius, _Vit. Constant._, IV. xxiv.

[172] Cf. the statement of Aphraates (c. 350) who holds that the unction
of Saul and David imparted the Holy Spirit. (_Demonstr._ VI. 16.)

[173] _Roberti Grosseteste episcopi quondam Lincolniensis Epistolae_,
(Rolls Series, 1861), p. 350.

[174] Heylin, _Cyprianus Anglicus_, p. 145. 1668.


[_See also Table of Contents_]

  Abyssinian Rite, 30, 180

  Aidan, King, ‘Ordination’ of, 36, 65 n. 2

  Akakia, 185

  Alba camisia, 183

  Alfred, King, 59 f., 171

  Anastasius I, Emperor, 12 f.

  Anglo-Saxon Coronations, 58 ff.

  Antidoron, 27, 29

  Antiminsion, 17

  Aphraates, quoted, 190 n.

  Armills, 183, 187

  Aurelian, Emperor, 10

  ἀνατείλατε, 27

  Baldwin I, 27, 48

  _Benedictio super arma regis_, 131

  Berengar of Friuli, 170

  Bishop, consecration of, compared with that of a king, 193 f.

  Boniface, St, 34, 167, 180

  Bracelets, 4 n.

  Burgred, King, charter of, 59 n. 1, 63

  Buskins, 181 ff.

  βασιλεύς, used of Anglo-Saxon kings, 62

  Camelaucus, 159 f.

  Camisa, 130, 184

  Charlemagne, 32 ff., 37 ff., 168;
    unction of, 40 f., 169

  Charles I of England, 197

  Charles V, Emperor, 55, 125

  Charles V of France, 102

  Chlamys, 13, 19, 23, 173, 182;
    prayer over, 19, 22, 179

  Chrism, 194;
    English, 73, 80 f.;
    French, 103

  Codinus Curopalates, quoted, 24

  Colobium sindonis, 182

  Confessio of St Peter, Emperor anointed before, 45, 48

  Constantia, Empress, 49

  Constantine VI, 17

  Constantine Porphyrogenitus, quoted, 11, 12, 15, 18, 21, 133

  Coronation, repetition of, in case of certain kings, 190

  χειροθεσία, 66 n., 179

  χιτών, 181

  Dalmatic, 183 ff., 187

  Deputatus, 26

  Diadem, 10, 11, 16;
    diadema, 25, 182

  Dibetesion, 12, 16, 18, 25, 181

  Donative, 9, 15

  διάδημα, 16, 25 n.

  Eardwulf, King, 59

  Ecgferth, King, 56 n., 58

  Ectene or Litany, 22

  Edgar, King, 63, 172

  Egbert, Pontifical of, 57 f., 60

  Einhard, quoted, 39

  Epistle, read by Emperor at coronation, 192

  Frankish kings, coronation of, 91

  Galeus, 62, 185. (See also Helmet)

  Goar, _Euchologion_, quoted, 18, 22

  Gregory I, Pope, on unction of kings, 178;
    ‘Apostle of the English’, 98

  Grosseteste, quoted, 192

  Hazael, 4

  Healing, by kings, 191

  Helmet, 133, 136

  Henry VI, Emperor, 49

  Henry VII, Emperor, 52, 116

  Heylin, quoted, 77 n., 197 f.

  James II, 85 ff.

  Jehoiada, 4

  Julian, Bishop of Toledo, quoted, 33, 128

  Julian, Emperor, 10

  Justin II, Emperor, 16

  Key, delivered to king, 154

  Knights, created at coronation, 125

  καμπάγια, 16

  Laud, Abp, 77 f., 79 f.

  _Laudes_, 19, 38 n. 2, 42 f., 47, 51, 53, 125 n., 160, 161, 163, 164

  Laying on of hands, in coronation, 36, 65 n. 2

  Leo I, Emperor, 10 f.

  Leo II, Emperor, 15

  Liber Regalis, 58, 69

  Litany, in English rite, 67

  Loros. (See Diadema, Pallium)

  Louis II, King, 45

  Louis the Pious, 41

  Lyndwood, quoted, 191

  Manasses, Constantine, quoted, 40

  Mandyas, 26

  Maniakis, 11

  Marriage rite, compared with that of coronation, 197

  Mary, St, in Turri, Emperor canon of, 54

  Maurice, St, altar of, Emperor anointed before, 47, 48, 50, 52

  Mixta Persona, 191

  Modiolon, 15

  Napoleon, 106

  Oath, at coronation, 197;
    English, 63, 67, 70, 73, 78 f., 82;
    French, 96, 99, 100, 102, 106;
    Imperial, 45, 46, 49, 52;
    Roman, 109, 111;
    Spanish, 33, 134, 165

  Obligatory oath of the people, 81, 141

  Orb, 185

  Pall (Pallium) 183, 187;
    papal, 160, 161

  Pertinax, Emperor, 8

  Photius, quoted, 179

  Pippin, 34, 166 ff., 190

  Presanctified, liturgy of, 24

  Prynne, 77 n.

  πολυχρόνιον, 29

  Queen, coronation of, 198 f.;
    Anglo-Saxon, 62, 95, 198

  Recognition, 73, 127, 140, 196

  Regnum. (See Tiara)

  Reichsapfel, 143, 185

  Ring, investiture with, 51, 64, 174, 195

  Sacrament or Sacramental, 191, 196

  Sagion, 18

  Sakkos, 25, 26, 181, 184

  Sancroft, Abp, 81, 84

  Sapor, 5

  Saul, 3

  Shield and Spear, 5, 11, 133

  Shield, elevation on, 10, 13, 16, 25, 135, 136

  Spurs, 185

  Stemma, 19, 63, 185

  Sub-deacon, Emperor acts as, 53, 54

  Tacitus, Emperor, 7 f.

  Tel-el-Amarna, 2

  Theophanes, quoted, 11, 12, 17, 40

  Tiara (papal) 160, 163

  Torque, 10, 13, 16

  Tunica talaris, 183, 184

  Tunicle. (See Dalmatic)

  Tzitzakion, 18

  τουβία, 16

  Unction, in Abyssinia, 30 f., 180;
    at Constantinople, 177 f.;
    of Czar of Russia, 29;
    among the Franks, 34 f., 166 f., 180;
    in Imperial rite, 40, 45, 47, 50, 52;
    in Spain, 33 f., 165 f., 180
    (See also Charlemagne, Unction of)

  Verge, 185

  Vestments, coronation, 181 ff.;
    derivation of, 186;
    resemblance to sacerdotal, 193

  Wamba, King, 33 f., 128

  Widukind, 120

  ζώνη, ζωνάριον, 16


_(Pap) means a Papal Form; the other letters refer to the Protestant
rites: (B) Bohemian, (D) Danish, (N) Norwegian, (P) Prussian, (S)
Scottish, (Sw) Swedish. The number of the page in brackets in the case of
a Latin form gives the reference to the English version; and the Latin in
brackets after an English form is the original of the form._

  A vobis perdonari, 70, 74, 92, 95, 99, 116

  Accingere gladio tuo, 47, 53, 112

  Accipe anulum signaculum s. Trinitatis, 66, 117;
    anulum vid. signaculum s. fidei, 51, 64, (76), 96, 104, 105;
    armillas sinceritatis, 68, (75);
    coronam a domino deo, 44, 45, 114;
    coronam gloriae, 66, (76), 117, 133;
    coronam regalis excellentiae, 51;
    (igitur) coronam regni, 101, 107, 110, 115, 117, 124, 132;
    inquam coronam, 104;
    dignitatis pomum, 132;
    (ensem) gladium (imperialem) ad vindictam, 47, 52, 103, 104, 117, 131;
    gladium per manus (nostras) episcoporum, 42, 68, (75), 103, 110, 115,
      118, 123;
    gladium rex electe (B), 143;
    hunc gladium cum dei benedictione, 51, 64, 120;
    nunc vestem summi honoris, 65 n. 1;
    pallium, 68, (75);
    pallium plenitudinem (Pap), 161;
    pomum aureum, 117;
    regiae dignitatis anulum, 68, (75), 110, 115, 123, 194;
    sceptrum regiae potestatis, 51, 64, 68, (75), 93, 117;
    sceptrum regni virgam, 47;
    signum gloriae, 45, 47, 51, 52, 117, 132;
    virgam virtutis, 54, 65, (75), 101, 105, 110, 115, 124, 132, 133, 195

  Actiones nostras, 130

  Adesto domine supplicationibus, 98, 100, 105

  Almighty and Everlasting God, Creator of all things (Omn. semp. Deus
      creator omnium), 74, 80, 82

  (O) Almighty and Everlasting God, we beseech thee (Omn. semp. Deus
      affluentem), 76, 90

  Almighty Everlasting God, pour out (Sw), 154

  Almighty God give thee (Omn. Deus det tibi), 76

  And the same good Lord, 83

  Be strong (Confortare), 75, 83, 90

  Be this head anointed (Unguantur caput istud, etc.), 82

  Behold O God, our defender, 86

  Benedic domine et sanctifica anulum, 72, (75);
    fortitudinem, 61, 65, 72, (76), 97;
    hunc principem, 53, 61, 103;
    hunc regem, 71, (74), 101, 110, 123, 131, 132

  Benedicat tibi deus (75), 104, 110

  Bless O Lord and sanctify (Benedic deus), 75;
    the virtuous carriage (Benedic dne fortitudinem), 76

  Bless we beseech thee, O Lord, these thy gifts (Munera dne quaes.
      oblata), 77, 87

  Blessed art thou, O Lord, 85

  By the eternal almighty God (S), 141

  By whom kings reign and princes rule, 88

  Clerum ac populum, 92, 104, 110

  Come thou Holy Spirit, come (S), 154

  Confortare et esto vir, 72, (75), 103

  Coronet te deus (i), 47, 64, 68, (75), 92, 93

  Coronet te deus (ii), 92, 104, 107

  Coronet te dominus gloria, 95

  Creator omnium Imperator (see Omn. semp. Deus creator ac gubernator)

  Desiderium animae, 111, 124, 132

  Det tibi dominus velle et posse, 92

  Deum time, 68

  Deus caelestium terrestriumque, 72, (75), 98, 109, 112, 116, 122, 131

  Deus cuius est omnis potestas (queen), 66, 69, (76), 105;
    dei filius, 47, 50, 52, 64, 68, 71, (74), 96, 99, 101, 103, 107, 112,
      115, 117, 118, 123, 127, 132;
    electorum fortitudo, 61, 64, 71, (74), (89), 94, 96, 103, 115;
    honorum (bonorum) cunctorum, 113, 133;
    humilium visitator, 70, 73, (82);
    ineffabilis auctor, 67, 71, (74), 123;
    inenarrabilis auctor, 45, 46, 50, 94, 99, 101, 103, 108, 110, 112, 127;
    in cuius manu, 45, 46, 49, 118, 131;
    pater aeternae gloriae, 44, 45, 53, 103, 105, 107, 113, 114, 132, 133;
    perpetuitatis auctor, 61, 64, 68, (75), 104, 115, 117

  Deus qui, ad defendendum, 133;
    adesse (Pap), 162;
    apostolum tuum (Pap), 162;
    corda fidelium, 106, 150;
    es iustorum gloria, 47, 68, 71, (74), 99, 101, 110, 123, 132;
    populis tuis, 61, 64, 71, (74), 91, 92, 103, 116;
    providentia tua, 64, 96, 101, 103, 117;
    scis humanam genus, 98, 109, 122, 131;
    solus habes immortalitatem, 50, 53, 69, (76), 105, 111, 116, 117, 132;
    victrices Moysi, 101, 104, 108, 112, 127

  Deus regnorum omnium, 44, 51, 52, 60, 112, 118, 127;
    rex regum, 71, (74);
    tuorum corona, 68, (75), (76)

  Dilexisti iustitiam, 116, 118

  (Domine) Deus omn. cuius est omnia potestas (king), 45, 47, 50, 51, 52,
      64, 72, (75), 93, 96, 104, 117, 118, 132

  Domnus Leo papa (Pap), 160

  Ecce mitto angelum, 49, 109, 122

  Elegit te dominus, 160

  Emitte spiritum, 106

  Emitte spiritum (D), 150

  Exaudi domine preces nostras, 42, 71, (75), 114

  Fear God (P), 146

  Firmetur manus, 63, 67, 70, 73, (85), 104, 108, 112, 127

  Gentem Francorum inclitam, 103

  Gloria et honore coronet, 94

  God crown thee (coronet te deus), 75, 77, 83, 87, 89

  God the Almighty (Sw), 155

  God the exalter of the humble (Deus visitator humilium), 73, 82, 86 (see
      O God which visitest)

  God the Son of God (Deus dei filius), 74, 80, 82, 86

  God the strength of thy chosen (Deus electorum fortitudo), 74, 77

  God the unspeakable author (Deus ineffabilis), 74, 77

  God to whom belongeth all power (Dne Deus cuius est omnis potestas), 76

  God which art the glory (Deus qui es iustorum gloria), 74

  (O) God which providest (Deus qui populis tuis), 74, 82, 86, 88

  (O) God which only hast immortality (Deus qui solus habes
      immortalitatem), 76

  Haec domine salutaris, 133

  Haec tria populo Christiano, 63 n., 96, 99, 102

  Hear our prayers (exaudi quaesumus), 75, 87

  I was glad, 85

  In diebus eius oriatur, 64, (83), 96, 103, 115, 116

  In nomine Christi promitto, 45, 67

  In nomine Patris, 65, 69, (76), 105, 117

  In the name of the Father (In nomine Patris), 76

  In thy days (In diebus eius), 83

  Ita retine, 124. (See Sta et retine)

  Let my prayer come, 88

  Let these hands be anointed (Unguantur manus istae), 74

  Let thy hand be strengthened (Firmetur manus), 85

  Let your royal Majesty (P), 145;
    (queen, P), 145

  Look down Almighty God (Prospice omnipotens), 74

  Munera, Domine, quaesumus oblata, 77

  O Almighty and Everlasting God, the fountain (Omn. semp. Deus fons et
      origo), 76, 84;
    Creator of all things (Omn. semp. Deus, creator omnium), 74, 80, 82

  O Almighty God, we beseech thee that this thy servant (Quaesumus omn.
      Deus ut famulus), 76

  O God of eternity (O Eternal God, Deus perpetuitatis), 75, 77, 83;
    the Creator (Deus caelestium), 75, 80;
    the crown of the faithful (Deus tuorum), 75, 76, 83, 87, 89;
    the King of kings (Deus rex regum), 74, 80;
    to whom belongeth (Deus cuius est omnis potestas), 75, 83;
    which visitest (Deus visitator humilium), 73 (see also God the exalter
      of the humble);
    who dwellest (Deus visitator humilium), 82, 86, 88;
    who providest, 82, 86, 88

  O Lord Holy Father who by anointing, 89 (see God the strength);
    our God King of kings, 22, 28;
    the fountain of all good things (Omnium domine fons bonorum), 75, 76,
    the giver of all perfection, 90;
    thou that governest (Benedic domine), 74, 80

  Officio nostrae indignitatis, 53, 69, 72, (76), 111, 113, 117, 133

  Omn. aeterne deus creator omnium (see Omn. semp. Deus creator ac
    fons et origo, 50, 53, 69, (76), 105, 111, 116, 117, 132

  Omnipotens det tibi deus de rore, 61, 65, 72, (76), 97

  Omnipotens Deus cuncti honoris, 65 n. 1

  Omnipotens semp. Deus affluentem spiritum, 65, 69, (76), 105, 117;
    caelestium terrestriumque (see Deus caelestium);
    creator ac gubernator, 64, 67, 71, (74), 92, 96, 99, 101, 103, 106,
    110, 112, 115, 116, 123, 126, 131;
    hanc famulam, 105, 133

  Omnipotens semp. Deus qui famulum, 109, 122, 131;
    Hazael, 107, 112, 132;
    te populi sui, 133

  Omnium domine fons bonorum, 51, 65, 66, 68, 69, 93, 104, 105, 117

  Pater sancte sic transit, 163

  Petre amas me, 50

  Praetende quaesumus domine, 132

  Praise the Lord O Jerusalem, 87

  Profiteor coram deo, 101, 106, 112, 124, 126, 131

  Promitto (et perdono) vobis, 92, 96

  Prosperity to the king (P), 146

  Prospice omn. Deus serenis obtutibus, 42, 53, 68, 71, (74), 99, 103,
    110, 114, 123, 132

  Quaesumus omn. deus ut famulus, 76

  Quatenus divinis monitis, 104, 111

  Receive the armill (Accipe armillas), 75;
    the crown of glory (Accipe coronam gloriae), 76, 84;
    the ring of kingly dignity (Accipe regiae dignitatis anulum), 75;
    the rod (Accipe virgam), 75;
    the sceptre (Accipe sceptrum), 75;
    this kingly sword (Accipe gladium), 75, 87;
    this pall (Accipe pallium), 75;
    this ring (Accipe anulum), 76

  Rectitudo regis est noviter ordinati, 62, 97, 115, 117

  Remember him of whom, 87

  Sanctus, 88

  Seeing you are by our ministry (Officio indignitatis), 76, 84

  Si leges et consuetudines, 70

  Si tali principi, 67, 99

  Sir, receive this kingly sword (S), 141

  Sir, receive this sceptre (S), 141

  Spiritum sanctificationis, 94

  Spiritus Sci gratia humilitatis, 51, 53, 69, 105, 111, 117, 123, 132, 133

  Sta et retine, 65, 68, (75), 97, 100, 101, 107, 111, 112, 127, 132

  Stand and hold fast, 75, 87

  Stand and hold fast (S), 141

  Supplicationibus omn. deus (Pap), 162

  Te deum, 29, 63, 72, 75, 83, 87, 90, 96, 99, 100, 103, 107, 111, 112,
    117, 118, 121, 124, 125, 127, 133, 135, 144, 146, 148, 150, 157

  Te invocamus, 61, 64, 71, (74), 94, 96, 103, 115, 116

  The almighty everlasting God (Sw), 154

  The King shall rejoice (Deus in virtute), 75, 83, 88

  The Lord bless thee (Benedicat tibi), 75, 83;
    give you a fruitful country, 90;
    give thee of the dew (Omn. deus det tibi), 83;
    preserve thy life, 83

  Thus saith the Lord, 87

  To put you in mind, 87

  To thee alone, 23

  Tu es Petrus, 108

  Ungo te in regem, 110, 123, 194

  Unguantur caput istud, pectus, 68;
    manus istae, 68, 71, (74), 99, 104, 110, 123, 194

  Unxerunt Salamonem, 61, 71, (74), 96, 99, 103, 107, 116

  Veni Creator, 71, 74, 82, 86, 102, 106, 142, 145, 147

  Veni Sancte Spiritus, 147, 150, 154

  Vis sanctam fidem, 109, 131

  Vis sanctissimo in Christo patri, 122

  We beseech thee, O Lord (Te invocamus), 74, 82

  We swear, 81

  Zadok the priest, 74, 82, 86




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