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Title: Island Trail at Walnut Canyon - Walnut Canyon National Monument
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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                           _Island Trail at_
                             WALNUT CANYON


              PRICE 10 CENTS IF YOU TAKE THIS BOOKLET HOME
  or you may use it free of charge, returning it to the register stand
                           when you leave....

                    WALNUT CANYON NATIONAL MONUMENT
                  11 MILES EAST OF FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA.

    [Illustration: _Birdseye view of the “Island” Trail at Walnut Canyon
    National Monument_]



The National Park System, of which Walnut Canyon National Monument is a
unit, is dedicated to the conservation of America’s scenic, scientific,
and historic heritage for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.

                                                   NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
                                             Conrad L. Wirth, _Director_



                               A Guide to
                           THE “ISLAND” TRAIL


   _The National Park Service sincerely welcomes you to Walnut Canyon
                          National Monument._

                            * * * * * * * *

In order to insure your safety and to preserve the unspoiled beauty of
your National Monument, as well as protect its valuable archeological
and historic structures, we urgently request your cooperation in
observing the following rules and regulations!

                            * * * * * * * *

 Please do not roll or throw rocks, pick flowers, molest any wildlife,

                            * * * * * * * *

                    U. S. Department of the Interior
                         National Park Service

                    Southwestern National Monuments

                            * * * * * * * *

At the observation point a self-guiding trail begins which will take you
down and around the “Island” in the Canyon. There is a drop of 185 feet
by ramp and stairway to the “Saddle.” From there the trail is
comparatively flat, and completely encircles the “Island” at the level
of the ruins. You will visit several, and be able to see more than 100
of the 400 small cliff dwellings of Walnut Canyon.

Numbered markers along the trail refer to paragraphs in this booklet
which explain features of interest at each marker. When you come to
numbered markers please read the paragraph with the corresponding
number.

Please watch your step at all times. The total length of the trail is
five-eighths of a mile and the average time consumed is 40 minutes.


STAKE NO. 1.

General view of canyon. From this point you will observe that the canyon
makes a large “horse shoe” bend leaving an “Island” connected to this
side by the narrow neck of land we call the “Saddle.” It is in this
small section of the canyon that there is the heaviest concentration of
prehistoric cliff-dwellings.

From here you are able to discern the distinctly different types of
vegetation growing on opposite sides of the canyon. On the north side
(or southern exposure) we see many of the desert type plants native to
southern Arizona. On the other side we have the types common in the
higher and colder elevations.

Walnut Creek, the stream which cut the canyon, was dammed in 1904 to
form Lake Mary which supplies the city of Flagstaff; otherwise there
would be a running stream in the canyon today. The early Pueblo Indians
probably picked the canyon for their homes for this reason.

They farmed the mesa tops. The natural caves formed by erosion furnished
ideal roofs, as well as protection from enemies and comparatively easy
access to domestic water supply.

_You will now take the trail, to your left, which will lead you to the
next stake at the “Saddle.” The trail is steep and there are several
flights of stone steps. It is quite safe, but we urge you to use care in
your descent._


STAKE NO. 2.

Looking down canyon (to your left) is a graphic view of the geological
formations exposed in Walnut Canyon. On the next page of this guide
leaflet are sketches showing “How the Canyon was Formed.”

No. 1. Millions of years ago this area was a vast flood plain near sea
level. Shifting sands were formed into dunes by wind causing cross
bedding or lamination. It is these sands that form the Toroweap
Formation which is the oldest exposed in the canyon and is the whorled
and cross-bedded sandstone which rises from the Canyon floor.

No. 2. Later this flood plain was submerged, and for millions of years
was at the floor of a large, shallow body of water called “The Permian
Sea.” Calcium carbonate was precipitated to the floor of the sea. Small
sea animals were trapped or covered by this ooze or mire which later
compacted into stone and forms the Kaibab Limestone which forms the rim
of the canyon, and rests directly on the Toroweap. Many marine fossils
are found in this formation.

No. 3. A gradual uplifting of the earth’s surface caused the sea to
retreat. Streams draining the land began cutting channels to the sea.
The gradual uplift coupled with the cutting action of the stream
facilitated canyon cutting. Erosion carried away later Cretaceous
deposits from the rim and side erosion began widening the channels.
Softer strata would erode more rapidly than the hard, forming the caves
in which man later built his homes.

No. 4. Volcanic activity and the forming of the San Francisco Peaks
during the next period increased erosion. This activity has continued
until fairly recent times. The latest eruption was that of Sunset
Crater, occurring around 1066 A.D. Walnut Canyon was dammed to form Lake
Mary in 1904. Otherwise there would be running water in the canyon most
of the year.

  _There are practically no records of poisonous snakes at Walnut
  Canyon. In summer the Coral King Snake with colorful black, white, and
  orange-red bands may be seen. This snake is harmless and should not be
  disturbed._


STAKE NO. 3.

Although not the best preserved of the ruins you will visit, this once
was an extensive string of rooms. By tree ring dating we have been able
to establish dates of occupancy—the earliest for these masonry dwellings
being 1120 A.D. They were abandoned between 1200 and 1300 A.D.

Near the center of the room is what remains of an ancient
fireplace—almost obliterated—so please do not walk on it. From here
numerous rooms may be seen on this side of the canyon and directly
across.


STAKE NO. 4.

Ponderosa or western yellow pine (also known by 22 other common names)
(_Pinus ponderosa_). The leaves or needles occur in groups of three and
are 5 to 11 inches in length. These trees reach an age of from 350 to
500 years and are considered the most important lumber tree in the Rocky
Mountain region. Pueblo Indians of today invariably use Ponderosa for
their kiva ladders. Hopi Indians attach the needles to prayer plumes to
bring cold. The needles are also smoked ceremonially.

    [Illustration: _How the Canyon Was Formed_]

    [Illustration: _Kiva Ladder_]


STAKE NO. 5.

Douglas Fir (_Pseudotsuga taxifolia_). This tree requires more moisture
than is found on the south slopes of the canyon. The wood is harder,
stronger, and more durable than Pine. Douglas Firs are the conspicuous
trees on the slopes facing north, while Pinyon and Juniper are dominant
on those facing south.

The boughs of this tree are used by many Pueblo Indians today in their
ceremonies and dances, particularly by the Hopi who travel long
distances to collect the branches for their “Kachina” dances. They
believe that the color of the needles in the early spring will foretell
growing conditions for the coming year. It probably had similar uses
among the cliff dwellers.

    [Illustration: _Hopi Kachina_]


STAKE NO. 6.

This fine overhanging ledge furnished what appears to be an ideal house
site, although apparently it was never used as such. Perhaps the women
would gather here in the shade on hot days to chat and grind their corn
or make pottery. Undoubtedly, Indian children have played in its cool
protection.

The ledges of this type were used by prehistoric Indians because they
afforded good watertight roofs for their homes which could be completed
by construction of walls only in front and on the sides. The recesses
were formed by a process called differential weathering or exfoliation.
Moisture seeps into the cracks behind the surface of the softer layers
of limestone. When the water freezes it expands, cracking off thin
layers of rock.


STAKE NO. 7.

Elderberry (_Sambucus corulea neomexicana_). The blueblack berries of
this plant are eagerly consumed as food by birds and small animals.
Berries are put to present-day use in making jams, jellies and pie.


STAKE NO. 8.

This site once contained five rooms, of which only a few walls are left.
You will notice that the vegetation here is different. You are on the
northwest side of the “Island,” which receives little sun, is colder,
and has vegetation found in the great forests of the northern United
States.

    [Illustration: _Woman Plastering_]


STAKE NO. 9.

These are the best preserved ruins on the trail. Some restoration has
been done around the doorways, using a dark mud to distinguish it from
the original. The black soot deposit on the ceilings is the result of
using pitch Pine for fuel. If you look closely at the inside walls of
this room you will see the handprints of the women who plastered
it—prints placed here long before America was discovered. Since so many
people wish to see them, we ask that you do not touch the wall;
otherwise in a few years the handprints would be completely obliterated.

    [Illustration: _Women Doing Masonry_]

Note the smoke-blackened rocks inside the wall itself. They show that
the stones were re-used from an earlier dwelling, probably constructed
at the same site.


STAKE NO. 10.

Yucca (_Yucca baccata_). Also known as “Soapweed” or “Spanish Bayonet.”
This plant was most important in the economy of the early cliff
dwellers. It furnished all of the necessities of life, namely food,
shelter, and clothing. The Yucca is pollinated by a small moth whose
larvæ feed on the seeds. The Indians prized the fruit, buds, flowers,
and stalks for food. Its fiber was used for baskets, mats, cloth, rope
and sandals. Leaves were sometimes laid across rafters or vigas in
buildings and covered with mud for roofs. The root makes good soap.

    [Illustration: YUCCA]

  _FOOD_
    Flower
    Stalk
    Fruit
    Seeds
    Nets and Snares for catching Birds and Animals for Food
  _SHELTER_
    Cover and tie Roof Beams
    Floor Mats
    Tie Rungs in Ladders
  _CEREMONIAL OBJECTS_
  _SOAP_
  _CLOTHING_
    Sandals
    Robes made of Yucca fiber and wrapped with rabbit fur or feathers
    Loincloths
  _UTILITARIAN OBJECTS_
    Baskets, Bags
    Quivers
    Burden Baskets
    Tump Strap


STAKE NO. 11.

In the construction of houses it is believed that women did much work,
certainly the plastering, and possibly the laying of stones in mortar.
Men must have helped with the heavier “hod-carrying,” timber-lifting,
etc. Women also took care of household duties, made the pottery, and
helped with the farming. The men did the hunting, weaving, and farming,
and took care of the religious ceremonies and duties. As with their
descendants, the historic and present day Pueblo Indians, they were
probably matrilineal, that is, the children followed the mother’s clan.

    [Illustration: _Fremont Barberry_]

Please note the small opening above the door. The fireplace was built
near the center of the room and the smoke escaped through this hole. The
T-shaped doorway gave access to the room, and was easily covered during
cold weather with a skin, mat, or slab of rock. Each room may have
housed a family of four or five. They built terraces, in front of each
set of rooms, which served as door steps. The rooms may seem small, but
most of the every-day hours were spent outside, and they perhaps used
the houses only for cooking and sleeping during inclement weather.

    [Illustration: _Ruin and Balanced Rock_]

The hollowed-out stone you see against the wall is a metate
(meh-TAH-tay) or corn grinding stone.


STAKE NO. 12.

Mormon Tea or Torrey Ephedra (_Ephedra torreyana_). This shrub with its
green stems is able to withstand great drought. A pleasant, bitter tea
may be brewed with the leaves, which contain tannin. Mormon Tea plant is
used medicinally by practically all southwestern Indians.


STAKE NO. 13.

Little remains of these rooms but piles of rubble. Most of the damage
was done by vandals. Portions of only two walls are standing, but
directly across the canyon from this point you will see a dwelling in an
excellent state of preservation. Originally the walls were covered with
plaster so that none of the masonry was visible. Apparently the balanced
rock on the rim above this room did not frighten the Indian builders.
Rooms built on two separate levels of the cave to the left of this site
gave it the appearance of a two-story dwelling.

    [Illustration: _Woman Cracking Walnuts_]


STAKE NO. 14.

Juniper (_Juniperus scopulorum_). Sometimes erroneously called Cedar.
Bark was used to pad cradles, make sandals and pot rests. Digging sticks
and rakes for farming were also commonly made from this wood. For the
Hopi Indians (among whom the nearest direct descendants of these people
will be found) this plant has many interesting medicinal and ceremonial
uses. The berries are also used as medicine and are eaten sparingly by
almost all kinds of wildlife. The wood is good for fuel.

    _THE TRAIL LEADS UPWARD FROM THIS POINT—PLEASE WATCH YOUR STEP_


STAKE NO. 15.

Fremont Barberry or Hollygrape (_Berberis fremonti_). This plant is
valued by the Hopi for tools of various kinds. Its wood is very strong
and makes excellent arrow shafts, Spindles and battens. It is yellow in
color and it makes a dye. Medicinally it is utilized for healing gums.
It is also good winter browse for deer.


STAKE NO. 16.

Arizona Walnut (_Juglans major_). The species after which the Monument
was named. The small, thick shelled nuts are eaten by Indians of New
Mexico and probably Arizona. A fairly rare tree in the Southwest. This
tree is directly below you and identified by the SILVER TAG tied to the
branch.

    [Illustration: _Mountain Mahogany_]


STAKE NO. 17.

Mountain Mahogany (_Cercocarpus eximus_). The wood of this plant was
utilized for various implements such as combs and battens for weaving.
Its dry wood makes a very hot fire with little smoke. A decoction of the
roots of this plant when mixed with Juniper ashes and powdered bark of
Alder makes a red dye commonly used for dyeing leather; for example,
moccasin uppers.

    [Illustration: _Looking Up at Museum from Stake No. 18_]

    [Illustration: _Don’t Be a Litterbug!_]


STAKE NO. 18.

You are now about to begin your ascent back to the museum and your car.
We suggest that you rest awhile and enjoy the scenery. Take it easy and
stop for an occasional rest. From this point you can see the museum and
judge the amount of effort you will have to expend.

We sincerely hope that you have enjoyed your visit and hope that you
will COME AGAIN—SOON.



                                GENERAL


Walnut Canyon National Monument takes its name from the Black Walnut
trees found at the bottom of the canyon. It is unusual to find them at
an elevation of nearly 6,700 feet.

The National Monument was established by proclamation of President
Woodrow Wilson on November 30, 1915, to protect the ancient cliff
dwellings of a vanished people. These remains are of great educational,
ethnological, and other scientific interest and it is the purpose of the
National Park Service to preserve them as near as possible in their
original state. Small sections of fallen walls have been repaired and
some of the mud plaster or mortar replaced, but no room is more than 10
per cent repaired.

The cliff dwellings were discovered by pioneers and in 1883 James
Stevenson visited Walnut Canyon for the Smithsonian Institution. For
many years the main road from Flagstaff to Winslow, now Highway 66, ran
within a few rods of Walnut Canyon and brought numerous visitors even in
horse and buggy days. Promiscuous digging in Indian ruins, “pot
hunting,” was then a popular pastime, and the remains of Walnut Canyon
suffered from thoughtless individuals who were seeking relics.

In 1921 Dr. Harold S. Colton, director of the Museum of Northern
Arizona, made a survey of the cliff dwellings in Walnut Canyon and
located 120 sites, which include more than 400 rooms. Perhaps not all
the rooms were occupied at the same time but conservative estimates
place the maximum population at 500 to 600 Indians.



                 WHY THE INDIANS LIVED IN WALNUT CANYON


It is believed that a permanent stream was found in Walnut Canyon when
the Indians built their homes. Walnut Canyon is about 400 feet deep and
the Indians lived about half way down the side. This required a lot of
arduous climbing whenever they went for water, to gather fire wood, to
cultivate the fields, or to meet any of their daily needs.

It appears that the Indians’ choice of a homesite in the canyon was
guided mainly by where they found natural caves, which might explain why
the Indians selected this particular part of the canyon rather than some
spot a few miles up or down the stream. Here, too, the main canyon could
be entered from a side canyon leading in from the north and emerging
practically on the level where most of the cliff dwellings are found.
Perhaps the Indians first chose the caves which received the most
sunlight in winter, because of the warmth that was gained. As the
settlement grew, some families were obliged to live in the less
desirable caves which remained shaded throughout the cold days of
winter.

Not only was there water and natural shelter in Walnut Canyon, but there
was tillable land near the canyon rim where crops would mature without
irrigation. The average annual precipitation is about 20 inches and the
crops seen from Highways 66 and 89 depend upon rainfall. The cliff
dwellers were farmers, as shown by the remains of beans, squash, and the
corn cobs found in their homes. Several varieties of both corn and beans
were produced.



                       CLIFF DWELLERS AS FARMERS


Soil near the canyon’s rim is too shallow and rocky to produce good
crops, but by traveling two or three miles to the north, land could be
found where the soil is deep enough to retain moisture. Here seeds could
be planted with a sharpened stick and tended with a stone hoe. No doubt
the cliff dwellers had summer camps near these fields where dark-eyed
watchers maintained constant vigil to keep away birds and squirrels
seeking to dig up the seeds, and later, the deer, rabbits and other
animals that came to eat the tender plants. What a struggle it must have
been to raise crops without benefit of steel tools, fences,
insecticides, and other advantages now considered necessary.

    [Illustration: Planting with sharpened stick]

The Indians farmed at the upper limit of elevations where corn, beans,
and squash may be expected to mature, because of the short growing
season, which is usually not more than 115 days. Since they had no
Weather Bureau, they may have observed the vegetation like certain
eastern Indians who watched the oaks until the first leaves were as
large as a Red Squirrel’s foot, when they knew it was time to plant
their corn. However, there must have been unseasonal frosts such as
occurred on August 15, 1949, when present day farmers in this vicinity
found their crops severely damaged or completely ruined. Then is when
the Indians needed a reserve supply of seed for next year’s planting.

Sunflower seeds were also found in the dwellings, but whether these were
cultivated or gathered from wild varieties still abundant in this
vicinity is not known.

An understanding of the cliff dweller’s farming activities may be
approached by studying the Hopi Indians who live on a reservation about
70 miles north of Winslow, Arizona. Most families have a farm or garden
plot where corn, beans, and squash are still the principal crops. At
Hotevilla some gardens are found on a terraced hillside, each garden
with an embankment around it to retain moisture, and producing a pattern
resembling a waffle when seen from above. Some Hopis travel four or five
miles on foot each day to cultivate their fields and return home with
the setting sun.



                    THE CLIFF DWELLERS AS GATHERERS


Wild fruits which could be gathered by the cliff dwellers include Grapes
and Elderberries, both of which are found in the canyon. There is also a
Wild Potato sometimes found in the canyon bottom. The tubers are small,
seldom as large as small cherries. Perhaps these were eaten with a
seasoning of clay, as is the Hopi custom of today. These Indians are
known to eat a salty clay with the Wild Potato and the berries of
Lycium. This particular clay counteracts the acid which would otherwise
make the foods inedible.

Walnut Canyon produces several annual plants which could be boiled and
eaten as greens. These include Cleome or Bee Weed, Lambs Quarter, and
Mustard.



                     THE CLIFF DWELLERS AS HUNTERS


Among the trash left by these ancient people, archeologists find bones
from Deer, Antelope, Turkey, Rabbits, and various waterfowl. Present day
visitors are often delighted to see Deer or Antelope along the approach
roads to Walnut Canyon and occasionally Turkeys are seen. These are
native Wild Turkeys, which in some parts of Arizona are found in
sufficient numbers to permit a limited hunting season.

Animals considered good food by living Indians include Coyote, Wolf,
Fox, Dog, Wild Cat, Porcupine, Beaver, Badger, Squirrel, Gopher,
Kangaroo Rat and Pack Rat. From the available evidence, it appears that
the prehistoric cliff dwellers ate the same animals.



                         CONSTRUCTION OF A HOME


Once the Indian family had selected a cave, they did very little to
enlarge it. Most of the cliff cavities are rather shallow and extend
back into the cliff no more than 10 to 12 feet. The cliff dwellers
closed these cavities with masonry walls and partitioned off the rooms.
Walls were constructed from rough chunks of limestone gathered wherever
found. Apparently there were no quarries. The stones were laid up to
form a double wall with the straight faces turned to the outside and the
center filled with rubble. Mud was used for both mortar and plaster; in
fact most of the mortar and plaster seen in the cliff dwellings today
were produced by the Indian builders. Because of humus and foreign
matter in the soil there is little suitable material on the canyon
ledges. However, a layer of clay is found about 100 feet above the
stream bed. This, when pulverized and mixed with water, would produce a
satisfactory mortar and plaster.

    [Illustration: (after Colton)
    _Door of a Cliff Dwelling Showing Smoke Hole_]

The rooms vary in size, according to the amount of space available, with
an average of about 170 square feet of floor space. The outer wall was
set back far enough under the ledge so that rain water running down the
cliff would drip outside the wall. The floors were made from hard-packed
clay used in sufficient quantity to produce a fairly level surface. Some
rooms examined in 1948 were found to have as many as 10 thin layers,
none of which exceeded three-eighths of an inch in thickness. Each layer
was separated from the other by accumulations of ash and household
refuse. The impression is gained that it was easier to lay a new floor
than it was to sweep. The back of the cave was sometimes higher than the
front, and often was floored separately to form a slightly raised
platform or bench.

    [Illustration: (after Colton)
    _Section of Cliff Dwelling_]

Little wood was used in the construction of a home, since the cave
shelter had a solid rock roof. There were pole lintels over the doors,
and apparently a few pegs were set into the walls for supporting
garments or other paraphernalia.

Construction tools included stone axes, hammers, and picks. In those
tools that were hafted, a groove was made three-fourths of the way
around the stone to retain a stick bent in the shape of the letter “J”
and lashed to form a handle.



                                COOKING


Firepits were found in most of the dwellings. These were usually
directly in front of the door 4 or 5 feet inside the room. Smoke vents
were placed above the door at the top of the wall against the cave roof.
Not all the smoke found its way out, as can be seen where the walls and
roofs of many rooms are still heavily smoke-blackened. However, there
seems to have been a definite attempt to develop circulation of air by
adjusting the size of the smoke vent and the door opening.

Fires were kindled with a wooden spindle rotated on a hearth-stick until
friction ignited some tinder underneath. The spindle might be made from
Holly Grape, the hearth-stick from Yucca, and the tinder from shredded
Juniper bark.

Clay pots were used for cooking vessels. These were placed directly over
the fire and were able to withstand considerable heat. Some cooking may
have been done over a flat rock (or _comal_) used as a griddle, and
other foods could be broiled over the coals.

There was little opportunity for seasoning food. Salt could be obtained
from the Verde Valley near Montezuma Castle about 75 miles to the south.
No doubt salt was an item of barter which was eagerly sought, and
instead of being found in the daily diet it may have been used almost
like a confection.

    [Illustration: Grinding corn]

For sweetening they may have used Mescal (or Century Plant). Cactus
fruits and dried squash are said to have been used.

A “lemonade” beverage could be made from the berries of Sumac found
occasionally on the Monument.



                      WHO WERE THE CLIFF DWELLERS?


Pueblo Indians are distinguished in the Southwest by a combination of
three culture traits. These are the construction of communal houses, the
practice of agriculture, and the making of pottery. All these traits
were exhibited by the cliff dwellers in Walnut Canyon. Archeologists
designate them as the Sinagua (sih-NAH-wah), and place them into the
broad classification of the Pueblo III period which marked the zenith of
the prehistoric Pueblo culture. There are no kivas in Walnut Canyon. The
masonry is usually not coursed, perhaps because of the rough building
material available.



                   WHY DID THE CLIFF DWELLERS LEAVE?


Several forces which may have worked singly or in combination to
displace the cliff dwellers were drouth, enemy raids, and insanitary
conditions. One of the most probable causes of abandonment was drouth.
The Sinagua may have found it necessary to augment their water supply by
making earthen dams along the lower side of natural pools (particularly
farther down the canyon where it broadens). With only a slight decline
in annual precipitation the stream would fail entirely in early summer
and disrupt the entire community.

    [Illustration: _Walnut Canyon Cliff Dwellers at Work_]

    [Illustration: _Petroglyph cut on the walls of Walnut Canyon, below
    the “Island”_]

A study of the tree rings reveals that a 23-year drouth prevailed in the
Southwest from 1276 to 1299 A.D. It appears that the Walnut Canyon cliff
dwellers were gone before that time, and perhaps they were displaced by
an earlier drouth of less duration.

It is doubtful that the cliff dwellers perished, but rather that their
blood flows in the veins of some of the living Pueblo Indians. The Hopis
are said to have legends which indicate their ancestors once lived in
cliff caves. Hopi Indian visitors sometimes comment on the cliff
dwellings being the homes of their ancestors, and there is some evidence
to support this. Hopi Indians are of the same basic type which inhabited
Walnut Canyon. Studies made on the cliff dwellers’ physical remains
reveal they were a short, stocky people much like the Hopi of today.



                      ARTS, CRAFTS, AND ORNAMENTS


In addition to pottery making, the Indians did some weaving and basket
making. They were acquainted with cotton textiles, and since cotton
would not mature at this elevation, they must have traded for raw cotton
or the finished products. We do not know the full details of what style
clothes these people wore, but we are sure they liked shell beads,
pendants, armlets, paint of several colors, and jet buttons.

Turquoise was possessed by some. The nearest known sources are several
miles distant, where it was mined from solid rock with stone and wooden
tools.

Some shells were imported from points as distant as the Gulf of Lower
California over trade routes that have been well defined.

Petroglyphs are rare in the region, perhaps because of the absence of
flat sandstone on which to work. The rock pictures have been found at
only one spot in the bottom of the canyon and are few.

Some families may have possessed Macaws, since such bones were found in
other prehistoric dwellings not far away. Bones of various Owls were
found in Nalakihu, a ruin near the Citadel in Wupatki National Monument,
but only Hawk bones were found in the Winona ruins near Walnut Canyon.



                            FLORA AND FAUNA


Walnut Canyon National Monument is at the junction of the Pine with the
Pinyon and Juniper belt. Ponderosa Pine trees grow on both sides of the
canyon and have golden brown bark. The shorter trees are Pinyon and
Juniper, four species of which are known to occur on the Monument. There
are scattered clumps of Gambel Oak, and several perennial shrubs of
smaller size. One hundred and sixty plant species have been collected,
identified, and filed in the herbarium. Several varieties of Penstemon
are seen in summer and the Evening Primrose is common.

In addition to the animals mentioned elsewhere, visitors in the warm
months may see two kinds of Squirrels and numerous birds including the
Raven, Turkey Vulture, Stellar Jay, Nuthatch, and others. In summer,
lizards are common and are often found on the outside walls or benches
of the museum where they study visitors with considerable interest.



                       APPROACHES AND FACILITIES


Walnut Canyon is located on a dirt road which forms a loop off Highway
66. From the east the entrance gate is about 4 miles from the paved
road, and from the west about 7.

There are no overnight accommodations or camp ground on the Monument,
but there is a picnic area. Flagstaff, Arizona, where meals and lodging
may be had, is 12 miles from the Monument.

A superintendent and a ranger are in residence on the Monument, and it
is open the year around. However, the season of most desirable weather
extends from April 1 to November 1.



                             PLEASE NOTICE


Many persons visit here each day. If each will preserve the wild
flowers, and protect the ruins from defacement, Walnut Canyon will
remain a lovely place for future visitors to enjoy. For this reason it
is also asked that picnickers leave a dead fire and a clean camp in the
designated picnic area.

Because the wild animals—Birds, Squirrels, Foxes, Turkeys, etc.—become
tame and trusting in this, their protected refuge, domestic pets should
not be allowed to harm them, and must be kept on leash or in cars.

If you smoke, please be very careful while on the trail.

Your suggestions and cooperation will be sincerely appreciated.

  _This National Monument contains 1,642 acres. Most of it is forested
  and at times the fire hazard is extreme. Please help us maintain a
  record of no serious fires, and LET’S KEEP IT CLEAN._

Walnut Canyon National Monument, a unit of the National Park System, is
one of the 25 National Monuments administered by the General
Superintendent, Southwestern National Monuments, National Park Service,
Department of the Interior, Gila Pueblo, Globe, Arizona.

The traveling public is becoming increasingly aware of the National
Monuments, which have received less publicity than the great, well-known
National Parks, yet which possess extremely interesting features.

Many of these are in the Southwest; we hope you will take the
opportunity to visit one or more of them on your trip.

_Administered as a group by the General Superintendent,
Southwestern National Monuments, Gila Pueblo, Globe, Arizona_

  IN COLORADO:
    Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Box 60, Alamosa
  IN UTAH:
    Arches National Monument, Moab
    Natural Bridges National Monument (care of Arches)
    Rainbow Bridge National Monument (care of Navajo)
  IN NEW MEXICO:
    Aztec Ruins National Monument, Aztec
    Bandelier National Monument, Santa Fe
    Capulin Mountain National Monument, Capulin
    Chaco Canyon National Monument, Bloomfield
    El Morro National Monument, El Morro
    Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (care of General Supt.)
    Gran Quivira National Monument, Gran Quivira
    White Sands National Monument, Box 231, Alamogordo
  IN ARIZONA:
    Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Chinle
    Casa Grande National Monument, Coolidge
    Chiricahua National Monument, Dos Cabezas
    Montezuma Castle National Monument, Camp Verde
    Navajo National Monument, Tonalea
    Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Ajo
    Saguaro National Monument, Rt. 8, Box 520, Tucson
    Sunset Crater National Monument (care of Wupatki)
    Tonto National Monument, Roosevelt
    Tumacacori National Monument, Tumacacori
    Tuzigoot National Monument, Clarkdale
    Walnut Canyon National Monument, Rt. 1, Box 790, Flagstaff
    Wupatki National Monument, Tuba Star Route, Flagstaff

_Other areas administered by the National Park Service in the Southwest
follow_:

  IN ARIZONA:
    Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon
    Grand Canyon National Monument, Grand Canyon
    Petrified Forest National Monument, Holbrook
    Pipe Spring National Monument, Moccasin
  IN ARKANSAS:
    Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs
  IN COLORADO:
    Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument (care of Mesa Verde)
    Colorado National Monument, Fruita
    Mesa Verde National Park
  IN NEVADA:
    Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Boulder City
    Lehman Caves National Monument, Baker
  IN NEW MEXICO:
    Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Carlsbad
  IN OKLAHOMA:
    Platt National Park, Sulphur
  IN TEXAS:
    Big Bend National Park
  IN UTAH:
    Bryce Canyon National Park, Springdale
    Capitol Reef National Monument (care of Zion)
    Cedar Breaks National Monument (care of Zion)
    Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Pleasant Grove
    Zion National Monument (care of Zion)
    Zion National Park, Springdale


                    This booklet is published by the
                   SOUTHWESTERN MONUMENTS ASSOCIATION
                 Box 1562 K—Gila Pueblo, Globe, Arizona

   _which is a non-profit distributing organization pledged to aid in
    the preservation and interpretation of Southwestern features of
                    outstanding national interest_.

The Association lists for sale hundreds of interesting and excellent
publications for adults and children and very many color slides on
Southwestern subjects. These make fine gifts for birthdays, parties, and
special occasions, and many prove to be of value to children in their
school work and hobbies.

May we recommend, for instance, the following items which give
additional information on Walnut Canyon National Monument and its
environment?

  ***2×2 INCH KODACHROME DUPLICATES
                                                 50¢ each or 6 for $2.50
                          (order by number and letter)

                      PAUL THOMAS SERIES

  K-10     A. Wupatki Ruins
           B. Wupatki Ruins and Amphitheater
           C. Sink Hole and Citadel Ruin
           D. Lomaki Ruin
           E. Box Canyon Ruin and San Francisco Peaks
           F. Earth Cracks

                          SWMA SERIES

  B-1a     Wupatki from southwest
  B-1b     Wupatki from northwest
  B-1c     Red House in black cinders
  G46      Wupatki from southwest (Lollesgard Slide)
  S-113    Spectacular Wukoki Ruin near Wupatki
  S-114    Citadel Butte and Ruin with Nalakihu Ruin in
           foreground
  S-115    Huge dry sink in the Kaibab Limestone by Citadel
           Ruin
  S-116    Crack-in-Rock Ruin on its sandstone cuesta
  S-117    Elaborate prehistoric petroglyphs on red Moenkopi
           sandstone near Crack-in-Rock Ruin

           WALNUT CANYON NATIONAL MONUMENT, ARIZONA
                          SWMA SLIDES

  S-107    Opposite wall of canyon with dwellings taken from
           “Island” Trail
  S-108    Closeup of dwellings seen on “Island” Trail
  S-109    Water flowing in canyon west side Island (rare
           occurrence: when Lake Mary overflows).

                      KELLY CHODA SLIDES

  AR58v    Walnut Canyon from Ranger Station
  AR59     Ruins under cliffs, Walnut Canyon National
           Monument

  ****3. ARIZONA’S NATIONAL MONUMENTS. King, ed. Comprehensive chapters,
          written by rangers, on the 16 monuments in the state and Grand
          Canyon. Beautifully illustrated, maps, 116 pp.
                                                                   $3.00
  ***45. FLOWERS OF THE SOUTHWEST DESERT. Dodge and Janish. More than
          140 of the most interesting and common desert plants
          beautifully drawn in 100 plates, with descriptive text. 112
          pp., color cover, paper
                                                                   $1.00
  ***60. FLOWERS OF THE SOUTHWEST MESAS. Patraw and Janish. Companion
          volume to the Deserts flower booklet, but covering the plants
          of the plateau country of the Southwest. More than 150 species
          are beautifully illustrated in the 100 plates of line drawings
          by Jeanne R. Janish, with descriptive text. 112 pp., color
          cover, paper
                                                                   $1.00
  ***61. FLOWERS OF THE SOUTHWEST MOUNTAINS. Arnberger and Janish.
          Descriptions and illustrations of plants and trees of the
          southern Rocky Mountains and other Southwestern ranges above
          7,000 feet elevation. 112 pp., color cover, paper
                                                                   $1.00
  ***64. POISONOUS DWELLERS OF THE DESERT. Dodge. Invaluable handbook
          for any person living in the desert. Tells the facts about
          dangerous insects, snakes, etc., giving treatment for bites
          and stings, and dispels myths about harmless creatures
          mistakenly believed poisonous. 48 pp.
                                                                   $0.50
  **131. NALAKIHU. Thorough and concise reports on an interesting pueblo
          in Wupatki National Monument. Technical but has interesting
          summaries and discussions. 183 pp., 81 plates, 17 tables
                                                                   $4.00

For the complete list of almost 100 publications and 1700 color slides
on Southwestern Indians, geology, ruins, plants, animals, history, etc.,
ask the Ranger, or you can obtain one by mail by writing the

    [Illustration: Gambel quail petroglyph]

                   SOUTHWESTERN MONUMENTS ASSOCIATION
                 Box 1562 K—Gila Pueblo, Globe, Arizona



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Silently corrected a few typos.

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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