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Title: London and its Environs Described, v. 5 (of 6) - Containing an Account of whatever is most Remarkable for - Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "London and its Environs Described, v. 5 (of 6) - Containing an Account of whatever is most Remarkable for - Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use" ***

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                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                               DESCRIBED.

                                VOL. V.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                               DESCRIBED.


                               CONTAINING

An Account of whatever is most remarkable for GRANDEUR, ELEGANCE,
CURIOSITY or USE,


                     In the CITY and in the COUNTRY
                         Twenty Miles round it.

                           COMPREHENDING ALSO
        Whatever is most material in the History and Antiquities
                       of this great Metropolis.


Decorated and illustrated with a great Number of Views in Perspective,
engraved from original Drawings, taken on purpose for this Work.


                    Together with a PLAN of LONDON,
                A Map of the ENVIRONS, and several other
                              useful CUTS.


                                VOL. V.


                                LONDON:
              Printed for R. and J. DODSLEY in Pall Mall.

                               ----------

                               M DCC LXI.


------------------------------------------------------------------------


[Illustration:

  _Monument._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                             DESCRIBED, &c.



                                  MON


MONUMENT, a noble fluted column, erected by order of parliament, in
commemoration of the burning and rebuilding of the city, on the east
side of Fish street hill, in a square open to the street.

This stately column, which is of the Doric order, was begun by Sir
Christopher Wren, in the year 1671, and completed by that great
architect in 1677. It much exceeds, in height, the pillars at Rome of
the Emperors Trajan and Antoninus, the stately remains of Roman
grandeur; or that of Theodosius at Constantinople; for the largest of
the Roman columns, which was that of Antoninus, was only 172 feet and a
half in height, and 12 feet 3 inches, English measure, in diameter. But
the diameter of this column at the base, is 15 feet, and consequently it
is 120 feet high; the height of the pedestal is 40, and the cippus or
meta with the urn on the top 42, making 202 feet in the whole. On the
cap of the pedestal, at the angles, are four dragons (the supporters of
the city arms) and between them trophies, with symbols of regality,
arts, sciences, commerce, &c.

Within is a large staircase of black marble, containing 345 steps, 10
inches and a half broad, and 6 inches in thickness, and by these there
is an ascent to the iron balcony (which is the abacus of the column).
Over the capital is an iron balcony, encompassing a cone 32 feet high,
supporting a blazing urn of brass, gilt.

In the place of this urn, which was set up contrary to Sir Christopher’s
opinion, was originally intended a colossal statue, in brass, gilt, of
King Charles II. as founder of the new city, after the manner of the
Roman pillars, which terminated with the statues of their Cæsars; or
else a figure erect of a woman crowned with turrets, holding a sword and
cap of maintenance, with other ensigns of the city’s grandeur and
re-erection.

Prior to this, the same gentleman made a design of a pillar of somewhat
less proportion, viz. 14 feet in diameter, and after a peculiar device:
for as the Romans expressed by _relievo_ on the pedestals, and round the
shafts of their columns, the history of such actions and incidents as
were intended to be thereby commemorated; so this monument of the
conflagration and resurrection of the city of London was represented by
a pillar in flames; the flames, blazing from the loop-holes of the
shaft, intended to give light to the stairs within, were in brass work
gilt, and on the top was a phœnix rising from her ashes, also of brass
gilt. _Parentalia._

The west side of the pedestal is adorned with curious emblems, by the
masterly hand of Mr. Cibber, father to the late Poet Laureat, in which
the eleven principal figures are done in _alto_, and the rest in _basso
relievo_. The principal figure, to which the eye is particularly
directed, is a female, representing the city of London, sitting in a
languishing posture on a heap of ruins: her head droops, her hair is
dishevelled, and her hand, with an air of languor, lies carelessly on
her sword. Behind is Time, gradually raising her up: at her side, a
woman, representing Providence, gently touches her with one hand, while
with a winged scepter in the other, she directs her to regard two
Goddesses in the clouds, one with a cornucopia, denoting Plenty, the
other with a palm branch, the emblem of Peace. At her feet is a
bee-hive, to shew that by industry and application the greatest
misfortunes may be overcome. Behind Time, are citizens exulting at his
endeavours to restore her; and, beneath, in the midst of the ruins, is a
dragon, the supporter of the city arms, who endeavours to preserve them
with his paw. Still farther, at the north end, is a view of the city in
flames; the inhabitants in consternation, with their arms extended
upward, and crying out for succour.

On the other side, on an elevated pavement, stands King Charles II. in a
Roman habit, with his temples incircled by a wreath of laurel, and
approaching the figure representing the city, with a truncheon in his
hand, seems to command three of his attendants to descend to her relief:
the first represents the Sciences, with wings on her head, and a circle
of naked boys dancing upon it, holding in her hand Nature, with her
numerous breasts ready to give assistance to all: the second is,
Architecture, with a plan in one hand, and a square and pair of
compasses in the other: and the third is, Liberty, waving a hat in the
air, shewing her joy at the pleasing prospect of the city’s speedy
recovery. Behind the King, stands his brother the Duke of York, with a
garland in one hand to crown the rising city, and a sword in the other
for her defence. Behind him are Justice and Fortitude, the former with a
coronet, and the latter with a reined lion. In the pavement, under the
Sovereign’s feet, appears Envy peeping from her cell, and gnawing a
heart; and in the upper part of the back ground the re-construction of
the city is represented by scaffolds, erected by the sides of unfinished
houses, with builders and labourers at work upon them.

The other sides of the pedestal have, each, a Latin inscription. That on
the north side may be thus rendered.

    ‘In the year of Christ 1666, the second day of September,
    eastward from hence, at the distance of 202 feet, (the height of
    this column) about midnight, a most terrible fire broke out,
    which, driven by a high wind, not only laid waste the adjacent
    parts, but also places very remote, with incredible noise and
    fury: it consumed 89 churches, the city gates, Guildhall, many
    public structures, hospitals, schools, libraries, a vast number
    of stately edifices, 13,200 dwelling houses, 400 streets: of
    twenty-six wards it utterly destroyed fifteen, and left eight
    others shattered and half burnt. The ruins of the city were 436
    acres, from the Tower by the Thames side to the Temple church,
    and from the north east, along the city wall, to Holborn bridge.
    To the estates and fortunes of the citizens it was merciless,
    but to their lives very favourable. That it might, in all
    things, resemble the last conflagration of the world, the
    destruction was sudden; for in a small space of time, the same
    city was seen most flourishing, and reduced to nothing. Three
    days after, when this fatal fire had, in the opinion of all,
    baffled all human counsels and endeavours, it stopped, as it
    were, by a command from heaven, and was on every side
    extinguished.’

The inscription on the south side is translated thus:

    ‘Charles the Second, son of Charles the Martyr, King of Great
    Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, a most
    gracious Prince, commiserating the deplorable state of things,
    whilst the ruins were yet smoaking, provided for the comfort of
    his citizens, and ornament of his city, remitted their taxes,
    and referred the petition of the magistrates and inhabitants to
    parliament; who immediately passed an act, that public works
    should be restored to greater beauty, with public money, to be
    raised by an impost on coals; that the churches, and the
    cathedral of St. Paul’s, should be rebuilt from their
    foundations, with the utmost magnificence: that bridges, gates,
    and prisons should be new erected, the sewers cleansed, the
    streets made straight and regular, such as were steep levelled,
    and those too narrow to be made wider. Markets and shambles
    removed to separate places. They also enabled, that every house
    should be built with party walls, and all in front raised of
    equal height; that those walls should be of square stone or
    brick; and that no man should delay building beyond the space of
    seven years. Moreover, care was taken by law to prevent all
    suits about their bounds. Anniversary prayers were also
    enjoined; and to perpetuate the memory thereof to posterity,
    they caused this column to be erected. The work was carried on
    with diligence, and London is restored; but whether with greater
    speed or beauty, may be made a question. In three years time the
    world saw that finished, which was supposed to be the work of an
    age.’

The inscription on the east side contains the names of the Lord Mayors
from the time of its being begun, till its being compleated; and round
the upper part of the pedestal is the following inscription in English.

    ‘This pillar was set up in perpetual remembrance of the most
    dreadful burning of this protestant city, begun and carried on
    by the treachery and malice of the popish faction in the
    beginning of September, in the year of our Lord 1666, in order
    to the carrying on their horrid plot for extirpating the
    protestant religion, and Old English Liberty, and introducing
    popery and slavery.’

This inscription, upon the Duke of York’s accession to the crown, was
immediately erased; but soon after the revolution it was restored again.

This monument, says the author of _The Review of our public buildings_,
“is undoubtedly the noblest modern column in the world; nay, in some
respects, it may justly vie with those celebrated ones of antiquity,
which are consecrated to the names of Trajan and Antonine. Nothing can
be more bold and surprizing, nothing more beautiful and harmonious: the
bas relief at the base, allowing for some few defects, is finely
imagined, and executed as well: and nothing material can be cavilled
with but the inscriptions round about it.” These, however, Sir
Christopher Wren had prepared in a more elegant and masculine style, as
appears by the _Parentalia_; but he was over-ruled.

MONUMENT _yard_, New Fish street hill, so called from the Monument placed
in it.

MOOR _court_, 1. Fore street, Cripplegate, so called from its vicinity to
Moorfields. 2. Miles lane, near Crooked lane.

MOORFIELDS, a large piece of ground to the north of London wall, lying
between the east end of Fore street, and the west end of New Broad
street, and extending as far as Hoxton. These fields originally took
their name from their being one continued marsh or moor; so that Roger
Achiley, Lord Mayor, in 1521, caused the ground to be levelled, and
bridges and causeways to be erected over these fields, in order to
render them passable: but since that time the ground has been raised and
drained, and the whole encompassed with houses.

Moorfields being a very extensive piece of ground, is now divided into
Lower Moorfields, Middle Moorfields, and Upper Moorfields. The first of
these divisions has the hospital of Bethlem, a noble building, extending
along the whole south side: and here the fields are divided into four
different squares, by very strong, but clumsey, wooden rails, each
containing a large grass plat, surrounded on each side by a row of
trees. Between these squares, which are generally denominated the
quarters, are gravel walks; and one extending from east to west, with a
row of trees on each side, forming a tolerable vista, is usually
denominated the City Mall; a great concourse of well-dressed citizens of
both sexes walking there, particularly every Sunday noon in fine
weather, and on evenings.

The east side of this part of Moorfields is taken up by shops, where old
books are sold at the south east corner, and second-hand goods of all
sorts along that side.

The rest of Moorfields, containing the two other divisions, still lie
waste, though they might be converted into gardens or public walks, and
thus be rendered one of the principal ornaments of this metropolis.

MOORGATE, situated near the north end of Coleman street, and 1664 feet to
the west of Bishopsgate, was first erected in the year 1415, and
received its name from its opening into Moorfields.

The present edifice, which is one of the most magnificent gates of the
city, was erected in the year 1674, and consists of a lofty arch, and
two posterns for foot passengers. The arch is built higher than the
common rules of proportion, for the sake of the city trained bands
marching through it with their pikes erected; a weapon now laid aside.
Others, however, are of opinion, that its height was intended for the
better convenience of bringing carts or waggons loaded with hay into the
city, it having been intended to make a market for hay in Little
Moorfields; a design which did not take effect. The upper part is
ornamented with Corinthian pilasters, supporting their proper
entablature, and with a round pediment, in which is the city arms. The
apartments over the gate are appropriated to the use of one of the Lord
Mayor’s carvers.

MOOR’S _alley_, 1. King’s street, Westminster.† 2. Norton Falgate, near
Shoreditch.†

MOOR PARK, near Rickmansworth in Hertfordshire, is at present the seat of
Lord Anson. The park is not large, but is very beautiful, whether we
consider it within itself or with regard to the fine and extensive
prospects from it. The house was originally built by Cardinal Wolsey,
and, passing through many hands, was afterwards in possession of the
Duke of Monmouth. Then it came into the hands of Mr. Stiles, who
enlarged, repaired, and beautified it, under the direction of Sir James
Thornhill. It stands on a hill, not quite on the summit. It is of stone
of the Corinthian order; and, if not in the highest stile of
architecture, is yet very noble. The south, or principal front, has a
portico and pediment of four columns. The offices are joined to the
house by a beautiful circular colonade of the Ionic order, which
terminates very elegantly with domes on each side their entrance. One
cannot help wishing the house on the top of the hill, or that part of
the hill were removed, for you can’t now see the principal front till
you are upon it. Even in the view given in the print, part of one of the
wings is hid by the rising ground.

MOOR _street_, Hog lane, Soho.†

MOOR _yard_, 1. Fashion street, Spitalfields.† 2. St. Martin’s lane,
Charing Cross.† 3. Old Fish street.†

MORAVIANS, a set of dissenters lately established in England. They have
the following places of worship. 1. Lindsey House, Chelsea. 2.
Monastery, Hatton Garden. 3. Nevill’s alley, Fetter lane.

MORDEN COLLEGE, on the east side of Blackheath, for the support of poor
decayed and honest merchants, was erected by Sir John Morden, Bart. a
Turky merchant, several years before his death, which happened in the
year 1708. It consists of a large brick building, with two small wings,
strengthened at the corners with stone rustic. The principal entrance,
which is in the center, is decorated with Doric columns, festoons, and a
pediment on the top, over which rises a turret, with a dial; and from
the dome, which is supported by scrolls, rises a ball and fane. To this
entrance there is an ascent by a flight of circular steps; and having
ascended them, and passed through this part of the building, we enter an
inner square, surrounded with piazzas. The chapel is neatly wainscoted,
and has a costly altar-piece.

This structure Sir John erected at a small distance from his own
habitation, in a place called Great Stone Field, and endowed it, after
his Lady’s decease, with his whole real, copyhold, and personal estate,
to the value of about 1300_l._ _per annum_.

The founder of this noble charity placed in this hospital twelve decayed
Turky merchants in his life time; but after his decease, the Lady
Morden, finding that the share allotted her by Sir John’s last will was
insufficient for her decent support, some parts of the estate not
answering so well as was expected, she was obliged to reduce the number
to four.

But upon her death the whole estate coming to the college, the number
was increased, and there are at this time thirty-five poor gentlemen;
and, the number not being limited, it is to be increased as the estate
will afford; for the building will conveniently hold forty.

The Treasurer, who receives the rents and revenues, and keeps the books
of the accounts and disbursements of the college, has 40_l._ a year; and
the Chaplain, who reads prayers twice a day, and preaches twice every
Sunday, had at first a salary of 30_l._ _per annum_, which the Lady
Morden doubled at her death. She was, in other respects, a benefactress
of the college, and, as she put up her husband’s statue in a niche, over
the gate, the trustees put up her’s in another niche, adjoining to that
of her husband. The pensioners have each 20_l._ a year, and at first
wore gowns, with the founder’s badge; but this badge has not been worn
for some years. They have a common table in the hall to eat and drink
together at meals; and each has a convenient apartment, with a cellar.

The Treasurer, Chaplain, and Pensioners, are obliged to reside in the
college; and, except in case of sickness, no other persons are to
reside, live, or lodge there; but no person can be admitted as a
pensioner, who cannot bring a certificate to prove his being upwards of
sixty years of age.

Seven Turky merchants have the direction of this hospital, and the
nomination of the persons to be admitted into it; to them the Treasurer
is accountable; and whenever any of these die, the surviving trustees
chuse others in their room. _Stow’s Survey._ _Tour through Great
Britain._

MORGAN’S _alley_, Greenwalk, Southwark.†

MORGAN’S _ground_, Chelsea.†

MORGAN’S _lane_, 1. Old Horselydown lane.† 2. St. Olave street, Tooley
street.†

MORGAN’S _rents_, Greenwalk, Southwark.†

MORGAN’S _yard_, by Morgan’s rents.†

MORRELL’S _Almshouse_, near the Nag’s head in Hackney road, was erected by
the Goldsmiths company, in the year 1705, pursuant to the will of Mr.
Richard Morrel, for the reception of six poor members of that company,
each of whom has two neat rooms, 2_s._ per week, half a chaldron of
coals, a quarter of a hundred of faggots, and a gown every year.
_Maitland._

MORRICE’S _Almshouse_, in the Old Jewry, was erected by the company of
Armourers, in the year 1551, pursuant to the will of the Lady Elizabeth
Morrice, for the reception of nine poor widows, who, according to the
discretion of the company, are allowed from six to twenty shillings per
quarter, and nine bushels of coals each yearly. _Maitland._

MORRISON’S _court_, New lane, Shad Thames.†

MORRIS’S _alley_, New lane, Shad Thames.†

MORRIS’S _causeway stairs_, Southwark, opposite Somerset House.†

MORRIS’S _wharf_, near Thames street.†

MORSE’S _alley_, Marshal street, Southwark.†

MORTAR _alley_, Shoreditch.

MORTIMER _street_, Cavendish square.

MORTIMER _yard_, Tower Hill.†

MORTLACK, in Surry, is situated on the Thames, between Putney and
Richmond, about one mile west of Barnes. Here are two charity schools,
and a famous manufacture for weaving tapestry hangings.

MOSES _alley_, 1. Willow street, Bank side, Southwark.* 2. Smock alley,
Spitalfields.*

MOSES AND AARON _alley_, Whitechapel.*

MOSES _court_, Nightingale lane.* 2. Moses alley, Willow street.*

MOSLEY’S _court_, Philpot lane.†

MOULDMAKERS _row_, St. Martin’s le Grand.

MOULSEY, two towns, thus denominated from the river Mole, which runs
between them into the Thames; _East Moulsey_ is situated opposite to
Hampton Court, and was granted by King Charles II. to Sir James Clarke,
grandfather to the present lord of the manor, who had the ferry from
thence to Hampton Court, in the room of which he has lately erected a
handsome bridge, where a very high toll is taken of all passengers,
carriages, &c.

_West Moulsey_ is situated about a mile and a half west from Kingston, and
here is a ferry to Hampton town, which likewise belongs to the same
gentleman.

MOUNT _court_, Gravel lane, Houndsditch.

MOUNTFORD’S _court_, Fenchurch street.

MOUNTMILL, at the upper end of Goswell street. Here was situated one of
the forts erected by order of parliament in the year 1643; but that
becoming useless at the end of the civil war, a windmill was erected
upon it, from which it received its present name, which is also given to
the street.

MOUNT _passage_, Mount street, near Grosvenor square.

MOUNT PLEASANT, Little Gray’s Inn lane.

MOUNT _row_, David street, Grosvenor square.

MOUNT _street_, By Mount row.

MOURNING _lane_, Hackney.

MOUSE _alley_, East Smithfield.

MUDD’S _court_, Broad street, Ratcliff.†

MULBERRY _court_, 1. Bermondsey.‡ 2. White’s alley.‡

MULLIN’S _rents_, Shoe lane.†

MUMFORD’S _court_. Milk street.†

MUSCOVY _court_, Tower hill.

MUSEUM. See the article BRITISH MUSEUM.

MUSICIANS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King James
I. in the year 1604.

They are governed by a Master, two Wardens, and twenty Assistants, and
have a livery of thirty-one members, who on their admission pay a fine
of 40_s._ but have no hall.

MUSICK HOUSE _court_, Upper Shadwell.

MUSICK HOUSE _yard_, Upper Shadwell.

MUSTARD _alley_, Castle alley.

MUSWELL HILL, in Middlesex, on the east side of Highgate, took its name
from a spring or well on the hill, by a house built by Alderman Roe,
which afterwards came to the present Earl of Bath. By this well, which
was esteemed holy, was a chapel with an image of our Lady of Muswell, to
which great numbers went in pilgrimage. Both the manor and chapel were
sold in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to Mr. William Roe, in whose
family they continued, till Sir Thomas Roe, the Ambassador, sold them in
the last century. Some time ago the manor house was converted into a
place of public entertainment.

MUTTON _court_, Maiden lane, Wood street, Cheapside.

MUTTON _lane_, Clerkenwell.

MY LADY’S _yard_, Harrow alley, Whitechapel.


[Illustration]



                                   N.


NAG’S HEAD _alley_, 1. Bridge yard passage.* 2. Fenchurch street.* 3. St.
Margaret’s hill, Southwark.* 4. In the Minories.*

NAG’S HEAD _buildings_, Hackney road.*

NAG’S HEAD _court_, 1. Golden lane, Redcross street.* 2. Gracechurch
street.* 3. Great Tower hill.* 4. Leather lane, Holborn. 5. Snow hill.*
6. Three Colt street.* 7. Wentworth street.*

NAG’S HEAD _yard_, 1. Golden lane.* 2. Great Swallow street.* 3. Norton
Falgate.*

NAILER’S _yard_, 1. Queen street, in the Mint, Southwark. 2. Silver
street, Golden square.

NAKED BOY _alley_, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. Piccadilly.*

NAKED BOY _court_, 1. Little Elbow lane, Great Elbow lane, Thames street.*
2. Ludgate hill.* 3. In the Strand.

NAKED BOY _yard_, 1. Back street, Lambeth.* 2. Deadman’s Place.*

NAN’S _hole_ or _yard_, Angel street, St. Martin’s le Grand.‖

NARROW _alley_, Stony lane.

NARROW _street_, 1. Limehouse. 2. Ratcliff.

NARROW _wall_, Lambeth.

NASING, a village in Essex, between Epping and Harlow.

NASSAU _street_, Gerrard street, by Prince’s street, Soho; probably thus
named in honour of King William III.

NAVESTOCK, a village near Brentwood in Essex.

NAVY OFFICE, in Crutched Friars. Here all affairs relating to the royal
navy are managed by the Commissioners under the Lords of the Admiralty.
It is a very plain building, that by its appearance gives us no idea of
its importance; but it must be allowed the merit of being extremely
convenient. The office where the Commissioners meet, and the clerks keep
their books, is detached from the rest, as a precaution against
accidents by fire, the papers here being of the utmost importance; and
in the other buildings some of the Commissioners and other officers
reside.

The Treasurer of the navy is an officer of prodigious trust, as he
receives and pays all sums for the use of the navy: his salary is
therefore 2000_l._ _per annum_, and 800_l._ for his instruments.

The seven Commissioners have all their different departments in the
management of the business of this office; and each has a salary of
500_l._ a year.

One is Comptroller of the navy: he attends and comptrols all payments of
wages; is obliged to know the market price of all stores belonging to
shipping, and to examine and audit all the treasurers, victuallers, and
storekeepers accounts. This Commissioner has two clerks who have 100_l._
a year each: one of 60_l._ a year, and nine of 50_l._ each. Besides in
his office for seamen’s wages he has a chief clerk who has 200_l._ a
year, and also nine others of 50_l._ each.

Two others are Joint-surveyors of the navy, and besides the salary of
500_l._ a year each, one of them has 80_l._ _per annum_ for house rent.
They are in general to know the state of all stores, and to see the
wants supplied; to survey the hulls, masts, and yards, and to estimate
the value of repairs by indenture; to charge all boatswains and
carpenters of the navy with what stores they have received; and at the
end of each voyage to state and audit their accounts. They have a chief
clerk, who has 100_l._ a year, and six others of 50_l._

The fourth is Clerk of the acts. It is his office to record all orders,
contracts, bills, warrants, and other business transacted by the
principal officers and commissioners of the navy. He has an assistant,
who has a salary of 300_l._ a year, and 50_l._ for house rent; a chief
clerk, who has 100_l._ a year; another has 70_l._ another 60_l._ and
nine others have 50_l._ _per annum_ each.

The fifth is Comptroller of the Treasurer’s accounts, and has a clerk of
100_l._ a year; another of 60_l._ another of 50_l._ and another of
40_l._ a year. The ticket office is under his inspection, and there he
has two chief clerks of 200_l._ a year each; another of 80_l._ six of
50_l._ a year each, and one of 40_l._ In this office there are also six
extra clerks who have 50_l._ a year each, and one who has 2_s._ 6_d._ a
day.

The sixth is the Comptroller of the victualling accounts, who has a
clerk of 100_l._ a year; one of 50_l._ and one of 40_l._ _per annum_.

The seventh is Comptroller of the store-keeper’s accounts, who has also
a chief clerk, that has a salary of 100_l._ a year; six clerks of 50_l._
a year each; and another of 40_l._ _per annum_.

Besides these there are three Extra Commissioners of the navy, who have
500_l._ a year, and 80_l._ each for house rent; and under these are
several clerks, and other officers.

There is also a Commissioner residing at Gibraltar, who has 1000_l._ a
year, and several officers who have considerable salaries under him: a
Commissioner resident at Chatham yard, at Portsmouth yard, and at
Plymouth yard, who have 500_l._ a year each; but Deptford and Woolwich
yards are under the immediate inspection of the navy board; as Sheerness
yard is under the inspection of the Commissioner at Chatham.

The number of these Officers and Commissioners have been increased on
account of the exigence of affairs; but the principal of them hold their
offices by patent under the great seal.

NEAL’S _yard_, Great St. Andrew street, Seven Dials.†

NEAT HOUSE _lane_, Upper Millbank.

NEAT HOUSES, Near Chelsea Bridge.

NECKINGER _lane_, Rotherhith wall.

NECKINGER _road_, Neckinger lane.

NEEDLEMAKERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Oliver
Cromwell, in 1656, consisting of a Master, two Wardens, eighteen
Assistants, and forty-eight Liverymen, who upon their admission pay a
fine of 3_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ but having no hall they transact their
business in Guildhall.

It is remarkable that by an act of Common Council in 1658, it was
ordered that every needlemaker free of the city, of whatever company
they be, should from thenceforward be subject to the search and survey
of this company; that no needlemaker of any other company should bind an
apprentice to himself, till he had first bound him to the Master or one
of the Wardens or Assistants of the Needlemakers company, who should
turn over such an apprentice to him, before the Chamberlain of London,
in order that all such apprentices might be made free of the
Needlemakers company; and that any such master, not being free of that
company, who should take an apprentice in any other manner, should
forfeit the sum of 20_l._

NELL’S _wharf_, St. Catharine’s.

NELMES, a village in Essex, on the east side of Rumford.

NELSON’S _court_, 1. Drury lane.† 2. Rosemary lane, Tower hill.†

NEPTUNE _street_, Wellclose square.

NETHERHALL, a village in Essex, on the north side of Chipping Ongar.

NETHERHALL, a village in Essex, near Great and Little Parndon, and at the
conflux of the Lee and the Stort.

NETTLETON’S _court_, Aldersgate street.†

NETTLEWELL, a village on the south west side of Harlow.

NEVILL’S _alley_, Fetter lane.†

NEVILL’S _yard_, Church street, Lambeth.†

NEVIS _court_, Near the Upper Ground, Southwark.†

NEW _alley_, In Hoxton.

NEW BEDFORD _court_, Eagle court, Strand.

NEW BELTON _street_, Long Acre.

NEW BLACK RAVEN _court_, Near Chiswell street, Moorfields.*

NEW BOND _street_, a street which consists of handsome new buildings, near
Oxford street.

NEW BOSVILE _court_, Carey street, Lincoln’s Inn Fields.†

NEW BROAD _street_, 1. A handsome street inhabited by merchants and other
gentlemen; extending from the end of Broad street to Moorfields. 2.
Marshal street, Carnaby street.

NEW BUILDINGS, 1. Coleman street. 2. Dunning’s alley, Bishopsgate street
without. 3. Feathers alley, in the Maze, Southwark.

NEW BURLINGTON _street_, Swallow street.

NEWBURY’S _Almshouse_, on the north side of Mile-end green, also called
the Skinners Almshouses, was erected by that company in the year 1688,
pursuant to the will of Lewis Newbury, for twelve poor widows of the
Skinners company, who have an allowance of 5_l._ 10_s._ a year, and half
a chaldron of coals each.

NEWCASTLE _court_, 1. Butcher Row, by Temple Bar. 2. Newcastle street, by
Chick lane.

NEWCASTLE _street_, 1. Chick lane, Smithfield. 2. From Seacoal lane to
Fleet market. 3. Whitechapel.

NEW COCK _lane_, 1. Brick lane, Spitalfields.* 2. Swan fields,
Shoreditch.*

NEW _court_, 1. Angel alley. 2. Blackman street, Southwark. 3. Bow lane,
Cheapside. 4. Bowling alley, Dean’s yard, Westminster. 5. Brown’s
street. 6. Canon row, Westminster. 7. Carey street, Lincoln’s Inn
Fields. 8. St. Catharine’s court, near the Tower. 9. Fore street,
Cripplegate. 10. George yard, Whitechapel. 11. Goswell street,
Aldersgate street. 12. New Gravel lane, Shadwell. 13. Old Gravel lane,
Ratcliff Highway. 14. Great St. Anne’s lane, by Orchard street,
Westminster. 15. Hand alley. 16. Harrow alley, Petticoat lane. 17. Hart
street, Crutched Friars. 18. High Holborn. 19. Hog lane. 20. Kent
street. 21. Knightsbridge. 22. Lamb alley. 23. Little Broad street. 24.
Little Newport street. 25. St. Margaret’s hill. 26. Middle Temple. 27.
Moor lane. 28. Narrow street, Ratcliff. 29. Newington Butts. 30. New
street. 31. Nightingale lane. 32. Peter street, Westminster. 33.
Petticoat lane, Whitechapel. 34. Pig street, Threadneedle street. 35.
Quaker street, Spitalfields. 36. Rosemary lane, Tower hill. 37. St.
Swithin’s lane, Canon street. 38. Throgmorton street. 39. Wentworth
street. 40. White Horse yard. 41. White street. 42. York street.

NEW CRANE, Wapping Wall.

NEW CRANE _stairs_, Wapping.

NEW FISH _street_, By Great Eastcheap.

NEW FISH STREET _hill_, New Fish street.

NEWGATE, is situated 1037 feet south west from Aldersgate, and is thought
by most Antiquarians, to be so denominated from its being first erected
in the reign of Henry I. several ages after the four original gates of
the city: Howel is however of a contrary opinion, and asserts that it
was only repaired in the above reign, and that it was anciently
denominated Chamberlain gate; tho’ it is very extraordinary, that this
gate is not once mentioned before the conquest. But be this as it will,
it appears from ancient records, that it was called Newgate, and was a
common jail for felons taken in the city of London, or the county of
Middlesex, so early as the year 1218; and that so lately as the year
1457, Newgate, and not the Tower, was a prison for the nobility and
great officers of state.

At length Newgate being much damaged by the fire of London in 1666, the
present beautiful structure was erected. The west side is adorned with
three ranges of Tuscan pilasters, with their entablatures, and in the
inter-columniations are four niches, in one of which is a figure
representing Liberty; the word _Libertas_ is inscribed on her cap, and
at her feet lies a cat, in allusion to Sir Richard Whittington, a
benefactor to the prison, who is said to have made the first step to his
good fortune by a cat.

The inside of the gate is also adorned with a range of pilasters, with
their entablatures, and in three niches are the figures of Justice,
Mercy and Truth.

The author of _The Review_ observes,

    “That Newgate considered as a prison, is a structure of more
    cost and beauty than was necessary, because the sumptuousness of
    the outside but aggravates the misery of the wretches within:
    but as a gate to such a city as London, it might have received
    considerable additions both of design and execution, and
    abundantly answered the cost in the reputation of building. The
    gate of a city erected rather for ornament than use, ought to be
    in the style of the ancient triumphal arches; and it must be
    allowed, that hardly any kind of building, admits of more beauty
    or perfection.”

If Newgate be considered as a prison, it is indeed a very dismal one. It
is the county jail for Middlesex, both for debtors and malefactors, as
well as the city prison for criminals. The debtor rendered unfortunate
by the vicissitudes of trade, or unforeseen losses, has the reproach of
being confined in the same prison with the greatest villains; and too
often his being in Newgate is imputed by the ignorant to crimes which he
abhors. On the other hand, those confined as criminals, are, even before
they are found guilty by the laws of their country, packed so close
together, that the air being corrupted by their stench and nastiness,
occasions a dismal contagious disease, called the Jail distemper, which
has frequently carried off great numbers, and even spread its contagion
to the Court of Justice, where they take their trials. But to prevent
these dreadful effects the city has introduced a ventilator on the top
of Newgate, to expel the foul air, and make way for the admission of
such as is fresh; and during the sessions herbs are also strewed in the
Justice Hall, and the passages to it, to prevent infection.

In this prison there are however commodious and airy apartments for the
use of such as are able to pay for them; and the advantage of a private
passage behind the houses to Justice Hall in the Old Bailey, where they
are in no danger of being rescued, while going to, or coming back from
their trials. It is to be wished that this prison was made still more
commodious; that the little cells of the malefactors were enlarged and
rendered more airy, and that the proposal so often talked of, of
building another prison for the debtors, was carried into execution.

NEWGATE MARKET, before the dreadful fire of London, was kept in Newgate
street, where there was a market house for meal, and a middle row of
sheds, which Maitland says, were afterwards converted into houses,
inhabited by butchers, tripesellers, &c. while the country people, who
brought provisions to the city, were forced to stand with their stalls
in the open street, where their persons and goods were exposed to danger
by the passage of coaches, carts, and cattle that passed through the
streets. This must be allowed to have been a very inconvenient market,
and the houses or sheds in the middle of the street, must almost have
choaked up the passage, or at least have rendered it liable to frequent
obstructions. At that time Butcher hall lane was filled with slaughter
houses for the use of this market, and Blowbladder street was rendered
remarkable by blown bladders hanging in the windows of the shops, where
bladders were sold.

After the fire of London, which afforded an opportunity of rendering the
new streets more commodious than the old ones had been, it was ordered
by act of parliament that Newgate market should be removed from the
street, and a square was formed on the south side for that purpose,
surrounded by decent houses. This square is 194 feet long from east to
west, and 148 feet broad from north to south. In the middle is a market
house, under which are vaults or cellars, and the upper part of the
building is employed as a kind of warehouse for the fruiterers, and the
keepers of green stalls by night. In the shops under this building tripe
and other things are sold, and in the middle near the market house are
sold fruit and greens. At a convenient distance are shops for butchers,
the sellers of butter, &c. and the houses beyond these, which extend
along the sides of the market, are also taken up by butchers. It may be
proper to observe with respect to the butter shops, that some of these
contract for the produce of several dairies, and that it is not uncommon
for one of these shops to take 30 or 40_l._ for butter alone, in a
morning, even before eight or nine o’clock. The passages to the market
from Paternoster row and Newgate street, are taken up with poulterers,
bacon shops, fishmongers, and cheesemongers.

NEWGATE _street_, is a street of considerable trade, and extends from
Blowbladder street, to Newgate.

NEW GEORGE _street_, 1. Near Bethnal green. 2. St. John’s street,
Spitalfields.

NEW GRAVEL _lane_, Shadwell. Thus named from the carts loaded with gravel
passing through it to the Thames, where the gravel was employed in
ballasting of ships, before ballasting was taken out of the river. It
obtained the epithet of New, to distinguish it from the Old Gravel lane,
which was used for the same purpose long before.

NEWELL _street_, Berwick street, Old Soho.†

NEW JAIL, in Southwark, a prison lately erected near Bridewell alley, in
the Borough, for felons in the county of Surry.

NEWINGTON BUTTS, a village in Surry, extending from the end of Blackman
street, to Kennington common, is said to receive the name of Butts, from
the exercise of shooting at Butts, much practised, both here and in the
other towns of England, in the reign of King Henry VIII. &c. to fit men
to serve in the regiment of archers. But Mr. Aubrey thinks it received
this name from the Butts of Norfolk, who had an estate here. The Drapers
and Fishmongers company have almshouses here: and Mr. Whatley observes,
that here were planted the first peaches so much esteemed, distinguished
by the name of Newington peaches. The church here, which is dedicated to
St. Mary, is a rectory in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester, and the
profits arising to the Incumbent amount to about 140_l._ _per annum_.
_Maitland._ See STOKE NEWINGTON.

NEWINGTON _causeway row_, Blackman street.

NEWINGTON GREEN, a pleasant village between Islington and Stoke Newington,
chiefly consisting of a handsome square of a considerable extent
surrounded by houses which are in general well built; before each side
is a row of trees, and an extensive grass plat in the middle. It is in
the parish of Stoke Newington; on one side of the ground is a meeting
house. See STOKE NEWINGTON.

NEW INN, contiguous to St. Clement’s Inn, in Wych street, is one of the
Inns of Chancery, and was founded about the year 1485, for the reception
of the students of an Inn of Chancery, at the south east corner of
Seacoal lane.

New Inn is an appendage to the Middle Temple, and is governed by a
Treasurer and twelve Ancients, who, with the other members, are to be in
commons a week every term, or to compound for the same. _Maitland._

NEW INN _court_, Wych street.

NEW INN _passage_, Houghton street, Clare market.

NEW INN _yard_, Holiwell street, Shoreditch.

NEW _lane_, Shad Thames.

NEWMAN’S _court_, 1. In Cornhill.† 2. Farmer’s street, Shadwell.†

NEWMARKET _street_, Wapping.

NEW MARTEN _street_, Near East Smithfield.†

NEW NICOL _street_, Swanfields, Shoreditch.†

NEW NORTH _street_, Theobald’s row, Red Lion street, Holborn.

NEW PACKTHREAD _alley_, Grange road, Bermondsey.

NEW PACKTHREAD _yard_, Westminster.

NEW PALACE _yard_, by Union street, Westminster. When King Richard II.
rebuilt Westminster Hall in the year 1397, that part was called the New
Palace, and being inclosed with a wall, it had four gates, of which that
leading to Westminster stairs is the only one now standing. The three
others that have been demolished were, one on the north, which led to
the Woolstaple; another to the west, a beautiful and stately edifice
called High Gate, at the east end of Union street; and another at the
north end of St. Margaret’s lane. _Maitland._

NEW PARK, in Surry. See RICHMOND.

NEW PARADISE _street_, Rotherhith.

NEW PASSAGE, 1. Bull and Mouth street, St. Martin’s le Grand. 2. Newgate
market.

NEW PETER _street_, Peter street.

NEWPORT _alley_, Newport street, near Newport market.

NEWPORT _court_, Little Newport street, near Long Acre.

NEWPORT MARKET, Litchfield street, a square with shops round it, with a
market house in the middle, in which are shops for butchers, &c.

NEWPORT _street_, Castle street, near Newport market.

NEW PRISON, near the east end of Clerkenwell green, is a house of
correction for the county of Middlesex, in which rogues and vagabonds
are kept to hard labour. It was erected in the year 1615.

NEW PRISON _walk_, a passage leading to the New Prison, Clerkenwell.

NEW PUMP _court_, Moor lane, Cripplegate.

NEW PYE _street_, by Orchard street, Westminster.

NEW QUEEN _street_, Oxford street.

NEW RAG FAIR, Rosemary lane, Little Tower hill.

NEW RENTS, 1. Compter lane, St. Margaret’s hill. 2. St. Martin’s le Grand.

NEW RIVER. Various were the projects in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, and
King James I. for supplying the city of London with a sufficient
quantity of water, for domestic uses: the former granted an act of
parliament, which gave the citizens liberty to cut and convey a river
from any part of Middlesex or Hertfordshire to the city of London,
within the limited time of ten years; and the latter granted another
act, in which they obtained the same power, but without being confined
to any limited time: nobody however began this great and important work,
till at last Sir Hugh Middleton undertook to bring a river from Amwell
in Hertfordshire to the north side of London near Islington.

The work began on the 20th of September 1608, and was attended with
innumerable difficulties. The distance from London is twenty miles, and
he was obliged, in order to avoid the eminences and vallies in the way,
to make it run a course of thirty-eight miles three quarters and sixteen
poles, and to carry it over two vallies in long wooden frames or troughs
lined with lead; that at Buthill, being six hundred and sixty feet in
length, and thirty in height; under which, for the passage of the land
waters is an arch capacious enough to admit under it the largest waggon
laden with hay, or straw: the other near Highbury is four hundred and
sixty-two feet long, and seventeen in height, where it is raised along
the top of high artificial banks, and at the bottom of the hollow
supported by poles, so that any person may walk under it. In short over
and under this river, which sometimes rises thus high, and at others is
conveyed under ground, runs several considerable currents of land
waters, and both above and below it a great number of brooks, rills, and
water courses have their passage.

This river, which is of inestimable benefit to London, was by this truly
great man brought to the city within the space of five years, and was
admitted into the reservoir near Islington on Michaelmas day 1613; on
which day Sir Thomas Middleton, brother to the great Sir Hugh, was
elected Lord Mayor for the ensuing year, who accompanying Sir John
Swinerton, then Lord Mayor, attended by many of the Aldermen, the
Recorder, and other gentlemen, repaired to the bason, now called New
River Head, when about sixty labourers, handsomely dressed, and wearing
green caps, carrying spades, shovels, and pickaxes, marched, preceded by
drums and trumpets, thrice round the bason, when stopping before the
Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and other gentlemen, who were seated upon an
eminence, one of the labourers addressed himself to them in a long copy
of verses, which being ended, the sluices were opened, and the stream
ran plentifully into the reservoir, under the sound of drums and
trumpets, the discharge of several pieces of ordnance, and the loud
acclamations of the people.

Sir Hugh Middleton, to enable himself to complete this grand work, had
at last, after spending his own fortune, been obliged to apply to King
James I. who advancing a sum of money became entitled to a moiety of the
profits; he was also obliged to sell many other shares, and in short,
was in a manner entirely ruined by a project, that has been attended
with unspeakable benefit to this city: since by the water of this river,
a speedy stop has been put to a great number of dreadful fires, and the
health of the city has been remarkably preserved by the cleanliness it
has introduced among us. Yet so little was the great advantages that
might then, and are now derived from this river, at that time
understood, that for above thirty years there were not divided above
5_l._ odd money, to each of the shares, which are seventy-two in number.

This river now draws most of its water from the Lee, which being the
property of the city of London, that corporation, contrary to the
interest of the city in general, opposed a bill brought into parliament
for giving farther powers to the New River company, to take the
advantage that might be obtained by the river Lee: but the opposition
was without effect, and in 1738–9 the bill passed into a law.

The Governors of the New River company then agreed with the proprietors
of the lands on the river Lee for a cut of two cubic feet of water from
that river, at a certain rate; and after the agreement, told them they
would double the price for a four foot cut, which the proprietors agreed
to, not considering the great disproportion between the two cuts; and
this cut of the river Lee now supplies the largest share of the New
River water.

In this river there are forty three sluices, and over it two hundred and
fifteen bridges. On its approaching the reservoir, called New River
Head, there are several small houses erected at a considerable distance
from each other on its banks, into which the water runs and is conveyed
by pipes to the nearer and more easterly parts of this metropolis. On
its entering the above reservoir, it is there ingulphed by fifty-eight
main pipes, each of seven inches bore; and here also an engine worked by
horses, throws a great quantity of water up to another reservoir,
situated on much higher ground, from which the water runs in pipes to
supply the highest ground in the city, and its liberties. Many years ago
30,000 houses were thus supplied by this water, and since that time
several main pipes have been laid to carry it into the liberties of
Westminster.

This corporation consists of a Governor, Deputy Governor, Treasurer, and
twenty-six Directors, these twenty-nine are the proprietors of the first
thirty-six shares: for though the Crown’s moiety is in private hands,
yet they have no share in the management. The above Governor and
Directors keep their office at a coffee-house in Ludgate street where
every Thursday they hold a board for appointing of officers, granting of
leases, and redressing of grievances.

The officers and servants belonging to the company are, a clerk and his
assistant; a surveyor and his deputy; fourteen collectors, who, after
deducting 5_l._ _per cent._ for collecting the company’s rents, pay
their money every Thursday to the treasurer; fourteen walksmen, who have
their several walks along the river, to prevent throwing into it filth,
or infectious matter; sixteen turncocks; twelve paviours; twenty borers
of pipes; besides horse engines for boring of others, together with a
great number of inferior servants and labourers.

NEW ROUND _court_, In the Strand.

NEW _square_, 1. Lincoln’s Inn. 2. In the Minories. 3. New street, St.
Thomas’s, Southwark.

NEW _street_, 1. Bishopsgate street. 2. Cambridge street. 3. Cloth Fair,
Smithfield. 4. Dyot street, St. Giles’s. 5. Horselydown. 6. Fore street,
Lambeth. 7. Fox’s lane, Shadwell. 8. Lower Shadwell. 9. St. Martin’s
lane, Charing Cross. 10. Old street. 11. Queen street, in the Mint. 12.
Shoe lane, Fleet street. 13. Shoemaker row, Black Friars. 14. Spring
Gardens, Charing Cross. 15. St. Thomas’s Southwark. 16. Threadneedle
street. 17. Upper Shadwell.

NEW STREET _hill_, Shoe lane, Fleet street.

NEW STREET _square_, near Shoe lane.

NEW STREET SQUARE _lane_, Shoe lane.

NEW SWAN _yard_, Rag street.

NEW THAMES _street_, Bank side, Southwark.

NEW THAMES STREET _stairs_, Bank side.

NEWTON’S _court_, Vine street.†

NEWTON _street_, High Holborn.†

NEW TOTHILL _street_, Near Westminster Abbey.

NEW TURNSTILE _alley_, Holborn.

NEW TURVILLE _street_, Virginia row, Shoreditch.†

NEW TYLER _street_, Carnaby street.†

NEW _way_, 1. In the Maze, Tooley street. 2. Orchard street.

NEW _well_, Shad Thames, Horselydown.

NEW _yard_, Fenchurch street.

NEW YORK _street_, Skinners street, Shoreditch.

_St._ NICHOLAS ACONS, a church which stood on the west side of Nicholas
lane, in Langbourn ward, owed its name to its dedication to St.
Nicholas, a citizen of Lycia in Asia Minor, who, though only a private
housekeeper, was, from the caprice of the electors, chosen Bishop of
Myræa; for the Bishops and Priests interested in the election not
agreeing about the choice, came to an unanimous resolution that whatever
person should first enter the church the next day, should be elected
Bishop: when Nicholas repairing early next morning, to perform his
devotions, being the first that entered, was chosen Bishop, pursuant to
the above resolution; in which office his deportment was such, as to
procure him a place among the class of saints.

The church being destroyed with most of the other public buildings by
the fire of London, and not rebuilt, the parish was annexed to the
church of St. Edmund the King. _Newc. Repert. Eccles._

_St._ NICHOLAS _alley_, St. Nicholas lane, Lombard street.

_St._ NICHOLAS COLE ABBEY, on the south side of Old Fish street, in
Queenhithe ward, is thus denominated from its dedication to the
above-mentioned saint, but the reason of the additional epithet is not
known, some conjecturing that it is a corruption of Golden Abbey, and
others that it is derived from Cold Abbey, or Coldbey, from its cold or
bleak situation. It is known that there was a church in the same place
before the year 1383: but the last structure being consumed in the great
conflagration in 1666, the present church was built in its place, and
the parish of St. Nicholas Olave united to it.

This edifice consists of a plain body well enlightened by a single range
of windows decently ornamented. It is sixty-three feet long, and
forty-three broad; thirty-six feet high to the roof, and an hundred
thirty-five to the top of the spire. The tower is plain, but
strengthened with rustic at the corners; and the spire, which is of the
massy kind, has a gallery, and many openings.

The advowson of this church, which was anciently in the Dean and Chapter
of St. Martin’s le Grand, is now in the Crown. The Rector, besides his
other profits, receives 130_l._ a year in lieu of tithes. _Maitland._

_St._ NICHOLAS _lane_, extends from Lombard street to Canon street.

_St._ NICHOLAS SHAMBLES, a church formerly situated at the corner of
Butcher hall lane, took its additional epithet from the flesh market,
which before the fire of London extended along Newgate street. This
church with its ornaments was given by King Henry VIII. to the Mayor and
Commonalty of the city, towards the maintenance of the new parish church
then to be erected in the Grey Friars. _Maitland._

NICHOLAS’S ALMSHOUSE, in Monkwell street, was founded in the year 1575, by
Sir Ambrose Nicholas, citizen and salter, for the accommodation of
twelve widows of his company, to each of whom he allowed 1_s._ _per_
week, and twenty-four bushels of coals a year. This charity he committed
in trust to the company of Salters; the house was however destroyed in
the great conflagration in 1666; but was soon after rebuilt, and each
widow allowed two neat rooms and a garret. _Maitland._

NICOLL’S _alley_, Cable street, Rag Fair, Rosemary lane.†

NICOLL’S _court_, 1. Rosemary lane, Little Tower hill.† 2. Sharp’s alley.†

NICOLL’S _street_, Shoreditch.†

NIGHTINGALE _lane_, 1. East Smithfield.† 2. Fore street, Limehouse.†

NIGHTINGALE _turning_, at the Hermitage, Wapping.†

NIPPARD’S _court_, Baldwin’s Gardens.†

NIXON’S _court_, Barnaby street, Southwark.†

NIXON’S _square_, a very mean little square, by Jewin street.†

NOAH’S ARK _alley_, Narrow street, Ratcliff.* Noble street, 1. Foster
lane, Cheapside.† 2. Goswell street, by Aldersgate bars.†

NOEL _street_, Burlington Gardens.†

NONESUCH, in Surry, is situated near Sutton and Epsom, and was formerly
called Cuddington, till a most magnificent palace was erected there, by
Henry VIII. which obtained the name of Nonesuch from its unparallelled
beauty. The learned Hentzner, in his _Itinerarium_, speaking of this
palace, says, that it was chosen for his pleasure and retirement, and
built by him with an excess of magnificence and elegance even to
ostentation: one would imagine every thing that architecture can perform
to have been employed in this one work: there are every where so many
statues that seem to breathe, so many miracles of consummate art, so
many casts that rival even the perfection of Roman antiquity, that it
may well claim and justify its name of Nonesuch.

The palace itself is so encompassed with parks full of deer, delightful
gardens, groves ornamented with trellis work, cabinets of verdure, and
walks so embrowned by trees, that it seems to be a place pitched upon by
Pleasure herself, to dwell in along with Health.

In the pleasure and artificial gardens are many columns and pyramids of
marble, two fountains that spout water one round the other, like a
pyramid, upon which are perched small birds that stream water out of
their bills: in the grove of Diana is a very agreeable fountain, with
Actæon turned into a stag, as he was sprinkled by the goddess and her
nymphs, with inscriptions.

There is besides another pyramid of marble full of concealed pipes,
which spirt upon all who come within their reach.

Such was this palace and gardens when Hentzner wrote, but King Charles
II. gave it to the Duchess of Cleveland, who pulled it down and sold the
materials; wherewith a new house was built by the Earl of Berkley, which
was the seat of the late Earl of Guildford, and is now called Durdans;
and Nonesuch, though it gives the title of Baron to the Duke of
Cleveland, is now only a farm house.

NORFOLK _street_, in the Strand. The bishop of Bath’s palace in the
Strand, was afterwards, says Maitland, the Earl of Arundel’s, whence
Arundel and Norfolk streets had their names.

NORMAN’S _court_, Cable street.†

NORRIS’S _street_, 1. In the Haymarket.† 2. Spitalfields.†

NORRIS’S _wharf_, Millbank, Westminster Horse ferry.

NORRISON’S _court_, near Stangate.†

NORTH AUDLEY _street_, Grosvenor square.

NORTH END, a pleasant village near Hammersmith, where are the handsome
house and finely disposed gardens of the Earl of Tilney, and of the late
Sir John Stanley.

NORTH _court_, South street.

NORTHALL, a village on the north side of Enfield Chace, three miles north
of High Barnet, is said to be corruptly so called from Northaw, or the
North Grove, here being a wood that belonged to the monastery of St.
Alban’s. A noble house was built here in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by
Henry Dudley Earl of Warwick; after whose death it came to several
possessors, and being sold to William Leman, descended to Sir William
Leman his grandson, who has given the rent of the wells to the poor of
the parish. King James I. also gave 40_l._ a year to the town in lieu of
the ground he laid into his park, at Theobald’s out of the common.

NORTH _passage_, Wellclose square.

NORTH PRESCOT _alley_, St. John’s street, Smithfield.

NORTH _row_, North Audley street.

NORTH _street_, 1. Lamb street, Spitalfields. 2. Poplar. 3. Smith Square,
Westminster.

NORTHAMPTON _street_, Wood’s close, St. John street.

NORTHUMBERLAND _alley_, Fenchurch street.

NORTHUMBERLAND _court_, 1. Southampton buildings, Chancery lane. 2. In the
strand.


[Illustration:

  _Northumberland House & Charing Cross._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]


NORTHUMBERLAND HOUSE, derives its name from the title of the ancient and
noble family, in whose possession it has been above 100 years. It is the
town residence of the Right Honourable the Earl and Countess of
Northumberland, and one of the largest and most magnificent houses in
London. It was originally built very early in the reign of James I. by
Henry Howard Earl of Northampton; and it is reasonable to infer from
some letters discovered in the front when it was lately rebuilt, that
one Miles Glover was the architect.

At first it consisted only of three sides of a square; one of which
faced the street near Charing Cross, and the other two extended towards
the Thames. The entrance was then, as it is now, thro’ a spacious arched
gateway for coaches in the middle of the street front; and, what is
remarkable, the principal apartments were in the third or highest story.
During the life of the aforesaid Lord, it was called Northampton House,
after his death it became the property of his near relation the Earl of
Suffolk; in whose time it does not appear to have undergone any change
except in name; for it was thereupon called Suffolk House.

In the reign of Charles I. Algernon Earl Of Northumberland, the Lord
High Admiral of England, married Lord Suffolk’s daughter, and about the
year 1642, became the proprietor of this house; from which time it has
been well known by the name it now bears. To prevent mistakes, we beg
leave to observe, that the Northumberland House, which is often
mentioned in history before this period, stood in Aldersgate ward in the
city, and was formerly, what this house is at present, the town seat of
the Earls of Northumberland. But to return.

When London became more populous, and the buildings about Charing Cross
daily increased, ‘twas found inconvenient to live in the apartments,
which had been built by Lord Northampton; because they were greatly
disturbed by the hurry and noise of passengers and coaches in the
street. To avoid therefore that inconvenience, the aforesaid Earl of
Northumberland compleated the square by building the fourth side; which
being parallel and opposite to that next the street, is placed at a
sufficient distance from the aforesaid disturbances, and almost enjoys
all the advantages of retirement and a country seat. Inigo Jones appears
to have been the architect employed for that purpose, and the front of
the new side, which he built facing the garden, is very grand and
stately, as the reader may see from the perspective view of it, annexed
to this account.

Perhaps it will please some of our readers to be informed, that Lord
Northumberland received General Monk, and had a conference with him and
several of the leading men in the nation in one of these apartments. At
which meeting the King’s restoration was for the first time proposed in
direct terms, as a measure absolutely necessary to the peace of the
kingdom.

In the year 1682, Charles Duke of Somerset married the Lady Elizabeth
Percy, the daughter and heiress of Josceline Earl of Northumberland, and
by that means became possessed of this house. Upon his death it
descended to his son Algernon, by the aforesaid Lady, who succeeded to
the title and a very large estate in 1748. His Grace immediately began
to make alterations in some of the apartments, and to rebuild the front
next the street; but, dying the year after, he did not live sufficient
time to finish either.

The house in that condition, descended to his son-in-law and daughter,
the present Earl and Countess of Northumberland; and it is in a great
measure owing to the improvements, made by them at a very great expence
and in a very fine taste, that Northumberland House is become a building
so complete and stately, as to be generally admired for its elegance and
grandeur.

The street was immediately made wider, and the front next to it
compleated, as it appears in the print prefixed to this description. The
four sides of the court were new faced with Portland stone, and finished
in the Roman stile of architecture, so as to form as it were four
stately fronts. Two new wings were also added, being above 100 feet in
length, and extending from the garden front, towards the Thames. By
means of these additions Northumberland House is more than twice as
large as it was, when first built by Lord Northampton.

The entrance into it is on the side of the court opposite to the great
gateway; the vestibule is about 82 feet long, and more than 12 feet
broad, being properly ornamented with columns of the Doric order. Each
end of it communicates with a stair case, leading to the principal
apartments, which face the garden and the Thames. They consist of
several spacious rooms, fitted up in the most elegant manner. The
ceilings are embellished with copies of antique paintings, or fine
ornaments of stucco, richly gilt. The chimney pieces consist of statuary
and other curious marble, carved and finished in the most correct taste.
The rooms are hung either with beautiful tapestry or the richest
damasks, and magnificently furnished with large glasses, chairs,
settees, marble tables, &c. with frames of the most exquisite
workmanship, and richly gilt. They also contain a great variety of
landscapes, history pieces, and portraits, painted by Titian and the
most eminent masters. In some of the rooms may be seen large chests,
embellished with old genuine japan; which being great rarities, are
almost invaluable.

The company passes thro’ many of these apartments to the left wing,
which forms a state gallery or ball room, admirable in every respect,
whether we consider the dimensions, the taste, and masterly manner in
which it is finished, or the elegant magnificence of the furniture.

It is 106 feet long, the breadth being a fourth part of the length, and
the height equal to the diagonal of the square of the breadth; which
proportions are esteemed to be the most proper for a gallery. The
ceiling is coved and ornamented with figures and festoons richly gilt.
To avoid repetitions, we beg leave once for all to say the same of the
other decorations and frames of the furniture; for there is such a
variety of gilding in the different parts of the gallery, that it would
be endless to mention it in every particular description. But to
proceed, the flat part of the ceiling is divided into five compartments,
ornamented with fine imitations of some antique figures, as, a flying
Fame blowing a trumpet; a Diana; a triumphal car drawn by two horses; a
Flora; and a Victory holding out a laurel wreath. The entablature is
Corinthian, and of most exquisite workmanship. The light is admitted
thro’ nine windows in the side next the garden, being equidistant from
one another, and in the same horizontal direction. Above these is
another row of windows, which, tho’ not visible in the room, are so
artfully placed as to throw a proper quantity of light over the cornice,
so that the highest parts of the room are as much enlightened as the
lowest, and the pictures on the opposite side are free from that
confused glare, which would arise from a less judicious disposition. In
the spaces between the windows, there are tables of antique marble, and
stools covered with crimson damask, placed alternately. The piers are
also ornamented with large square and oval glasses, arranged in the
aforesaid order; the frames of which form a beautiful variety of foliage
to adorn the higher parts quite up to the entablature.

Let us now pass over to the opposite side, which is divided into three
large spaces by two chimney pieces made of statuary marble, with
cornices supported by figures of Phrygian captives, copied from those in
the Capitol at Rome, and executed in a very masterly manner. The
finishing above the chimney pieces consists of terms, sphinxes,
festoons, &c. and within the spaces formed by these ornaments are placed
whole length portraits of the Earl and Countess of Northumberland in
their robes.

That the three grand divisions of this side might be furnished in an
elegant manner, his Lordship employed the most eminent masters to copy
five of the most admired paintings in Italy, which are placed as
follows: in the middle and largest division is Raphael’s celebrated
school of Athens, copied from the original in the Vatican by Raphael
Mengs. In the two other divisions on the right and left hand side of the
former are placed the feast and council of the Gods, which were also
painted by Raphael, and copied by Pompeio Battoni from the originals in
the Little Farnese. The two ends of the gallery are ornamented with the
triumphal procession of Bacchus and Ariadne (originally painted by
Annibal Caracci in the Farnese palace) and Guido’s Aurora. The former
was copied by Felice Costansi, and the latter by Masuccio, a scholar of
Carlo Maratti, from the original in the Villa Rospigliosi. All these
pictures are very large, being exactly of the same dimensions with the
originals, and are copied in a very masterly manner. We heartily wish
his Lordship’s taste in procuring them may incite those, who can afford
it, to follow the example, and purchase copies of such paintings as are
universally admired; for by these means not only private curiosity would
be gratified, but the public taste also greatly improved.

Under the aforesaid pictures are placed large sophas, covered with
crimson damask and richly ornamented. This gallery is lighted up for the
reception of company in the evenings, by means of four glass lustres,
consisting in all of as many branches as will receive 100 large wax
candles, and suspended from the ceiling by long chains, magnificently
gilt. We shall close our imperfect account of this stately gallery, by
wishing that it was in the power of words to describe the fine effects,
which arise from a view of its numberless beauties.

Besides the apartments already mentioned, there are above 140 rooms more
in this house; which, being so numerous, and chiefly appropriated to the
private uses of the family, cannot be particularly described in a work
of this nature; however, we must add, that Lord and Lady
Northumberland’s apartments are very commodious and elegantly furnished;
her Ladyship’s closet is even a repository of curiosities, and, amongst
other valuable things, contains so fine a collection of pictures, as to
afford a most pleasing and almost endless entertainment to a
connoisseur. The two libraries also consist of a great variety of books
on the most useful and curious subjects, collected with judgement.


[Illustration:

  _South View of Northumberland House._
  _S. Wale delin._ _C. Grignion sculp._
]


We have hitherto endeavoured to give some idea of the gradual
improvements, by which Northumberland House acquired its present
grandeur and magnificence; but we cannot take our leave of it without
conducting, as it were, the reader into the garden, where he may enjoy
the quiet and tranquility of the country amidst the noise and
distraction of the town, and contrast the simple beauties of nature,
with the stately productions of art.

It lies between the house and the Thames, and forms a pleasing piece of
scenery before the principal apartments; for it consists of a fine lawn
surrounded with a neat gravel walk, and bounded next the walls by a
border of curious flowers, shrubs and ever-greens. At the end of the
garden beyond the wall, were a few buildings which his Lordship ordered
to be taken down, to open a larger prospect across the Thames to
Southwark, and into the country behind it. And, as the horizon is finely
diversified with hills, which when every thing is compleated, will
appear as it were in the back scene, the view will command a very
beautiful landscape.

NORTHUMBERLAND _place_, Fenchurch street.

NORTHUMBERLAND _street_, a handsome street now building in the Strand, by
Northumberland House, down to the Thames, the houses in Hartshorn alley
being pulled down for that purpose.

NORTON FALGATE, a street which extends from the end of Bishopsgate without
to Shoreditch.

NORWICH _court_, East Smithfield.

NOTTINGHAM _court_, Castle street, Long Acre.

NOTTINGHAM _street_, Plumtree street.

NUN’S _court_, 1. Coleman street. 2. New Gravel lane.

NUTKIN’S _corner_, Rotherhith wall.†

NUTMAKER’S _rents_, New Gravel lane, Shadwell.†


[Illustration]



                                   O.


OAKEY _street_, Thames street.†

OAKEY’S _court_, Hare street, Brick lane, Spitalfields.†

OAKLEY’S _yard_, Town ditch, by Christ’s hospital.†

OAR _street_, Gravel lane, near Falcon stairs.

OAT _lane_, Noble street, Foster lane, Cheapside.


[Illustration:

  _View from the Terrace at Oatland._
  _S. Wale delin._ _F. Vivares sculp._
]


OATLANDS, adjoining to Weybridge in Surry, is the seat of the Earl of
Lincoln. The park is about four miles round. The house is situated about
the middle of the terrace, whose majestic grandeur, and the beautiful
landscape which it commands, words cannot describe, nor the pencil
delineate so as to give an adequate idea of this fine scene.

The serpentine river which you look down upon from the terrace, though
artificial, appears as beautiful as it could do were it natural; and a
stranger who did not know the place would conclude it to be the Thames,
in which opinion he would be confirmed by the view of Walton bridge over
that river, which by a happy contrivance is made to look like a bridge
over it, and closes the prospect that way finely.

OATMEAL _yard_, Barnaby street, Southwark.

OCEAN _street_, Stepney.

OF _alley_, York buildings. See the article YORK _buildings_.

OGDEN’S _court_, Wych street, Drury lane.†

OGLE _street_, Margaret’s street, Cavendish square.†

OGILBY’S _court_, Long ditch.†

OLD ARTILLERY _ground_, Steward street.

_St._ OLAVE’S _Hart street_, situated at the south side of Hart street in
Tower street ward, is thus denominated from its dedication to St. Olave,
or Olaus, King of Norway, who from his strong attachment to the
Christian religion, took part in the disputes with the English and
Danes; for this, together with his supporting Christianity in his own
dominions, and his sufferings on that account, he stands sainted in the
Roman calendar.

A church stood in the same place, dedicated to the same royal patron,
before the year 1319. The present structure is of considerable
antiquity, for it escaped the flames in 1666, and since that time has
had several repairs and additions, among which last is the portico; this
is no small ornament, though it is not well adapted to the edifice. This
portico was added in the year 1674.

This is a mixed building, with respect to its materials, as well as its
form, part being of square stone, part of irregular stone, and part of
brick. The body, which is square, is fifty-four feet in length, and the
same in breadth; the height of the roof is thirty feet, and that of the
steeple sixty. The windows are large and gothic, and every thing plain
except the portico, which is formed of Corinthian pilasters, with an
arched pediment. The tower, which consists of a single stage above the
roof, is also extremely plain, and the turret wherewith it is crowned is
well proportioned.

The patronage of this rectory has all along been in private hands. The
Incumbent, besides several annual donations, and other profits, receives
120_l._ a year in tithes.

Mr. Weaver in his funeral monuments, mentions the following very
whimsical one in this church, for Dame Anne, the wife of Sir John
Ratcliff, Knt. which is to be read both downwards and upwards,

                     Qu    A    D    T        D    P
                     os nguis irus risti ulcedine avit.
                      H   Sa    M   Ch        M    L

Mr. Munday, in his edition of Stow’s survey, mentions another here,
which though of a different kind, appears equally extraordinary.

           As I was, so be ye; as I am, you shall be.
           What I gave, that I have; what I spent, that I had.
           Thus I count all my cost; what I left that I lost.
                  John Organ, obiit An. Dom. 1591.

_St._ OLAVE’S JEWRY, situated on the west side of the Old Jewry, in
Coleman street ward, was anciently denominated St. Olave’s Upwell, from
its dedication to the saint of that name, and probably from a well under
the east end, wherein a pump is now placed; but that gave way to the
name of Jewry, owing to this neighbourhood’s becoming the principal
residence of the Jews in this city.

Here was a parish church so early as the year 1181; the last sacred
edifice was destroyed by the fire of London, and the present finished in
1673. It consists of a well enlightened body, seventy-eight feet in
length, and twenty-four in breadth; the height to the roof is thirty-six
feet, and that of the tower and pinacles eighty-eight. The door is well
proportioned, and of the Doric order, covered with an arched pediment.
On the upper part of the tower, which is very plain, rises a cornice
supported by scrolls; and upon this plain attic course, on the pillars
at the corners, are placed the pinacles, standing on balls, and each
terminated on the top by a ball.

This church, tho’ anciently a rectory, is now a vicarage in the gift of
the Crown; and the parish of St. Martin, Ironmonger lane, is now united
to it, by which the Incumbent’s profits are considerably increased; he
receives besides other profits, 120_l._ a year in lieu of tithes.

_St._ OLAVE’S _Silver street_, stood at the south west corner of Silver
street, in Aldersgate ward; but being consumed by the fire of London,
and not rebuilt, the parish is annexed to the neighbouring church of St.
Alban’s Wood street.

_St._ OLAVE’S _Southwark_, is situated in Tooley street, near the south
end of London bridge. Tho’ the time when a church was first erected in
this place cannot be discovered, yet it appears to be of considerable
antiquity, since it is mentioned so early as the year 1281. However,
part of the old church falling down in 1736, and the rest being in a
ruinous condition, the parishioners applied to parliament for a power to
rebuild it, which being granted, they were thereby enabled to raise the
sum of 5000_l._ by a rate of 6_d._ in the pound, to be levied out of the
rents of all lands and tenements within the parish; accordingly the
church was taken down in the summer of the year 1737, and the present
structure finished in 1739.

It consists of a plain body strengthened with rustic quoins at the
corners; the door is well proportioned without ornament, and the windows
are placed in three series; the lowest is upright, but considerably
broad; those above them circular, and others on the roof are large and
semicircular. The tower consists of three stages; the uppermost of which
is considerably diminished; in this is the clock, and in the stages
below are large windows. The top of the tower is surrounded by a plain
substantial balustrade, and the whole has an air of plainness and
simplicity.

It is a rectory in the gift of the Crown, and the Incumbent’s profits
are said to amount to about 400_l._ _per annum_.

_St._ OLAVE’S _School_. See the article QUEEN ELIZABETH’S _School_.

OLD ARTILLERY GROUND, Artillery lane, Spitalfields. See the article
ARTILLERY GROUND.

OLD BAILEY, a street which extends from Ludgate hill to the top of Snow
hill, by Newgate. On the upper part near Fleet lane, the street is
divided into two by a middle row of buildings, whence that towards the
west is called Little Old Bailey, and the other to the eastward, is
called Great Old Bailey. This street from Ludgate hill to Fleet lane, is
in the liberties of the Fleet. In the upper part is Justice Hall
commonly called the Sessions house, and in the lower part Surgeons Hall.
Maitland observes, that the Old Bailey took its name from the Bale or
Bailiff’s house, formerly standing there.

OLD BARGE HOUSE _stairs_, Glasshouse yard, near Angel street, Southwark.

OLD BARGE HOUSE _stairs lane_, near Angel street, and almost opposite the
Temple.

OLD BEAR GARDEN, Maid lane, Southwark; thus named from a bear garden
formerly there.

OLD BEDLAM, or OLD BETHLEM, Bishopsgate street. See the article BETHLEM
HOSPITAL.

OLD BEDLAM _court_, Old Bedlam.

OLD BEDLAM _lane_, Bishopsgate street, near Moorfields, where Bethlem
hospital formerly stood.

OLD BELTON _street_, Brownlow street.†

OLD BOND _street_, Piccadilly.

OLD BOSVILLE _court_, Clement’s lane, Temple bar.†

OLD BREWHOUSE _yard_, Chick lane, Smithfield.

OLD BUILDINGS, Lincoln’s Inn.

OLD BURLINGTON _mews_, Old Bond street.

OLD CASTLE _street_, Wentworth street.

OLD CHANGE, extends from Cheapside to Old Fish street. Here was formerly
kept the King’s exchange for the receipt of bullion to be coined.
_Maitland._

OLD COMBER’S _court_, Blackman street, Southwark.†

OLD FISH _street_, Knightrider’s street; so called from a fish market
being formerly kept there. _Maitland._

OLD FISH STREET _hill_, Thames street, obtained its name also from a
market.

OLD FORD, in Stepney parish, near Stratford le Bow.

OLD GEORGE _street_, Wentworth street.

OLD GRAVEL _lane_, Ratcliff highway; so called from its being anciently a
way through which carts laden with gravel from the neighbouring fields,
used to pass to the river Thames, where it was employed in ballasting of
ships, before ballast was taken out of the river.

OLD GRAVEL _walk_, Bunhill fields.

OLD HOG _yard_, Peter lane, St. John’s street, Smithfield.

OLD HORSELYDOWN _lane_, Horselydown, Tooley street.

OLD HORSESHOE _wharf_, Thames street.

OLD JEWRY in the Poultry. This street was originally called the Jewry,
from its being the residence of the Jews in this city; but the Jews
being banished by Edward I. they upon their readmission into England,
settled in this city near Aldgate, in a place from them called Poor
Jewry lane, on which occasion this, their ancient place of abode, was
called the Old Jewry. _Maitland._

OLD MARKET _lane_. Brook’s street, Ratcliff.†

OLD MONTAGUE _street_, Spitalfields.†

OLD NICOLL’S _street_, Spitalfields.†

OLD NORTH _street_, Red Lion square.

OLD PACKTHREAD _ground_, Grange lane.

OLD PALACE _yard_, by St. Margaret’s lane, Westminster, was built by
Edward the Confessor, or, as others say, by William Rufus, and received
the name of Old on the building of New Palace yard. See NEW PALACE
_yard_.

OLD PARADISE _street_, Rotherhith.

OLD PARK _yard_, Queen street, Southwark.

OLD PAV’D _alley_, Pallmall.

OLD PIPE _yard_, Puddle dock.

OLD PYE _street_, by New Pye street, Westminster.

OLD ROUND _court_, in the Strand.

OLD SHOE _alley_, Hoxton.

OLD SOHO _street_, near Leicester fields.

OLD SQUARE, Lincoln’s Inn.

OLD STARCH _yard_, Old Gravel lane.

OLD _street_, a street of great length, beginning at Goswell street, and
extending east towards Shoreditch. It received its ancient name of _Eald
street_, or _Old street_, from the Saxons, as being situated along the
Roman Military Way, at a considerable distance north of London, though
it is now joined to this metropolis. _Maitland._

OLD STREET _square_, Old street.

OLD SWAN _lane_, Thames street.*

OLD SWAN _stairs_, Ebbgate lane, Thames street.*

OLD SWAN _yard_, Rag street.*

OLD TAILOR _street_, King street, Golden square.

OLIPHANT’S _lane_, Rotherhith.†

OLIVE _court_, 1. Gravel lane. 2. St.Catharine’s lane, East Smithfield.

OLIVER’S _alley_, in the Strand.†

OLIVER’S _court_, Bowling alley, Westminster.†

OLIVER’S _mount_, David street, Grosvenor square.

ONE GUN _alley_, Wapping.*

ONE SWAN _yard_, 1. Bishopsgate street.* 2. Rag street, Hockley in the
Hole.*

ONE TUN _alley_, Hungerford Market.*

ONE TUN _yard_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

ONSLOW _street_, Vine street, Hatton wall.†

ORAM’S _court_, Water lane, Tower street.†

ORANGE _court_, 1. Castle street, Leicester fields, 2. King’s street,
Soho, 3. Wapping.

ORANGE _street_, 1. Castle street, Leicester fields, 2. Lowman’s street,
Gravel lane. 3. Red Lion square, Holborn. 4. Swallow street. 5. Sun
Tavern fields.

_The_ ORCHARD, 1. Bread street, Ratcliff. 2. Butcher row. 3. Limehouse
causeway. 4. New street, Shadwell. 5. In Wapping. 6. Near Wapping.

ORCHARD _street_, 1. Near the Stable yard, Westminster, from the royal
orchard formerly there. 2. Windmill street.

_Office of_ ORDNANCE, in the Tower. This office is a modern building, a
little to the north east of the white tower; and to the officers
belonging to it, all other offices for supplying artillery, arms,
ammunition, or other warlike stores to any part of the British
dominions, are accountable; and from this office all orders for the
disposition of warlike materials are issued. It is therefore of very
great importance, as it has under its care the ammunition necessary for
the defence of the kingdom, and the protection of our allies.

In ancient times before the invention of guns, this office was supplied
by officers under the following names; the Bowyer, the Cross Bowyer, the
Galeator, or Purveyor of helmets, the Armourer, and the Keeper of the
tents; and in this state it continued till King Henry VIII. placed it
under the management of a Master, a Lieutenant, a Surveyor, &c. as it
still continues with some improvements.

The office of ordnance is now divided into two branches, the civil and
the military; the latter being subordinate and under the authority of
the former.

The principal officer in the civil branch of the office of ordnance is
the Master General, who has a salary of 1500_l._ _per annum_, and is
invested with a peculiar jurisdiction over all his Majesty’s engineers
employed in the several fortifications of this kingdom, to whom they are
all accountable, and from whom they receive their particular orders and
instructions, according to the directions and commands given by his
Majesty and council.

The Lieutenant General, who receives all orders and warrants signed by
the Master General, and from the other principal officers, and sees them
duly executed; issues orders, as the occasions of the state may require;
and gives directions for discharging the great guns, when required at
coronations, on birth days, festivals, signal victories, and other
solemn occasions. It is also his peculiar office to see the train of
artillery, and all its equipage fitted for motion, when ordered to be
drawn into the field. He has a salary of 1100_l._ _per annum_; and under
him is a clerk in ordinary, who has 150_l._ a year; an inferior clerk,
and a clerk extraordinary, who have each 40_l._ a year.

The Surveyor inspects the stores and provisions of war in the custody of
the Storekeeper, and sees that they are ranged and placed in such order
as is most proper for their preservation. He allows all bills of debt,
and keeps a check upon all artificers and labourers work; sees that the
stores received be good and serviceable, duly proved, and marked, if
they ought to be so, with the King’s mark, taking to his assistance the
rest of the officers and Proof Masters. His salary is 700_l._ _per
annum_.

As his post necessarily makes some assistance necessary, he has under
him the Proof Master of England, who has 150_l._ a year. Two clerks of
the fortifications, who have 60_l._ a year each, and another of 40_l._
Besides, in this time of war he has under him six extra clerks, who have
each 40_l._ a year; and another who has 4_s._ 6_d._ a day.

The Clerk of the ordnance records all orders and instructions given for
the government of the office; all patents and grants; the names of all
officers, clerks, artificers, attendants, gunners, labourers, &c. who
enjoy those grants, or any other fee for the same; draws all estimates
for provisions and supplies to be made, and all letters, instructions,
commissions, deputations, and contracts for his Majesty’s service; makes
all bills of imprest, and debentures, for the payment and satisfaction
for work done, and provisions received in the said office; all quarter
books for the salaries and allowances of all officers, clerks, &c.
belonging to the office; and keeps journals and ledgers of the receipts
and returns of his Majesty’s stores, to serve as a check between the two
accomptants of the office, the one for money, and the other for stores.
His salary is 500_l._ _per annum_, and 100_l._ a year for being a check
on the Storekeeper.

The great business of this officer is managed, under him, by six clerks
in ordinary, one of whom has 180_l._ a year, another 150_l._ two 60_l._
a year, one 50_l._ and one 4_s._ a day: and he has at present thirteen
clerks extraordinary, who have 40_l._ a year each. There are besides
under him a ledger keeper to the out ports, and a home ledger keeper,
who have 60_l._ a year.

The Storekeeper takes into his custody all his Majesty’s ordnance,
munitions and stores belonging thereto, and indents and puts them in
legal security, after they have been surveyed of by the Surveyor: any
part of which he must not deliver, without a warrant signed by the
proper officers; nor must he receive back any stores formerly issued,
till they have been reviewed by the Surveyor, and registered by the
Clerk of the ordnance in the book of remains: and he must take care that
whatever is under his custody be kept safe, and in such readiness as to
be fit for service upon the most peremptory command. His salary is
400_l._ _per annum_.

The Storekeeper has under his command three clerks in ordinary, one of
whom has 150_l._ and another 60_l._ _per annum_, and also three extra
clerks, each at 40_l._ a year.

The Clerk of the deliveries draws all orders for delivery of any stores,
and sees them duly executed: he also charges by indenture the particular
receiver of the stores delivered; and, in order to discharge the
Storekeeper, he registers the copies of all warrants for the deliveries,
as well as the proportions delivered. His salary is 400_l._ a year.

The above officer has under him two clerks in ordinary, one who has
150_l._ and another who has 70_l._ _per annum_, and also four clerks
extraordinary who have each 40_l._ a year.

The Treasurer and Paymaster receives and pays all monies, both salaries
and debentures in and belonging to this office. His salary is 500_l._ a
year.

The above officer is assisted in his double employment of receiving and
paying by three clerks in ordinary, one of whom has 150_l._ another
60_l._ and another 50_l._ _per annum_, and by three clerks
extraordinary, each of whom has 40_l._ a year.

In this office there are likewise two Proof Masters, who have 20_l._ a
year each; a Clerk of the works, who has 120_l._ a year; a Purveyor for
the land, who has 100_l._ a year; a Purveyor for the sea, who has 40_l._
a year; an Architect, who has 120_l._ a year; an Astronomical
Observator, who has 100_l._ a year, and some other officers.

In the other part of this office termed the _Military Branch of the
Ordnance_, is a Chief Engineer, who has 501_l._ 17_s._ 4_d._ a year; a
Director, who has 365_l._ _per annum_; eight engineers in ordinary, who
have 10_s._ a day; eight engineers extraordinary at 6_s._ a day; eleven
sub-engineers, at 73_l._ a year each; and sixteen pract. engineers, at
3_s._ a day.——See an account of the arms belonging to this office under
the article TOWER.

ORMOND’S _mews_, 1. Duke street, Piccadilly. 2. Great Ormond street, Red
Lion street, Holborn.

ORMOND _street_, Red Lion street, Holborn.

A catalogue of the pictures of Charles Jennens, Esq; in Ormond street.

The nativity, after Pietro di Cortona.

The Magi offering, Carlo Maratti.

A holy family, after Raphael.

A holy family, by Fr. Mazzuoli Parmegiano.

A piece of fruit, &c. by De Heem.

A landscape, by Cl. Lorraine, allowed capital.

A landscape, with St. Jerom and the lion, by Nic. Poussin.

Cattle and fowls, by Bened. Castiglione.

The finding of Moses, by Lucatelli.

A land storm, by Gasp. Poussin.

A bagpiper, by Spagnolet.

A landscape, by Nic. Poussin.

A view of the Rhine, by Sachtleven.

Ruins, by Harvey, with Christ and the woman of Canaan, by J. Vanderbank,
sky and trees by Wotton.

A man with a straw hat eating porridge, by Annibal Caracci.

A view of the castle of St. Angelo, by Marco Ricci.

A miracle, by Seb. Concha.

A boy’s or girl’s head, by Guido.

The crucifixion, by Vandyke.

St. John the Baptist baptizing Christ, by Rottenhammer.

Three boys, viz. Christ, John the Baptist, and an angel, of the school of
Rubens or Vandyke.

A holy family.

St. Paul and King Agrippa, after Le Sueur.

A philosopher mending a pen, A. le Pape.

St. Cecilia in a circle of flowers, by Philippo Laura, in the manner of
Domenichino, the flowers by Mario di Fiori.

A landscape, by Both.

Butler the poet, by Zoust.

A holy family (small) by Seb. Bourdon.

A storm, by Vandervelde.

A oval of flowers, with the wise men offering, by father Seegers.

A piece of architecture, with the landing of Æsculapius at Rome, by P.
Panini.

A madona, &c. by Carlo Maratti.

A landscape, by Moucheron, with figures by Berchem.

The two Maries at the sepulchre, by Pietro di Cortona.

Bishop Ken, by Riley.

David and Saul, by Jordans of Antwerp, or Van Harp.

A sun-set, by Vanderneer.

Abraham and Melchisedech, by Castiglione.

A nativity, after Giuseppe Chiari.

A landscape, by Vandiest.

A carpet, &c. by Malteese.

A landscape, by Claude, first manner.

A landscape, by Rowland Savory, with Cain and Abel.

Two pieces of fish and fowl, by Rysbrack.

 Nativity, by Albani.

An old man’s head, by Rembrandt.

A landscape, by Retork, in the manner of Elsheimer.

Christ going to be crucified, a sketch, by Annibal Caracci.

Tobias and the angel, by Mich. Angelo de Caravaggio.

Celebration of Twelfth-night, by David Rykart.

Moon-light, by Vandiest.

Figures and cattle, by Van Bloom.

A landscape and a sea view, by Vandiest.

A sleeping boy, by Simon Vouet.

The wise men offering, by Aug. Caracci.

A nativity, by Le Sueur.

A landscape with the flight into Egypt, by Antonio (called Gobbo) Caracci,
figures by Domenichino.

A conversation, by Teniers.

A sea piece, by Vandervelde.

The inside of a church, by De Neef.

A landscape with Balaam and the angel.

A landscape and ruins, by Gasp. Poussin.

Shakespear, in crayons, by Vandergucht, from the only original picture,
which is in the possession of Lady Carnarvon.

Christ praying in the garden, by Ludovico Caracci, a capital piece.

Abraham and Melchisedech, after Raphael, by Nic. Poussin.

Dead game, by De Koning, with a man, by Luca Jordano; but some are of
opinion the whole piece is by L. Jordano.

Two door pieces, by Tempesta and Crescentio.

A landscape with cattle and figures, by Berchem.

The raising of Lazarus, by Paulo Lozza.

A Magdalen, by Giuseppe Cari.

A small picture of P. Charles and his brother.

King James II. when Duke of York, after Sir Peter Lely.

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex.

The head of a female saint.

A head, after Titian.

Christ preaching on the mount, by Van Rhyschoot.

David playing on the harp to cure Saul, by Hayman.

A landscape with a view of Hampstead and Highgate, by Lambert.

The resurrection of Christ, by Hayman.

A landscape, by Gainsborough.

Sir John Falstaff, &c. by Hayman.

An angel sleeping, after Guido.

A small head, by Frank Hals.

Two sea pieces, by Vandervelde.

A flower piece, by O. Baptist.

Moses striking the rock, by Le Brun.

King Charles I. after Vandyke.

King Charles II. and his Queen, by Sir P. Lely.

Duke of Ormond, by Dahl.

A statuary, by Spagnolet.

An old man reading, by Guercino.

A landscape and figures, by Paul Brill.

Ruins and figures, by Viviano and J. Miel.

A landscape and figures, by Fr. Bolognese.

Titian and Aretine, after Titian.

A view of Pliny’s villa, by Lucatelli.

Pr. Rupert, half length, by Greenhill.

A sea piece, by Vandiest.

A flower piece, by O. Baptist.

Gustavus Adolphus, by Mirevelt.

A conversation, by Bamboccio.

Temptation of St. Anthony, by Brower, the landscape, Paul Brill.

A landscape, Gasp. Poussin, the figures by Philippo Laura.

A dead Christ, &c. of the school of Caracci.

A landscape and figures, Fr. Miel.

Gen. Monk, when young, 3 qrs.

A man singing, by Brower.

A landscape, by Claude Lorraine.

A landscape with high rocks, by Salvator Rosa.

A view of St. Mark’s Place at Venice in carnival time, Canaletti.

A view of the great canal at Venice, by Canaletti.

A landscape, by Rembrandt.

A lutanist, by Fr. Hals.

A moon-light, by Vanderneer.

The Chevalier de St. George in miniature.

A musician’s head, by Rembrandt.

A circle of flowers, by Baptist; with Christ and the woman of Samaria, by
Cheron.

A madona, of the school of Carlo Maratti.

A half length of General Monk, copied from Sir Peter Lely.

A landscape, by Tillemans.

A sea piece, a squall, by Vandervelde.

A night storm, by De Vlieger.

The virgin, with the child asleep.

A view of a water mill.

A cobler.

An ascension, by Gius. Chiari.

Two landscapes, by Houseman.

Two pictures of the Chevalier and the Princess Louisa his sister.

King James the 2d’s Queen, by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

The burning of Troy, by Van Hiel.

A view in Holland, by Van Goen.

A landscape, in Van Goen’s manner.

A landscape and figure, by Van Goen.

The Marquis of Hamilton, after Vandyke.

A small round landscape.

A large landscape, by Lucas Van Uden.

Salvator Mundi, by Vandyke.

A sea piece and landscape, by Vander Cabel.

Lord Clarendon, by Dobson.

A small round landscape, in the manner of Bourgognone.

A sea piece, by De Man.

King James I. half length, by Mytons.

Two landscapes, by Ruysdale.

The conversion of St. Paul, by P. Snayer.

A small head on silver, supposed the Marq. of Montrose, by Ferd. Laithe.

J. Miel, the painter, by himself.

Two small pictures, by Horizonti.

Two ditto, by Lucatelli.

Prince Henry, by P. Oliver.

Ruins of the Temple of Minerva, by Viviano, or Salvius.

A landscape, by Rubens.

A landscape, by Fauquier.

A frost piece, by Ostade.

A landscape, by Gasp. de Wit, figures by Ferg.

Ruins and figures, by Marco and Seb. Ricci.

A sea view, by Vandervelde.

A landscape, in the manner of Van Uden.

Philippo Laura, by himself.

Two small views, by Cocoranti.

A sea calm, by Woodcock.

David and Abigail, by Brughel.

A sea view, by Bonaventure Peters.

A landscape, by Martin Rykaert.

Two small landscapes, by Artois.

The finding of Moses, by Romanelli.

Dead birds, by Ferguson.

Two landscapes, by Ruysdale.

St. John led by his disciples, by Blanchet.

A landscape, by Rembrandt.

A landscape, by Ruysdale, the figures by Wovermans.

A lady’s head, by Cornelius Johnson.

Lord Carnarvon, by Sir P. Lely.

A Dutch watchmaker, by Fr. Hals.

A landscape, by Van Huysum.

A landscape, by J. Asselyn.

A landscape, by Swanevelt.

A landscape, by Francisco Mille.

The marriage of St. Catharine, after Giorgione.

A landscape, by Swanevelt.

A landscape, with Argus and Hermes.

The last supper, by Vandyke or Dieperbeck.

The flight into Egypt, by Polembergh.

L. D’Honat’s Eden.

A calm, by Vandervelde, best manner.

The good Samaritan.

A landscape, by Tempesta.

St. Peter walking on the sea, by Paul Brill.

Fowls, by Cradock.

A storm (small) by Vandervelde.

Ruins, by Viviano.

The transfiguration, after Raphael.

A landscape and figures, by Bourgognone.

A winter piece, by Molinaer.

St. Jerom, by Teniers.

A landscape, by Rousseau.

Ruins, by Panini.

A sun-rising, by Courtois.

A landscape, by Old Patell.

A church, by De Neef, the priest carrying the host; the figures by
Teniers.

St. Sebastian, after Domenichino.

St. Peter delivered out of prison, by De Neef, the figures by O. Teniers.

A head (supposed of an apostle) by Vandyke.

The flight into Egypt, a sketch, by Gius. Passeri.

Part of Titian’s Comari, copied by Dahl.

A head of Christ crowned with thorns, by Guido.

Christ crowned with thorns, with the reed in his hand, of the school of
Caracci.

Lot going out of Sodom, and Abraham with three Angels, two drawings, by
Cheron.

St. Jerom in a cave, by Teniers.

The murder of the innocents, a drawing after Raphael.

A drawing after Nic. Poussin, by Cheron, of the passage thro’ the red sea.

A Roman sacrifice, a drawing from the antique, by Cheron.

A land storm, by Peters, or Teniers.

Christ driving the buyers and sellers out of the temple, by Jac. Bassano.

Two conversations in water colours, by Fergue.

A boy and girl, heads.

A landscape and sea piece in water colours, by Tillemans.

Two landscapes in the manner of Brughel, by Old Grissier.

A landscape, by Fergue.

A view of Scheveling, by De Vleiger.

A sea piece, by Vandervelde.

A front piece, by Bonaventure Peters.

Two landscapes, by Polembergh.

A landscape, by Sachtleven.

A landscape, by Van Maas.

A gale and view, by Backhuysen.

Two sea pieces, by Vandervelde.

A landscape, by Hobbima.

A head of Seb. Bourdon, by Netschar.

Eliezer and Rebecca, by Vander Cabel.

Christ sleeping, of the school of Carlo Maratti.

A view in Rome, by Gaspar D’Ochiale.

A landscape and cattle, by Cuyp.

A brisk gale, by Vandervelde.

A boy’s head, by Dubois.

Christ and the two Disciples at Emmaus, by Teniers.

A head of Richard Penderith.

A landscape, by Molyn.

A sea piece, by Vandervelde.

A landscape, by Vanderheyden.

A landscape, by Van Balen, with a holy family.

A sea piece, by Backhuysen.

A sea piece, by De Vlieger.

Two landscapes, by Both.

Chickens, a study, by Hondicooter.

A sea piece, by Vangoen.

A sea piece, by Ruysdale.

A frost piece, by Adr. Vandevelde.

A landscape, by Wovermans.

An inn yard, copy from Wovermans.

A moon-light, by Vanderneer.

A frost piece, by Molenaer.

A landscape, by Housemans.

Two Dutch views, Flemish.

Judith with Holofernes’s head, by Bronzino.

Jerome Cardan.

A hermit contemplating eternity, by Salvator Rosa.

St. Jerome, by Guido.

A landscape, with the flight into Egypt, by Domenichino.

A landscape, by Courtois.

Two landscapes, by Godfrey.

Tobias curing his father’s eyes, by Rembrandt.

Morning and Evening, by Berghem.

A landscape, by Old Patelle.

The wise men offering, by Rotenhamer.

A landscape, by Wovermans.

Ruins, by Viviano.

View of the Colisæum, by Paulo Panini.

Dead game, by Baltazar Caro.

Architecture, by Ghisolfi.

A landscape, by Swanevelt.

A landscape with rocks, by Teniers, or P. Snayer.

A landscape, by Van Zwierin.

A landscape with others, by Teniers.

Two landscapes, by Vincaboon.

A landscape, by Fr. Miel.

A view of Willybos, by T. Molinaer.

A landscape, by Both and Bodwyn.

Iphigenia, after Bourdon.

A landscape, by P. Brill, or Vincaboon.

A white fox or racoon, by Hondicooter.

A small gale, by Vandervelde.

A landscape, by Both.

A landscape, by De Vries.

The fable of the Satyr and clown, by Sorgue.

A landscape, by Ruysdale.

Ditto, by Both.

A philosopher’s head, by Pietro da Pietri.

A battle, by Tillemans.

Ruins, by Ghisolfi.

A landscape, by Fauquier.

Ditto, perhaps Artois.

A sketch of a sea fight, by Vandervelde.

A landscape, with Elijah and the ravens, by R. Savory.

Two pictures of lions and tygers, by J. Vanderbank.

Christ and the Samaritan woman, and Mary Magdalen in the garden, by
Columbell.

Head of Annibal Caracci, by himself.

A view of the Rhine, by Vosterman.

The nativity, a sketch, by Rubens.

A sea piece, by Monamy.

Two landscapes, by Vandiest.

An emblematical picture of Justice, by Solimeni.

Virgin and child, and St. Francis with angels, by Seb. Concha.

St. Francis asleep, an angel fiddling, after Philippo Laura.

A storm, by Vandervelde.

A landscape, by Kierings.

A landscape, by De la Hire.

A copy, from Claude.

A view, with ruins and figures, by Marco and Sebastian Ricci.

A fresh gale, by Vandervelde.

Hagar and Ishmael, by Val. Castelli.

St. Jerome, by Guido.

Riposo, by L. Caracci, or Carlo Cignani.

Two landscapes, by Vorsterman.

Peter in prison, by Stenwick.

Destruction of Sodom, by ditto.

The deluge, by Polemburgh.

Corps de Guard and its companion, by Bamboccio.

A landscape, by Mat. Brill.

A landscape, in imitation of Ruysdale.

A landscape, with a Magdalen, by Teniers.

A landscape, by Ruysdale.

The head of Isaiah, on paper, by Raphael.

A conversation, by Ostade.

A battle, by Bourgognone.

Soldier and boors fighting, Molinaer.

A landscape, Swanevelt.

Belshazzar’s feast, after Rembrandt, by Tillemans.

Still life, Edema.

A hen and chickens, Cradock.

A battle, by Vander Mulen.

The mocking of Christ, by Cheron.

Incendio del Borgo, after Raphael.

Christ and St. Thomas, Cavedone.

Two portraits of P. Cha. and his mother.

A fruit piece, by Mich. Angelo Campidoglio, o da Pace.

David and Solomon, Rubens.

Two landscapes, Annib. Caracci.

A conversation, Seb. Bourdon.

A conversation, with dancing, Annib. Caracci.

A masquerade, Gobbo Caracci.

Benjamin accused of stealing the cup, by J. De Wit.

Two landscapes, by Mola.

The battle of Amazons, after Jul. Romano.

Two landscapes, Vincaboon.

Mr. Handel’s picture, by Hudson.

Fowls, &c. Y. Wenix.

The passage of the red sea, by De Wit.

A concert of music, by Pasqualini.

Hero and Leander, by Elsheimer.

Two heads of Lodov. and Aug. Caracci.

A sea port, by Storck.

A pieta, Trevisani.

Christ, Simon the Pharisee, and M. Magdalen, by Lappi.

A view of Scheveling, a storm coming on, by Ruysdale.

A battle, by Mich. Angelo delle Battaglie.

St. Sebastian, by Guercino.

Bened. Castiglione, by himself.

A landscape, with cattle, by Cuyp.

The inside of the Jesuits church at Antwerp, by De Neef.

A landscape with cattle, by Rosa of Tivoli.

Æolus and the four winds, by Carlo Maratti.

Two heads of St. Peter and St. Paul, by Guercino.

Christ asleep, with two angels looking on, by Murillo.

A wounded stag swimming across a brook.

St. Jerome and the Angel with a trumpet, by Guercino.

A view of Sulftara, by Berchem and Both.

A battle of the bridge, by Bourgognone.

A landscape, with a Magdalen in it, by Albani, or Bartolom. Breenberg in
imitation of him.

A sketch of martyrdom, by Vandyke.

A horse watering, by Wovermans.

A landscape, by Adr. Vandervelde.

A copy of Raphael’s Heliodorus.

A sketch, by Rubens, of binding of Samson.

A sea port, by J. Miel.

A landscape, by Paul Brill.

A landscape, by Tillemans, or Houseman.

A sea piece, by Dubbels.

A chalk kiln, by Ruysdale.

A landscape, by Hobbima.

A moon-light, by Vanderneer.

A landscape, by Wynantz.

Hector and Achilles, by Nic. Poussin, or Pietro Testa.

Two landscapes, by Claude Lorraine.

St. Peter dictating the gospel to St. Mark, by Pietro di Cortona.

A landscape, by Verboom, the figures, &c. by Adr. Vandervelde.

Decollation of St. John the Baptist, by Mich. Angelo da Carravagio, or
Valentini.

A man’s head, by Ant. Moore.

A view of the Doge’s palace, after Canaletti.

A landscape, by F. Miel.

A calm, by Vandiest.

A battle, by Tillemans.

A Court de Guard, by Le Duc.

The holy child Jesus in the arms of Joseph, by Giuseppe del Solo, a
disciple of Carlo Cignani.

A landscape, by Solomon Ruysdale.

An ascension, the finished sketch for the King’s chapel at Versailles, by
Jouvenet.

A holy family, by Erasm. Quiline.

A landscape, by Croose.

A bag piper, by Albert Durer.

Two sketches, after Tintoret, one the trial of Christ, the other leading
him away.

A sea piece, by Van Cappel.

A landscape, by Sol. Ruysdale.

Dead game, with a dog and cat, by Fyte.

Two landscapes, by Mola.

A landscape, by Pynas.

A landscape and architecture, by Le Maire, with figures, by Phil. Laura.

A landscape, by Fauquier.

A village carnival, by P. Wovermans.

A holy family, by Carlo Maratti.

Two landscapes, by Bellin.

Christ healing the sick, a sketch, by Tintoret.

Fowls, by Cradock.

A landscape, by Nic. Poussin.

Riposo, F. Vanni.

A cartoon head, by Raphael.

Christ disputing with the doctors, a sketch, by Titian.

A holy family, by Schidoni.

A battle, by Salvator Rosa.

Two views of the Clitumnus and Avernus, by Wilson.

A storm, by Annib. Caracci.

A landscape, with the baptism of Christ, by Nic. Poussin.

Samson slaying the Philistines with the jaw bone of an ass, Val. Castelli.

Fred. Zuccaro’s picture, by himself.

Hercules and Antæus, by Rubens.

Hagar and Ishmael, by Le Sueur.

A woman making lace, by Scalken.

The fall of Simon Magus, a sketch, by Pompeio.

A shepherd and shepherdess with cattle, by C. du Jardin.

A landscape, by Dekker.

A girl sewing, by Ostade.

An ox, by Potter, the landscape by Vanderhyde.

The flight into Egypt, by Dominic. Antolini.

Hercules and Cerberus, a sketch, by Rubens.

A landscape and cattle, by Carree.

A landscape, by Brughel, the figures Rotenhamer.

Moses on the mount, by Jac. Bassan.

A landscape, by Dekker.

A copy of Guido’s Aurora, by Carlo Maratti, or Gius. Cari.

A landscape, by Mr. Wotton.

Lot and his daughters, by Elsheimer.

Christ in the garden, by P. Veronese.

A moon-light, by O. Giffier.

A landscape, by Berkheyde.

A landscape, by De Heusch.

A landscape, by Wynantz, the figures by Wovermans.

Christ’s agony in the garden, by Ant. Balestra.

John Baptist pointing him out to two disciples, ditto.

A landscape, by Vanderneer.

A landscape, by Fauquier, with figures, by Teniers.

A witch and devils, by Hellish Brughel.

A battle, by Wotton.

An old man’s head, by Rembrandt.

A landscape, by Borsam.

Venus coming to Vulcan to beg armour for Æneas, by Goltzius.

A landscape, by Gaspar Poussin.

A landscape, by Nicola Poussin.

Two heads, of an old man and an old woman, by Denier.

King Ahasuerus and Q. Esther, by Gabiani.

The sick man healed at the pool of Bethesda, by Erasmus Quillinius.

The last supper, by Jouvenet.

Head of a madona, with a book, by Elisabetti Sirani.

A landscape, by Studio.


                   Bustos, Statues, Bas Reliefs, &c.


A girl’s head, marble, after the antique, by Scheemaker.

A model of St. John Baptist in the wilderness, by Bernini, in terra cotta.

The judgment of Midas, an ivory Bas Rel.

Orpheus playing to the beasts, Bas Rel. Bronze.

Erato, Bronze, antique.

The statue of Fides Christiana, by Roubiliac, marble.

A model of St. Andrew, by Fiamingo, terra cotta.

A madona and child, in imitation of Rubens’s manner of painting, terra
cotta.

Ceres, after that in the Capitol, by Scheemaker, terra cotta.

St. Jerome, by Mich. Angelo, terra cotta.

A Bacchanalian boy, after Camillo Ruscoin, by Hayward.

A bust of Aratus, after the antique, by ditto, marble.

A model of Mr. Roubiliac’s statue of Fides Christiana, in terra cotta.

A model of Moses, by Mich. Angelo, terra cotta.

A model of Flora, by Roubiliac. ter. cotta.

A vestal, after the antique, by Hayward, marble.

A small antique bust of Æsclepiades, the Greek physician, marble.

ORMOND _yard_, Great Ormond street.

_Court of_ ORPHANS. This court is occasionally held at Guildhall, by the
Lord Mayor and Aldermen, who are guardians to the children of freemen
under the age of twenty-one years at the decease of their fathers, and
take upon them not only the management of their goods and chattels, but
likewise that of their persons, by placing them under the care of
tutors, to prevent disposing of themselves during their minority,
without their approbation.

By this court the common serjeant is authorised to take exact accounts
and inventories of all the deceased freemen’s estates; and the youngest
attorney of the Lord Mayor’s court being clerk to that of the orphans,
is appointed to take securities for their several portions, in the name
of the Chamberlain of London, who is a corporation of himself, for the
service of the said orphans; and to whom a recognizance or bond, made
upon the account of an orphan, shall by the custom of London, descend to
his successor.

It may not be improper to add, that when a freeman dies and leaves
children in their minority, the clerks of the several parishes are
according to a law of the city, to give in their names to the common
crier, who is immediately to summon the widow, or executor, to appear
before the court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen, to bring an inventory of,
and security for the testator’s estate; for which two months time is
commonly allowed: and, in case of non-appearance, or refusal of
security, the Lord Mayor may commit the contumacious executor to
Newgate. _Lex Lond._

OVERMAN’S _court_, Pepper alley.†

OWEN’S _Almshouse_, near the south end of Islington, was erected by the
company of Brewers, in the year 1610, for ten poor widows of the parish
of St. Mary’s Islington, pursuant to the will of the Lady Alice Owen,
who allowed each widow 3_l._ 16_s._ _per annum_, three yards of cloth
for a gown every other year, and 6_l._ to be laid out annually in coals
for the use of the whole.

OXENDON _street_, Coventry street.

OXFORD ARMS _Inn lane_, Warwick lane, near Newgate market.*

OXFORD ARMS _passage_, Warwick lane.*

OXFORD ARMS _yard_, in the Haymarket.*

OXFORD _court_, 1. Camomile street. 2. Salter’s Hall court, Swithin’s
lane. Here was anciently the house of the Prior of Torrington in
Suffolk, which afterwards fell to the Earls of Oxford; but that edifice
being at length demolished, and this court built in its room, it
retained the name of the former possessor. 3. Oxford street.

OXFORD _market_, Oxford street, so called from its being on the estate of
the late Earl of Oxford.

OXFORD _street_, St. Giles’s pound. This street, the market, and court of
the same name, are all on the estate of the late Earl of Oxford.


[Illustration]



                                   P.


PACKER’S _court_, Coleman street.

PACKINGTON’S _Almshouse_, in White Friars, Fleet street, commonly called
Clothworkers almshouses, was founded by the Lady Anne Packington, relict
of Sir John Packington, Chirographer of the court of Common Pleas, about
the year 1560, for the accommodation of eight poor women, each of whom
receives annually of the Clothworkers company, who have the trust of
this charity, the sum of 4_l._ nine bushels of coals, and new apparel
every third year. _Maitland._

PACKSON’S _rents_, Jamaica street.

PACKTHREAD _ground_, 1. Bandy Leg walk. 2. End of Barnaby street. 3.
Coleman street. 4. Gravel lane. 5. Near Maiden lane.

PADDINGTON, a village in Middlesex, situated on the north side of Hyde
Park.

PAGE (Sir Gregory) for an account of his house and pictures. See
BLACKHEATH.

PAGEANT’S _stairs_, Rotherhith.

PAGE’S _walk_, King’s Road.†

PAGE’S _yard_, Brewhouse lane, Wapping.†

PAIN’S _alley_, Wapping Wall.†

PAIN’S _yard_, Swan alley, East Smithfield.†


[Illustration:

  _A Scene in the Gardens of Pain’s Hill._
  _S. Wale delin._ _F. Vivares sculp._
]


PAIN’S _hill_, near Cobham, in Surry, is the seat of the Honourable
Charles Hamilton, who has made great improvements, by inclosing a large
tract of barren land, which though so poor as to produce nothing but
heath and broom, he has so well cultivated and adorned, that few places
are equal to it. The whole place is about five miles round; it is laid
out in the modern taste, and planted with a beautiful variety of trees,
plants, and flowers. The fine inequalities of the ground give a
perpetual variety to the prospects, especially on that side next the
river Mole, which river, though it lies lower than the level of the
gardens by twenty feet, is brought into them by means of a wheel
curiously contrived, which is turned by the river. Every time it turns
round it takes up the water and conveys it through a spiral pipe from
the circumference of the wheel to the center of it, from whence it is
discharged into a trough, and from thence through pipes into the
gardens, where by the joint assistance of nature and art, it is formed
into a fine winding lake or piece of water, with an island in it,
planted and laid out in walks, with bridges over to it of the most
simple contrivance, and the whole surrounded with rising grounds, clumps
of trees, and hanging woods, in as romantic and picturesque a manner as
imagination can conceive. These gardens are but lately laid out, and
consequently some of the plantations will appear to more advantage as
they advance in growth. But the place upon the whole is very beautiful,
and extremely well worth seeing.

PAINTER’S _court_, Berry street.

PAINTER’S _rents_, Ratcliff highway.

PAINTER STAINERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by
Queen Elizabeth in the year 1582; by the name of _The Master, Wardens
and Commonalty of the freemen of the art and mystery of painting, called
Painter Stainers, within the city of London_.

This fraternity is governed by a Master, two Wardens, and nine
Assistants, to which belongs a livery of 124 members, who upon their
admission pay a fine of 14_l._

PAINTER STAINERS _Hall_, in Little Trinity lane, is adorned with a
handsome screen, arches, and pilasters of the Corinthian order, painted
in imitation of porphyry, with gilt capitals. The pannels are of
wainscot, and on the ceiling is finely painted by Fuller, Pallas
triumphant, while Art and Fame, attended by Mercury, suppress their
enemies, Sloth, Envy, Pride, &c. the other paintings are Endymion and
Luna, by Palmatier; Orpheus slaying Pan, by Brull; Art and Envy, by
Hungis; the portraits of King Charles II. and his Queen Catharine, by
Houseman; a portrait of Camden; the fire of London; a piece of
architecture of the Corinthian order, by Trevit; another of the Ionic
order, given by Mr. Thompson, the city painter; Heraclitus and
Democritus, by Penn; a landscape, by Aggas; fish and fowl, by Robinson;
a piece of birds, by Barlow; a piece of fruit and flowers, by Everbrook;
a ruin, by Griffier; and a fine piece of shipping, by Peter Monumea.
There are several other pieces in the parlour.

In the court room are some fine pictures, most of which are portraits of
the members of the company; and in the front of the room is a fine bust
of Mr. Thomas Evans, who left five houses in Basinghall street to the
company.

Mr. Camden, the famous antiquarian, whose father was a painter in the
Old Bailey, gave the Painter Stainers company a silver cup and cover,
which they use every St. Luke’s day at their election; the old Master
drinking to the one then elected, out of it. Upon this cup is the
following inscription:

  GUL. CAMDENUS CLARENCEUX FILIUS SAMPSONIS PICTORIS LONDINENSIS DONO
    DEDIT. _Maitland._

PALLMALL, a very handsome street, inhabited by several persons of the
first quality, extending from the end of the Haymarket to St. James’s
palace.

PALLMALL _court_, Pallmall.

PALMER’S _Almshouse_, at Tothill-side, Westminster, was founded by James
Palmer, B. D. in the year 1654, for the reception of twelve poor men and
women, to each of whom he gave a perpetual annuity of 6_l._ and a
chaldron of coals.

To this building also belongs a school, in which twenty boys are taught
reading, writing, and arithmetic; for which the master has an annual
salary of 12_l._ and a chaldron of coals, with a convenient house, and a
gown every other year.

Here also is a chapel for the use of the pensioners and scholars, in
which the founder himself for some time preached and prayed twice a day
to them. _Maitland._

PALSGRAVE’S HEAD _court_, in the Strand.*

PALYN’S _Almshouse_, in Pesthouse row, near Old street, was founded by
George Palyn, citizen and girdler, for six poor members of his company;
he also endowed it with an estate of 40_l._ a year, and committed it to
the trust of that company. _Maitland._

PANCRAS, a small hamlet in Middlesex, on the north west side of London, in
the road to Kentish town. It has a church dedicated to St. Pancras, and
called St. Pancras in the Fields, an old plain Gothic structure, with a
square tower without a spire. It is a vulgar tradition that this church
is of greater antiquity than that of St. Paul’s cathedral, of which it
is only a prebend; but this arises from a mistake; for the church of St.
Pancras, termed the mother of St. Paul’s, was situated in the city of
Canterbury, and was changed from a Pagan temple to a Christian church by
St. Austin the monk, in the year 598, when he dedicated it to St.
Pancras.

The church yard, is a general burying place for persons of the Romish
religion. At a public house on the south side of the church is a
medicinal spring.

_St._ PANCRAS, a church which stood on the north side of St. Pancras lane,
near Queen street, in Cheap ward, owed its name, as did the church
mentioned in the above article, to St. Pancras a young Phrygian
nobleman, who suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Dioclesian, for his
strict adherence to the Christian religion. This church, which was a
rectory, and one of the peculiars in this city belonging to the
Archbishop of Canterbury, was destroyed by the fire of London, and not
being rebuilt, the parish was, by act of parliament, annexed to the
church of St. Mary le Bow in Cheapside.

PANCRAS _lane_, Queen street, Bucklersbury.

PANKETHMAN’S _buildings_, Golden lane.

PANNIER _alley_, near Cheapside, leads from Blowbladder street into Pater
noster row, and is said to be the highest ground within the city walls.
About the middle of the alley, a stone is fixed in the wall in the form
of a pedestal, on the side of which is cut in relief a boy riding
astride upon a pannier, and this inscription.

                  When you have sought the city round,
                  Yet still this is the highest ground.

PANTON _square_, 1. Coventry street. 2. Oxendon street.

PANTON _street_, Haymarket.

PANTON’S _rents_, Chiswell street.†

PAPER _buildings_, a range of buildings in the Temple, originally built in
the year 1607; but being consumed by fire, were rebuilt; in a very
handsome manner in 1685. At the north end are painted the figures of the
four cardinal virtues.

PAPER _office_, Whitehall. An ancient office under the Secretaries of
state, the keeper of which has under his charge all the public papers,
writings, matters of state and council; all letters, intelligences,
negotiations of the King’s public ministers abroad, and in general all
the papers and dispatches that pass through the offices of the two
Secretaries of state, which are, or ought to be, from time to time
transmitted to this office, and remain here, disposed by way of library.
_Chamberlain’s Present State._

PAPEY, an hospital which stood at the north end of St. Mary Ax, and was
founded by three priests in the year 1430, for a Master, two Wardens,
and several Chaplains, Chauntry Priests, &c. It belonged to the
brotherhood of St. John the Evangelist and St. Charity. Such priests as
were become lame, or in great poverty, were here relieved, and had
chambers with a certain allowance of bread, drink, and coals; and one
old man, with his wife, was to see them constantly served, and to keep
the house clean. This hospital was suppressed in the reign of Edward VI.

PARADISE _court_, 1. Lady Clark’s yard, Gravel lane. 2. Peter street.

PARADISE _row_, 1. Brook’s street, Bond street. 2. Near St. George’s
fields. 3. Lambeth. 4. Tottenham Court Road.

PARDON _church_, a chapel formerly situated to the east of the Bishop of
London’s palace, in St. Paul’s church yard, in a place at that time
known by the name of Pardon Church Haugh. This chapel was erected by
Gilbert Becket, sheriff of London, in the reign of King Stephen, and
rebuilt in the reign of Henry V. by Thomas More, Dean of St. Paul’s, who
also encompassed it with a cloister. On the east side was a handsome
library founded by Walter Shiryngton, Chancellor of the duchy of
Lancaster. In this chapel were interred several persons, whose
monuments, according to Mr. Stow, excelled in curious workmanship those
in the neighbouring cathedral, and on the walls were painted the Dance
of Death, in imitation of a painting in the cloister of St. Innocent’s
church at Paris, with English verses translated out of French by John
Lydgate, a famous old poet, by way of explanation.

PARISH CLERKS. See CLERKS.

PARISH GARDEN _lane_, Upper Ground, Southwark.

PARISH GARDEN _stairs_, Upper Ground.

PARISH _street_, Horselydown.

PARK, in Southwark; several streets built upon the spot where the Bishop
of Winchester had formerly a park, which joined to his palace.

PARK GATE, Redcross street, Southwark.

PARK PLACE, St. James’s street, St. James’s.

PARK PROSPECT, Knightsbridge.

PARK PROSPECT _court_, Manchester street.

PARK _street_, 1. Little Grosvenor street. 2. Tothill street,
Westminster.☐

PARKER’S _alley_. 1. Near Cherry Garden stairs.† 2. Turnmill street.†

PARKER’S _court_, Coleman street.†

PARKER’S _gardens_, Heydon yard, in the Minories.†

PARKER’S _lane_, Drury lane.†

PARKER’S _rents_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.†

PARKER’S LANE _School_, situated in Parker’s lane, Drury lane, was founded
about the year 1663, by Mr. William Skelton of St. Giles’s in the
Fields, for the education of fifty poor boys, thirty-five of whom to be
of the parish of St. Giles in the Fields, ten of that of St. Martin in
the Fields, and five of St. Paul’s Covent Garden. The Master has a
salary of 20_l._ two chaldrons of coals, and a gown every year, for
teaching the children reading, writing, and arithmetic, each of whom has
a coat of 6_s._ price every year; and the surplus arising from the
estate is employed in putting them out apprentices. _Maitland._

PARLIAMENT. This great council, which is the highest and most ancient
court of the kingdom, was indifferently denominated by the Saxons,
_Michel Gemote_, and _Witen Gemote_, that is, the great court and
council of wise men. _Coke’s Institutes._

The first mention we find of this court, is on its being held in this
city by Egbert and Withlaf, Kings of Wessex, and Mercia, in the year
833, for deliberating on ways and means to oppose the piratical
invasions, and destructive depredations of the Danes. _Spelman’s
Concilia._

This great council, which was held twice a year before the conquest,
consists of the King, the Lords spiritual and temporal, and the Commons:
the Lords spiritual, consisting of the two Archbishops, and twenty-four
Bishops, sit by virtue of their respective baronies, which they hold in
a political capacity: the Lords temporal, who are created by the King’s
patent, and therefore cannot be reduced to any certain number, sit by
descent, or creation: and the Commons, who amount to 558, consist of
Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses, the representatives of the commonalty
of Great Britain; who, by virtue of the King’s writs, are elected by the
several counties, cities, and boroughs.

The power of parliament is so great and extensive, that it makes,
amends, reduces, revives, and abrogates laws, statutes, and ordinances,
concerning matters ecclesiastical, civil, and military. None can begin,
continue, or dissolve this council, but by the King’s authority.

All the members of parliament sat together till the fiftieth of Edward
III. in the year 1377, when the Commons removed to the Chapter-house of
Westminster, in the cloister of the Abbey.

For the distinct privileges, and the manner of proceeding in the houses
of Lords and Commons, see the articles LORDS, and COMMONS.

PARLIAMENT _alley_, Artillery lane.

PARLIAMENT _stairs_, Old Palace yard.☐

PARLIAMENT _stairs alley_, Old Palace yard.

PARLIAMENT _street_, a very handsome and spacious new built street,
adorned with very handsome buildings. It extends from New Palace yard to
the Cockpit.

PARMER’S _yard_, Stony lane.†

PARREY’S _rents_, Portpool lane, Leather lane.†

PARROT _alley_, 1. East Smithfield.* 2. Whitecross street, Old street.*

PARROT’S _rents_, Chequer alley, Whitecross street, Old street.†

PARROT _yard_, Parrot alley, East Smithfield.*

PARSON’S _court_, 1. Bride lane, Fleet street.† 2. White street.†

PARSON’S _rents_, Cow lane, Smithfield.†

PARSON’S _yard_, 1. Fore street, Lambeth.† 2. Shoreditch.

PASSAGE, Lambeth.

PATENT _Office_, Palsgrave Head court, near Temple Bar.

PATER NOSTER _alley_, Pater noster row.

PATER NOSTER _row_, extends from Cheapside to Amen corner. This street was
anciently so called on account of the number of stationers, or writers
who lived there before the invention of the noble art of printing; who
wrote and sold the little books most in use in those times of ignorance,
as alphabets with the Pater noster, the Ave Maria, the Creed and Graces.
In the same place also dwelt the turners of beads for rosaries, who were
also called Pater noster makers. At the end of Pater noster row near
Amen corner is Ave Mary lane, which was also so called from the writers
and beadmakers, who resided there. Pater noster row is still inhabited
by many eminent wholesale booksellers and publishers. _Maitland._ 2.
Dorset street, Spitalfields.

PATIENCE _street_, Anchor street.

PATRICK’S _court_, Houndsditch.†

PATTENMAKERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
Charles II. in the year 1670; consisting of a Master, two Wardens,
twenty-four Assistants, and forty-six Liverymen, who at their admission
pay a fine of 6_l._ but have no hall.

PATTEN RING _alley_, Maze Pond, near Snow fields.

PAV’D _alley_, 1. Charles’s street, St. James’s. 2. Lime street, by
Leadenhall street. 3. London House yard. 4. Water lane, Black Friars. 5.
White Friars.

PAV’D _court_, 1. Bell Inn yard. 2. Five Feet lane. 3. Fleetwood’s rents.
4. George yard. 5. Green Bank.

PAV’D _entry_, London Wall.

PAVEMENT _row_, Moorfields.

PAVIOURS, a fellowship by prescription, and not by charter.

This company is governed by three Wardens and twenty-five Assistants;
but though they have a coat of arms, they have neither hall nor livery.

PAVIOURS _alley_, Drury lane.

PAVIOURS _court_, Grub street, by Fore street, Moorgate.

PAULIN’S _street_, Hanover street.†

PAULIN’S _wharf_, Durham yard, in the Strand.

PAUL’S _alley_, 1. Fenchurch street. 2. St Paul’s Church yard. 3. Redcross
street. 4. Wood street, Cheapside.

_St._ PAUL’S _Cathedral_, the most magnificent Protestant church in the
world. This edifice has been generally supposed to have been founded in
the place where anciently stood a temple dedicated by the Romans to the
goddess Diana; an opinion derived from the tradition, of the heads of
oxen, the horns of deer, and the tusks of boars having been commonly dug
up there; but as Sir Christopher Wren in clearing the foundations of
this ancient structure, found none of these, he justly discredited the
opinion, and his son, in his _Parentalia_, has given a different account
of the origin of the ancient edifice.


[Illustration:

  _S^t. Paul’s_
  _S. Wale delin._ _E. Rooker sculp._
]


This gentleman observes, that the first cathedral of the episcopal see
of London was built in the area, where had been the Roman Prætorian
camp, and in the situation on which all the succeeding fabrics stood:
but that this structure was demolished during the great and general
persecution under the Emperor Dioclesian. This persecution was however
short, the church is supposed to have been re-edified under Constantine;
but it was afterwards destroyed by the Pagan Saxons, and restored again
upon the old foundations, when they embraced Christianity in the seventh
century, when Sebert, King of Essex, advanced Mellitus to the bishopric
of London.

In 675, we find Erkenwald the fourth Bishop of London from Mellitus,
expending great sums of money in repairing and beautifying the ancient
edifice, augmenting its revenues, and procuring for it the most
considerable privileges from the Pope and the Saxon princes then
reigning: for these works the Bishop was canonized at his death, and his
body placed in a glorious shrine above the high altar in the east part
of the church, where this shrine remained the admiration of succeeding
ages, till the fatal destruction of the whole fabric by fire.

This catastrophe happened in the year 961; and as it was rebuilt the
same year, it is highly probable, that these early structures, how
magnificent soever they might then be thought, were only small wooden
buildings.

During the Saxon heptarchy, this church flourished extremely; Kenrad
King of Mercia declared it as free in all its rights, as he himself
desired to be at the day of judgment; Athelstan endowed it with fifteen
lordships; Edgar, with two; and Egleflede his wife with two more; all
which were confirmed by the charters of Ethelred and Canute, which
solemnly imprecate curses on all who dare to violate it.

The next benefactor to this church was Edward the Confessor; but at the
Norman invasion, which soon followed, some of its revenues were seized
by the Conqueror; but he was no sooner seated on the throne, than he
caused full restitution to be made; and even confirmed all its rights,
privileges and immunities, in the amplest manner; with benedictions upon
those who should augment its possessions, and solemn imprecations upon
all who should violate any of the charters made in its favour.

In that reign, however, a dreadful fire consumed it a second time, and
by this conflagration, which happened in 1086, the greatest part of this
city was also laid in ashes: but this destruction served to make way for
a more magnificent building, than had ever yet been applied to the
purposes of devotion in this kingdom. Maurice, then Bishop of London,
having undertaken this great work, obtained of the King the old stones
of a spacious castle in the neighbourhood called the Palatine Tower,
situated near the river Fleet; but though he lived twenty years, and
prosecuted the work with uncommon earnestness, yet he left the
completion of what he had begun to succeeding generations.

The successor of this Bishop followed his example, and even applied the
whole revenue of his see towards the advancement of this great work; but
like the former left it unfinished; after which it is supposed to have
been compleated by lay persons; but at what time, or in what manner, is
no where mentioned. Indeed William Rufus, who succeeded the Conqueror,
is said to have exempted all ships entering the river Fleet with stone
or other materials for the new cathedral, from toll and custom; and it
is not improbable that he might take this structure under his own
particular direction.

But notwithstanding the length of time, and the great expence bestowed
upon this church, it had not long been compleated, when it was thought
not sufficiently magnificent; the steeple was therefore rebuilt and
finished about the year 1221; and then Roger Niger being promoted to the
see of London in 1229, proceeding with the choir compleated it in 1240,
and solemnly consecrated it afresh the same year, in the presence of the
King, the Pope’s Legate, and many Lords both spiritual and temporal.

The spacious and magnificent edifice of St. Paul’s cathedral, being thus
finished, a survey was taken of it, by which its dimensions appear to
have been as follows. The length of the body of the church was 690 feet;
the breadth 130; the height of the roof of the west part within 102
feet; that of the east 88; and that of the body 150; the height of the
tower from the ground was 260 feet; from whence rose a wooden spire
covered with lead 274 feet in length; on the top of which was a ball
nine feet one inch in circumference. This was crowned with a cross that
was fifteen feet in length, and the traverse six feet.

The ornaments of this cathedral exceeded those of every other church in
the kingdom. The high altar stood between two columns, adorned with
precious stones, and surrounded with images most beautifully wrought,
and covered with a canopy of wood curiously painted with the
representation of Saints and Angels.

The new shrine of St. Erkenwald stood on the east side of the wall above
the high altar, and was adorned with gold, silver, and precious stones;
but not being thought sufficiently rich, in 1339 three goldsmiths of
London were retained by the Dean and Chapter to work upon it a whole
year, at the end of which its lustre was so great, that Princes, Nobles,
Ambassadors, and other foreigners of rank flocked from all parts to
visit it, and to offer their oblations before it: among these we find
all the rings and jewels of Walter de Thorp, and the best saphire stone
of Richard de Preston; which last was applied to the curing of
infirmities of the eyes, and proclamation of its virtues was made by the
express will of the donor.

The picture of St. Paul finely painted, was placed in a wooden
tabernacle on the right side of the high altar, and was esteemed a
masterly performance.

Against a pillar in the body of the church, stood a beautiful image of
the Virgin Mary; and that a lamp might be continually kept burning
before it, and an anthem sung every day, John Burnet, Bishop of Bath and
Wells, bequeathed a handsome estate.

In the center stood a large cross, and towards the north door a crucifix
at which offerings were made, that greatly increased the revenue of the
Dean and Canons.

The last piece of ornament we shall mention, was the fine dial belonging
to the great clock, which being visible to all who passed by, care was
taken that it should appear with the utmost splendor, and in particular
an angel pointed to the hour.

Under this cathedral was a parish church called St. Faith’s, in which
several persons of distinction were formerly interred: but no records
remain that mention the time when divine worship was performed in it.

St. Paul’s cathedral was encompassed with a wall about the year 1109,
which extended from the north east corner of Ave Mary lane, eastward
along Pater noster row, to the north end of the Old Change in Cheapside;
whence it ran southward to Carter lane, and passing on the north side of
it to Creed lane, turned up to Ludgate street. To this wall there were
six gates, the principal of which was situated near the end of Creed
lane in Ludgate street. The second was at St. Paul’s alley in Pater
noster row, the third at Canon alley; the fourth, called the Little
gate, was situated at the entrance into Cheapside; the fifth, called St.
Austin’s, led to Watling street; and the sixth fronted the south gate of
the church near St. Paul’s chain.

Within the north side of this enclosure was situated in the middle of
the church yard, a pulpit cross, at which sermons were preached weekly;
and here was held the folkmote, or general convention of the citizens.

Facing this cross stood the charnel, in which the bones of the dead were
decently piled up together, a thousand loads whereof were removed to
Finsbury fields in the reign of Edward VI. and there laid in a moorish
place, with so much earth to cover them, as raised a considerable mount,
on which was erected three windmills to stand upon.

On the north west corner of the church yard, was the episcopal palace,
contiguous to which on the east was a cemetery denominated Pardon Church
Haw, where Gilbert Becket erected a chapel in the reign of King Stephen.
See PARDON CHURCH.

On the east of the church yard was a clochier or bell tower by St.
Paul’s school; wherein were four great bells, called Jesus bells, from
their belonging to Jesus chapel in St. Faith’s church; but these,
together with a fine image of St. Paul on the top of the spire, being
won by Sir Miles Partridge, Knt. of Henry VIII. at one cast of the dice,
were by that gentleman taken down and sold.

It may not be improper here to take notice of the celebration of divine
service, the obsequies, anniversaries and chauntries particularly
belonging to this cathedral: as to the first, Richard Clifford, Bishop
of London, in 1414, with the consent of the Dean and Chapter, ordained
that from thence forward it should be altered from the old form, and
made conformable to the church of Salisbury, and other cathedrals within
this kingdom.

The performance of obsequies for great persons deceased, was however
retained as a peculiar privilege of this cathedral, from whence great
profits arose. Indeed “the state and order observed on these occasions,”
says Sir William Dugdale, “was little inferior to that used at the
funerals of those great personages; the church and choir being hung with
black, and escutcheons of their arms; their herses set up in wonderful
magnificence, adorned with rich banner rolls, &c. and environed with
barriers; having chief mourners and assistants, accompanied by several
Bishops and Abbots in their proper habits; the Ambassadors of foreign
Princes, many of our Nobility, the Knights of the Garter, the Lord
Mayor, and the several Companies of London, who all attended with great
devotion at these ceremonies.” This author adds a list of Emperors,
Empresses, and Kings performed in this cathedral.

As to anniversaries, those of the conversion and commemoration of St.
Paul, the consecration of the church, and the canonization of St.
Erkenwald, were the principal. It is very remarkable, with respect to
the first of these anniversaries, that Sir William le Baud, Knt. in the
third year of Edward I. granted a good fat doe annually on the day of
the conversion of St. Paul, and a good fat buck upon the day of
commemoration, which till the reign of Queen Elizabeth were received
with great formality at the steps of the choir, by the Canons cloathed
in their sacred vestments, with garlands of flowers on their heads.
Camden, who was an eye witness of this solemnity, says, that the horns
of the buck were carried on a spear in procession round the inside of
the church, the men blowing horns, &c. and then the buck being offered
at the high altar, a shilling was ordered by the Dean and Chapter for
the entertainment of the servants who brought it, and this concluded the
ceremony.

The anniversaries of the consecration and canonization, were celebrated
at the public expence: but there were other anniversaries of a private
nature, provided for by particular endowments, as that of Sir John
Poultney, Knt. who had been four times Lord Mayor of London, and
assigned annual salaries to all who bore office about the church,
together with an allowance of 6_s._ 8_d._ to the Lord Mayor, 5_s._ to
the Recorder; 6_s._ 8_d._ to the two Sheriffs; 3_s._ 4_d._ to the Common
Crier; 6_s._ 8_d._ to the Lord Mayor’s serjeants, and 6_s._ 8_d._ to the
Master of the college of St. Laurence Poultney, provided they were
present at his anniversary; but if any were absent, their share were to
be distributed to the poor. There were many other anniversaries of the
same kind.

The chauntries founded by men of condition for the maintenance of one or
two priests, to celebrate divine service daily, for the release from
purgatory of their souls, the souls of their dearest friends and
relations, and of all the faithful deceased; but these were in a short
time increased to such a degree, and the endowments were so slender,
that so early as the reign of Richard II. Bishop Baybroke caused
forty-four of them to be united into one solemn service.

Having thus taken a transient survey of this magnificent edifice, in its
flourishing state, with all its appendages, we shall now view its
decline, and trace this venerable Gothic structure to its final
destruction.

The first remarkable misfortune that befel it was in 1444, when about
two o’clock in the afternoon, its lofty wooden spire was fired by
lightning; but by the assiduity of the citizens, it was soon seemingly
extinguished: however to their great surprise and terror it broke out
again with redoubled fury at about nine o’clock at night; but by the
indefatigable pains of the Lord Mayor and citizens, it was at last
effectually extinguished. The damage was not however fully repaired till
the year 1462, when the spire was compleated, and a beautiful fane of
gilt copper in the form of an eagle was placed upon it.

About an hundred years after this accident, another of the same kind
happened to it, generally attributed to the same cause, but much more
fatal in its consequences; the fire consuming not only the fine spire,
but the upper roof of the church, and that of the aisles for in the
space of four hours it burnt all the rafters, and every thing else that
was combustible: but though it was universally believed that this fire
was occasioned by lightning, yet, Dr. Heylin says, that an ancient
plumber confessed at his death, that it was occasioned through his
negligence in carelessly leaving a pan of coals in the steeple, while he
went to dinner, which taking hold of the dry timber in the spire, was
got to such a height at his return, that he judged it impossible to
quench it, and therefore concluded it would be more consistent with his
safety, not to contradict the common report.

This calamity was followed by a general contribution among the clergy,
nobility, great officers of state, the city of London, and the Queen
herself, who gave a thousand marks in gold towards its speedy repair,
with a warrant for a thousand loads of timber to be cut in any of her
woods, wherever it should be found most convenient; so that in five
years time, the timber roofs were entirely finished, and covered with
lead, the two largest being framed in Yorkshire, and brought by sea; but
some difference in opinion arising about the model of the steeple, that
part of the work was left unattempted; and it was never after rebuilt;
for upon raising the roofs the walls were found to be so much damaged by
the fire, that it was judged necessary to make a general repair of the
whole building; but this was deferred for a long time.

At length Mr. Henry Farley, after above eight years earnest solicitation
of King James I. prevailed on his Majesty to interpose in order to
prevent the ruin of this venerable fabric, when that Prince, considering
of what importance appearances are in the promotion of public zeal,
caused it to be rumoured abroad, that on Sunday the 26th of March 1620,
he would be present at divine service in St. Paul’s cathedral.

Accordingly at the day appointed, his Majesty came thither on horseback
in all the pomp of royalty, attended by the principal nobility and great
officers of his court, and was met by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and
Livery in their formalities, who, upon the King’s alighting at the great
west door, joined in the procession. When his Majesty entered the
church, he kneeled near the brazen pillar, where he prayed for success;
and then was received under a canopy, supported by the Dean and
Residentiaries, the rest of the Prebends and Dignitaries, with the whole
company of singing men advancing before him to the choir, which, on this
occasion, was richly adorned with hangings. Here he heard an anthem, and
then proceeded to the cross, where Dr. King, Bishop of London, preached
a sermon suitable to the occasion, from a text given him by his Majesty,
in Psalm cii. 13, 14. and this sermon was afterwards circulated with
considerable effect through the whole kingdom. After divine service was
ended, his Majesty and the whole court were splendidly entertained at
the Bishop’s palace, where a consultation was held, in which it was
agreed to issue a commission under the great seal, directed to the
principal personages in the kingdom, empowering them to consider of the
necessary repairs, and to raise money for carrying them into execution.
But tho’ the commissioners afterwards met to prosecute this enquiry,
yet, as it was found that the ruin of the Bishop and principal
Dignitaries of the cathedral was chiefly aimed at, the whole affair came
to nothing.

However, in the succeeding reign another commission was obtained for the
same purpose, by the assiduity of Archbishop Laud, which was attended
with better success; so that in 1632, Inigo Jones, his Majesty’s
Surveyor-general, was ordered to begin there pairs at the south east
end, and to bring them along by the south to the west end.

That celebrated architect prosecuted the work with such diligence, that
in nine years time, the whole was finished both within and without,
except the steeple, which was intended to be entirely taken down, and a
magnificent portico of the Corinthian order, was also erected at the
west end, at the sole expence of King Charles I. ornamented with the
statues of his royal father and himself.

Every thing being now in readiness for erecting the steeple and spire,
which were to be of stone, an estimate was made of the money
contributed, and that already expended in repairs; whereby it appeared
that 101,330_l._ 4_s._ 8_d._ had been received into the chamber of
London on this account, and but 35,551_l._ 2_s._ 4_d._ paid out, so that
there appeared to be a fund in hand sufficient to erect it in the most
magnificent manner: but the flames of civil war soon after breaking out,
a period was put to this great design.

The revenues were now seized, the famous Pulpit Cross in the church yard
was pulled down; the scaffolding of the steeple was assigned by
parliament for the payment of arrears due to the army; the body of the
church was converted into saw pits; part of the south cross was suffered
to tumble down; the west part of the church was converted into a stable;
and the stately new portico into shops for milliners and others, with
lodging rooms over them, at the erecting of which, Dr. Heylin observes,
the magnificent columns were piteously mangled, being obliged to make
way for the ends of beams, which penetrated their centers.

However, at the restoration, a new commission was procured for its
immediate reparation, and great sums of money raised by a voluntary
contribution; but before any thing material could be accomplished, the
dreadful fire of London reduced the whole edifice to little better than
a heap of ruins.

After two years fruitless labour in endeavouring to fit up some part of
the old fabric for divine worship, it was found to be incapable of any
substantial repair. It was therefore resolved to raze the foundations of
the old building, and to erect on the same spot a new cathedral that
should equal, if not exceed the splendor of the old; for this end
letters patent were granted to several Lords spiritual and temporal,
authorising them to proceed in the work, and appointing Dr. Christopher
Wren, Surveyor-general of all his Majesty’s works, to prepare a model.
Contributions came in so extremely fast, that in the first ten years
above 126,000_l._ was paid into the chamber of London; a new duty for
the carrying on of this work was laid on coals, which at a medium
produced 5000_l._ _per annum_, and his Majesty generously contributed
1000_l._ a year, towards carrying on the work.

Dr. Wren, afterwards Sir Christopher, was now called upon to produce his
designs; he had before drawn several, in order to discover what would be
most acceptable to the general taste; and finding that persons of all
degrees declared for magnificence and grandeur, he formed a very noble
one, conformable to the best style of the Greek and Roman architecture,
and having caused a large model to be made of it in wood, with all its
ornaments, he presented it to his Majesty; but the Bishops not approving
of it, as not enough of a cathedral fashion, the Surveyor was ordered to
amend it, upon which he produced the scheme of the present structure,
which was honoured with his Majesty’s approbation. The first design,
however, which was only of the Corinthian order, like St. Peter’s at
Rome, the Surveyor set a higher value upon than on any other he ever
drew, and as the author of his life observes, would have put it in
execution with more cheerfulness, than that which we now see erected.
This curious model is still preserved in the cathedral, and may be seen
at a small expence.

In the year 1675, Dr. Wren began to prosecute the work; the pulling down
the old walls, which were eighty feet high, and clearing the rubbish,
had cost many of the labourers their lives; and this put him upon
contriving to facilitate its execution by art. The first project he
tried was with gunpowder; for on their coming to the tower of the
steeple, the men absolutely refused to work upon it; for its height
struck the most hardy of them with terror. He therefore caused a hole of
about four feet wide to be dug in the foundation of the north west
pillar, it being supported by four pillars each fourteen feet diameter,
and then with tools made on purpose, wrought a hole two feet square into
the center of the pillar, in which he placed a little deal box,
containing only eighteen pounds of powder. A cane was fixed to the box
with a match, and the hole closed up again with as much strength as
possible.

Nothing now remained but to set fire to the train, and the Surveyor was
exceeding curious to observe the effect of the explosion, which indeed
was wonderful; for this small quantity of powder not only lifted up the
whole angle of the tower, with two arches that rested upon it; but also
the two adjoining arches of the isles, and all above them; and this it
seemed to do somewhat leisurely, cracking the walls to the top, and
lifting up visibly the whole weight about nine inches, which suddenly
tumbling to its center, again caused an enormous heap of ruin, without
scattering, and it was half a minute before this huge mountain opened in
two or three places and emitted smoke. The shock of so great a weight
from a height of two hundred feet, alarmed the inhabitants round about
with the terrible apprehensions of an earthquake.

A second trial of the same kind, was made by a person appointed by Dr.
Wren, who being too wise in his own conceit, disobeyed the orders he had
received, put in a greater quantity of powder, and omitted to take the
same care in closing up the hole, or digging to the foundation; but
though this second trial had the desired effect, yet one stone was shot
as from the mouth of a cannon to the opposite side of the church yard,
and entered a private room where some women were at work; but no other
damage was done, besides spreading a panic among the neighbours, who
instantly made application above against the farther use of gunpowder,
and orders were issued from the council board accordingly.

The Surveyor being now reduced to the necessity of making new
experiments, resolved to try the battering ram of the ancients, and
therefore caused a strong mast forty feet long to be shod with iron at
the biggest end, and fortified every way with bars and ferrels, and
having caused it to be suspended set it to work. Thirty men were
employed in vibrating this machine, who beat in one place against the
wall a whole day without any visible effect. He however bid them not
despair, but try what another day would produce; and on the second day
the wall was perceived to tremble at the top, and in a few hours it fell
to the ground.

In clearing the foundation, he found that the north side had been
anciently a great burying place; for under the graves of these latter
ages, he found in a row the graves of the Saxons, who cased their dead
in chalk stones; tho’ persons of great eminence were buried in stone
coffins: below these were the graves of the ancient Britons, as was
manifest from the great number of ivory and wooden pins found among the
mouldered dust; for it was their method only to pin the corpse in
woollen shrouds, and lay them in the ground, and this covering being
consumed, the ivory and wooden pins remained entire.

At a still greater depth he discovered a great number of Roman
potsheards, urns, and dishes, sound, and of a beautiful red like our
sealing wax; on the bottoms of some of them were inscriptions, which
denoted their having been drinking vessels; and on others, which
resembled our modern sallad dishes, beautifully made and curiously
wrought, was the inscription DZ. PRIMANI. and on others, those of
PATRICI. QUINTIMANI. VICTOR. IANUS. RECINIO, &c. The pots and several
glass vessels were of a murrey colour; and others resembling urns, were
beautifully embellished on the outsides with raised work, representing
grey hounds, stags, hares, and rose trees. Others were of a cinnamon
colour, in the form of an urn, and tho’ a little faded, appeared as if
they had been gilt. Some resembling juggs formed an hexagon, and were
curiously indented and adorned with a variety of figures in basso
relievo.

The red vessels appeared to have been the most honourable; for on them
were inscribed the names of their deities, heroes, and judges; and the
matter of which these vessels were made, was of such an excellent
composition, as to vie with polished metal in beauty.

There were also discovered several brass coins, which by their long
continuance in the earth were become a prey to time; but some of them
that were in a more favourable soil, were so well preserved as to
discover in whose reign they were coined: on one of them was Adrian’s
head, with a galley under oars on the reverse; and on others, the heads
of Romulus and Remus, Claudius and Constantine.

At a somewhat smaller depth were discovered a number of _lapilli_ or
_tesselæ_, of various sorts of marble, viz. Egyptian, Porphyry, Jasper,
&c. in the form of dice, which were used by the Romans in paving the
_prætorium_, or General’s tent. _Conyers M. S. in the Sloanian library,
in the Museum._

On searching for the natural ground, Dr. Wren perceived that the
foundation of the old church stood upon a layer of very close and hard
pot earth, on the north side about six feet deep, but gradually thinning
towards the south, till on the declivity of the hill, it was scarce four
feet; yet he concluded that the same ground which had borne so weighty a
building before, might reasonably be trusted again. However, boring
beneath this, he found a stratum of loose sand; and lower still, at low
water mark, water and sand mixed with periwinkles and other sea shells;
under this, a hard beach; and below all the natural bed of clay that
extends far and wide, under the city, country, and river.

The foundations appeared to be those originally laid, consisting of
Kentish rubble stone, artfully worked and consolidated with exceeding
hard mortar, after the Roman manner, much excelling what he found in the
superstructure. What induced him to change the scite of the church, and
eraze the old foundations which were so firm, was the desire of giving
the new structure a more free and graceful aspect; yet after all, he
found himself too much confined; and unable to bring his front to lie
exactly from Ludgate. However, in his progress he met with one
misfortune that made him almost repent of the alteration he had made; he
began the foundation from the west to the east, and then extending his
line to the north east, where he expected no interruption, he fell upon
a pit, where the hard crust of pot earth, already mentioned, had been
taken away, and to his unspeakable mortification, filled up with
rubbish: he wanted but six or seven feet to complete his design, yet
there was no other remedy but digging thro’ the sand, and building from
the solid earth, that was at least forty feet deep. He therefore sunk a
pit eighteen feet wide, tho’ he wanted at most but seven, thro’ all the
strata, that has been already mentioned, and laid the foundations of a
square pier of solid good masonry, which he carried up till he came
within fifteen feet of the present surface; and then turned a short arch
under ground to the level of the stratum of hard pot-earth, upon which
arch the north east coin of the choir now stands.

This difficulty being surmounted, and the foundations laid, he for
several reasons made choice of Portland stone for the superstructure;
but chiefly as the largest scantlings were to be procured from thence:
however, as these could not be depended upon for columns exceeding four
feet in diameter, this determined this great architect to make choice of
two orders instead of one, and an Attic story, as at St. Peter’s at
Rome, in order to preserve the just proportions of his cornice,
otherwise the edifice must have fallen short of its intended height.
Bramante in building St. Peter’s, though he had the quarries of Tivoli
at hand, where he could have blocks large enough for his columns of nine
feet diameter, yet for want of stones of suitable dimensions, was
obliged to diminish the proportions of the proper members of his
cornice; a fault against which Dr. Wren resolved to guard. On these
principles he therefore proceeded, in raising the present magnificent
edifice.

The general form of St. Paul’s cathedral is a long cross: the walls are
wrought in rustic, and strengthened as well as adorned by two rows of
coupled pilasters, one over the other; the lower Corinthian, and the
upper Composite. The spaces between the arches of the windows, and the
architrave of the lower order, are filled with a great variety of
curious enrichments, as are those above.

The west front is graced with a most magnificent portico, a noble
pediment, and two stately turrets, and when one advances towards the
church from Ludgate, the elegant construction of this front, the fine
turrets over each corner, and the vast dome behind, fill the mind with a
pleasing astonishment.

At this end, there is a noble flight of steps of black marble, that
extend the whole length of the portico, which consists of twelve lofty
Corinthian columns below, and eight of the Composite order above; these
are all coupled and fluted. The upper series supports a noble pediment
crowned with its acroteria. In this pediment is a very elegant
representation in bas relief, of the conversion of St. Paul, which was
executed by Mr. Bird, an artist, who, by this piece, has deserved to
have his name transmitted to posterity. Nothing could have been
conceived more difficult to represent in bas relief than this
conversion; the most striking object being naturally the irradiation of
light, but even this is well expressed, and the figures are excellently
performed. The magnificent figure of St. Paul, also on the apex of the
pediment, with St. Peter on his right and St. James on his left, have a
fine effect. The four Evangelists with their proper emblems on the front
of the towers, are also very judiciously disposed, and well executed:
St. Matthew is distinguished by an angel: St. Mark, by a lion; St. Luke,
by an ox; and St. John, by an eagle.

To the north portico, there is an ascent by twelve circular steps of
black marble; and its dome is supported by six large Corinthian columns,
forty-eight inches in diameter. Upon the dome is a large and well
proportioned urn, finely ornamented with festoons; and over this is a
pediment supported by pilasters in the wall, in the face of which is the
royal arms, with the regalia, supported by angels. And lest this view of
the cathedral should appear void of sufficient ornament, the statues of
five of the Apostles are placed on the top at proper distances.

The south portico answers to the north, and is placed directly opposite
to it. This, like the other, is a dome supported by six noble Corinthian
columns: but, as the ground is considerably lower on this, than on the
other side of the church, the ascent is by a flight of twenty-five
steps. This portico has also a pediment above, in which is a phœnix
rising out of the flames with the motto RESURGAM underneath it, as an
emblem of the rebuilding the church after the fire. This device had
perhaps its origin from an incident, which happened at the beginning of
the work, and was particularly remarked by the architect as a favourable
omen. When Dr. Wren himself had set out upon the place the dimensions of
the building, and fixed upon the center of the great dome, a common
labourer was ordered to bring him a flat stone, the first he found among
the rubbish, to leave as a mark of direction to the masons; the stone
which the fellow brought for this purpose, happened to be a piece of a
grave stone with nothing remaining of the inscription but this single
word in large capitals, RESURGAM; a circumstance which Dr. Wren never
forgot. On this side of the building are likewise five statues, which
take their situation from that of St. Andrew on the apex of the last
mentioned pediment.

At the cast end of the church is a sweep or circular projection for the
altar, finely ornamented with the orders, and with sculpture,
particularly a noble piece in honour of his Majesty King William III.

The dome which rises in the center of the whole, appears extremely
grand. Twenty feet above the roof of the church is a circular range of
thirty-two columns, with niches placed exactly against others within.
These are terminated by their entablature, which supports a handsome
gallery adorned with a balustrade. Above these columns is a range of
pilasters, with windows between; and from the entablature of these the
diameter decreases very considerably; and two feet above that it is
again contracted. From this part the external sweep of the dome begins,
and the arches meet at fifty-two feet above. On the summit of the dome
is an elegant balcony; and from its center rises the lanthorn adorned
with Corinthian columns; and the whole is terminated by a ball, from
which rises a cross, both elegantly gilt. These parts, which appear from
below of a very moderate size, are extremely large.

This vast and noble fabric, which is 2292 feet in circumference, and 340
feet in height to the top of the cross, is surrounded at a proper
distance by a dwarf stone wall, on which is placed the most magnificent
balustrade of cast iron perhaps in the universe, of about five feet six
inches in height, exclusive of the wall. In this stately enclosure are
seven beautiful iron gates, which, together with the banisters, in
number about 2500, weigh two hundred tons and eighty-one pounds, which
having cost 6_d._ per pound, the whole, with other charges, amounted to
11,202_l._ and 6_d._

In the area of the grand west front, on a pedestal of excellent
workmanship, stands a statue of Queen Anne, formed of white marble with
proper decorations. The figures on the base represent Britannia with her
spear; Gallia, with a crown in her lap; Hibernia, with her harp; and
America with her bow. These, and the colossal statues with which the
church is adorned, were all done by the ingenious Mr. Hill, who was
chiefly employed in the decorations.

The north east part of the church yard is conferred by the Dean and
Chapter upon the inhabitants of St. Faith’s parish, which is united to
St. Austin’s, for the interment of their dead; as is also the south east
part of the cemetery, with a vault therein, granted to St. Gregory’s
parish for the same use.

On ascending the steps at the west end, we find three doors ornamented
on the top with bas relief; the middle door, which is by far the
largest, is cased with white marble, and over it is a fine piece of
basso relievo, in which St. Paul is represented preaching to the
Bereans. On entering this door, on the inside of which hang the colours
taken from the French at Louisbourg in 1758, the mind is struck by the
nobleness of the vista; an arcade supported by lofty and massy pillars
on each hand, divide the church into the body and two isles, and the
view is terminated by the altar at the extremity of the choir. The above
pillars are adorned with columns and pilasters of the Corinthian and
Composite orders, and the arches of the roof enriched with shields,
festoons, chaplets and other ornaments.

In the isle on one hand is the consistory, and opposite to it on the
other is the morning prayer chapel, where divine service is performed
every morning early, Sunday excepted: each of these have a very
beautiful screen of carved wainscot, that is admired by the best judges,
and each are adorned with twelve columns, arched pediments and the royal
arms, finely decorated.

On proceeding forward, you come to the large cross isle between the
north and south porticos; over which is the cupola. Here you have a view
of the whispering gallery, of the paintings above it, and the concave,
which fills the mind with surprise and pleasure. Under its center is
fixed in the floor a brass plate, round which the pavement is
beautifully variegated; but the figures into which it is formed can no
where be so well seen as from the whispering gallery.

You have now a full view of the organ, richly ornamented with carved
work, with the entrance to the choir directly under it. The two isles on
the sides of the choir, as well as the choir itself, are here enclosed
with very fine iron rails and gates.

The organ gallery is supported by eight Corinthian columns of blue and
white marble, and the choir has on each side thirty stalls, besides the
Bishop’s throne on the south side, and the Lord Mayor’s on the north.
The carving of the beautiful range of stalls as well as that of the
organ, is much admired.

Here the reader’s desk, which is at some distance from the pulpit, is an
enclosure of very fine brass rails gilt, in which is a gilt brass pillar
supporting an eagle of brass gilt, which holds the book on his back and
expanded wings.

The altar piece is adorned with four noble fluted pilasters painted and
veined with gold in imitation of lapis lazuli, and their capitals are
double gilt. In the intercolumniations are twenty-one pannels of figured
crimson velvet, and above them six windows, in two series.

The floor of the choir, and indeed of the whole church, is paved with
marble: but within the rails of the altar with porphyry, polished and
laid in several geometrical figures.

But to be more particular: as the disposition of the vaultings within is
an essential beauty, without which many other ornaments would lose their
effect, so the architect was particularly careful in this respect. “The
Romans,” says the author of the _Parentalia_, “used hemispherical
vaultings, and Sir Christopher chose those as being demonstrably lighter
than the diagonal cross vaults: so the whole vault of St. Paul’s
consists of twenty-four cupolas cut off semicircular, with segments to
join to the great arches one way, and which are cut across the other,
with eliptical cylinders to let in the upper lights of the nave; but in
the isles the lesser cupolas are both ways cut in semicircular sections,
and altogether make a graceful geometrical form, distinguished with
circular wreaths which is the horizontal section of the cupola; for the
hemisphere may be cut all manner of ways into circular sections; and the
arches and wreaths being of stone carved, the spandrels between are of
sound brick, invested with stucco of cockle-shell lime, which becomes as
hard as Portland stone; and which having large planes between the stone
ribs, are capable of the farther ornaments of painting, if required.

“Besides these twenty-four cupolas, there is a half cupola at the east,
and the great cupola of 108 feet in diameter at the middle of the
crossing of the great isles. In this the architect imitated the Pantheon
at Rome, excepting that the upper order is there only umbratile, and
distinguished by different coloured marbles; in St. Paul’s it is extant
out of the wall. The Pantheon is no higher within than its diameter; St.
Peter’s is two diameters; this shews too high, the other too low; St.
Paul’s is a mean proportion between both, which shews its concave every
way, and is very lightsome by the windows of the upper order, which
strike down the light thro’ the great colonade that encircles the dome
without, and serves for the abutment of the dome, which is brick of two
bricks thick; but as it rises every way five feet high, has a course of
excellent brick of eighteen inches long banding thro’ the whole
thickness; and moreover, to make it still more secure, it is surrounded
with a vast chain of iron strongly linked together at every ten feet.
This chain is let into a channel cut into the bandage of Portland stone,
and defended from the weather by filling the groove with lead.

“The concave was turned upon a center; which was judged necessary to
keep the work even and true, though a cupola might be built without a
center; but it is observable that the center was laid without any
standards from below to support; and as it was both centering and
scaffolding, it remained for the use of the painter. Every story of this
scaffolding being circular, and the ends of all the ledgers meeting as
so many rings, and truly wrought, it supported itself. This machine was
an original of the kind, and will be an useful project for the like
work, to an architect hereafter.

“It was necessary to give a greater height than the cupola would
gracefully allow within, tho’ it is considerably above the roof of the
church; yet the old church having before had a very lofty spire of
timber and lead, the world expected that the new work should not, in
this respect, fall short of the old; the architect was therefore obliged
to comply with the humour of the age, and to raise another structure
over the first cupola; and this was a cone of brick, so built as to
support a stone lanthorn of an elegant figure, and ending in ornaments
of copper gilt.

“As the whole church above the vaulting is covered with a substantial
oaken roof, and lead, the most durable covering in our climate, so he
covered and hid out of sight the brick cone, with another cupola of
timber and lead; and between this and the cone, are easy stairs that
ascend to the lanthorn. Here the spectator may have a view of such
amazing contrivances as are indeed astonishing. He forbore to make
little luthern windows in the leaden cupola, as are done out of St.
Peter’s, because he had otherwise provided for light enough to the
stairs from the lanthorn above, and round the pedestal of the same,
which are now seen below; so that he only ribbed the outward cupola,
which he thought less Gothic than to stick it full of such little lights
in three stories one above another, as is the cupola of St. Peter’s,
which could not without difficulty be mended, and, if neglected, would
soon damage the timbers.”

As Sir Christopher was sensible, that paintings, tho’ ever so excellent,
are liable to decay, he intended to have beautified the inside of the
cupola with mosaic work, which strikes the eye of the beholder with
amazing lustre, and without the least decay of colours, is as durable as
the building itself; but in this he was unhappily over-ruled, tho’ he
had undertaken to procure four of the most eminent artists in that
profession from Italy; this part is however richly decorated and painted
by Sir James Thornhill, who has represented the principal passages of
St. Paul’s life in eight compartments, viz. his conversion; his
punishing Elymas, the sorcerer, with blindness; his preaching at Athens;
his curing the poor cripple at Lystra, and the reverence paid him there
by the priests of Jupiter as a God; his conversion of the jailer; his
preaching at Ephesus, and the burning of the magic books in consequence
of the miracles he wrought there; his trial before Agrippa; his
shipwreck on the island of Melita, or Malta, with the miracle of the
viper. These paintings are all seen to advantage by means of a circular
opening, through which the light is transmitted with admirable effect
from the lanthorn above.

The highest or last stone on the top of the lanthorn, was laid by Mr.
Christopher Wren, the son of this great architect, in the year 1710; and
thus was this noble fabric, lofty enough to be discerned at sea
eastward, and at Windsor to the west, begun and compleated in the space
of thirty-five years, by one architect, the great Sir Christopher Wren;
one principal mason, Mr. Strong; and under one Bishop of London, Dr.
Henry Compton: whereas St. Peter’s at Rome, the only structure that can
come in competition with it, continued an hundred and fifty five years
in building, under twelve successive architects; assisted by the police
and interests of the Roman see; attended by the best artists of the
world in sculpture, statuary, painting and mosaic work; and facilitated
by the ready acquisition of marble from the neighbouring quarries of
Tivoli.

_The curiosities in this cathedral which strangers pay for seeing._ On
entering the south door, there is a pair of stairs within a small door
on the right, leading to the cupola, and the stranger by paying two
pence may gratify his curiosity with a prospect from the iron gallery at
the foot of the lanthorn, which in a clear day affords a fine view of
the river, of this whole metropolis and all the adjacent country,
interspersed with pleasant villages.

The ascent to this gallery is by 534 steps, 260 of which are so easy
that a child may without difficulty ascend them; but those above are
unpleasant, and in some places very dark; but the little light that is
afforded is sufficient to shew amazing proofs of the wonderful
contrivances of the architect. But as the first gallery, surrounded by a
stone balustrade, affords a very fine prospect, many are satisfied, and
unwilling to undergo the fatigue of mounting higher.

On the stranger’s descent he is invited to see the whispering gallery,
which will likewise cost two pence; he here beholds to advantage the
beautiful pavement of the church, and from hence he has the most
advantageous view of the fine paintings in the cupola. Here sounds are
magnified to an astonishing degree; the least whisper is heard round the
whole circumference; the voice of one person softly speaking against the
wall on the other side, seems as if he stood at our ear on this, though
the distance between them is no less than an hundred and forty feet: and
the shutting of the door resounds through the place like thunder, or as
if the whole fabric was falling asunder. To this gallery there is an
easy ascent for persons of distinction, by a most beautiful flight of
stairs.

The stranger is next invited to see the library, the books of which are
neither numerous nor valuable; but the floor is artfully inlaid without
either nails or pegs, and the wainscoting and book cases are not
inelegant.

The next curiosity is the fine model Sir Christopher first caused to be
made for building the new cathedral. It was not taken from St. Peter’s
at Rome, as is pretended; but was Sir Christopher’s own invention, and
the model on which he set the highest value; and it is a great pity,
that what was performed as the utmost exertion of the abilities of this
great architect, should be suffered to run to decay.

He is next shewn the great bell in the south tower, which weighs 84 c.
weight. On this bell the hammer of the great clock strikes the hour, and
on a smaller bell are struck the quarters.

The last thing shewn, are what are vulgarly called the geometry stairs,
which are so artfully contrived as to hang together without visible
support; but this kind of stairs, however curious in themselves, are
neither new nor uncommon. _Parentalia. Historical account of the
curiosities of London_, &c.

The cathedral church of St. Paul’s is deservedly esteemed the second in
Europe, not for magnitude only but for beauty and grandeur. St. Peter’s
at Rome is undoubtedly the first, but at the same time it is generally
acknowledged by all travellers of taste, that the outside, and
particularly the front of St. Paul’s, is much superior to St. Peter’s.
The two towers at the west end, though faulty in some respects, are yet
elegant, and the portico finely marks the principal entrance. The
loggia, crowned with a pediment, with its alto relievo and statues, make
in the whole a fine shape, whereas St. Peter’s is a straight line
without any break. The dome is extremely magnificent, and by rising
higher than that at Rome, is seen to more advantage on a near approach.
The inside, though noble, falls short of St. Peter’s. The discontinuing
the architrave of the great entablature over the arches in the middle of
the isle, is a fault the architects can never forgive. Notwithstanding,
without a critical examination, it appears very striking, especially on
entering the north or south door. The side isles though small are very
elegant, and if it does not equal St. Peter’s, there is much to be said
in defence both of it and the architect, who was not permitted to
decorate it as he intended, through a want of taste in the managers, who
seemed to have forgot that it was intended a national ornament. St.
Peter’s has all the advantages of painting and sculpture of the greatest
masters, and is encrusted with a variety of the finest marbles, no cost
being spared to make it exceed every thing of its kind. The great
geometrical knowledge of the architect can never be sufficiently
admired, but this can be come at only by a thorough inspection of the
several parts.

For the farther satisfaction of the curious reader, we shall conclude
this article with an account of the dimensions of St. Paul’s cathedral
compared with those of St. Peter’s at Rome, from an account published
some years ago: the measures of the latter being taken from the
authentic dimensions of the best architects of Rome, reduced to English
measure.

                                                    │   FEET.│   FEET.

           The PLAN, or Length and Breadth.         │     St.│     St.
                                                    │  Peter.│   Paul.

  ──────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────┬────────
  The whole length of the church and porch          │     729│     500
  The breadth within the doors of the porticos      │     510│     250
  The breadth of the front with the turrets         │     364│     180
  The breadth of the front without the turrets      │     318│     110
  The breadth of the church and three naves         │     255│     130
  The breadth of the church and widest chapels      │     364│     180
  The length of the porch within                    │     218│      50
  The breadth of the porch within                   │      40│      20
  The length of the platea at the upper steps       │     291│     100
  The breadth of the nave at the door               │      67│      40
  The breadth of the nave at the third pillar and   │      73│      40
  tribuna                                           │        │
  The breadth of the side isles                     │      29│      17
  The distance between the pillars of the nave      │      44│      25
  The breadth of the same double pillars at St.     │      29│
  Peter’s                                           │        │
  The breadth of the same single pillars at St.     │        │      10
  Paul’s                                            │        │
  The two right sides of the great pilasters of the │   65:7½│   25:35
  cupola                                            │        │
  The distance between the same pilasters           │      72│      40
  The outward diameter of the cupola                │     189│     145
  The inward diameter of the same                   │     138│     100
  The breadth of the square by the cupola           │      43│
  The length of the same                            │     328│
  From the door within the cupola                   │     313│     190
  From the cupola to the end of the tribuna         │     167│     170
  The breadth of each of the turrets                │      77│      35
  The outward diameter of the lantern               │      36│      18
  The whole space, upon which one pillar stands     │    5906│     875
  The whole space, upon which all the pillars stand │   23625│    7000


                                                    │   FEET.│   FEET.

                     The HEIGHT.                    │     St.│     St.
                                                    │  Peter.│   Paul.

  ──────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────┬────────
  From the ground without to the top of the cross   │    437½│     340
  The turrets as they were at St. Peter’s and are at│    289½│     222
  St. Paul’s                                        │        │
  To the top of the highest statues on the front    │     175│     135
  The first pillars of the Corinthian order         │      74│      33
  The breadth of the same                           │       9│       4
  Their basis and pedestals                         │      19│      13
  Their capital                                     │      10│       5
  The architrave, frize, and cornice                │      19│      10
  The Composite pillars at St. Paul’s and Tuscan at │     25½│      25
  St. Peter’s                                       │        │
  The ornaments of the same pillars above, and below│     14½│      16
  The triangle of the mezzo relievo, with its       │     22½│      18
  cornice                                           │        │
  Wide                                              │      92│      74
  The basis of the cupola to the pedestals of the   │     36½│      38
  pillars                                           │        │
  The pillars of the cupola                         │      32│      28
  Their basis and pedestals                         │       4│       5
  Their capitals, architrave, frize, and cornice    │      12│      12
  From the cornice to the outward slope of the      │     25½│      40
  cupola                                            │        │
  The lantern from the cupola to the ball           │      63│      50
  The ball in diameter                              │       9│       6
  The cross with its ornaments below                │      14│       6
  The statues upon the front with their pedestals   │     25½│      15
  The outward slope of the cupola                   │      89│      50
  Cupola and lantern from the cornice of the front  │     280│     240
  to the top of the cross                           │        │
  The height of the niches in the front             │      20│      14
  Wide                                              │       9│       5
  The first windows in the front                    │      20│      13
  Wide                                              │      10│       7


The whole expence of erecting this edifice, on deducting the sums
expended in fruitless attempts to repair the old cathedral, amounted to
736,752_l._ 2_s._ 3_d._

_St._ PAUL’S _Bakehouse court_, Godliman’s street.

_St._ PAUL’S _chain_, a lane on the south of St. Paul’s Church yard.

_St._ PAUL’S _Church yard_, 1. The area round St. Paul’s cathedral,
surrounded on the north and west chiefly by booksellers and toy-shops,
and on the south side by the makers of chairs, screens and cabinets. 2.
Behind Covent Garden church.

_St._ PAUL’S _College court_, St. Paul’s Church yard.

_St._ PAUL’S _Covent Garden_, a very noble edifice built by Inigo Jones
for a chapel, but now a parish church. See COVENT GARDEN.

PAUL’S _court_, 1. Huggen lane, Thames street. 2. Wood street, Cheapside.

PAUL’S HEAD _court_, Fenchurch street.

_St._ PAUL’S _School_, at the east end of St. Paul’s Church yard, was
founded by Dr. John Collet Dean of St. Paul’s in the year 1509, for a
Master, an Usher and Chaplain, and an hundred and fifty-three scholars;
for the teaching of whom the founder appointed a salary of 34_l._ 13_s._
4_d._ for the upper Master; for the under Master 17_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ and
for the Chaplain or third Master, 8_l._ _per annum_. He appointed the
company of Mercers trustees of this school, and by the improvement of
the estate since that time, the good management of the company, and some
additional sums left to this foundation, the salaries of the Masters are
become considerable; the upper Master having 300_l._ a year, besides the
advantage of additional scholars and boarders, by which he generally
makes about 200_l._ a year more; the second Master has 250_l._ a year,
and the third 90_l._ a year.

The original building was consumed by the fire of London, and soon after
the present structure was raised in its place. It is a very singular,
and at the same time a very handsome edifice. The central building in
which is the school, is of stone; it is much lower than the ends, and
has only one series of windows, which are large, and raised a
considerable height from the ground. The center is adorned with rustic,
and on the top is a handsome pediment, in which are the founder’s arms
placed in a shield; upon the apex stands a figure representing Learning.
Under this pediment are two windows which are square, and on each side
are two circular windows crowned with busts, and the spaces between them
are handsomely ornamented by work in relievo. Upon a level with the foot
of the pediment runs on either side a handsome balustrade, on which is
placed on each side a large bust with a radiant crown, between two
flaming vases.

The buildings at the ends of this elegant structure are narrow, and rise
to a great height. They are of brick ornamented with stone, and have
each a small door, and are crowned at the top with a small balustrade.

_St._ PAUL’S _Shadwell_, owes its existence to the increase of buildings.
Shadwell, though now joined to London, was anciently a hamlet belonging
to Stepney; but being greatly increased in the number of its
inhabitants, Thomas Neale, Esq; erected the present church in the year
1656 for their accommodation; and in 1669, this district was by act of
parliament constituted a distinct parish from that of Stepney, and
120_l._ _per annum_ was granted for the maintenance of the Rector in
lieu of tithes, besides a considerable glebe, oblations and church dues,
so that the living is worth about 324_l._ a year. _Maitland._

This church, which is but a mean edifice built with brick, is
eighty-seven feet long, and sixty-three broad; the height to the roof is
twenty-eight feet, and that of the steeple sixty. The body has a few
windows with rustic arches, and some very mean ones in the roof. At the
corners of the building are balls placed on a kind of small pedestals.
The tower is carried up without ornament, and is terminated with balls
at the corners in the same manner as the body of the church, and is
crowned with a plain low turret.

PAUL’S _wharf_, near Bennet’s Hill.☐

PAUL’S _wharf stairs_, Paul’s wharf.☐

PAY OFFICE _of the Navy_, a plain building in Broad street near London
wall, under the direction of the Treasurer and Paymaster, who pay for
all the stores for the use of the royal navy, and the wages of the
sailors in his Majesty’s service.

The Treasurer, who is the principal officer, has a salary of 2000_l._
_per annum_, and the Paymaster, who is also accomptant, has 500_l._ a
year; under this last are eight clerks who attend the payment of wages;
three, who have 80_l._ a year; and five who have 40_l._ a year each:
besides two extra-clerks, who have each 50_l._ a year. There are also
five clerks for paying bills in course, and writing ledgers, viz. three
who have 80_l._ a year; and two who have only 40_l._ a year each;
besides an extra-clerk who has 50_l._ a year.

In this office there is likewise a Cashier of the victualling, who has a
salary of 150_l._ _per annum_, and has three clerks under him, one of
70_l._ one of 50_l._ and one of 40_l._ a year.

PEACHTREE _court_, Butcher row, without Temple Bar.‡

PEACHY _court_, Sheer lane, within Temple bar.

PEACOCK _alley_, Milford lane, in the Strand.*

PEACOCK _court_, 1. Fleet market.* 2. Giltspur street, without Newgate.*
3. Whitechapel.*

PEACOCK _lane_, Newington butts.*

PEACOCK _yard_, 1. Islington.* 2. Porter’s street.* 3. Whitecross street,
Cripplegate.* 4. Whitehorse alley, Cowcross, Smithfield.*

PEAD’S _yard_, Bankside, Southwark.†

PEAK _street_, Swallow street.†

PEAL _alley_, Upper Shadwell.†

PEAL _yard_, Mint street.†

PEARL _court_, Little Pearl street, Spitalfields.* 2. White Friars.*

PEARL _street_, 1. Grey Eagle street, Spitalfields.* 2. Silver street,
Bloomsbury.*

PEARTREE _alley_, 1. Cinnamon street.‡ 2. Shoreditch.‡ 3. Wapping.‡

PEARTREE _court_, 1. Aldersgate street.‡ 2. Clerkenwell close.‡ 3. Hockley
in the Hole.‡

PEARTREE _street_, Brick lane, Old street.‡

PEASCOD _court_, St. John’s street, Smithfield.

PEAS PORRIGE _alley_, Gravel lane.‖

PEAS _yard_, Nightingale lane.

PECKHAM, a pleasant village in Surry, in the parish of Camberwell. Here is
the seat of the late Lord Trevor, built in the reign of King James II.
by Sir Thomas Bond, who being deeply engaged in the pernicious schemes
of that imprudent Prince, was obliged to leave the kingdom with him,
when the house was plundered by the populace, and became forfeited to
the crown. The front of the house stands to the north, with a spacious
garden before it, from which extends two rows of large elms, of
considerable length, through which the Tower of London terminates the
prospect. But on each side of this avenue you have a view of London; and
the masts of vessels appearing at high water over the trees and houses
up to Greenwich, greatly improve the prospect. _Peckham_, which lies on
the back side of the gardens, is shut out from the view by plantations.
The kitchen garden and the walls were planted with the choicest fruit
trees from France, and an experienced gardener was sent for from Paris
to have the management of them; so that the collection of fruit trees in
this garden has been accounted one of the best in England.

After the death of the late Lord Trevor, this seat was purchased by a
private gentleman, who began to make very considerable improvements, and
had he lived a few years longer, would have rendered it a very
delightful retreat.

There are also at Peckham several other villas, and neat houses of
retirement, inhabited by the tradesmen of London, and those who have
retired from business.

PECKHAM RYE, a village in Surry, on the south side of Peckham.

PEDLARS _street_, New Bond street.

PEEL _court_, Glasshouse yard, Goswell street.

PEEL _yard_, near Peel court, Glasshouse yard.

PEERLESS POOL, near Old street road, was formerly a spring that
overflowing its banks, caused a very dangerous pond, which from the
number of persons who lost their lives there, obtained the name of
Perilous Pool. To prevent these accidents it was in a manner filled up,
till in the year 1743, Mr. Kemp converted it into what may perhaps be
esteemed one of the compleatest swimming baths in the world; and as it
is the only one of the kind in Christendom, it may deserve a particular
notice.

You enter from a bowling-green on the south side, by a neat arcade
thirty-feet long, furnished with a small collection of modern books for
the entertainment of those subscribers who delight in reading.
Contiguous are many dressing apartments; some of which are open, and
others rendered private, all paved with purbeck stone; and on each side
of the bath is a bower divided into apartments for dressing. At the
other end is placed a circular bench, capable of accommodating forty
gentlemen at a sitting, under the shelter of a wall. One side is
inclosed by a mount 150 feet long, planted with a great variety of
shrubs, and on the top is an agreeable terrace walk planted with limes.
The pleasure bath is 170 feet long, and above 100 broad; it is five feet
deep at the bottom in the middle, and under four feet at the sides, and
the descent into it is by four pair of marble steps to a fine gravel
bottom. Here is also a cold bath, generally allowed to be the largest in
England, it being forty feet long, and twenty feet broad, with two
flights of marble steps, and a dressing room at each end; at four feet
deep is a bottom of lettice work, under which the water is five feet
deep. To these the ingenious projector has added a well stocked fish
pond 320 feet long, for the diversion of those subscribers who are fond
of angling, and adorned on each side with arbours, and with a terrace,
the slopes of which are planted with many thousand shrubs, and the walks
one of gravel, and the other of grass, are bordered with stately limes.
The east end the garden extends to a genteel public house, and the
westward is terminated by another garden, and a well-built private house
inhabited by Mr. Kemp, the son of the ingenious projector, who after
having made these improvements, changed the name from _Perilous_ to
_Peerless Pool_.

PEGHT’S _yard_, Castle lane.†

PELHAM _street_, Brick lane, Spitalfields.†

PELICAN _court_, Little Britain.*

PELICAN _stairs_, Wapping.*

PELICAN _yard_, Butcher row, East Smithfield.*

PEMBERTON’S _rents_, 1. Hand alley.† 2. New street.†

PEMBERTON _row_, Fetter lane.†

PEMELL’S _Almshouse_, at Mile-end, was founded by Mr. John Pemell, citizen
and draper, in the year 1698, for four poor drapers widows, and the same
number of seamen’s widows, to be presented by the Churchwardens of Old
Stepney parish. Each of these almswomen have an allowance of 1_s._ 8_d._
per week, half a chaldron of coals every year, and a gown every other
year. _Maitland._

PEMLICO, near Buckingham House, St. James’s Park.

PENNINGTON _street_, Old Gravel lane.†

PENNYBARBER’S _alley_, Stony lane.‖

PENNYFIELD _street_, Poplar.

PENNY POST OFFICE, an office unknown in other countries, was projected by
Mr. David Murray, an upholder in Pater noster row in the year 1683, who
by this admirable and useful project, deserves to be considered as a
benefactor to the city, and to have his name transmitted down to
posterity. He communicated the scheme to Mr. William Dockwra, who
carried it on for some time with great success, till the government laid
claim to it as a royal prerogative; Dockwra was obliged to submit, and
in return had a pension of 200_l._ _per annum_ allowed him by the King
during life.

It was erected for carrying letters not only of one sheet but of
several, to any part of this great metropolis, or the adjacent villages,
on paying only one penny on delivering the letter to be thus carried:
but at some of the more distant villages, an additional penny is
demanded of the person to whom the letter is delivered.

This office is under the direction of the Postmaster-general; who
appoints, as managers, a Comptroller, an Accomptant, a Receiver and
Comptroller’s clerk; who have under their management six sorters, and
eight subsorters of letters, seventy-four messengers, or
letter-carriers, and 334 houses within the bills of mortality, for
receiving or taking in letters, which are divided among the six offices
following; the general office in St. Christopher’s Church yard, and the
five offices called the sorting houses, one at Westminster, one at
Lincoln’s Inn, St. Paul’s office, in Pater noster row, St. Mary Overy’s
in Southwark, and the Tower hill office: besides these there are 500
shops and coffee-houses, from whence the messengers collect and carry
the letters to their proper offices every hour, where being sorted, they
are sent out again to be delivered. But as each of the six offices has a
number of villages under its peculiar direction, those letters that
require great speed should be sent to that office, whose peculiar
province it is to forward them to the village to which you would have
them sent. This renders it necessary to give a list of these villages
and places, peculiarly under the care of each office: but we shall not
attempt to follow the other writers, who have prefixed to the names of
these villages the number of times to which letters are carried to, and
returned from each; because that is entirely uncertain, and it is
sufficient that letters are carried and returned from each at least once
a day; since this is all that can be depended upon.

In the map we have given of the environs round London, the extent and
limits of the Penny Post are shewn by a circular coloured line drawn
round the city.

The chief office in St. Christopher’s alley, Threadneedle street, to
which belong, one sorter, two subsorters, twenty messengers, and
seventy-three receiving houses. This office collects, receives, conveys,
and delivers letters to and from the following places, besides what it
delivers in its own proper district in London.

    Aldersbrook
    Avery-hatch
    Barking
    Bednal green
    Bishops-hall
    Bow
    Bromley in Middlesex
    Bush-hall
    Cambridge heath
    Chigwel
    Chigwel row
    Dalston
    Edmonton
    Green-man
    Green-street
    Hackney
    Hagerstone
    Ham East and West
    Hoxton
    Jenkins
    Ilford
    Kingsland
    Layton-stone
    Loughton-hall
    Low-layton
    Locksford
    Mile-end
    Newington green
    Newington stoke
    Oldford
    Palmer’s green
    Plaistow in Essex
    Rippleside
    Ruckfolds
    Southgate
    Stepney
    Stratford
    Tottenham
    Tottenham High cross
    Valentines
    Upton
    Walthamstow
    Wansted
    Winchmore hill
    Woodford
    Woodford row, and bridge

St. Paul’s office is kept in Queen’s head alley, in Pater noster row,
which collects, receives, conveys and delivers letters to and from the
following and adjacent places, besides what it delivers within its
proper district in London.

    Black-mary’s hole
    Boarded river
    Cambray house
    Cold bath
    Copenhagen
    Frog lane
    Holloway, Upper and Lower
    Islington
    Mountmill
    Sir John Oldcastle’s
    Torrington lane
    Wood’s close

The Temple office is kept in Chichester’s rents in Chancery lane, which
collects, receives, conveys and delivers letters and parcels to and from
the following and adjacent places, besides what it delivers within its
own proper district in town.

    Battle bridge
    Bone gate
    Brill
    Cole harbour
    Coney hatch
    East Barnet
    Finchley
    Frog lane
    Hampstead
    Highgate
    Hornsey
    Kentish town
    Mussel hill
    Pancras
    Pinder of Wakefield
    South green
    Totteridge
    Whetstone
    Wood green

Westminster office is kept in Pump court near Charing cross, which
collects, receives, conveys and delivers letters and parcels to and from
the following and adjacent places, besides what it delivers within its
own proper district in town.

    Abery farm
    Acton, East and West
    Acton wells
    Barry’s walk
    Base watering
    Black lands
    Bloody bridge
    Bluncoat lane
    Bollow lane
    Boston house
    Brentford Old & New
    Brentford end
    Brent’s cow house
    Bride lane house
    Brook green
    Broom houses
    Brompton park
    Burrows
    Castle-bear
    Chelsea, Great and Little
    Chelsea college
    —— common
    —— fields
    Child’s hill
    Chiswick
    Corney house
    Counters bridge
    Cow house farm
    Crab tree house
    Dowel street
    Daws lane
    Dollars hill
    Ealing, Great & Little
    Ealing lane
    Earl’s court
    Foordhook
    Frog lane
    Fryars place
    Fulham
    Fulham fields
    Gaggle goose green
    Great and Little Holland house
    Gibb’s green
    Grain house
    Green man, in Uxbridge road
    Gunnersbury
    Gutters hedge
    Hammersmith
    Hanger end
    Hanger lane
    Haven
    Hendon
    Hide
    Hog lane
    Holsdon green
    Hoywood hill
    Hudicon fields
    Kensington
    Kensington gravel pits
    Kilborn
    Knightsbridge
    Laurence street
    Leasing green
    Lime kilns
    London stile
    Lord Mayor’s Banqueting house
    Maddox lane
    Mary bone, and Park
    Masha Mapes, and Masha Brands
    Mill hill
    Neathouses
    Neesdon
    Noman’s lands
    North end
    North highway
    Notting hills
    Paddington
    Paddington green
    Paddingwick green
    Page’s street
    Parson’s green
    Pimlico
    Purser’s cross
    Sandy end
    Shepherd’s bush
    Shevrick green
    Shoot-up hill
    Sion hill
    Sion house
    Sion lane
    St. John’s wood
    Stanford brook
    Starch green
    Strand on the green
    Sutton court, and Little Sutton
    Tottenham court
    Turnham green
    Tyburn road, and house
    Waltham green
    Wemley
    Wemley green
    Westburn green
    Westfield
    West end
    Wilsdon green
    Windmill lane

Southwark office is kept in Green dragon court, near St. Mary Overy’s
church, which collects, receives, conveys and delivers letters and
parcels to and from the following and adjacent places, besides what it
delivers within its own proper district in Southwark and London.

    Balam
    Barn-elms
    Barnstown
    Battersea
    Battersea reys
    Blackheath
    Bristow causeway
    Brockly, Upper and Lower
    Burntash
    Camberwell
    Charlton
    Clapham, and Common
    Coleharbour
    Deptford, Upper and Lower
    Dulwich, and common
    East and West Sheen
    Eltham
    Gammon hill
    Garret’s green
    Greenwich
    Grove street
    Ireland green
    Kennington
    Kew
    Kew green
    Knights hill
    Lambeth
    Lambeth marsh
    Lee
    Lewisham
    Limekilns
    Longbarn
    Longhedge
    Loughberry house
    Martin abbey and mills
    March gate
    Mitcham
    Mortlack
    Morder
    Mottingham
    New cross
    Newington butts
    Nine elms
    Norwood
    Peckham town, and Rye
    Pigs march
    Plumstead
    Putney green
    Putney heath
    Red-house
    Rickle-marsh
    Roehampton
    Rotherhithe
    Sidnam
    South Lambeth
    Stockwell
    Stretham
    Tooting, Upper and Lower
    Vauxhall
    Walworth
    Wandsworth, and Common
    Wimbleton
    Woolwich

Hermitage office is kept in Queen street on Little Tower hill, which
collects, receives, conveys and delivers letters and parcels to and from
the following and adjacent places, besides what it delivers within its
own proper district in town.

    Blackwall
    Isle of Dogs
    King David’s fort
    Lime hole
    Limehouse
    Poplar
    Ratcliff
    Stepney causeway

Several of the country messengers, and others for remote places, going
on their walks by six o’clock in the morning, letters and parcels ought
to be put in at the receiving houses before six o’clock over-night;
otherwise a whole day may be lost in the delivery: but letters for
places that are nearer, are generally collected and delivered two or
three times a day.

All general post letters, both foreign and domestic, directed to the
places above mentioned, not being post towns, are conveyed from the
aforesaid offices every day at twelve o’clock; and answers being put
into the receiving houses in the country towns, will next night be
safely carried to the General Post office, by the officers appointed for
that purpose.

PENSIONERS _alley_, King street, Westminster.

PEPPER _alley_, 1. by the Bridge Foot, in the Borough. 2. Down’s street,
Hyde Park road. 3. Goswell street.

PEPPER _alley stairs_, the next stairs above the bridge, in Southwark.

PEPPER _street_, Duke street, in the Mint.

PERKIN’S _rents_, Peter street, Soho.†

PERKIN’S _yard_, Blackman street.†

PERRIWINKLE _street_, Ratcliff cross.

PERSTON’S _yard_, in the Minories.†

PESTHOUSE _fields_, by Pesthouse row, Old street.

PESTHOUSE _row_, adjoining to the French hospital in Old street. Here
stood, till the year 1737, the city Pesthouse, which consisted of
several tenements, and was erected as a Lazaretto for the reception of
distressed and miserable objects, infected by the dreadful plague in the
year 1665. _Maitland._

PETER AND KEYS _court_, Peter lane, Cow cross, Smithfield.*

PETERBOROUGH _court_, Fleet street.

_St._ PETER AD VINCULA, situated to the north west corner of
Northumberland walk, at the end of the new armoury, in the Tower; was
founded by King Edward III. and dedicated by the name of _St. Peter in
Chains_, or St. Peter ad Vincula. This is a plain Gothic building void
of all ornament, sixty-six feet in length, fifty-four in breadth, and
twenty-four feet high from the floor to the roof. The walls, which have
Gothic windows, are strengthened at the corners with rustic, and crowned
with a plain blocking course. The tower is plain, and is crowned with a
turret.

The living is a rectory in the gift of the King, valued at about 60_l._
a year. The Rector, as Minister of the Tower garrison, is paid by his
Majesty; and the living is exempt from archiepiscopal jurisdiction.

Among the several monuments in this church is a grave stone, under which
lies buried Mr. James Whittaker, his wife and children; and upon that
stone are the following lines.

             See how the just, the virtuous, and the strong,
             The beautiful, the innocent, the young,
             Here in promiscuous dust, together lie.
             Reflect on this, depart, and learn to die.

In this church lie the ashes of many noble, and some royal personages,
executed either in the Tower, or on the hill, and deposited here in
obscurity; particularly,

George Bullen, Lord Rochford, who was beheaded on Tower hill on the 17th
of May, 1536.

Anne Bullen, wife to King Henry VIII. beheaded two days after, on a
scaffold erected on the green, within the Tower.

Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, who from a blacksmith’s son at Putney,
became the favourite of Henry VIII. and one of the most zealous
promoters of the reformation from popery; but was beheaded on Tower hill
in the year 1540.

Catharine Howard, the fifth wife of King Henry VIII. beheaded on Tower
hill on the 13th of February, 1541.

Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, beheaded on Tower hill, on the 24th of
June, 1552.

John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who lost his head at the same
place, on the 22d of Aug. 1553.

Under the communion table, lies the body of James Duke of Monmouth, the
natural son of King Charles II. beheaded for asserting his right to the
crown, in opposition to James II. on the 15th of July, 1683.

_St._ PETER’S _alley_, by St. Peter’s church, Cornhill.

_St._ PETER’S _Cheap_, a church, which stood at the corner of Wood street
Cheapside, in Faringdon ward within, but being destroyed by the fire of
London in 1666, the parish was united to St. Matthew, Friday street.

_St._ PETER’S _Cornhill_, a plain neat church, near the south east corner
of Cornhill, in the ward of that name. There has been many ages a church
in the same place, under the patronage of the same apostle: but the last
edifice was destroyed by the fire of London, and this substantial
structure rose in its place. The body is eighty feet long, and
forty-seven broad; it is forty feet high to the roof, and the height of
the steeple is an hundred and forty feet. The body is plain, and
enlightened by a single series of windows. The tower, which is also
plain, has a small window in each stage, and the dome which supports the
spire is of the lantern kind; this spire, which is well proportioned, is
crowned by a ball, whence rises the fane, in the form of a key.

The patronage of this rectory is in the Lord Mayor and Commonalty of
this city. The Rector receives, besides other profits, 120_l._ a year by
glebe, and 110_l._ a year in lieu of tithes.

_St._ PETER LE POOR, on the west side of Broad street, in the ward of that
name, is supposed by Maitland, to have received its additional epithet
_le Poor_, from the mean condition of the parish in ancient times: tho’
it is now extremely wealthy, it being inhabited by a great number of
merchants, and other persons of distinction.

Others imagine that it was called le Poor, from the neighbouring friary
of St. Austin, where reigned an affected poverty. A church stood upon
the same spot before the year 1181, and the present edifice which
escaped the fire in 1666, is supposed to have been built about the year
1540.

This Gothic structure, instead of being an ornament to the street in
which it is placed, as all public buildings ought to be, is a very great
deformity; the building itself is mean, one of its corners being thrust
as it were into the street, renders it narrow, obstructs the passage,
and destroys the vista. This structure is of very considerable breadth
in proportion to its length; it being fifty-four feet long, and
fifty-one broad: the height to the roof is twenty-three feet, and that
of the tower and turret seventy-five. The body is plain and
unornamented; the windows are very large; and the dial is fixed to a
beam that is joined on one end to a kind of turret, and extends like a
country sign post, across the street; a very rude and aukward
contrivance. The tower, which rises square, without diminution, is
strengthened at the corners with rustic; upon this is placed a turret,
which consists of strong piers at the corners arched over, and covered
with an open dome, whence rises a ball and fane.

The advowson of this church appears to have been all along in the Dean
and Chapter of St. Paul’s. The tithes at present amount to 130_l._ a
year; and the other profits by annual donations settled upon the Rector,
amount to about as much more.

PETER’S _court_, 1. Ironmonger row. 2. St. Martin’s lane, Charing cross.
3. Peter lane. 4. Rosemary lane.

PETER’S _hill_, 1. Knightrider street. 2. Saffron hill.

_St._ PETER’S _hill_, Thames street, so called from the following church.

PETER’S KEY _alley_, Cow cross, Smithfield.

PETER’S _lane_, St. John street, Smithfield.

_St._ PETER’S _Paul’s wharf_, stood at the south east corner of St.
Peter’s hill, in Thames street, in Queenhithe ward, and was anciently
denominated St. _Peter’s Parva_, or _the Little_, from its small
dimensions. This church being destroyed with most of the others, by the
fire of London, and not rebuilt, its parish is annexed to the church of
St. Bennet Paul’s wharf.

PETER’S _street_, 1. Bandy leg walk, Deadman’s place. 2. Bloomsbury. 3.
Halfmoon alley, Bishopsgate street. 4. In the Mint. 5. Stratton’s
ground, Westminster. 6. Turnmill street, Cow cross. 7. Vere street,
Claremarket. 8. Soho. 9. Westminster.

_St._ PETER’S _Westminster_. See the article ABBEY _Church of
Westminster_.

_St._ PETER’S _yard_, 1. Deadman’s place, Southwark. 2. In the Minories.

PETERSHAM, a small village in Surry, near the New Park, and a little to
the south of Richmond hill. Here stood a delightful seat built by the
late Earl of Rochester, Lord High Treasurer in the reign of King James
II. This fine house was burnt down in the year 1720, so suddenly that
the family, who were all at home, had scarcely time to save their lives.
Nor was the house, tho’ exquisitely finished both within and without,
the greatest loss sustained; the noble furniture, the curious collection
of paintings, and the inestimable library of the first Earl of
Clarendon, Lord High Chancellor of England, and author of the History of
the Rebellion, were wholly consumed; and among other valuable pieces,
several manuscripts relating to those times, and to the transactions in
which the King his Master, and himself were engaged both at home and
abroad; besides other curious collections made by that noble Author in
foreign countries.

On the ground where his house stood, the Earl of Harrington erected
another, after one of the Earl of Burlington’s designs. The front next
the court is very plain, and the entrance to the house not very
extraordinary: but the south front next the garden, is bold and regular,
and the apartments on that side, chiefly designed for state, are
extremely elegant.

The gardens were before crowded with plantations near the house; but
they are now laid open in lawns of grass: the kitchen garden, before
situated on the east side of the house, is removed out of sight, and the
ground converted to an open slope of grass, leading up to a terrace of
great length; from which is a prospect of the river Thames, the town of
Twickenham, and of all the fine seats round that part of the country. On
the other side of the terrace, is a plantation on a rising ground; and
on the summit of the hill is a fine pleasure house, which on every side
commands a prospect of the country for many miles.

PETTICOAT _lane_, extends from Whitechapel into Spitalfields. On both
sides of this lane were anciently hedges, and rows of elm trees, and the
pleasantness of the neighbouring fields induced several gentlemen to
build their houses here, among whom was the Spanish ambassador, whom
Strype supposes to be Gondomar: but at length many French refugees
settling in that part of the lane near Spitalfields in order to follow
their trades, which in general was weaving of silk, it soon became a row
of contiguous buildings. This lane is very long and very disagreeable,
both on account of its nastiness and offensive smells, it being the
chief residence of the horners, who prepare horns for other petty
manufacturers.

PETTICOAT _square_, Petticoat lane.

PETTY BAG OFFICE, next the Rolls chapel, Chancery lane. The clerks in this
office, who are three in number, are under the Master of the Rolls, and
make all patents for customers, comptrollers, and _congé d’elires_: they
also summon the Nobility, Clergy, Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses to
parliament, &c. This office takes its name from each record being there
put into a little bag.

PETTY CANONS _of St. Paul’s_. See the article Canons.

PETTY CANONS _alley_, St. Paul’s Church yard.

PETTY FRANCE, Tothill street, Westminster; thus named from its being at
first inhabited by the people of that nation.

PETTY FRANCE _alley_, Old Bethlem; so called from Petty France there, now
called New Broad street, which was originally inhabited chiefly by the
French.

PETTY WALES _yard_, Halfmoon alley.

PETTY’S _court_, Hanoway street, Tottenham court road.†

PEWTERERS, a company incorporated by letters patent, granted by King
Edward IV. in 1474.

In the year 1534, the Wardens of the Pewterers company, or their
deputies, were impowered by act of parliament to have the inspection of
pewter in all parts of the kingdom, in order to prevent the sale of the
base pewter, and the importation of pewter vessels from abroad. As a
farther encouragement, all Englishmen are by that act strictly enjoined,
not to repair to any foreign country to teach the art or mystery of
pewterers, on pain of disfranchisement: and for the more effectually
preventing the art being carried abroad, no Pewterer is to take the son
of an alien as an apprentice.

This corporation has a Master, two Wardens, twenty-eight Assistants, and
seventy-eight Liverymen, who on their admission pay 20_l._

Their hall is in Lime street, almost facing the west end of Cullum
street.

PEWTER PLATTER _alley_, Grace church street.*

PHEASANT _court_, Cow lane, Snow hill.*

PHEASANT COCK _court_, Angel alley, Houndsditch.*

PHENIX _alley_, Long Acre.*

PHENIX _court_, 1. Butcher row.* 2. High Holborn.* 3. Newgate street.* 4.
Old Change, Cheapside.*

PHENIX _street_, 1. Dyot street, St. Giles’s.* 2. Hog lane, St. Giles’s.*
3. Monmouth street, Spitalfields.*

PHENIX _yard_, Oxford street.*

PHILIP _lane_, London wall.*

PHILIP’S _court_, Grub street.†

PHILIP’S _rents_, 1. Lincoln’s Inn Fields.† 2. Maze pond street,
Southwark.†

PHILIP’S _yard_, Still alley, Houndsditch.†

PHILPOT _lane_, Fenchurch street.†

PHIPS’S _alley_, Shoreditch.†

PHYSICIANS. There was no legal restraint on the practice of physic, till
the third year of King Henry VIII. when it was enacted that none should
practise physic or surgery within the city of London, of seven miles
round, unless he were first examined, and approved by the Bishop of
London, or the Dean of St. Paul’s, (who should call to his assistance
four Doctors of physic, and for surgery, other expert persons in that
faculty) upon pain of forfeiting 5_l._ for every month such persons
should practise physic or surgery, without being thus admitted.

Seven years after this law, the Physicians were incorporated into a
college or society; allowed a common seal, and the power of annually
chusing a President, to govern all of that faculty: they were permitted
to purchase lands and tenements, and to make statutes and ordinances for
the government and correction of the college, and of all persons
practising physic within seven miles of the city: it was also enacted
that none, either within the city, or that compass, should practise,
unless first allowed by the President and the Fellows, upon pain of
forfeiting 5_l._ for every month: that four persons be chosen annually
for the examination and government of all the Physicians of the city,
and suburbs within seven miles round, and to punish them for their
offences in not performing, making, and neglecting their medicines and
receipts, by fines and imprisonments: and that neither the President,
nor any of the members of the college, should be summoned upon juries,
&c.

At their first institution there were but thirty Fellows belonging to
the college; but at their request, King Charles II. augmented their
number to forty; and King James II. considering the great increase of
this city in its buildings and inhabitants, was pleased to increase the
number to eighty, which they were not to exceed. Before this last
charter, none could be admitted a Fellow of the college, if he had not
taken his degree of Doctor in one of the universities; but now all who
have taken their degree in any foreign university, are qualified to
become Fellows.

The college has still great power in obstructing the practise of those
who are not of their body; yet by connivance or favour, others practise
physic; tho’ by law, if any one not so qualified, undertakes a cure, and
his patient dies under his hand, he is deemed guilty of felony.

To this college belong a President, four Censors, and twelve Electors.
The President is the principal member, and is annually chosen out of the
society.

The four Censors have, by charter, authority to survey, correct and
govern all Physicians, or others, that shall practise within their
jurisdiction, and to fine and imprison for offences as they shall see
cause. They may convene any Physician or practitioner before them, and
examine him concerning his skill in physic, and if he does not appear to
their summons, or upon his appearance refuses to answer, he may be fined
for every default, any sum not exceeding forty shillings; or if any
administer unwholsome and noxious medicines, he may be fined according
to discretion, net exceeding 10_l._ or imprisoned, not exceeding
fourteen days, unless for nonpayment of the fine, when it shall be
lawful to detain him in prison until it be paid.

_College of_ PHYSICIANS. This society had their first college in
Knightrider street, which was the gift of Dr. Linacre, Physician to King
Henry VIII. from whence they afterwards removed to Amen Corner, where
they had purchased an house. Here the great Dr. Harvey, who immortalized
his name by discovering the circulation of the blood, built them a
library and public hall in the year 1652, which he granted for ever to
the college, with his library, and endowed it with his estate, which he
resigned to them while living, assigning a part of it for an anniversary
oration, in commemoration of their benefactors, and to promote a spirit
of emulation in succeeding generations. However, this edifice being
consumed by the fire of London, and the ground being only upon lease,
the Fellows erected the present structure.


[Illustration:

  _College of Physicians._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Taylor sc._
]


The College of Physicians is a very noble edifice, situated near the
north west corner of Warwick lane. It is built with brick and stone.

The entrance, which is grand, is under an octangular theatre, finishing
in a dome, with a cone on the top, making a lantern to it. The inside is
elegant, finely enlightened and very capacious. This was built by Sir
Christopher Wren. The arches represented in the print are under the
theatre thro’ which you enter the area. The central building, which is
well worthy of observation, is the design of Inigo Jones, and contains
the library and other rooms of state and convenience. The ascent to the
door is by a flight of steps, and in the under part is a basement story.
The whole front is decorated with pilasters of the Ionic and Corinthian
orders; and on one side over the door case, is the statue of King
Charles II. placed in a niche, and in the other side that of Sir John
Cutler. The buildings at the two sides of the court are uniform, and
have the window cases handsomely ornamented. The orders are well
executed, and the whole edifice both beautiful and commodious.

The College of Physicians is a building of great delicacy, and eminently
deserves to be considered among the noblest ornaments of this city, is
yet so unlucky in its situation, in a narrow and dirty part of the lane,
that it can never be seen to advantage.

There is here a hall, in which the Physicians sit to give advice to the
poor gratis; a committee room; a library, furnished with books by Sir
Theodore Mayerne and the Marquis of Dorchester, who was one of the
Fellows; a great hall for the quarterly meetings of the Doctors, adorned
with pictures and sculpture; a theatre for anatomical dissection; a
preparing room, where there are thirteen tables, containing all the
muscles in the human body; and over all garrets to dry the herbs for the
use of the dispensatory.

PICCADILLY, Haymarket. There were formerly no houses in this street, and
only one shop for Spanish ruffs, which was called the Piccadilly or Ruff
shop. At present there are several noble houses in it. See DEVONSHIRE
HOUSE, BURLINGTON HOUSE. The last house built in Piccadilly is the Earl
of Egremont’s. It is of stone, and tho’ not much adorned, is elegant and
well situated for a town house, having a fine view over the Green Park,
which would be still more extended if the houses on each side were set
farther back.

PICKAX _street_, Aldersgate street.

PICKERING’S _court_, St. James’s street.†

PICKLEHERRING _stairs_, Pickleherring street, Southwark.

PICKLEHERRING _street_, near Horselydown, Southwark.

PICTURE _yard_, Back lane, near Rag Fair.

PIE-CORNER, Giltspur street, Smithfield.

PIEPOWDER _court_, a court of record incident to a fair, as a court baron
is to a manor; it is derived from the French _pié poudre_, and is said
to be so called from its expeditious proceedings in the decision of all
controversies that happen in fairs; since for the encouragement of all
traders, justice is supposed to be as quickly administered as _dust_ can
fall from the feet. _Coke’s Institutes._

During the time of Bartholomew fair, this court is held in Cloth fair by
the city of London and Mr. Edwards, for hearing and determining all
differences committed against the tenor of the proclamation made by the
Lord Mayor, on the eve of old St. Bartholomew, for the better regulation
of that fair.

PIERPOINT’S _rents_, Islington.†

PIERPOINT’S _row_, Islington.†

PIG _court_, St. Catharine’s lane.*

PIG _street_, extends from Threadneedle street to Broad street.

PILLORY _lane_, 1. Butcher row. 2. Fenchurch street.

PIN _alley_, near Rosemary lane.

PINDER’S _alley_, Shoreditch.†

PINDER’S _court_, Gray’s Inn lane.†

PINEAPPLE _court_, Woolpack alley, Houndsditch.*

PINNERS, or PINMAKERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by
King Charles I. in the year 1636.

They consist of a Master, two Wardens, and eighteen Assistants; but have
no livery.

Their hall is situated near the southeast corner of Great Winchester
street, Broad street: and is most noted for being let out for a meeting
of Independents, who meet there every Sunday morning. This is the only
Independent meeting in London, where the audience are not Calvinists. In
the afternoon it is a meeting for a congregation of general Baptists.

PINNER’S _alley_, Shoreditch.

PINNERS _court_, Broad street, leading to Pinners hall.

PIPE _alley_, Broad way, Westminster.

PIPEMAKERS _alley_, 1. Great St. Anne’s lane. 2. Whitecross street,
Cripplegate.

PIPE OFFICE, in Gray’s Inn lane, an office of the Treasury, in which all
accounts and debts due to the King are drawn out of the Remembrancer’s
office, and charged in a great roll made up like a pipe.

The chief officers are, the Clerk of the Pipe, and the Comptroller of
the Pipe. The former makes leases of the King’s lands, on his being
warranted so to do by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, or the
Chancellor of the Exchequer: and these leases are sometimes directed to
be made under the Great Seal, but for the most part pass the Exchequer:
he has under him a Deputy, and eight Attornies, the two first of whom
are Secondaries.

All accounts that pass the Remembrancer’s office, are brought to the
office of the Clerk of the Pipe, and remain there, to the end if there
be any determined debt due by any accomptant or other person, in any
such account, it may be inserted in the great roll or the pipes thereof,
and taken verbatim by the Comptroller of the Pipe into his roll, and
process may be made by him for the recovery thereof by a writ called the
_Summons of the Pipe_, which is in the nature of a _levari facias_.

All tallies that vouch the payments contained in such accounts, are
examined and allowed by the Chief Secondary in the Pipe, and remain for
ever after in this office.

The Comptroller of the Pipe writes in his roll all that is in the great
roll; and nothing entered in the great roll can be discharged without
his privity. He also writes out the summons twice every year to the
sheriffs, to levy the debts charged in the great roll of the pipe.
_Chamberlain’s Present State_. He has under him a Deputy Comptroller,
and a Clerk.

PIPE _yard_, Bristol street, Puddle dock.

PIPER’S _ground_, College street.

PISSING _alley_, St. John’s street, Smithfield.‖

PITCHER’S _court_, White’s alley, Coleman street.†

PITFIELD _street_, Hoxton.†

PITMAN’S _alley_, Gardener’s lane, Westminster.†

PLAISTERERS, a company incorporated by letters patent, granted by King
Henry VIII. in the year 1501, and confirmed by a charter granted by
Charles II. in 1667, by the name of _The Master, and Wardens of the
guild or fraternity of the blessed Mary, of Plaisterers, London_.

This company is governed by a Master, two Wardens, and thirty-two
Assistants, and has seventy-seven Liverymen, who upon their admission
pay a fine of 8_l._ They have a neat hall on the north west side of
Addle street.

PLAISTOW, a village in Essex, in the parish of West Ham.

PLAISTOW, a village near Bromley in Kent.

PLANTATION OFFICE in the treasury. See the article TRADE and PLANTATION
OFFICE.

PLAYHOUSE _passage_, 1. Bow street; leading to Covent Garden playhouse. 2.
Drury lane, leading to the playhouse there.

PLAYHOUSE _yard_, 1. Black Friars, where a playhouse was formerly
situated. 2. Whitecross street, Old street, where, according to
Maitland, the first playhouse in London was erected; on the east side of
that yard are still to be seen the ruins of the theatre.

_Clerk of the_ PLEAS OFFICE, in Lincoln’s Inn. In this office all the
officers of the Exchequer, and other privileged persons, as debtors to
the King, &c. are to have their privilege to plead, and be impleaded as
to all matters at the common law: and the proceedings are accordingly by
declarations, pleas, and trials as at the common law; because they
should not be drawn out of their own court, where their attendance is
required. In this office are four sworn Attornies. _Chamberlain’s
Present State._

_Common_ PLEAS. See _Court of_ COMMON PLEAS.

PLOUGH _alley_, 1. Bankside, Southwark.* 2. Barbican.* 3. Carey street,
Lincoln’s Inn Fields.* 4. Wapping.

PLOUGH _court_, 1. Fetter lane. 2. Gray’s Inn lane.* 3. Lombard street.*

PLOUGH AND HARROW _walk_, Nag’s Head Buildings, Hackney road.*

PLOUGHMAN’S _rents_, 1. Cow cross, near Smithfield.† 2. Turnmill street.†

PLOUGH _street_, Whitechapel.*

PLOUGH _yard_, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. Brown’s gardens, St.
Giles’s.* 3. Holborn hill.* 4. Harrow yard, Green bank.* 5. Seething
lane, Tower street.* 6. Tower ditch.*

PLOUGH YARD _School_, in Plough yard, Seething lane, was founded by James
Hickson, Esq; about the year 1689, for the education of twenty boys; for
the instruction of whom he allowed the head Master 20_l._ _per annum_, a
dwelling house, and two chaldrons of coals yearly; and to a Writing
Master 8_l._ a year. Fourteen of the children are to be of the parish of
Allhallows, Barking, and six of the hamlet of Wapping. _Maitland._

PLUMBERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King James
I. in the year 1611. This corporation is governed by a Master, two
Wardens, and twenty-four Assistants; with a livery of fifty-seven
members, who upon their admission pay a fine of 10_l._ They have a small
hall in Chequer yard, Dowgate hill. _Maitland._

PLUMBER’S _court_, High Holborn.†

PLUMTREE _court_, Plumtree street, Shoe lane.†

PLUMTREE _square_, Plumtree street, St. Giles’s.

PLUMTREE _street_, 1. St. Giles’s. 2. Shoe lane.†

POLAND _court_, Poland street.

POLAND _street_, Oxford street.

POLAND _yard_, Oxford street.

POLLIN’S _street_, Hanover street.

_The_ POND _yard_, Bankside, Southwark.

POOR JEWRY _lane_, Aldgate; so called from its being inhabited by the
Jews, on their return to England, after being expelled the kingdom by
Edward I. See OLD JEWRY.

POPE’S HEAD _alley_, 1. Broad street.* 2. A neat passage from Cornhill
into Lombard street, next to ‘Change alley.*

POPE’S HEAD _court_, in the Minories.*

POPISH CHAPELS, of these there are but few in the city of London; for as
Popery is esteemed inconsistent with the liberties of a free people,
they are therefore in a manner confined to the ambassadors, who keep
them open for those of their own religion. These are,

    1. In Butler’s alley meeting house, Grub street.
    2. Imperial ambassador’s, Hanover square.
    3. Portuguese ambassador’s chapel.
    4. Sardinian ambassador’s chapel, by Lincoln’s Inn Fields.
    5. Venetian ambassador’s chapel, Suffolk street.

POPLAR, a hamlet of Stepney, is situated on the Thames to the east of
Limehouse, and obtained its name from the great number of poplar trees
that anciently grew there. The chapel of Poplar was erected in the year
1654, when the ground upon which it was built, together with the church
yard, were given by the East India company, and the edifice erected by
the voluntary contributions of the inhabitants and others; since which
time that Company has not only allowed the Minister a convenient
dwelling house, with a garden and field containing about three acres,
but has allowed him 20_l._ _per annum_ during pleasure; wherefore this
chapel for want of an endowment continues unconsecrated.

Poplar Marsh, called the Isle of Dogs, from the great noise made by the
King’s hounds that were kept there during the residence of the royal
family at Greenwich, is rather an isthmus than an island, and is
reckoned one of the richest spots of ground in England; for it not only
raises the largest cattle, but the grass it bears is esteemed a great
restorative of all distempered cattle.

Here are two almshouses besides an hospital belonging to the East India
company.

POPLER’S _alley_, Greenbank.†

POPPET _court_, Shoe lane, Fleet street.

POPPING’S _alley_, Fleet street.†

POPPING’S _court_, Popping’s alley, Fleet street.†

PORRIDGE POT _alley_, Aldersgate street.*

PORTERS. The London porters are divided into brotherhoods, and consist of
four sorts, viz. Companies porters, Fellowship porters, Ticket porters,
and Tackle porters.

I. The companies porters land and ship off all goods and merchandizes
exported and imported to and from all parts near the west side of the
Sound, in the Baltic sea, Germany, Holland, France, Spain, Italy,
Turkey, and towards or beyond the Cape of Good Hope.

II. Fellowship porters, whose business is to land, ship off, carry or
house, all merchandize, as corn, salt, coals, and other commodities,
measurable by dry measure. They are upward of 700 in number, and their
chief governor is the Alderman of Billingsgate ward. Their quarterage is
12_d._ whereas the Ticket porters pay but 4_d._ each.

There is a very remarkable custom among the Fellowship porters, which is
as follows, viz.

By an act of Common Council, a sermon is preached to them, in the parish
church of St. Mary at Hill, the next Sunday after every Midsummer day;
when overnight they furnish the merchants and families about
Billingsgate with nosegays, and in the morning they proceed from their
place of meeting in good order, each having a nosegay in his hand:
walking through the middle isle to the communion table, every one offers
something into the two basons, for the relief of the poor, and towards
the charges of the day; and after they have passed, the deputy, the
merchants, their wives, children, and servants walk in order from their
seats, and bestow their offerings also; which is a ceremony of much
variety. The charges of their nosegays have amounted sometimes to near
20_l._ in one year.

III. The Ticket porters land and ship off goods imported or exported to
all parts of America, &c. and house all merchants goods, metals, &c.
They give ample security for their fidelity and honesty, and such as
employ them need only take notice of their names stamped on a ticket
that hangs at their girdles; that upon complaint being made to their
Governor, satisfaction may be given to such as have been injured by
them.

IV. Tackle porters are such of the Ticket porters as are furnished with
weights, scales, &c. and their business is to weigh goods.

_Rates taken by_ PORTERS _for shipping, landing, houseing and weighing_.

Sugar the hogshead, 3_d._—For weighing 4_d._

Sugar the tierce or barrel, 2_d._—For weighing 3_d._

Sugar the butt, 6_d._—For weighing 8_d._

Cotton, wool, the bag, 3_d._—The same for weighing.

Ginger, the bag, 1_d._—The same for weighing.

Melasses, the hogshead, 3_d._—For weighing 4_d._

Logwood, the ton, 1_s._—The same for weighing.

Fustick, the ton, 1_s._—The same for weighing.

Young fustick, the ton, 1_s._ 6_d._—The same for weighing.

Lignum rhodium, the ton, 1_s._ 6_d._—The same for weighing.

Lignum vitæ, the ton, 1_s._—The same for weighing.

Tobacco, the hogshead, 2_d._—The same for weighing.

Tobacco, the bundle, 1_d._—The same for weighing.

Danish, or Swedish iron, the ton, 1_s._—The same for weighing.

Narva and Riga hemp, the bundle, 6_d._—The same for weighing.

Any porter has the liberty of bringing goods into London; but may not
carry any out of the city, or from one part of it to another, unless he
be a freeman; otherwise he is liable to be arrested.

PORTERS _alley_, Basinghall street.

PORTERS _block_, Smithfield bars.

PORTER’S _court_, Basinghall street.†

PORTER’S _field_, Porter’s street.†

PORTERS _key_, Thames street.

PORTER’S _street_, 1. Blossom’s street.† 2. Newport market.†

PORTER’S _yard_, 1. Holiwell lane, Shoreditch.† 2. Whitecross street,
Cripplegate.†

PORTLAND _street_, Oxford street.

PORTPOOL _lane_, extends from Gray’s Inn lane to Leather lane.

PORTSMOUTH _corner_, Lincoln’s Inn Fields.

PORTSOKEN WARD. The word Portsoken, according to Maitland, signifies a
franchise at the gate: this ward is therefore situated entirely without
Aldgate, and contains all Whitechapel as far as the bars; Petticoat
lane, Houndsditch and the Minories. It is bounded on the east, by the
parishes of Spitalfields, Stepney, and St. George’s in the east; on the
south by Tower hill; on the west by Aldgate ward, from which it is
separated by the city wall; and on the north by Bishopsgate ward.

Its principal streets are, Whitechapel up to the bars, the Minories, and
Houndsditch; and its most remarkable buildings, the parish churches of
St. Botolph’s Aldgate, and Trinity Minories,

This ward is governed by an Alderman and five Common Council men,
including the Alderman’s Deputy; twenty-two inquest men, five
scavengers, five constables, and a beadle. The jurors returned by the
wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month
of January. _Maitland._

PORTUGAL _row_, 1. St James’s street. 2. Lincoln’s Inn Fields.

PORTUGAL _street_, 1. Piccadilly. 2. Searle’s street, Carey street.

_General_ POST OFFICE, a handsome and commodious building near the south
west extremity of Lombard street, facing Pope’s Head alley.

Of what antiquity the post is in this kingdom, is not easy to determine.
Anciently the management of the foreign mails was under the direction of
a stranger, who by the permission of the government was chosen by the
foreigners dwelling in this city, who even pretended to have a right by
prescription of chusing their own post master. However, in the year 1568
a difference arising between the Spaniards and Flemings in London, each
chose their separate post master; and this contest occasioned a
representation from the citizens to the Privy Council, to beseech her
Majesty Queen Elizabeth, to fill that important post with one of her
English subjects.

By the first accounts we find of the posts established for the
convenience of this kingdom, it appears to have been managed by several
private officers, who had their respective districts. But great
inconveniences arising from their different methods of proceeding, they
were suppressed, and a certain number of public officers erected in
their room: but these also not answering the end proposed, a General
Post Office was erected by act of parliament in the 12th of King Charles
II. in the year 1660, to be kept within the city of London, under the
direction of a Post Master appointed by the King.

By this act the General Post Master was impowered to appoint post houses
in the several parts of the country hitherto unprovided, both in post
and by-roads: the postage of letters to and from all places therein
mentioned was not only ascertained, but likewise the rates of post
horses to be paid by all such as should ride post.

At length, upon the union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, a
General Post Office was established by act of parliament in the year
1710, not only for the united kingdom of Great Britain, but likewise for
that of Ireland, and her Majesty’s plantations in North America and the
West Indies.

The office of Post Master is at present under the direction of two
Commissioners who have 2000_l._ _per annum_, and are assisted by a
Secretary of 200_l._ a year, who has four Clerks, two of 60_l._ a year,
one of 50_l._ and one of 30_l._

The other officers under the direction of the Post Master General are, a
Receiver General, who has 300_l._ _per annum_, under whom are two
clerks, who have 50_l._ a year each.

An Accomptant General who has 300_l._ _per annum_, and has a Deputy of
90_l._ a year, and three Clerks who have 50_l._ a year each.

A Comptroller of the inland office who has 200_l._ a year, and has a
Deputy of 90_l._ a year. A Solicitor to the post office who has 200_l._
a year; a Resident Surveyor, who has 300_l._ a year; and two Inspectors
of the mis-sent letters who have 100_l._ a year each.

Six Clerks of the roads, viz. Chester, 100_l._ _per annum_; Assistant,
60_l._ West, 60_l._ and Assistant, 60_l._ North, 60_l._ a year, and
Assistant, 60_l._ Bristol, 60_l._ a year, and Assistant 60_l._ Yarmouth,
60_l._ a year, and Assistant, 60_l._ Kent, 60_l._ a year, and Assistant,
50_l._ Notwithstanding the smallness of these salaries; the perquisite
of franking news papers, &c. into the country renders the profits of the
Clerks of the roads very considerable.

A Court Post who has 2_l._ a day; and a deliverer of the letters to the
House of Commons, who has 6_s._ 8_d._ a day.

There is also a Clerk of the by-nights, who has 60_l._ a year, and his
Assistant, 60_l._ Ten sorters, seven of whom have 50_l._ a year, and
three 40_l._ a year each, seven, supernumerary sorters, three at 30_l._
and four at 25_l._ each. A window man and alphabet keeper, who has
60_l._ a year; and several other officers and servants, among whom are
sixty-seven letter carriers at 11_s._ a week.

In the foreign office is a Comptroller, who has 150_l._ a year; an
alphabet keeper, who has 100_l._ _per annum_, a Secretary who has 50_l._
a year; and six Clerks, five of whom have 50_l._ a year each, and one
40_l._ a year.


Rates for carrying Letters by the Post, to any part of Great Britain and
  Ireland.


_Double letters to be paid twice as much as single, treble letters three
  times as much, and the ounce four times as much as single letters._


Every single letter not exceeding one sheet, to or from any place not
exceeding eighty miles, 3_d._

Every single letter above eighty miles, 4_d._

Every single letter from London to Berwick, or from Berwick to London,
4_d._

Every single letter from Berwick to any place within forty miles
distance, 3_d._

Carriage of every single letter a greater distance than one hundred and
forty miles 6_d._

The port of every single letter to or from Edinburgh, and to and from
Dumfries or Cockburnsperth, and between either of those places and
Edinburgh, not coming from on ship-board, 6_d._

The port of every single letter from Edinburgh to or from any place
within fifty miles distance in Scotland, 2_d._

The port of every single letter a farther distance, and not exceeding
eighty miles within Scotland, 3_d._

The port of every single letter above eighty miles within Scotland,
4_d._

Between Donachaddee in Ireland and Port-Patrick in Scotland for port of
letters and packets (over and above the inland rates) to be paid at the
place where delivered; single letter, 2_d._

The carriage of every single letter from England to Dublin, in Ireland,
or from Dublin into England, 6_d._

The carriage of every single letter from Dublin to any place within
forty miles distance, or from any place within the like distance to
Dublin, 2_d._

The carriage of every letter a farther distance than forty miles, 4_d._

And for the port of all and every the letters and packets directed or
brought from on ship-board, over and above the said rates, 1_d._


The several rates for the carriage of Letters, Packets, and Parcels; to
  or from any parts or places beyond the seas, are as follow; viz.


_Double letters to be paid for twice as much as single, treble letters
  three times as much, the ounce four times as much as the single
  letters._


All letters and packets coming from any part of France to London. Single
10_d._

All letters or packets passing from London through France, to any part
of Spain or Portugal (port paid to Bayonne) and from Spain and Portugal
through France to London, 1_s._ 6_d._ single, double 3_s._

All letters and packets passing from London through France, to any part
of Italy or Sicily by the way of Lyons, or to any part of Turky, by the
way of Marseilles, and from any of those parts thro’ France to London.
Single 1_s._ 3_d._

All letters and packets coming from any part of the Spanish Netherlands
to London. Single 10_d._

All letters and packets passing from London through the Spanish
Netherlands to any part of Italy or Sicily (port paid to Antwerp), and
from any port of Italy or Sicily, through the Spanish Netherlands unto
London. Single 1_s._

All letters and packets passing from London through the Spanish
Netherlands to any part of Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, and
all parts of the North, and from any of those parts through the Spanish
Netherlands unto London. Single 1_s._

All letters and packets passing from London through the Spanish
Netherlands to any part of Spain or Portugal; and from any part of Spain
or Portugal, through the Spanish Netherlands to London. Single 1_s._
6_d._

All letters and packets passing from any part of the United Provinces to
London. Single 10_d._

All letters and packets passing from London through the United
Provinces, for any part of Italy or Sicily, and from any part of Italy
or Sicily, through the United Provinces, to London. Single 1_s._

All letters and packets passing from London through the United
Provinces, to any part of Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, and all
parts of the North; and from any of those parts and places, through the
United Provinces, to London. Single 1_s._

All letters and packets passing from London through the United
Provinces, to any part of Spain or Portugal; and from any part of Spain
or Portugal, through the United Provinces, to London. Single 1_s._ 6_d._

All letters and packets passing from London through the Spanish
Netherlands or the United Provinces, to Hamburgh (port paid to Antwerp
or Amsterdam) and from Hamburgh through the Spanish Netherlands, or the
United Provinces, to London. Single 10_d._

All letters and packets passing between London, Spain, or Portugal, by
packet boats. Single 1_s._ 6_d._

All letters and packets passing from London to Jamaica, Barbadoes,
Antigua, Montserrat, Nevis, and St. Christopher’s, in America, and from
any of those parts to London. Single 1_s._ 6_d._

All letters and packets from London to New York, in North America, and
from thence to London. Single 1_s._

All letters and packets from any part of the West Indies, to New York
aforesaid. Single 4_d._

All letters and packets from New York to any place within sixty English
miles thereof, and thence back to New York. Single 4_d._

All letters and packets from New York to Perth Amboy, the chief town in
East New Jersey, and to Bridlington, the chief town in West New Jersey,
and from each of those places back to New York, and from New York to any
place not exceeding one hundred English miles, and from each of those
places to New York. Single 6_d._

All letters and packets from Perth Amboy and Bridlington, to any place
not exceeding sixty English miles, and thence back again. Single 4_d._

All letters and packets from Perth Amboy and Bridlington, to any place
not exceeding one hundred English miles, and thence back again. Single
6_d._

All letters and packets from New York to New London, the chief town in
Connecticut in New England, and to Philadelphia, the chief town in
Pensilvania, and from those places back to New York. Single 9_d._

All letters and packets from New London and Philadelphia, to any place
not exceeding sixty English miles, and thence back again. Single 4_d._

All letters and packets from New York and Philadelphia, to any place not
exceeding one hundred English miles, and so back again. Single 4_d._

All letters and packets from New York aforesaid, to Newport the chief
town in Rhode Island, and Providence Plantation in New England, and to
Boston, the chief town in Massachusett’s bay, in New England aforesaid;
and to Portsmouth, the chief town in New Hampshire, in New England
aforesaid; and to Annapolis, the chief town in Maryland, and from every
of those places to New York. Single 1_s._

All letters and packets from Newport, Boston, Portsmouth, and Annapolis
aforesaid, to any place not exceeding sixty English miles, and thence
back again. Single 4_d._

All letters and packets from Newport, Boston, Portsmouth, and Annapolis
aforesaid, to any place not exceeding one hundred English miles, and
thence back again. Single 6_d._

All letters and packets from New York aforesaid, to the chief offices in
Salem and Ipswich, and to the chief office in Piscataway, and to
Williamsburgh, the chief office in Virginia, and from every of those
places to New York. Single 1_s._ 3_d._

All letters and packets from the chief offices in Salem, Ipswich, and
Piscataway, and Williamsburgh aforesaid, to any place not exceeding
sixty English miles, and thence back again. Single 4_d._

All letters and packets from the chief offices in Salem, Ipswich,
Piscataway, and Williamsburgh aforesaid, not exceeding one hundred
English miles, and thence back again. Single 6_d._

All letters and packets from New York aforesaid, to Charles Town, the
chief town in North and South Carolina, and from Charles Town aforesaid
to New York. Single 1_s._ 6_d._

All letters and packets from Charles Town aforesaid, to any place not
exceeding sixty English miles, and thence back again. Single 4_d._

All letters and packets from Charles Town aforesaid, to any place not
exceeding one hundred English miles, and thence back again. Single 6_d._


         _Post letters may be sent from London every night to_


    Abingdon
    Ampthill
    Ashburton
    Attleborough
    Bath
    Beccles
    Beconsfield
    Birmingham
    Bridgewater
    Bristol
    Bromsgrove
    Burntwood
    Bury St. Edmunds
    Cambridge
    Campden
    Canterbury
    Chatham
    Chelmsford
    Chertsey
    Chester
    Chipping Norton
    Cirencester
    Claremont
    Cobham
    Colchester
    Croydon
    Darking
    Dartford
    Deal
    Derby
    Dover
    Enfield
    Epsom
    Esher in Surry
    Evesham
    Exeter
    Faringdon
    Feversham
    Gerard’s Cross
    Gloucester
    Gravesend
    Grays
    Guildford
    Ham in Surry
    Hampton Court
    Hampton Town
    Hamwick in Surry
    Hanworth
    Harborough
    Hertford
    High Wickham
    Ingateston
    Ipswich
    Isleworth
    Kelvedon
    Kingston
    Kingston Wick
    Lalam
    Leatherhead
    Leicester
    Littleton
    Liverpool
    Loughborough
    Lowstoff
    Lynn
    Maidstone
    Manchester
    Middlewich
    Moulsey in Surry
    Namptwich
    Newmarket
    Newport Pagnell
    Northampton
    Northwich
    Norwich
    Nottingham
    Oxford
    Petersham
    Plymouth
    Portsmouth
    Prescot
    Queenborough
    Richmond
    Ripley
    Rochester
    Royston
    Rumford
    Sandwich
    Saxmundham
    Shepperton
    Shiffnal
    Shrewsbury
    Sittingbourn
    Southall
    Stafford
    Stoke in Norfolk
    Stone
    Sunbury
    Taunton
    Teddington
    Thame
    Thames Ditton
    Thanet
    Thetford
    Tiverton
    Twickenham
    Uxbridge
    Walsall
    Walton
    Warrington
    Wellington
    Wells
    Weybridge
    Windham in Norfolk
    Windsor
    Wingham in Kent
    Witham
    Witton
    Wolverhampton
    Woodburn
    Worcester
    Yarmouth
    Tunbridge bag every night from Midsummer to Michaelmas only


Bags for the following towns are dispatched Mondays, Tuesdays,
Thursdays, and Saturdays; and the returns are delivered Mondays,
Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays; Arundel, Brighthelmston,
Chichester, East Grinstead, Godalmin, Haslemere, Lewes, Midhurst,
Petworth, Ryegate, Steyning, Shoreham.

On Mondays.] To France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Flanders, Sweden,
Denmark.

On Tuesdays.] To Holland, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Ireland, Scotland,
and all parts of England and Wales.

N.B. One Tuesday the packet goes to Lisbon, and the next Tuesday to the
Groyn, and so on.

On Thursdays.] To France, Spain, Italy, and all parts of England and
Scotland.

On Fridays.] To Flanders, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Holland.

On Saturdays.] To all parts of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.

Letters are returned from all parts of England and Scotland certainly,
every Monday, Wednesday and Friday; and from Wales every Monday and
Friday. But their coming from foreign parts is more uncertain on account
of the seas.

POST OFFICE _court_, a small but neat court in Lombard street, in which is
the post office.

POSTERN _passage_, Shoemaker row.

POSTERN, Bakers row.

POSTERN GATE, an ancient gate which stood at the east end of Postern row
on Tower hill. It was erected soon after the Conquest in a beautiful
manner with stones brought from Kent and Normandy, for the convenience
of the neighbouring inhabitants, both within and without the walls; but
in the second year of the reign of Richard I. William Longchamp, Bishop
of Ely, and Chancellor of England, having resolved to enlarge and
strengthen the Tower of London with an additional fortification, he
caused a part of the city wall, which extended about 300 feet from the
Tower to this gate, to be taken down, in order to make way for a strong
wall and a spacious ditch: by which means the postern being deprived of
its support on that side, fell down in the year 1440. It was afterwards
replaced by a mean building of timber, laths and loam, with a narrow
passage; but this also decayed, and has been many years removed quite
away; nothing remaining at present to preserve the name, but a few posts
to guard a narrow foot way from the encroachments of horses and
carriages.

A little to the south of the place where the gate stood, is a descent by
several stone steps to an excellent spring, much admired, which is still
called the Postern Spring.

POSTERN _row_, a row of houses on Tower hill, leading from the place where
the postern gate formerly stood.

POTTERS _fields_, 1. Back lane, Southwark. 2. Pickleherring lane.

POTTLEPOT _alley_, St. Catharine’s by the Tower.*

POVERTY _lane_, Brook street.‖

POULTNEY _court_, Cambridge street.

POULTON’S _court_, near Broad street.†

POULTERERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Henry VII.
in the year 1504.

They have a Master, two Wardens, twenty-three Assistants, and a livery
of an hundred and six members, who on their admission pay a fine of
20_l._ but they have no hall.

POULTRY, a street which extends from the Mansion house to Cheapside, and
was so denominated from the Poulterers stalls which anciently extended
along that street from Stocks market. _Maitland._ See SCALDING _alley_.

POULTRY COMPTER, one of the city prisons, so denominated from its use and
situation: for this prison belonging to one of the Sheriffs, Maitland
supposes, might possibly be named the Compter, from the prisoners being
obliged to account for the cause of their commitment before their
discharge: and the addition of Poultry is added from its situation in
that street, to distinguish it from the Compter in Wood street.

For an account of the several officers belonging to the two Compters,
see the article COMPTER.

POWDERED BEEF _court_, Cabbage lane.

POWELL’S _alley_, Chiswell street, Moorfields.†

POWELL’S _court_, Queen street.†

POWELL’S _yard_, Upper Ground street, Southwark.†

PRAT’S _wharf_, Millbank, Westminster Horseferry.†

PREBENDS _of St. Paul’s_. See the article CANONS.

PRECENTOR or CHANTER OF ST. PAUL’S, an officer who superintends the church
music, and has a sub-chanter to officiate in his absence. To him belongs
the second stall on the north side of the choir: he is perpetual Rector
of the church of Stortford, proprietor of the same, and patron of the
vicarage. _Newc. Repert._

PREROGATIVE COURT in Doctors Commons; this court is thus denominated from
the prerogative of the Archbishop of Canterbury; who by a special
privilege beyond those of his suffragans, can here try all disputes that
happen to arise concerning the last wills of persons within his
province, who have left goods to the value of 5_l._ and upwards, unless
such things are settled by composition between the metropolitan and his
suffragans; as in the diocese of London, where it is 10_l._

This court, which was formerly held in the consistory of St. Paul’s, is
kept in Doctors Commons in the afternoon, the next day after the court
of Arches. The Judge is attended by the Register and his Deputy, who
sets down the decrees and acts of the court, and keeps the records.

PREROGATIVE OFFICE in Doctors Commons, an office belonging to the above
court, in which copies of all wills deposited in the office are wrote in
large folio volumes, and any person may have the privilege of searching
a particular will for a shilling, and of having a copy of the whole, or
of any part of it, for a moderate fee.

The places belonging to this court are in the gift of the Archbishop of
Canterbury.

PRESBYTERIANS, a considerable body of Protestant dissenters; their
religious sentiments are in general pretty far from Calvinism, they have
now scarcely any resemblance to the church of Scotland; and every
congregation in this city, is in a manner as independent of each other
as the independents themselves. The meeting houses within the bills of
mortality are as follows:

1. Bethnal green. 2. Broad street, Wapping. 3. Brook house, Clapton. 4.
Church street, Hoxton. 5. Crosby square, Bishopsgate street. 6. Crown
court, Russel street. 7. Founders hall, Lothbury. 8. Grafton street,
Seven dials. 9. Gravel lane, Houndsditch. 10. Great St. Thomas
Apostle’s. 11. Hanover street, Long Acre. 12. King John’s court,
Bermondsey. 13. King’s Weigh-house, Little Eastcheap. 14. Leather lane,
Holborn. 15. Little Carter lane. 16. Little Eastcheap, near Tower
street. 17. Little St. Helen’s Bishopsgate street. 18. Long ditch,
Westminster. 19. Maiden lane, Deadman’s place. 20. Middlesex court,
Bartholomew close. 21. Mourning lane, Hackney. 22. New Broad street,
London wall. 23. Near Nightingale lane. 24. Old Jewry, Poultry. 25.
Parish street, Horselydown. 26. Poor Jewry lane, near Aldgate. 27. Queen
street, near Cuckolds point. 28. Rampant lion yard, Nightingale lane.
29. Ryder’s court, near Leicester fields. 30. Salisbury street,
Rotherhithe. 31. St. Thomas, Southwark. 32. Salters hall, Swithin’s
lane. 33. Shakespear’s walk, Upper Shadwell. 34. Silver street, Wood
street. 35. Spitalfields. 36. Swallow street, Piccadilly. 37. Windsor
court, Monkwell street.

PRESCOT _court_, St. John’s street, Smithfield.†

PRESCOT _street_, Goodman’s fields.†

PRESTON’S _yard_, in the Minories.†

PRICE’S _alley_, 1. Brewer’s street. 2. Knave’s Acre, Wardour street.† 3.
Queen street, in the Park, Southwark.†

PRICE’S _buildings_, Gravel lane.†

PRICE’S _court_, Gravel lane.†

PRICE’S _yard_, Long lane.†

PRIEST’S _alley_, 1. Foster lane, Cheapside.† 2. Tower hill.†

PRIEST’S _yard_, Dancing lane, Southwark.†

PRIMROSE _alley_, 1. Bishopsgate street. 2. Long alley, Moorfields. 3. St.
Mary Overies dock, Southwark.

PRIMROSE HILL, a very pleasant hill between Kilburn and Hampstead; also
called Green Berry Hill, from the names of the three assassins of Sir
Edmundbury Godfrey, who brought him hither after they had murdered him
at Somerset house.

PRIMROSE _row_, Primrose alley.

PRIMROSE _street_, Bishopsgate street.

PRINCE’S _court_. Several of these courts and streets received their name,
as well as those of King street and Queen street, after the restoration,
in honour of the return of the royal family. 1. Duke street, St.
James’s. 2. Drury lane. 3. Gravel lane, Southwark. 4. Hedge lane,
Charing Cross. 5. Long Ditch, Westminster. 6. Lothbury. 7. Newport
market. 8. Old Gravel lane, Ratcliff highway. 9. Tower hill. 10.
Wentworth street.

PRINCE’S _square_, Ratcliff highway, is a neat square, principally
inhabited by the families of gentlemen who belong to the sea. Its chief
ornament is the church and church yard belonging to the Swedes,
surrounded with iron rails and well planted with trees. The front of the
church is carried up flat with niches and ornaments, and on the summit
is a pediment. The body is divided into a central part projecting
forwarder than the rest, and two sides. The central part has two tall
windows, terminated by a pediment, and in the midst of that is an oval
window; but in the sides there is only a compartment below with a
circular window above. The corners of the building are wrought in a
bold, plain rustic. The tower rises square from the roof, and at the
corners are placed urns with flames: from thence rises a turret in the
lanthorn form with flaming urns at the corners: this turret is covered
with a dome, from which rises a ball, supporting the fane, in the form
of a rampant lion.

PRINCE’S _stairs_, Rotherhith.

PRINCE’S _street_, 1. St. Anne’s street, Soho. 2. Barbican. 3. Brick lane,
Spitalfields. 4. Charles street, Old Gravel lane, Ratcliff. 5. Drury
lane. 6. Duke street, St. James’s. 7. Duke street, Southwark. 8. Hanover
square. 9. Little Queen street. 10. Oxford street. 11. Queen street. 12.
Ratcliff Highway. 13. Red Lion square, Holborn. 14. Rotherhith Wall. 15.
Sun Tavern fields, Shadwell. 16. The west end of Threadneedle street;
first built by act of Parliament after the fire of London, in which it
was called by this name before it was erected. 17. Upper Moorfields. 18.
Whitcomb street, Hedge lane. 19. Wood street, Spitalfields.

PRINTING HOUSE _lane_, leading to the King’s printing house in Black
friars.

PRINTING HOUSE _street_, Water lane.

PRINTING HOUSE _yard_, 1. Water lane. 2. By White’s alley, Coleman street;
thus named from a large printing house there for woollens.

PRITCHARD’S _alley_, Fair street, Horselydown.†

PRIVY COUNCIL, held at the Cockpit. This great and honourable assembly
meet in order to consult upon those measures that are most likely to
contribute to the honour, defence, safety and benefit of his Majesty’s
dominions.

The members of this body are chosen by the King, and are, or ought to be
distinguished by their wisdom, courage, integrity, and political
knowledge. A Privy Counsellor, though but a Gentleman, has precedence of
all Knights, Baronets, and the younger sons of all Barons and Viscounts.
They sit at the council board bareheaded, when his Majesty presides; at
all debates the lowest delivers his opinion first; and the King last of
all declares his judgment, and thereby determines the matter in debate.

PRIVY GARDEN, Whitehall, was formerly used as a private garden, though it
extended almost to the Cockpit. The wall joined the arch still standing
by the Cockpit, and ran on in a line to King street. _Plan of London
drawn in Queen Elizabeth’s time._

PRIVY GARDEN _stairs_, Privy Garden.

PRIVY SEAL OFFICE, Whitehall. An office under the government of the Lord
Privy Seal, a great officer, next in dignity to the Lord President of
the Council, who keeps the King’s privy seal, which is set to such
grants as pass the great seal of England. The Lord Privy Seal has a
salary of 3000_l._ _per annum_. Under him are three Deputies, a
Secretary, and three Clerks; but these Clerks have no salaries; they
have however considerable fees, and 30_l._ a year board wages.

PROBIN’S _yard_, Blackman street, Southwark.†

PROTONOTARIES, or PROTHONOTARIES, in the court of Common Pleas. The word
is derived from _Protonotarius_, a chief Notary or Clerk; and they are
accordingly the chief Clerks of this court. They enter and enrol all
declarations, pleadings, assizes, judgments, and actions; and make out
judicial writs, &c. for all English counties, except Monmouth. They are
three in number, and have each separate offices, one in the Middle
Temple, another in King’s Bench Walks, and the other in Searle’s court,
Lincoln’s Inn. In these offices all the Attorneys of the court of Common
Pleas enter their causes.

Each of these Protonotaries has a Secondary, whose office is, to draw up
the rules of court, and these were formerly the ancientest and ablest
Clerks or Attorneys of the court.

PROTONOTARY’S, or PROTHONOTARY’S _Office in Chancery_, is kept in Middle
Temple lane, and is chiefly to expedite commissions for embassies.

PROVIDENCE _court_, North Audley street.

PROVIDENCE _yard_, Peter street, Westminster.

PRUJEAN’S _court_, in the Old Bailey.†

PRUSON’S _island_, Near New Gravel lane.†

PUDDING _lane_, Thames street. In this lane the fire of London broke out,
at a house situated exactly at the same distance from the Monument as
that is high. Upon this house, which is rebuilt in a very handsome
manner, was set up by authority the following inscription:

‘Here by the permission of Heaven, Hell broke loose upon this protestant
city, from the malicious hearts of barbarous papists, by the hand of
their agent HUBERT: who confessed, and on the ruins of this place
declared his fact, for which he was hanged, viz. That here began the
dreadful fire, which is described and perpetuated, on and by the
neighbouring pillar, erected 1681—in the mayoralty of Sir Patience Ward,
Knt.’

But the inhabitants being incommoded by the many people who came to look
at the house, and read this board, it was taken down a few years ago.

PUDDLE _dock_, Thames street. There was anciently a descent into the
Thames in this place, where horses used to be watered; who raising the
mud with their feet, made the place like a puddle; from this
circumstance, and from a person named Puddle dwelling there, this dock,
according to Maitland, obtained its present name.

PUDDLE DOCK _hill_, Great Carter lane.

PUDDLE DOCK _stairs_, Puddle dock.

PULTNEY _court_, Little Windmill street.

PULTNEY _street_, 1. Brewer’s street.† 2. Knave’s Acre.†

PUMP _alley_, 1. Brown’s street.☐ 2. Gardener’s lane, Petty France,
Westminster.☐ 3. Green bank, Wapping.☐ 4. Perkins’s rents, Peter street,
Soho.☐ 5. Quaker street, Spitalfields.☐ 6. Queen street in the Park,
Southwark.☐ 7. Red lion street, Wapping dock.☐ 8. Near Whitecross
street, Cripplegate.☐

PUMP _court_, 1. Bridgewater gardens.☐ 2. Charing Cross.☐ 3. Crutched
Friars.☐ 4. Glasshouse yard.☐ 5. Holland street.† 6. Jacob’s street,
Mill street.☐ 7. Inner Temple.☐ 8. Long alley, Shoreditch.☐ 9. The
Minories.☐ 10. Noble street, Foster lane.☐ 11. Rose and Crown court.☐
12. Portpool lane.☐ 13. Queenhithe.☐ 14. Three Foxes court, Longlane,
Smithfield.☐ 15. White Hart yard, Drury lane.☐ 16. White’s alley.☐

PUMP _yard_, 1. Near Aldersgate Bars.☐ 2. Church lane.☐ 3. Golden lane.☐
4. Gravel lane.☐ 5. King John’s court, Southwark.☐ 6. Newington Butts.☐
7. In the Orchard, Ratcliff.☐ 8. Pump alley, Chequer alley.☐ 9. Three
Colts street.† 10. Whitehorse alley, Cow Cross.☐

PUNCH BOWL _alley_, Moorfields Quarters.*

PUNCH _court_, Thrall street, Spitalfields.

PURFORD. See PYRFORD.

PURSE _court_, 1. Fore street, Cripplegate.* 2. Old Change, Cheapside.*

PUTNEY, a village in Surry, situated on the Thames, five miles south west
of London, famous for being the birth place of Thomas Cromwell Earl of
Essex, whose father was a blacksmith here. About this village the
citizens of London have many pretty seats; and on Putney Heath is a
public house, noted for polite assemblies, and in the summer season for
breakfasting and dancing, and for one of the pleasantest bowling greens
in England. Here is an old church erected after the same model with that
of Fulham, on the opposite shore, and they are both said to have been
built by two sisters.

That part of Putney which joins to the Heath, commands a fine view both
up and down the river Thames.

PYE _corner_, Smithfield.

PYE _garden_, near Willow street, Bank side, Southwark.

PYE _street_, Westminster.

PYRFORD, or PURFORD, in Surry, the fine seat of the late Denzil Onslow,
Esq; situated two miles from Guilford, on the banks of the Wey. It is
rendered extremely pleasant, by the beautiful intermixture of wood and
water, in the park, gardens, and grounds adjoining. By the park is a
decoy, the first of the kind in this part of England.


[Illustration]



                                   Q.


QUAKERS, a body of dissenters who have the following places of worship in
this metropolis:

1. Devonshire street, Bishopsgate street. 2. Ewer’s street, Southwark.
3. Fair street, Horselydown. 4. Little Almonry, Westminster. 5. St.
John’s lane. 6. Sandy’s court, Houndsditch. 7. School house lane,
Ratcliff. 8. Savoy in the Strand. 9. Wapping. 10. White hart yard,
Gracechurch street. 11. Workhouse, Clerkenwell.

QUAKERS _street_, Spitalfields.

QUAKERS WORKHOUSE, in Bridewell Walk, Clerkenwell, contains about eighteen
or twenty old men and women; but they are not confined to any number.
These are provided with all the necessaries of life in a very decent
manner: as are also forty boys and twenty girls; who are not only taught
reading, writing and arithmetic; but to spin, sew, knit, and make
thrum-mops, &c. in order to inure them to early labour: the boys, when
put out apprentice, have 5_l._ given with each. These children are
cloathed in very good cloth and callimancoes, and supported at the
expence of about 600_l._ _per annum_.

QUALITY _court_, Chancery lane.

QUART POT _alley_, George street, Petty France, Westminster.*

QUEEN ANNE’S _street_, a very handsome regular street, building north of
Cavendish square, and parallel to that and Wigmore street. It being
built on the estate of the late Lord Harley, Earl of Oxford, it received
its name in honour of his Royal Mistress.

QUEEN ELIZABETH’S _School_, in School house lane, Tooley street,
Southwark, was founded by that Princess, for instructing the boys of St.
Olave’s parish in English, grammar and writing.

This school generally consists of near three hundred boys, for the
teaching of whom the master of the grammar school has a salary of 61_l._
_per annum_; his usher 41_l._ 10_s._ the writing-master has 60_l._ out
of which he is obliged to supply the school with pens and ink; the
English master has 37_l._ 10_s._ and his usher 20_l._ These sums,
together amounting to 220_l. per annum_, are chiefly raised from an
estate in Horselydown, which, pursuant to the letters of incorporation,
is, with the school, under the management of sixteen of the
parishioners. _Maitland._

QUEENHITHE, in Thames street, a hithe or harbour for large boats,
lighters, barges, and even ships, which anciently anchored at that
place, as they do now at Billingsgate, the draw-bridge being drawn up
for their passage through; Queenhithe being then the principal key for
lading and unlading in the heart of the city. Hither vast numbers of
these vessels came laden with corn, as the barges do now with malt and
meal, this being the great meal market of the city.

QUEENHITHE _alley_, near Thames street.

QUEENHITHE _stairs_, Queenhithe.

QUEENHITHE _little stairs_, Queenhithe.

QUEENHITHE WARD, is bounded on the north by Bread street ward, and
Cordwainers ward; on the east by Dowgate ward; on the south by the
Thames, and on the west by Baynard’s castle ward. The principal streets
and lanes in this ward, are, next to Queenhithe, a part of Thames
street, from St. Bennet’s hill to Townsend lane; Lambert hill, Fish
street hill, Five foot lane, Bread street hill, Huggen lane, Little
Trinity, with the south side of Great Trinity lane, and Old Fish street.

The most remarkable buildings, are the parish churches of St. Nicholas
Cole Abbey, St. Mary Somerset, and St. Michael’s Queenhithe;
Painterstainers hall, and Blacksmiths hall.

This ward is governed by an Alderman and six Common Council men,
including the Alderman’s Deputy; thirteen inquest men, eight scavengers,
nine constables, and a beadle. The jury-men returned by the Wardmote
inquest, serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of
October. _Maitland._

QUEEN’S ARMS _alley_, 1. Shoe lane.* 2. Shoreditch.*

QUEEN’S ARMS _court_, Upper Ground.*

QUEEN’S _court_, 1. St. Catharine’s lane, East Smithfield.* 2. Great Queen
street.* 3. High Holborn.* 4. King street, Covent Garden.*

QUEEN’S HEAD _alley_, 1. Hoxton.* 2. Newgate street.* 3. Shadwell.* 4.
Wapping.* 5. Whitechapel.*

QUEEN’S HEAD _court_, 1. Fleet street.* 2. Giltspur street.* 3. Gray’s Inn
lane.* 4. Great Windmill street.* 5. High Holborn.* 6. King street,
Covent Garden.* 7. Pye corner.* 8. In the Strand.* 9. Turn again lane.*

QUEEN’S HEAD _yard_, 1. Gray’s Inn lane, Holborn.* 2. White Horse street.*

QUEEN’S LIBRARY, a handsome building erected by that learned Princess her
late Majesty Queen Caroline, into which books were put in the month of
October 1737. This is a very noble room, furnished with a choice
collection of modern books in several languages, consisting of about
4500, finely bound, and placed in great order, with brass net-work
before them. _Maitland._

QUEEN’S _square_, 1. St. James’s Park. 2. Little Bartholomew close. 3.
Ormond street, by Red Lion street, Holborn. This, as a late writer
justly observes, is an area of a peculiar kind, it being left open on
one side for the sake of the beautiful landscape formed by the hills of
Highgate and Hampstead, together with the adjacent fields. A delicacy
worthy, as it is an advantage to the inhabitants, and a beauty even with
regard to the square itself.

QUEEN’S SQUARE _street_, Long Ditch, Westminster.

QUEEN _street_. Many of these streets were thus named after the
restoration, in honour of the royal family. 1. Bloomsbury. 2. Opposite
King street in Cheapside; this street was widened, and had its name
changed to Queen street, by act of Parliament, after the fire of London.
3. Great Russel street, Bloomsbury. 4. Great Windmill street. 5. Hog
lane, St. Giles’s. 6. Hoxton. 7. Long Ditch, Westminster. 8. In the
Mint, Southwark. 9. Moorfields. 10. Near New Gravel lane, Shadwell. 11.
Old Paradise street, Rotherhith. 12. Oxford street. 13. In the Park,
Southwark. 14. Ratcliff. 15. Redcross street, Southwark. 16. Rosemary
lane. 17. Rotherhith. 18. Seven Dials. 19. Soho square. 20. Tower hill.
21. Mews, Great Queen street.

QUICKAPPLE’S _alley_, Bishopsgate street without.†

QUIET _row_, Red Lion street.


[Illustration]



                                   R.


RACKET _court_, Fleet street.

RAG _alley_, Golden lane, Redcross street.

RAG FAIR, 1. East Smithfield. 2. Rosemary lane. Here old cloaths are sold
every day, by multitudes of people standing in the streets; there is
here a place called the ‘Change, where all the shops sell old cloaths:
it is remarkable that many of the old cloaths shops in Rosemary lane,
where this daily market is kept, deal for several thousand pounds a
year.

RAG _street_, Hockley in the hole.

RAGDALE _court_, Millman street, near Red Lion street, Holborn.

RAGGED _row_, Goswell street.‖

RAGGED STAFF _alley_, Fleet street.*

RAGGED STAFF _court_, Drury lane.*

RAINDEER _court_, in the Strand.*

RAINE’S _Hospital_, in Fowden Fields in the parish of St. George, Ratcliff
Highway, a handsome building erected by Mr. Henry Raine, brewer, in the
year 1737, who endowed it by a deed of gift with a perpetual annuity of
240_l._ _per annum_, and added the sum of 4000_l._ in South sea
annuities, amounting to about 4400_l._ to be laid out in a purchase.

The children of this hospital, which contains forty-eight girls, are
taken out of a parish school almost contiguous to it, erected in the
year 1719, by the above Mr. Raine, at the expence of about 2000_l._ and
he likewise endowed it with a perpetual annuity of 60_l._

The children are supplied with all the necessaries of life, and taught
to read, write, sew, and household work, to qualify them for service, to
which they are put, after having been three years upon the foundation.
_Maitland._

RALPH’S _key_, Thames street.

RAM _alley_, 1. Cock lane.* 2. Cow Cross, Smithfield.* 3. St. John’s
street, Spitalfields.* 4. Rotherhith Wall.* 5. Wright street,
Rotherhith.*

RAM’S HEAD _court_, Moor lane, Fore street, Moorgate.*

RAMSAY’S _Almshouse_, in Horns yard, Cloth Fair, was founded by Dame Mary
Ramsey, relict of Mr. Thomas Ramsey, some time Lord Mayor, about the
year 1596, for three poor women, who formerly received coals and
cloaths; but at present only 2_s._ _per_ week each. _Maitland._

RAMPANT LION _yard_, Nightingale lane.*

RANDAL _alley_, Rotherhith Wall.†


[Illustration:

  _View of Ranelagh._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sc. Oxon._
]


RANELAGH GARDENS, at Chelsea; so called from their formerly belonging to
the Earl of Ranelagh. This is one of those public places of pleasure
which is not to be equalled in Europe, and is the resort of people of
the first quality. Though its gardens are beautiful, it is more to be
admired for the amphitheatre. This is a circular building, the external
diameter is 185 feet, round the whole is an arcade, and over that a
gallery with a balustrade (to admit the company into the upper boxes)
except where the entrances break the continuity. Over this are the
windows (as may be seen in the print) and it terminates with the roof.
The internal diameter is 150 feet, and the architecture of the inside
corresponds with the outside, except that over every column, between the
windows, termini support the roof. In the middle of the area, where the
orchestra was at first designed, is a chimney having four faces. This
makes it warm and comfortable in bad weather. The orchestra fills up the
place of one of the entrances. The entertainment consists of a fine band
of music with an organ, accompanied by the best voices. The regale is
tea and coffee.

RANGER’S _yard_, York street, Jermain street.†

RAT _alley_, Great Eastcheap.*

RATCLIFF, by Upper Shadwell.

RATCLIFF SCHOOL, was founded by Nicholas Gibson, Sheriff of this city, in
the year 1537, for the education of sixty poor children; the master had
a salary of 10_l._ and the usher 6_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ _per annum_, at that
time very considerable sums: at present the master has 23_l._ 6_s._
8_d._ and the usher 9_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ a year. This house belonging to
the adjoining almshouses, is under the management of the Coopers
company. _Maitland._

RATCLIFF _cross_, Ratcliff.

RATCLIFF _highway_, near Upper Shadwell.

RATCLIFF HIGHWAY _street_, Shadwell.

RATCLIFF _row_, near Old Street.†

RATCLIFF _square_, Ratcliff.†

RATHBONE _place_, Oxford street.

RAY’S _court_, Cross lane, Lukener’s lane.†

READ’S _rents_, Long lane, Smithfield.†

REBECCA’S _yard_, East Smithfield.

REBEL’S _row_, near St. George’s church, Southwark.

RECKMAN’S _rents_, Limehouse bridge.†

RECORD OFFICE, in the Tower, is kept in Wakefield’s Tower, which joins to
the Bloody Tower, near Traitor’s Gate; and consists of three rooms one
above another, and a large round room where the rolls are kept. These
are all handsomely wainscoted, the wainscot being framed into presses
round each room, within which are shelves, and repositories for the
records; and for the easier finding of them, the year of each reign is
inscribed on the inside of these presses, and the records placed
accordingly.

Within these presses, which amount to fifty-six in number, are deposited
all the rolls from the first year of the reign of King John, to the
beginning of the reign of Richard III. but those after this last period
are kept in the Rolls chapel. See ROLLS _Office_.

The records in the Tower, among other things, contain, the foundation of
abbies, and other religious houses; the ancient tenures of all the lands
in England, with a survey of the manors; the original of our laws and
statutes; proceedings of the courts of common law and equity; the rights
of England to the dominion of the British seas; leagues and treaties
with foreign Princes; the achievements of England in foreign wars; the
settlement of Ireland, as to law and dominion; the forms of submission
of the Scottish Kings; ancient grants of our Kings to their subjects;
privileges and immunities granted to cities and corporations during the
period abovementioned; enrollments of charters and deeds made before the
conquest; the bounds of all the forests in England, with the several
respective rights of the inhabitants to common of pasture, and many
other important records, all regularly disposed, and referred to in near
a thousand folio indexes. _Chamberlain’s Present State._ _Strype’s
Stowe._

This office is kept open, and attendance constantly given, from seven
o’clock till one, except in the months of December, January, and
February, when it is open only from eight to one, except on Sundays and
holidays. A search here is half a guinea, for which you may peruse any
one subject a year.

RECORDER _of London_. This officer ought always to be a learned Lawyer,
well versed in the customs of the city. He is not only the chief
Assistant to the Lord Mayor in matters of law and justice; but takes
place in councils and in courts before any man that hath not been Lord
Mayor: he speaks in the name of the City upon extraordinary occasions;
usually reads and presents their addresses to the King; and when seated
upon the bench delivers the sentence of the court. _Maitland._

RED BULL _alley_, 1. Kent street, Southwark.* 2. St. Olave’s street,
Southwark.* 3. Thames street.*

RED BULL _court_, 1. Fore street, Cripplegate.* 2. Red Bull alley.*

RED BULL _yard_, 1. Ailesbury street, St. John’s street, Clerkenwell.* 2.
Islington.*

RED COW _alley_, 1. Church lane, Rag Fair.* 2. Old street.*

RED COW _court_, 1. Church lane, Caple street.* 2. Rotherhithe Wall.*

RED COW _lane_, Mile-end turnpike.*

REDCROSS _alley_, 1. Jewin street, Redcross street. 2. By London Bridge.
3. Long Ditch, Westminster. 4. St. Margaret’s hill, Southwark. 5. Old
street. 6. Redcross street, in the Mint.

REDCROSS _court_, 1. Cow lane. 2. In the Minories. 3. Old Bailey. 4. Tower
street.

REDCROSS STREET LIBRARY. See _Dr._ WILLIAMS’S LIBRARY.

REDCROSS _square_, Jewin street.

REDCROSS _street_, 1. Extends from Cripplegate to Barbican: at the upper
end of this street, opposite the west end of Beach lane, stood a red
cross, which gave name to this street. _Maitland._ 2. Nightingale lane,
East Smithfield. 3. In the Park, Southwark.

REDCROSS STREET SCHOOL, was founded in the year 1709, by Dame Eleanor
Hollis, who endowed it with 62_l._ 3_s._ _per annum_, in ground rents;
for the education of fifty poor girls; but by additional benefactions
the revenue is increased to 80_l._ 2_s._ 8_d._ a year.

This school being kept in the same house with that of the parish boys of
St. Giles’s, Cripplegate, it is generally taken for the parish girls
charity school.

RED GATE _court_, in the Minories.

RED HART _court_, Fore street, Cripplegate.*

REDHILL’S _rents_, Vine street.†

RED HORSE _yard_, Glasshouse yard.*

RED LION _alley_, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. St. Catharine’s, Tower
hill.* 3. Cow Cross, Smithfield.* 4. St. John’s street, Smithfield.* 5.
St. Margaret’s hill, Southwark.* 6. In the Minories.* 7. Peter’s street,
St. John’s street, Westminster.* 8. Thames street.* 9. Tower Ditch.* 10.
Whitechapel.*

RED LION _back court_, Charterhouse lane.*

RED LION _court_, 1. Addle hill, by Thames street.* 2. Barnaby street,
Southwark.* 3. Bennet’s hill, Thames street.* 4. Bennet’s street,
Southwark.* 5. Brick lane.* 6. St. Catharine’s lane.* 7. Castle yard,
Holborn.* 8. Charterhouse lane, by Charterhouse square.* 9. Cock lane,
Snow hill.* 10. Drury lane.* 11. Fleet street.* 12. Grub street.* 13.
Holiwell lane.* 14. Kingsland road.* 15. London Wall.* 16. Long Acre.*
17. Red Lion alley, St. Margaret’s hill.* 18. Red Lion street,
Spitalfields.* 19. Long alley, Moor fields.* 20. Silver street,
Cripplegate.* 21. Watling street, St. Paul’s church yard.* 22. Wheeler
street, Spitalfields.* 23. White Hart yard.* 24. Windmill hill.*

RED LION _inn yard_, Bishopsgate street.*

RED LION _market_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

RED LION MARKET _passage_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

RED LION _mews_, Cavendish street.*

RED LION _passage_, Fetter lane.*

RED LION _square_, by Red Lion street, Holborn. A handsome square, adorned
with a lofty obelisk placed upon a pedestal in the center.

RED LION _street_, 1. In the Borough.* 2. A very neat well-built street,
leading to Clerkenwell.* 3. St. George’s Fields.* 4. High Holborn.* 5.
Spitalfields market.* 6. Wapping.* 7. Whitechapel.*

RED LION _yard_, 1. Cavendish street.* 2. Church street, Lambeth.* 3.
Great Warner’s street.* 4. Houndsditch.* 5. Long lane, Smithfield.* 6.
Long Acre.* 7. Lower Shadwell.* 8. Red Lion street.* 9. Star street,
Clerkenwell.*

RED MAID _lane_, near the Hermitage.*

RED ROSE _alley_, Whitecross street, Old street.*

RED WOOD _alley_, near Skinner’s street, Bishopsgate street without.

REDDISH _row_, Red Maid lane, Wapping.

REEVE’S _mews_, Audley street.†

REGISTER’S OFFICE _in Chancery_, Symond’s Inn, Chancery lane.

REGISTER OFFICE _of Deeds_, for the county of Middlesex, Bell yard, Fleet
street.

_City_ REMEMBRANCER, an officer who on certain days attends the Lord
Mayor. His business is to put his Lordship in mind of the select days
when he is to go abroad with the Aldermen, &c. and to attend the
parliament house during the sessions, in order to make a report to the
Lord Mayor of what passes there.

_The King’s_ REMEMBRANCER’S OFFICE, in the Inner Temple. An office
belonging to the court of Exchequer, in which there are eight sworn
Clerks, two of whom are Secondaries.

Here are entered the state of all the accounts relating to the King’s
revenue, for customs, excise, subsidies: all aids granted to the King in
Parliament; and every thing relating to his Majesty’s revenue, whether
certain or casual: all securities, either by bonds or recognizances,
given to the King by accountants and officers: all proceedings upon any
statute by information for customs, excise, or any other penal law: all
proceedings upon the said bonds or recognizances, or any other bonds
taken in the King’s name, by officers appointed for that purpose under
the great seal of England, and transmitted hither for recovery thereof,
are properly in this office, from whence issue forth process to cause
all accountants to come in and account; For there being a court of
equity in the court of Exchequer, all proceedings relating to it are in
this office. _Chamberlain’s Present State._

_The Lord Treasurers_ REMEMBRANCER’S OFFICE, also belongs to the court of
Exchequer. In this office process is made against all Sheriffs,
Receivers, Bailiffs, &c. for their accounts, and many other things of
moment, as estreats, rules, &c. All charters and letters patent, upon
which any rents are referred to the King, are transcribed, and sent into
this office by the Clerk of the petty bag, in order to be transmitted to
the Clerk of the pipe, that process may be made to recover the money by
the Comptroller of the pipe. Out of this office process is likewise made
to levy the King’s fee farm rents, &c.

In short, when the Auditors of the revenue have made schedules of such
arrears, and transmitted them to the Remembrancer, the state of all
imprest accounts, and all other accounts whatsoever, are entered in this
office, as well as in that of the King’s Remembrancer. Both this and the
other office are in the King’s gift. _Chamberlain’s Present State._

_Court of_ REQUESTS. See _Court of_ CONSCIENCE.

REYGATE, a large market town in Surry, situated in the valley of
Holmsdale, twenty-four miles from London, and surrounded on each side
with hills. It is an ancient borough, and had a castle, built by the
Saxons, on the east side of the town, some ruins of which are still to
be seen, particularly a long vault with a room at the end, large enough
to hold 500 persons, where the Barons who took up arms against King John
are said to have had their private meetings. Its market house was once a
chapel dedicated to Thomas Becket. The neighbourhood abounds with
fullers earth and medicinal plants.

On the south side of the town is a large house, formerly a priory: it
belongs to the late Mr. Parsons’s family, and is beautified with
plantations, and a large piece of water. It has two rooms, each fifty
feet long, and of a proportionable breadth; but the ceilings are much
too low. The house and gardens are on every side surrounded with hills,
so as to render the prospect very romantic.

In this town the late celebrated Lord Shaftesbury had an house, to which
he retired to seclude himself from company. It is now in the possession
of a private gentleman, who has laid out and planted a small spot of
ground, in so many parts, as to comprise whatever can be supposed in the
most noble seats. It may properly be called a model, and is called by
the inhabitants of Reygate, _The world in one acre_.

RHODES _yard_, Bishopsgate street.†

RICHARD’S _court_, Lime street, Leadenhall street.†

RICHBELL _court_, Red Lion street, Holborn.†

RICHMOND, a village in Surry, twelve miles from London. This is reckoned
the finest village in the British dominions, and has therefore been
termed the _Frescati_ of England. It was anciently the seat of our
Monarchs, and the palace from its splendor was called _Shene_, which in
the Saxon tongue signifies bright or shining; Here King Edward III. died
of grief for the loss of his heroic son Edward the Black Prince; and
here died Anne the wife of Richard II. who first taught the English
women the use of the side saddle; for before her time they were used to
ride astride; Richard, however, was so afflicted at her death, that it
gave him such a dislike to the place where it happened, that he defaced
the fine palace; but it was repaired and beautified afresh by King Henry
V. who also founded near it three religious houses. In the year 1497,
this palace was destroyed by fire, when King Henry VII. was there; but
in 1501 that Prince caused it to be new built, and commanded that the
village should be called Richmond; he having borne the title of Earl of
Richmond, before he obtained the crown by the defeat and death of
Richard III. Henry VII. died here; and here also his grand-daughter
Queen Elizabeth breathed her last. On the ground where formerly stood a
part of the old palace, the Earl of Cholmondeley has a seat, as has also
Mr. Wray.

The present palace, which is finely situated, is a very plain edifice
built by the Duke of Ormond, who received a grant of a considerable
space of land about Richmond, from King William III. as a reward for his
military services; but it devolved to the Crown on that Duke’s
attainder, in the beginning of the reign of King George I. and this
house was by his present Majesty confirmed to the late Queen Caroline,
in case she became Queen Dowager of England.

His Majesty took great delight here, and made several improvements in
the palace, while her Majesty amused herself at her royal dairy house,
Merlin’s cave, the Hermitage, and the other improvements which she made
in the park and gardens of this delightful retreat.

Though the palace is unsuitable to the dignity of a King of England, the
gardens are extremely fine, without offering a violence to nature; and
Pope’s advice with respect to planting, may be considered as a very
accurate description of the beauties to be found here.


           To build, to plant, whatever you intend,
           To rear the column, or the arch to bend;
           To swell the terrace, or to sink the grot,
           In all let Nature never be forgot:
           Consult the genius of the place in all,
           That tells the waters or to rise or fall;
           Or helps th’ ambitious hill the heav’ns to scale,
           Or scoops in circling theatres the vale;
           Calls in the country, catches op’ning glades,
           Joins willing woods, and varies shades from shades;
           Now breaks, or now directs th’intending lines;
           Paints as you plant, and as you work, designs.


In short, almost every thing here has an agreeable wildness, and a
pleasing irregularity, that cannot fail to charm all who are in love
with nature, and afford a much higher and more lasting satisfaction than
the stiff decorations of art, where the artist loses sight of nature
which alone ought to direct his hand.

On entering these rural walks, you are conducted to the dairy, a neat
but low brick building, to which there is an ascent by a flight of
steps; in the front is a handsome angular pediment. The walls on the
inside are covered with stucco, and the house is furnished suitably to a
royal dairy, the utensils for the milk being of the most beautiful
china.

Passing by the side of a canal, and thro’ a grove of trees, the temple
presents itself to view, situated on a mount. It is a circular dome
crowned with a ball, and supported by Tuscan columns, with a circular
altar in the middle, and to this temple there is an ascent by very steep
slopes.

Returning by the dairy, and crossing the gravel walk, which leads from
the palace to the river, you come to a wood, which you enter by a walk
terminated by the Queen’s pavilion, a neat elegant structure, wherein is
seen a beautiful chimney-piece, taken from a design in the addition to
Palladio, and a model of a palace intended to be built in this place.

In another part of the wood is the Duke’s summer house, which has a
lofty arched entrance, and the roof rising to a point is terminated by a
ball.

On leaving the wood you come to the summer house on the terrace, a light
small building with very large and lofty windows, to give a better view
of the country, and particularly of that noble seat called Sion house.
In this edifice are two good pictures, representing the taking of Vigo
by the Duke of Ormond.

Passing through a labyrinth, you see, near a pond, Merlin’s cave, a
Gothic building thatched; within which are the following figures in wax,
Merlin, an ancient British enchanter; the excellent and learned Queen
Elizabeth, and a Queen of the Amazons; here is also a library consisting
of a well chosen collection of the works of modern authors neatly bound
in vellum.

On leaving this edifice, which has an antique and venerable appearance,
you come to a large oval of above 500 feet in diameter, called the
Forest oval, and turning from hence you have a view of the Hermitage, a
grotesque building, which seems as if it had stood many hundred years,
though it was built by order of her late Majesty. It has three arched
doors, and the middle part which projects forward, is adorned with a
kind of ruinous angular pediment; the stones of the whole edifice appear
as if rudely laid together, and the venerable look of the whole is
improved by the thickness of the solemn grove behind, and the little
turret on the top with a bell, to which you may ascend by a winding
walk. The inside is in the form of an octagon with niches, in which are
the busts of the following truly great men, who by their writings were
an honour not only to their country, but to human nature. The first on
the right hand is the incomparable Sir Isaac Newton, and next to him the
justly celebrated Mr. John Locke. The first on the left hand is Mr.
Woolaston, the author of The Religion of Nature displayed; next to him
is the reverend and learned Dr. Samuel Clarke, and in a kind of alcove
is the truly honourable Mr. Robert Boyle.

Leaving this seat of contemplation, you pass through fields cloathed
with grass; through corn fields, and a wild ground interspersed with
broom and furze, which afford excellent shelter for hares and pheasants,
and here there are great numbers of the latter very tame. From this
pleasing variety, in which nature appears in all her forms of
cultivation and barren wildness, you come to an amphitheatre formed by
young elms, and a diagonal wilderness, through which you pass to the
forest walk, which extends about half a mile, and then passing through a
small wilderness, you leave the gardens.

At the extremity of the garden on the north east, is another house that
belonged to her Majesty, and near it the house of his late Royal
Highness Frederic Prince of Wales, which is on the inside adorned with
stucco. Opposite the Prince’s house is the Princess Amelia’s, built by a
Dutch architect, the outside of which is painted.

To the west of the gardens are seen the fine houses of several of the
nobility and gentry, particularly the Lady Buckworth’s, and Mr.
Geoffrey’s, and extending the view across the Thames, there appears
Isleworth.

But to return to the village of Richmond. The Green is extremely
pleasant, it being levelled and enclosed in a handsome manner; it is
also surrounded with lofty elms, and adorned on each side with the
houses of persons of distinction. A sun dial is here affixed in a pretty
taste, encompassed with seats: this, and the railing in of the Green,
were at the sole charge of her late Majesty.

Among the pretty seats on this spacious Green, is a handsome edifice
that formerly belonged to Sir Charles Hedges, and since to Sir Matthew
Decker, in the gardens of which is said to be the longest and highest
hedge of holly that was ever seen, with several other hedges of
evergreens; there are here also vistas cut through woods, grottos,
fountains, a fine canal, a decoy, summer house and stove houses, in
which the anana, or pine-apple, was first brought to maturity in this
kingdom.

On the north east side of the Green is a fine house, which belonged to
the late Mr. Heydigger, and a little beyond it that of the Duke of
Cumberland; passing by which, you come to a small park belonging to his
Majesty, well stocked with deer, and opposite to it is the entrance into
the gardens.

The town runs up the hill above a mile from the village of East Shene,
to the New Park, with the royal gardens sloping all the way towards the
Thames; whose tide reaches to this village, though it is sixty miles
from the sea; which is a greater distance than the tide is carried by
any other river in Europe.

On the ascent of the hill are wells of a purging mineral water,
frequented during the summer by a great deal of good company. On the top
there is a most extensive and beautiful prospect of the country,
interspersed with villages and inclosures; the Thames is seen running
beneath, and the landscape is improved by the many fine seats that are
scattered along its banks.

There is here an almshouse built by Dr. Duppa, Bishop of Winchester in
the reign of King Charles II. for the support of ten poor widows,
pursuant to a vow made by that Prelate during that Prince’s exile. There
is another almshouse endowed with above 100_l._ a year, which, since its
foundation, has been considerably increased by John Mitchell, Esq; Here
are also two charity schools, one for fifty boys, and the other for
fifty girls.

New Park, in Surry, is situated between Kingston and Richmond. This is
one of the best parks in England; it was made in the reign of King
Charles I. and inclosed with a brick wall, said to be eleven miles in
compass. In this park there is a little hill cast up, called King
Henry’s Mount, from which is a prospect of six counties, with a distant
view of the city of London, and of Windsor Castle.

The new lodge in this park, built by the late Sir Robert Walpole Earl of
Orford, is a very elegant edifice. It is built of stone in a square
form, with wings on each side of brick. It stands on a rising ground,
and commands a very good prospect of the park, especially of that fine
piece of water which is in it, and which might be enlarged and brought
across the vista which is in the front of the house, through a wood.
This park is the largest of any within the environs of London, except
that of Windsor, and the finest too; for though it has little more than
a wild variety of natural beauties to shew, yet these are such as cannot
fail to please those who are as much delighted with views in their
rudest appearance, as in all the elegance of art and design. The
Princess Amelia resides in the old lodge; the new lodge is not
inhabited.

RICHMOND _buildings_, Dean street, Soho.†

RICHMOND’S _Almshouse_, in Goose alley, Sea coal lane, was erected by the
company of Armourers, in the year 1559, pursuant to the will of Mr. John
Richmond, for eight poor old men and women, who, according to the
discretion of the company, receive from five to fifteen shillings _per
annum_ each. _Maitland._

RICHMOND _street_, 1. Old Soho.† 2. Prince’s street, Soho.†

RICKINGTON’S _court_, Coleman street.†

RICKMAN’S _rents_, Narrow street, Limehouse.†

RICKMANSWORTH, a town in Hertfordshire, 22 miles from London, is situated
in a low moorish soil on the borders of Buckinghamshire, near the river
Coln. It has a market on Saturday, and is governed by a Constable and
two Headboroughs. The several mills on the streams near this town cause
a great quantity of wheat to be brought to it. Here is a charity school
for twenty boys and ten girls, with an almshouse for five widows, and
another for four. In the neighbourhood is a warren hill, where the sound
of the trumpet is repeated twelve times by the echo.

RIDER’S _court_, 1. Little Newport street.† 2. Rider’s street.†

RIDER’S _street_, St. James’s street, Westminster.†

RIDER’S _yard_, Kent street, Southwark.†

RISEBY’S _walk_, Limehouse.†

RISING SUN _alley_, St. John’s street, Smithfield.*

RISING SUN _court_, St. John’s street, Smithfield.*

RISING SUN _passage_, Clement’s lane.*

RIVERS _street_, Savage Gardens; so called from the Lord Savage, Earl
Rivers.

ROBERT’S _dock_, Rotherhith Wall.†

ROBERT’S _rents_, Brick lane.†

ROBIN HOOD _alley_, Blackman street, Southwark.*

ROBIN HOOD _court_, 1. Bell alley.* 2. Bow lane, Cheapside.* 3. Grub
street, Fore street* 4. Near Morgan’s lane.* 5. Shoe lane.* 6. In the
Strand.* 7. Thames street.* 8. Tooley street, Southwark.*

ROBIN HOOD _lane_, Poplar.*

ROBIN HOOD _yard_, 1. Charles street.* 2. Leather lane.*

ROBINSON’S _yard_, Friday street, Cheapside.†

ROCHESTER _row_, Tothill fields.

ROCHESTER _yard_, 1. Dirty lane. 2. Stony street.

ROEBUCK _alley_, Turnmill street.*

ROEHAMPTON, in Surry, is situated between Putney Heath and East Shene, and
is one of the pleasantest villages near London, having many fine houses
of merchants scattered about, so as not to resemble a street or regular
town.

ROGERS’S _Almshouse_, in Hart street, near Cripplegate, was erected by the
Lord Mayor and citizens of London, in the year 1612, pursuant to the
will of Mr. Robert Rogers, citizen and leatherseller, for six poor men
and their wives, who have an annual allowance of 4_l._ each couple.
_Maitland._

ROGUES WELL, Stepney fields.

ROLLS OFFICE AND CHAPEL, in Chancery lane, a house founded by King Henry
III. in the place where stood a Jew’s house forfeited to that Prince in
the year 1233. In this chapel all such Jews and infidels as were
converted to the Christian faith, were ordained, and in the buildings
belonging to it, were appointed a sufficient maintenance: by which means
a great number of converts were baptized, instructed in the doctrines of
Christianity, and lived under a learned Christian appointed to govern
them: but in the year 1290, all the Jews being banished, the number of
converts decreased, and in the year 1377, the house with its chapel was
annexed by patent to the Keeper of the Rolls of Chancery.

The chapel, which is of brick, pebbles and some freestone, is sixty feet
long, and thirty-three in breadth; the doors and windows are Gothic, and
the roof covered with slate. In this chapel the rolls are kept in
presses fixed to the sides, and ornamented with columns and pilasters of
the Ionic and Composite orders.

These rolls contain all the records, as charters, patents, &c. since the
beginning of the reign of Richard III. those before that time being
deposited in the Record Office in the Tower: and these being made up in
rolls of parchment gave occasion to the name.

At the north west angle of this chapel is a bench, where the Master of
the Rolls hears causes in Chancery. And attendance is daily given in
this chapel from ten o’clock till twelve, for taking in and paying out
money, according to order of court, and for giving an opportunity to
those who come for that purpose to search the rolls.

The Minister of the chapel is appointed by the Master of the Rolls, and
divine service is performed there on Sundays and holidays at about
eleven and three.

On the walls are several old monuments, particularly at the East end is
that of Dr. Young Master of the Rolls, who died in the year 1516. In a
well wrought stone coffin lies the effigies of Dr. Young, in a scarlet
gown; his hands lie across upon his breast, and a cap with corners
covers his ears. On the wall just above him, our Saviour is looking down
upon him, his head and shoulders appearing out of the clouds,
accompanied by two angels.

The office of the Rolls is under the government of the Master of the
Rolls, whose house is by the chapel, and has been lately rebuilt in a
handsome manner at the public expence.

The place of Master of the Rolls is an office of great dignity, and is
in the gift of the King, either for life, or during pleasure. He is
always the principal Master in Chancery, and has in his gift the offices
of the Six Clerks in Chancery; of the Two Examiners of the same court,
and of the Clerk of the Chapel of the Rolls, who acts immediately under
him in that office. He has several revenues belonging to the office of
the Rolls, and by act of Parliament receives a salary of 1200_l._ _per
annum_ out of the hanaper. _Stowe._ _Maitland._ _Chamberlain’s Present
State._

ROLLS _buildings_, Fetter lane; so called from their belonging to the
Rolls office.

ROLLS LIBERTY, a small district out of the government of the city. It
begins at the corner of Cursitor’s alley, next to Chancery lane, taking
in the south side to the Rose tavern, where it crosses into White’s
alley, which it takes all in except two or three houses on each side,
next to Fetter lane; and there it crosses into the Rolls garden, which
it likewise takes in; and from thence running into Chancery lane, by
Serjeant’s Inn, extends into Jack-a-napes lane, about the middle of
which it crosses into Pope’s Head court, which it takes all in, as it
does the east side of Bell yard, almost to the end next Temple Bar,
except a few houses on the back side of Crown court, which is in the
city liberty; and then crossing Bell yard, near Temple Bar, runs cross
the houses into Sheer lane, taking in all the east side; and again
crossing over to Lincoln’s Inn New Court, runs up to the pump by the
iron rails, where it crosses over into Chancery lane, and thence to the
corner of Cursitor’s alley. _Stowe._

ROOD _lane_, Fenchurch street; thus named from a holy rood or cross there.

ROOMLAND _lane_, Thames street.

ROPEMAKERS _alley_, Little Moorfields.

ROPEMAKERS _field_, Limehouse.

ROPER _lane_, Crucifix lane, Barnaby street, Southwark.

ROPE _walk_, 1. Near Cut throat lane, Upper Shadwell. 2. Near Elm row, Sun
tavern fields. 3. Goswell street. 4. St. John street, Smithfield. 5.
King David’s lane. 6. Knockfergus, near Rosemary lane. 7. Near
Nightingale lane. 8. Petticoat lane. 9. Rotherhith. 10. Near Shad
Thames. 11. Sun tavern fields. 12. Near Whitechapel.

ROSE _alley_, 1. Bank side, Southwark.* 2. Bishopsgate street without.* 3.
East Smithfield.* 4. Fleet lane, Fleet market.* 5. Golden lane,
Barbican.* 6. High Holborn.* 7. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 8.
Rose street, Long Acre.* 9. Saffron hill.* 10. Shoreditch.* 11.
Sugarbaker’s lane, Duke’s Place.* 12. Tooley street, Southwark.* 13.
Turnmill street.* 14. Widegate alley, Bishopsgate street without.*

ROSE AND BALL _court_, Addle hill, by Great Carter lane.*

ROSE AND CROWN _alley_, near Whitechapel.*

ROSE AND CROWN _court_, 1. Church lane.* 2. St. Catharine’s lane.* 3. Cock
lane, Shoreditch.* 4. Fashion street, Artillery lane, Spitalfields.* 5.
Foster lane, Cheapside.* 6. Gray’s Inn lane.* 7. Holiwell street.* 8.
Houndsditch.* 9. Moorfields.* 10. Rosemary lane.* 11. Shoe lane, Fleet
street.* 12. Sutton street.* 13. Whitechapel.*

ROSE AND CROWN _yard_, 1. St. Giles’s street.* 2. King street, St. James’s
square.* 3. Long alley, Moorfields.* 4. Rotherhith.*

ROSE AND RAINBOW _court_, Aldersgate street.*

ROSE _court_, 1. Aldermanbury.* 2. Beer lane, Tower street.* 3.
Bishopsgate street.* 4. Goddard’s rents.* 5. Rochester street.* 6.
Thieving lane.* 7. Tower street.* 8. Bow lane.* 9. Wheeler street.*

ROSE _lane_, 1. Spitalfields.* 2. Whitehorse street.*

ROSE _street_, 1. Brick lane.* 2. Gravel lane.* 3. Hog lane, Shoreditch.*
4. Long Acre.* 5. St. Martin’s lane.* 6. Newgate street.* 7. Newport
market.* 8. Spitalfields.*

ROSE _yard_, 1. Catharine wheel alley.* 2. Newington Butts.* 3. Whitehorse
street.*

ROSEMARY BRANCH _alley_, Rosemary lane.*

ROSEMARY _lane_, extends from the bottom of the Minories to Wellclose
square, and is chiefly taken up with old cloaths shops.

ROSEWELL’S _court_, Great White Lion street, Seven Dials.†

ROSEWELL’S _yard_, Barnaby street, Southwark.†

ROTHERHITH, vulgarly called Rederiff, was anciently a village on the south
east of London, though it is now joined to Southwark, and as it is
situated along the south bank of the Thames, is chiefly inhabited by
masters of ships, and other seafaring people.

ROTHERHITH _School_ was founded in the year 1612, by Mr. Peter Hills and
Mr. Robert Bell, who endowed it with 3_l._ a year, for the education of
eight poor seamens children. _Maitland._

ROTHERHITH _wall_, Jacob street, Rotherhith.

ROTHERHITH WATER WORKS, situated at the upper end of Rotherhith Wall, and
the lower end of Mill street, where the engine is wrought by water from
the river Thames, which being brought in by the tide is contained in the
canals in the neighbouring streets. By this engine a sufficient quantity
of water is raised to supply two main pipes of a six inch bore, whereby
the neighbourhood is plentifully supplied with Thames water.

ROTTEN _row_, Goswell street.

ROUND _court_, 1. Black Friars. 2. Black Lion yard. 3. Blue Boar’s Head
court, Barbican. 4. Butler’s alley. 5. Jewin street. 6. St. Martin’s le
Grand. 7. Moses and Aaron alley, Whitechapel. 8. Old Bethlem. 9. Onslow
street, Vine street, Hatton Wall. 10. Sharp’s alley, Cow Cross. 11. In
the Strand.

ROUND ABOUT _alley_, Wapping dock.

ROUND HOOP _court_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

ROYAL EXCHANGE, Cornhill. This edifice, which is dedicated to the service
of commerce, was founded by Sir Thomas Gresham, a merchant distinguished
by his abilities and great success in trade, who proposed, that if the
city would prepare a proper spot, he would erect the building at his own
expence. This proposal was accepted by the Lord Mayor and citizens, who
purchased some houses between Cornhill and Threadneedle street, and
having caused them to be pulled down and cleared away, the foundation of
the new building was laid on the 7th of June 1566, and carried on with
such expedition, that it was finished in November 1567.

This edifice was called the Bourse, but it soon after changed its name;
for on the 23d of January 1570, Queen Elizabeth, attended by a great
number of the nobility, came from Somerset house, her palace in the
Strand, and passing through Threadneedle street, dined with Sir Thomas
Gresham at his house in Bishopsgate street, and after dinner returning
through Cornhill, entered the Bourse on the south side, where having
viewed every part except the vaults, especially the gallery above
stairs, which extended round the whole building, and was furnished with
shops, in which were sold all sorts of the finest wares in the city, her
Majesty caused this edifice to be proclaimed in her presence, by a
herald and trumpet, _The Royal Exchange_.

Sir Thomas Gresham, at his death, left the building to his Lady, and
after her decease to the Lord Mayor and citizens, and to the Mercers
company, directing the rents to support, under their inspection,
lectures on the sciences, at his dwelling house, now Gresham College,
and some charities to the prisons.

The original building stood till the fire of London in 1666, when it
perished amidst the general havoc: but it soon arose with greater
splendor than before. The model of the present structure was first shewn
to King Charles II. who was well pleased with it, it was however debated
whether they should build after that model or not; for fear of launching
out into too great an expence: but the majority desiring to have it a
magnificent structure, and imagining, that the shops above and below
stairs would in time reimburse them, had the present edifice erected at
the expence of 80,000_l._

The ground plat of this building is 203 feet in length; 171 feet in
breadth, and the area in the middle is 61 square perches. This area is
surrounded with a substantial and regular stone building, wrought in
rustic. In each of the principal fronts is a piazza, and in the center
are the grand entrances into the area, under an arch which is extremely
lofty and noble; on each side that of the principal front which is in
Cornhill, are Corinthian demi-columns supporting a compass pediment; and
in the intercolumniation on each side, in the front next the street, is
a niche with the figures of King Charles I. and his son Charles II. in
Roman habits, and well executed. Over the aperture on the cornice
between the two pediments are the King’s arms in relievo. On each side
of this entrance is a range of windows placed between demi-columns and
pilasters of the Composite order, above which runs a balustrade. The
height of the building is fifty-six feet, and from the center of this
side rises a lantern and turret, 178 feet high, on the top of which is a
fane in the form of a grasshopper of polished brass, esteemed a very
fine piece of workmanship: a grasshopper being the crest of Sir Thomas
Gresham’s arms.

The north front of the Royal Exchange is adorned with pilasters of the
Composite order, but has neither columns nor statues on the outside, and
instead of the two compass pediments has a triangular one.

Within the piazzas of these two fronts are two spacious stair cases with
iron rails, and black marble steps; these lead into a kind of gallery
that extends round the four sides of the building, and in which were
about two hundred shops, that have been let from 20_l._ to 60_l._ a year
each; and a very considerable trade was carried on here; but it has long
declined, and all the shops are deserted.

One side of this gallery is employed as auction rooms for furniture, and
in other apartments above stairs are the Royal Exchange Assurance
office, &c. and in the vaults are the pepper warehouse of the East India
company.

The inside of the area is surrounded with piazzas like those of the
south and north fronts; forming ambulatories for the merchants to
shelter themselves from the weather. Above the arches of these piazzas
is an entablature with curious enrichments; and on the cornice a range
of pilasters with an entablature extending round, and a compass pediment
in the middle of the cornice of each of the four sides. Under that on
the north are the King’s arms; on the south those of the city; on the
east those of Sir Thomas Gresham; and under the pediment on the west
side the arms of the company of Mercers, with their respective
enrichments.

In these intercolumns are twenty-four niches, nineteen of which are
filled with the statues of the Kings and Queens of England, standing
erect, drafted in their robes and with their regalia, except the statues
of Charles II. and George II. which are dressed like the Cæsars.

These statues are, on the south side; Edward I. Edward III. Henry V.
Henry VI. On the west side, Edward IV. Edward V. with the crown hanging
over his head; Henry VII. and Henry VIII. On the north side, Edward VI.
Mary, Elizabeth, James I. Charles I. Charles II. and James II. And on
the east side are William and Mary in one niche, Queen Anne, George I.
and George II. All these statues were painted and gilt, by a voluntary
subscription, in the year 1754.

The four niches that are vacant, are those where Edward II. Richard II.
Henry IV. and Richard III. should have been: upon which Maitland says,
that hence it seems that the city had no mind to shew any respect to the
said Kings, two of whom took away their charters, and the other two were
usurpers. But why Henry IV. should be excluded as an usurper, and his
brave son Henry V. and Henry VI. be placed there, who only enjoyed the
crown in consequence of his usurpation, is not easily accounted for.
Richard III. was indeed a monster of cruelty: but Mary was no less
cruel, and yet a statue is here erected to her honour. Though Edward II.
and Richard II. took away the charter of the city, King Charles II. did
so too, and yet has three statues at the Royal Exchange; and his brother
James II. who has also a statue, followed his brother’s steps, and not
only humbled the city, but caused an Alderman to be hanged at his own
door, without being allowed on his trial the time necessary to send for
his witnesses.

Under the piazzas within the Exchange are twenty-eight niches, all
vacant except two; one in the north west angle, where is the statue of
Sir Thomas Gresham, and another at the south west, of Sir John Barnard,
who is perhaps the only citizen of London, that has had the honour of
having his statue erected in his life-time merely on account of his
merit.

In short, in the center of the area is erected, on a marble pedestal
about eight feet high, another statue of King Charles II. in a Roman
habit, executed by Mr. Gibbon, and encompassed with iron rails. On the
south side of the pedestal, under an imperial crown, a scepter, sword,
palm branches, and other decorations, is the following inscription:


                     Carolo II. Cæsari Britannico,
                             Patriæ Patri,
               Regum Optimo, Clementissimo, Augustissimo,
                        Generis Humani Deliciis,
                       Utriusque Fortunæ Victori,
                         Pacis Europæ Arbitro,
                       Marium Domino ac Vindici,
                 Societas Mercatorum Adventur. Angliæ,
                      Quæ per CCCC jam prope Annos
                       Regia benignitate floret,
                Fidei intemeratæ & Gratitudinis æternæ,
                            Hoc Testimonium
                          Venerabunda posuit,
                   Anno Salutis Humanæ M. DC. LXXXIV.


On the west side of this pedestal, is cut in relievo, a Cupid resting
his right hand on a shield, containing the arms of France and England
quartered, and holding in his left a rose.

On the north side are the arms of Ireland on a shield, supported by a
Cupid.

On the south side is the following inscription on the base of the
pedestal:


  ‘This statue was repaired and beautified by the company of Merchant
    Adventurers of England, _anno_ 1730; John Hanbury, Esq; Governor.’


On the east side are the arms of Scotland, with a Cupid holding a
thistle. All done in relievo.

In the area on the inside of the Royal Exchange, merchants meet every
day at twelve at noon, and a prodigious concourse of those of all
nations continue there till two, in order to transact business; but soon
after that hour the gates are shut up, and not opened again till four.
For the readier dispatch of business, and that every particular merchant
may be easily found, they are disposed in separated classes, each of
which have their particular station, called their walk, as may be seen
at one view by the following plan, by attending to which any merchant
may easily be found.


[Illustration:

  NORTH.
  Threadneedle Street.

  _East Country Walk_

  _Hamburgh Walk_

  _Irish Walk_

  _Scotch Walk_

  _Dutch & Jewellers_

  _Silkmans Walk_

  _Norway Walk_

  _Clothiers Walk_

  _Salters Walk_

  _Walk_

  _Grocers & Druggists Walk_

  _Turkey Walk_

  _Brokers of Stock & Walk_

  WEST. Castle Alley.

  _Italian Walk_

  EAST.
  Sweetings Alley.

  _Canary Walk_

  _East Indies Walk_

  _Barbadoes Walk_

  _French Walk_

  _Portugal_

  _Jamaica Walk_

  _Armenian_

  _Virginia Walk_

  _Spanish Walk_

  _Jews Walk_

  Cornhill.
  SOUTH.
]


[Illustration:

  _Front of the Royal Exchange._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]


The Royal Exchange, without critical examination, has something grand in
it, and the entrance would certainly appear to more advantage if it were
not incumbered with a parcel of little shops. The arcade or walks within
the quadrangle have something noble, but the upper part is in a very bad
taste. The statue of King Charles II. in the middle of the area is a
good one. The other statues in the several niches have been lately new
painted and gilt in parts. The painting is no doubt very necessary for
their preservation, but it were to be wished the gilding of them had
been omitted, as it must give foreigners of judgment (and such sometimes
frequent this place) a contemptible opinion of our taste. The two
statues, one on each side the gate, of King Charles I. and II. are
particularly good. The clock tower or steeple with Gothic windows is
unpardonable, and the cornices at their angles are so broke, as to
appear very disgustful to an architect.

ROYAL EXCHANGE ASSURANCE OFFICE, for assuring houses and other buildings,
goods, wares and merchandize from fire. This corporation was established
by act of Parliament, at the same time with that of the London
Assurance, when it was enacted, that such as should be admitted members
of these corporations, should be each a distinct and separate body
politic, for the assurance of goods, ships and merchandize at sea, or
for lending money upon bottomry.

That no other society should insure ships, or lend money on bottomry for
the future; though any private person might do it as usual.

And that each of these corporations, in consideration of the many
benefits that might accrue to them by their charters, should pay the sum
of 300,000_l._ into his Majesty’s Exchequer, for discharging the debts
of the civil list.

These corporations however met with so little encouragement at first,
that Maitland says, the crown was obliged to remit most part of the
money.

By a second charter granted to this corporation, they are impowered not
only to insure ships, but houses, goods and lives. _Maitland._

This society therefore, by this last mentioned charter, assure all
buildings, household furniture, wearing apparel by special agreement,
and goods, wares, and merchandize, the property of the assured, except
glass and china ware not in trade, and all manner of writings, books of
accompts, notes, bills, bonds, tallies, ready money, jewels, plate,
pictures, gunpowder, hay, straw, and corn unthreshed, from loss or
damage by fire, upon the following conditions.

I. All manner of stone and brick buildings, covered with slate, tile, or
lead, wherein no hazardous trades are carried on, nor any hazardous
goods deposited, are considered as Common Assurances, and are assured
upon these terms: any sum above 100_l._ and not exceeding 1000_l._ at
2_s._ _per cent. per annum_; any sum above 1000_l._ and not exceeding
3000_l._ at 2_s._ 6_d._ _per cent. per annum_.

II. To accommodate those who are desirous of being assured for a term of
years, this corporation will assure on such buildings or goods, any sum
not exceeding 1000_l._ at the rate of 12_s._ _per cent._ for seven
years, and as far as 2000_l._ at the rate of 14_s._ _per cent._ without
subjecting the assured to any calls or contributions to make good
losses.

III. Assurances on buildings and goods, are deemed distinct and separate
adventures; so that the premium on goods is not advanced by reason of
any assurance on the building wherein the goods are kept, nor the
premium on the building by reason of any assurance on the goods.

IV. Plaister or timber buildings covered with lead, tile, or slate,
wherein no hazardous trades are carried on, nor any hazardous goods
deposited; and goods or merchandize not hazardous in such buildings, are
termed Hazardous Assurances, and insured upon the following terms: any
sum above 100_l._ and not exceeding 1000_l._ at 3_s._ _per cent. per
annum_: any sum above 1000_l._ and not exceeding 2000_l._ at 4_s._ _per
cent. per annum_: and any sum above 2000_l._ and not exceeding 3000_l._
at 5_s._ _per cent. per annum_.

V. Hazardous trades, such as apothecaries, colourmen, bread and bisket
bakers, ship and tallow chandlers, innholders and stable-keepers,
carried on in brick or stone buildings, covered with slate, tile, or
lead; and hazardous goods, such as hemp, flax, pitch, tar, tallow, and
turpentine, deposited in such buildings, may be assured at the annual
premiums, set down under the head of Hazardous Assurances, in the above
article.

VI. Any of the above hazardous trades carried on, or hazardous goods
deposited in timber or plaister buildings; earthen, glass, or china ware
in trade, and thatched buildings, or goods therein, are termed Doubly
Hazardous Assurances, and may be assured on the following premiums: any
sum above 100_l._ and not exceeding 1000_l._ at 5_s._ _per cent. per
annum_: and any sum above 1000_l._ and not exceeding 3000_l._ at 7_s._
6_d._ _per cent. per annum_.

VII. Assurances of mills, wearing apparel, and assurances to chemists,
distillers, and sugar-bakers, or any other assurances more than
ordinarily hazardous, by reason of the trade, nature of the goods,
narrowness of the place, or other dangerous circumstances, may be made
by special agreement.

VIII. Two dwelling houses, or any one dwelling house, and the out-houses
thereunto belonging, or any one dwelling house, and goods therein, may
be included in the sum of 100_l._ But when several buildings, or
buildings and goods are assured in the same policy, the sum assured on
each is to be particularly mentioned.

IX. To prevent frauds, if any buildings or goods assured by this
corporation, are, or shall be assured with any other corporation or
society, the policy granted by this corporation is to be null and void,
unless such other assurance is allowed by endorsement on the policy.

X. Every person upon application to be assured with this company, is to
deposite 8_s._ 6_d._ for the policy and mark, which 8_s._ 6_d._ is to be
returned, if the assurance proposed is not agreed to. No policy is to be
of any force, till the premium for one year is paid. And for all
subsequent annual payments made at the office, the assured are to take
receipts, stamped with the seal of the corporation, no other being
allowed of.

XI. No policy is to be extended, or construed to extend to the assurance
of any hazardous buildings or goods, unless they are expressly mentioned
in the policy, and the respective premium for such assurances be paid
for the same.

XII. No loss or damage by fire happening by any invasion, foreign enemy,
or any military or usurped power whatsoever, is to be made good.

XIII. All persons assured by this corporation, are, upon any loss or
damage by fire, forthwith to give notice thereof by letter or otherwise,
to the Directors or Secretary, at their office in the Royal Exchange,
London; and within fifteen days after such fire, deliver in as
particular an account of their loss or damage, as the nature of the case
will admit of, and make proof of the same, by the oath or affirmation of
themselves, and their domestics, or servants, and by their books of
accompts, or other proper vouchers, as shall be required; and also to
procure a certificate under the hands of the Minister and
Church-wardens, together with some other reputable inhabitants of the
parish, not concerned in such loss, importing, that they are well
acquainted with the character and circumstances of the sufferer or
sufferers; and do know, or verily believe, that he, she, or they, have
really and by misfortune, sustained by such fire, the loss and damage
therein mentioned. And in case any difference shall arise between the
corporation and the assured, touching any loss or damage, such
difference shall be submitted to the judgment and determination of
arbitrators indifferently chosen, whose award in writing shall be
conclusive and binding to all parties. And when any loss or damage is
settled and adjusted, the sufferer or sufferers are to receive immediate
satisfaction for the same.

In adjusting losses on houses, no wainscot, painting, sculpture, or
carved work, is to be valued at more than three shillings _per_ yard.

Any larger sum, and some of the goods excepted in the preamble, may be
assured by special agreement.

For the timely assistance of such as are assured, this corporation has
several engines and men, with proper instruments to extinguish fires,
and also porters for removing goods, each of whom has a badge, upon
which is the figure of the Royal Exchange, and the badges are all
numbered; of which all persons are desired to take notice who intrust
them with goods, or have any complaint to make. The same figure is fixed
on buildings assured by this corporation.

The Royal Exchange Assurance office is under the management of a
Governor, Sub-Governor, Deputy-Governor, and twenty-four Directors;
besides whom there are a Treasurer, a Secretary, an Accomptant, and
several Clerks.

ROYAL MEWS. See the article MEWS.

ROYAL OAK _alley_, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Ratcliff.

ROYAL OAK _court_, 1. Kent street, Southwark.* 2. Parker’s lane, Drury
lane.* 3. Peak street, Swallow street.*

ROYAL OAK _yard_, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.* 2. Hockley in the Hole.*
3. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

ROYAL _row_, 1. Lambeth marsh. 2. Near Windmill hill.

ROYAL’S _court_, Horselydown lane, Southwark.

ROYAL SOCIETY, in Crane court, Fleet street. This society, which took its
rise from a private society of learned and ingenious men, was founded
for the improvement of natural knowledge. The honourable Robert Boyle,
Sir William Petty, Dr. Seth Ward, Dr. Wilkins, Dr. Wallis, Dr. Goddard,
Dr. Willis, Dr. Bathurst, and Dr. Wren, together with Mr. Matthew Wren
and Mr. Rook, frequently met in the apartments of Dr. Wilkins, in Wadham
College, at Oxford, to discourse on philosophical subjects; and there
the learned productions of these gentlemen, not only eminently
distinguished that society at home, but also rendered it highly revered
by the _literati_ abroad.

The meetings of these _literati_, which began about the year 1650,
continued at Oxford till 1658, when the members being called to
different parts of the kingdom, on account of their respective
functions; and the majority coming to this city, they constantly
attended the astronomical and geometrical lectures at Gresham college,
where, being joined by several persons of the greatest learning and
distinction, they continued to meet there once or twice a week, till the
death of Oliver Cromwell: when anarchy succeeding, they were obliged to
quit their place of meeting, on account of its being converted into
military quarters for the reception of soldiers.

However, the storm being soon after allayed by the restoration of King
Charles II. the society began to resume their meetings, and for the more
effectually carrying them on, entered into an obligation to pay each one
shilling a week, towards the defraying of occasional charges.

From these small beginnings, this society soon arose to be one of the
most celebrated in all Europe: for their design being favoured by some
ingenious men who had followed the King in his exile, his Majesty
granted them a charter, dated the 15th of July 1662, and then a second
charter, dated the 22d of April 1663, whereby they were denominated,
_The Royal Society_, and made a corporation, to consist of a President,
Council, and Fellows, for promoting natural knowledge and useful arts,
by experiments; in this charter his Majesty declared himself their
founder and patron, giving them power to make laws for the government of
themselves; to purchase lands and houses; to have a common seal, and a
coat of arms.

No sooner was this Royal Society thus incorporated by King Charles II.
than that Prince made them a present of a fine silver mace gilt, to be
carried before the President; and as a farther mark of favour, their
royal patron, by his letters patent of the 8th of April 1667, gave them
Chelsea college with its appurtenances, and twenty-six or twenty-seven
acres of land surrounding it. But afterwards the society neglecting to
convert a part of it into a physic garden, as was intended, and the King
being resolved to erect an hospital for old and maimed soldiers, thought
no place more proper for such a design than this college; he therefore
purchased it again of them for a considerable sum.

A little before the society received these letters patent from his
Majesty, the honourable Henry Howard, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, made
them a present of a very valuable library, on the 2d of January 1666.

This collection was part of the royal library belonging to the Kings of
Hungary, originally kept at the city of Buda. Upon the decease of
Matthias Corvinus, the last King of the Hungarian race, it was disposed
of, and about two thirds of the books were bought by the Emperor, and
are now in the imperial library at Vienna: the remaining part coming to
Bilibaldus Perkeymherus of Nuremberg, it was purchased of him by the
Earl of Arundel, on his return from his embassy to the imperial court.

This fine collection consists of 3287 printed books in most languages
and faculties; chiefly the first editions soon after the invention of
printing; and a valuable collection of manuscripts in Hebrew, Greek,
Latin, and Turkish, amounting to 554 volumes, which, together with the
former, are thought to be of such value as not to be parallelled, for
the smallness of their number.

The noble benefactor, at the time of his donation, desired that the
inscription of, _Ex dono Henrici Howard Norfolkciensis_, might be put in
each book: and that in case the society should happen to fail, the
library should revert to his family. This the society not only readily
complied with, but some years after caused the following inscription to
be set up in the library:


                        Bibliotheca Norfolciana.


               Excellentissimus Princeps Henricus Howard,
                    Angliæ, Comes Arundeliæ, Suriæ,
                    Norfolciæ, & Norwici, &c. Heros,
               propter familiæ antiquitatem, animi dotes,
               corporis dignitatem, pene incomparabilis,
                   bibliothecam hanc instructissimam
                (quæ hactenus Arundeliana appellabatur)
                      Regiæ Societati dono dedit,
                     & perpetuo sacram esse voluit.
                                 Huic,
               Pro eximia erga se liberalitate, Societas
                       Regia tabulam hanc, devotæ
                         Mentis testem, fixit;
                      Præside Josepho Williamson,
                             Equite Aurato.
                           A. D. M.DC.LXXIX.


Besides this Arundelian or Norfolk library, which takes up a large room,
another curious and valuable collection was left the society in the year
1715, by their Secretary Francis Aston, Esq; which together with the
numerous benefactions of the works of the learned members, in all
faculties, but more especially in natural and experimental philosophy,
amount to above 3600, and are placed in glass cases in another room.

The museum belonging to the society, was founded by Daniel Colwall, Esq;
in the year 1677, who gave his excellent collection of natural and
artificial curiosities, which compose the greatest part of the catalogue
published in the year 1681, by Dr. Grew, under the title of _Museum
Regalis Societatis_. But these curiosities, by the generous benefactions
of other curious persons, are now increased to above six times the
number of those mentioned in the catalogue.

Upon the society’s removal from Gresham college to their house in Crane
court, Richard Waller, Esq; one of the Secretaries, erected in the year
1711, at his own expence, the repository in the garden for the reception
of the above curiosities, which consist of the following species, viz.
human, quadrupedes, birds, eggs, nests, fishes, insects, reptiles,
woods, stalks and roots; fruits of all sorts; mosses, mushrooms, plants,
spunges, &c. animal and vegetable bodies petrified; corals, and other
marine productions; fossils, gems, stones, metals, antimony, mercury,
and other metallic bodies, salts, sulphurs, oils, and earths;
philosophical and mathematical instruments; Indian, American, and other
weapons, with a variety of apparel, &c.

In short, by the above Royal and other benefactions, the admission
money, and annual contributions of the members, this society was at
length in so flourishing a condition, that they applied to his late
Majesty King George I. for an additional privilege to purchase in
mortmain 1000_l._ instead of 200_l._ _per annum_, which he was pleased
to grant by his letters patent, in 1725. Among the Fellows of this
society are his Majesty King George II. and many of the greatest Princes
in Europe.

This learned body is governed by a President and Council, consisting of
twenty-one Fellows, distinguished by their rank and learning.

The officers chosen from among the members, are, the President, who
calls and dissolves the meetings, proposes the subjects of consultation,
puts questions, calls for experiments, and admits the members that are
from time to time received into the society.

The Treasurer, who receives and disburses all the money.

The two Secretaries, who read all letters and informations; reply to all
addresses or letters from foreign parts, or at home; register all
experiments and conclusions, and publish what is ordered by the society.

The Curators, who have the charge of making experiments, receive the
directions of the society, and at another meeting bring all to the test.

Every person to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, must be
propounded and recommended at a meeting of the society, by three or more
members; who must then deliver to one of the Secretaries a paper signed
by themselves with their own names, specifying the name, addition,
profession, occupation, and chief qualifications; the inventions,
discoveries, works, writings, or other productions of the candidate for
election; as also notifying the usual place of his abode, and
recommending him on their own personal knowledge. A fair copy of which
paper, with the date of the day when delivered, shall be fixed up in the
common meeting room of the society, at ten several ordinary meetings,
before the said candidate shall be put to the ballot: but it shall be
free for every one of his Majesty’s subjects, who is a Peer, or the son
of a Peer, of Great Britain or Ireland, and for every one of his
Majesty’s Privy Council of either of the said kingdoms, and for every
foreign Prince or Ambassador, to be propounded by any single person, and
to be put to the ballot for election on the same day, there being
present a competent number for making elections. And at every such
ballot, unless two thirds at least of the members present give their
bills in favour of the candidate, he cannot be elected a Fellow of the
Royal Society; nor can any candidate be balloted for, unless twenty-one
members at the least be present.

After a candidate has been elected, he may at that, or the next meeting
of the society, be introduced, and solemnly admitted by the President,
after having previously subscribed the obligation, whereby he promises,
“That he will endeavour to promote the good of the Royal Society of
London, for the improvement of natural knowledge.”

When any one is admitted, he pays a fee of five guineas, and afterwards
13_s._ a quarter, as long as he continues a member, towards defraying
the expences of the society; and for the payment thereof he gives a
bond; but most of the members on their first admittance chuse to pay
down twenty guineas, which discharges them from any future payments.

Any Fellow may however free himself from these obligations, by only
writing to the President, that he desires to withdraw from the society.

When the President takes the chair, the rest of the Fellows take their
seats, and those who are not of the society withdraw: except any Baron
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, any person of a higher title, or any
of his Majesty’s Privy Council of any of his three kingdoms, and any
foreigner of eminent repute, may stay, with the allowance of the
President, for that time; and upon leave obtained of the President and
Fellows present, or the major part of them, any other person may be
permitted to stay for that time: but the name of every person thus
permitted to stay, that of the person who moved for him, and the
allowance, are to be entered in the journal book.

The business of the society in their ordinary meetings, is, to order,
take account, consider and discourse of philosophical experiments and
observations; to read, hear, and discourse upon letters, reports, and
other papers, containing philosophical matters; as also to view and
discourse upon the rarities of nature and art, and to consider what may
be deduced from them, and how far they may be improved for use or
discovery.

No experiment can be made at the charge of the society, but by order of
the society or council. And in order to the propounding and making
experiments for the society, the importance of such experiment is to be
considered with respect to the discovery of any truth, or to the use and
benefit of mankind.

The Philosophical Transactions are printed at the charge of the society,
and the Clerk delivers _gratis_ one of the copies to every Fellow of the
Society who shall demand it, either in person, or by letter under the
hand of such Fellow, within one year after the Clerk has begun to
deliver such copies.

If any Fellow of the society shall contemptuously or contumaciously
disobey the statutes or orders of the society; or shall by speaking,
writing, or printing, publicly defame the society, or maliciously do any
thing to the detriment thereof, he shall be ejected.

The meetings of the Royal Society are on Thursdays, at five o’clock in
the afternoon.

The members of the Council are elected out of the Fellows, upon the
feast of St. Andrew in the morning; when after the election they all
dine together.

Eleven of the old council are chosen for the ensuing year; and ten are
elected out of the other members. Then the President, Treasurer, and
Secretary are elected out of these. But the same persons are usually
rechosen into these offices.

ROYAL _vineyard_, St. James’s Park.

RUG _row_, Cloth fair, Smithfield.

RUMFORD, a town in Essex, 12 miles from London, and 5 from Burntwood, is a
very great thoroughfare, and is governed by a Bailiff and Wardens, who
are by patent impowered to hold a weekly court for the trial of
treasons, felonies, debts, &c. and to execute offenders. It has a market
on Mondays and Tuesdays for hogs and calves, and on Wednesday for corn,
all of which are chiefly bought up for the use of London.

RUMMER _court_, Charing Cross.

RUN-HORSE _yard_, David street, Grosvenor square.*

RUPERT _street_, 1. Coventry street. 2. Goodman’s fields.

RUSSEL _court_, 1. Blue Anchor alley, Rosemary lane.† 2. Cleveland row,
St. James’s.† 3. Drury lane.† 4. Ratcliff highway.†

RUSSEL’S MILL _stairs_, Rotherhith.†

RUSSEL _street_, Covent Garden; so called from the Duke of Bedford, upon
whose estate it is built.

RUSSIA COMPANY, a body of merchants incorporated by letters patent,
granted by Queen Mary on the 6th of February 1555, by which they were
not only impowered to carry on an exclusive trade to all parts of the
Russian empire, but to all such countries as they should discover in
those northern parts. In consequence of this charter, they soon after
discovered the Cherry Islands, Greenland, Nova Zembla, Newfoundland,
Davis’s Streights, and Hudson’s Bay; and their first Governor was that
celebrated mariner Sebastian Cabot.

In consideration of these valuable discoveries, their privileges were
confirmed by Parliament; and in the year 1614 enlarged by King James I.

In the year 1742, the Russia company obtained leave of the present
Czarina Elizabeth, to trade with Persia thro’ Russia, and between the
years 1743 and 1749, Mr. Hanway observes, they imported raw silk to the
amount of 93,375_l._ value in Persia: but Mr. Elton, one of the
company’s agents, being employed by Kouli Khan, who then sat on the
Persian throne, to build some ships of force on the Caspian sea, the
Russians apprehended they should be disturbed by the Persians in their
navigation over that sea, and therefore put an end to the traffic of the
British Russia company through Russia to Persia.

This company exports cloth of all sorts, both dressed and dyed; kersies,
baize, cottons, fustians, perpetuanoes, Norwich stuffs, lace, thread,
lead, tin, pewter, allum, copper, and most other sorts of English
commodities: and we import from thence, cordage, tar, tallow, potashes,
cable yarn, bees wax, linen cloth, isinglass, hides of several sorts,
both tanned and raw; hogs bristles, linseed, several sorts of rich
furrs, train oil, flax, hemp, caviare, stock fish, cod fish, salmon, &c.

This company is under the management of a Governor, four Consuls, and
twenty-four Assistants, annually chosen on the 1st of March, who keep
their courts monthly, or as occasion requires, in a large room in the
Old East India house in Leadenhall street: but considered as a company,
their trade at present is not very considerable; it being carried on
chiefly by private merchants, who are admitted to reap the profit of
trading to Russia, on paying 5_l._ each.

RUTLAND _court_, 1. Charterhouse square. 2. Glasshouse yard, Goswell
street. 3. Near Puddle dock, Thames street.

RYCAUT’S _court_, Morgan’s lane.†


[Illustration]



                                   S.


SACRIST of St. Paul’s cathedral, an officer who is assistant to the
Treasurer. He is to keep every thing in order belonging to the altar,
and to open the church doors at the first ringing of the bell for
morning and evening prayers. This officer when chosen by the Treasurer,
must be presented to the Dean for his approbation, by whom he is
admitted upon taking an oath to discharge his office with fidelity.

The Sacrist has three servants under him, called Vergers, who also keep
servants for cleaning the church, tolling the bell, blowing the organ
bellows, and other servile business. _Newc. Rep._

SADLERS, a very ancient company, though it was not incorporated by letters
patent till the reign of Edward I. They are governed by a Prime and
three other Wardens, with eighteen Assistants, and have a livery of
seventy members, whose fine on their admission is 10_l._ They have a
very handsome hall in Cheapside. _Maitland._

SADLERS _alley_, Dorset street.

SADLERS _court_, Milford lane.

SAFFRON _hill_, 1. Field lane, at the bottom of Snow hill. 2. Hockley in
the Hole.

SALISBURY _alley_, Chiswell street.

SALISBURY _court_, Dorset street, Fleet street; so called from the Bishop
of Salisbury’s city mansion there; afterwards the Earl of Dorset’s.

SALISBURY _lane_, Rotherhith Wall.

SALISBURY _stairs_, Salisbury street, in the Strand.

SALISBURY _street_, 1. Marigold street, Rotherhith Wall. 2. In the Strand;
so called from the Earl of Salisbury’s house, which formerly stood
there.

SALISBURY _walk_, Chelsea road.

SALMON’S _lane_, Ratcliff.†

SALT OFFICE, in York Buildings, is under the government of five
Commissioners, each of whom has a salary of 500_l._ _per annum_. Under
these Commissioners are the following officers: a Treasurer, who has
430_l._ a year, for himself and three Clerks; he has also a Deputy: two
Billmen: a Comptroller, who has 350_l._ a year, with a Deputy and two
Clerks: the Comptroller’s Secretary has 200_l._ a year, and an
Assistant: an Accomptant General, who has 200_l._ _per annum_, and his
Clerk 40_l._ a year: a Correspondent, who has 100_l._ a year, and his
Clerk 60_l._ a Chief Accomptant and Clerk of Securities, who has 180_l._
_per annum_: two Accomptants, who have 70_l._ a year each, a Clerk, who
has 60_l._ and another 40_l._ _per annum_: a Storekeeper and Clerk of
the charities and diaries, who has 60_l._ a year; a Collector of the
port of London, who has 60_l._ an Assistant Searcher 60_l._ and two
Surveyors who have 40_l._ a year each.

Besides these, there are in this office an housekeeper who has 100_l._ a
year, and several other servants.

SALTERS, one of the twelve principal companies, and the ninth in order of
precedency, is of considerable antiquity, since they had the grant of a
livery from Richard II. in the year 1394; but it does not appear that
they were incorporated before the first year of the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, in 1558.

This company has a Master, two Wardens, twenty-seven Assistants, and a
livery of 190 members, who upon their being admitted, pay a fine of
20_l._ They have a very considerable estate, out of which they pay
500_l._ _per annum_ to charitable uses. Their hall, which is a plain
brick building, is situated in a neat court in Swithin’s lane.

SALTERS _alley_, 1. Green bank, Wapping. 2. Nightingale lane.

SALTERS _court_, Piccadilly.

SALTERS HALL _court_, in Swithin’s lane, where is Salters hall, in which
is a handsome presbyterian meeting-house.

SALTPETRE BANK, 1. East Smithfield, by Little Tower hill. 2. By Rosemary
lane.

SALUTATION _court_, St. Giles’s Broadway.*

SAMBROOK’S _court_, Old Broad street.†

SAMBRUGH’S _court_, Basinghall street.†

SAMSON’S _rents_, Green Walk.†

SANDWICH _court_, Houndsditch.†

SANDY’S _rents_, Coverley’s fields.†

SANDY’S _street_, Widegate alley, Bishopsgate street without.†

SARAH’S _street_, New Gravel lane.

SARN _alley_, Rotherhith Wall.†

SATCHELL’S _rents_, 1. Shoreditch.† 2. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.†

SAVAGE _gardens_, Tower hill.†

SAVAGE’S _court_, Widegate alley, Bishopsgate street.†

SAVAGE’S _rents_, Black Friars.†

SAVERY’S _alley_, Farmer’s street, Shadwell.†

SAVILE _row_, near New Bond street.†

_St._ SAVIOUR’S _Bermondsey_, a priory, and afterwards an abbey, founded
by Alwin Child, a citizen of London, in the year 1082, in the place now
denominated St. John’s court Bermondsey.

This priory was not only confirmed by the charter of William Rufus,
together with all the benefactions belonging to it; but that Prince also
conferred upon the Prior and Monks the manor of Bermondsey, and erected
a handsome and spacious conventual church for their accommodation. This
priory, however, being an alien and a cell to one in France, it was
among other foreign foundations sequestered by Edward III. in the year
1371, who constituted Richard Denton, an Englishman, Prior thereof.

This priory was in 1391 converted into an abbey; and at the general
suppression of monasteries in the year 1539 was surrendered to Henry
VIII. when being granted to Sir John Pope, he demolished the old abbey,
and erected in its room a stately edifice, which some time after came to
the Earls of Sussex. _Stow’s Survey._

_St._ SAVIOUR’S _dock_, vulgarly called _Savory dock_, in Rotherhith, took
its name from the above abbey, dedicated to the holy Saviour.
_Maitland._

_St._ SAVIOUR’S _Mill_, vulgarly called _Savory mill_, also belonged to
the above abbey, and was in the year 1536 let by the Abbot and Monks to
John Curlew, at the yearly rent of 6_l._ which was then the value of
eighteen quarters of good wheat; and he was also bound to grind all the
corn used in the abbey.

In the place where this mill stood, is now an engine for raising water
to supply the neighbourhood. _Maitland._

_St._ SAVIOUR’S _School_, in St. Saviour’s church yard, Southwark, was
founded by the parish, for the education of boys in grammatical
learning, and confirmed by letters patent granted by Queen Elizabeth, so
early as the year 1562, and the fourth of her reign; by which six of the
vestry are for ever appointed Governors.

To this school belong a Master and Usher, the former of whom has a
salary of 30_l._ and the latter 20_l._ _per annum_.

_St._ SAVIOUR’S _Southwark_, or _St._ MARY OVERIES, a church of great
antiquity, situated to the south west of the bridge foot. In the place
where it stands, is said to have been anciently a priory of nuns founded
by one Mary a Virgin, the owner of a ferry over the river Thames, before
the building of London bridge. Some time after the priory was converted
into a college of Priests; but that establishment, as well as the
former, proving of no long duration, it was in the year 1106 founded by
two Norman Knights, and the Bishop of Winchester, for Canons regular,
and from its dedication to the Virgin Mary, and its situation, was
called St. Mary Overie, that is, St. Mary over the river.

This edifice was destroyed by fire about the year 1207; but it being
soon after rebuilt, Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, added to it
a spacious chapel, which he dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen; and this
being afterwards appointed for the use of the inhabitants, it at last
became their parish church.

The monastery and church were rebuilt in the reigns of Richard II. and
Henry IV. but at the general suppression of religious houses were
surrendered to Henry VIII. in the year 1539; upon which the parishes of
St. Mary Magdalen, and St. Margaret, purchased the conventual church of
King Henry; and were the next year united by act of Parliament, and the
church being then repaired, was called by the new name of St. Saviour’s.
_Stowe._

Both the construction and extent of this Gothic structure resemble a
cathedral more than a parish church. The length is 260 feet, and that of
the cross isle 109: the breadth of the body is 54 feet, and the height
of the tower, including the pinacles, is 150 feet. The construction of
the windows, entrances, and every other part, is purely in the Gothic
style, except a modern door, which is neither Gothic, nor agreeable to
the rules of any other architecture. The tower, which is square, and
well proportioned, is supported by massy pillars over the meeting of the
middle and cross isles; it is crowned with battlements, and has a
pinacle at each corner.

In a chapel at the east end of the church is the monument of Bishop
Andrews, who was interred there; and in another part of the church is
that of the Bishop of Winchester; but the most singular monument is that
of the family of the Austins, erected in the last century, and repaired,
new painted, and gilt by the relations in 1706.

The first figure is a rock, upon which is written, _Petra erat_ XTS.
that is, The rock was Christ. Down this rock runs a stream of water; and
out of it glides a serpent, his old skin being stript off by the rock,
which is seen hanging on that part of his back that is not yet got
thro’. At the foot of the rock there grows standing corn, on which is a
label with these words, _Si non moriatur, non reviviscit_, that is, If
it dieth not, it liveth not again. Underneath the corn is this motto,
_Nos sevit, fovit, lavit, coget, renovabit_, _i.e._ He hath sown,
cherished, washed us, and shall gather us together and renew us.

Upon the top of the rock stands an angel, holding a sickle in his left
hand, and with his right pointing to the sun, which shines, and on its
lower rays is a label, upon which is, _Sol justitiæ_, _i.e._ The Sun of
righteousness.

On the sides of the monument are scythes, flails, shepherds crooks,
rakes, ploughs, harrows, and other instruments of husbandry hanging by a
ribband out of a Death’s head; and above them, _Vos estis agricultura_,
_i.e._ Ye are God’s husbandry.

On the outside of these a harvest man with wings is seated on each side,
one with a fork behind him, and the other with a rake. They have straw
hats, and lean their heads upon their hands, the elbows resting upon
their knees, as if fatigued with labour, and under them are these words,
_Messores congregabunt_, _i.e._ The reapers shall gather. Under all is a
winnowing fan, upon which is stretched a sheet of parchment bearing a
long inscription in Latin.

Though the name of this church has been changed from St. Mary Overies to
that of St. Saviour, yet the former still prevails. It is a rectory in
the gift of the parish, and the profits arising to the two Chaplains,
are said to amount to above 300_l._ _per annum_.

SAVORY _dock_. See _St._ SAVIOUR’S _dock_.

SAVORY MILL. See _St._ SAVIOUR’S _mill_.

SAVORY _mill stairs_, corruptly so called, Rotherhith. See _St._ SAVIOUR’S
_mill stairs_.

SAVOY, or _Lancaster Palace_, is situated to the westward of Somerset
house, between the Strand and the Thames. This place obtained the name
of the Savoy, from Peter Earl of Savoy and Richmond, who built it about
the year 1245, and afterwards transferred it to the friars of Montjoy,
of whom Queen Eleanor, the wife of King Henry III. purchased it for her
son Henry Duke of Lancaster. The Duke afterwards enlarged and beautified
it, at the expence of 52,000 marks, at that time an immense sum. Here
John King of France resided, when a prisoner in England in the year
1357, and upon his return hither in 1363, when it was esteemed one of
the finest palaces in England.

This edifice was burnt in 1381 by the Kentish rebels, on account of some
pique they had conceived against John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, who
was then the proprietor. But the ground afterwards devolving to the
Crown, King Henry VII. began to rebuild it as it at present appears, for
an hospital, for the reception of an hundred distressed objects; but
that Prince not living to see it compleated, Henry VIII. his son, not
only granted his manor of the Savoy to the Bishop of Winchester and
others, the executors of his father’s will, towards finishing the
hospital; but by his charter of the 5th of July 1513, constituted them a
body politic and corporate, to consist of a Master, five secular
Chaplains, and four Regulars, in honour of Jesus Christ, his Mother, and
St. John Baptist; the foundation to be denominated _The hospital of King
Henry VII. late King of England, of the Savoy_.

This hospital was suppressed in the reign of Edward VI. when the
revenues were found to amount to 530_l._ _per annum_, which that Prince
gave to the city of London towards making a provision for the hospitals
of Bridewell, Christ-church, and St. Thomas: but Queen Mary converted it
into an hospital again, and having endowed it anew, her Ladies and Maids
of honour completely furnished it, at their own expence, with all
necessaries. However the hospital was again suppressed upon the
accession of Queen Elizabeth to the throne, and the revenues applied to
the uses intended by her brother.

Nothing here is now to be seen, but the ruins of the ancient edifice
built with free-stone and flints, among which is still remaining part of
a great building, in which detachments of the King’s guards lie, and
where they have their Marshalsea prison for the confinement of deserters
and other offenders, and to lodge their recruits.

A part of the Savoy was assigned by King William III. for the residence
of the French refugees, who have still a chapel here, in which they
conform to the church of England. _Stowe._ _Dugdale’s Mon. Ang._

SAW _court_, Fore street, Cripplegate.

SAWYER’S _court_, Houndsditch.†

SAWYER’S _yard_, 1. Hosier lane. 2. Tower street, Soho.

SCALDING _alley_, in the Poultry. In this alley was formerly a large
house, known by the name of the Scalding-house; for the street called
the Poultry containing a number of Poulterers stalls, the fowls they
sold there were first scalded in this house. _Maitland._

SCALLOP _court_, Creed lane, Ludgate street.

SCHOOL _alley_, East Smithfield.☐

SCHOOL _lane_, Jamaica street, Rotherhith.☐

SCHOOL _yard_, Ailesbury street, Clerkenwell.☐

SCHOOLHOUSE _alley_, Swan alley.☐

SCHOOLHOUSE _lane_, 1. Ailesbury street.☐ 2. Brooke street, Ratcliff.☐

SCHOOLHOUSE _yard_, 1. Rose street, Shoreditch.☐ 2. Schoolhouse lane,
Ratcliff.☐ 3. Sutton street, St. John’s street, Clerkenwell.☐

SCHOOLS. Of these we have given an account under the names of their
particular foundations; the most famous and noble of these, are, the
Charterhouse, Mercers school, Merchant Taylors school, St. Paul’s
school, and Westminster school; and among those for the instruction of
the lower class, is Christ-church school, a noble foundation for the
education and support of the children of deceased citizens, and a great
number of smaller foundations, as, St. Olave’s school, Ratcliff school,
Tothill fields school, and several others; all of which the reader may
find under their respective articles.

In these schools, exclusive of Christ-church hospital, are educated 2888
boys, and 285 girls; the charge of whose education, &c. exclusive of
those which belong to hospitals and almshouses, amounts, according to
Maitland, to the annual sum of 1990_l._

Besides these, which are supported by regular funds, there are a great
number denominated CHARITY SCHOOLS, that have no other foundation and
support, than generous benefactions, annual subscriptions, and the
charitable collections made in the several churches in this city and
suburbs. Of these we shall give a list, with the number of the boys and
girls in each.


                         _Schools._                     _Boys._ _Girls._
     Allhallows, Lombard street                            40    00
     St. Andrew’s, Holborn                                 80    70
     St. Anne’s, Aldersgate                                30    20
     St. Anne’s, Westminster                               52    52
     St. Bartholomew the Great                             35    16
     Bartholomew Close, _Presbyterian_                     50    25
     Bethnal Green                                         00    30
     Bevis Marks, _Portuguese Jews_                        12    00
     Billingsgate Ward                                     40    00
     St. Botolph’s, Aldersgate                             50    50
     St. Botolph’s, Aldgate                                50    40
     St. Botolph’s, Bishopsgate                            30    20
     Bridge and Candlewick Wards                           60    40
     Bridewell Walk, Clerkenwell, _Quakers_                40    20
     St. Bride’s                                           50    50
     Broad street Ward                                     50    30
     Castle Baynard Ward                                   30    20
     St. Catherine Creechurch                              40    00
     St. Catherine’s, Tower                                35    15
     Christ-church, Spitalfields                           30    30
     Christ-church, Surry                                  30    10
     St. Clement’s Danes                                   85    55
     Corbet’s court, Spitalfields, _French_                50    50
     Cordwainer and Bread street Wards                     50    30
     Cornhill and Lime street Wards                        50    30
     Cripplegate Ward within                               50    20
     Dowgate Ward                                          30    20
     St. Dunstan’s in the West                             50    20
     East Smithfield Liberty                               40    30
     St. Ethelburg’s                                       20    00
     Faringdon Ward within                                 60    40
     Fry’s court, Tower hill, _Presbyterian_               30    10
     St. George’s, Hanover square                          50    40
     St. George’s, Queen square                            50    50
     St. George’s, Ratcliff Highway                        50    50
     St. George’s, Southwark                               50    00
     St. Giles’s, Cripplegate                             130    00
     St. Giles’s in the Fields                            101   101
     Grey Eagle street, Spitalfields, _French_             50    50
     St. James’s, Clerkenwell                              60    40
     St. James’s, Westminster                             102    80
     St. John’s, Hackney                                   30    20
     St. John’s, Wapping                                   38    23
     Keat’s street, Spitalfields, _Independent_            30    00
     King’s head court, Spitalfields, _Independent_        00    30
     Knightsbridge chapel                                   6     6
     St. Laurence, Poultney                                16    00
     St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch                             50    50
     St. Luke’s, Old street                                40    00
     St. Margaret’s, Westminster                           52    34
     St. Martin’s in the Fields                           101    51
     St. Mary’s, Islington                                 26    18
     St. Mary’s, Lambeth                                   28    00
     St. Mary la Bonne                                     12    00
     St. Mary le Strand                                    16    00
     St. Mary Magdalen’s, Bermondsey                       50    20
     St. Mary’s, Newington Butts                           32    00
     St. Mary’s Rotherhith                                 45    00
     Mile-end, Old Town                                    22    10
     Nortonfalgate                                         60    00
     St. Olave’s, Jewry                                    30    00
     St. Olave’s, Southwark                                00    60
     St. Paul’s, Covent Garden                             30    20
     St. Paul’s, Shadwell                                  50    50
     Poplar Hamlet                                         30    20
     Portpool lane, _Welch_                                50    00
     Queenhithe Ward                                       36    24
     Ratcliff Hamlet                                       35    25
     Ratcliff Highway, _Presbyterian_                      30    00
     St. Saviour’s, Southwark                              80    50
     St. Sepulchre’s                                       84    76
     Shakespear’s walk, Shadwell, _Presbyterian_           30    00
     St. Stephen’s, Wallbrook                              30    00
     St. Thomas’s, Southwark                               30    00
     Tower street Ward                                     60    60
     Vintry Ward                                           50    00
     Unicorn yard, Horselydown, _Independent_              50    00
     Zoar street, Southwark, _Presbyterian_               137    00


Thus in these charity schools are educated 3458 boys, and 1901 girls, in
all 5359. Mr. Maitland has been at some pains in endeavouring to learn
the respective charges of the above schools; but not being able to
obtain an account of each, he has endeavoured to settle as near as
possible the expence of maintaining the whole, and that by a method
equally plain and satisfactory: for having found that the parish school
of St. Andrew’s, Holborn, which contains eighty boys, cost in one year
272_l._ 2_s._ 9_d._ and seventy girls in the same school 139_l._ 14_s._
6_d._ he computed, that as the charge of eighty boys amounts to 272_l._
2_s._ 9_d._ so that of 3458 boys must amount to 11,763_l._ 2_s._ 10¼_d._
and so, by the same method of calculation, as the expence of seventy
girls amounts to 139_l._ 14_s._ 6_d._ that of 1901 girls must amount to
3794_l._ 10_s._ 7½_d. per annum_; whence it appears, that the whole
expence of all the said charity children amounts to 15,557_l._ 13_s._
5¾_d._ _per annum_.

The same author adds, that the annual expence of the above free-schools,
exclusive of those belonging to the hospitals and almshouses, amounting
to 1990_l._ it appears that the expence of these schools, added to that
of the charity schools, amount in all to 17,547_l._ 13_s._ 3¾_d._

As to the number of private schools in this metropolis and its suburbs,
for educating youth in all kinds of literature, they are supposed to
amount to above three thousand. _Maitland._

SCORE’S _alley_, East Smithfield.†

SCOTLAND _yard_, Whitehall; so named from a palace which formerly stood
there for the reception of the Kings of Scotland, when they came to do
homage for the county of Cumberland, and other fiefs held by them of the
Crown of England. _Stow’s Survey._

SCOTS CORPORATION, for the relief of poor and necessitous people of that
country. This corporation owes its origin to James Kinnier, a Scotsman,
and merchant of this city; who on his recovery from a long and dangerous
illness, resolved to give part of his estate towards the relief of the
aged and necessitous of his country, within the cities of London and
Westminster: and having prevailed with a society of his countrymen, who
composed a box club, to join their stock, applied for a charter, by
which he and his co-adjutors were, in the year 1665, constituted a body
politic and corporate, with several privileges, which King Charles II.
confirmed the following year by letters patent, wherein are recited the
privileges granted in the former charter, with the addition of several
new ones, viz.

That they might erect an hospital within the city or liberties of London
and Westminster, to be called, _The Scots hospital of King Charles II._
to be governed by eight Scotsmen, who were to chuse from among
themselves a Master, who, together with these Governors, were declared
to be a body politic and corporate, and to have a common seal. They were
also impowered to elect thirty-three Assistants, and to purchase in
mortmain 400_l._ _per annum_, over and above an annual sum mentioned in
the first charter; the profits arising from these purchases to be
employed in relieving poor old Scots men and women, and instructing and
employing poor Scottish orphans, the descendants of Scotsmen within this
city.

This humane foundation had however like to have been crushed in its bud
by two very dreadful events, the plague, and the fire of London; which
happened in the very years when the charters were granted. However,
those who had the direction of the work began in the year 1670 to
prosecute it with vigour; and found themselves not only in a condition
to provide for their poor, but took a lease of a piece of ground in
Black Friars, to build upon, for the term of a thousand years, at a
ground-rent of 40_l._ and by charitable contributions were enabled to
erect their hall, with two houses at Fleetditch, and four in Black
Friars, which were soon after finished at the expence of 4450_l._

All matters relating to the corporation are managed by the Governors
without fee or reward; for they not only, upon all such occasions, spend
their own money, but contribute quarterly for the support of the
society, and the relief of the poor; they provide for the sick; to the
reduced and aged they grant pensions; they bury the dead, and give money
to such as are disposed to return to Scotland. The sums disbursed by the
society amount to about 600_l._ _per annum_.

The officers belonging to this corporation are, a Treasurer, a Register,
two Stewards, and a Beadle.

SCOT’S _wharf_, White Friars, Fleet street.†

SCOT’S _yard_, 1. Bush lane.† 2. Mill bank, Westminster.† 3. Montague
street, Spitalfields.† 4. Stony lane, Southwark.† 5. Whitecross street.†

SCRIVENERS, a fraternity anciently denominated The Writers of the court
letter of the city of London, was incorporated by letters patent granted
by King James I. in the year 1616, by the name of _The Master, Wardens,
and Assistants of the Society of Writers of the city of London_.

This company is governed by a Master, two Wardens, and twenty-four
Assistants, with fifty-three livery-men, who upon their admission pay a
fine of 5_l._

The company of Scriveners being reduced to low circumstances, thought
proper to sell their hall in Noble street to the Coachmakers company.

SCROOP’S _court_, Holborn. In this court anciently stood one of the Inns
of court called Scroop’s Inn.

SCRUB’S _square_, Upper Ground, Southwark.

SEA _alley_, King street, Westminster.

_The Office for the relief of_ SEA OFFICERS WIDOWS. The Lords of the
Admiralty having taken into consideration, the unhappy condition to
which the widows of many of the officers of the navy were reduced by the
death of their husbands, proposed both to the commissioned and half-pay
officers of the navy, to enter into a voluntary agreement, to grant
three pence in the pound out of their pay, towards establishing a fund
for allowing pensions to such of their widows as are left in mean
circumstances.

To this the officers readily consenting, the Lords Commissioners laid
the affair before his present Majesty, who, to promote so good a work,
granted his letters patent in the year 1732, directing that three pence
in the pound be deducted from the pay and half-pay of all commission and
warrant officers of the navy; and to appoint the Lords Commissioners of
the Admiralty, the Treasurer, Commissioners, Paymaster, and Cashier of
the navy, for the time being, twenty Captains, ten Lieutenants, five
Masters, five Boatswains, five Gunners, five Carpenters, five Pursers,
and five Surgeons of the navy, the eldest of their respective stations,
to be Governors of this corporation: out of whom are appointed a
President, two Vice Presidents, a Treasurer, and fifteen Assistants, as
a committee for the management of all the affairs belonging to this
charity.

The first Commissioner of the Admiralty is to be always President; and
the Treasurer of the navy to be always the Treasurer; but the two Vice
Presidents, and fifteen Assistants, are to be elected annually.

By the orders of this generous corporation, no officer or servant
employed therein, is to receive any salary, reward, or gratuity; the
whole business being transacted _gratis_.

The first step taken by the Governors was providing for the widows whose
husbands died after the date of the above letters patent; who, in the
first year amounted to twenty-four, to whom pensions were allowed,
according to the following regulations, viz. To the widow of a Captain,
45_l._ _per annum_; to the widow of a Lieutenant or Master, 30_l._ and
to the widow of a Boatswain, Gunner, Carpenter, Purser, Surgeon, second
Master of a yacht, or Master of a naval vessel appointed by the navy
board, 20_l._ _per annum_.

The Lords Commissioners afterwards commiserating the unhappy
circumstances of many poor widows, whose husbands died before this
corporation was established, and therefore could receive no benefit from
the fund which was justly appropriated to the relief of the widows of
those officers who had paid to its support, renewed their application to
his Majesty, who recommended their case to the Parliament; upon which it
was enacted, that one seaman should be allowed upon the books of every
ship of war, in the sea-pay in every hundred men that its complement
should consist of, and that the produce of the wages of such seamen, and
the value of their victuals should be given and applied towards the
relief of poor widows of commission and warrant officers of the royal
navy.

SEACOAL _lane_, extends from Snow hill to Fleet lane. Stowe thinks it was
originally called Limeburners lane, and that it took its present name
from the burning of lime there with sea coal.

SEAHORSE _alley_, Durham yard, in the Strand.*

SEARLE’S _square_, Lincoln’s Inn.†

SEARLE’S _street_, Carey street, Lincoln’s Inn.†

SEARLE’S _wharf_, near White Friars.†

_Office of sick and hurt_ SEAMEN, _and for taking care of_ PRISONERS OF
WAR, on Tower hill, is under the government of four Commissioners, the
first of whom has 400_l._ _per annum_, and 65_l._ for house rent; and
the other three 300_l._ a year. The officers under these Commissioners
are, a Secretary, who has 200_l._ _per annum_; a first Clerk, who has
100_l._ a year; and three inferior Clerks, who have 60_l._ a year.

_Office for sick and maimed_ SEAMEN IN THE MERCHANTS SERVICE, in the Royal
Exchange. The corporation who provide for these objects of distress,
consists of a number of merchants, who were incorporated on the 24th of
June 1747, and are governed by a President, and a Council of twenty-one.

SECRETARY OF STATE’S OFFICE, Whitehall. The Kings of England had anciently
no more than one Secretary of state, till about the end of the reign of
Henry VIII. when it was thought proper that this important office should
be discharged by two persons of equal authority, both stiled _Principal
Secretaries of state_.

At that time they did not sit at the council board; but having prepared
their business in a room adjoining to the council chamber, they came in,
and stood on either hand of the King; when nothing was done till they
had gone through with their proposals. But Queen Elizabeth seldom coming
to council, that method was laid aside, and the Secretaries took their
places as Privy Counsellors, which dignity they have enjoyed ever since,
and a Council is seldom, or never, held without the presence of, at
least, one of them.

Their employment rendering their office a place of extraordinary trust,
this, together with the multiplicity of their business, places them in a
distinguished light, both in respect to the King and the people: for
they attend almost every day upon his Majesty, as occasion requires; the
petitions of the people are for the most part lodged in their hands, to
be presented to the King; and, in return, they make the dispatches,
according to his Majesty’s answers and determinations.

The correspondence to all parts of Great Britain without distinction,
relating to the church, the army, the militia, grants, pardons,
dispensations, &c. is managed by either of the Secretaries. But as to
foreign affairs, all the nations that have any intercourse with Great
Britain, are divided by them into two provinces, the northern and
southern, each being under one of the Secretaries, as his separate
department. They have this special honour, that if either of them be a
Baron, he takes place, and has the precedence of all other persons of
the same degree, tho’ by creation they might have a right to precede
him: but if he is above the degree of a Baron, he then takes place only
according to the seniority of his creation.

Each of the Secretaries have lodgings appointed for them in all the
King’s houses; both for their own accommodation, for their office, and
for those that attend upon it. They have each a salary of 3000_l._ a
year; which, added to their lawful perquisites, is said to make their
places worth 8000_l._ _per annum_ each.

The Secretaries and Clerks they employ under them are wholly at their
own choice, and have no dependence upon any other person. These are,

In the northern department, two Under Secretaries and Keepers of state
papers, a first Clerk, and ten other Clerks, a Gazette writer, who has
300_l._ _per annum_; and a Secretary for the Latin tongue, whose salary
is 200_l._ a year.

In the southern department are, two Under Secretaries, a first Clerk,
seven other Clerks; and a Law Clerk to both, who has a salary of 400_l._
_per annum_.

The Secretaries of state have also the custody of the King’s seal,
called the signet; the use and application of which gives denomination
to another office, called the Signet office. See the article SIGNET
OFFICE.

There is also another office depending on the Secretaries of state,
called the Paper office; for which see that article.

SEDGWICK’S _rents_, London Wall.†

SEDGWICK’S _yard_, London Wall.†

SEETHING _lane_, Tower street.

_St._ SEPULCHRE’S, on the north side of the top of Snow hill near Newgate,
and in the ward of Faringdon without, owes its name to its being
dedicated in commemoration of Christ’s sepulchre at Jerusalem. It is of
great antiquity, and was probably founded during the time, when all
Europe were employed in crusades to the holy land; however, about the
beginning of the twelfth century, it was given by the Bishop of
Salisbury to the Prior and Canons of St. Bartholomew in Smithfield, who,
in virtue of that grant, had the right of advowson till the dissolution
of their monastery, when coming to the Crown, it continued therein till
King James I. in the year 1610, granted the rectory and its
appurtenances, with the advowson of the vicarage, to Francis Philips and
others; after which the rectory with its appurtenances were purchased by
the parishioners, to be held in fee-farm of the Crown, while the
advowson was obtained by the President and Fellows of St. John Baptist’s
college in Oxford, in whom the patronage still continues. _Dugd. Mon.
Ang._

The present structure was much damaged, though not destroyed by the fire
of London; after which it was thoroughly repaired in 1670, when nothing
of the old building, except the walls, was suffered to remain, and not
those entirely.

This is a very spacious church, it being 126 feet long, besides a broad
passage through at the west end; the breadth is fifty-eight feet,
exclusive of the north chapel; the height of the roof in the middle isle
is thirty-five feet, and the height of the steeple to the top of the
pinacles, is 146 feet. The whole length of the side is in a manner taken
up by a row of very large Gothic windows, with buttresses between, over
which runs a slight cornice, and on the top a plain and substantial
battlement work. The steeple is a plain square tower crowned with four
pinacles.

The wall of this church yard, till very lately, extended so far into the
street all along the south side of the church, as to render the passage
narrow and dangerous; but after the church yard on that side had been
shut up about fourteen years, it was levelled, and laid open to the
street in the beginning of the present year 1760.

The Vicar of this church, besides other advantages, receives 200_l._ in
money in lieu of tithes.

Munday, in his edition of Stow’s Survey, mentions the following
monumental inscription in this church.


                        Qualis vita, finis ita.
                Here under lyes the wonder of her kinde,
                The quintessence of nature and of grace,
                Wit, beauty, bounty, and (in noble race
                The rarest jewel) a right humble minde,
               Here lyes her body, but her soule refin’d
                Above th’empyreall, hath imperial place,
              In bliss so boundlesse, as no words embrace,
            Nor art can feigne, nor mortal heart can finde.
                Her fame remaines a monument of honour,
              Built by her virtue, gilt with purest gold,
             With lilly flowers and roses strewed upon her.
                              Her epitaph.
                          Urania thus enrol’d:
            Milde childe, chaste mayden, and religious wife:
         The even crownes the day, Joane Essex’ death her life.


Before we conclude this article, it may be proper to observe, that in
the year 1605, Mr. Robert Dew gave by deed of gift, fifty pounds to this
parish, on condition that for ever after, a person should go to Newgate,
in the still of the night before every execution day, and standing as
near the cells of the condemned prisoners as possible, should, with a
hand bell, (which he also gave for that purpose) give twelve solemn
tolls with double strokes, and then after a proper pause, deliver with
an audible voice the following words:

      “You prisoners that are within,
       Who for wickedness and sin,

    After many mercies shewn you, are now appointed to die to-morrow
    in the forenoon, give ear and understand, that to-morrow morning
    the greatest bell of St. Sepulchre’s shall toll for you in form
    and manner of a passing bell, as used to be tolled for those at
    the point of death: to the end that all godly people hearing
    that bell, and knowing it is for your going to your deaths, may
    be stirred up heartily to pray to God to bestow his grace and
    mercy upon you whilst you live.

    “I beseech you, for Jesus Christ’s sake, to keep this night in
    watching and prayer, for the salvation of your own souls, while
    there is yet time and place for mercy; as knowing to-morrow you
    must appear before the judgment seat of your Creator, there to
    give an account of all things done in this life, and to suffer
    eternal torments for your sins committed against him, unless
    upon your hearty and unfeigned repentance, you find mercy
    through the merits, death, and passion of your only mediator and
    advocate Jesus Christ, who now sits at the right hand of God to
    make intercession for as many of you as penitently return to
    him.”

He likewise ordered that St. Sepulchre’s great bell should toll, till it
was supposed these unhappy prisoners were executed; and that as the
criminals passed by the wall of St. Sepulchre’s church yard, to
execution, the same bellman should look over it, and say:

    “All good people, pray heartily unto God for these poor sinners,
    who are now going to their death, for whom this great bell doth
    toll.

    “You that are condemned to die, repent with lamentable tears:
    ask mercy of the Lord for the salvation of your own souls,
    through the merits, death, and passion of Jesus Christ, who now
    sits at the right hand of God, to make intercession for as many
    of you as penitently return unto him.”

      “Lord, have mercy upon you,
       Christ, have mercy upon you,
       Lord, have mercy upon you,
       Christ, have mercy upon you.”

For this service the bellman or sexton receives 1_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ a
year; but upon these occasions there is generally so much noise, that
nobody can hear one word that the bellman says.

_St._ SEPULCHRE’S _alley_, a passage by the east end of St. Sepulchre’s
church. SERGEANTS AT LAW. The highest degree of lawyers under a Judge.
The young student in the common law, when admitted to be of one of the
inns of court, is called a _Moot-man_, and after about seven years
study, is chosen an Utter Barrister, and is then capable of being made a
Sergeant at law.

When the number of Sergeants is small, the Lord Chief Justice of the
Common Pleas, by the advice and consent of the other Judges, chuses
about six or eight of the most learned persons of the Inns of court, and
presents their names to the Lord Chancellor, or Lord Keeper, who sends
to each of them the King’s writ to appear on a particular day before the
King, to receive the degree of a Sergeant at law.

At the time appointed, they being dressed in robes of two colours, brown
and blue, they go, attended by the students of the Inns of court, with a
train of servants and retainers, dressed in peculiar liveries, to
Westminster hall, where they publicly take a solemn oath, and are
cloathed with robes and coifs, without which they are from thenceforward
never to appear in public. After this they give a great entertainment to
the principal persons of the nation; and present gold rings to the
Princes of the blood, the Archbishops, the Lord Chancellor, and the
Treasurer, to the value of forty shillings each ring; to the Earls and
Bishops rings of 20_s._ and to other great officers, Barons, &c. rings
of less value, besides a great number of rings to their private friends.

Out of these Sergeants are chosen the Judges of the King’s Bench and
Common Pleas.

SERGEANTS INN, on the south side of Fleet street, almost opposite to the
end of Fetter lane. It consists of a court surrounded with handsome new
buildings, among which are the Society’s chapel and hall; and a very
handsome edifice belonging to the Amicable Society.

The officers belonging to this Inn, are, a Steward, a Master Cook, and a
Chief Butler.

SERGEANTS INN, Chancery lane, near the end next Fleet street, consists of
two courts, a small hall, and a convenient kitchen; but the buildings
are low and mean.

The officers of this Inn are, also, a Steward, a Master Cook, and a
Chief Butler.

SERGEANTS INN _court_, 1. Chancery lane. 2. Fleet street.

SERMON _lane_, 1. Limehouse. 2. Little Carter lane.

SERSNET _alley_, Narrow Wall, Limehouse.

SETTER’S _yard_, Deadman’s fields.

SEVEN DIALS, near Monmouth street; so called from a handsome pillar, upon
which are seven sun-dials, fronting the same number of streets, which
radiate upon it.

SEVENOAK, a market town in Kent, near the river Dart or Darent, 23 miles
from London, in the road to Rye. It obtained its name from seven very
large oaks which grew near it, when it was first built; and is governed
by a Warden and Assistants. Here is an hospital and school, for the
maintenance of people in years, and the instruction of youth, first
erected by Sir William Sevenoak, Lord Mayor of London in the year 1418,
who is said to have been a foundling supported and educated at the
expence of a charitable person of this town, whence he took his name.
The school afterwards met with other benefactors, and among the rest,
Queen Elizabeth having greatly augmented its revenue, it was thence
called Queen Elizabeth’s free school. It was rebuilt in 1727. Sir Henry
Fermor, Bart. has a seat here; as has also Dr. Thomas Fuller. About a
mile from Sevenoak, to the south, is Knowl Place, the seat of the Duke
of Dorset, situated in the middle of a park; and towards the east is the
seat of —— Pratt, Esq; which is also seated in the midst of a park.

SEVEN STARS _alley_, 1. Cable street, Rag fair.* 2. Ratcliff highway.* 3.
Rosemary lane.* 4. Whitecross street.*

SEVEN STARS _court_, 1. Great Garden, St. Catharine’s lane.* 2. Moor
lane.* 3. Seven Stars alley, Ratcliff highway.*

SEVEN STEPS _alley_, 1. Old Montague street. 2. Petticoat lane,
Whitechapel. 3. Rotherhith Wall.

SEVEN STEPS _yard_, Houndsditch.

SEYMOUR’S _court_, Little Chandois street.

SHAD THAMES _street_, Horselydown.

SHADWELL, formerly a hamlet in the parish of Stepney, is now a distinct
parish, and by the great increase of buildings is united to this
metropolis. This parish, which is one of the Tower hamlets, is situated
on the north bank of the Thames, and received its name from a fine
spring which issues from the south wall of the church yard. The parish
is, from its situation, divided into Upper and Lower Shadwell, Lower
Shadwell being anciently a part of Wapping marsh.

In the north east of this parish is Sun tavern fields, where a Roman
cemetery, or burying place, was discovered about the year 1615, wherein
were found two coffins, one of which being of stone, contained the bones
of a man; and the other of lead, finely embellished with scallop shells,
and a crotister border, contained those of a woman, at whose head and
feet were two urns, each three feet high; and at the sides several
beautiful red earthen bottles, with a number of lachrymatories of
hexagon and octagon forms. On each side of the inhumed bones were two
ivory scepters of the length of eighteen inches each, and upon the
breast the figure of a small Cupid, curiously wrought; as were likewise
two pieces of jet resembling nails, three inches in length. According to
the opinion of that judicious antiquary Sir Robert Cotton, who made this
discovery, the person here interred must have been the wife of some
Prince, or Roman Prætor, by the decorations of the coffin and the things
contained in it.

In this place were likewise discovered several urns, with Roman coins,
which had on one side this Inscription, _Imp. Pupienus Maximus P. F._
and on the reverse, with hands joined, _Patrus Senatus_.

A few years ago was also discovered in this place a mineral spring, said
to be impregnated with sulphur, vitriol, steel, and antimony. It is
esteemed a great anti-scorbutic, and is said to have performed many
remarkable cures in the leprosy, scurvy, scald heads, and other
cutaneous diseases.

For Shadwell church, see the article _St._ PAUL’S _Shadwell_.

SHADWELL _dock_, Shadwell.

SHADWELL _market_, Upper Shadwell.

SHADWELL WATERWORKS are placed in Shadwell, and wrought by two fire
engines, that fill two main pipes of six or seven inches bore with
Thames water; by which means that neighbourhood is well supplied.
_Maitland._

SHAFTESBURY HOUSE, in Aldersgate street. See the article LONDON LYING-IN
HOSPITAL.

SHAFT’S _court_, Leadenhall street.

SHAKESPEAR’S _walk_, Upper Shadwell.†

SHARP’S _alley_, 1. Barnaby street, Southwark.† 2. Cow Cross, Smithfield.†
3. Leadenhall street.† 4. Nortonfalgate.†

SHARP’S _buildings_, Duke’s Place, near Aldgate.†

SHAW’S _alley_, Kent street, Tooley street.†

SHAW’S _court_, St. Margaret’s hill.†

SHEEN, or EAST SHEEN, a pleasant village, situated a little to the south
of Mortlake, where is the fine seat of the Lord Viscount Palmerston, the
successor of Sir William Temple. The gardens were laid out and completed
by the great genius of Sir William, who here spent the latter part of
his life.

SHEEP’S HEAD _alley_, Shoreditch.

SHEER _lane_, Temple Bar.

SHEERS _alley_, 1. East Smithfield.* 2. Shoreditch.* 3. White street.* 4.
Wentworth street.* 5. Wood street, Cheapside.*

SHEFFIELD _street_, Clare market.

SHELDON’S _court_, Bedfordbury.†

SHEPHERD’S _alley_, near Vintner’s hall, Thames street.†

SHEPHERD’S _court_, 1. Hockley in the hole.† 2. Upper Brook street.†

SHEPHERD’S _gardens_, in the Minories.†

SHEPHERD’S _market_, near Curzon street.†

SHEPHERD’S _mews_, Park street, Southwark.†

SHEPHERD’S _street_, Oxford street.†

SHEPHERD’S _yard_, Shoreditch.†

SHERBURN _lane_, Lombard street; thus named from the brook Langbourn,
which anciently ran out of Fenchurch street, and here turning south,
divided into several shares, rills, or streams. This lane was also
anciently called Southbourn lane, because these rills here ran south to
the Thames. _Maitland._

SHERIFFS, two very ancient officers of the city, established in the time
of the Saxons: but Richard I. changed the name of these officers to the
Norman appellation of Bailiff, which signifies an Intendant, Collector,
or petty Magistrate; as the Saxon Sciregrave implies a Judge, Overseer,
or Collector. However, the appellation of Bailiff proving of no long
duration, the more ancient one of Sheriff was restored to that office.

The Sheriffs are chosen by the Liverymen of the several companies on
Midsummer day, the Lord Mayor drinking to those whom he nominates for
their approbation: but any person who can swear that he is not worth
15000_l._ may be excused from serving the office; however, if he is
qualified with respect to fortune, he is obliged to serve, or to pay a
fine of about 500_l._ or otherwise to engage in a law suit with the
city. This last is particularly the case of the dissenters, who look
upon themselves as disqualified by law; since by act of Parliament,
every person who serves the office of Sheriff ought to have received the
sacrament in the church of England, twelve months before he enters upon
his office.

Any gentleman of the city may be chosen an Alderman, without his serving
the office of Sheriff; but he is obliged to be a Sheriff before he can
be Lord Mayor.

The office of Sheriff, according to our great antiquary Mr. Camden, is
to collect the public revenues within his jurisdiction, to gather into
the Exchequer all fines, to serve the King’s writs of process, and by
the _posse comitatus_ to compel headstrong and obstinate men to submit
to the decisions of the law; to attend the Judges, and execute their
orders, to impanel juries, and to take care that all condemned criminals
be duly executed.

All actions for debt in the city are entered at the two compters
belonging to the Sheriffs, where the prisoners either give bail, or are
confined in prison, unless being freemen, they chuse to be carried to
Ludgate. See the article COMPTER.

SHERIFFS COURTS, are courts of record held in Guildhall every Wednesday
and Friday, for actions entered in Wood street Compter, and on Thursdays
and Saturdays for those entered at the Poultry Compter, of which the
Sheriffs being Judges, each has his Assistant or Deputy, who are
commonly called Judges of these courts, before whom are tried actions of
debt, trespass, covenant, &c. where the testimony of an absent witness
in writing is allowed to be good evidence. _Maitland._

To each of these courts belong four Attorneys, a Secondary, a Clerk of
the papers, a Prothonotary, and four Clerks sitters. See the article
COMPTER.

SHERWOOD _street_, near Golden square.

SHIP _alley_, 1. Broad street, Ratcliff.* 2. Fore street, Limehouse.* 3.
Phœnix street, Spitalfields.* 4. Ratcliff highway.* 5. Wellclose
square.*

SHIP _court_, in the Old Bailey.*

SHIP _street_, near New Gravel lane, Shadwell.*

SHIP _yard_, 1. Bishopsgate street without.* 2. In the Borough.* 3. Golden
lane, Barbican.* 4. Green bank, Wapping.* 5. King street, New Gravel
lane.* 6. Monkwell street.* 7. Petty France, Westminster.* 8. Phœnix
street.* 9, Redcross street, Cripplegate.* 10. Without Temple Bar.*

SHIP _back yard_, in the Minories.*

SHIPPEY’S _yard_, in the Minories.†

SHIPPING _stairs_, Limehouse.

SHIPWRIGHTS, a company by prescription for several ages, were incorporated
by letters patent granted by King James I. in the year 1605.

This corporation consists of a Master, two Wardens, and sixteen
Assistants; but have neither livery nor hall: for though they had
formerly a hall near Ratcliff cross, yet that being demolished they
occasionally meet at different places to transact their affairs.

SHIPWRIGHTS _street_, Rotherhith.

SHITTEN _alley_, Chamber street, Shadwell.‖

SHOE _lane_, extends from Fleet street to Holborn.

SHOEMAKER _row_, 1. By Aldgate. 2. Black friars.

SHOEMAKERS. See the article CORDWAINERS.

SHOEMAKERS _yard_, Deadman’s place.

SHOOTER’S _court_, Basinghall street.

SHOREDITCH, extends from Nortonfalgate to the end of Old street.
Shoreditch was anciently a village situated along the Roman highway, by
the Saxons denominated Eald street, or Old street, and according to
Maitland, owes its name to one of the predecessors of Sir John Sordig,
or Sordich, who was Lord thereof in the year 1339, and not, as vulgarly
supposed, to Jane Shore, concubine to Edward IV. This village was at a
considerable distance north of the city of London, though it is now
joined to it.

SHOREDITCH _alley_, Shoreditch.

SHOREDITCH _church_, at the north end of Shoreditch. See the article _St._
LEONARD _Shoreditch_.

SHOREY’S _alley_, King’s alley, Rotherhith†

SHORTER’S _court_, Throgmorton street.†

SHORTER’S _street_, Cable street, Rag fair.†

SHORT’S _buildings_, Clerkenwell.†

SHORT’S _gardens_, Drury lane.†

SHOVEL _alley_, 1. Back lane, Rag fair.* 2. Cable street.* 3. St.
Catharine’s.* 4. East Smithfield.* 5. Great Gardens, St. Catharine’s
lane.* 6. Wood street, Cheapside.*

SHOULDER OF MUTTON _alley_, Limehouse.*

SHOULDER OF MUTTON _walk_, Hackney.*

SHOULDER OF MUTTON _yard_, Butcher row, without Temple Bar.*

SHREEVE’S _rents_, Duke street, Bloomsbury.†

SHREWSBURY _court_, 1. Stony lane.† 2. Whitecross street, Fore street.†

SHUG _lane_, near Piccadilly.

SHUTTER’S _alley_, Whitechapel.†

SIDNEY’S _alley_, Leicester fields.†

SIDNEY’S _street_, Leicester fields; so named from Sidney Earl of
Leicester.

SIGNET OFFICE, Whitehall; an office under the Principal Secretaries of
state, who have the custody of the King’s seal, called the signet; the
use and application whereof gives name to this office, which constantly
attends the court.

In this office there are four chief Clerks, and two Deputies. These
chief Clerks wait alternately by months, and prepare such writings as
are to pass the signet. They have no fee from the King, but only 200_l._
a year board wages. One of them always attends the court wheresoever it
removes, and, by warrant from his Majesty, prepares such bills or
letters for the King to sign, as not being matter of law, they are
directed by warrant to prepare.

In their office all grants, either prepared by the King’s Counsel at
law, or by themselves, for the King’s hand, when signed, are returned,
and there transcribed again; and that transcript is carried to one of
the Principal Secretaries of state, and sealed; and then it is called a
signet. This being directed to the Lord Privy Seal, is his warrant for
issuing out a privy seal upon it. Privy seals for money, however, now
always begin in the Treasury, from whence the first warrant issues,
counter-signed by the Lord Treasurer: but when the nature of the grant
requires the passing of the great seal, then the privy seal is an
authority to the Lord Chancellor, to pass the great seal; as the signet
was to the Lord Privy Seal to affix that seal to the grant. But in all
these three offices, the signet, privy seal, and great seal, the grant
is transcribed; and therefore every thing which passes from the King has
these several ways of being considered before it is perfected.
_Chamberlain’s Present State._

SILKMEN, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Charles
I. in the year 1631. They have a Governor and twenty Assistants; but
neither hall nor livery. _Maitland._

SILK THROWERS. This trade was first practised in London in the reign of
Queen Elizabeth, by foreigners, whose dependents, and those to whom they
had taught the art of silk throwing, were constituted a fellowship of
the city in 1622, and were afterwards incorporated by letters patent
granted by King Charles I. in the year 1630.

They are governed by a Master, two Wardens, and twenty Assistants; but
have neither hall nor livery. _Maitland._

_Office of Clerk of the King’s_ SILVER, in the Inner Temple. To this Clerk
every fine or final agreement upon the sale of land, is brought, after
it has been with the Custos Brevium, when he makes an entry of what
money is to be paid to the King’s use. This office belongs to the court
of Common Pleas, and is executed by a Deputy. _Chamberlain’s Present
State._

SILVER _court_, 1. Oxford street, 2. Woodstock street, Oxford street.

SILVER _street_, 1. Bloomsbury. 2. Bridgewater square. 3. Near Golden
square. 4. Green alley, Tooley street. 5. Hare street, Spitalfields. 6.
Near New Gravel lane, Shadwell. 7. Pelham street, Spitalfields. 8. Soho
square. 9. White Friars, Fleet street. 10. Wood street, Cheapside.

SIMMOND’S INN. See SYMOND’S INN.

SING’S _court_, Little Mitchell street, Old street.†


                     _The End of the_ FIFTH VOLUME.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



 ● Transcriber’s Notes:
    ○ Missing or obscured punctuation was silently corrected.
    ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected.
    ○ Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent only
      when a predominant form was found in this book.
    ○ The use of a carat (^) before one or more letters shows they were
      intended to be superscripts, as in S^t Bartholomew or L^{d.}
      Egemont.
    ○ Text that was in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_).





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