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Title: Handbook for Light Artillery
Author: Dyer, Alexander Brydie
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                               HANDBOOK

                                  FOR

                           LIGHT ARTILLERY.


                                  BY

                              A. B. DYER,

            _First Lieutenant, Fourth Artillery, U. S. A._


                           _FIRST EDITION._

                            FIRST THOUSAND.


                               NEW YORK:
                          JOHN WILEY & SONS.
                   LONDON: CHAPMAN & HALL, LIMITED.
                                 1896.



                           Copyright, 1896,
                                  BY
                              A. B. DYER.


         ROBERT DRUMMOND, ELECTROTYPER AND PRINTER, NEW YORK.



                               PREFACE.


In preparing this work it has been my endeavor to place in compact
form all the data I could obtain that might prove of service to those
persons interested in the subject of light artillery, both in the
Regular Army and in the National Guard.

I have held strictly to the lines laid down in Army Regulations,
Drill Regulations, Official Reports, etc., as regards the matter
extracted from such sources; and such as has not been so obtained has
been carefully selected from the best authorities I have been able to
consult.

I make no claim to originality in this work. It is drawn on the lines
of similar handbooks in foreign services; and a great deal of the
matter has been copied verbatim from the works consulted. To the
writers and compilers of those works I hereby express my thanks.

While I do not consider that machine-guns are proper weapons for the
light artillerist, I feel that occasions may arise when knowledge
regarding them may prove of service; hence the chapter pertaining to
them.

I express, with pleasure, my thanks to Lieut.-Colonel E. B. Williston,
3d U. S. Artillery, for his assistance.

I am particularly obliged to Captain L. L. Bruff, Ordnance Department,
for having permitted me to copy from the manuscript of his work on
Ordnance and Gunnery (now being published), and also for the use of
many of his cuts. His friendly consideration in so doing is fully
appreciated.

I also express my appreciation of the assistance given me by Colonel
A. R. Buffington, Ordnance Department; Captain V. McNally, Ordnance
Department; Captain J. L. Lusk, Corps of Engineers; Captain James
Parker, 4th Cavalry; Captain L. A. Craig, 6th Cavalry; Captain S. W.
Taylor, 4th Artillery; Lieut. E. B. Babbitt, Ordnance Department;
Lieut. M. M. Patrick, Corps of Engineers; Lieut. E. Russel, 5th
Artillery; Mr. J. E. Trautwine, Jr.; Mr. Charles W. Parker; and Mr. L.
V. Benet of the Hotchkiss Ordnance Company.

The following is a partial list of the works consulted:

U. S. Army Regulations; U. S. Drill Regulations for Light Artillery;
U. S. Drill Regulations for Cavalry; U. S. Drill Regulations for
Hospital Corps; Soldier's Handbook, U. S. A.; Reports of the Chief
of Ordnance, U. S. A.; Ordnance Notes; Manual of Heavy Artillery
Service, United States Army, Tidball; Manual of Guard Duty; Ordnance
and Gunnery, Metcalfe; Gunnery for Non-commissioned Officers,
Cronkhite; Description and Service of Machine-guns, Mills; Lectures
on Explosives, Walke; Modern Explosives, Eissler; Interior and
Exterior Ballistics, Ingalls; Preliminary Tactics, Baker; Handbook for
Field-artillery, R. A. Service Institution; The Soldier's Pocket-book,
Wolseley; Manual of Military Engineering; Aide-mémoire de Campagne;
Aide-mémoire, R. E.; Artillerist's Manual and Soldier's Compendium;
the handbooks of Trautwine, Haswell, and Kidder; The Future Training
and Employment of Mounted Infantry, Parr; The Soldiers' First Aid
Handbook, Dietz; Nystrom's Mechanics; Horses and Stables, Fitzwygram;
The Veterinarian's Vade Mecum, Gamgee; The Book of the Horse, Sydney;
The Mule, Reilly; Special Report on the Diseases of the Horse, U. S.
Department of Agriculture; the pamphlets of Hotchkiss, Gatling, Maxim,
Driggs-Schroeder, etc. etc.

                                           A. B. DYER,
                                              1st Lieut., 4th Artillery.

    WEST POINT, N. Y., March 1, 1896.



                               CONTENTS.


                                PART I.

                         _MOUNTAIN-ARTILLERY._


    CHAPTER I.

                                                                  PAGES

    Description of 1.65 inch and 3.0 inch Guns--Carriages
    --Ammunition--Packing-outfit--Range Tables
    --Organization of Mountain-batteries                           1-38


    CHAPTER II.

    The Pack-train--How Packed                                    39-48


    CHAPTER III.

    The Mule--Description--Diseases--Treatment                    49-57


    CHAPTER IV.

    General Instructions for Mountain Artillery--Supply of
    Ammunition--Care and Preservation of Harness--Instructions
    for Drivers--Marches--Camps--Weights
    and Dimensions of Foreign Mountain-artillery                  58-71


                               PART II.

                          _FIELD-ARTILLERY._


    CHAPTER I.

    Detailed Construction of Field-guns                           72-88


    CHAPTER II.

    3.2 inch Guns--Sights--Ammunition--Fuzes--Range
    Table                                                        89-107


    CHAPTER III.

    3.6 inch Gun--Sights--Ammunition--Fuzes--Carriages--Range
    Table      108-112

    3.6 inch Mortar--Sights--Ammunition--Fuzes--Range
    Table--Weights and Dimensions of Foreign Field-artillery    113-123


    CHAPTER IV.

    Wheel--Carriage--Limber--Caisson--Battery-wagon
    and Forge--Artillery-wagon--Harness--Water-cart--Revolver
    --Hunting-knife                                             124-160


    CHAPTER V.

    Care and Fitting of Harness--Care of Carriages--Care of
    Guns--Care of Ammunition--Guard Orders                      161-187


    CHAPTER VI.

    The Horse--How Obtained--Description of--Inspection
    of--Power of Teams--Weight behind Artillery Teams--Gaits
    of Artillery--Dentition--Plate of Diseases--Health
    and Disease--Veterinary Medicines--Drugs
    and Doses, and How to Administer Them--Mashes--Poultices,
    etc.--Veterinary Notes, with Symptoms and
    Treatment of Various Diseases--Stables and Stable
    Management--Grooming--Feeding--Kinds of Food--Watering--Training
    Horses--Rules for Treatment and
    Care of Horses--Destruction of Horses                       188-260


    CHAPTER VII.

    Organization of Artillery--Composition of Light
    Batteries--Equipment--Equipment and Clothing for
    Marches--Marches--Selection of Camps--Making Camp--Breaking
    Camp--Allowance of Wagons                                   261-300


    CHAPTER VIII.

    Transportation by Rail; by Sea--Embarkation--Care of
    Animals--Diseases of Animals at Sea--Disembarkation         301-315


    CHAPTER IX.

    Machine-guns--The Hotchkiss Revolving Cannon--The
    Gatling Gun--The Gardner Gun--The Maxim Gun--The
    Metallic Carriage for Machine-guns                          316-361


    CHAPTER X.

    Theoretical Gunnery--Definitions--General Principles--Probability
    of Fire--Burst of Shell--Burst of Shrapnel                  362-372


    CHAPTER XI.

    The Causes of Bad Shooting--Estimating Distances--Range-finding--Rule
    for Sighting--General Duties
    of Artillery Commanders--Target Practice, How Conducted--Projectiles
    Used--Kinds of Targets--Night-firing                        373-391


    CHAPTER XII.
    Cordage, How Preserved--Strength--Blocks and
    Tackle--Knots, Hitches, etc.--Lashings                      392-402

    Bridges--Trestles, Piers, etc.--Single-sling and Double-sling
    Bridges--Stringer Bridges--Fords--Flying and
    Floating Bridges--Rafts and Casks                           402-418

    CHAPTER XIII.
    Hasty Demolition--Gunpowder--Dynamite--How Used
    in Blasting--Guncotton--Rack-a-Rock--Handling,
    Transportation, and Storage of High Explosives--Charges
    for Hasty Demolition--Where and How to
    Place Charges                                               419-430

    CHAPTER XIV.
    Battery Books and Records--Rolls, Reports, and Returns--The
    Ration--Salt and Vinegar for Public Animals--The
    Travel-ration--Present Organization of U.
    S. Light Field-battery--Cost of a Battery of Four 3.2″
    Guns, in Detail--Price-list of Artillery-harness--Price-list
    of Harness for 1.65″ Mountain-gun--Price-list of
    Artillery Accoutrements, etc.--Price-list of Horse
    Equipments--Price-list of Stencil and Marking Outfits--Supply
    Table of Ordnance Stores for a Battery of
    Light Artillery for Six Months--Allowance of Ammunition
    for Target Practice--Standard Supply Table of
    Veterinary Medicines--Tableware and Kitchen Utensils--Allowance
    of Clothing, Equipage, Fuel, Lights,
    etc.--Weights of Certain Articles of Clothing and
    Equipage--Pay Table of Enlisted Men--Summary
    Court, and List of Punishments--U. S. Signal and
    Telegraph Code--Penetration of Projectiles--Cover
    for Field-artillery--Treatment of Sick Men--Tables of
    Weights, Measures, etc.--Tables for Converting Customary
    and Metric Weights and Measures--Salutes--Camp
    Furniture and Mess Outfits for Officers                     431-496



                    A HANDBOOK FOR LIGHT ARTILLERY.



                                PART I.

                          MOUNTAIN-ARTILLERY.



                              CHAPTER I.

      Guns. Carriages. Ammunition. Packing Outfit. Range Tables.
                  Organization of Mountain-batteries.


                 THE 1.65-INCH HOTCHKISS MOUNTAIN-GUN.

  [Illustration: Fig. 1.]


                             DESCRIPTION.

    Material                       steel
    Total length                   3.83 feet
    Length of bore                 3.43  "
    Travel of projectile           3.10  "
    Calibre                        1.65 inches
    Weight                         121 pounds
    Grooves                        10
    Twist of rifling, uniform      1 in 29.83 cals.
    Muzzle-velocity                1298 ft.-sec.
    Maximum range                  3500 yards

The gun (Fig. 2) consists of the body and the breech mechanism.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

The body of the gun is made from a single forging of oil-tempered and
annealed steel. The trunnion-ring is screwed on the gun-body just
forward of the reinforce, and provides a support for the front sight.
The bore is rifled with a uniform right-hand twist. The lands are very
narrow in proportion to the grooves, and are ten in number.

The =Breech-block= is a solid prismatic block of steel with
rounded corners, having a horizontal movement in a mortise cut
completely through the breech of the gun. The front face of the
block is perpendicular to the axis of the bore, whilst the rear face
is slightly inclined. The left end of the block is bored to form a
prolongation of the chamber when the breech is open, and its front
upper corner is cut away to allow free movement of the extractor.

The horizontal movement of the breech-block is limited by the
stop-bolt, which, passing through the breech of the gun, engages in a
guide in the upper part of the block.

In the right end of the breech-block is mounted a shaft on which
is secured the locking-screw, and which terminates in a handle for
manœuvring. The thread of the locking-screw is cut away for about
100°, in such a manner that the breech-block may be locked or unlocked
by a half-turn of the handle.

The =Extractor= is a single piece of steel working in a longitudinal
groove in the top of the breech-mortise. Its forward end is formed
into a claw to grasp the head of the cartridge. On the same side
as the claw is a stud which, following a groove in the top of the
breech-block, imparts motion to the extractor.

The =Vent= is a cylindrical channel passing diagonally through the
breech and breech-block, and changing direction in the block so as to
follow the axis of the bore.

The friction-primer cannot be inserted until the two parts of the
vent are in prolongation from the complete closing and locking of the
breech-block. The ordinary friction-primer is used.


                             NOMENCLATURE.

=The Mechanism.=--(_b_) breech-block; loading-hole; (_s_)
stop-bolt; spring washer; (_r_) stop-bolt guide; (_e_) extractor;
(_h_) extractor-hook; (_a k_) extractor-guide; (_c_) locking-screw;
locking-screw shaft; locking-screw pin; (_l_) handle; stop; stop
keep-screw.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.]


                       ACTION OF THE MECHANISM.

The gun having been fired, the handle is turned to the rear, unlocking
the block and starting it in the mortise. Drawing the handle smartly
to the right, the breech is opened, the extractor, actuated by the
movement of the block, commences to move very slowly back with a
powerful leverage, starting the cartridge-case from its seat. When the
breech-block has moved sufficiently to unmask the bore, the change of
direction in the extractor-guide causes the extractor to make a quick
movement to the rear, throwing the cartridge clear of the gun.

A new charge being inserted, it is pushed home until the head of the
cartridge brings up against the extractor. The breech is now closed by
pushing it smartly to the left, and is locked by turning the handle to
the front. A primer may now be inserted in the vent, and the gun is
ready for firing.


               DIRECTIONS FOR DISMOUNTING THE MECHANISM.

Unscrew the stop-bolt about four turns, or remove completely.

Withdraw breech-block.

Remove extractor, which is now free.

In general nothing further need be dismounted for cleaning and
inspection.

To dismount completely continue as follows:

Remove locking-screw pin with screw-driver.

Remove stop keep-screw.

Drive out stop with the drift, interposing a bit of wood or leather to
avoid bruising the stop.

Withdraw handle and locking-screw shaft.

Remove locking-screw.

To mount, proceed in reverse order.


                        CARE AND PRESERVATION.

The gun requires no special care beyond that of being kept clean, free
from rust and undefaced.

_Brick-dust or gritty substances must never be used on any part of the
gun._

_The parts of the mechanism must never be scraped with knives or metal,
or be defaced or roughened in any way._

_All parts of the gun must be kept lightly oiled as a protection from
rust._

After firing, the gun should invariably be thoroughly cleaned. To do
this, dismount the mechanism completely and wash every part thoroughly
with warm fresh-water soapsuds; mechanism, breech-block, mortise, and
barrel should all be treated alike.

After thoroughly scrubbing all parts, dry them carefully and let all
stand for a short time to air and dry off the moisture.

After drying, rub all parts over with a well-oiled rag.

Mount the mechanism.

On the march the breech and muzzle should always be protected by the
covers supplied for the purpose.

When parked, guns and carriages should be covered with paulins.


                                SIGHTS.

The =Front Sight= is a plain roughened steel point-sight, and is
permanently fixed to the right rim-base.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]

The =Bar Tangent Sight= (Fig. 4) is a plain vertical bar-sight carrying
a sliding leaf conveniently graduated. Both the bar and the leaf have
clamp-screws to fix them in position. The tangent sight is only mounted
on the gun when in action, being at other times removed to avoid
injuring it.

The bar is graduated to 15°, each being subdivided into six parts. It
may be graduated in yards or metres. It is compensated for natural
drift. A vernier-mark on the head of the sight and graduations on the
sliding leaf correct ordinary deviations.

The =Gunner's Quadrant=, for mountain-guns, is a small pocket-quadrant
with a spirit-level limb pivoted. On the arc are inscribed both the
degrees of elevation and ranges corresponding to the gun for which it
is used. It is thoroughly reliable both for direct and curved fire, and
to a very great extent supplants the sight-bar.

The recoil is checked by rope-brakes, hooked to the trail-handles and
passed around the felloes of the wheels. No limber is used, but a pole
which is readily attached to the trail is provided for hauling the
carriage.


                              AMMUNITION.

The ammunition is fixed, and consists of common shell and canister.

    Weight of round (common shell)           2.62 pounds
    Weight of shell, filled                  1.95  "
    Weight of round (canister) complete      3.47  "
    Weight of canister                       2.8   "
    Number of balls in canister              30
    Powder-charge                            5½ oz. mortar
    Bursting-charge of shell                 1.8 oz.
    Weight of cartridge case empty           5.3  "
    Weight of fuze                           1.9  "

The drawn metallic cartridge-case (Fig. 5) is of brass, and is
drawn from the solid metal to shape. It is reinforced at the base
by inside (_c_) and outside (_b_) cups of the same metal. The head
(_d_) is fastened to the base by brass rivets which clamp the body,
cups, and head solidly together. A vent (_v_) is pierced through the
head of the cartridge, and five eccentric flash-holes (_a_) through
the reinforcing-cups. The jet of flame from the primer, entering
the vent, lifts the reinforcing-cups and forces its way through the
flash-holes to the charge. The charge being ignited, the pressure of
the gas immediately forces back the reinforcing-cups and seals the
vent. The charge, consisting of 5½ oz. of black powder, is well
shaken down and separated from the base of the projectile by a felt
wad. When smokeless powder is employed, an igniter containing about
40 grains (3 grammes) of musket-powder is placed in the bottom of the
cartridge-case. The vent is sealed with a thin coating of wax.

  [Illustration: Fig. 5.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 6.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 7.]

The =Common Shell= (Fig. 6) is of the cylindro-ogival pattern with a
brass band, and is fitted with a base percussion-fuze. It contains a
bursting-charge of about 1¾ oz. (950 grammes) of musket-powder.

The =Canister= (Fig. 7) consists of a thin envelope of drawn brass,
containing thirty hardened 1-oz. lead balls packed in sulphur. On
the body is an annular stop to prevent inserting too far into the
cartridge-case. The cartridge-case can be recharged on an average about
eight times.


                             THE CARRIAGE.

    Weight complete                               241 pounds
    Height of axis of trunnions above ground      27.55 inches
    Diameter of the wheel                         37.4  "
    Track of wheel                                2.46 feet

  [Illustration: Fig. 8.]

NOMENCLATURE (see Fig. 8).--(_a_) trail; (_b_) axle; (_c_)
wheel; (_d_) cap-squares; (_e_) breast-transom; (_f_) elevating-screw;
(_g_) lunette; (_h_) hook.


                             DESCRIPTION.

The carriage-body consists of two steel brackets forming cheeks and
trail. They are reinforced by angle-steel and connected by transoms.
The axle is secured in beds riveted to the brackets, and is arranged to
be readily dismounted when required. The elevating-gear consists of a
simple screw working in a stout steel transom, and supports the breech
of the gun; the preponderance is sufficient to insure stability. The
sponge and rod are secured to the right side of the trail by suitable
attachments. A pole is provided for draught when easy country is
encountered, and provision is made for attaching it to the lunette.

The following articles are carried in the gunner's haversack: 1
tangent-sight; 1 lanyard; 1 spare-extractor; 1 spare stop-bolt; 1
dismounting-pin; 1 oil-can; 2 cleaning-brushes; 1 screw-driver; 1 pair
cutting-pliers; 1 vent-cleaner; friction-primers.

Leather covers are provided for the breech and muzzle of the gun.

Two bricoles are provided for use in moving by hand. The band of the
bricole is of stout canvas, having a short length of rope at its lower
end, provided with a stout hook for hooking into the swivels on the
ends of the axles.


                   HOTCHKISS POINT PERCUSSION-FUZE.

The =Hotchkiss Point Fuze= (Fig. 9) consists of four main parts: the
body _A_, the plunger _B_, the head _C_, and the safety-plug _D_.

The =Body= is cylindrical and of brass, with a screw-thread and stout
shoulder at the upper end for securing in the shell. The outside of the
shoulder is shaped to the ogive. A chamber is fashioned in the body,
whose base has a conical hole bored for the safety-plug.

The =Plunger= is a hollow brass cylinder with a lead lining to give it
weight, and containing a chamber in which is a small charge of powder
with a fulminate cap over it, the whole being covered with foil as a
preservative against moisture. A small brass wire is inserted in the
lower part of the plunger, bent up so that the ends project through the
safety-plug hole.

The =Safety-plug= is a lead stopper forced tightly into the hole in the
bottom, and by pinching the ends of the brass wire holds the plunger
steady.

The =Head= is of gun-metal, the outside following the ogival contour
and being provided with a screw-thread for securing it in the body.
In the centre of the lower surface is fixed a small point forming a
striker for the fulminate.


           RANGE TABLE FOR 1.65-INCH HOTCHKISS MOUNTAIN-GUN.

    Kind of powder, Dupont H. N.
    Weight of charge, 5½ oz.
    Weight of shell, 1 lb. 15 oz.
    Initial velocity, 1,298 ft.-sec.
    Angle of jump, + 22 minutes
    Length of line of sight, 17.93 inches

    ------+----------+-------+-------+------+-------+-------+---------+---------
    Range.|Elevation.|  Angle|Sight- |Drift.| Drift-| Time  |Remaining|Dangerous
          |          |   of  |marks. |      | marks.| of    |Velocity.|  Space
          |          |  Fall.|       |      |       |Flight.|         |   for
          |          |       |       |      |       |       |         |Infantry.
    ------+----------+-------+-------+------+-------+-------+---------+---------
    Yards.|   °  ′   |  °  ′ |Inches.|Yards.|Inches.|  Sec. |  Feet.  |  Yards
      100 |  -0 12   |  0 12 | 0.000 |  0.1 | 0.008 |   0.1 |  1,243  |   100
      200 |   0 00   |  0 23 | 0.000 |  0.1 | 0.009 |   0.4 |  1,191  |   200
      300 |  +0 11   |  0 35 | 0.057 |  0.2 | 0.012 |   0.7 |  1,125  |   180
      400 |   0 23   |  0 48 | 0.120 |  0.3 | 0.014 |   1.0 |  1,099  |   131
      500 |   0 35   |  1 02 | 0.183 |  0.4 | 0.014 |   1.3 |  1,066  |   102
      600 |   0 49   |  1 16 | 0.255 |  0.5 | 0.015 |   1.6 |  1,037  |    83
      700 |   1 03   |  1 31 | 0.328 |  0.7 | 0.018 |   1.9 |  1,007  |    69
      800 |   1 17   |  1 53 | 0.401 |  0.9 | 0.020 |   2.2 |    984  |    56
      900 |   1 32   |  2 16 | 0.479 |  1.2 | 0.024 |   2.5 |    961  |    46
    1,000 |   1 48   |  2 39 | 0.562 |  1.5 | 0.026 |   2.8 |    942  |    40
    1,100 |   2 04   |  3 02 | 0.646 |  2.0 | 0.033 |   3.1 |    922  |    34
    1,200 |   2 21   |  3 27 | 0.735 |  2.5 | 0.037 |   3.4 |    902  |    30
    1,300 |   2 39   |  3 53 | 0.829 |  3.2 | 0.044 |   3.8 |    886  |    27
    1,400 |   2 57   |  4 22 | 0.923 |  3.9 | 0.050 |   4.1 |    869  |    24
    1,500 |   3 16   |  4 48 | 1.022 |  4.6 | 0.055 |   4.5 |    853  |    22
    1,600 |   3 36   |  5 19 | 1.127 |  5.5 | 0.062 |   4.9 |    837  |    20
    1,700 |   3 57   |  5 50 | 1.237 |  6.1 | 0.065 |   5.3 |    823  |    18
    1,800 |   4 18   |  6 22 | 1.347 |  7.0 | 0.070 |   5.7 |    810  |    16
    1,900 |   4 39   |  6 55 | 1.457 |  8.0 | 0.076 |   6.1 |    797  |    15
    2,000 |   5 01   |  7 28 | 1.572 |  9.0 | 0.081 |   6.5 |    784  |    14
    2,100 |   5 23   |  8 02 | 1.688 | 10.0 | 0.086 |   6.9 |    771  |    13
    2,200 |   5 47   |  8 36 | 1.814 | 11.0 | 0.090 |   7.3 |    758  |    12
    2,300 |   6 11   |  9 14 | 1.941 | 13.0 | 0.102 |   7.7 |    748  |    11
    2,400 |   6 36   |  9 57 | 2.073 | 15.0 | 0.113 |   8.1 |    735  |    10
    2,500 |   7 01   | 10 36 | 2.205 | 17.0 | 0.123 |   8.5 |    722  |    10
    2,600 |   7 27   | 11 18 | 2.342 | 20.0 | 0.139 |   8.9 |    712  |     9
    2,700 |   7 53   | 12 00 | 2.480 | 22.0 | 0.151 |   9 3 |    702  |     9
    2,800 |   8 20   | 12 42 | 2.624 | 24.0 | 0.155 |   9.8 |    689  |     8
    2,900 |   8 48   | 13 26 | 2.773 | 26.0 | 0.163 |  10.2 |    679  |     8
    3,000 |   9 17   | 14 10 | 2.928 | 28.0 | 0.170 |  10.6 |    669  |     7
    3,200 |  10 15   | 15 39 | 3.239 | 35.0 | 0.199 |  11.6 |    650  |     6
    3,400 |  11 16   | 17 11 | 3.569 | 41.0 | 0.221 |  12.6 |    630  |     6
    3,600 |  12 20   | 18 45 | 3.917 | 48.0 | 0.245 |  13.5 |    610  |     5
    3,800 |  13 27   | 20 20 | 4.284 | 57.0 | 0.277 |  14.5 |    591  |     5
    4,000 |  14 35   | 22 00 | 4.996 | 70.0 | 0.325 |  15.5 |    571  |     4
    ------+----------+-------+-------+------+-------+-------+---------+---------

If the axle of the carriage be not horizontal,
multiply the difference of level of the wheels in inches (or the
inclination of the trunnions in degrees) by the elevation in degrees
for the given range; the result will be the deflection in minutes to be
applied on the side of the higher wheel.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.]

When the shell is fired, the plunger is forced to the rear, driving
the safety-plug into the shell. The small wires being free to let
the plunger drive forward, hold it steadily with the rotation of the
shell, and keep it from dropping forward on the descending arc of a
high trajectory. On impact the plunger drives forward, and the little
magazine is exploded by contact with the point.

A Frankford Arsenal point percussion-fuze, small (model 1894), weight
2¼ oz., is now made for 1.65-inch ammunition. It is similar to the
fuze for the 3.2-inch field-gun.


                             DISMOUNTING.

To dismount the mechanism: See page 4.

To dismount the gun: Throw back the cap-squares and lift straight up at
breech and muzzle.

To dismount the wheels: Take out the linch-pins, lift the carriage at
the axles and slip the wheels off.

To dismount the axle: Slack back the clamp-screws about one turn; back
the small keep-screws about four turns. Dismount the wheels; pull out
the axle.

To mount the parts, proceed in inverse order.


                    LOADING-TOOLS AND INSTRUCTIONS.

NOMENCLATURE.--Loading-press; loading-sleeve; common
shell-plunger; canister-plunger; ejector; charge-measure;
burster-measure; cartridge-funnel; shell-funnel; cleaning-brush;
fuze-wrench.

The loading-tools are supplied in sets, enclosed in an oak chest.
They are not to be carried into the field, but should be set up in an
appropriate laboratory room.

For methods to be followed see instructions given for preparing
ammunition for 3-inch gun, page 31, _et seq._


                 THE PACKING OUTFIT FOR 1.65-INCH GUN.

This consists of:

One pack-saddle, for carrying the gun and wheels of the carriage.

One pack-saddle, for carrying the gun-carriage, the pole, the
splinter-bar, the harness-sack (containing the harness and the
pole-yoke), and the ammunition-pack.

One pack-saddle, for carrying the four ammunition-boxes.

One set of double harness.

One pole and neck-yoke (the pole is hinged so that it can be folded for
packing).

One splinter-bar.

Four ammunition-boxes holding 18 rounds each.

One ammunition-pack holding 6 rounds, for use in an emergency.

Blinds, for use when packing.

=The Pack-saddles= are identical, with the exception of the yokes for
carrying the different parts and a few minor changes in the pads.

=The Harness= is for two mules and consists of bridles, breast-collars,
martingales, breeching, traces and pole-straps, and harness-sack
(duck). The pole, neck-yoke, and splinter-bar are made of hickory.

=Ammunition-boxes= are made of pine and are 24″ × 8″ × 8″. They have
sliding covers, which are connected to the box by a lifting hinge. Each
box holds 18 rounds of ammunition, and friction-primers. Weight of box
empty 11 lbs. 8 oz.; weight of box filled 59 lbs., about.


                       PARTS OF OUTFIT PER GUN.

    1 pack-saddle for gun.
    1 crupper.
    1 belly-cincha.
    1 saddle-cincha.
    2 wheel-straps.
    2 hub-straps.
    1 gun-pad.
    1 lashing-rope.

    2 bridles.
    2 breast-collars.
    2 martingales.
    2 breechings.
    2 pairs traces.
    2 pole-straps.
    1 blind.


    1 pack-saddle for carriage.
    1 crupper.
    1 belly-cincha.
    1 saddle-cincha.
    1 cargo-cincha.
    1 trail-strap.
    1 lashing-rope.

    1 harness-sack.
    1 neck-yoke.
    1 neck-yoke brace.
    1 neck-yoke brace-billet, and chapes.
    1 blind.


    1 pack-saddle for ammunition.
    1 crupper.
    1 belly-cincha.
    1 saddle-cincha.
    1 cargo-cincha.
    1 lashing-rope

    1 pole.
    1 splinter-bar.
    Trail-hooks for attachment
      of splinter-bar.
    4 ammunition-boxes.
    1 cartridge-pack.
    1 blind.


                          METHOD OF PACKING.

1. On long marches with a wagon train the whole packing outfit will be
carried in the wagon train when practicable.

2. On packing the outfit to make expeditions, if it is known that there
will be no occasion for hauling the gun and carriage, the hauling
appliances, viz., harness, pole, yoke, and splinter-bar, can be left
behind in the wagon train, at a camp or post, as the case may be;
but as the hauling appliances add little to the pack, and unexpected
occasions for their use are probable, they should be carried as a rule.

3. The gun and carriage are to be hauled whenever practicable country
for hauling occurs, on a long march, to ease the animals, and
especially if their backs get sore, and also in action if the ground
will admit of it.

4. If the draught animals are led, the pack-saddles can be left on the
animals loosely cinched.

5. If a driver rides one draught animal, its pack-saddle can be placed
on the other animal, or both saddles can be placed on gun and carriage.

6. Pressure should fall on back, not on spine and not on sides.

Mules differ in shape; the same mule is not always symmetrical, and
the condition varies; therefore, when saddles fit do not change them
without good reason.

Fold saddle-blanket in four folds and place it carefully on the animal;
then place the saddle on the blanket and in the middle of the animal's
back, so as to interfere as little as possible with his free action,
and cinch tightly with saddle-cincha. They should be drawn tighter than
with riding-saddles, but only tight enough to keep the saddle securely
in its place. With a young mule tighten gradually and gently.

Ammunition-mules scarcely need such tight girthing as saddle-mules.

The dock of the crupper must be kept soft, smooth, and pliable.

7. See that everything fits properly before loading. Place the hand
under the blanket to make sure that pressure does not fall on the
withers. On the least sign of a rub on the ribs take measures to
relieve the pressure from that point, changing the load if possible. In
cases of this sort, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

A slightly galled mule can generally carry its saddle, and sometimes
be worked, if proper measures are taken. After cleansing and drying
the wound dust it with sulphur 3 parts, iodoform 1 part, and then put
a piece of old-fashioned court-plaster over it if the animal is to be
worked.


                       INSTRUCTIONS FOR PACKING.

=Saddles.=--Fold saddle-blanket in four folds and place it on the
animal; place saddle on blanket and cinch tightly with saddle-cincha.

No. 3 saddles the carriage-mule and acts as driver.

No. 4 saddles the gun-mule and acts as driver.

No. 5 saddles the first ammunition-mule and acts as driver.

No. 6 saddles the second ammunition-mule and acts as driver.


                             FIRST ANIMAL.

                            (See Fig. 10.)

=Gun and Wheels.=--The gunner removes the tangent-sight, placing it in
the haversack, and puts on the breech-cover.

No. 1 throws back the right cap-square and puts on the muzzle-cover and
grasps gun by manœuvring-handle.

No. 2 throws back the left cap-square and grasps end of breech-block.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.]

No. 4 leads the gun-mule to the gun and places him three yards to the
rear of the trail, facing to the rear.

The gunner, grasping the muzzle, commands "_Lift_," and all lift the
gun from the carriage and place it in its bearings, breech in front,
sight down.

The gunner, assisted by Nos. 1 and 2, puts cargo-cincha over gun,
trunnions passing through slots, edge of cincha nearest to slots in
front; cinches to belly-cincha; and then puts gun-pad on breech of gun.

Nos. 1 and 2 on their respective sides then lift the axle while the
gunner removes the wheels and replaces linch-pins and washers;
Nos. 1 and 2 fasten them together with wheel-strap, dish of wheels
inside, and place them astride of gun, hubs between wheel-pads on
cargo-cincha, lower them to their proper position, and suspend them
with the hub-strap which passes around the hubs and over top of gun. On
most animals the best position for wheels is to have the distance from
bottom of hub, measured over top of saddle, 36 inches.

Nos. 1 and 2 then buckle around the rim of wheel, on their respective
sides, the two wheel-straps, which are attached to the belly-cincha
chape, two spokes apart on each side, and tighten these straps until
the wheels are in the best position and bear firmly on the cargo-cincha
wheel-pads, and on the gun-pad. The wheel-pack is then secure and can
be easily adjusted from time to time to aid the animal on the march. If
further security is required, lash the wheels with the lashing-rope;
fasten one end of rope to one hub, pass it around wheels, under corners
of saddle-pads and over and under the animal, and draw tight. (The
most expert packer of the detachment should be required to perform the
duties pertaining to that work when necessary, as it is very important
that the work should be done properly.)


                            SECOND ANIMAL.

                            (See Fig. 11.)

=Carriage and Harness.=--No. 3 leads the carriage-mule up and places
him three yards in front of muzzle, facing to the front.

No. 1 places harness (in its sack) on left side with pole-yoke under
flap of harness-sack, and secures them in position with the two straps
which are attached to the saddle.

No. 2 places pole (butt end in front) and splinter-bar on right side
and secures them in position with the two straps which are attached to
the saddle, passing the straps twice around the pole and bar. The front
strap passes once in front and once in rear of the pintle-pin.

The gunner at the trail and Nos. 1 and 2 at the axle lift the carriage
and place it in position on top of saddle, bottom down, trail to the
rear, so that special shapes of saddle arch-irons will engage in
the carriage. The front arch-iron enters the slot just in rear of
carriage-axle.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.]

The gunner passes the cargo-cincha over the carriage, the wooden block
down, and in between side flanges of trail, elevating-screw passing
through hole in cincha and wooden block; then receives from No. 1
the ammunition-pack and places it in position; cinches securely,
fastens the primer-pouch and haversack containing accessories around
gun-carriage cheek, and this pack is complete.

NOTE.--The harness, pole-yoke, and splinter-bar are not
necessary to this pack, and the carriage packs equally well without
them. If _on_ the saddle, they are to be left on it in coming into
action; that is, the carriage can be unpacked and repacked without
disturbing them.


                        THIRD OR FOURTH ANIMAL.

                            (See Fig. 12.)

=Ammunition.=--Each animal carries four ammunition boxes, each
containing 18 rounds of ammunition: total rounds 72. Nine cartridges
and ten primers are packed in each end of each box. The gunner and Nos.
1, 2, and 3 put the ammunition-boxes in position, the two top ones
first, simultaneously, and then the two bottom ones in the same way.
No. 3 then returns to his mule, which he had turned over to No. 4; and
Nos. 1 and 2 secure the boxes in position by the straps fastened to the
clips, and the gunner cinches them securely with the cargo-cincha. He
then passes a lashing-rope around the iron handles on the ends of the
boxes and over the pack, and the whole is securely fastened in place.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.]


                        TO HARNESS FOR DRAUGHT.

Nos. 3 and 4 place harness on their mules, and lead them into position
for hitching, and when the pole has been adjusted complete hitching in
front of mules.

Nos. 1 and 2 lift trail and the gunner attaches the pole.

Nos. 1 and 2 hitch traces.


                  WEIGHTS TO BE CARRIED BY EACH MULE.

    --------------+------------------------------------+-------------------
    First Animal. |           Second Animal.           |   Third Animal.
    --------------+------------------------------------+-------------------
           lbs.   |                             lbs.   |               lbs.
    Gun    121    |Carriage                     131    |72 rounds amm. 189
    Wheels 104½   |Sponge and rod                 1½   |4 boxes         46
    Outfit  65½   |2 primer-pouches and contents  7½   |Outfit          57½
                  |Harness in sack               17½   |
                  |Pole-yoke                      3    |
                  |Splinter-bar                   5¾   |
                  |Amm.-pack and 6 rounds        18¼   |
                  |Outfit                        62    |
           -------|                             -------|               ----
    Total  291    |Total                        259½   |Total          292½
    --------------+------------------------------------+-------------------


                    ARTIFICER'S TOOLS AND SUPPLIES.

In the composition of a complete mountain-battery must be included
the necessary tools and supplies for making any repairs that may be
required, for shoeing the pack-animals, etc. These constitute the loads
for four pack-mules, as follows:

                             PIONEER PACK.

    2 felling-axes, handled.
    1 crowbar, steel.
    2 sledge-hammers (8 pounds), handled.
    4 bill-hooks.
    4 pickaxes, handled.
    4 shovels.
    4 reaping-hooks.
    4 hatchets.
    50 feet of 1-inch hemp rope.

                              FORGE PACK.

    1 mountain-forge, complete.
    1 set of smith's tools.

                           ARTIFICER'S PACK.

    1 set of wheelwright's tools.
    1 set of saddler's tools.

                             SUPPLY PACK.

    1 set of wheelwright's stores.
    1 set of saddler's stores.
    1 set of farrier's stores.


SUGGESTED ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT.

The detailed exercise and tactics for mountain-batteries differ
slightly in different military services, but the following general
directions conform to the normal condition and will serve for the
organization of temporary mountain-batteries.

For packing, each piece complete requires four mules.

For the service of each gun seven men are required, of which three
fight the gun in action and four serve as mule-drivers and reserves.

A full battery consists of six pieces in time of war and four in time
of peace, and should comprise, in addition to the equipments of a
single piece, one field-forge, with transport-mule and driver; two
transport-boxes, containing farrier's, carpenter's, and saddler's
tools, with transport-mule and driver (one spare wheel packed on this
mule); one spare carriage complete, with transport-mule and driver;
ammunition-boxes, containing small-arm ammunition, with transport-mule
and driver; twelve ammunition-boxes containing reserve-gun ammunition,
with three transport-mules and drivers.

The battery should be organized into platoons under lieutenants, each
platoon consisting of a section under a sergeant.

Each section (the personnel and material of one gun) should consist of
the chief of section, gun detachment (one corporal and six privates),
and extra drivers and spare men. If there be but one ammunition-mule to
a section, the number of men would be reduced to six.

The first sergeant should command the ordnance-mules not with the first
line, viz.: ammunition, spare carriage, blacksmith's and wheelwright's
tools, relief. He is assisted by the stable-sergeant.

The second lieutenant commands the pack-train, and is assisted by the
quartermaster-sergeant.

The commissioned officers, first sergeant, quartermaster-sergeant,
stable-sergeant, and trumpeters should be mounted on horses; the
blacksmith, wheelwright, and cooks, on mules. Officers, sergeants, and
trumpeters should be armed with pistols; all enlisted men other than
sergeants and trumpeters, with carbines.

In line there should be an interval of twelve yards between sections.
The positions of the captain and lieutenant, and first sergeant
and chiefs of section, are the same as in a field-battery, both in
line and column. The mules of a section are in the following order:
carriage-mule, gun-mule, and ammunition-mules with the distance of a
yard between them, and in column with a distance of two yards between
sections. The gunner is near the right flank of leading mule; Nos. 1
and 2 are similarly placed with respect to the second and third mules.
The drivers are on the left and opposite the heads of their mules.


            TABLE OF ANIMALS REQUIRED FOR FOUR-GUN BATTERY.

    ------------------------+-------+------+------------------------------
                            |Horses.|Mules.|        Extra Mules.
    ------------------------+-------+------+------------------------------
    Captain                 |   1   |  --  |If a long march is anticipated
    Lieutenants             |   3   |  --  |  the pack-train must
    Sergeants               |   3   |  --  |  be increased accordingly,
    Trumpeters              |   2   |  --  |  and an increase in the
    Cooks                   |  --   |   2  |  number of ordnance-mules
    Blacksmith              |  --   |   1  |  as herein indicated.
    Wheelwright             |  --   |   1  |
    Gun                     |  --   |   4  |  4
    Carriage                |  --   |   4  |  4
    First ammunition        |  --   |   4  |  4
    Second ammunition       |  --   |   4  |  4
    Spare carriage          |  --   |   1  |  1
    Blacksmith's tools, etc.|  --   |   1  | --
    Wheelwrights, etc.      |  --   |   1  | --
    Spare                   |  --   |   5  |  3
    Pack-train              |  --   |  10  |  ?
                            +-------+------+-----
                            |   9   |  38  | 20 + increase of pack-train.
    ------------------------+-------+------+------------------------------


                SERVICE OF THE 1.65-INCH HOTCHKISS GUN.

=Men Required.=--A gunner and five privates. Nos. 1, 2, and 3 serve as
cannoneers; Nos. 4 and 5 attend animals.

=Equipments.=--Gunner and No. 1, primer-pouches; Nos. 2 and 3,
cartridge-pouches.

=Duties.=--The gunner commands, attaches and detaches the pole, sets
the sight, points, and superintends the service of the ammunition.

No. 1 mans right wheel, controls brake-rope, opens and closes breech,
and fires piece.

No. 2 mans the left wheel, controls brake-rope, introduces the
ammunition into the bore, and assists in pointing.

No. 3 keeps No. 2 supplied with ammunition and assists the gunner in
attaching and detaching the pole.

Nos. 4 and 5 attend animals.


                    HOTCHKISS 3-INCH MOUNTAIN-GUN.

  [Illustration: Fig. 13.]


                             DESCRIPTION.

    Material                       steel
    Total length                   3.76 feet
    Length of bore                 3.25 "
    Travel of projectile           3.02 "
    Calibre                        3 inches
    Weight                         216 pounds
    Grooves                        24
    Twist of rifling, uniform      1 in 25.59 cals.
    Muzzle-velocity                870 f. s.
    Maximum range                  4000 yards

The breech-mechanism of this gun differs from the 1.65-inch in that its
stop-bolt engages in a guide in the lower part of the block.

The _front sight_ is of the open type, allowing of a large field
of view. The _tangent-sight_ is provided with a sliding head by
means of which it may be set before placing it on the gun, and
a deflection-slide for correcting for drift, wind, etc. On the
deflection-slide is an open notch for rough, and a peep-sight for fine,
sighting. The sight-bar is graduated on one side in ranges, on the
other in millimetres. The sights are on the left side.


                             THE CARRIAGE.

  [Illustration: Fig. 14.]

NOMENCLATURE.--(1) trail; (2) axle; (3) wheel; (4)
cap-squares; (5) hooks; (6) elevating-screw; (7) elevating-lever; (8)
elevating-transom; (9) lunette; (10) lunette-plate; (11) trail-handles;
(12) brakes; (13) sponge and rod.


                             DESCRIPTION.

    Length of carriage-body                      52.75 inches
    Weight of carriage-body                      205 pounds
    Weight of sponge and rod                     4.5   "
    Weight of two wheels                         123   "
    Total weight of carriage                     332   "
    Height of trunnion-centres above ground      23.7 inches
    Diameter of wheels                           37.4  "
    Track of carriage                            28.35 "
    Vertical field of fire                       +20°, -10°
    Total weight of gun and carriage             570 pounds

The carriage-body consists of two steel brackets forming stock and
trail. They are reinforced by angle-steel and connected by transoms.
The axle is stiffened by a reinforcing-plate to which is riveted
the carriage-body. The elevating-gear consists of a forked lever,
pivoted at its nearmost end, and traversed near the middle by the
elevating-screw. The latter is supported by an inclined plane on the
elevating-transom. The breech of the gun rests freely on the end of
the elevating-lever, the preponderance being sufficient to insure
stability. Recoil is checked by two rope-brakes, which are hooked to
the trail-handles and passed around the felloes of the wheels. For
the march one end of each brake is hooked to a trail-handle, the rope
passed diagonally over the trail end and the free end secured to one of
the hooks under the axle. The sponge and rod are secured by suitable
attachments on the right side of the trail.


                          THE PRAIRIE LIMBER.

  [Illustration: Fig. 15.]

NOMENCLATURE.--(1) axle; (2) axle-beds; (3) frame; (4) body;
(5) pintle; (6) pintle-key; (7) shafts; (8) prop; (9) prolonge-hooks;
(10) ammunition-chests.

                             DESCRIPTION.

    Weight of limber-body                                262 pounds
    Weight of two wheels                                 123   "
    Weight of four chests                                123   "
    Weight of limber complete                            554   "
    Number of rounds carried                             32
    Weight of limber fully equipped                      1005 pounds
    Weight of a pair of ammunition-chests fully loaded   225    "
    Total weight of gun limbered                         1575   "

This limber is designed to relieve the pack-animals where possible. It
carries four of the mountain ammunition-chests, which may at once be
removed and carried on the pack when necessary, the limber-body being
temporarily abandoned. Two of the pack-animals will be found sufficient
for draught, leaving three as a relief or for the transport of forage.

The =Limber= consists of a frame of angle-steel, which is provided
with beds to receive the axle. The body is formed of steel plate, with
compartments for the reception of four ammunition-chests. The outer
chests are raised slightly above those in the middle, and may be opened
without removing them from the limber. On the limber are carried a
paulin, a combined prolonge and picket-rope, a felling-axe, a shovel
and a pickaxe.

The =Ammunition-chests= are made of wood, covered with waterproof
canvas, and are strongly ironed. They provide for carrying eight
rounds of ammunition, and have a compartment wherein may be placed a
package of friction-primers and the fuze-case. The latter is a metallic
box having compartments for five combination fuzes in their sealed
packages.


                            THE AMMUNITION.

    Weight of cartridge-case                1.25 pounds
    Weight of charge                        14 ounces
    Weight of projectile                    12 pounds
    Total weight of complete cartridge      14   "
    Total length of complete cartridge      14.1 inches
    Bursting-charge, common shell           6.3 ounces
    Bursting-charge, shrapnel               1¾   "
    Number of balls in shrapnel             160
    Effective fragments, shrapnel           180
    Number of balls in canister             125

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.]

The =Ammunition= consists of a cartridge-case containing the
powder-charge, and the projectile. The drawn metal cartridge-case
(Fig. 16) is of brass, and is drawn from the solid metal to shape.
It is reinforced at the base by inside and outside cups of the same
metal. The head is fastened to the base by brass rivets, which clamp
the case, cups, and head solidly together. A vent is pierced through
the head of the cartridge, and five eccentric-fire holes through
the reinforcing-cups. Between the reinforcing-cups is held an iron
obturator. The jet of flame from the primer, entering the vent, lifts
the obturator and forces its way through the fire-holes to the charge.
The charge being ignited, the pressure of the gas immediately forces
back the obturator and seals the vent.

The =Charge= consists of 14 oz. I. K. granular powder. In order to
vary the charge the ammunition is made in two parts, viz., projectile
and cartridge-case. The cartridge is put into the metallic case in two
half-charges, in bags, so that one may be removed if desired.

The vent of the cartridge is sealed with a thin coating of wax.

The =Common Shell= (Fig. 17) is of the cylindro-ogival pattern, with a
copper band, and is fitted with a point percussion-fuze. It contains a
bursting-charge of about 6.3 ounces (180 grammes) of fine-grain powder.

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 19.]

The =Shrapnel= (Fig. 18) is made of cast iron. It consists of a body to
which the head is attached by three copper rivets. The bursting-charge
of about 1¾ ounces of fine-grain powder is contained in a chamber
in the base, which is brought into communication with the fuze by
a central igniting-tube. The shrapnel is loaded with 160 hardened
balls packed in sulphur. These projectiles are transported plugged,
the combined time and percussion fuze being inserted at the moment of
action.

The =Canister= (Fig. 19) consists of a thin brass envelope, which is
lined with six wrought-iron segments. The head is of wood, and is
fitted with a false point to bring it to the same length as the common
shell. On the body is an annular stop to prevent inserting too far into
the cartridge-case. The canister contains 125 hardened lead balls.

The common shell are painted black, the shrapnel red, and the canister
are unpainted.


                     ACCESSORIES AND SPARE PARTS.

The following accessories and spare parts are supplied with each gun,
carriage, and limber:


                                 GUN.

    1 breech-cover, russet leather.
    1 muzzle-cover, russet leather.
    1 gunner's haversack, containing:
      1 breech-sight.
      1 gunner's quadrant in case.
      1 lanyard.
      1 Universal fuze-wrench.
    1 cannoneer's haversack, containing:
      1 spare extractor.
      1 spare stop-bolt.
      1 spare spring-washer.
      1 dismounting-pin.
      1 drift.
      1 oil-can.
      2 cleaning-brushes.
      1 screw-driver.
      1 fuze-wrench.
      1 pair of cutting-pliers.
      1 vent-cleaner.


                             GUN-CARRIAGE.

    1 pair of shafts.
    1 sponge and rod.
    1 sponge-cover.
    2 brake-ropes.


                            PRAIRIE LIMBER.

    4 ammunition-chests.
    4 fuze-cases.
    1 pair of shafts.
    1 felling-axe.
    1 pick-axe.
    1 shovel.
    1 waterproof paulin 13′ x 6½′.
    1 picket-rope and prolonge 20′ long.


                    ARTIFICER'S TOOLS AND SUPPLIES.

In the composition of a complete mountain-battery must be included
the necessary tools and supplies for making any repairs that may be
required, for shoeing the pack-animals, etc. These constitute the loads
for four mules, as follows:


                             PIONEER-PACK.

    2 felling-axes, with handles.
    1 crowbar, steel.
    2 sledge-hammers (8 pounds), handled.
    4 bill-hooks.
    4 pick-axes, handled.
    4 shovels.
    6 reaping-hooks.
    4 hatchets.
    50 feet of 1-inch hemp rope.


                              FORGE-PACK.

    1 mountain-forge, complete.
    1 set of smith's tools.


                           ARTIFICERS' PACK.

    1 set of wheelwright's tools.
    1 set of saddler's tools.


                             SUPPLY-PACK.

    1 set of wheelwright's stores.
    1 set of saddler's stores.
    1 set of farrier's stores.


                    LOADING-TOOLS AND INSTRUCTIONS.

Tools for loading the ammunition are supplied in sets, enclosed in an
oak chest. They are not to be carried into the field. The set consists
of:

    Common-shell plunger.
    Shrapnel plunger.
    Case-shot plunger.
    Loading-sleeve.
    Ejector.
    Loading-press.
    Fuze-key.
    Cleaning-brush.
    Shell-funnel.
    Cartridge-funnel.
    Cartridge-gauge.


                         TO FILL COMMON SHELL.

Insert the funnel in fuze-hole and pour in bursting-charge, at the same
time tapping side of shell with a wooden mallet. Clean the fuze-hole
carefully with brush, and make sure that no powder remains in the
thread. Screw the fuze tightly home. If the fuze requires more force
than can be given with the key to screw it home, lay it aside. _Never
strike a fuze or attempt to force it._


                      TO FILL THE CARTRIDGE-CASE.

Weigh the charge (never measure it) and pour it in the case through a
funnel. Shake the charge well down by tapping side of case with flat of
the hand. Insert the wad.


                    TO ASSEMBLE CARTRIDGE (1′.65).

The common shell are inserted filled and fuzed, the shrapnel _empty_.
Oil the base of the projectile lightly, and centre in the mouth of
the cartridge case, the latter standing on the bench. Slip the sleeve
vertically over projectile and cartridge-case. Turn the sleeve to a
horizontal position, holding the head of the cartridge with the left
hand, and lay the sleeve in the press. Insert the proper plunger, so
that it bears on the head of the projectile. Screw the press home
until the band of the projectile touches the mouth of the cartridge,
or until the shoulder of the plunger bears against the front of the
sleeve. Unscrew the press, remove the plunger, _push_ out cartridge
with the ejector. _Never strike the ejector_ under any pretence. Pass
the cartridge into the gauge and close slide.


                           TO FILL SHRAPNEL.

The shrapnel is assembled with the cartridge-case before filling.
Pour in the bursting-charge very slowly, at the same time tapping the
projectile lightly with a mallet. Clean the fuze-hole carefully, and
screw the plug firmly home. Shrapnel should not be fuzed except in the
field, at the moment of their employment.

The above rules find general application, the methods being modified to
suit the case, viz., whether fixed ammunition, or charge and projectile
separate.


                   3-INCH MOUNTAIN-GUN RANGE TABLE.

    Charge, 14.1 oz. C₂.
    Projectile, 12 lbs.
    Initial velocity, 853 ft.-sec
    Angle of jump, 0° 39′.
    Length of line of sight, 17″.56.

    ------+----------+----------+-------+------+-----------+--------+
    Range.|  Angle   |Elevation.|Sight- |Drift.|Deflection.|  Time  |
          |   of     |          |marks. |      |           |   of   |
          |Departure.|          |       |      |           | Flight.|
    ------+----------+----------+-------+------+-----------+--------+
    Yards.|   °  ′   |   °  ′   |Inches.| Feet.|   _m/m_   |Sec'nds.|
       0  |   0  0   |   0  0   | 0.000 |Right |   Left    |   0.0  |
     100  |   0 23   |          |       |  0.1 |    0.1    |   0.3  |
     200  |   0 46   |   0  7   | 0.036 |  0.2 |    0.2    |   0.7  |
     300  |   1 10   |   0 31   | 0.158 |  0.4 |    0.2    |   1.1  |
     400  |   1 34   |   0 55   | 0.281 |  0.7 |    0.3    |   1.4  |
     500  |   1 59   |   1 20   | 0.409 |  1.1 |    0.3    |   1.8  |
     600  |   2 24   |   1 45   | 0.536 |  1.6 |    0.4    |   2.2  |
     700  |   2 50   |   2 11   | 0.670 |  2.2 |    0.5    |   2 6  |
     800  |   3 16   |   2 37   | 0.803 |  3.0 |    0.6    |   3.0  |
     900  |   3 42   |   3  3   | 0.936 |  3.9 |    0.7    |   3.4  |
    1000  |   4  9   |   3 30   | 1.074 |  4.9 |    0.7    |   3.8  |
    1100  |   4 37   |   3 58   | 1.218 |  6.0 |    0.8    |   4.2  |
    1200  |   5  5   |   4 26   | 1.361 |  7.2 |    0.9    |   4.6  |
    1300  |   5 33   |   4 54   | 1.504 |  8.5 |    1.0    |   5.0  |
    1400  |   6  2   |   5 23   | 1.655 |  9.9 |    1.1    |   5.4  |
    1500  |   6 32   |   5 53   | 1.810 | 11.5 |    1.2    |   5.8  |
    1600  |   7  2   |   6 23   | 1.965 | 13.3 |    1.3    |   6.3  |
    1700  |   7 33   |   6 54   | 2.125 | 15.3 |    1.4    |   6.7  |
    1800  |   8  5   |   7 26   | 2.291 | 17.5 |    1.5    |   7.2  |
    1900  |   8 37   |   7 58   | 2.458 | 19.8 |    1.6    |   7.6  |
    2000  |   9 10   |   8 31   | 2.630 | 22.3 |    1.7    |   8.1  |
    2100  |   9 44   |   9  5   | 2.807 | 25.1 |    1.8    |   8.5  |
    2200  |  10 19   |   9 40   | 2.991 | 28.1 |    1.9    |   9.0  |
    2300  |  10 54   |  10 15   | 3.175 | 31.3 |    2.1    |   9.5  |
    2400  |  11 30   |  10 51   | 3.366 | 34.8 |    2.2    |  10.0  |
    2500  |  12  7   |  11 28   | 3.562 | 38.5 |    2.3    |  10.5  |
    2600  |  12 45   |  12  6   | 3.765 | 42.5 |    2.5    |  11.0  |
    2700  |  13 25   |  12 46   | 3.979 | 46.8 |    2.7    |  11.6  |
    2800  |  14  6   |  13 27   | 4.200 | 51.5 |    2.8    |  12.1  |
    2900  |  14 48   |  14  9   | 4.427 | 56.6 |    3.0    |  12.7  |
    3000  |  15 31   |  14 52   | 4.661 | 62.1 |    3.2    |  13.2  |
    3100  |  16 16   |  15 37   | 4.908 | 68.1 |    3.4    |  13.8  |
    3200  |  17  2   |  16 23   | 5.163 | 74.5 |    3.6    |  14.4  |
    3300  |  17 49   |  17 10   | 5.425 | 81.4 |    3.9    |  15.0  |
    3400  |  18 38   |  17 59   | 5.700 | 88.9 |    4.1    |  15.6  |
    3500  |  19 29   |  18 50   | 5.989 | 97.0 |    4.4    |  16.3  |
    ------+----------+----------+-------+------+-----------+--------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ------+-------+-----+------
    Range.| Fuze- |Angle|Rem.
          | scale.|of   |Veloc.
          |       |Fall.|
    ------+-------+-----+------
    Yards.|Inches.| °  ′|Feet.
       0  | 0.00  | 0  0| 853
     100  | 0.14  |     | 842
     200  | 0.34  |     | 831
     300  | 0.55  |     | 821
     400  | 0.76  |     | 811
     500  | 0.99  | 2 10| 801
     600  | 1.22  |     | 791
     700  | 1.46  |     | 782
     800  | 1.69  |     | 773
     900  | 1.91  |     | 764
    1000  | 2.12  | 4 32| 755
    1100  | 2.33  |     | 746
    1200  | 2.54  |     | 737
    1300  | 2.75  |     | 728
    1400  | 2.95  |     | 719
    1500  | 3.16  | 7 19| 710
    1600  | 3.36  |     | 702
    1700  | 3.57  |     | 694
    1800  | 3.78  |     | 686
    1900  | 3.99  |     | 678
    2000  | 4.20  |10 44| 670
    2100  |       |     | 662
    2200  |       |     | 654
    2300  |       |     | 646
    2400  |       |     | 638
    2500  |       |14 39| 630
    2600  |       |     | 623
    2700  |       |     | 616
    2800  |       |     | 609
    2900  |       |     | 601
    3000  |       |19 27| 594
    3100  |       |     | 587
    3200  |       |     | 580
    3300  |       |     | 573
    3400  |       |     | 567
    3500  |       |25  3| 560
    ------+-------+-----+------
                     (From Hotchkiss Pamphlet.)


    SUGGESTED ORGANIZATION OF A 3-INCH HOTCHKISS MOUNTAIN-BATTERY.

The organization is made on the same principles as those of the
1.65-inch mountain-battery.

The section, consisting of one piece, requires for its service and
transport ten men and nine pack-animals. Of the men, gunner and Nos.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 as cannoneers; 7, 8, 9, attend animals. The
pack-animals are distributed as follows:

1 gun-mule.

1 carriage-mule.

1 wheel, shafts, and accessory mule.

6 ammunition-mules.

The proportion of each kind of ammunition carried will depend upon the
nature of the campaign, but in general each ammunition-chest should
contain five shrapnel, two common shell, and one canister, making a
total allowance per gun:

60 shrapnel with combination fuzes.

24 common shell with percussion-fuzes.

12 canister.

A full battery should consist of six pieces, and should comprise, in
addition to the equipment of six sections:

1 pioneer outfit, with mule and driver.

1 mountain-forge, with mule and driver.

2 artificer's chests, containing farrier's, wheelwright's, and
saddler's tools, with mule and driver.

2 chests with farrier's, wheelwright's, and saddler's supplies, one
spare wheel, with mule and driver.

1 spare carriage complete, with two mules and one driver.

3 ammunition-chests, with small-arms ammunition and small stores, with
mule.

=Equipments.=--Gunner's pouch; No. 1, primer-pouch; Nos. 2, 3 and 4
cartridge-pouches. =Duties.=--Gunner commands; limbers and unlimbers;
sets the sight; points, and superintends service of ammunition.

=Duties.=--Gunner commands; limbers and unlimbers; sets the sight;
points, and superintends service of ammunition.

No. 1 mans the right wheel; controls brake-rope; opens and closes
breech; fires piece.

No. 2 mans the left wheel; controls brake-rope; introduces the
ammunition into the bore; assists in pointing.

No. 3 keeps No. 2 supplied with ammunition (first setting time-fuze
and removing safety-pin) and assists the gunner in limbering and
unlimbering.

No. 4 keeps No. 2 supplied with ammunition (first setting time-fuze and
removing safety-pin).

No. 5 receives ammunition from No. 6; removes plugs from shrapnel;
fuzes same; loosens cap of time-fuze, and issues prepared ammunition to
Nos. 3 and 4.

No. 6 passes ammunition to No. 5; opens time-fuze cylinders, and brings
up ammunition-mules as required.

At the command "_Cease firing_," Nos. 5 and 6 equalize ammunition in
boxes.

Nos. 7, 8, and 9 attend animals.


                               TO PACK.

The mules are brought up at a trot, and stationed:

Gun-mule three yards in rear of trail and facing to rear.

Carriage-mule three yards in front of muzzle, facing to front.

Wheel-mule three yards to left of gun, facing to front.

=To Pack the Gun= (Fig. 20).--No. 4 takes the lifting-bars from
wheel-pack and passes them to the gunner and No. 2; No. 3 procures
breech and muzzle covers from gun-pack, hands muzzle-cover to No. 1
and straps on breech-cover; No. 1 throws open cap-squares and adjusts
muzzle-cover; the gunner and No. 2 pass ends of lifting-bars to Nos. 3
and 1. All numbers facing to the rear, the gunner commands, "_Lift_."
The gun is placed on the pack and secured by Nos. 1 and 2.

  [Illustration: FIG. 20.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 21.]

=To Pack the Carriage= (Fig. 21).--The gunner and No. 3 remove the
linchpins; Nos. 1 and 2 lift the axle; the gunner and No. 3 remove the
wheels and replace the linchpins; Nos. 1 and 2 grasping the axle-arms,
the gunner and No. 3 pass a lifting-bar through the trail-handles. All
numbers facing to the front, the gunner commands, "_Lift_," and the
carriage is placed on the pack and secured by Nos. 1 and 2.

  [Illustration: FIG. 22.]


                           AMMUNITION MULE.

  [Illustration: FIG. 23.]

=To Pack the Wheels= (Fig. 22).--The gunner and No. 3 lift the wheels
and place them separately on the pack, where they are secured by No.
4; No. 4 places and secures the lifting-bars; Nos. 3 and 5 take off
their haversacks and secure them on the wheel-pack.

_Unpacking is performed in the reverse order to packing._


                     WEIGHT CARRIED BY EACH MULE.

    -----------------------+----------------------------------
          Gun-mule.        |        Carriage-mule.
    -----------------------+----------------------------------
    Saddle          69 lbs.|Saddle                     69 lbs.
    Gun            218  "  |Carriage                  205  "
                   --------|                          --------
                   287  "  |                          274  "
    -----------------------+----------------------------------
        Wheel-mule.        |          Ammunition-mule.
    -----------------------+----------------------------------
    Saddle          60 lbs.|Saddle                     58 lbs.
    Wheels         123  "  |Two chests with 8 rounds
    Shafts, etc.    22  "  |  each                     280 "
                   --------|                           -------
                   205  "  |                           338 "
    -----------------------+----------------------------------



                              CHAPTER II.

                      The Pack-train. How Packed.

                             PACK-TRAINS.


Gen. Holabird says: A pack-mule carries on an average 200 pounds. Allow
one pack-mule to six or seven men for detachments out scouting from
five to eight days; twelve mules to two officers and sixty or seventy
men for six days; eight mules to one officer and fifty men of cavalry
for six days.

The above allowance does not contemplate the carrying of forage.

Cavalry drill-regulations state: With fifty packs there should be
twelve packers. Each troop should have four mess-boxes, seven-eighths
inch lumber, dovetailed, 11 inches by 18 inches by 26 inches, and, when
packed in pack-cover, without lids.

In camp or garrison, logs of wood, 26 inches long, and sacks of corn,
double-sacked and lashed to avoid breaking sacks, having the weight it
is intended the mule should carry, are kept on hand for drill purposes.

Each pack should be provided with two coils of three-eighths inch rope,
18 to 28 feet long, for lashing packs.

The pack-saddle consists of the _saddle proper_; two _pads_; _crupper_;
_corona_; _manta_ or _pack-cover_; two pieces of canvas, each 84
inches by 22 inches, stitched together on the long edges; _halter_ and
_strap_; _canvas cincha_, 10 inches wide; sling-rope, half-inch best
hand-laid manilla whale-line, 20 to 32 feet long; and _leather cincha_,
with _lash-rope_, five-eighths inch whale-line 42 feet long. There
should be one _blind_ for every five packs.

The size of rope is given by the measurement of its diameter.

A "full-rigged" saddle has _sling-straps_ and _cargo-cincha_; the sling
and lash ropes are then dispensed with.

While saddling, loading, or readjusting the packs, the animals should
be blinded. The mules should be trained to stand perfectly quiet while
the blind is on; they should never be led or forced to move without
first removing the blind.


                          TO FIT THE SADDLE.

The pack-saddle is fitted to the animal in a manner similar to that of
the riding-saddle; it is so constructed that it can be placed one and
one-half inches farther forward than the riding-saddle.

If the pads are not square, draw the screws, unlace the pads from the
skirts, then square and fit them to the animal by placing the canvas
cincha immediately around the animal's girth, the front edge touching
the breast-bone (cartilages of true ribs), the middle of the cincha
being exactly in the middle of the lower edges of the pads; then screw
the pads to the saddle-bars, keeping the cincha in place till the
adjustment is made; then remove the cincha and replace the pads.

Adjust the canvas cincha so as to be long enough to go nearly around
the girth of the mule, over the saddle.

Adjust the crupper by lengthening or shortening the lace-strings that
attach it to the saddle, taking care not to make it too tight.


                              TO SADDLE.

Place the corona on the mule's back, about two to two and one half
inches in front of where the pommel end of the saddle is to rest;
place the folded saddle-blanket over the corona; take the saddle by
both yokes and place it squarely in position, a little in rear of its
proper place; place the crupper under the dock and gently move the
saddle forward to position; pass the ring end of the canvas cincha over
the saddle from left to right and under the belly; pass the latigo
through the ring and tighten the cincha; when cinched, the ring end of
the cincha should be above the lower edge of the near pad.


                               CARGOES.

The rations should be carefully put up in one-hundred-pound packs
lashed solidly, and carried on the best pack-mules; each pack is
plainly marked with its contents and weight.

Salt, sugar, coffee, and beans are double-sacked, and lashed in
one-hundred-pound packages. Bacon, in one-hundred-pound packages,
is packed in from five to eight pounds of clean straw or hay,
double-sacked and lashed firmly.

The yeast-powder cases should be opened and hay or straw stuffed
closely around the boxes to prevent shaking, and, with other articles,
lashed into one-hundred-pound packages.

Each cargo is in two side-packs of about one hundred to one hundred and
twenty-five pounds each, and should match in size, shape, and weight
as nearly as practicable, each side-pack having, as nearly as may be,
the following proportions: width one half more than thickness, length
nearly one half more than the width; e. g., 12 inches by 18 inches by
25 inches.

All the salt, sugar, coffee, and beans should not be placed in one
cargo. Ammunition should be in cargoes.

Pads or cushions of hay 26 inches by 44 inches may be placed under
the cincha to keep long and rough packs from the animal's hips and
shoulders.


                            TO LOAD CARGO.

The packers should work by threes, designated Nos. 1, 2, and 3. No.
1 is on the near side, No. 2 on the off side of the mule; when No.
3 works with No. 1 he is nearest the croup; when with No. 2 he is
opposite the mule's shoulders.

The mule is placed near to and with its left side next to the cargo by
No. 2, who then puts on the blind.

No. 1, on the near side, passes the centre of the sling-rope over the
saddle to the off side far enough to allow the rope to pass over the
off-side pack and come back within his reach, the parts of the rope
separated by six to twelve inches. Nos. 2 and 3 take the off-side pack,
place it well up on the saddle; No. 2 grasps the loop of the sling-rope
with his right hand, brings the rope up against the pack and lets the
loop drop over his right shoulder in readiness to pass it over the
pack; No. 2 holds the pack in place.

No. 3 passes to the near side and with No. 1 takes the near-side pack
and places it, flat side next the mule, well up on the saddle, lapping
the upper edge well over the upper edge of the off-side pack. No. 1,
with his back to the mule's shoulder, takes the end of the front part
of the sling-rope, passes it from the outside through the loop, and
pulls it down with the right hand; he now grasps the rear end of the
sling-rope with the left hand, and ties the ends together in a square
bow-knot, the packs high up.

No. 1 calls out, "_Settle_"; No. 1 and No. 2 each grasps his side of
the cargo by the lower corners, lifts upward and outward, settling the
upper edges well together and balancing the load. If the packs are tied
too high they are easily lowered, but if tied too low they must be
lifted and placed as in the first trial.

  [Illustration: FIG. 24.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 25.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 26.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 27.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 28.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 29.]

While Nos. 1 and 2 are tying and placing the cargo, No. 3 takes the
lash-rope, throws the free end to the rear of the mule, convenient to
No. 2, and places the cincha end in front of No. 1. No. 1 grasps the
rope with the right hand, three feet from the cincha, and passes the
hook end of the cincha under the mule to No. 2, who takes the hook
(_H_, Fig. 24) in the left hand; No. 1 with the left hand grasps the
rope three feet above the right, raises the rope and lays it between
the side-packs from rear to front (_P P′_), pulling it to the front
until a long enough loop (_A_) is formed to pass over the cargo and
fasten in the cincha-hook (_H_). The right hand, back down, holds the
cincha end of the rope, the loop (_A_) falling outward over the right
forearm; the left hand, back up, holding the other part of the rope
between the loop and the middle of the packs; No. 1 now throws the loop
(_A_) over the pack, then lets the part in the left hand drop on the
mule's neck, thus forming another loop (_A′_, Fig. 25); No. 2 passes
the rope through the hook, pulls the cincha end of the rope till the
hook is drawn up so that, when tightened, the hook shall be near the
lower edge of the off pad. No. 1 now grasps the rope at _G_, Fig. 26,
and tucks a loop from rear to front, under the part _AA_, Fig. 26, over
the centre of the near-side pack (_G_, Fig. 27); No. 2 passes the free
end of the rope under the part _EE_, Fig. 27, and throws it over on the
near side of the mule's neck; No. 1 draws the tucked loop forward and
forces the rope under the corners and lower edge of the near pad and
hauls it taut from above the rear corner; No. 2 grasps the rope at _I_,
Fig. 27, with the left hand, and at _K_ with the right hand, and passes
the rope under the corners and lower edge of off pad (_KL_, Fig. 28)
and hauls taut at the front corner, No. 1 taking in the slack at the
free end of the rope.

The lash is now ready for the final tightening. No. 2 removes the
blind, leads the mule forward a few steps, No. 1 in rear at the same
time looking to see if the packs are properly adjusted. The mule is
again blinded. The object of the final tightening is to lash the load
firmly to the saddle; pulling all the parts of the lash-rope taut,
and taking up the slack, commencing at the cincha; and continuing the
process from part to part, until the slack is taken up at the free end
of the lash-rope. While No. 2 is pulling the parts taut, No. 1 takes up
the slack or steadies the cargo, or _vice versa_; the pulling is done
in such manner as not to shake the cargo out of position.

No. 2 grasps the lash-rope above where it leaves the hook and below
the edge of the pad, right hand below left, places left knee against
rear corner of pad; No. 1 grasps with the right hand the same part of
the rope where it comes over the pack on the near side, and with the
left hand at _G_, Fig. 28, places his right shoulder against the pack
to steady it; he then says, "_Pull_." No. 2 tightens by steady pulls
and, without letting the rope slip back through the hook, gives the
slack to No. 1, who takes it up by steady pulls. When No. 2 thinks the
cincha is sufficiently drawn, he says, "_Enough_." No. 1 holds solid
with the right hand, slips the left down to where the rope passes over
the front edge of the pad, and holds solid; the right hand then grasps
the continuation of the rope at rear corner of pad and pulls taut; then
with both hands, placing his right knee against rear corner of pad,
pulls the rope well home, No. 2 taking up the slack by grasping the
rope (_I_, Fig. 28) where it comes over the rear end of off-side pack,
with both hands. No. 1 steps to the front and steadies the pack; No. 2
then pulls taut the parts on his side, taking up the slack; this draws
the part of the lash-rope _AA_, Fig. 28, well back at the middle of
the pack; he then with the left hand at the rear corner of pad (_K_)
pulls taut, and holds solid, while with right hand at front corner of
pad (_L_) he takes up slack; he then, with both hands at, and placing
his knee against, the front corner of the pad, pulls well taut, No. 1
taking up the slack on his side, and then pulls solid, drawing the part
_EE_, Fig. 28, of the rope coming out from the hook well forward at the
middle of the pack, then carries the free end under the corners and end
of pad, draws taut and ties the end fast by a half-hitch near cincha
end of lash-rope. If the rope should be long enough to reach over the
load, after passing under the corners, it is passed over and made fast
on the off side by tying around both parts of the lash-rope above the
hook and drawing them well together.

To tighten the lash rope on the load it is necessary to take up and
pass the slack as in the final tightening.

To slacken the rope on the load it is necessary to begin to slacken
from the free end, and carry the slack by reversing the process of
tightening.

When the pack-cover is used, it is placed over the cargo before putting
on the lash-rope.

When the side-packs are of unequal bulk or weight, the larger or
heavier should be placed on the near side; it should then lap over the
off-side pack until the packs balance.

=Top Packs=, i. e., small packages placed in the middle between the
side packs, should be avoided.

When the sling-rope is half-hitched into the saddle-yokes the load is
made more secure, but there is great danger of injury to the mule's
back.

On the _full-rigged_ saddle the canvas cincha is attached to the saddle
by the "spider"; the side packs are laid on the saddle as before, held
by the sling-straps and secured by the _cargo-cincha_. The lash-and
sling-ropes are then dispensed with, but the use of the lash-and
sling-ropes gives greater security to the cargo and greater comfort to
the mule.


                           TO UNLOAD CARGO.

Only two men, Nos. 1 and 2, are necessary; they work as when loading.

The mule is placed with head toward the centre of where the cargoes
are piled. No. 1 puts on the blind; No. 2 unfastens the free end of
the lash-rope; then Nos. 1 and 2 slacken the rope; No. 2 with the left
hand removes the part under the end and corners of the pad on the off
side and unhooks the cincha with the right hand; No. 1 removes the part
under the ends and corners of the pad on the near side, gathers the
parts of the rope together on his side with both hands, coiling it, and
lays the rope on the ground where he intends to place the cargo, the
cincha and free end exposed on the side opposite where the rigging is
to be placed; No. 1 unties the sling-rope, casts it loose, takes his
side pack and places it on the lash-rope across the line of cargo; No.
2 at the same time takes his pack and lays it on top of near side pack,
and then, holding the sling-rope at centre loop, doubles it and places
it on top of load, loop exposed, for convenience when required.

The second load is placed end to end with the first and on the side
next to where the rigging is to be placed; the end of the lash-rope is
coiled and placed on top of the last sling-rope, and is used for tying
the mule when reloading.

The saddle-cinchas should be slackened and the mules allowed to cool
before removing the saddles.


                             TO UNSADDLE.

Unfasten the latigo and throw the end across the top of saddle; fold
the cincha with latigo inside and place across top of saddle; push the
saddle back, remove crupper from under dock, double it forward, with
crupper above cincha on top of saddle, and remove saddle; the saddles
are placed in line, resting on the ends of pads.



                             CHAPTER III.

              The Mule. Description. Diseases. Treatment.


The mule has the advantage of the horse in better withstanding neglect,
bad treatment, poor feed, and hard usage.

The pack-mule should be active, short-coupled, short-legged,
small-boned, square-built, with manifest powers of endurance, and
should weigh from 800 to 1000 pounds. Army Regulations state that
"mules purchased for the army by the Quartermaster's Department should
conform to the following conditions: They should be strong, stout,
compact, sound, and kind; free from defects in every particular; from
four to nine years old; from 850 to 1200 pounds in weight; from 14 to
16 hands high, and suitable in all respects for the transportation
service of the army. If for draught purposes, they are to be well
broken to harness; if for pack purposes, they need not be broken, and
the standard of height may be reduced to 13½ hands, if the animal be
in other respects suitable.

"Every animal will be branded with the letters U. S. on the left fore
shoulder on the day he is received. A complete descriptive list will be
made of each animal at the time of purchase, which will accompany him
wherever he may be transferred."

Under ordinary circumstances none but gentle, well-broken mules from
four to eight years old should be purchased.

New mules should be handled with the greatest patience, care, and
kindness until they become thoroughly accustomed to the new service
required of them. All violence must be avoided, for mules are naturally
timid and easily startled, and for this reason men of good temper
should be employed in breaking them; any rough treatment is sure to
lead to delay in the training and may cause irretrievable harm.

=Age.=--Ordinary limit 15 to 16 years; many live to 20, some to 30,
years. From 8 to 12 he is in his prime.

Age is told by teeth, as with horses.

=Sex.=--Females are generally to be preferred to males for
mountain-batteries, being, as a rule, more docile and better shaped.

=Pace.=--A battery-mule can walk four miles an hour. The average
transport-mule walks a little over three miles an hour. A mule's pace
is slow down but quick up hill. Mules show fatigue in their gait by
drooping the head; the neck becomes horizontal and the ears droop back;
the ordinary carriage of the latter is erect and forward; when the mule
begins to fan them, he is probably tired.

=Condition.=--They should be kept in hard condition--not fat.

=Watering.=--They will ordinarily refuse hard or bad water; and
sometimes decline to drink merely from fancy, and will water from a
bucket when not from the stream. By throwing a handful of grass into
the bucket of water, they may generally be induced to drink. They may
be watered on the march, even when hot, if kept in motion afterward.
Where there are leeches in a stream, be careful not to water too close
to the bank.

=Feeding.=--The government allowance for a mule is 14 pounds of hay and
9 pounds of oats, corn, or barley per day. In special cases of hard
service or exposure the Quartermaster-General may authorize the grain
ration to be increased not to exceed 3 pounds when recommended by the
Chief Quartermaster of the Department or of an army in the field. One
hundred pounds of straw per month is allowed for bedding.

It is a mistake to suppose that all mules require the same amount of
food. The officer should notice each animal, and determine the increase
or decrease in the regular ration to keep him in proper condition. A
mule will eat as much as a horse of the same size; he will eat almost
anything to keep from starving.

=Salt=, in a lump, or ground with feed, should be given whenever it can
be had. It is obtained on requisition (Form 41) from the Subsistence
Department, each animal being allowed 2 ounces per week; or 12 ounces
per month if deemed necessary by the commanding officer.

=Vinegar= is similarly obtained for sanitary purposes, at the rate of 2
gallons per week per 100 animals.

=Soft Food=, bran-mashes, should be given at least once a week if
possible.

Animals should be grazed whenever the opportunity occurs.

=Care.=--Grooming should be carried out as with horses, but need not
be so elaborate. Manes are usually hogged; tails are cut, but not in
hot weather during the fly season. The hair on the mule's heels should
never be cut; nor should the mud, in the winter season, be washed off,
but allowed to dry on the animal's legs, and then rubbed off with hay
or straw.

=Feet.=--Keep in the natural state as nearly as possible. Mules suffer
from standing on wet ground; but in dry climates, or in stables with
modern floors, care should be taken that their feet get sufficient
moisture, by wetting them or standing the animal a short time where
this result will be obtained.

=Shoeing.=--The hot shoe must never be applied to the foot under any
circumstances. Give the ground-surface a level bearing. Let the frog
come to the ground; if it projects beyond the shoe, so much the
better; never under any circumstances cut it away. Never put a knife to
the sole of the foot. Let the shoes be as light as possible, without
calks if avoidable, exactly the shape of the animal's foot; secure with
two nails on each side, an inch apart, and one in the toe.

The Putnam hot-forged nail is excellent.

=Harnessing.=--Meddle as little as possible with a mule's ears, as they
are exceedingly sensitive. With care the mule can be easily bridled;
but once struck on the head or pulled by the ear, there will be trouble
ever after.

Pit the bridle carefully; see that the crown-piece is not too tight;
that the bit fits easily in the mouth; that the corners of the mouth
are not drawn up: otherwise the animal's mouth will become sore. The
throat-latch must be loose.

See that the other parts of the harness fit properly and do not rub or
gall the animal.

To harness a vicious mule, put the noose of a lariat over his head,
taking care that it does not choke him; place him on the near side of
a wagon; carry the end of the lariat between the spokes and around the
felloe of the front wheel; walk back with it to the hind wheel, keeping
it taut; pass the end between the spokes and around the felloe of that
wheel, and pull the mule close to the wagon.

Take care to have the lariat as high as the mule's breast in front and
the flank in rear.

=Breaking.=--Gentleness and patience are essential.

First let the animal smell the saddle, etc. (an old one if possible).
Then saddle carefully, girthing up gradually; when the mule will walk
quietly about saddled, the rest of the harness may be added by degrees,
particular care being taken in first putting on the crupper. When quite
used to harness, accustom the mule to the sight of the load--at first
bags of sand, about 80 pounds each. Load with these, the weight being
increased if necessary.

Battery-mules should follow the battery, barebacked, from their first
arrival, and get used to the sights and sounds; and when broken to
saddle and load, should go laden. They should be trained first on
easy and then on difficult ground; also to cross shallow ditches and
obstacles without hesitation, at first saddled, afterwards loaded. In
leading a mule the rein should always be loose. A trained mule should
lead. Avoid using the whip.


                         VETERINARY TREATMENT.

This treatment is about the same as for horses; common ailments are
strangles, cold, sore mouth, poll-evil, fistulous withers, galls and
sitfasts, thrush, colic, cramp, mange, grease. Where backs show the
least sign of softness it is well to rub in salt and water. The same
precaution should be taken with young mules about the part where the
crupper is liable to chafe the dock, daily for a week before working.

=Strangles.=--This is a specific fever of young animals, usually
attended with swellings and inflammations; an abscess generally forms
between the bones of the lower jaw or elsewhere in groups of lymphatic
glands; there are cough, difficulty of swallowing, discharge at the
nostrils, and general prostration.

_Treatment._--Give light bran-mashes, plenty of common salt, and keep
the animal in a warm dry stable, with plenty of pure air. Encourage
the ulcer; apply Gombault's balsam, if at hand, three times a day to
induce suppuration, or, when it has come sufficiently to a head and
appears soft enough to lance, do so, being careful to avoid the glands
and veins. Tonics, three times a day, such as 20 grains of quinine, or
1 ounce ground gentian, or a teaspoonful powdered sulphate of iron.

=Cold.=--This disease seldom attacks mature mules in camp. Young stock
on first being stabled, or stock out of hot, badly ventilated stables,
on exposure may contract colds. The animal appears out of condition,
with slight fever, eyes dull, cough and nasal discharge.

_Treatment._--Remove to airy box-stall; clothe and bandage; apply
ammonia liniment to the throat if there be a cough; steam the nostrils.
Open the bowels by injection of tepid soap-suds, or give one third of a
dose of oil; feed soft food; give quinine 10-grain doses.

=Sore Mouth.=--There are few diseases to which the mule's teeth are
subject after the permanent teeth are developed. If the gums are
swollen from the cutting of teeth, a light stroke of the lancet over
the gums at a point where the teeth are forcing their way through, and
a little regard to the animal's diet, will be all that is necessary.
Mules suffer from injury to the tongue and sore mouth, caused by bad
treatment. With a sponge apply to the sore parts a light decoction of
white-oak bark; give nourishing gruels or bran-mashes; keep the bit out
of the mouth until healed.

=The Eye.=--Occasionally mules' eyes become inflamed and sore. Apply
warm or, if not obtainable, cold water and remove the cause. (See
Ophthalmia, Vet. Notes.)

=Poll-evil.=--Mules are quite subject to this disease. It begins with
an ulcer or sore at the junction of the head and neck, and from its
position, more than from any other cause, it is difficult to heal.

_Treatment._--When the swelling first appears, use hot fomentations. If
these are not at hand, use cold water frequently, and keep the bridle
and halter from the parts. If ulceration nevertheless takes place, the
seton must be skilfully applied.

=Fistula.=--Fistula of withers is due to bruises, bad-fitting saddle or
harness, or rolling on hard substances. It generally first appears as a
swelling, then inflammation sets in and a tumor begins to form.

_Treatment._--The fistula in its first stages may be driven away by
frequent applications of cold water. Should the swelling continue,
use warm fomentations, poultices, and stimulating embrocations. When
in proper condition it should be opened, and kept so until all of the
matter has escaped and the wound shows signs of healing.

The bowels should be opened by means of a cathartic of aloes.

=Galls and Sitfasts.=--One of the best remedies for saddle-gall is to
remove the saddle pressure as much as possible, and bathe the back
frequently with salt and cold water.

If this does not succeed the trouble will continue, and a root will
form at the centre of the gall, the edges of which will be clear, the
sitfast holding only by the root. In this case take a pair of pincers
and pull it out. This done, bathe frequently with cold water. A little
soothing oil, or grease free from salt, may be rubbed lightly on the
parts as they begin to heal. One of the best remedies for galls is to
cleanse the wound and blow into it a mixture of one part of iodoform to
three parts of sulphur: if it be necessary to use the animal, cover the
part with old-fashioned sticking-plaster.

=Thrush.=--_Treatment._--Cut away the parts of the frog that seem to be
destroyed; cleanse daily with castile soap, and apply muriatic acid, or
a little tar mixed with salt on oakum or tow.

=Colic.=--The mule is quite subject to this complaint. Too much cold
water or changes of grain will produce it.

The animal swells up, pants, looks around at his sides, paws, sweats
above the eyes and on the flanks, becomes very restless, lying down and
suddenly springing to his feet, lies down again, etc.

_Treatment._--Drench with one ounce of chloral-hydrate in a half pint
of water or two ounces of sulphuric ether and two ounces of tincture
of opium in half pint of linseed oil, repeating the dose an hour
afterwards if not relieved; or 2 oz. oil of turpentine, 1 oz. tinct.
opium given in 12 oz. linseed oil or a pint of thick gruel. The belly
should be well hand-rubbed and the animal walked about. Inject warm
soap-suds.

=Cramp.=--_Treatment._--A good hand-rubbing.

=Mange.=--_Treatment._--Rub the animal with a mixture of hog's lard and
sulphur, two pints of the latter to one pint of the former; cover with
blanket; two days later wash clean with soft soap and water; blanket
for a few days to avoid cold. Feed bran-mashes, plenty of salt and
water.

=Grease.=--This is a diseased state of the skin of the legs, and
more especially the hind ones. In the early stages it consists of
an inflammation of the sweat-glands, followed by an offensive oily
discharge. The principal cause is uncleanliness, or by washing the legs
with cold water and not properly drying them afterwards.

_Treatment._--Without cleanliness medical remedies are worthless. Apply
poultices; leave them on half a day. Boiled turnips, carrots, bread and
milk, or bran and hot water are all good. Apply Gombault's balsam, one
part to four parts of glycerine, once every two days in chronic cases.
Or clean the parts well with castile soap and warm water, and use an
ointment made of powdered charcoal two ounces, lard or tallow four
ounces, sulphur two ounces, mix thoroughly and rub in well by hand.
Or gunpowder and lard or tallow, equal parts, is good; or dress with
carbolized oil or oxide of zinc ointment.

=Glanders.=--A highly infectious and contagious disease of the lungs;
incurable, and communicable to man.

The three characteristic signs are: 1. A peculiar transparent,
glutinous, and continuous discharge, usually from one nostril, which
discharge, moreover, accumulates and entangles all kinds of filth, so
that it is unlikely to escape observation. 2. Ulceration of the mucous
membranes of the nostril: the process of ulceration much resembles
the erosion of metals, there being first an oxidation and afterwards
a breach of the surface, the patch having irregular margins and
showing no disposition to heal, but, on the contrary, to spread. 3. An
enlargement of the submaxillary gland in the channel formed between the
lower jaw-bones, such enlargement being firmly attached to the bone and
immovable. It further manifests no disposition to suppurate and form an
abscess, but, on the contrary, remains unaltered so long as the animal
is allowed to live.

_Treatment._--On any one of the above-enumerated symptoms being
reported, at once isolate the animal; have bedding destroyed, and
carefully remove all clothing, stable utensils, etc., from the vicinity
of other animals pending decision of a veterinary surgeon. Place a
steady man in charge, and warn him of personal risk.

When assured an animal has glanders, have it shot at once, and burn all
bedding, clothing, etc.



                              CHAPTER IV.

   Mountain-artillery. General Instructions. Supply of Ammunition. Care
   and Preservation of Harness. Instructions for Drivers, etc. Marches.
   Camps. Weights and Dimensions of Foreign Mountain-artillery.


                         GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS.

A mountain-battery should be self-reliant, and, as far as possible,
independent of assistance beyond that of the usual escort furnished
for its protection, and in the highest state of efficiency to take the
field at a moment's notice.

It should be taken at least once a week for a march of ten or fifteen
miles over the most difficult ground in its vicinity. Platoons
completely equipped should be sent out separately once a week.

Every opportunity must be taken for instruction of officers and men in
the many devices and methods of obtaining cover, protection from the
weather, construction of huts, kitchens, ovens, latrines, etc., and the
tactical use and care of the battery.

Mountain-batteries are organized by platoons; each being complete in
itself and capable of being detached from the battery at a moment's
notice. Therefore the whole of the equipment, stores, camp-equipage,
and baggage belonging to each platoon should remain at all times under
immediate charge of the chief of platoon.

In like manner chiefs of section should have charge of their respective
sections, receiving their orders from their chiefs of platoon.

The baggage-mules form part of the section, and should be picketed
with the ordnance-mules of the section and be under the same
supervision.

A set of heliographs and signal apparatus should be carried and used.

A mountain-battery must be able to climb and keep with infantry.

As the number of guns engaged is always small, concentration of fire
is especially desirable, even when the ground does not admit of
concentration of guns.

Mountain warfare involves frequent exposure to sudden attacks. Guns
should therefore always have a strong infantry escort; but the fact of
having an escort should not prevent the commander from having a lookout
posted on his exposed flank.

Choice of positions and taking advantage of ground are exceptionally
difficult, and need special training, quickness, and constant practice.

It is not always easy to secure a ready supply of ammunition. Firing
should therefore be confined, as a rule, to the most effective ranges.
It is a waste of ammunition to fire at long ranges.

Only as many ammunition-mules as are immediately required should be
brought up to the battery; the remainder, with relief-mules, etc.,
should be kept under cover in rear.

Care must be taken to equalize the loads of ammunition-mules.

The position of the battery in the column, when there is a probability
of being attacked, should never be too far to the front, but
sufficiently so to come into action as soon as the advanced guard is
engaged.

It should march after the second company of the main body if the
advanced guard consists of only one company, or after the first company
if only two companies are in the advanced guard.

The battery ought never to be broken up unless under exceptional
circumstances, such as there being insufficient space for the guns in
line. In such cases the chiefs of platoon should keep up communication
with the battery commander, who directs the fire generally.

This breaking up of the battery does not refer to small isolated
columns to which platoons only may be attached.

Placed in position sufficiently far to the front to support the troops
with which it is co-operating, without endangering the guns, any
further change of position, excepting at the critical moment of pursuit
or retreat, should not be made without some very strong reason. If a
second position becomes necessary, the battery commander should first
assure himself that he can reach it in time to carry out his idea, and
without the liability of experiencing heavy loss.

Before coming into action the battery is divided into two lines,
viz., the first line, consisting of the six guns and the twelve
ammunition-mules, and the second line, consisting of the remaining
ammunition-mules and spare material-mules of the battery.

=The Supply of Ammunition is kept up as follows=: In action the boxes
of the first ammunition-mules are unloaded and placed in rear of the
guns, or, if the ground permits, in rear of the flanks of the battery.

The unloaded mules are placed under cover near the remaining
ammunition-mules of the first line, fifty or sixty yards in rear of the
line.

The second line, under the first sergeant, is three or four hundred
yards in rear of the first line and under cover.

The first ammunition-boxes unloaded have their contents distributed,
by the non-commissioned officer in charge, to the proper cannoneers of
each gun detachment; and as soon as the contents of half the boxes have
been fired three of the second ammunition-mules are sent to the front
and their boxes removed; then, reloaded with empty boxes, they are sent
to their position under cover.

=To Supply the First Line from the Second Line.=--The first sergeant
tells off six ammunition-mules to be in readiness to move to the front,
under a non-commissioned officer, when required.

As soon as the battery opens fire these mules are sent forward to the
first line and remain there under cover. As soon as the first six
ammunition-mules laden with empty boxes are assembled under cover they
are sent back, under a non-commissioned officer, to the second line.


                   CARE AND PRESERVATION OF HARNESS.

All harness should be periodically taken to pieces and thoroughly
examined. It should be oiled with neat's-foot oil two or three times a
year, and kept soft and pliable. Good castile soap and water should be
used for washing harness, and the dressing furnished by the Ordnance
Department. This dressing is applied with a woollen cloth, left on
until the next day, and then thoroughly wiped off with a woollen cloth.

It is made as follows (ingredients for two gallons): 1 gal. neat's-foot
oil, 2 lbs. bayberry tallow, 2 lbs. beeswax, 2 lbs. beef tallow. Place
in a pan over a moderate fire and let the above ingredients remain one
hour, until thoroughly dissolved; then add 2 quarts of castor oil and
stir well until the mass comes to a boil, so that the ingredients may
become thoroughly mixed; after which add 1 oz. lamp-black and stir well
for ten minutes; then strain the liquid while hot through a cotton
cloth to remove sediment of beeswax, tallow, and lamp-black, and put
aside to cool.

Colgate's black harness-soap and Frank Miller's harness-soap, No.
2½, are excellent for cleaning harness and keeping it soft.

=Blacking for Harness and Bridle Leather.=--A decoction of iron-rust
and vinegar, applied to the grain side of the leather after it has been
stained. In staining, apply with a hair brush, a solution of logwood,
sal-soda, and soft water.

Iron parts when rusted should be cleaned with kerosene, wiped dry, and
then have applied a light coating of asphaltum paint; allow it to dry
and then apply a second coat.

In the field there will not usually be much time or many materials for
cleaning harness. Rust should be cleaned off ironwork with sand and
then it should be oiled. Leather work should be kept soft and pliable.
First remove the mud and dried sweat with as little water as possible
and then work in a little oil or soft soap.


                    INSTRUCTIONS FOR DRIVERS, ETC.

The carriage-mule is always the leader when packing, or on the near
side in draught. This mule should therefore be the most tractable and
intelligent.

The mule-driver is at the left of and near the head of his mule.

If the leader is well trained and intelligent it is better to let him
have his head, the driver taking place abreast the saddle.

In saddling, the driver should make sure that the hair lies fair on the
mule's back under the blanket; that the blanket is properly folded;
that the saddle is securely girthed, and the load evenly balanced and
firmly lashed.

When on a march, as soon as it is time to feed in the morning, rub
off the animal's back until the hair lies smooth; place the blanket
well forward on the withers and draw it back until in proper position.
Saddle, drawing the cincha half tight, and feed. After feeding, and
when ready to pack, draw up the cincha.

During packing and unpacking the driver should never leave the mule's
head.

The pads should cover the mule from donkey-mark on wither nearly to
hip-joint. Large pads cause less rocking of the load than small and
give larger bearing surfaces; by distributing the load over a large
surface of the back, the animal is enabled to carry it easier and with
less chance of galls.

Pads properly stuffed show no creases in the lining, feel smooth, firm,
elastic, and not too hard, and have no hard knots.

Stuffing should be of wool, well cleaned, and unravelled before use.

Avoid giving hard work on new stuffed pads, if possible; otherwise do
not stuff pads too tight, but add daily as stuffing settles down. Pads
must be quilted for about one and a half inches along the upper edge
to keep the spine clear of pressure; also where girths cause friction.
They should be beaten and brushed, but the stuffing should be seldom
interfered with when once settled down. When hard it must be pricked up
with an awl.

Injuries to mules from bad saddlery arise from uneven pressure in
stuffing; stuffing working to front or rear, or getting hard or
knotted; pads not properly quilted; badly made repairs; or extraneous
substances getting between the pad and the mule's skin.

Surcingles should lie flat over and should not be tighter than
the cincha. Breast-pieces and breeching should hang from their
bearing-straps at such a height as not to impede the free action of the
limbs or the breathing. The breast-piece should not hang on the point
of the shoulder, but its top edge should reach to where the neck joins
the body.

In going up or down hill the saddle and load should be kept in place by
adjusting the breast-and breech-straps without halting.

The breast-strap should be tightened in ascents, slackened on the level
and in descents.

Breeching should always be tightened in going down hill, when it and
not the crupper should take the strain. Hip-straps should bring it
about in line with its point of attachment to the saddle. If too high
it may slip up under the tail when the strain comes on it.

The crupper should not be tighter than is necessary to keep the saddle
from shifting forward. The dock of the crupper must at all times be
kept soft, smooth, and pliable.

Breast-straps and crupper should be removed when the animal is fed and
watered.

The leading-bit is to touch the corners of the mouth, but should be low
enough not to wrinkle them; leading rein buckled to near side of the
bit.


                               MARCHES.

In warm climates march early to avoid the heat. Mules travel well at
night. Men and animals should have food before marching.

Officers and non-commissioned officers superintend loading; at which
all should be expert.

When the battery is loaded and formed, always inspect carefully to see
that the work has been properly done. A habit of prompt loading is most
important. One hour should be ample time between reveille and starting
on the road.

In moving off, drivers must move promptly, and use the leading-rein
with a very light hand. Mules move best with loose reins.

If avoidable, do not carry sick men on bareback or blanketed mules, as
the animals get galled.

The distance between mules on good roads is one yard. In passing
obstacles or difficult ground, distances must be increased as needed.
Every mule should have his head. Cannoneers should help to steady the
loads. Occasionally it may be advisable to unload in passing obstacles.

Cannoneers should keep near their respective mules and not straggle;
and must assist the drivers in watching and adjusting loads.

The driver must constantly watch his mule and load, and at once call
attention to signs of uneasiness or anything requiring adjustment, if
he cannot adjust it himself.

When a load becomes disarranged the mule must be fallen out and
the load put to rights; the driver regains his place at the first
opportunity.

Distances must be regained gradually, not by rushing: at an amble if
absolutely necessary.

The pace should be regular and constant, smart, not hurried, about
four miles an hour unless with other troops; in no case so fast as to
cause trotting in rear. Forcing the pace or dragging it, many halts and
checks without unloading or giving time for feeding and watering, are
ruinous.

When a laden mule falls, keep his head down; cast off the straps and
remove the load; unsaddle if necessary.

Always form battery advanced and rear guards of properly armed men.

It is sometimes convenient to have pioneer-tools with the advanced
guard.

The sick transport marches with the rear-guard, whose special duty it
is to keep every fraction of the battery ahead of it.

March on as broad a front as possible; but frequent changes are
harassing.

When feasible, considerable distance between platoons makes marching
easier.

Officers should constantly move along their commands, checking
irregularities, regulating the pace, and supervising every detail as
regards men, mules, and loads, while avoiding harassing interference.
This is especially important with pack-animals.

An officer should be in charge of the baggage if possible. In crossing
fords some men should see to the loads, as the high action of the
mules in passing through water is liable to unsteady them. Occasions
may occur when the mule may be obliged to swim, and in such cases the
saddle must be removed, and any attempt to guide the mule should be
made by the slightest touch possible; pulling at the head is to be
avoided. A mule swimming can be most easily turned by splashing the
water against the side of the face opposite the direction required.

Keep to the spurs of hills in going up and generally in going down
hill. Sometimes a short cut may be found down a ravine.

At the beginning of a march check the pace a little; make an early
halt, so that men can fall out and adjust anything requiring it.

Occasional halts should be made afterwards. Short halts are best for
pack-animals. At every halt non-commissioned officers and drivers
inspect their animals and attend to any signs of galling or uneasiness.
The rear closes up to its proper distance before halting.

On hill roads mules should be stood level across the road, heads
outward from the hillside. If the path be too narrow for this, drivers
must stand at their mules' heads to prevent the risk of a tumble down
the hillside in attempts to graze. Mules are apt to roll when halted.

In marches with other troops, on halting always find out how long the
halt is to be, and if time permits remove loads if practicable.

Advantage may be taken of long halts to water, and feed if advisable
and means are at hand. A feed of grain should always be carried in the
nose-bags if possible.

On long marches opportunities to feed and water should be sought for.

When halted allow the men to stray from their mules as little as
possible. Disarrangement of loads and possible accidents are thereby
avoided.

As pack-mules require very tight girthing, they should remain girthed
as short a time as possible. Gun-and carriage-mules are the tightest
girthed.

Their loads may be shifted to the relief-mules at the half-way halt,
these mules not being tightly girthed until on the point of loading.
Girths of the relieved mules should be slackened gradually, as sudden
loosing of the girths causes swellings.


                                CAMPS.

On reaching camp halt the battery, in line, in rear of the ground to
be occupied, facing to the front. Indicate the positions for material,
etc. The battery is then marched to the site of the gun-park and the
guns formed action front, the stores and boxes being piled in rear of
each gun. If possible make a foundation of stones, etc., for the piles
of boxes to rest on, dig a trench around it, and cover the pile with a
paulin firmly secured.

The men's tents are on either flank, the mules being picketed between
the lines of tents. The officers' tents are on a line perpendicular to
the men's tents, and about twenty-five yards from the end ones, and
face inward. The guard-tents are near the flank guns.

After unloading, girths are loosened a little, and are allowed to
remain so for fifteen minutes.

If the animals are warm they should be walked around until cool, and
may then be watered. As a rule all watering should be superintended by
an officer, and no man should be allowed to take more than two mules to
water at the same time.

When the mules are put on the picket-line, remove bridles and wipe
bits, loosen cincha a little, and place breeching over saddle, and
take off breast-strap if one be used. Sponge nostrils and eyes, rub
heads with dry wisp, and feed hay or grass. Saddles are only removed by
order; and when removed the men must examine shoulders, withers, sides,
and docks, and report the result. Backs should be rubbed off until the
hair lies smooth.

The saddles are placed on end behind the line, pads facing sun or wind
to dry. When dry they should be carefully brushed, beaten if necessary,
and all hair removed.

At afternoon stables mules are groomed, watered if necessary, and fed,
and the grain for the next morning served out and the outfit arranged
for use. In grooming never use a currycomb on the animal's back.

Saddles, back up, are on one paulin spread out between every two mules,
with bridles, etc. The other paulin is then placed over the saddles and
over the ends of the first paulin, which are turned up, and a strap is
passed around it and buckled about two feet above the ground. In wet
weather the ground on which the saddles are placed should be raised.

Grooming is the same as with horses; but mules hardly need the
elaborate grooming usually bestowed on horses.

The mule's blanket is used for his covering at night, and in hot
weather is folded up square on his back and secured there as a
protection against the sun.

Gunners will require their detachments of cannoneers to clean up guns,
etc., after a march.

All men for mountain-batteries should be picked men.

Troop "B," Fourth Cavalry, while in Arizona kept on hand ready to start
on a scouting expedition with its pack-train: flour 500 lbs., hard
bread 50 lbs., bacon 350 lbs., sugar 75 lbs., coffee 60 lbs., beans 50
lbs., salt 25 lbs., baking-powder 20 lbs.; 6 camp-kettles, 40 lbs.; 2
mess-boxes, 150 lbs.; 20 mess-pans, 10 lbs.; 1 axe, 1 spade, small
coffee-mill, 2 butcher-knives, 2 long forks, 2 long spoons, 3 or 4
tin plates, 3 frying-pans, soap, pepper, matches, and a few farrier's
remedies. The baking-pans were circular, 12 inches in diameter at top
and 9 at bottom.

=The Rule for Making Bread= was as follows: Dig a trench a little over
a foot wide, a foot deep, and 12 feet long. Build a fire near it. Then
mix 40 quart-cups of flour with salt, baking-powder and water in a
mess-box; divide dough in ten equal parts and place each in a small
mess-pan. Cover bottom of trench with a layer of coals 3 inches; then
place on layer the pans of dough and cover same with larger pans so as
to protect from dirt, etc. Fill trench and cover tops and sides of pans
with coals. Leave for 1¼ hours. Each loaf will make four rations.


                     TABLE OF MOUNTAIN-ARTILLERY.

    -----------------------+----------+--------+---------+-------------+
                           | Austria. |    England.      |   France.   |
                           +----------+--------+---------+-------------+
                           |  7 cm.   | 7 pdr. |         |             |
                           |  Model   |Jointed |7 pdr. of|    80 mm.   |
                           |  1875.   | Model  | 200 lbs.|    Model    |
                           |          | 1879.  |         |    1878.    |
    -----------------------+----------+--------+---------+-------------+
    _Gun._                 |          |        |         |             |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    Material               |{steel    | steel  | steel   |   steel     |
                           |{bronze   |        |         |             |
    Weight, lbs.           |  197     |  400   |  200    |  231.5      |
    Calibre, ins.          |  2.6     |  2.5   |    3.0  |    3.15     |
    Total length, ft.      |  3.28    |  5.87  |    3.41 |    3.94     |
    System of obturation   |{ Wedge.  |{Muzzle-|{Muzzle- |{Interrupted-|
                           |{Broadwell|{loading|{loading |{screw de    |
                           |{ ring.   |        |         |{Bange.      |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    _Carriage._            |          |        |         |             |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    Weight, without        |          |        |         |             |
      wheels, lbs.         |   150    |  324   |   206   |    322      |
    Weight, complete       |          |        |         |             |
      with gun             |   440    |  936   |   550   |    661      |
    Width of track, ins.   |    27.5  |   36   |    27   |     26.8    |
    Diam. of wheels, ins.  |    37.4  |   36   |    36   |     37      |
    Service charge, lbs.   |     0.77 |    1.5 |     0.75|      0.88   |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    _Shell, Common._       |          |        |         |             |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    Weight (full), lbs.    |     6.4  |   7    |     7.31|     12.3    |
    Bursting-charge, oz.   |     3.37 |   4    |     6.5 |      5.27   |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    _Shrapnel._            |          |        |         |             |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    Weight (full), lbs.    |     6.9  |   7    |     7   |     13.90   |
    Bursting-charge, oz.   |     1.3  |   0.5  |     0.5 |      2.82   |
    Number of bullets      |    65    | 100    |    42   |    120      |
    Initial velocity, f. s.|   979    |1440    |   950   |    843      |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    _No. of Rounds._       |          |        |         |             |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    Per gun[1]             |    32    |  96    |    90   |     70      |
    Per battery[2]         |   448    | 864    |   810   |    840      |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    _No. of Animals._      |          |        |         |             |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    Per battery            |    67    | 220    |   184   |{  94        |
                           |          |        |         |{Algeria 150 |
    _No. of Personnel._    |          |        |         |             |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    Per battery            |   111    | 287    |   245   |{ 160        |
                           |          |        |         |{Algeria 242 |
    _No. of Guns._         |          |        |         |             |
                           |          |        |         |             |
    Per battery            |     4    |   6    |     6   |      6      |
    -----------------------+----------+--------+---------+-------------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    -----------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------+------------
                           |   Italy.  |   Russia.   |    Spain.   |Switzerland.
                           +-----------+-------------+-------------+------------
                           |           |             |             |
                           |   7 cm.   |   2.5 in.   |   8 cm.     |  75 mm.
                           |           | Model 1892. | Model 1874. |Model 1877.
                           |           |             |             |
    -----------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------+------------
    _Gun._                 |           |             |             |
                           |           |             |             |
    Material               |{compress'd|   steel     |    steel    |  steel
                           |{bronze    |             |             |
    Weight, lbs.           |   215     |   194       |   225       | 231.5
    Calibre, ins.          |     2.95  |     2.5     |     3.09    |   2.95
    Total length, ft.      |     3.28  |     3.31    |     3.31    |   3.20
    System of obturation   |   Wedge.  |{Interrupted-|{Interrupted-|{  Wedge.
                           |           |{ screw de   |{  screw     |{Broadwell
                           |           |{  Bange.    |{ steel cup. |{  ring.
                           |           |             |             |
    _Carriage._            |           |             |             |
                           |           |             |             |
    Weight, without        |           |             |             |
      wheels, lbs.         |   198     |    325      |    240      |    205
    Weight, complete       |           |             |             |
      with gun             |   551     |    683      |    684      |    673
    Width of track, ins.   |    27.9   |     32.8    |     34.4    |     29.9
    Diam. of wheels, ins.  |    37.6   |     40.8    |     35.4    |     --
    Service charge, lbs.   |     0.66  |      0.81   |      0.88   |      0.88
                           |           |             |             |
    _Shell, Common._       |           |             |             |
                           |           |             |             |
    Weight (full), lbs.    |     9.43  |      8.8    |      8.54   |      9.26
    Bursting-charge, oz.   |     4.96  |      4.22   |      7.04   |      3.52
                           |           |             |             |
    _Shrapnel._            |           |             |             |
                           |           |             |             |
    Weight (full), lbs.    |     9.26  |      8.9    |     10.3    |      9.48
    Bursting-charge, oz.   |     1.76  |      1.05   |      0.35   |      1.94
    Number of bullets      |   109     |    100      |     90      |    112
    Initial velocity, f. s.|   840     |    932      |     95      |    899
                           |           |             |             |
    _No. of Rounds._       |           |             |             |
                           |           |             |             |
    Per gun[1]             |    74     |     96      |    100      |     20
    Per battery[2]         |  1704     |   1536      |    600      |    600
                           |           |             |             |
    _No. of Animals._      |           |             |             |
                           |           |             |             |
    Per battery            |   148     |    206      |     81      |     83
                           |           |             |             |
    _No. of Personnel._    |           |             |             |
                           |           |             |             |
    Per battery            |   286     |    306      |    197      |    170
                           |           |             |             |
    _No. of Guns._         |           |             |             |
                           |           |             |             |
    Per battery            |     6     |      8      |      6      |      6
    -----------------------+-----------+-------------+-------------+-----------



                               PART II.

                          _FIELD-ARTILLERY._



                              CHAPTER I.

                      Construction of Field-guns.


    DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION OF FIELD-ARTILLERY GUNS (LATEST MODEL).

The guns described in this and the next chapter are built-up guns made
of low steel, and all the parts are tempered in oil.

The tube enters the jacket from the front[3] and has shoulders upon it,
which come in contact with corresponding shoulders in the jacket. These
shoulders prevent any forward movement of the tube or rear movement of
the jacket.

The tube tapers from in front of the jacket to the muzzle, which ends
in a swell.

The exterior of the jacket is made up of a series of tapering surfaces.

On the interior surface, starting from the rear end, there are first,
the seat for the carrier-ring in the jacket, which also contains the
slotted and threaded sectors for holding the breech-block; in front of
this is the tapering gas-check seat in the tube; and forward of this is
the cylindrical powder-chamber, which is connected to the shot-chamber
by a slope. The shot-chamber also is cylindrical and connected with the
bore by a slope.

The vent being axial in the model of '90, enters the powder-chamber
through and along the axis of the spindle of the obturator. In front
of the gas-check seat in the model of '85 there is a cylindrical
surface leading to the ellipsoidal powder-chamber, which is connected
with the shot-chamber by a slope, and the radial vent enters 12½
inches from the rear face of the jacket and at the maximum diameter of
the powder-chamber. The vent-piece, made of copper, is screwed into
position, the part projecting above the surface of the piece being
rectangular.


                         THE BREECH MECHANISM.

The principal parts are the breech-block, the carrier-ring, the
obturator, the lever-handle, the bronze handle, and the vent-cover.

  [Illustration: THE BREECH-BLOCK.

  FIG. 30.]

=The Block=, Fig. 30, is threaded for a distance of four inches from
its forward end, and the circumference of the thread is divided into
six equal parts. The threads of the block are removed along three
alternate sectors, as is usual in the interrupted-screw fermature, to
allow the block to slide in the corresponding slotted sectors in the
jacket (or base-ring in earlier model).

The threaded sectors engage in the corresponding slotted sectors in
the breech-block, but one sixth of a turn of the block will engage the
screw-threads of both.

The interior of the block is bored out to form the obturator-spindle
recess.

At the end of the block are two lugs for the lever-handle. On the right
one is a shoulder which limits the motion of the lever-handle.

=The Nose= is the front end of the block, slightly reduced in diameter
in order to partly enter the gas-check seat.

=The Stop-groove=, into which the stop on the carrier-ring enters, is
in the planed sector on the left-hand side.

  [Illustration: FIG. 31.]

=The Latch-groove= (Fig. 31) is in two parts, one longitudinal (_d_),
at the front end of the block, and the other transverse (_a_), at the
rear end. The stem of the latch drops into the front groove (_e_)
when the block is withdrawn, and into the rear groove (_b_) when the
block is revolved into its firing position, in each case unlocking the
carrier-ring from the jacket--in the first case, so that it maybe swung
back; in the second, to prevent the breaking of the latch when the gun
is discharged.

=The Locking-recess= (_e_) is at the front end of the longitudinal
latch-groove. The stem of the latch drops into it when the block is
withdrawn, and thus locks the block positively to the carrier-ring.

=The Guide-groove= is the cylindrical recess at the rear of the block
in which the guide-sectors move when the block is rotated.

  [Illustration: THE CARRIER-RING.

  FIG. 32.]

=The Guide-sectors= (_b_, Fig. 32) are three projections from the
interior of the carrier-ring (_h_), which fit in the slotted sectors
of the breech-block and guide it during its motion through the
carrier-ring.

=The Latch-cover= (_i_) is a separate piece which covers the latch and
its spring, and is secured to the carrier-ring by two screws (_j_). On
removing this plate the latch and spring can be taken out.

=The Latch= (_f_ in Fig. 32) fits in a recess in the carrier-ring
on the right side. It is acted on by a spring (_b_, Fig. 33), which
pushes it constantly toward the axis of the carrier-ring. Its inner
end or stem (_a_) rests on the surface of one of the slotted sectors,
except at the end of its travel, when it drops into the corresponding
recess in the block. As long as its stem rests on the surface of the
sector its outer end or nose projects beyond the exterior surface of
the carrier-ring, and, entering a recess in the jacket, locks the
carrier-ring to the jacket. When the stem drops into its recesses, the
nose of the latch is withdrawn by the action of the spring and the
carrier-ring is unlocked. The front face of the latch has a recess
(_h_), into which fits a hardened stud (_s_) that is screwed into the
rear face of the jacket. This stud acting against the recess lifts the
latch out of its locking-recess in the breech-block, and holds it in a
position such that the stem can pass up the inclined groove. In order
that the stud may act on the latch, a hole (_g_) is drilled through the
front face of the carrier-ring for the stud to pass through.

  [Illustration: FIG. 33.]

The functions of the _latch-spring_ have already been explained.

The =Stop= (_c_, Fig. 32) enters the carrier-ring on the left
side between the lugs (_e_), and projects beyond the bore of the
carrier-ring, entering a groove in the breech-block which is cut for
it. This stop limits the travel of the block to the rear in withdrawing
it, and also limits its rotation.

The =Hinge-pin= enters the lugs (_e_) of the carrier-ring and a
corresponding lug on the jacket from below, and the carrier-ring swings
around it in opening. The bore is the diameter of the ring across
guide-sectors.

The exterior taper forms the surface of contact of carrier-ring with
jacket.

The lugs (_e_) are the bearings for the hinge-pin. The carrier-ring,
as its name indicates, carries the breech-block when the latter is
withdrawn, and by means of it the block may be swung round out of the
way for loading.

  [Illustration: THE DE BANGE OBTURATOR.

  FIG. 34.]

The principal parts are: the spindle (_a_); the front cup (_f_); the
rear cup (_f′_); the pad (_g_); the spring (_j_); the nut (_h_); the
spline-screw (_k_).

The spindle has a mushroom-shaped head (_b_), and a stem, which
extends through the breech-block and terminates in a screw-thread. The
breech-block is recessed correspondingly. In guns with axial vents,
the vent (_c_), 0.2 inch in diameter, passes through the axis of the
spindle, and the copper bushing (_d_) is inserted by pressure at the
front end.

The front and rear gas-check cups are of steel, and hold between them
a plastic pad made of certain proportions of asbestos and tallow and
covered with canvas (with disks of copper (_m_) on either side in the
revised model,) and a diagonally-split ring (_n_) of steel is used to
cut off the escape of gas.

A spiral spring (_j_) surrounds the stem of the obturator at the rear
of the block, and bears against a shoulder on the block and a nut (_h_)
on the screw-thread of the spindle. This spring, which acts to press
the spindle back, keeps the cups and pad in place, takes up any set of
the pad due to firing, and prevents the fracture of the screwed end of
the stem.

The spline-screw (_k_) holds the nut on the spindle in position and
prevents its unscrewing when the pad sticks in its seat after firing.

  [Illustration:THE FREYRE OBTURATOR.

  FIG. 35.]

The principal parts are (Fig. 35): the spindle (_a_); the gas-check
ring (_f_); the spring (_e_); the obturator-nut (_d_); the locking-nut
(_d′_), or the spline-screw.

The =Spindle= has a head (_g_) at the forward end, its surface being
plane and its sides conical, with the larger diameter of the cone in
front. The vent (_c_), 0.2 inch in diameter, passes through the axis of
the spindle, and the copper bushing (c) is inserted by pressure at the
front end.

The =Gas-check Ring= (_f_) is nearly triangular in section, coming
to a point at the front. It fits accurately on the conical surface of
the head of the spindle, and is slightly longer in the direction of the
axis of the bore than this head. Its rear surface rests against the
front surface of the block, while the rear surface of the head is not
in contact with this front surface, and can only be brought in contact
with it by a heavy pressure, which will expand the gas-check ring.

The =Spring= (_e_) acts against a shoulder in the block and a
corresponding shoulder on the obturator-spindle, and tends to press the
spindle forward.

=The Obturator-nut= (_d_) prevents the action of the spring from
forcing the spindle too far forward, and also regulates the tension of
the spring.

The spline-screw acts as in the de Bange system. This screw is used in
place of the locking-nut (_d′_) shown in figure.


                           THE LEVER-HANDLE.

                            (See Fig. 37.)

This handle (_h_) acts as a lever to rotate the block, its head acting
as a cam to withdraw the block and obturator when the latter sticks
after firing, and to lock the block in the carrier-ring and prevent
rotation during firing. It is supported in the lugs (_l_) of the
breech-block by a pin (_e_) and rotates with the pin; to which it is
secured by a screw entering vertically. The head of this pin has a
projection (_a_) which strikes against the corresponding stop on the
right lug and limits the motion of the lever-handle.


                          THE BRONZE-HANDLE.

                            (See Fig. 37.)

This handle (_g_) is attached to the breech-block by two screws. Its
purpose is to assist in withdrawing and pushing in the breech-block.

  [Illustration: THE VENT-COVER.

  FIG. 36.]

=For Axial Vent.=--A radial slot (_a_, Fig. 36) is made in the rear
part of the breech-block, in which slides a piece of metal (_b_) having
a pin (_c_) projecting from its forward face next the gun. This pin
fits into a groove (_d_) cut in the rear face of the carrier-ring,
which is eccentric at its lower end, so that when the block is placed
in firing position the slide is raised and the vent uncovered.

=For Radial Vent.=--This consists of a long arm, secured in position on
top of the gun so that it can slide. The under side at its rear end has
a slight projection, which engages over a shoulder on the lever-handle.
When the lever-handle is raised a shoulder on it bears against the end
of the arm, pushes it forward and covers the vent; when the block is
in firing position and the lever-handle is lowered the shoulder bears
against the projection and draws back the arm, thereby uncovering the
vent.

  [Illustration: ACTION OF THE BREECH MECHANISM.

  FIG. 37.]

Suppose the breech closed and the gun ready for firing. In this
position the threads of the breech-block are engaged in the threads of
the jacket (revised model) or base-ring (model '85); the gas-check is
in its seat; the lower end of the latch is at the end of the transverse
groove in the block; the nose of the latch is withdrawn from its recess
in the jacket, and the carrier-ring is unlocked; the lever-handle is
vertical, its cam in the recess in the carrier-ring, and its lower end
in the recess in the jacket.

=To Open the Breech.=--Grasp the lever-handle (_h_, Fig. 37)
with the left hand, thumb down, and raise it until it strikes the
stop, then rotate the block as far as possible to the left; lower the
lever-handle: its cam (_d_), acting against the surface (_r_) of the
carrier-ring, will withdraw the gas-check if it sticks in its seat.
This rotation of the block pushes the latch into its recess and locks
the carrier-ring to the jacket. Grasp the bronze-handle (_g_) with the
right hand, thumb to the right, and withdraw the block until it comes
up against the stop. In this position the stem of the latch drops into
the locking-recess, locking the block to the carrier-ring, and at the
same time unlocking the carrier-ring from the jacket; swing the block
and carrier-ring around to the left and insert the projectile and
charge.

=To Close the Breech.=--Seize the bronze-handle with the right hand,
thumb to the right, and swing the carrier-ring and block around until
the carrier-ring is in its seat, grasping the lever-handle with the
left hand, thumb down, at the same time, and raising the handle until
it strikes the stop. The carrier-ring should be brought up to its
seat sharply, but without slamming, and should be held firmly for an
instant, otherwise the ring may start back slightly from the jar and
the retracting-stud fail to hold the latch-pin high enough to allow the
block to move forward.

When the carrier-ring strikes its seat the retracting-stud enters the
hole in the front face of the ring, and, acting on the recess in the
latch, lifts the latch to its travelling position, that is, lifts it
out of the locking-recess and holds it in such a position that when the
block is pushed forward, the lower end of the latch will strike the
inclined surface at the front of the longitudinal groove.

Raise the lever-handle until it rests against the stop, and push the
block forward until it stops. During this travel the lower end of the
latch has moved up the inclined surface of the longitudinal groove and
has locked the carrier-ring to the jacket.

Revolve the block one sixth of a turn until it strikes the stop; lower
the lever-handle to its proper position, when everything will be in
the condition first described, the vent will be uncovered, and the gun
will be ready for firing.

When the block is revolved one sixth of a turn the lower end of the
latch gradually drops into its groove, unlocking the carrier-ring,
which remains so during firing.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISMOUNTING.

1. Raise the lever-handle and turn the breech-block to the left.

2. Take out hinge-pin screws and remove the hinge-pin.

3. Withdraw the breech-block with carrier-ring.

4. Take out the latch-cover screws and remove the latch-cover,
latch-spring, and latch.

5. Take out the stop-screw and remove the stop.

6. Take off the carrier-ring.


                         =De Bange Obturator.=

7. Remove the spline-screw and take off the nut.

8. Take out the spindle.

9. Take out the spring.

10. Take off the obturator cups and pad.


                          =Freyre Obturator.=

7. Remove the spline-screw and take off the nut.

8. Take out the spindle.

9. Take out the spring.

10. Take off the gas-check ring and face-plate.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSEMBLING.


                         =De Bange Obturator.=

1. Put the obturator cups and pad in place on spindle.

2. Put in the spring.

3. Put in the spindle.

4. Screw on the nut, and put in the spline-screw.


                          =Freyre Obturator.=

1. Put the gas-check ring and face-plate in place.

2. Put in the spring.

3. Put in the spindle.

4. Screw on the nut, and put in the spline-screw.

5. Put the carrier-ring on the breech-block.

6. Put in the stop and screw.

7. Put in the latch, the latch-spring; put on the latch-cover and
screws.

8. Insert the breech-block with carrier-ring into the gun.

9. Put in the hinge-pin and screws.

10. Lock the block.

Experiments are now being made with the view of introducing metallic
ammunition, and it is possible that a breech mechanism similar to the
Driggs-Schroeder or the Gerdom will be adopted. A general description
of each is therefore given, and also the proposed method of supplying
ammunition.


                THE DRIGGS-SCHROEDER BREECH MECHANISM.

  [Illustration: FIG. 37_a_.

  The cuts show the positions of the block when locked, when unlocked,
  and when revolved to the rear. ]

The breech-block (_b_), weighing 31 lbs., has bands (_c_) on top and
sides that fit in corresponding grooves in the jacket; these bands
have an inclination of 2½ degrees to the front and upward to secure
complete obturation and facilitate locking and unlocking.

There is a transverse hole (_i_) through the block for the main bolt
(_d_); it is lengthened in a nearly vertical direction so that the
first motion of the operating-handle causes, by the action of the
main cam (_e_), the block to descend and disengage the bands from the
grooves in the breech, after which the block rotates to the rear and
rests on the tray. Guide-bolts (_k_), screwed through each side of the
curtain, project into guide-grooves (_l_) cut in each side of the block
and confine its movement.

The main cam, firing-pin and spring, and sear and sear-spring are
contained in the block, the front face of which bears a heavy removable
plate (_a_).

The firing-pin has under its rear part full-cock and half-cock studs;
and the sear, actuated by its spring, presses up against it and engages
the studs in succession as the firing-pin is forced to the rear by
the action of the main cam against the lug on the under side of the
firing-pin. The point of this lug always rests in the circular groove
in the upper rear face of the main cam.

The extractors (_j_), one on either side, lie flat against the rear
face of the tube of the gun and in recesses in the front face of the
block. They revolve on pivots which work in recesses in the curtain.
The rear sides of the tails of the extractors and the lower front
corners of the breech-block form cam surfaces so arranged that when
the block _rotates_ to the rear the extractors extract and eject the
cartridge-case.

The spring lock on the handle prevents the main bolt and block from
moving, when the breech is closed, under stress other than that applied
directly to the handle.


                             TO DISMOUNT.

1. Back out the guide-bolts far enough to clear the guide-grooves. 2.
Half-cock. 3. Take off handle. 4. Tap the main bolt gently to start
it and withdraw it completely, supporting the block with the hand. 5.
Lower the block out of place, tilting it slightly to the rear so as to
clear the extractors.


       THE BREECH-BLOCK BEING OUT, TO TAKE THE MECHANISM APART.

1. Full-cock the firing-pin before removing the face-plate. 2. Remove
face-plate. 3. Ease firing-pin forward and remove finger-catch. 4. Take
out main cam, firing-pin, and spring. 5. Push sear-plug in a little,
turn it until the stud is fair for coming out, and remove it and the
sear and spring.


                      TO ASSEMBLE THE MECHANISM.

Proceed in the reverse order. Put in successively the firing-pin
spring, the firing-pin, and the main cam. The front side of this cam is
marked "out." The firing-pin must be full-cocked before putting on the
face-plate and then let down to half-cock. An arrow on the head of the
main bolt being brought in line with the arrow on the curtain indicates
the proper "square" for the hexagonal bearing in the cam.


                 GERDOM RAPID-FIRING BREECH MECHANISM.

The breech-block has two threaded and two plain sectors (each 90
degrees) with corresponding sectors in the breech of the gun, so that
the block is locked or unlocked by a quarter of a turn. The block
contains a firing-pin which, with its spring, is inserted from the
front end of the block, which is then closed by a threaded cap. The
centre hole in this cap permits the striking end of the pin to come
through to the front in certain positions of the block and to hit
the primer. The rear end of the block is countersunk to receive the
operating-lever, the locking-latch and its spring, the cocking-lever
and its hinge-pin, the trunnioned collar, the notched cap, and the sear
and its spring.

The extracting-device engages in front of the cartridge-head and grips
it for more than one eighth of its circumference. Its motion is guided
parallel to the axis of the piece by two cylindrical arms working in
slots cut in the breech. Swinging the carrier-ring around its pivot
causes the extracting-device first to act as a wedge to loosen the
cartridge-case, and then by a rapid motion the case is thrown out of
the gun, or far enough to the rear in the breech to be easily removed
by hand.

The operation of the mechanism of the gun is as follows:

The operating-lever is seized with the left hand, and a handle on the
right rear face of the carrier-ring with the right hand. The lever is
pulled slightly more than 90° to the left.

The first motion of the lever unlocks the cocking-latch; the remainder
of the motion rotates the block in the carrier-ring, disengaging the
screw-threads. During this motion of rotation the cocking-lever has
pulled back the firing-pin, which is held in position by an edge of
the sear engaging under a notch on the screw-cap.

The carrier-ring is then swung to the left by the handle in the right
hand.

The block moves to the left with the ring and passes partly through the
slot out of the breech and uncovers the bore.

The first motion of the ring loosens the cartridge-case, as before
described, and then ejects it. The new charge is then thrown in, no
care being taken to seat it; the ring swung to, and the block rotated
and locked.

As soon as the block is locked, pulling the sear fires the gun.


                           FIXED AMMUNITION.

Smokeless powder will be used, about 1¾ lbs. forming the charge.

The shell, cast iron, weighs 16 lbs. and also contains a
bursting-charge of 8 oz. of powder.

The shrapnel will be similar to the Frankford Arsenal shrapnel now
manufactured, but longer and heavier (16 lbs. 10 oz.), and will break
into about 240 pieces (balls and fragments).

The metallic case, brass or aluminum, has the projectile inserted in
it to the distance of 1.75 inches, the base of the projectile being
separated from the powder-charge by a felt wad. The total length of a
round is 18.33 inches.

Experiments with charges of Troisdorf powder from 1 lb. 8 oz. to 2 lbs.
1 oz. have given with the 3.2-inch gun velocities from 1765 to 2032
ft.-sec.

=Supplying Ammunition.=--It is proposed to have boxes that can be
readily opened and closed containing a certain number of rounds, about
ten for 3.2-inch gun, carried by the supply-train. When a battery
requires ammunition, the boxes will be taken from the ammunition-wagon,
opened and the chests filled. The empty metallic cases with the battery
are then placed in the boxes, which are securely closed, loaded on the
ammunition-wagon and returned to the depot by the officer in charge;
and are from there returned by the ordnance officer to the Frankford
Arsenal to be again filled and prepared for service. The cost of
supplying ammunition by this method will be less than it is now.



                              CHAPTER II.

        3.2-inch Guns. Sights. Ammunition. Fuzes. Range Table.


        3.2-INCH B. L. RIFLE, MODEL 1885 (MODIFIED). (Fig. 38.)

    Material                            steel
    Total length                        7.56 feet
    Calibre                             3.2 inches
    Weight                              829 pounds
    Grooves                             24
    Twist of rifling, uniform           1 turn in 30 calibres
    Axis of trunnions above ground      3.56 feet
    Powder-chamber                      ellipsoidal
    Vent                                radial
    Preponderance                       50 pounds
    Muzzle velocity                     1685 ft.-sec.
    Maximum range for shrapnel[4]       6613 yards

This gun consists of a tube (_a_), jacket (_b_), trunnion-ring (_c_),
sleeve (_d_), key-ring (_e_), locking-ring (_f_), base-ring (_g_), and
breech mechanism, De Bange obturator, vent-bushing of copper.


              3.2-INCH B. L. RIFLE, MODEL '90. (Fig. 39.)

    Material                          steel
    Total length                      7.31 feet
    Calibre                           3.2 inches
    Weight                            794 pounds
    Grooves                           24
    Twist of rifling, increasing      { 1 turn in 50 to
                                      { 1 turn in 25 calibres
    Axis of trunnions above ground      3.56 feet
    Powder-chamber                      cylindrical
    Vent                                axial
    Preponderance                       31 lbs.
    Muzzle velocity                     1685 ft.-sec.
    Maximum range for shrapnel          6613 yards
    Distance between sights             30.7 inches

This gun consists of tube (_g_), jacket (_h_), and breech mechanism, De
Bange obturator, vent-bushing of copper.

The jacket, trunnion-ring, base-ring, and sleeve, of the model of 1885,
form one piece, and the key-ring is omitted, as the tube and jacket
are locked firmly together by shoulders (_a_, _b_, _c_) in rear and
shoulders in front, with a projection on the tube that fits into a
corresponding recess in the jacket.

_d_ is the powder-chamber, _f_ the slope from no lands to maximum
lands, and _e_ the connecting slope for seat of rotary band.

The vent-cover is a pin working in a slot in the face of the
carrier-ring. (See Fig. 36.)


                                SIGHTS.

  [Illustration: FIG. 38.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 39.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 40.]

The =Front Sight= (Fig. 40) is attached to the right rim-base, and
consists of the base _a_, the standard _b_, and the cylinder _c_, all
formed in one piece. The cylinder _c_ is a bushing open at both
ends, the interior being formed of two conical frustums _c′_ joined
at their smaller bases and having at this junction cross-wires (+),
_d_, of platinum, which give the exact centre of the sight. In the new
sights the cross-wires of watch-spring are placed diagonally (X). The
cross-wires are used with the peep of the breech-sight, and the point e
on top is used with the open sight.

  [Illustration: FIG. 41.]

The =Breech-sight= (Fig. 41) consists of a tangent scale affixed to
a circular base revolving in a plane normal to the axis of the piece
to compensate for inclination of trunnions when on uneven ground. The
scale moves laterally on its base to correct for wind and drift, and
bears a spirit-level, _f_. Along the vertical limb, _C_, of the sight,
which is slotted, moves an eye-piece, _D_, actuated by a screw, _d_.
This eye-piece (bearing the peep-sight _d′_) extends on either side
of the slot, the lower edge being horizontal and bevelled. The one on
the right is graduated into ten equal parts. The vertical limb being
graduated into degrees (0 to 15°), and then sub-divided by diagonals
into sixths, a diagonal scale of equal parts reading to minutes is
obtained. The rear sights now being issued have range scales in
_yards_ for shell and shrapnel engraved upon the sight in addition to
the degree scale. The scale of yards for shrapnel on the rear face of
the sight, left side, is arranged with diagonal lines, to be read in
the same manner as the degree scale. Each diagonal embraces 250 yards
of range, and there are five divisions on the upper edge of the slide,
by which this space is sub-divided, so that the intervals of 50 yards
in range are read directly from the scale.

The scale of yards for shell, on the front face of the sight, is marked
for each 100 yards of range, and is read from an index line on the
slide.

The horizontal limb, or cross-bar, _e_, which is actuated by the
screws _e′e′_, is graduated into spaces, each of which corresponds
to a deviation equal to 1/345 of the range. (In future constructions
this division will correspond to 1/1000 of the range.) This variation
is tabulated in the range table under the heading "Deflection for one
division of the horizontal scale."

By means of a pivot, _B_, the sight proper is attached to the stem _A_,
the axis of rotation being at the zero of the scale. The stem tapers so
as to fit into the sight-socket fixed at the breech. A pin projecting
from the stem, and fitting in a recess in the socket, insures the sight
being properly placed on the gun.

The sight is first levelled and clamped by means of the clamp-screw _a_
before sighting. Vertical and horizontal changes for elevation, drift,
etc., are given by the thumb-screws _d_ and _e′e′_.


                           THE POINTING ARC.

                             (Fig. 41_a_.)

This instrument, now under consideration for use with field-artillery,
to replace wholly or in part the rear sight, is made principally of
bronze, and comprises the arc _a_, the slide _b_, and the level-piece
_c_.

The arc has two small seating plates, _d d_, secured to its base by
countersunk screws.

The slide is connected to the arc by a dovetail-joint, and moves over
it, the friction of a spring keeping the slide in any desired position.
The tension of this spring is adjusted by the two screws on the side of
the slide.

  [Illustration: FIG. 41_a_.]

The steel pin on the under surface of the slide moves in the groove
on the upper surface of the arc, and, by abutting against the steel
stop-pins _e_ at each end of the groove, prevents the slide from being
moved off the arc. The arc is graduated from 0 to 20 degrees, but
readings to 2 minutes are obtained by means of the vernier, _f_, at the
rear of the slide.

Plates, graduated in yards for shell or shrapnel, are on either side of
the arc. They are removable, being graduated for the piece with which
the arc is used.

The zero index-marks on the sides of the slide are supplemented by two
others equidistant, plus 2 degrees and minus 2 degrees. Any one of the
three may be used in setting the slide to a desired range in yards.

The top of the slide has a scale, graduated 3 degrees on either side of
the zero, with sub-divisions of 6 minutes; the markings plus and minus
are the reverse of those on the side of the slide. The vernier, _g_, on
the level-piece permits of a least reading of 2 minutes being obtained.
Motion is given the level-piece by the deflection-screw _h_.

To set the pointing arc, make the zero of the level-piece coincide with
the zero of the slide-scale, and then take the required elevation in
yards on the side desired. Should the piece and object fired at be on
different levels, and the angle known, the index of the level is moved
to indicate this angle--to the plus side if an elevation, and to the
minus side if a depression; then take the elevation in yards as before.

The correction is made in this way for 3 degrees or less, but for
angles above 3, up to 5 degrees, the 2-degree marks on the side of the
slide must be used, the index mark of the level being moved to coincide
with the mark corresponding to the number of degrees--elevation or
depression--less 2 degrees. The plus 2-degree mark is used as an index
when the object has an elevation, and the minus 2-degree mark when a
depression.

To obtain the angle corresponding to difference of level, sight the
piece on the object by the ordinary sight, using any elevation; set
the pointing arc at this elevation, and move the level-piece by the
deflecting-screw until the air-bubble is centred. The index of the
level-piece then points to the desired angle--plus if an elevation, and
minus if a depression.

If the wheels of the carriage be not on the same level the gun will
shoot towards the lower wheel. A correction for this is made by a
deflection-scale.

The correction for deflection due to inclination of trunnions,
_expressed in units of the deflection-scale_, is, at any range, equal
to the product of the angle of elevation and the angle of inclination
of the trunnions, both expressed in degrees, into a constant
multiplier. When the divisions of the deflection scale are 1/500 of
the distance between the sights this multiplier is 0.1523; when the
divisions are 1/1000 it is 0.3046. The rear sight must be moved towards
the higher wheel.


                     AMMUNITION FOR 3.2-INCH GUN.

The ordinary friction-primer is used for radial vents; for axial vents
an attachment is made to the friction-primer of a thin brass wire about
18 inches long, looped or coiled for convenience, and having one end
fastened in the loop of the friction-wire, and the other around the
head of the body of the friction-primer.

The cartridge-bag is used, but experiments are now being made with
metallic cases. (This proposed metallic ammunition for 3.2-inch guns
comprises a projectile weighing 16½ pounds, with a suitable charge
of smokeless powder to give an initial velocity of 1450 ft.-sec.)

    Charge of powder               { 3¾ pounds  I. K.
                                   { 3½   "    sphero-hex.
    Weight of projectile filled    13½    "
    Bursting-charge of shell       7 ounces
    Bursting-charge of shrapnel    3   "

Shell, shrapnel, and canister are used.

=Shell.=--The base-percussion-fuze shell (Fig. 42) is made of cast
iron in one piece, having a band of soft brass or copper forced into a
recess on the outside, ⅝ of an inch from the base. The body and half of
the head are painted black; the half of the head nearest the point is
painted vermilion.

=Canister.=--The canister (Fig. 43) consists of a hollow cylinder of
malleable iron, with one end closed by a cast head. The case is filled
with from 222 to 226 balls, and a metal cover is inserted. Around the
case are several slits, their ends overlapping to secure the thorough
breaking up of the case on discharge.

  [Illustration: FIG. 42.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 43.]

There are several small holes in the head, through which a portion of
the gas of the exploded powder-charge enters, drives forward the balls,
and assists in disrupting the case.

Total weight of a round, 11 lbs. 10 oz.

This projectile is painted black.

  [Illustration: FIG. 44.]

=Shrapnel.=--The Frankford Arsenal shrapnel (Fig. 44) weighs 13-10/16
lbs. Exclusive of filling it consists of three parts, viz., head (_d_),
body (_a_), and base (_b_). The head is made of cast iron, bored and
threaded to receive the fuze, and contains a powder-chamber which is
lacquered to prevent danger of premature ignition by friction. The
body is made of lap-welded wrought-iron or low-steel tubing, and is
weakened for fracture by circular and longitudinal grooves on the
inside. It contains 162 hardened lead balls, ½ inch in diameter, which
are assembled in circular layers and held in position by cast-iron
separators, which increase the effect of explosion by furnishing
additional fragments. The base is made of cast iron threaded to screw
into the cylindrical case, and is so formed as to provide a support
for the copper band to prevent deformation of the case at this point
from shock of discharge, _c_ is the rotating band. This projectile is
painted, body black, head vermilion.

    Total weight, ready for firing                   13 lbs. 10 oz.
    Total number of balls and individual pieces      201
    Bursting-charge                                  3 ounces


               SHRAPNEL MADE BY AMERICAN PROJECTILE CO.

                              (Fig. 45.)

  [Illustration: FIG. 45.]

The entire case is of wrought steel electrically welded together so
as to form a complete hardened wrought-steel case without joint. The
powder-chamber is formed in the base by a hard wrought-steel diaphragm
(_d_) supported by a cast-iron spider, and connected through the centre
of the shell (axially) to the fuze-opening by a cast-iron tube. It is
smooth-finished, and either tinned or lacquered. The shell contains
170 bullets (34 to the pound) packed in circular layers, and they are
held firmly in position by a resin matrix. The bullets are introduced
through a hole at _c_.

The exterior is painted as follows: body from the band forward, to
include three fifths of head, black; remaining part of head, and part
of body in rear of band, vermilion. The band is of copper.

    Total weight of projectile complete              13½ pounds
    Total number of balls and individual pieces      228
    Weight of bursting-charge                        3 ounces

The Frankford Arsenal combination fuze is used. This fuze weighs
17½ ounces; but if made of aluminum it will weigh only 7¾ oz. For
field-artillery guns it is graduated from 1 to 15 seconds, the
graduations being based upon the time of burning in flight. Each entire
second is marked by a through-hole in the cone-cover, and each of these
spaces is sub-divided into six equal spaces by holes nearly through
the cover, which for the 3.2-inch gun will correspond to the following
distances, viz.: 70 yards at 1000 yards range; 55 yards at 2000 yards
range; 48 yards at 3000 yards range; 42 yards at 4000 yards range.

The following table gives the mean of five shots in each group:

    Seconds.      Range.
     2          883 yards
     3          1401  "
     5          1966  "
     6          2433  "
     8          3037  "
     9          3461  "
    12          4225  "


THE FRANKFORD ARSENAL COMBINATION FUZE, 15 SECONDS, MODEL 1894, FOR
SHRAPNEL OF FIELD-GUNS.

This is a time and percussion fuze (Fig. 46). It weighs 17½ oz. The
time element is contained in the front part of the bronze body (_a_) of
the fuze, and the percussion element in the rear part. The time-plunger
(_b_) has five lugs (_k_) which hold the plunger in position above
the firmly fixed steel firing-pin (_c_) after the safety-pin has
been withdrawn; these lugs are broken by the shock of discharge. The
safety-pin (_j_) passes through a hole in the upper part of the
plunger, and it and the lugs are protected by the brass cap which is
pierced to allow the insertion of the safety-pin.

  [Illustration: FIG. 46.]

By this arrangement the plunger and its lugs are entirely protected
from any blow that may be received on the nose of the fuze. The priming
composition is contained in the base of the plunger (at _i_), and is
protected by a disk of tinfoil.

The compressed powder-ring (_q_) is held in a groove in the body of the
fuze by a brass ring, and four holes (_p_) permit the flame from the
composition (_i_) to ignite it.

The cone (_d_), made of an alloy, is held in place by a brass
clamping-nut (_h_) and two brass pins (_l_). A lip (_m_) on the base
of the cone fits into a corresponding groove in the fuze-body and
prevents the premature ignition of the powder (_o_) in the fuze-chamber.

A groove in the cone contains the time-train (_e_), which communicates
through a brass tube (_n_) with the powder in the fuze-chamber (_o_).

The brass cone-cover (_f_) is pierced with holes numbered from 1 to 15.
The holes lie immediately over the time-train and correspond to seconds
of graduation. The spaces between consecutive holes are sub-divided
into six parts, and countersunk at the points of division so that the
fuze may be cut to sixths of a second of burning.

A brass pin projects from the body of the fuze and fits into a slot in
the cone-cover; it fixes the latter in position and, together with the
brass cup on top, also serves to hold the cover in place.

The flame from the powder in the fuze-chamber communicates with the
bursting-charge of the shell through the grooved surfaces of the
primer, plunger-sleeve, and bottom closing-screw.

The opening into the fuze-chamber through which the charge is put
is closed by the screw. A conical hole in the fuze-body immediately
opposite this screw permits the insertion of a steel pin for the
purpose of screwing the fuze into the shell.

The percussion element consists of a brass primer (_t_) having three
vents through which the flame may pass from the composition to the
powder in the fuze-chamber.

On the side towards the firing-pin the composition is covered first
with a tinfoil cup and then with a copper restraining-disk, which is
separated from it .04 of an inch both for safety and to prevent the
firing-pin pressing against the composition during flight. On its
opposite side the primer is covered with a tinfoil ring and a paper
disk.

The bottom of the fuze is covered first by a paper and then by a
tinfoil disk.

The primer, plunger-sleeve, and bottom closing-screw have their sides
grooved longitudinally (_r_, _r_, _r_) to allow the flame from the
powder in the fuze-chamber to pass to the bursting-charge of the
projectile. With the exception of this difference in the plunger-sleeve
the plunger is the same as the one in the Frankford Arsenal base
percussion-fuze "C," model 1894.


                         TO USE THE TIME-FUZE.

Pierce the time-train cone at right angles to the axis and through the
division in the cover corresponding to the desired number of seconds.
Then remove the safety-pin before inserting the projectile in the bore
of the piece.

A fuze-cutter is issued by the Ordnance Department for use with the
fuze.


    THE FRANKFORD ARSENAL BASE PERCUSSION-FUZE "C," MODEL 1894, FOR
                           FIELD-GUN SHELL.

  [Illustration: FIG. 47.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 48.]

This fuze weighs 4.88 ounces and consists of a brass body (_a_) which
contains the complete plunger. The head of the body is closed by a
brass cap-screw (_b_) which contains a brass primer (_d_) that is
filled with the composition (_m_); and the cap-screw is closed by
a brass closing-screw (_c_). _c_ and _d_ have holes through them,
as indicated, for the passage of the flame from the primer to the
bursting-charge of the projectile. The head is covered by disks of
paper and tinfoil.

The face of the composition (_m_) nearest the plunger is covered by a
disk of tinfoil (_e_) and a copper restraining-disk (_f_).

=The Plunger= consists of a steel firing-pin (_i_), firmly fixed in a
brass igniter plunger-spindle (_h_), and this spindle fits in a brass
igniter plunger-sleeve (_g_) which has a groove (_t′_) on its lower
interior surface. A split brass safety-ring (_i_), which holds the
igniter plunger-sleeve in the safety position, is slipped over the
lower end of the spindle, and then the spindle-sleeve, containing two
grooves (_s_ and _t_), is slipped on and firmly secured by spreading
the lower end of the spindle.

The inclination of the groove (_s_) determines the resistance of the
safety-ring, which, in this fuze, has the minimum and maximum limits of
142 and 160 lbs. respectively. (It was formerly 15 lbs.)

When the piece is discharged the plunger-sleeve overcomes the
resistance of the safety-ring and carries it to the rear; the diameter
of the ring is slightly increased during its passage along the spindle,
and when in the proper position for so doing it fits partly in both
grooves (_t_ and _t′_), binding sleeve and spindle firmly together.
The point of the firing-pin now projects beyond the plunger-sleeve
and the fuze is armed. When the projectile strikes, the complete
plunger is thrown forward, the point of the firing-pin pierces the
restraining-disk and ignites the composition.

Fig. 47 shows the position of the parts before the piece is discharged,
and Fig. 48 during the flight of the projectile.


RANGE TABLE FOR 3.2 INCH B. L. RIFLE.

Shrapnel, 13.5 pounds. Muzzle velocity, 1685 ft.-sec.

    ------+-----------------+----------------------+--------
    Range.| Sight Elevation.|     Variations.      |Time of
          +---------+-------+----------+-----------+Flight.
          |  Angle. |Differs|  Range,  |Deflection,|
          |         | from  | 1 minute |1 division |
          |         | Shell.|elevation.|hor. scale.|
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+--------
    yards.|deg.|min.|  min. |   yards. |    feet.  |seconds.
     500  |  0 | 13 |    1  |     14   |     4.4   |   .97
     600  |  0 | 20 |    1  |     13   |     5.2   |  1.18
     700  |  0 | 27 |    1  |     12   |     6.1   |  1.40
     800  |  0 | 35 |    1  |     12   |     7.0   |  1.63
     900  |  0 | 43 |    1  |     12   |     7.8   |  1.87
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+---------
    1000  |  0 | 52 |    1  |     11   |     8.7   |  2.11
    1100  |  1 |  2 |    2  |     11   |     9.6   |  2.36
    1200  |  1 | 12 |    3  |     11   |    10.4   |  2.62
    1300  |  1 | 22 |    3  |     10   |    11.3   |  2.89
    1400  |  1 | 33 |    5  |     10   |    12.2   |  3.16
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+---------
    1500  |  1 | 44 |    6  |      9   |    13.0   |  3.44
    1600  |  1 | 55 |    6  |      9   |    13.9   |  3.73
    1700  |  2 |  7 |    7  |      9   |    14.8   |  4.02
    1800  |  2 | 19 |    8  |      8   |    15.7   |  4.32
    1900  |  2 | 32 |    9  |      8   |    16.5   |  4.62
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+---------
    2000  |  2 | 45 |   10  |      7   |    17.4   |  4.93
    2100  |  2 | 59 |   11  |      7   |    18.3   |  5.25
    2200  |  3 | 13 |   11  |      7   |    19.1   |  5.57
    2300  |  3 | 28 |   12  |      7   |    20.0   |  5.90
    2400  |  3 | 43 |   13  |      7   |    20.9   |  6.23
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+---------
    2500  |  3 | 58 |   14  |      6   |    21.7   |  6.56
    2600  |  4 | 14 |   16  |      6   |    22.6   |  6.90
    2700  |  4 | 29 |   17  |      6   |    23.5   |  7.24
    2800  |  4 | 44 |   17  |      6   |    24.4   |  7.58
    2900  |  5 |  1 |   19  |      6   |    25.2   |  7.92
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+---------
    3000  |  5 | 18 |   20  |      6   |    26.1   |  8.26
    3100  |  5 | 35 |   21  |      6   |    27.0   |  8.61
    3200  |  5 | 52 |   22  |      6   |    27.8   |  8.96
    3300  |  6 |  9 |   23  |      5   |    28.7   |  9.32
    3400  |  6 | 28 |   25  |      5   |    29.6   |  9.68
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+---------
    3500  |  6 | 47 |   26  |      5   |    30.5   | 10.04
    3600  |  7 |  6 |   27  |      5   |    31.3   | 10.41
    3700  |  7 | 25 |   28  |      5   |    32.2   | 10.78
    3800  |  7 | 45 |   30  |      5   |    33.1   | 11.16
    3900  |  8 |  5 |   32  |      5   |    33.9   | 11.54
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+---------
    4000  |  8 | 25 |   33  |      5   |    34.8   | 11.92
    4100  |  8 | 44 |   33  |      5   |    35.7   | 12.30
    4200  |  9 |  3 |   33  |      5   |    36.5   | 12.68
    4300  |  9 | 24 |   34  |      5   |    37.4   | 13.06
    4400  |  9 | 44 |   34  |      5   |    38.3   | 13.45
    4500  | 10 |  5 |   34  |      5   |    39.2   | 13.84
    ------+----+----+-------+----------+-----------+---------

    [Part 2 of Table]
    ------+------------------------+---------+----------------------+---------
    Range.|        Fuze Scale.     |Change   |        Fall.         |Terminal
          |--------------+---------+in Height+---------+------------+Velocity.
          |Divisions at  |Variation|of Burst,|         |            |
          |which to cut  |in range.|1 minute |         |Inclination,|
          |time-fuze.[A] |1 subdiv.|elevation| Angle.  |1 yard in-- |
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+---------
    yards.|units.|sixths.|  yards. |   feet. |deg.|min.|    yards.  | f. s.
     500  |   0  |   4   |   80    |    .4   |  0 | 37 |      93    | 1426
     600  |   1  |   0   |   78    |         |  0 | 46 |      75    | 1380
     700  |   1  |   1   |   75    |         |  0 | 56 |      61    | 1335
     800  |   1  |   3   |   73    |         |  1 |  6 |      52    | 1292
     900  |   1  |   4   |   71    |         |  1 | 19 |      44    | 1251
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+---------
    1000  |   2  |   0   |   67    |    .9   |  1 | 32 |      37    | 1212
    1100  |   2  |   1   |   67    |         |  1 | 45 |      33    | 1176
    1200  |   2  |   3   |   67    |         |  2 |  1 |      28.5  | 1142
    1300  |   2  |   5   |   62    |         |  2 | 17 |      25    | 1110
    1400  |   3  |   0   |   62    |         |  2 | 34 |      22.5  | 1082
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+---------
    1500  |   3  |   2   |   58    |   1.3   |  2 | 52 |      20    | 1056
    1600  |   3  |   4   |   58    |         |  3 | 11 |      18    | 1034
    1700  |   3  |   5   |   58    |         |  3 | 30 |      16.5  | 1014
    1800  |   4  |   1   |   55    |         |  3 | 50 |      15    |  995
    1900  |   4  |   3   |   55    |         |  4 | 12 |      13.5  |  978
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+---------
    2000  |   4  |   5   |   52    |   1.7   |  4 | 34 |      12.5  |  962
    2100  |   5  |   1   |   52    |         |  4 | 57 |      11.5  |  946
    2200  |   5  |   2   |   52    |         |  5 | 21 |      10.5  |  920
    2300  |   5  |   4   |   50    |         |  5 | 45 |      10    |  915
    2400  |   6  |   0   |   50    |         |  6 | 11 |       9    |  901
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+---------
    2500  |  6   |   2   |   49    |   2.2   |  6 | 38 |       8.5  |  887
    2600  |  6   |   4   |   49    |         |  7 |  5 |       8    |  874
    2700  |  7   |   0   |   49    |         |  7 | 34 |       7.5  |  862
    2800  |  7   |   2   |   49    |         |  8 |  4 |       7    |  850
    2900  |  7   |   4   |   49    |         |  8 | 35 |       6.5  |  839
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+----------
    3000  |  8   |   1   |   48    |   2.6   |  9 |  7 |       6    |  829
    3100  |  8   |   3   |   48    |         |  9 | 39 |       6    |  819
    3200  |  8   |   5   |   48    |         | 10 | 12 |       5.5  |  810
    3300  |  9   |   1   |   47    |         | 10 | 46 |       5.5  |  801
    3400  |  9   |   3   |   47    |         | 11 | 21 |       5    |  792
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+----------
    3500  |  9   |   5   |   45    |   3.0   | 11 | 56 |       4.5  |  783
    3600  | 10   |   1   |   45    |         | 12 | 32 |       4.5  |  775
    3700  | 10   |   4   |   45    |         | 13 |  9 |       4.5  |  767
    3800  | 11   |   0   |   44    |         | 13 | 48 |       4    |  759
    3900  | 11   |   2   |   44    |         | 14 | 28 |       4    |  751
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+-----------
    4000  | 11   |   5   |   44    |   3.5   | 15 |  8 |       3.5  |  744
    4100  | 12   |   1   |   44    |         | 15 | 49 |       3.5  |  737
    4200  | 12   |   3   |   44    |         | 16 | 31 |       3.5  |  730
    4300  | 12   |   5   |   43    |         | 17 | 14 |       3    |  723
    4400  | 13   |   2   |   43    |         | 17 | 58 |       3    |  717
    4500  | 18   |   4   |   43    |   3.9   | 18 | 43 |       3    |  711
    ------+------+-------+---------+---------+----+----+------------+-----------


                 RANGE TABLE FOR 3.2-INCH B. L. RIFLE.

           Shell, 13.5 pounds. Jump: 20′ at 1°. 30′ at 10°.
                    Muzzle velocity, 1685 ft.-sec.

    ------+-----------------+----------------------+-----------+
          |                 |      Variations.     |           |
    Range.|Site Elevation   +----------------------+  Time of  +
          |                 |Range,    |Deflection,|  Flight.  |
          |                 |1 minute  |1 division |           |
          |                 |elevation.|hor. scale.|           |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+
    yards.|degrees.|minutes.|  yards.  |   feet.   |  seconds. |
      500 |   0    |   12   |    14    |    4.4    |   0.96    |
      600 |   0    |   19   |    13    |    5.2    |   1.17    |
      700 |   0    |   26   |    12    |    6.1    |   1.39    |
      800 |   0    |   34   |    12    |    7.0    |   1.61    |
      900 |   0    |   42   |    12    |    7.8    |   1.84    |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+
     1000 |   0    |   51   |    11    |    8.7    |   2.07    |
     1100 |   1    |   --   |    11    |    9.6    |   2.32    |
     1200 |   1    |    9   |    11    |   10.4    |   2.57    |
     1300 |   1    |   18   |    10    |   11.3    |   2.82    |
     1400 |   1    |   28   |    10    |   12.2    |   3.09    |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+
     1500 |   1    |   38   |    10    |   13.0    |   3.36    |
     1600 |   1    |   49   |    10    |   13.9    |   3.64    |
     1700 |   2    |   --   |     9    |   14.8    |   3.92    |
     1800 |   2    |   11   |     9    |   15.7    |   4.21    |
     1900 |   2    |   23   |     9    |   16.5    |   4.50    |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+
     2000 |   2    |   35   |     8    |   17.4    |   4.80    |
     2100 |   2    |   48   |     8    |   18.3    |   5.10    |
     2200 |   3    |    2   |     8    |   19.1    |   5.41    |
     2300 |   3    |   16   |     7    |   20.0    |   5.72    |
     2400 |   3    |   30   |     7    |   20.9    |   6.04    |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+
     2500 |   3    |   44   |     7    |   21.7    |   6.36    |
     2600 |   3    |   58   |     7    |   22.6    |   6.69    |
     2700 |   4    |   12   |     7    |   23.5    |   7.02    |
     2800 |   4    |   27   |     7    |   24.4    |   7.35    |
     2900 |   4    |   42   |     7    |   25.2    |   7.68    |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+
     3000 |   4    |   58   |     6    |   26.1    |   8.01    |
     3100 |   5    |   14   |     6    |   27.0    |   8.35    |
     3200 |   5    |   30   |     6    |   27.8    |   8.69    |
     3300 |   5    |   46   |     6    |   28.7    |   9.03    |
     3400 |   6    |    3   |     6    |   29.6    |   9.37    |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+
     3500 |   6    |   21   |     6    |   30.5    |   9.71    |
     3600 |   6    |   39   |     6    |   31.3    |  10.06    |
     3700 |   6    |   57   |     6    |   32.2    |  10.41    |
     3800 |   7    |   15   |     5    |   33.1    |  10.77    |
     3900 |   7    |   33   |     5    |   33.9    |  11.13    |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+
     4000 |   7    |   52   |     5    |   34.8    |  11.50    |
     4100 |   8    |   11   |     5    |   35.7    |  11.87    |
     4200 |   8    |   30   |     5    |   36.5    |  12.25    |
     4300 |   8    |   50   |     5    |   37.4    |  12.63    |
     4400 |   9    |   10   |     5    |   38.3    |  13.02    |
     4500 |   9    |   31   |     5    |   39.2    |  13.42    |
    ------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+-----------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ------+-------------+-----------+---------
          |            Fall.        |
          |-------------+-----------+---------
    Range.|    Angle.   |Inclination|Terminal
          |             |1 yard in--|Velocity.
          |             |           |
    ------+-------------+-----------+---------
    yards.| deg. | min. |   yards.  | f. s.
      500 |  0   |  36  |     95    | 1450
      600 |  0   |  45  |     76    | 1408
      700 |  0   |  54  |     64    | 1366
      800 |  1   |   5  |     53    | 1326
      900 |  1   |  16  |     45    | 1287
    ------+------+------+-----------+---------
     1000 |  1   |  28  |     39    | 1250
     1100 |  1   |  41  |     34    | 1215
     1200 |  1   |  55  |     30    | 1182
     1300 |  2   |   9  |     27    | 1151
     1400 |  2   |  25  |     24    | 1121
    ------+------+------+-----------+---------
     1500 |  2   |  41  |     21    | 1094
     1600 |  2   |  59  |     19    | 1070
     1700 |  3   |  17  |     17    | 1048
     1800 |  3   |  36  |     16    | 1029
     1900 |  3   |  56  |     15    | 1011
    ------+------+------+-----------+---------
     2000 |  4   |  17  |     13    |  994
     2100 |  4   |  38  |     12    |  979
     2200 |  5   |  --  |     11    |  964
     2300 |  5   |  23  |     11    |  949
     2400 |  5   |  47  |     10    |  935
    ------+------+------+-----------+---------
     2500 |  6   |  11  |      9    |  923
     2600 |  6   |  37  |      9    |  912
     2700 |  7   |   3  |      8    |  901
     2800 |  7   |  30  |      8    |  891
     2900 |  7   |  58  |      7    |  881
    ------+------+------+-----------+---------
     3000 |  8   |  27  |      7    |  871
     3100 |  8   |  56  |      6    |  861
     3200 |  9   |  26  |      6    |  851
     3300 |  9   |  57  |      6    |  841
     3400 | 10   |  29  |      5    |  832
    ------+------+------+-----------+---------
     3500 | 11   |   1  |      5    |  823
     3600 | 11   |  34  |      5    |  814
     3700 | 12   |   8  |      5    |  806
     3800 | 12   |  43  |      4    |  798
     3900 | 13   |  18  |      4    |  790
    ------+------+------+-----------+---------
     4000 | 13   |  54  |      4    |  782
     4100 | 14   |  31  |      4    |  774
     4200 | 15   |   9  |      4    |  766
     4300 | 15   |  47  |      4    |  758
     4400 | 16   |  26  |      3    |  750
     4500 | 17   |   5  |      3    |  743
    ------+------+------+-----------+---------



                             CHAPTER III.

 3.6-inch Rifle, etc. 3.6-inch Mortar, etc. Weights and Dimensions of
                          Foreign Artillery.


             3.6.-INCH B. L. RIFLE, MODEL 1891 (REVISED).

    Material                            steel
    Total length                        7.79 feet
    Calibre                             3.6 inches
    Weight                              1181 pounds
    Grooves                             26
    Twist of rifling                    { 1 turn in 50 to
                                        { 1 turn in 25 calibers
    Axis of trunnions above ground      3.56 feet
    Powder-chamber                      cylindrical
    Vent                                axial
    Preponderance                       31 pounds
    Muzzle velocity                     1550 ft.-sec.
    Maximum range for shrapnel          7420 yards

  [Illustration: FIG. 49.]

This gun is similar in construction to the 3.2-inch (revised November
11, 1892).

NOMENCLATURE.--_ab_, locking-shoulder and recess; _c_, conical
gas-check seat; _d_, cylindrical powder-chamber; _e_, connecting slope
for seat of rotary band; _f_, slope from no lands to maximum lands.


                                SIGHTS.

Similar to those of 3.2-inch gun.


                         AMMUNITION AND FUZES.

The ammunition differs only in weight and dimensions from that
described for the 3.2-inch gun. Fuzes are the same.

    Powder-charge                       4.1875 pounds U. F. sphero-hex.
    Weight of shell, filled             20 pounds
    Bursting-charge, shell              14½ ounces
    Weight of shrapnel, complete        20 pounds
    Bursting-charge, shrapnel           4 ounces
    Total number of balls               218
    Total number of individual pieces   280


    CARRIAGES, LIMBERS, CAISSONS, COMBINED BATTERY-WAGON AND FORGE,
                           ARTILLERY-WAGON.

The carriage for this gun weighs 1300 pounds. The first 25 carriages
were made with the double-screw elevating device, and the second 25
with the first form of lazy-tongs, and were intended for the 3.2-inch
gun. They have been changed for 3.6-inch guns by cutting out the
upper-front transom under the trunnion beds leaving only enough metal
on each side to hold the eyebolts of the forked radial bar for the
elevating device, and cap squares with eyebolts have been substituted
for the old cap squares with chin and eyebolts. The double-screw
elevating device on the 25 carriages now having them are retained; but
all others will have a form of lazy-tongs, operated by bevel gears and
a crank handle at the side, like that of the double screw; otherwise
the carriage is similar to that of the 3.2-inch gun already described.
The limber-chests will probably be fitted for 36 rounds of ammunition;
which is the only difference between limbers, caissons, etc., used with
3.2-inch and 3.6-inch guns.


                             HARNESS, ETC.

See page 150 _et seq._


                         3.6-INCH B. L. RIFLE.

    Shrapnel, 20 lbs. Muzzle velocity, 1550 ft.-sec. _c_=1.03. Log
                              _C_=.17559.

    ------+--------------------------+----------+-----------+--------
          |         Elevation.       |          |           |
    ------+-----------------+--------+          |           |
    Range.|      Angle.     |Differs |  Range,  |Deflection,| Time
          |                 | from   | 1 Minute |1 Division |  of
          |                 |Shell.  |Elevation.|Horizontal |Flight.
          |                 |        |  Scale.  |           |
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------
    Yards.|Degrees.|Minutes.|Minutes.|  Yards.  |    Feet.  |Seconds.
      500 |        |  18    |   0    |    12    |     4.4   |  1.04
      600 |        |  26    |   0    |    12    |     5.2   |  1.27
      700 |        |  34    |   1    |    11    |     6.1   |  1.50
      800 |        |  44    |   1    |    10    |     7.0   |  1.74
      900 |        |  54    |   2    |    10    |     7.8   |  1.98
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------
     1000 |   1    |  04    |   3    |    10    |     8.7   |  2.24
     1100 |   1    |  14    |   3    |     9    |     9.6   |  2.50
     1200 |   1    |  24    |   2    |     9    |    10.4   |  2.76
     1300 |   1    |  34    |   2    |     8    |    11.3   |  3.03
     1400 |   1    |  46    |   3    |     8    |    12.2   |  3.31
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------
     1500 |   1    |  58    |   4    |     8    |    13.0   |  3.60
     1600 |   2    |  10    |   4    |     8    |    13.9   |  3.88
     1700 |   2    |  22    |   4    |     8    |    14.8   |  4.17
     1800 |   2    |  36    |   7    |     7    |    15.7   |  4.45
     1900 |   2    |  49    |   7    |     7    |    16.5   |  4.76
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------
     2000 |   3    |  03    |   8    |     7    |    17.4   |  5.06
     2100 |   3    |  16    |   9    |     7    |    18.3   |  5.38
     2200 |   3    |  31    |  10    |     7    |    19.1   |  5.69
     2300 |   3    |  46    |  10    |     7    |    20.0   |  6.00
     2400 |   4    |  01    |  10    |     7    |    20.9   |  6.31
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------
     2500 |   4    |  16    |  11    |     6    |    21.7   |  6.63
     2600 |   4    |  32    |  12    |     6    |    22.6   |  6.96
     2700 |   4    |  49    |  13    |     6    |    23.5   |  7.28
     2800 |   5    |  06    |  14    |     6    |    24.4   |  7.61
     2900 |   5    |  24    |  16    |     6    |    25.2   |  7.95
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------
     3000 |   5    |  41    |  16    |     6    |    26.1   |  8.28
     3100 |   5    |  59    |  17    |     6    |    27.0   |  8.62
     3200 |   6    |  18    |  19    |     5    |    27.8   |  8.97
     3300 |   6    |  37    |  20    |     5    |    28.7   |  9.31
     3400 |   6    |  56    |  21    |     5    |    29.6   |  9.64
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------
     3500 |   7    |  16    |  22    |     5    |    30.5   |  9.98
     3600 |   7    |  37    |  24    |     5    |    31.3   | 10.31
     3700 |   7    |  58    |  26    |     5    |    32.2   | 10.69
     3800 |   8    |  19    |  27    |     5    |    33.1   | 11.04
     3900 |   8    |  41    |  28    |     4    |    33.9   | 11.35
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------
     4000 |   9    |  02    |  29    |     4    |    34.8   | 11.70
     4100 |   9    |  24    |  30    |     4    |    35.7   | 12.08
     4200 |   9    |  46    |  32    |     4    |    36.5   | 12 42
     4300 |  10    |  10    |  34    |     4    |    37.4   | 12.81
     4400 |  10    |  33    |  37    |     4    |    38.3   | 13.16
     4500 |  10    |  58    |  41    |     4    |    39.2   | 13.57
    ------+--------+--------+--------+----------+-----------+--------

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ------+-------------------------+----------+------------------------------+---------
          |           Fuze-scale.   | Change   |               Fall.          |
    ------+--------------+----------+in Height +-----------------+------------+Terminal
    Range.|              |Variations|of Burst, |      Angle.     |Inclination,|Velocity.
          |              |in Range, |1 Minute  |                 |1 Yard in-  |
          |   Divisions. |1 Sub-div.|Elevation.|                 |            |
          |              |          |          |                 |            |
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------
    Yards.|Units.|Sixths.|  Yards.  |   Feet.  |Degrees.|Minutes.|   Yards.   | Ft.-sec.
      500 |  1   |   5   |    75    |    .4    |        |   42   |     82     |  1345
      600 |  1   |   1   |    73    |          |        |   52   |     66     |  1307
      700 |  1   |   2   |    71    |          |    1   |   03   |     55     |  1270
      800 |  1   |   4   |    68    |          |    1   |   15   |     46     |  1236
      900 |  1   |   5   |    67    |          |    1   |   28   |     39     |  1204
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------
     1000 |  2   |   0   |    65    |    .9    |    1   |   41   |     34     |  1173
     1100 |  2   |   2   |    64    |          |    1   |   56   |     30     |  1144
     1200 |  2   |   4   |    62    |          |    2   |   11   |     26     |  1117
     1300 |  2   |   5   |    60    |          |    2   |   27   |     23     |  1092
     1400 |  3   |   1   |    59    |          |    2   |   44   |     21     |  1069
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------
     1500 |  3   |   3   |    58    |    1.3   |    3   |   02   |     19     |  1048
     1600 |  3   |   4   |    57    |          |    3   |   20   |     17     |  1030
     1700 |  4   |   0   |    56    |          |    3   |   40   |     16     |  1013
     1800 |  4   |   2   |    55    |          |    4   |   00   |     14     |   998
     1900 |  4   |   3   |    55    |          |    4   |   20   |     13     |   983
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------
     2000 |  4   |   5   |    54    |    1.7   |    4   |   41   |     12     |   969
     2100 |  5   |   1   |    53    |          |    5   |   03   |     11     |   955
     2200 |  5   |   3   |    52    |          |    5   |   25   |     10.5   |   942
     2300 |  5   |   5   |    52    |          |    5   |   48   |     10     |   929
     2400 |  6   |   0   |    51    |          |    6   |   12   |      9     |   917
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------
     2500 |  6   |   2   |    50    |    2.3   |    6   |   37   |      8.5   |   905
     2600 |  6   |   4   |    50    |          |    7   |   03   |      8     |   893
     2700 |  7   |   0   |    49    |          |    7   |   29   |      7.5   |   882
     2800 |  7   |   2   |    48    |          |    7   |   56   |      7     |   871
     2900 |  7   |   4   |    48    |          |    8   |   24   |      7     |   860
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------
     3000 |  8   |   0   |    48    |    2.6   |    8   |   52   |      6.5   |   850
     3100 |  8   |   2   |    47    |          |    9   |   22   |      6     |   840
     3200 |  8   |   4   |    47    |          |    9   |   51   |      6     |   830
     3300 |  9   |   1   |    46    |          |   10   |   23   |      5.5   |   821
     3400 |  9   |   3   |    45    |          |   10   |   55   |      5     |   812
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------
     3500 |  9   |   5   |    44    |    3.0   |   11   |   28   |      5     |   803
     3600 | 10   |   1   |    44    |          |   12   |   02   |      4.5   |   794
     3700 | 10   |   3   |    44    |          |   12   |   37   |      4.5   |   786
     3800 | 10   |   5   |    43    |          |   13   |   13   |      4     |   778
     3900 | 11   |   1   |    43    |          |   13   |   49   |      4     |   770
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------
     4000 | 11   |   3   |    42    |    3.6   |   14   |   27   |      4     |   762
     4100 | 11   |   5   |    42    |          |   15   |   05   |      3.5   |   755
     4200 | 12   |   1   |    41    |          |   15   |   45   |      3.5   |   748
     4300 | 12   |   3   |    41    |          |   16   |   24   |      3.5   |   741
     4400 | 13   |   0   |    41    |          |   17   |   07   |      3     |   734
     4500 | 13   |   2   |    40    |    4.0   |   17   |   52   |      3     |   727
    ------+------+-------+----------+----------+--------+--------+------------+---------


                   RANGE TABLE FOR 3.6-INCH B. L. R.

        Shell, 20 lbs. Muzzle velocity, 1550 ft. sec. _c_ =.93.

             Bursting-charge, 14½ oz. Log _C_ =.21996.

    -----------------+------------------------+-------+------------------+--------
          |          |      Variations.       |       |      Fall.       |
          |          +----------+-------------+       +------+-----------+
    Range.|Elevation.|Range,    |Deflection,  |Time   |Angle.|Inclination|Terminal
          |          |1 Minute  |1 Division   |of     |      |1 Yard in--|Velocity.
          |          |Elevation.|on Horizontal|Flight.|      |           |
          |          |          |Scale        |       |      |           |
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+------+-----------+---------
    Yards.|  ° |   ′ |  Yards.  |      Feet.  |  Sec. | °| ′ |   Yards.  |Ft.-sec.
      500 |    |  18 |    12    |       4.4   |  1.08 |  | 41|     84    |  1364
      600 |    |  26 |    11    |       5.2   |  1.25 |  | 51|     67    |  1329
      700 |    |  35 |    11    |       6.1   |  1.48 | 1| 02|     55    |  1296
      800 |    |  43 |    11    |       7.0   |  1.72 | 1| 13|     47    |  1263
      900 |    |  52 |    10    |       7.8   |  1.96 | 1| 25|     40    |  1233
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+--+---+-----------+--------
     1000 |  1 |  01 |     9    |       8.7   |  2.20 | 1| 38|     35    |  1203
     1100 |  1 |  11 |     9    |       9.6   |  2.45 | 1| 52|     31    |  1175
     1200 |  1 |  22 |     9    |      10.4   |  2.70 | 2| 06|     27    |  1149
     1300 |  1 |  32 |     9    |      11.3   |  2.96 | 2| 21|     24    |  1123
     1400 |  1 |  43 |     8    |      12.2   |  3.24 | 2| 37|     22    |  1098
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+--+---+-----------+--------
     1500 |  1 |  54 |     8    |      13.0   |  3.52 | 2| 53|     20    |  1079
     1600 |  2 |  06 |     8    |      13.9   |  3.80 | 3| 11|     18    |  1060
     1700 |  2 |  18 |     8    |      14.8   |  4.08 | 3| 29|     16    |  1042
     1800 |  2 |  29 |     8    |      15.7   |  4.37 | 3| 48|     15    |  1026
     1900 |  2 |  42 |     8    |      16.5   |  4.66 | 4| 07|     14    |  1011
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+--+---+-----------+--------
     2000 |  2 |  55 |     7    |      17.4   |  4.96 | 4| 27|     13    |   997
     2100 |  3 |  07 |     7    |      18.3   |  5.26 | 4| 48|     12    |   984
     2200 |  3 |  21 |     7    |      19.1   |  5.56 | 5| 09|     11    |   971
     2300 |  3 |  36 |     7    |      20.0   |  5.87 | 5| 30|     10    |   959
     2400 |  3 |  51 |     7    |      20.9   |  6.18 | 5| 52|      9.5  |   947
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+--+---+-----------+--------
     2500 |  4 |  05 |     6    |      21.7   |  6.49 | 6| 15|      9    |   935
     2600 |  4 |  20 |     6    |      22.6   |  6.80 | 6| 38|      8.5  |   924
     2700 |  4 |  36 |     6    |      23.5   |  7.11 | 7| 02|      8    |   913
     2800 |  4 |  52 |     6    |      24.4   |  7.43 | 7| 27|      7.5  |   903
     2900 |  5 |  08 |     6    |      25.2   |  7.75 | 7| 53|      7    |   892
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+--+---+-----------+--------
     3000 |  5 |  25 |     6    |      26.1   |  8.08 | 8| 20|      7    |   882
     3100 |  5 |  42 |     6    |      27.0   |  8.40 | 8| 47|      6.5  |   872
     3200 |  5 |  59 |     6    |      27.8   |  8.72 | 9| 15|      6    |   863
     3300 |  6 |  17 |     6    |      28.7   |  9.05 | 9| 44|      6    |   854
     3400 |  6 |  35 |     5    |      29.6   |  9.38 |10| 13|      5.5  |   845
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+--+---+-----------+--------
     3500 |  6 |  54 |     5    |      30.5   |  9.72 |10| 43|      5    |   836
     3600 |  7 |  13 |     5    |      31.3   | 10.06 |11| 14|      5    |   827
     3700 |  7 |  32 |     5    |      32.2   | 10.40 |11| 45|      5    |   819
     3800 |  7 |  52 |     5    |      33.1   | 10.74 |12| 16|      4.5  |   811
     3900 |  8 |  13 |     5    |      33.9   | 11.08 |12| 47|      4.5  |   803
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+--+---+-----------+--------
     4000 |  8 |  33 |     5    |      34.8   | 11.42 |13| 25|      4    |   796
     4100 |  8 |  54 |     5    |      35.7   | 11.77 |14| 01|      4    |   788
     4200 |  9 |  14 |     5    |      36.5   | 12.11 |14| 37|      4    |   781
     4300 |  9 |  36 |     5    |      37.4   | 12.44 |15| 13|      3.5  |   774
     4400 |  9 |  56 |     5    |      38.3   | 12.76 |15| 50|      3.5  |   768
     4500 | 10 |  17 |     5    |      39.2   | 13.08 |16| 27|      3    |   762
    ------+----+-----+----------+-------------+-------+--+---+-----------+--------


                3.6-INCH B L FIELD-MORTAR, MODEL 1890.
                       (REVISED NOV. 11, 1892.)

  [Illustration: FIG. 50.]

    Metal             steel
    Total length      2.05 feet
    Calibre           3.6 inches
    Weight            245 pounds
    Grooves           20
    Twist of rifling  {1 in 40 to
                      {1 in 25 cal.
    Powder-chamber    cylindrical
    Vent              axial
    Muzzle velocity   650 ft.-sec.
    Maximum range     3450 yards

It consists of a single piece of steel, the trunnions being forged
solid with the piece.

  [Illustration: FIG. 51.]

The breech mechanism, Fig. 51, is generally similar to that of the
field-guns, except that the Freyre obturator is used, and in the
locking arrangement the lever-handle is replaced by a bolt (_a_) which
is turned by hand. This bolt operates the locking-stud on the left side
of the block, and its handle bears also a vent-shield (_f_,) which
keeps the vent closed until the breech is locked.


                THE CARRIAGE FOR 3.6-INCH B. L. MORTAR.

  [Illustration: FIG. 52.]

This carriage, Fig. 52, is of cast steel and in one piece, and consists
of a frame complete with transoms and soles.

It is 39½ inches long and weighs 275 pounds. The axis of the trunnions
is 14 inches above ground, and the piece can be fired at any angle
between 0 and 60 degrees. At the centre of the front transom is bolted
the elevating-clamp, which embraces an arc bolted to the under side of
the mortar. The lever on the left side of the carriage turns a shaft,
which causes the clamp to take hold of the arc when the elevation has
been given.

A pintle-fork is attached at the front end of the carriage, and a ring
on the side of either cheek to which the ends of the restraining rope
are fastened.

NOMENCLATURE OF 3.6-INCH MORTAR-CARRIAGE.--Carriage-frame;
elevating-arc; elevating-arc bolt; elevating-arc guide-pin; double
hook; double-hook pin; double-hook bracket; double-hook bracket-pin;
cap-square; cap-square keys; cap-square chain eye-pin; pintle-fork;
pintle-fork bolt; elevating-arc jaws; shaft for jaws; lever for shaft;
bushing for shaft; nut for shaft; screw for bushing; separator;
separator-bolt and nut; screws for pointing.


                       PLATFORM FOR 3.6 MORTAR.

Yellow pine or oak. Weight complete, 200 lbs.

  [Illustration: FIG. 53.]

This equipment consists of one wooden platform, one cast-iron
pintle-block, eight stakes, one anchor-stake, two handspikes, and
one pointing-scale. The platform consists of two side-rails, 3-inch,
into which are framed and bolted eleven deck-planks, the latter
secured to each other by dowels. A 4 × 3-inch piece is bolted to the
rear deck-plank by three bolts. Wrought-iron straps, bolted into
cross-pieces, embrace the side-rails. The pintle-block is fastened to
the front of the platform by four wrought-iron bolts. The pintle-fork
on the carriage embraces the pintle, forming the centre of motion
of the traversing carriage. The platform is held in position by
stakes, two on either side; those in front passing through square
wrought-iron rings attached to eye-pieces bolted to the front end of
the platform. A brass socket, in which works the brass pivot at the
end of the pointing-scale, is placed at a suitable point in the axis
of the platform. The anchor-stake, 4 ft. long, is driven in front of
the platform. Around the anchor-stake, and held in position by the two
pins passing through the stake, is wound the middle portion of the
restraining rope, the ends of which fasten to the rings in the cheeks
of the carriage.

The rope is given five feet slack for recoil.

  [Illustration: FIG. 54.]

=The Pointing-scale.=--This is made of hard wood, graduated on one
side, the unit of the scale being one thousandth of the range, and each
division one five hundredth of the range. A brass index-slide moves
with friction along the scale and is clamped by a screw when regulated.
For reference-marks a brass screw is placed at the end of each cheek
of the carriage, and the scale is so arranged that it can be applied
to either cheek. The carriage admits of a motion around its pintle of
about 15° on either side of the axis of the platform.


                        THE GUNNER'S QUADRANT.

  [Illustration: FIG. 55.]

Used in giving elevation. The arc is 45°, but by applying different
sides an elevation of 90° can be given. The least reading is one
minute, which is given by the setting of a sliding level on a slightly
curved arm.

The setting to any given degree is made by moving the arm by hand,
which is done by pressing back the head of the arm to release it from
engagement with the notches on the interior of the arc, then moving the
arm to the required position and allowing the spring to react.


                              AMMUNITION.

The full charge of powder is 16 ounces, sphero-hex. (U. F.). The
projectiles are those used with the 3.6 gun and have already been
described.

The charges, required to cover all ranges from 400 to 3350 yards with
angles of elevation between 15 and 45 degrees, are four in number.
These charges are made up of three cartridges containing 4, 6, 10, and
16 ounces respectively.

The =Fuze for Shrapnel= is the Frankford Arsenal point-combination
fuze, model 1894, burning 28 seconds and weighing 19.75 ounces. The
time-train of this fuze is arranged to be cut at intervals of 1/5
second.

The =Fuze for Shell= is fuze M, model 1894. It is identical in
construction with fuze C (see page 102), except that a portion of
the plunger-spindle is reduced in diameter to lessen the friction
of the spring-ring in arming on account of reduced charges. It is
distinguished from the C fuze by two grooves across the flat of the
base. This fuze is designated for separate transportation, to be
assembled with the projectile at or near the firing-ground, and is not
to be transported fixed in the projectile.


                RANGE TABLE FOR 3.6-INCH B. L. MORTAR.

                       Common Shell (Cast Iron).

      SHELL, filled and fuzed, 20 lbs. Bursting-charge, 14.5 oz.

--------------+------+----------+-------+----------------------+---------
              |      |          |       |        Fall.         |
              |      |          |       +---------+------------+---------
  Charge and  |Range.|Elevation.| Time  |  Angle. |Inclination,|Terminal
   Initial    |      |          |  of   |         | 1 Ft. in-- |Velocity.
  Velocity.   |      |          |Flight.|         |            |
--------------+------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------
              |Yards.|Deg.| Min.|  Sec. |Deg.|Min.|    Feet.   |Ft.-sec.
              |  400 | 15 |  27 |  4.76 | 16 | 00 |     3.5    | 266.5
  4 ounces;   |  500 | 20 |  04 |  5.92 | 21 | 06 |     2.6    | 264.3
277.5 ft.-sec.|  600 | 25 |  44 |  7.45 | 27 | 06 |     2.0    | 262.3
              |  700 | 33 |  25 |  9.43 | 34 | 59 |     1.4    | 259.5
              |  750 | 45 |  00 | 12.00 | 46 | 40 |     0.9    | 266.5
              +------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------
Angles > 45°. |  700 | 55 |  08 | 13.91 | 56 | 52 |     0.6    | 271.2
--------------+------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------
              |  600 | 14 |  04 |  5.36 | 14 | 47 |     3.7    | 336.0
              |  700 | 16 |  48 |  6.38 | 17 | 48 |     3.1    | 332.9
  6 ounces;   |  800 | 19 |  48 |  7.45 | 20 | 56 |     2.6    | 329.7
357.5 ft.-sec.|  900 | 23 |  10 |  8.63 | 24 | 37 |     2.2    | 327.0
              | 1000 | 27 |  16 | 10.00 | 29 | 05 |     1.8    | 325.0
              | 1100 | 32 |  27 | 11.67 | 34 | 42 |     1.4    | 322.9
              | 1200 | 45 |  00 | 15.32 | 47 | 48 |     0.9    | 324.9
              +------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------
Angles > 45° {| 1100 | 56 |  13 | 17.97 | 58 | 55 |     0.6    | 329.8
             {| 1000 | 61 |  20 | 18.96 | 63 | 50 |     0.5    | 331.5
--------------+------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------
              | 1100 | 14 |  10 |  7.32 | 15 | 17 |     3.7    | 439.4
              | 1200 | 15 |  45 |  8.10 | 17 | 06 |     3.3    | 435.0
              | 1300 | 17 |  24 |  8.91 | 19 | 02 |     2.9    | 430.7
              | 1400 | 19 |  07 |  9.74 | 21 | 02 |     2.6    | 427.2
  10 ounces;  | 1500 | 20 |  59 | 10.63 | 23 | 14 |     2.3    | 424.1
492.0 ft.-sec.| 1600 | 23 |  00 | 11.57 | 25 | 32 |     2.2    | 420.8
              | 1700 | 25 |  13 | 12.59 | 28 | 07 |     1.9    | 418.0
              | 1800 | 27 |  44 | 13.72 | 31 | 01 |     1.7    | 415.5
              | 1900 | 30 |  46 | 15.03 | 34 | 31 |     1.5    | 413.3
              | 2000 | 34 |  41 | 16.67 | 38 | 58 |     1.2    | 412.5
              | 2100 | 45 |  00 | 20.63 | 49 | 52 |     0.8    | 417.6
--------------+------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------
             {| 2000 | 52 |  52 | 23.16 | 57 | 41 |     0.6    | 423.8
Angles > 45° {| 1900 | 56 |  45 | 24.29 | 61 | 22 |     0.5    | 427.7
             {| 1800 | 59 |  50 | 25.11 | 64 | 10 |     0.5    | 431.0
--------------+------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------
              | 2000 | 15 |  29 | 10.53 | 17 | 44 |     3.1    | 537.9
              | 2100 | 16 |  30 | 11.18 | 19 | 02 |     2.9    | 532.9
              | 2200 | 17 |  33 | 11.85 | 20 | 21 |     2.7    | 528.4
              | 2300 | 18 |  39 | 12.54 | 21 | 44 |     2.5    | 524.3
              | 2400 | 19 |  49 | 13.26 | 23 | 14 |     2.3    | 519.8
              | 2500 | 21 |  02 | 14.00 | 24 | 46 |     2.2    | 516.1
  16 ounces;  | 2600 | 22 |  19 | 14.78 | 26 | 22 |     2.0    | 512.9
660.0 ft.-sec.| 2700 | 23 |  43 | 15.61 | 28 | 11 |     1.9    | 509.4
              | 2800 | 25 |  12 | 16.49 | 30 | 02 |     1.7    | 506.2
              | 2900 | 26 |  49 | 17.42 | 32 | 08 |     1.6    | 503.8
              | 3000 | 28 |  38 | 18.45 | 34 | 18 |     1.5    | 501.7
              | 3100 | 30 |  38 | 19.60 | 36 | 49 |     1.3    | 500.2
              | 3200 | 33 |  21 | 21.02 | 40 | 00 |     1.2    | 499.2
              | 3300 | 36 |  43 | 22.78 | 43 | 51 |     1.0    | 501.0
              | 3363 | 45 |  00 | 26.75 | 52 | 42 |     0.8    | 510.4
              +------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------
             {| 3300 | 48 |  59 | 28.47 | 56 | 43 |     0.7    | 516.2
             {| 3200 | 52 |  40 | 29.99 | 60 | 10 |     0.6    | 523.3
Angles > 45° {| 3100 | 55 |  22 | 31.01 | 62 | 35 |     0.5    | 529.1
             {| 3000 | 57 |  25 | 31.73 | 64 | 24 |     0.5    | 532.6
             {| 2900 | 59 |  19 | 32.37 | 66 | 34 |     0.4    | 547.7
--------------+------+----+-----+-------+----+----+------------+---------


                RANGE TABLE FOR 3.6-INCH B. L. MORTAR.

      SHRAPNEL, filled and fuzed, 20 lbs. Bursting-charge, 4 oz.
        Number of balls, 218. Weight of each ball, 171 grains.

    ----------+------+----------+-------+---------------------+
              |      |          |       |     Fuze-scale.     |
              |      |          |       +----------+----------+
    Charge    |Range.|Elevation.| Time  |          |Variations|
     and      |      |          |  of   |Divisions.| in Burst,|
    Initial   |      |          |Flight.|          |1 Sub-div.|
    Velocity. |      |          |       |          |          |
    ----------+------+----+-----+-------+-----+----+----------+
              |Yards.|  ° |   ′ |  Sec. |Units|5ths|  Yards.  |
              |  400 | 15 |  29 |  4.76 |  4  |  2 |    18    |
    4 ounces; |  500 | 20 |  21 |  5.95 |  5  |  4 |    17    |
    277.5 ft. |  600 | 26 |  03 |  7.50 |  7  |  1 |    17    |
     -sec.    |  700 | 34 |  27 |  9.61 |  9  |  1 |    17    |
    ----------+------+----+-----+-------+-----+----+----------+
              |  600 | 14 |  08 |  5.38 |  5  |  1 |    22    |
              |  700 | 17 |  01 |  6.41 |  6  |  1 |    22    |
    6 ounces; |  800 | 20 |  08 |  7.52 |  7  |  2 |    22    |
    357.5 ft. |  900 | 23 |  34 |  8.73 |  8  |  3 |    22    |
     -sec.    | 1000 | 27 |  34 | 10.07 |  9  |  4 |    21    |
              | 1100 | 33 |  01 | 11.82 | 11  |  3 |    21    |
    ----------+------+----+-----+-------+-----+----+----------+
              | 1000 | 12 |  43 |  6.62 |  6  |  2 |    29    |
              | 1100 | 14 |  19 |  7.38 |  7  |  1 |    29    |
              | 1200 | 15 |  56 |  8.17 |  8  |  0 |    29    |
              | 1300 | 17 |  36 |  8.99 |  8  |  4 |    28    |
    10 ounces;| 1400 | 19 |  23 |  9.85 |  9  |  3 |    28    |
    492.0 ft. | 1500 | 21 |  19 | 10.75 | 10  |  3 |    28    |
     -sec.    | 1600 | 23 |  26 | 11.72 | 11  |  3 |    28    |
              | 1700 | 25 |  47 | 12.77 | 12  |  3 |    27    |
              | 1800 | 28 |  26 | 13.92 | 13  |  4 |    27    |
              | 1900 | 31 |  41 | 15.36 | 15  |  1 |    27    |
              | 2000 | 36 |  12 | 17.22 | 17  |  0 |    27    |
    ----------+------+----+-----+-------+-----+----+----------+
              | 1900 | 14 |  45 | 10.02 |  9  |  4 |    35    |
              | 2000 | 15 |  46 | 10.68 | 10  |  2 |    35    |
              | 2100 | 16 |  49 | 11.35 | 11  |  1 |    35    |
              | 2200 | 17 |  55 | 12.04 | 11  |  4 |    34    |
              | 2300 | 19 |  05 | 12.75 | 12  |  3 |    34    |
              | 2400 | 20 |  19 | 13.50 | 13  |  2 |    34    |
    16 ounces;| 2500 | 21 |  37 | 14.28 | 14  |  0 |    34    |
    660.0 ft. | 2600 | 23 |  00 | 15.11 | 15  |  0 |    33    |
     -sec.    | 2700 | 24 |  29 | 16.00 | 15  |  4 |    33    |
              | 2800 | 26 |  07 | 16.94 | 16  |  4 |    33    |
              | 2900 | 27 |  58 | 17.96 | 17  |  4 |    33    |
              | 3000 | 30 |  05 | 19.12 | 19  |  0 |    33    |
              | 3100 | 32 |  33 | 20.46 | 20  |  1 |    33    |
              | 3200 | 35 |  41 | 22.10 | 22  |  0 |    33    |
              | 3376 | 45 |  00 | 26.54 | 26  |  2 |    33    |
    ----------+------+----+-----+-------+-----+----+----------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ----------+-------------------+---------
              |      Fall.        |
              |------+------------+Terminal
    Charge    |      |Inclination,|Velocity.
     and      |Angle.|1 Foot in-- |
    Initial   |      |            |
    Velocity. |      |            |
    ----------+--+---+------------+---------
              | °|  ′|    Feet.   |Ft.-sec.
              |16| 06|     3.5    |  265.2
    4 ounces; |21| 10|     2.6    |  262.4
    277.5 ft. |27| 15|     2.0    |  260.3
     -sec.    |36| 01|     1.4    |  258.3
    ----------+--+---+------------+---------
              |14| 55|     3.8    |  333.8
              |17| 57|     3.1    |  330.0
    6 ounces; |21| 20|     2.6    |  326.9
    357.5 ft. |25| 09|     2.1    |  324.4
     -sec.    |29| 35|     1.8    |  322.2
              |35| 30|     1.4    |  320.1
    ----------+--+---+------------+---------
              |13| 49|     4.1    |  439.0
              |15| 36|     3.6    |  434.0
              |17| 26|     3.2    |  429.0
              |19| 23|     2.8    |  425.1
    10 ounces;|21| 23|     2.5    |  421.2
    492.0 ft. |23| 46|     2.3    |  417.5
     -sec.    |26| 16|     2.0    |  414.0
              |29| 02|     1.8    |  410.8
              |32| 08|     1.6    |  407.8
              |35| 53|     1.4    |  405.0
              |41| 00|     1.2    |  401.3
    ----------+--+---+------------+---------
              |17| 01|     3.6    |  532.2
              |18| 20|     3.2    |  526.3
              |19| 42|     2.8    |  521.2
              |21| 07|     2.6    |  516.5
              |22| 37|     2.4    |  512.3
              |24| 12|     2.2    |  507.4
    16 ounces;|25| 52|     2.1    |  503.7
    660.0 ft. |27| 38|     1.9    |  500.1
     -sec.    |29| 33|     1.8    |  496.7
              |31| 38|     1.6    |  493.6
              |33| 58|     1.5    |  491.0
              |36| 36|     1.3    |  488.9
              |39| 36|     1.2    |  488.1
              |43| 18|     1.1    |  487.6
              |53| 22|     0.7    |  500.3
    ----------+--+---+------------+---------


                       FOREIGN FIELD-ARTILLERY.


                               GERMANY.

There is practically only one gun, viz., the 3.46-inch. The
horse-artillery gun, carriage, and limber, are all lighter than in the
field-artillery. Model 1891 weighs 970 lbs. The weights behind the
teams are: H. A. gun, 3996 lbs.; F. A. gun, 4276 lbs.; caisson, 5036
lbs. No cannoneers are carried on the carriages in horse-artillery.
Muzzle velocity, 1400 ft.-sec.

The =Common Shell= weighs 15½ lbs. (bursting-charge, 6 oz.), and
splinters into about 170 pieces. A proportion of the shells are filled
with wet guncotton, having a dry guncotton primer, to be used, as a
rule, against men under cover.

The =Shrapnel= contains 262 bullets with bursting-charge down the
centre, weighs 17.7 lbs., and can be burst up to 3500 yards range.
The number of rounds carried per gun in a battery is 135. The
percussion-shell has been abandoned, and shrapnel, high explosive
shell, and canister only are used. The fuze is a combination time, and
percussion-fuze.

There are 20 carriages in a battery--6 guns, 9 caissons, 4
store-wagons, 1 forge-wagon. A battery carries 9 shovels and 2 pickaxes.


                                FRANCE.

The =Horse-artillery Gun=.--Calibre, 3.14 in.; weight, 8.4 cwt.; muzzle
velocity, 1600 ft.-sec.; shrapnel with 2-oz. bursting-charge in head,
13.8 lbs. Weights behind the teams, including men carried: gun, 4251
lbs.; caisson, 4424 lbs.

The ammunition per gun with battery is 142 rounds.

The =Field-artillery Gun=.--Calibre, 3.54 in.; weight, 8.4 cwt.; muzzle
velocity, 1500 ft.-sec.; shrapnel with bursting-charge in head, 19
lbs. Weights behind teams, including the men carried: gun, 5248 lbs.;
caisson, 5404 lbs.

There are 142 rounds of ammunition per gun with battery.

A steel shell filled with 3 lbs. of cresylite is contemplated, of which
about 75 will be carried with the battery.

There are 6 guns, 9 caissons, 1 store, 1 forge, and 1 forge-wagon in a
battery.

The field-artillery gun now being introduced has a calibre of 2.95
inches, and fires a projectile weighing in the vicinity of 12 pounds.


                               AUSTRIA.

The =Horse-artillery Gun=.--Calibre, 3.14 in.; weight, 5.9 cwt.; muzzle
velocity, 1365 ft.-sec.; ring-shell, 9½ lbs.; shrapnel, 10.27 lbs.
Weights behind the teams: gun, 3440 lbs.; caisson, 4287 lbs.

No detachments are carried on the carriages.

Ammunition carried per gun with battery: ring-shell, 84; shrapnel, 54;
canister, 8; incendiary shell, 6; a total of 152 rounds.

There are 18 carriages in a battery, 6 guns.

The =Field-artillery Gun=.--Calibre, 3.54 in.; weight, 9.5 cwt., muzzle
velocity, 1440 ft.-sec.; ring-shell, 14.1 lbs.; shrapnel, 15.6 lbs.
Weights behind the teams: gun, 5040 lbs.; caisson, 4124 lbs.

Ammunition per gun with battery: ring-shell, 70; shrapnel, 45;
canister, 8; incendiary shell, 5; total, 128.

There are 22 carriages in a battery, 8 guns.


                                RUSSIA.

The =Horse-artillery Gun=.--Calibre, 3.4 in.; weight, 7 cwt.; muzzle
velocity, 1350 ft.-sec.; common shell, 14 lbs.; shrapnel with
bursting-charge in base, 15 lbs. Weights behind the teams: gun, 3635
lbs.; caisson, 3543 lbs. No cannoneers on carriages.

Ammunition per gun with battery: common shell, 61; shrapnel, 60;
canister, 9; total, 130 rounds.

The =Light Field-artillery Gun=.--Calibre, 3.4 in.; weight, 8.6 cwt.;
muzzle velocity, 1450 ft.-sec.; common shell, 14 lbs.; shrapnel with
bursting-charge in base, 15 lbs. Weights behind the teams same as in
horse-artillery.

Ammunition per gun with battery, 150 rounds.

The =Heavy Field-artillery Gun=.--Calibre, 4.2 in.; weight, 12 cwt.;
muzzle velocity, 1223 ft.-sec.; common shell, 25.9 lbs.; shrapnel, 27.5
lbs. Weights behind the teams, including detachments: gun, 4268 lbs.;
caisson, 4686.

Ammunition per gun with battery, 108 rounds.

Horse-batteries consist of 6 guns, field-batteries generally of 8
guns, 24 carriages to each battery of 6 guns. Russia has 5 regiments,
4 batteries each, of field-mortar batteries. Calibre of piece, 6
in.; weight of shell, 60 lbs. Each battery consists of 6 mortars, 18
carriages, and 6 carts.


                                ITALY.

=Horse-and Light Field-artillery Gun.=--Calibre, 2.75 in.; weight,
5.8 cwt.; muzzle velocity, 1400 ft.-sec.; common shell, 9.4 lbs.;
shrapnel with bursting-charge in base, 9.8 lbs. Weights behind the
teams: gun, 3498 lbs.; caisson, 3650 lbs. No detachments are carried.

Ammunition per gun with battery: common shell, 24; shrapnel, 112;
canister, 6; total, 142 rounds.

=Heavy Field-artillery Gun.=--Calibre, 3.5 in.; weight, 9.2 cwt.;
muzzle velocity, 1480 ft.-sec.; common shell, 14.7 lbs.; shrapnel, 15.3
lbs. Weights behind the teams, including detachments carried: gun, 4268
lbs.; caisson, 4686 lbs.

Ammunition per gun with battery: common shell, 28; shrapnel, 96;
canister, 6; total, 130 rounds.

All batteries have 6 guns and 15 carriages, viz., 6 gun-carriages, 6
caissons, 1 forge, 1 baggage-wagon, 1 forage-wagon.


                            GREAT BRITAIN.

=The 9-pdr. and 13-pdr. M. L. Guns.=--Horse and light artillery are
being replaced by the 12-pdr. B. L., the weight behind teams of
horse-artillery being a little less than that of field-artillery.

Calibre of 12-pdr. B. L., 3.0 in.; weight of piece, 784 lbs.; muzzle
velocity, 1710 ft.-sec.; common shell and shrapnel, 12½ lbs. Weight
behind teams: guns, 3684 lbs.; caissons, 3796 lbs.

Ammunition per gun with battery: common shell, 20; shrapnel, 80;
canister, 8; total, 108. Besides these there are 2 star-shell per gun.
All batteries have 6 guns and 19 carriages all told.



                              CHAPTER IV.

      Wheel. Carriage. Limber. Caisson. Battery-wagon and Forge.
    Artillery-wagon. Harness. Water-cart. Revolvers. Hunting-knife.


                         THE ARCHIBALD WHEEL.

    Diameter             57¾ inches.
    Width of tire         2¾   "
    Weight of wheel      200 lbs.

The nave-box (_a_) is made of aluminum-bronze. It fits over the
axle-arm (_c_) and has groove for lubricant, as indicated.

The nave (_b_) of malleable iron.

The spokes, 16 in number (_s_), are made of oak or hickory.

  [Illustration: FIG. 56.]

The felloes, 8 in number, are made of oak or hickory.

The tire is made of steel, ½ inch thick.

The bolts, clips, linch-pins, and washers are made of metal.

The large nut on outside of nave-box is splined to the box. The
linch-washers have a stud which prevents their turning with the wheel.
The inner extremities of the spokes are put together by a powerful
radial pressure, which subjects them to a stress many times greater
than they are likely to receive.

=To Replace a Box and that Portion of the Hub Attached.=--Unscrew
and remove front hub-band; take off hub-nuts, and drive out old box.
Replace box, and screw on the front hub-band, replacing hub-nuts.

=To Replace a Spoke.=--Remove tire and felloe on the injured spoke;
take out only the bolt that passes through the injured spoke; saw off
this spoke as close as possible to the hub and bore or dig out the
spoke; drive in the duplicate spoke as far as possible, and arrange
the tenon at the felloe so that the tire may press the spoke about one
eighth of an inch farther into the hub, and after the tire is on put in
the hub-bolt.


                   THE 3.2-INCH FIELD-GUN CARRIAGE.


NOMENCLATURE.

=Wheel= (1) consisting of tire; felloes; spokes; nave-box; nave-box
flanges; nave-bolts and nuts.

Linch-pins (5); linch-washers (5); axle (6); shoulder-washers (7);
brake-eyes and straps (8); axle-plates (9); flasks (10); upper front
transom (11); lower front transom (12); middle transom (13); trail-box
transoms (14); rear transom (15); lunette (16); lunette-plate (16);
trail-plate (16); trail-handles (17); cap-squares (18); chin-bolt (19);
eye-bolt (20); eye-bolt key (20); eye-bolt key-chain (20); trail-box
(21); trail-box lid (21); trail-box lid-hasp (21); trail-box turnbuckle
(21); sponge-bucket compartment (22); wheel-guard (23); handspike
attachments, front and rear (24); handspike-socket (24); handspike
socket-pin and key (24); handspike (24); handspike-clasps (24); long
sponge-toggle and plate (25); short rammer and sponge attachment (26);
short rammer and sponge-clasps (26); short rammer and sponge-clasp
locking-catches (26); sponge-bucket toggle-hole (27).

  [Illustration: FIG. 57.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 58.]

=Axle-seats= (3), consisting of seat-plate, guard-rail, guard-rail
standard, guard-rail catch, guard-rail hinge-pin, guard-rail
locking-latch.

=Bow-brake= (2), Fig. 59, consisting of shoe-piece (_a_), bow-springs
(4) (_b_), bow-spring nuts and bolts (4) (_c_), attachment-socket
(_d_), and the attachment consisting of clevis (_e_), clevis-bolt and
nut (_f_), locking-lever (_g_), locking-bolt and nut (_h_).

  [Illustration: FIG. 59.]

The attachment-socket has a rectangular longitudinal mortice in which
the tang of the clevis is placed. This tang has a slot, the lower part
of which ends in a hole having the same diameter as the locking-bolt.
The locking-bolt has bearings on each side of the mortice, and the
part in the slot has two opposite rectangular grooves. When the bolt
is in the hole with these grooves perpendicular to the slot, the
clevis is locked; but when turned until the bottoms of the cuts are in
prolongation of the slot sides, the tang of the clevis can be drawn out
until stopped by the other end of the slot.

=The Elevating Device= (4), Fig. 60, consists of _frame_ and _double
lazy-tongs_.

_The Frame_ consists of (2) side-levers (_c_), pivot-bolt and separator
(_d_), transom-bolt and nuts in rear, (2) eye-bolts, elevating-screw
(_f_), cross-head elevating-screw nut, crank-handle (_g_).

_The Lazy-tongs_ consists of (4) long arms (_a_), (4) lever-arms (_a_),
(4) short arms (_a_), upper assembling-bolt, (2) assembling-bolts,
short, (2) assembling-bolts, long, central journal-bolt (_e_), lower
journal-rod (_b_) and (2) bearing-boxes, (2) eye-washers (for strap
_k_), and the necessary nuts and washers.

The front end of the frame is attached to the carriage axle-plates,
just in rear of the middle transom, by two eye-bolts which form the
pivot.

  [Illustration: FIG. 60.]

The rear end is attached to the elevating-screw by the cross-head
elevating-screw nut, which moves back and forth in the grooves in
the side-levers in rear of the transom-bolt. The crank-handle on the
elevating-screw is located just in front of the trail-box.

The double lazy-tongs (of two cells, the upper twice the size of the
lower) are enclosed in the frame which furnishes bearings, at about the
middle of the side-levers, for the central journal-bolt.

The lower journal-rod has fixed bearings in the two bearing-boxes which
are bolted to the flasks of the carriage.

The gun rests on the upper assembling-bolt, which has eye-washers for
the breech-strap.

Any motion of the elevating-screw handle raises or lowers the frame,
and this, carrying with it the central journal-bolt, opens out or
closes the lazy-tongs cells.

=The Double-screw Elevating Device=, Fig. 60_a_, is used on 25 of
the carriages for 3.6-inch guns. It consists of a hollow exterior screw
(_a_) (having an exterior right-hand thread and an interior left-hand
one) in which works an interior screw (_c_) to whose trunnioned head
is attached the guide-strap (_s_), the arms of the strap being secured
by nuts to the prolongations of the upper bolts that secure the middle
transom. This insures rotation of the elevating device in a plane
passing through the axis of the carriage. The bronze nut (_b_) in which
_a_ works is arranged on trunnions between the cheeks of the carriage,
and has the hand-wheel (_d_) (or in some cases a large gear-wheel)
so fixed to it that the latter can be rotated but has no motion of
translation. A groove (_e_) is cut on the screw _a_, and a key on the
hand-wheel fits this.

  [Illustration: FIG. 60_a_.]

Where the large gear-wheel is used motion is obtained by a small
gear-wheel, axle, pinion, and hand-crank on the right of the trail.


               DESCRIPTION OF CARRIAGE FOR 3.2-INCH GUN.

The carriage is made of steel. Its track, like that of the other
vehicles, is 60 inches. The principal parts are the two flasks,
connected by transoms, and the lunette; the two axle-plates, upper
and lower; the axle-tree; the wheel-brakes; the wheels; the elevating
apparatus; and the two seats.

Each flask is formed by riveting together two plates with curved
margins; and the trunnion-beds are reinforced by bars of steel, which
are enclosed between the margins of the flask-plates and riveted to
them. There are three front transoms, upper, lower, and rear, in the
vicinity of the trunnion-beds and axle-plates, and three trail-transoms
at intervals between these plates and the lunette, the latter being
riveted on. Trail-handles are on either side of the trail near the
lunette. The lunette, lunette-plate and trail-plate are formed of
one piece of metal. The axle-plates, two in number, which accurately
envelop the solid steel axle, are riveted together.

The shoulder-washers are octagonal in form; to each is fitted a collar
containing a stout eye, to which the brakes are attached. These collars
have projections that embrace the axle-plates above and below to
prevent turning of the axle within the plates. Linch-washers have a
stud to keep them from revolving with the wheel.

=Double-bow Spring-brakes=, with a device for detaching them when
necessary, are used. They are carried in a vertical position by means
of the button on the lever and the groove on under side of axle-seat
guard-rail. The spring-lever operates the locking-bolt in the end of
the brake near the hook, so that the brake may be available in going up
or down hill.

=Axle-seats= are placed on either side of the carriage. Underneath the
left seat a section of picket-rope is carried.

=The Elevating Device= is of the lazy-tongs pattern, and is actuated
by a handle on top of the flask. A leather strap is secured to the top
part of the elevating device, and is used for strapping down the breech
of the gun to avoid pounding.

=Wheel=, Archibald, height 57¾ inches, weight 200 pounds.

=The Handspike=, made of hickory, is sawn lengthwise into halves, and
the wood thus removed replaced by 1/10-inch sheet iron, the whole
riveted together and bound by iron bands. It is permanently attached to
the flask, and when not in use is folded over on it and locked by the
handspike-clasps.

=The Short Sponges= and =Rammers= are carried between the cheeks,
between the upper and lower front transoms; grooved bronze ferrules
in rear of the sponge-heads serve for the seats of the support and the
clasps which hold them in place.

By means of the bronze hooks on the staff, one of which is movable, it
is hooked to the right guard-rail when firing.

=The Axle-seats= are attached at the shoulder-washers to the
axle-plates and bolted to the flasks.

=The Long Sponge-staff= is hinged near the middle, so that when folded
the rammer-head is placed behind the sponge. It is carried on the left
side of the carriage (the sponge-and rammer-heads under the axle-seat
resting on the axle-plate), held by a toggle about midway of folded
length.

=The Tool-box= is placed between the flasks, and has ample space for
all tools required, and for tube-pouches, priming-wire, and gunner's
gimlet. By means of a hasp and turnbuckle the lid is fastened to the
side of the transom. In rear of the tool-box is an open compartment
in which the sponge-bucket may be carried when empty. A hole between
the seats of sponge and rammer provides for carrying the bucket, when
filled, by its toggle.

Chin-and eye-bolts secure the cap-squares.

Wheel-guards are bolted on either side of the trail.

Weight of carriage and brakes, 1166 pounds.

Weight of carriage complete, with equipment, 1197 pounds.

  [Illustration: FIG. 61.]


                LIMBER OF 3.2-INCH FIELD-GUN CARRIAGE.

                        (See Figs. 62 and 63.)

                             NOMENCLATURE.

Wheels; axle; linch-pins; linch-washers; shoulder-washers; understraps
(axle).

The fork (_a_); the fork-brace; the hounds (_k_); splinter-bar (_j_).

Foot-boards (_m_), front and rear; foot-board latch; pole (_b_);
pole-ferrule; pole-pad (_f_); pole-pad bolt and nut; pole-prop;
pole-bolt; pole-prop eye; pole-prop strap; pole-stop; bushing for
pole-bolt hole; neck-yoke stop (_g_).

Double-tree (_h_); double-tree chains and staples; double-tree hooks
end; double-tree stay-hooks; double-tree bolt (_i_); double-tree
bolt-strap; double-tree bolt-brace.

  [Illustration: FIG. 62.]

Single-trees; single-tree-eye-band; single-tree hooks.

Oil and grease compartment: pintle (_c_); pintle-key (_d_); pintle-key
chain; pintle-key chain eye-plate; pintle brace-rods; hound brace-rods;
primer-and obturator-boxes (_n_); primer-and obturator-box lids;
primer-and obturator-box lid-chains; ammunition-chest staple;
ammunition-chest keys and chains.

The ammunition-chest (_l_), consisting of lid, handles, hasp,
turnbuckle, paulin-straps, packing--metallic, packing--wood.

Neck-yoke: body of wood; metal parts are: 1 centre eye-sleeve;
2 centre eye-sleeve rivets; 2 eye-bands; 2 eye-band rivets; 2
band-rings; 2 pole-strap eye-loops; 2 pole-strap eye-loop rollers; 2
martingale-staples; neck-yoke pads (leather).

                              THE LIMBER.


    Weight with neck-yoke                                   957 pounds
    Weight complete, without ammunition                    1057  "
    Weight complete, with ammunition                       1780  "
    Length from end of pole to muzzle of gun, limbered       26.5 feet
    Distance between centres of axles                         8.75 "

The limbers for the carriage, caisson, and battery-wagon are in every
respect the same, except that the two boxes for primers and obturators
are omitted on the battery-wagon limber, and its chest is differently
arranged inside.

  [Illustration: FIG. 63.]

The limber essentially consists of two wheels, Archibald patent (same
as for carriage), one wrought-steel tubular axle, linch-pins and
washers, shoulder-washers shrunk and pinned on, three understraps.

The limber-body and connecting parts consist of:

=The Fork= (1) (_a_).--Central part of body formed of two angle-irons
receiving the pole (_b_) and pintle-body in rear. It passes into and
is riveted to the double-tree bolt-strap which surrounds and supports
the pole. It carries, riveted to it between the flanges, the foot-brace
and pole-stop, to which is pivoted the pole-prop hook. In rear of
foot-boards is the staple for securing the ammunition-chest. The fork
is attached to the axle by axle-straps.

=The Two Hounds= (_k_) form the side-rails, and are angle-irons
attached to the body by axle-straps. To these on each side in rear of
the axle are bolted the primer-and obturator-boxes (_k_).

=The Splinter-bar= (_j_).--Angle-iron. Unites the fork and hounds in
front of foot-boards.

=Foot-boards= (2), =Wood= (_m_).--Rear one riveted to hounds and fork.
The front one, to which are riveted three brackets, is hinged by two
strap-hinges to the rear one, to give access to pole-prop strap,
pole-bolt, and compartment for oil-and grease-cans and tool-box. It is
provided with a latch for securing it, when down, to the double-tree
bolt-brace.

=The Pole, Wood= (_b_).--Leather pad (_e_) on front end. Neck-yoke
stop, iron, on under side. The hole in rear and for bolting to the
fork is lined with thin brass tubing. It abuts against a plate and is
secured by a key. It is partly copper-sheathed.

=Double-tree= (1) (_h_).--Made of steel. Hooks at either end for
attachment of single-trees. Hole in centre for attachment to limber by
double-tree bolt.

=Double-tree Bolt-strap= (_i_).--Riveted to fork and supports the
pole. Double-tree bolt, bolt-strap, and pole-prop eye one piece.

=Single-trees= (2).--Made of steel with eye for attachment to
double-tree hooks; hooks at ends for trace attachment.

=Oil-and Grease-can Compartment.=--A flanged plate of sheet iron under
the foot-boards riveted to the fork and right hound.

=Pole-prop=[6] (1).--Permanently secured to the eye on bottom of the
double-tree bolt-strap.

=Pole-prop Strap= (1).--For holding up pole-prop, near pole-stop.

=Pole-bolt= (1) (_e_).--Passes through the fork, the flanges of the
double-tree bolt-brace and the pole securing it to the fork.

=Pole-stop and Support= (1).--A flanged piece of plate metal (riveted
to fork-flanges) on and against which the pole is supported.

=Double-tree Bolt-brace= (1).--A flanged plate with holes in front
for double-tree bolt and through the flanges for pole-bolt. It also
forms the catch for the foot-board latch.

=Pintle= (1) (_c_).--For connecting the carriage-body bolted between
the fork-flanges.

=Pintle-key= (1) (_d_).--For securing the lunette.

=Pintle-key Chain= (1).--For securing the pintle-key to the limber.

=Pintle Brace-rods= (2).--From the rear hound understrap-bolts to the
rear pintle-body bolt.

=Hound Brace-rods= (2).--From the front pintle-body bolt to the
ring-bolt of primer-and obturator-boxes.

=Primer-and Obturator-boxes= (2) (_n_).--Two water-tight cylindrical
boxes with screw-lids, bolted through the bottoms to the axle, and by
a ring-bolt to the hounds, for carrying unbroken boxes of primers and
spare obturators.

=Ammunition-chest, Wood= (_l_).--Ironed, with corrugated-iron plate
on back. It is covered with duck, and the lid is secured, when down,
by hasp and turnkey. Three compartments: end ones for projectiles,
21 in each; middle for 44 cartridges and two haversacks. The packing
divisions for projectiles are of cast bronze.


              ON GUN-AND CAISSON-LIMBERS CAN BE CARRIED:

    Two paulins                 On and strapped to chest-lid;
                                  ordinarily not carried on
                                  caisson-limbers.

    Two spare obturators, or   }In water-tight cylindrical boxes
      two or more (depending   }  under the chest; ordinarily not
      on size) boxes of        }  carried on caisson-limbers.
      primers, or one obturator}
      and one or more boxes of }
      primers.                 }

    One oiler, one tool-box,   {In compartment under the foot-boards;
    one wheel-grease can with  {   wheel-grease can only ordinarily
    spatula.                   {   carried on caisson-limbers.

    One pole-prop for end of   { Under foot-boards, left-hand side,
     pole (now replaced by     {  between chest and axle.
     sheet-metal prop.)        {


    One section of picket-rope {On the foot-boards. One of these
     (can be used for a        {  sections is carried for and with
     prolonge) with metal      {  each carriage, and ordinarily,
     terminals for connection  {  for gun-carriage and limber,
     with other terminals (34  {  coiled under the left seat of
     feet long; 3-inch rope).  {  gun-carriage; for the battery-wagon
                               {  and forge, in the wagon
                               {  or on top of it fastened to railing,
                               {  in the folding forage-rack,
                               {  or coiled around the
                               {  middle rail near the vise, as
                               {  may be most convenient; and
                               {  for caisson, on its limber
                               {  foot-boards,  or on caisson
                               {  as above detailed.

    Three or four knapsacks     On the foot-boards. Knapsacks
                                  are carried in the artillery-wagon.

    One breech-sight            Carried in its leather case in one
                                  of the foot-board compartments.
                                  A spare one may be
                                  carried in one of the caisson-limbers.

    Two haversacks              In middle-chest compartment on
                                  top of cartridges; ordinarily
                                  carried in the gun-limber chest.

The tool-box (one for each gun, carried in the compartment under the
foot-boards of gun-limber) has capacity for the following tools and
implements:

    One screw-wrench.
    One iron nut-wrench, 12 inches long.
    One ¾-inch cold-chisel, 8 inches long.
    One 8-inch bastard-file.
    One hand-hammer, 12¼-inch handle.
    One small steel punch.
    One vent-punch.      } These may be carried, if more
    One gunner's gimlet. }  convenient, in the gun-carriage
    One priming-wire.    }  trail-box.

Weight of tool-box, 1 pound 13 ounces; contents, as above, 7 pounds 8
ounces.


            3.2″ GUN, CARRIAGE, LIMBER, WEIGHTS, EQUIPMENTS

    ---+----------------------------------------+---------+----------
    No.|              Article.                  | Weight. | Total.
    ---+----------------------------------------+---------+----------
       |                                        | Lbs. Oz.|  Lbs.  Oz.
      1|3.2 B. L. rifle, revised model          |         |  794
      1|Carriage, with brakes                   |         | 1166
      1|Jointed sponge and rammer, with cover   |   7     |
      2|Short rammers and sponges combined,     |         |
       |  with covers                           |   7  14 |
      1|Prolonge (section of picket-rope)       |  15   8 |
      2|Primer-pouches                          |   1     |
      2|Lanyards                                |       8 |
                                                +---------+   31   14
      1|Limber complete, with neck-yoke         |         |  957    4
      1|Wheel-grease can and spatula            |   5   8 |
      1|Breech-sight                            |   2   2 |
      1|Breech-sight pouch                      |       9 |
      1|Sperm-oiler                             |       7 |
      1|Tool-box, with tools                    |   9   2 |
      1|Fuze-punch                              |      12 |
      2|Paulins (12′ × 12′)                     |  54  12 |
      2|Gunner's haversacks                     |   4   6 |
      2|Watering-buckets, canvas                |   3   4 |
      1|Cushion                                 |  18  12 |
                                                +---------+   99   10
     42|Projectiles (13.5 lbs. each)            | 567     |
     44|Cartridges (3.5 lbs. each)              | 154     |
     44|Cartridge-bags                          |   2  12 |
       |                                        +---------+  723   12
       |                                        |         +----------
       |    Total                               |         | 3772    8
       |    Weight per horse                    |         |  628   12
    ---+----------------------------------------+---------+----------


                EXTRA WEIGHT FOR 3.6-INCH GUN-CARRIAGE.

    ---+----------------------------------------+---------+----------
      1|3.6-inch B. L. rifle (1181 lbs. weight) | 387     |
      1|Carriage, with brakes (1300 lbs. weight)| 134     |
     36|Projectiles (20 lbs. each)              | 153     |
     38|Cartridges (4.1875 lbs. each)           |   4     |
       |                                        +---------+
       |    Total extra weight                  |         |   678
       |                                        |         +----------
       |    Total weight                        |         |  4430   4
       |    Weight per horse                    |         |   738   6
    ---+----------------------------------------+---------+----------


                             THE CAISSON.

  [Illustration: FIG. 64.]

    Weight of caisson complete, without limber                   1396 lbs.
    Weight of caisson and limber complete, without ammunition    2436   "
    Weight of caisson and limber } Light field-battery           4607½  "
    complete, with ammunition    }  Heavy field-battery          5080   "
    Length from end of pole to end of spare-wheel axle             24½ ft
    Distance between centres of axles                               8   "

  [Illustration: FIG. 64_a_.]


                             NOMENCLATURE.

     1. Lunette.
     2. Middle rail.
     3. Front cross-bar.
     4. Foot-board.
     5. Pickaxe attachment, front.
     6. Ammunition-chest keys and chains.
     7. Brake-chain.
     8. Side rail.
     9. Spare pole.
    10. Ammunition-chest.
    11. Brake-lever.
    12. Front ammunition-chest handles.
    13  Pickaxe attachment, rear.
    14. Axe and spade board-irons.
    15. Middle rail.
    16. Brake eye-strap.
    17. Rear ammunition-chest handles.
    18. Ammunition-chest keys and chains.
    19. Spare-pole stirrup.
    20. Spare-wheel axle-bolster.
    21. Spare-wheel axle-washer.
    22. Spare wheel.
    23. Spare-wheel axle.
    24. Toggle.

The limber of the caisson has already been described. The caisson, Fig.
64_a_, consists of one wrought-steel tubular axle and two Archibald
wheels (57¾ in.), same as for limbers, the caisson-body, and
connecting parts, viz.:

The =Middle rail= (central part of body formed of two angle-irons)
receives the lunette in front and spare wheel in rear, and is attached
to the axle by an understrap, and to the side-rails by front and rear
cross-bars, with connections stiffened by brackets, and the strength at
axle increased by middle-rail braces.

The =Side-rails=, which are attached to the axle by understraps and
joined to the middle rail by the front and rear cross-bars.

The =Foot-board= is fastened to the middle and side rails with brackets
to incline the surface of the board.

=Floor-rods=, passing through middle and side rails, between rear chest
and rear cross-bar.

Two =Road-brakes= complete, and attachments for implements and spare
parts.

The lever road-brake now supplied is similar to the ordinary
wagon-brake, and so arranged that each side may be operated separately.
The shoe is applied in rear of the wheel, and the brake-lever stands
upright inside the wheels, opposite the front side of the rear
ammunition-chest.

The caisson body carries two ammunition-chests same as for limber.


                    ON THE CAISSON CAN BE CARRIED:

=A Spare Wheel=, which fits upon an iron axle-arm attached to the rear
end of the middle rail, or a spare pole.

    Two long-handled shovels.
    Two pickaxes    } by suitable attachments underneath.
    One spare pole, }
    Two spades, } between chests.
    Two axes,   }

Four watering-buckets, canvas.

One or two lanterns.

Two paulins, on chests.

One manœuvring-handspike, right side, along the side-rail.

One section of picket-rope, coiled around spare-wheel axle-bolster, or
around floor-rods and rear cross-bar.

Two extra boxes of ammunition can also be carried, one on each side of
spare-wheel axle, resting on the floor-rods and lashed on.


                    STOWING OF CAISSON IMPLEMENTS.

=Long-handled Shovels.=--The concave faces of the blades are toward and
resting against the axle, under side, the shovel-points being passed
into staple-straps in rear of the axle and the shovel handles afterward
into catches on the front cross-bar, against which the ends of handles
rest.

=The Pickaxes=, which must be put on _before_ the shovels, are carried
beneath by fixtures attached to both middle and side-rails. The ends
of the handles are brought together, the _pointed_ halves of the
blades overlapped, one in advance of the other (if the spare pole be
on, this must be done _above_ the pole); handle-ends are then passed
into a broad strap of sheet metal depending from the middle rail, and
at the same time the outer blade-ends into brackets or shelves on the
side-rails. In this position the overlapping blades should be under
a catch and immediately in front of a bracket or shelf on the middle
rail, which is to support the picks, and to get them into which they
should be pressed up against the spring and toward the axle until the
spring falls behind them.

This spring has, toward the axle, a long branch on which to place the
hand when pressing up the spring to remove the picks.

=The Axes and Spades= are carried between the chests. A board is
there, permanently riveted to the side-rails at each end. Within the
rails, on opposite sides, are slots, into which the blades are placed
vertically, the halves resting on top of the board. The spade-blades,
spade-handles crossed, are placed on the board, one at each side,
between the helve of one and the blade of the other axe, concave face
toward the axe-blade, the ends of spare blades against the outer branch
of the upright metal stops fastened to the board-ends; the handles of
the spades are then forced down until the ends rest on top of the axes.

=The Canvas Buckets= are carried in left compartment under limber
foot-boards.

=The Lanterns.=--Lanterns are carried in canvas bags hung across the
spare-wheel axle-bolster. They hang below the floor-rods and do not
swing.

The picket-rope section, manœuvring-handspike, and spare pole or
spare wheel are carried as already indicated. _Spare wheels, spare
poles, and manœuvring-handspikes are not considered part of the
regular caisson equipment._ In war-time it is proposed to carry on each
spare caisson a spare wheel, on the left caisson of each platoon a
spare pole, and on the right caisson of each platoon a spare handspike.

In horse-artillery the front chest of each caisson-body should be
removed to bring the gun-team and caisson-team loads to an equality and
give space for forage.


                    CAISSON, WEIGHTS AND EQUIPMENT.

    ---+---------------------------------------------+--------+---------
    No.|               Article.                      | Weight.| Total.
    ---+---------------------------------------------+--------+---------
       |                                             |Lbs. Oz.|Lbs. Oz.
      1|Caisson complete, with brakes and neck-yoke  |        |2216  8
      2|Axes, handled                                |  10    |
      2|Pickaxes, handled                            |  15    |
      2|Shovels, long-handled                        |   8    |
      2|Spades, short-handled                        |  10    |
      4|Paulins                                      | 109   8|
      2|Water-buckets                                |   3   4|
      2|Lanterns with Cranston attachment            |   5   8|
      1|Prolonge (section of picket-rope)            |  15   8|
      2|Cushions                                     |  37   8|
      1|Grease-can and spatula                       |   5   8|
       |                                             +--------+ 219 12
    126|Projectiles (13½ lbs. each)                  |1701    |
    132|Cartridges (3.5 lbs. each)                   | 462    |
    132|Cartridge-bags                               |   8   4|
       |                                             +--------+2171   4
       |                                             |        +---------
       |   Total weight                              |        |4607   8
       |   Weight per horse with above equipment     |        | 768
       |                                             |        |
       |For horse-artillery deduct 1 chest, filled   |        | 909   8
       | "    "       "     total weight             |        |3698
       | "    "       "     weight per horse         |        | 616   5
       |                                             |        |
       |For 3.6 ammunition:                          |        |
    108| Projectiles (under the supposition that     |        |
       |   each chest will contain 36 rounds)        |2160    |
    114| Cartridges                                  | 477   6|
    114| Cartridge-bags                              |   7   2|
       |                                             +--------+2644   8
       |                                             |        +---------
       |   Total weight                              |        |5080  12
       |   Weight per horse                          |        | 846  12
       |                                             |        |
       |The weight per horse is increased:           |        |
       |  By adding 1 spare handspike       0.92 lbs.|        |
       |  "    "    1 spare pole            4.75  "  |        |
       |  "    "    1 spare wheel          33.66  "  |        |
    ---+---------------------------------------------+--------+---------


                   COMBINED BATTERY-WAGON AND FORGE.

  [Illustration: FIG. 65.]

    Weight empty, including limber 2081 lbs.
    Weight complete                2731  "

This consists of one limber complete, same as gun-carriage limber
except that the primer-and obturator-boxes are omitted, and the packing
of the chest is adapted to securing the smith's tools and the forge
instead of ammunition, and one metal body with Archibald wheels and
tubular steel axle, same as for caisson except that the attachments
for implements are omitted, while attachments are provided for anvil
and sledge in front of the wooden body on the middle rail. The vise
is mounted on the front end of the middle rail, and the attachment
for the lunette-prop is under and continuous with the attachment for
the sledge. The body (the entire top of which is covered with canvas)
has three compartments. Two lids (one opening upward on either side
and forming part of the top) open into one containing grindstone and
stand-closets packed with stores and spare parts for the repair of the
battery; and lids at the front end, opening into the other two, which
contain chests of saddler's, carpenter's, and wheelwright's tools,
all of which are so arranged that any one can be taken out without
disturbing the others. A folding forage-rack in rear and a rail around
the top provide space for carrying forage. The brake is the lever
road-brake.

  [Illustration: FIG. 65_a_.]


                             NOMENCLATURE.

     1. Lunette-prop.
     2. Lunette.
     3. Vise.
     4. Middle rail.
     5. Sledge.
     6. Attachment for sledge and lunette-prop.
     7. Anvil.
     8. Anvil key.
     9. Anvil-key nut.
    10. Anvil-key chain.
    11. Brake-chain.
    12. Brake-shoe.
    13. Brake-lever.
    14. Side rail.
    15. Wagon body.
    16. Brake eye-strap.
    17. Lid.
    18. Middle rail.
    19. Wagon-body rail.
    20. Rack.
    21. Rack-chain.


             CARPENTER'S AND WHEELWRIGHT'S CHEST CONTAINS:

     1 brace with twelve assorted bits.
     1 12-in. drawing-knife.
     1 20-in. hand-saw.
     1 26-in. rip-saw.
     1 hand-axe.
     1 claw-hammer.
     4 framing-chisels (¾, 1, 1¼, 2 in.).
     3 framing-gouges (½, 1, 1½ in.).
     1 12-in. screw-wrench.
     1 jack-plane.
     1 smoothing-plane.
     1 spoke-shave.
     1 2-foot rule.
    10 assorted brads and awls, contained in handle.
     1 trying-square.
     1 Chesterman-Sheffield linen tape-line.
     1 scribing-awl.
    12 assorted saw-files (4 and 6 in.).
     1 10-in. wood-rasp.
     1 10-in. wood-file.
     1 oiler.
     1 8-in. oil-stone.
     1 gauge.
     1 10-in. compass.
     1 table-vise.
     1 pincers.
     1 wooden mallet.
     6 auger-bits (¼, ½, ¾, 1, 1½ in.).
     1 patent auger-handle.
     3 file-handles, iron (4-in. flat, 4-in. round, and 5 in.).
     2 small canvas bags for small stores.

    Weight of chest empty           55 lbs.
    Weight of contents, as above    47½ "
                                   --------
    Total                          102½ "


                     THE SADDLER'S CHEST CONTAINS:

    1 round knife.
    1 shoe-knife.
    1 draw-gauge.
    6 assorted stitching-awls, handled.
    1 rivet-set, 2 holes.
    1 revolving punch (4 tubes, Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7).
    1 claw-tool.
    1 6-in. compass.
    1 creaser, wood.
    1 cutting-nippers.
    1 riveting-hammer.
    1 edge-tool, No. 2.
    1 rule, 2-foot, wood.
    1 oil-stone.
    1 pliers, large.
    1 driving-punch, No. 5.
    1 stitching-horse, complete.
    2 small canvas bags for small stores.

    Weight of chest empty           50 lbs.
    Weight of contents, as above    29  "   8 oz.
                                    -------------
    Total                           79  "   8 "


                       THE FORGE-CHEST CONTAINS:

    1 portable "Empire" forge complete, modified for army use.
    1 hand-hammer, handled.
    1 riveting-hammer.
    1 smith's tongs (11 in.).
    1 tongs for ¼-in. iron.
    1 tongs for ½-in. iron.
    1 chisel for hot iron, handled.
    1 chisel for cold iron, handled.
    1 fore-punch and creaser, handled.
    1 hand cold-chisel.
    1 12-in. flat bastard-file.
    1 round hand-punch.
    1 hardy.
    1 12-in. screw-wrench.
    1 2-foot rule, wood.
    1 square, steel.
    1 oiler.
    1 6-in. iron file-handle.
    1 small wrench for portable forge.
    1 fire-rake.
    1 fire-shovel.
    2 small canvas bags for nails and small stores.
    2 smith's leather aprons.
    1 sole-leather shoeing-box and the following farrier's tools, viz.:
      1 shoeing-hammer.
      1 pritchel.
      1 16-in. shoeing-rasp.
      2 shoeing-knives.
      1 toe-knife.
      1 shoeing-pincers.
      1 clinching-iron.
      1 nail-punch.

    Weight of chest empty         150½ lbs.
    Weight of contents, as above.
    Forge complete                 61½  "
    Tools, etc.                    39½  "
                                  --------
    Total                         251   "


                      STOWING OF IMPLEMENTS, ETC.

=In Limber-chest.=--Middle compartment contains portable forge,
forge-implements, and part of the tools and shoe-box.

Right-hand compartment contains horseshoes.

Left-hand compartment contains remaining tools and small stores, such
as horseshoe-nails, small bolts, nuts, etc., to carry which two small
canvas bags are provided. Limber-chest is locked, and key carried by
blacksmith.

_The Coal_ is carried in the large canvas bag, capacity 3 bushels, on
the foot-boards, lashed to the chest-handles by stout cords permanently
attached to the bag, one of them being the cord by which the mouth of
the bag is drawn together and secured. When empty, the bag is carried
inside the chest.

Further description regarding the stowing of the body part is
unnecessary.


           FORGE AND BATTERY-WAGON, WEIGHTS AND EQUIPMENTS.

    ---+-------------------------------------+--------+--------
    No.|              Article.               |Weight. | Total.
    ---+-------------------------------------+--------+--------
       |                                     |Lbs. Oz.|Lbs. Oz.
      1|Forge and battery-wagon complete,    |        |
       |  with brakes and neck-yoke, but     |        |
       |  without stores                     |        |2081   0
      1|Set blacksmith's and farrier's tools |        |
       |  complete                           |  39   8|
      1|Coal-bag                             |   4   8|
      1|Forge complete                       |  61   8|
      1|Tool-chest, wheelwright's, complete  |  55    |
      1|Set tools, wheelwright's, complete   |  47   8|
      1|Tool-chest, saddler's, complete      |  50    |
      1|Set tools, saddler's, complete       |  29   8|
      2|Jackscrews                           |  50    |
      1|Vise                                 |  32    |
      1|Hammer-sledge                        |  10   8|
      1|Anvil                                | 100    |
      1|Battery-wagon lunette-prop           |   5    |
      1|Grindstone, flanges, shaft, and      |        |
       |  crank, complete                    |  50   8|
      1|Grindstone-frame complete            |  18    |
      1|Can for coal-oil                     |   7   8|
      1|Can for sperm-oil                    |   1    |
      1|Grease-can and spatula               |   5   8|
      2|Lanterns with Cranston attachment    |   5   8|
      4|Water-buckets (2 canvas, 2 gal. iron)|   6   8|
      2|Paulins                              |  54  12|
      1|Prolonge (section of picket-rope)    |  15   8|
       |                                     +--------+ 649  12
       |                                     |        +--------
       |    Total weight                     |        |2730  12
       |                                     |        |
       |    Weight per horse without stores  |        | 455   2
    ---+-------------------------------------+--------+--------


                         THE ARTILLERY-WAGON.

  [Illustration: FIG. 66.

  Weight complete, 1868 pounds.]

This wagon, on the canvas cover of which is painted its name and the
designation of the battery, is made of white oak, and is for carrying
the knapsacks, ammunition for small-arms, spare small-arms, and spare
intrenching tools of the battery. It has the same track as the other
artillery-carriages, and the axles are self-oiling, one filling lasting
a month.

The capacity of the interior is for 120 knapsacks, weighing about 3000
pounds.

The rear wheels are 57¾ inches in diameter; the fore wheels are
smaller, in order to turn under the body of the reach.

The driver's seat is a lock-box of three compartments, the two end
ones being for spare revolvers and revolver-cartridges. The middle
compartment is for the following articles, viz.: 1 wheel-grease can and
spatula; 1 self-oiling axle-grease syringe; 1 hand-hammer; 1 wrench.

On the rear of the wagon is carried a 25-gallon water-keg, fitted with
bronze screw-bung and a spigot. Under the body of the wagon and above
the reach and rockers are carried the spare double (1) and single
(2) trees, and the following intrenching-tools, viz.: 2 long-handled
shovels, 2 spades, 2 pickaxes, 2 axes.

To the foot-board is attached a dash-board lamp, which when not in use
may be carried in the compartment under the driver's seat.

A boot to protect the driver is also provided.

The wagon has a double cover; the first, of water-proof canvas,
covering the top only; the second, of cotton duck, extends down the
sides and far enough in rear to lace at the ends. A stout canvas cover
in rear of the driver's seat prevents the load from being thrown to the
front.

No special place is provided for the two canvas water-buckets, which
should be carried where they can readily be gotten at.

To fill the axle with oil remove the screw-washers and fill the
spindles by means of the axle-grease syringe.


                            THE WATER-CART.

Nothing of this kind is supplied; but battery commanders can readily
improvise one for field marches and encampments and find it exceedingly
useful. Obtain two good substantial wheels and an axle; attach shafts;
build a suitable framework thereon to sustain a large barrel, which
should have a faucet in the rear end and an opening for filling it on
top.


                       LIGHT-ARTILLERY HARNESS.

The harness is made of black leather, black buckles, and without
ornaments other than black leather rosettes. In connecting the
principal parts of the harness and in attaching the horse to the
limber hooks, hooking into rings or links only at the point where a
depression is made in the ring or link, are used.

=The Bridle= (_a_) is similar to the regulation cavalry bridle except
that it has black buckles and black rosettes. The coupling-rein of
the off horse can be lengthened or shortened as desired, and has a
snap-hook for attaching the end to a ring on the saddle of the near
horse. The lash end of the reins of the off horse passes through a
roller on the pommel of his saddle and falls to the left, convenient to
the driver's hand, so that by pulling it the horse is set back in his
harness directly to the rear.

=The Halter= is of leather, with leather halter-strap.


                             =The Saddle.=

NOMENCLATURE.--(_A_) pommel; (_B_) cantle; (_C_) side-bar;
(_D_) quarter-straps, front, spider; (_E_) quarter-straps, rear,
spider; (_F_) quarter-strap ring or spider-ring; (_G_) cincha;
(_H_) cincha-strap; (_I_) cincha-ring; (_K_) stirrup-loop; (_L_)
stirrup-strap; (_M_) stirrup-tread; (_N_) stirrup hood; (_P_) rings;
(_R_) cantle-staple; (_S_) saddle-bag stud; (_aa_) (_bb_) coat-straps
or thongs; (_ii_) cincha-ring safes.

  [Illustration: FIG. 67.]

The regulation McClellan saddle, with saddle bags (_b_), Fig. 68, is
used. Some batteries are supplied with fair-leather seats which are to
be preferred to black leather ones. Leather-covered wooden stirrups for
officers; enlisted men use brass stirrups. Saddles of horses in harness
have a pommel-ring to which the collar-strap (_v_) is hooked; and
saddles of wheel-horses have, securely fastened to them, cantle-hooks
(_k_), which serve to hold the single-trees (_i_) when detached from
the double-tree. These hooks can be removed and attached to another
saddle, if necessary, in the field. A loop is placed on the hair cincha
to support the martingale (_n_). There are three sizes of cinchas,
viz., 16-inch, 18-inch, and 20-inch.

  [Illustration: FIG. 68.]

=The Draught-harness.=--This consists of the locking-collar (_c_), with
hames permanently attached. The trace-tugs (_d_), permanently attached
on either side of the collar, terminate in a ring (_e_), through which
the toggle (_f_) of the trace passes.

The trace (_g_) is made of two thicknesses of leather and has a D ring
at either end to which chains are attached. The front chain (_f_) is
short with a toggle at the end. The rear chain (_h_) is 24 inches long
with a hook at the end; each link has a depression in it over which
the hook can pass. Mogul springs (_l_) are used on the trace-chains of
wheel-horses.

The trace-chains (_y_) of lead-horses terminate in a ring which passes
over the toggle of the trace in rear; the hook-end is then passed
through the ring at the end of the trace and hooked in any link of the
chain.

=The Breeching.=--In this connection it should be stated that
the neck-yoke (_o_) is attached to the wheel-horse by means of a
breast-strap (_r_) which passes through the ring on the neck-yoke and
hooks on either side of the collar to a ring.

The breeching consists of a broad breech-strap (_m_), supported by
hip-straps (_s_, _s′_), with rings at either end; a back-strap (_t_),
with crupper (_t′_) attached, hooks to the saddle, and also has a
loin-strap (_u_) for supporting the traces.

The martingale (_n_), of heavy leather with folded edges, is attached
to the neck-yoke (_m_) by means of a cinch-strap sewed to a ring in its
front end. It passes between the fore legs of the horse and through the
loop on the cincha, and the D ring at its rear end should be near the
middle of the horse's belly. Attached to the ring on either end of the
breech-strap is a side-strap (_s"_) bearing a hook which hooks into
the D ring at the rear end of the martingale.

  [Illustration: FIG. 69.

    _b′_, breech-strap;
    _s"_, side-straps;
    _n_, martingale;
    _m_, neck-yoke.
  ]

The martingale and side-straps, being under the body of the horse and
connected with the breeching and neck-yoke, the horse is not only held
up, but uses his weight and strength to the best advantage when holding
back.

The breech-strap, hip-strap, side-straps, martingale, and breast-strap
are omitted on lead-horses.

The blanket is of wool, dyed scarlet.

The dress saddle-cloth is of heavy cotton canvas, bright scarlet, bound
with black leather. It is easily cleaned by scrubbing with soap and
water. The leg-guard, whip, watering-bridle, surcingle, nose-bag, and
when required lariat and picket-pin. Surcingles are of three sizes,
viz.: No. 1, 76½ inches; No. 2, 84 inches; and No. 3, 96 inches.

The collar now used is a hinged steel locking-collar.

This steel collar, weighing about 15 pounds, consists essentially of
two plates, pressed in U shape, hinged together at the top, and closed
at the bottom by a spring latch. One side of the plate is fitted to the
animal's shoulder; the other side carries the trace-hooks, under which
are placed U-shaped plate-springs, which are held in place by the same
bolts as are the trace-hooks.

All parts of the collar and its fittings are put together with bolts,
and can be quickly taken apart when necessary, the only tool needed
being the wrench that accompanies each collar. The parts of the collar
that rest on the neck and shoulders are galvanized, which prevents
galling in warm or wet weather, and conduces to the healing of sores.
The collar is opened by pressing a spring latch at the bottom, and is
thus easily put on and taken off without forcing it over the horse's
head.

The collar being such an important part of the harness, directions for
fitting it are given as indicated in the circular of the Steel Horse
Collar Company, of Fitchburg, Mass.

Collar-sides, pads, and connections are made in different sizes to suit
the number of collar. All the other parts will fit any collar.

  [Illustration: DESCRIPTION OF PARTS OF COLLAR.

  FIG. 70.

  and the bolts for top connection, bottom of collar, extension,
  and trace-plate.
  ]

The table of dimensions at the top of next page gives the largest size
to which each number of collar can be adjusted. Each collar can be made
1½ inches shorter and 1¼ inches narrower than the dimensions given.
Sizes 5 and 6 are used in the U. S. service.

To shorten the collar, take out the bolt that fastens the extension to
collar-side, and press the extension down into the collar-side one or
two holes as desired, and replace the bolt.


                    DIRECTIONS FOR FITTING COLLARS.

                         TABLE OF DIMENSIONS.

    ---+---------+--------------+------------
       |Length of|  Width ⅓     |  Width at
       | Collar. |Down from Top.|Widest Part.
    ---+---------+--------------+------------
    No.| Inches. |    Inches.   |   Inches.
       |         |              |
     1 | 16½     |    5⅝        |   7½
     2 | 18      |    5¾        |   8
     4 | 19½     |    6         |   8⅜
     5 | 21      |    7½        |   9¼
     6 | 22½     |    7½        |   9¼
     7 | 24      |    8         |  10
    ---+---------+--------------+------------

The width is changed at the top by using the different pads and
connections. Each pad has its own connection, which forms the hinge at
the top of the collar.

The collar is taken in at the bottom by shifting the bolt that holds
the buckle in the side having the three holes. Each pad, connection,
and collar-side has the number denoting its size stamped upon it.
Any reference to the collar-side hereafter will mean collar-side and
extension put together, which form the collar-side complete.

When it is necessary to put a No. 3 pad, the largest size, in the
top of the collar, and adjust the bottom to the middle or smallest
size, the collar-sides will have to be bent at the top under the eye
enough to allow the collar to close easily at the bottom, and when
the reverse is wanted the collar-sides can be straightened. In making
these irregular changes be particular to get both sides of the collar
the same length, so that it will close at the bottom. The sides can be
easily twisted to make them come together evenly.

When it is necessary to bend the ends of the pads to make them fit
closely to the collar-sides, use a wooden mallet. If a hammer is used,
it will break the zinc on the galvanized parts.


                     THE ARTILLERY-WAGON HARNESS.

The same as regular artillery harness, omitting the saddles and
substituting a back-strap, and replacing the curb-reins and
coupling-reins by a set of regular driving-reins.

A four-in-hand whip is also used with the harness.


                           HARNESS WEIGHTS.

    ---+-----------------------------+-----------------+-----------------
       |                             |      Wheel.     |      Lead.
    No.|           Article.          +--------+--------+--------+--------
       |                             |  Near. |  Off.  |  Near. |  Off.
    ---+-----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+--------
       |                             |Lbs. Oz.|Lbs. Oz.|Lbs. Oz.|Lbs. Oz.
     1 |Halter                       |  2   6 |  2   6 |  2   6 |  2   6
     1 |Bridle                       |  3     |  3     |  3     |  3
     1 |Coupling-strap               |        |     10 |        |     10
     1 |Collar                       | 15     | 15     | 15     | 15
     1 |Breast-strap                 |  1  14 |  1  14 |        |
     1 |Martingale                   |  1   4 |  1   4 |        |
     2 |Traces, with chains and mogul|        |        |        |
       |  springs                    | 10   8 | 10   8 | 11   4 | 11   4
     1 |Saddle complete              | 17  10 | 17  10 | 16  14 | 16  14
     1 |Saddle-bags, pair of         |  4  10 |  4  10 |  4  10 |  4  10
     1 |Breeching complete           |  5   4 |  5   4 |        |
     1 |Crupper                      |        |        |  2   8 |  2   8
     1 |Blanket                      |  4   2 |  4   2 |  4   2 |  4   2
     1 |Leg-guard                    |  2  11 |        |        |
     1 |Whip                         |     12 |        |        |
       |                             +--------+--------+--------+--------
       |    Total                    | 69   1 | 66   4 | 58  12 | 59   6
     1 |Watering-bridle              |  1     |  1     |  1     |  1
     1 |Surcingle                    |     12 |     12 |     12 |     12
     1 |Nose-bag                     |  1   2 |  1   2 |  1   2 |  1   2
       |                             +--------+--------+--------+--------
       |    Grand total              | 71  15 | 69   2 | 61  10 | 62   4
       |Horse-brush and currycomb    |        |        |        |
       |  weigh             1.32 lbs.|        |        |        |
       |Lariat and picket-pin        |        |        |        |
       |  weigh             3.09  "  |        |        |        |
    ---+-----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+--------


                     COLT'S REVOLVER, CALIBRE .45.

This revolver is retained, for the present, for light batteries, and
experiments are now being made to ascertain if a shorter barrel can not
be advantageously used.

NOMENCLATURE.--(_A_) barrel; (_B_) frame; (_B′_) recoil-plate;
(_C_) cylinder; (_DD_) centre-pin; (_D′_) centre-pin bushing; (_E_)
guard; (_F_) back-strap; (_G_) hammer; (_H_) mainspring; (_I_)
hammer-roll and rivet; (_J_) hammer-screw; (_K_) hammer-cam; (_L_)
hand and hand-spring; (_M_) bolt and screw; (_N_) trigger and screw;
(_O_) hammer-notches; (_P_) firing-pin and rivet; (_Q_) ejector-rod and
spring; (_Q′_) ejector-tube; (_R_) ejector-head; (_S_) ejector-tube
screw; (_T_) short guard-screw; (_U_) sear and bolt-spring (combined)
and screw; (_V_) back-strap screw; (_W_) mainspring-screw; (_X_) front
sight; (_Y_) centre-pin screw. The two back-strap screws just behind
the hammer, the stock, the long guard-screw, gate, gate-catch screw,
gate-spring, and gate-catch are not shown in Fig. 71.

  [Illustration: FIG. 71.]

=To Load.=--Hold the revolver in the left hand, muzzle downward;
half-cock it with the right hand and open the gate. Insert the
cartridges with the right hand, close the gate, and bring the hammer to
the safety-notch. Keep it there until the revolver is fired.

=To Eject the Cartridge-shells.=--Hold the revolver in the left hand,
at the half-cock, and with the gate open. Eject the shells with the
ejector, pushed by the right hand, turning the cylinder with the thumb
and fore finger of the left hand.

=To Dismount the Revolver.=--Half-cock the revolver, loosen the
centre-pin catch-screw, draw out the centre-pin, open the gate, and the
cylinder can then be withdrawn. To remove the ejector, turn out the
ejector-tube screw, then push the front end away from the barrel, and
pull it towards the muzzle. The stock can be removed by turning out the
two back-strap screws just behind the hammer, and that at the bottom of
the strap. Remove the mainspring and guard: the parts of the lock can
then be readily separated. The centre-pin bushing should be pushed out
for cleaning. To remove the gate, turn out the gate-screw in the lower
side of the frame (hidden by the guard); then the gate-spring and catch
can be withdrawn and the gate pushed out.

=To Assemble the Revolver.=--See the directions for dismounting,
which should be followed in inverse order. The mainspring is most
conveniently mounted by turning in the screw part way, and then
swinging around the front end of the mainspring until it bears against
the under side of the friction-roll. The cylinder-bushing should be
frequently removed for cleaning.

=Dimensions and Weights.=--The following table gives the principal
dimensions, weights, etc., of the revolver:


                              DIMENSIONS.

    Total length                          12.5 inches.
    Length of barrel                       7.5   "
    Diameter of bore                       0.445 "
    Grooves--number                        6
       "     twist, uniform, one turn in
               (left-handed)              16     "
       "     depth, uniform                 .005 in.


                               WEIGHTS.

    Total weight                     2.5 lbs.
    Weight of powder-charge         28 grs.
    Weight of bullet               230  "
    Initial velocity               730 ft.-sec.

The cartridge-case is metallic centre-fire, and resembles in its
construction the rifle cartridge.

=Rapidity of Fire.=--Eighteen rounds in one minute and fifty-four
seconds, beginning and ending with chambers empty.


                      PENETRATION IN WHITE PINE.

    Range, yds    50    100    150    200    250    300
    Inches        3¾     3½     3⅛     2¾     2½     2¼


                          COST OF AMMUNITION.

    Ball cartridges     $10.00  per 1000
    Blank    "            8.30   "    "


           PRICE-LIST OF COMPONENT PARTS OF COLT'S REVOLVER.

        Components.               Price.
    Frame                          $4 10
    Recoil-plate                      05
    Gate                              55
    Gate-spring                       01
    Gate-catch                        01
    Barrel                          1 60
    Front sight                       05
    Cylinder                        1 60
    Centre-pin                        18
    Centre-pin bushing                20
    Ejector-tube                    1 05
    Ejector-rod                       17
    Ejector-head                      25
    Ejector-spring                    07
    Hammer                            55
    Hammer-cam                        01
    Hammer-roll                       02
    Hammer-roll rivet                 01
    Firing-pin                        05
    Firing-pin rivet                  01
    Guard                             50
    Back-strap                        30
    Mainspring                        10
    Trigger                           10
    Bolt                              10
    Hand                              10
    Hand-spring                       02
    Stock                             35
    Long guard screw (2), 1c. ea.     02
    Short guard-screw (2)    "        02
    Back-strap screw (3)     "        03
    Hammer-screw                      05
    Trigger-screw                     04
    Bolt-screw                        02
    Centre-pin screw                  02
    Ejector-tube screw                02
    Gate-catch screw                  01
    Mainspring screw                  02
    Sear-spring screw                 02
    Sear-spring                       02
    Screw-driver                      10
                                   -----
    Revolver complete             $12 50


                       ALLOWANCE OF AMMUNITION.

Each enlisted man and officer of a battery is allowed for revolver
practice ammunition to the value of $1.00.

Each battery is allowed 5000 rounds of blank ammunition.

Battery commanders will keep a permanent record for each calendar year
of the amount of ammunition expended at each target practice.

Ammunition not expended at the end of the year (December 31) is no
longer available.


                            HUNTING-KNIFE.

A model, having a blade 12 inches long, and similar in shape to the
regular bowie-knife, is now under consideration by the War Department.



                              CHAPTER V.

 Care and Fitting, etc., of Harness. Care of Carriages. Care of Guns.
                   Care of Ammunition. Guard Orders.


               CARE OF PAINTS, OILS, AND PAINT-BRUSHES.

=Paints, Turpentines, Oils, Lacquers, etc.=, are kept in a room
separate from other stores, preferably a cellar. The floor should be
covered with several inches of fine sand, which should be renewed
occasionally. Sawdust should _never_ be used for the floor.

=Volatile Oils=, such as kerosene or benzine, must never be kept stored
in a room with other oils and paints, but in such place that the least
possible danger will arise in case of fire.

=Paint-brushes=, when new, and before using, should be wrapped with
strong twine and soaked in water. After using they should be cleaned
with spirits of turpentine and put away in a vessel containing water,
in order to keep them pliable.


                        PAINTS, LACQUERS, ETC.

=Waterproof Paint.=--A solution of pure india-rubber in linseed-oil,
ground with pure graphite into a thick, elastic, smoothly flowing paint.

=Flexible Paint for Canvas.=--Dissolve 2½ pounds of yellow soap in
1½ gallons of boiling water. Grind while hot with any good oil-paint.

=Varnish for Harness.=--India-rubber, ½ pound; spirits of turpentine, 1
gallon. Dissolve enough to make it a jelly; then take equal quantities
of good hot linseed-oil and the above mixture, incorporate well over a
slow fire, and it is ready for use.

=Linseed-oil Varnish.=--Boil any quantity of linseed-oil for an hour,
stir in until dissolved 4 ounces of powdered rosin to each pound of
oil; then add 1 ounce spirits of turpentine to each pound of oil; cool
and strain. It is cheap, a good preservative of wood, and stands hot
water well.

=Lacquer for Iron Ordnance.=--Coal-tar (of good quality), 2 gallons;
spirits of turpentine, 1 pint; the turpentine to be added in small
quantities during the application of the lacquer. The surface of
the metal must be first cleaned with a scraper and a wire brush, if
necessary, and the lacquer applied hot, in two thin coats, with a
paint-brush.

=Lacquer for Bright Ironwork.=--Boiled linseed-oil, 80.5 parts;
litharge, 5.5 parts; white lead ground in oil, 11.25 parts; pulverized
rosin, 2.75 parts. Add the litharge to the oil; let it simmer over a
slow fire for three hours; strain it and add the rosin and white lead;
keep it gently warmed, and stir until the rosin is dissolved. Apply it
with a paint-brush.

=Lacquer for Brasswork.=--Alcohol (95%), 2 ounces; seed-lac, 1 ounce.
Put in glass for six days, exposed to the light; shake well once each
day. Apply with brush while work is hot.

=To Attach Leather to Metal.=--Coat the metal with a hot solution of
glue and the leather with a hot solution of nut-galls.


                DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING MOULDY LEATHER.

First. Wash thoroughly in soap-suds with a brush, so as to remove all
dirt and mould.

Second. Sponge with clean water, and before the leather dries apply
with a sponge tied to a handle a solution of ammonia and water in equal
parts, using 4 Fs. ammonia.

Third. Apply, when dry, a coat of leather blacking. (A good blacking
can be made by placing in 5 gallons of best cider vinegar ¼ pound of
pulverized nut-galls, 2 pounds of copperas, 1 pound of iron filings
or chips, and letting it stand for five days before use, stirring
carefully from time to time.)

Fourth. After the leather is dry apply a good coating of oil--1 part of
kerosene and 4 parts of neat's-foot. Apply freely so as to soften the
leather, and let it dry sufficiently.

Fifth. Brush the pieces well, and put on with a sponge a thin coat of
gum tragacanth, dissolving ¼ pound of gum in 1 gallon of warm water.
After drying the leather should be repacked, if desired to store it.
Harness in use which becomes hard from perspiration or from being wet
should be washed, oiled, and rubbed as above, without applying the
solution of ammonia, or of blacking unless the leather has become
reddish.


                           CARE OF HARNESS.

The estimated life of a set of artillery harness is seven years.

Harness, after being used, must be carefully wiped and cleaned; if
possible, this is done before taking it off the horse; otherwise it is
put in good order at the earliest practicable moment, and covered with
the sack. Straps and leather parts generally are kept soft and supple;
trace-chains and iron parts free from rust.

Collars and saddles will be aired and kept perfectly clean.

The greatest care must be exercised in keeping the collar where it
bears against the horse in perfect order.

Harness should be oiled two or three times a year if necessary.

The best oil for this use is neat's-foot oil, the unctuous property
of which is particularly suitable for preserving the suppleness of
the leather; this oil contains no siccative part, and may be used
unpurified. Four pints and a half will oil the harness of a team of
three pairs. To keep it from becoming rancid, use 1 part kerosene to 4
parts neat's-foot.

Before using the oil every part of the leather must be perfectly
cleaned and washed, without letting the water soak deeply into the
leather; while still damp blacken with dye those places which have
become red; when the leather begins to dry, oil it, spreading the oil
on with a sponge or thick, soft brush. When neat's-foot oil cannot be
had, pure fish-oil may be used, but it must be carefully ascertained
that it does not contain any siccative matter, which would make it
injurious.

Other oils may be usefully employed, as whale-oil, when they can be
gotten pure; this is not easily done, it being hard to detect the
frauds.

Vegetable oils are very hurtful.

As good oil cannot always be had, a mixture of three quarters of melted
lard and one quarter of whale-oil may be used in emergencies; it should
be spread over the leather with a piece of woollen cloth, and well
rubbed in.

Blacking for harness and dressings are given under "Mountain
Artillery," p. 61. The prepared harness-oil manufactured at Rock Island
Arsenal is packed in tins 4½ × 4½ × 8½ inches, each containing 6 pounds
of oil. Twenty-five tins are packed in a box.

Kerosene is good for cleaning rust from iron parts, and then use
sperm-oil.

To paint metal parts, use asphaltum paint. Before applying care should
be taken that every particle of rust is removed; then give two light
coats, allowing plenty of time for the first coat to dry. Colgate's
black harness soap and Frank Miller's harness soap No. 2½ are
excellent for keeping harness clean and soft with little trouble.

Frank Miller's harness soap and asphaltum paint can be obtained from
the Ordnance Department.

Recent orders from the War Department forbid the use of any dressings
other than those furnished by the Ordnance Department.

In the field there will not usually be much time or many materials
available for cleaning harness. Rust should be cleaned off ironwork
with sand, kerosene, etc., the ironwork being then oiled. Leather
should be kept soft and pliable by having a small quantity of soft
soap, if proper oil be not on hand, worked into it, mud and sweat being
first removed with as little water as possible.

The blanket must be kept clean, and folded to lie perfectly smooth on
the horse's back. Inspect the collar and see that its bearing surface
is free from dirt, dried hair, etc., before putting it on the horse,
and at every opportunity. The necessity for repairs will be reported
immediately, and the repairs will be made by the saddler at the
earliest practicable moment.

In garrison harness is wiped off after each drill, and is carefully
cleaned once a weak. A good driver should clean his harness thoroughly
in from 1 to 1½ hours, especially if provided with a trestle on which
to spread it out. First remove all dust and dirt with a damp cloth,
disconnecting all of the parts for that purpose. Then apply either soap
or dressing with a sponge, wetting the sponge with water when using the
soap.

=Harness-pegs.=--Harness-pegs for each pair are arranged in the
walls of the harness-room or in the heel-posts of the stalls. There
should be three pegs for each double set of harness, the upper one for
the pole-yoke, with the martingales attached, the bridles, and collars;
the next for the off harness, and the lower one for the near harness.


                    ARRANGEMENT OF HARNESS ON PEGS.

=On the Upper Peg.=--First, the pole-yoke, with the martingales
attached, next to the post or wall; then the bridle and collar of the
near horse; then the bridle and collar of the off horse, in the order
named.

=On the Middle Peg.=--The off harness; the traces, which are detached,
are hung over the peg close to the heel-post; the saddle, with its
attachments over the seat, is placed on the peg.

=On the Lower Peg.=--The leg-guard is slipped over this peg, and the
near harness is placed on it, as described above for the off harness.

Each hair-pad is placed on top of its saddle.

The saddle-cloths, being designed only for occasions of ceremony, are
kept wherever directed by the battery commander, and issued when it is
intended to use them.


                    TO HARNESS IN GARRISON, WHEEL.

=Collar.=--Each wheel-driver puts on and locks the collar of his off
horse.

=Pad.=--He puts on the hair-pad, and also the saddle-cloth if it is to
be used. If the saddle-blanket is used instead of the hair-pad, it will
be folded and put on as described.

=Saddle.=--He puts on the saddle, with its attachments, taking care not
to displace the pad or blanket, adjusts and secures the girth, buckles
the collar-strap to the saddle, and then adjusts the breeching and
buckles the crupper.

=Traces.=--He takes the traces from the peg, passes them through the
loin-loops, attaches the rear ends to the single-tree, which is hanging
on the cantle-hook, and then the front ends to the collar, beginning
with the off trace; the near trace will be laid on the saddle while
attaching the other.

=Bridle.=--He puts on the bridle and secures the coupling-rein to the
manger. He then passes the reins through the roller.

=Collar.=--Each wheel-driver begins to harness his near horse, as
prescribed for harnessing the off horse, at the command "_Collar_."

=Pad, etc.=--Same for the near horse as for the off horse, omitting the
directions for the coupling-rein and roller.

=Yoke.=--The wheel-driver puts on his leg-guard, and then, going
to the front of his horses, backs them out of the stall, places them
side by side, facing the exit, and beginning with the off horse
attaches the near yoke by means of the breast-straps, then passes the
martingales between the fore legs and through the standing loop on the
cincha, and attaches the hooks at the end of the side-straps to the
martingale D ring, and then stands to horse.

To back out his pair, the wheel-driver unfastens the coupling-rein,
then stands with his back to the manger, takes the reins of the near
horse in his right hand and those of the off horse in his left hand
near the bit, and backs the pair into the gangway.

In single stalls, separated by partitions, each horse must be backed
out by himself.

=Harness, Lead and Swing.=--The lead-and swing-drivers harness in the
same manner as wheel-drivers, with such omissions as are required
by the difference in the harness. The traces are passed through the
loin-strap loops, the front ends attached to the collars, and they are
then trussed by bringing the rear ends forward and passing the toggle
through the ring. The lead and swing pairs are not turned around nor
backed into the gangway after harnessing unless it is intended to lead
out.


                             TO UNHARNESS.

=Unyoke.=--Beginning with his near horse, each wheel-driver detaches
the hooks at the end of the side-straps from the martingale-ring and
draws the martingale from the standing loop on the cincha; he then
unhooks the inside end of each breast-strap, detaches the neck-yoke,
and hangs it up on its peg.

=Unbridle.=--He uncouples his horses, leads them into the stall,
secures the coupling-rein of the off horse to the manger, unbridles his
near horse, puts on the halter and ties the halter-strap to the manger,
hangs up the bridle, and takes off his leg-guard and places it on the
peg.

=Collar off.=--He unbuckles the collar-strap, detaches the front ends
of traces from the collar, removes the collar and hangs it on its peg.

=Traces off.=--He unhooks the traces from the single-tree, takes them
off and hangs them on their peg.

=Unsaddle.=--He unbuckles and frees the crupper, disengages the girth,
places the breeching and then the girth on the saddle, takes off the
saddle and places it on its peg with the saddle-pad on top.

=Unbridle.=--Each wheel-driver unfastens the coupling-rein, unbridles
his off horse, puts on the halter, ties its strap to the manger, and
hangs up the bridle.

=Collar off, etc.=--The off harness is taken off in the same order as
the near harness.


                      TO UNHARNESS IN THE FIELD.

=Without Harness-racks.=--The pole-prop is placed under the end of
the pole; the single-trees are left attached to the double-trees; the
wheel-traces are unhitched from the collars only, and laid over the
chest from front to rear, or on the foot-board; the collars of the
wheel-team on top of the limber-chest (paulins having been removed)
next to the rail on the near side, the swing-collars in the middle, and
the lead-collars next to the other rail; the collar of the off horse is
placed on top of that of the near horse of the same team; the remainder
of the harness is placed on the pole, that of the near wheel-horse next
to the double-tree and as close to it as possible, next that of the
off wheel-horse, both in the order laid down for the wheel-harness;
the traces of the lead-and swing-harness (folded once) are laid over
the pole; then on top of them the saddles, with the attachments over
them, so as not to rest on the ground. The neck-yoke is placed on the
foot-board.

=To Hook the Single-tree.=--Hold the single-tree with the eye down
and against the side of the cantle-hook; then push it sidewise far
enough so that the eye will pass over the cantle-hook; then let the
single-tree fall to the rear. This can be done from either side.

=To Fold the Saddle-blanket.=--The blanket, after being well shaken,
will be folded into six thicknesses, as follows: Hold it well up by
the two corners, the long way up and down; double it lengthwise (so
that the fold will come between the "U" and "S"), the folded corner
(middle of the blanket) in the left hand; take the folded corner
between the thumb and fore finger of the right hand, thumb pointing
to the left; slip the left hand down the folded edge two thirds its
length and seize it with the thumb and second finger; raise the hands
to the height of the shoulders, the blanket between them extended;
bring the hands together, the double fold falling outward; pass the
folded corner from the right hand into the left hand between the thumb
and fore finger; slip the second finger of the right hand between the
folds and seize the double folded corner; turn the left (disengaged)
corner in and seize it with the thumb and fore finger of the right
hand, the second finger of the right hand stretching and evening the
folds; after evening the folds grasp the corners in the hands and shake
the blanket well in order to smooth the folds; raise the blanket and
place it between the chin and the breast; slip the hands down half-way,
the first two fingers outside, the other fingers and thumb of each
hand inside; seize the blanket with the thumbs and first two fingers;
let the part under the chin fall forward; hold the blanket up, arms
extended, even the lower edges, seize the middle points between the
thumbs and fore fingers, and flirt the outside part over the right arm;
the blanket is thus held before placing it on the horse.

=To Put on the Blanket.=--Approach the horse on the near (left) side,
with the blanket folded and held as just prescribed; place it well
forward on his back, tossing the part of the blanket over the right
arm to the right side of the horse, still keeping hold of the middle
points; slide the blanket once or twice from front to rear to smooth
the hair, being careful to raise the blanket in bringing it forward;
place the fore finger of the left hand on the withers, and fore finger
of the right hand on the backbone, the blanket smooth; it will then be
well forward, with the edges on the left side; remove the locks of the
mane that may be under it.

=To Saddle.=--Place the pad or blanket on the horse as previously
explained; seize the pommel of the saddle with the left hand and the
cantle with the right; approach the horse on the near side from the
direction of the croup and _place the centre of the saddle on the
middle of the horse's back_ so it will fit close to it; let down
the cincha-strap and cincha; pass by the horse's head to the off
side, adjust the cincha and straps, and see that the pad or blanket
is smooth; return to the near side by the head, raise the pad or
blanket slightly under the pommel-arch so that the withers may not be
compressed; take the cincha-strap in the right hand, reach under the
horse and seize the cincha-ring with the left hand, pass the end of
the strap through the ring from underneath (from inside to outside),
then up and through the upper ring from the outside; if necessary, make
another fold in the same manner.

The strap is fastened as follows: Pass the end through the upper ring
to the front; seize it with the left hand; place the fingers of the
right between the outside folds of the strap; pull from the horse with
the right hand and take up the slack with the left; cross the strap
over the folds, pass the end of it, with the right hand, underneath and
through the upper ring back of the folds, then down and under the loop
that crosses the folds, and draw it tightly; weave the end into the
strands of the cincha-strap, between the rings.

Another method of fastening the cincha-strap is as follows: Pass the
end through the upper ring to the rear; seize it with the right hand;
place the fingers of the left between the outer folds of the strap;
pull from the horse with the left hand and take up the slack with the
right; pass the end of the strap underneath and draw it through the
upper ring until a loop is formed; double the loose end of the strap
and push it through the loop and draw the loop taut. The free end
should then be long enough to conveniently seize with the hand.

Having fastened the cincha-strap, let down the right stirrup, then the
left.

The surcingle is then buckled over the saddle and should be a little
looser than the cincha.

The cincha when first tied should admit a finger between it and the
belly. After exercising for a while the cincha will be found too loose
and should be tightened.

=To Put on the Curb-bridle.=--Take the reins in the right, the
crownpiece in the left, hand; approach the horse on the near side,
passing the right hand along the neck; slip the reins over his head
and let them rest on his neck; take the crownpiece in the right hand
and the lower left branch of the bit in the left hand, the fore finger
against the mouthpiece; bring the crownpiece in front of and slightly
below its proper position; insert the thumb of the left hand into the
side of the mouth above the tush; press open the lower jaw; insert
the bit by raising the crownpiece; with the left hand draw the ears
gently under the crownpiece, beginning with the left ear; arrange the
forelock; secure the throat-latch and then the curb-strap, taking care
not to set them too closely.

The mouthpiece, which should fit the width of the horse's mouth,
rests on that part of the bars directly opposite the chin-groove; the
curb-strap will then lie in the chin-groove, without any tendency to
mount up out of it on the sharp bones of the lower jaw. This position
of the mouthpiece will be attained for the majority of horses by
adjusting the cheek-straps so that the mouthpiece will be one inch
above the tushes of geldings and two inches above the corner teeth of
mares.

The throat-latch should admit four fingers between it and the throat;
this prevents any constriction of the windpipe or pressure on the large
blood-vessels.

The curb-strap or chain, which should be of width to fit the
chin-groove,--not over three fourths of an inch,--should fit smoothly
the chin-groove, and be loose enough to admit one or two fingers when
the branches of the bit are in line with the cheek-strap.

If the bridle be put on over the head-stall, the hitching-strap, if not
left at the manger or picket-line, will be tied around the neck. The
hitching-strap may also be arranged as follows: Loop it two or three
times through the ring so that the loop may be about 8 inches long;
wind the strap several times around the loops and draw the end tightly
through them.


                           FITTING HARNESS.

The bridle and saddle are fitted as prescribed.

=The Collar=, when adjusted, should admit the flat of the hand between
the lower part and the throat, and the fingers between the sides and
the neck. A short collar chokes a horse by pressing on the windpipe; a
narrow one pinches and rubs the neck. A broad collar works about and
galls the shoulders.

=The Back-strap=, when adjusted, should admit the breadth of the hand
between it and the horse's back.

=The Collar-strap= should not be tight; otherwise it would pull the
saddle forward on the withers. The surcingle, when used, should be
buckled on the near side of the near horse and on the off side of the
off horse, less tight than, and over, the girth.

=The Breech-strap= should be adjusted so that when the horse is pulling
there will be a space of about four inches between the breech-strap and
the horse's quarters.

=The Hip-strap= should be of such length that the breech-strap will
be a little below the point of the buttocks, or about 12 or 15 inches
below the top of the dock.

=The Loin-straps= should be adjusted so that the wheel-traces, when in
draught, will be straight and without downward pull on the loops that
support them.

The loin-straps of swing-and lead-horses should raise the traces about
six inches above the stifle-joint when in draught. In this position the
line of the traces from front to rear will be straight, and the loops
of the loin-straps will support the traces without drawing them up.

=The Side-straps= should be so adjusted that when the horse is sitting
back (stopping the carriage) no strain comes on the collar; the action
should be performed by the horse sitting back into the breeching
and thereby checking the momentum of the carriage by means of the
side-straps, martingale, and neck-yoke. This is the most important
adjustment of all.

=The Traces.=--The length of the traces must depend in a great measure
on the size of the horse and his stride. For the wheel-team the rule
is to allow about 14 inches from single-tree to hindquarters, and for
swing-and lead-teams one yard from nose to croup when in draught.
The traces should be adjusted so that the line of traction will be
unbroken from the single-tree to the collars of the leaders, and this
rule will regulate, in some measure, the length of the loin-straps, the
matching of the horses, and arrangement of the pairs as wheel, swing,
and lead pair; this should be such as to make the waste of force as
small as possible.

All front trace-chains are permanently fastened to the traces, and have
a toggle at the end.

All rear trace-chains have a ring at one end and a hook at the other;
the hook is passed through the D ring at the end of the trace, and
hooked back into any desired link. By this means the length of the
trace is adjusted, and the rear trace-chain need not be removed except
for cleaning.


                          CARE OF CARRIAGES.

In garrison carriages must be kept in the gun-sheds.

In the field they should be parked, if possible, on dry ground, furrows
being cut, if necessary, to prevent the accumulation of water around
them. They should be covered with the paulins.

Every carriage should be carefully examined each day after marching
into camp, and every defect and damage then noted and corrected as
soon as possible. Everything in the way of cleaning, adjustment, etc.,
should be looked to, so that the carriages may be ready as soon as
possible to turn out again in perfect order.

To keep wheels in good working order, they should be slightly greased
after each day's march, and any old grease which has worked out at
the shoulder of the axle scraped off. In garrison this is done each
drill-day by the cannoneers while the drivers are hitching up, first
wiping them off with cotton waste and then applying a little grease
or sperm-oil. When it is necessary to remove a wheel, it should never
be thrown upon the ground, nor the point of the axle allowed to rest
upon the latter. The elevating-gear should be kept cleaned and oiled,
and also the trunnion bearings, as far as may be without dismounting
the gun. Should the elevating-screw fail to work freely, it must be
examined, and if the threads are indented on the edges they must be
carefully filed down. In long marches a little grease should be placed
on each pintle-hook, so that the lunette may work freely on it.

=Grease for Carriage-wheels.=--Hog's lard softened, if fresh, by
working it. If this cannot be procured, tallow or other grease may be
used; if hard, it should be melted with fish-oil. About one pound of
grease is required for four wheels.

Those fittings of carriages upon which, on account of friction, etc.,
paint cannot be kept should be well oiled to prevent rusting; this is
also necessary with linch-pins, keys, etc., to keep them free from the
liability of jamming. Bright parts are kept in good order by applying
with a brush or cloth a mixture of 1 pound of white lead and ¼ pound
tallow or lard heated and mixed together. It is easily removed with a
cloth and a little turpentine.

Leather strapping must be kept soft and pliable. Cotton waste and Putz
pomade are supplied for keeping bright parts in good order.

Articles carried in the boxes require examination to see that they are
perfect.

Sponges which have been in use ought to be washed and dried as far as
possible, the covers not being put on until quite dry.

=Painting Carriages.=--Wooden parts, and the corresponding parts of
the steel carriage, are painted olive-color; the other parts black.
Whenever there is an appearance of rust under the paint of the steel
gun-carriage, it should not stand until the annual painting, but be
cleaned off at once and repainted.

Before painting a carriage it must be dry, thoroughly clean, and free
from grease. It will not be necessary to scrape off the old paint
where it is sound and firm, but all blisters, perished paint, and rust
on ironwork must be scraped off. Where the wood is bare of paint, it
should have three coats. This patching should be done before the final
coat is put on. One coat is sufficient for the annual painting.

To remove old paint, use a paste of soda and quicklime, equal parts,
made by dissolving soda in water and then adding lime. Apply with a
brush, and after a few minutes wash off with hot water. Wash with
vinegar or an acid solution before repainting to remove all traces of
the alkali.

Sponges, rammers, and handspikes are not painted.

In taking a battery in hand for repair it should first be stripped of
all the stores, the whole of the strapping and fixed leather taken off,
and the carriage thoroughly washed. All metalwork requiring repairs
should be attended to at once; also canvas and leatherwork. The paint
is supplied by the Ordnance Department.


                             CARE OF GUNS.

=Paint for Field-guns.=--This quantity will paint 25 guns. It comes
in tins marked No. 1 and No. 2, and is furnished by the Ordnance
Department.


                              FIRST COAT.

    Venetian red                      1½ pounds
    Oxford yellow or French yellow     ½ pound
    Graphite                          6 ounces
    Liquid dryer                      1 pint
    Japan gold-size                   1  "
    Turpentine spirits                1 quart

To be well ground and strained before using.


                             SECOND COAT.

    Venetian red                    1½ pounds
    Oxford yellow or French yellow   ½ pound
    Graphite                        6 ounces
    Sugar of lead                   2   "
    Liquid dryer                     ½ pint
    Japan gold-size                 1   "
    Varnish (copal outside)         1 quart
    Turpentine spirits               ½ pint

To be well ground and strained before using. All grease must be
carefully removed from the gun before application.

The paint should be allowed at least 48 hours to harden after the first
coat before applying the second, and twice that long (96 hours) after
the second coat before handling.

Guns should ordinarily be painted once a year. It is injurious to the
mechanism to frequently dismount it, as the parts are dented by being
dropped, screw-threads injured, etc. They should at all times be kept
in good order and free from rust and dust, particular attention being
paid to the breech mechanism. Animal oil should not be used; fish-oil
and cosmoline are best. The use of lard-oil is injurious, and in cold
weather forms a stiff wax over all parts. Cotton waste and cosmoline
are supplied for this purpose by the Ordnance Department, and the
cosmoline should be freely used in the bore, breech, and on breech
mechanism. Bright parts are preserved by applying with a brush or cloth
a mixture of 1 pound white lead and ¼ pound tallow or lard-oil heated
and mixed together. It can easily be removed with a cloth and a little
turpentine.

=Machine-guns.=--Keep in dry storehouse, covered and well oiled with
a mixture of equal parts of sperm-oil and kerosene-oil. Every two or
three days they should be wiped off, a rag passed through the barrels,
and fresh oil applied. The use of emery cloth or scouring material must
be avoided.


                        THE CARE OF AMMUNITION.

Ammunition for field-pieces is put up in wooden boxes so painted as to
indicate their contents, viz.: for shell, _black_; for shrapnel, _red_;
for canister, _light drab_. The kind of ammunition is also marked on
the end of the box, and the place and date of manufacture on the inside
of the cover. Each box contains ten projectiles. Projectiles, except
bands and fuzes, are painted as follows:

=Shrapnel, with Point-charge.=--Body black; head vermilion.

=Shrapnel, with Base-charge.=--Body, from band to include 3/5 of head,
black; remainder of head and part of body in rear of band, vermilion.

=Canister.=--Wholly black.

=Shell= (Cast-iron).--Body, including ½ length of head, black;
remainder of head, next to point, vermilion.

The fuze-holes should be stopped with tow or cotton waste, and the
projectiles should be kept under cover in a dry place. Care should be
taken in handling projectiles to avoid injuring the bands. Projectiles
for field-guns are now issued, charged and fuzed for service, from the
arsenals.

Shells of field-mortars should not be kept charged. This is done as
occasion requires when firing, and the greatest care must be taken
before inserting the fuze that the threads of both fuze and fuze-hole
are perfectly free from dust, grit, and powder; and when assembled the
fuze must be screwed tight home.

=Powder.=--When made cartridges are not supplied, the powder is
in wooden barrels, or in barrels of corrugated metal with bronze
screw-caps, each containing 100 pounds. On the heads are stencilled
the number of the barrel, the name of the manufacturer, year of
fabrication, kind of powder, the mean initial velocity and pressure per
square inch on the pressure-piston. Each time the powder is proved the
initial velocity is marked below the former proof-marks, and the date
of trial opposite it.

Barrels of different kinds of powder are piled separately, and, besides
being recorded in the magazine-book, each parcel is marked with a card
showing the kind and the entries and issues.

In the magazine the barrels are placed on their sides, generally three
tiers high, or four tiers if absolutely necessary. Small skids are
placed on the floor and between the several tiers, and the barrels
chocked at intervals to prevent rolling. The tiers must be so arranged
that the marks can readily be seen and any particular kind reached.
There should be an unobstructed space of several yards square at the
door, and this space, as likewise the alleys, should be covered with
carpet or matting. The magazine is provided with a well near the door;
into this the sweepings are put; they should never be swept out at the
door.

For the preservation of the magazine it is of the greatest importance
to keep unobstructed the circulation of air under as well as above the
flooring. The magazine should be opened and aired only in dry, clear
weather, when the temperature of the air outside is lower than that
inside of the magazine.

It should not be opened in damp weather if it can be avoided. The
ventilators must be kept free, and no shrubbery or trees allowed to
grow near so as to screen the building from the sun. The yard should
be of sand or clay and well drained. The moisture of a magazine may be
absorbed by chloride of lime kept in an open vessel and renewed from
time to time. Quicklime is dangerous, and should not be used. Candles
in lanterns are used for lighting the magazine. No one should enter
without first removing his shoes or putting india-rubbers over them. No
cane, sword, or anything which might occasion sparks must be carried
in.

Barrels of powder must not be rolled in transportation; they should be
carried in handbarrows, or in slings made of rope, canvas, or leather.
All implements used in the magazine or on the barrels should be of
copper or wood. The barrels must never be repaired in the magazine.
When it is necessary to roll them for the better preservation of the
powder and to prevent its caking, it is done with a small number at a
time on boards in the yard.

Neither loaded shells, fireworks, nor composition for fireworks, fuzes,
nor friction-primers, etc., will be stored in a magazine with powder.
Shells should be filled in the filling-room of the service-magazine.

=Transportation of Powder.=--In wagons. The barrels of powder must be
packed in straw, secured in such a manner as not to rub against each
other, and the load closely covered with canvas. Sufficient guard
should accompany the train to prevent all fire or smoking near the
wagons. No camp-fires should be allowed near the park. On railroads
each barrel should be tightly boxed and packed so as to avoid friction;
the cars, if practicable, should have springs similar to those of
passenger-cars.

=Fuzes and Friction-primers= are kept as far as possible in their
original packages, and are stored in the driest and safest place in the
storehouse.

=Filling Cartridge-bags.=--The powder is carried in barrels from
the magazine to the filling-room. _Under no circumstances will the
filling be done at the magazine._ Handle powder carefully. Implements
required: 1 copper hammer, 1 wooden drift, 1 counter-brush, 1 scoop, 1
counter-scale and weights (brass or copper), 1 filling-funnel, 1 set
of powder-measures, cartridge-bags and twine. When the cartridges are
to be used with projectiles, each charge is carefully weighed; if for
blank cartridges, it is measured.

One man holds the bag open and another pours the powder into it through
a funnel. The bag is then securely tied with twine close to the
powder. When filled, each should be marked in pencil, showing kind and
weight of powder, and for what piece to be used.

=Filling Projectiles.=--The bursting-charge should be weighed and
carefully placed in shell through copper funnel, the nose of which
should pass below the end of the screw-thread. Then carefully wipe the
thread of both fuze and fuze-hole before inserting the fuze.


                             GUARD ORDERS.

=Battery-guards.=--A light battery serving with other troops will
furnish its own park and stable guards, police, etc. Both officers and
men will be exempt from other details, and the men will not be detailed
for extra duty in the staff departments, nor for duty interfering with
battery duties, if it can be avoided.

A light battery serving with other troops will furnish its own stable
and park guard, which will be under the exclusive control of the
battery commander.

=Battery Stable and Park Guard.=--The pieces, caissons, etc., with
their ammunition and stores, as well as the horses, harness, and forage
are under the charge of a stable and park guard, consisting of two
non-commissioned officers and as many privates as may be necessary.

This guard will be mounted separately for each battery, and will be
under the exclusive control of the battery commander.

A lieutenant of the battery is detailed daily, or for such period as
the battery commander may direct, as battery officer of the day; the
stable and park guard is under his immediate orders and those of the
battery commander.

It is the duty of this guard to enforce the special regulations in
regard to the stables, horses, and park.

The tour continues for 24 hours, or until properly relieved by a new
guard.

The sentinels of the stable and park guard will be posted and relieved
as prescribed in "Light-artillery Drill Regulations." They wear the
sabre-belt without sabre when on post at the stable or picket-line.
They are forbidden to strike or otherwise punish horses.

(Between retreat and reveille the sentinels should be armed with loaded
revolvers.)

The sentinels over the horses or in charge of prisoners receive orders
from the stable sergeant, so far as the exercise of his duties are
concerned.

The guard, non-commissioned officers and sentinels, will perform
their duties in accordance with the rules prescribed for the troop
stable-guard.

The employment of stable-guards for police and fatigue duties at the
stables is forbidden; but this will not prohibit the stable-guard from
being required to assist in feeding grain before reveille. (It may be
used as a herd-guard during the day.)

The stable-guard will attend stables with the rest of the battery and
groom their own horses, the sentinels being relieved for the purpose.
They will wear stable frocks while grooming, belt outside the frock;
after grooming they take off their stable frocks, and the sentinel is
again posted.

Neither the non-commissioned officer nor the members of the
stable-guard will absent themselves from the immediate vicinity of the
stables, except in case of urgent necessity and then for no longer time
than is absolutely necessary. No member of the guard will leave for any
purpose without the authority of the non-commissioned officer of the
guard.

The non-commissioned officer and one member of the guard will go for
meals at the proper hour; upon their return the other members will
be directed to go by the non-commissioned officer. (With park and
stable guard the guard will be so sent to meals as to leave at the
guard-house one non-commissioned officer and one private, exclusive of
sentinels on post.)

Smoking in stables or their immediate vicinity is prohibited. No fire
or light other than the stable lanterns will be permitted in the
stables.

Stable-guard duty in the field will be performed upon the same
principles, with the modifications rendered necessary by the changed
conditions.

=Duties of the Battery Officer of the Day.=--He has supervision of the
guard, attends all stable duties and such drills and battery roll-calls
as may be designated as requiring his presence.

He should inspect the guard and sentinels during the day and night as
often as he may deem necessary.

After the new battery officer has visited the guard at guard-mounting
and seen that the orders have been correctly turned over, he will
report to the battery commander for instructions.

=Commander of the Guard.=--The senior non-commissioned officer of the
guard is commander of the guard.

The commander of the guard is responsible for the instruction and
discipline of the guard. He will see that all its members are correctly
instructed in their orders and duties, and that they understand and
properly perform them.

He receives and obeys the orders of the battery commander and the
battery officer of the day, and reports to the last named without delay
all orders relating to the guard not given or transmitted by him. He
transmits to his successor all material instructions and information
relating to his duties.

He is responsible for the general safety of the camp as soon as the old
guard marches from the guard-house. In case of any emergency occurring
while both guards are at the guard-house, the senior commander of the
two guards will be responsible that proper action is taken.

A commander of a guard leaving his post for any purpose will mention
his destination and the probable duration of his absence to the next in
command.

Should it become necessary during the absence of the commander of the
guard for the next in command to leave the guard, he will designate a
member of the guard to take charge and assume the responsibility during
his absence. The member so designated will be obeyed and respected
accordingly, and will be held responsible for the proper performance of
his duties.

All prisoners will be thoroughly searched before being allowed to enter
the guard-house.

The prisoners will be marched under proper guard to the mess-hall for
their meals; they must be sent to their meals at times when the other
men of the battery are not present, and will be allowed the same time
as other members of the guard.

The commander of the guard will record upon the guard report the names
of all horses taken out during his tour (except under paragraphs _a_
and _c_, p. 185), stating the authority under which they are taken and
their condition when returned.

Should officers' horses be returned by an enlisted man, he will inspect
them as prescribed.

Except in emergencies, the commander of the guard may divide the night
with the next in command, but retains his responsibility; the one whose
watch it is must be constantly on the alert.

The non-commissioned officer receives his orders from his battery
commander and battery officer of the day, and when relieved will turn
over all his orders to his successor.

He instructs his sentinels in their general and special duties;
exercises general supervision over his entire guard; exacts order
and cleanliness about the guard-room; prevents the introduction of
intoxicants into the guard-house or stables; receives by count, from
his predecessor, the animals, horse equipments, and all property (both
private and public) pertaining thereto; examines, before relieving his
predecessor, all locks, windows, and doors, and should any be found
insecure he will report the fact to the battery officer of the day. He,
or the junior non-commissioned officer of the guard, will personally
post and relieve each sentinel, taking care to verify the property
responsibility of the sentinel who comes off post, and see that the
sentinel who goes on post is aware of the property responsibility he
assumes. During the day and night the non-commissioned officers will
alternate in tours, one of them remaining constantly on the alert.

That the non-commissioned officer may be more thoroughly informed of
his responsibility, _all_ horses returning, except those from a regular
formation, will be reported to and inspected by him. He will then
notify the sentinel on post, and see that the horses are promptly cared
for. In case of abuse he will promptly report to the battery officer
of the day. Should the horse be the private property of an officer, he
will report such abuse to the owner.

The non-commissioned officer will report any unusual occurrence during
his tour to the battery officer of the day.

Horses and other property for which the non-commissioned officer is
responsible will not be taken from the stables without the order of the
battery commander, with the following exceptions:

_a._ Officers' horses and private property are subject to their own
written order.

_b._ Horses authorized for mounted duty or pass may be taken out on a
written order of the battery commander.

_c._ No formal order will be required for horses and equipments to
leave the stable at established hours for ceremonies, mounted drill,
herding and watering horses. The commander of the guard must be present
and satisfy himself that they are being taken out solely for these
purposes.

_d._ The horses and equipments of the first sergeant and stable
sergeant (unless otherwise ordered by the battery commander) may be
taken out by themselves, or on their written order, between reveille
and retreat. This privilege may be extended to the other sergeants.

_e._ The battery team will be allowed to leave the stables in the
daytime (between reveille and retreat) when the wagoner reports it to
be necessary.

In case of fire at the stable the commander of the guard will take the
necessary precautions in opening or closing the doors, so as to prevent
as far as possible the spreading of the fire and make it possible to
remove the horses. He will then, assisted by all the available men,
commence to lead out the horses, and, if practicable, secure them at
the picket-line or other designated place.

The non-commissioned officer will have exclusive control of the
lanterns, and will see that they are prepared during the day for
lighting at night.

The lanterns will not be lighted, filled, or trimmed in the stables,
but must be taken to the guard-room, or to such other place as may be
designated by the battery commander for the purpose.

The non-commissioned officer must answer the sentinels' calls promptly.

=Sentinel of Stable-guard.=--The sentinel in the discharge of his
duties will be governed by the regulations for sentinels of other
guards whenever they are applicable, such as courtesies to officers,
walking post in a soldierly manner, challenging, etc.; he will not turn
out the guard except when ordered by the proper authority.

The sentinel will receive orders from the battery commander, the
battery officer of the day, and the non-commissioned officers of the
stable-guard only.

The sentinel will not permit any horse or equipments to be taken from
the stables except in the presence of the non-commissioned officer.

Should a horse get loose, the sentinel will catch him and tie him up.
If he be unable to catch the horse, the non-commissioned officer will
be at once notified. In case a horse be cast, or in any way entangled,
he will relieve him if possible; if unable to relieve him, he will call
the non-commissioned officer. Sentinels are forbidden to punish or
maltreat a horse.

When a horse is taken sick, the sentinel will notify the
non-commissioned officer, who will in turn call the stable sergeant,
and see that the horse is properly attended to.

In case of fire the sentinel will give the alarm by stepping outside
the stable and firing his pistol (if he be armed) repeatedly, calling
out at the same time, "_Fire, stables, battery--!_"

As soon as the guard is alarmed he will take the necessary precautions
in opening or closing the doors, so as to prevent the spreading of the
fire and make it possible to remove the horses; he will drop the chains
and bars, and, with the other members of the guard, proceed to lead out
the horses, and secure them at the picket-line or such other place as
may have been previously designated.



                              CHAPTER VI.

   The Horse. How Obtained. Description of. Inspection of. Power of
   Teams. Weight behind Artillery-teams. Gaits of Artillery. Dentition.
   Plate of Diseases. Sick Horses. Health and Disease. Veterinary
   Medicines. Drugs and Doses, and How to Administer Them. Mashes,
   Poultices, etc. Veterinary Notes, with Symptoms and Treatment of
   Various Diseases. Stables and Stable Management. Grooming. Feeding
   and Kinds of Food. Watering. Training Horses. Rules for Treatment
   and Care of Horses. Destruction of Horses.


                                HORSES.

                    HOW OBTAINED, DESCRIPTION, ETC.

Horses are obtained from the Quartermaster Department. Submit
requisitions, generally in triplicate, stating the color desired, and
whether the horse is for lead-, swing-, or wheel-team.

The artillery-horse must be sound, free from vicious habits, a square
trotter, well broken to harness, and must conform as nearly as possible
to the following description: A gelding of uniform and hardy color;
in good condition; from fifteen to sixteen hands high; weight of the
lead-horse not less than 1050 pounds, and that of the wheel-horse not
more than 1300 pounds; from four to eight years old; full-chested;
shoulders sufficiently broad to support the collar, but not too heavy;
full-barrelled, with broad, deep loins; short-coupled, with solid
hindquarters; feet sound and in good order. Long-legged, loose-jointed,
long-barrelled, and narrow-chested horses, as well as those which are
restive, vicious, or too free in harness, are to be rejected.


                           SELECTING HORSES.

Care must be taken not only that they possess the form and qualities
necessary for the work they are likely to be employed in, but also that
they are docile and easy-tempered and sound. Form differs according to
breed, and upon it depends the fitness of the animal for draught or
saddle purposes. For either purpose a horse should walk and trot well.
Horses with deeply scarred backs (or, if for harness, shoulders), or
which show signs of having been much cut with the girth (girth-galled),
should not be selected, if avoidable. If for riding purposes, the
withers should be neither too high nor too low, and the shoulders
oblique; forearms long and muscular; chest moderately wide and deep;
ribs well arched behind saddle and continued close to haunch; loins
broad; hindquarters long, wide, and muscular; tail set on as near the
level of the croup as possible; limbs from knees and hocks downwards
short, wide laterally, with the tendons and ligaments standing well
apart from the bone, and distinctly defined. Neither beneath knee nor
hock should they be narrow or abruptly tied in; knees wide in front,
hocks sideways. Pasterns not too long or oblique, inclined out or
in, nor yet too upright; hoofs black, if possible, and circular in
shape; wall smooth and even from coronet to ground, and not marked by
horizontal rings; heels well spread; soles concave and strong; frogs
well developed, sound, and firm. The foot in progression should be
placed evenly on the ground, neither toe nor heel coming too markedly
in contact with it. Coarse-bred horses, with hairy legs and large,
flat feet, should never be chosen. Fore limbs should be examined for
broken knees, splints, sprains of tendons and ligaments (indicated by
thickening, and, if recent, by tenderness on manipulation), ring-bone
(an uneven deposit of bony matter around the lower end of the pastern),
side-bone (ossification of the elastic cartilages on each side of
the foot toward the heels), sand-crack in hoof (usually in the inside
quarter of fore foot), chronic laminitis (manifested by horse putting
heels first to the ground, convex soles, walls hollow in the middle in
front, bulging at toe, and made uneven by rings on surface), navicular
disease (usually shown by contracted heels, very concave soles,
lameness, and digging toes in the ground during walk or trot, wearing
the shoe more at point of toe than elsewhere, extending limb forward
and elevating heels while at rest), corns (a bruise of sole at the
heels, only to be discovered by removal of shoe and paring sole at this
part).

Hind limbs should be examined for spavin in hock (a bony tumor in front
of inside hock, best seen by standing at animal's shoulder and viewing
this part of the joint in profile; compare both hocks in this way, and
if there is any inequality, and the prominence be hard, it is almost
certain to be spavin; lameness or stiffness of the limb is generally
present), sprain of tendon inside hock (marked by a swelling inside
point of hock), curb (a sprain of ligament at back and below point of
hock, seen as a more or less prominent convex swelling on looking at
the hock sideways), sprain of back tendons or ligaments (as in fore
limb), ring-bone (as in fore limb).

The eyes should be healthy; examine them by moving the finger smartly
near the eye, but without touching it, when the animal will wink if it
be not blind; for careful examination, inspect the eye in sunlight,
then cover with hand for a few seconds to ascertain if the pupil
contracts and enlarges; to examine interior of eye, employ a lighted
candle in a darkened stable.

Examine head behind ears, withers, back, and shoulders for bruises;
nostrils for glanders (if there be any discharge); turn round suddenly
and back the horse to discover if there is sprain of back, and if
hindquarters are moved firmly and promptly. Inspect skin for mange
and ringworm, heels for grease and cracks, and coronets for fistulous
wounds.

Have him ridden very rapidly for a couple of hundred yards, stopped
suddenly, and then place ear in rear of left shoulder to listen if
the heart beats properly, and also near the nostril to hear if his
breathing is all right.

If a hollow cough is present, observe motion of abdomen at flank;
should this have a double ascending movement or "lift" in expiration,
the animal is broken-winded. In galloping, or when suddenly menaced by
a blow of a whip, should a grunt or shrill whistling sound be heard in
inspiration, the animal should be rejected. If, during rapid motion,
a wheezing noise be heard in expiration or inspiration, the horse is
unsound.

Before selection is completed the horse should be ridden if for saddle
purposes, or driven in harness if for draught.

Every animal will be branded with the letters "U. S." on the left fore
shoulder on the day he is received. They are also branded on the left
hip with the letter of the battery and the number of the regiment. A
complete descriptive list will be made of each animal at the time of
purchase, which will accompany him wherever he may be transferred.

  [Illustration: FIG. 72.

    _A._ Molar teeth.
    _B H._ Canine or tush.
    _C I._  Incisors.
    _E._ Atlas.
    _G._ Orbit.
    _M._  Cariniform cartilage.
    _N._  Ensiform cartilage.
    _O._  Coracoid process of scapula.
    _P._  Spine.
    _Q._  Cartilage.
    _R._  Trochanter major.
    _S._  Subtrochanterian crest.
    _T._  Trochlea.
    _U._  External condyle.
    _V._  Patella.
    _W._  Hock-joint.

    1.  Cranium.
    2.  Lower jaw.
    3.  Cervical vertebræ.
    4,  4. Dorsal vertebræ.
    5,  5. Lumbar vertebræ.
    6,  6. Sacrum.
    7,  7. Coccygeal vertebræ.
    8.  Sternum.
    9,  9. True ribs.
    10,  10. Cartilages of true ribs.
    11,  11. False ribs.
    12,  12. Cartilages of false ribs.
    13.  Scapula.
    14.  Humerus.
    15.  Radius.
    16.  Elbow.
    17.  Os pisiforme.
    18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. Carpal bones.
    24.  Large metacarpal bone.
    25.  Outer small metacarpal bone.
    26.  Inner small metacarpal bone.
    27,  28. Sesamoid bones.
    29.  Os suffraginis.
    30.  Os coronæ.
    31.  Os pedis.
    32.  Wing of the pedal bone.
    33,  34, 35, 36. Os innominatum.
    37.  Femur.
    38.  Tibia.
    39.  Os calcis.
    40.  Astragalus.
    41,  42, 43, 44. Tarsal bones.
    45.  Large metatarsal bone.
    46.  Outer small metatarsal bone.
    47.  Inner small metatarsal bone.
  ]

  [Illustration: FIG. 73.


                                _Head._

    1.  Muzzle.
    2.  Nostril.
    3.  Forehead.
    4.  Jaw.
    5.  Poll.


                                _Neck._

    6,  6. Crest.
    7.  Throttle or windpipe.


                            _Forequarter._

    8, 8. Shoulder-blade.
    9.  Point of shoulder.
    10.  Bosom or breast.
    11, 11. True arm.
    12.  Elbow.
    13.  Fore arm (arm).
    14.  Knee.
    15.  Cannon-bone.
    16.  Back sinew.
    17.  Fetlock or pastern joint.
    18.  Coronet.
    19.  Hoof or foot.
    20.  Heel.


                        _Body or Middle Piece._

    21.  Withers.
    22.  Back.
    23, 23. Ribs (forming together the barrel or chest).
    24, 24. The circumference of the chest at this point, called the girth.
    25.  The loins.
    26.  The croup.
    27.  The hip.
    28.  The flank.
    29.  The sheath.
    30.  The root of the dock or tail.


                            _Hindquarter._

    31.  The hip-joint, round, or whirlbone.
    32.  The stifle-joint.
    33, 33. Lower thigh or gaskin.
    34.  The quarters.
    35.  The hock.
    36.  The point of the hock.
    37.  The curb-place.
    38.  The cannon-bone.
    39.  The back sinew.
    40.  Pastern or fetlock joint.
    41.  Coronet.
    42.  Hoof or foot.
    43.  Heel.
    44.  Spavin-place.
  ]


                            POWER OF TEAMS.

If a horse has to work at speed (as in the case of horse-artillery) he
can, as a rule, under service conditions, draw about 600 pounds, or
carry on his back about 260 pounds, although in some services he is
required to do more.

In light field-artillery, where great speed is not expected, this may
be increased to about 700 pounds; for heavy field-artillery a further
increase may be made.

Metcalfe gives: horse-artillery, 650 pounds; light field-artillery, 700
pounds; heavy field-artillery, 850 pounds; and siege-artillery, 1000
pounds; and the English Handbook contains the following table giving a
rough estimate of what teams may be called upon to transport:

    -------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------
                             |Teams of |Teams of |Teams of |Teams of
                             |4 horses.|6 horses.|8 horses.|12 horses.
    -------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------
                             |   Cwt.  |   Cwt.  |   Cwt.  |   Cwt.
    Horse-artillery batteries|20 to 24 |33 to 36 |         |
    Field-batteries          |26 to 30 |39 to 45 |48 to 56 |
    Batteries of position    |         |         |   70    | 5 tons
    -------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------

  [Illustration: FIG. 74.

  _b_, breast-strap; _c_, collar; _d_, double-tree; _s_, single-tree;
  _t_, trace.]

Owing to their interference with each other's motions, the maximum load
drawn by teams of horses increases less rapidly than does the number of
horses in draught. In horse-artillery teams 6 horses is the greatest
number that can be usefully employed; in the heavier field-batteries 8
horses are sometimes used, but not when it can be avoided, as it makes
a cumbersome team and a large percentage of the working power of the
extra pair is lost.

Bad roads, insufficient food, rapid movement for short times, and
forced marches require that the weights behind horses should be kept
at a minimum consistent with the service required. The average weights
exclusive of cannoneers of all the principal military powers are:
horse-artillery--gun-carriage, 634 lbs.; caisson, 727 lbs.;[7] and
field-artillery--gun-carriage, 718 lbs.; caisson, 796 lbs.


                         GAITS FOR ARTILLERY.

The =Manœuvring Gallop= is at the rate of twelve miles an hour (352
yards in a minute). This gait is used on occasions by horse-artillery,
and in great emergencies for very short distances by field-artillery.

The =Manœuvring Trot= or =Trot-out= is at the rate of eight miles an
hour (235 yards in a minute.)

The =Canter= is at the same rate, viz., eight miles an hour.

The =Slow Trot= is at the rate of from six to six and one half miles an
hour, and should be used by light artillery for distances of several
miles when necessary to move at a faster gait than a walk.

At drills and on road marches it should be considerably employed so
that teams may move easily and with unnecessary fatigue when called on
to cover long distances rapidly.

The =Walk= is at the rate of four miles an hour (117 yards in a
minute). It is the pace usually employed on the line of march for
field-batteries, although they move, as does horse-artillery, at an
alternate trot and walk, covering about five miles an hour.


                              DENTITION.

=Age of Horse from One to Nine Years, as Indicated by Teeth
(Incisors) in Lower Jaw.=--The age of a horse is determined by:

1. The character of the teeth, i.e., whether they be temporary or
permanent.

2. The period at which they are cut.

3. The condition of the teeth themselves.

Temporary or milk teeth are distinguished from the permanent teeth
by being smaller, whiter, and having more distinct necks. The fangs
are small and have little attachment to the gums. The jaws are plump,
fleshy, and round, and the teeth are arranged in something like a
semicircle. Permanent teeth are larger, broader, wider in the necks and
more discolored than milk-teeth. The plumpness and circularity of the
jaw is less than in the young colt, and gradually decreases. In old age
the teeth are arranged in a nearly straight line.

During the first ten months the six incisors appear. At twelve months
the teeth show little signs of wear, the corner teeth are mere shells,
having no inner walls, and the teeth are close together.

At two years the corner teeth have grown up to level of others; the
centre teeth are worn. The teeth stand wide apart at necks because of
growth of jaw.

Shortly before three years old the two centre milk-teeth are shed and
replaced by permanent teeth.

Shortly before four years old the next two milk-teeth on either side
are shed, and permanent ones appear.

Shortly before five years old the corner milk-teeth are shed, and
permanent ones appear, but as shells only, having no internal walls.

At about six years old the inner wall of the corner teeth has grown up
level with outer wall.

The tusks appear at about three and one half years, are matured at
six, and then begin to wear away. Usually absent in mares.

Between three and five years the marks or cups in the permanent teeth
are very plain.

At _six_ the marks are well worn in centre teeth.

At _seven_ the marks disappear from centre teeth, are well worn in the
two next, but plain in corner teeth.

At _eight_ the marks have all disappeared, except in corner teeth, in
which they are worn.

At _nine_ the marks are usually gone from all the incisor teeth in
lower jaw.

The temporary incisors in upper jaw fall out usually a little earlier
than those in lower jaw. The permanent incisors in upper jaw are longer
and larger than the lower, and the mark is deeper and remains longer
than in the lower teeth.

Beyond nine years the teeth become angular and foul, the tusks worn,
and the age only to be determined accurately by much experience and
observation.

Old horses frequently suffer from uneven and sharp-edged grinders.
Their mouths should be occasionally examined, particularly if the
animal be off his feed, and, if necessary, the teeth should be rasped
off.


                             SICK HORSES.

The horses on sick report are in charge of the stable sergeant, who
reports daily to the captain for instructions as to their treatment.

In garrison the battery officer of the day inspects the sick horses
daily, and records in his guard-report book the names of the horses on
sick report, and the treatment they receive.

In treating sick horses it is to be observed that very little medicine
is ordinarily required, and that unnecessary doses do a great deal of
harm.

If a horse sustain an injury, neglect his feed, refuse his water, or
give any evidence of sickness, it will be at once reported.

No horse on sick report will be taken from the stable or picket-line
for exercise or work without permission from proper authority.

If there be at any time a suspicious discharge from one or both
nostrils of an animal, it must be immediately reported.

To prevent contagion to man or beast, an animal that shows any decided
symptoms of glanders is to be isolated at once, and confined or tied up
in some locality where no other animal can approach him.

A glandered horse should be killed as soon as possible. The stall
in which he stood is torn down and all the woodwork burned and the
ironwork disinfected, or otherwise it is closed and must remain empty
until the rack, manger, and every part of the iron and woodwork, as
also the vessels used in watering and feeding, and his saddle and
bit, have been three or four times thoroughly washed with a 5 per
cent solution of carbolic acid or a 1 to 1000 solution of corrosive
sublimate; all parts to which the latter has been applied should
be thoroughly scrubbed with hot water to remove all traces of the
poisonous salt. The application of a lime wash to all the stalls, after
complete disinfection, will be desirable. Small articles, such as bits,
etc., can be disinfected by keeping them immersed for a half-hour in
boiling water. All articles of little value that have been used with a
glandered horse, such as halters, bridles, horse-cloths, saddle-cloths,
blankets, nose-bags, currycombs and brushes, etc., should be destroyed.

Stables occupied by infected or suspected horses should be disinfected
daily by washing exposed surfaces with a 5 per cent solution of
carbolic acid, and nose-bags, halters, buckets used for drinking-water,
etc., should be carefully washed with the same solution or with boiling
water.


                          HEALTH AND DISEASE.

    ------------------------+-----------------------------------
                            | Corresponding to the Condition of
             Points.        +--------------------+---------------
                            |       Health.      |   Disease.
    ------------------------+--------------------+---------------
    1. Temperament          |     Vivacious.     |    Dull.
    2. Coat                 |      Healthy.      |   Staring.
    3. Membranes            |   Pale and moist.  |Florid and dry.
    4. Appetite             |        Good.       |     Bad.
    5. Pulse                |36 to 40 per minute.|  50 to 90.
    6. Respirations         | 8 to 12  "    "    |  20 to 50.
    7. Temperature, external|       Warm.        |     Cold.
    8. Temperature, internal|   98°.4 to 100°.   | 101° to 105°.
    ------------------------+--------------------+---------------

On entering a stall to determine the state of an animal the
=temperament= and =coat= are first observed. To examine the
=membranes=, elevate the nostrils so as to obtain a good view of the
interior, ascertain the condition of the =appetite= by observation or
a trustworthy source. Take the =pulse= for a full minute. The best
and most usual place to take it is beneath the lower jaw, at a spot
corresponding to the swell of the jaw; this failing, as it sometimes
does in cases of extreme weakness, the artery inside the arm, near
where the leg joins the body, should be sought for. The number of
beats, whether soft or hard, and whether regular or intermittent,
should be noted.

The =respirations= are best observed at the flank, an inspiration
and expiration going to make up =one= respiration.

The =external temperature= is ascertained by feeling the ears and
extremities.

The =internal temperature= is obtained by means of a clinical
thermometer. Set the instrument at 98°.4 F., insert it in the dock, and
allow it to remain in the body three or four minutes.


                        DISEASES OF THE HORSE.

  [Illustration: FIG. 75.

     1. Caries of the lower jaw.
     2. Fistula of the parotid duct.
     3. Bony excrescence or exostosis of the lower jaw.
     4. Swelling by pressure of the bridle.
     5. Poll-evil.
     6. Inflamed parotid gland.
     7. Inflamed jugular vein.
     8. Fungus tumor, produced by pressure of the collar.
     9. Fistula in the withers.
    10. Saddle-gall.
    11. Tumor of the elbow.
    12. Induration of the knee.
    13. Clap of the back sinews.
    14. Malanders.
    15. Splint.
    16. Ring-bone.
    17. A tread upon the coronet.
    18. Quittor.
    19. Sand-crack.
    20. Contracted or ring foot of a foundered horse.
    21. Capped hock.
    22. Malanders.
    23. Spavin.
    24. Curb.
    25. Swelled sinews.
    26. Thick leg.
    27. Grease.
    28. A crack in front of the foot, called cow-crack.
    29. Quarter-crack.
    30. Ventral hernia.
    31. Rat-tail.
  ]


                         VETERINARY MEDICINES.


                       INTERNALLY ADMINISTERED.

Medicines that Act on the Stomach and Intestines or their Contents.

=Cathartics.=--Agents that cause purgation: aloes, calomel, Epsom
salts, common salt and sulphur, croton, linseed, and castor oils,
injections and mashes.

=Anthelmintics.=--Agents that destroy or expel worms: nearly all
cathartics, tartarated antimony, and sulphide of iron.

=Nauseants.=--Agents that induce nausea: aloes and white hellebore.

=Antacids.=--Agents that counteract acidity: soap and the carbonates of
lime, magnesia, soda, and potash.

=Alteratives.=--Agents that bring about a healthy state of the system:
aloes, calomel, cod-liver oil, sulphur, nitrate of potash.

=Cardiacs.=--Agents that invigorate the system by stimulating the
stomach: Cayenne pepper, ginger, gentian, caraway seeds.

=Demulcents.=--Agents that lubricate or sheathe surfaces: glycerine,
gum-arabic, linseed, and starch.

=Antidotes.=--Agents that counteract the effects of poisons: depending
upon the kind of poison.


     Medicines that Act upon the Brain, Nerves, and Nerve-centres.

=Excitants.=--Agents that stimulate the brain, nerves, and
nerve-centres, and thus increase their energy: alcohol, ammonia,
arnica, strychnia.

=Narcotics.=--Agents that are excitants, but whose action is
followed by depression of energy: camphor, henbane, belladonna, opium.

=Sedatives.=--Agents that depress nervous power or lower
circulation: digitalis, hydrocyanic acid, tartarated antimony, and
chloroform.

=Antispasmodics.=--Agents that prevent or allay cramps: alcohol,
ethers, oil of turpentine, opium.


        Medicines that Act upon Glands or Glandular Structures.

=Stimulants.=--Agents that act upon the glands generally: calomel,
oxide of mercury, iodine and its compounds.

=Diuretics.=--Agents that increase the secretion of urine: copaiba,
nitrate of potash, turpentine, resin.

=Parturients.=--Agents that cause contraction of the womb: ergot of rye.

=Lithontriptics.=--Agents that dissolve calculi: hydrochloric acid, the
fixed alkalies.

=Diaphoretics.=--Agents that cause perspiration: colchicum, tartar
emetic, acetate of ammonia, spirits of nitrous ether.


              Medicines that Act upon the Muscular Fibre.

=Tonics.=--Agents that act gradually, and permanently improve digestion
and nutrition: gentian, the sulphates of iron, copper, and zinc,
cascarilla bark, camomile flowers.

=Astringents.=--Agents that cause contraction of muscular fibre: alum,
catechu, oak-bark, tannic acid.


                       EXTERNALLY ADMINISTERED.

     Medicines that Act upon the Skin and External Parts by Direct
                             Application.

=Refrigerants.=--Agents that diminish morbid heat of a part: salt and
cold water, solutions of acetate and subacetate of lead.

=Discutients.=--Agents that dispel enlargements: compounds of iodine,
soap liniment, camphor.

=Rubefacients.=--Agents that cause heat or redness of skin without
blistering: liniments of ammonia, tar and turpentine, vinegar.

=Vesicants.=--Agents that produce blisters: cantharides, tartar emetic,
croton-oil, hot water.

=Caustics.=--Agents that decompose the part to which applied: carbolic,
nitric, sulphuric, and hydrochloric acids; chlorides of antimony and
zinc, corrosive sublimate, nitrate of silver, sulphate of copper, hot
iron.

=Pyogenics.=--Agents that induce suppuration of wounds: liniment and
ointment of turpentine, black hellebore.

=Detergents.=--Agents that cleanse wounds and skin and excite them to
healthy action: acetate of copper, creosote, liniment of sulphate of
copper, ointment of chloride of ammonia and nitrate of mercury, sulphur
and some of its compounds.

=Astringents.=--Agents that diminish discharge from wounds: alum,
sulphate of zinc, acetate of lead.

=Antiseptics.=--Agents that destroy putrid condition of wounds:
carbolic acid, salicylic acid, iodoform, charcoal, chloride of zinc,
nitrate of potash, permanganate of potash, yeast.

=Traumatics.=--Agents that excite healing in wounds: aloes, myrrh,
collodion, oil of tar, resin, solutions of sulphate of copper and zinc.

=Emollients.=--Agents that soften and relax parts: fomentations, lard,
olive-oil, palm-oil, poultices.


             DRUGS AND DOSES, AND HOW TO ADMINISTER THEM.

The most convenient method to administer medicine is either in the
form of a bolus, gelatine capsule, or drench. Before proceeding to
give medicine turn the animal around in stall in a position so that he
cannot run backwards. If giving a drench, either hold head up by hand
or pull it up by placing halter-shank over some high object, pulling
head up; then place horn or bottle inside of mouth. Take plenty of
time; induce the horse to move his tongue, instead of pinching his
throat and pulling out tongue, as is customary and wrong in all cases.
The tongue must pass back in mouth, or else horse cannot swallow. To
give a bolus, pull out tongue gently with left hand, keeping the mouth
open, pass bolus back over root of tongue with right; by proceeding
slowly very little trouble will be experienced.

If the animal will eat, medicine in the form of powder (provided it
be not very repulsive to the taste) may be given in grain or mash, or
dissolved in the water given to drink.

=Aconite= (Tincture).--Useful in cases of fevers and inflammation.
Dose, 15 to 30 drops, repeated every three hours; should be given in
one ounce cold water.

=Alcohol.=--Useful as a stimulant; one to three ounces, repeated every
five hours, given in eight ounces cold water.

=Aloes= (Barbadoes).--Useful as a cathartic. Dose, six to eight
drachms, with two drachms powdered ginger, made into a bolus or pill;
only one dose required.

=Ammonia= (Aqua).--Useful as a stimulant. Dose, one half ounce, given
three times a day in six ounces cold water.

=Ammonia= (Aromatic).--Useful in acute indigestion and flatulant colic.
Dose, one ounce every two hours until better.

=Arnica= (Tincture).--Useful in all cases of bruises and sprains;
should be applied frequently.

=Arsenic.=--Useful as a tonic or alterative. Dose, five grains given
three times a day in the food.

=Belladonna= (Tincture).--Useful in allaying pains and spasms. Dose,
one to two drachms, repeated every four hours.

=Bromide of Potassium.=--Useful as a nerve sedative. Dose, two to four
drachms three times a day, given in water.

=Castor Oil.=--Useful as a cathartic. Dose, one pint.

=Chloral Hydrate=--Useful in allaying pain. Dose, one-half ounce every
four hours until relief comes.

=Chloroform.=--Useful as an anæsthetic and anodyne in allaying pain.
Dose, one to three drachms given in four ounces cold water.

=Digitalis= (Tincture).--Useful as a heart stimulant. Also for coughs
and colds. Dose, one drachm three times a day.

=Dovers Powders.=--Useful for colds and coughs. Dose, three drachms
three times a day in feed.

=Gentian.=--Useful as a tonic. Dose of tincture, one ounce; of ground,
one half ounce--in feed three times a day.

=Ginger.=--Useful as a tonic and stimulant. Dose, tincture, one ounce;
ground, one ounce--in feed three times a day.

=Iodine= (Tincture).--Useful when applied externally for sprains,
bruises, etc.

=Iodoform.=--Useful when applied to galls. Take one part iodoform and
three parts sulphur and cover the gall with the powder. Iodoform one
part, cosmoline nine parts, makes a good antiseptic ointment.

=Iron= (Sulphate).--Useful for worms and as a tonic. Dose, one half
ounce three times a day.

=Iron= (Tincture).--Checks bleeding, when applied externally; is a
tonic internally. Dose, one half ounce in water three times a day.

=Laudanum.=--Useful in allaying pain. Dose, one to two ounces, to be
repeated every two hours if pain lasts.

=Lead= (Acetate, Sugar of Lead).--Useful for wounds, bruises, sprains,
and to allay inflammation. One ounce to one quart of water, and apply
often.

=Linseed-oil=.--Purgative. Dose, ten to thirty ounces.

=Nitre= (Saltpetre, Nitrate Potash).--Is useful in fevers, blood
disorders, and sluggish kidneys. Dose, one half to one ounce a day.

=Podophyllin.=--Useful in liver disorders. Dose, one to two drachms
once a day.

=Quinine.=--Useful in all debilitating fevers and where there is loss
of appetite. Dose, twenty to thirty grains five times a day in pills.

=Resin=.--Useful in kidney disorders. Dose, one half ounce three times
a day in feed.

=Soda= (Bicarbonate).--Useful in cases where an antacid is required.
Dose, six drachms three times a day in feed.

=Soda Sulphate= (Glauber Salts).--Useful where a saline laxative is
required. Dose, one pound.

=Santonine.=--Useful for worms. Dose, two to four drachms.

=Sweet Spirits Nitre.=--Useful for colic and kidney trouble. Dose, one
to two ounces in cold water, to be repeated if necessary.

=Zinc= (Sulphate).--Useful for wounds. Add one quart water to one ounce
zinc and apply three times a day.

=Bran Mash.=--Place bran in clean pail and pour on as much boiling
water as it will absorb; add ½ ounce salt; stir and then cover over to
retain steam until sufficiently cool; add, if on hand, to the bran a
pound of well-boiled linseed.

=Gruel.=--Put 1 pound of meal in cold water, place over fire, and
stir until it boils; then simmer until thick; permit to cool until
temperature of new milk; add wineglass of spirits if animal be
exhausted.

=Poultice.=--Bran, with a little linseed-oil, steeped in hot water;
boiled turnips or carrots; linseed-meal and a little olive-oil.

=Charcoal Poultice= is made by adding linseed-meal to boiling water and
stirring until a soft mass is produced; then stir in powdered charcoal
and sprinkle some over the poultice when made up. If desired as an
astringent, add sulphate of zinc.

=Mustard.=--Add water to 1 pound of mustard until a thick paste; rub on
skin and then wash off carefully after 15 or 20 minutes. Apply again in
six hours if necessary.

=Enemas.=--Usually water at the temperature of the body, 3 to 6 quarts.
Sometimes a little soap is added.

=Cantharides.=--If effect of blister be too severe, diminish by
dressing part with liniment of lead, acetate of lead, and olive-oil; or
wash off blister and dress with oil.

=Gombault's Caustic Balsam= is a most excellent vesicant.

=Tonics= should be given under observation of surgeon and effect
carefully watched, especially mineral tonics.

=Mineral Tonics.=--Sulphate of iron, 1 to 2 drachms, with 2 to 4
drachms of ginger; or sulphate of copper, ½ to 1 drachm, with powdered
gentian 2 to 4 drachms; or arsenious acid, 5 grains.

=Vegetable Tonics.=--Quinine, ½ to 1 drachm, dissolved in a few drops
of sulphuric acid, in a pint of water; or oak-bark, 2 to 3 drachms made
into a ball with treacle and bran; or powdered gentian-root, 1 to 2
drachms; or tincture of gentian, 1 to 2 ounces in a pint of water.


              SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES.


                               ABSCESS.

=Symptoms.=--The result of a bruise or blood impurities; is attended by
pain, heat, and swelling, with in time a soft or fluctuating part on
its surface from which the hair falls off.

=Treatment.=--Open with a knife at the soft point and free of matter;
then hot fomentations or poultices are sometimes required; apply twice
a day carbolic acid, 1 part; water, 20 parts.


                          BLADDER IRRITATION.

=Symptoms.=--Restlessness; frequent straining; protruding penis;
passing small quantities of urine at short intervals.

=Treatment.=--Rest; plenty of water and mucilaginous fluids, with ½
ounce bicarbonate of soda or potash; warm rugs over loins; a pint of
linseed-oil if laxative is required.


                         BLADDER INFLAMMATION.

=Symptoms.=--Similar to bladder irritation, but more aggravated;
considerable fever, indicated by quick pulse; high temperature; arching
of back; whisking tail; frequent straining; passing a few drops of
urine at short intervals, generally thickly colored, with ropy mucus
and pus, and sometimes blood.

=Treatment.=--If bladder be distended, use gentle manipulation and
pressure per rectum. This failing, use catheter. Apply hot blanket to
the loins, and when removed rub that part with embrocation of oil, 6
ounces; strong solution of ammonia, 1 ounce; and tincture of opium, 2
ounces. Give mucilaginous drinks, such as linseed-tea, hay-tea, etc.,
and cooling, laxative food. After relieving congestion give ½ ounce
bicarbonate of soda two or three times a day in the drink.


                 BOWELS, INFLAMMATION OF (ENTERITIS).

=Symptoms.=--Similar to those of colic, only there is more distress,
and the pain is continuous, and not in paroxysms, as is the case in
colic; the body is covered with perspiration; pulse quick and small;
extremities cold instead of warm, as in colic.

=Treatment.=--Powdered opium, 2 drachms in watery solution;
belladonna, 2 drachms; linseed-oil, 1 pint. Following this give 10
drops tincture of aconite and ½ drachm powdered opium in watery
solution every two hours. Frequent enemas of tepid water; mustard or
very hot water to abdomen; hand-rub and bandage legs; clothe warmly.
Bran mashes and bran gruel for a short time after recovery. Exercise
great care and give simple diet for some days.


          BRONCHITIS, INFLAMMATION OF THE TUBES OF THE LUNGS.

=Symptoms.=--The first day quick breathing, with whistling sound
on listening at side of chest, or a deeper and more noisy sound at
front of chest; pulse harder and quicker than normal; breathing
quickened; nostril red and inflamed. About second day increased
secretion of mucus and suppressed cough; pulse decreased in volume and
more rapid; breathing hurried; dilated nostril; heaving flank.

=Treatment.=--Place animal in airy box and clothe warmly; bandage
legs; bran mash. If legs be unequal in warmth and coat inclined to
stare, give, night and morning, 1 ounce spirits nitric ether, 4 ounces
acetate of ammonia, 8 ounces water.

If disease unmistakably sets in, give 1 drachm carbonate of ammonia,
or ½ ounce sweet spirits of nitre, or sulphuric ether, every 4 to 6
hours. If inclined to drink, ½ ounce nitre dissolved in each half
pail of water until the kidneys act freely. Have animal inhale steam
from bucketful of boiling water and tablespoonful of oil of turpentine
poured over hay. If constipated, 2 ounces Epsom salts, 1 ounce nitrate
of potassa, until slight effect is produced. Foment chest with blanket
wrung out of hot water, and also sides. After each application slightly
stimulate by rubbing with weak ammonia liniment (1 part liquid ammonia
sesquicarbonate to 3 parts olive-oil.)


                                BURNS.

=Treatment.=--Cover with cosmoline, 10 parts, carbolic acid, 1 part, or
with rags soaked in olive-oil to which a little sugar of lead has been
added; or dust thickly with starch or flour and cover with cotton-wool;
or liniment of equal parts of limewater and linseed-oil (carron-oil).


                           COLIC, SPASMODIC.

=Symptoms.=--The attack usually comes on suddenly; the horse paws,
kicks his belly, looks at his flanks, moves about uneasily, throws
himself down violently and groans, rolls, lies on his back, jumps up
and oftentimes commences eating. The extremities continue warm, and
between the paroxysms the pulse is normal.

=Treatment.=--1 ounce chloral hydrate in ½ pint of water--repeat
in an hour if necessary; or 1 ounce tincture of opium and 1 ounce sweet
spirits of nitre in ½ pint of cold water, repeated every half-hour
until well; or 1½ ounces opium and 2 ounces alcohol in ½ pint
water--repeat in one hour if necessary.

Administer enema of warm water in which a little soap is dissolved.
Should constipation be the cause, give aloes in solution, 5 to 8
drachms, or 1 pint of linseed-oil. Apply hot blanket to abdomen. Have
animal walked about or belly well hand-rubbed, and give ½ pint of
whiskey, or brandy, or any stimulant in pint of water if drugs be not
at hand.

In =Flatulent Colic=, when the bowels are distended by gas, detected
by bloated appearance and resonance on percussion, give promptly
baking-soda, 2 to 4 ounces; if this fails, give carbonate of ammonia in
½-ounce doses every half-hour, or chloral hydrate, 1 ounce in ½ pint of
water.

Physic with 5 to 8 drachms Barbadoes aloes or 1 pint linseed-oil.
Frequent enemas of turpentine, 1 to 2 ounces, and linseed-oil, 8
ounces. Apply hot blankets.


                             CONSTIPATION.

=Symptoms.=--Uneasiness; distended abdomen; pulse and respiration
nearly normal.

=Treatment.=--Copious enemas of tepid water and a little soap. Dose of
linseed-oil, 1½ pints. Sloppy food; slow exercise.


                                CORNS.

=Symptoms.=--These bruises of the foot or heel are commonly caused
by improper shoeing, or leaving shoes on too long until they become
imbedded. They are usually on fore feet, in that part of the sole
included in the angle between the bar and the outside wall of the hoof.

=Treatment.=--If lame and when the spot is pared there be matter,
foment and poultice until lameness has disappeared. Then shoe with
bar-shoe resting on frog, the spot being relieved by cutting away horn.


                      CRACKED HEELS (SCRATCHES).

=Symptoms.=--This is an inflammation of the oil-and sweat-glands of the
skin, due to exposure, irritants, mud, filth, cold, washing heels with
inferior soaps, cold draughts on heels, standing in slush or snow.

=Treatment.=--Remove hair; poultice with warm bran and charcoal, and
keep clean; apply ointment--acetate of lead 1 part, lard 3 parts. If
sores be deep and painful, put on shoes with high heels. Feed cooling,
laxative food.


                                 CURB.

=Symptoms.=--Sprain of the superior straight ligament at the back of
the hock-joint. It looks like a swollen knot a few inches below the
hock.

=Treatment.=--Reduce inflammation by hot fomentations, and after it has
subsided apply biniodide ointment (biniodide of mercury 1 part, lard
12 parts), or a liniment composed of 2 parts of soap liniment and 1 of
tincture of iodine. If there be much thickening, blister.


                              DISTEMPER.

=Symptoms.=--See STRANGLES.


                                FARCY.

Farcy of a specific nature is identical with glanders, and is incurable.


                               FISTULA.

=Symptoms.=--Fistula of withers is ordinarily due to badly fitting
collars or saddles, or to bruises.

=Treatment.=--If very slight, remove all pressure at that point
(rest if possible), and bathe with salt water or muriate of ammonia
frequently. If more advanced, use hot fomentations. If matter forms,
make free opening for its escape at lowest point. Treat with solution
of sulphate of zinc. When the sore becomes healthy, and the core
removed, use carbolic dressing and keep clean. Should it break out
again, inject the abscess with a solution of sulphate of zinc 20 grains
to the ounce of water every second or third day until entirely healed.


                          FOOT INFLAMMATION.

=Symptoms.=--Brought on by founder, hard driving, lack of moisture
to hoofs, indigestion and fevers, punctures, bruises, etc. Manifested
by increased temperature of foot, pain on moderate percussion with
hammer around the wall of hoof towards clenches and heel (the opposite
foot being held up), and firm pressure by pincers around margin of hoof
after removal of shoe.

=Treatment.=--After locating the injury remove surrounding horn
freely to prevent formation of, or to give vent to, any matter. Place
foot in hot water for one hour, and then poultice. Dress with tar and
tow.


                               FOUNDER.

=Symptoms.=--Laminitis, or acute founder, consists of inflammation
of the laminæ by which the hoof is attached to the sensitive foot,
caused by hard driving, leaving heated horse to stand in snow, standing
in cold draughts, too much grain and cold water afterwards.

The animal evinces much distress and can scarcely be made to move, and
when compelled to stir does so with great difficulty and pain, putting
heels of fore feet to the ground and bringing hind feet forward under
body. The feet are very hot and intensely painful, and the slightest
percussion causes great agony. In standing the fore feet are advanced
if they are affected (most frequently the case). If they are drawn
under the body, the trouble is in the hind feet.

=Treatment.=--Give 1 pint of linseed-oil; remove shoes, then stand
in cold water or wet clay most of the time for two or three days, and
make cold applications to legs. Poultice if necessary. Then compel
animal to take exercise on soft, damp ground, at first slowly and for
short distances. If tenderness remains after inflammation has passed,
blister around coronet, and continue exercise on damp ground. Blister
may be repeated every nine days if necessary.

Be careful to apply blister (cantharides 1 part, olive-oil 6 or 8
parts) only on protuberant band which extends for a finger's breadth
above the hoof, and _not_ on pasterns.

Feed bran mashes and grass. Place bucket of water containing ½ ounce
nitre near by if animal be feverish, so that he may drink.


                          GALLS (see SORES).

=Treatment.=--Remove the cause and bathe the spot with Castile soap and
cold water as often as possible. If this does not succeed, a root will
appear at the centre of the gall, the edges of which will be clear,
the sitfast holding only by the root. Pull it out with pincers; bathe
frequently with cold water. A little oil or grease, free from salt, or
carbolic acid 1 part, glycerine 15 parts, may be rubbed lightly on the
parts as they begin to heal.

When the sore becomes healthy, cleanse thoroughly and apply 1 part
iodoform, 3 parts sulphur. If necessary to use the animal, cover with
old-fashioned sticking-plaster, after putting on the powder just
indicated. If possible, the collar or saddle should not bear on the
spot.


                               GLANDERS.

Before a horse is destroyed for either glanders or farcy he should,
as soon as suspected, be separated from all the other animals, and
every precaution taken to prevent the spread of the disease. When the
disease is definitely determined, destroy the animal at once, burn all
articles of clothing, brushes, brooms, etc., and have other articles,
equipments, stalls, etc., thoroughly disinfected.

Bear in mind that this terrible disease is highly contagious, and
easily communicated to man.

=Symptoms.=--The three characteristic signs are:

1st. A peculiar transparent, glutinous, and continuous discharge,
usually from one nostril, which accumulates and entangles all kinds of
filth. This discharge is at first thin and aqueous, but soon assumes
the characteristic glary condition, and is generally of a straw-color,
but in very late stages becomes more purulent.

2d. Ulceration of the mucous membranes of the nostrils. Before
ulceration takes place in the nostrils the membrane of the part usually
assumes a dingy leaden or slate color, often in patches, and the other
parts highly injected.

The ultimate symptom, leaving no doubt of the character of the disease,
is the formation of true ulcers in the nostrils.

The ulceration usually commences with a small vesicle on the membrane,
which after a few days bursts, leaving a small unhealthy ulcer, which
has no disposition to heal, but, on the contrary, gradually spreads and
deepens. The nostril first affected by discharge is generally first
affected by ulceration.

After the formation of ulcers the discharge is often tinged with blood,
and becomes offensive.

3d. The submaxillary gland, in the channel formed between the lower
jaw-bones, becomes swollen and painful, but, as a rule, shows no
inclination to suppurate. It soon becomes hard and firmly attached to
the jawbone, and ceases to be painful on the application of pressure.

On any one of the above-enumerated symptoms appearing, at once isolate
the animal; have bedding destroyed, and carefully remove all clothing,
stable utensils, etc., from the vicinity of other horses. Place a
steady man in charge, and warn him of his personal danger.


                                GREASE.

=Symptoms.=--A diseased state of the skin of the legs, more
especially the hind ones, caused by uncleanliness or washing with cold
water and not properly drying them afterwards. In the early stages it
consists of intolerable itching, followed by an inflammation of the
sweat-glands, and an offensive oily discharge. The heels feel hot and
greasy.

=Treatment.=--Trim hair; poultice with warm bran and charcoal for
several days, changing twice a day, and cleaning with sponge and tepid
water each time; or apply a flaxseed poultice over which has been
poured some lotion consisting of sugar of lead ½ oz., carbolic acid
1 drachm, water 1 quart. Then, if animal is not weak, give a dose of
purgative medicine, and when it has acted apply to the heels a dressing
of vaseline 1 oz., oxide of zinc 2 drachms, iodized phenol 20 drops; or
equal parts of sulphate of zinc and sugar of lead in water; or carbolic
acid 1 part, glycerine 20 parts, applied with a brush and covered with
lint and bandage, is good after poulticing. When the frog is affected,
pare to the quick and dress with dry caustic powders (quicklime,
copperas, bluestone) or carbolic acid, and put on tight bandage, the
dressing being renewed every day at least. When there is any tendency
to inflammation or ulceration of skin of heels in bad weather, dress
with lard or tallow, or lard 8 parts and alum 1 part.


                              HIDE-BOUND.

=Symptoms.=--The hide becomes tightly drawn over the flesh, and the
coat hard and staring.

=Treatment.=--Aloes 1½ oz., sulphur 3½ oz., ginger ½ oz., linseed-meal
½ oz. Make into six balls, and give one night and morning.


                              HOOF-BOUND.

=Symptoms.=--This is the result of some preceding disease of the foot,
giving rise to an atrophy of the flesh structures of the foot, allowing
the wall to fall in and become contracted.

=Treatment.=--Stand in moist place; apply blistering liquid (powdered
cantharides 1 part, olive-oil 6 to 8 parts) to coronet.


                            HOCK-LAMENESS.

This applies to a variety of diseases, such as bog-and blood-spavin,
bone-spavin, curb, sprained ligaments, etc., all of which give rise to
lameness.

=Treatment.=--Rest; hot fomentations to allay inflammation;
hand-rubbing and blistering are used according to circumstances.


                              INFLUENZA.

=Symptoms.=--This specific epizoötic fever of a low type, associated
with inflammation of the respiratory mucous membrane, begins very
suddenly with marked fever; great dulness and extreme weakness;
headache; limbs stiff and weak; pulse quickened; eyelids swollen and
tearful, and, if inverted, appear pink or dark red; disinclination to
move; legs swollen; short, painful cough, betraying soreness of throat;
difficulty in swallowing; hurried breathing (if breathing hurried
and nostrils dilated, inflammation of lungs is to be apprehended);
sometimes discharge from nostrils, as in catarrh, or there may be only
a thin, yellowish, transparent fluid from the nostrils. If bowels
are involved, the horse exhibits symptoms of abdominal pain. If
liver is also involved, the lining membrane of the eyelid will be a
yellowish-red hue. Constipation or diarrhœa almost invariably present.

=Treatment.=--Isolate; rest; nurse carefully. Box stall where the
temperature should be about 60°; clothe, hand-rub and bandage legs so
as to maintain normal temperature. Rub throat and well towards ears
with liniment made of soap liniment 2 oz., compound camphor liniment 2
oz., and tincture of opium ½ oz.

(Soap liniment is composed of soft-soap 4 oz., camphor 1 oz., proof
spirits 2 pints, solution of ammonia ½ pint. Compound-camphor liniment
is composed of camphor 1 oz., olive-oil 2 oz.)

If cough is severe, steam nostrils with bucket of boiling water
and tablespoonful of turpentine poured over hay. Should there be
constipation without symptoms of bowel complications, give injection of
soap-suds and mild dose of Epsom salts, but not otherwise. If diarrhœa
be present, do not check unless it increases the debility, and then
give starch or flour gruel with an ounce or two of prepared chalk.

If abdominal pain be great, apply hot blankets; same to chest if
involved. Quinine in 20-grain doses four or five times a day.

Give saline agents, such as 1½ oz. sulphate of magnesia; or 1 oz.
hyposulphate of soda; or 4 oz. acetate of ammonia with 1 oz. nitric
ether, once or twice a day.

Gruel of bran or oatmeal with a little nitre therein, or cold water
with nitre for drink. Bran mash and scalded oats for food.


                               LAMENESS.

Lameness, when in the foot, is indicated by the animal pointing; in the
shoulder by the animal dragging or swinging the limb in a rotary manner.

In the majority of cases it is below the knee when in the fore leg, and
in the hock-joint when in the hind leg.

Examine carefully, and have the animal trotted slowly both towards and
from you. If the lameness be in front the animal drops on the well
quarter, and throws his head up when the unsound leg is placed on
the ground. If lame behind he hitches up the lame quarter, and nods
the head when the sound leg is placed on the ground. Then determine
location. If in foot, the lameness is more apparent on hard than on
soft ground. If lame elsewhere, it will be as apparent, and probably
more apparent, on soft as on hard ground (except in splint and other
exostoses), and is usually some sprain of a ligament between knee and
fetlock in fore leg, and in hock of hind leg. (See Corns; Cracked
Heels; Curb; Foot Inflammation; Founder; Grease; Hock Lameness;
Hoof-bound.)


                                LAMPAS.

=Symptoms.=--Swollen condition of roof of mouth caused by cold,
indigestion, or growing teeth.

=Treatment.=--Laxative food, and even a mild dose of laxative
medicine if required. Rub mouth with salt or a little alum and water.


               LARYNGITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE THROAT).

=Symptoms.=--Sore throat consists of inflammation of head of windpipe,
indicated by cough and difficulty in swallowing; hot and tender in
region of gullet; the least pressure may produce paroxysms of coughing;
pulse quick, respiration somewhat hurried.

=Treatment.=--Place in box stall where atmosphere is warm and moist;
avoid cold air; hot-water fomentations, and rub throat with ammonia
liniment (1 part liquid ammonia, 1 part cantharides, 2 parts olive
oil;) soft laxative food or grass, no hay; sponge throat with solution
of nitrate of silver 10 grains to 1 oz. of water; steam nostrils every
15 minutes with bucket of boiling water and tablespoonful of turpentine
poured over hay. No laxative medicine if avoidable. Use enemas, and if
necessary give 2 oz. Epsom salts in a pint of water with two drams of
ginger night and morning for several days.

Keep temperature of body normal by clothing, and give febrifuges in the
form of small doses of ½ dram belladonna and 1 oz. nitre made into a
soft ball or dissolved in water.


                                MANGE.

=Symptoms.=--An eruptive disease, very contagious; usually most
severe in winter; ordinarily induced by inattention to cleanliness or
contagion. Indicated by itching, hair falling off, skin becoming dry,
wrinkled, and scaly, with raw spots and cracks over the body.

=Treatment.=--If coat be long it may be necessary to clip it. Wash
well with warm water and soap; apply paraffine oil daily and allow
to dry; or sulphur and linseed oil well rubbed in; or oil of tar and
sulphur 2 oz. each, and linseed oil 1 pint. After treating a few days,
use sal soda ¼ lb. to one gallon of hot water to wash off body and
clean skin.


                          NAVICULAR DISEASE.

=Symptoms.=--Consists of sprain of the flexor tendon, or its sheath, as
it passes over navicular bone, giving rise to inflammation of the joint.

If foot-lameness exists without apparent cause, animal points fore foot
without resting hind quarters, wears away toe, goes up hill sounder
than he goes down, feet, as a rule, contracted and hotter than usual,
we may suspect navicular disease.

=Treatment.=--Rest; allow frog to bear on ground; cold poultices,
or stand in cold water or on clay tempered with salt and water;
laxative food. In a week blister around coronet and in hollow of heel.

This disease can only be alleviated, not cured.


                        OPHTHALMIA (SORE EYES).

=Symptoms.=--May arise from undue exposure to sun, cold, wind, dust,
etc. Foreign substances usually lodge under the upper eyelid. The
eyelids are swollen, tears running down face, with intolerance of light.

=Treatment.=--Bathe with warm water; dress daily with tincture of
opium 2 drams, sulphate of zinc 4 grs., or alum 6 grs. and water 1 oz.,
and shade eyes with wide bandage suspended from brow-band. Keep in dark
stable and avoid using in bright sunlight.

If feverish, give bran mashes. Bathe with cold water if unable to
obtain warm.


                      PARALYSIS OF HIND QUARTERS.

=Symptoms.=--Partial or complete loss of voluntary motion of the parts,
usually brought on by high feeding and no exercise.

=Treatment.=--1 dram powdered nux vomica twice a day; good nursing;
easily digested food; dose of Glauber salts.


                      PHARYNGITIS (SORE THROAT).

=Treatment.=--Rub the throat with turpentine liniment (equal parts of
turpentine and olive oil).


                               PLEURISY.

=Symptoms.=--One side of chest generally affected, especially at
first. When independent of pneumonia it generally begins suddenly with
shivering; breathing quick and shallow; nostrils dilated; respiration
short and quick; regular elevated line or ridge along the lower border
of the ribs from the point of the hip to the lower part of the sternum;
fever; short, dry, painful cough; sighing grunt occasionally or when
turned around; in early stages if ear be applied to chest a sound like
rubbing dry hands together will be heard; pulse hard and wiry, at first
about 60, runs to 80, and in bad cases to 100 and over, but not so full
and oppressed as in pneumonia; restless and looks at side with anxious
eye of pain; paws the ground; does not lie down, but attempts to do so;
temperature of extremities irregular. Portions may be cold, others hot.
In the second stage the friction sound in chest disappears; cough loose
and moist; extremities for a time warm; pulse less frequent, smaller,
and weaker; breathing less labored; membrane of nostril loses redness.

=Treatment.=--Roomy stable free from draughts; foment with blankets
steeped in hot water and wrung out, as in pneumonia; continue this
for some time, and when discontinued rub dry, and after four or five
days, when acute stage has somewhat subsided, apply to sides liniment
composed of olive oil 2 oz., tinct. cantharides 1 oz., solution of
ammonia 1 oz., on alternate days. This liniment is not applied until
the pain manifested by restlessness has subsided; clothe body. If legs
be cold, hand-rub and flannel bandage. From the beginning give the
following drench every six hours: solution of acetate of ammonia 3 oz.,
spirits of nitrous ether 1 oz., bicarbonate of potassium 3 drams, water
1 pint. In the beginning of the attack, if pain so severe as to cause
animal to lie down or paw, give tincture of opium 2 oz.; raw linseed
oil 12 oz.; laxative food; 2 oz. sulphate of soda or 1 oz. nitrate of
potassa in a bucket of water to drink, and renew as often as necessary;
if constipated, 2 oz. Epsom salts dissolved in water with ½ oz. nitrate
of potassa twice a day; or enemas of warm water may be all that is
necessary.

The treatment during fever and if debilitated is as for pneumonia; in
fact the general treatment is the same, except the time of applying
liniment.


                              PNEUMONIA.

=Symptoms.=--Usually begins with sudden shivering, followed by coldness
of ears and extremities; other signs of inflammation; staring coat.
_The coldness of extremities is a marked sign throughout the disease._
Animal uneasy; turns head frequently to chest; pulse oppressed and
quick, generally about 60 at commencement, becomes quicker, and may
run to 100, gradually becoming smaller in volume; temperature rises
rapidly, frequently to 104° or 105° F.; cough may or may not be
present. In early stages nasal linings paler than usual, but become
purplish and then of leaden hue; respiration disturbed at once; animal
persistently stands with fore legs wide apart and elbows out; never
lies down except for a moment at a time, or in extremis; head inclined
downwards, nose protruded, nostrils dilated.

In early stages a confused humming noise accompanied by a harsh, dry
murmur is heard when ear is applied to chest; as the inflammation
progresses the dry murmur gives way to a moist rattle.

=Treatment.=--Box stall free from draughts; plenty of fresh
air; blanket body; rub and bandage legs twice a day; plenty of
drinking-water near at all times; rub affected side with liniment
(2 oz. olive oil, 1 oz. tincture of cantharides, 1 oz. solution of
ammonia), and repeat in four or five days. If weather not too cold
and great care can be taken, first apply closely to chest, every half
hour for four or five hours, a blanket wrung out of hot water, and wrap
a dry one over it; afterwards rub on the above liniment, and cover
closely with a blanket. Do not use mustard. No purgatives, but give
laxative diet, scalded oats, bran, and linseed mashes. If necessary,
give enemas of warm water three or four times a day.

Every six hours give solution of acetate of ammonia 3 oz., spirits of
nitrous ether 1 oz., bicarbonate of potassium 3 drams, water 1 pint. If
this cannot be done, put 3 drams bi-carbonate of potassium into every
bucketful of water he will drink.

Give every three hours during fever 1 dram quinine in capsule, or mixed
with a little linseed meal and molasses.

If much debilitated, 6 oz. whiskey in 1 pint of water every four or
five hours.


                               PURGING.

In cases of excessive purging, either from disease or an overdose of
medicine, use extract of catechu 1 dram, cinnamon 1 dram, powdered
opium ½ dram. This may be repeated two or three times a day, thick
wheaten gruel being given at the same time.


                        PUNCTURES FROM SHOEING.

=Symptoms.=--If inflammation be present, the foot will be very hot, and
when standing still the animal continually rests it or moves it about
uneasily and is afraid to put his weight on it. If tapped with a hammer
on the spot, or if the sole and wall at the part be pressed by pincers,
suffering is manifested.

=Treatment.=--Remove shoe; pare sole over injury until quite thin;
make opening between sole and wall with a small drawing-knife across
the track of the nail to relieve pressure and form an exit for matter;
then put foot in bucket of hot water for an hour or so, and afterwards
hot poultice. When lameness has disappeared, reshoe, leaving out nail
at injured point and filling up the cavity with tar and tow.


                               QUITTOR.

=Symptoms.=--In all cases in which matter forms in the foot, whether
from pricks, corns, or bruises, unless it has free opening to escape
by it acts as an irritant, extending in every direction in sinuses,
and finally works its way to the coronet, where it bursts and forms a
fistulous sore.

=Treatment.=--Foment; apply poultice; when abscess opens, keep washed
with carbolic acid. Keep open until internal disease is thoroughly
eradicated; then keep clean with cold water and dress with sulphate
of copper, iron, or zinc, 5 grains of either to 1 oz. of water; or
carbolic acid 20 drops in glycerine 20 drops, and added to 1 oz. of
water. For treads or wounds on coronet between hair and hoof, and when
the sore has become healthy in case of quittor, a good treatment is
common turpentine and hog's lard, equal parts melted together. Spread
on tow and bind on wound with bandage.


                               RINGWORM.

=Symptoms.=--This contagious disease is due to the presence of a
parasite in the skin, and is manifested by the hair falling out in
circular patches.

=Treatment.=--Dress patches with blistering ointment (powdered
cantharides 1 part, lard 6 parts), or with tar dressing as for mange.


                              RHEUMATISM.

A peculiar form of inflammation attacking the fibrous structures of the
body.

=Treatment.=--Laxative food; 6 drachms of aloes, 1 drachm of calomel,
as a cathartic; 1 oz. bicarbonate of soda, followed daily by a dose
half that amount with ½ oz. nitrate of potash; if these fail, give 2
drachms of iodide of potassium in addition. Foment with hot water to
which poppy-heads have been added, dry thoroughly, and apply flannel
bandages. Clothe warmly. Keep quiet.


                              SAND-CRACK.

=Symptoms.=--A split in the wall of the hoof commencing on top near the
coronet and extending downward.

=Treatment.=--Apply bar-shoe and use hoof ointment (tar and lard,
equal parts, melted together). If the animal be lame, remove shoe and
immerse the foot in a bucket of hot water for an hour or two, and then
poultice.


                                SCURVY.

=Symptoms.=--Eruptions and itching, often in the bend of the knee, the
hock, or mane and tail.

=Treatment.=--Apply ointment (iodide of sulphur 1 drachm, glycerine 6
oz.); give carbonate of soda 1 oz. twice a day; ½ oz. Fowler's solution
of arsenic twice a day. Mild laxative food.


                                SORES.

=Symptoms.=--Sores on back, withers, or shoulders are ordinarily due to
recent swellings from blows or injuries of some kind.

=Treatment.=--Sulphate of zinc 4 drachms, cold water 1 quart; apply by
washing or with wetted bandages. Or first cleanse a healthy sore with
soap and water, then apply sulphur 3 parts, iodoform 1 part.


                               SPRAINS.

Sprains consist in an overstretching of a muscle, tendon, or ligament
to such a degree as to rupture some of the fibres of which it is
composed. They are divided into _muscular sprains, tendonous sprains,
and ligamentous sprains_.

Muscular sprains usually occur in the powerful muscles of the loins and
quarters; they are serious and often permanent injuries.

Tendonous sprains are the most common, and the flexor tendons of the
fore legs are most frequently affected.

Ligamentous sprains are serious injuries, and may occur in any of the
numerous ligaments belonging to the joints of the body. The principles
of treatment are the same as for tendons.

=Symptoms.=--Sprains of tendons and ligaments are manifested by heat,
swelling, pain on manipulation, and lameness.

=Treatment.=--First reduce the inflammation by rest and constant use
of hot fomentations. If the sprain be severe and at the rear part of
the fore or hind leg, raise the heel of the shoe on the affected leg an
inch or more.

All traces of the inflammation having disappeared, apply cold water and
linen bandages, and give a little slow exercise. Should the swelling
show no signs of subsiding, or the lameness continue after long and
careful treatment, firing may be considered, but should only be
undertaken by a skilful surgeon. The diet should be laxative.


                      SPRAINS OF BACK AND LOINS.

=Treatment.=--Rest; keep bowels open with warm bran mashes and a
dose of Glauber salts (½ to 1 lb. sulphate of soda); also 1 drachm
acetate of potassa twice a day for ten days. Treat externally with hot
fomentations, or blister if necessary.


                              STRANGLES.

=Symptoms.=--Sick and off feed, with possibly slight catarrh and
feverish symptoms; abscess forms between bones of lower jaw or
elsewhere in the group of lymphatic glands; sore throat; difficulty in
swallowing; slobbers; unthriftiness; staring coat; loss of condition;
dulness and languor.

=Treatment.=--Place in cool box with plenty of fresh air; support
strength by nutritious food; all kinds of soft and macerated food are
good; if constipated, give laxative food and enemas, but no strong
purgative must be used; if necessary, ½ pint of linseed-oil, repeated
in 24 hours if required. Tonics, such as 20 grains of quinine, or 1 oz.
ground gentian, or 1 teaspoonful sulphate of iron, three times a day.

Bring swelling to a head by a poultice of flaxseed, carrots, or
turnips. If suffocation be threatened, a tube must be placed in the
windpipe. This should be done by a skilful surgeon.


                              SUNSTROKE.

=Symptoms.=--Manifested suddenly. Animal stops, drops his head, begins
to stagger, and soon falls to the ground unconscious. The breathing
is with great stertor, pulse very slow and irregular, cold sweats in
patches.

_In heat exhaustion_ the animal usually requires urging for some
time previous to the appearance of any other symptoms; generally
perspiration is checked, and then he becomes weak in his gait;
breathing hurried or panting; eyes watery and bloodshot; nostrils
dilated and highly reddened, assuming a dark purple color; the pulse
is rapid and weak, the heart bounding, followed by unconsciousness and
death.

=Treatment.=--Blood-letting is forbidden. Apply ice or very cold water
to the head and along the spine for sunstroke, but in case of _heat
exhaustion_ apply cloths wrung out of hot water.

The following applies to both cases: Give ½ oz. carbonate of ammonia
or 6 oz. of whiskey in a pint of water; injections per rectum, of
moderately strong ginger-tea or weak ammonia-water; brisk friction of
the limbs and the application of spirits of camphor. Repeat stimulants
in an hour if pulse has not become stronger and slower. When reaction
has occurred and during convalescence, tonics may be given: sulphate of
iron 1 drachm, gentian 3 drachms, red cinchona-bark 2 drachms; mix and
give in the feed night and morning.


                                SWEENY.

=Symptoms.=--Consists of a sprain of the muscles covering the outer
surface of the shoulder-blade, in consequence of which they become
wasted, leaving their place hollow.

=Treatment.=--Feed muscle-making food and give moderate exercise.
Apply from time to time a mild blister (powdered cantharides 1 part,
olive-oil 12 parts.)


                             SWELLED LEGS.

Swelled legs are more often due to general debility than to any other
cause, though it may arise from lack of exercise, wet or filth, or
neglected cases of grease or scratches.

=Treatment.=--Hand-rub; bandage the legs; warm clothing; gentle
exercise; generous diet if the animal be poor; mild dose of physic in
some cases (½ pint of linseed-oil). Vegetable and mineral tonics are
useful in some cases.


                                THRUSH.

=Symptoms.=--Arises from neglect and want of use. Manifests itself
under the form of an acrid, strong-smelling, unhealthy secretion
issuing from the sensitive frog through the cleft of the insensitive
frog; most common in hind foot.

=Treatment.=--Cleanse and keep clean both feet and where the
animal stands. After cleansing foot gently thrust to the bottom of the
cleft a piece of fine tow saturated with 1 part carbolic acid, 20 parts
water, and then cover with dry tow. Repeat night and morning for a few
days and then dress with calomel and dry tow. Keep frog free from dirt
and moisture.


                         URINE, RETENTION OF.

=Symptoms.=--Uneasiness, distress, anxiety of countenance; if relief
is not soon obtained, pulse becomes quick and hard, and ultimately
imperceptible; stretching out in endeavor to void urine; lies down and
rises up frequently; clammy sweats.

=Treatment.=--Place fresh straw under animal; pouring water may
produce sympathetic action; steady pressure of the hand, passed through
the anus, on the fundus of the bladder may accomplish result; rub
belly, or wash out sheath thoroughly if caused by dirt; 2 ounces sweet
spirits of nitre in pint of water, or 1 pint linseed-oil and afterwards
opium 1½ drachms, camphor 2½ drachms; repeat in 1 or 2 hours if
necessary. If necessary to pass a catheter, the hand well oiled is
passed up the sheath, the penis grasped and gently brought forward and
held by an assistant; the catheter, well oiled, is then introduced and
carefully pushed forward, and when it reaches the perinæum it should be
guided forward and upwards by gentle pressure of the fingers.


                       URINE, NON-RETENTION OF.

=Symptoms.=--Besides excessive staling there is extreme thirst, dry
skin, rough, staring coat, digestion usually out of order.

=Treatment.=--Change diet; give 1 drachm iodide of potassium in 10 oz.
water daily between meals.


                               WARBLES.

=Symptoms.=--Recent soft swellings or tumors arising from inflammation
of the skin due to friction or undue pressure.

=Treatment.=--Remove cause by not permitting the saddle or collar to
touch it, and treat with salt water. Try to disperse, but if necessary
to open it do so fully and touch with caustic. Then use cold-water
dressings.


                                WARTS.

=Treatment.=--When small, remove by scraping surface and dressing with
chloride of zinc; if large, remove with knife, and if necessary touch
with hot iron. If without appreciable base, apply a paste of sulphur
and sulphuric acid until it sloughs and then dress as an ordinary wound.


                                WORMS.

=Treatment.=--2 oz. turpentine in a pint of linseed-oil. The most
effectual treatment is to administer daily for ten days or two weeks 2
drachms sulphate of iron and then give a dose of physic; change diet;
tonic.


                                WOUNDS.

Simple wounds demand little attention other than cleanliness.

_First._--Suppress hemorrhage by cold applications with pressure. If
the bleeding be profuse, continuous, and of a bright red color, apply
pressure to trunk of artery higher up leg (if leg is injured) than
the wound, i.e., apply between wound and heart. Tie a flat web, cord,
or handkerchief loosely around the leg, lay a pad formed of another
handkerchief immediately above the artery, pass a stick through the
loop on opposite side of leg to pad and turn it around so as to twist
loop tightly. A plug of cotton, tow, sponge, or rag made into conical
shape with point of cone toward bleeding orifice is also useful;
remove clots of blood, apply plug and retain it by rags, tow, etc.
In large, gaping wounds the finger or even the closed fist may be
effectually employed until assistance arrives.

Cold water, ice, tar, perchloride of iron, felt, wool, spider's web,
etc., may all be employed with more or less effect in stopping bleeding.

_Second._--Remove all foreign matter, dirt, splinters of wood or bone,
bullets, etc., as far as possible, by allowing lukewarm water to
stream over wound from the mouth of a vessel; or a piece of sponge or
tow may be pressed on some part above the wound so that the water may
trickle over it; but the abraded part is not to be touched except in
the removal of foreign substances by forceps or otherwise. Then use
cold-water dressings; apply soothing applications, watery solution of
opium, carbolic acid lotion, tincture of arnica, or simple ointment.

Hot fomentations may be used after cleansing to reduce inflammation.

Compress and bandage are preferable to stitches in bringing the parts
together; the former to be used after the inflammation begins to
subside, and the latter not until all inflammation has disappeared.

The lowest end of the wound must be kept open to permit the escape of
matter during healing; this is usually accomplished by inserting a
piece of dry lint between the edges of the wound. General treatment is
rest and low diet.

_Third._--During healing-stage dress with carbolic acid 1 part,
water 20 parts; or carbolized oil; or bluestone (sulphate of copper)
dissolved in water, 2 drachms to the pint; or tar ointment (tar 1 oz.,
sulphur ½ oz., lard 1½ oz.); or light blister of cantharides
(powdered cantharides 1 part, olive-oil 12 parts) to neighboring parts
in case of indolent wound. If proud flesh crops out above the surface
of the wound, remove it by applying sulphate of copper or zinc (as
above), or nitrate of silver, or alum, in order to keep it below the
surface of skin, so that the parts may unite.


                GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR SHOEING HORSES.

In preparing the horse's foot for the shoe do not touch with the knife
the frog, sole, or bars. In removing surplus growth of that part of the
foot which is the seat of the shoe use the cutting-pincers and rasp,
and not the knife. The shoeing-knife may be used, if necessary, in
fitting the toe-clip. Opening the heels or making a cut into the angle
of the wall at the heel must not be allowed. The rasp may be used upon
this part of the foot when necessary, and the same applies to the frog.
No cutting with a knife is permitted, the rasp alone being used when
necessary. Flat-footed horses should be treated as the necessity of
each case may require. In forging the shoe to fit the foot be careful
that the shoe is fitted to and follows the circumference of the foot
clear around to the heels; the heels of the shoe should not be extended
back straight and outside of the walls at the heels of the horse's
foot, as is frequently done. The shoe must not be fitted too small and
the outer surface of the walls then rasped down to make the foot short
to suit the shoe, as often happens. Heat may be used in preparing and
shaping the shoe, but the hot shoe must never be applied to the horse's
foot. Make the upper or foot surface of the shoe perfectly flat so as
to give a level bearing. A shoe with a concave ground surface should be
used.

In garrison, at the discretion of the commanding officer, the horses
may be left unshod. Shoes will be fitted and kept ready to be put on
the horses.

The new Burden shoe called the "easy" has just been adopted as the U.
S. service shoe.

Never use a nail that gives the slightest indication of splitting, a
result that may be expected if they be cold-forged.

Always use a hot-forged nail. The Putnam nail, hot-forged, is excellent.


                      STABLES AND STABLE DUTIES.

Foul air and dampness are the cause of many diseases of the horse;
hence the importance and economy of spacious, clean, dry, and
well-ventilated stables. Ceilings should be twelve or fifteen feet
high, with large ventilators through the roof, and a window or side
aperture in each stall, which should be placed well above the horse's
eyes. If possible, the building should have no upper story or loft. In
stables with a loft, ventilation from the top is always insufficient,
and there must be side openings well above the horses, so that the
draught will pass over their heads. These openings must never be closed
except on the windward side, to keep out rain or snow.

There should be a passageway for feeding in front of the stalls, and
so that the horses can look to the right and left. Their heads should
never be placed against a partition if it can be avoided.

Double stalls should not be less than 4½ feet by 9 feet to each
horse; and single stalls should be 5 feet wide. Stalls 6 feet wide and
10½ feet long are greatly to be preferred. Not less than 1200 cubic
feet should be allowed to each horse in the stable.

A picket-line is established in the immediate vicinity of the battery
stable, the horses being tied to a hemp or wire rope or chain passed
through the picket-posts. There should be shallow trenches behind the
horses to carry off rain, the ground on which they stand having just
enough slope to let the water run into the trenches, or there may be
a single drain in the centre along the line of the picket-posts.
Constant attention must be paid to maintaining the ground about the
picket-line in good order.

=Hut Stables.=--Rough sheds with clapboarded roofs are the best; with
the litter and some wet earth good walls can soon be constructed around
the shed; these walls should be vertical on the inside, but with a good
slope toward the outside. Sheds made 30 feet wide can accommodate two
rows of horses, their heads being turned toward one another. Plenty of
openings must be left for doors by which to remove the horses quickly
in case of fire, and drainage must be well attended to. The stalls, or
standing-space, should be 5 feet wide and 9 feet long.

An excellent shed can be made under the lee of a bank by erecting
forked poles, placing connecting pieces, and laying thereon boards or
poles and thatching.


                 GENERAL RULES FOR STABLE MANAGEMENT.

The stable sergeant takes immediate charge of the police and sanitary
condition of the stable, picket-line, etc., and is the custodian of the
forage and stable property generally.

The stable is to be kept thoroughly policed, free from smells, and
well whitewashed. There must be no accumulation of manure or foul
litter inside, or near the doors or windows without. The feed-boxes
are washed out frequently and kept perfectly clean. The ground about
the picket-line is swept daily and all dung, etc., carried to the
manure-heap.

Except at night, when the horses are bedded down, no manure or urine
is to remain in the stalls; the stable police remove it as fast as it
accumulates.

If practicable, all woodwork within reach of the horses and not
protected with sheet iron or other metal is painted with thin gas-tar,
to prevent its being gnawed; it should be thoroughly dried before
putting horses near it. The same precaution must be followed with
regard to troughs, picket-posts, and hemp picket-line.

Smoking in stables or in their immediate vicinity is prohibited.

One or more lamps will be hung in each stable, to burn during the night.

The horses are stalled according to their positions in the battery,
the teams nearest the door being led out first; their places at the
picket-line will be in accordance with the same rule.

The name of each horse, and that of his rider or driver, are placed
over his stall.

Clay is the best for earthen floors, as it packs well. Gravel or sandy
earth is not suitable. Each man is held responsible for the removal of
the earth and the levelling of the floor of his stall.

The sloping of the floor of stalls from the manger to the heel-post is
injurious and uncomfortable for the animal, who stands in an unnatural
position, with the fore legs higher than the hind ones. When earthen
floors are not level, they give more trouble, as the horse will paw a
hollow for his fore feet unless he can elevate his hind legs by backing
out of the stall.

Whenever the horses go out of the stable, the windows of their stalls
are to be kept open, unless necessary to exclude rain or snow, or when
cold draughts affect the animals in contiguous or opposite stalls.

Stable doors are never closed in the daytime except to keep out the
wet or to exclude cold winds. If the doors be in a single piece, bars
are put across the doorway; if divided in half, it will be usually
sufficient to open the upper part. At night, except in very hot
weather, they should be closed and locked, communication with the
stable being kept up by a manhole.

Except in very cold, windy weather, or in very hot weather, where
there is no shade, horses should stand most of the day at the
picket-line, as they have better air and are less confined, while the
stables become drier and more healthful.

In ordinary climates military stables must be kept as cool as possible.
If the horses do not stand directly in the draught, the colder the
stable the less will they suffer if suddenly called to take the field.
For the same reason horses should never be blanketed in the stable
except in very cold weather in high latitudes.


                             STABLE DUTY.

The captain is responsible for the proper performance of stable duty in
his battery.

At morning stable-call the cannoneers, assisted by the prisoners, clean
out the stalls and police the stable under the direction of the stable
sergeant. The bedding is taken up, that which is much soiled being
separated for the manure-heap, and the remainder put on the racks or
spread upon the ground to dry. If necessary, the drivers assist after
they have done grooming.

At evening stable-call the stable is policed as in the morning; the
bedding is laid down and fresh straw spread on top of it; the bed must
be soft and even, with the thickest part toward the manger.

Horses are groomed twice daily, at morning and at evening stable-calls,
under the supervision of the first sergeant and battery officer of the
day. In special circumstances it may be advisable to groom only once,
about noon.

The grooming is always at the picket-line, except in stormy weather.

Each driver, whether on guard or not, grooms his own horses, under
the superintendence of his chief of section. Supernumerary horses are
groomed by a detail of cannoneers under the direction of a corporal,
who is assigned to this duty. In each platoon the horses of the chiefs
of section are groomed by a cannoneer, who is permanently detailed,
both horses being attached for grooming purposes to the section to
which the cannoneer belongs. The trumpeters groom their own horses
under the direction of the first sergeant.

At evening stable-call each man examines and cleans out his horse's
feet, and sees that the shoes are in good order. Horses requiring
shoeing are reported to the proper non-commissioned officer, who
notifies the stable sergeant.

Each horse should be groomed not less than twenty minutes, beginning
with the near horse. If any horses are not properly groomed they will
be left at the picket-line, and groomed by their drivers under the
direction of a non-commissioned officer of the guard.

In garrison, when there are no available prisoners, two or more men,
called the stable police, are usually kept at work between morning and
evening stable-calls in removing manure, policing generally, feeding,
etc.

In horse-batteries stable duty is conducted on the same principles,
with such modifications as the nature of the service demands.


                               GROOMING.

Take the currycomb in the right hand, fingers over back of comb; begin
on the near side at the upper part of the neck, thence proceed to the
chest, arms, shoulders, back, belly, flank, loins, and rump. Then go to
the off side, taking comb in left hand, and proceed as before.

The currycomb is applied gently, and is used only to loosen the scurf
and matted hair; it is not used on the legs from the knees or hocks
downward except to carefully loosen dried mud.

Next take the brush in left hand, and change currycomb to right; begin
at the neck on the near side, and proceed in the same order as in
currying, brushing also the parts not touched by the comb; on the off
side take brush in right hand, currycomb in left. In places difficult
to clean apply the brush backward and forward, finishing by leaving the
coat smooth. After every few strokes clean the brush from dust with the
currycomb.

Having done with the brush, rub or dust off the horse with the
grooming-cloth, wipe about the eyes and nostrils, and clean the dock.
The skin under the flank and between the hindquarters must be soft,
clean, and free from dust.

Currycombs, cards, or common combs must never be applied to the mane or
tail; but the brush, fingers, and cloth are freely used on both.

The wisp is used when the horse comes in warm from exercise, and he is
rubbed against the hair until dry, from his hindquarters up to his head.


                               FEEDING.

In garrison it is recommended that grain be fed at first call for
reveille by the stable sergeant, assisted by one or two members of the
stable-guard, or men detailed for the purpose. The grain, in a box on
wheels, is rolled in front of each stall, when it is transferred to
the feed-boxes by allowance-measures. Grain is fed again at evening
stable duty as in the morning, but not until after the hay has been
distributed and the stable swept up.

In camp or on the march grain is fed at morning and evening
stables. The men are matched to the forage-wagons or other grain
depository, where the non-commissioned officer in charge, with an
allowance-measure, issues to each in turn.

Gruel is very good for horses when tired. To make it, put a double
handful of fresh coarse oatmeal in a bucket, add a little cold water,
mix well, and add 1½ gallons of hot (not boiling) water. Stir well
till smooth, and give it at the temperature of new milk; add a
wineglass or two of spirits if horse is much exhausted.

In garrison hay is fed thrice daily--immediately after morning stables,
in the middle of the day, and at evening stables; at the evening feed
each animal should have at least one half of his daily allowance.
The dust must be well shaken out of the hay before it is put in the
mangers. During the short days of winter the feeding at noon may be
omitted without injury to the animals.

In camp hay is fed at the picket-line morning, noon, and evening; on
the march, in the evening only.

The occasional use of bran is important for stabled horses. In spring
or early summer they should have grass for at least a week or ten days,
during which time they ought not to be much worked. Salt should be
given at least once a week.

When forage cannot be obtained, grazing should be allowed at every
spare moment, especially early in the morning when the dew is on the
grass.

The daily allowance of oats, barley, or corn is 12 pounds to each
horse; that of hay, 14 pounds; the allowance of straw for bedding is
100 pounds a month to each animal.

Barley and corn should both be crushed, if possible, when used to feed
horses or mules.

Good oats weigh about 32 pounds to the bushel, barley about 48 pounds,
corn about 56 pounds. Pressed hay weighs about 11 pounds per cubic foot.

=Good Oats= are clean, hard, dry, sweet, plump, full of flour, and
rattle like shot. They have a clean and almost metallic lustre. Those
in a sample vary but little in size, and are entirely free from smell.
The pressure of the nail ought to leave little or no mark on them. The
value of an oat depends mainly on its weight per bushel. Dirty oats
weigh heavier than clean ones.

New oats can be distinguished from old by their smell, which is fresh
and earthy, and by their taste, which is fresh and milky, while that of
the old oats is slightly bitter. New oats are indigestible. Oats one
year old are best.

=Various Defects in Oats.=--_Kiln-dried._--Oats that have been dried
to render them hard after they have been damp. They have a loose and
shrivelled appearance about the ends of the husks, and are easily
recognized by their peculiar smell and reddish color.

_Foxy Oats._--Oats that have undergone a certain process of
fermentation from having been stowed in bulk when not perfectly dry.
They are unfit for horses, are of a reddish color, and have both bitter
smell and taste. Their reddish color is sometimes gotten rid of by
subjecting them to fumes of sulphur, which makes them unnaturally white.

_Damp Oats_ are objectionable and should be rejected. Continued
dampness soon produces softness, mustiness, mouldiness, and sprouting.

_Dirty Oats._--This can be remedied by winnowing.

=Hay.=--There is a great variety of grasses. The best hay contains a
large proportion of the best of these, along with clover and other good
herbage, and only a small proportion of the inferior kinds, whilst in
the inferior kinds of hay good herbage is nearly entirely wanting, and
the inferior grasses predominate.

The characteristics of good hay are green color combined with a
delicate smell and taste, a presence of flowers in their natural
colors, and of a variety of grasses and good herbage (not weeds), and
clover of moderate fineness, crispness, and hardness.

=Straw= must be wheat, oats, or rye straw; barley induces disease of
the skin. It ought to be long and strong. Horses are inclined to eat
wheat straw when new.


                               WATERING.

Horses must be watered quietly, and without confusion; the manner in
which this duty is performed is a good test of the discipline of a
mounted command.

Horses are to be led or ridden at a walk to and from water, depending
upon its distance from the stable. At the drinking-place no horse
should be hurried or have his head jerked up from the water.

If a stream is used for watering horses from the bank, the level of
the water must not be more than 3 or 4 inches below the latter; and if
the water is very shallow dams should be constructed to deepen it, as
animals drink more rapidly when water is at least 6 inches deep. Mules
should be watered higher up stream than horses. When animals will not
drink from a stream, they will frequently do so from a bucket with a
handful of grass on the water.

In the field or on the march the watering is from the most convenient
running water; in garrison it is usually from troughs. In warm weather
water drawn from a cold well or spring before being used should stand
long enough for the chill to pass off.

The horses are watered under the immediate direction of the first
sergeant, but if they are liable to meet those of other commands at the
watering-place a commissioned officer should replace him.

During the hot months horses are watered thrice daily--in the morning,
at noon, and just before grooming in the afternoon. At other times two
waterings are enough, after morning and at evening stables. In very
cold weather once a day, at noon, is sufficient. It is to be always
remembered that a horse will rarely drink enough very early in the
morning.

The daily allowance of water for a horse is six gallons.

On the march horses are watered with buckets carried on the carriages.
The oftener this is done the better, as it is not usually known when
another watering-place will be reached.

When horses have to make a day's march without water, they will be
watered after they are fed, just before leaving camp in the morning.

If a mounted command has to march a long distance without water,
so that it will be necessary to encamp _en route_, the animals are
well fed, but denied water until just before starting, when they are
permitted to drink freely. The command marches in the afternoon,
and does not encamp until it has accomplished at least half of the
distance, and moves early the next morning to reach water.


                           TRAINING HORSES.

Horses are trained by the best horsemen, under the supervision of an
officer or non-commissioned officer.

It should be carefully impressed upon the men that the horse may be
made gentle and obedient by patience, kindness, and fearlessness; that
punishment is only to be resorted to when necessary, and then only
administered immediately after the commission of the offense; and that
nothing should ever be done to the horse in anger.

The restlessness or impatience which frequently arises from exuberance
of spirits and playfulness must be carefully distinguished from that
which arises from viciousness or timidity.

When restless, the horse should be held until he becomes calm; when
submissive after punishment, he should be treated kindly. The men
should endeavor to inspire him with confidence, and he should gradually
be accustomed to warlike sounds--firing, beating of drums, etc. As one
horse is apt to be governed by the actions of another, trained horses
that are indifferent to such sounds should be interspersed among the
new ones.

The first object to be obtained in training a horse is to render him
gentle and tractable by progressive lessons. For this purpose all
proper means must be employed, such as feeding, handling, patting him,
taking up his feet, etc., and the practice of the longe.

The practice of the longe is also intended to supple him and teach him
the free and proper use of his limbs. It likewise aids in forming his
paces and fits him for service in the battery.

The men employed in this most important part of the horse's education
must be selected for their natural fondness for animals, as well as for
their patience, coolness, and intelligence, and should not be changed
until the horses are sufficiently instructed to take their places in
the battery.


                               BRIDLING.

A plain snaffle-bridle should at first be used and put on with great
care and gentleness. If the horse resists, no violence should be used.
He should be turned round in his stall and the instructor should take
the end of the halter while the man quiets and encourages the horse. By
careful treatment he will soon be accustomed to the sight of the bit
and will allow it to be placed in his mouth. The reins will be tied so
as to hang loosely on the neck.

=Cavesson.=--The cavesson is a bridle head-stall, to which a nose-band,
encircling the horse's head, is added; the latter is adjustable by
means of a buckle; the chin-strap has a running ring to which the
longeing-strap is attached. When the snaffle-bridle has been properly
fitted, the cavesson is carefully put on. The nose-band should be about
three inches above the nostrils; if higher, it would partly lose its
power; if lower it would affect the horse's breathing. It must not be
so tight as to make the horse uneasy.


                               LONGEING.

This instruction should be begun on a circle from fifteen to twenty
yards in diameter. As horses are usually fed, watered, saddled, and led
from the near side, they are inclined to lead better from that than the
off side. It will therefore generally be found necessary to give two
lessons on the right to one on the left.

The first lesson to be taught the young horse is to go forward. Until
he does this freely nothing else should be required of him. When he
obeys freely, he should occasionally be stopped and caressed.

If the horse hesitates or stands still when he is ordered to move on,
he should be encouraged, as such hesitation oftener comes from fear and
ignorance as to what is required than from obstinacy or vice.

The horse should at first be led around the circle at a walk. A man
with a whip (with which at first the horse should not be struck) should
follow at a short distance and show the whip occasionally if the horse
is inclined to hang back; if this does not produce the desired effect,
he should strike the ground in rear of the horse, and at length touch
him lightly with the whip until he obeys.

After the horse begins to move freely at a walk the man holding the
longeing-rein should gently urge him to the trot, gradually lengthening
the rein so that it may be scarcely felt, and should go round the
circle at an active pace nearly opposite the horse's shoulder so as to
keep him out and press him forward. If the horse takes kindly to this
lesson, the man holding the rein may lengthen it by degrees until he
has only to turn in the same spot, the man with the whip being careful
to keep the horse out to the line of the circle. Should the horse break
his pace, or plunge, the rein should be shaken without jerking it until
he returns to the trot.

The man holding the longeing-rein should have a light and easy hand.
For the first two or three days the horse must not be urged too
much; if he goes gently, without jumping or resisting, enough is
accomplished. He should be longed to the right, left, and right again,
changing from a walk to a trot and back again in each case. He should
be frequently halted by gently feeling the rein and speaking to him.

After a few days of the above practice the horse may be urged a little
more in the trot, but the greatest care and attention are requisite to
teach him the use of his limbs without straining him. Much harm may be
done in this instruction by a sudden jerk or too forcible pull of the
longe.

Care must be taken that the lessons are not made so long as to fatigue
or fret the horse. At first they should be short and be gradually
increased in length as the instruction progresses. At the conclusion of
each lesson the horse should be led to the centre of the ring and made
much of. The man holding the longeing-rein should take it short in one
hand, at the same time patting and rubbing the horse about the head
and neck with the other; he should then try to bend the horse's neck a
little to the right and then to the left by means of the longeing-rein.
The bend should be in the very poll of the neck, and this exercise
should be repeated at the end of every lesson, cautiously and by slow
degrees, until the horse responds easily. This exercise will greatly
facilitate the future instruction of the animal.

The running-rein is of great value in teaching a horse to keep his head
in a proper position, and affords valuable aid in his first handling.
If judiciously used, it saves the rider a great deal of trouble and the
horse much ill usage. It is especially useful in controlling horses
that are inclined to bolt. It should act directly on the snaffle-bit
itself, and is wholly independent of the reins.

The =Running-rein= consists of three parts--the chin-strap, martingale,
and rein.

The _Chin-strap_, about six to eight inches long, on which is suspended
a loose ring, is fastened to both snaffle-bit rings.

The _Martingale_ has only one ring; the loop through which the girth
passes is made adjustable by a buckle. The martingale is so adjusted
that when taut the ring will be on a level with the points of the
horse's shoulders.

The _Rein_ is about eight and one half feet long; one end is buckled
into the near pommel-ring; the free end is then passed through the
martingale-ring from rear to front, thence through the chin-strap ring
from left to right, thence through the martingale-ring from front to
rear, and is held in the rider's right hand. A pull on this rein will
act directly on the mouth-piece, drawing it back and somewhat downward
toward the horse's breast-bone.


            PREPARATORY LESSON TO MAKE THE HORSE TRACTABLE.

Before commencing the bending lessons it is well to give the horse a
preparatory one in obedience. This first act of submission makes the
horse quiet and gives him confidence, and gives the man such ascendancy
as to prevent the horse at the outset from resisting the means employed
to bring him under control.

Go up to the horse, pat him on the neck, and speak to him; then take
the reins from the horse's neck and hold them at a few inches from the
rings of the bit with the left hand; take such position as to offer as
much resistance as possible to the horse should he attempt to break
away; hold the whip in the right hand, with the point down; raise the
whip quietly and tap the horse on the breast; the horse naturally tries
to move back to avoid the whip; follow the horse, pulling at the same
time against him, and continuing the use of the whip; be careful to
show no sign of anger nor any symptom of yielding. The horse, tired of
trying ineffectually to avoid the whip, soon ceases to pull and moves
forward; then drop the point of the whip and make much of him. This
repeated once or twice usually proves sufficient; the horse, having
found how to avoid the punishment, no longer waits for the application
of the whip, but anticipates it by moving up at the slightest gesture.


                           BENDING LESSONS.

These lessons should be given to the horse each day so long as the
snaffle-bit is used alone; but the exercise should be varied, so that
the horse may not become fatigued or disgusted.

The balance of the horse's body and his lightness in hand depend on the
proper carriage of his head and neck.

A young horse usually tries to resist the bit, either by bending his
neck to one side, by setting his jaw against the bit, or by carrying
his nose too high or too low.

The bending lessons serve to make a horse manageable by teaching him to
conform to the movements of the reins and to yield to the pressure of
the bit. During the lessons the horse must never be hurried.

=To Bend the Horse's Neck to the Right.=--Take a position on the near
side of the horse, in front of his shoulder and facing toward his neck;
take the off rein close up to the bit with the right hand, the near
rein the same way with the left hand, the thumbs toward each other, the
little fingers outward; bring the right hand toward the body, at the
same time extend the left arm so as to turn the head to the horse's
right.

The force employed must be gradual and proportioned to the resistance
met with, and care must be taken not to bring the horse's nose too
close to his chest. If the horse moves backward, continue the pressure
until, finding it impossible to avoid the restraint imposed by the
bit, he stands still and yields to it.

When the bend is complete, the horse holds his head there without any
restraint and champs the bit; then make much of him and let him resume
his natural position by degrees, without throwing his head around
hurriedly. A horse, as a rule, champs the bit when he ceases to resist.

The horse's neck is bent to the left in a similar manner, the man
standing on the off side.

=To Rein in.=--Cross the reins behind the horse's jaw, taking the near
rein in the right hand and the off rein in the left, at about six
inches from the rings; draw them across each other till the horse gives
way to the pressure and brings his nose in. Prevent the horse from
raising his head by lowering the hands. When the horse gives way to the
cross-pressure of the reins, ease the hand and make much of him.


                               SADDLING.

This should be done at first on the longeing-ground. One man, facing
the horse and taking the snaffle-reins in both hands near the bit,
should hold him while another places the saddle on his back. If the
horse shows no uneasiness or resistance, let down the cincha-strap
and cincha; fasten the cincha-strap loosely at first, and tighten it
afterwards by degrees. Care must be taken not to make the cincha so
tight as to cause uneasiness to the horse. If the horse resists or is
restless, remove the saddle and let him see and smell it; he will then
generally allow it to be placed; if necessary, strap up a leg until the
horse is saddled. The longeing is then continued with the horse saddled.


                               MOUNTING.

When the horse becomes accustomed to the saddle, he should be mounted.
Two men should assist the man who is to mount. The man with the longe,
facing the horse and taking the snaffle-reins in both hands near the
bit, holds his head rather high and engages his attention; the second
man bears down on the off stirrup at the proper moment to keep the
saddle even when the third man mounts. The man who mounts proceeds with
caution, stopping and caressing the horse if he shows any uneasiness;
after being seated the man pats the horse a few moments, and without
attempting to make him move, dismounts with the care and gentleness
exercised in mounting. This is repeated several times, until the horse
submits without fear. The rider then mounts, takes a snaffle-rein in
each hand, and feels lightly the horse's mouth; the man with the longe
leads the horse forward and afterwards longes him to the left, and then
to the right, at a walk; if the horse shows any disposition to kick or
plunge, the longe is shaken to engage his attention and to keep up his
head. After a few turns the rider dismounts, the horse is fed from the
hand, patted, and dismissed.

These lessons are continued until the horse can be mounted and
dismounted without any difficulty; and when he can be made to go
forward, to the right and left, to halt and rein back by gentle
application of the aids, the longe is dispensed with.

The horse is now exercised in the riding-hall or open manège, the
lessons for young horses not exceeding three quarters of an hour. The
horse is ridden on the track first at a walk, then at a slow trot,
and afterwards the trot and walk are alternated, care being taken to
turn the corners squarely; the horse is next marched to the right and
left, halted and reined back to accustom him to obey the bit and the
pressure of the legs. When he is obedient to the snaffle, the horse
is equipped with the curb-bit. The bit must have rings at the ends of
the mouthpiece for snaffle-reins, or a bit-bridoon must be used in
order that the horse may be accustomed by degrees to the action of the
curb-bit. The first instruction given to the horse with the curb-bit
is bending the neck and reining in, dismounted; he is then mounted and
exercised in the riding-hall or open manège as before described, and
receives the bending and reining lessons mounted.


                       BENDING LESSONS, MOUNTED.

The horse is now equipped with a curb-bridle.

=To Bend the Horse's Neck to the Right.=--Adjust the reins in the
left hand; seize the right rein with the right hand well down; draw
it gently to the right and rear until the horse's head is brought
completely around to the right, in the same position as in the bend
dismounted. When the horse champs the bit, make much of him, and allow
him to resume his natural position. The horse's neck is bent to the
left in a similar manner.

=To Rein in.=--Lower the bridle-hand as much as possible, turning
the back uppermost; with the right hand, nails down, take hold of
the curb-reins above and close to the left hand and shorten them by
degrees, drawing them through the left hand, which closes on the reins
each time they are shortened.

When the horse resists much and holds his nose up, keep the reins
steady; do not shorten or lengthen them; close the legs to prevent the
horse from backing; after remaining perhaps a minute or more with his
nose up and his jaw set against the bit he will yield, bring his nose
in, and champ the bit; make much of him, loosen the reins, and after a
few seconds _rein in_ again.

This exercise gives the horse confidence, and teaches him to arch his
neck and bring his head in proper position whenever he feels the bit.

Most young horses are afraid of the bit, and they must never be
frightened by sudden jerks on the reins, lest they should afterwards
refuse to stand the requisite pressure of the bit. A certain amount of
bearing is necessary to induce the horse to work boldly and well, as
well as to apprise the rider of what the horse is going to do.

In reining in, some horses rest the lower jaw against the breast; to
counteract this, press both legs equally and force the horse forward to
the bit.

Some horses will not work up to the hand; that is, will not bear the
bit at all. Such horses are unfit for the service.

Whenever, without an apparent cause, a horse resists or is restive, the
bit, saddle, and equipment should be carefully examined to see if any
part hurts or irritates him.


                               REARING.

Should the horse _rear_, the rider must yield the hand when the horse
is up, and urge him vigorously forward when he is coming down; if the
horse is punished while up, he may spring and fall backward.

Use the running-rein with a rearing horse.


                               KICKING.

This can be prevented by holding the horse's head well up and closing
the legs; if necessary, they are closed so much as to force the horse
forward.


                                SHYING.

This sometimes results from defect of sight and sometimes from fear.
If from fear, the horse must be taken up to the object with great
patience and gentleness, and be allowed to touch the object with his
nose. _In no case should a horse be punished for timidity._ The dread
of chastisement will increase his restiveness.


                   TO ACCUSTOM THE HORSES TO FIRING.

Station a few men at a little distance from and on both sides of the
stable-door, and cause them to fire pistols as the horses are led into
the stable to be fed; for the same object a gun may be fired during the
hour of feeding. If a horse is nervous, he may be put on the longe and
fed from the hand and petted each time the pistol is discharged; or he
may be thrown, care being taken not to discharge the pistol so as to
burn him or injure him in any way. The horses should be trained to be
steady under the fire of the pieces, and also under pistol-firing by
the cannoneers on the chests and by the drivers from their teams.


                           SWIMMING HORSES.

The horses are at first equipped with the watering-bridle, and are
without saddles. The reins are on the horse's neck just in front of the
withers, and knotted so that they will not hang low enough to entangle
the horse's feet, care being taken to have them loose enough to permit
the horse to push his nose well out, so as to have entire freedom of
the head. The horse should be watered before putting him into the
stream.

When the rider gets into deep water, he drops the reins, seizes a lock
of the mane with the up-stream hand, allows his body to drift off
quietly to the down-stream side of the horse, and floats or swims flat
on the water, guiding the horse as much as possible by splashing water
against his head, only using the reins when splashing fails. The horse
is easily controlled when swimming; he is also easily confused, and it
is therefore necessary that the rider should be gentle and deliberate.
The rider must be cautioned that the horse is easily pulled over
backward by the reins when swimming, and also that he may plunge when
he touches bottom. When the horse touches the bottom at the landing,
the rider pulls himself on the horse's back and takes the reins.

The rider may also be required to swim, holding the horse's tail,
allowing the horse to tow him.

After the man and horse have gained confidence, the rider may be
required to be seated on the horse while swimming. As the extra weight
presses the horse down and impedes his movements, the rider should hold
his knees well up to lessen the resistance, and steady his seat by
holding on to the mane or pommel of the saddle.

The men are instructed, in crossing running water, to keep their eyes
fixed on the opposite bank.

The practice of swimming gives horses confidence in deep water when in
harness. Streams deep and wide enough to swim one and even two pairs of
a team have been crossed by light artillery in our service.


                BREAKING IN THE YOUNG HORSE TO HARNESS.

The harness should be put on the horse in the stable with caution, and
at first without the traces, so that in the event of the horse jumping
about they will not hang about his legs and frighten him. The horse
should then be fed in his harness, and after standing for some hours be
walked about in it.

When the horse has thus been fed and walked about, and has become
reconciled to the harness, the traces should be attached, and a rope
tied to the rear end of each; a man then takes the ends of the ropes,
and the horse is walked about, the man holding the ropes, taking care
that the traces do not rub against the sides of the horse in the
beginning, but accustom him to them gradually.

When the horse has become accustomed to the pressure of the collar and
traces, he may then be hitched in with a steady horse. At first the
utmost caution should be observed and a foreleg held up, if necessary,
while the traces are being fastened, and no noise or shouting should
be permitted. After being hitched in, the horse should be permitted to
stand still for some minutes before the carriage is started, and it
should be put in motion by the other horses. The horse should be left
to himself and not be required to draw at first; all that should be
demanded of him is to move forward quietly.


                     MANAGEMENT OF VICIOUS HORSES.

A vicious or refractory horse may be thrown. He is thus made to submit
to control without exciting his resentment, or suffering any other
physical pain than that resulting from his own resistance. During the
operation the man acts with deliberation, speaks with a kind voice, and
never uses harsh treatment.


                          TO THROW THE HORSE.

The method explained is a modification of the one generally known as
"Rarey's Method." The horse is equipped with a watering-bridle and
surcingle. The surcingle is buckled securely but not tightly around the
horse's body just back of the withers. The man is provided with two
strong straps. No. 1 is about ten feet long and one inch wide, and has
a loop or iron ring at one end. No. 2 is about three feet six inches
long and from one and one half to two inches wide; one end has a strong
buckle and two keepers (one on each side of the strap). In the absence
of straps as specified, the halter-strap may be substituted for No. 1,
and the stirrup-strap for No. 2.

The horse is taken to an open space, preferably covered with turf,
free from stones, etc., to prevent injuring the horse's knees. Pass
the free end of No. 1 through the ring and make a slip-loop; raise
the horse's off forefoot, and place the loop around the pastern; see
that the loop has no twist in it; let the foot down, draw the strap
taut, and pass the free end over the horse's back from the off side
and under the surcingle from front to rear, the free end hanging down
on the near side. Pass the free end of No. 2 through the inside keeper
and make a slip-loop; raise the near forefoot and place the loop around
the pastern, with the buckle outside, and make it snug; raise the heel
against the forearm, pass the free end of the strap, from the inside,
over the forearm, and buckle the strap sufficiently tight to hold the
leg in this position. Let the bridle-reins either hang down or place
them on the neck; they may be caught hold of at any time after the
first plunging is over. It is important that the off forefoot be kept
from the ground after the horse first raises it, and this will be
better accomplished if both hands are used at strap No. 1 during the
first plunge.

The man takes his place behind the surcingle on the near side of and
close to the horse, the left foot in advance, and grasps securely with
the left hand the free end of No. 1, and, if the strap is long enough,
makes a turn with it around the left hand, the right hand grasping it
loosely, forefingers close to the surcingle, back of the hand against
the horse's back. Quietly and gently urge the horse forward; the
instant he raises his foot, pull the strap with the left hand, bring
the off heel against the forearm, the strap slipping through the right
hand, which should be kept in place, but which grasps the strap as soon
as the foot is sufficiently raised, and holds it firmly; make a turn
with the strap around the right hand, and take both reins in the left
hand on the near side of the horse. The horse is now brought to his
knees; bring the horse's nose well to the left and raised, placing the
right shoulder and arm against the horse's side, thus indicating to him
that he is to lie on his right side. A horse of a stubborn disposition
may remain in this kneeling position for some time, and this he should
be allowed to do until he is willing to lie down of his own volition.
No force will be used to push the horse down. From this kneeling
position the horse may rear and plunge, but as he moves so should the
man, maintaining his relative position to the horse, and a firm hold of
the long strap, in order to deprive the horse of the use of his right
foreleg. In most cases, after remaining in this kneeling position for
a short time, the horse will lie down. The man maintains his hold of
the strap and reins until the horse is quiet and shows no immediate
disposition to attempt to rise; or he has the strap and reins so placed
that he can grasp them directly the horse attempts to get up.

To dispel his fears and reconcile him to his unexpectedly assumed
position, he should now be petted, spoken to in a kindly tone of
voice, and generally made much of. When he becomes quiet and ceases
to struggle, the man should pass around him, handle his feet, and
straighten out and rub his legs. If the horse shows no inclination
to rise before being told to do so, the straps may be unfastened and
removed, but so long as the eye shows a wild, startled expression the
straps should not be removed. The eye is the true index of the horse's
feelings and disposition, and if closely observed will always betray
his intentions.

When he has remained in the lying position for a short time after the
straps have been removed, and he no longer struggles or attempts to
rise, or if he attempts to rise and cannot be prevented from doing
so, the man should raise his horse's head a little with the reins and
command: "_Up!_" When the horse gets up, he should be made much of and
given to understand that he has done what was required of him. It will
be advantageous to throw the horse three or four times at each lesson,
but the throwings should not follow each other in rapid succession, in
order to avoid the overfatigue and constraint which might incite the
horse to insubordination and resistance.

It will be found that horses of a peculiarly wilful and stubborn
disposition will not lie quiet after the straps have been removed.
To overcome horses of this class, the long strap should be made fast
to the left fore foot so that both knees will be secured in a bent
position. The horse need be no longer held, but will be allowed to
struggle. He may rear, or plunge, or assume a kneeling position, but
whatever he may do no restraint should be put upon him. After finding
that all his struggles are of no avail, and that the only result
attained by them is suffering to himself, he will succumb and quietly
lie down. When, from his ceasing to struggle when handled, and from
the appearance of his eye, there is reason to believe that the horse
has yielded, the straps may be gradually loosened and removed. Two or
three lessons properly administered in this way will conquer the most
stubborn horse.

After a stubborn horse has been thrown several times, it may happen
that he will not permit his fore leg to be strapped up, and will resist
by rearing, plunging, striking, or kicking. In such cases another
strap, "No. 3," may be necessary. This is a strong leather surcingle
about three inches wide in which two iron rings, about two feet six
inches apart, are securely fastened. The leather girth is secured so
that the rings will be about the middle of the horse's sides. Two long
straps, "No. 1," are used. One is placed on each front pastern without
raising the foot. The free ends of the straps are run through the rings
on the surcingle so that they can be used as a pair of driving-reins.
These straps are held by one man in rear of the horse, while another,
approaching the horse on the near side, attempts to raise his left
foot. The instant the horse rears, strikes, or plunges he is brought
to his knees by the man holding the long reins; after this is repeated
several times the horse will allow his foot to be strapped up. Should
the horse stand, or refuse to move, the whip may be used.

These means may be used to break horses of rearing, plunging, or
bucking under the saddle. In this case the surcingle is dispensed with;
the rider holds the straps and exerts sufficient force when the horse
is refractory to bring him to his knees. The same means may be used to
discipline horses which refuse to carry double, the man in the rear
holding the straps.


                    TO BREAK THE HORSE OF KICKING.

The horse is thrown and one end of each of the long straps is made fast
to the bit-rings; the other ends are passed through the rings on the
leather surcingle and secured to the hind pasterns. When thus secured,
all means should be resorted to in order to make the horse kick, and
this should be repeated until he no longer struggles or attempts to
move his hind legs under any provocation whatever.


                     TREATMENT AND CARE OF HORSES.

Horses require gentle treatment. Docile, but bold, horses are apt to
retaliate upon those who abuse them, while persistent kindness often
reclaims vicious animals.

A horse must never be kicked in the belly, or struck about the head
with the hands, reins, or any instrument whatever.

Never threaten, strike, or otherwise abuse a horse.

Before entering a stall speak to the horse gently, and then go in
quietly.

Never take a rapid gait until the horse has been warmed up by gentle
exercise.

Never put up a horse brought to the stable or line heated, but throw a
blanket over him and rub his legs, or walk him until cool. If he is
wet, put him under shelter and wisp him against the hair until dry.

Never feed grain to a horse, or allow him to stand uncovered, when
heated. Hay will not hurt a horse no matter how warm he may be.

Never water a horse when heated, unless the exercise or march is to
be immediately resumed. A few mouthfuls of water, however, will do no
harm, and should ordinarily be given him.

Never throw water over a horse coming in hot, not even over his legs or
feet.

Never allow a horse's back to be cooled suddenly by washing or even
removing the blanket unnecessarily.

To cool the back gradually, the blanket may be removed and replaced
with the dry side next the horse.

At least two hours' exercise daily is necessary to the health and good
condition of horses; they should be marched a few miles when cold
weather, muddy ground, etc., prevent drill.

Horses' legs will be often hand-rubbed, particularly after severe
exercise, as this removes enlargement and relieves or prevents
stiffness.

In mild weather the sheath will be washed out once a month with warm
water and castile soap and then greased; during the cold season the
intervals between washings should be longer.

Sore backs and galled shoulders are generally occasioned by neglect.
The greatest pains will be taken in the fitting of the saddles and
collars; the men must never be allowed to lounge or sit unevenly in
their saddles. Every driver should keep a pair of soft leather pads,
stuffed with hair, about six inches by four; the moment any tenderness
is noticed in a horse's shoulder, the pressure is removed by placing
these pads under the collar above and below the tender part.


                        DESTRUCTION OF HORSES.

Occasions arise rendering the destruction of horses necessary. The
following instructions will enable one to arrive at a point directly
over the summit of the brain, and which when fired upon will cause
instantaneous death. Draw a line, _A A_, horizontally across the
forehead from the upper margin of one zygomatic ridge to the other, and
from its central point, _B_, measure vertically upward on the forehead
3½ to 4½ inches. The point, _D_, thus obtained is directly over the
brain-cavity.

  [Illustration: FIG. 76.]

Before firing, the horse should be induced to lower his head, which
is easily accomplished by placing a little food upon the ground, the
muzzle of the weapon being brought directly over the spot indicated.

It is a mistake to suppose that the star, or curl, is over the
brain-cavity, for it is generally below the cavity.



                             CHAPTER VII.

   Organization of Artillery. Composition of Light Batteries.
   Equipment. Equipment and Clothing for Marches. Marches. Selection of
   Camps. Making Camp. Breaking Camp. Allowance of Wagons.


                      ORGANIZATION OF ARTILLERY.

Artillery troops are divided into light artillery and heavy artillery.
To the light artillery belongs the service of the batteries which
manœuvre with troops in the field.

The light-artillery batteries include horse-batteries, in which the
cannoneers are mounted on horseback; field-batteries, in which the
cannoneers march by the side of their pieces, or are mounted on the
ammunition-chests, axle-seats, and off horses; and mountain-batteries,
in which the pieces may be transported on pack-animals.

Machine-batteries are designated, according to their equipment and
model of gun, as horse, field, or mountain, Gatling, Gardner, etc.,
batteries.

The 3.2-inch gun is used in both field-and horse-batteries; the
3.6-inch gun is used in field-batteries only.

A field-battery equipped with the 3.2-inch gun is called a _light
field-battery_; one equipped with the 3.6-inch gun is called a _heavy
field-battery_. A battalion of artillery consists of two, three, or
four batteries, and is commanded by a field-officer of artillery.

The heavy artillery of an army in the field consists of those batteries
which serve the siege-and position-guns, and the artillery-ammunition
and supply trains.

The light artillery of an army corps consists of _divisional artillery_
and _corps artillery_.

The =Divisional Artillery= consists of a battalion of from two to four
batteries, is an integral part of the division, and is commanded by a
field-officer who has a staff consisting of an adjutant (lieutenant),
sergeant-major, quartermaster-sergeant, and chief trumpeter.

The =Corps Artillery= consists of two or more battalions; it is
composed of field-and horse-batteries in suitable proportions,
and is commanded by a colonel who has a staff consisting of an
adjutant (lieutenant), a quartermaster and commissary (lieutenant)
sergeant-major, quartermaster-sergeant, and chief trumpeter. All the
artillery attached to an army corps constitutes an artillery brigade.
A battalion of horse-artillery is attached to and is part of each
division of cavalry. In smaller commands a battery may be attached to
an infantry or cavalry brigade.

The proportion of artillery is from three to four guns to one thousand
men. The chief of artillery of an army or corps is a brigadier-general,
and is on the staff of the commander of the corps. The corps artillery
is under the orders of the brigadier-general, chief of artillery, and
he also assumes control of the divisional artillery in action when
ordered to do so by the corps commander.

The field-officer commanding the divisional artillery is the chief
of artillery of the division, and is on the staff of the division
commander, but he will encamp with the divisional artillery.


                    COMPOSITION OF LIGHT BATTERIES.

A battery consists of a fixed number of pieces and caissons of a
combined battery-wagon and forge, and an artillery-wagon, together with
a sufficient number of officers, men, and horses for the efficient
service of the battery.

=Organization of Light Batteries.=--A battery is maintained on one
of the following footings: 1, for instruction; 2, for war.

    ---------------+----------------------+
                   |      Instruction.    |
                   +----------------------+
    Field-battery. |       6 Guns,        |
                   |     4 Caissons.      |
                   +---------+----+-------+
                   |Officers.|Men.|Horses.|
    ---------------+---------+----+-------+
    Captain        |     1   |    |       |
                   |         |    |       |
    Lieutenants    |     3   |    |       |
    Staff-sergeants|         |  2a|    2  |
                   |         |    |       |
                   |         |    |       |
    Sergeants      |         |  6 |    6  |
    Corporals      |         |  9c|    3  |
                   |         |    |       |
                   |         |    |       |
    Artificers     |         |  4e|       |
    Trumpeters     |         |  2 |    2  |
                   |         |    |       |
    Guidon         |         |  1 |    1  |
    Wagoner        |         |    |       |
    Drivers        |         | 24 |   48  |
    Cannoneers     |         | 36 |       |
    Supernumerary  |         |    |       |
    drivers        |         |    |       |
    Spare horses   |         |    |    4  |
                   |         |    |       |
    Range-finders. |         |    |       |
                   +---------+----+-------+
      Total        |     4   | 84 |    66 |
    ---------------+---------+----+-------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ---------------+----------------------+-------------------------
                   |         War.         |
                   +----------------------+
    Field-battery. |         6 Guns,      |
                   |       9 Caissons.    |
                   +---------+----+-------+-------------------------
                   |Officers.|Men.|Horses.|
    ---------------+---------+----+-------+-------------------------
    Captain        |     1   |    |       |Commanding the platoons
                   |         |    |       |and caissons.
    Lieutenants    |     4   |    |       |
    Staff-sergeants|         |  3b|    3  |_a._ First sergeant, stable
                   |         |    |       |and veterinary sergeant.
                   |         |    |       |
    Sergeants      |         |  6 |    6  |_b._ First sergeant,
    Corporals      |         | 15d|    9  |quartermaster and stable
                   |         |    |       |and veterinary sergeants.
                   |         |    |       |
    Artificers     |         |  5f|    5  |_c._ Six gunners and three
    Trumpeters     |         |  2 |    2  |caisson corporals.
                   |         |    |       |
    Guidon         |         |  1 |    1  |_d._ Six gunners and nine
    Wagoner        |         |  1 |    4  |caisson corporals.
    Drivers        |         | 48 |   96  |
    Cannoneers     |         | 84 |       |_e._ Two blacksmiths, one
    Supernumerary  |         |    |       |saddler, one machinist.
    drivers        |         |  8 |       |
    Spare horses   |         |    |   16  |_f._ Three blacksmiths, one
                   |         |    |       |saddler, one machinist
    Range-finders. |         |  2 |    2  |
                   +---------+----+-------+-------------------------
      Total        |      5  |175 |  144  |
    ---------------+---------+----+-------+-------------------------

The machinist should be conversant with the construction and mechanism
of the gun, and competent to make the ordinary repairs it may require.

The men should be intelligent, active, and muscular, and not less
than five feet five inches, nor more than six feet, in height; very
large men are specially undesirable. The great majority should be men
accustomed to horses; a suitable proportion must be mechanics.

If a public horse be allowed to each subaltern, the number of horses in
the above table will be proportionately increased.

The battery-wagon and forge and the artillery-wagon, when not horsed,
must be kept with the battery and equipped with the proper tools and
stores.

When a battery on the instruction footing is ordered to march, it must
be supplied with additional horses necessary to horse all the carriages.

In horse-batteries, in addition to the number of horses above
described, ten saddle-horses (including one spare horse) are required
for each gun detachment.


                              EQUIPMENT.

In garrison the first sergeant, quartermaster-sergeant, stable and
veterinary sergeants, and chiefs of section are armed with the sabre,
and the caisson corporals, trumpeters, guidon, and drivers also, when
specially directed.

In the field the first sergeant, quartermaster-sergeant, stable
sergeant, and chiefs of section are armed with the sabre and revolver;
all other men are armed with the revolver and knife.

In preparing for a march or field service the kinds and quantities
of supplies required will depend on the duration and character of
the work. Having determined what is required, divide the work of
preparing for service among the officers and non-commissioned officers
immediately in charge, and then carefully superintend the work yourself.

Attention is called to the following points:

Rations, forage, medicines, veterinary medicines, instruments, and
bandages, leather and spare parts for repairs to harness, carriages,
etc., horseshoes, horseshoe-nails, blacksmith's, saddler's, and
carpenter's tools (if there be no battery-wagon and forge),
field-desk, with a supply of blanks, paper, envelopes, pens, ink, and
pencils, the necessary company-books, and a book of telegraph blanks,
ammunition (shell, shrapnel, canister, cartridges, fuzes, fuze-cutters,
friction-primers, lanyards), oil for harness, cosmoline for guns,
equipment and clothing for each man, number and kind of tents, Sibley
stoves, axes, hatchets, mauls, scythes, sickles, buckets, spades,
shovels, pickaxes, wagon-tongues, coupling-poles, hame-strings, open
links, odometer, rope, axle-grease, picket-rope, light jacks, lanterns,
matches, cooking utensils, personal outfit.


                           COOKING UTENSILS.

                            PACK IN BOX A.
                    75   150
      Article.     Men.  Men.
    Dishpans        2     3
    Coffee-mill     1     1
    Bread-knives    2     2
    Meat-knives     2     2
    Steel           1     1
    Cleaver         1     1
    Saw             1     1
    Forks, carving  2     3
    Forks, spit     2     2
    Spoons, long    2     2
    Can-openers     2     2
    Ladles          2     2
    Frying-pans     2     2
    Small rations


                            PACK IN BOX B.

                   75   150
      Article.    Men.   Men.
    Coffee-boiler  1      2
    Camp-kettles   4      6
    Water-buckets  2      3
    Dipper         1      1
    Hash machine   1      1

   1 axe, 1 spade, 1 shovel, tied together and fastened to outside of
   box.

   Put the camp-kettles inside the coffee-boilers.

   Vinegar-keg, 1, Dutch ovens, 2, or Buzzacott oven, 1, for 75 men;
   double the number for 150 men.

One of the boxes may be large enough to contain the Buzzacott oven. In
order to pack it put in the top inverted, and then invert the body of
the oven and set it inside the top.


                  EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING FOR MARCHES.


                  OFFICERS' CLOTHING, EQUIPMENT, ETC.

An officer's equipment usually consists of sabre, revolver, and
ammunition, and a good binocular-glass. He should also be provided
with a compass, watch, knife, and notebook and pencil. A small watch
so fitted in a leather strap that it may be worn on the wrist is
recommended as very convenient.

The clothing and bedding carried will depend on the climate and the
character of the march. The following list contains about everything
one requires:

    1 water-bucket.
    1 dipper.
    1 quart cup, tin.
    1 washbasin, rubber.
    1 small looking-glass.
    1 lantern, with oil or candles for same.
    1 small oil-stove, fitted in box.
    1 oil-can.
    5 gals. oil.
    1 tin matchbox.
    Box of matches.
    1 or 2 folding-chairs.
    1 folding-bed.
    1 folding-table.
    1 rubber blanket.
    1 small strip carpet.
    1 pillow.
    Necessary bedding.
    1 pair trousers, extra.
    1 blouse, extra.
    1 pair shoes.
    ½ doz. shoestrings.
    1 pair overshoes.
    1 pair slippers.
    1 pair gauntlets, extra.
    1 campaign hat.
    1 overcoat.
    1 rubber coat.
    2 pairs drawers, extra.
    2 undershirts, extra.
    2 flannel shirts.
    4 pairs socks.
    4 towels.
    ½ doz. handkerchiefs.
    1 sponge, in oil-silk bag.
    Packages of toilet-paper.
    1 portfolio, with pens, ink, paper, envelopes, and stamps.
    1 hold-all, containing comb, brush, clothes-brush, scissors,
    soap (in soapbox), toothbrush and tooth-powder, shaving materials.
    1 housewife, with needles, thread and buttons.
    Pipe, tobacco, and fuzees.
    1 piece stout cord.
    1 tape-measure.
    1 pocket-map.


                          _In Cold Climate._

    1 buffalo or felt-lined overcoat.
    1 fur cap.
    1 pair fur gloves.
    4 pairs woolen socks.
    1 pair felt boots.
    1 pair high arctic overshoes.
    Extra bedding or sleeping-bag.

Sticking-plaster, lint, safety-pins, tin of mustard-leaves, and a few
simple remedies in case of dysentery, diarrhœa, constipation, etc.

   If messing alone, 1 tin kettle, 1 frying-pan, 2 baking-pans (small),
   1 wire gridiron, 1 corkscrew, salt-and pepper-boxes, 1 can-opener, 1
   small meat-knife, 1 iron fork (long), 1 iron spoon (long), 1 small
   soup-ladle, 2 plates, 2 tin cups, 2 spoons, 2 teaspoons, 2 knives, 2
   forks, tablecloths and napkins, and such stores as one may wish.


               EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING FOR ENLISTED MEN.

=Equipment for Each Enlisted Man.=--One hunting-knife, one pistol,
one holster, one pistol-cartridge belt (woven), one screwdriver, one
canteen, one cup, one meat-ration can (knife, fork, and spoon), and for
each cannoneer one haversack.

=Clothing for Each Enlisted Man.=--Two blankets, one rubber blanket
or poncho, one overcoat, one campaign hat, one pair of leggings, two
blouses, two pairs of trousers, two dark blue flannel shirts, two knit
undershirts, two pairs of drawers, two pairs of shoes, three pairs
of socks, two towels, toilet articles, and stable-clothing for those
requiring it. The extra articles will be carried as follows:

_By Mounted Non-commissioned Officers, Trumpeters, and
Guidon._--Dark-blue flannel shirt, undershirt, drawers, socks, and
screwdriver, in saddle-bag, off pocket. Mess-kit, in saddle-bag, near
pocket. Blouse, trousers, and shoes, in knapsack. Overcoat, rolled and
strapped on the cantle of saddle. Nose-bag, on off side of cantle, the
strap passing around and under the overcoat. Canteen and cup (cup on
canteen-strap) strapped to near pommel-ring.

_By Drivers._--Dark-blue flannel shirt, stable-clothes, and shoes,
in saddle-bag, off pocket, near horse. Mess-kit, in saddle-bag,
near pocket, near horse. Blouse, trousers, and screwdriver, in the
saddle-bag, off pocket, off horse. Undershirt, drawers, and socks,
in saddle-bag, near pocket, off horse. Overcoat, rolled and strapped
on cantle, near horse. Nose-bags, one on each side of off horse, the
strap passing around the cantle and under the overcoat. Canteen and
cup (cup on canteen-strap) strapped to near pommel-ring, near horse.
Watering-bridles, currycombs, brushes, and halters, in the nose-bags.

_By Cannoneers._--Blouse, trousers, and stable-clothes, in knapsack,
flap side. Underwear, shoes, and screwdriver, in knapsack, bottom
side. Mess-kit, in haversack, worn on left side of person, or carried
in wagon. Overcoat, strapped on knapsack. Canteen and cup (cup on
canteen-strap) worn on right side of person.

The blankets, folded in section bundles, are carried in the wagons. The
knapsacks are carried in the wagons.

If there be an artillery-wagon with the battery, all the men have
knapsacks and haversacks, which are utilized as prescribed for
cannoneers.

When the Army of the Potomac crossed the river in October, 1862, each
officer was responsible for his own outfit; each man carried five days'
short rations in his knapsack and three in his haversack, one half
shelter-tent, his blanket or overcoat, one change of underclothing, and
his arms and ammunition.

=To Roll the Overcoat.=--Turn one sleeve wrong side out, fold the
overcoat right side out along middle back seam, sleeve laid straight,
sleeve wrong side out underneath.

Fold cape twice from side to side, lay it on coat, collar to collar.
Turn edges of coat in so as to make sides parallel, and to measure 12
inches wide at shoulder and 16 inches at bottom. Roll from collar down
to within 20 inches of bottom, turn up bottom and pull one thickness of
skirt over the roll, making all snug.


                               MARCHES.

The "general," sounded one hour before the time designated for
marching, is the signal to strike tents, load wagons, pack animals, and
send them to the place of assembly.

The execution of marching orders must not be delayed. If the commander
is not with the troops when they are to march, the next in rank puts
the column in motion.

When a march is in prospect, it is well to go out daily, for a week or
ten days previously, for a couple of hours' march. This will harden the
horses' shoulders and discover what corrections are to be made. The
average march for field-artillery on good roads is from 15 to 20 miles
a day; horse-artillery, 25 miles.

A single battery, when the march is a long one, will do well to trot
occasionally; so doing shortens the road and greatly relieves man and
horse. If the country is undulating, the platoons should march with
considerable distance between them, and the trot should be taken up by
each in succession on arrival at the level ground where the preceding
platoon began to increase its pace. The walk should be resumed in the
same manner.

When marching with other troops, these liberties cannot be taken, and
the walk is, with rare exceptions, the gait used. In rapid marches the
slow trot alternates with the walk.

When the services of artillery are urgently needed, it may be required
to trot four or five miles without breaking the gait.

Long marches or expeditions should be begun moderately, particularly
with new horses. Ten or twelve miles a day is enough for the first
marches, which, on good roads, may be increased to 20 or 25 miles
when necessary, after the horses are inured to their work. Should
the march be continued for a long period, at least one day in seven
should be devoted to rest. It is also important that the horses and
equipments be thoroughly inspected at least once a week. On ordinary
roads horse-artillery with cavalry marches usually at the rate of 4 or
5 miles an hour. Field-batteries, by themselves, can march 3½ to 4
miles an hour on a good road, but on heavy or hilly roads, or when
the battery forms part of a column, the rate of progress will depend
entirely upon circumstances. Should a long march be made, the horses
should be fed on the road; ordinarily watering will be sufficient. In
very hot weather frequent watering will be advisable. To keep horses in
condition, it is essential that they should be in no wise stinted of
water. No matter how warm a horse is six to ten swallows of water will
not hurt him.

Always march with a feed of grain; if not used on the road, it enables
the horses to be fed as soon after arriving in camp as desirable.
Horses should be arranged in teams, as far as possible, so as to be of
uniform pace in walking, and of similar disposition.

On long marches it may be advisable to change the near and off horses
days about. Drivers should be required to ride off horses during part
of each day's march; and, unless the entire battery be dismounted by
order of the captain, all mounted men and cannoneers will ordinarily be
permitted to mount and dismount at will when the battery is moving at a
walk on level ground.

Cannoneers of field-batteries should always walk up and down hill.

The care of horses on the march is one of the most important duties of
an artillery officer; by constant attention on the part of the captain,
chiefs of platoon, and chiefs of section many horses that would
otherwise be disabled for months may be kept in serviceable condition.

The men must not be allowed to lounge in their saddles, which leads to
galls, and the drivers should be made to pay continual attention to
their driving, and see that every horse does his fair share of work.

The lead-drivers of each team must keep their distance from the team
in their front; swing-drivers must keep the traces to their front
stretched, and the wheel-drivers those to their front.

Have the wheels greased daily, and oil the bearing of the lunette on
the pintle-hook.

Grease on the soles of horses' hoofs prevents snow from balling.

On starting from camp the first two miles should be made at an easy
walk; a halt of from 10 to 15 minutes should then be made to allow
the men to relieve themselves and to rearrange harness, after which a
halt of from 5 to 10 minutes is made at the end of every hour for the
purpose of adjusting harness, tightening girths, etc. When troops march
for the greater part of the day, a halt of about an hour is usually
made about noon. At each halt pole-props will be let down; collars
unlocked and thrown back on the saddle or withers, and cleaned if
necessary; saddles replaced if they have moved; cinchas tightened if
necessary, and horses' feet examined.

The march is usually in column of sections; when practicable, it
will be in column of platoons at close intervals; but the front of
the column must not be frequently diminished or increased, as this
unavoidably adds to the fatigue of the horses, particularly of those
in rear. The column of platoons should not be used when it fills the
road from side to side so as to prevent the passage of carriages,
staff-orderlies, etc.

A non-commissioned officer may be sent forward to reconnoitre the road
or ground that the battery is to pass over.

The distance of two yards between carriages is maintained, except in
bad or difficult ground, when it may be increased to four or more
yards. The strictest attention should be paid by the chiefs of platoon
and of section to the preservation of distances, which should not
be increased more than is absolutely necessary. The leading guide
should maintain a slow and steady walk, and under no circumstances
is a carriage to move at a trot without the orders of the battery
commander; when necessary to close up, it should be done at a quick
walk; no practice is more fatiguing to horses and injurious to their
shoulders than the alternate trotting and walking so often seen at the
rear of a column.

If the leading carriage is temporarily stopped for any cause, the rear
carriages should, if practicable, draw up alongside each other, in
order to avoid or diminish as much as possible any check to the column.

Chiefs of platoons must never be permitted to leave their platoons to
march at the head of the column; when not marching at the rear of their
platoons, they will halt frequently to see that their carriages are
well up and marching properly.

Chiefs of platoon and of section, without waiting for express
instructions, give such orders as may be necessary for helping horses
out of difficulty, for the passage of obstacles, etc.; the cannoneers
assist at the piece or caisson as may be required.

A small bunch of bale-wire, in lengths of from one to two feet, if
carried by each chief of section in his saddle-pouch, is very useful
for temporary repairs of harness.

If the ruts be very deep, the carriages quarter the road, unless it
be very narrow and sunken; in this case the horses will be left to
themselves and not hurried; a skilful driver can help his horses
greatly, particularly the wheelers.

When water-call is sounded, the chiefs of section, under the
supervision of the chiefs of platoon or of the first sergeant, have
the watering-buckets taken off the carriages, and their horses watered
without confusion. When water is very scarce, the nostrils may be
sponged, which gives great relief, particularly in hot weather, when it
is not possible to let the horses drink.

Toward the close of the march an officer or non-commissioned officer
may be sent forward to select a camp-ground. The last two miles or more
should be made at a walk, and the horses brought into camp without
excitement.

Upon the arrival of the battery in camp damages must be repaired
without delay, horses shod, wheels and pintles greased, etc. On the
march artificers and cooks should always ride, or be mounted on the
chests; if fatigued from marching, they cannot be expected to work
efficiently after getting into camp.

The march of larger bodies of artillery is conducted on the same
principles. A long column cannot move as rapidly as a small one, and at
the same time preserve equal order; an allowance is therefore made for
every column proportionate to its length.

When the roads are good, or even tolerable, the artillery is always
obliged to wait for the infantry, which is attended with much
additional fatigue to the horses, from having the harness so much
longer on them. Likewise, when the roads are at all bad, artillery can
only keep up with cavalry, when the latter are marching at the ordinary
rate, by forcing their horses too much and wearing them out very
rapidly. When, therefore, there is no danger, the artillery should be
allowed to march by itself so as to regulate its own rate of march.

Chiefs of section should carry nippers in their saddle-pouches to cut
wire fences if necessary.


                        ACCIDENTS TO CARRIAGES.

When an accident happens to a carriage, it is pulled out of the
column, if possible, so as not to interrupt the march; otherwise the
carriages in rear pass it by the most convenient flank, and close to
proper distance. The disabled carriage resumes its place as soon as the
damage is repaired. If the road be narrow, it must fall into the first
interval it finds, and regain its proper place as soon as the ground
permits. If a field-piece is disabled, the cannoneers left to repair
it, who cannot be carried on the limber-chest, mount on the axle-seats
and off horses whenever the piece takes the trot to regain its place.
If a caisson is disabled, the caisson corporal and the men necessary to
repair it are left with it.

When a piece and its carriage are overturned, it is better to disengage
the piece by letting the breech rest on the ground, or on a block of
wood, and then raise the muzzle with a handspike while the cap-squares
are taken off; the carriage is then righted and the piece mounted.

To right the carriage without disengaging the piece, detach the
limber, secure the cap-squares, and lash the breech to the stock;
place the middle of a rope over the nave of one wheel, pass the ends
of it downward between the lower spokes of that wheel, then under the
carriage, through the corresponding spokes of the other wheel, and then
upward over the wheel and across the top of the carriage to the side
where it was first attached. The ends of the rope and the wheel to be
raised are then manned and the carriage pulled over, two men being
required to steady the trail. If necessary, the ends of the rope may
be fastened to the limber, and horses used to assist in righting the
carriage.

Light carriages may be righted by hand without using a rope.

=To Remove a Gun and Carriage; Carriage Disabled.=--Dismount the gun;
remove the horses and run the limber over the gun, so that the breech
may be towards the pole and the trunnions under the pintle-hook; place
a handspike in the bore and raise it; sling gun with prolonge; carry
prolonge in rear of one trunnion, and in front of the other, round the
pintle-hook, and pass the end forward; take a half-hitch round the
breech and secure firmly around the fork, bearing down on the muzzle
until the breech is secured. Replace cap-squares; remove wheels; turn
over carriage and place it on the limber-chest. This is done by having
trail, pointing towards the limber, lifted up from the front. Place
wheels, dish down, on top of carriage, and lash all firmly together,
the trail being lashed to a handspike in the bore of the gun.

If the caisson be present, place the carriage on it, removing the spare
wheel and raising the carriage, trail first, from the rear.

=To Disable a Field-gun.=--Open the breech-block and then break it with
a heavy hammer; or load the piece, close the breech without locking it,
and fire the piece; or place two or three blank cartridges in the gun,
close and lock the breech-block, ram in from the muzzle a ball of clay
or sod; then unlock the breech-block and fire; or fire a shotted gun
with its muzzle against the chase of another.

Guns of the Krupp system may be temporarily disabled by carrying off
the breech-block, or breaking off its handle.


                               ASCENTS.

After pulling up a short, steep hill the horses should be halted to
recover their wind. When this cannot be done, they will move very
slowly.

In going up a difficult hill the carriages may be halted to rest the
horses by bringing them across the declivity and locking the limbers or
chocking the wheels, or by putting on the brake to the rear; for this
purpose it may be expedient to start the sections or platoons from the
bottom in succession, leaving a distance of 20 or 30 yards between the
different portions of the column.

If the draught be so difficult that the teams are liable to stall, the
carriages in rear are halted, and the lead-and swing-horses of the rear
half of the carriages can be taken out and hitched to the leading half;
when these have been taken through, all the horses, except the wheel,
will be taken back, and the rear carriages brought up. As it is very
hard to make the horses pull together, not more than five pairs can be
hitched with effect to a single carriage.


                               DESCENTS.

The drivers never dismount going down hill; the wheel-driver holds his
near horse well in hand, and his off horse very short. Two cannoneers
may be mounted on each gun-carriage and caisson to apply the brakes. In
the absence of instructions from higher authority the chief of carriage
directs whether the brakes are to be applied to a particular wheel or
to both. The brakes are easily applied and removed, and a judicious use
of them will save the horse much fatigue and prevent sore necks and
shoulders. If the descent be very steep, the sectional picket-line may
be used by the cannoneers to hold back; in this case the wheel-horses
only remain hitched to the carriage, the others being led in rear.


                       MOVING ALONG DECLIVITIES.

If a carriage have to move along a declivity so steep that a slight
jolt may overturn it, the wheels are locked, the sectional picket-line
fastened to the top of the upper wheel and held by two or three
cannoneers, who march on the upper side of the slope.


                               DITCHES.

If the ditch be wide and deep, the prolonge is fixed and the handspike
turned over on the flask and secured, the team is halted on the edge,
and the piece run by hand close to the limber, which then moves slowly
until the piece reaches the bottom of the ditch, when it moves quickly
until the piece is out. If the ditch be deep and narrow, it may be
necessary to cut down the edges and hold back with the sectional
picket-line; should the trail sink into the ground in passing over, it
is disengaged with a handspike or by fastening a prolonge to it.

In passing shallow ditches, drains, or deep furrows the carriages must
cross them obliquely.


                      MOVING OVER MARSHY GROUND.

Each carriage moves at a distance of 10 to 12 yards from the one
preceding it to avoid having to halt; officers or non-commissioned
officers are posted at the worst places to instruct the drivers how
to conduct their teams. The horses must pull freely and quicken the
gait; if the ground be very miry, it may be necessary to assist with
sectional picket-lines, or even to use them alone, the teams crossing
separately.


                      CROSSING FORDS AND STREAMS.

If the ford be not well known, it must be examined and the dangerous
places marked before the carriages attempt to cross.

If the water be deep and the current strong, great care is necessary.
The men are instructed to keep their eyes fixed on some object on the
opposite bank which marks the place of exit; they must not look at
the stream, and they move rather against the current, so as to better
resist its power.

If the ford have a bad bottom and the banks be difficult, the teams are
strengthened by adding pairs; an officer or non-commissioned officer
is posted at the entrance to regulate the distance between carriages
and to instruct the drivers how to proceed; a second officer or
non-commissioned officer is posted at the exit to direct the drivers
how to leave the ford.

The management of the team is the same as in crossing marshy ground;
the horses must not be allowed to halt or trot either in passing the
ford or leaving it, unless the stream be neither deep nor very rapid;
in this case the carriages may be halted to let the horses drink, or at
least to give them a mouthful of water.

Upon reaching the opposite bank the leading carriages are halted after
they have moved far enough forward to leave room for the carriages in
rear.

If the chests be not water-tight and are at the usual height of two
feet and ten inches above the ground, a ford deeper than two feet four
inches cannot be crossed without danger of wetting the ammunition.

If the chests be water-tight or means have been taken to raise them
high enough, a depth of 3⅓ feet may be safely attempted.

When the ford is deeper than this, the cannoneers must carry over the
cartridges, fuzes, and primers in the pouches, which they hold above
the water. The chests are sometimes removed and taken over in boats. In
crossing streams that cannot be forded, when there are no bridges, the
horses are swum, and the carriages and harness crossed on rafts, etc.


                     PASSAGE OF MILITARY BRIDGES.

At the entrance of the bridge the lead-and swing-drivers dismount
and lead their pairs. A distance of 12 yards is taken between the
carriages, and the gait is free and decided; the drivers keep the
carriages as near the middle of the floor as possible. If the flooring
be wet, battens should be nailed across it to keep the horses from
falling. If the bridge begins to rock, the passage of the column is
suspended.

In passing over a flying bridge all the drivers dismount and hold their
horses; the lead-and swing-horses should be taken out and led onto the
bridge or boat; the brakes should be applied to the rear, so that the
carriage cannot be run back.


                            PASSAGE ON ICE.

Ice 3 or 4 inches thick will bear infantry.

Ice 4½ inches thick will bear light guns or cavalry.

Ice 6 inches thick will bear heavy field-guns.


            FACING A BATTERY TO THE REAR ON A NARROW ROAD.

All the carriages are moved close to one side of the road, and the
pieces and caissons unlimbered and brought about; the limbers then take
their places in front of their carriages by an about, and the carriages
are limbered up; if there be not room for the limbers to execute an
about, the horses are taken out.

If the road be so narrow that the limbers cannot pass the carriages,
the trails of the pieces and the stocks of the caissons are carried
around until perpendicular to the road, and are then placed against the
bank, the wheels being run close to it; on an embankment, or a road
with ditches on each side, the carriages are run as close to the edge
as possible, the wheels chocked or locked, and the trails and stocks
held up while the limbers pass.


                             THE ODOMETER.

The odometer registers the number of revolutions of the wheel to which
it is attached. The distance measured by the odometer is not exact,
owing to the slip of the wheel.

=To Read the Odometer.=--Lift the reading-circle from its box and note
the number on the inner wheel to the left of the zero; this will be the
first two figures of the reading, and the number on the outer wheel to
the left of the pointer will be the next two.

=To Measure a Distance with the Odometer.=--Tie the case by its straps
to a spoke close to the hub of a hind wheel of any vehicle attached to
the command. Upon starting read the odometer and record the reading.
At the end of the course again record the odometer-reading. The
difference between the two readings multiplied by the circumference
of the wheel will give the distance passed over. And in general, the
difference between any two readings, multiplied by the circumference
of the wheel which bears it will give the development of the path
traversed by the wheel between the points at which the readings were
taken.


                           CAMPS AND CAMPING


                          SELECTION OF CAMPS.

Avoid camping or bivouacking in graveyards. Get as far to windward of
them as possible.

Avoid ground that has been encamped on before, and if obliged to camp
near it go to windward of old site. Avoid all rivers with marshy banks,
and marshes of every description. If obliged to camp with a small force
for a day or two near a marsh, if possible place yourself so as to
have a hill or even some rising ground or woods between you and it.
In camping near a stream cross it before making camp if possible and
select a rise of ground near by. Low ground is unhealthy. All brushwood
should be avoided, as also forests lately cut down.

A grass country with a sandy or gravelly subsoil is best; land with a
clayey subsoil is damp.

There should be good natural drainage, and the location should be near
fuel, water, and the road.


                         LAYING OUT THE CAMP.

Having fixed on the general plan of a camp, lay out the lines the tents
are to occupy, and drive pegs to mark the position of the tent-poles or
the centre of each tent. For wall-tents the distance between tent-poles
of adjacent tents should be at least 20 feet.


                               CAMPING.

On arriving in camp park the battery with sufficient intervals to allow
each horse at least a yard and a half on the picket-line, and have the
wagons take positions most favorable for unloading.

The sections of picket-rope are usually stretched along the spare
wheels of the caissons by cannoneers under supervision of the gunners.

Then the cannoneers, while drivers are unharnessing, etc., are told
off into detachments, each under a non-com. officer when necessary,
for unloading wagons, pitching tents, obtaining wood and water, and
preparing latrines.

The drivers as soon as dismounted are directed to unhitch, and if the
animals are sufficiently cool they should be watered and fed.

Examine feet, sponge eyes and nostrils, remove harness, and tie to
picket-line. As soon as the harness has been removed pass the hand
carefully over the horse's shoulders and back, and if there be any
indication of a hard lump it should be at once hand-rubbed. Horses
should be permitted to roll if backs be dry, as it is very restful to
them. Leave blanket, secured by surcingle, on horse's back until dry
if necessary. After two hours sound stables, at which the battery and
platoon commanders should be present, and let the men get to work on
their horses; a good rubbing-down is all that is necessary, without the
elaborate grooming required in garrison.

Collar-galls and girth-galls should be kept wet with salt and water,
and saddle-galls have a cloth wetted in the same manner kept on them.
Or wash the galled spot and then cover it with a powder formed of 1
part iodoform and 3 parts sulphur. When the animal has to be used,
cover it after dressing with a piece of old-fashioned sticking-plaster.

Should a riding-or draught-horse get a sore back, he may be used as an
off leader or swing-horse. The saddle should be removed and the crupper
connected to the collar by a back-strap. Breast-harness may be used on
a horse with a collar-gall.

As a rule, horses should not be unharnessed at night in the presence
of an active enemy; they should be tied closely together, tails to the
wind, and should be shifted day or night to prevent their being head to
the wind.

=To Unharness in the Field.=--If harness-racks be not used, the
pole-prop is placed under the end of the pole; the single-trees are
left attached to the double-trees; the wheel-traces are unhitched from
the collars only, and laid over the chest from front to rear, or on the
foot-board; the collars of the wheel-team on top of the limber-chest
(paulins having been removed) next to the rail on the near side, the
swing-collars in the middle, and the lead-collars next to the off-side
rail; the collar of the off horse is placed on top of that of the near
horse of the same team; the remainder of the harness is placed on the
pole, that of the near wheel-horse next to the double-tree and as close
to it as possible, next that of the off wheel-horse, and then the
swing-and after that the lead-harness, both in the order laid down for
the wheel-harness; the traces of the lead-and swing-harness (folded
once) are laid over the pole; then on top of them the saddles with the
attachments over them, so as not to rest on the ground. The neck-yoke
is placed on the foot-board.

Figs. 77 and 78 represent the ordinary methods of encampment. These
methods are modified to suit the circumstances and nature of the ground.

_First Method._--The battery is parked with 15 yards interval between
carriages. The extra caissons, the battery-wagon and forge, and the
artillery-wagon are in a third line behind the caissons.

The harness of each team is arranged on the carriage.

The picket-line is 15 yards in rear of the caissons; it is either
stretched between posts about 6 feet high or between caissons, or laid
on the ground and secured by pins. When the ground picket-line is used,
the end pins should be at least 1 inch in diameter and 3 feet long, and
to lessen the danger of their being pulled up no horse should be tied
nearer than 12 feet from them; a sufficient number of smaller pins,
about ¾ of an inch in diameter and 2 feet long, are used between the
end pins to keep the line straight and prevent it from swaying. The
pins should be of iron with steel heads and points. The horses are
secured to the ground-line by hobbles, or by hitching-straps if long
enough to prevent constraint to the horses. The ground picket-line
should not be used unless the earth is sufficiently firm to hold the
pins securely.

  [Illustration: FIG. 77.]

The men's tents are pitched in line, about 30 yards in rear of the
picket-line; the first sergeant's tent covers the carriages of the
right section; the left guard-tent covers the carriages of the left
section; the tents of each section are in the order of their pieces in
park, and are closed to the centre, or to the right, so as to have a
vacant space between the guard-tents and the tents of the left section.
The men's kitchens are in line, 10 yards in rear of the guard-tents,
which may be faced to the right, so that No. 1 can overlook the
kitchen.

The officers' tents are in line, 30 yards in rear of the battery
tents; the captain's tent on the right, covering that of the first
sergeant. The officers' kitchens are 10 yards in rear of their tents.
The baggage-wagons are in line 30 yards in rear of the officers' tents.
The sinks are 50 yards in rear of the wagons; the officers' sink on the
right, the men's sink on the left.

When time permits, the rows of tents are ditched, and a shallow ditch 8
inches in depth made around each tent; and these should lead into other
and deeper drains or gutters by which the water will be conducted away
from the tents. No refuse, slops, or excrement should be allowed to be
deposited in the trenches for drainage around tents.

On arriving in camp sinks should be dug at once, unless the march is to
be resumed on the following morning; the sinks are concealed by tents
or brush when practicable, and must be covered daily with fresh earth.
A small sink should be dug near the kitchen as a receptacle for all
cooking refuse; the old kitchen sink should be filled up and the earth
well rammed down over it, and a new sink opened every two or three days.

Paulins are used to protect the guns, carriages, and harness, and also
to serve as cover for the men when necessary. The paulin is 12 feet
square, is provided with double cords at each corner and at the middle
of each side. Each carriage has two paulins, which are carried on the
limber-chests. For protection of material the paulins are placed over
the carriage as follows: Tie a corner of one of the paulins over the
muzzle, pull the canvas over the gun-wheels and tie diagonal corner to
the flask, tie a corner of the second paulin to the flask, pull the
canvas over the wheels of the limber and tie the diagonal corner to
the pole in front of the harness. The caisson is covered in a similar
manner by its two paulins.

_Second Method._--The baggage-wagons may be in line with the pieces,
the interval between the left baggage-wagon and nearest piece being
about 50 yards; the guard-tents half-way between the pieces and the
baggage-wagons, facing to the rear; the forage-pile between the
guard-tents and baggage-wagons; the men's kitchens in line with
the third line of caissons, and covering the left baggage-wagon;
the officers' tents on a line perpendicular to the men's tents,
facing them, and on the prolongation of one of the baggage-wagons;
the officers' kitchen in rear of the officers' tents, and on the
prolongation of the right baggage-wagon.

  [Illustration: FIG. 78.]

If the forge-fire is to be lighted, a special place is assigned
the battery-wagon and forge, sufficiently removed from the
ammunition-chests for safety.

In a horse-battery two picket-lines may be used instead of one, the
second line being 15 yards in rear of the first.


             ENCAMPMENT OF A BATTALION OF LIGHT ARTILLERY.

On approaching the site previously selected for the encampment of the
battalion the adjutant assembles the guidons, and conducts them to
the camping-ground, and establishes each one at the point where the
lead-team on the interior flank of his battery is to rest. After all
are established he returns to the column, and indicates to each battery
commander how and where his battery shall be parked.

The guidons are established with a distance between them of 94 yards
(when there are two lines of carriages with 6 horses each, and the
picket-line is in rear of the park), the guidon of the second battery
in the column of march that day being placed at the head of the line,
and so on, the guidon of the leading battery being last. The tent
of the battalion commander is at a point 60 yards from the line of
guidons, and on a perpendicular line passing 17 yards in rear of
the second guidon, for an encampment of 2 or 3 batteries; and in a
corresponding position in rear of the third guidon for an encampment of
4 batteries.

When the captain commands "_Front!_" after parking his battery, the
guidon moves 75 yards to the rear and 30 yards to the flank, and plants
his flag. This point establishes the position of the captain's tent.

The battery-officers' tents are on a line, at intervals of 5 yards,
facing the interior flank, the captain's tent being nearest the guidon.

The officers' mess-tent, of the batteries to the right of the battalion
commander, is 10 yards in rear of the tent of the lieutenant on the
flank. For batteries to the left of the battalion commander it is 10
yards in rear of the tent of the captain.

Officers' kitchens are five yards in rear of mess-tents.

In each battery:

The picket-line is 15 yards in rear of the line of carriages.

The tents for the enlisted men are 30 yards in rear of the picket-line,
that of the first sergeant being on the interior and the guard-tent on
the exterior flank.

The cooks' tent is next to the guard-tent, the other tents being
equally distributed along the line.

The forage is 15 yards from the exterior flank, on the prolongation of
the picket-line.

The sinks are 90 yards from the forage, on the prolongation of the
picket-line.

The kitchens are on the line of the tents and 30 yards from the
guard-tent.

The tents of the battalion commander and staff are arranged, at
intervals of 5 yards, on a line facing the interior flank.

The mess-tent is on the flank nearest the front of the park, and the
tents of the adjutant, quartermaster, and surgeon are on the other
flank of the tent of the battalion commander.

Non-commissioned staff-officers' and orderlies' tents are on a line 15
yards in rear of the staff-tents.

The cook-tent is 5 yards to the rear of the outer flank of the
mess-tent.

The staff-wagons are on a line 15 yards in rear of the non-commissioned
staff tents, the forage-and guard-tents being near either flank.

Officers' sinks are on a line 60 yards in rear of the staff tents.

The position of the kitchens may be varied, depending on the direction
of the wind and lay of the ground.

If the camp be established for more than a few days, the batteries
will be parked in positions corresponding to the ones they occupy at
battalion formation.


                               BIVOUACS.

The men bivouac at a convenient distance in rear of the park, each
detachment opposite its section; the guard is on one flank and to
the leeward; the cook-fires are near the guard. If necessary, the
picket-line may be stretched through the hind wheels of the carriages
of the third line, but whenever practicable the picket-line should be
stretched along the ground or between trees or posts.

A simple shelter may be formed by driving two forked sticks into the
ground, with a pole resting in the forks, and branches laid resting
on the pole, thick ends uppermost, at an angle of 45 degrees, and the
screen completed with smaller branches; or a shelter of canvas or a
blanket may be similarly made.

Each man should strew his sleeping-place with dried leaves, etc., and
place over it any articles such as bags, saddle-cloths, etc. A small
hollow should be scraped in the ground just where the hip would rest.


                                TENTS.

The =Hospital Tent=, complete, weighs 215 lbs., and consists of one
tent, 100 lbs.; one fly, 32 lbs.; one set tent-poles, 60 lbs.; 18 large
and 28 small tent-pins, 23 lbs.

Its dimensions are: length of ridge, 14 feet; height, 11 feet; width,
14½ feet; height of wall, 4½ feet.

Authorized allowance, 1 for battery sick.

The =Conical Wall-tent=, complete, weighs 128 lbs., and consists of one
tent, 76 lbs.; one tent-pole and tripod, 32 lbs.; 48 tent-pins, 20 lbs.

Its dimensions are: height, 10 feet; diameter, 16½ feet; height of
wall, 3 feet.

Authorized allowance, 1 to 20 foot or 17 mounted men.

The =Wall-tent=, complete, weighs 97 lbs., and consists of one tent,
43 lbs.; one fly, 15 lbs.; one set of poles, 25 lbs.; 10 large and 18
small tent-pins, 14 lbs.

Its dimensions are: length of ridge, 9 feet; height, 8½ feet; width,
8 feet 11 inches; height of wall, 3 feet 9 inches.

Authorized allowance, 1 to captain, 1 to 2 subalterns.

The =Common Tent=, complete, weighs 51 lbs., and consists of one tent,
26 lbs.; one set of poles, 15 lbs.; 24 pins, 10 lbs.

Its dimensions are: length of ridge, 6 feet 11 inches; height, 6 feet
10 inches; width, 8 feet 4 inches; height of wall, 2 feet.

Authorized allowance, 1 to 6 foot or 4 mounted men.

The =Shelter-tent= (2 halves) weighs a little over 5 lbs., and the 8
pins 1½ lbs.; total, 6.5 lbs.

Each half is 67 inches by 65 inches.

Authorized allowance, 1 to each officer, 1 to 2 enlisted men.

The =Hospital Tent= will accommodate comfortably six patients. It is
pitched by eight men, after the manner described for pitching the
wall-tent.

The =Conical Wall-tent= is provided with a hood, and will comfortably
accommodate ten men, and may be made to hold twice that number. To
pitch the tent, four men are required. No. 1 procures tent; No. 4
tripod and pole, which he opens; Nos. 2 and 3 each 24 pins and a maul,
which they place near front and rear of tent respectively. Nos. 2, 3,
and 4 unroll the tent and spread it out upon the ground near where it
is to be pitched, top of tent at its centre. No. 1 drives a pin to mark
the door of the tent, and then measures with the tent-pole directly
backward, and drives a pin at that end of the pole; No. 4 places the
tripod opened out flat, with ring over the last pin driven (the centre
pin), and lays the pole on the ground, pin-end at centre pin. All
bring the canvas over the tripod until its centre comes to the centre
pin and door at the front pin, when No. 2 slips the wall-loop at one
end of the door over front pin, and fastens the rope of the flap
to the same pin. Nos. 1 and 4, commencing at rear and front of tent
respectively, and working to the right and left, scatter the pins and
pull out the guy-ropes. Nos. 2 and 3 take each a maul, and, commencing
front and rear respectively, work right and left of the tent, driving
the guy-pins, placing them about one yard from the edge of the tent,
each on a line with a seam. As the pins are driven Nos. 1 and 4 place
the ends of the guy-ropes over them, working on their respective sides.
When the pins are set, No. 2 crawls under the canvas, slightly raises
the tent, and places the pin of the pole through the plate attached to
the chains at the top of the tent, and, raising the pole, sets it in
the ring of the tripod; No. 3, having from the outside placed the hood
over the pole-pin, enters the tent by crawling under, and assists No. 2
in raising the tripod, which being done Nos. 1 and 4 tighten the guys;
they then scatter the wall-pins. The tent having been secured, Nos. 2
and 3 now take their posts outside and drive the wall-pins, working as
before, No. 2 toward the right rear and No. 3 toward the left front;
Nos. 1 and 4 straighten the tent and fasten the hood-guys.

A =Wall-tent= will accommodate four men; preferably three if there
be sufficient canvas. The rectangle marked by the pins for guy-ropes
has a front of 18 feet and a depth of 14 feet. It is pitched by four
men. Nos. 1 and 2 bring ridge and upright poles, unfasten them, and
place ridge-poles as directed by the non-commissioned officer. They
then place the upright poles in position on the ground, usually on the
side opposite that from which the wind is blowing. Nos. 3 and 4 bring
tent, unroll it, and all now open canvas and place it in position for
pitching; No. 1 working in rear, No. 2 in front, fix the ridge-pole
and tent, tapping with a maul, if necessary, to drive the uprights
home. The fly, if used, is now placed in position over tent, and the
centre loops are secured over front and rear pole-pins, which have been
previously driven by Nos. 3 and 4. All draw bottom of tent taut and
square, the front and rear at right angles to the ridge, and fasten it
with pins through the corner loops; then, stepping outward two paces
from the corner pins and one pace to the front (or rear), each securely
sets a long pin, over which is passed the extended corner guy-rope. The
tent is now raised and the poles set in position. The other pins are
then driven and the guy-ropes properly secured.

A =Common Tent= should not be made to hold more than three men. It is
similarly pitched.

In pitching common or wall tents care must be taken that the door is
tied up, and that it is properly squared and pinned to the ground at
the door and four corners before being raised.

A =Shelter-tent= merely affords cover for two men.

In assigning men to tents bear in mind that the crowding of men in
tents for sleeping purposes is highly injurious to health.

In pitching the tents disturb the ground inside and around as little
as possible. Do not allow absurd notions of order and regularity to
cause tents to be pitched in hollows, which are frequently met with in
the best sites, when, by moving the tent perhaps a few feet one way or
another, a good position for it might be found.

In camps of position, when tents are used, it is advisable to supply
planking for the men to lie on, these planks to be removed and aired
every fine day. If boards cannot be had, use any sort of tarpaulin or
waterproof sheet that can be obtained.

If straw be plentiful, issue enough to make good thick mats for the men
to lie on. They are easily made and most comfortable. They should be
hung up to dry every day. They should be 3 inches to 4 inches thick, 6
feet long, and about 2¼ feet wide.

  [Illustration: FIG. 79.]

Every morning, except when it rains, have the sides of tents rolled up
all around, and in fine weather strike tents frequently; it is good
practice for the men; they should regularly pack them up as if for a
march. This is also advisable as a sanitary measure, so that the ground
where the tent usually stands can be well dried by the sun. Blankets
and bedding should be frequently aired and exposed to the sun. Do not
permit grass or green leaves to be used for beds in tents, but use
straw when it can be obtained. Each tent should be thoroughly swept out
daily, and at night properly ventilated, the walls being raised if the
weather permits.


                           TO STRIKE A TENT.

The men take their posts and first remove the wall-pins and then all
the guy-pins on their respective sides, except the four corner pins of
the square tents, or the quadrant-pins of the conical tents.

Standing at their respective posts, they remove the corner, or
quadrant, guys from the pins and hold the tent until the signal for
striking is given, when the tent is lowered to the side indicated.

The canvas is then rolled up and tied by Nos. 1 and 4, while Nos. 2 and
3 fasten the poles, or tripod and pole, together, and collect the pins.


                            HEATING TENTS.

The Sibley stove, for conical and wall tents, weighing about 19 pounds,
is issued by the Q. M. Dept., and is very necessary in cold weather. It
is easily put up and requires very little fuel.

For ordinary weather an officer can make himself very comfortable by
means of a small oil-stove, one or two wicks. Have a box in which it
fits exactly made for transporting it, and take along a tin of oil.


                             CAMP COOKING.

A field-kitchen is easily made by digging a long trench for the fire,
its width not being sufficient for the kettles, which are placed on it,
to drop into it, and covering up between them with stones and clay,
that the fire, fed from the windward end, may draw right through. A
chimney, formed with the sods cut off the top of the trench, can be
built at the other end to increase the draught.

Three such trenches meeting under one chimney form a broad-arrow
kitchen. The centre trench is traced in the direction from which the
wind is blowing, the other two making angles of 40 to 45 degrees with
it. The width of the trenches is 9 inches, reduced to 6 inches when
they pass under the base of the chimney, and widened at their mouths
to produce a draught. The depth is one foot at the base of chimney
and 14 inches at the other end, or one foot throughout if the ground
falls at the mouth of the trench. A field-kitchen is easily made of two
logs rolled nearly together in the direction of the wind, and the fire
kindled between them.

The Buzzacott field-oven is excellent, as is also the ordinary Dutch
oven. They are furnished on requisition by the Quartermaster's
Department.

=To Make Field-ovens.=--Take any barrel (the more iron hoops on
it the better), the head being out; lay it on its side, having scraped
away the ground a little in the centre to make a bed for it; or if
there is a bank near excavate a place for it, taking care that the
front end of the barrel is at least 6 inches back from the foot of
the bank. Cover it with a coating of about 6 or 8 inches of wet earth
or thick mud, except at the open end, which is to be the mouth of the
oven. Pile up some sand or earth to the thickness of about 6 inches
over the mud, arranging for an opening 3 inches in diameter being left
as a flue (to increase the draught) to lead from the upper side of the
barrel, at the far end, through the mud and earth. This flue is only
left open when the fire for heating is burning; when bread is put in,
it should be covered over. Form an even surface of well-kneaded mud
at the bottom within the barrel to form a flooring to place the bread
on. Light a fire within the barrel and keep it up until the staves are
burnt, and the oven is then completed. When required for use, heat it
as if it were an ordinary oven; draw out ashes; put in bread, and close
the mouth with pieces of board, tin, or iron.

The Subsistence Department issues an excellent pamphlet on army cooking.


                            DRINKING-WATER.

The water should be well tested, and persons living near by questioned
about it.

  [Illustration: FIG. 80.]

=Filters.=--Two barrels (Fig. 80), one inside the other, having a space
of from 4 to 6 inches clear all round between them filled with layers
of gravel, sand, and charcoal, form an excellent filter. The inside
one, without a bottom, rests on three stones placed in layers of sand,
charcoal, and coarse gravel. The water flows into the space between the
barrels and forces its way through the gravel, charcoal, and sand into
the inner barrel. Or they may be placed as in Fig. 81 and connected by
a pipe.

  [Illustration: FIG. 81.]

If the water is from a small spring gushing up out of the earth,
perforate the bottom of the outer barrel with a number of holes, and
leave the bottom to the inner barrel, which should be pierced with
holes round its sides near the top.

In both these filters draw off the water by a pipe running through the
outer into the inner barrel.

Allow eight pints per man in hot and six in temperate climates for
cooking and drinking, and a similar amount for washing. In stationary
camps allow 5 gallons per man for all purposes.


                               LOG HUTS.

Good huts to last for years are quickly made of logs placed one
over the other, being notched half their respective thicknesses at
the angles so as to fit one into the other. Moss is driven into the
interstices. A roof is put on of split logs, gouged out in the centre,
so that each is like a long curved gutter. A layer of these is placed
side by side, with the hollow side uppermost, one end resting on the
ridge-pole, the other on the walls. A second layer is put over them
with the hollow side down. A large split log, well hollowed out, is
used as a ridge-piece. Cowdung mixed with water and well plastered
over mud walls or floors renders them hard, tough, and less subject to
injury from weather. A thin coating of this applied every day to the
earthen floors of huts adds much to the appearance of cleanliness.

In planning huts give sufficient width for two rows of beds and a
passage down the centre. A width of at least 6 feet should be allowed
for each row of beds, and the passage may be from 2 to 4 feet wide.


                            BREAKING CAMP.

Ordinarily camp should not be broken before daybreak, as horses rest
better from midnight until dawn than at any other hour.

Ample time should be left after a seasonable reveille for the men to
breakfast, horses fed and the wagons to be packed.

Do not permit packing, pulling tent-pegs, or any noise before reveille.
Men should be permitted to rest until the last moment.

Immediately after reveille have drivers and such other men as may be
required feed and groom under supervision of the battery officer.

The grooming should consist in merely rubbing off the horses, and
seeing that shoulders, backs, and parts under harness are in good
condition and perfectly free from dirt. It is a mistake to groom too
much in the field. It is distasteful to men, and does not improve the
horses.

The other men should pack up, remove tent-pegs, and fold tents. Then
breakfast. After breakfast let the men complete their packing and
attend to personal requirements. Or tents may be left standing until
after breakfast, depending on weather or other conditions. Drivers
water and harness; cannoneers pack wagons and fill in sinks. Part of
the cannoneers should be detailed to assist the drivers if required.

In packing the wagons it is well to have one or two men in the wagon
who understand the work. Articles least required should be packed
first. Those required by the cooks should be packed so that they can be
easily gotten at immediately on reaching camp. When the camp has been
cleared, an officer should ride over it carefully, and see that all
tent-pins have been removed and no articles forgotten.

Signals for the performance of the various duties should be sounded by
the trumpeter at prescribed hours.


                                WAGONS.

On field marches two six-mule teams will readily carry the baggage and
ten days' rations of a battery (enlisted strength as now authorized,
viz., 75).

If grain is to be transported, two more six-mule teams will be required.

Battalion commander and staff, one four-mule team.

Medical department, one ambulance and possibly one four-mule team.

A good six-mule team in the best part of the season will haul a load
of 4000 pounds, marching with troops. It will haul 1400 short rations
of provisions--bread, coffee, sugar, salt, and soap--and eight days'
rations of forage for the six mules.


                      REMARKS ON PACKING WAGONS.

The reserve rations should be placed in first, as they are not required
to be taken out unless specially ordered. Then should come the tools
and any heavy packages, and on top the men's and officers' baggage. The
blankets should be rolled up together by tent-loads or section-bundles.
All grease, oil, and dubbing should be slung under the wagons.

The packing of the supply-wagons depends upon the nature of the
supplies. Care must be taken that bags containing grain or biscuits are
properly secured, and that, if fresh meat is carried, it is not exposed
to the sun on the march. Tents are kept in separate wagons if possible,
in order that they may be left behind when ordered without disarranging
the other stores. In packing tools care must be taken to prevent their
rattling on the march.

The following information obtained from orders of Army Commanders
during the Civil War may prove useful:

General McClellan, August 10, 1862, allowed three wagons to each
battery, and they carried nothing but forage for teams, cooking
utensils for the men, hospital stores, small rations, and officers'
baggage. At least one half of the wagons carried grain. Captains
and lieutenants were allowed a shelter-tent each, and to every two
enlisted men a shelter-tent. Men carried no baggage except blankets and
shelter-tents, and officers' baggage was limited to blankets, a small
valise or carpet-bag, and a reasonable mess-kit.

General Rosecrans, November 20, 1862, allowed each battery as many
wagons as there were guns in a battery.

General Sherman while marching from Atlanta to Savannah allowed each
battery one wagon.

General Grant, February 23, 1865, for each battery: for personal
baggage, mess-chests, cooking utensils, desks, papers, etc., one wagon;
two wall-tents for officers; shelter-tents, one for every two enlisted
men. The allowance of forage was: horses, 6 lbs. hay, 14 lbs. grain;
mules, 6 lbs. hay, 12 lbs. grain. On a march the grain ration was 10
lbs.

The following extract gives the minimum allowance with which the
commands in the Department of the Missouri were equipped and supplied
in 1885 for 20 days' field service:

Transportation for field-and staff-officers' baggage and supplies,
medical supplies, engineer and signal equipments and appliances to be
according to strength of command or nature and importance of service.

To a battalion of two companies, 1 four-mule ambulance.

The allowance of transportation per company is as follows:

To one troop of cavalry, with an average field strength of 2 officers,
50 men, 3 teamsters, and 2 packers, 3 six-mule teams, 10 pack-and 2
riding-mules.

To one company of infantry with an average field strength of 2
officers, 40 men, 1 teamster, and 2 packers, 1 six-mule team, 8
pack-and 2 riding-animals.

Included in above allowance is: 1 pack-mule per company for officers'
supplies, and 1 pack-mule per company or per one hundred men for
medical supplies.

Supplies to be carried in wagons per company are 20 days' field rations
per man (55 and 43 with companies).

100 rounds of ammunition per soldier (50 cavalry and 40 infantry).

250 lbs. officers' baggage and supplies.

1 wall and 1 common tent.

10 days' grain (6 lbs. per day per animal).

Utensils for each company mess not to exceed 130 lbs. for cavalry and
100 lbs. for infantry.

Horseshoes, nails, tools, and medicine for cavalry-horses not to exceed
150 lbs.

To each soldier or civilian employé, 2 blankets and 1 extra suit of
undergarments, compactly rolled in one piece of shelter-tent.

Whenever the amount of rations or grain varies from the above, the
weight to be carried per wagon may be increased or diminished, but
should never exceed 4000 lbs., and if possible should be less than 3500
lbs., per wagon.

When obtainable on line of march, full forage will be allowed all
animals, the cost to be regulated by the contract rates at the nearest
military post.

To be carried on the person or horse: 1 overcoat, 1 piece of
shelter-tent, 50 rounds rifle or carbine and 24 rounds of revolver
ammunition.

Supplies to be carried on pack-mules for one company will be:

10 days' field rations (three-tenths bacon) per man (55 and 43 with
companies); 100 rounds of ammunition per soldier.

The utensils for each company must not exceed 75 lbs. for the cavalry
and 50 lbs. for the infantry.

The weight per load per aparejo must never exceed 250 lbs., and should,
if possible, be less than 200 lbs.

When marching with pack-train, to be carried on person or horse:
1 blanket, 1 piece shelter-tent, 50 rounds of rifle or carbine
ammunition, and 24 rounds of revolver ammunition.

On leaving a military post when service is anticipated where it is
impossible to use wagons, the loads for pack-trains, as a rule, will
consist of only grain sufficient to keep the mules in full strength
until required to make forced marches.



                             CHAPTER VIII.

   Transportation. By Rail. By Sea. Embarkation. Care of Animals. Food
   for Animals. Diseases of Animals on Shipboard. Disembarkation.


                     TRANSPORTATION OF ARTILLERY.


TO EMBARK AND DISEMBARK ARTILLERY AND ARTILLERY STORES--GENERAL RULES.

When artillery and its stores are to be shipped for an expedition,
prepare first a list of all the articles, stating their number, weight
of each, and the total weight of each kind.

Furnish the quartermaster with an exact return of the command, showing
number of officers, enlisted men, and animals and weight of baggage;
also a copy of the order directing the movement.

In estimating the weights allow double for that of bulky articles which
occupy much space without weighing much.

Divide the total quantity to be transported among the vessels, and make
statements in duplicate of the articles on board each vessel, one of
which lists should go with the vessel and the other with the officer
shipping the stores.

The articles must be divided among the vessels according to the
circumstances of the case; but as a general rule everything necessary
for the service required at the moment of disembarkation should be
placed in each vessel, so that there will be no inconvenience should
other vessels be delayed.

If a particular kind of a gun is necessary for any operation, do not
place all of one kind in one vessel, to avoid being deprived of them by
any accident to it.

The pieces and caissons are brought to the wharf or shore and
unlimbered, and the chests and wheels taken off; each set of implements
is strapped together, the washers and linch-pins being put in a box;
the harness is tied and labelled in sets; if the voyage is to be
short, the harness for each horse may be tied up in its blanket. The
battery-wagon and forge is unlimbered, and the limber-chest taken off,
as well as the spare parts outside of the wagon. All the chests are
distinctly marked, so that it can immediately be seen where they belong.

The pieces are first lowered to their places between-decks, the place
for dismounting them depending upon the manner of embarking; then the
carriages, limbers, implements, and wheels; the harness is placed
(regard being had to its preservation) where it may be of easy access.
The box of washers and linch-pins is under the special charge of a
non-commissioned officer.

The battery-wagon and forge, with its limber and limber-chest, is
stowed separate from the battery, but where it will be accessible.

Sponges, rammers, and intrenching-tools should be united in bundles or
boxes.

The contents of each box, barrel, or bundle should be distinctly marked
upon it. The boxes should be made small so that they can be easily
handled.

The position of the different articles in each vessel is noted in a
column in the list on board.

Place the heaviest articles below, beginning with the guns, then the
carriages, limbers, ammunition-boxes, etc. Boxes of ammunition should
be in the driest and least exposed part of the vessel.

Articles required to be disembarked first should be put in last, or so
placed that they can be easily got at.

If the disembarkation is to be performed in front of the enemy, some of
the pieces should be so placed that they can be disembarked immediately
with their carriages, implements, and ammunition; also the tools and
materials for throwing up temporary intrenchments on landing.

When there are several vessels laden with artillery and stores for the
expedition, each vessel should have on each quarter and on a single
masthead a number that can be easily distinguished at a distance. The
same number should be entered on the list of supplies shipped in each
vessel. The commander can then know exactly what resources he has with
him. Some vessels, distinguished by particular signal, should be laden
solely with such powder and ammunition as may not be required for
immediate service of the pieces.

If it is necessary to reship or leave any articles on board the
vessels, care should be taken to note them on the list.

Boats of proper capacity must be provided for the disembarkation,
according to the circumstances in each case.

It may be necessary to establish temporary wharves on trestles, or to
erect shears, cranes, or derricks.


                       RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION.

The most suitable car for carrying horses, especially in warm weather,
is the "slat stock-car," built of slats and open all around, but
tight in roof. Another kind, known as the "combination car," is made
with five doors on each side and one at each end, which may be closed
tight for stores, or with iron grates when carrying horses. These are
suitable for either warm or cold weather.

Both kinds are usually from 28 to 30 feet long, 7 feet 9 inches wide,
and 6 feet 8 inches high, inside measurement. Each car will carry 16
artillery or 18 common horses or mules. Be careful to have floors
sanded to keep horses from slipping down.

Loading cars with horses at night should be avoided. The battery should
be drawn up in the most convenient position for loading; and during
the operation of loading quiet and order must be maintained. Dismount;
let the men fall out of ranks if necessary and then reform, and have
personal equipment, etc., placed on the ground; unhitch; unharness and
tell off the horses to the cars, cannoneers assisting drivers. Station
a non-commissioned officer and one private at the door; the former to
superintend the work and the latter to count in a loud tone the horses
as they enter. Two more privates should be present to assist in putting
horses in position, etc.

After horses are loaded all assist in loading the material. The battery
is then reformed, retake equipments, etc., and the men are told off to
cars.

The horses should be driven or led in, following one another as closely
as possible, but should not be tied. They should be alternately led
to either end so as to fill up the middle of the car last, and should
stand alternately head and tail. If the journey is to be continued
beyond 18 or 20 hours, the horses will require to be watered and
fed. Nose-bags are generally used for the grain. If the drivers are
attentive, they, by taking advantage of the short halts made by the
train, can feed grain and hay quite easily by hand. Half-rations will
be sufficient under any circumstances. Before placing the horses on the
cars they should be thoroughly groomed and cooled; they should have
nothing more on them than their halter head-stalls. They should be fed
before being loaded, as it tends to keep them quiet.

If the journey is to continue for more than 36 hours, the horses
should be unloaded every 24 hours, and should be watered, fed,
groomed, and exercised before being loaded on the cars again. If there
are stockyards near by, the horses should be turned loose in them
for exercise. On long journeys, run all night and until about 10
A.M., then unload at a convenient place, and water, feed, and
groom; give the horses gentle exercise, and water and feed again so
that the horses can be reloaded about 4 or 5 P.M. to resume
the journey.

Horses are best loaded and unloaded from a stock-chute, but where this
convenience is not available and there is no platform a ramp or chute
may be improvised, using for it planks about 12 feet long and from 2 to
3 inches thick, depending on the strength of the wood.

A ramp should be about 4 feet wide, with the planks firmly fastened
together with transverse battens. These battens furthermore prevent the
horses from slipping. A strong trestle or crib of logs supports the end
of the ramp next the car, while the other rests on the ground and is
secured from slipping by strong stakes. An intermediate trestle or a
support of logs should be placed to prevent the planks from springing
with the weight of the horses. Three or four posts of suitable height
are set in the ground on each side, to which side-rails are lashed or
spiked for the purpose of keeping the horses from stepping off. A board
should be placed on each side to prevent the horses' feet from slipping
over the edges of the plank. When planks are not procurable, a ramp of
earth, supported by means of logs or stones on the end next the track,
may be constructed. The cars are brought up in succession to the ramp
to be loaded or unloaded.

In the field, where no chute or ramp is to be found at the place of
unloading, material ready prepared for constructing one should be
carried with the train. After loading the horses enclose the harness
in sacks, each marked with the designation of the horse, team, and
carriage to which it belongs.

Artillery-carriages are carried on platform or flat cars. These cars
are generally from 28 to 32 feet long by 8 feet wide. When properly
loaded, cars of 30 feet will carry two field-guns and two caissons
complete. To load them, the carriages are unlimbered and the spare
wheels removed from the caisson; the body of a caisson, its stock to
the rear, is run to the front end of the car and its stock rested on
the floor; another rear train is run forward in like manner until its
wheels strike or overlap those of the first, when its stock is rested
on the floor. A limber is then placed on the car with its pole to the
front, resting on the rear train; the second limber is backed on and
its pole held up until a gun, trail foremost, is run under it; the
trail of the gun is rested on the floor and the pole of the limber on
the gun-carriage. The other gun is run on in the same manner, and its
trail rested on the floor under the first gun; a limber is next run
on and its pole rested on the last gun; the remaining limber is run
on with its pole under the preceding limber. All of the carriages are
pushed together as closely as possible and firmly lashed to each other
and to the sides of the car; the wheels are chocked by pieces of wood
nailed to the floor. When the carriages are liable to chafe each other,
they are bound with gunny-sacking or other stuff.

A side-platform, such as is found in depots, is the best for
loading. The carriages are first run on to a spare car; from this
they are crossed over on planks to the one upon which they are to
be carried, and arranged on it as already described. When there is
no side-platform, the carriages are run up at the end of the car by
means of way-planks. Twenty-four thousand pounds is considered a safe
load for one car on a good track. Baggage, harness, forage, etc., are
usually carried in box-cars. These cars have the same dimensions as
heretofore given for those carrying horses.

The passenger-car of average size will seat 60 men, but a small car
will seat only 50. Allowance must be made for men's equipments, and
if the journey is of any distance each man should have a full seat.
Then by arranging the seats the men can extend themselves for resting
or sleeping. The men must be provided with cooked rations for the
whole trip. Each car must be liberally supplied with drinking-water,
lights at night, and all other conveniences, to make it unnecessary
for the men to leave them during stoppages of the train. The "tourist
sleeper" carries 48 men. It is provided with bunks (and some cars with
cooking-stoves) and should be used for long journeys when obtainable.

Guards should be detailed and so stationed on the train to preserve
order both when in motion and during stoppages. The arrangement of the
ordinary artillery-train will be:

1. Cars with material necessary for disembarking.

2. Horse-cars.

3. Baggage-cars, loaded with forage, harness, etc.

4. Cars for material.

5. Cars for officers and men.

The size of the train will vary, depending on grade, curvature, and
speed.


              TRANSPORTATION OF ARTILLERY-HORSES BY SEA.

Transports for horses should be especially prepared for the purpose;
as a rule, the larger the vessel the better is she adapted for the
conveyance of horses. Ventilation is of primary importance, the safety
and condition of the horses mainly depending upon their having plenty
of fresh air; large air-ports or scuttles are indispensable, and
wind-sails down every hatch to each deck should be insisted upon. If
time permits, fixed air-shafts should be provided for each deck. The
ventilation of steamers may be assisted by using the donkey-engines for
this purpose.

The stalls are preferably between-decks, never, if it can be avoided,
in the hold; should horses be put on the spar-deck, nothing will be
stowed on the stall-sheds. Stalls should be about 6½ feet long, 28
inches wide; tail-boards fastened to the rear posts, and padded as low
as the hock; breast-boards and side-boards fitted in grooves about 4
feet from the floor, the first padded on the inner side and upper edge,
the latter on both sides; the floors of the stalls set on blocks that
the water may pass under them; four slats across each floor to give the
horses foothold. Troughs should be made to hang with hooks, so as to be
easily removed.

Before embarkation the side-boards are removed, and replaced as each
horse is placed in his stall.

Horses, in all cases, should stand athwart-ship; in this position they
better accommodate themselves to the motion of the vessel. When on
the upper deck, they should face inward; this for the reason that the
spray will not strike them in their faces, and, besides, when facing
each other in this manner they will suffer less from fright and nervous
excitement.

All stalls, hitching-bars, or whatever other arrangement for securing
horses, must be strong beyond any possibility of giving way. The
living force exerted by a row of horses, as they swing with the motion
of a ship in a heavy sea, is very great, and it is better to have no
securing arrangements whatever than to have those that, by giving way,
will wound and injure the animals in the wreck.

If the transport is to be used in very inclement weather, the
spar-deck, over the horses, should be covered. Canvas stretched over
a secure frame is better than boards, as the latter in a severe storm
might be carried away, and its wreck would cause disaster among the
horses.

During heavy weather horses sometimes become exhausted and fall. The
best thing that can be done in such cases is to back out the horse on
each side, so as to give the fallen horse plenty of room. The fallen
horse should be protected from rain and spray by a paulin, and great
care and tenderness exercised toward him; otherwise he is very liable
to perish. The horses may be fed from nose-bags, but it is better to
have for each one a small trough, suspended to the hitching-bar by
means of two iron hooks passing over the bar. The troughs are moved out
of the way when not in use. Hay can be fed by tying it up tightly in
bundles with rope-yarn and fastening the bundles to the hitching-bar.
It may also be fed in small quantities by hand, and the more attention
the horses receive in this way from the men the less fretful and uneasy
they become.

When the embarkation takes place from a wharf, and the vessel is not
too high, it is best to use gang-planks and lead the horses on board.
The gang-plank leading up from the wharf to the gunwale should be
about 20 feet long by 10 wide, and be made very strong. This width
admits of its being used for gun-carriages. It should be provided with
ropes at the corners, rollers, side-rails, and boards upon the sides
to prevent the horses from getting their feet over the edges. Another
similar gang-plank, but not so long, leads from the gunwale to the
deck, the two being securely fastened together by their ropes. These
gang-planks should be carried by the vessel, ready for disembarking.
Every provision for this latter operation should be thoroughly looked
after before starting on the voyage.

When it is not practicable to use gang-planks, the horses are hoisted
on board by means of a sling and lifting-tackle.

Horses should be kept without food and without water for several hours
before being put on board, as they are liable to be injured if slung
with full bellies; they will also become sooner reconciled to their new
quarters, and take quicker to their feed on board, when these measures
have been adopted.

=Sling.=--This is made of stout web, or double No. 1 canvas. It is
5 feet long and 2 feet wide, secured at each end by a stick of strong
wood 2 inches in diameter. The sides are bound with strips of canvas
doubled, thus making the edges four thicknesses. Loops of 4-inch rope
are attached to each stick.

The loop attached to one stick is 9 inches long; that attached to
the other is 2 feet 11 inches, and has an iron eye, 3 inches inside
measurement, fixed in the end. Breast-and breech-ropes (2-inch), 9 feet
long, are fixed to each side, and are tied together when the sling has
been put under the horse. The slings should be tested by an excess of
weight. A donkey-engine is used for hoisting.

Five men are required to sling a horse quickly and well. One man holds
the head-guy, which is attached to a neck-collar; two men, one on each
side of the horse, pass the sling under his belly; both then hold up
the ends over his back, passing the long loop through the shorter one
and hooking on the eye of the former to the lifting-tackle, continuing
to hold up the sling until the horse's legs leave the ground; another
man stands at the breast and fastens the breast-rope, while the
fifth stands at his rump and fastens the breech-rope. The officer
superintending commands: "_Hoist away!_" The first man slacks away at
the guy-rope, holding it just sufficiently taut to keep the horse's
head steady. When hoisting, no delay should be permitted; it should be
done in the shortest time compatible with safety. At the commencement,
after a certainty that all is right, it should be done rapidly, to
raise the horse and free him from surrounding objects before he has
time to do any injury by kicking. After attaining the necessary height,
he is carefully and steadily lowered to the deck. Care should be taken
to have two or three careful, active men stationed to seize the horse
and prevent his plunging until the slings are removed. While one holds
him by the head-stall another rapidly unhooks the tackle-purchase, and
two others let loose the breech-and breast-bands or ropes. When the
horses are to be lowered through a hatch to a deck below, the combings
of the hatch as well as stanchions about it should be well padded. As
an additional precaution, a head-collar should be provided, with a
large pad on top, to prevent injury should the horse strike his head
against the deck-beams when lighting on his feet.

To ascertain the number of horse-stalls that can be constructed on any
deck, first mark off a space of three feet all around the ship's side
for a passage to be kept clear behind the stalls, and a similar width
alongside all hatchways or other obstructions; then divide the running
length of the space left by 28 inches; this will give the number of
stalls in each row. When the clear width of beam between the inner
sides of any deck is 36 feet or more, three rows of stalls may be
constructed, the passage between the rows where the horses are to stand
head to head being not less than 6 feet, and between those that stand
tail to tail not less than 54 inches. Horses should not be placed near
boilers, etc., as the heat is liable to make them sick.

There must be ten per cent of spare stalls, and there must also be
at least one loose box, constructed near a hatchway, to admit of
a sick horse lying down. Each stall is numbered, the side-boards,
breast-boards, mangers, etc., being marked with the number of the stall
to which they belong.

For some hours before sailing hay should not be given at all;
otherwise, if the horses are seasick, it will remain undigested in the
stomach, and possibly cause colic or blind staggers.


                        CARE OF HORSES AT SEA.

For the first few days on shipboard food is to be given rather
sparingly, and bran is to form a large portion of it; but after
the horse becomes accustomed to his new situation, and his appetite
increases, he should be more liberally fed. A bran mash, or oats and
bran mixed, is to be given to him every other day.

The spare stalls admit of the horses being shifted, rubbed down, their
feet washed, and the stalls cleaned out every day that the weather
permits. Hand-rubbing the legs is of the greatest consequence to
the comfort and well-being of the horse, and is to be practised, if
possible, every day or whenever the horses change stalls.

Horses are to be slung in smooth weather, and allowed to stand on their
legs in rough and stormy weather. In smooth weather they will rest
their legs and feet by throwing their whole weight into the slings. To
sling a horse in rough weather, whereby he is taken off his feet, would
only have the effect of knocking him about with the roll of the ship.
Horses standing accommodate themselves to the motion of the vessel.
They are not to be placed in the horse-hammock until they have been at
sea for a week, as some would only be made uneasy by the attempt to do
so.

The hammock is to be placed around the centre of the horse's belly, and
then the breast-band and breeching fastened to the required length and
degree of tightness. When everything is in readiness, and not before,
the horse is quickly raised until all, or nearly all, of his weight is
off his legs. He will very soon learn the relief the hammock affords
him, and will not be slow in availing himself of it by throwing his
weight into it. With some horses it is necessary to use great quickness
in making the ropes fast before they throw their whole weight into the
hammock.

When the horses are between-decks, too much attention cannot be paid to
the constant trimming of the wind-sails so as to insure plenty of fresh
air. The wind-sails should be well forward, and extended down within
two or three feet of the deck. When a horse between-decks becomes ill,
and the weather is at all fine, he should be removed to the upper deck,
where the fresh air and change will probably soon bring him right again.

Besides the ordinary grooming utensils for stable service, there should
be a plentiful supply of stable-brooms, hoes, and shovels for cleaning
out the stalls, and baskets or other light vessels for removing the
manure. The ship must be well lighted, and the guards attentive;
seasick men must not be intrusted with this important duty.

Disinfectants, such as chloride of lime and zinc, carbolic acid,
copperas, powdered gypsum, etc., should be freely used, and, upon
embarking, the artillery commander will see that they are supplied.

Should any contagious disease appear, the horse or horses attacked will
be promptly thrown overboard, and the precautions taken as prescribed
under the head of Sick Horses.

The feed-troughs and the nostrils of the horses are washed every
morning and evening with diluted vinegar.

Water is allowed at the rate of six gallons a day per horse, and one
gallon per man.

During the voyage the artillery commander will make it his especial
duty to act in harmony with the master of the vessel. There must, of
necessity, be divided authority and responsibility. Order and neatness
among the men and cleanliness with the horses are to be looked after by
the commander of the troops. In attending to these duties care will be
observed not to interfere needlessly with the duties of the crew nor
with the belongings of the ship.

Officers are always to be furnished with cabin accommodations, and the
men with proper messing arrangements. This should be specified in the
charter, and should be clearly understood by all parties previous to
setting out on the voyage.

The fitting up of the vessel is generally done by the Quartermaster's
Department, but the commander of the artillery to be embarked will, as
the one most concerned, give his special attention to see that the work
is thorough and complete.


                             DISEMBARKING.

When this can be done at a wharf, the operation is simply the reverse
of embarking.

When wharf accommodations are not available, arrangements will have to
be made for transferring the men, horses, and material from the vessel
to the shore. Bridges may be made of pontoons, or of trestles and
pontoons combined, and the horses and material carried ashore on these;
canal-barges may be used and towed close to shore by light-draught
steamers, from which horses and material can be landed by a gang-plank;
by lashing two of the canal-barges together, placing the boats some 12
feet apart, and throwing a false or additional deck over the whole,
a platform is formed, about 40 feet long, capable of holding all the
pieces and caissons of a six-gun battery, or from 40 to 50 horses. A
raft of this kind should have a strong railing around it.

In disembarking horses the same precautions are necessary as when
embarking them. For some days after a long voyage they should be
led about at a walk, and no weight put on their backs unless it is
absolutely necessary.

The disembarkation of horses by swimming is more easily effected than
their embarkation by the same method, as their instinct assists in
bringing them ashore. The horse should be lowered in the sling over the
side of the vessel, without fastening the breast-strap or breeching.
When the tackle is unhooked, the sling opens and is at once slipped
from under. In smooth water a horse can easily swim half a mile.

When the deck of a vessel is low, say not over 10 feet, and there is a
gangway, the horses may be backed off into the water without slinging.
This method should never be resorted to if it can possibly be avoided;
it is liable to strain and injure the animal, and it is said to injure
his pluck and make him shy about entering water.



                              CHAPTER IX.

   Machine-guns. The Hotchkiss Revolving Cannon. The Gatling Gun. The
   Gardner Gun. The Maxim Gun. The Metallic Carriage for Machine-guns.


                      HOTCHKISS REVOLVING CANNON.

  [Illustration: FIG. 82.]

There are two sizes for field-artillery, viz.: light and heavy, both
having the same caliber.

                             DESCRIPTION.

                                                Light.   Heavy.
    Calibre                             inches   1.45     1.45
    Length of gun                         "     46.4     70.4
    Height of trunnions above tread       "     35       42.4
    Length of gun-barrel                  "     29.1     50.1
    Number of barrels                            5        5
    Weight of each barrel               pounds  30.8     79
    Length of rifled bore               inches  24.7     43.4
    Number of lands                             12       12
    Pitch of rifling                   degrees   6        6
    Weight of gun complete              pounds 495     1045

The gun consists of five main parts: the group of barrels, the
breech-piece, the mechanism, the frame, and the attachments.


                         THE GROUP OF BARRELS.

The five barrels are assembled around a main shaft by being secured in
two bronze assembling-disks. Both disks are bolted to the main shaft,
so that barrels, disks, and shaft revolve together. The main shaft goes
into the breech-piece, and has screwed and bolted to its end a heavy
steel pin-wheel, which connects the barrel-system with the mechanism.

  [Illustration: FIG. 83.

  _Hotchkiss R. C. Rotating Device._

  _LEGEND_
  _C. Crank Shaft._
  _L. Loading Piston._
  _P. 5, Pinions._
  _T. Trap Door._
  _W. Worm._
]


                           THE BREECH-PIECE.

This is a cast-iron block, the front half solid and pierced with
the channels necessary for feeding, loading, firing, and extracting
ammunition, and the rear half hollow to form a chamber for the
mechanism, with guideways and journals for its movement and support. In
the upper front face a channelway is cut from the loading-hole around
almost to the firing-point, the bottom being inclined so that as the
cartridge moves along it during the revolution of the barrels it is
pushed forward and close home.

The forward face is reinforced at the firing-point by a steel
face-plate countersunk in it, through which the firing-pin hole is
pierced. The seat for the pin-wheel is in the rear face of the solid
part. This pin-wheel can only be mounted on the main shaft after the
end of the latter has been inserted in its journal; and in order to
put the locking-pin of the pin-wheel in place it is necessary to
have a hole pierced radially from the outside of the breech-piece.
This hole is kept constantly closed by a tap-screw. The rear end of
the breech-piece is closed by a bronze door, hinged at the bottom,
and secured by a screw-bolt at the top. On the outer sides of the
breech-piece shoulders are cast to form seats for the shafts of the
frame.

As the worm-shaft does not extend completely across the chamber of the
breech-piece, a small journal-seat is cast just to the left of the
centre of the chamber. In the right lower corner of the chamber is a
guideway for the firing-bolt; on the left side is a slotway for the
extractor; a small journal is pierced through the side for a cog-wheel,
which is held in place by a keep-pin. In the left upper corner is a
guideway for the loading-piston.


                            THE MECHANISM.

The work of the mechanism consists in revolving the barrels, loading,
firing, and extracting.

The revolution of the barrels is a simple gear movement. The loading
and extracting are reciprocal movements; that is, while a cartridge
is being pushed into one barrel an empty cartridge-case is being
drawn from another. The firing is accomplished by the firing-bolt,
which is drawn backward by its cocking-arm pressing on the cam of the
worm-wheel, and then thrown violently forward by the mainspring, when
the arm drops from the end of the cam. The piece has the ordinary
trigger arrangement.

In order to keep the cartridges from crowding down upon the
loading-piston a small feed-gate is hung loosely in the feeding-hole.
In the forward movement of the piston a small nib at its forward end
catches behind the gate and lifts it up, thus cutting off the feed.


                      THE FRAME AND ATTACHMENTS.

The group of barrels and the breech-piece are bound together by the
frame, and the whole system is supported by the trunnions in a forked
pivot. The frame is a light bronze casting, consisting of two hollow
side-bars connected by two hollow cross-bars. The forward one is
journalled for the forward end of the main shaft, and the rear one
is in line with the trunnions. A half-ring spans the shaft over the
forward assembling-disk to form a seat for the front sight. The rear
ends of the shafts are bolted in seats in the side of the breech-piece.
The trunnions form part of the casting of the frame. The right forward
cap-square bolt has a lever for clamping the piece at any desired
elevation.

The pivot rests in a socket, in the side of which is a clamp for fixing
the gun in any desired direction.

The feed-trough holds about eight cartridges.

The =Rear Sight= consists of a bar having its right edge arranged with
alternate notches and points for each 100 yards or other unit. These
notches and points are so arranged as to allow for the natural drift
of the projectile. The bar is hinged at the bottom to lie flat on the
breech-piece when not in use.

The =Front Sight= is of the ordinary steel-point pattern.


                     THE ACTION OF THE MECHANISM.

Suppose the crank to be in continual motion.

A cartridge is placed in the introduction-trough, the piston pushes
it into the barrel, the barrels begin to revolve, and the cartridge is
carried on until it arrives before the firing-pin, held in the solid
part of the breech, and which has, in the meantime, been retracted
by the action of the cam. As soon as the cartridge has arrived in
position the barrels cease to revolve and the primer of the cartridge
is struck by the firing-pin and discharged; the revolution of the
barrels begins again, and the fired cartridge-shell is carried on until
it comes to the extractor, which in the meantime has arrived up to the
barrels, and the cartridge-head rolls into it. As soon as the head is
laid hold of by the extractor the barrels again cease to revolve, and
during this period the cartridge-shell is withdrawn and dropped to the
ground. During every stoppage of the barrels the gun is supplied with
a new cartridge, the firing and extraction are also performed, and a
continuous but slow fire is kept up. Supplying the gun in this manner
with single cartridges, about thirty rounds per minute may be fired.


                DISMOUNTING AND MOUNTING THE MECHANISM.

=To Dismount.=--1. Open the breech-door by unscrewing the door-bolt.
As the mainspring presses against the door, one hand should be pressed
against the door to keep it from flying open.

2. Withdraw the firing-bolt by pulling straight out.

3. Detach the mainspring by first turning it completely over and then
withdrawing its keep-pin.

4. Take out the thumb-screw which secures the extractor-crank to the
worm-axle.

5. Withdraw the worm-axle by pulling straight out on the crank; and as
the extractor-crank and worm-wheel slip off, remove them.

6. Pull out the extractor.

7. Pull out the loading-piston.

8. Unscrew the keep-pin of the cog-wheel and take the latter out.

This completes the dismounting of the mechanism.

=To Mount.=--Proceed in the inverse order, bearing in mind that in
inserting the loading-piston it must be pushed in to its extreme
forward limit, as marked by arrows on its forward end and on the rim of
the feeding-hole, before the extractor is inserted. Also, in inserting
the worm-axle the most convenient position is with the feather up, so
that the extractor-crank will mount when it is turned arm down and to
the rear. This is not necessary, but is convenient in assembling.

=To Dismount Completely.=--1. Turn the barrels until the arrow on the
rear assembling-disk marked "Dismount" is opposite the arrow on the
right upper quarter of breech-piece.

2. Enter a punch in the hole in the breech-piece and back out the
keep-bolt of the pin-wheel.

3. Unscrew and take out the pin-wheel.

4. Unscrew the four bolts which secure the frame to the breech-piece.

5. Slip the breech-piece off to the rear.

6. Remove the group of barrels from the frame.

=Mounting= is done in the inverse order. Start the pin-wheel on before
pushing the breech-piece entirely into place. In driving in the
keep-pin of the pin-wheel be careful that it is close home so as not
to grind in the journal. Also, before dropping the keep-pin in turn
the barrels until the arrow marked "Mount" is opposite the one on the
breech-piece.


                      CARE AND CLEANING REQUIRED.

Apply the rules given for mountain-artillery, page 4.

In scrubbing out the barrels it is always best to turn the one
to be scrubbed to the extractor-hole, as this position gives the
most room for thorough work and the water does not slop into the
breech-piece. Elevate the gun slightly and put the water-bucket under
the extractor-hole.

When cleaned and mounted, pour a little oil in the oil-holes and
revolve the mechanism a few times to spread it on the bearings.


                              AMMUNITION.

The ammunition is similar to that used in breech-loading small arms,
and consists of the projectile, to the base of which is crimped a
metallic cartridge-case containing the powder-charge, and being
provided with a percussion-cap for centre-fire. The charge of powder
is loaded into the brass case and shaken down, and on the top of it
is placed a felt lubricating-wad, which leaves sufficient end to the
case to allow it to be crimped to the base of the projectile. The
projectiles consist of cast-iron shell, steel shell, and canister. The
nose of the first is truncated to give a seat for the nose fuze; that
of the second comes to a sharp point, and its fuze is in the base. The
canister consists of a thin drawn brass case, almost hemispherical at
the head, filled with hardened lead balls packed in sawdust.

                                                    Light.  Heavy.

    Weight of shell, empty                     Oz.  14.4     16
       "    "   "    loaded                     "   16       19
    Bursting-charge                             "    0.7      0.8
    Number of fragments                             15       15
    Weight of canister                         Lbs.  1.25     1.25
    Number of bullets                               28       28
    Weight of cartridge-case, empty            Oz.   3        3.4
       "   "  powder-charge                     "    2.8      3.8
    Total weight of cartridge complete, shell  Lbs.  1.4      1.7
      "      "    "     "        "      case    "    1.6      1.75


                             THE CARRIAGE.

  [Illustration: FIG. 84.]

                                                      Light. Heavy.

    Diameter of wheel                        Inches.  45.2     55.1
    Weight    "   "                           Lbs.    99      187
    Width of tread                           Inches.  47.2     60.2
    Weight of carriage without shield         Lbs.   550      990
       "    " shield                           "     220      282
    Weight of gun, carriage and limber fully
      equipped                                 "    2112     3487

The trail is formed of two brackets connected by bolts and two
transoms, and having a gun-metal rest for carrying the trunnion-saddle,
the rear ends being connected by the trail eye-piece, made of cast
steel. The brackets diverge at the trunnions, the axle is of steel, and
the wheels have metallic naves and tires.

The gun-traversing arrangement, giving 4° deflection to the right or
left, consists of a cast-steel saddle with trunnion-bearings, and works
in the gun-metal rest riveted to the brackets.

The elevating and traversing arrangement consists of a steel
ball-and-socket elevating-screw working in an oscillating bearing;
this bearing, and with it the elevating-screw, can be traversed right
and left by means of a small hand-wheel on the left side of the trail,
and this causes the trunnion-saddle with the gun to pivot around the
centre of the saddle.

On the right side of the trail there is a compressing-handle to lock
the elevating-screw, so as to make it immovable during firing and
whilst travelling. The handspike, of iron tubing, is hinged to the
trail.

The brake is of the following description: Each axle-arm has a screw
cut on its extremity; this carries a nut forming a conical cap, partly
enveloping the inner side of the wheel-nave, which is also conical,
to fit the inside of the cap; and has a crank-arm by which it can be
revolved on the axle. When screwed up, this cap grips the cone of the
nave of the wheel until the latter is immovably locked by the friction
of the cones.

A shield, of three parts, made to fold together, thus forming seats for
two men, is sometimes provided. It is of steel plate three sixteenths
of an inch thick.

The carriage carries the following implements: A sponge on the right
bracket, and two handspikes beneath the trail; in the tool-box (which
is between the brackets) are carried the feed-trough, hand-crank, rear
sight, screw-driver, oil-can, reserve mainspring, reserve firing-pin,
hammer, punch, and a universal wrench.


                              THE LIMBER.

                                     Light.  Heavy.
    Weight of limber empty      Lbs.  605     913
       "   "    "    loaded      "   1067    1452
    Number of rounds in limber        300     300

The limber is formed of four futchells,--the outside ones of flat
steel, the inside ones and the splinter-bar being of angle-iron,--a
platform-board, and a foot-board of oak. The axle is of hollow wrought
iron; wheels same as for carriage. The futchells and splinter-bar are
all riveted together, and the cast-steel limber-hook is riveted in
between the inside futchells: the axle is secured to the bed by three
bearings.

The pole lets into an iron frame and is held by two bolts with threads
and nuts. The single-trees, of metal, are hung to eye-plates under the
ends of the brackets.

The ammunition-chest is made of steel plate and carries 300 rounds in
two compartments, one of which holds 100 rounds packed in ten steel
feed-cases ready for rapid firing.

The limber carries the following implements: A set of
intrenching-tools, axe, water-bucket, traction-rope, cushions for
seats, etc.


                             THE CAISSON.

                                     Light.  Heavy.
    Weight with limber empty    Lbs. 1430    2409
       "    "     "    loaded     "  3091    4356
    Number of rounds                 1100    1100

  [Illustration: FIG. 85.]

The caisson (Fig. 85) consists of the limber, which is identical with
the gun-limber, and the caisson-body, carrying two ammunition-chests
similar to those of the limber. It is of steel and iron, with brakes
like those on the carriage. There are two foot-boards, and it has
arrangements for carrying the spare wheel, intrenching-tools, spare
pole, single-trees, and other accessories.


                  RANGE TABLE FOR LIGHT FIELD-PIECE.

  Angle of jump, 4′. Charge, 2.8 oz. Mean weight of projectile, 1 lb.
                    Initial velocity, 1319 ft.-sec.

    ------+----------+------+-------+-----+---------+----------+------+
          |          |      |       |     |         |          |      |
          |          |      |       |     |         |          |      +
    Range.|Elevation.|Drift.| Time  |Angle|  Final  |Marks on  |Drift-|
          |          |      |  of   |  of |Velocity.|Sight-bar.|marks.|
          |          |      |Flight.|Fall.|         |          |      |
    ------+----------+------+-------+-----+---------+----------+------+
      Yds.|   °   ′  |  Yds.|  Sec. | °  ′|   Ft.   |     In.  |   In.|
      100 |  0   06  |  0.01|  0.2  | 0 11|  1234   |   0.058  | 0.003|
      200 |  0   17  |  0.04|  0.4  | 0 24|  1161   |   0.164  | 0.007|
      300 |  0   29  |  0.09|  0.6  | 0 38|  1091   |   0.281  | 0.010|
      400 |  0   42  |  0.16|  1.0  | 0 52|  1037   |   0.406  | 0.014|
      500 |  0   56  |  0.27|  1.3  | 1 09|   987   |   0.543  | 0.018|
          |          |      |       |     |         |          |      |
      600 |  1   10  |  0.43|  1.7  | 1 28|   944   |   0.679  | 0.023|
      700 |  1   25  |  0.64|  2.0  | 1 49|   906   |   0.824  | 0.027|
      800 |  1   42  |  0.87|  2.4  | 2 12|   874   |   0.989  | 0.032|
      900 |  1   59  |  1.2 |  2.7  | 2 37|   843   |   1.154  | 0.037|
     1000 |  2   16  |  1.6 |  3.1  | 3 05|   819   |   1.319  | 0.042|
          |          |      |       |     |         |          |      |
     1100 |  2   35  |  2.0 |  3.4  | 3 35|   796   |   1.504  | 0.054|
     1200 |  2   55  |  2.5 |  3.8  | 4 07|   775   |   1.698  | 0.067|
     1300 |  3   16  |  3.2 |  4.2  | 4 42|   756   |   1.902  | 0.079|
     1400 |  3   38  |  3.9 |  4.5  | 5 20|   741   |   2.116  | 0.092|
     1500 |  4   00  |  4.7 |  4.9  | 5 59|   726   |   2.331  | 0.104|
          |          |      |       |     |         |          |      |
     1600 |  4   24  |  5.7 |  5.4  | 6 30|   711   |   2.565  | 0.120|
     1700 |  4   49  |  6.7 |  5.8  | 7 13|   695   |   2.808  | 0.136|
     1800 |  5   15  |  7.9 |  6.2  | 7 56|   682   |   3.063  | 0.152|
     1900 |  5   42  |  9.4 |  6.7  | 8 31|   670   |   3.334  | 0.168|
     2000 |  6   10  | 11.0 |  7.1  | 9 14|   659   |   3.601  | 0.184|
          |          |      |       |     |         |          |      |
     2100 |  6   39  | 12.7 |  7.6  |10 00|   650   |   3.877  | 0.207|
     2200 |  7   09  | 14.7 |  8.0  |10 48|   641   |   4.181  | 0.229|
     2300 |  7   40  | 16.8 |  8.5  |11 39|   632   |   4.487  | 0.252|
     2400 |  8   12  | 19.3 |  9.0  |12 31|   623   |   4.804  | 0.274|
     2500 |  8   46  | 22.0 |  9.5  |13 24|   613   |   5.140  | 0.297|
    ------+----------+------+-------+-----+---------+----------+------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ------+---------------------+----------+-----------
          |   Mean Deviation.   |Dangerous | Highest
          |------+------+-------+Space of  |  Point
    Range.|Range.|Drift.|Height.| Target   |   of
          |      |      |       | 5½ Feet  |Trajectory.
          |      |      |       |  High.   |
    ------+------+------+-------+----------+-----------
      Yds.|  Yds.|  Yds.|  Yds. |    Yds.  |    Ft.
      100 | 22.3 |  0.06|  0.07 |   Total  |
      200 | 21.3 |  0.12|  0.14 |   Range. |
      300 | 20.5 |  0.19|  0.22 |    217   |
      400 | 19.8 |  0.25|  0.30 |    150   |
      500 | 19.1 |  0.32|  0.39 |    113   |    14
          |      |      |       |          |
      600 | 18.5 |  0.42|  0.49 |     90   |
      700 | 18.0 |  0.50|  0.57 |     74   |
      800 | 17.5 |  0.55|  0.65 |     68   |
      900 | 17.1 |  0.63|  0.79 |     53   |
     1000 | 16.7 |  0.70|  0.90 |     46   |    67
          |      |      |       |          |
     1100 | 16.5 |  0.79|  1.02 |     40   |
     1200 | 16.3 |  0.8 |  1.1  |     36   |
     1300 | 16.0 |  0.99|  1.3  |     32   |
     1400 | 16.0 |  1.05|  1.4  |     29   |
     1500 | 15.9 |  1.1 |  1.5  |     26   |   184
          |      |      |       |          |
     1600 | 15.9 |  1.3 |  1.7  |          |
     1700 | 15.9 |  1.4 |  1.9  |          |
     1800 | 15.9 |  1.6 |  2.1  |          |
     1900 | 16.1 |  1.6 |  2.4  |          |
     2000 | 16.5 |  1.7 |  2.7  |          |   387
          |      |      |       |          |
     2100 | 16.9 |  1.8 |  3.0  |          |
     2200 | 17.2 |  2.0 |  3.3  |          |
     2300 | 17.6 |  2.2 |  3.6  |          |
     2400 | 18.1 |  2.4 |  4.0  |          |
     2500 | 18.7 |  2.5 |  4.6  |          |   701
    ------+------+------+-------+----------+-----------


                           THE GATLING GUN.

  [Illustration: FIG. 86.]

The following description applies more particularly to the model of
1883, which differs in some of its details from previous models. The
1-inch and .45-inch calibres are now in service; and contracts have
been made for supplying .30-inch calibre.

The Gatling gun consists of a number of breech-loading rifled barrels,
_B_, grouped around a shaft, _S_, to which they are parallel. The
1-inch has six barrels; smaller calibres eight and ten.

Each barrel is fired only once in the revolution of the group.

  [Illustration: FIG. 87.]

The breech-ends of the barrels are screwed into a disk or rear
barrel-plate, _P′_, which is fastened to the shaft, and the muzzles
pass through another similar disk, _P_, called the front barrel-plate,
on the shaft; the shaft projects beyond the muzzles, and extends
backwards for some distance behind the breeches of the barrels.

Directly behind the barrels a carrier-block, _C_, is fastened to the
shaft, and in its exterior surface semi-cylindrical channels are cut,
which form trough-like extensions to the rear of the cartridge-chambers
of the barrels, and are designed to receive and guide the cartridges
while they are thrust into the barrels, and guide the empty cases while
they are withdrawn. Behind the carrier-block the shaft carries, rigidly
attached, the lock-cylinder, _L_, in which guide-grooves are formed,
which are parallel to the barrels, and in which slide long breech-plugs
or locks having a forward and backward motion of their own, and by
which the cartridges are thrust into the barrels. They also close the
barrels until after discharge, and then extract the cases.

  [Illustration: FIG. 88.]

Each plug, or lock (Fig. 88), contains a spiral mainspring, _b_,
acting on a firing-pin, _a_, by which the charge is fired, so that
the plug performs all of the functions of a gun-lock, as well as of
a breech-plug, _b′_ is the head of firing-pin (which engages in R,
Fig. 89); _c_ is the lug for groove; _d_ is the hooked extractor which
engages over the cartridge-head; and _e_ is the guide-rib for the lock.
The lock is a rebounding one, the intention being that the firing-pin
shall not project beyond the face of the block until, on being
released from the cocking-piece, it flies forward and discharges the
cartridge.

The shaft, _S_, to which the group of barrels and both the
carrier-block and the lock-cylinder are rigidly attached, is free to
turn on its axis, the front end being journalled in the front part of
the frame, and the rear end in a diaphragm in the breech-casing.

The gearing by which the shaft is revolved consists of a toothed wheel,
_G_ (Fig. 87), fastened to the shaft, and worked by an endless screw,
_W_, on a small axle, _S′_, which passes transversely through the case
at right angles to the shaft, and is furnished outside the case with a
hand-crank, _K_.

The crank may be worked from the side, or it may be attached to the
rear end of the main shaft, giving in the first position a rapidity
equal to about 800 shots per minute, and in the latter 1200 per minute.

The rear end of the main shaft terminates in a screw, which is covered
by a knob or cascable, which is turned when the crank is to be attached
for rapid fire.

The cartridge-carrier block is covered above the frame by a
semi-cylindrical shell, which is provided at the top with an opening of
suitable size and shape to permit a single cartridge to fall through it
into one of the channels of the carrier-block, which it overlies. There
is a trough extending upward from this opening and forming a hopper, in
which feed-cases can be placed.

Beneath the carrier-block everything is open, to allow the cartridges
or shells which are withdrawn by the extractors from the barrels to
fall to the ground. Within the cylindrical breech-case attached to
the frame a heavy ring, not quite the length of the lock-cylinder,
is fastened to the case and diaphragm, which nearly fills the space
between the inside of the case and the cylinder. Portions of the inside
of this ring are so cut away as to leave a cam projecting from the
inner surface of the ring, having two helicoidal edges inclined to each
other, and united by a short, flat plane. Against these edges the rear
ends of the locks continually bear, there being room enough for the
locks to lie loosely within the parts of the ring which are cut away.
Each lock is held back against the cam by a lug projecting laterally
from the end of the lock, and entering a groove formed at the base
of the cam, in the thin part of the ring. A device for throwing the
cocking-piece in and out of gear, worked by a knob on the right of the
breech-casing, permits the gun being used for drill purposes without
snapping the locks. When the arrow-head points to the front, it is in
position for firing. With the head pointing to the rear it is out of
action.

On the left of the breech-casing, just under the hopper, is a movable
section with three wedge-shaped prongs, which keep the cartridge-cases
in the grooves of the carrier until they are ejected. It is called the
shell-guide.

The gun can be unloaded of any cartridges not fired by removing the
feed-case, opening the hopper, and reversing the motion of the crank.

The locks can be removed and inserted without taking off the
cascable-plate; and the absence of one or more plugs does not affect
the working of the gun, except to diminish the intensity of the fire.
For each lock removed one unexploded cartridge falls to the ground at
each revolution of the gun.

The gun is encased in a frame which has trunnions, and is mounted in
the ordinary way, like a field-piece.

The screw for elevating and depressing the breech works in a nut
attached to the trail of the carriage in the usual way. In the model
of 1883 the trunnions of the gun are placed two inches below its
centre, and the elevation and depression are given by means of an arc
connected at both extremities with the gun, which may be elevated 74°
or depressed 78°.

A lateral movement is given the gun by means of a hand-lever which fits
into a square mortise cast on the under side of the breech-casing.

On top of the breech-casing is a spirit-level placed parallel to the
axis of the piece, and on the right side of the cascable-plate is
another at right angles to the first.


  [Illustration: FIG. 89.]

                       ACTION OF THE MECHANISM.

In Fig. 89 _cd_, _c′d′_ are the developments of the right-and left-hand
sides of the elliptical groove; _cc′_ and _dd′_ are developments of the
circular arcs.

When the crank is rotated, it causes the shaft with the barrels,
carrier-block, and lock-cylinder to rotate in the casing. The bolts,
held by the guides in the surface of the lock-cylinder, also rotate
with the barrels and other parts, but by the bearing of the bolt-lugs
in the elliptical grooves in the barrel-casing the bolts on the
right-hand side are forced to move forward, _dc_, towards the barrels,
and those on the left to move backward _c′d′_.

When each bolt in this rotation reaches the "loading-flat," a cartridge
drops from the feed into the groove in the carrier-block, in front of
the bolt. As the rotation continues the bolt pushes forward until, on
reaching the "firing-flat," the cartridge has been completely inserted
and the barrel closed. During this motion a groove on the right-hand
side of the casing, _R_, catches the head of the firing-pin and retains
it, thus compressing the spiral mainspring and cocking the firing-pin.
A continuation of the rotation causes the firing-pin to pass out of
this groove; and the action of the mainspring drives the pin forward
and fires the cartridge.

The motion continuing, the bolt is withdrawn by the left-hand groove,
_c′d′_, and as it moves backward the empty case is drawn out by the
extractor on the bolt.


                               THE FEED.

=The Bruce Feed= (Fig. 90).--This is a gravity feed consisting of an
upright bronze standard, _a_, having two grooves in it. Below the
grooves is a fixed mouth, _c_, and below this a wheel, _d_, having its
axis to one side of the mouth and turning freely on this axis.

When in use, the feed is inserted in an opening in the barrel-casing
directly over the carrier-block, _e_. The paper box containing the
cartridges (the top being removed) is placed in the fixed standard
with the _heads of the cartridges to the rear_. The heads engage in
the grooves of the swinging-piece, _b_, and the paper box may then be
pulled off. As each cartridge strikes the wheel it causes the latter to
revolve and present a new groove for the reception of a cartridge. The
cartridges delivered to the wheel are in turn carried around by it and
deposited in the grooves of the carrier-block.

  [Illustration: FIG. 90.]

The cartridges in one column of the feed becoming exhausted, the weight
of those in the other column causes the swinging-piece to rotate
sufficiently for them to be fed to the piece.

=The Accles Feed= (Fig. 91) consists of a brass drum the distance
between whose heads slightly exceeds the length of the cartridge to
be used. The inside of the head is grooved in a spiral form ending at
the mouth of the drum. The central part of the spiral is removed and
replaced by the axis of a set of radial arms which rotate about this
axis. The cartridges are inserted through the mouth of the drum into
the spirals _with the heads to the rear_. When in use, the drum, _a_,
is placed in position, with its mouth, _c_, down and over the grooves
in the carrier-block, _d_. Projections, _e_, on the outer edges of
the grooves in the block engage in the outer extremities, _f_, of the
radial arms, _b_, of the drum so as to cause the latter to rotate when
the crank is turned; and the arms, bearing against the cartridges,
force them along the spirals towards the opening in the drum, whence
they are delivered to the grooves in the carrier-block.

  [Illustration: FIG. 91.]

=The Latest Improved Feed= (Fig. 93) has but a small surface exposed to
fire, is cheap, light, and independent of gravity, so that it may be
used at any angle.

Long strips (Fig. 92) of tin or any cheap flexible metal have tongues,
_a_, punched in them, one end of the tongue being left attached to the
strip and the other separated. These tongues surround the cartridge
and hold it in place on the strip. The small rectangular slots, _b_,
are punched completely through, and in these slots fit the rims of the
cartridge-cases.

  [Illustration: FIG. 92.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 93.]

A hopper (_a_, Fig. 93) is hinged to the frame which supports the gun
just over the carrier-block, and has in it an opening, _b_, through
which the strips, with the cartridges down, are fed. This opening
is narrow in front and wide in rear to prevent the cartridge being
introduced wrong end to the front. Below the opening, _b_, is a shelf,
_c_, so shaped as to guide the cartridges and strips into the opening.
Above the shelf is a flat spring, _d_, which presses the cartridges
down as they pass through the opening.

A wedge, _e_, projects from the opposite side of the hopper, and,
acting on each cartridge in turn, forces it out of the strip, the
tongues, _a_, bending downward into the recess provided for them. The
carrier-block, _f_, is provided with projections which act like the
teeth of a wheel upon the cartridges, forcing the strip to the right.

When in use, a strip containing cartridges is pushed into the opening,
_b_, of the hopper. The crank is rotated and the strip is forced to
the right through the hopper. This action brings each cartridge in
succession against the point of the wedge, _e_, which forces the
cartridge out of its hold on the strip by bending downward the tongues,
_a_, and the cartridge is deposited in the groove of the carrier-block,
the empty strip passing to the right.

=Before Firing the Gun.=--The following points should be attended to:

_The adjuster-nut_ should be at its proper position, viz., with the
marks in line with each other.

_The safety-cam_ (cocking-switch) should be set to fire arrow-head on
knob pointing forward.

_The shell-guide_ should be in its place and the hopper locked down.

_Never_ turn the crank quickly while the lock-plug is out.

_See_ that the safety-cam is turned out of firing position when the gun
is being worked without cartridges.

=Precautions to be Observed.=--(_a_) Never lay the cover upon the
ground, as it is liable to pick up sand and dirt, which may derange the
working of the parts.

(_b_) A partially filled feed-case should not be put back into the
ammunition-chest without being filled up, as the cartridges may become
inverted and jam the gun.

(_c_) If the gun jams, remove the feed-case at once, open the hopper,
and reverse the crank until all the cartridges are taken out. This will
be found to save time, unless the cause of the jamming is evident and
in the immediate vicinity of the hopper.

(_d_) See that all the parts are kept well oiled to prevent friction
and scouring.


                       THE CARRIAGE, MODEL 1883.

The carriage is made of metal; the axle of steel without any axle-body;
the wheels are of the Archibald pattern; and the trail of two plates
of mild steel, reinforced on top and connected by five transoms. A
gunner's seat is hinged to the top of the trail. The oscillating-lever,
when not in use, is carried between the trail-plates. The elevating-arc
is held in place by a binding-screw, and is worked by a bronze handle.

The field of oscillation is limited by two stop-pins in front of the
swivel. They permit of about 50° of lateral movement, and the gun can
be held at any point of this arc by a binding-screw, the handle of
which is on the left cheek.

On each side of the gun, and fastened to the axle, is an
ammunition-chest of steel for carrying feed-drums and certain tools.
These chests are lined with wood, and running through the middle,
separating the compartments for feed-drums, are blocks of wood with
recesses in their tops for the following tools:


                              Left Chest.

    1 cam-extractor.
    1 riveting-hammer.
    1 oil-can.
    1 screw-wrench.
    1 sight, left.


                             Right Chest.

    1 crank-handle for gun.
    1 drift.
    1 lock screw-driver.
    1 T screw-driver.
    1 pin-wrench.
    1 sight, right.

The lids of these chests are fastened with hasps and turnbuckles. They
can be locked with the ordinary padlock. A wiping-rod of brass is
fastened to the under side of the stock.


                              THE LIMBER.

The limber is principally of metal. The axle and wheels are the same as
in the carriage.

The limber-chest and lid are of Bessemer steel reinforced by
angle-irons. The interior of the chest is divided by steel plates
into three compartments for carrying ammunition. The centre one is
subdivided by wooden partitions for carrying feed-drums.

The lid is fastened in the same manner as those on the axle-chests.

The following is the capacity of the limber-chest:

    Right and left compartments, 132 packages,
      each of 20 cartridges                          5280  cartridges
    4 feed-drums of 104 cartridges each               416      "
    Front centre compartment, 38 packages of 20
      cartridges each                                 760      "
    These with the four feed-drums in the axle-chest  416      "
                                                     ----
    Would give                                       6872      "

    Weight of piece                                   237 lbs.
    Weight of gun-carriage with chest and tools,
       without feed-cylinders                         594  "
    Weight of limber and chest                        754  "
      "    "  ammunition and chest                    230  "
      "    "  one wheel                               106  "
      "    "  feed-cylinder (filled)                   24½ "


         THE 0.45-INCH GATLING GUN MOUNTED ON A CAVALRY-CART.

                       DESCRIPTION OF THE PIECE.

    ----------------------------------------------+-----+----+-------
                    Designation.                  |  No.|Lbs.|Inches.
    ----------------------------------------------+-----+----+-------
    Extreme length of piece                       |     |    | 35.5
    Length of barrel                              |     |    | 18
    Length of breech-casing                       |     |    |  8.5
    Length of feed-case                           |     |    | 20.25
    Cartridges in each case                       |  40 |    |
    Cartridges in each chest                      | 960 |    |
    Gun (weight)                                  |     | 144|
    Total weight of gun, carriage, and implements |     | 925|
    Number of barrels                             |  10 |    |
    Number of horses to draw (good roads)         |   1 |    |
    Number of horses to draw (bad roads)          |   2 |    |
    ----------------------------------------------+-----+----+-------


                          THE 1-INCH GATLING.

                         DESCRIPTION OF PIECE.

    ----------------------------------------------+-----+-----+-------
                    Designation.                  |  No.| Lbs.|Inches.
    ----------------------------------------------+-----+-----+-------
    Extreme length of piece                       |     |     | 68.15
    Length of barrel                              |     |     | 33
    Length of breech-casing                       |     |     | 21.5
    Length of feed-case                           |     |     | 14.5
    Cartridges in each case                       |   12|     |
    Cartridges in each ammunition-chest           |  472|  315|
    Total number of rounds for each gun           | 2592|     |
    Gun (weight)                                  |     | 1008|
    Total weight of gun, implements, carriage, and|     |     |
      limber                                      |     | 3263|
    Number of barrels                             |    6|     |
    Number of grooves                             |    6|     |
    Depth of grooves                              |     |     |  0.01
    Twist: one turn in six feet.                  |     |     |
    Preponderance                                 |     |  110|
    Number of horses for each piece               |    6|     |
    Number of horses for each caisson             |    6|     |
    ----------------------------------------------+-----+-----+-------

For field service each piece is accompanied by one caisson.


               NOMENCLATURE OF THE 0.45-INCH GUN (1883).

=Components.=--Adjustable-screw nut; barrels (10); breech-casing;
breech-casing screws (6); bushings (10); cartridge-carrier;
cartridge-shell ejector; cartridge-shell ejector-screws (3);
cartridge-shell extractor-block; cartridge-shell extractor-block screws
(2); cascable-plate; cocking device; crank; crank-latch; crank-shaft;
diaphragm; dowel-pins; extractor-hooks (10); firing-pins (10); front
cap; main shaft; oscillating-thread nut and washer; rear-guide nut;
rear plate for barrels; rear sight; worm; worm-gear; rear-sight screws;
front plate for barrels; front sight; front-sight screws; gas-collar;
gun-frame; hopper; hopper-hinge; hopper-hinge pin; hopper-hinge screws
(2); hopper-latch; hopper-latch screws; lock-cylinder; lock-cylinder
screws (2); lock-extractor; lock-extractor screws; lock-extractor
sleeve; lock-extractor sleeve-screws (2); lock-mainsprings (10);
lock-nuts (10); lock-tubes (10); spiral cam; spiral-cam screws (2);
trunnions (2); washer for front end of main shaft.

=Appendages.=--Adjusting screw-wrench; brass wiping-rod; clamp for
worm-gear; feed-cases, straight (48); lock screw-driver; pin-wrench;
rear-guide nut-wrench; shell-driver; small screw-driver; T screw-driver.

=The Carriage.=--Shafts; eye-bolts and straps (6); splinter-bar; step;
hounds; assembling-bolts; prop; foot-board; floor; bed; bed-plate;
clamp-screws (2); ammunition-chests (2); chest-handles (2); lid;
lid-latch (2); corner-plates; angle-irons; tool-box; tool-box latch;
tool-box straps and hinges; guard-plate; linch-pins (2); washers (2).


                GATLING GUN, SHORT BARREL, MODEL 1875.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISMOUNTING.

1. Turn the crank, and as each mark on the rear barrel-plate comes
opposite the mark on the front of hopper remove the locks by means of
the lock-plug.

2. Remove screws and take off the cascable-plate.

3. Remove screw from left end of crank-shaft and take off
oscillating-screw.

4. Remove worm steady-pin by tapping the small pin until it is loose,
then turn the crank backwards and remove with fingers, and take out the
crank-shaft, worm, and sleeve.

5. Remove screw from rear end of main shaft and take off worm-gear.

6. Remove the adjusting-screw cover and take out the adjusting-screw
and set-nut.

7. Remove clamp-stop from elevating screw clamp and screw out the clamp.

8. Screw in the elevating-screw as far as it will go, then lift the
elevating-screw and its sleeve by the handle clear of its seat and out
of the traversing apparatus, allowing the front end of barrels to drop
down slowly as far as they will go, and remove traversing apparatus by
sliding to the left.

9. Remove screws and take off breech-casing.

10. Take out hinge-pin and remove hopper.

11. Remove screws which secure lock-cam cylinder to breech-casing,
remove lock-cam cylinder, and take out cocking-cam piston and spring.

12. Take group of barrels out of frame (one man holding sleeve on front
end of main shaft to prevent dropping) and remove sleeve.

13. Take out screw from lock-cylinder, back out steady-pin which holds
rear-guide nut, and remove the nut. (The nut works on a left-hand
thread.)

14. Take off lock-cylinder and carrier-block.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSEMBLING.

1. Replace carrier-block and lock-cylinder.

2. Replace rear-guide nut, and put in steady-pin and lock-cylinder
screw.

3. Replace sleeve (small end to the front) and place group of barrels
in frame.

4. Replace cocking-cam piston and spring, place lock-cam cylinder in
interior of breech-casing, and put in screws.

5. Replace hopper and put in hinge-pin.

6. Replace breech-casing and put in screws.

7. Replace traversing apparatus; place head of elevating-screw in its
seat in traversing apparatus, and put elevating-screw with sleeve in
place.

8. Screw in elevating-screw clamp as far as it will go and put in
clamp-screw.

9. Replace adjusting-screw with set-nut and put on cover.

10. Replace worm-gear and spline-screw.

11. Replace sleeve, worm, and crank-shaft, and put steady-pin in worm.

12. Replace oscillating-screw and put screw in left end of crank-shaft.

13. Replace cascable-plate and put in screws.

14. Replace locks according to numbers on front of locks and rear
barrel-plate.

15. Replace lock-plugs.


                 GATLING GUN, LONG BARREL, MODEL 1883.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISMOUNTING.

1. Remove hinge-pin and take off hopper.

2. Remove lock-plug by turning to the right and take out locks.

3. Turn off the adjuster-knob by pressing down the catch and turning
the knob to the left, or pressing down the catch and turning the crank
in the same direction as when firing.

4. Remove the worm-cover, pull out the crank-shaft split-pin, and
remove washer from left end of crank-shaft; hold one hand under
worm-cover hole and draw out the crank-shaft to the right. In this
operation the worm will fall through the worm-cover hole, and should be
caught in the hand.

5. Take off the cascable-plate. To do this, first see that the
cocking-switch is in the firing position, which is indicated by the
arrow pointing forward. Then turn out the cascable-plate screw, and
turn the plate to the left until the arrows on the plate and casing
meet; hold one hand under worm-cover hole to receive worm-gear, and
pull the plate off to the rear.

6. Take out the lock-cam. First pull the cocking-switch outward,
turning it to the right until it snaps in the notch, the arrow pointing
downward; the cam can now be pulled out, using the cam-extractor, or
the fingers of both hands.

7. Take out the shell-guide.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSEMBLING.

1. Put in the shell-guide.

2. Put in the lock-cam, then turn the cocking-switch so that the arrow
points forward.

3. Put on the cascable-plate. Be sure that the gear is inside the
worm-cover hole, and turn the plate and gear until the grooves on the
latter meet the splines on the main shaft; then push the plate into
place, and turn to the right until the arrows on plate and casing meet.

4. Put in the crank-shaft and worm (countersunk-end of the latter to
the right) and secure with washer and split-pin.

5. Screw on the adjuster-knob; turn it up as far as possible, and then
back until lines on catch and ratchet meet.

6. Put in locks as numbered on front of locks and rear barrel-plate,
and put in lock-plug.

7. Put on hopper and replace hinge-pin.


                    NOMENCLATURE OF THE 1-INCH GUN.

=In View.=--Main shaft, around which the barrels are clustered; front
plate, which supports the front of the barrels; rear plate, which
supports the rear end of the barrels; barrels; gun-frame; trunnions;
gun-face; front sight; rear sight; breech-casing; breech-casing
screws; cascable-plate; hopper; ejector; cartridge-carrier;
crank; elevating-screw; elevating-screw box; elevating-screw bed;
elevating-screw handle; wiping-rod (brass); ejecting-rod (iron); lock;
lock-tube; lock-hammer; lock-spring; firing-pin; extractor.

=Within the Breech-casing.=--Lock-cylinder; rear-guide nut;
cocking-ring; cocking-ring clamp; spiral cam; diaphragm;
diaphragm-plug; gear-wheel; pinion; rear-cam screw.


                        TO TAKE THE GUN APART.

The piece is first dismounted and placed with its casing resting on
blocks. Mounting and dismounting are best accomplished by means of
a gin. In case of necessity, it may be mounted and dismounted as a
field-piece, care being taken to place blocks of wood to receive the
gun-frame and to prevent injury to the front sight, or to the barrels.

The operations of taking apart are executed in the following order:

1. Block up the frame and barrels.

2. Remove the hopper.

3. Remove the cascable-plate.

4. Take out the steady-pin; then turn the crank downwards and remove
the crank shaft in that position.

5. Remove the rear sight, and take out the large gear-wheel.

6. Take out the rear plug in the diaphragm, and then gently revolve
the gun until a lock presents itself on a line with the hole in the
diaphragm, through which one lock after another is taken out.

7. Take out the breech-casing screws, and remove the casing by drawing
it off to the rear. Care is taken in this operation to have the
lock-cylinder and gun supported, so as to keep the axis of the main
shaft parallel to the top of the frame. This is necessary to prevent
the rear end of the gun from dropping when the casing is removed.

8. Remove the pin from the large nut on the main shaft in rear of the
locks, and take this nut off by turning it to the _right_; then remove
the lock-cylinder and carrier from the main shaft.

The spiral cam need not be taken out of the casing in order to take the
gun apart.


                         TO ASSEMBLE THE GUN.

1. Put the main shaft in its place through the plates which hold
the barrels, and then put in their proper places the carrier,
lock-cylinder, and large rear nut. The latter should be screwed up
tight and have the taper-pin put through the nut and shaft.

2. Place the gun within the frame, and let the front end of the main
shaft rest in the hole designed for it in the front of the frame. When
the gun is in this position, the cocking-ring should be shoved over the
lock-cylinder and left for the time loosely around the carrier.

3. Let the breech of the gun be slightly raised, when the breech-casing
can be shoved over the lock-cylinder to its place; then screw the
casing to the frame, putting, in the meantime, the cocking-ring in its
proper place. Revolve the gun to the right or left so that the places
for the locks will come on a line with the hole in the diaphragm,
through which one lock at a time can be inserted in its proper
position; afterwards the screw-plug should be inserted to close the
hole.

4. Put on the cog-wheels, replace the crank-shaft, pinion, and
steady-pin. Put on the rear sight, and screw on the cascable-plate and
hopper, and the gun is ready to be mounted. The piece is mounted on
a 3-inch gun-carriage widened between the cheeks to receive it. The
ammunition-chests are arranged for twelve trays. For field service each
piece is accompanied by one caisson.


                     THE GARDNER GUN (CAL. 0.45″).

  [Illustration: FIG. 94.]

    Weight of gun                 142 lbs.
       "   "   "  and carriage    502  "
    Shots per minute              357

This gun consists of two breech-loading rifled barrels, _a_ (Fig.
95), (chambered at the rear to admit a flanged centre-fire metallic
cartridge), having their axes in the same horizontal plane enclosed and
supported in a bronze casing. The two openings in the front part of
this casing are for the circulation of air to keep the barrels cool.

The barrels are without motion, and are loaded and fired by the action
of the breech mechanism, which is contained in the rectangular rear
part of the casing. This is closed at the top by a hinged cover, _c_,
which is firmly locked in position by screwing up the cascable.

  [Illustration: FIG. 95.

    _a._ barrels.
    _b._ casing.
    _c._ breech-cover.
    _d._ locks.
    _e e′_. cams.
    _f._ ejectors.
    _g._ feed.
    _h._ main spring-compressor.
    _i._ cocking-cam.
    _j._ cocking-lever.
    _l._ feed-valve lever.
    _v._ feed-valve.
]

  [Illustration: FIG. 96.]

Motion is given to all the parts by the cams (_a_, Fig. 96), which are
attached to the three steel disks, _b_, at opposite extremities of a
diameter, and the whole is rotated around an axis, _c_, by means of a
crank, _d_. The parts _abc_ form the main crank, which is supported in
journal-boxes that are locked into the body of the rear case as shown
in Fig. 95.

  [Illustration: FIG. 97.]

The =Lock= (Fig. 97) in form resembles the letter U, having an
extension from its side which contains the firing-pin, _h_; the
mainspring, _i_, whose ends abut against the collar, _k_, on the
firing-pin, and the sector-sleeve, _l_, which slides over the
firing-pin; the sector or spring-compressor, _n_; the extractor, _b_;
the sear, _e_; and the sear-spring, _j_. The U part of the lock,
that works under and around the cam, is curved at the inner front to
correspond with the outer circle of the cam, the office of the curved
front being to hold the lock in position for firing. The circular
firing-pin is flattened a portion of its length near the front end, to
allow it to pass under the extractor, by which it is held in position.
It extends from the head of the lock through the mainspring and
sector-sleeve, terminating in a head, _m_, for locking into the sear.
The sear, _e_, pivoted in the centre of the lock, holds the firing-pin
securely, and prevents it from touching the cartridge until it is
released from its hold by the action of the cam, when the lock is in
its extreme forward position.

The sector or spring-compressor, _n_, hinged in a recess of the lock,
and engaging, by means of gear-teeth, with the sector-sleeve, _l_,
has its arm, _g_, forced against the safety-stop, _o_, as the cam
advances, thus compressing, through the medium of the sector-sleeve,
the mainspring, and holding it tense until released by action of the
sear.

The lock-heads serve as breech-plugs, and receive the recoil when the
cartridges are fired. Each lock carries a _hooked extractor_ which
rides over and catches the flange of the cartridge, when the lock is
forced forward, and when the lock retreats withdraws the empty shell
until it comes within reach of the ejector, by which it is positively
thrown out. The ejectors, _ff_, hinged to the case, are driven by
projections on the sides of the locks which give them positive
movements to eject the empty shells.

The =Feed=, resembling the Bruce feed but without the wheel, is fixed
to the casing in rear of the barrels. Below the feed-guide the casing
has two holes for the passage of cartridges, and below the holes is the
feed-valve, which slides at right angles to the barrels when driven by
the forked-shaped lever which receives its motion from the bolts as
they move forward.


                             OBSERVATIONS.

1. If the crank be turned before the feeding of the cartridges is
commenced, the first few will fall irregularly and check the working of
the gun.

2. Be careful to reclamp firmly the swivel and pointing-lever after
pointing.

3. To oscillate the gun without changing the elevation, unclamp the
swivel and turn the gun back and forth from right to left by means of
the pointing-lever, regulating the amplitude of the vibration by the
oscillation-stop head.

4. When the firing is discontinued, turn the safety-crank downwards
and to the front, until the crank-stop drops into its front recess in
the casing.

5. This gun may be fired by turning the crank backward.


                       NOMENCLATURE OF THE GUN.

=In and about the Casing.=--Lock (lock-frame; lock-frame heads;
lock-frame truck; locking-lever; locking-lever pins; locking-lever
stop-pins; firing-pin; firing-pin rack; mainspring; sear; sear-pin;
sear-spring; sear-spring pin; extractor); casing (body); casing
(cover); cascable; cascable-screw; rear sight and pinion; rear-sight
guide; lock-cam; lock-cam recoil-plates; lock-cam journal-boxes;
perforated plate; perforated plate cartridge-support; shell-starter;
cocking-cam; cocking-cam screws; hand-crank; hand-crank pin; hand-crank
handle; ejector; ejector-pins; lock-guide; cartridge-guide; feed-valve;
feed-valve slide; feed-valve seat; feed-valve lever; feed-valve
lever-screw; feed-valve lever-slide; feed-guide; feed-guide catch;
feed-guide cartridge-stop; front sight; mainspring-compressor; lever
and compressor locks; compressor-guide; safety-crank; safety-crank
stop; safety-crank stop-spring; safety-crank shaft, safety-crank
shaft-lever and pins; front-sight spring; barrels; front barrel-plate;
front barrel-plate pin; rear barrel-plate; rear barrel-plate pin.

=About the Carriage.=--Swivel (the brass casting connecting casing and
carriage); swivel and casing pivot-pins, ring, chain, and lock-pin;
swivel-clamp; swivel-clamp screw, gunner's seat; swivel-clamp
screw-collar; swivel and carriage pivot-bolt locks; swivel and carriage
pivot-bolt lock-lever; swivel and carriage pivot-bolt lock-lever ring
and chain; elevating and pointing-lever; pointing-lever pivot-pin ring
chain and lock-pins; pointing-lever clamp, lock-chain; pointing-lever
clamp-screw; oscillation-stop, trail handspikes, oscillation-stop
traversing-screw; oscillation-stop limit-screw.

=Implements, etc.=--Wiping-rod; T screw-driver; lock-wrench; headless
shell-extractor; packing-case; shell-driver; hammer; drifts;
breech-casing cover (leather).


                             THE CARRIAGE.

The distinctive feature of the carriage is the arrangement for
oscillation, the lateral movement being regulated by a clamp, which
compresses, or allows to expand, a metallic ring concentric with
the pivot around which the gun moves. The lever for elevating or
depressing, as well as giving the oscillation, is peculiar to this gun.


                              THE LIMBER.

The limber-chest is opened in rear by a lid, which falls down, and is
held in place by jointed braces, thereby serving as a shelf. When down,
it exposes a series of drawers six in number, and two recesses for
implements. In these drawers the ammunition is carried in the original
pasteboard packages. Each drawer has a capacity for 45 packages or 900
rounds, thus giving to each limber 5400 rounds.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISMOUNTING.

1. Unscrew the cascable and raise the breech-cover.

2. Remove the locks. To do this, turn the crank until one of the
lock-cam recoil-plates is uppermost; rotate the corresponding lock
about the recoil-plate until it is vertical, and draw it out at front.
The other lock may be removed in the same manner.

3. Remove the ejectors directly by their pins.

4. Remove the lock-cam, raising it vertically by means of its
journal-boxes.

5. Turn out the feed-valve and valve-lever screws, and remove valve,
valve-slide, lever, and lever-slide.

6. Drive out the safety-crank pin, and remove crank.

7. Drive out the safety-crank shaft and remove the spline.


                         TO DISMOUNT THE LOCK.

1. Drive out the extractor-pin, and remove the extractor.

2. Unscrew the lock-head by means of the lock-wrench.

3. Uncock by pressing on the sear, and turn the cocking-lever to the
rear; drive out the cocking-lever pin, and remove the lever.

4. Draw out the firing pin, remove the rack, and unscrew the mainspring.

5. Drive out the sear-spring pin, and remove the spring.

6. Drive out the sear-spring, and remove the sear.

7. Drive out the truck-pin, and remove the truck.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSEMBLING.

1. Put in safety-crank shaft and spline.

2. Put in safety-crank and crank-pin.

3. Replace the feed-valve, valve-slide, lever, and lever-slide, and the
feed-valve and valve-lever screws.

4. Replace the lock-cam, lowering it vertically into place by its
journal-boxes, with the oil-holes in journal-boxes on top.

5. Replace the ejectors.

6. Replace the locks. For this purpose each of the lock-cam
recoil-plates must be uppermost, in succession.

7. Lower the breech-cover and screw up the cascable.


                         TO ASSEMBLE THE LOCK.

1. Replace the truck and drive in the truck-pin.

2. Replace the sear and pin.

3. Replace the sear-spring and pin.

4. Screw on the mainspring, replace the rack with notch towards head of
firing-pin.

5. Replace cocking-lever with its front tooth in front space on rack,
put in lever-pin, and cock by turning cocking-lever to the front.

6. Turn the firing-pin so that its flat is parallel with the
extractor-slot, and screw on the lock-head by means of the lock-wrench.

7. Replace the extractor and extractor-pin.


                   THE MAXIM AUTOMATIC MACHINE-GUN.

  [Illustration: FIG. 98.]

    Weight                 50 lbs.
    Calibre                Small arms ammunition
    Rapidity of fire       600 to 650 shots per minute

The gun consists of two parts, viz., the recoiling and non-recoiling.

  [Illustration: FIG. 99.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 100.]

The =Recoiling Part= is the barrel and its extension. The barrel is
an ordinary rifle barrel with a breech-sleeve to which is secured the
extension. The extension of the barrel consists of two vertical steel
plates, between which the lock and the gear connected therewith operate
on guides and bearings.

  [Illustration: FIG. 101.]

The =Lock= bears a vertically sliding piece, _D_ (called the
carrier), on its fore end, and does not differ materially from that
of an ordinary pistol. It is secured by a divided screw to the
connecting-rod, _B_, of a crank, _E_, the shaft of which passes through
the plates. There is also a handle to the shaft on the right side of
the gun outside, and a curved arm to the crank.

The =Trigger=, _F_, immediately in rear of the mainspring, _M_, is
actuated by the rod, _S_, which is operated by the lever, _L_, having
at its upper end a double button. Pressing this button draws back the
rod and releases the hammer, _G_, and firing-pin, _H_. In rear of
the gun is a catch, which when down prevents the lever being pressed
forward.

The =Non-recoiling Portion= consists of the gun-case and the
water-jacket. This portion is mounted on trunnions, and has attached
traversing, elevating, and depressing gear, and is provided with
handles and sights for aiming and the double button for firing.

On the right side of the gun-case is a solidly attached
resistance-piece, _C_. The curved crank-arm, _A_, is at a small
distance from it when the gun is in a firing position, to avoid escape
of gas to the rear and fouling of the chamber.

On the left side of the gun-case is a strong spiral spring the rear end
of which is connected, by a chain and fusee, with the crank shaft, and
the fore end is connected to the gun-case by means of the spring-case;
this spiral spring is to bring back the barrel after the recoil and
to work the crank; the working strength of the spring can be adjusted
by means of the screw at the fore end. The water-jacket surrounds the
barrel and is fitted with three openings, one for receiving the water,
one for drawing it off, and the third for letting off the steam; the
first two are closed by screw-plugs, the third is always open. Both
ends of the water-jacket are fitted with stuffing-boxes and glands;
these guide the barrel and prevent the escape of water.

In the feed-box, on top of the gun, are two movable pawls and two
stationary ones. The movable pawls are connected by a lever to the
barrel and are so adjusted that the barrel on recoiling moves them
from left to right; by means of a spring they engage behind the next
cartridge in the belt, and thus the cartridges move on automatically
towards the chamber; when the barrel returns after the recoil, the
pawls place the cartridge, still in the belt, immediately above the
chamber.


                      OPERATION OF THE MECHANISM.

=Cocking the Lock.=--As the lock is brought away from the breech, by
the action of the crank, the connecting-rod throws down the hammer,
thereby pulling back the firing-pin and compressing the mainspring,
which causes the short arm of the trigger to engage under the lug
of the hammer, and thus the lock is cocked and cannot act until the
trigger is pulled clear of the lug on the hammer. The safety-sear,
_V_, pressed down by a small spring, engages in the upper part of
the firing-pin as it is drawn back by the action of the hammer; the
firing-pin cannot move forward until this sear is raised; this is done
by the connecting-rod, after it rises above the horizontal, thereby
securely closing the breech with the lock.

=Operation in Firing.=--In starting the gun the breech mechanism is
operated by hand to insert the first cartridge in the barrel. The gun
is then fired by pressing the firing-button. On the explosion of the
cartridge the barrel and the gear connected therewith recoil about the
distance of one inch. During the recoil the crank-arm comes in contact
with the resistance-piece, _K_, and throws over the crank, bringing
the end of the crank-handle onto the spring-buffer. The curve on the
crank-arm is so arranged that the crank gets an accelerated movement by
which the lock is thrown back clear of the breech and far enough for
the carrier to extract the empty case from the chamber and a cartridge
from the belt.

The turning of the crank winds the chain attached to the spiral spring
round the fusee, thus extending the spring. As the lock goes backwards
the carrier is pressed down by its spring, and when in its lowest
position the new cartridge is opposite the barrel and the empty case
opposite the ejecting-tube.

The action of the spiral spring now brings back the barrel and its
extension to their normal position; it also unwinds the chain from the
fusee, thus turning the crank to its normal position, which throws the
lock forward; as the lock moves forward it pushes the new cartridge
into the barrel and the empty case into the ejecting-tube, _Q_.

During the last one sixteenth of an inch of the forward travel of the
lock the carrier is raised by the carrier-levers, which are actuated by
the lugs on the fore end of the connecting-rod, and when it arrives at
its highest position it is held by a spring.


                         CARRYING AMMUNITION.

Belts, each holding 350 rounds, are carried in boxes for which there
are receptacles on the different carriages. From four to six belts may
be carried with each gun. In preparing the belts the cartridges are
pushed in until about ⅛ inch of the brass case of the cartridge comes
through the belt, or until the ends of the bullets come in line with
the ends of the projecting brass strips.


                           TO LOAD AND FIRE.

Pass the end of the belt through the feed-box from right to left, seize
it as it comes through with the left hand, and turn the crank-handle
forward with the right hand as far as the spring-buffer; hold it in
that position until the belt has been pulled through as far as it will
go, and then let the crank-handle return to the firing position of its
own accord. Repeat the operation just described. Now press the double
button and firing commences.

To unload, it is only necessary to move the crank-handle forward twice
and then press the spring underneath the feed-box, which will cause the
pawls to disengage from the belt, and draw out the belt from left to
right.


                             CARE OF GUN.

Before using the gun fill the water-jacket through the hole near its
end. It holds about 2½ quarts. A water-bag, holding two gallons,
is usually carried on the lower ammunition-box under the axle of the
gun-carriage.

Oil thoroughly the packing in the stuffing-boxes and see that the
barrel goes close home forward.

When the firing is completed, clean the working parts and oil slightly,
and draw off water from the water-jacket.

Two locks are provided with each gun.


                              CARRIAGES.

A tripod weighing 47 lbs. for mountain service. This is sometimes
fitted with an axle and two light wheels, and is provided with
a light limber, the long leg of the tripod forming the trail. A
cavalry-carriage weighing complete 1115 lbs. An infantry-carriage
weighing complete 641 lbs.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISMOUNTING.

1. Press the spring-catch and open the cover.

2. Remove the feed-box by lifting it up out of the gun-frame.

3. Remove the lock; to do this, turn the crank-handle, which brings
back the lock from the barrel, and disengage it from the guides; now
let the crank-handle go slowly backwards and at the same time lift
the lock upwards; the lock will rise, and when in this position one
eighth of a turn will detach its divided screw from the threads on the
connecting-rod, when it can be lifted out.

4. Press the spring-box forward and lift the three lugs out of their
respective pins, then disengage the spring from the chain and remove
the box with the spring.

5. Drive out the pin, and remove the double-button lever with the
spring and cup.

6. Drive out the handle-block pin; start the handle-block by slight
blows with a mallet or piece of wood from beneath, lift it out of the
gun-frame, and remove the rod.

7. Remove the two small slides by sliding them back out of the
gun-frame.

8. Draw the recoiling-frame with barrel out from the gun-frame and
water-jacket.


                     INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSEMBLING.

1. Replace the barrel and recoiling-frame.

2. Replace the two small slides.

3. Replace the rod and put the handle-block in the gun-frame; see that
the rod enters its seat in the handle-block before driving the block
home, and put in the pin.

4. Engage the double-button lever with the rod, and replace the lever,
spring, and cup, and put in the pin.

5. Engage the spring with the chain not wound around the fusee and
replace the spring-box.

6. Replace the lock by screwing it into the connecting-rod until the
two shoulders meet, then turn the crank-handle forward, guide lock into
its guides, and let the crank-handle go slowly back to its place.

7. Replace the feed-box, with the stud in its seat, in the recoil-frame.

8. Close the cover by pressing the spring-catch.


                         TO DISMOUNT THE LOCK.

                            (See Fig. 101.)

All pins enter from right to left. In driving out a pin see that the
side of the lock round the pin is well supported.

See that the carrier is in its highest position; then release the
mainspring by lifting the safety-sear and pulling the trigger.

1. Take out the pin (1) which secures the mainspring and the clip which
keeps the carrier-levers in their places. Remove the mainspring, clip,
and carrier-levers.

2. Take out the pin (2) that secures the sear. Remove the sear.

3. Drift out the pin (3) that secures the hammer. Remove the hammer.

4. Drift out the tapered pin (4) that secures the safety-sear. Remove
the safety-sear and the firing-pin.

5. Take out the pin (5) that secures the piece which regulates the
downward position of the carrier and keeps the carrier in its place.
Remove piece and carrier.

6. Remove the cover (6) at the back of the carrier and take out the
upper piece and spring; the lower piece is riveted onto the carrier.


                          TO MOUNT THE LOCK.

1. Put the upper piece and spring into their place in the face of the
carrier and slide on the cover (6).

2. Place the carrier in its grooves, put in the piece which holds the
carrier in its place, and drive in the pin (5) which secures the piece.

3. Put in the safety-sear and the firing-pin; drive in the tapered pin
(4) that secures the safety-sear.

4. Put in the hammer, taking care that its point enters the slot in the
firing-pin. Drive in the pin (3) that secures the hammer. When the pin
(3) is in place, upset the point slightly by a few blows of a small
hammer.

5. Put in the sear and the pin (2) which secures it.

6. Place the carrier-levers in their places; put in the mainspring,
taking care its point enters the slot in the firing-pin; put on the
clip and drive in the pin (1) which secures the mainspring and clip.

   NOTE.--There may be a little difficulty in entering the pin
   (1), but a special tool is supplied, which, being entered from left
   to right, will hold the clip and mainspring in their places, and
   then the pin (1) can be driven home from right to left, which, in
   its passage through the hole, will remove the tool.


                  METALLIC CARRIAGE FOR MACHINE GUNS.

This carriage, manufactured by the Ordnance Department, is designed for
any machine-gun; each kind of gun to be provided with its own mount
adapted to the carriage, which is made of steel.

The design includes a spherical shield above and a plane apron below
the axle for the protection of the cannoneers. The apron is hinged to
the axle and is folded up and keyed to the under side of the trail when
not in action. The spherical shield can be removed if desired.

The body is the axle, and it and part of the trail make a chest for
ammunition in which 1200 .45-calibre cartridges, packed in paper boxes,
can be carried.

Two doors, right and left of trail, on inner side, give access to
the cartridge-space in the body, and a door on top of the upper end
of trail to the cartridge-space in the trail, the two parts being
continuous. Lower down in the trail is a tool-box to which the
trail-seat, when raised, gives access. The top of the carriage makes a
convenient table for tools, feed-guides, and ammunition when in action.

The shield with aperture and disks are so combined that the gun can be
readily pointed without exposure.



                              CHAPTER X.

 Theoretical Gunnery. Definitions. General Principles. Probability of
               Fire. Burst of Shell. Burst of Shrapnel.


                             DEFINITIONS.

                         INTERIOR BALLISTICS.

=Interior Ballistics.=--The effects produced on a projectile in the
bore of a gun, and on the gun, when subjected to the action of the
products of combustion of gunpowder or other explosives.

=Gunpowder Explosion= is the rapid conversion of gunpowder into gases
and solids with evolution of heat.

=Ignition= is the raising of the temperature of some point of a grain
of powder to 300° C.

=Inflammation= is the spread of the ignition from point to point on the
surface of the grain or mass.

=Combustion= is the burning of the grain from the ignited surface,
inward or outward, as the case may be.

=Density= is the ratio of the weight of a grain of gunpowder to that of
an equal volume of water under standard conditions. It varies from 1.68
to 1.90, rarely exceeding 1.85.

=Gravimetric Density= is the ratio of a given volume of powder to that
of an equal volume of water under standard conditions.

=Density of Loading= is the ratio of the weight of a charge of
gunpowder to the weight, under standard conditions, of the volume of
water that would fill the powder-chamber. Its value is 27.68 W/C, in
which W is the weight of the charge _in pounds_, and _C_ the volume of
the chamber _in cubic inches_.

=Initial Air-space= is the portion of the chamber in a loaded gun or
shell unoccupied by solid matter before firing.

=The Reduced Length= of any volume in the bore of a gun is the height
of a right cylinder of the same volume, but with a diameter equal to
the calibre of the gun.

=An Adiabatic Transformation= is a change that takes place in the state
of a gas within an envelope impermeable to heat, or which occurs in
such a short space of time that no heat is received or lost by it.

=Detonation= is exceedingly quick explosion.

=Slow Powders= are those which are not entirely burned when the
projectile leaves the muzzle.

=Velocity of Emission= is the ratio of the amount of a unit weight of
powder, burned in air in a small increment of time, to the time itself.

=The Sectional Density= is equal to the weight of the projectile
divided by the square of its diameter.

=Spherical Density= is the ratio of the weight of the projectile to
that of a sphere whose radius is equal to that of the right section of
the projectile.

=Similar Guns.=--Two guns are similar when all their homologous lineal
dimensions are proportional to their calibre.

=Similarly Loaded.=--When the weight of charge and projectile are
proportional to the cube of the calibre, and the grains of powder are
alike in form and composition, with dimensions proportional to the
calibre.


                         EXTERIOR BALLISTICS.

=Exterior Ballistics= treats of the motion of a projectile in air after
it has left the piece.

=Trajectory.=--The curve described by the centre of gravity of the
projectile during its passage through the air. (Figs. 102 and 103.)

=Line of Fire.=--The prolongation of the axis of the piece.

=Plane of Fire.=--The vertical plane containing the line of fire.

=Line of Sight.=--The straight line passing through the sights and the
point aimed at. (Figs. 102 and 103.)

=Plane of Sight.=--The vertical plane containing the line of sight.

=Angle of Sight.=--The angle made by the line of sight with the
horizontal. (_s_ in Fig. 102.)

=Line of Departure.=--The line in which the projectile is moving when
it leaves the gun.

  [Illustration: _Elevation._

  FIG. 102.]

  [Illustration: _Plan._

  FIG. 103.]

=Angle of Departure.=--The angle made by the line of departure with the
horizontal. (_d_ in Fig. 102.)

=Angle of Elevation.=--The angle made by the axis of the piece with the
horizontal. (_q_ in Fig. 102.)

=The Jump.=--The difference between the angle of elevation and the
angle of departure, owing to the movement of the gun at discharge. (_j_
in Fig. 102.) (The jump of 3.2 in. and 3.6 in. guns varies from 20
minutes at 1 degree to 30 minutes at 10 degrees elevation.)

=Initial Velocity.=--The velocity of the projectile at the muzzle.

=Remaining Velocity.=--The velocity at any point of the trajectory.

=Final Velocity.=--The velocity at the end of the range.

=Range.=--The horizontal distance from the muzzle to the point where
the projectile strikes.

=Drift.=--The departure of the projectile from the plane of fire. With
guns having a right-handed twist it is to the right, and its extent
varies nearly as the square of the range.

=Direct Fire= is from guns with service charges at all angles of
elevation not exceeding 15°.

=Indirect or Curved Fire= is from guns with less than service charges,
and from howitzers and mortars, at all angles of elevation not
exceeding 15°.

=High-angle Fire= is from guns, howitzers, and mortars, at all angles
exceeding 15°.

=Front or Frontal Fire= is that which is directed perpendicularly, or
nearly so, to the general line of troops fired at.

  [Illustration: FIG. 104.]

=Oblique Fire= is that which is directed obliquely to the line fired
at; it is more searching than front fire.

=Enfilade Fire= is that which rakes the enemy's line of troops, the gun
being on the prolongation of the line. It is the most effective fire.

=Flanking Fire= is one directed along the front of, or nearly parallel
to, the line to be flanked or defended.

=Reverse Fire= is when the object is fired at from the rear.

  [Illustration: FIG. 105.]

=Cross-fire= is where the projectiles from guns in different positions
cross one another at a particular point of ground. (See Fig. 105 for
these cases.)


                         PROBABILITY OF FIRE.

Absolute certainty of hitting the same spot at each round is impossible
of attainment; and accuracy of fire is therefore a comparative term.

The =Probability of Fire= measures the chance of hitting a given
target. It is determined for any gun by firing a certain number of shot
at a given range, measuring carefully the ranges and dividing the sum
by the number of shots, which gives the _mean range_.

Subtract each range from this mean range thus obtained, and the results
obtained will be the _errors in range_ for each shot. Add these errors
together and divide their sum by the number of shots, and this will
give the _mean error_ in range. Multiply this mean error by 1.69, and
the product will be the depth in the direction of the range of a belt
or zone which will probably contain one half the whole number of shots
fired.

In the same way the width of the probable zone, laterally, may be
obtained, and also the height of the probable zone vertically. The
origin of reference for the points of impact of the shots in the last
two cases is generally taken at the lower left-hand corner of the
target.

The intersection of the first two zones will give a rectangle which
will contain 25 per cent of all the shots.

Similarly we may consider only the vertical and lateral errors, thus
obtaining a vertical in lieu of a horizontal rectangle containing 25
per cent of all the shots.

The 50 per cent "breadth column" should, in practice, generally be
neglected, as most of the errors in shooting are always over and under,
and not lateral, ones.

The =Point of Mean Impact= is the intersection of the lines of _mean
range_ and _mean lateral deviation_.

The =Probable Rectangle= is one which contains 50 per cent of all the
shots.

To find the probable rectangle for any gun, multiply the _mean error
in range_ by 2.637 for the side of the rectangle parallel to the
range, and the _mean error in lateral deviation_ by 2.637 for the side
perpendicular to the range.

In all range tables for guns the 50-per-cent zones for length,
breadth, and height should be given; and by means of them and the
following table of probability factors the dimensions of zones of
other percentage, and also the percentage due to certain dimensions at
different ranges, can be obtained.


                         PROBABILITY FACTORS.

   -----------+-------+-----------+-------+-----------+----------
   Percentage.|Factor.|Percentage.|Factor.|Percentage.|Factor.
   -----------+-------+-----------+-------+-----------+----------
         1    |  .02  |     25    |  .47  |     60    | 1.25
         3    |  .06  |     30    |  .57  |     70    | 1.54
         5    |  .09  |     35    |  .67  |     80    | 1.9
        10    |  .18  |     40    |  .78  |     90    | 2.44
        15    |  .28  |     45    |  .89  |     95    | 2.91
        20    |  .38  |     50    | 1.00  |    100    |[infinity](say 4)
   -----------+-------+-----------+-------+-----------+----------

_First._--Opposite any given percentage, say 20, we find in the
contiguous column a factor, .38. If we multiply the dimensions of the
50-per-cent zone, given in the range table, by this factor .38, we will
obtain the corresponding dimension of the 20-per-cent zone.

_Second._--Suppose for a particular range the dimension, say height of
the 50-per-cent zone, is given in the range table as 4 feet, and we
wish to know what percentage of shots will probably strike a zone 7.6
feet high. If we divide 7.6 by 4, we obtain 1.9, and from the table
we see that the factor 1.9 corresponds to 80 percentage. Therefore we
may assume that 80 per cent of the shots at that particular range will
probably strike a zone 7.6 feet high.

For all practical purposes we may consider that the factor of the
80-per-cent zone is 2, of the 95-per-cent zone is 3, and of the
100-per-cent zone is 4.


                                SHELL.

A shell is a hollow projectile containing a bursting-charge of
gunpowder, or some high explosive, and a fuze to ignite the charge at
some point of its flight, or on impact. Its penetration into earth
at 850 yards may be taken at 12 to 15 feet for field-guns. It is
invariably fired with a percussion-fuze, and is used against material.


                               SHRAPNEL.

A shrapnel consists of a collection of lead balls in an envelope, and
bearing a small bursting-charge, which, by action of the fuze, ruptures
the envelope at some point of the projectile's flight, and leaves each
bullet free to describe its own path, and the paths thus described,
taken together, form the _cone of dispersion_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 106.]


                            TIME-SHRAPNEL.

This shrapnel is used entirely against animate objects, its main
purpose being to cover a given area with a powerful and effective
bullet-fire, and must have, at the instant it bursts, a terminal
velocity of 500 ft.-sec. to be effective. The trajectory of shrapnel
until it bursts is identical with that of shell. On its bursting the
bullets spread in every direction, and form a cone of more or less
denseness. This cone will increase in size as the range increases,
because the velocity of translation decreases more rapidly than the
velocity of rotation. On the other hand, the area of the oval formed
by the intersection of this cone with the ground will decrease as
the angle of fall increases. This oval has its greatest depth in the
direction of fire, and its broadest end furthest away from the gun.
Its depth diminishes as the range increases, and for short ranges
it is much greater than for long ones. The breadth increases as the
distance short of the object at which the burst takes place increases.
The nearest bullet (that is, the one which has travelled the shortest
distance) will have the highest striking velocity, and the bullet that
travels furthest will have the lowest striking velocity, the bullets
between striking with proportionate velocities. As the distance short
of the object at which the shell bursts increases so will the distances
between the bullets on striking increase.

  [Illustration: _Actual Intersection of Sheaf._

  FIG. 107.]

When firing at a horizontal target, the bullets are not uniformly
spread over the whole of the oval of dispersion, those on the nearer
side of the minor axis being more crowded together than those on the
farther side. Of course the ricochets more or less endanger the omitted
spaces, but as these are dependent on the hardness of the ground and on
the angles that the strikes make with the actual surface of the ground
with which they come in contact, they cannot be relied on. On favorable
ground all the bullets will ricochet at all ranges, but the ricochets
of those that fall short of the axial bullet will be about the only
ones that will be effective.

The following rules should be observed:

1. When the object has depth, the fire cannot be too direct.

2. When the object has frontage and little depth, the more oblique the
angle of fire is to the front the greater is the area affected.

3. Time-shrapnel is peculiarly adapted to objects moving toward or from
the battery. In the first case the fuzes are set rather short, in the
second rather long.

4. The best position generally for the point of burst is about six
yards above and fifty yards in front of the target. A good rule for the
height of burst is the _height of burst in feet = the number of hundred
yards in range_. Thus for 1800 yards' range it would be 18 feet (6
yards).

5. The spread may in general be reckoned as ¼ to ⅓ the distance of
burst.

It must be borne in mind that a variation in the length of burst at
any particular range may alter the frontage covered considerably, but
it hardly affects at all the depth covered by effective bullets. This
depth may be taken as 500 yards for ranges of about 1500 yards, 400
yards for ranges of about 2500 yards, and 300 yards for ranges of about
3300 yards, irrespective of the length of short burst.


                         PERCUSSION-SHRAPNEL.

With shrapnel of this kind the cone of dispersion has an ascending
angle which will be much greater than the angle of descent, and
would vary with the conditions of the ground struck. The velocity
is very much impaired by the retardation on graze, and the smallest
irregularity may cause the projectile to bury itself, or rise at a very
considerable angle.

The effect being so greatly inferior to time-shrapnel, they would only
be used on particular occasions.


                               CANISTER.

Canister is a collection of bullets contained in a can, which is
ruptured in a gun by the shock of discharge, the bullets thereby
forming a cone of dispersion with its apex at the muzzle of the gun.
The can, or envelope, in the U. S. service is known as the Sawyer, and
is made of malleable cast iron, weakened by spiral cuts.

Canister is essentially a close-quarter projectile for employment
against personnel and horses, and under the most favorable
circumstances is effective up to nearly 500 yards; up to 300 it is
annihilating.

Effective ricochets are necessary for maximum results, and can only be
obtained at short ranges, and then only over smooth water, or on a hard
level surface not intersected with obstacles.



CHAPTER XI.

   The Causes of Bad Shooting. Estimating Distances. Range-finding.
   Rule for Sighting. General Duties of Artillery Commanders. Target
   Practice. How Conducted. Projectiles Used. Kinds of Target.
   Night-firing.


                      THE CAUSES OF BAD SHOOTING.

1. Variation in the density of loading.

2. Bad aiming.

3. Faults in handling ammunition, fuzes, etc.

4. Variable weights of charges and projectiles.

5. Inability to judge correctly the position of the bursts of the shell.

6. Failure to take into account the age and condition of the powder.

7. Variable wind.

=Variation in the Density of Loading.=--This is beyond the province of
the cannoneer, and need not, therefore, be considered.

=Bad Aiming.=--To obviate this, the men found to have the necessary
quickness of hand and eye should be utilized for this work, though all
should receive instruction in aiming. The sight should be carefully
examined before each shot, the same amount of the target should be
brought into the angle of the cross-wires, and a constant distance
between the eye and the rear sight should be maintained.

=Faults in Handling Ammunition, Fuzes, etc.; Variable Weights of
Cartridges and Projectiles; Failure to Take into Account the Age and
Condition of the Powder.=--Cartridges should be weighed, gauged,
and felt when received; otherwise there will be variations in range due
to more or less powder, to the make of the cartridge, or to caking.
If the cartridges of a battery vary much as to age, brand, etc. or if
they have travelled much, it would be well, when opportunity offers,
to break the lot up, mix the powder thoroughly, remake and reweigh
them. Be careful to use the copper measures and funnels, which can be
obtained from the Ordnance Department.

Time-fuzes are sometimes carelessly cut, or the safety-pin not removed.

=Inability to Judge Correctly the Position of Bursts of
Projectiles.=--The needful correction in elevation and fuzes cannot
be given unless it can be seen by the eye or glass, or by the aid of
observers, how the shells are bursting. While no provision has been yet
made therefor, a good telescope, with a tripod, and capable of being
moved by a micrometer screw, should be supplied to each battery in
service.

In making allowance for the wind move the sight into the wind; e.g., if
the projectile is carried too far to the right, on account of the wind
blowing from the left, move the sight _to the left_, and _vice versa_.


                         ESTIMATING DISTANCES.

The light, the state of the atmosphere, and the nature of the ground
are the chief disturbing causes in estimating distances and admit of no
rules.

The sun on one's back, a light background, water or snow to look over,
ground that is uniform and offers no prominent points of reference,
or when the air is particularly clear, as after a rain, tend to make
objects appear near.

A dark background, the sun in one's eyes, undulating ground to look
over, or when it is cut by ravines or covered by trees or dwellings,
or seen dimly at evening and in misty weather, tend to make objects
appear distant.

In estimating distance under the usual conditions:

Men's features can be distinguished at 300 yards, head-dress at 600
yards, movement of legs and arms at 1000 yards.

Infantry can readily be distinguished from cavalry at 1200 yards.

Individual men become vertical lines at 1500 yards.

Distinguishing between infantry and cavalry only by mode of motion at
1500 yards.

A mounted man looks like a speck or dot at 2000 yards.

One can perceive men and horses at 2200 yards.

One can count the windows of a house at 4300 yards.

By day the glittering of the sun upon the arms of troops in motion
indicates the direction of their march. If the rays are perpendicular,
they are moving directly toward you; if slanting from left to right
downwards, they are moving towards your right, and _vice versa_; if the
rays are intermittent and varied, they are moving away from you.

Dust raised by cavalry forms a high light cloud, by infantry a lower
and denser one, by wheeled vehicles denser still.


                            RANGE-FINDING.

The range is found by sound, by observation, by taking measurements
from the map, by means of range-finders, and by trial shots.

=By Sound.=--Multiply the number of seconds between burst of
projectile and report of same by 370 to obtain the approximate range in
yards.

=By Observation.=--As indicated in the rules given above regarding the
appearance of objects.

=By Taking Measurements from the Maps.=--This can be done on a good
topographical map on a large scale, taking care to fix thereon
accurately the position of the target and also the position of the gun.

=By Means of Range-finders.=--No range-finder has been adopted for our
service; but several instruments are now under consideration.

Whatever range-finder may be used, and with whatever care the range may
be taken, errors will exist; but they may be reduced to a minimum by a
good instrument and skilled observers.

=Trial Shots.=--If the range be doubtful or unknown, trial shots will
be used, but it must be remembered that trial shots disclose your
position.

Estimate the range, give the elevation indicated for it by the range
table, and the necessary drift (or deflection), each unit of the
deflection scale on the sight corresponding to 1/345[8] of the range,
and proceed as indicated under Target Practice, page 379.

=Sighting.=--The nearer the eye is to the rear sight the better will
the front sight be seen, and the finer can the sight be taken. The same
distance should be taken for each shot, if possible. In setting the
sight it is well to bear in mind that the deviation of the projectile
follows the motion of the rear-sight point: thus, if it be moved up
further than is required, the projectile will strike high; if it be
moved too far to the right, the projectile will go too far to the right
of the object aimed at. Also in allowing for the wind move the sight
_into the wind_, i.e, in the direction the wind comes from.


                GENERAL DUTIES OF ARTILLERY COMMANDERS.


                        THE CHIEF OF ARTILLERY.

The chief of artillery to the general commanding issues the orders for
the distribution and concentration of fire, according to the phases
of the battle and the plans of the general. As a rule, the method of
carrying out these orders, the projectile used, the rapidity and order
of fire, will be left to the commanders of groups of batteries.


                     THE CHIEF OF CORPS ARTILLERY.

The officer commanding the corps artillery designates the target for
each of his battalions, and controls the fire of the corps artillery in
accordance with the instructions he receives.


                       THE BATTALION COMMANDER.

=Fire Control.=--The commander of an artillery battalion prescribes the
method to be used for finding the range, designates the target for each
battery, and prescribes the projectile to be used, the rate and order
of fire, and the concentration or distribution of fire on the targets
in range. His orders and directions that cannot be given by voice or
trumpet are conveyed by his staff or non-commissioned staff.


                        THE BATTERY COMMANDER.

=Regulation of Fire.=--This includes control over all the details of
the service of the guns, the corrections in observation, deflection,
the length of fuze, and the concentration and distribution of fire
within the limits of a designated target that are necessary in order to
obtain the most effective fire upon it.

The captain regulates the fire of his battery, and, if acting
independently, he also controls it. He remains mounted or dismounted
at pleasure, and places himself, as a rule, near one of the flanks
and sufficiently close to the battery that his orders may be readily
understood. The corrections for lateral deviations are generally
intrusted to the chiefs of platoons.

Finding the range by the method designated, and the regulation of
the fire according to the target, range, projectile, and observed
effect, are intrusted to the captains of batteries, and it is only in
exceptional cases that the battalion commander takes personal command
in order to find the range or to regulate the fire.

Artillery fire is effective in proportion to its concentration. The
long range of the guns permits a concentration of their fire on many
different points without change of position. When practicable, the
groups that are intended to fire on the same target should be placed
under the control of one officer. In the advance-guard action the
artillery of the assailant covers, and the artillery of the defence
opposes, the deployment and advance of the advance-guard infantry.
In the preliminary stages of a battle and the commencement of the
artillery duel the fire is usually directed on the targets immediately
opposite the batteries engaged; as soon as portions of the enemy's
artillery-line are subdued the fire is concentrated on the different
targets in succession, taking them in the order of their relative
importance; during the preparation and delivery of the assault the fire
of the assailants is concentrated against the point of attack; the fire
of the defence is concentrated against the attacking infantry as soon
as it shows itself.

Fire should be directed against batteries that are changing positions,
and in order that this brief opportunity of inflicting serious damage
may not be lost a part of the batteries of the defence should be
especially instructed to open fire on hostile batteries while limbering
or in movement without waiting for orders.

The defence generally offers more favorable opportunities for
long-range fire than the offence, but whether advantage is to be taken
of these opportunities must be determined by the general commanding,
who will have to decide whether the effect of the fire will compensate
for the partial or complete disclosure of the position that it
involves. Ordinarily artillery should avoid opening fire at a greater
range than 3000 yards. Beyond this distance it is difficult to observe
the effect of fire even with good glasses. Longer range fire is used
in exceptional cases against objects that are clearly seen and are
of considerable extent, such as villages, camps, or large bodies of
troops. Ineffective cannonades at long distances, and shelling woods
or other localities not positively known to be occupied by the enemy,
should not be permitted. The position from which fire is first opened
may necessarily be much less than 3000 yards, in order to obtain view
of the enemy.

Firing over friendly troops should be avoided as much as possible.
Batteries that support an assault from a distance continue their fire
upon the point of attack until it becomes dangerous to the assailants;
they then either increase the range considerably in order to cover the
ground beyond, or they direct their fire on other points of the enemy's
line. Artillery does not fire at long ranges from positions in rear
during a pursuit, on account of the danger to the pursuing troops; in
such cases it should advance rapidly and endeavor to establish itself
on the flanks of the enemy's line of retreat, where it will find the
most advantageous positions.

As a general rule, the fire of artillery is directed against that arm
of the enemy which at the time is predominant, or which is capable
of inflicting the greatest loss on the infantry or cavalry that the
artillery is supporting. During the artillery duel the artillery
generally avoids firing at the other arms; but if large bodies of
infantry or cavalry appear in open ground within effective range a
portion of the guns should be directed upon them.


                           TARGET PRACTICE.

The artillery that first finds the range will have a great advantage in
the artillery duel, and in all cases its correct establishment is the
first condition of accurate shooting.

=Observation of Fire.=--Correct observation of the effects of fire
is necessary in order to make the required corrections, and is
indispensable to good shooting. It can only be acquired by much
practice under the varying conditions of the wind, light, state of
the atmosphere, background, foreground, and nature of the target, and
is rendered more difficult in action by smoke and the liability of
mistakes when more than one battery is firing at the same target. For
medium as well as long ranges a good field-glass is required.

As a rule, the observation is limited to ascertaining whether the
shots are short or over. The observation of direct hits is unreliable
except at very short ranges, or when palpable effects are produced in
the enemy's ranks, limbers are blown up, or there are other manifest
indications of the effect produced. When a target is on a height or
behind a parapet, it is possible to distinguish hits on the slope
of the hill or on the parapet, and to estimate correctly the error
in range of the projectiles that fall short. There are no means of
estimating the error in range of the projectiles that fall beyond the
target, except when a battery is on an elevation and firing at a target
on a plane below it; here shots striking beyond the target may be
observed and the error estimated.

When several batteries are firing at the same target, and it is
difficult to distinguish the individual rounds, a fire by battery will
give a group of shots that may be recognized.

The observation of the fire will be facilitated by the reports of an
officer or non-commissioned officer stationed some distance in advance
and outside one of the flanks of the guns.

=Smoke.=--When the wind is across the range and blows the smoke in
front of the guns, it will be difficult to correctly aim and properly
observe the effects of the fire. In the case of a single battalion
this inconvenience may be diminished by increasing the interval
between the batteries, or may be avoided by advancing the batteries
in echelon from the leeward flank so that the smoke of each windward
battery will drift behind those to the leeward of it. This last measure
has the disadvantage of making the leeward batteries conspicuous
against the white background of smoke, and besides is not always
practicable, especially when the position is on the brow of a hill.
If neither of the above expedients can be adopted, and it is not
possible to sufficiently increase the interval of time between the
guns in each battery to permit the smoke to blow away, the fire by
battery or platoon may be used, or the battalion commander may order
the battalion to fire by piece, commencing on the leeward flank. When
several battalions are together, as large intervals as possible should
be left between them, or, if the ground permits, the battalions should
be advanced in echelon from the leeward flank, in order to diminish or
avoid the inconvenience of smoke drifting across the range.

When the target cannot be seen on account of smoke which hangs in front
of the guns, or on account of fog, rain, or darkness, the pieces may be
aimed by means of auxiliary targets.

=Finding the Range.=--This is the work of the battery commander. He
and the range party precede the battery to the position, and as soon
as the exact position of his battery is indicated by the battalion
commander he observes carefully the position of the target, its nature
and extent, and estimates the range by means of a map, any source
available, or range-finder (all if possible), very carefully, and
especially so when the fire is to be over the heads of other troops.

He estimates the ranges to other points within the field of fire which
might subsequently become targets, and observes:

Nature and position of any covering mass.

Zones of ground which ought to be cannonaded.

Nature of soil in vicinity of target, if possible.

Exact part of target on which to aim his guns in determining the range.

If the range be determined only by observation, it will be necessary to
use trial shots.

In finding the range by trial shots it is of great importance that the
object and the particular part of it to be fired at should be clearly
understood. In order to avoid mistakes the captain may direct one of
the officers or non-commissioned officers to rectify the aim of all
the guns after they have been pointed. Care should be taken that all
the guns are aimed at exactly the same point; that the exact elevation
ordered by the battery commander is used, and not changed until ordered
by him; and that the result of every shot is carefully observed.

The range can be more accurately and quickly found when each battery
has a different target and one directly in front of it to fire at. If
the target is a long line, it should be divided into as many sections
as there are batteries to fire at it, and each captain should select
a gun or object in the part assigned him. In such case the battalion
commander can compare the elevations obtained by the several batteries,
and if they agree, and the observation of the fire indicates good
results, it is fair to assume that the range is correct. When several
batteries are to open a long-range fire on a small target, the
battalion commander generally designates the battery, and preferably
that on the leeward flank, to find the range. Batteries that come into
action at short distances from the enemy's line generally find the
range by firing salvos at a prominent point of the target.

As a rule, percussion-shell are used to find the range, and all the
guns of a battery are aimed at one point of the target; if shrapnel
with percussion-fuze be used, the same principles apply.

In firing at intrenchments, however, the fire may be distributed from
the first, even for obtaining the range, as the hits, as a rule, can be
easily observed.

The enemy's flanks are designated, and the guns in his batteries are
numbered, as he himself would designate or number them.

The firing to obtain the range should be slow and deliberate, and ample
time afforded to observe each shot and make the necessary corrections.

When a battery unlimbers near another battery already in action and
opens fire upon the same target, it should obtain the range from the
latter.

The duty of finding the range generally devolves upon the captain of
each battery, even when several batteries open fire upon the same
target. Whenever several batteries open simultaneously to find the
range of a target of limited dimensions, the fire of each battery
must be concentrated upon an entirely distinct point, and all of the
points must be far enough apart to enable each battery commander
to distinguish the fall of his own projectiles from those of the
neighboring battery.

It is only in very exceptional circumstances that the battalion
commander would take personal charge of the firing of his battalion in
order to establish the range himself.

=Trial Shots.=--A percussion-shell is fired with the elevation
corresponding to the estimated range at a clearly visible and sharply
defined fixed point of the target.

If the first shot strikes short, or beyond the target, the range for
the second is either increased or decreased, according to the case, so
as to throw the shot beyond or short of the target.

These corrections are generally made as follows:

    When firing at short ranges, 100 yards.
      "     "   "  medium  "     200   "
      "     "   "  long    "     400   "

Such firing is pursued until two consecutive shots fall, one short of
and the other beyond the target, which establishes "the long bracket,
or fork."

No round should be taken as a basis for correction if there is any
doubt as to the reliability of the observations.

A mean range is taken from those two which determined the long fork
for the next shot, and then another shot is fired at a range obtained
by taking the mean of the last range and the one of the long fork
whose shot fell on the opposite side of the target. So proceed until
the target is enclosed between two consecutive shots only 50 yards
apart. This is called "the short fork, or bracket." Then a verifying
group, generally a shot from each gun is fired with the elevation
corresponding to the mean range of the short fork. If four out of six
of the shots fall short, the range is established; and if shrapnel-fire
is then resorted to the range is still further reduced by 50 yards.
When the range has been measured, and not estimated, the short fork may
be obtained from the first two shots.

If the elevation has not been obtained as above indicated, at known
ranges shrapnel-fire may commence, as if the range had already been
determined by shell-fire; at unknown ranges the trial-shot firing with
shrapnel is conducted as with shell; that is to say, the elevation is
increased or reduced from shot to shot (by 100 yards at short range,
200 yards at medium range) until the target is enclosed between at
least two accurately observed shots, one over and the other short.
The difference is reduced as already described until the mean of
the short fork is obtained. The large fork should be established by
percussion-shrapnel, and then fire time-shrapnel.

During the ranging platoon commanders indicate exactly the point to
aim at, see that the sights are properly set, especially during the
first rounds, observe similarly the time-fuze, and make any necessary
correction for deflection; which deflection pertains to a particular
gun, and is not carried to another. Bear in mind that each unit of the
scale for deflection corresponds to 1/345 of the range for sights now
used.[9]

After the ranging has been completed, if a gun makes a constant error,
the platoon commander may be permitted to change the elevation ± 25
yards.

The general rule for vertical and lateral corrections is: when the
deviation exceeds the amount of mean dispersion, a correction should
be made after one round; but if it is equal to or less than this
several rounds are fired with the same elevation or deflection, and a
correction made according to their mean deviation.

The battery commander indicates the length of fuze for time-shrapnel.

If firing at artillery and all the guns are equally conspicuous, the
fire should be directed upon one of the central guns, otherwise at the
most conspicuous gun; if the wind is blowing across the range, the fire
should be directed upon the most conspicuous gun on the windward flank.
If firing upon masses of troops, the fire should be directed upon the
centre of the first line; if firing upon skirmishers, it should be
directed first upon one point, then another, close in front of the line.


                        PROJECTILES TO BE USED.

=Percussion-shell.=--For ranging, against material, and in default of
shrapnel against living targets.

Against troops behind loopholed walls,--if it explodes after passing
through, use percussion-shrapnel,--stockades, abattis, barricades,
entanglements, etc.

Direct hits are necessary when it is used against guns, limbers,
earthworks, obstacles, etc., and its effects are then due
to percussion, penetration, and the explosive force of the
bursting-charge. When used against men or horses, it is burst on first
graze close in front of the target, and its effects are then produced
by its splinters. The smoke made by the large bursting-charge of the
percussion-shell aids the observation of fire.

The effect of projectiles with percussion-fuzes is dependent on the
nature of the ground in front of the target; soft marshy ground,
hollows, and cuts diminish its effect, while hard smooth ground
increases it.

Percussion-shell gives the best results when the fire is concentrated.
It can sometimes be advantageously distributed, provided that several
guns keep a part of the target under superior fire.

=Shrapnel with Time-fuze= is used against all living targets, provided
they be not close behind cover, troops behind slight cover, such as
shelter-trenches, banks, etc., gun-pits and epaulments, balloons,
batteries limbered up or in action, ammunition and other trains, unless
firing particularly against the material. With the fuze set at zero it
can be used for close defence in default of canister.

The effect of shrapnel is due to the penetration of its bullets and
splinters; this penetration is small, and it is therefore employed
against men and horses only. It has a combination fuze and can be made
to burst either in the air or on the first graze, and can therefore be
made independent of the nature of the ground in front of the target.
Made to burst high by means of its time-fuze, it can be used against
living targets behind cover, against which percussion-shell could have
but little effect.

Burst the projectiles 50 yards short and about 6 yards (at medium
ranges) above, the object aimed at. A rough rule for height of burst
is height of burst in _feet_=the number of hundred yards in range.
In firing at troops behind cover, such as banks, rising ground, or
earthworks, burst the projectiles about 25 yards, or less, in front
of, and from 7 to 10 feet above, the cover.

=Shrapnel with Percussion-fuze= is generally used against moving
targets, for rapid firing, and for firing over friendly troops; against
enemy's troops in a village or woods; metal shields; and in cavalry
combats as soon as the ground which was masked by one's own troops
becomes cleared.

Shrapnel gives the best results when the fire is distributed, a part of
the target being apportioned to each gun. When the time-fuze is used,
it will often be advisable to vary the elevation and length of fuze in
each battery so as to cover about 200 yards in depth, and thus bring
the enemy's supports and reserves, as well as his front line, under
fire.

=Canister= is used against living targets at close ranges. Its effect
is largely diminished when the ground in front of the guns is rough or
soft, and particularly when covered with brush or standing crops. It
would be used against cavalry at 500 yards, and against infantry at 300
yards.

=Order of Fire.=--The order of fire is habitually by piece in each
battery, and usually commences on the leeward flank. It is the most
effective, as the errors in the service of any one gun can generally be
observed, and therefore corrected.

Salvos, or the fire by battery, may be used to find the range under
circumstances that render it difficult to observe a single shot, to
avoid the inconvenience of smoke, and occasionally, instead of rapid
fire by piece, to take advantage of quickly passing opportunities.

The fire at will is only used in the defence of the guns at very short
ranges.

The fire by piece from one flank of a battalion to the other may be
used to avoid smoke, or to enable the field-officer commanding the
battalion to take personal charge of the firing in order to find
the range under difficult circumstances, or to regulate the fire in
exceptional cases.

The fire by platoon is only used to facilitate the observation of fire
under exceptional circumstances that permit two shots to be observed
more easily than one, and also to increase the interval of time between
successive discharges, to allow the smoke to drift away, without
diminishing the amount of fire. In most cases the fire by piece or by
battery is preferable to it.

=Rapidity of Fire.=--The rapidity of fire is dependent on the range,
the circumstances of the action, the facilities for the observation of
the fire, and the amount of unexpended ammunition.

=Slow Fire= is used at long ranges and for obtaining the range, and
generally in the commencement of the action and during the artillery
duel; it is also used in prolonged actions, and when the ammunition is
running short. The interval between successive shots should not be less
than 30 seconds, and may be slower.

=Ordinary Fire= is used when the fire is effective, but when the
circumstances of the action do not demand a rapid fire. It is at the
rate of 1 shot every 20 seconds, or, in a six-gun battery, 6 rounds in
2 minutes.

=Rapid Fire.=--The rate is about one round in 7 seconds; it should be
sufficient to enable the effect of a shot to be observed before firing
the next one.

_The range being accurately known_, it is used: when the enemy's
batteries are coming into action; when there is a very favorable
target; when a rush is made to pass a defile; when covering the advance
of one's own artillery; when the decisive infantry attack is about to
take place; when the advance is checked during a critical situation;
when the opportunity to fire is very fleeting; at short ranges.

The instant the necessity for rapid fire ceases to exist the fire
should revert to the ordinary rate.


                  TARGETS MOVING TOWARDS THE BATTERY.

The range is found by trial shots, the elevation being increased or
reduced by stages of 100 or 200 yards, depending on circumstances.

As soon as a shell is observed to fall not too short (within 100 yards
of the advancing target) all the guns fire a round rapidly.

If infantry is being fired at, each subsequent round should have its
range diminished by 100 yards; if cavalry or artillery, at a trot or
gallop, it should be diminished 200 and 300 yards respectively.


                   TARGETS MOVING FROM THE BATTERY.

Two elevations differing by 100 yards are obtained as before; with the
lower of the two a salvo of shrapnel is fired from all the guns in the
battery, the proceeding is then repeated, and so on.


     TARGETS MOVING OBLIQUELY AND ACROSS THE FRONT OF THE BATTERY.

If the target is of great length, aim at the head of it; if not of
great length or moving rapidly, aim in front of it.

Under certain circumstances it is advisable to ascertain the range
of points in the line of march of the target. When the moving target
reaches one of these points, fire rapidly. Infantry cover 1½ yards a
second at a quick walk, and artillery and cavalry 2 yards a second at a
quick walk, 4 yards at a trot, and 6 yards at a gallop. By multiplying
the rate per second of the target by the time of flight of a shell, we
obtain the distance the target has moved over during the flight of the
shell.


                           INDIRECT FIRING.

In firing at an object which cannot be seen from the gun several
methods are employed, depending on the circumstances of the case.

1st. Plant a picket for each gun on the crest of the ridge whence the
object to be fired at can be seen; behind the ridge line a second
picket with the first picket and the object, run the guns up to any
convenient distance in rear of the pickets, and get them in line with
each pair of pickets; the deflection-scale can be used to remedy any
small lateral errors. The elevation is given by means of a gunner's
quadrant or pointing-arc if available. If not, set a stake in front
of the line of wheels and in rear of the muzzle, and immediately in
the plane of sight, its height equal to the vertical distance from the
top of the trunnion-sight to the ground; (for 3.2-inch gun 3′ 10″.68;
for 3.6-inch gun 3′ 11″.16). Then give the rear sight the elevation
corresponding to the range and aim at this point, using peep-and
cross-hairs. An observer is necessary, and by means of his reports the
necessary corrections are given until the elevation and length of fuze
have been determined. After each shot care must be taken to run the gun
up to the position it occupied before firing.

2d. =In Firing at Troops in Ravines and Hollows= when they cannot be
seen from the battery select a stone or bush, or any distinguishable
object, on the side of the ravine or hollow as an auxiliary target,
and obtain the elevation and fuze for it; then by means of the lateral
deviation of the sight change the direction of fire, and elevation and
fuze if necessary. In such a case an observer on the flank or some
commanding position is absolutely necessary.

3d. =By Means of a Compass.=--Select a distant auxiliary mark that
can be seen from the gun; from a position as near the gun as possible
obtain the angle between the auxiliary mark and the object; construct
this angle at the gun and mark the position of the wheels; give
elevation as previously explained, and make corrections by reports
from an observer. The Germans have a device for measuring this angle:
it consists practically of a horizontal graduated arc bearing an arm
containing two vertical sights. It is placed on the gun, set at the
angle indicated by the compass, and the gunner sights at the auxiliary
object.


                             NIGHT-FIRING.

For night firing, or when there is much fog, a luminous aiming-point
is required. This may be readily obtained by the use of a bull's-eye
lantern. Soften the light by placing paper or other material over the
glass, and draw thereon two right lines intersecting at right angles
at the centre of the glass. At a convenient distance in front of the
gun and in the plane of fire place the lantern on a post so that the
point of intersection of the lines shall be at such a height that when
the rear sight is at zero, _and the axis of the gun horizontal_, it
can be directly aimed at. Establish a plumb-line between the lantern
and the gun so that the plumb-line, the point of intersection of the
lines on the lantern, and the object aimed at are in the same vertical
plane. (The above requirements must of course be completed during the
day, when the object can be seen.) Give the rear sight the elevation
corresponding to the range, and aim at the point where the plumb-line
covers the point of intersection of the two lines on the glass of the
lantern.

If a gunner's quadrant or pointing-arc be available, simply determine
and mark accurately the direction for each piece, and give elevation by
either instrument.



                             CHAPTER XII.

   Cordage. How Preserved. Strength. Blocks and Tackle. Knots, Hitches,
   etc. Lashings.


   Bridges, Trestles, Piers, etc. Single-sling and Treble-sling
   Bridges. Stringer Bridges. Fords. Flying and Floating Bridges. Rafts
   and Casks.


                               CORDAGE.

Ropes are distinguished as to size by their circumference in inches.
Their length is given in fathoms.

Hemp rope when new stretches freely, and deteriorates very much after a
few months' wear. It is about one third stronger than manilla rope.

To ascertain the strain in pounds a rope will bear without breaking,
square the circumference and multiply the result by the tabular unit in
the following table:

    ---------+--------------+-------------------+-------------------
      Kind.  |Circumference.|       White.      |      Tarred.
             |              +---------+---------+---------+---------
             |              |3-strand.|4-strand.|3-strand.|4-strand.
    ---------+--------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
    Hemp    {| 2.5 to 6 in. |   1140  |   1330  |   850   |  1000
            {| 6   "  8  "  |   1090  |   1360  |   825   |   940
    Manilla {| 2.5 to 6 in. |    810  |    950  |  ....   |  ....
            {| 6   "  12 "  |    760  |    835  |  ....   |  ....
    ---------+--------------+---------+---------+---------+---------

For ropes in daily use reduce the tabular unit one third to meet
reduction in strength by wear and exposure.

A safe general rule for all ropes is, one fourth the square of the
circumference gives the breaking weight in short tons.


     TABLE OF WEIGHTS THAT MANILLA ROPE IN DAILY USE WILL SUSTAIN.

    ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    Circumference, in.|  1  |  1¼ |  1½ |  1¾ |  2  |  2¼ |  2½ |  2¾ |
    ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    Weight, lbs.      |  540|  844| 1215| 1654| 2160| 2734| 3375| 4084|
    ==================+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+
    Circumference, in.|  4¼ |  4½ |  4¾ |  5  |  5¼ |  5½ |  5¾ |  6  |
    ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    Weight, lbs.      | 9753|10935|12184|13500|14884|16635|17954|18252|
    ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
    Circumference, in.|  3  |  3¼ |  3½ |  3¾ |  4
    ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
    Weight, lbs.      | 4860| 5704| 6415| 7594| 8640
    ==================+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====
    Circumference, in.|  6¼ |  6½ |  6¾ |  7  |  8
    ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
    Weight, lbs.      |19805|21421|23100|24843|32448
    ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

=To Preserve White Rope.=--Dip when dry into a bath containing 20 grms.
(about seven tenths of an ounce) of sulphate of copper per litre (a
little over one quart) of water; soak for four days and dry. Then soak
in a solution of 100 grms. (3.5 oz.) of soap per litre of water.

=Iron-wire Rope.=--Its breaking weight in tons is about equal to the
square of the circumference in inches.

=Steel-wire Rope.=--It is from 2 to 2½ times stronger than iron-wire
rope. Wire rope can be safely worked in field service to one half its
breaking weight.

=To Preserve Wire Rope.=--Apply linseed-oil with a piece of sheepskin,
wool inside; or mix the oil with equal parts of Spanish brown and
lampblack. If used underground or in water, take mineral or vegetable
tar, add one bushel of fresh-slaked lime to barrel of tar, boil it
well, and then saturate the rope with the boiling tar.

=Chains.=--Chains, when used in place of ropes, should be examined
to see that every link is free from flaws and not too much worn. The
chain should have no kinks in it, and each return, when more than one
is used, should bear its proper strain. Do not work a chain over a
windlass of small diameter; the iron of the links breaks by bending,
not by tensile strength. Lubricate freely.


     SAFE WORKING STRAIN FOR FIELD SERVICE, AND WEIGHT IN FATHOMS.

    --------------+-----------------------+-------------------------
    Circumference.|     Wire Ropes        |Round-link Crane-chain,
                  |    Hawser-laid.       |  Length of Link not
                  |                       |Exceeding Five Diameters
                  |                       |    of the Iron.
                  +-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+--------
                  | Iron. | Steel.|       |        |       |
                  | Safe  |  Safe |Weight |Diameter| Safe  |Weight
                  |Working|Working| per   | of Iron|Working| per
                  |Strain.|Strain.|Fathom.|of Link.|Strain.|Fathom.
    --------------+-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+---------
       Inches.    | Cwts. | Cwts. |  Lbs. | Inches.| Cwts. |   Lbs.
           ¾      |  --   |   --  |    -- |    3/16|     8 |   2.1
          1       |  10   |   --  |   0.94|    ¼   |    15 |   4.88
          1¼      |  13½  |   --  |   1.5 |    5/16|    22 |   7.26
          1½      |  21½  |   62½ |   2.5 |    ⅜   |    32 |  10.57
          2       |  40   |  112  |   3.5 |    7/16|    45 |  13.0
          2¼      |  50   |   --  |   4.5 |    ½   |    65 |  16.0
          2½      |  60   |  195  |   5.75|    9/16|    75 |  21.0
          2¾      |  77   |  --   |   6.5 |    ⅝   |    92 |  25.0
          3       |  92   |  245  |   7.5 |   11/16|   112 |  29.0
          3¼      | 109   |   --  |   8.5 |    ¾   |   135 |  36.0
          3½      | 125   |  275  |  10.75|   13/16|   157 |  43.0
          4       | 157½  |  450  |  13.25|    ⅞   |   182 |  46.5
          4½      | 210   |  545  |  17.75|   15/16|   210 |  58.0
          5       | 248   |  669  |  21.5 |  1     |   240 |  63.5
    --------------+-------+-------+-------+--------+-------+---------


                         BLOCKS, TACKLE, ETC.

=Blocks= are of two kinds, _made_ and _mortised_. A made block consists
of four parts: _shell_, _sheave_, _strap_, and _bush_. A mortised block
is made of a single block of wood, mortised out to receive a sheave.

Blocks are single, double, or treble, according to the number of
sheaves.

A =Tackle= is a purchase formed by reeving a rope through two or more
blocks for the purpose of hoisting.

A =Whip= is a purchase made by a rope rove through one single block.

A =Gun-tackle Purchase= is a rope rove through two single blocks, and
made fast to the strap of the upper block. The parts of all tackles
between the fasts and sheave are called the _standing parts_. The parts
between the sheaves are the _running parts_, and the part which is
taken hold of in hoisting is called the _fall_.

A =Whip upon Whip= is where the block of one whip is made fast to the
fall of another.

A =Luff-tackle Purchase= is a single and a double block, the end of the
rope being fast to the upper part of the single block, and the fall
coming from the double block. A luff-tackle upon the fall of another
luff-tackle is called luff upon luff.

=A Watch-tackle= or =Tail-tackle= is a luff-tackle purchase, with a
hook in the end of the single block, and a tail to the upper end of the
double block.

=A Single Burton= is composed of two single blocks, with a hook in
the bight of the running part. Reeve the end of rope through the upper
block, and make it fast to the strap of the fly-block. Then make fast
your hook to the bight of the rope, and reeve the other end through the
fly-block for a fall. The hook is made fast by passing the bight of the
rope through the eye of the hook and over the whole. This is a very
quick-working tackle and a strong purchase. Used for hoisting entirely.

When a very heavy weight is to be raised, the standing part should be
attached to the slings by a fisherman's bend instead of to the block.

The _size_ of blocks is expressed by the _length_ of the _shell_ in
inches.

_Tackles_ are also designated by the number of sheaves employed, as
twofold (two single blocks), threefold (double and single block), etc.

The bight of a hook is the middle of the bend of the hook part.

Rope should always be stopped up, either with the end or with rope-yarn
stops, to prevent its getting into a snarl. When using ropes for
hauling, they should never be dragged upon the ground.

Before reeving a rope in a block the turn should be carefully taken
out, to prevent twisting when the weight is lifted. This is done
by stretching the rope out to its full length, and turning it in
the opposite direction to that in which it is laid up until all the
stiffness disappears.

Blocks should be overhauled very often to see that the sheaves are
working properly on the pins, and that they work smoothly. If they do
not, turn the pins end for end and rub a little black lead (graphite)
on them to lubricate them; also on the sides of the sheaves where they
rub against the shell.

When hoisting with tackles, they should never be allowed to twist. If
they show a tendency to do so, insert a bar in the block or sling, and
use it as a lever to hold it straight.

It frequently happens that the men cannot apply their full strength in
the direction in which it would be most effective. In such cases hook a
single block to some object about two feet above the ground and reeve
the end of the fall through it, so that the men can add their strength
to their weight, and more men can apply themselves.

Never trust the suspension of a weight to holding it by the unaided
strength of men. If it is possible to get a turn around any fixed
object, even in raising or hauling a weight, it is best to take a turn,
as all that is gained is then saved.

Always select such blocks that the fall will run freely through them,
and not ride upon the edges of the sheaves. If it does, it will be
certain to cut. The rope should not quite fill the groove on the
sheave. In this way excessive friction is avoided.

The power gained by using tackle is as follows:

Two single blocks, or gun-tackle: nearly doubled.

Luff-tackle, double and single block: doubled. If the double block is
movable, trebled.

Two double blocks: power × 3⅓.

Double and treble blocks: power × 4.

Two treble blocks: power × 4½.

Whip upon whip (single Burton): trebled.

When one tackle is applied to another, the power obtained is found by
multiplying their respective values together.

No advantage is gained by using a greater number of sheaves than two
treble blocks in one fall.

The power is equal to the weight divided by the number of ropes
(standing parts) attached to the lower block, or by twice the number of
rising pulleys (sheaves).


                         KNOTS, HITCHES, ETC.

=Thumb-knot= (Fig. 108).--Used to prevent the end from unfraying, or to
prevent its slipping through a fall.

=Figure-eight Knot= (Fig. 109).--Used to prevent the end from
unfraying, or to prevent its slipping through a fall.

  [Illustration: FIG. 108.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 109.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 110.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 111.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 112.]

=Reef-knot= (Fig. 110).--For joining two ends of rope or chain together.

=Singlesheet Bend= (Fig. 111).--For joining dry ropes of unequal size.

=Doublesheet Bend= (Fig. 112).--Same for wet ropes.

=Draw-knot= (Fig. 113).--Same when it may be required to cast them
loose.

=Running-knot= (Fig. 114).--To form a loop that will draw taut.

  [Illustration: FIG. 113.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 114.]

=Bowline= (Fig. 115).--To form a loop at the end of a rope which will
not slip.

=Half-Hitch.=--For securing the loose ends of lashings.

=Two Half-hitches= (Fig. 116).--For making fast a rope-end to an
object.

=Clove-hitch= (Fig. 117).--Two half-hitches, used for commencement
and finish of lashings; making fast the end or the bight of a rope to
any object.

  [Illustration: FIG. 115.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 116.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 117.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 118.]

=Timber-hitch= (Fig. 118).--Used on pieces of timber, or in making fast
to spars, where the weight will keep the rope taut.

=Round Turn= and =Two Half-hitches= (Fig. 119).--For making fast a rope
so that the strain shall not jam the hitches.

=Fisherman's Bend= (Fig. 120).--For making fast where there is give and
take motion, as when a boat is at anchor.

  [Illustration: FIG. 119.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 120.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 121.]

=Lever-hitch= (Fig. 121).--For drawing pickets, fixing rounds of
rope-ladder, bars to, or loops on, drag-ropes.

=Man's Harness-Hitch= (also Fig. 121).--Loop to pass over shoulder. To
fix a rope with a weight on it rapidly to a block.

  [Illustration: FIG. 122.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 123.]

=Cat's-paw= (Fig. 122).--At the end or in the middle of a rope for
hooking on a block.

=Blackwall Hitch= (Fig. 123).--Simple hitch with pliable rope and
fixed weight. Used to transfer the strain from one rope to another, or
to secure a tackle to a rope for a horizontal pull.

=Stopper Hitch= (Fig. 124).--To shift the strain off a rope temporarily.

  [Illustration: FIG. 124.]

=Magnus Hitch= (Fig. 125).--For making fast to round spars.

  [Illustration: FIG. 125.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 126.]

  [Illustration: FIG: 127.]

=Sheepshank= (Fig. 126).--To shorten a rope without cutting it.


                               LASHINGS.

=Square Lashing= (Fig. 127).--Make fast one end (the fixed if there
be one) of the lashing-rope to one of the objects to be lashed by a
timber-or clove-hitch, or by passing the eye-end of the rope under it,
bringing it up and passing the other end through the eye; then, after
hauling taut, pass it round the second object, round the first, up
again round the second, and down round the first, continuing this until
a sufficient number of returns are made, when the whole of the returns
are tightened by bringing the end round the returns between the objects
two or three times, and making fast with two half-hitches on either of
the first returns or one of the objects.

If the returns on one of the spars lie in succession outside the
returns first applied, they must lie in succession inside those first
applied on the other spar.

=Diagonal Lashing= (Fig. 128).--Begin with a timber-hitch or
running-bowline round both spars and draw them together; then take
three or four turns across each fork and finish with frapping-turns.
Wedges with well-rounded points are often useful for tightening
lashings.

  [Illustration: FIG. 128.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 129.]

=Sheer Lashing.=--The lashing is made fast to the lower spar, above
where they cross, with a timber-hitch; as many turns are taken around
both spars towards the feet as may be necessary to cover the cross,
and the end is then led around this lashing and both spars where
they cross and four or five frapping-turns taken so as to bring them
together, and the ends made fast around the upper spar above the cross.

=Gin Lashing= (Fig. 129).--The three legs of the gin are placed
so that the centre one is pointing in the opposite direction to that
of the others, all being parallel, the upper ends resting on a skid
and two inches apart. The lashing is commenced with a clove-hitch on
an outside spar and carried over and under loosely and without riding
six times. Two frapping-turns are taken in each interval and the whole
finished off with two half-hitches round one of the spars. Iron chain
is much better than rope for these fastenings.

=Fishing Spars.=--This consists in strengthening spars by lashing
others parallel to them. The fishing spars should be placed against the
spar to be fished so that they may take off as much strain and be in as
close contact as possible. Lashing-ropes should then be applied round
all of the spars until they are all firmly bound together.

=Frapping.=--The drawing together the several returns of a lashing
so as to tauten it. The rope used for frapping is generally the
running-end of the lashing itself; after having frapped, the end of the
rope is made fast by two half-hitches, one around all the returns, the
other on half only.


                               BRIDGES.

=Weight.=--Infantry in column of fours when crowded is allowed per
lineal foot 560 pounds.

Cavalry under same conditions is allowed 700 pounds.

Field-artillery in column of sections weighs 400 pounds per lineal
foot, so that a bridge built for infantry will carry it.

In calculating the strength of parts of bridges the live load must be
doubled to bring it to dead load if weight is to be applied suddenly.

Formula for weight that may be borne safely by a beam supported at both
ends and loaded in the centre:

    _W_ = _b__d²__S_/_l_,

_W_ being the weight in pounds, _l_ the distance between the points of
support, _d_ the depth, and _b_ the breadth, all expressed in inches.
_S_ is a coefficient whose value for different kinds of wood is given
in the following table:

    Ash              2000
    Yellow Pine      1100
    Beech            1700
    Larch            1300
    Birch            1900
    Oak              1600

=Strength of Round Timber.=--The strength of a circular pole is six
tenths that of a square beam whose side is equal to the mean diameter
of the pole; so that the equation becomes _W_ = 6_d__S_/10_l_, in which
_d_ is the mean diameter.

The bridge must be capable of sustaining the weight when crowded;
and while the load for infantry is usually distributed, the greatest
strain is brought on the balks, or road-bearers, when the gun-wheels
are at the centre of the bay; and a balk will only bear half the load
concentrated at its centre that it will bear when distributed.

=Roadway and Approaches.=-The roadway may be of planks 1½ to 2 inches
for ordinary traffic, or of poles, fascines, hurdles, etc. Litter or
earth should be scattered over it to deaden the rattle of planks,
which is apt to frighten the horses, and preserve the roadway. If
heavy loads are to be hauled, planks should be laid longitudinally
to form wheel-tracks. Eight feet in the clear will suffice for width
of roadway, but nine feet is to be preferred. A hand-rail should be
provided, especially if horses are to pass, and ribbands on either
side. At least five balks (road-bearers) should be used on a bridge
nine feet wide. The bays generally run from ten to fifteen feet.

A rise in the centre of the bridge, called the camber, is allowed for
the subsequent settling. This allowance is usually one thirtieth of the
bay. The approaches are very important; the exit must be fully as good
as the entrance, to avoid crowding. If not, care must be taken not to
admit troops at the entrance faster than they can pass off. Ramps at
either end steeper than one on ten are inconvenient.


                         TRESTLES, PIERS, ETC.

=Transoms.=--They must be sufficiently strong to bear the weight that
can be concentrated on one bay, reckoned as distributed load on the
transom.

On a 9-foot roadway for light artillery, with bays of 15 feet, the
transoms should not be less than 9 inches in diameter.

Trestles are used for bridges across shallow rivers having sound hard
beds and not liable to sudden floods; and for gaps, etc. They are not
suitable for deep muddy rivers. They may be used in streams 9 feet deep
with velocity of 4 miles an hour; or in deeper streams if the current
be less.

=Two-legged Trestle= (Fig. 130).--The standards, transom, and ledger
are marked at the proper intervals, the heights of the first having
been obtained by a careful inspection, and the lengths of the two
latter depending on the width of the proposed roadway. The transoms
should be about 3 feet longer than the width of the roadway in the
clear, and the standards of the trestle should have a splay outward
of six on one. Square lashings must be used. The braces are put on
the frame with both butts and one tip on the same side, the second
tip on the reverse side; the butts can be lashed simultaneously with
the ledger and transom. The frame must then be squared by testing the
diagonals, measuring from the butt of each standard, and the frame
must be adjusted until these measurements are equal. The braces can
then be lashed at the tips and crossing-point. If the timber is weak,
both legs and transom can be doubled. Ledgers and diagonal braces can
be of light material, as little strain is brought upon them; but they
should be well lashed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 130.]

=Placing Trestles.=--They are most easily placed by hand; but with
those with two legs only care must be taken that they do not fall over.
Each frame should be fastened to either bank; cables or struts may be
used.

=Three-legged Trestles= (Fig. 131), two of which are required for a
single transom, have the advantage of standing without bracing, admit
of ready adjustment, and utilize light material. They are, however,
unsuitable for an uneven bottom, are extremely difficult to place,
excepting by hand, and the legs require weighting in water. To make
them, lash two legs together by a sheer lashing, open them out and then
add the third leg; the trestle must then be up-ended, the feet placed
on the angles of an equilateral triangle with sides about half the
height, and three light ledgers attached.

  [Illustration: FIG. 131.]

=Cribs=, =Gabions=, and =Fascines=.--These are also used for supporting
roadways, the two latter are particularly useful for short gaps.

=Limbers.=--Bridges supported on transoms lashed across the tops of
limber-wheels may be used.


                            FRAME BRIDGES.

If a trestle bridge is impracticable, owing to depth of gap or stream,
unevenness of bottom, or swiftness of current, a frame bridge may be
used.

  [Illustration: FIG. 132.]

=Single Lock.=--This is suitable for spans not exceeding 30 feet,
measured between the footing of the frames. The slope of the frames
when in position must not exceed four on seven.

1st. Prepare footings 18 inches wider apart on one side than the other.
They must be correctly squared or the frames will not lock.

2d. Measure the gap and lay out section of it on the ground with a line
and pickets, allowing for camber.

3d. Lay out the standards in the section, and chalk-mark them at the
proper positions for lashing ledgers and transoms.

4th. Lash the frames in position on either side of the gap; butts of
standards towards the bank, ledger lashed on the top of standards,
about two feet from the butts, but position varied according to nature
of footings, transom lashed underneath. The splay of legs in a frame is
not so great as in a two-legged trestle, one foot difference between
transom and ledger generally sufficing; the transom of narrow frame 18
inches wider than the width of roadway in the clear between ribbands.
Square the frames carefully before lashing the braces; see that the
distance apart of the butts corresponds to the footings, broad frame
to be 18 inches wider than the narrow. Drive pickets or large piece of
timber (bollard) for guys and foot-ropes.

5th. Attach fore and back guys and foot-ropes to each frame, the latter
fastened with a timber-hitch round the standards below the ledgers.

6th. Pass across the fore guys, passing those of the narrow frame
between the horns of the broad frame.

7th. Launch and lock the frames.

8th. Send out temporarily two road-bearers and by their means and
with the aid of two men working on the crutch of the bridge get the
fork-transom in position.

9th. Send out remainder of road-bearers, resting the whole on the
fork-transom.

10th. Place planks (chesses); rack down; put up hand-rail.


                          ESTIMATE OF TIMBER.

   ------------+------+------+--------------+---------------------------
      Kind of  |No. of|Length|Diam. in Ins. |        Purpose.
      Bridge.  |Spars.|in Ft.|              |
               |      |      +-------+------+
               |      |      |At Tip.| Mean.|
   ------------+------+------+-------+------+---------------------------
   Single-lock |   4  |   24 |    7  |      |Standards.
     (30-ft.   |   1  |   15 |       |  10  |Fork-transoms.
      Span).   |   2  |   15 |       |   6  |Transoms.
               |   4  |   15 |       |4 to 6|Ledgers and shore-transoms.
               |   4  |   20 |    3  |      |Diagonal braces.
               |  10  |   20 |       |   6  |Balks.
               |   4  |   20 |    3  |      |Ribbands.
   ------------+------+------+-------+------+---------------------------

If the stores are at hand and ready for use, 1 non-commissioned officer
and 16 men on each side should complete the bridge in a little more
than an hour.

=Double-lock Bridge.=--This is used for spans of 30 to 45 feet. In
laying out the section and making the spars for the double-lock bridge
it must be remembered that the road-bearing transoms, _TT_, in this
case are not the transoms lashed to the frames, but those which are
subsequently lashed on the top of the distance-pieces.

  [Illustration: FIG. 133.]

The frames are of equal widths. In making the bridge the frames after
being launched are held by the back guys a little higher than their
ultimate position. The distance-pieces are then hauled across, the
proper positions for the road-bearing transoms having been previously
marked upon them; these transoms are then sent out and lashed in
position, after which the back guys can be eased off and the bridge
allowed to lock; the roadway is then laid.


                          ESTIMATE OF TIMBER.

    -----------+------+------+--------------+---------------------------
      Kind of  |No. of|Length| Diam. in In. |
      Bridge.  |Spars.|in Ft.|              |
               |      |      +-------+------+          Purpose.
               |      |      |At Tip.| Mean.|
    -----------+------+------+-------+------+---------------------------
    Double-lock|   4  |   20 |    7  |      |Standards.
               |   2  |   25 |       |  10  |Distance-pieces.
    (40 to 45  |   2  |   15 |       |  10  |Road-transoms.
    Ft. Span.) |   2  |   15 |       |   6  |Main transoms.
               |   4  |   15 |       |4 to 6|Ledgers and shore-transoms.
               |   4  |   20 |    3  |      |Braces.
               |  15  |   20 |       |   6  |Balks.
               |   6  |   20 |    3  |      |Ribbands.
    -----------+------+------+-------+------+---------------------------

  [Illustration: FIG. 134.]

=Single-sling Bridges, used to 50 feet.=--The frames for a single-sling
bridge have an upper (locking) and lower (road-bearing) transom. In
laying out the section the frames must be made to lock at such a
height as to have at least 9 feet of headway between the roadway and
the upper transoms. As soon as the spars of the narrow frame are in
position for lashing the distance from out to out of its standards
at the upper transom must be measured, and the broad frame made of
sufficient width to receive them. A snatch-block with a fall rove
through it is lashed to the tip of each standard of the narrow frame.
The frames having been locked, the fork-transom is hauled into position
by means of the falls and men working in the crutch. The falls are then
used to sling the centre transom temporarily into position. The slings
are then arranged by men working in the crutch and astride the slung
transom, one of the guys being generally used for the purpose; three or
four turns are sufficient, care being taken that they do not ride. The
slings, if too long, can be subsequently twisted up with handspikes to
give the requisite camber to the roadway.

  [Illustration: FIG. 135.]

A =Treble-sling Bridge= has three slung transoms, one being slung
from the standards on either side between the fork and road-bearing
transoms. The process of construction is similar to that of a
single-sling. If the frames are very long and heavy, it is well to
brace them above as well as below the road-bearing transoms to prevent
their getting racked out of shape in launching. The upper braces, if
they interfere with the headway, can be removed after the frames are
locked. The great length of the standards in single-and treble-sling
bridges, and the heavy transverse strains brought upon them by the
weight of the roadway, will generally necessitate their being stiffened
by ties which should be carried over vertical frames anchored to earth
anchorages, or stout bollards on the bank, and twisted up taut with a
handspike. Can be used for spans up to 70 feet.


                          ESTIMATE OF TIMBER.

   ------------+------+------+--------------+---------------------------
      Kind of  |No. of|Length| Diam. in In. |
      Bridge.  |Spars.|in Ft.|              |
               |      |      +-------+------+      Purpose.
               |      |      |At Tip.| Mean.|
   ------------+------+------+-------+------+---------------------------
   Single-sling|  4   |  37½ |    6  |      |Standards.
    (50 to 60  |  3   |  15  |       |  10  |Road-transoms.
    Ft. Span). |  3   |  15  |       |   6  |Top and fork transoms.
               |  4   |  15  |       |4 to 6|Ledgers and shore-transoms.
               | 4[10]|  18  |    3  |      |Braces.
               | 10   |  30  |       |   6  |Balks.
               |  4   |  30  |    3  |      |Ribbands.
   ------------+------+------+-------+------+---------------------------

For a treble-sling bridge standards from 50 to 60 feet long will
be required; also additional spars for transoms, road-bearers, and
vertical frames.


                         THE STRINGER BRIDGE.

If the span does not exceed 25 feet, abutments good, and proper timber
near at hand, this bridge can be easily built.


TABLE OF TOOLS AND MATERIALS FOR SINGLE-AND DOUBLE-LOCK AND UNSTIFFENED
                         SINGLE-SLING BRIDGES.

   ---------------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------
                  Descriptions.                 |Single-|Double-|Single-
                                                | lock. | lock. | sling.
   ---------------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------
                  _Tools._                      |       |       |
                                                |       |       |
   Axes, pick                                   |    4  |    4  |    4
   Blocks, snatch                               |       |    2  |    2
   Chisel, brick                                |    4  |    4  |    4
   Hammers, striking                            |    4  |    4  |    4
   Handspikes                                   |    2  |    2  |    6
   Levers, field-service                        |    1  |    1  |    1
   Mauls                                        |    2  |    2  |    2
   Measuring-rods                               |    1  |    1  |    1
   Shovels                                      |    4  |    4  |    6
   Measuring-tapes                              |    1  |    1  |    1
                                                |       |       |
                  _Materials._                  |       |       |
                                                |       |       |
   Chalk, pieces                                |    2  |    2  |    4
   Lines, Hambro', 150 ft.                      |    1  |    1  |    1
   Planks for chesses,                          |       |       |
       10 ft. × 12 in. × 1½ in.              |    According to span
   Pickets, 5 ft. long, for bollards            |   10  |   10  |   10
   Pickets, bundles of tracing                  |    1  |    1  |    1
   Racksticks and lashing                       |    According to span
   Foot-ropes, 3 in., 9 fathoms                 |    4  |    4  |    4
   Guys, 3 in., 20 to 30 fathoms                |    8  |    8  |    8
   Ropes, 2 in., 18 fathoms each                |       |       |    2
   Ropes, 2 in., 8 fathoms, for transom-lashings|    4  |    8  |    8
   Ropes, 1½ in., 5 fathoms, for ledger- and |       |       |
       brace-lashings                           |   12  |   14  |   14
   Ropes, 1 in., 3 fathoms, for road-bearers    |   10  |   20  |   20
   Tapes, tracing, 150 ft.                      |    1  |    1  |    2
   Yarn, spun, lbs.                             |    7  |    7  |    7
   ---------------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------


Six stringers and fifty flooring-poles, 6 inches in diameter and 12
feet long, will be required. Two axemen to each stringer will fell and
prepare them in a few minutes, and while they are being carried and
placed in position the axemen can prepare the poles. Stringers should
have 4 feet extra length. Their diameter will depend on the weight
to be borne, how distributed, and kind of wood. It is determined by the
formulas already given. A good rough rule for calculating the live load
which can be borne by rectangular timber of given length and scantling
is:

For larch safe distributed live load in cwts. (112 lbs.) =
_b__d²_/_L_, in which _b_ = breadth in inches, _d_ = depth in
inches, _L_ = length of span in feet.

For fir the load may be 4/3, for cedar 5/3, for beech, oak, and
pitch-pine 2, and for teak 7/3 of load of larch.

This formula gives a theoretical factor of safety of about 3.

The stringers are placed in position by means of jumping-poles, each
of which should be strong enough to bear the weight of the stringer
and a little longer than the hypothenuse of the right-angled triangle,
the base and perpendicular of which are respectively three fourths the
width and depth of the chasm.

Place first stringer on abutment as a temporary wall-plate and chock
it; slide the second and third over the chasm a little more than one
fourth their length for a footway; push out one jumping-pole, butt
first, until nearly balanced on wall-plate stringer, and pass the bight
of a rope around it a little in advance of its centre of gravity, by
means of which a man on the footway supports the butt while the pole
is being slipped forward until it reaches its proper resting-place
(while this is being done the ends of the stringers forming the footway
are held down); then place second jumping-pole in position; draw back
the two stringers forming footway; cross jumping-poles, lashing them
about 2 feet above the level of the abutment, and attach guy-rope long
enough to reach across the stream; place stringer in crutch and push
forward until nearly balanced; then raise end and push so as to throw
it forward and cause the other end to rest on the opposite abutment.
Four men now cross over on the stringer, steadying themselves by
means of the guy-rope held taut for the purpose, lift the stringer
off the jumping-poles, and, with assistance from opposite side, roll
the stringer in position. Pull back jumping-poles and place the other
stringers.

The flooring is laid as for corduroy roads, and the bridge is finished
by pinning on a ribband of poles to hold down the ends of the flooring
and erecting hand-rails if required. It is well to cover the roadway
with straw to lessen the jolting of carriages.


                  FORDS, FLYING AND FLOATING BRIDGES.

When reconnoitring a river with a view of effecting a passage, observe:
the nature of the banks, the nature of the bed, position and depth of
fords, strength of current, whether tidal or otherwise, probability and
extent of floods.

=Fords.=--The following depths are fordable: For infantry, 3 ft.; for
cavalry, 4 ft.; wagons containing ammunition, 2⅓ ft. Gravelly bottoms
are best; sandy bottoms are bad, as the sand stirs up and increases
depth of water. Fords should be clearly marked by long pickets driven
into the bed of the river above and below the ford, their heads being
connected by a strong rope. It is well to mark the pickets, in order
that any rise of the water may be at once evident.

The depth of a river is generally most uniform in straight parts; at
bends the depth will generally be greater at the concave bank, and less
at the convex. For this reason a river which is not anywhere fordable
straight across may be found passable in a slanting direction between
two bends.

To measure the velocity of a stream, use a light rod weighted at the
end so as to stand vertically in the water; note the distance it floats
in a given number of seconds; then seven tenths the mean number of feet
a second gives the number of miles an hour.

=Ferries and Flying Bridges.=--The simplest form of permanent ferry
consists of ropes stretched across the river by means of which rafts
can be hauled from bank to bank.

The flying bridge can be used if the velocity of the current is two
miles an hour or more. The current moves the boat or raft across the
stream by acting obliquely against its side, which should be kept
at an angle of about 55 degrees with the current. The cable, whose
length should be 1½ to 2 times the width of the river, and float if
possible, can either be anchored in midstream (in which case the boat
can swing between two landing-places), or two cables may be used, one
anchored on either bank. Or a cable may be stretched from bank to bank
as taut as possible and six feet above the water at the lowest point.
The boat (a double-ender) is attached to travellers, which are small
wheels grooved on the circumference to fit the cable on which they
ride, maintained in their position by a counterpoise below, to which
the stem-and stern-lines of the boat are attached. Long, narrow, deep
boats with vertical sides, to which leeboards can be attached, are the
best for the purpose, and straight reaches of a river the most suitable
places for flying bridges.

=Floating Bridges.=--These can be made of boats, barrels, timber, etc.

Each pier must have enough available buoyancy to support the heaviest
load that can be brought on one bay of the bridge. The length of
the piers should be at least twice the breadth of the roadway, for
steadiness, and they should be connected together at their extremities
by tie-balks or lashings.

The waterway between the piers should never be less, and should if
possible be more, than the width of those piers.

In barrel-pier bridges, or with boats having strong gunnels and frames,
each balk bears on both gunnels of adjacent piers; in weak boats they
bear on a central beam supported on the keel.

The roadway of floating bridges is similar to that already described.

=Boats.=--Open boats should not be immersed deeper than within one foot
of the gunnel, and a still larger limit of safety will be required in
rough water or a violent current. They should be placed "stem on" in
the bridge so as to point against the current, and slightly down by the
stern; if the river be tidal, they alternate stem and stern. Few boats,
except heavy barges, are strong enough for balks to rest on their
gunnels. Use a central transom resting on the thwarts and blocked up
from underneath to bring the weight directly on the keel.

=Buoyancy.=--This may be determined by loading the boat with unarmed
men to such a depth as is considered safe. For bridging purposes the
number of men multiplied by 160 gives the available buoyancy in pounds.

If the number of men be divided by four, the result will be the central
interval in feet at which the boats may be placed in the bridge to
carry infantry in fours crowded.


                      RAFTS OF CASKS OR BARRELS.

=Buoyancy of Casks.=--The actual buoyancy is given by the formula
5_c²__l_-_W_, in which _c_ is the circumference of the cask _in
feet_ half-way between the bung and the extreme end; _l_ is the length
_in feet_, exclusive of projections, measured along a stave; and _W_ is
the weight of the cask in pounds.

The available buoyancy for bridging purposes may be taken at 9/10 of
the actual buoyancy.

A safe buoyancy may be obtained by multiplying the content in gallons
by 8⅓.

Knowing the buoyancy of one cask, the number to be united in a raft to
sustain any desired load can be readily calculated.

=Constructing the Float.=--Having determined on the number of casks
to be united in one float, take one third the number and place them
transversely on two poles laid on the ground parallel to each other and
one half the height of a cask apart; the casks to be distributed evenly
over a distance equal to the width of the proposed bridge, bungs up.
Lay another pair of poles on the top of the casks, and lash them to
the first pair at the ends and between each two casks, and cut off any
surplus pole that may project at the ends. Having made and launched
three such floats, unite them by lashing a pole across the ends and
middle of them, so as to make a large square raft. When enough such
rafts are completed, they can be placed, and a roadway built on them.
In placing the rafts the sides of the barrels should be towards the
current.

Floats of casks, when in bridge, should always be rigidly connected
with each other at their ends by stringers, which must be lashed to
both gunnels of each float; the roadway stringers can then be laid
and should rest squarely on both gunnels of each float and should be
lashed, especially if there be any sway or for animal traffic.


             TABLE OF WEIGHTS, DIMENSIONS, CAPACITY, ETC.

    --------+-------+---------+-------+-------+-----+---------
    Name.   |Weight.| Length  | Bung  | Head  | No. |Available
            |       |of Stave.| Diam. | Diam. |Gals.|Buoyancy.
    --------+-------+---------+-------+-------+-----+---------
            |  Lbs. | Inches. |Inches.|Inches.|     |   Lbs.
            |       |         |       |       |     | (About).
    Tar     |   50  |   30    | 20½   | 17½   |  30 |   250
    Pork    |   60  |   30    | 22    | 18½   |  32 |   267
    Vinegar |   80  |   34    | 23½   | 20½   |  45 |   375
    Whiskey |   80  |   34    | 23½   | 20½   |  45 |   375
    Kerosene|   70  |   34    | 25    | 21    |  45 |   375
    Molasses|   70  |   34    | 25    | 21    |  52 |   433
    --------+-------+---------+-------+-------+-----+---------

American wine-barrels are about the same size and weight as
whiskey-barrels.

=Rafts.=--Raft bridges may be used in a current not exceeding four
miles an hour.

Cubic content of a log in feet is equal to the square of one fifth of
the mean girth multiplied by twice its length.

Weight of timber (dry) per cubic foot: Ash 47 lbs., beech 43, elm 36,
fir 32, oak 54, pine 40, poplar 24, sycamore 37, willow 25. Green
timber is about one fourth heavier.

=Flotation.=--To obtain the flotation of a log, multiply its cubic
content by the difference between its weight per cubic foot and the
weight of a cubic foot of water (62½ lbs.). Take five sixths of the
result for the available buoyancy.

=To Form a Raft.=--Place the logs side by side, the small ends
alternating; strongly secure with rope and, if possible, by cross and
diagonal pieces of scantling fastened by spikes or treenails. If it is
to be used as a pier, the logs may be placed in two layers to avoid
obstructing the waterway. A central transom must be used. The up-stream
end of the raft may, with advantage, be convex.

=Make-shift Anchors.=--Two or more pickaxes lashed together; heavy
weights, such as large stones or railway irons; the latter are best
when bent.

Nets filled with stones are particularly good on rocky bottoms.

=Protection.=--Arrangements must be made up-stream to protect a
floating bridge from damage from floating substances, either by a boat
patrol, or by stretching a net, or some intercepting obstacle, across
stream.



                             CHAPTER XIII.

   Hasty Demolition. Gunpowder. Dynamite. How Used in Blasting.
   Guncotton. Rack-a-rock. Handling, Transportation, and Storage of
   High Explosives. Charges for Hasty Demolition. Where and How to
   Place Charges.


                              GUNPOWDER.

Gunpowder is a very intimate mixture of potassium nitrate (nitre),
charcoal, and sulphur, and generally consists of the following
proportions:

Nitre, 75 parts; charcoal, 15 parts; sulphur, 10 parts.

The following processes are used in its manufacture:

(1) Mixing the ingredients; (2) incorporating or "milling"; (3)
breaking down the mill-cake; (4) pressing; (5) granulating; (6)
dusting; (7) glazing; (8) second dusting; (9) stoving or drying; (10)
finishing.

Good gunpowder should be composed of hard angular grains which do not
soil the fingers, and should have a perfectly uniform dark-gray color.
When new, it should be free from dust, and a gramme of it flashed on a
copper or porcelain plate should leave no residue or foulness.

It should give the required initial velocity to the projectile, and
produce not more than the maximum strain upon the gun.

When exposed to air of average dryness, it should not absorb more
than 0.5 to 1.5 per cent of water. In damp air it absorbs more and
deteriorates. Its exploding-point is 560° F.


                               DYNAMITE.

Dynamite is composed of a particularly porous siliceous earth
(Keiselguhr) impregnated with about 70 or 75 per cent of
nitro-glycerine. True dynamite resembles in appearance moist brown
sugar. It takes fire at 350° F., and freezes.


                    MATERIALS IN USE FOR BLASTING.

=Cartridges.=--The regular sizes are from four to eight inches long
and from three fourths of an inch to two inches in diameter. They are
furnished to order of any required size, packed in boxes containing 25
or 50 pounds, the layers of cartridges being separated by sawdust. To
use a small cartridge in a large hole, slit it on the side and press
it down into the drill-hole with a wooden tamping-rod. Cartridges may
be readily cut into desired lengths. _In tamping powder or explosives
always use a wooden rammer, never an iron or steel bar._

=Caps.=--The regular cap or exploder is employed. It consists of a
hollow copper cylinder about ¼ inch in diameter and from one to two
inches long, and contains 15 to 20 per cent or more of fulminate of
mercury mixed with other ingredients into a cement, which fills the
closed end of the cap.

=Fuzes.=--The double-tape fuze is the best. Single-tape fuze may be
used when the ground is only a little wet.

=Nippers and Pincers.=--For cutting the fuze, and after it is inserted
in the cap for squeezing the cap tightly around the fuze.

=Funnel.=--Used in charging with loose powder.


                             DRILL-HOLES.

As a general rule drill-holes and charges for dynamite should be
comparatively small. In heavy work the holes should be large in size
and less in number, and the amount of dynamite should be in proportion
to the work done.

=Charging with Cartridges.=--The charge must fit and fill the bottom of
the bore, and be packed solid. Take a cartridge as nearly as possible
of the same size as the bore, and cut it into sections of about twice
or three times the diameter. With a hard-wood rammer, as large as
will run freely in the hole, press these sections into the bore-hole
one by one with sufficient force until each section is driven to
the bottom and expanded laterally so as to fill the hole solidly in
every direction. If the cartridge is smaller than the hole, slit it
lengthwise. _Metallic rammers must not be used._

=Priming.=--Cut off squarely the end of the fuze and thrust it into
the cap up to the fulminate. If the fuze is too large, scrape it down,
and if too small wind it with paper. Then clamp the cap to the fuze
with the nippers, being careful not to disturb the fulminate in the
cap. If for a wet hole, smear the junction of the fuze and the cap
with bar-soap or the like, to make it water-tight. Now open the end of
the cartridge, and with a pointed stick make a hole in the explosive
and insert the cap (with the fuze attached) the full length of the
cap, and press the explosive firmly about the cap. Next gather the
cartridge-paper about the fuze and tie it there strongly with a string,
so that the cap cannot be withdrawn from the explosive. Cut off so much
of the cartridge as is not needed, and the primer is complete. Thus
prepared, place it in the drill-hole and press it with a wooden rod
into contact with the charge.

=Tamping.=--This is of great importance. Always tamp if you can, and
with the best materials and in the strongest manner. In deep and down
holes water is good. A shallow tamp of water amounts to very little.
A shallow tamp of sand or clay is better. In driving and packing the
tamp next to the primer be careful not to explode the cap; the first
handful of tamp should always be pressed down gently. In fissures or
artificial cracks surround the charge with mud, clay, sand, or water,
if possible.

=Explosion of Blast.=--In most cases it is better not to cut off the
required length of fuze until the hole is tamped. Then cut off at a
safe length and fire by igniting with a match or fuzee. If it misses
fire, be careful in taking out the tamping not to approach nearer the
cap than within two or three inches; then put in another cartridge and
fire it. _Never pick out the charge._ After inserting the primer it is
well to put a ball of newspaper or some substance readily recognized on
top of it and then the tamping. If then the tamping has to be removed,
warning will be given on approaching the primer.

=To Insure Explosion.=--The dynamite must not be frozen; the fuze must
be good and kept in the cap; the cap must be dry and not withdrawn from
the explosive.

=Frozen Dynamite.=--Dynamite freezes more easily than water, becomes
hard and cannot be properly loaded into bore-holes, and is more
difficult of explosion. Keep it where it will not freeze if possible.

_It must not be thawed by a fire_, but by hot water in an apparatus
like a common glue-pot, the dynamite being in the inner vessel and hot
(not boiling) water in the outer. Eissler states that there is but one
safe way of thawing it, which is to keep it in a kitchen or other room
at summer heat, and away from the fire, until it is soft. It is then
ready for use.

=Precautions.=--Never attempt to thaw frozen dynamite by _roasting_,
_toasting_, or _baking_ it. Never put it in heated vessels, or in
boilers, or before fires or heated metals. _It must not be thawed or
heated rapidly._

Never put a cap into a charge or primer until you are ready to use it.
After it is made never let a primer leave your hands until it is in
the hole. Keep the caps away from the dynamite. Never let them come
near each other except when used.

Never allow smoking or other fire near the powder or explosive,
as it burns rapidly, and especially when loose, and may fire caps
incautiously left near by, and thus bring on an explosion.

Never use a metallic rammer.

Do not get nitro-glycerine on your fingers. It will be absorbed by
the skin and give you a headache. Invariably prepare your primer at a
distance from your explosive.


                             RACK-A-ROCK.

This powerful explosive, composed of a solid and a liquid ingredient,
entirely inexplosive when separate, but easily and quickly combined,
seems to present undoubted advantages for use in the military service.

The solid is potassium chlorate, and the liquid is either "dead oil,"
or dead oil and bisulphide of carbon in equal volumes, or bisulphide of
carbon with 3 per cent of carbon added, or mono-nitro-benzine.

General Abbot considered the following the best:

Potassium chlorate, 79 parts; mono-nitro-benzine, 21 parts.

The potassium chlorate is put up in the form of a cartridge enclosed in
a bag made of cotton or other suitable material.

In preparing the charge for use the cartridges are placed in a wire
frame, which is suspended from a spring-balance, and dipped in the
liquid until a proportion of 3 to 4½ parts of solid to 1 part of liquid
is shown by the balance; this requires from 3 to 6 seconds.

Or, place the cartridges in a pan containing cells (each cartridge
having a corresponding cell and cup) and then pour in each cell its
cupful of liquid. As soon as it has all been absorbed remove the
cartridges and in ten minutes they are ready for use.

If the cartridges be kept, they appear to tend to increased sensibility
to friction or percussion.


                              GUNCOTTON.

=Compressed Guncotton.=--Clippings and other waste from cotton-mills
are thoroughly purified from oil and fatty matters by treatment with
alkali and extraneous substances removed. The material is then opened
up by a carding-machine and cut into suitable lengths. After thorough
drying and when quite cold small quantities at a time are immersed in
a cool mixture of 1 nitric acid (s. g. 1.52) and 3 sulphuric acid (s.
g. 1.85). The excess of acid is then removed and the cotton carefully
washed, reduced to pulp, purified, and compressed into given weights
and shapes by a powerful hydraulic press, and weighs 60 lbs. per cubic
foot.

The disks or slabs can be cut into smaller sizes with a sharp saw or
knife without danger, care being taken to press them between boards
while so doing to prevent their falling to pieces.

It has from 2 to 2½ times the strength of gunpowder for equal weights
when the charges are well tamped, and 4 times the strength of gunpowder
when the charges are untamped; it ignites at a lower temperature than
gunpowder, as it may explode at 277° F. and must explode at 400° F.;
it is comparatively insensible to shocks--caissons containing dry
guncotton have been frequently inflamed by the penetration of a bullet
from a military rifle, but never exploded,[11] while wet guncotton in
a condition for service cannot possibly be ignited by the same means
even at the shortest ranges.

Wet guncotton is not easily ignited, burns up quietly in the open
air, is not sensitive to friction; but if fired by a strongly charged
percussion-cap it will explode with great violence. It does not
deteriorate when wet and is then perfectly safe to handle. It is
therefore stored in a wet state (as it cannot be exploded except by
the detonation of other disks of dry guncotton); but it should not
be exposed to a temperature that will freeze the water in the cakes,
if possible. While frost has no effect on dry guncotton, it causes a
mechanical disintegration of the wet compressed variety.

In the field the slabs are carried _wet_; the disks _dry_ and packed
in hermetically sealed tins. These disks are used as primers, and have
attached to them, when used, a fulminate fuze.

=To Fire Guncotton=, the fuze is cut to the required length and
inserted in the hollow end of the detonator, especial care being taken
to push it down so as to rest on the quick-match; the tube is then
slightly bent to prevent the fuze from being withdrawn. The small end
of the detonator is then gently inserted into the primer (the dry disk)
so as to fill the entire length of the hole in the latter. If it is
loose, a piece of paper or grass must be wrapped round to make it fit
tight. The primer must be placed in close contact with the charge to be
fired. Care must be taken that no sparks from the fuze can fall on the
charge, which might then burn instead of exploding. Bear in mind that a
moist primer is certain to cause failure.

The charge should be in close contact with the object to be demolished.

=Transportation.=--The handling of high explosives should be done
under the immediate supervision of persons thoroughly familiar with
the proper methods to be pursued and who will exercise great care
and judgment. High explosives should be packed in light wooden boxes
properly marked. The French have a wagon containing about 350 lbs.
attached to a horse-battery accompanying the cavalry division, acting
independently, and two such wagons with the artillery-park. Care is
taken that they are not placed too near the other ammunition and are in
the safest place under careful observation.

On a steamer place the explosives in a well-ventilated place remote
from the engine.

On railways, if the weather be hot, there should be good ventilation
and ice in the car, so placed that water cannot reach the explosives.

In winter protect from freezing if possible. Packing in straw or
sawdust may be useful. Under no circumstances should cases of fuzes be
in the same car, or in the vicinity of the explosive. The packages of
guncotton should not be exposed to the sun--cover with paulins, put
under shade-trees.

=Storage.=--At military posts, in ordinary service magazines over
which are erected light wooden roofs, so as to insure a draught during
hot weather.

The usual precautions against fire and for storage of ordinary powder
must be taken; and neither fuzes, caps, nor detonators of any kind
should ever be allowed in the magazine containing the explosives. Dry
guncotton should not be stored in the same magazine with wet guncotton.
Before being placed in the magazine the boxes should be given a coat of
paint or shellac, to protect them from moisture. They should also be
placed on skids and the space between the skids partially filled with
sawdust, to absorb any exuding nitro-glycerine. If any powder should be
spilled on the floor, or nitro-glycerine exude and be absorbed by the
sawdust, it should be removed at once and burned. The boxes should be
turned over every month or two, and if kept long on hand they should be
opened and the explosive tested from time to time.

When guncotton is received, pour into each package enough water to
cover it, or otherwise immerse it. Let the water remain for 15 minutes;
then pour it off and hermetically close the box. This should be done
every three months.

Packages of guncotton stained brown or yellow, giving off nitric fumes,
or showing other signs of decomposition, should be removed and immersed
in water. If decomposition be far advanced, they should be removed to a
safe place and burned.


                    WHERE AND HOW TO PLACE CHARGES.

=Masonry or Brick Arch.=--Attack the haunches of the arch or the
piers. In bridges of a single arch the haunches are the best points,
two trenches being dug across the width of the roadway down to the
back of the arch. When there is no time for this, the charge should
be placed along the crown of the arch. With guncotton untamped use
¾_T²_ × _B_; if tamped with a depth of earth equal to the thickness
of the arch, use ⅜_T²_ × _B_.

With gunpowder, if over crown of arch, use 3/2_T²_ × _B_; if behind
haunch, ⅔_T²_ × _B_. In the former case use tamping if possible
equal to the thickness of the arch, and in the latter case equal to
twice the thickness. The quantity of powder obtained by these rules
should be divided into two or more charges placed across the arch.

When the bridge consists of a series of arches, and the piers are short
and thick, the haunches should be attacked by the rules given in table
on next page.

If the piers be high and thin, it is better to place the charges
against them, as the fall of one pier will involve the destruction of
two arches. The charge should be slightly greater than for a wall of
the same thickness.


  RULES FOR CALCULATING CHARGES FOR HASTY DEMOLITIONS BY GUNCOTTON OR
                              GUNPOWDER.

Charges are in lbs.; _B_ and _T_ are in feet; _t_ is in inches. _B_ is
length of breach to be made; _T_ or _t_ is thickness of object to be
demolished.

Gunpowder is assumed to be roughly tamped with sand-bags, guncotton
untamped. If the guncotton is tamped, the charges may be reduced one
half. Charges of guncotton must be equal in length to the breach which
is to be made.

    ---------------------+-----------+------------+------------------------
       Object Attacked.  |Gunpowder. | Guncotton. |        Remarks.
    ---------------------+-----------+------------+------------------------
    Brick arch.          |}         {|  ¾_BT²_   }|The length of breach,
    Brick wall 2 ft. or  |}         {|2 lbs. per}}|_B_, should not be less
    less.                |}3/2_BT²_ {| foot run  }|than the height of the
    Brick wall over 2 ft.|}         {|½_BT²_     }|wall to be brought
    Brick piers.         |}         {|⅔_BT²_     }|down.
                         |           |            |
    Hard wood in any     | 40 to 100 | 3_BT²_     |In a concentrated
    form, stockade,      | lbs. for  |            |charge, or for trees
    palisade, single     | stockade  |            |not over 12 in. in
    timbers, trees, etc. |           |            |diameter in a necklace.
                         |           |            |
    Do., do.             |           | ⅜_T²_      |In auger-hole; when
                         |           |            |the timber is not
                         |           |            |perfectly round, _T_
                         |           |            |smaller axis.
                         |           |            |
    Soft wood.         { |   Half the charges     |
                       { |    for hard wood       |
                         |           |            |
    Breastwork of        | 60 to 80  |4 lbs. per  |
    horizontal balks,    | lbs. per  |   foot     |
    or earth between     |  5 feet   |            |
    sleepers up to       |           |            |
    3½ ft. thick.        |           |            |
                         |           |            |
    Heavy rail stockade. |           |    7lbs.   |
                         |           |   per ft.  |
                         |           |            |
    Fortress gate.       | 200 lbs.  |   50 lbs.  |
                         |           |            |
    Iron plate.          |           |3/2_Bt²_    |
                         |           |            |
    Field- or siege-guns.|           |    1½ lbs. |On chase near muzzle.
                         |           |            |
    Heavier guns.        |           |     4 lbs. |In bottom of bore,
                         |           |            |tamped with water or
                         |           |            |sand.
                         |           |            |
    First-class iron rail|           |    2/8 lb. |Touching web of rail
                         |           |            |and near a chair.
                         |           |            |
         "      steel  " |           |      4 oz. |Four rails placed around
                         |           |            |the charge will be cut
                         |           |            |simultaneously by it.
    ---------------------+-----------+------------+------------------------
   In the presence of an enemy increase above charges
   50% to allow for contingencies.

=House with Moderately Thick Walls.=--Attack portions of walls between
the windows, the charges being tamped, and inside the house if
possible. Otherwise place outside, or one or two large charges inside
untamped.

To demolish a building, a sufficient height of wall must be brought
down to insure the arches over the doors and windows falling. The
length of breach must be equal to this height. With very thick walls
cut grooves.

=To Cut Down Trees.=--Place charge in an auger-hole bored horizontally
into the tree at desired height. If tree be 1½ to 2 feet in diameter,
use two holes. With a little care they can be bored so as to meet
in the centre, in which case one detonator will suffice to fire the
charge; with plenty of detonators it may be better to fire one hole
first and then a second hole in the uninjured part of the tree, and so
on.

The tree may be made to fall in any required direction by attaching a
rope to the upper branches, and taking the strain on it before firing.

The guncotton may be hung around the tree, but this often fails with
trees over 12 inches in diameter.

A hole may be dug under the roots. Dig down by the side of the tree and
then horizontally under the bottom close to the wood, the hole being
just large enough for the cartridge.

The rules for felling trees apply to timbers of wooden bridges, the
uprights of the piers being the best point to attack.

=To Blow Down a Stockade 12″ × 12″.=--Use 3 lbs. of guncotton per
running foot. The slabs should be threaded together, so as to be in
contact, and hung or laid against the timbers at the required level.

If gunpowder be used, a charge of 80 lbs. should be allowed for the
same stockade when the charge is not tamped; when tamped by having a
few sand-bags piled on top, the charge may be reduced to 60 lbs. This
would probably make a breach about 6 feet wide.

=To Demolish a Gate.=--Fifty pounds of guncotton hung against the gate
by a nail or pickaxe or laid on the ground will suffice.

The charge of gunpowder should be 200 lbs., covered with sand-bags if
possible.

=Destruction of Iron Bridges.=--Place charge on lower girders near an
abutment, and at a point where the thickness of the plates is least.
If sections are uniform throughout the length of the bridge, place
charge at centre of a span between two piers. When the bridge plate is
entirely of iron, place charge on top of beams.

=Destruction of Railroad Tracks.=--To destroy heavy iron rails, a
charge of six 2-ounce disks (including primer) should be used.

=To Destroy a Tunnel.=--The crown of the arch or the side-walls should
be attacked. The points selected should be some distance inside the
tunnel.

=To Destroy Field-and Siege-guns.=--Detonate 1½ lbs. of guncotton on
the outside near the muzzle. In heavier wrought-iron guns detonate 4
lbs. in the bottom of the bore, tamping with sand.

Heavy cast-iron guns can be burst by firing 1 lb. of guncotton in the
same position and tamping with sand.



                             CHAPTER XIV.

   Battery Books and Records. Rolls, Reports, and Returns. The Ration.
   Salt and Vinegar for Public Animals. The Travel-ration. Present
   Organization of U. S. Light Field-battery. Cost of a Battery of
   Four 3.2-inch Guns, in Detail. Price-list of Artillery-harness.
   Price-list of Harness for 1.65-inch Mountain-gun. Price-list of
   Artillery Accoutrements, etc. Price-list of Horse Equipments.
   Price-list of Stencil and Marking Outfits. Supply Table of Ordnance
   Stores for a Battery of Light Artillery for Six Months. Allowance of
   Ammunition for Target Practice. Standard Supply Table of Veterinary
   Medicines. Tableware and Kitchen Utensils. Allowance of Clothing,
   Equipage, Fuel, Lights, etc. Weights of Certain Articles of Clothing
   and Equipage. Pay Table of Enlisted Men. Summary Court, and List
   of Punishments. U. S. Signal and Telegraph Code. Penetration of
   Projectiles. Cover for Field-artillery. Treatment of Sick Men.
   Tables of Weights, Measures, etc. Tables for Converting Customary
   and Metric Weights and Measures. Salutes. Camp Furniture and Mess
   Outfits for Officers.


                      BATTERY BOOKS AND RECORDS.

Sick report book; company clothing book; morning report book;
guard report book; descriptive and deposit book--all obtained from
adjutant-general. Order book; letters received book; index to letters
received; letters sent book; index to letters sent; descriptive book
of public animals--all obtained from quartermaster-general. Artillery
practice report book--from chief of ordnance. Battery council book;
roster book.


                     ROLLS, REPORTS, AND RETURNS.

    ---------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+----------
         Designation.    |  To Whom | When Made.|When Sent. |By Whom.
                         |    Sent. |           |           |
    ---------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+----------
    Muster roll[12]      |Adjt. Gen.|Every month|  Within 3 |Mustering
    of battery.          |          |           |    days   |officer
                         |          |           |           |
    Inventory of effects |  "    "  |Immediately|Immediately|Battery
    of deceased soldiers.|          |           |           |com'dr
                         |          |           |           |
    Final statements of  |  "    "  |     "     |     "     |   "
     deceased soldiers.  |          |           |           |
                         |          |           |           |
    Certificates of      |  "    "  |     "     |     "     |Post
    disability           |          |           |           |com'dr
    (in duplicate).      |          |           |           |
                         |          |           |           |
    Return of Ord.       |Chief of  |  End of   | Within 20 |Battery
    and Ord. stores.     |Ordnance  |  month    |   days    |com'dr
                         |          |           |           |
    Return of battery    |  Regtl.  |    "      |    "    3 |   "
                         | adjutant |           |           |
                         |          |           |           |
    Transcript of orders |     "    |Immediately|Immediately|   "
    making temporary     |          |           |           |
    appointments         |          |           |           |
    of or reducing N.    |          |           |           |
    C. officers at posts |          |           |           |
    not regtl. headqrs.  |          |           |           |
                         |          |           |           |
    Abstract of battery  |     "    |  End of   |  Next day |   "
    fund.                |          |  quarter  |           |
                         |          |           |           |
    Morning report       |Post adjt.|   Every   |  Before   |   "
                         |          |  morning  |  8 A.M.   |
                         |          |           |           |
    Monthly return of    | "    "   |   End of  | First of  |   "
    battery (to be       |          |every month|subsequent |
    returned for file).  |          |           |   month   |
                         |          |           |           |
    Return of battery    | "    "   |  End of   |  "    "   |   "
    fund (with council   |          |   every   |           |
    book).               |          |  quarter  |           |
                         |          |           |           |
    Req. for fuel,       | "    "   |  End of   |   End of  |   "
    forage, and straw.   |          |every month|every month|
                         |          |           |           |
    Req. for salt and    | "    "   |    "    " |  "    "   |   "
    vinegar              |          |           |           |
                         |          |           |           |
    Ration return        | "    "   |  On days designated   |   "
                         |          |       by C.O.         |
                         |          |           |           |
    Estimate of C. and   | "    "   |   Jan. 1, |           |
    E., 6 months' supply.|          |   Apl. 1, |           |
                         |          |   July 1, |           |
                         |          |   Oct. 1. |           |
                         |          |           |           |
    Req. for stationery. | "    "   |   End of  |  First of |   "
                         |          |    every  | subsequent|
                         |          |   quarter |    month  |
    ---------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+----------


                              THE RATION.

 ---------------------+--------+--------+--------+-------------+--------
       Article.       |   1    |  50    |  100   |    1000     |Bulk of
                      | Ration.|Rations.|Rations.|   Rations.  |  1000
                      |        |        |        +-----+-------+Rations.
                      |        |        |        |     |       |
                      |        |        |        | Net.|Gross. |
 ---------------------+--------+--------+--------+-----+-------+--------
 {Fresh beef, or other|   oz.  |   Lbs. |   Lbs. | Lbs.| Lbs.  |Barrels.
   fresh meat         |20      |  62½   |  125   | 1250|       |
 {Or salt beef        |22      |  68¾   |  137½  | 1375|       | 6.875
 {Or salt pork        |12      |  37½   |   75   |  750| 1219  | 3.75
 {Or bacon            |12      |  37½   |   75   |  750|  903  | 4.9
 {Or dried fish[13]   |14      |  43¾   |   87½  |  875|       |
 {Pickled or fresh    |        |        |        |     |       |
 {  fish[13]          |18      |  56¾   |  112½  | 1125|       |
 Potatoes             |16      |  50    |  100   | 1000|       | 4.66
 {Or potatoes         |12.8    |  40    |   80   |  800|       |
 {And onions          | 3.2    |  10    |   20   |  200|       |
                      |        |        |        |     |       |
 {Or potatoes         |11.2    |  35    |   70   |  700|       |
 {And tomatoes        | 4.8    |  15    |   30   |  300|       |
 {Or other fresh      |        |        |        |     |       |
 {  vegetable         |        |        |        |     |       |
                      |        |        |        |     |       |
 {Sugar               | 2.4    |   7½   |   15   |  150|       |  .62
 {Or molasses         |        |        |        |     |       |
 {Or syrup            |.64 gill| 1 gal. |    2   |  20 |       |
                      |        |        | gals.  |gals.|       |
 Salt                 |  .64   |   2    |    4   |  40 |       |  .16
 Pepper               |  .04   |    ⅛   |     ¼  |   2½|       |
 {Flour               |18      |  56¼   |  112½  | 1125| 1234  | 5.74
 {Or soft bread       |18      |  56¼   |  112½  | 1125|       |
 {Or hard bread       |16      |  50    |  100   | 1000| 1229  |12
 {Or corn-meal        |20      |  62½   |  125   | 1250|       |
                      |        |        |        |     |       |
 {Beans or peas       | 2.4    |   7½   |   15   |  150|  177  |  .7
 {Or rice or hominy   | 1.6    |   5    |   10   |  100|  115  |  .46
                      |        |        |        |     |       |
 {Coffee, green       | 1.6    |   5    |   10   |  100|  122  |  .58
 {Or coffee roasted   | 1.28   |   4    |    8   |   80|  108  |  .83
 {Or tea              |  .32   |   1    |    2   |   20|   25  |  .16
 Soap                 |  .648  |   2    |    4   |   40|   47  |  .19
 Candles (if no oil)  |  .24   |    ¾   |    1½  |   15|   16.5|  .89
 Yeast-powder         |        |        |        |     |       |
   (in the field)     |  .64   |   2    |    4   |   40|       |
 Vinegar              | .04 qt.| ½ gal. | 1 gal. | 10  |107½   |  .09
                      |        |        |        |gals.|       |
 ---------------------+--------+--------+--------+-----+-------+--------


                 SALT AND VINEGAR FOR PUBLIC ANIMALS.

    --------+----------------------+----------------------
            |         Salt.        |      Vinegar.
    No. of  +---------+------------+----------------------
    Animals.|Quantity |Quantity per| Quantity per Week.
            |per Week.|Month, When |
            |         | Necessary. |
    --------+---------+------------+-----+----+----+------
            |Lbs.| Oz.| Lbs.|  Oz. |Gals.|Qts.|Pts.|Gills.
    1       |    |  2 |     |   12 |     |    |    |  .64
    5       |    | 10 |   3 |   12 |     |    |    | 3.2
    10      |  1 |  4 |   7 |    8 |     |    |  1 | 2.4
    50      |  6 |  4 |  37 |    8 |   1 | -- | -- |  --
    100     | 12 |  8 |  75 |   -- |   2 | -- | -- |  --
    --------+----+----+-----+------+-----+----+----+------


                         THE "TRAVEL-RATION."

        Articles.                         Per 100 Rations.

    Soft bread                            pounds 112½
      or hard bread                       pounds 100
    Beef, canned                          pounds 75
    Baked beans, 1-pound cans             number 33
      or baked beans, 3-pound cans        number 15
    Coffee, roasted                       pounds 8
    Sugar                                 pounds 8
    Canned tomatoes (after 4 consecutive
    days of above)                        pounds 100

=Present Organization of Light Field-battery.=--1 captain, 2 first
lieutenants, 2 second lieutenants, 1 first sergeant, 6 sergeants, 4
corporals, 2 musicians, 2 artificers, 1 wagoner, 59 privates. Total
commissioned 5. Total enlisted 75.

=Special-duty Men Allowed in a Light Battery.=--1 N. C. O. to take
immediate charge of police, etc., of stable and picket-line, 1 clerk,
1 tailor, 1 cook, 1 assistant cook, when necessary (the head cook is
allowed 25 cents per day from company fund); 1 N. C. O. (detailed from
roster) to supervise rooms and gun-racks.


  COST OF EQUIPMENT (EXCLUSIVE OF AMMUNITION) FOR A FOUR-GUN 3.2-INCH
         FIELD-BATTERY, WITH COMBINED BATTERY-WAGON AND FORGE.

              (Total Cost as herein indicated $17595.71.)

    -------------------------------------------+-----------+-----------
                                               |   Price.  |  Amount.
                                               +-----------+-----------
                  Articles.                    |Dolls.|Cts.|Dolls.|Cts.
    -------------------------------------------+------+----+------+----
    4 3.2-inch B. L. steel guns                | 1022 | 00 | 4088 | 00
    4 3.2-inch carriages and limbers           |      |    |      |
      (cost of brake included)                 | 1316 | 74 | 5266 | 96
    4 3.2-inch caissons and limbers            |  721 | 50 | 2886 | 00
    1 combined forge and battery wagon         |  816 | 00 |  816 | 00
    9 sets artillery-harness for 2 wheel-horses|  170 | 59 | 1535 | 31
    9 sets artillery-harness for 2 lead-horses |  138 | 81 | 1249 | 29
                                               |      |    |      |
           ON EACH CARRIAGE.                   |      |    |      |
                                               |      |    |      |
    1 pair bow-spring recoil-brakes            |   62 | 50 |      |
    1 sponge and rammer, jointed, for bore     |    6 | 00 |    6 | 00
    2 short rammers and sponges,               |      |    |      |
      combined, for chamber                    |    9 | 00 |   18 | 00
    1 sponge-cover, bore-sponge                |      | 40 |      | 40
    2 sponge-covers, chamber-sponge            |      | 45 |      | 90
    1 prolonge (section of picket-rope)        |    8 | 60 |    8 | 60
    1 combination screw-driver }              {|    1 | 28 |    1 | 28
    1 gunners' gimlet          }              {|      | 24 |      | 24
    1 gunners' reamer          }              {|      | 50 |      | 50
    1 priming-wire             } in trail-box {|      | 10 |      | 10
    1 vent-punch               }              {|      | 50 |      | 50
    1 front sight              }              {|    8 | 00 |    8 | 00
                                               |      |    |      |
         WITH EACH CARRIAGE-LIMBER.            |      |    |      |
                                               |      |    |      |
    1 breech-sight, bronze                     |   36 | 00 |   36 | 00
    1 breech-sight pouch                       |    1 | 81 |    1 | 81
    2 gunners' haversacks                      |    2 | 20 |    4 | 40
    2 primer-pouches                           |    1 | 33 |    2 | 66
    2 lanyards, new pattern                    |      | 68 |    1 | 36
    1 fuze-punch                               |      | 50 |      | 50
    1 front-sight cover                        |      | 67 |      | 67
    1 combined tompion and muzzle-cover        |      | 93 |      | 93
    1 breech-cover                             |    3 | 77 |    3 | 77
    1 breech-strap                             |      | 96 |      | 96
    1 sperm-oiler, rectangular, brass          |      | 50 |      | 50
    1 wheel-grease can                         |    2 | 09 |    2 | 09
    1 wheel-grease can knife                   |      | 75 |      | 75
    2 watering-buckets, canvas, folding        |    1 | 45 |    2 | 90
    1 tool-box                                 |    1 | 36 |    1 | 36
    1 screw-wrench, 12-inch                    |      | 49 |      | 49
    1 iron nut-wrench, 12 inches long          |    1 | 50 |    1 | 50
    1 ¾-inch cold chisel, 8 inches long        |      | 25 |      | 25
    1 8-inch hand bastard file                 |      | 08 |      | 08
    1 hand-hammer, 12¼-inch handle             |      | 70 |      | 70
    1 small steel punch                        |      | 18 |      | 18
    1 neck-yoke                                |    8 | 00 |    8 | 00
    1 doubletree                               |    7 | 55 |    7 | 55
    2 singletrees                              |    2 | 32 |    4 | 64
    2 paulins, 12 × 12 feet, dyed duck         |    9 | 77 |   19 | 54
    1 cushion, canvas and hair                 |    7 | 48 |    7 | 48
    1 padlock for ammunition-chest             |      | 60 |      | 60
                                               |      |    |      |
         ON EACH CAISSON-BODY.                 |      |    |      |
                                               |      |    |      |
   1 manœuvring-handspike                      |    1 | 10 |    1 | 10
   2 shovels, long-handled                     |      | 50 |    1 | 00
   2 spades, short-handled                     |      | 80 |    1 | 60
   2 pickaxes, handled                         |      | 75 |    1 | 50
   2 axes, handled                             |      | 75 |    1 | 50
   2 lanterns, with Cranston attachment        |      | 59 |    1 | 18
   1 prolonge (section of picket-rope)         |    8 | 60 |    8 | 60
   1 spare pole                                |   26 | 16 |    6 | 16
   1 spare wheel[14]                           |    2 | 00 |   22 | 00
   2 paulins, 12 × 12 feet, dyed duck          |    9 | 77 |   19 | 54
   2 padlocks for ammunition-chest             |      | 60 |    1 | 20
   2 cushions, canvas and hair                 |    7 | 48 |   14 | 96
                                               |      |    |      |
        WITH EACH CAISSON-LIMBER.              |      |    |      |
                                               |      |    |      |
   1 wheel-grease can                          |    2 | 09 |    2 | 09
   1 wheel-grease can knife                    |      | 75 |      | 75
   2 paulins, 12 × 12 feet, dyed duck          |    9 | 77 |   19 | 54
   1 neck-yoke                                 |    8 | 00 |    8 | 00
   1 doubletree                                |    7 | 55 |    7 | 55
   2 singletrees                               |    2 | 32 |    4 | 64
   2 watering-buckets, canvas, folding         |    1 | 45 |    2 | 90
   1 cushion, canvas and hair.                 |    7 | 48 |    7 | 48
   1 padlock for ammunition-chest              |      | 60 |      | 60
                                               |      |    |      |
      ON LIMBER OF FORGE AND BATTERY-WAGON.    |      |    |      |
                                               |      |    |      |
   1 neck-yoke                                 |    8 | 00 |    8 | 00
   1 doubletree                                |    7 | 55 |    7 | 55
   2 singletrees                               |    2 | 32 |    4 | 64
   2 paulins, 12 × 12 feet                     |    9 | 77 |    9 | 77
   2 watering-buckets, canvas, folding         |    1 | 45 |    1 | 45
   1 wheel-grease can                          |    2 | 09 |    2 | 09
   1 wheel-grease can knife                    |    2 | 75 |      | 75
   1 canvas coal-bag (3 bushels)               |      | 40 |    2 | 40
 200 pounds horseshoes                         |      |03-9/10|78 | 00
  50 pounds horseshoe-nails                    |      | 16 |    8 | 00
 Blacksmith's tools (forge-chest):             |      |    |      |
   1 forge, portable, Empire                   |      |    |      |
     (modified for army use)                   |   19 | 75 |   19 | 75
   2 aprons, leather, smith's                  |    1 | 29 |    2 | 58
   1 hammer, hand, handled                     |      | 70 |      | 70
   1 hammer, riveting                          |      | 30 |      | 30
   1 hammer, shoeing                           |      | 25 |      | 25
   1 pair tongs for holding ¼-inch iron        |      | 75 |      | 75
   1 pair tongs for holding ½-inch iron        |      | 75 |      | 75
   1 pair tongs, smith's, 11-inch              |      | 84 |      | 84
   1 chisel, handled, for cutting hot iron     |      | 50 |      | 50
   1 chisel, handled, for cutting cold iron    |      | 50 |      | 50
   1 fore-punch and creaser (on one handle)    |      | 22 |      | 22
   1 chisel, hand, cold                        |      | 25 |      | 25
   1 pritchel                                  |      | 08½|      | 08½
                                               |      |    |      |
     ON LIMBER OF FORGE AND BATTERY-WAGON.     |      |    |      |
                                               |      |    |      |
   1 shoeing-rasp, 16-inch                     |      | 42 |      | 42
   1 flat bastard file, 12-inch                |      | 16 |      | 16
   1 round punch, hand                         |      | 07 |      | 07
   1 hardie                                    |      | 09 |      | 09
   1 screw-wrench, 12-inch                     |      | 49 |      | 49
   2 shoeing-knives                            |      | 25 |      | 25
   1 toe-knife                                 |      | 07 |      | 07
   1 shoeing-pincers                           |      | 42 |      | 42
   1 clinching-iron                            |      | 30 |      | 30
   1 nail-punch                                |      | 06 |      | 06
   1 rule (2-foot), wood, 4-fold,              |      |    |      |
     No. 72, Stanley                           |      | 15 |      | 15
   1 square, steel                             |      | 40 |      | 40
   1 oiler, brass                              |      | 07 |      | 07
   1 shoeing-box, sole-leather                 |    1 | 50 |    1 | 50
   1 file-handle, iron, 6-inch                 |      | 30 |      | 30
   1 wrench, small, for forge                  |      | 50 |      | 50
   1 fire-rake                                 |      | 14 |      | 14
   1 fire-shovel                               |      | 28 |      | 28
   2 small canvas bags for nails and           |      |    |      |
     small stores                              |      | 62 |      | 62
   1 padlock (and key)                         |      | 60 |      | 60
                                               |      |    |      |
      ON BODY OF FORGE AND BATTERY-WAGON.      |      |    |      |
                                               |      |    |      |
   2 water-buckets, galvanized sheet-iron      |    1 | 10 |    2 | 20
   1 prolonge (section of picket-rope)         |    8 | 60 |    8 | 60
   2 lanterns, with Cranston attachment        |      | 59 |    1 | 18
   1 oil-can, sperm (2¼ pints)                 |      | 50 |      | 50
   1 oil-can, coal (3 gallons)                 |    3 | 20 |    3 | 20
   1 grindstone, arbor, crank, and frame       |      |    |      |
     (iron), complete                          |   16 | 25 |   16 | 25
   1 lunette-prop                              |      | 70 |      | 70
   2 jackscrews                                |    9 | 50 |   19 | 00
   1 hammer, sledge, medium                    |      | 90 |      | 90
   1 anvil (100 pounds)                        |    5 | 25 |    5 | 25
   1 vise, forge                               |      | 84 |      | 84
   2 padlocks (and keys)                       |      | 60 |    1 | 20
 Saddler's tools (chest):                      |      |    |      |
   1 saddler's tool-chest (handled)            |   15 | 15 |   15 | 15
   1 knife, round                              |      | 90 |      | 90
   1 knife, shoe                               |      | 17 |      | 17
   1 draw-gauge                                |    1 | 10 |    1 | 10
   6 awls, stitching, handled (assorted)       |      | 05½|      | 33
   1 rivet-set (two holes)                     |      | 25 |      | 25
   1 revolving punch, four tubes,              |      |    |      |
     Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7                       |      | 55 |      | 55
   1 claw-tool                                 |      | 12 |      | 12
   1 compasses, 6-inch                         |      | 12 |      | 12
   1 creaser, wood                             |      | 17 |      | 17
   1 cutting-nippers, 10-inch                  |    1 | 50 |    1 | 50
   1 hammer, riveting                          |      | 30 |      | 30
   1 edge-tool, No. 2                          |      | 12½|      | 12½
   1 rule (2-foot), No. 18, 2-fold             |      | 15 |      | 15
   1 oil-stone                                 |    2 | 70 |    2 |  70
   1 pliers (large), 6-inch                    |      | 25 |      | 25
                                               |      |    |      |
     ON BODY OF FORGE AND BATTERY-WAGON.       |      |    |      |
                                               |      |    |      |
   1 driving-punch, No. 5                      |      | 09 |      | 09
   1 stitching-horse, complete                 |    3 | 67 |    3 | 67
   2 small canvas bags for small stores        |      | 62 |    1 | 24
   Carpenter's and wheelwright's               |      |    |      |
     tools (chest):                            |      |    |      |
   1 carpenter's and wheelwright's             |      |    |      |
     tool-chest, handled                       |   15 | 15 |   15 | 15
   1 brace with 12 bits, assorted              |    1 | 55 |    1 | 55
   1 drawing-knife, 12-inch                    |      | 50 |      | 50
   1 hand-saw, 20-inch                         |      | 30 |      | 30
   1 rip-saw, 26-inch                          |      | 85 |      | 85
   1 hand-axe, No. 7                           |      | 84 |      | 84
   1 hammer, claw                              |      | 50 |      | 50
   4 chisels, framing--¾-inch,                 |      |    |      |
     1-inch, 1½-inch, 2-inch                   |      |    |    1 | 34
   3 gouges, framing--½-inch,                  |      |    |      |
     1-inch, 1½-inch                           |      |    |    1 | 35
   1 screw-wrench, 12-inch                     |      | 49 |      | 49
   1 plane, jack                               |      | 42 |      | 42
   1 plane, smoothing                          |      | 40 |      | 40
   1 spoke-shave                               |      | 18 |      | 18
   1 rule (2-foot), No. 72, 4-fold, Stanley    |      | 15 |      | 15
   10 brad-awls, assorted, with                |      |    |      |
     (and contained in) handle                 |      |    |      | 42
   1 square, trying, 9-inch                    |      | 22 |      | 22
   1 awl, scribing                             |      | 08 |      | 08
   12 files, saw, assorted--4-inch and 6-inch  |      |    |      | 66
   1 rasp, wood, 10-inch                       |      | 32 |      | 32
   1 file, wood, 10-inch                       |      | 12½|      | 12½
   1 oiler, brass                              |      | 12 |      | 12
   1 oil-stone, 8-inch                         |    2 | 70 |    2 | 70
   1 gauge                                     |      | 06 |      | 06
   1 compasses, 10-inch wing                   |      | 25 |      | 25
   1 table-vise                                |    1 | 40 |    1 | 40
   1 pincers, small                            |      | 12½|      | 12½
   1 mallet, wood                              |   40 |    |      | 40
   6 auger-bits--¼-inch, ½-inch,               |      |    |      |
     ¾-inch, 1-inch, 1¼-inch, 1½-inch          |      |    |    1 | 43
   2 screw-driver bits--½-inch and ¾-inch      |      |    |      | 15
   1 patent auger-handle                       |      | 18 |      | 18
   3 file-handles, iron--4-inch flat,          |      |    |      |
     4-inch round, 5-inch                      |      |    |      | 65
   1 linen tape-line ("Chesterman"             |      |    |      |
     Sheffield), 100 feet                      |    2 | 35 |    2 | 35
   2 small canvas bags for small stores        |      | 62 |    1 | 24
   --------------------------------------------+------+----+------+----


      SUPPLIES, CLEANING MATERIAL, SPARE PARTS, ETC., CARRIED IN
                          BATTERY-WAGON BODY.


                               SUPPLIES.

     2 sides leather, bridle (24 pounds).
     1 side leather, harness (20 pounds).
     2 pounds beeswax.
     3 pounds black wax.
    36 buckles.
     2 papers tacks, copper.
     3 papers tacks, iron.
     2 pounds rivets and burrs, copper.
     2 pounds thread, patent.
     5 pounds thread, shoe.
     5 needles, collar.
    50 needles, saddler's, assorted.
     4 thimbles.
    10 pounds nails.
     1 gross wood screws.
     6 pieces sash-cord, braided (13½ pounds).
    85 pounds bar iron, assorted,
    40 pounds toe-steel.
   250 pounds coal, bituminous.
     3 gallons coal-oil.
    50 pounds wheel-grease.


                MATERIAL FOR CLEANING AND PRESERVATION.

     4 gallons neat's-foot oil (2 cans).
     2¼ pints sperm-oil.
    20 pounds harness-soap.
    10 pounds sponge.
     4 quires sand-paper.
     6 quires emery-cloth.
     2 pounds rotten stone.
    25 papers tripoli.


                           SPARE PARTS--GUN.

    4 carrier latch-pins.
    8 carrier latch-pin springs.
    2 gas-check pads.
    1 steel split ring.
    4 vent-bushings, copper.


                        SPARE PARTS--CARRIAGE.

     1 bow-spring brake.
     2 singletrees.
     1 doubletree.
     1 neck-yoke.
     4 pole-pads.
    12 linch-pins.
     8 linch-washers.
     4 ammunition-chest bolts and nuts.
     2 turnbuckles for ammunition-chests.
     2 breech-strap eye-washers.
     2 nuts for assembling-bolts for lazy-tongs.
     2 springs for pole-prop at end of pole.
     4 lid-props.
     4 lid-prop plate pivots.
     1 pintle-key and chain.


                         SPARE PARTS--HARNESS.

     6 breast-straps.
     6 bridles and bits, artillery, N. P.
     4 collars steel.
     9 girths, hair, artillery, N. P.
     6 halters, artillery, N. P.
    50 halter-straps.
     4 martingales.
     2 neck-yoke pads.
    10 surcingles.
     2 traces, lead, artillery, N. P.
     2 traces, wheel, artillery, N. P.


                             STEEL COLLAR.

     2 trace-plates.
     4 draft-springs.
     4 pad-hooks.
     2 pad bolts and nuts.
     2 nuts for pad-bolts.
     2 buckle-latches.
     6 buckle-springs.
     6 bolts and nuts for top connection.
     4 nuts for top-connection bolts.
     6 bolts and nuts for bottom of collar.
     4 nuts for bottom bolts.
     6 bolts and nuts for extension.
     4 nuts for extension-bolts.
     6 bolts and nuts for trace-plate.
     4 nuts for trace-plate bolts.
    12 back-straps.
     8 back-strap connections.
     6 collar-pads, canvas.


                         TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS.

     3 gunners' gimlets.
     3 vent-punches.
     3 priming-wires.
     2 fuze-wrenches.
     4 fuze-punches.
    24 fuze-punch pins.
     1 obturator spindle and wrench.
     4 whips, artillery.
     2 pickaxe-handles.
     2 axe-helves.
     4 short rammers and sponges, combined.
     1 sponge and rammer, jointed.
     2 sponge-heads and sponges for short rammers and sponges, combined.
     1 rammer-head for short rammers and sponges, combined.
     2 sponge-heads and sponges for jointed sponge and rammer.
     1 rammer-head for jointed sponge and rammer.


                   PRICE-LIST OF ARTILLERY-HARNESS.

                            (NEW PATTERN.)

    --------------------------------+-------------+-------------
                                    |   Wheel.    |    Lead.
                                    +------+------+-------------
            Components.             | Near | Off  | Near | Off
                                    |Horse.|Horse.|Horse.|Horse.
    --------------------------------+---+--+---+--+---+--+---+--
           BREAST-STRAP.            |$  |c.|$  |c.|$  |c.|$  |c.
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
    Strap                           |   |85|   |85|   |  |   |
    Double hooks, 2 @ $3.50 each    |  7|00| 7 |00|   |  |   |
      Breast-strap complete         |  7|85| 7 |85|   |  |   |
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
             BREECHING.             |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
    Body                            |  3|98|  3|98|   |  |   |
    Side-straps, 2 @ 56c. each      |  1|12|  1|12|   |  |   |
      Breeching complete            |  5|10|  5|10|   |  |   |
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
             BRIDLE.                |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
    Curb-bit, Shoemaker             |  2|25|  2|25|  2|25|  2|25
    Curb-strap                      |   |34|   |34|   |34|   |34
    Cheek-pieces, 2 @ 28c. each     |   |56|   |56|   |56|   |56
    Crownpiece                      |   |25|   |25|   |25|   |25
    Reins                           |  1|04|  1|04|  1|04|  1|04
    Throat-lash                     |   |15|   |15|   |15|   |15
    Brow-band                       |   |28|   |28|   |28|   |28
    Brow-band ornaments,            |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
      2 @ 8c. each                  |   |16|   |16|   |16|   |16
    Coupling-strap                  |   |  |   |70|   |  |   |70
      Bridle complete               |  5|03|  5|73|  5|08|  5|78
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
             HALTER.                |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
    Head-stall                      |  1|90|  1|90|  1|90|  1|90
    Strap                           |   |50|   |50|   |50|   |50
    Halter complete                 |  2|40|  2|40|  2|40|  2|40
    Leg-guard                       |  3|22|   |  |   |  |   |
    Loin-strap                      |   |55|   |55|   |55|   |55
    Trace-loops, 2 @ 32c. each      |   |64|   |64|   |64|   |64
    Martingale                      |  2|14|  2|14|   |  |   |
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
             SADDLE.                |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
                                    |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
    Saddle-trees, leather-covered,  |   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
      spring bar attached           |  9|27|  9|27|  9|27|  9|27
    Back-straps, 2 @ 83c. each      |  1|66|  1|66|  1|66|  1|66
    Cincha-straps, 2 @ 50c. each    |  1|00|  1|00|  1|00|  1|00
    Stirrups, brass, 2 @ $1.20 each |  2|40|  2|40|  2|40|  2|40
    Stirrup straps and sweat-leather|   |  |   |  |   |  |   |
      attached, 2 @ $1.48 each      |  2|96|  2|96|  2|96|  2|96
    Rawhide thongs, 3 @ 5c. each    |   |15|   |15|   |15|   |15
    Lead rein roller and strap      |   |  |   |35|   |  |   |35
    Cantle-hook                     |  2|70|  2|70|   |  |   |
      Saddle complete               | 20|14| 20|49| 17|44| 17|79
    Saddle-cloth, hair              |  4|50|  4|50|  4|50|  4|50
    Saddle-cloth, duck              |  2|12|  2|12|  2|12|  2|12
    Saddle-bags                     |  5|17|  5|17|  5|17|  5|17
    Hair girth                      |  1|20|  1|20|  1|20|  1|20
    Traces, wheel, 2 @ $7.00 each   | 14|00| 14|00|   |  |   |
    Traces, lead, 2 @ $8.95 each    |   |  |   |  | 17|90| 17|90
    Whip                            |  1|14|   |  |  1|14|   |
    Collar, steel locking           |  9|00|  9|00|  9|00|  9|00
    Crupper and hip-straps          |  2|23|  2|23|  1|72|  1|72
    Trace-loops, 2 @ 32c. each      |   |  |   |  |   |64|   |64
     Crupper and hip-straps complete|  2|23|  2|23|  2|36|  2|36
                                    +---+--+---+--+---+--+---+----
        Total                       | 87|00| 83|59| 69|45| 69|36
    --------------------------------+---+--+---+--+---+--+---+----

   Cost of one set of harness for 2 wheel-horses $170.59
   Cost of one set of harness for 2 lead-horses   138.81


  COST OF PACKING OUTFIT FOR HOTCHKISS MOUNTAIN-GUN (CAL. 1.65-INCH).

    Pack-saddle for gun                 $44.16
    Crupper                               4.10
    Belly-cincha                          4.85
    Saddle-cincha                         3.89
    Cargo-cincha                          9.24
    Wheel-straps                           .17
    Hub-straps                             .40
    Gun-pad                               1.30
    Lashing-rope                           .25
                                        -------$68.36

    Pack-saddle for carriage             41.44
    Crupper                               4.10
    Belly-cincha                          3.63
    Saddle-cincha                         3.89
    Cargo-cincha                          6.45
    Trail-strap                            .14
    Lashing-rope                           .25
                                        ------- 59.90

    Pack-saddle for ammunition            48.94
    Crupper                                4.10
    Belly-cincha                           3.63
    Saddle-cincha                          3.89
    Cargo-cincha                           3.92
    Lashing-rope                            .25
                                        ------- 64.73


                             HARNESS, ETC.

    Bridles, 2 at $1.92 each               3.84
    Breast-collars, 2 at $2.72 each        5.44
    Martingales, 2 at 77 cents each        1.54
    Breechings, 2 at $3.61 each            7.22
    Traces, 2 pairs at $1.30 per pair      2.60
    Pole-straps, 2 at 26 cents each         .52
                                         ------ 21.16

    Harness-sack                                 1.26
    Neck-yoke                               .75
    Neck-yoke brace                         .40
    Neck-yoke brace-billet and chapes       .12
                                         ------  1.27

    Pole                                       $41.21
    Splinter-bar                          $7.51
    Trail-hooks for attachment of
      splinter-bar                         1.60
                                         ------  9.11
    Ammunition-boxes, 4 at $3.18 each           12.72
    Cartridge-pack                               2.54
                                               ------
    Total                                      282.26


                      CLASS VI. OFFICERS' SABRES.

    Sabre complete with scabbard                $16.00
    Scabbard                                      5.00
    Chamois case                                   .75


              CLASS VI. SABRE AND KNIFE FOR ENLISTED MEN.

    Sabre complete                                $5.00
    Hunting-knife                                  1.10


               CLASS VII. ARTILLERY ACCOUTREMENTS. ETC.

    -----------------------------------------------------+-----------
                                                         |   Price.
                         Components.                     +------+----
                                                         |Dolls.|Cts.
    -----------------------------------------------------+------+----
    Light-artillery sabre-belt, with slings, etc. $0.99 }|      |
    Light-artillery sabre-belt plate                .18 }|      |
    Light-artillery sabre-belt complete                  |    1 | 17
                                                         |      |
    Light-artillery knapsack                             |    4 | 00
    Pistol-cartridge pouch                               |      | 60
    Pistol-holster                                       |      | 79
    Sabre-knot                                           |      | 55
    Canteen                                              |      | 53
    Canteen-strap with snap, short, for saddle           |      | 20
    Canteen-strap for dismounted service                 |      | 29
    Haversack                                            |      | 88
    Haversack-strap                                      |      | 56
    Meat-can                                             |      | 28
    Tin cup                                              |      | 15
    Knife                                                |      | 07
    Fork                                                 |      | 05
    Spoon                                                |      | 02½
                                                         |      |
    Snap-hook for canteen-strap                          |      | 02
    Snap-hook for sabre-sling                            |      | 32


         OFFICER'S BLACK LEATHER SWORD-BELT FOR FIELD SERVICE.

    -------------------------------------------------------+------+----
                                                           |   Price.
                      Components.                          +------+----
                                                           |Dolls.|Cts.
    -------------------------------------------------------+------+----
    Waist-belt                                             |      | 45
    Sliding loops, leather, 2 at 2½ cents each             |      | 05
    Belt-plate                                             |      | 35
    Belt-plate hasp                                        |      | 08
    Belt-slides, leather, with ovals, 2 at 9½ cents each   |      | 19
    Long sling                                             |      | 15
    Short sling                                            |      | 07
    Belt-buckle                                            |      | 07
    Sling-buttons, 2 at 9½ cents each                      |      | 19
    Short-sling button with hook                           |      | 12
    Snap-hooks for sword-slings, 2 at 55 cents each        |    1 | 10
                                                           +------+----
        Sword-belt complete                                |    2 | 82
    -------------------------------------------------------+------+----

Note.--All the metallic parts of the officer's sword-belt are of brass,
gold-plated.


                     CLASS VII. HORSE EQUIPMENTS.

                     (See also ARTILLERY-HARNESS.)


                  SADDLE. (See _Artillery-harness_.)

    Sabre-straps, 2 at 10½ cents each                   $0 21
    Stirrups, wood (without hoods), 2 at 21 cents each     42
    Stirrup-hoods, 2 at 57½ cents each                   1 15
    Stirrup-straps, 2 at 50 cents each                   1 00


                CURB-BRIDLE. (See _Artillery-harness_.)


                           WATERING-BRIDLE.

    Watering-bit complete                                $0 73
    Reins                                                   50
                                                        ------
        Watering-bridle complete                         $1 23

    Curry-comb                                            $0 23
    Double spring snap for lariats                           14
    Harness-sack for artillery-harness                     3 15
    Horse-brush                                              90
    Horse-cover, cotton duck, with surcingle of the same
      material attached                                    3 29
    Lariat                                                   86
    Link, with snap                                          29
    Mane-comb                                                08
    Nose-bag                                                 95
    Picket-pin                                               34
    Saddle-blanket, artillery                              3 25
    Saddle-cloth for officers of artillery                 5 05
    Brow-band, scarlet, officer's                            49
    Breast-straps, scarlet, officer's                      2 55
    Side-lines (or hopples)                                1 20
    Stirrup, with hood and socket for guidon attached      1 34
    Sweat-leathers, each                                     55
    Surcingle                                                91
    Spurs, per pair                                          70
    Spur-straps, per pair                                    20


                          SPURS FOR OFFICERS.

    2 spurs, 60 cents each                                $1 20
    2 spur-chains, 40 cents each                             80
    2 spur-straps, 6½ cents each                             13
    2 spur-strap buckles, 15¾ cents each                     31½
    1 packing-box, pasteboard                                05½
                                                         ----------
        1 pair spurs                                      $2 50


                            STENCIL OUTFIT.

    1 stencil-plate of sheet brass, with coat of arms of
      the service, number of regiment, and
      letter of company                                   $0 75
    10 metal stencil-plates, numbers O to 9                  16½
    1 stencil-brush                                          15
    1 box of black marking-paste                             08
    1 packing-box                                            16½
                                                         ----------
        Price of stencil outfit complete                  $1 31


                            MARKING OUTFIT.

    1 stamp                                               $1 06
    1 stamp-holder                                           55
    2 thumb-screws, at 4 cents each                          08
    1 company letter                                         05¼
    19 figures and 1 blank, at 3 cents each                  60
    1 brass mallet                                           49
    1 ink-pad                                                05¼
    1 glass bottle, ground-glass stopper                     10½
    4 ounces indelible ink                                   09
    1 inking-stick                                           02
    1 packing box                                            43
                                                         ----------
      Price of marking outfit complete                    $3 53


          In Class III. Artillery Implements and Equipments.

    Lanterns, common                                      $1 00
        "     dark                                         1 25
        "     globe                                        1 25


SUPPLY TABLE OF ORDNANCE STORES FOR SIX MONTHS OF A FOUR-GUN BATTERY OF
                   LIGHT ARTILLERY--3.2-INCH RIFLES.

  Expendible stores are marked with a star (thus *), and must not be
                     dropped until actually used.


                        I. _Battery Equipment._

    4 short rammers and sponges combined.
    1 sponge and rammer, jointed.
    2 sponge-hds.--chamber-sponge*
    1 sponge-head--bore-sponge.*
    2 rammer-heads--chamber.*
    1 rammer-head--bore.*
    8 sponges, woollen, chamber.*
    4 sponges, woollen, bore.*
    2 sponge-covers--bore-sponge.
    3 sponge-covers--chamber-sponge.
    6 watering-buckets, canvas, folding.
    4 lanyards for friction-primers.
    2 vent-punches.
    2 gunner's reamers.
    4 priming-wires.
    1 fuze-wrench.
    2 paulins (12 feet by 12 feet).
    1 spare pole.*
    1 neck-yoke.*
    1 doubletree *
    2 singletrees.*
    5 keys and chains.*
    6 washers, linch.*
    2 pole-pads.*
    2 pickaxe-handles.*
    3 axe-helves.*
    2 gas-check pads.
    12 fuze-punch pins.
    2 axes, hand.
    2 shovels, long-handled.
    6 files, hand, saw, assorted.
    6 files, wood.
     1 hammer, hand.
     1 knife, shoe and saddler's.
     2 rasps, wood, 10-inch.
     1 nipper.
     1 pair bow-spring recoil-brakes.


                          II. _Harness, etc._

     6 bridles, artillery.
     6 bridles, watering, cavalry pattern.
     6 breast-straps.
     9 girths, hair.
    15 halters, N. P.
    50 halter-straps.*
    15 nose-bags.
    20 saddle-blankets, red.
    10 saddle-cloths, red.
    10 surcingles.
     2 traces, lead.*
     2 traces, wheel.*


                        III. _Equipments, etc._

    12 canteens and straps.
    10 haversacks and straps.
     6 spurs and straps.
     6 sabre-belts and plates.
    30 currycombs.
    50 horse-brushes.
     8 whips, artillery.


                  EXPENDIBLE SUPPLIES FOR SIX MONTHS.


             I. _Materials for Cleaning and Preservation._

     4 quires sand-paper.
     5 quires crocus-cloth.
     6 quires emery-cloth.
    12 pounds putz pomade.
     2 pounds rotten-stone.
    50 papers tripoli.
    20 pounds harness-soap.
    10 pounds Castile soap.
     5 pounds borax.
     6 pounds cosmoline.
     6 pounds harness-oil.
    25 pounds cotton waste.
    10 pounds sponge.
     4 gallons neat's-foot oil.
     2 gallons sperm-oil.
     3 gallons asphalt varnish.
     2 quarts blacking for leather.


                          II. _Paints, etc._

    25 pounds paint, lead-colored.
    25 pounds paint, black.
    75 pounds paint, olive.
     1½ pounds paint, first coat for 3.2-inch rifle.
     1½ pounds paint, second coat for 3.2-inch rifle.
     2 pounds lampblack.
     2 pounds extract of logwood.
    50 pounds wheel-grease.
     4 gallons linseed-oil, boiled.
     3 gallons spirits of turpentine.
     3 pieces sash-cord.
     6 brushes, paint.
     4  sash-tools.


                      III. _Saddler's Materials._

     150 pounds harness-leather.
       3 sides bridle-leather.
       2 sides rawhide.
       1 pound beeswax.
       2 pounds black wax.
       3 pounds thread, shoe.
       2½ pounds thread, linen, patent No. 35.
       2 ounces bristles.
       3 pounds rivets and burrs, copper.
    3000 tacks, iron.
    2000 tacks, copper (1000 of 12-ounce, 1000 of 20-ounce).
     144 wood-screws, 1-inch, No. 8.
      60 buckles (20, ½-inch; 20, ¾-inch; 20, 1-inch).
      40 buckles, 1½-inch, girth.
      15 buckles, iron, roller, l¼-inch.
      60 saddle-nails, japanned.
      20 awls, saddlers', assorted.
       6 awl-handles.
      50 needles, saddlers', assorted.
       4 needles, collar.


                    ANNUAL ALLOWANCE OF AMMUNITION.

For each battery of artillery equipped as a battery of horse-artillery
or a light battery, and serving as such:

   ----------------+--------------------------+------------------------
          Gun.     |     Maximum Charge.      |No. of projectiles for
                   |                          |each gun of the command.
   ----------------+--------------------------+------------------------
   3.2-inch rifle  |3½ lbs. L. X. Q. powder   | 25 standard projectiles
                   |                          |
   Hotchkiss       |                          |
   revolving cannon|                          |100 standard projectiles.
                   |                          |
   3.6-inch mortar{|For each battery: (_a_) Fifteen shells without
                  {|fuzes (shell ballasted); (_b_) five full charges,
                  {|16 ounces. Ten 8 ounce charges, comprising each
                  {|one 5-ounce and one 3-ounce charge bound together;
                  {|these can be used as 3-ounce, 5-ounce, 8-ounce,
                  {|or 11-ounce charges.
   ----------------+---------------------------------------------------

Each battery equipped as a battery of horse-artillery or a light
battery will be allowed for instruction, other than target practice, as
many blank cartridges and friction-primers as may be deemed necessary
by the battery commander and approved by the post commander.

For batteries armed with the Hotchkiss breech-loading mountain-gun
there will be allowed for the annual target practice twenty-five
standard projectiles for each gun of the command, or their equivalent
in money value if reloaded.

For each machine-gun of small-arm calibre there will be allowed for
the annual target practice two thousand ball cartridges, or their
equivalent in money value if reloaded.

Blank cartridges for salutes and for firing the morning and evening gun:

3.2-inch rifle, 2½ lbs. I. K. powder.

3-inch rifle, 1 lb. of either mortar, cannon, or I. K. powder.

6-pdr. bronze gun, 1 lb. of either mortar, cannon, or I. K. powder.

Light 12-pdr. bronze gun, 1¾ lbs. of either mortar, cannon, or I. K.
powder.


                         VETERINARY MEDICINES.

Veterinary medicines, instruments, and supplies for the treatment
of all public animals, and the authorized private horses of mounted
officers, are furnished by the Quartermaster's Department.

Requisitions and estimates for veterinary supplies will be made in
conformity with the standard supply table. Only the articles and
the quantities thereof that are actually needed will be placed on
the requisition. The quantity prescribed in the table is not to be
considered an allowance, but as a limit not to be exceeded without
special authority.

The standard supplies of veterinary medicines and dressings are under
charge of the quartermaster, to be issued by him to the different
commands at the post upon approved requisitions in such quantities
and of such articles as may be deemed requisite, in conformity with
the standard supply table. Battery commanders must deduct from the
allowance, in making requisition, the quantity of each article on hand
and available for issue.

Veterinary instruments and books remain in the custody of the post
quartermaster, and are loaned as needed.

The pannier, pocket-case, and saddle-bags are easily improvised, and
are omitted from the table.

For a greater or less number of animals than are provided for in the
table the proportions indicated will be observed in requisitions and
issues.

This table is ample and sufficiently varied for ordinary practice; but
in order to provide for the necessities of epidemics, and to indulge,
as far as practicable, individual preference and training, a special
requisition for articles not in the supply table, with an explanation
of the nature of the emergency or case rendering it necessary, may
be forwarded through the regular channels for the action of the
quartermaster-general.


                        STANDARD SUPPLY TABLE.

   ------------------------------------------+--------------------------
                   Articles.                 |       Quantities.
   ------------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
   MEDICINES FOR THREE MONTHS' SUPPLY--      |For 100 |For 200 |For 300
                                             |Animals.|Animals.|Animals.
   ------------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
   Acid, carbolic, crystallized           oz.|   16   |  18    |   24
   Aconite, tincture of the root          oz.|    4   |   4    |    8
   Alcohol                              gals.|    1   |   2    |    3
   Aloes, Barbadoes                       oz.|   20   |  20    |   30
   Ammonia, aromatic spirits of          lbs.|    2   |   3    |    4
   Ammonia, carbonate of                 lbs.|    1   |   1½   |    2
   Ammonia, solution of                 gals.|    1   |   2    |    3
   Belladonna, fluid extract of           oz.|    4   |   6    |    8
   Camphor                               lbs.|    1   |   1½   |    2
   Cantharides (Spanish flies), powdered  oz.|    2   |   3    |    4
   Charcoal, powdered                    lbs.|    1   |   1½   |    2
   Cosmoline, veterinary                 lbs.|    4   |   8    |   12
   Ether, spirits of nitrous (sweet          |        |        |
     spirits of nitre)                   lbs.|    3   |   6    |    8
   Ether, sulphuric                      lbs.|    2   |   3    |    4
   Flaxseed-meal                         lbs.|   25   |  30    |   40
   Ginger, powdered                      lbs.|    2   |   3    |    4
   Gentian, powdered                     lbs.|    2   |   3    |    4
   Glycerine                              oz.|    8   |  12    |   16
   Iron, sulphate of desiccated           oz.|    8   |  10    |   12
   Lime, chloride of                     lbs.|   25   |  50    |   75
   Lunar, caustic                         oz.|    1   |   1    |    2
   Oil, linseed                         gals.|    2   |   3    |    4
   Opium, tincture of                    lbs.|    3   |   4    |    6
   Oil, olive                           gals.|    1   |   2    |    3
   Pepper, Cayenne, ground               lbs.|    1   |   1½   |    2
   Potassa, nitrate of (saltpetre)       lbs.|    3   |   4    |    6
   Soap, Castile                         lbs.|   10   |  15    |   20
   Soda, bicarbonate of                  lbs.|    4   |   8    |   12
   Sulphur, washed                       lbs.|    2   |   3    |    4
   Turpentine, oil of                   gals.|    2   |   3    |    4
   Zinc, sulphate of                      oz.|    8   |  10    |   12
                                             |        |        |
   DRESSINGS FOR SIX MONTHS' SUPPLY.         |        |        |
                                             |        |        |
   Bandages 2½ inches wide and 4 yards       |        |        |
    long, of heavy bed-ticking           doz.|  2     |   3    |     4
   Bandages 4 inches wide and 4 yards        |        |        |
     long of heavy red flannel           doz.|  2     |   3    |    4
   Oakum                                 lbs.|   10   |  15    |   20
   Silk for ligatures                     oz.|     ¾  |    ¾   |    1
   Sponges, coarse                       lbs.|    1   |   1½   |    2
   ------------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------

   ------------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
   INSTRUMENTS FOR EACH POST--               |Of 100  |Of 200  |Of 300
                                             |Animals.|Animals.|Animals.
   ------------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
   Ball forceps                           no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Bistouries                             no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Catheters, gum, with stylet            no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Corkscrews                             no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Drenching-horns, tin                   no.|    2   |  2     |    4
   Fleams (3 blades)                      no.|    2   |  4     |    6
   Funnels, tin                           no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Graduate glasses, 6-oz.                no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Hobbles, casting                       no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Hones                                  no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Lancets                                no.|    3   |  6     |    8
   Measures, tin, sets                    no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Mortars and pestles, wedgewood, large  no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Needles, surgeons'                     no.|    8   | 10     |   12
   Needles, Seaton                        no.|    8   | 10     |   12
   Probangs, celluloid, in two pieces     no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Scales and weights, shop               no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Scissors, curved                       no.|    2   |  4     |    6
   Slings, suspending                     no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Spatulas                               no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Speculums, mouth                       no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   Syringes, rubber, 2-oz.                no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Syringes, rubber, 24-oz.               no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Thermometers, clinical                 no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Tooth-rasps                            no.|    1   |  2     |    3
   ------------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
   BOOKS FOR EACH OFFICER IN CHARGE OF--     |  100   |  200   |  300
                                             |Animals.|Animals.|Animals.
   ------------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------
   Blank books, 2-quire, for record          |        |        |
     of cases                             no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Practical Horse-shoeing, Fleming       no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   The Farmer's Veterinary Adviser, Laws  no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   Or, Army Veterinary Manual, Holcombe   no.|    1   |  2     |    2
   ------------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------


        TABLEWARE AND KITCHEN UTENSILS ALLOWED A LIGHT BATTERY.

    Dinner-plates                     75}
    Soup-plates                       75}
    Meat-plates                        7}
    Cups and saucers                  75}
    Water-pitchers                     7}
    Vegetable-dishes                  38} Articles of china and glassware
    Salt-cellars                      14} upon which an allowance of
    Pepper-boxes                      14} 20 per cent per annum of total
    Syrup-pitchers                    14} value is made.
    Bowls                             75}
    Pickle-dishes                      9}
    Sugar-bowls                       14}
    Gravy-boats                       14}
    Mustard-pots                      14}
    Tumblers                          75}

    Dippers                            7
    Soup-ladles                        7
    Skimmers                           2
    Dishpans                           4
    Basting-spoons                     7
    Tea-spoons                        75
    Table-spoons                      75
    Table-forks                       75
    Table-knives                      75
    Bread-knives                       4
    Butcher-knives                     4
    Chopping-bowls                     4
    Coffee-mills                       1
    Meat-saws                          2
    Scales and weights                 1
    Frying-pans                        4
    Meat-forks                         7
    Meat-choppers or meat-cutters      2
    Carving-sets                       2
    Cleavers                           1
    Mustard-spoons                    14
    Flour-sieves                       1
    Can-openers                        7
    Graters                            2


                        ALLOWANCE OF CLOTHING.

    ----------------------------------+-------------------------+
                                      |        Year.            |
                                      +----------+--------------+
             Articles.                |   First. |              |
                                      +-----+----+-------+------+
                                      |1st  |2nd |Second.|Third.|
                                      | 6   | 6  |       |      |
                                      |mos. |mos.|       |      |
    ----------------------------------+-----+----+-------+------+
    Helmets and trimmings complete No.|  1  |... |  ...  |  1   |
    Forage-caps and trimmings      No.|  1  | 1  |   1   |  1   |
    Campaign hats                  No.|  1  |... |   1   |  1   |
    Uniform coats                  No.|  1  |... |  ...  |  1   |
    Trousers                     pairs|  2  | 1  |   2   |  2   |
    Canvas fatigue coats           No.|  1  |... |   1   |  1   |
    Canvas fatigue trousers      pairs|  1  |... |   1   |  1   |
    Linen collars                  No.|  4  | 2  |   6   |  6   |
    Dark blue flannel shirts       No.|  2  | 1  |   2   |  2   |
    Knit undershirts               No.|  2  | 1  |   3   |  3   |
    Drawers                      pairs|  2  | 1  |   3   |  3   |
    Boots for mounted troops     pairs|  1  |... |   1   | ...  |
    Shoes for mounted troops     pairs|  1  | 1  |   1   |  2   |
    Barrack shoes                pairs|  1  |... |   1   |  1   |
    Stockings, woollen           pairs|  3  | 1  |   4   |  4   |
    Stockings, cotton            pairs|  3  | 3  |   6   |  6   |
    Blouses                        No.|  1  |... |   1   |  1   |
    Overcoats                      No.|  1  |... |  ...  | ...  |
    Chevrons, cloth              pairs|  2  |... |   1   |  1   |
    Chevrons, gold lace          pairs|  1  |... |  ...  |  1   |
    Stripes for trousers         pairs|  2  | 1  |   2   |  2   |
    Stable frock for mounted          |     |    |       |      |
      troops                       No.|  1  |... |  ...  |  1   |
    Overalls for mounted troops  pairs|  1  |... |   1   |  1   |
    Blankets woollen               No.|  1  |... |  ...  |  1   |
    Berlin gloves for mounted         |     |    |       |      |
      troops                     pairs|  2  | 2  |   4   |  4   |
    Leather gauntlets            pairs|  1  |... |   1   | ...  |
    Suspenders                   pairs|  1  |... |   1   |  1   |
    Cork helmets in lieu of           |     |    |       |      |
      campaign hats[15]            No.|  1  |... |  ...  |  1   |
    Arctic overshoes[15]         pairs|  1  |... |   1   | ...  |
    Woollen mittens[15]          pairs|  2  |... |   2   |  2   |
    Overcoats, fur or other           |     |    |       |      |
      suitable material[15]        No.|1[16]| ...|  ...  | ...  |
    Fur caps[15]                   No.| 1   | ...|   1   |  1   |
    Fur gauntlets[15]           pairs.| 1   | ...|   1   |  1   |
    ----------------------------------+-----+----+-------+------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ----------------------------------+--------------+------
                                      |     Year.    |
                                      +--------------+
             Articles. Year.          |              |Total
                                      +-------+------+ for
                                      |Fourth.|Fifth.| five
                                      |       |      |years.
                                      |       |      |
    ----------------------------------+-------+------+------
    Helmets and trimmings complete No.|  ...  |  ... |   2
    Forage-caps and trimmings      No.|   1   |   1  |   6
    Campaign hats                  No.|   1   |   1  |   5
    Uniform coats                  No.|  ...  |  ... |   2
    Trousers                     pairs|   2   |   1  |  10
    Canvas fatigue coats           No.|   1   |   1  |   5
    Canvas fatigue trousers      pairs|   1   |   1  |   5
    Linen collars                  No.|   6   |   6  |  30
    Dark blue flannel shirts       No.|   2   |   2  |  11
    Knit undershirts               No.|   3   |   3  |  15
    Drawers                      pairs|   3   |   3  |  15
    Boots for mounted troops     pairs|   1   |  ... |   3
    Shoes for mounted troops     pairs|   1   |   1  |   7
    Barrack shoes                pairs|   1   |   1  |   5
    Stockings, woollen           pairs|   4   |   4  |  20
    Stockings, cotton            pairs|   6   |   6  |  30
    Blouses                        No.|   1   |   1  |   5
    Overcoats                      No.|  ...  |  ... |   1
    Chevrons, cloth              pairs|   1   |   1  |   6
    Chevrons, gold lace          pairs|  ...  |  ... |   2
    Stripes for trousers         pairs|   2   |   1  |  10
    Stable frock for mounted          |       |      |
      troops                       No.|  ...  |  ... |   2
    Overalls for mounted troops  pairs|   1   |   1  |   5
    Blankets woollen               No.|  ...  |  ... |   2
    Berlin gloves for mounted         |       |      |
      troops                     pairs|   4   |   4  |  20
    Leather gauntlets            pairs|   1   |  ... |   3
    Suspenders                   pairs|   1   |   1  |   5
    Cork helmets in lieu of           |       |      |
      campaign hats[15]            No.|  ...  |  ... |   2
    Arctic overshoes[15]         pairs|  ...  |  ... |   2
    Woollen mittens[15]          pairs|   2   |   2  |  10
    Overcoats, fur or other           |       |      |
      suitable material[15]        No.|  ...  |  ... |  ...
    Fur caps[15]                   No.|   1   |   1  |   5
    Fur gauntlets[15]           pairs.|   1   |   1  |   5
    ----------------------------------+-------+------+------


                        ALLOWANCE OF EQUIPAGE.

                         IN CAMP OR GARRISON.

    ------------------------+---------------------+-----+---------+
                            |       Tents.        |     |         |
                            +-------+-----+-------+     |         |
                            |Conical|Wall.|Common.|Axes.|Hatchets.|
                            | wall. |     |       |     |         |
    ------------------------+-------+-----+-------+-----+---------+
    A general officer       |  ...  |  3  |  ...  |  1  |    1    |
    Field and staff officer |       |     |       |     |         |
      above rank of captain |  ...  |  2  |  ...  |  1  |    1    |
    Other staff officers or |       |     |       |     |         |
      captains              |  ...  |  1  |  ...  |  1  |    1    |
    Subalterns of companies,|       |     |       |     |         |
      to every two          |  ...  |  1  |  ...  |  1  |    1    |
    To every 6 foot or      |       |     |       |     |         |
      4 mounted men         |  ...  | ... |   1   | ... |   ...   |
    To every 15 foot or     |       |     |       |     |         |
      13 mounted men        |  ...  | ... |  ...  |  2  |    2    |
    To every 20 foot or     |       |     |       |     |         |
      17 mounted men        |   1   | ... |  ...  | ... |   ...   |
    ------------------------+-------+-----+-------+-----+---------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ------------------------+-------+---------+--------+-----
                            |       |         |        |
                            +       |         | Camp-  |Mess-
                            |Spades.|Pickaxes.|kettles.|pans.
                            |       |         |        |
    ------------------------+-------+---------+--------+-----
    A general officer       |  ...  |   ...   |   ...  | ...
    Field and staff officer |       |         |        |
      above rank of captain |  ...  |   ...   |   ...  | ...
    Other staff officers or |       |         |        |
      captains              |  ...  |   ...   |   ...  | ...
    Subalterns of companies,|       |         |        |
      to every two          |  ...  |   ...   |   ...  | ...
    To every 6 foot or      |       |         |        |
      4 mounted men         |  ...  |   ...   |   ...  | ...
    To every 15 foot or     |       |         |        |
      13 mounted men        |   2   |    2    |    2   |  5
    To every 20 foot or     |       |         |        |
      17 mounted men        |  ...  |   ...   |   ...  | ...
    ------------------------+-------+---------+--------+-----


     TENTS FOR THE SICK, THEIR ATTENDANTS, AND HOSPITAL SUPPLIES.

    --------------------+-----------------
                        |      Tents.
                        +---------+-------
                        |Hospital.|Common.
    --------------------+---------+-------
    For 1 company       |   1     |   1
     "  2 companies     |   1     |   1
     "  3    "          |   2     |   1
     "  4    "          |   2     |   1
     "  5    "          |   3     |   1
     "  6    "          |   3     |   1
     "  7    "          |   3     |   1
     "  8    "          |   3     |   1
     "  9    "          |   4     |   1
     " 10    "          |   4     |   1
    --------------------+---------+--------


                  CORN BROOMS AND SCRUBBING-BRUSHES.

To each battery, without regard to its numerical strength, 3 corn
brooms and 2 scrubbing-brushes per month.


                            BARRACK CHAIRS.

One for each non-commissioned officer.

One for every two enlisted men of all other grades.


ALLOWANCE OF STOVES, FUEL, LAMPS, OIL, OFFICE FURNITURE, AND STATIONERY
                         FOR A LIGHT BATTERY.

=Stoves.=--3 large stoves in each dormitory, 1 large stove in each
mess-room and day-room, 1 small stove for each of the two rooms
for non-commissioned officers, 1 small stove for the reading-room,
blacksmith-shop, carpenter-shop, saddle-shop, and guard-room each, and
one cooking-stove or range for the kitchen.

=Fuel= (monthly).--For each enlisted man 1/12 cord of wood from
May 1 to August 31, and 1 cord from Sept. 1 to April 30. Stations
between 36 and 43 degs. N. lat. ¼[17] increase; stations further
north ⅓ increase. For guards, not to exceed 3 cords from Sept. 1 to
April 30, with ¾ cord increase for stations between 36 and 43 degs.
N. lat.; and 1 cord for those further north.

=Lamps.=--One burner for every ten (10) men and every fraction
thereof, when fraction is five or more, of maximum strength of
organization, and lamps or lanterns, not exceeding 3 for each barracks,
for lighting interior passage-ways. Office, guard-house and first
sergeant each a lamp with single burner. Stables, number of lamps or
lanterns required, approved by department commander.

=Oil= (monthly).--Four ounces per burner for 1½-in. wicks and 2 ounces
for smaller wicks during each hour of authorized illumination. (1 gal.
for 26 hours for large burner, or 52 hours for small burner.)

=Office Furniture.=--To each desk, 1 ink-stand, 1 paper-folder, 1
ruler, 1 steel eraser, 1 piece of india-rubber, and 4 lead-pencils.

=Stationery= (quarterly).--Battery commander: 6 qrs. writing-paper, ¼
qr. envelope-paper, 10 sheets blotting-paper, 20 pens, 2 pen-holders,
1 pint black ink, 1 oz. red ink, ½ pint mucilage, 3 oz. sealing-wax, 1
piece office tape, 80 envelopes.


    TABLE OF WEIGHTS OF CERTAIN ARTICLES OF CLOTHING AND EQUIPAGE.

        Article.        Lbs. Oz.         Article.        Lbs. Oz.
    Overcoat             6    8     |Stockings, pair           4
    Blouse               2          |Gauntlets, pair           7
    Stable frock         1    4     |Boots, pair          4    8
    Overalls             1    2     |Shoes, pair          2    6
                                    |
    Drawers                  14½    |Leggins, pair             8
    Trousers             2    6     |Blankets             5
    D. B. F. shirt       1    4     |Poncho               2    8
    Knit undershirt      1          |Rubber blankets      2    8
                                    |
    Mess-pan             1   10     |Spade                5
    Camp-kettle          5    8     |Shovel, long         4   10
    Axe and helve        6    4     |Shovel, short        5
    Hatchet and helve    1    8     |Pickaxe and helve    7   12


                 TABLE OF MONTHLY PAY OF ENLISTED MEN.

    ------------------------------+-----+------+-----+------+------
    Year of enlistment            |First|Second|Third|Fourth|Fifth
                                  |Year.| Year |Year.| Year.|Year.
    ------------------------------+-----+------+-----+------+------
      RANK AND SERVICE.           |     |      |     |      |
                                  |     |      |     |      |
        _Company._                |     |      |     |      |
                                  |     |      |     |      |
    Private--artillery, cavalry,  |}    |      |     |      |
      and infantry                |}    |      |     |      |
    Private (2d class)--engineers |}    |      |     |      |
      and ordnance                |}$13 | $13  | $14 | $15  | $16
    Musician--engineers,          |}    |      |     |      |
      artillery, and infantry     |}    |      |     |      |
    Trumpeter--cavalry            |}    |      |     |      |
    Wagoner--artillery, cavalry,  |     |      |     |      |
      and infantry                |  14 |}     Not entitled to
    Artificer--artillery and      |     |}       additional
      infantry                    |  15 |}         pay.[18]
    Private--hospital corps       |  18 |  18  |  19 |  20  |  21
    Corporal--artillery, cavalry, |}    |      |     |      |
      and infantry                |} 15 |  15  |  16 |  17  |  18
    Blacksmith, farrier, and      |}    |      |     |      |
      saddler--cavalry            |}    |      |     |      |
    Sergeant--artillery, cavalry, |     |      |     |      |
      and infantry                |  18 |  18  |  19 |  20  |  21[19]
    Private (1st class)--engineers|     |      |     |      |
      and ordnance                |  17 |  17  |  18 |  19  |  20
    Corporal--engineers           |     |      |     |      |
      and ordnance                |  20 |  20  |  21 |  22  |  23
    First sergeant--artillery,    |     |      |     |      |
      cavalry, and infantry       |  25 |  25  |  26 |  27  |  28[19]
    Sergeant--engineers, ordnance,|     |      |     |      |
      and signal corps            |  34 |  34  |  35 |  36  |  37
    1st class sergeant--signal    |     |      |     |      |
      corps                       |  45 |  45  |  46 |  47  |  48
                                  |     |      |     |      |
        _Regiment._               |     |      |     |      |
                                  |     |      |     |      |
    Chief trumpeter               |}    |      |     |      |
    Saddler sergeant--cavalry     |} 22 |  22  |  23 |  24  |  25
    Principal musician--artillery |}    |      |     |      |
      and infantry                |}    |      |     |      |
    Chief musician--artillery,    |}    |}    Not entitled to
      cavalry, and infantry       |} 60 |}   additional pay.[18]
    Sergeant-major--artillery,    |}    |      |     |      |
      cavalry, and infantry       |} 23 |  23  |  24 |  25  |  26
    Q. M. sergeant--artillery,    |}    |      |     |      |
      cavalry, and infantry       |}    |      |     |      |
    Sergeant-major and Q. M.      |     |      |     |      |
      sergeant--engineers         |  36 |  36  |  37 |  38  |  39
    Veterinary surgeon (senior)   | 100 |} Not  entitled to any
    Veterinary surgeon (junior)   |  75 |}   additional  pay.
                                  |     |      |     |      |
        _Post._                   |     |      |     |      |
                                  |     |      |     |      |
    Ordnance sergeant             |}    |      |     |      |
    Commissary sergeant           |} 34 |  34  |  35 |  36  |  37
    Post quartermaster-sergeant   |}    |      |     |      |
    Hospital steward              |  45 |  45  |  46 |  47  |  48
    Acting hospital steward       |  25 |  25  |  26 |  27  |  28
    ------------------------------+-----+------+-----+------+------

On re-enlisting after 5 years' service, $2.00 per month in addition to
pay received at time of discharge ($1.00 is retained), and for each 5
years' continuous service thereafter a further sum of $1.00 per month.

The pay of a man who has ever re-enlisted under the act of August 4,
1854, and comes into the service again, commences with pay for fifth
year.

A certificate of merit entitles a soldier to $2.00 per month additional
pay, commencing on the date of rendering "distinguished service," and
continuing through all subsequent service as an enlisted man.

Enlisted men (retired) are entitled to three fourths of the monthly
pay allowed by law to them in the grade they held when retired, with
commutation of clothing and rations.


                            SUMMARY COURT.

When charges are preferred against an enlisted man for offences
cognizable by inferior courts-martial, they will be laid before the
post commander, who, if he thinks that the accused should be tried,
will cause him to be brought before the summary court. Here he will
be arraigned and allowed to plead, according to the practice of
courts-martial. If an accused neither demands a removal of his case to
a regimental or garrison court-martial; nor, being a non-commissioned
officer above the rank of corporal, objects to trial by inferior
court-martial; nor objects to be tried by the officer second in rank on
the ground of his being the accuser; nor pleads guilty, witnesses will
be sworn and evidence received, the accused being permitted to testify
in his own behalf and make a statement; but the evidence and statement
will not be recorded. When the summary court shall have arrived at a
finding and judgment, the summary court record book, with the entries
therein made in accordance with the headings of its columns, will
be laid before the post commander for his action, which also will be
entered in the record book, dated and signed. When a case is heard by
the post commander, the proceedings will be recorded in the same book.
No other record of the proceedings will be kept, and trials by summary
court will not be published in orders.

When a post commander sits as a summary court, no approval of the
sentence is required by law, but he should sign the sentence as post
commander and date his signature.


RECORD OF SUMMARY COURT AT.......................

    ---+---------+---------+--------------+--------+------------+
    No.|  Name,  | Article |  Synopsis of |Finding.|   No. of   |
       |  rank,  | of War  |specification.|        |  previous  |
       |company, |Violated.|              |        |convictions.|
       |  and    |         |              |        |            |
       |regiment.|         |              |        |            |
       |         |         |              |        |            |
    ---+---------+---------+--------------+--------+------------+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ---------+----------
    Sentence,|Action of
      with   |commanding
    signature| officer,
     of trial|with date
     officer.|   and
             |signature.
    ---------+----------


           LIST OF PRESCRIBED PUNISHMENTS FOR ENLISTED MEN.


                              ARTICLE I.

In all cases of desertion the sentence may include dishonorable
discharge and forfeiture of pay and allowances.

Subject to the modifications authorized in Section 3 of this article
the limit of the term of confinement (at hard labor) for desertion
shall be as follows:

SECTION 1. In case of surrender--

(_a_) When the deserter surrenders himself after an absence of not more
than thirty days, one year.

(_b_) When the surrender is made after an absence of more than thirty
days, eighteen months.

SEC. 2. In case of apprehension--

(_a_) When at the time of desertion the deserter shall not have been
more than six months in the service, eighteen months.

(_b_) When he shall have been more than six months in the service, two
and one half years.

SEC. 3. The foregoing limitations are subject to modification
under the following conditions:

(_a_) The punishment of a deserter may be increased by one year of
confinement at hard labor in consideration of each previous conviction
of desertion.

(_b_) The punishment for desertion when joined in by two or more
soldiers in the execution of a conspiracy, or for desertion in the
presence of an outbreak of Indians or of any unlawful assemblage which
the troops may be opposing, shall not exceed dishonorable discharge,
forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement at hard labor for
five years.


                              ARTICLE II.

Except as herein otherwise indicated punishment shall not exceed the
limits prescribed in the following table:

    --------------------------------+----------------------------------
        Offences.                   |  Limits of punishment.
    --------------------------------+----------------------------------
      UNDER 17TH ARTICLE OF WAR.    |
                                    |
    Selling horse or arms, or both  |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  confinement at hard labor for
                                    |  three years.
                                    |
    Selling accoutrements           |Four months' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
                                    |  month for the same period; for
                                    |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    Selling clothing                |Two months' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
                                    |  month for the same period; for
                                    |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    Losing or spoiling horse        |Four months' confinement at hard
      or arms through neglect.      |  labor and forfeiture of $10
                                    |  per month for the same period;
                                    |  for non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    Losing or spoiling accoutrements|One month's confinement at hard
      or clothing through neglect.  |  labor and forfeiture of $10;
                                    |  for non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.


      UNDER 20TH ARTICLE OF WAR.    |
                                    |
    Behaving himself with disrespect|Six months' confinement at hard
      to his commanding officer.    |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
                                    |  month for the same period; for
                                    |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
      UNDER 24TH ARTICLE OF WAR.    |
                                    |
    Refusal to obey or using        |Dishonorable discharge, with
      violence to officer or        |  forfeiture of all pay and
      non-commissioned officer      |  allowances and confinement
      while quelling quarrels or    |  at hard labor for two years.
      disorders.                    |
                                    |
      UNDER 31ST ARTICLE OF WAR.    |
                                    |
    Lying out of quarters           |Forfeiture of $2; corporal, $3;
                                    |  sergeant, $4.
                                    |
      UNDER 32D ARTICLE OF WAR.     |
                                    |
      _Absence without leave_--[20] |
                                    |
    Less than one hour              |Forfeiture of $1; corporal, $2;
                                    |  sergeant, $3; 1st sergeant
                                    |  or non-commissioned officer
                                    |  of higher grade, $4.
                                    |
    From one to six hours[21]       |Forfeiture of $2; corporal, $3;
                                    |  sergeant, $4; 1st sergeant
                                    |  or non-commissioned officer
                                    |  of higher grade, $5.
                                    |
    From six to twelve hours        |Forfeiture of $3; corporal, $4;
                                    |  sergeant, $6; 1st sergeant
                                    |  or non-commissioned officer
                                    |  of higher grade, $7.
                                    |
    From twelve to twenty-four      |Forfeiture of $5; corporal, $6;
      hours.                        |  sergeant, $7; 1st sergeant
                                    |  or non-commissioned officer
                                    |  of higher grade, $10.
                                    |
    From twenty-four to forty-eight |Forfeiture of $6 and five days'
      Hours.                        |  confinement at hard labor.
                                    |  For corporal, forfeiture of $8;
                                    |  sergeant, $10; 1st sergeant or
                                    |  non-commissioned officer of
                                    |  higher grade, $12; or
                                    |  for all non-commissioned
                                    |  officers, reduction.
                                    |
    From two to ten days            |Forfeiture of $10 and ten days'
                                    |  confinement at hard labor; for
                                    |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    From ten to thirty days         |Forfeiture of $20 and one month's
                                    |  confinement at hard labor; for
                                    |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    From thirty to ninety days      |Three months' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
                                    |  month for same period; for
                                    |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    For ninety or more than         |Dishonorable discharge and
      ninety days                   |  forfeiture of all pay and
                                    |  allowances, and six months'
                                    |  confinement at hard labor.
                                    |
      UNDER 33D ARTICLE OF WAR.     |
                                    |
    _Failure to repair at the time  |
      fixed, etc., to the place     |
      of parade--_                  |
                                    |
    For reveille or retreat         |
      roll-call and 11 P.M.         |Forfeiture of $1; corporal, $2;
      inspection                    |  sergeant, $3; 1st sergeant, $4.
                                    |
    For guard detail                |Forfeiture of $5; corporal, $8;
                                    |  sergeant, $10.
    For fatigue detail              |}
    For dress parade                |}
    For the weekly inspection       |}
    For target practice             |}Forfeiture of $2; corporal, $3;
    For drill                       |}  sergeant, $5.
    For guard-mounting              |}
      (by musician)                 |}
    For stable duty                 |}
                                    |
    UNDER 38TH ARTICLE OF WAR.      |
                                    |
    _Drunkenness on_--              |
    Guard                           |Six months' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
                                    |  month for the same period;
                                    |  for non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    Duty as company cook            |Forfeiture of $20.
    Extra or special duty           |}
    At drill                        |}
    At target practice              |}Forfeiture of $12; for
    At parade                       |} non-commissioned officer,
    At inspection                   |} reduction and forfeiture of $20.
    At inspection of company        |}
      guard detail                  |}
    At stable duty                  |}
                                    |
    UNDER 40TH ARTICLE OF WAR.      |
                                    |
    Quitting guard                  |Six months' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor and forfeiture of $10
                                    |  per month for the same period;
                                    |  for non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    UNDER 51ST ARTICLE OF WAR.      |
                                    |
    Persuading soldiers to desert   |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  one year's confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    UNDER 60TH ARTICLE OF WAR.      |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  four years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    UNDER 62D ARTICLE OF WAR.       |
                                    |
    Manslaughter                    |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  ten years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    Assault, with intent to kill    |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  ten years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    Burglary                        |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  five years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    Forgery                         |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  four years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
                                    |
    Perjury                         |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  four years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    False swearing                  |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  two years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    Robbery                         |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  six years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    Larceny or embezzlement of      |
      property--[22]                |
                                    |
      Of the value of more than     |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
      $100                          |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  four years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
      Of the value of $100 or less  |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
      and more than $50             |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  three years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
      Of the value of $50 or less   |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
        and more than $20           |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  two years' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
      Of the value of $20 or less.  |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                    |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  one year's confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    Fraudulent enlistment, procured |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
      by false representation or    |  of all pay and allowances, and
      concealment of a fact in      |  confinement at hard labor for
      regard to a prior enlistment  |  one year.
      or discharge, or in regard to |
      conviction of a civil or      |
      military crime                |
                                    |
    Fraudulent enlistment, other    |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
      cases of                      |  of all pay and allowances, and
                                    |  confinement at hard labor for
                                    |  six months.
                                    |
    Disobedience of orders,         |Six months' confinement at hard
      involving wilful defiance of  |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
      the authority of a            |  month for the same period; for
      non-commissioned officer in   |  non-commissioned officer,
      the execution of his office   |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    Using threatening or insulting  |One month's confinement at hard
      language or behaving in an    |  labor and forfeiture of $10;
      manner to a non-commissioned  |  for non-commissioned officer,
      officer while in the          |  reduction in addition thereto.
      execution of his office       |
                                    |
    Absence from fatigue duty       |Forfeiture of $4; corporal, $5;
                                    |  sergeant, $6.
                                    |
    Absence from extra or special   |Forfeiture of $4; corporal, $5;
      duty                          |  sergeant, $6.
                                    |
    Absence from duty as company or |Forfeiture of $10.
     hospital cook.                 |
                                    |
    Introducing liquor into post or |Forfeiture of $3; for
      camp in violation of standing |  non-commissioned officer,
      orders.                       |  reduction and forfeiture of $5.
                                    |
    Drunkenness at post or in       |Forfeiture of $3; for
      quarters                      |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction and forfeiture of $5.
                                    |
    Drunkenness and disorderly      |Forfeiture of $10 and seven days'
      conduct, causing the          |  confinement at hard labor; for
      offender's arrest and         |  non-commissioned officer,
      conviction by civil           |  reduction and forfeiture of $12.
      authorities at a place within |
      ten miles of his station      |
                                    |
    Noisy or disorderly conduct in  |Forfeiture of $4; corporal, $7;
      quarters.                     |  sergeant, $10.
                                    |
    Abuse by non-commissioned       |Reduction, three months'
      officer of his authority over |  confinement at hard labor, and
      an inferior.                  |  forfeiture of $10 per month
                                    |  for the same period.
                                    |
    Non-commissioned officer        |Reduction and forfeiture of $5.
      encouraging gambling.         |
                                    |
    Non-commissioned officer making |Reduction, forfeiture of $8, and
      false report.                 |  ten days' confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    Sentinel allowing a prisoner    |Six months' confinement at hard
      under his charge to escape    |  labor and forfeiture of $10
      through neglect.              |  per month for the same period.
                                    |
    Sentinel wilfully suffering     |Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
      prisoner under his charge to  |  of all pay and allowances, and
      escape.                       |  one year's confinement at hard
                                    |  labor.
                                    |
    Sentinel allowing a prisoner    |Two months' confinement at hard
      under his charge to obtain    |  labor and forfeiture of $10
      liquor.                       |  per month for the same period.
                                    |
    Sentinel or member of guard     |Two months' confinement at hard
      drinking liquor with          |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
      prisoners.                    |  month for the same period.
                                    |
    Disrespect or affront to a      |Two months' confinement at hard
      sentinel.                     |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
                                    |  month for the same period; for
                                    |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    Resisting or disobeying sentinel|Six months' confinement at hard
      in lawful execution of his    |  labor and forfeiture of $10
      duty.                         |  per month for the same period;
                                    |  for non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
                                    |
    Lewd or indecent exposure of    |Three months' confinement at hard
      person.                       |  labor and forfeiture of $10 per
                                    |  month for the same period; for
                                    |  non-commissioned officer,
                                    |  reduction in addition thereto.
    --------------------------------+----------------------------------


                             ARTICLE III.

SECTION 1. When a soldier shall be convicted of an offence
the punishment for which, as authorized by Article II. of this order
or the custom of the service, does not exceed that which an inferior
court-martial may award, the punishment so authorized may be increased
by one half for every previous conviction of one or more offences
within eighteen months preceding the trial and during the current
enlistment; provided that the increase of punishment for five or more
previous convictions shall not exceed that thus authorized when there
are four previous convictions, and that when one or more of such five
or more previous convictions shall have been by general court-martial,
or when such convictions shall have occurred within one year preceding
the trial, the limit of punishment shall be dishonorable discharge,
forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement at hard labor for
three months.

When the conviction is of an offence punishable under Article II. of
this order or the custom of the service with a greater punishment
than an inferior court-martial can award, but not punishable with
dishonorable discharge, the sentence may, on proof of five or more
previous convictions within eighteen months and during the current
enlistment, impose dishonorable discharge and forfeiture of all pay and
allowances in addition to the authorized confinement, and when this
confinement is less than three months it may be increased to three
months.

When a non-commissioned officer is convicted of an offence not
punishable with reduction, he may, if he shall have been convicted of
a military offence within a year and during the current enlistment,
be sentenced to reduction, in addition to the punishment already
authorized.

SEC. 2. In every case when an offence on trial before a
court-martial is of a character admitting of the introduction of
evidence of previous convictions, and the accused is convicted, the
court, after determining its findings, will be opened for the purpose
of ascertaining whether there is such evidence, and, if so, of hearing
it. These convictions must be proved by the records of previous trials,
or by duly authenticated orders promulgating the same, except in
the cases of conviction by summary court, when a duly authenticated
copy of the record of said court shall be deemed sufficient proof.
Charges forwarded to the authority ordering a general court-martial,
or submitted to a summary, garrison, or regimental court, must be
accompanied by the proper evidence of such previous convictions as may
have to be considered in determining upon a sentence.


                              ARTICLE IV.

When a soldier shall, on one arraignment, be convicted of two or
more offences, none of which is punishable under Article II. of this
order or the custom of the service with dishonorable discharge, but
the aggregate term of confinement for which may exceed six months,
dishonorable discharge with forfeiture of pay and allowances may be
awarded in addition to the authorized confinement.


                              ARTICLE V.

This order prescribes the _maximum_ limit of punishment for the
offences named, and this limit is intended for those cases in which the
severest punishment should be awarded. In other cases the punishment
should be graded down according to the extenuating circumstances.
Offences not herein provided for remain punishable as authorized by the
Articles of War and the custom of the service.


                              ARTICLE VI.

Summary courts are subject to the restrictions named in the 83d Article
of War. Soldiers against whom charges may be preferred for trial by
summary court shall not be confined in the guard-house, but shall
be placed in arrest in quarters, before and during trial and while
awaiting sentence, except when in particular cases restraint may be
necessary.


                             ARTICLE VII.

The following substitutions for punishments named in Article II. of
this order are authorized at the discretion of the court:

Two days' confinement at hard labor for one dollar forfeiture; one
day's solitary confinement on bread and water diet for two days'
confinement at hard labor or for one dollar forfeiture; provided that
a non-commissioned officer not sentenced to reduction shall not be
subject to confinement; and provided that solitary confinement shall
not exceed fourteen days at one time, nor be repeated until fourteen
days have elapsed, and shall not exceed eighty-four days in one year.
Whenever the limit herein prescribed for an offence or offences may
be brought within the punishing power of inferior courts-martial, as
defined by the 83d Article of War, by substitution of punishment under
the provisions of this article, the said courts have jurisdiction of
such offence or offences.


                             ARTICLE VIII.

Non-commissioned officers above the rank of corporal shall not, if they
object thereto, be brought to trial before regimental, garrison, or
summary courts-martial without the authority of the officer competent
to order their trial by general court-martial; nor shall sergeants of
the post non-commissioned staff or hospital stewards be reduced, but
they may be dishonorably discharged whenever reduction is included in
the limit of punishment.


                   U. S. SIGNAL AND TELEGRAPH CODE.

        (Authorized by G. O. No. 59, A. G. O., June 28, 1889.)


                               ALPHABET.

    A ·-      F ·-·     K -·-    P ·····  U ··-
    B -···    G - -·    L ----   Q ··-·   V ···-
    C ·· ·    H ····    M - -    R · ··   W ·- -
    D -··     I ··      N -·     S ···    X ·-··
    E ·       J -·-·    O ·      T -      Y ·· ··
    Z ··· ·   & · ···


                               NUMERALS.

    1 ·- -·    3 ···- -·  5 - - -   7 - -··   9 -··-
    2 ··-··    4 ····-    6 ·····   8 -····   0 ----


                          PUNCTUATION MARKS.

    Comma ·-·-      Interrogation -··-·   Parenthesis Pn
    Semicolon Si    Quotation Qn          Brackets Br
    Colon Ko        Paragraph - - - -     Dollar mark Sx
    Period ··- -··  Exclamation - - - ·   Dash Dx
    Hyphen Hx       Underline Ux

NOTE.--A fraction is made by inserting a dot between the
numerator and denominator:

    Example, ⅞   - -·· · -····


                      SIGNALS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

      1. Wait a moment.
      4. Start me.
      5. Have you anything for me?
      7. Are you ready?
      8. Busy on other wires (or stations).
      9. Train order (or important military message)--give way.
     13. Do you understand?
     18. What is the matter?
     27. Adjust your magnet (or flash).
     30. Circuit closed (or close station).
     44. Answer quick.
     73. Accept compliments.
     92. Deliver (ed).
    134. Who is at the key (flag, or torch)?
    Ahr. Another.
    Ans. Answer.
     Ck. Check.
    Col. Collect.
    D H. Dead head.
    G A. Go ahead.
    G E. Good-evening.
    G M. Good-morning.
    G N. Good-night.
    G R. Government rate.
    N M. No more.
    O B. Official business.
    O K. All right.
    Opr. Operator.
     Pd. Paid.
     Qk. Quick.
    Sig. Signature.


                     TO SIGNAL WITH FLAG OR TORCH.

The flagman faces exactly toward the communicating station; staff is
vertical in front of centre of body, butt at height of waist. The
_dot_ (·) is represented by a motion to the right, and the _dash_ (-)
by a motion to the left of the sender. The _space_, whether separating
elements of _spaced characters_ (C, O, R, Y, Z, and "&"), or separating
words, will be represented by a "front" motion.

Thus the motions:

Right, right, front, right, represent C.

Right, front, right, represent O.

Right, front, right, right, represent R.

Each motion will embrace an arc of 90°, starting from and returning to
the vertical.

The _long dash_ (letter "L" and numeral "naught") is distinguished from
the "T" dash by a slight pause at the lowest point of dip, and with
this exception there will be no pause whatever between the motions
required for any single letter.

A slight pause will be made between letters.

At the end of each word, abbreviation, or conventional signal the space
signal, or "front" motion, is made, _preceded and followed by a pause_
equivalent to that made between letters.


         CONVENTIONAL SIGNALS FOR HELIOGRAPH OR FLASH LANTERN.

=To Call a Station.=--Turn a steady flash on the station and keep it
there until answered by a steady flash. Both stations will then adjust,
each on the other's flash. When adjustments are satisfactory, the
station called will acknowledge and cut off its flash, and the calling
station will proceed with the message.

=Adjustment.=--If the receiver sees that the sender's mirror needs
adjusting, he will turn on a steady flash until answered by a steady
flash. When adjustment is satisfactory, the receiver will acknowledge,
and the sender will resume his message.


               CONVENTIONAL SIGNS FOR FLAG OR TORCH.[23]

=To Call a Station.=--Signal the "call letter" of the station required,
or, if the call letter be not known, signal "A" without pause until
acknowledged. The calling station will then proceed with the message.

=To Acknowledge a Call.=--Signal "I" three times followed by "front"
and the call letter of the acknowledging station.

=To Break or Stop the Signals from the Sending Station.=--Signal "A"
without pause until acknowledged.

=To Start the Sending Station after Breaking.=--Signal "G A " followed
by "front" and the last word correctly received; the sender will
immediately resume his message, beginning with the word indicated by
the receiver. If nothing has been received, signal "R R"; the sender
will then repeat all.

=Error in Sending.=--Signal seven dots (·······) rapidly followed by
"front," and resume the message, beginning with the last word correctly
sent.

=End of Address.=--Signal the period (··--··) followed by "front."

=Signature Follows.=--Signal "Sig" followed by "front."

=To Acknowledge Receipt of a Message.=--Signal "O K" followed by
"front" and personal signal or initial of receiver.


                      PENETRATION OF PROJECTILES.

Experiments at Lydd, in 1886, showed that earthen parapets of sandy
loam 12 feet thick were but little affected by the fire from B. L.
12-pdr. and 20-pdr. with steel shells, and the following rough rules
will probably suffice against field-guns:

    For friable soil, such as sand, etc.      2   yards
    For medium soil, such as ordinary earth   2½  yards
    For tenacious soil, such as clay          3   yards

The following data, obtained from experiments by the Germans, may prove
of service:


                   PENETRATION FROM ARTILLERY-FIRE.

    --------------------------------------------+----------------------
        Field-artillery.                        |Garrison and Siege
                                                |    Artillery.
    --------------------------------------------+----------------------
    Shrapnel; {bullets  } in earth, 16 to 39 in.|In earth  39 in.
              {fragments}                       |
                                                |
    Shrapnel, wood, overhead cover  2 in.       |    Wood,      }
                                                |overhead cover } 4 in.
                                                |
    Individual shot:                            |
      Striking fair, earth        39 to 79 in.  |Earth  10 to 13 ft.
      Striking fair, brickwork    39 in.        |
      Striking fair, snow   about 27 ft.        |
    --------------------------------------------+----------------------


                    PENETRATION FROM INFANTRY-FIRE.

    Sand                    29½  in.
    Rammed snow        6 ft. 9   in.
    Sheaves of grain  16 ft. 9   in.
    Pine                    39   in.
    Steel plate              0.8 in.
    Ordinary earth          39   in.
    Swampy or wet ground    79   in.
    Laid sods and turf      79   in.
    Oak                     24   in.
    Brickwork               19½  in.
    A double thickness of planks filled in with broken stone  7.8 in.

Penetration at all ranges has been increased with the new rifle (U.S.).
At 200 to 300 yards protection is afforded by about 0.2 inch of steel
plate and about 0.3 inch wrought iron; at same distances penetration in
earth is 25 inches, in pine, 30 inches.


                     GUN-PITS FOR FIELD-ARTILLERY.


                          THE FRENCH GUN-PIT.

=Description.=--The French gun-pit consists of an epaulement, whose
general direction is perpendicular to the line of fire, with wings or
returns at the sides, along which trenches are dug on the inside for
the protection of the cannoneers. The earth for the epaulement is taken
from a rectangular pit one and a half feet deep, and from the ramps
and trenches leading to it. If there is not sufficient earth, more
is obtained by digging a ditch in front. The lateral trenches may be
prolonged and deepened to any extent.

  [Illustration: FIG. 136.]

=Construction.=--To trace the pit:

1. Lay off a line about ten feet in length perpendicular to the line of
fire, to mark the foot of the interior slope of the epaulement.

This line should be long enough to give the piece a field of fire of
90 degrees; mark the extremities and centre of the line with stakes or
otherwise.

2. In the wings lay off two lines five to seven feet in length, making
with the first line angles such that the trenches shall not restrict
the field of fire or interfere with the recoil of the piece.

3. Complete the rectangle of the pit, and mark the points of
intersection of the trenches and the ramps leading to it.

4. In soft ground it will be found to be more expeditious to use
shovels; if the ground is hard, three picks and five shovels will be
necessary for each detachment of eight men. The men should commence by
breaking ground along the interior slope; having picked a breadth of
about two feet, they face about and advance toward the rear of the pit.

As soon as there is room the shovels follow the picks.

In picking the men should be instructed to strike together to avoid
accident.

Under pressure this pit can be constructed in one and a half hours.


                          THE GERMAN GUN-PIT.

The German gun-pit consists of a rectangular excavation one and a half
feet deep, with a ramp leading to it from the rear. The epaulement is
formed like an ordinary glacis, and surrounds all but the entrance.

This pit is easily and rapidly constructed, and, as seen from a
distance, presents a very small target.

The parapet being the same height all round, the gun can fire in any
direction by widening the pit, which would then take the form of a
semicircle.

=Construction.=--1. Lay off a line four yards in length perpendicular
to the direction of the line of fire. At each extremity erect a
perpendicular of four yards.

2. From the vertices of the right angles thus formed lay off one
yard on both the front and side lines, and mark the four points so
determined, together with the rear extremities of the sides, with
sabres or stakes.

  [Illustration: FIG. 137.]

3. Commence and continue the digging as prescribed in the construction
of the French gun-pit.

The pockets _aa_ are for the reception of ammunition.

4. The ramp is laid out and completed after the pit is finished, or
simultaneously with it, as may be most desirable.

An ordinary gun detachment can construct this pit in one hour.


                         THE AUSTRIAN GUN-PIT.

A simple rectangular pit one and a half feet deep, with front
epaulement and ramp.

=Construction.=--Constructed similarly to the German, the earth from
the pit being thrown to the front.

It can be made in less than half an hour, and while affording no
special cover to the cannoneers, as do the German and English, it can
be made in half that time, and does not present a conspicuous target.

  [Illustration: FIG. 138.]

It has the further advantage of very rapid cover, and of being capable
of transformation into any desirable pit if there be time.


                         THE ENGLISH GUN-PIT.

This type is a true "gun-pit," the bottom being below the natural
surface of the ground, sloping up at back of pit toward the rear.
It affords excellent cover for the piece and its detachment, can be
readily marked out, and constructed in a comparatively short time.

The lateral trenches, if extended, would afford a covered way along the
front of the battery.

The defects in this pit are a contracted field of fire, the
conspicuous mark which the embrasure gives the enemy, the lack of
ammunition-pockets, and want of drainage.

  [Illustration: FIG. 139.]

=Construction.=--1. Lay off 8 feet 6 inches on a line perpendicular
to the probable direction of fire for the interior crest, and at the
middle point of this line determine a perpendicular to it; on this
perpendicular lay off from the interior crest distances of 6 feet,
10 feet, and 18 feet, and through their extremities determine lines
parallel to the interior crest; on these lines find points that are 6
feet from the perpendicular on both sides of it, putting in a stake or
sabre at each point so determined. Extend the parallels at 6 feet and
10 feet, 4 feet on each side, and mark the points thus established for
the lateral trenches.

2. Commence excavating at the interior crest, throwing the earth to the
front and sides (being careful to allow a berme of about one foot),
thus forming an epaulement 1 foot 6 inches high and 10 feet 5 inches
thick at bottom, extending round to the front corner of the lateral
trenches. Then throw the earth out to the side front to form mounds
about 4 feet high in front of the lateral trenches to still better
protect the detachment, sufficient space being left in front for an
embrasure. Dig down two feet throughout the pit back to the line 10
feet from the interior crest and level off the bottom. Slope up from
the bottom of the pit at ten-foot line back to the eighteen-foot line.
If desirable to connect adjoining pits of this class, extend the
lateral trenches until they meet.

Time of construction of pit complete in all its details, with
detachment of eight cannoneers, gunner, and chief of section, in stiff
clay, without previous practice, one hour and twenty minutes.


                       ORDINARY RUSSIAN GUN-PIT.

This type differs from the gun-pit proper, in that the wheels rest
on the natural surface of the ground, the side-pits being for the
cannoneers. The only apparent advantages are good cover for the
detachment under heavy fire, drainage as far as the piece is concerned,
and facility for ingress and egress. The obvious disadvantages are
contracted space for working party in digging, contracted field of
fire, and the mark presented by the embrasure to hostile fire.

=Construction.=--Lay off on a line perpendicular to the probable
direction of fire 10 feet, prolong the line 5 feet 3 inches in both
directions, and mark the four points thus determined with stakes or
sabres. At the middle point of the ten-foot line erect a perpendicular
to it and lay off on this perpendicular to the rear 9 feet 2 inches;
through this point determine a parallel to the ten-foot line and lay
off on it, on both sides of the perpendicular, 9 feet and 14 feet 3
inches, marking the four points so determined with stakes or sabres.

The parallelograms whose vertices are thus established fix the
surface-lines of the lateral trenches. Dig down to 4 feet 6 inches
for the bottom of the trenches and throw the dirt to the front and
side, giving the epaulement a height of 3 feet, and leaving space for
the embrasure in front. When time permits, cut outside and rear steps
for the trenches, as indicated, to admit of quick egress for the gun
detachment.

  [Illustration: FIG. 140.]

Time of construction complete, soil and detachment same as English pit,
two hours.


                   GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON GUN-PITS.

In forming the epaulement, leave a berme of at least a foot; and, when
there is time, level and ram the earth, which, in front of the muzzle,
should not be more than three and one half feet above the bottom of the
pit. If there are side trenches, the earth in front of them should be
high enough to afford complete protection to the men occupying them.

Pockets for the reception of the ammunition are very important in
saving the ammunition from water which may accumulate, and from the
fire of the enemy.

The field of fire should not be less than 90 degrees.

Avoid narrow embrasures as presenting an easy mark, and as likely to
draw the fire of the enemy.

Cover should first be provided for the men and horses; then for the
material.

If the position is occupied for some time, strengthen the parapet
by earth from a ditch in front. Prolong the lateral trenches of the
adjacent pits until they meet, forming a continuous parapet; if
possible, plank or macadamize the bottom of the pit. Traverses between
the guns will be found effective.

In order to conceal the parapets, cover the fresh earth with boughs,
sod, or top-soil of the prevailing or surrounding color. If in winter,
use snow for this purpose. A very effective plan is to dig a small
trench or parapet from fifty to seventy-five yards in front of the real
pits, thus deceiving an enemy as to where the real fire comes from.

If the ground does not afford natural cover for the limbers,
limber-pits, similar to the Austrian gun-pits, can be easily
constructed. They should be one foot deeper.


                        TREATMENT OF SICK MEN.

=Bleeding.=--Blood from the veins is dark and flows slowly; that from
arteries is bright red and is thrown out in spurts.

To suppress bleeding from a vein, use cold water when slight; or place
a moderately tight bandage below the wound.

If an artery, completely obstruct the artery by pressure at the
bleeding point, or between it and the heart. Do this by means of the
fingers, a pad and bandage, a plug, or a tourniquet. Make a knot in a
handkerchief and place it at the proper spot over the course of the
artery, then tie the handkerchief around the limb and by means of a
stick twist it tight. In bleeding from hand, fore arm, or arm apply
around arm near the shoulder; in bleeding of the foot, leg, or thigh
apply around leg between knee and hip according to circumstances.

=Chafing.=--Chafing between the thighs may be alleviated by keeping
the parts scrupulously clean, and powdered with fuller's earth, or a
mixture of oxide of zinc and very finely powdered starch.

=Colic.=--Dose of castor-oil, hot applications to belly, and a
teaspoonful of Squibb's mixture or ginger essence in water.

=Cholera Morbus.=--1 teaspoonful of paregoric, ¼ grain of morphine, or
1 teaspoonful of Squibb's mixture diluted may be given at once. Hot
applications to belly. Stimulants in case of collapse.

=Constipation.=--A seidlitz powder, or a tablespoonful of Rochelle
or Epsom Salts before breakfast; a teaspoonful of compound liquorice
powder, or 2 or 3 compound cathartic pills, late at night.

=Burns and Scalds.=--Cover with vaseline or carron oil (equal parts
of lime water and oil). If oil is not at hand, use flour or scraped
potato. A tablespoonful of baking-soda to a teacupful of water soon
relieves pain. Dress with lint or cotton-wool. Blisters should be
carefully opened with a needle or scissors.

=Diarrhœa.=--Dose of castor-oil; if after oil has acted the diarrhœa
persists, a teaspoonful of Squibb's mixture diluted; or a camphor and
opium pill, to be repeated in an hour if necessary.

=Drowning.=--If the patient has stopped breathing, tight clothing
is first loosened; the individual is then turned over on his face,
a roll of clothing, a rolled blanket, etc., being placed under his
stomach, his mouth and nose are cleared of sand, mud, or other
substances collected therein, and pressure is made upon the spine and
kept up until water ceases to flow from the mouth. The patient is then
turned over on his back, and the roll placed under his shoulder-blades
so as to raise the shoulders and extend the throat. The tongue, being
drawn well forward, is either secured by a string or rubber band,
passing around the base of the organ and the chin, fixed by thrusting a
small stick or pencil across the top of it behind the molar teeth, or
held by an assistant. Then, kneeling behind the patient's head, seize
the arms above the elbows and draw them outwards and upwards until they
are fully extended above the head. After a pause of about two seconds
the arms are carried back to their original positions, the operator
making firm pressure on the chest at the same time. This procedure
is carried out at the rate of about fifteen times a minute. Whenever
the arms are raised, the chest is expanded and air enters the lungs;
when they are brought down and pressure is made upon the chest, the
latter is compressed and the air is expelled. The natural movements of
respiration are hence imitated. This should be kept up for hours if
necessary, and until natural breathing returns, or the case has been
given up as hopeless by competent authority. During this time warm and
dry clothing should have been placed on the patient, a fire built, and
warm articles of any kind used to restore the heat of the body. The
body and limbs should be constantly rubbed towards the trunk. As soon
as the patient is able to swallow a teaspoonful of hot liquor in a
tablespoonful of water may be given every few minutes until the danger
is over.

As soon as the patient begins to breathe of his own accord the
artificial process should be timed to aid the natural respiration.
Breathing may be stimulated by holding hartshorn to the nose, slapping
the skin, or by dashing hot water on the chest.

After being restored the patient should be carefully carried in a
recumbent position, put in a warm bed, and carefully watched for
stoppage of breathing. If the patient has not stopped breathing
when drawn out of the water, proceed as above, omitting artificial
respiration except when the natural function begins to fail.

=Emetics.=--Gunpowder dissolved in water. One tablespoonful of mustard
in a pint of water and then copious draughts of tepid water. Twenty
grains of sulphate of zinc dissolved in water, to be followed by a
cupful of tepid water, and repeated every three minutes until 3 or 4
doses have been given or vomiting has occurred.

=Fainting.=--Place patient on his back, head low, arms and feet may
be elevated; loosen tight clothing; dash cold water in face; hold
hartshorn to nostrils; a little whiskey and water when able to swallow.

=Frost-bites.=--Rub with snow or cold water.

=Intoxication.=--Pour water over head; give teaspoonful of ground
mustard stirred up in a teacupful of lukewarm water; then, after
vomiting has occurred, give a teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of
ammonia in a teacupful of water, or a large draught of vinegar. If in
danger of dying, general application of heat to body is imperative.

=Heat Exhaustion= resembles an ordinary fainting spell, and is
similarly treated. Unlike sunstroke this condition presents a cool
moist skin.

=Sunstroke.=--Its symptoms of warning are headache and oppression,
followed after a time by loss of consciousness; breathing labored;
skin intensely hot; perspiration absent; the bladder and bowels
sometimes discharge involuntarily.

Convey immediately to a cool place; remove clothing; place in cold
bath, or wrap with sheets soaked in cold water, and keep wet with
ice-water if possible. If this cannot be done, sponge thoroughly and
continually the head and body, lumps of ice being rubbed over the chest
and placed over the large blood-vessels in the arm-pits and groins.

Discontinue application of cold when consciousness returns, to be
renewed only in case temperature rises above normal (98.9° F.) or
insensibility returns.

=Sore Feet.=--If the feet begin to chafe, rub the socks with common
soap where they come in contact with sore places. By rubbing the feet
with hard soap before the march you may escape having sore feet. The
feet should be washed every night and thoroughly dried. Blisters should
not be opened, but have a thread run through.


                   TABLES OF WEIGHT, CAPACITY, ETC.

                     NUMBER OF POUNDS IN A BUSHEL.

    Oats                       32
    Beans                      60
    Onions                     57
    Castor beans               46
    Barley                     48
    Peas                       60
    Timothy-seed               45
    Flaxseed                   56
    Corn or rye                56
    Clover-seed                60
    Dried apples or peaches    28
    Hemp-seed                  44
    Wheat                      60
    Potatoes                   60
    Salt                       50
    Bluegrass-seed             14


                     NUMBER OF POUNDS IN A BARREL.

    Flour                 196
    Beef, pork, or fish   200
    Salt                  280


                    CYLINDERS FOR LIQUID MEASURES.

                   Diam.     Height.
    1   gill      1¾ in.       3  in.
    ½   pint      2¼  "        3⅝  "
    1   pint      3½  "        3   "
    1   quart     3½  "        6   "
    1   gallon    7   "        6   "
    2   gallons   7   "       12   "
    8     "      14   "       12   "
    10    "      14   "       15   "


                          CAPACITY OF BOXES.

                 A cubic yard contains 21.69 bushels.

    1 barrel  =  24 x 16   x 28 inches
    ½   "     =  24 x 24   x 14   "
    1 bushel  =  16 x 16.8 x  8   "
    1   "     =  a cylinder 14 in. diam. x 14 in. deep
    ½   "     =  12 x 11.2 x 8 inches
    1 peck    =  8 x 8.4 x 8     "
    1 gallon  =  8 x 8 x 4.2     " (dry)
    1   "     =  6 x 6 x 6.42    " (liquid)
    ½   "     =  7 x 4 x 4.5     "
    1 quart   =  4 x 4 x 4.1     " (dry)
    1   "     =  4 x 4 x 3.61    " (liquid)

In freighting ships 42 cubic feet are allowed to a ton.


                   ARMY WAGON (INSIDE MEASUREMENT).

    Length  { 9½ ft. at bottom }
            {10   "  "  top    }; width, 3 ft. 4 in.;  depth, 1 ft. 9 in.


              TO DETERMINE THE QUANTITY OF GRAIN OR HAY.

=Corn.=--Two cubic feet of sound dry corn in the ear will make one
bushel of shelled corn.

To determine the number of bushels of shelled corn in a crib of corn in
the ear, multiply together the interior length, breadth, and height of
the crib in feet, and divide by 2.

=Oats.=--A nose-bag will contain about 10 pounds of good oats.

A cubic foot of good oats weighs about 25¾ pounds.

To determine, approximately, the number of bushels of oats in a bin,
multiply the length, breadth, and height in feet together, and multiply
the result by O.8047.

To determine the number of bushels a wagon will contain, apply the same
rule.


                                =Hay.=

    Hay loose                 allow 5 pounds to a cubic foot
    Hay in stack                "   8   "    "  "   "    "
    Hay baled                   "   11  "    "  "   "    "
    Wagon-load of stack hay     "  450 to 500 cubic feet to a ton
      "     "  "  new-mown hay  "  700 cubic feet to a ton

=Straw.=--Allow 10 to 12 pounds to a cubic foot.


                          MEASURES OF LENGTH.


                             LONG MEASURE.

   12  inches                  make  1 foot      ft.
    3  feet                     "    1 yard      yd.
    5½ yards                    "    1 rod       rd.
   40  rods                     "    1 furlong  fur.
    8  furlongs, or 320 rods,   "    1 mile      mi.
    3  miles                    "    1 league   lea.


                          SURVEYOR'S MEASURE.

      7.92  inches  make  1 link   li.
    100     links    "    1 chain  ch.
     80     chains   "    1 mile   mi.


                            SQUARE MEASURE.

    144   square inches  make 1 square foot  sq. ft.
      9   square feet     "   1 square yard  sq. yd.
     30¼  square yards    "   1 square rod   sq. rd.
    160   square rods     "   1 acre         A.


                             LAND MEASURE.

    10,000  square links   make 1 square chain
        10  square chains   "   1 acre
       640  acres           "   1 square mile


                            CUBIC MEASURE.

    1728  cubic inches make 1 cubic foot   cu. ft.
      27  cubic feet    "   1 cubic yard   cu. yd.
     128  cubic feet    "   1 cord         C.


                            LIQUID MEASURE.

The standard U. S. gallon equals 231 cubic inches, and contains 8.3311
pounds of pure water at 62° F.

A cubic foot of pure water at 62° F. weighs 62.32 pounds.

The liquid quart is about six sevenths of a quart of dry measure.

    ----------+----------------+-------+-----------+------------
      Name.   |   Equivalent.  |Litres.|Decalitres.|Hectolitres.
    ----------+----------------+-------+-----------+------------
    1 gill    |                | .1183 |           |
    1 pint    | 4     gills    | .4732 |           |
    1 quart   | 2     pints    | .9463 |           |
    1 gallon  | 4     quarts   |3.7853 |           |
    1 barrel  |31½    gallons  |       |  11.9237  | 1.1924
    1 hogshead| 2     barrels  |       |  23.8474  | 2.3847
    1 pipe    | 2     hogsheads|       |           | 4.7694
    1 tun     | 2     pipes    |       |           | 9.5389
    ----------+----------------+-------+-----------+------------

1 litre = 8.4536 gills = 2.1134 pints = 1.0567 quarts.


                             DRY MEASURE.

The bushel (Winchester) contains nearly 2150.42 cubic inches, and is a
cylinder measure 18½ inches across and 8 inches deep.

A bushel measure will contain 9.31 gallons of pure water at 62° F.

    --------+-----------+-------+----------
      Name. |Equivalent.|Litres.|Decalitre.
    --------+-----------+-------+----------
    1 pint  |           |  .5506|
    1 quart |  2  pints | 1.1012|
    1 peck  |  8 quarts | 8.8096|
    1 bushel|  4 pecks  |35.2384| 3.5238
    --------+-----------+-------+----------

1 litre = 1.816 pints = .908 quart.


                        APOTHECARIES' MEASURE.

    60  minims (♏)                     1 fluid drachm (f. ʒ)
     8  drachms (water 1.732 cu. in.,   1 fluid oz. (f. ℥)
            437½ grains)
    20  ounces                          1 pint (O.)
     8  pints (water 70,000 grains)     1 gallon (gall.)
     1  drop                            1 grain
    60  drops                           1 drachm
     1  drachm                          1 teaspoonful
     4  drachms                         1 tablespoonful
     8  drachms (2 tablespoonfuls)      1 ounce
     2  ounces (water 875 grains)       1 wineglassful
     3  ounces                          1 teacupful


                         MISCELLANEOUS TABLES.


                               COUNTING.

    12  things  make 1 dozen        doz.
    12  dozen    "   1 gross        gr.
    12  gross    "   1 great gross  g. gr.


                                PAPER.

    24  sheets  make  1 quire   qr.
    20  quires   "    1 ream    ream
     2  reams    "    1 bundle  bund.
     2  bundles  "    1 bale


                                BOOKS.

A book in which

    Each sheet is folded into 2 leaves is a folio
      "    "      "       "   4    "     "  quarto, or 4to
      "    "      "       "   8    "     "  octavo, or 8vo
      "    "      "       "  12    "     "  duodecimo, or 12mo
      "    "      "       "  16    "     "  16mo
      "    "      "       "  24    "     "  24mo
      "    "      "       "  32    "     "  32mo


                         MISCELLANEOUS VALUES.

     4  inches  make  1 hand,  used in measuring horses
     9    "      "    1 span,     "    sacred history
    18  feet     "    1 cubit,    "       "     "
     6    "      "    1 fathom,   "    measuring depths


                          MEASURES OF WEIGHT.


                     AVOIRDUPOIS = METRIC WEIGHTS.

    --------------------+---------+------------+------------+-------
        Avoirdupois.    | Grammes.|Decagrammes.|Kilogrammes.|Millier
                        |         |            |            | (Ton).
    --------------------+---------+------------+------------+-------
    1 drachm            |  1.77184|            |            |
    1 ounce (16 drachms)| 28.34954|     2.83495|            |
    1 pound (16 ounces) |453.59256|    45.35926|    0.45359 |
    1 hundredweight     |         |            |   45.3552  |
    1 ton (20 cwt.)     |         |            |  907.1040  |0.9071
    --------------------+---------+------------+------------+-------

    Ton.  Hundredweight.   Pounds.   Ounces.   Drachms.
     1  =    20          =  2000   = 32,000  = 522,000
              1          =   100   =  1,600  =  25,600
                               1   =     16  =     256
                                          1  =      16


                        TROY = METRIC WEIGHTS.

    -------------+-------------------------------------------
    Troy Weights.|   Equivalents in Metric Denominations.
                 +--------+---------+--------+-------+-------
                 | Milli- | Gramme. | Deca-  |Hecto- | Kilo-
                 |gramme. |         | gramme.|gramme.|gramme.
    -------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+-------
    1 Troy grain |64.79895|  0.06480|        |       |
    1 pennyweight|        |  1.55517|        |       |
    1 ounce      |        | 31.10349| 3.11035|       |
    1 pound      |        |373.24195|37.32491|3.73249|0.37324
    -------------+--------+---------+--------+-------+-------

    1 lb.  =  12 oz. =  240 dwts. = 5760 grs.
               1 "   =   20  "    =  480  "
                          1  "    =   24  "


           TABLES FOR CONVERTING U. S. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.


                         CUSTOMARY TO METRIC.


                                LINEAR.

          Inches to        Feet to     Yards to    Miles to
          Millimetres.     Metres.     Metres.     Kilometres.

    1 =     25.4001        0.304801    0.914402     1.60935
    2 =     50.8001        0.609601    1.828804     3.21869
    3 =     76.2002        0.914402    2.743205     4.82804
    4 =    101.6002        1.219202    3.657607     6.43739
    5 =    127.0003        1.524003    4.572009     8.04674
    6 =    152.4003        1.828804    5.486411     9.65608
    7 =    177.8004        2.133604    6.400813    11.26543
    8 =    203.2004        2.438405    7.315215    12.87478
    9 =    228.6005        2.743205    8.229616    14.48412


                                SQUARE.

         Square         Square       Square     Acres to
         Inches to      Feet to      Yards to   Hectares.
         Square         Square       Square
         Centimetres.   Decimetres.  Metres.

    1 =    6.452          9.290        0.836      0.4047
    2 =   12.903         18.581        1.672      0.8094
    3 =   19.355         27.871        2.508      1.2141
    4 =   25.807         37.161        3.344      1.6187
    5 =   32.258         46.452        4.181      2.0234
    6 =   38.710         55.742        5.017      2.4281
    7 =   45.161         65.032        5.853      2.8328
    8 =   51.613         74.323        6.689      3.2375
    9 =   58.065         83.613        7.525      3.6422


                                CUBIC.

          Cubic          Cubic       Cubic      Bushels to
          Inches to      Feet to     Yards to   Hectolitres.
          Cubic          Cubic       Cubic
          Centimetres.   Metres.     Metres.

    1 =    16.387         0.02832     0.765      0.35239
    2 =    32.774         0.05663     1.529      0.70479
    3 =    49.161         0.08495     2.294      1.05718
    4 =    65.549         0.11327     3.058      1.40957
    5 =    81.936         0.14158     3.823      1.76196
    6 =    98.323         0.16990     4.587      2.11436
    7 =   114.710         0.19822     5.352      2.46675
    8 =   131.097         0.22654     6.116      2.81914
    9 =   147.484         0.25485     6.881      3.17154


                               CAPACITY.

         Fluid
         Drachms to     Fluid         Quarts     Gallons
         Millilitres    Ounces to     to         to
         or Cubic       Millilitres.  Litres.    Litres.
         Centimetres.

    1 =      3.70           29.57     0.94636    3.78543
    2 =      7.39           59.15     1.89272    7.57087
    3 =     11.09           88.72     2.83908   11.35630
    4 =     14.79          118.29     3.78543   15.14174
    5 =     18.48          147.87     4.73179   18.92717
    6 =     22.18          177.44     5.67815   22.71261
    7 =     25.88          207.02     6.62451   26.49804
    8 =     29.57          236.59     7.57087   30.28348
    9 =     33.27          266.16     8.51723   34.06891


                                WEIGHT.

          Grains        Avoirdupois   Avoirdupois   Troy
          to            Ounces to     Pounds to    Ounces to
          Milligrammes. Grammes.      Kilogrammes. Grammes.

    1 =     64.7989       28.3495       0.45359     31.10348
    2 =    129.5978       56.6991       0.90719     62.20696
    3 =    194.3968       85.0486       1.36078     93.31044
    4 =    259.1957      113.3981       1.81437    124.41392
    5 =    323.9946      141.7476       2.26796    155.51740
    6 =    388.7935      170.0972       2.72156    186.62088
    7 =    453.5924      198.4467       3.17515    217.72437
    8 =    518.3914      226.7962       3.62874    248.82785
    9 =    583.1903      255.1457       4.08233    279.93133

         1 Gunter's chain         =    20.1168     metres
         1 square statute mile    =   259.000    hectares
         1 fathom                 =     1.829      metres
         1 nautical mile          =  1853.25       metres
         1 foot = 0.304801 metre,       9.4840158    log.
         1 avoirdupois pound      =   453.5924277  gramme
    15432.35639 grains            =     1      kilogramme


                          METRIC TO CUSTOMARY

                                LINEAR.

          Metres to   Metres to   Metres to   Kilometres
          Inches.     Feet.       Yards.      to Miles.

    1 =   39.3700     3.28083     1.093611      0.62137
    2 =   78.7400     6.56167     2.187222      1.24274
    3 =  118.1100     9.84250     3.280833      1.86411
    4 =  157.4800    13.12333     4.374444      2.48548
    5 =  196.8500    16.40417     5.468056      3.10685
    6 =  236.2200    19.68500     6.561667      3.72822
    7 =  275.5900    22.96583     7.655278      4.34959
    8 =  314.9600    26.24667     8.748889      4.97096
    9 =  354.3300    29.52750     9.842500      5.59233


                                SQUARE.

           Square        Square      Square      Hectares to
           Centimetres   Metres to   Metres to   Acres.
           to Square     Square      Square
           Inches.       Feet.       Yards.

    1 =      0.1550       10.764       1.196        2.471
    2 =      0.3100       21.528       2.392        4.942
    3 =      0.4650       32.292       3.588        7.413
    4 =      0.6200       43.055       4.784        9.884
    5 =      0.7750       53.819       5.980       12.355
    6 =      0.9300       64.583       7.176       14.826
    7 =      1.0850       75.347       8.372       17.297
    8 =      1.2400       86.111       9.568       19.768
    9 =      1.3950       96.875      10.764       22.239


                                CUBIC.

           Cubic         Cubic         Cubic       Cubic
           Centimetres   Decimetres    Metres      Metres
           to Cubic      to Cubic      to Cubic    to Cubic
           Inches.       Inches.       Feet.       Yards.

    1 =       0.0610        61.023       35.314      1.308
    2 =       0.1220       122.047       70.629      2.616
    3 =       0.1831       183.070      105.943      3.924
    4 =       0.2441       244.094      141.258      5.232
    5 =       0.3051       305.117      176.572      6.540
    6 =       0.3661       366.140      211.887      7.848
    7 =       0.4272       427.164      247.201      9.156
    8 =       0.4882       488.187      282.516     10.464
    9 =       0.5492       549.210      317.830     11.771


                               CAPACITY.

        Millimetres
        or Cubic     Centilitres   Litres   Decalitres   Hectolitres
        Centimetres  to Fluid      to       to           to
        to Fluid     Ounces.       Quarts.  Gallons.     Bushels.
        Drachms.

    1 =    0.27          0.338      1.0567     2.6417        2.8377
    2 =    0.54          0.676      2.1134     5.2834        5.6755
    3 =    0.81          1.014      3.1700     7.9251        8.5132
    4 =    1.08          1.353      4.2267    10.5668       11.3510
    5 =    1.35          1.691      5.2834    13.2085       14.1887
    6 =    1.62          2.029      6.3401    15.8502       17.0265
    7 =    1.89          2.367      7.3968    18.4919       19.8642
    8 =    2.16          2.705      8.4535    21.1336       22.7019
    9 =    2.43          3.043      9.5101    23.7753       25.5397


                                WEIGHT.

          Milligrammes  Kilogrammes   Hectogrammes   Kilogrammes
          to            to            to Ounces      to Pounds
          Grains.       Grains.       Avoirdupois.   Avoirdupois.

    1 =    0.01543      15432.36          3.5274         2.20462
    2 =    0.03086      30864.71          7.0548         4.40924
    3 =    0.04630      46297.07         10.5822         6.61387
    4 =    0.06173      61729.43         14.1096         8.81849
    5 =    0.07716      77161.78         17.6370         11.02311
    6 =    0.09259      92594.14         21.1644         13.22773
    7 =    0.10803     108026.49         24.6918         15.43236
    8 =    0.12346     123458.85         28.2192         17.63698
    9 =    0.13889     138891.21         31.7466         19.84160


         Quintals to    Milliers or tonnes    Kilogrammes
         Pounds         to Pounds             to Ounces
         Avoirdupois.   Avoirdupois.          Troy.

    1 =     220.46            2204.6            32.1507
    2 =     440.92            4409.2            64.3015
    3 =     661.39            6613.9            96.4522
    4 =     881.85            8818.5           128.6030
    5 =    1102.31           11023.1           160.7537
    6 =    1322.77           13227.7           192.9044
    7 =    1543.24           15432.4           225.0552
    8 =    1763.70           17637.0           257.2059
    9 =    1984.16           19841.6           289.3567


                               SALUTES.

Salutes are fired between sunrise and sunset, and, as a rule, never on
Sunday. Salute to the Union, one gun for each state, fired at meridian,
July 4th; the international salute, 21 guns.

The President, 21 guns, both on arriving at and departing from a
military post.

On arriving at a military post:

    The Vice-President and President of the Senate           19 guns

    Members of the Cabinet, Chief Justice, Speaker
      of the House of Representatives, Governors in
      their respective states and territories, Committees
      of Congress visiting officially                        17  "

    Assistant Secretary of War                               15  "

    Sovereign or Chief Magistrate of a foreign state         21  "

    Members of Royal Family                                  21  "

    Viceroy, Governor-general, or Governors of provinces
    belonging to foreign states                              17  "

    Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary            17  "

    Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary       15  "

    Ministers Resident accredited to the United States       13  "

    Chargés d'Affaires or subordinate diplomatic agent
      in charge of mission in the United States              11  "

    Consuls-general accredited to the United States           9  "

    To General-in-Chief, Field-marshal, or Admiral           17  "

    To Lieutenant-General or Vice-Admiral                    15  "

    To Major-General or Rear-Admiral                         13  "

    To Brigadier-General or Commodore                        11  "

An officer on duty, according to brevet rank, receives the salute of
that rank.

Officers of volunteers or militia are saluted only when in service of
United States.

Officers on retired list are not saluted.

Officers of foreign services are saluted according to their rank.


               TABLE FOR CALCULATING CLOTHING ACCOUNTS.

  Take the numbers from the columns A and B corresponding to the date
        immediately preceding the date of the man's enlistment.

    ------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
      January.  |  February. |    March.  |    April.  |    May.    |
    -----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+---+--+-----+---+--+
    Date.| A| B |Date.| A| B |Date.| A| B |Date.| A | B|Date.| A | B|
    -----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+---+--+-----+---+--+
       1 | 1|180|   1 |32|149|   1 |60|121|   1 | 91|90|   1 |121|60|
       2 | 2|179|   2 |33|148|   2 |61|120|   2 | 92|89|   2 |122|59|
       3 | 3|178|   3 |34|147|   3 |62|119|   3 | 93|88|   3 |123|58|
       4 | 4|177|   4 |35|146|   4 |63|118|   4 | 94|87|   4 |124|57|
       5 | 5|176|   5 |36|145|   5 |64|117|   5 | 95|86|   5 |125|56|
       6 | 6|175|   6 |37|144|   6 |65|116|   6 | 96|85|   6 |126|55|
       7 | 7|174|   7 |38|143|   7 |66|115|   7 | 97|84|   7 |127|54|
       8 | 8|173|   8 |39|142|   8 |67|114|   8 | 98|83|   8 |128|53|
       9 | 9|172|   9 |40|141|   9 |68|113|   9 | 99|82|   9 |129|52|
      10 |10|171|  10 |41|140|  10 |69|112|  10 |100|81|  10 |130|51|
      11 |11|170|  11 |42|139|  11 |70|111|  11 |101|80|  11 |131|50|
      12 |12|169|  12 |43|138|  12 |71|110|  12 |102|79|  12 |132|49|
      13 |13|168|  13 |44|137|  13 |72|109|  13 |103|78|  13 |133|48|
      14 |14|167|  14 |45|136|  14 |73|108|  14 |104|77|  14 |134|47|
      15 |15|166|  15 |46|135|  15 |74|107|  15 |105|76|  15 |135|46|
      16 |16|165|  16 |47|134|  16 |75|106|  16 |106|75|  16 |136|45|
      17 |17|164|  17 |48|133|  17 |76|105|  17 |107|74|  17 |137|44|
      18 |18|163|  18 |49|132|  18 |77|104|  18 |108|73|  18 |138|43|
      19 |19|162|  19 |50|131|  19 |78|103|  19 |109|72|  19 |139|42|
      20 |20|161|  20 |51|130|  20 |79|102|  20 |110|71|  20 |140|41|
      21 |21|160|  21 |52|129|  21 |80|101|  21 |111|70|  21 |141|40|
      22 |22|159|  22 |53|128|  22 |81|100|  22 |112|69|  22 |142|39|
      23 |23|158|  23 |54|127|  23 |82| 99|  23 |113|68|  23 |143|38|
      24 |24|157|  24 |55|126|  24 |83| 98|  24 |114|67|  24 |144|37|
      25 |25|156|  25 |56|125|  25 |84| 97|  25 |115|66|  25 |145|36|
      26 |26|155|  26 |57|124|  26 |85| 96|  26 |116|65|  26 |146|35|
      27 |27|154|  27 |58|123|  27 |86| 95|  27 |117|64|  27 |147|34|
      28 |28|153|  28 |59|122|  28 |87| 94|  28 |118|63|  28 |148|33|
      29 |29|152|     |  |   |  29 |88| 93|  29 |119|62|  29 |149|32|
      30 |30|151|     |  |   |  30 |89| 92|  30 |120|61|  30 |150|31|
      31 |31|150|     |  |   |  31 |90| 91|     |   |  |  31 |151|30|
    -----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+---+--+-----+---+--+

    [Part 2 of Table.]
    ------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
        June.   |    July.   |   August.  |  September |   October. |
    -----+---+--+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+---+--+
    Date.| A | B|Date.| A| B |Date.| A| B |Date.| A| B |Date.| A | B|
    -----+---+--+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+---+--+
       1 |152|29|   1 | 1|183|   1 |32|152|   1 |63|121|   1 | 93|91|
       2 |153|28|   2 | 2|182|   2 |33|151|   2 |64|120|   2 | 94|90|
       3 |154|27|   3 | 3|181|   3 |34|150|   3 |65|119|   3 | 95|89|
       4 |155|26|   4 | 4|180|   4 |35|149|   4 |66|118|   4 | 96|88|
       5 |156|25|   5 | 5|179|   5 |36|148|   5 |67|117|   5 | 97|87|
       6 |157|24|   6 | 6|178|   6 |37|147|   6 |68|116|   6 | 98|86|
       7 |158|23|   7 | 7|177|   7 |38|146|   7 |69|115|   7 | 99|85|
       8 |159|22|   8 | 8|176|   8 |39|145|   8 |70|114|   8 |100|84|
       9 |160|21|   9 | 9|175|   9 |40|144|   9 |71|113|   9 |101|83|
      10 |161|20|  10 |10|174|  10 |41|143|  10 |72|112|  10 |102|82|
      11 |162|19|  11 |11|173|  11 |42|142|  11 |73|111|  11 |103|81|
      12 |163|18|  12 |12|172|  12 |43|141|  12 |74|110|  12 |104|80|
      13 |164|17|  13 |13|171|  13 |44|140|  13 |75|109|  13 |105|79|
      14 |165|16|  14 |14|170|  14 |45|139|  14 |76|108|  14 |106|78|
      15 |166|15|  15 |15|169|  15 |46|138|  15 |77|107|  15 |107|77|
      16 |167|14|  16 |16|168|  16 |47|137|  16 |78|106|  16 |108|76|
      17 |168|13|  17 |17|167|  17 |48|136|  17 |79|105|  17 |109|75|
      18 |169|12|  18 |18|166|  18 |49|135|  18 |80|104|  18 |110|74|
      19 |170|11|  19 |19|165|  19 |50|134|  19 |81|103|  19 |111|73|
      20 |171|10|  20 |20|164|  20 |51|133|  20 |82|102|  20 |112|72|
      21 |172| 9|  21 |21|163|  21 |52|132|  21 |83|101|  21 |113|71|
      22 |173| 8|  22 |22|162|  22 |53|131|  22 |84|100|  22 |114|70|
      23 |174| 7|  23 |23|161|  23 |54|130|  23 |85| 99|  23 |115|69|
      24 |175| 6|  24 |24|160|  24 |55|129|  24 |86| 98|  24 |116|68|
      25 |176| 5|  25 |25|159|  25 |56|128|  25 |87| 97|  25 |117|67|
      26 |177| 4|  26 |26|158|  26 |57|127|  26 |88| 96|  26 |118|66|
      27 |178| 3|  27 |27|157|  27 |58|126|  27 |89| 95|  27 |119|65|
      28 |179| 2|  28 |28|156|  28 |59|125|  28 |90| 94|  28 |120|64|
      29 |180| 1|  29 |29|155|  29 |60|124|  29 |91| 93|  29 |121|63|
      30 |181| 0|  30 |30|154|  30 |61|123|  30 |92| 92|  30 |122|62|
         |   |  |  31 |31|153|  31 |62|122|     |  |   |  31 |123|61|
    -----+---+--+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+--+---+-----+---+--+

    [Part 3 of Table.]
    ------------+-------------
     November.  |  December.
    -----+---+--+-----+---+---
    Date.| A | B|Date.| A | B
    -----+---+--+-----+---+---
       1 |124|60|   1 |154|30
       2 |125|59|   2 |155|29
       3 |126|58|   3 |156|28
       4 |127|57|   4 |157|27
       5 |128|56|   5 |158|26
       6 |129|55|   6 |159|25
       7 |130|54|   7 |160|24
       8 |131|53|   8 |161|23
       9 |132|52|   9 |162|22
      10 |133|51|  10 |163|21
      11 |134|50|  11 |164|20
      12 |135|49|  12 |165|19
      13 |136|48|  13 |166|18
      14 |137|47|  14 |167|17
      15 |138|46|  15 |168|16
      16 |139|45|  16 |169|15
      17 |140|44|  17 |170|14
      18 |141|43|  18 |171|13
      19 |142|42|  19 |172|12
      20 |143|41|  20 |173|11
      21 |144|40|  21 |174|10
      22 |145|39|  22 |175| 9
      23 |146|38|  23 |176| 8
      24 |147|37|  24 |177| 7
      25 |148|36|  25 |178| 6
      26 |149|35|  26 |179| 5
      27 |150|34|  27 |180| 4
      28 |151|33|  28 |181| 3
      29 |152|32|  29 |182| 2
      30 |153|31|  30 |183| 1
         |   |  |  31 |184| 0
    -----+---+--+-----+---+---


                            CAMP FURNITURE.

The following-named articles, manufactured by the Gold Medal Camp
Furniture Manufacturing Company, of Racine, Wis., can be obtained of
furniture dealers:

=Folding Camp-bed.=--6 feet 2 inches long by 2 feet 4 inches wide. When
folded, it is 3 feet 4 inches long by 5 inches wide. Weight, 14 pounds.
Cost, $3.50. Mosquito-bar frame, 75 cents.

=Folding Camp-table.=--Top 2 feet 3 inches by 3 feet 2 inches. Will
comfortably seat four persons. Folded it is 3 feet 2 inches long by 5 ×
7 inches. Weight, 16 pounds. Cost, $3.75. Extra shelf, 75 cents.

=Folding Camp-chair.=--Folded, 3 feet long by 3 × 3 inches. Weight, 4½
pounds. Cost, $2.

=Folding Camp-stool.=--75 cents.

The attention of officers desiring such articles is called to the
mess-chest and stove manufactured by H. K. Coale, 1223 Chamber of
Commerce, Chicago Ill.


            THE OFFICER'S FIELD MESS-CHEST FOR SIX PERSONS.

Size, 22 × 15 × 12 inches. Weight, 60 lbs. Price, $50.


                               CONTENTS.


                          SILVER-PLATED WARE.

    1 quadruple-plated butter-dish.
    1        "         covered sugar-bowl.
    1        "         creamer.
    6 Rogers & Bros. best triple-plate steel knives.
    6       "         "         "        "   forks.
    6       "         "         "      tablespoons.
    6       "         "         "      teaspoons.
    1       "         "         "      butter-knife.
    1       "         "         "      sugar-shell.
    1 large salt-shaker,   strong glass.
    1    "  pepper-shaker,    "     "
    1 screw-top oil-jug,      "     "
    1     "     vinegar-jug,  "     "
    1 [japanned] tray, 13 × 16 inches.
    1 large corkscrew.
    6 individual butter-shells.
    1 brass bottle-tray.


                         WHITE ENAMELLED WARE.

    6 cups.
    6 saucers.
    6 plates.
    6 soup-bowls.
    3 10-inch vegetable-dishes, B. & W. ware.
    1 14-inch meat-platter,        "     "
    1 16-inch      "               "     "
    1 4-quart pitcher,             "     "
    1 mustard-pot.
    1 Sears' set carvers, 3 pieces, buck-horn handles.
    1 best steel bread-knife.
    1 new patent lemon-squeezer.
    1 nickel-plated liquor-mixer.
    1 agate-ware teapot.
    1 syrup-jug.
    6 snow-white enamel tumblers.
    1 wire teapot-stand.


                    COALE'S CAMP-STOVE AND OUTFIT.

                      Sold with or without chest.

This chest is made very strong, with metal corners, size 13 × 19 × 28
inches. Contains: 1 stove with oven (stove is 26 × 17½ × 11 inches; has
4 cast-iron 7-inch lids; oven is 8 × 16½ × 10½ inches), 4 lengths pipe,
1 elbow, 1 baking-pan, 1 frying-pan, 1 basting-spoon, 3 camp-kettles,
1 wash-bowl, 6 iron knives, forks, and spoons, 6 white enamel cups,
6 white enamel saucers, 1 carving-knife and fork, 1 tea-kettle, 1
saucepan, 1 poker, 1 wire broiler, 1 cake-turner, 1 basting-fork. This
outfit is for rough and ready service, and can be thrown into a wagon
on short notice.

    Price of outfit as above, with oven, packed in pine box  $15.00
    Same with chest                                           25.00



                                INDEX.


          A

    Abscess, 207

    Accidents to carriages, 273

    Accoutrements, cost of, 442

    Adiabatic transformation, 363

    Air-space, initial, defined, 363

    Allowance, projectiles for target practice, 447
             , revolver ammunition, 160
               of wagons, 297

    Ammunition, 3.2-inch gun, description of, 96
              , 3.6   "   "        "      " , 108
              , 3.6 " (mortar)     "      " , 117
              , Hotchkiss revolving cannon, 322
              , 1.65-inch mountain,  description of, 6, 7
              , 3.0    "      "           "      " , 27-29
              , fixed, for field-guns,    "      " , 87
              , 1.65-inch, instructions for packing, 18
              , how supplied to mountain-batteries, 60, 61
              , allowance for target practice, 447
              , allowance for revolver practice, 160
              , how prepared, 31, 32, 180, 181
              , proportion of each kind for mountain-battery, 34
              , rounds in box for 1.65-inch, 12
              , care of, 178
              , how painted, 178
                chest, contents of, 135
                boxes for 1.65-inch, 12
                pack, rounds carried, in 12

    Angle of departure, 364
          of elevation, 364
          of sight, 364

    Animals, salt and vinegar for, 433

    Apothecaries' measure, 485

    Artillery commander, duties of, 376
              corps, 262
            , divisional, 262
            , transportation by sea, 301
            , how stored on shipboard, 301, 302
            , disembarkation from shipboard, 303, 314
            , transportation by rail, 301
            , organization of, 261
            , proportion of, in army, 262
              teams, power of, 194
           -wagon, weight and description of, 149
           -harness, 150
           -wagon harness, 157

    Axes, where carried on caisson, 142

    Axle-seats for field-gun carriage, nomenclature, 127

    Armament, how stored on railroad cars, 306
                         on shipboard, 302

    Army-wagon, inside measurement, 482

    Austrian light artillery, 121
             mountain-artillery, 70, 71
             gun-pits, 473


          B

    Barley, pounds in bushel, 481

    Barrels, weights and dimensions of, 417

    Barrack chairs, allowance of, 453

    Battalion commander, duties of, 377

    Batteries, the different kinds of, 261

    Battery books and records, 431
          , light, enlisted men for, 263
                 , composition of, 262
                 , organization of, 263
                 , present organization, of 434
                   commander, duties of, 377
                   guard, 181-187
                 , cost of, 435
                 , special-duty men allowed, 434
                 , supply table of ordnance stores for, 445
                   tableware and kitchen utensils, 451

    Battery-wagon and forge, weight and description of, 144
                           , nomenclature, 145
                           , articles carried on, 145
                           , storing of implements, 147

    Beans, pounds in bushel, 481

    Beef, pounds in barrel, 481

    Belt, officer's, cost of, 443

    Bivouacs, 288

    Blacking for harness, 62

    Bladder, inflammation of, 207
           , irritation of, 207

    Blasting, dynamite, 420

    Blocks, etc., 394

    Blue-grass seed, pounds in bushel, 481

    Boats, buoyancy of, 416
           for bridges, 415

    Books kept in light battery, 431

    Bowbrake, nomenclature and  description, 127

    Bowels, inflammation of, 208

    Boxes, capacity of, 482

    Bran-mash, how made, 206

    Bread, rule for making, 69

    Breaking camp, 296

    Breech-block, field-gun, description of, 73
           mechanism, field-gun, action of, 81
                               , how dismounted, 83
                               , how assembled, 83
                    , 3.6-inch mortar, 113
                    , Gatling gun, action of, 331
                    , Hotchkiss revolving cannon, how assembled, 321
                                                , how dismounted, 320

    Bridges, boat, 415
           , floating, 415
           , flying, 414
           , frame, 406
           , lock, 406-408
           , sling, 409
           , stringer, 411
           , trestle, 404
           , roadway for, 403
           , passage of military, 278
           , weights borne by, 402

    Bronchitis, 208

    Bronze-handle for field-gun, 80

    Bruce feed for Gatling gun, 332

    Buoyancy of boats, 416
             of casks, 416

    Burns, 209
         and scalds (men), 478

    Bushel, cubic yards in, 482


          C

    Caisson, field, nomenclature and description, 139
                  , weights and equipments, 143
                  , articles carried on, 140
                  , implements stowed on, 141
           , Hotchkiss revolving cannon, 325

    Camp, selection of, 280
        , laying out of, 280, 283-287
        , duties on reaching, 281
        , breaking of, 296
        , for mountain-batteries, 67-68
        , for battalion of artillery, 286
         -furniture, 494
         -stove, 495

    Canister, general description, 371
            , 3.2-inch, description of, 96
            , 3.6  "         "      " , 108
            , 1.65 "         "      " , 7
            , 3.0  "         "      " , 29
            , how painted, 178
            , when used, 372, 387

    Canvas buckets, where carried on caisson, 142

    Cannoneers, 1.65-inch gun mountain-battery, 21
              , 3.0   "    "     "        "   , 34

    Carpenter's and wheelwright's chest, contents of, 145

    Carriages, accidents to, 273

    Carriage,
      field-gun, description of, 129
               , nomenclature, 125
           , Hotchkiss revolving cannon, 323
           , Gatling gun, 337
           , Gardner gun, 351
           , Maxim automatic machine-gun, 358

    Carriage, metallic, for machine-gun, 361
            , 1.65-inch gun, description of, 8
                           , how packed, 17
            , 3.0-inch gun, description of, 24
            , 3.6-inch mortar, description and nomenclature, 114
            , field-gun, axle-seat, nomenclature, 127
                       , bowbrake,       "      , 127
                       , elevating device, nomenclature, 127-129
                       , care of, 174
                       , limber, articles carried on, 136

    Cartridge, 1.65-inch gun, how assembled, 32
             -bags, how filled, 180
             -case,  "    "   , 32

    Cargoes, how packed, 41
           , how loaded, 42
           , how unloaded, 47

    Carrier-ring, description of, 75

    Cars, horse, dimensions of, 303
        , passenger, seating capacity, 306

    Castor beans, pounds in bushel, 481

    Casks, buoyancy of, 416

    Chafing (men), 478

    Cholera morbus (men), 478

    Clothing, allowance of, 452
              and equipment for men on march, 267
            , table for calculating, accounts, 492
            , weight of, 454

    Clover-seed, pounds in bushel, 481

    Cold, 53

    Collar, steel, description of and how fitted, 154-156

    Colic, spasmodic, 55, 209
           (men), 478

    Commander, artillery, duties of, 376
             , battalion,   "    " , 377
             , battery,     "    " , 377

    Cooking, camp, 293
            utensils in field, 265

    Corps, artillery, 262
         , duties of chief, 377

    Constipation, 210
                (men), 478

    Cordage, 392

    Corns, 210

    Corn brooms, allowance of, 453

    Corn, how to determine quantity of, 482
        , pounds in bushel, 481

    Cracked heels, 211

    Cramp, 56

    Cross-fire, 366

    Curb, 211

    Cubic measure, 483


          D

    De Bange obturator, description of, 77

    _Definitions_:
      Adiabatic transformation, 363
      Air-space, initial, 363
      Angle of departure, 364
      Angle of elevation, 364
      Angle of sight, 364
      Ballistics, exterior, 363
                , interior, 362
      Cross-fire, 366
      Density, 362
      Density, gravimetric, 362
               of loading, 362
             , sectional, 363
             , spherical, 363
      Detonation, 363
      Direct fire, 365
      Drift, 365
      Enfilade fire, 366
      Final velocity, 365
      Flanking fire, 366
      Gunpowder, ignition, 362
               , inflammation, 362
               , combustion, 362
               , explosion, 362
               , slow, 363
      High-angle fire, 365
      Indirect fire, 365
      Initial velocity, 365
      Jump, 365
      Line of departure, 364
      Line of fire, 364
           of sight, 364
      Oblique fire, 365
      Plane of fire, 364
      Point of mean impact, 367
      Plane of sight, 364
      Probable rectangle, 367
      Probability of fire, 366
      Reduced length, 363
      Remaining velocity, 365
      Reverse fire, 366
      Similar guns, 363
      Similarly loaded guns, 363
      Trajectory, 363
      Velocity of emission, 363
              , initial, 365
              , remaining, 365
              , final, 365

    Deflection, rule for correcting, 95

    Dentition of horse, 196

    Demolition, 427-429

    Destruction of horses, 260

    Detonation, 363

    Diarrhœa, 478

    Direct fire, 365

    Diseases of the horse (see Veterinary Treatment), 200
                    mule    "      "          "     , 53

    Disembarkation from shipboard, 301, 314

    Distances, estimation of, 374

    Distemper, 211

    Ditches, how crossed, 276

    Divisional artillery, 262

    Dressing for harness, 61

    Dried apples, pounds in bushel, 481

    Drift, 365

    Driggs-Schroeder field-gun, 84
                              , how dismounted, 85
                              , how assembled, 86

    Drowning, 479

    Drivers, mountain-batteries, instructions for, 62-64

    Dynamite, description of, 420
            , how used in blasting, 420

    Dry measure, 484


          E

    Elevating device for field-carriage, 127, 129

    Emetics (men), 480

    Enfilade fire, 366

    England, mountain-artillery, 70
           , light artillery, 123
           , gun-pit, 474

    Enlisted men, light battery, description of, 263
                , equipment and clothing on march, 267
                , pay table for, 455

    Equipage, allowance of, 452
            , weight of, 454

    Equipment, etc., for officers on march, 265
             , of personnel of battery, 264
             , for enlisted men on march, 267
             , of 1.65-inch mountain-battery, 20
             , of 3.0   "      "        "   , 34
             , weight of, in field-battery, 138

    Exterior ballistics, 363

    Eye, 54


          F

    Fainting, 480

    Farcy, 211

    Feed, Bruce, for Gatling gun, 332
        , Accles  "     "     " , 333
        , improved, for Gatling gun, 334

    Feeding animals on cars, 304
            animals, 50, 238

    Ferry, 414

    Field-artillery, foreign, 120-123

    Field-gun carriage, nomenclature, 125
                      , description, 129
                      , axle-seat, nomenclature, 127
                      , bowbrake         "     , 127
                      , elevating device "     , 127-129
              limber, description and nomenclature, 131-135

    Field-guns, construction of, 72
              , 3.2-inch, description of, 89
              , 3.6  "         "      " , 108
              , breech-mechanism, 73
                                , action of, 81

    Field-guns, Gerdom breech-mechanism, 86
              , Driggs-Schroeder breech-mechanism, 84
                                                 , how dismounted, 85
                                                 , how assembled, 86
              , breech-mechanism, how dismounted, 83
                                      assembled, 83
              , bronze-handle, 80
              , carrier-ring, 75
              , latch, 76
              , latch-cover, 75
              , hinge-pin, 76
              , locking-recess, 75
              , guide-groove, 75
              , guide-sectors, 75
              , lever-handle, 79
              , obturator, 77-78
              , stop, 76
              , vent-cover, 80
              , pointing-arcs for, 93
              ,      "       , how used, 95
              , sight, front, 90
                     , rear, 92
              , fixed ammunition for, 87
              , how disabled, 275

    Field-ovens, how made, 294

    Filters, how made, 295

    Final velocity, 365

    Fish, pounds in barrel, 481

    Fistula, 54, 211

    Firing, night, 391
          , indirect, 390
          , projectiles used, 385

    Fire, rates of, 388

    Flanking fire, 366

    Floats, cask, how made, 416

    Floating bridges, 415

    Flying bridges, 414

    Flaxseed, pounds in bushel, 481

    Flour, pounds in barrel, 481

    Foot inflammation, 212

    Foreign light artillery, 120-123

    Foreign mountain artillery, 70-71

    Forage, allowance of, 239
          , how fed, 239
          , weight of, 239

    Fords, how crossed, 277, 414

    Forge-chest, contents of, 146

    Founder, 212

    Frame bridges, 406

    Freight, cubic yards to ton, 482

    France, mountain-artillery, 70
          , light        "     , 120
          , gun-pit, 469

    Freyre obturator, description of, 78
                      on 3.6-inch mortar, 113

    Friction-primer for mountain-gun, 3

    Frost-bites, 480

    Fuel, allowance of, 453

    Fuzes and friction-primers, how kept, 180

    Fuze, Frankford Arsenal base-percussion for field-shell, 102, 108
                          , combination, for field-shrapnel, 99, 108
                          , for 3.6-inch mortar-shrapnel, 117
                                               -shell, 117
                          for mountain-gun ammunition, 11
        , Hotchkiss point-percussion, 9


          G

    Gaits for artillery teams, 195

    Galls, 55, 214

    Gardner gun, description of, 346
      nomenclature, 350
      assembling, 352
      dismounting, 351
      carriage, 351
      limber, 351

    Gatling gun, description of, 327
               , action of mechanism, 331
               , precautions in firing, 336
               , 1-inch, nomenclature, 344
                       , assembling, 345
                       , dismounting, 344
               , long-barrel, 1883, assembling, 343
                                  , dismounting, 342
               , short-barrel, 1875, assembling, 341
                                   , dismounting, 340
               , carriage, 337
               , limber, 338
               , weights, etc., 339

    Germany, light artillery, 120
           , gun-pit, 471

    Gerdom breech-mechanism, 86

    Glanders, 56, 197, 214

    Grease, 56, 215
          , axle, when applied, 174

    Gruel, how made, 206

    Guard, commander of, 183
         , orders for, 181-87

    Guns, care of, 176
        , when painted, 177

    Gunners' quadrant for mountain-guns, 6
                    , description of, 116

    Guncotton, 424
             , how fired, 425

    Gunpowder, combustion of, etc., 362
             , description of, 419
             , slow, 363

    Gun-pits, general observations, 477
            , Austrian, 4
            , English, 473
            , French, 469
            , German, 471
            , Russian, 475


          H

    Harness, light-artillery, description of, 150
                            , weights of parts, 157
                            , price list, 440
             for artillery-wagon, 157
           , how fitted to horse, 172
           , how arranged on pegs, 165
           , care and preservation of, 61, 163
           , mouldy, how cleaned, 162
           , soaps and dressings for, 61, 164

    Harness, varnish for, 161
             for 1.65-inch mountain-gun, 12
                                       , how packed, 17

    Harnessing, of mules, 52
                in garrison, 166

    Hay, description of, 240
       , how to determine quantity of, 483

    Heat exhaustion, 480

    Hemp-seed, pounds in bushel, 481

    High-angle fire, 365
        , explosives, storage of, 426
                    , transportation of, 425

    Hide-bound, 216

    Hitches, 396

    Horse-artillery, front caisson-chest removed, 142

    Hock lameness, 216

    Hoof-bound, 216

    Horse, nomenclature of parts, 192, 193
         , description of, 188
         , age of, 196
         , how obtained, 188
         , how selected, 189
         , how branded, 191
         , how trained, 224-258
         , how fed, 238
         , how watered, 241
         , directions for shoeing, 232
         , care and treatment of, 258
         , nomenclature of diseases, 200
         , in health and disease, 199
         , sick, care of, 197
         , glandered, action taken, 198
         , destruction of the, 260
         equipments, cost of, 443
         , weight drawn by, in field-carriage, 138
                                    -caisson, 143
                               battery-wagon and forge, 148

    Horses for 1.65-inch mountain-battery, 22
          , how loaded and fed on cars, 304
          , care of, at sea, 311
          , transportation of, by sea,  307
                             , by rail, 304

    Hotchkiss revolving cannon, description of, 316
                              , action of mechanism, 319
                              , care of, 321
                              , mounting and dismounting, 320
                              , ammunition, 322
                              , carriage, 323
                              , caisson, 325
                              , limber, 324
                              , range table, 326

    Hunting-knife, 160

    Huts, log, 296

    Hut-stables, 234


          I

    Ice, passage of, 297

    Implements, where stowed on caisson, 141

    Indirect fire, 365
             firing, 390

    Influenza, 216

    Initial velocity, 365

    Interior ballistics, 362

    Intoxication, 480

    Italy, mountain-artillery, 70
         , light artillery, 122


          J

    Jump, 365


          K

    Knapsacks, where carried, 136
             , how packed, 267

    Kitchen utensils, allowance of, 451

    Knife, hunting, price of, 442

    Knots, 397


          L

    Lacquers for metals, 162

    Lameness, 218

    Lampas, 218

    Lamps, allowance of, 454

    Land measure, 483

    Lanterns, cost of, 445
            , where carried on caisson, 142

    Laryngitis, 218

    Lashings, 401

    Latch for field-gun, 76
         -cover for field-gun, 75

    Leather, mouldy, how cleaned, 162
           , how attached to metal, 162

    Lever-handle for field-gun, 79

    Limber, field-gun, description and nomenclature, 131-135
                     , articles carried on, 136
          , Gardner gun, 351
          , Gatling gun, 338
          , Hotchkiss revolving cannon, 324
          , 3.0-inch mountain-gun, 25

    Line of departure, 364
         of fire, 364
         of sight, 364

    Liquid measure, 484

    Loading-tools, 1.65-inch mountain-gun, 11
                 , 3.0   "      "      " , 31

    Lock bridges, 406-408


          M

    Machine-guns, 316
                , care of, 177
                , metallic carriage for, 361

    Mange, 56, 219

    Maxim gun, 353
             , assembling, 359
             , dismounting, 359
             , operation of mechanism, 356
             , care of, 358
             , carriage for, 358

    Marches, articles required, 264
           , cooking utensils, 265
           , officers' equipment, 265
           , how conducted, 64, 268
           , distance covered daily on, 269
           , damages on, when repaired, 273

    Marking-outfit, cost of, 445

    Medicines, veterinary, supply table of, 448

    Measures of length, 483
            , liquid, cylinders for, 481
            , of weight, 486

    Mess-chest, officer's, 494

    Metric tables, 486

    Miscellaneous tables, 485

    Mortar, 3.6-inch field, description of, 113
                          , carriage for, 114
                          , platform, 115
                          , pointing-scale, 116
                          , ammunition, 117

    Mountain-artillery, foreign, 70

    Mountain-battery, camps for, 67
                    , gunners' quadrant, 6
                    , general instructions for, 58
                    , instructions for drivers, 62
                    , marches, 64
                    , tools, etc., for, 19, 31
                    , supplying ammunition to, 60

    Mountain-gun, 1.65-inch, description of, 1
                           , nomenclature of, 3
                           , action of breech-mechanism, 3
                           , breech-mechanism, how dismounted, 4
                           , how dismounted, 11
                           , care of, 4
                           , loading-tools for, 11
                           , sights for, 5
                           , ammunition for, 6
                           , instructions for packing ammunition, 18
                           , carriage for, 8
                           , instructions for packing carriage and
                               harness, 15-18
                           , harnessed for draught, 19
                           , organization and equipment of, 20
                           , animals required, 22
                           , packing-outfit, 12
                           , weights carried by mules, 19
                           , service of, 22
                           , range table, 10
                 , 3.0-inch, description of, 23
                           , ammunition for, 27
                           , carriage for, 24
                                         , how packed, 35
                           , limber, 25
                           , loading-tools for, 31
                           , sights for, 23
                           , spare parts, etc., 29
                           , tools and supplies, 30
                           , weights carried by mules, 38
                           , organization and equipment, 34
                           , cannoneers per gun, 34
                           , range table for, 33

    Mule, description of the, 49
        , care of, 51
        , feeding and watering, 50
        , harnessing and breaking, 52
        , how saddled, 40
        , how unsaddled, 48
        , shoeing the, 51
        , veterinary treatment, 53
        , weights carried by, in 1.65-inch battery, 19
                          by pack, 39

    Mules, number required in 1.65-inch battery, 22


          N

    Navicular disease, 219

    Night-firing, 391

    Nose-bag, pounds of oats in, 482


          O

    Oats, description of, 240
        , how to determine quantity of, 482
        , weight of nosebagful, 482
        , pounds in bushel, 481

    Oblique fire, 365

    Odometer, 279

    Obturator, de Bange, 77
             , Freyre, 78
             , spare, where carried, 136

    Oil, allowance of, 454

    Oiler, where carried, 136

    Onions, pounds in bushel, 481

    Officer of the day, battery, 183

    Office-furniture, allowance of, 454

    Officers' equipment and clothing on march, 265

    Ophthalmia, 220

    Orders for stable guard, 181-187

    Organization of artillery, 261
                 of light battery, 263
                                  (present), 434
                 of 1.65-inch mountain-battery, 20
                 of 3.0   "      "        "   , 34

    Outfit, packing, 1.65-inch gun, cost of, 441

    Overcoat, how rolled, 268



          P

    Pack, ammunition, 12
        -saddles, 39
                , nomenclature of ordinary, 39
                , how fitted, 40
        -trains, 39
               , allowance of mules to, 39
               , how packed, 39
               , number of packers to, 39

    Packing of cargoes, 41
            mountain-gun, 13
           -outfit, 1.65-inch mountain-gun, 12
            carriage, "    "      "     " , 15
                     3.0   "      "     " , 35
            , weights carried by mules, 19, 39

    Paints, oils, and brushes, care of, 161

    Paint for canvas, 161
          for field-guns, 176
         , old, how to remove, 176
         , waterproof, how made, 161

    Paralysis, 220

    Paulins, where carried, 136
           , weight and dimensions, 138

    Pay table for enlisted men, 455

    Peaches, pounds in bushel, 481

    Peas, pounds in bushel, 481

    Penetration of field-shell, 368
                of projectiles, 468-469

    Pharyngitis, 220

    Pickaxes, where carried on caisson, 141

    Picket-line, where established, 233

    Platform for 3.6-inch mortar, 115

    Plane of fire, 364
          of sight, 364

    Pleurisy, 221

    Pneumonia, 222

    Pointing-arc for field-guns, 93
                , how used, 95
            -scale, 3.6-inch mortar, 116

    Pole-prop, where carried, 136

    Poll evil, 54

    Point of mean impact, 367

    Potatoes, pounds in bushel, 481

    Pork, pounds in barrel, 481

    Poultice, how made, 206

    Powder, care and transportation of, 178

    Probability of fire, 366

    Probable rectangle, 367

    Projectiles, how filled, 181
               , kinds used in firing, 385
               , penetration of, 468

    Prolonge, length of, and where carried, 136
            , weight of, 138

    Price-list, accoutrements, 442
              , horse equipments, 443
              , light artillery harness, 440
              , light battery, 435
              , knife, 442
              , lanterns, 445
              , marking-outfit, 445
              , officer's belt, 443
                          sabre, 442
                          spurs, 444
              , revolver, 160
              , packing-outfit, 1.65-inch mountain-gun, 441
              , sabre, enlisted men's, 442
              , stencil outfit, 444

    Punctures from shoeing, 223

    Punishments, 458

    Purging, 223


          Q

    Quadrant, gunners', 116

    Quittor, 224


          R

    Rack-a-rock, 423

    Rafts, 417

    Ration, the, 433
          , travel, 434

    Ramps for loading animals, 305

    Range-finding, 375

    Range, method of finding, 381

    Range tables: Hotchkiss revolving cannon, 326
                  1.65-inch mountain-gun, 10
                  3.0   "      "      " , 33
                  3.2-inch field-gun, shell, 106
                   "   "     "    "  shrapnel, 104
                  3.6  "     "    "  shell, 112
                   "   "     "    "  shrapnel, 110
                  3.6-inch   " mortar, shell, 118
                   "   "     "   " shrapnel, 119

    Record books, battery, 431

    Reduced length, 363

    Remaining velocity, 365

    Reports, rolls, and returns, battery, 432

    Reverse fire, 366

    Revolver, cal. .45 Colt's, description, 158
                             , nomenclature, 158
                             , how assembled, 159
                             , weights, etc., of parts, 159
                             , rapidity of fire, 159
                             , penetration, 160
                             , pricelist, 160

    Rheumatism, 224

    Ringworm, 224

    Rope, kinds of, 392
        , preservation of, 393

    Russian gun-pit, 475
            mountain-artillery, 70
            light artillery, 121


          S

    Sabre, officer's, price of, 442
         , enlisted men's, price of, 442

    Saddle, nomenclature, 151
          , how placed on horse, 170

    Saddle-blanket, how folded, etc., 169

    Salutes, 491

    Saddler's chest, contents of, 146

    Salt for animals, 433
        , pounds in bushel, 481
                 in barrel, 481

    Sand-crack, 225

    Scurvy, 225

    Sectional density, 363

    Shell, definition of, 368
         , when and how used, 385
         , penetration of, 368
         , how filled, 31
         , how painted, 178
         , 1.65-inch mountain-gun, 7
         , 3.0   "      "      " , 28
         , 3.2-inch field-gun, 96
         , 3.6  "     "    " , 108
         , 3.6-inch field-mortar, 117
         , F. A. base-percussion fuze for field, 102, 108, 117

    Shrapnel, definition of, 369
            , how filled, 32
            , how painted, 178
            , fire of, 370
            , when and how used, 369, 386
            , rule for point of burst, 371
            , 3-inch mountain, 28
            , 3.2-inch Frankford Arsenal field, 97
            , 3.6  "       "        "      "  , 108
            , 3.2-inch American Projectile Co. field, 98
            , 3.6  "      "         "       "    "  , 108
            , 3.6-inch mortar, 117
            , Frankford Arsenal combination fuze for, 99, 108, 117

    Shoeing, directions for, 232
             mule, 51

    Shovels, where carried on caisson, 141

    Sick men, treatment of, 477-481

    Signal code, 465

    Sighting, 376

    Sights, 1.65-inch mountain-gun, 5
          , 3.0   "      "      " , 23
          , 3.2-inch field-gun, 90, 92
          , 3.6  "     "    " , 108

    Similar guns, 363

    Similarly loaded, 363

    Sling bridges, 409
          for horse, 310

    Sores, 225

    Sore mouth, 54
         feet, 481

    Spain, mountain-artillery of, 70

    Switzerland, mountain-artillery of, 70

    Spare parts for 3.0-inch mountain-gun, 29

    Sprains, 226

    Special-duty men in light battery, 434

    Spherical density, 363

    Spurs, officer's, cost of, 444

    Square measure, 483

    Stalls, size of, 233

    Stable duty, grooming, etc., 236
           management, rules for, 234

    Stables and stable duties, 233
           , hut, 234

    Stationery, allowance of, 454

    Stencil outfit, cost of, 444

    Stop, field-gun, 76

    Storage, high explosives, 426

    Stoves, allowance of, 453
          , Sibley, 293

    Strangles, 53, 227

    Straw, how to determine quantity, 483

    Stringer bridge, 411

    Summary court, 456, 465

    Sunstroke, 227, 480

    Supplies and tools, 1.65-inch mountain-battery, 19
                      , 3.0   "      "        "   , 30

    Supply table of ordnance stores for light battery, 445
                 of veterinary medicines, 448

    Surcingles, sizes of, 154

    Sweeny, 228

    Swelled legs, 228


          T

    Tableware, allowance for light battery, 451

    Target practice, how conducted, 379
                   , allowance of ammunition for, 447

    Table of weight of clothing and equipage, 454
          of pounds in bushel, 481
                    in barrel, 481

    Tents, allowance of, 452
         , weights, dimensions, and allowance, 288
         , how pitched, 289
         , how struck, 292
         , heating of, 293

    Thrush, 55, 228

    Timber, strength of, 403

    Timothy-seed, pounds in bushel, 481

    Tools and supplies, 1.65-inch mountain-battery, 19
                      , 3.0   "      "        "   , 30

    Tool-box, field-limber, contents of, 137

    Training of horses, 242-258

    Transportation, allowance of, 297
                    of artillery by sea and land, 301
                                 by rail, 303
                                -horses by sea, 307
                    of high explosives, 425

    Trajectory, 363

    Travel-ration, 434

    Trestle bridges, 404


          U

    Unharnessing, 167, 282

    Urine, retention of, 229
         , non-retention of, 229


          V

    Varnish, linseed-oil, how made, 162
             for harness, 161

    Velocity of emission, 363

    Velocity, muzzle, of 1.65-inch mountain-gun, 1
                    , of 3.0   "      "      " , 23
                    , of 3.2-inch field-gun, 90
                    , of 3.6  "        "   , 108
                    , of 3.6-inch field-mortar, 113

    Vents for field-guns, 73

    Vent-covers for field-guns, 80

    Veterinary medicines, 201-207
                        , doses, and how administered, 203, 204
               treatment, 53
                        , abscess, 207
                        , bladder irritation, 207
                                  inflammation, 207
                        , bowels, inflammation, 208
                        , bronchitis, 208
                        , burns, 209
                        , colds, 53
                        , colic, 59, 209
                        , constipation, 210
                        , corns, 210
                        , cracked heels, 211
                        , cramps, 56
                        , curb, 211
                        , distemper, 211
                        , farcy, 211
                        , fistula, 54, 211
                        , foot inflammation, 212
                        , founder, 212
                        , galls, 55, 214
                        , glanders, 56, 214
                        , grease, 56, 215
                        , hide-bound, 216
                        , hoof-bound, 216
                        , hock lameness, 216
                        , influenza, 216
                        , lameness, 218
                        , lampas, 218
                        , laryngitis, 218
                        , mange, 56, 219
                        , navicular disease, 219
                        , ophthalmia, 220
                        , paralysis, 220
                        , pharyngitis, 220
                        , pleurisy, 221
                        , pneumonia, 222
                        , poll evil, 54
                        , purging, 223
                        , punctures from shoeing, 223
                        , quittor, 224
                        , ringworm, 224
                        , rheumatism, 224
                        , sand-crack, 225
                        , scurvy, 225
                        , sores, 225
                        , sore mouth, 54
                        , sprains, 226
                        , strangles, 53, 227
                        , sunstroke, 227
                        , sweeny, 228
                        , swelled legs, 228
                        , thrush, 55, 228
                        , urine, retention of, 229
                               , non-retention of, 229
                        , warbles, 230
                        , warts, 230
                        , worms, 230
                        , wounds, 230

    Vinegar for animals, 433


           W

    Warbles, 230

    Wagon, army, inside measurement, 482

    Wagons, allowance of, 297, 299, 300
          , how packed, 298

    Warts, 230

    Water-filters, 295
         , allowance in camp, 296
                     at sea, 313
         -cart, 150

    Watering on march, 272
             of animals, 50, 241

    Wheat, pounds in bushel, 481

    Wheel, Archibald, description of, 124

    Wheel, Archibald, how repaired, 125

    Wheel-grease can, where carried, 136

    Weight, barrels, 417
          , forage, 239
          , nosebagful of oats, 482
          , clothing and equipage, 454
          , cubic foot of water, 484
            drawn by artillery teams, 194
            carried by mules, 1.65-inch mountain-battery, 19
                            , 3.0   "      "       "    , 38
          , Gardner gun, 346
          , Hotchkiss revolving cannon, 316
                                      , carriage, 323
                                      , limber, 324
          , Maxim gun, 353
            per horse, 3.2-inch field-battery, 138
                     , 3.6  "     "      "   , 138
                     , field-caisson, 143
            of load, 3.2-inch field-gun, carriage, and equipment, 138
          , Archibald wheel, 124
          , 3.2-inch field-gun, 89
          , 3.6  "     "    " , 108
          , 3.6  " field-mortar, 113
          , machine-guns, 323, 338, 339, 346, 353
          , field-gun limber, 133
          , tool-box, 137
          , field-caisson, 139
          , forge and battery-wagon implements, etc., 148
          , artillery-wagon, 149
          , artillery-harness, 157
          , equipments in field-battery, 138
          , forge-chest, 147
          , saddler's chest, 146
          , carpenter's chest, 146
          , prolonge, 138
          , steel collar, 154

    Worms, 230

    Wounds, 230


FOOTNOTES:

[1] Not including reserve.

[2] Includes reserve ammunition carried with battery, but not that in
field-parks, arsenals, or ammunition-columns.

[3] In the model of 1885 it enters from the rear.

[4] The point at which the projectile has a remaining velocity of 500
ft.-sec., the minimum at which shrapnel is effective.

[5] These numbers correspond to a time of flight which is generally
less than the tabulated time of flight by an amount required to cause
the shrapnel to burst at a point within a distance of 75 yards short of
the target.

[6] A corrugated sheet-metal prop will hereafter be attached to the
neck-yoke stop. It will fold up under the pole, partly enveloping it,
and be secured by a hook on the prop.

[7] Reduced when necessary by removing an ammunition-chest.

[8] On sights hereafter made this will be 1/1000 of the range.

[9] On the sights hereafter made the deflection divisions will
correspond to 1/1000 of the range.

[10] Or 8 if upper braces are used.

[11] Berthelet says: "Thin disks of compressed guncotton may be pierced
by a ball without explosion; but if thickness of disk be increased or
resisting envelope used an explosion occurs."

[12] Also 2 copies to the designated paymaster.

[13] When Meat cannot be furnished.

[14] Each caisson is provided with spare-wheel axle, but only two spare
wheels are supplied to a four-gun battery.

[15] When the necessity for their issue is certified to by the
department commander.

[16] Accounted for on return.

[17] ½ increase if mean temperature for 20 days < 20° F.; and if
temperature is not above 10° F. an increase of ½ is allowed for any
latitude.

[18] Under act May 15, 1872.

[19] Act approved February 27, 1893, to take effect on and after 1st
day of July 1893.

[20] Upon trial for desertion and conviction of absence without leave
only the court may, in addition to the limit prescribed for such
absence, award a stoppage of the amount paid for apprehension.

[21] Including first and excluding last.

[22] In specifications to charges of larceny or embezzlement the value
of the property shall be stated.

[23] Each station should have its characteristic signal or call letter,
as Washington, "W," and each operator his personal signal, as Jones,
"Jo."



                               BOOKS FOR

                        ARMY AND NAVY OFFICERS

                             PUBLISHED BY

                          JOHN WILEY & SONS.


   =ORDNANCE AND GUNNERY.=
     For the use of the Cadets of the U. S. Military Academy. By
     Captain Henry Metcalf, Ordnance Department, U. S. Army Instructor
     of Ordnance and Gunnery, U.S.M.A. 12mo, 500 pp., cloth, with
     separate atlas containing 350 cuts, $5.00

   =MODERN FRENCH ARTILLERY.=
     The St. Chamond, De Bange, Canet and Hotchkiss systems, with
     illustrations of French War Ships. By James Dredge. 4to, half
     morocco, $20.00 _net_

   =HANDBOOK OF PROBLEMS IN DIRECT FIRE.=
     By James M. Ingalls, Captain First Artillery, U. S. A. 8vo, cloth,
     $4.00

   =BALLISTIC TABLES.=
     Reprinted from the Handbook for West Point Cadets. By Capt. Jas.
     M. Ingalls. 8vo, cloth, $1.50

   =SUBMARINE MINES AND TORPEDOES.=
     As applied to Harbour Defense. By John Townsend Bucknill, Honorary
     Lieutenant-Colonel (late Major Royal Engineers) Reserve of
     Officers. With illustrations. 8vo, cloth, $4.00

   =PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP.=
     By John Todd, Master Mariner, and W. B. Whall, Extra Master
     Younger Brother Trinity House. Royal 8vo, full cloth, with 243
     Illustrations and Diagrams, $7.50

   =NOTES ON MILITARY HYGIENE.=
     For Officers of the Line. A Syllabus of Lectures at the U. S.
     Infantry and Cavalry School. By Alfred A. Woodhull, Major of
     Medical Dep't., Bvt. Lt. Col. U. S. Army. 12mo, morocco, $2.50

   =SIMPLE ELEMENTS OF NAVIGATION.=
     By Lucien Young, U. S. Navy. Pocket-book form. New edition,
     revised and enlarged, $2.50

   =THE SOLDIERS' FIRST AID HANDBOOK.=
     Comprising a Series of Lectures to Members of the Hospital Corps
     and Company Bearers. By William D. Dietz, Late Captain and
     Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. 18mo, morocco, $1.25

   =PERMANENT FORTIFICATIONS.=
     By Prof. D. H. Mahan, Revised and brought up to date by Col. James
     Mercur, U. S. Military Academy, West Point. Numerous plates, 1887.
     8vo, half morocco, $7.50

   =ELEMENTS OF THE ART OF WAR.=
     By James Mercur, Professor of Civil and Military Engineering,
     United States Military Academy. Illustrated with full-page and
     folding plates. Third edition. 8vo, cloth, $4.00

   =PRACTICAL MARINE SURVEYING.=
     By Harry Phelps, U. S. Navy. 8vo, cloth, $2.50

   =AN ABRIDGEMENT OF MILITARY LAW.=
     By Col. W. Winthrop, Deputy Judge Advocate-General, U. S. Army,
     late Professor of Law, U. S. Military Academy. Second and revised
     edition. 12mo, red cloth, $2.50

   =A MANUAL FOR COURTS-MARTIAL.=
     Prepared by Lt. Arthur Murray, 1st Artillery, late Acting Judge
     Advocate-General, U. S. A. Third edition. 18mo, morocco, flap,
     $1.50

   =CAVALRY OUT-POST DUTIES.=
     By F. De Brack, translated from the French (third edition, 1863)
     by Major Camillo C. C. Carr, 8th Cavalry, U. S. A. 18mo, morocco,
     flap, $2.00

   =GUNNERY FOR NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS.=
     Compiled by Lt. Adelbert Cronkhite, 4th Artillery, with Ballistic
     Tables, by Capt. James Chester, 3d Artillery, 18mo, morocco, flap,
     $2.00

   =ART OF SUBSISTING ARMIES IN WAR.=
     By Capt. H. G. Sharpe, U. S. A. Morocco, $1.50

   =THE ARMY OFFICER'S EXAMINER.=
     By Lt. Col. W. H. Powell, U. S. A. 12mo, cloth, $4.00

   =ELEMENTARY NAVAL TACTICS.=
     By Commander Wm. Bainbridge-Hoff, U. S. N. 8vo, cloth, $1.50

   =ATTACK OF FORTIFIED PLACES.=
     Including Siege-Works, Mining and Demolitions. By James Mercur,
     U. S. M. A., Professor of Civil and Military Engineering. 12mo,
     cloth, $2.00

   =TEXT-BOOK OF ORDNANCE AND GUNNERY.=
     For the use of the Cadets of U. S. M. A. By Capt. Lawrence L.
     Bruff, U. S. A. 8vo, cloth, $6.00

   =HANDBOOK FOR LIGHT ARTILLERY.=
     By A. B. Dyer, First Lieut. Fourth U. S. Artillery. 12mo, cloth,
     $3.00


Transcriber's Note:

1. The minutes of the angle for the RANGE TABLE FOR 3.6-INCH B. L.
MORTAR. 16 ounces; Range 2900 is unclear. (Page 118).

2. Punctuation has been standardized.

3. Spelling has been corrected where necessary.

4. Under CHAPTER X, DEFINITIONS: INTERIOR BALLISTICS, Density of
Loading, the word "cubic" has been added before the word "inches".

5. Morse code for & (in the original book) has been silently corrected. (Page 465)>

6. Italics are shown as _xxxx_.

7. Bold type is shown as =xxxx=.

8. Some tables have been split to avoid long lines.





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