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Title: I. Beówulf: an Anglo-Saxon poem. II. The fight at Finnsburh: a fragment.
Author: Unknown, - To be updated
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "I. Beówulf: an Anglo-Saxon poem. II. The fight at Finnsburh: a fragment." ***

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This text is a corrected version of the fourth edition of Harrison and
Sharp in its entirety. It comes in two basic versions. The base version,
available in 8-bit (Latin-1) text and HTML, presents the original text as
printed. This file contains the original version. It preserves the
source-text's idiosyncratic use of accented vowels with the exception of
y-circumflex, which is replaced by y-acute (˝) to fit within the Latin-1
character set. Manifestly unintentional errors in the text have been
corrected. In general, this has only been done when the text is internally
inconsistent (e.g., a quotation in the glossary does not match the main
text). Forms that represent deliberate editorial choice have not been
altered, even where they appear wrong. (For example, some of the markings
of vowel length do not reflect current scholarly consensus.) Where an
uncorrected problem may confuse the reader, I have inserted a note
explaining the difficulty, signed KTH. A complete list of the changes made
is appended at the end of the file. In order to make the text more useful
to modern readers, I have also produced a revised edition, available in
Unicode (UTF-8) and HTML. Notes from the source text that indicate changes
adopted in later editions have been incorporated directly into the text and
apparatus. Further, long vowels are indicated with macrons, as is the
common practice of most modern editions. Finally, the quantity of some
words has been altered to the values currently accepted as correct.
Quantities have not been changed when the difference is a matter of
editorial interpretation (e.g., g‰st vs. gÊst in l. 102, etc.) A list of
these altered quantities appears at the end of the list of corrections.
Your browser must support the Unicode character set to use the revised

Explanation of the Vowel Accenting

In general, Harrison and Sharp use circumflex accents over vowels to mark
long vowels. For ash, however, the actual character 'Ê' represents the long
vowel. Short ash is rendered with a-umlaut (‰). The long diphthongs (eo,
ea, etc.) are indicated with an acute accent over the _second_ vowel (eÛ,
e·, etc.).

** End of PG Preface **















Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1883, by


in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.







The favor with which the successive editions of "BeÛwulf" have been
received during the past thirteen years emboldens the editors to continue
the work of revision in a fourth issue, the most noticeable feature of
which is a considerable body of explanatory Notes, now for the first time
added. These Notes mainly concern themselves with new textual readings,
with here and there grammatical, geographical, and archÊological points
that seemed worthy of explanation. Parallelisms and parallel passages are
constantly compared, with the view of making the poem illustrate and
explain itself. A few emendations and textual changes are suggested by the
editors with all possible diffidence; numerous corrections have been made
in the Glossary and List of Names; and the valuable parts of former
Appendices have been embodied in the Notes.

For the Notes, the editors are much indebted to the various German
periodicals mentioned on page 116, to the recent publications of Professors
Earle and J. L. Hall, to Mr. S. A. Brooke, and to the Heyne-Socin edition
of "BeÛwulf." No change has been made in the system of accentuation, though
a few errors in quantity have been corrected. The editors are looking
forward to an eventual fifth edition, in which an entirely new text will be

October, 1893.


This third edition of the American issue of BeÛwulf will, the editors hope,
be found more accurate and useful than either of the preceding editions.
Further corrections in text and glossary have been made, and some
additional new readings and suggestions will be found in two brief
appendices at the back of the book. Students of the metrical system of
BeÛwulf will find ample material for their studies in Sievers' exhaustive
essay on that subject (Beitr‰ge, X. 209-314).

Socin's edition of Heyne's BeÛwulf (called the fifth edition) has been
utilized to some extent in this edition, though it unfortunately came too
late to be freely used. While it repeats many of the omissions and
inaccuracies of Heyne's fourth edition, it contains much that is valuable
to the student, particularly in the notes and commentary. Students of the
poem, which has been subjected to much searching criticism during the last
decade, will also derive especial help from the contributions of Sievers
and Kluge on difficult questions appertaining to it. W¸lker's new edition
(in the Grein _Bibliothek_) is of the highest value, however one may
dissent from particular textual views laid down in the 'Berichtigter Text.'
Paul and Braune's Beitr‰ge contain a varied miscellany of hints,
corrections, and suggestions principally embodying the views of Kluge,
Cosijn, Sievers, and Bugge, some of the more important of which are found
in the appendices to the present and the preceding edition. Holder and
Zupitza, Sarrazin and Hermann Mˆller (Kiel, 1883), Heinzel (Anzeiger f.d.
Alterthum, X.), Gering (Zacher's Zeitschrift, XII.), Brenner (Eng. Studien,
IX.), and the contributors to Anglia, have assisted materially in the
textual and metrical interpretation of the poem.

The subject of Anglo-Saxon quantity has been discussed in several able
essays by Sievers, Sweet, Ten Brink (Anzeiger, f.d. Alterthum, V.), Kluge
(Beitr‰ge, XI.), and others; but so much is uncertain in this field that
the editors have left undisturbed the marking of vowels found in the text
of their original edition, while indicating in the appendices the now
accepted views of scholars on the quantity of the personal pronouns (mÍ,
wÍ, ˛˚, ˛Í, gÍ, hÍ); the adverb n˚, etc. Perhaps it would be best to banish
absolutely all attempts at marking quantities except in cases where the Ms.
has them marked.

An approximately complete Bibliography of BeÛwulf literature will be found
in W¸lker's _Grundriss_ and in Garnett's translation of the poem.



LEXINGTON, VA., May, 1888.


The editors feel so encouraged at the kind reception accorded their edition
of BeÛwulf (1883), that, in spite of its many shortcomings, they have
determined to prepare a second revised edition of the book, and thus
endeavor to extend its sphere of usefulness. About twenty errors had,
notwithstanding a vigilant proof-reading, crept into the text,--errors in
single letters, accents, and punctuation. These have been corrected, and it
is hoped that the text has been rendered generally accurate and
trustworthy. In the List of Names one or two corrections have been made,
and in the Glossary numerous mistakes in gender, classification, and
translation, apparently unavoidable in a first edition, have been
rectified. Wherever these mistakes concern _single_ letters, or occupy very
small space, they have been corrected in the plates; where they are longer,
and the expense of correcting them in the plates would have been very
great, the editors have thought it best to include them in an Appendix of
Corrections and Additions, which will be found at the back of the book.
Students are accordingly referred to this Appendix for important longer
corrections and additions. It is believed that the value of the book has
been much enhanced by an Appendix of Recent Readings, based on late
criticisms and essays from the pens of Sievers, Kluge, Cosijn, Holder,
W¸lker, and Sweet. A perplexed student, in turning to these suggested
readings, will often find great help in unravelling obscure or corrupt

The objectionable ‰ and Ê, for the short and the long diphthong, have been
retained in the revised edition, owing to the impossibility of removing
them without entirely recasting the plates.

In conclusion, the editors would acknowledge their great indebtedness to
the friends and critics whose remarks and criticisms have materially aided
in the correction of the text,--particularly to Profs. C.P.G. Scott,
Baskervill, Price, and J.M. Hart; to Prof. J.W. Bright; and to the
authorities of Cornell University, for the loan of periodicals necessary to
the completeness of the revision. While the second revised edition still
contains much that might be improved, the editors cannot but hope that it
is an advance on its predecessor, and that it will continue its work of
extending the study of Old English throughout the land.

JUNE, 1885.


The present work, carefully edited from Heyne's fourth edition, (Paderborn,
1879), is designed primarily for college classes in Anglo-Saxon, rather
than for independent investigators or for seekers after a restored or ideal
text. The need of an American edition of "BeÛwulf" has long been felt, as,
hitherto, students have had either to send to Germany for a text, or
secure, with great trouble, one of the scarce and expensive English
editions. Heyne's first edition came out in 1863, and was followed in 1867
and 1873 by a second and a third edition, all three having essentially the
same text.

So many important contributions to the "BeÛwulf" literature were, however,
made between 1873 and 1879 that Heyne found it necessary to put forth a new
edition (1879). In this new, last edition, the text was subjected to a
careful revision, and was fortified by the views, contributions, and
criticisms of other zealous scholars. In it the collation of the unique
"BeÛwulf" Ms. (Vitellius A. 15: Cottonian Mss. of the British Museum), as
made by E. Kˆlbing in Herrig's _Archiv_ (Bd. 56; 1876), was followed
wherever the present condition of the Ms. had to be discussed; and the
researches of Bugge, Bieger, and others, on single passages, were made use
of. The discussion of the metrical structure of the poem, as occurring in
the second and third editions, was omitted in the fourth, owing to the many
controversies in which the subject is still involved. The present editor
has thought it best to do the same, though, happily, the subject of Old
English _Metrik_ is undergoing a steady illumination through the labors of
Schipper and others.

Some errors and misplaced accents in Heyne's text have been corrected in
the present edition, in which, as in the general revision of the text, the
editor has been most kindly aided by Prof. J.M. Garnett, late Principal of
St. John's College, Maryland.

In the preparation of the present school edition it has been thought best
to omit Heyne's notes, as they concern themselves principally with
conjectural emendations, substitutions of one reading for another, and
discussions of the condition of the Ms. Until W¸lker's text and the
photographic fac-simile of the original Ms. are in the hands of all
scholars, it will be better not to introduce such matters in the school
room, where they would puzzle without instructing.

For convenience of reference, the editor has added a head-line to each
"fit" of the poem, with a view to facilitate a knowledge of its episodes.

LEXINGTON, VA., June, 1882.


The editors now have the pleasure of presenting to the public a complete
text and a tolerably complete glossary of "BeÛwulf." The edition is the
first published in America, and the first of its special kind presented to
the English public, and it is the initial volume of a "Library of
Anglo-Saxon Poetry," to be edited under the same auspices and with the
coˆperation of distinguished scholars in this country. Among these scholars
may be mentioned Professors F.A. March of Lafayette College, T.K. Price of
Columbia College, and W.M. Baskervill of Vanderbilt University.

In the preparation of the Glossary the editors found it necessary to
abandon a literal and exact translation of Heyne for several reasons, and
among others from the fact that Heyne seems to be wrong in the translation
of some of his illustrative quotations, and even translates the same
passage in two or three different ways under different headings. The
orthography of his glossary differs considerably from the orthography of
his text. He fails to discriminate with due nicety the meanings of many of
the words in his vocabulary, while criticism more recent than his latest
edition (1879) has illustrated or overthrown several of his renderings. The
references were found to be incorrect in innumerable instances, and had to
be verified in every individual case so far as this was possible, a few
only, which resisted all efforts at verification, having to be indicated by
an interrogation point (?). The references are exceedingly numerous, and
the labor of verifying them was naturally great. To many passages in the
Glossary, where Heyne's translation could not be trusted with entire
certainty, the editors have added other translations of phrases and
sentences or of special words; and in this they have been aided by a
careful study of the text and a comparison and utilization of the views of
Kemble and Professor J.M. Garnett (who takes Grein for his foundation).
Many new references have been added; and the various passages in which
Heyne fails to indicate whether a given verb is weak or strong, or fails to
point out the number, etc., of the illustrative form, have been corrected
and made to harmonize with the general plan of the work. Numerous misprints
in the glossary have also been corrected, and a brief glossary to the
Finnsburh-fragment, prepared by Dr. Wm. Hand Browne, and supplemented and
adapted by the editor-in-chief, has been added.

The editors think that they may without immodesty put forth for themselves
something more than the claim of being re-translators of a translation: the
present edition is, so far as they were able to make it so, an adaptation,
correction, and extension of the work of the great German scholar to whose
loving appreciation of the Anglo-Saxon epic all students of Old English owe
a debt of gratitude. While following his usually sure and cautious
guidance, and in the main appropriating his results, they have thought it
best to deviate from him in the manner above indicated, whenever it seemed
that he was wrong. The careful reader will notice at once the marks of
interrogation which point out these deviations, or which introduce a point
of view illustrative of, or supplementary to, the one given by the German
editor. No doubt the editors are wrong themselves in many
places,--"BeÛwulf" is a most difficult poem,--but their view may at least
be defended by a reference to the original text, which they have faithfully
and constantly consulted.

A good many cognate Modern English words have been introduced here and
there in the Glossary with a view to illustration, and other addenda will
be found between brackets and parenthetical marks.

It is hoped that the present edition of the most famous of Old English
poems will do something to promote a valuable and interesting study.

_Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va._

_University of Louisiana, New Orleans_.

April, 1883.

The responsibility of the editors is as follows: H. is responsible for the
Text, and for the Glossary from hrÓnan on; S. for the List of Names, and
for the Glossary as far as hrÓnan.


The only national [Anglo-Saxon] epic which has been preserved entire is
BeÛwulf. Its argument is briefly as follows:--The poem opens with a few
verses in praise of the Danish Kings, especially Scild, the son of Sceaf.
His death is related, and his descendants briefly traced down to Hrogar.
Hrogar, elated with his prosperity and success in war, builds a
magnificent hall, which he calls Heorot. In this hall Hrogar and his
retainers live in joy and festivity, until a malignant fiend, called
Grendel, jealous of their happiness, carries off by night thirty of
Hrogar's men, and devours them in his moorland retreat. These ravages go
on for twelve years. BeÛwulf, a thane of Hygelac, King of the Goths,
hearing of Hrogar's calamities, sails from Sweden with fourteen
warriors--to help him. They reach the Danish coast in safety; and, after an
animated parley with Hrogar's coastguard, who at first takes them for
pirates, they are allowed to proceed to the royal hall, where they are well
received by Hrogar. A banquet ensues, during which BeÛwulf is taunted by
the envious Hunferh about his swimming-match with Breca, King of the
Brondings. BeÛwulf gives the true account of the contest, and silences
Hunferh. At night-fall the King departs, leaving BeÛwulf in charge of the
hall. Grendel soon breaks in, seizes and devours one of BeÛwulf's
companions; is attacked by BeÛwulf, and, after losing an arm, which is torn
off by BeÛwulf, escapes to the fens. The joy of Hrogar and the Danes, and
their festivities, are described, various episodes are introduced, and
BeÛwulf and his companions receive splendid gifts. The next night Grendel's
mother revenges her son by carrying off ∆schere, the friend and councillor
of Hrogar, during the absence of BeÛwulf. Hrogar appeals to BeÛwulf for
vengeance, and describes the haunts of Grendel and his mother. They all
proceed thither; the scenery of the lake, and the monsters that dwell in
it, are described. BeÛwulf plunges into the water, and attacks Grendel's
mother in her dwelling at the bottom of the lake. He at length overcomes
her, and cuts off her head, together with that of Grendel, and brings the
heads to Hrogar. He then takes leave of Hrogar, sails back to Sweden, and
relates his adventures to Hygelac. Here the first half of the poem ends.
The second begins with the accession of BeÛwulf to the throne, after the
fall of Hygelac and his son Heardred. He rules prosperously for fifty
years, till a dragon, brooding over a hidden treasure, begins to ravage the
country, and destroys BeÛwulf's palace with fire. BeÛwulf sets out in quest
of its hiding-place, with twelve men. Having a presentiment of his
approaching end, he pauses and recalls to mind his past life and exploits.
He then takes leave of his followers, one by one, and advances alone to
attack the dragon. Unable, from the heat, to enter the cavern, he shouts
aloud, and the dragon comes forth. The dragon's scaly hide is proof against
BeÛwulf's sword, and he is reduced to great straits. Then Wiglaf, one of
his followers, advances to help him. Wiglaf's shield is consumed by the
dragon's fiery breath, and he is compelled to seek shelter under BeÛwulf's
shield of iron. BeÛwulf's sword snaps asunder, and he is seized by the
dragon. Wiglaf stabs the dragon from underneath, and BeÛwulf cuts it in two
with his dagger. Feeling that his end is near, he bids Wiglaf bring out the
treasures from the cavern, that he may see them before he dies. Wiglaf
enters the dragon's den, which is described, returns to BeÛwulf, and
receives his last commands. BeÛwulf dies, and Wiglaf bitterly reproaches
his companions for their cowardice. The disastrous consequences of
BeÛwulf's death are then foretold, and the poem ends with his funeral.--H.
Sweet, in Warton's _History of English Poetry_, Vol. II. (ed. 1871). Cf.
also Ten Brink's _History of English Literature_.



     Hw‰t! we G‚r-Dena      in ge‚r-dagum
     ˛eÛd-cyninga      ˛rym gefrunon,
     h˚ ˛‚ ‰elingas      ellen fremedon.
     Oft Scyld ScÍfing      sceaena ˛re·tum,
5    monegum mÊgum      meodo-setla ofte·h.
     Egsode eorl,      syan Êrest wear
     fe·-sceaft funden:      he ˛‰s frÙfre geb‚d,
     weÙx under wolcnum,      weor-myndum ‚h,
     Ù ˛‰t him Êghwylc      ˛‚ra ymb-sittendra
10   ofer hron-r‚de      h˝ran scolde,
     gomban gyldan:      ˛‰t w‰s gÙd cyning!
     ˛‰m eafera w‰s      ‰fter cenned
     geong in geardum,      ˛one god sende
     folce tÙ frÙfre;      fyren-˛earfe ongeat,
15   ˛‰t hie Êr drugon      aldor-le·se
     lange hwÓle.      Him ˛‰s lÓf-fre·,
     wuldres wealdend,      worold-‚re forgeaf;
     BeÛwulf w‰s breme      (blÊd wÓde sprang),
     Scyldes eafera      Scede-landum in.
20   Sw‚ sceal geong guma,      gÙde gewyrcean,
     fromum feoh-giftum      on f‰der wine,
     ˛‰t hine on ylde      eft gewunigen
     wil-gesÓas,      ˛onne wÓg cume,
     leÛde gelÊsten:      lof-dÊdum sceal
25   in mÊga gehwÊre      man ge˛eÛn.
     Him ˛‚ Scyld gew‚t      tÙ gesc‰p-hwÓle
     fela-hrÙr fÍran      on fre·n wÊre;
     hi hyne ˛‚ ‰tbÊron      tÙ brimes faroe.
     swÊse gesÓas,      sw‚ he selfa b‰d,
30   ˛enden wordum weÛld      wine Scyldinga,
     leÛf land-fruma      lange ‚hte.
     fiÊr ‰t h˝e stÙd      hringed-stefna,
     Ósig and ˚tf˚s,      ‰elinges f‰r;
     ‚-lÍdon ˛‚      leÛfne ˛eÛden,
35   be·ga bryttan      on bearm scipes,
     mÊrne be m‰ste.      fiÊr w‰s m‚dma fela,
     of feor-wegum      fr‰twa gelÊded:
     ne h˝rde ic cymlÓcor      ceÛl gegyrwan
     hilde-wÊpnum      and heao-wÊdum,
40   billum and byrnum;      him on bearme l‰g
     m‚dma m‰nigo,      ˛‚ him mid scoldon
     on flÙdes Êht      feor gewÓtan.
     Nalas hi hine l‰ssan      l‚cum teÛdan,
     ˛eÛd-gestreÛnum,      ˛onne ˛‚ dydon,
45   ˛e hine ‰t frumsceafte      for onsendon
     Ênne ofer ˝e      umbor wesende:
     ˛‚ gyt hie him ‚setton      segen gyldenne
     he·h ofer he·fod,      lÍton holm beran,
     ge‚fon on g‚r-secg:      him w‰s geÙmor sefa,
50   murnende mÙd.      Men ne cunnon
     secgan tÙ soe      sele-rÊdende,
     h‰le under heofenum,      hw‚ ˛‰m hl‰ste onfÍng.


     fi‚ w‰s on burgum      BeÛwulf Scyldinga,
     leÛf leÛd-cyning,      longe ˛rage
55   folcum gefrÊge      (f‰der ellor hwearf,
     aldor of earde),      Ù ˛‰t him eft onwÙc
     he·h Healfdene;      heÛld ˛enden lifde,
     gamol and g˚-reÛw,      gl‰de Scyldingas.
     fi‰m feÛwer bearn      for-gerÓmed
60   in worold wÙcun,      weoroda rÊswan,
     Heorog‚r and HrÙg‚r      and H‚lga til;
     h˝rde ic, ˛at Elan cwÍn      Ongen˛eÛwes w‰s
     Heaoscilfinges      heals-gebedde.
     fi‚ w‰s HrÙg‚re      here-spÍd gyfen,
65   wÓges weor-mynd,      ˛‰t him his wine-m‚gas
     georne h˝rdon,      Ù ˛‰t seÛ geogo geweÙx,
     mago-driht micel.      Him on mÙd bearn,
     ˛‰t heal-reced      h‚tan wolde,
     medo-‰rn micel      men gewyrcean,
70   ˛one yldo bearn      Êfre gefrunon,
     and ˛Êr on innan      eall gedÊlan
     geongum and ealdum,      swylc him god sealde,
     b˚ton folc-scare      and feorum gumena.
     fi‚ ic wÓde gefr‰gn      weorc gebannan
75   manigre mÊge      geond ˛isne middan-geard,
     folc-stede fr‰twan.      Him on fyrste gelomp
     ‰dre mid yldum,      ˛‰t hit wear eal gearo,
     heal-‰rna mÊst;      scÙp him Heort naman,
     se ˛e his wordes geweald      wÓde h‰fde.
80   He beÛt ne ‚lÍh,      be·gas dÊlde,
     sinc ‰t symle.      Sele hlifade
     he·h and horn-ge·p:      heao-wylma b‚d,
     l‚an lÓges;      ne w‰s hit lenge ˛‚ gen
     ˛‰t se ecg-hete      ‚um-swerian
85   ‰fter w‰l-nÓe      w‰cnan scolde.
     fi‚ se ellen-gÊst      earfolÓce
     ˛rage ge˛olode,      se ˛e in ˛˝strum b‚d,
     ˛‰t he dÙgora gehw‚m      dre·m geh˝rde
     hl˚dne in healle;      ˛Êr w‰s hearpan swÍg,
90   swutol sang scÙpes.      S‰gde se ˛e c˚e
     frum-sceaft fira      feorran reccan,
     cw‰ ˛‰t se ‰lmihtiga      eoran worhte,
     wlite-beorhtne wang,      sw‚ w‰ter beb˚ge,
     gesette sige-hrÍig      sunnan and mÙnan
95   leÛman tÙ leÛhte      land-b˚endum,
     and gefr‰twade      foldan sce·tas
     leomum and le·fum;      lÓf e·c gesceÙp
     cynna gehwylcum,      ˛‚ra ˛e cwice hwyrfa.
     Sw‚ ˛‚ driht-guman      dre·mum lifdon
100  e·diglÓce,      Ù ˛‰t ‚n ongan
     fyrene fremman,      feÛnd on helle:
     w‰s se grimma g‰st      Grendel h‚ten,
     mÊre mearc-stapa,      se ˛e mÙras heÛld,
     fen and f‰sten;      fÓfel-cynnes eard
105  won-sÊlig wer      weardode hwÓle,
     sian him scyppend      forscrifen h‰fde.
     In Caines cynne      ˛one cwealm gewr‰c,
     Íce drihten,      ˛‰s ˛e he Abel slÙg;
     ne gefeah he ˛Êre fÊhe,      ac he hine feor forwr‰c,
110  metod for ˛˝ m‚ne      man-cynne fram.
     fianon untydras      ealle onwÙcon,
     eotenas and ylfe      and orcnÍas,
     swylce gigantas,      ˛‚ wi gode wunnon
     lange ˛rage;      he him ˛‰s le·n forgeald.


115  Gew‚t ˛‚ neÛsian,      syan niht becom,
     he·n h˚ses,      h˚ hit Hring-Dene
     ‰fter beÛr-˛ege      geb˚n h‰fdon.
     Fand ˛‚ ˛Êr inne      ‰elinga gedriht
     swefan ‰fter symble;      sorge ne c˚on,
120  won-sceaft wera.      Wiht unhÊlo
     grim and grÊdig      gearo sÙna w‰s,
     reÛc and rÍe,      and on r‰ste genam
     ˛ritig ˛egna:      ˛anon eft gew‚t
     h˚e hrÍmig      tÙ h‚m faran,
125  mid ˛Êre w‰l-fylle      wÓca neÛsan.
     fi‚ w‰s on uhtan      mid Êr-d‰ge
     Grendles g˚-cr‰ft      gumum undyrne:
     ˛‚ w‰s ‰fter wiste      wÙp up ‚hafen,
     micel morgen-swÍg.      MÊre ˛eÛden,
130  ‰eling Êr-gÙd,      unblÓe s‰t,
     ˛olode ˛r˝-sw˝,      ˛egn-sorge dre·h,
     syan hie ˛‰s l‚an      l‚st sce·wedon,
     wergan g‚stes;      w‰s ˛‰t gewin tÙ strang,
     l‚ and longsum.      N‰s hit lengra fyrst,
135  ac ymb ‚ne niht      eft gefremede
     mor-beala m‚re      and nÙ mearn fore
     fÊhe and fyrene;      w‰s tÙ f‰st on ˛‚m.
     fi‚ w‰s e·-fynde,      ˛e him elles hwÊr
     ger˚mlÓcor      r‰ste sÙhte,
140  bed ‰fter b˚rum,      ˛‚ him gebe·cnod w‰s,
     ges‰gd sÙlÓce      sweotolan t‚cne
     heal-˛egnes hete;      heÛld hine syan
     fyr and f‰stor,      se ˛‰m feÛnde ‰twand.
     Sw‚ rÓxode      and wi rihte wan
145  ‚na wi eallum,      Ù ˛‰t Ódel stÙd
     h˚sa sÍlest.      W‰s seÛ hwÓl micel:
     twelf wintra tÓd      torn ge˛olode
     wine Scyldinga,      we·na gehwelcne,
     sÓdra sorga;      for˛am syan wear
150  ylda bearnum      undyrne c˚,
     gyddum geÙmore,      ˛‰tte Grendel wan,
     hwÓle wi HrÙg‚r;--      hete-nÓas w‰g,
     fyrene and fÊhe      fela missera,
     singale s‰ce,      sibbe ne wolde
155  wi manna hwone      m‰genes Deniga
     feorh-bealo feorran,      feÛ ˛ingian,
     ne ˛Êr nÊnig witena      wÍnan ˛orfte
     beorhtre bÙte      tÙ banan folmum;
     atol ‰glÊca      Íhtende w‰s,
160  deorc de·-sc˚a      dugue and geogoe
     seomade and syrede.      Sin-nihte heÛld
     mistige mÙras;      men ne cunnon,
     hwyder hel-r˚nan      hwyrftum scrÓa.
     Sw‚ fela fyrena      feÛnd man-cynnes,
165  atol ‚n-gengea,      oft gefremede
     heardra h˝na;      Heorot eardode,
     sinc-f‚ge sel      sweartum nihtum
     (nÙ he ˛one gif-stÙl      grÍtan mÙste,
     m‚um for metode,      ne his myne wisse);
170  ˛‰t w‰s wrÊc micel      wine Scyldinga,
     mÙdes breca.      Monig-oft ges‰t
     rÓce tÙ r˚ne;      rÊd eahtedon,
     hw‰t swÓ-ferhum      sÍlest wÊre
     wi fÊr-gryrum      tÙ gefremmanne.
175  HwÓlum hie gehÍton      ‰t h‰rg-trafum
     wig-weorunga,      wordum bÊdon,
     ˛‰t him g‚st-bona      geÛce gefremede
     wi ˛eÛd-˛re·um.      Swylc w‰s ˛e·w hyra,
     hÊenra hyht;      helle gemundon
180  in mÙd-sefan,      metod hie ne c˚on,
     dÊda dÍmend,      ne wiston hie drihten god,
     ne hie h˚ru heofena helm      hÍrian ne c˚on,
     wuldres waldend.      W‚ bi ˛‰m ˛e sceal
     ˛urh slÓne nÓ      s‚wle besc˚fan
185  in f˝res f‰m,      frÙfre ne wÍnan,
     wihte gewendan;      wel bi ˛‰m ˛e mÙt
     ‰fter de·-d‰ge      drihten sÍcean
     and tÙ f‰der f‰mum      freoo wilnian.


     Sw‚ ˛‚ mÊl-ceare      maga Healfdenes
190  singala se·;      ne mihte snotor h‰le
     we·n onwendan:      w‰s ˛‰t gewin tÙ sw˝,
     l‚ and longsum,      ˛e on ˛‚ leÛde becom,
     n˝d-wracu nÓ-grim,      niht-bealwa mÊst.
     fi‰t fram h‚m gefr‰gn      Higel‚ces ˛egn,
195  gÙd mid Ge·tum,      Grendles dÊda:
     se w‰s mon-cynnes      m‰genes strengest
     on ˛‰m d‰ge      ˛ysses lÓfes,
     ‰ele and e·cen.      HÍt him ˝-lidan
     gÙdne gegyrwan;      cw‰ he g˚-cyning
200  ofer swan-r‚de      sÍcean wolde,
     mÊrne ˛eÛden,      ˛‚ him w‰s manna ˛earf.
     fione sÓ-f‰t him      snotere ceorlas
     lyt-hwÙn lÙgon,      ˛e·h he him leÛf wÊre;
     hwetton higerÙfne,      hÊl sce·wedon.
205  H‰fde se gÙda      Ge·ta leÛda
     cempan gecorone,      ˛‚ra ˛e he cÍnoste
     findan mihte;      fÓftena sum
     sund-wudu sÙhte;      secg wÓsade,
     lagu-cr‰ftig mon,      land-gemyrcu.
210  Fyrst for gew‚t:      flota w‰s on ˝um,
     b‚t under beorge.      Beornas gearwe
     on stefn stigon;      stre·mas wundon
     sund wi sande;      secgas bÊron
     on bearm nacan      beorhte fr‰twe,
215  g˚-searo geatolÓc;      guman ˚t scufon,
     weras on wil-sÓ      wudu bundenne.
     Gew‚t ˛‚ ofer wÊg-holm      winde gef˝sed
     flota f‚mig-heals      fugle gelÓcost,
     Ù ˛‰t ymb ‚n-tÓd      Ùres dÙgores
220  wunden-stefna      gewaden h‰fde,
     ˛‰t ˛‚ lÓende      land ges‚won,
     brim-clifu blÓcan,      beorgas ste·pe,
     sÓde sÊ-n‰ssas:      ˛‚ w‰s sund liden,
     eoletes ‰t ende.      fianon up hrae
225  Wedera leÛde      on wang stigon,
     sÊ-wudu sÊldon      (syrcan hrysedon,
     g˚-gewÊdo);      gode ˛ancedon,
     ˛‰s ˛e him ˝-l‚de      e·e wurdon.
     fi‚ of wealle geseah      weard Scildinga,
230  se ˛e holm-clifu      healdan scolde,
     beran ofer bolcan      beorhte randas,
     fyrd-searu f˚slÓcu;      hine fyrwyt br‰c
     mÙd-gehygdum,      hw‰t ˛‚ men wÊron.
     Gew‚t him ˛‚ tÙ waroe      wicge rÓdan
235  ˛egn HrÙg‚res,      ˛rymmum cwehte
     m‰gen-wudu mundum,      meel-wordum fr‰gn:
     "Hw‰t syndon ge      searo-h‰bbendra
     "byrnum werede,      ˛e ˛us brontne ceÛl
     "ofer lagu-strÊte      lÊdan cwÙmon,
240  "hider ofer holmas      helmas bÊron?
     "Ic w‰s ende-sÊta,      Êg-wearde heÛld,
     "˛‰t on land Dena      l‚ra nÊnig
     "mid scip-herge      scean ne meahte.
     "NÙ her c˚lÓcor      cuman ongunnon
245  "lind-h‰bbende;      ne ge le·fnes-word
     "g˚-fremmendra      gearwe ne wisson,
     "m‚ga gemÍdu.      NÊfre ic m‚ran geseah
     "eorla ofer eoran,      ˛onne is eÛwer sum,
     "secg on searwum;      nis ˛‰t seld-guma
250 "wÊpnum geweorad,      n‰fne him his wlite leÛge,
     "ÊnlÓc an-s˝n.      Nu ic eÛwer sceal
     "frum-cyn witan,      Êr ge fyr heonan
     "le·se sce·weras      on land Dena
     "furur fÍran.      Nu ge feor-b˚end,
255  "mere-lÓende,      mÓnne geh˝ra
     "‚n-fealdne ge˛Ùht:      Ùfost is sÍlest
     "tÙ gec˝anne,      hwanan eÛwre cyme syndon."


     Him se yldesta      andswarode,
     werodes wÓsa,      word-hord onle·c:
260  "We synt gum-cynnes      Ge·ta leÛde
     "and Higel‚ces      heor-gene·tas.
     "W‰s mÓn f‰der      folcum gec˝ed,
     "‰ele ord-fruma      Ecg˛eÛw h‚ten;
     "geb‚d wintra worn,      Êr he on weg hwurfe,
265  "gamol of geardum;      hine gearwe geman
     "witena wel-hwylc      wÓde geond eoran.--
     "We ˛urh holdne hige      hl‚ford ˛inne,
     "sunu Healfdenes,      sÍcean cwÙmon,
     "leÛd-gebyrgean:      wes ˛u ˚s l‚rena gÙd!
270  "Habba we tÙ ˛‰m mÊran      micel Êrende
     "Deniga fre·n;      ne sceal ˛Êr dyrne sum
     "wesan, ˛‰s ic wÍne.      fiu w‚st, gif hit is,
     "sw‚ we sÙlice      secgan h˝rdon,
     "˛‰t mid Scyldingum      sceaa ic n‚t hwylc,
275  "deÛgol dÊd-hata,      deorcum nihtum
     "e·we ˛urh egsan      unc˚ne nÓ,
     "h˝nu and hr‚-fyl.      Ic ˛‰s HrÙg‚r m‰g
     "˛urh r˚mne sefan      rÊd gelÊran,
     "h˚ he frÙd and gÙd      feÛnd ofersw˝e,
280  "gyf him ed-wendan      Êfre scolde
     "bealuwa bisigu,      bÙt eft cuman
     "and ˛‚ cear-wylmas      cÙlran wura;
     "oe ‚ syan      earfo-˛rage,
     "˛re·-n˝d ˛ola,      ˛enden ˛Êr wuna
285  "on he·h-stede      h˚sa sÍlest."
     Weard maelode,      ˛Êr on wicge s‰t
     ombeht unforht:      "∆ghw‰res sceal
     "scearp scyld-wÓga      gesc‚d witan,
     "worda and worca,      se ˛e wel ˛ence.
290  "Ic ˛‰t geh˝re,      ˛‰t ˛is is hold weorod
     "fre·n Scyldinga.      GewÓta for beran
     "wÊpen and gewÊdu,      ic eÛw wÓsige:
     "swylce ic magu-˛egnas      mÓne h‚te
     "wi feÛnda gehwone      flotan eÛwerne,
295  "niw-tyrwedne      nacan on sande
     "‚rum healdan,      Ù ˛‰t eft byre
     "ofer lagu-stre·mas      leÛfne mannan
     "wudu wunden-hals      tÙ Weder-mearce.
     "G˚-fremmendra      swylcum gifee bi,
300  "˛‰t ˛one hilde-rÊs      h‚l gedÓge."
     Gewiton him ˛‚ fÍran      (flota stille b‚d,
     seomode on s‚le      sÓd-f‰med scyp,
     on ancre f‰st);      eofor-lÓc scionon
     ofer hleÛr-beran      gehroden golde
305  f‚h and f˝r-heard,      ferh wearde heÛld.
     G˚mÙde grummon,      guman onetton,
     sigon ‰tsomne,      Ù ˛‰t hy s‰l timbred
     geatolÓc and gold-f‚h      ongytan mihton;
     ˛‰t w‰s fore-mÊrost      fold-b˚endum
310  receda under roderum,      on ˛‰m se rÓca b‚d;
     lixte se leÛma      ofer landa fela.
     Him ˛‚ hilde-deÛr      hof mÙdigra
     torht getÊhte,      ˛‰t hie him tÙ mihton
     gegnum gangan;      g˚-beorna sum
315  wicg gewende,      word ‰fter cw‰:
     "MÊl is me tÙ fÍran;      f‰der alwalda
     "mid ‚r-stafum      eÛwic gehealde
     "sÓa gesunde!      ic tÙ sÊ wille,
     "wi wr‚ werod      wearde healdan."


320  StrÊt w‰s st‚n-f‚h,      stÓg wÓsode
     gumum ‰tg‰dere.      G˚-byrne sc‚n
     heard hond-locen,      hring-Óren scÓr
     song in searwum,      ˛‚ hie tÙ sele furum
     in hyra gryre-geatwum      gangan cwÙmon.
325  Setton sÊ-mÍe      sÓde scyldas,
     rondas regn-hearde      wi ˛‰s recedes weal,
     bugon ˛‚ tÙ bence;      byrnan hringdon,
     g˚-searo gumena;      g‚ras stÙdon,
     sÊ-manna searo,      samod ‰tg‰dere,
330  ‰sc-holt ufan grÊg:      w‰s se Óren-˛re·t
     wÊpnum gewurad.      fi‚ ˛Êr wlonc h‰le
     oret-mecgas      ‰fter ‰elum fr‰gn:
     "Hwanon ferigea ge      f‰tte scyldas,
     "grÊge syrcan      and grÓm-helmas,
335  "here-sceafta he·p?--      Ic eom HrÙg‚res
     "‚r and ombiht.      Ne seah ic el-˛eÛdige
     "˛us manige men      mÙdiglÓcran.
     "WÍn' ic ˛‰t ge for wlenco,      nalles for wr‰c-sÓum,
     "ac for hige-˛rymmum      HrÙg‚r sÙhton."
340  Him ˛‚ ellen-rÙf      andswarode,
     wlanc Wedera leÛd      word ‰fter spr‰c,
     heard under helme:      "We synt Higel‚ces
     "beÛd-gene·tas;      BeÛwulf is mÓn nama.
     "Wille ic ‚secgan      suna Healfdenes,
345  "mÊrum ˛eÛdne      mÓn Êrende,
     "aldre ˛Ónum,      gif he ˚s geunnan wile,
     "˛‰t we hine sw‚ gÙdne      grÍtan mÙton."
     Wulfg‚r maelode      (˛‰t w‰s Wendla leÛd,
     w‰s his mÙd-sefa      manegum gec˝ed,
350  wÓg and wÓs-dÙm):      "ic ˛‰s wine Deniga,
     "fre·n Scildinga      frinan wille,
     "be·ga bryttan,      sw‚ ˛u bÍna eart,
     "˛eÛden mÊrne      ymb ˛Ónne sÓ ;
     "and ˛e ˛‚ andsware      ‰dre gec˝an,
355  "˛e me se gÙda      ‚gifan ˛ence."
     Hwearf ˛‚ hr‰dlÓce,      ˛Êr HrÙg‚r s‰t,
     eald and unh‚r      mid his eorla gedriht;
     eode ellen-rÙf,      ˛‰t he for eaxlum gestÙd
     Deniga fre·n,      c˚e he dugue ˛e·w.
360  Wulfg‚r maelode      tÙ his wine-drihtne:
     "Her syndon geferede      feorran cumene
     "ofer geofenes begang      Ge·ta leÛde:
     "˛one yldestan      oret-mecgas
     "BeÛwulf nemna.      Hy bÍnan synt,
365  "˛‰t hie, ˛eÛden mÓn,      wi ˛e mÙton
     "wordum wrixlan;      nÙ ˛u him wearne geteÛh,
     "˛Ónra gegn-cwida      gl‰dnian, HrÙg‚r!
     "Hy on wÓg-geatwum      wyre ˛incea
     "eorla geÊhtlan;      h˚ru se aldor de·h,
370  "se ˛Êm heao-rincum      hider wÓsade."


     HrÙg‚r maelode,      helm Scyldinga:
     "Ic hine c˚e      cniht-wesende.
     "W‰s his eald-f‰der      Ecg˛eÛ h‚ten,
     "˛‰m tÙ h‚m forgeaf      HrÍel Ge·ta
375  "‚ngan dÙhtor;      is his eafora nu
     "heard her cumen,      sÙhte holdne wine.
     "˛onne s‰gdon ˛‰t      sÊ-lÓende,
     "˛‚ ˛e gif-sceattas      Ge·ta fyredon
     "˛yder tÙ ˛ance,      ˛‰t he ˛rittiges
380  "manna m‰gen-cr‰ft      on his mund-grÓpe
     "heao-rÙf h‰bbe.      Hine h‚lig god
     "for ‚r-stafum      us onsende,
     "tÙ West-Denum,      ˛‰s ic wÍn h‰bbe,
     "wi Grendles gryre:      ic ˛‰m gÙdan sceal
385  "for his mÙd-˛r‰ce      m‚dmas beÛdan.
     "BeÛ ˛u on Ùfeste,      h‚t hig in g‚n,
     "seÛn sibbe-gedriht      samod ‰tg‰dere;
     "gesaga him e·c wordum,      ˛‰t hie sint wil-cuman
     "Deniga leÛdum."      fi‚ wi duru healle
390  Wulfg‚r eode,      word inne ‚be·d:
     "EÛw hÍt secgan      sige-drihten mÓn,
     "aldor E·st-Dena,      ˛‰t he eÛwer ‰elu can
     "and ge him syndon      ofer sÊ-wylmas,
     "heard-hicgende,      hider wil-cuman.
395  "Nu ge mÙton gangan      in eÛwrum gu-geatawum,
     "under here-grÓman,      HrÙg‚r geseÛn;
     "lÊta hilde-bord      her onbidian,
     "wudu w‰l-sceaftas,      worda ge˛inges."
     ¬r‚s ˛‚ se rÓca,      ymb hine rinc manig,
400  ˛rylÓc ˛egna he·p;      sume ˛Êr bidon,
     heao-re·f heÛldon,      sw‚ him se hearda bebe·d.
     Snyredon ‰tsomne,      ˛‚ secg wÓsode
     under Heorotes hrÙf;      hyge-rÙf eode,
     heard under helme,      ˛‰t he on heoe gestÙd.
405  BeÛwulf maelode      (on him byrne sc‚n,
     searo-net seÛwed      smies or-˛ancum):
     "Wes ˛u HrÙg‚r h‚l!      ic eom Higel‚ces
     "mÊg and mago-˛egn;      h‰bbe ic mÊra fela
     "ongunnen on geogoe.      Me wear Grendles ˛ing
410  "on mÓnre Íel-tyrf      undyrne c˚:
     "secga sÊ-lÓend,      ˛‰t ˛es sele stande,
     "reced sÍlesta,      rinca gehwylcum
     "Ódel and unnyt,      sian Êfen-leÛht
     "under heofenes h‚dor      beholen weore.
415  "fi‚ me ˛‰t gelÊrdon      leÛde mÓne,
     "˛‚ sÍlestan,      snotere ceorlas,
     "˛eÛden HrÙg‚r,      ˛‰t ic ˛e sÙhte;
     "for˛an hie m‰genes cr‰ft      mÓnne c˚on:
     "selfe ofers‚won,      ˛‚ ic of searwum cwom,
420  "f‚h from feÛndum,      ˛Êr ic fÓfe geband,
     "˝de eotena cyn,      and on ˝um slÙg
     "niceras nihtes,      nearo-˛earfe dre·h,
     "wr‰c Wedera nÓ      (we·n ‚hsodon)
     "forgrand gramum;      and nu wi Grendel sceal,
425  "wi ˛am aglÊcan,      ‚na gehegan
     "˛ing wi ˛yrse.      Ic ˛e nu ˛‚,
     "brego Beorht-Dena,      biddan wille,
     "eodor Scyldinga,      ‚nre bÍne;
     "˛‰t ˛u me ne forwyrne,      wÓgendra hleÛ,
430  "freÛ-wine folca,      nu ic ˛us feorran com,
     "˛‰t ic mÙte ‚na      and mÓnra eorla gedryht,
     "˛es hearda he·p,      Heorot fÊlsian.
     "H‰bbe ic e·c ge‚hsod,      ˛‰t se ‰glÊca
     "for his won-h˝dum      wÊpna ne rÍce;
435  "ic ˛‰t ˛onne forhicge,      sw‚ me Higel‚c sÓe,
     "mÓn mon-drihten,      mÙdes blÓe,
     "˛‰t ic sweord bere      oe sÓdne scyld
     "geolo-rand tÙ g˚e;      ac ic mid gr‚pe sceal
     "fÙn wi feÛnde      and ymb feorh sacan,
440  "l‚ wi l‚um;      ˛Êr gel˝fan sceal
     "dryhtnes dÙme      se ˛e hine de· nime.
     "WÍn' ic ˛‰t he wille,      gif he wealdan mÙt,
     "in ˛‰m g˚-sele      Ge·tena leÛde
     "etan unforhte,      sw‚ he oft dyde
445  "m‰gen HrÍmanna.      N‚ ˛u mÓnne ˛earft
     "hafalan h˝dan,      ac he me habban wile
     "dreÛre f‚hne,      gif mec de· nime;
     "byre blÙdig w‰l,      byrgean ˛ence,
     "ete ‚n-genga      unmurnlÓce,
450  "mearca mÙr-hopu:      nÙ ˛u ymb mÓnes ne ˛earft
     "lÓces feorme      leng sorgian.
     "Onsend Higel‚ce,      gif mec hild nime,
     "beadu-scr˚da betst,      ˛‰t mÓne breÛst were,
     "hr‰gla sÍlest;      ˛‰t is HrÍlan l‚f,
455  "WÍlandes geweorc.      GÊ ‚ Wyrd sw‚ hiÛ scel!"


     HrÙg‚r maelode,      helm Scyldinga:
     "for were-fyhtum ˛u,      wine mÓn BeÛwulf,
     "and for ‚r-stafum      ˚sic sÙhtest.
     "GeslÙh ˛in f‰der      fÊhe mÊste,
460  "wear he Heaol‚fe      tÙ hand-bonan
     "mid Wilfingum;      ˛‚ hine Wedera cyn
     "for here-brÙgan      habban ne mihte.
     "fianon he gesÙhte      S˚-Dena folc
     "ofer ˝a gewealc,      ¬r-Scyldinga;
465  "˛‚ ic furum weÛld      folce Deninga,
     "and on geogoe heÛld      gimme-rÓce
     "hord-burh h‰lea:      ˛‚ w‰s Hereg‚r de·d,
     "mÓn yldra mÊg      unlifigende,
     "bearn Healfdenes.      Se w‰s betera ˛onne ic!
470  "Sian ˛‚ fÊhe      feÛ ˛ingode;
     "sende ic Wylfingum      ofer w‰teres hrycg
     "ealde m‚dmas:      he me ‚as swÙr.
     "Sorh is me tÙ secganne      on sefan mÓnum
     "gumena Êngum,      hw‰t me Grendel hafa
475  "h˝no on Heorote      mid his hete-˛ancum,
     "fÊr-nÓa gefremed.      Is mÓn flet-werod,
     "wÓg-he·p gewanod;      hie Wyrd forsweÛp
     "on Grendles gryre.      God e·e m‰g
     "˛one dol-scaan      dÊda getwÊfan!
480  "Ful oft gebeÛtedon      beÛre druncne
     "ofer ealo-wÊge      oret-mecgas,
     "˛‰t hie in beÛr-sele      bÓdan woldon
     "Grendles g˚e      mid gryrum ecga.
     "fionne w‰s ˛eÛs medo-heal      on morgen-tÓd,
485  "driht-sele dreÛr-f‚h,      ˛onne d‰g lixte,
     "eal benc-˛elu      blÙde best˝med,
     "heall heoru-dreÛre:      ‚hte ic holdra ˛˝ l‰s,
     "deÛrre dugue,      ˛e ˛‚ de· fornam.
     "Site nu tÙ symle      and onsÊl meoto,
490  "sige-hrÍ secgum,      sw‚ ˛Ón sefa hwette!"
     fi‚ w‰s Ge·t-m‰cgum      geador ‰tsomne
     on beÛr-sele      benc ger˝med;
     ˛Êr swÓ-ferhe      sittan eodon
     ˛ryum dealle.      fiegn nytte beheÛld,
495  se ˛e on handa b‰r      hroden ealo-wÊge,
     scencte scÓr wered.      ScÙp hwÓlum sang
     h‚dor on Heorote;      ˛Êr w‰s h‰lea dre·m,
     dugu unlytel      Dena and Wedera.


     €nfer maelode,      Ecgl‚fes bearn,
500  ˛e ‰t fÙtum s‰t      fre·n Scyldinga;
     onband beadu-r˚ne      (w‰s him BeÛwulfes sÓ,
     mÙdges mere-faran,      micel ‰f-˛unca,
     for˛on ˛e he ne ˚e,      ˛‰t Ênig Ùer man
     Êfre mÊra ˛on m‚      middan-geardes
505  gehÍdde under heofenum      ˛onne he sylfa):
     "Eart ˛u se BeÛwulf,      se ˛e wi Brecan wunne,
     "on sÓdne sÊ      ymb sund flite,
     "˛Êr git for wlence      wada cunnedon
     "and for dol-gilpe      on deÛp w‰ter
510  "aldrum nÍdon?      Ne inc Ênig mon,
     "ne leÛf ne l‚,      bele·n mihte
     "sorh-fullne sÓ;      ˛‚ git on sund reÛn,
     "˛Êr git e·gor-stre·m      earmum ˛ehton,
     "mÊton mere-strÊta,      mundum brugdon,
515  "glidon ofer g‚r-secg;      geofon ˝um weÛl,
     "wintres wylme.      Git on w‰teres Êht
     "seofon niht swuncon;      he ˛e ‰t sunde oferfl‚t,
     "h‰fde m‚re m‰gen.      fi‚ hine on morgen-tÓd
     "on Heao-rÊmas      holm up ‰tb‰r,
520  "˛onon he gesÙhte      swÊsne Íel
     "leÛf his leÛdum      lond Brondinga,
     "freoo-burh f‰gere,      ˛Êr he folc ‚hte,
     "burg and be·gas.      BeÛt eal wi ˛e
     "sunu Be·nst‚nes      sÙe gelÊste.
525  "fionne wÍne ic tÙ ˛e      wyrsan ge˛inges,
     "˛e·h ˛u heao-rÊsa      gehwÊr dohte,
     "grimre g˚e,      gif ˛u Grendles dearst
     "niht-longne fyrst      ne·n bÓdan!"
     BeÛwulf maelode,      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes:
530  "Hw‰t ˛u worn fela,      wine mÓn €nfer,
     "beÛre druncen      ymb Brecan sprÊce,
     "s‰gdest from his sÓe!      SÙ ic talige,
     "˛‰t ic mere-strengo      m‚ran ‚hte,
     "earfeo on ˝um,      ˛onne Ênig Ùer man.
535  "Wit ˛‰t gecwÊdon      cniht-wesende
     "and gebeÛtedon      (wÊron begen ˛‚ git
     "on geogo-feore)      ˛‰t wit on g‚r-secg ˚t
     "aldrum nÍdon;      and ˛‰t ge‰fndon sw‚.
     "H‰fdon swurd nacod,      ˛‚ wit on sund reÛn,
540  "heard on handa,      wit unc wi hron-fixas
     "werian ˛Ùhton.      NÙ he wiht fram me
     "flÙd-˝um feor      fleÛtan meahte,
     "hraor on holme,      nÙ ic fram him wolde.
     "fi‚ wit ‰tsomne      on sÊ wÊron
545  "fÓf nihta fyrst,      Ù ˛‰t unc flÙd tÙdr‚f,
     "wado weallende,      wedera cealdost,
     "nÓpende niht      and noran wind
     "heao-grim andhwearf;      hreÛ wÊron ˝a,
     "W‰s mere-fixa      mÙd onhrÍred:
550  "˛Êr me wi l‚um      lÓc-syrce mÓn,
     "heard hond-locen,      helpe gefremede;
     "beado-hr‰gl broden      on breÛstum l‰g,
     "golde gegyrwed.      Me tÙ grunde te·h
     "f‚h feÛnd-scaa,      f‰ste h‰fde
555  "grim on gr‚pe:      hw‰re me gyfee wear,
     "˛‰t ic aglÊcan      orde gerÊhte,
     "hilde-bille;      heao-rÊs fornam
     "mihtig mere-deÛr      ˛urh mÓne hand.


     "Sw‚ mec gelÙme      l‚-geteÛnan
560  "˛re·tedon ˛earle.      Ic him ˛Ínode
     "deÛran sweorde,      sw‚ hit gedÍfe w‰s;
     "n‰s hie ˛Êre fylle      gefe·n h‰fdon,
     "m‚n-fordÊdlan,      ˛‰t hie me ˛Ígon,
     "symbel ymb-sÊton      sÊ-grunde ne·h,
565  "ac on mergenne      mÍcum wunde
     "be ˝-l‚fe      uppe lÊgon,
     "sweordum ‚swefede,      ˛‰t syan n‚
     "ymb brontne ford      brim-lÓende
     "l‚de ne letton.      LeÛht e·stan com,
570  "beorht be·cen godes;      brimu swaredon,
     "˛‰t ic sÊ-n‰ssas      geseÛn mihte,
     "windige weallas.      Wyrd oft nere
     "unfÊgne eorl,      onne his ellen de·h!
     "Hw‰ere me gesÊlde,      ˛‰t ic mid sweorde ofslÙh
575  "niceras nigene.      NÙ ic on niht gefr‰gn
     "under heofones hwealf      heardran feohtan,
     "ne on Íg-stre·mum      earmran mannan;
     "hw‰ere ic f‚ra feng      feore gedÓgde,
     "sies wÍrig.      fi‚ mec sÊ Ùb‰r,
580  "flÙd ‰fter faroe,      on Finna land,
     "wadu weallendu.      NÙ ic wiht fram ˛e
     "swylcra searo-nÓa      secgan h˝rde,
     "billa brÙgan:      Breca nÊfre git
     "‰t heao-l‚ce,      ne gehw‰er incer
585  "sw‚ deÛrlÓce      dÊd gefremede
     "f‚gum sweordum      . . . . . . .
     ". . . . . . .      nÙ ic ˛‰s gylpe;
     "˛e·h ˛u ˛Ónum brÙrum      tÙ banan wurde,
     "he·fod-mÊgum;      ˛‰s ˛u in helle scealt
590  "werho dreÛgan,      ˛e·h ˛Ón wit duge,
     "Secge ic ˛e tÙ sÙe,      sunu Ecgl‚fes,
     "˛‰t nÊfre Grendel sw‚ fela      gryra gefremede,
     "atol ‰glÊca      ealdre ˛Ónum,
     "h˝no on Heorote,      gif ˛Ón hige wÊre,
595  "sefa sw‚ searo-grim,      sw‚ ˛u self talast.
     "Ac he hafa onfunden,      ˛‰t he ˛‚ fÊhe ne ˛earf,
     "atole ecg-˛r‰ce      eÛwer leÛde
     "swÓe onsittan,      Sige-Scyldinga;
     "nyme n˝d-b‚de,      nÊnegum ‚ra
600  "leÛde Deniga,      ac he on lust wÓge,
     "swefe ond sende,      secce ne wÍne
     "tÙ G‚r-Denum.      Ac him Ge·ta sceal
     "eafo and ellen      unge‚ra nu
     "g˚e gebeÛdan.      GÊ eft se ˛e mÙt
605  "tÙ medo mÙdig,      sian morgen-leÛht
     "ofer ylda bearn      Ùres dÙgores,
     "sunne swegl-wered      s˚an scÓne!"
     fi‚ w‰s on s‚lum      sinces brytta
     gamol-feax and g˚-rÙf,      geÛce gel˝fde
610  brego Beorht-Dena;      geh˝rde on BeÛwulfe
     folces hyrde      f‰st-rÊdne ge˛Ùht.
     fiÊr w‰s h‰lea hleahtor;      hlyn swynsode,
     word wÊron wynsume.      Eode Wealh˛eÛw for,
     cwÍn HrÙg‚res,      cynna gemyndig,
615  grÍtte gold-hroden      guman on healle,
     and ˛‚ freÛlÓc wÓf      ful gesealde
     Êrest E·st-Dena      Íel-wearde,
     b‰d hine blÓne      ‰t ˛Êre beÛr-˛ege,
     leÛdum leÛfne;      he on lust ge˛eah
620  symbel and sele-ful,      sige-rÙf kyning.
     Ymb-eode ˛‚      ides Helminga
     dugue and geogoe      dÊl Êghwylcne;
     sinc-fato sealde,      Ù ˛‰t sÊl ‚lamp,
     ˛‰t hiÛ BeÛwulfe,      be·g-hroden cwÍn,
625  mÙde ge˛ungen,      medo-ful ‰tb‰r;
     grÍtte Ge·ta leÛd,      gode ˛ancode
     wÓs-f‰st wordum,      ˛‰s ˛e hire se willa gelamp,
     ˛‰t heÛ on Ênigne      eorl gel˝fde
     fyrena frÙfre.      He ˛‰t ful ge˛eah,
630  w‰l-reÛw wÓga      ‰t Wealh˛eÛn,
     and ˛‚ gyddode      g˚e gef˝sed,
     BeÛwulf maelode,      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes:
     "Ic ˛‰t hogode,      ˛‚ ic on holm gest‚h,
     "sÊ-b‚t ges‰t      mid mÓnra secga gedriht,
635  "˛‰t ic ‚nunga      eÛwra leÛda
     "willan geworhte,      oe on w‰l crunge,
     "feÛnd-gr‚pum f‰st.      Ic gefremman sceal
     "eorlÓc ellen,      oe ende-d‰g
     "on ˛isse meodu-healle      mÓnne gebÓdan."
640  fiam wÓfe ˛‚ word      wel lÓcodon,
     gilp-cwide Ge·tes;      eode gold-hroden
     freÛlÓcu folc-cwÍn      tÙ hire fre·n sittan.
     fi‚ w‰s eft sw‚ Êr      inne on healle
     ˛ry-word sprecen,      ˛eÛd on sÊlum,
645  sige-folca swÍg,      Ù ˛‰t semninga
     sunu Healfdenes      sÍcean wolde
     Êfen-r‰ste;      wiste ‰t ˛‰m ahlÊcan
     tÙ ˛‰m he·h-sele      hilde ge˛inged,
     sian hie sunnan leÛht      geseÛn ne meahton,
650  oe nÓpende      niht ofer ealle,
     scadu-helma gesceapu      scrÓan cwÙman,
     wan under wolcnum.      Werod eall ‚r‚s.
     GrÍtte ˛‚ giddum      guma Ùerne,
     HrÙg‚r BeÛwulf,      and him hÊl ‚be·d,
655  wÓn-‰rnes geweald      and ˛‰t word ‚cw‰:
     "NÊfre ic Ênegum men      Êr ‚l˝fde,
     "sian ic hond and rond      hebban mihte,
     "˛ry-‰rn Dena      b˚ton ˛e nu ˛‚.
     "Hafa nu and geheald      h˚sa sÍlest;
660  "gemyne mÊro,      m‰gen-ellen c˝,
     "waca wi wr‚um!      Ne bi ˛e wilna g‚d,
     "gif ˛u ˛‰t ellen-weorc      aldre gedÓgest."


     fi‚ him HrÙg‚r gew‚t      mid his h‰lea gedryht,
     eodur Scyldinga      ˚t of healle;
665  wolde wÓg-fruma      Wealh˛eÛ sÍcan,
     cwÍn tÙ gebeddan      H‰fde kyninga wuldor
     Grendle tÙ-ge·nes,      sw‚ guman gefrungon,
     sele-weard ‚seted,      sundor-nytte beheÛld
     ymb aldor Dena,      eoton weard ‚be·d;
670  h˚ru Ge·ta leÛd      georne tr˚wode
     mÙdgan m‰gnes,      metodes hyldo.
     fi‚ he him of dyde      Ósern-byrnan,
     helm of hafelan,      sealde his hyrsted sweord,
     Órena cyst      ombiht-˛egne,
675  and gehealdan hÍt      hilde-geatwe.
     Gespr‰c ˛‚ se gÙda      gylp-worda sum
     BeÛwulf Ge·ta,      Êr he on bed stige:
     "NÙ ic me an here-wÊsmum      hn‚gran talige
     "g˚-geweorca,      ˛onne Grendel hine;
680  "for˛an ic hine sweorde      swebban nelle,
     "aldre beneÛtan,      ˛e·h ic eal mÊge.
     "N‚t he ˛‚ra gÙda,      ˛‰t he me on-ge·n sle·,
     "rand gehe·we,      ˛e·h ˛e he rÙf sÓe
     "nÓ-geweorca;      ac wit on niht sculon
685  "secge ofersittan,      gif he gesÍcean dear
     "wÓg ofer wÊpen,      and sian witig god
     "on sw‚ hw‰ere hond      h‚lig dryhten
     "mÊro dÍme,      sw‚ him gemet ˛ince."
     Hylde hine ˛‚ heao-deÛr,      hleÛr-bolster onfÍng
690  eorles andwlitan;      and hine ymb monig
     snellÓc sÊ-rinc      sele-reste gebe·h.
     NÊnig heora ˛Ùhte      ˛‰t he ˛anon scolde
     eft eard-lufan      Êfre gesÍcean,
     folc oe freÛ-burh,      ˛Êr he ‚fÍded w‰s,
695  ac hie h‰fdon gefrunen,      ˛‰t hie Êr tÙ fela micles
     in ˛‰m wÓn-sele      w‰l-de· fornam,
     Denigea leÛde.      Ac him dryhten forgeaf
     wÓg-spÍda gewiofu,      Wedera leÛdum
     frÙfor and fultum,      ˛‰t hie feÛnd heora
700  ˛urh ‚nes cr‰ft      ealle ofercÙmon,
     selfes mihtum:      sÙ is gec˝ed,
     ˛‰t mihtig god      manna cynnes
     weÛld wÓde-ferh.      Com on wanre niht
     scrÓan sceadu-genga.      SceÛtend swÊfon,
705  ˛‚ ˛‰t horn-reced      healdan scoldon,
     ealle b˚ton ‚num.      fi‰t w‰s yldum c˚,
     ˛‰t hie ne mÙste,      ˛‚ metod nolde,
     se syn-scaa      under sceadu bregdan;
     ac he w‰ccende      wr‚um on andan
710  b‚d bolgen-mÙd      beadwa ge˛inges.


     fi‚ com of mÙre      under mist-hleoum
     Grendel gongan,      godes yrre b‰r.
     Mynte se m‚n-scaa      manna cynnes
     sumne besyrwan      in sele ˛am he·n;
715  wÙd under wolcnum,      tÙ ˛‰s ˛e he wÓn-reced,
     gold-sele gumena,      gearwost wisse
     f‰ttum f‚hne.      Ne w‰s ˛‰t forma sÓ,
     ˛‰t he HrÙg‚res      h‚m gesÙhte:
     nÊfre he on aldor-dagum      Êr ne sian
720  heardran h‰le,      heal-˛egnas fand!
     Com ˛‚ tÙ recede      rinc sÓian
     dre·mum bedÊled.      Duru sÙna onarn
     f˝r-bendum f‰st,      syan he hire folmum hr‚n;
     onbr‰d ˛‚ bealo-hydig,      ˛‚ he ‚bolgen w‰s,
725  recedes m˚an.      Rae ‰fter ˛on
     on f‚gne flÙr      feÛnd treddode,
     eode yrre-mÙd;      him of e·gum stÙd
     lÓge gelÓcost      leÛht unf‰ger.
     Geseah he in recede      rinca manige,
730  swefan sibbe-gedriht      samod ‰tg‰dere,
     mago-rinca he·p:      ˛‚ his mÙd ‚hlÙg,
     mynte ˛‰t he gedÊlde,      Êr ˛on d‰g cwÙme,
     atol aglÊca,      ‚nra gehwylces
     lÓf wi lÓce,      ˛‚ him ‚lumpen w‰s
735  wist-fylle wÍn.      Ne w‰s ˛‰t wyrd ˛‚ gen,
     ˛‰t he m‚ mÙste      manna cynnes
     ˛icgean ofer ˛‚ niht.      fir˝-sw˝ beheÛld
     mÊg Higel‚ces,      h˚ se m‚n-scaa
     under fÊr-gripum      gefaran wolde.
740  Ne ˛‰t se aglÊca      yldan ˛Ùhte,
     ac he gefÍng hrae      forman sie
     slÊpendne rinc,      sl‚t unwearnum,
     b‚t b‚n-locan,      blÙd Ídrum dranc,
     syn-snÊdum swealh:      sÙna h‰fde
745  unlyfigendes      eal gefeormod
     fÍt and folma.      For ne·r ‰tstÙp,
     nam ˛‚ mid handa      hige-˛ihtigne
     rinc on r‰ste;      rÊhte onge·n
     feÛnd mid folme,      he onfÍng hrae
750  inwit-˛ancum      and wi earm ges‰t.
     SÙna ˛‰t onfunde      fyrena hyrde,
     ˛‰t he ne mÍtte      middan-geardes
     eoran sce·ta      on elran men
     mund-gripe m‚ran:      he on mÙde wear
755  forht on ferhe,      nÙ ˛˝ Êr fram meahte;
     hyge w‰s him hin-f˚s,      wolde on heolster fleÛn,
     sÍcan deÛfla gedr‰g:      ne w‰s his drohto ˛Êr,
     swylce he on ealder-dagum      Êr gemÍtte.
     Gemunde ˛‚ se gÙda      mÊg Higel‚ces
760  Êfen-sprÊce,      up-lang ‚stÙd
     and him f‰ste wifÍng.      Fingras burston;
     eoten w‰s ˚t-weard,      eorl furur stÙp.
     Mynte se mÊra,      ˛Êr he meahte sw‚,
     wÓdre gewindan      and on weg ˛anon
765  fleÛn on fen-hopu;      wiste his fingra geweald
     on grames gr‚pum.      fi‰t w‰s geÛcor sÓ,
     ˛‰t se hearm-scaa      tÙ Heorute ‚te·h:
     dryht-sele dynede,      Denum eallum wear,
     ceaster-b˚endum,      cÍnra gehwylcum,
770  eorlum ealu-scerwen.      Yrre wÊron begen,
     rÍe rÍn-weardas.      Reced hlynsode;
     ˛‚ w‰s wundor micel,      ˛‰t se wÓn-sele
     wih‰fde heao-deÛrum,      ˛‰t he on hrusan ne feÛl,
     f‰ger fold-bold;      ac he ˛‰s f‰ste w‰s
775  innan and ˚tan      Óren-bendum
     searo-˛oncum besmiod.      fiÊr fram sylle ‚be·g
     medu-benc monig      mÓne gefrÊge,
     golde geregnad,      ˛Êr ˛‚ graman wunnon;
     ˛‰s ne wÍndon Êr      witan Scyldinga,
780  ˛‰t hit ‚ mid gemete      manna Ênig
     betlÓc and b‚n-f‚g      tÙbrecan meahte,
     listum tÙl˚can,      nyme lÓges f‰m
     swulge on swaule.      SwÍg up ‚st‚g
     niwe geneahhe;      Nor-Denum stÙd
785  atelÓc egesa      ‚nra gehwylcum
     ˛‚ra ˛e of wealle      wÙp geh˝rdon,
     gryre-leÛ galan      godes andsacan,
     sige-le·sne sang,      s‚r w‚nigean
     helle h‰ftan.      HeÛld hine tÙ f‰ste
790  se ˛e manna w‰s      m‰gene strengest
     on ˛‰m d‰ge      ˛ysses lÓfes.


     Nolde eorla hleÛ      Ênige ˛inga
     ˛one cwealm-cuman      cwicne forlÊtan,
     ne his lÓf-dagas      leÛda Ênigum
795  nytte tealde.      fiÊr genehost br‰gd
     eorl BeÛwulfes      ealde l‚fe,
     wolde fre·-drihtnes      feorh ealgian
     mÊres ˛eÛdnes,      ˛Êr hie meahton sw‚;
     hie ˛‰t ne wiston,      ˛‚ hie gewin drugon,
800  heard-hicgende      hilde-mecgas,
     and on healfa gehwone      he·wan ˛Ùhton,
     s‚wle sÍcan,      ˛‰t ˛one syn-scaan
     Ênig ofer eoran      Órenna cyst,
     g˚-billa n‚n      grÍtan nolde;
805  ac he sige-wÊpnum      forsworen h‰fde,
     ecga gehwylcre.      Scolde his aldor-ged‚l
     on ˛‰m d‰ge      ˛ysses lÓfes
     earmlÓc wuran      and se ellor-g‚st
     on feÛnda geweald      feor sÓian.
810  fi‚ ˛‰t onfunde      se ˛e fela Êror
     mÙdes myre      manna cynne
     fyrene gefremede      (he w‰s f‚g wi god)
     ˛‰t him se lÓc-homa      lÊstan nolde,
     ac hine se mÙdega      mÊg Hygel‚ces
815  h‰fde be honda;      w‰s gehw‰er Ùrum
     lifigende l‚.      LÓc-s‚r geb‚d
     atol ‰glÊca,      him on eaxle wear
     syn-dolh sweotol,      seonowe onsprungon
     burston b‚n-locan.      BeÛwulfe wear
820  g˚-hrÍ gyfee;      scolde Grendel ˛onan
     feorh-seÛc fleÛn      under fen-hleou,
     sÍcean wyn-le·s wÓc;      wiste ˛Í geornor,
     ˛‰t his aldres w‰s      ende gegongen,
     dÙgera d‰g-rÓm.      Denum eallum wear
825  ‰fter ˛am w‰l-rÊse      willa gelumpen.
     H‰fde ˛‚ gefÊlsod,      se ˛e Êr feorran com,
     snotor and sw˝-ferh      sele HrÙg‚res,
     genered wi nÓe.      Niht-weorce gefeh,
     ellen-mÊrum;      h‰fde E·st-Denum
830  Ge·t-mecga leÛd      gilp gelÊsted,
     swylce onc˝e      ealle gebÍtte,
     inwid-sorge,      ˛e hie Êr drugon
     and for ˛re·-n˝dum      ˛olian scoldon,
     torn unlytel.      fi‰t w‰s t‚cen sweotol,
835  syan hilde-deÛr      hond ‚legde,
     earm and eaxle      (˛Êr w‰s eal geador
     Grendles gr‚pe)      under ge·pne hrÙf.


     fi‚ w‰s on morgen      mÓne gefrÊge
     ymb ˛‚ gif-healle      g˚-rinc monig:
840  fÍrdon folc-togan      feorran and ne·n
     geond wÓd-wegas      wundor sce·wian,
     l‚es l‚stas.      NÙ his lÓf-ged‚l
     s‚rlÓc ˛˚hte      secga Ênegum,
     ˛‚ra ˛e tÓr-le·ses      trode sce·wode,
845  h˚ he wÍrig-mÙd      on weg ˛anon,
     nÓa ofercumen,      on nicera mere
     fÊge and gefl˝med      feorh-l‚stas b‰r.
     fiÊr w‰s on blÙde      brim weallende,
     atol ˝a geswing      eal gemenged
850  h‚tan heolfre,      heoro-dreÛre weÛl;
     de·-fÊge deÛg,      sian dre·ma le·s
     in fen-freoo      feorh ‚legde
     hÊene s‚wle,      ˛Êr him hel onfÍng.
     fianon eft gewiton      eald-gesÓas,
855  swylce geong manig      of gomen-w‚e,
     fram mere mÙdge,      mearum rÓdan,
     beornas on blancum.      fiÊr w‰s BeÛwulfes
     mÊro mÊned;      monig oft gecw‰,
     ˛‰tte s˚ ne nor      be sÊm tweonum
860  ofer eormen-grund      Ùer nÊnig
     under swegles begong      sÍlra nÊre
     rond-h‰bbendra,      rÓces wyrra.
     Ne hie h˚ru wine-drihten      wiht ne lÙgon,
     gl‰dne HrÙg‚r,      ac ˛‰t w‰s gÙd cyning.
865  HwÓlum heao-rÙfe      hle·pan lÍton,
     on geflÓt faran      fealwe mearas,
     ˛Êr him fold-wegas      f‰gere ˛˚hton,
     cystum c˚e;      hwÓlum cyninges ˛egn,
     guma gilp-hl‰den      gidda gemyndig,
870  se ˛e eal-fela      eald-gesegena
     worn gemunde,      word Ùer fand
     sÙe gebunden:      secg eft ongan
     sÓ BeÛwulfes      snyttrum styrian
     and on spÍd wrecan      spel ger‚de,
875  wordum wrixlan,      wel-hwylc gecw‰,
     ˛‰t he fram Sigemunde      secgan h˝rde,
     ellen-dÊdum,      unc˚es fela,
     W‰lsinges gewin,      wÓde sÓas,
     ˛‚ra ˛e gumena bearn      gearwe ne wiston,
880  fÊhe and fyrene,      b˚ton Fitela mid hine,
     ˛onne he swylces hw‰t      secgan wolde
     e·m his nefan,      sw‚ hie ‚ wÊron
     ‰t nÓa gehw‚m      n˝d-gesteallan:
     h‰fdon eal-fela      eotena cynnes
885  sweordum gesÊged.      Sigemunde gesprong
     ‰fter de·-d‰ge      dÙm unl˝tel,
     syan wÓges heard      wyrm ‚cwealde,
     hordes hyrde;      he under h‚rne st‚n,
     ‰elinges bearn,      ‚na genÍde
890  frÍcne dÊde;      ne w‰s him Fitela mid.
     Hw‰re him gesÊlde,      ˛‰t ˛‰t swurd ˛urhwÙd
     wr‰tlÓcne wyrm,      ˛‰t hit on wealle ‰tstÙd,
     dryhtlÓc Óren;      draca morre swealt.
     H‰fde aglÊca      elne gegongen,
895  ˛‰t he be·h-hordes      br˚can mÙste
     selfes dÙme:      sÊ-b‚t gehlÙd,
     b‰r on bearm scipes      beorhte fr‰twa,
     W‰lses eafera;      wyrm h‚t gemealt.
     Se w‰s wreccena      wÓde mÊrost
900  ofer wer-˛eÛde,      wÓgendra hleÛ
     ellen-dÊdum:      he ˛‰s ‚ron ˛‚h.
     Sian HeremÙdes      hild swerode
     eafo and ellen.      He mid eotenum wear
     on feÛnda geweald      for forl‚cen,
905  sn˚de forsended.      Hine sorh-wylmas
     lemede tÙ lange,      he his leÛdum wear,
     eallum ‰elingum      tÙ aldor-ceare;
     swylce oft bemearn      Êrran mÊlum
     swÓ-ferhes sÓ      snotor ceorl monig,
910  se ˛e him bealwa tÙ      bÙte gel˝fde,
     ˛‰t ˛‰t ˛eÛdnes bearn      ge˛eÛn scolde,
     f‰der-‰elum onfÙn,      folc gehealdan,
     hord and hleÛ-burh,      h‰lea rÓce,
     Íel Scyldinga.      He ˛Êr eallum wear,
915  mÊg Higel‚ces      manna cynne,
     freÛndum gef‰gra;      hine fyren onwÙd.

     HwÓlum flÓtende      fealwe strÊte
     mearum mÊton.      fi‚ w‰s morgen-leÛht
     scofen and scynded.      Eode scealc monig
920  swÓ-hicgende      tÙ sele ˛am he·n,
     searo-wundor seÛn,      swylce self cyning,
     of br˝d-b˚re      be·h-horda weard,
     tryddode tÓr-f‰st      getrume micle,
     cystum gec˝ed,      and his cwÍn mid him
925  medo-stÓg gem‰t      m‰ga hÙse.


     HrÙg‚r maelode      (he tÙ healle geÛng,
     stÙd on stapole,      geseah ste·pne hrÙf
     golde f‚hne      and Grendles hond):
     "˛isse ans˝ne      al-wealdan ˛anc
930  "lungre gelimpe!      Fela ic l‚es geb‚d,
     "grynna ‰t Grendle:      ‚ m‰g god wyrcan
     "wunder ‰fter wundre,      wuldres hyrde!
     "fi‰t w‰s unge‚ra,      ˛‰t ic Ênigra me
     "we·na ne wÍnde      tÙ wÓdan feore
935  "bÙte gebÓdan      ˛onne blÙde f‚h
     "h˚sa sÍlest      heoro-dreÛrig stÙd;
     "we· wÓd-scofen      witena gehwylcne
     "˛‚ra ˛e ne wÍndon,      ˛‰t hie wÓde-ferh
     "leÛda land-geweorc      l‚um beweredon
940  "scuccum and scinnum.      Nu scealc hafa
     "˛urh drihtnes miht      dÊd gefremede,
     "˛e we ealle      Êr ne meahton
     "snyttrum besyrwan.      Hw‰t! ˛‰t secgan m‰g
     "efne sw‚ hwylc m‰ga,      sw‚ ˛one magan cende
945  "‰fter gum-cynnum,      gyf heÛ gyt lyfa,
     "˛‰t hyre eald-metod      Íste wÊre
     "bearn-gebyrdo.      Nu ic BeÛwulf
     "˛ec, secg betsta,      me for sunu wylle
     "freÛgan on ferhe;      heald for tela
950  "niwe sibbe.      Ne bi ˛e nÊnigra g‚d
     "worolde wilna,      ˛e ic geweald h‰bbe.
     "Ful-oft ic for l‰ssan      le·n teohhode
     "hord-weorunge      hn‚hran rince,
     "sÊmran ‰t s‰cce.      fiu ˛e self hafast
955  "dÊdum gefremed,      ˛‰t ˛Ón dÙm lyfa
     "‚w‚ tÙ aldre.      Alwalda ˛ec
     "gÙde forgylde,      sw‚ he nu gyt dyde!"
     BeÛwulf maelode,      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes:
     "We ˛‰t ellen-weorc      Ístum miclum,
960  "feohtan fremedon,      frÍcne genÍdon
     "eafo unc˚es;      ˚e ic swÓor,
     "˛‰t ˛u hinc selfne      geseÛn mÙste,
     "feÛnd on fr‰tewum      fyl-wÍrigne!
     "Ic hine hr‰dlÓce      heardan clammum
965  "on w‰l-bedde      wrÓan ˛Ùhte,
     "˛‰t he for mund-gripe      mÓnum scolde
     "licgean lÓf-bysig,      b˚tan his lÓc swice;
     "ic hine ne mihte,      ˛‚ metod nolde,
     "ganges getwÊman,      nÙ ic him ˛‰s georne ‰tfealh,
970  "feorh-genÓlan;      w‰s tÙ fore-mihtig
     "feÛnd on fÍe.      Hw‰ere he his folme forlÍt
     "tÙ lÓf-wrae      l‚st weardian,
     "earm and eaxle;      nÙ ˛Êr Ênige sw‚ ˛e·h
     "fe·-sceaft guma      frÙfre gebohte:
975  "nÙ ˛˝ leng leofa      l‚-geteÛna
     "synnum geswenced,      ac hyne s‚r hafa
     "in n˝d-gripe      nearwe befongen,
     "balwon bendum:      ˛Êr ‚bÓdan sceal
     "maga m‚ne f‚h      miclan dÙmes,
980  "h˚ him scÓr metod      scrÓfan wille."
     fi‚ w‰s swÓgra secg,      sunu Ecgl‚fes,
     on gylp-sprÊce      g˚-geweorca,
     sian ‰elingas      eorles cr‰fte
     ofer he·hne hrÙf      hand sce·wedon,
985  feÛndes fingras,      foran Êghwylc;
     w‰s stÍde n‰gla gehwylc,      st˝le gelÓcost,
     hÊenes hand-sporu      hilde-rinces
     egle unheÛru;      Êg-hwylc gecw‰,
     ˛‰t him heardra n‚n      hrÓnan wolde
990  Óren Êr-gÙd,      ˛‰t ˛‰s ahlÊcan
     blÙdge beadu-folme      onberan wolde.


     fi‚ w‰s h‚ten hree      Heort innan-weard
     folmum gefr‰twod:      fela ˛Êra w‰s
     wera and wÓfa,      ˛e ˛‰t wÓn-reced,
995  gest-sele gyredon.      Gold-f‚g scinon
     web ‰fter wagum,      wundor-siÛna fela
     secga gehwylcum      ˛‚ra ˛e on swylc stara
     W‰s ˛‰t beorhte bold      tÙbrocen swÓe
     eal inne-weard      Óren-bendum f‰st,
1000 heorras tÙhlidene;      hrÙf ‚na gen‰s
     ealles ansund,      ˛‚ se aglÊca
     fyren-dÊdum f‚g      on fle·m gewand,
     aldres or-wÍna.      NÙ ˛‰t ˝e by
     tÙ befleÛnne      (fremme se ˛e wille!)
1005 ac gesacan sceal      s‚wl-berendra
     n˝de gen˝dde      nia bearna
     grund-b˚endra      gearwe stÙwe,
     ˛Êr his lÓc-homa      leger-bedde f‰st
     swefe ‰fter symle.      fi‚ w‰s sÊl and mÊl,
1010 ˛‰t tÙ healle gang      Healfdenes sunu;
     wolde self cyning      symbel ˛icgan.
     Ne gefr‰gen ic ˛‚ mÊge      m‚ran weorode
     ymb hyra sinc-gyfan      sÍl gebÊran.
     Bugon ˛‚ tÙ bence      blÊd-‚gende,
1015 fylle gefÊgon.      F‰gere ge˛Êgon
     medo-ful manig      m‚gas + ˛‚ra
     swÓ-hicgende      on sele ˛am he·n,
     HrÙg‚r and HrÙulf.      Heorot innan w‰s
     freÛndum ‚fylled;      nalles f‚cen-stafas
1020 fieÛd-Scyldingas      ˛enden fremedon.
     Forgeaf ˛‚ BeÛwulfe      bearn Healfdenes
     segen gyldenne      sigores tÙ le·ne,
     hroden hilte-cumbor,      helm and byrnan;
     mÊre m‚um-sweord      manige ges‚won
1025 beforan beorn beran.      BeÛwulf ge˛ah
     ful on flette;      nÙ he ˛Êre feoh-gyfte
     for sceÛtendum      scamigan ˛orfte,
     ne gefr‰gn ic freÛndlÓcor      feÛwer m‚dmas
     golde gegyrede      gum-manna fela
1030 in ealo-bence      Ùrum gesellan.
     Ymb ˛‰s helmes hrÙf      he·fod-beorge
     wÓrum bewunden      walan ˚tan heÛld,
     ˛‰t him fÍla l‚fe      frÍcne ne meahton
     sc˚r-heard scean,      ˛onne scyld-freca
1035 onge·n gramum      gangan scolde.
     HÍht ˛‚ eorla hleÛ      eahta mearas,
     f‰ted-hleÛre,      on flet teÛn
     in under eoderas;      ˛‚ra ‚num stÙd
     sadol searwum f‚h      since gewurad,
1040 ˛‰t w‰s hilde-setl      he·h-cyninges,
     ˛onne sweorda gel‚c      sunu Healfdenes
     efnan wolde;      nÊfre on Ùre l‰g
     wÓd-c˚es wÓg,      ˛onne walu feÛllon.
     And ˛‚ BeÛwulfe      bega gehw‰res
1045 eodor Ingwina      onweald gete·h,
     wicga and wÊpna;      hÍt hine wel br˚can.
     Sw‚ manlÓce      mÊre ˛eÛden,
     hord-weard h‰lea      heao-rÊsas geald
     mearum and m‚dmum,      sw‚ h˝ nÊfre man lyh,
1050 se ˛e secgan wile      sÙ ‰fter rihte.


     fi‚ gyt Êghwylcum      eorla drihten
     ˛‚ra ˛e mid BeÛwulfe      brim-l‚de te·h,
     on ˛Êre medu-bence      m‚um gesealde,
     yrfe-l‚fe,      and ˛one Ênne hÍht
1055 golde forgyldan,      ˛one ˛e Grendel Êr
     m‚ne ‚cwealde,      sw‚ he hyra m‚ wolde,
     nefne him witig god      wyrd forstÙde
     and ˛‰s mannes mÙd:      metod eallum weÛld
     gumena cynnes,      sw‚ he nu git dÍ;
1060 for˛an bi andgit      ÊghwÊr sÍlest,
     ferhes fore-˛anc!      fela sceal gebÓdan
     leÛfes and l‚es,      se ˛e longe her
     on ˛yssum win-dagum      worolde br˚ce.
     fiÊr w‰s sang and swÍg      samod ‰tg‰dere
1065 fore Healfdenes      hilde-wÓsan,
     gomen-wudu grÍted,      gid oft wrecen,
     ˛onne heal-gamen      HrÙg‚res scÙp
     ‰fter medo-bence      mÊnan scolde
     Finnes eaferum,      ˛‚ hie se fÊr begeat:
1070 "H‰le Healfdenes,      Hn‰f Scyldinga,
     "in Fr..es w‰le      feallan scolde.
     "Ne h˚ru Hildeburh      hÍrian ˛orfte
     "Eotena treÛwe:      unsynnum wear
     "beloren leÛfum      ‰t ˛am lind-plegan
1075 "bearnum and brÙrum;      hie on gebyrd hruron
     "g‚re wunde;      ˛‰t w‰s geÙmuru ides.
     "Nalles hÙlinga      HÙces dÙhtor
     "meotod-sceaft bemearn,      syan morgen com,
     "˛‚ heÛ under swegle      geseÛn meahte
1080 "moror-bealo m‚ga,      ˛Êr heÛ Êr mÊste heÛld
     "worolde wynne:      wÓg ealle fornam
     "Finnes ˛egnas,      nemne fe·um ‚num,
     "˛‰t he ne mehte      on ˛‰m meel-stede
     "wÓg Hengeste      wiht gefeohtan,
1085 "ne ˛‚ we·-l‚fe      wÓge for˛ringan
     "˛eÛdnes ˛egne;       ac hig him ge˛ingo budon,
     "˛‰t hie him Ùer flet      eal ger˝mdon,
     "healle and he·h-setl,      ˛‰t hie healfre geweald
     "wi Eotena bearn      ‚gan mÙston,
1090 "and ‰t feoh-gyftum      Folcwaldan sunu
     "dÙgra gehwylce      Dene weorode,
     "Hengestes he·p      hringum wenede,
     "efne sw‚ swÓe      sinc-gestreÛnum
     "f‰ttan goldes,      sw‚ he Fresena cyn
1095 "on beÛr-sele      byldan wolde.
     "fi‚ hie getr˚wedon      on tw‚ healfa
     "f‰ste friou-wÊre;      Fin Hengeste
     "elne unflitme      ‚um benemde,
     "˛‰t he ˛‚ we·-l‚fe      weotena dÙme
1100 "‚rum heolde,      ˛‰t ˛Êr Ênig mon
     "wordum ne worcum      wÊre ne brÊce,
     "ne ˛urh inwit-searo      Êfre gemÊnden,
     "˛e·h hie hira be·g-gyfan      banan folgedon
     "˛eÛden-le·se,      ˛‚ him sw‚ ge˛earfod w‰s:
1105 "gyf ˛onne Frysna hwylc      frÍcnan sprÊce
     "˛‰s moror-hetes      myndgiend wÊre,
     "˛onne hit sweordes ecg      syan scolde.
     "¬ w‰s ge‰fned      and icge gold
     "‚h‰fen of horde.      Here-Scyldinga
1110 "betst beado-rinca      w‰s on bÊl gearu;
     "‰t ˛‰m ‚de w‰s      Í-ges˝ne
     "sw‚t-f‚h syrce,      sw˝n eal-gylden,
     "eofer Óren-heard,      ‰eling manig
     "wundum ‚wyrded;      sume on w‰le crungon.
1115 "HÍt ˛‚ Hildeburh      ‰t Hn‰fes ‚de
     "hire selfre sunu      sweoloe bef‰stan,
     "b‚n-fatu b‰rnan      and on bÊl dÙn.
     "Earme on eaxle      ides gnornode,
     "geÙmrode giddum;      g˚-rinc ‚st‚h.
1120 "Wand tÙ wolcnum      w‰l-f˝ra mÊst,
     "hlynode for hl‚we;      hafelan multon,
     "ben-geato burston,      ˛onne blÙd ‰tspranc
     "l‚-bite lÓces.      LÓg ealle forswealg,
     "gÊsta gÓfrost,      ˛‚ra ˛e ˛Êr g˚ fornam
1125 "bega folces;      w‰s hira blÊd scacen.


     "Gewiton him ˛‚ wÓgend      wÓca neÛsian,
     "freÛndum befeallen      Frysland geseÛn,
     "h‚mas and he·-burh.      Hengest ˛‚ gyt
     "w‰l-f‚gne winter      wunode mid Finne
1130 "ealles unhlitme;      eard gemunde,
     "˛e·h ˛e he ne meahte      on mere drÓfan
     "hringed-stefnan;      holm storme weÛl,
     "won wi winde;      winter ˝e bele·c
     "Ós-gebinde      Ù ˛‰t Ùer com
1135 "ge‚r in geardas,      sw‚ nu gyt dÍ,
     "˛‚ ˛e syngales      sÍle bewitia,
     "wuldor-torhtan weder.      fi‚ w‰s winter scacen,
     "f‰ger foldan bearm;      fundode wrecca,
     "gist of geardum;      he tÙ gyrn-wr‰ce
1140 "swÓor ˛Ùhte,      ˛onne tÙ sÊ-l‚de,
     "gif he torn-gemÙt      ˛urhteÛn mihte,
     "˛‰t he Eotena bearn      inne gemunde.
     "Sw‚ he ne forwyrnde      worold-rÊdenne,
     "˛onne him H˚nl‚fing      hilde-leÛman,
1145 "billa sÍlest,      on bearm dyde:
     "˛‰s wÊron mid Eotenum      ecge c˚e.
     "Swylce ferh-frecan      Fin eft begeat
     "sweord-bealo slÓen      ‰t his selfes h‚m,
     "sian grimne gripe      G˚laf ond ‘sl‚f
1150 "‰fter sÊ-sie      sorge mÊndon,
     "‰twiton we·na dÊl;      ne meahte w‰fre mÙd
     "forhabban in hrere.      fi‚ w‰s heal hroden
     "feÛnda feorum,      swilce Fin sl‰gen,
     "cyning on corre,      and seÛ cwÍn numen.
1155 "SceÛtend Scyldinga      tÙ scypum feredon
     "eal in-gesteald      eor-cyninges,
     "swylce hie ‰t Finnes h‚m      findan meahton
     "sigla searo-gimma.      Hie on sÊ-l‚de
     "drihtlÓce wÓf      tÙ Denum feredon,
1160 "lÊddon tÙ leÛdum."      LeÛ w‰s ‚sungen,
     gleÛ-mannes gyd.      Gamen eft ‚st‚h,
     beorhtode benc-swÍg,      byrelas sealdon
     wÓn of wunder-fatum.      fi‚ cwom Wealh˛eÛ for
     g‚n under gyldnum be·ge,      ˛Êr ˛‚ gÙdan twegen
1165 sÊton suhter-gef‰deran;      ˛‚ gyt w‰s hiera sib ‰tg‰dere
     Êghwylc Ùrum tr˝we.      Swylce ˛Êr €nfer ˛yle
     ‰t fÙtum s‰t fre·n Scyldinga:      gehwylc hiora his ferhe treÛwde,
     ˛‰t he h‰fde mÙd micel,      ˛e·h ˛e he his m‚gum nÊre
     ‚rf‰st ‰t ecga gel‚cum.      Spr‰c ˛‚ ides Scyldinga:
1170 "OnfÙh ˛issum fulle,      freÛ-drihten mÓn,
     "sinces brytta;      ˛u on sÊlum wes,
     "gold-wine gumena,      and tÙ Ge·tum sprec
     "mildum wordum!      Sw‚ sceal man dÙn.
     "BeÛ wi Ge·tas gl‰d,      geofena gemyndig;
1175 "ne·n and feorran      ˛u nu friu hafast.
     "Me man s‰gde,      ˛‰t ˛u ˛e for sunu wolde
     "here-rinc habban.      Heorot is gefÊlsod,
     "be·h-sele beorhta;      br˚c ˛enden ˛u mÙte
     "manigra mÍda      and ˛Ónum m‚gum lÊf
1180 "folc and rÓce,      ˛onne ˛u for scyle
     "metod-sceaft seÛn.      Ic mÓnne can
     "gl‰dne HrÙulf,      ˛‰t he ˛‚ geogoe wile
     "‚rum healdan,      gyf ˛u Êr ˛onne he,
     "wine Scildinga,      worold oflÊtest;
1185 "wÍne ic, ˛‰t he mid gÙde      gyldan wille
     "uncran eaferan,      gif he ˛‰t eal gemon,
     "hw‰t wit tÙ willan      and tÙ wor-myndum
     "umbor wesendum Êr      ‚rna gefremedon."
     Hwearf ˛‚ bÓ bence,      ˛Êr hyre byre wÊron,
1190 HrÍrÓc and HrÙmund,      and h‰lea bearn,
     giogo ‰tg‰dere;      ˛Êr se gÙda s‰t
     BeÛwulf Ge·ta      be ˛Êm gebrÙrum twÊm.


     Him w‰s ful boren      and freÛnd-lau
     wordum bew‰gned      and wunden gold
1195 Ístum gee·wed,      earm-hre·de tw‚,
     hr‰gl and hringas,      heals-be·ga mÊst
     ˛‚ra ˛e ic on foldan      gefr‰gen h‰bbe.
     NÊnigne ic under swegle      sÍlran h˝rde
     hord-m‚um h‰lea,      syan H‚ma ‰tw‰g
1200 tÙ ˛Êre byrhtan byrig      Brosinga mene,
     sigle and sinc-f‰t,      searo-nÓas fealh
     EormenrÓces,      gece·s Ícne rÊd.
     fione hring h‰fde      Higel‚c Ge·ta,
     nefa Swertinges,      n˝hstan sÓe,
1205 sian he under segne      sinc ealgode,
     w‰l-re·f werede;      hyne Wyrd fornam,
     syan he for wlenco      we·n ‚hsode,
     fÊhe tÙ Frysum;      he ˛‚ fr‰twe w‰g,
     eorclan-st‚nas      ofer ˝a ful,
1210 rÓce ˛eÛden,      he under rande gecranc;
     gehwearf ˛‚ in Francna f‰m      feorh cyninges,
     breÛst-gewÊdu      and se be·h somod:
     wyrsan wÓg-frecan      w‰l re·fedon
     ‰fter g˚-sceare,      Ge·ta leÛde
1215 hre‚-wÓc heÛldon.      Heal swÍge onfÍng.
     Wealh˛eÛ maelode,      heÛ fore ˛‰m werede spr‰c:
     "Br˚c ˛isses be·ges,      BeÛwulf, leÛfa
     "hyse, mid hÊle,      and ˛isses hr‰gles neÛt
     "˛eÛd-gestreÛna,      and ge˛eÛh tela,
1220 "cen ˛ec mid cr‰fte      and ˛yssum cnyhtum wes
     "l‚ra lÓe!      ic ˛e ˛‰s le·n geman.
     "Hafast ˛u gefÍred,      ˛‰t ˛e feor and ne·h
     "ealne wÓde-ferh      weras ehtiga,
     "efne sw‚ sÓde      sw‚ sÊ beb˚ge
1225 "windige weallas.      Wes, ˛enden ˛u lifige,
     "‰eling e·dig!      ic ˛e an tela
     "sinc-gestreÛna.      BeÛ ˛u suna mÓnum
     "dÊdum gedÍfe      dre·m healdende!
     "Her is Êghwylc eorl      Ùrum getr˝we,
1230 "mÙdes milde,      man-drihtne hold,
     "˛egnas syndon ge˛wÊre,      ˛eÛd eal gearo:
     "druncne dryht-guman,      dÙ sw‚ ic bidde!"
     Eode ˛‚ tÙ setle.      fiÊr w‰s symbla cyst,
     druncon wÓn weras:      wyrd ne c˚on,
1235 geÛ-sceaft grimme,      sw‚ hit ‚gangen wear
     eorla manegum,      syan Êfen cwom
     and him HrÙg‚r gew‚t      tÙ hofe sÓnum,
     rÓce tÙ r‰ste.      Reced weardode
     unrÓm eorla,      sw‚ hie oft Êr dydon:
1240 benc-˛elu beredon,      hit geond-brÊded wear
     beddum and bolstrum.      BeÛr-scealca sum
     f˚s and fÊge      flet-r‰ste gebe·g.
     Setton him tÙ he·fdum      hilde-randas,
     bord-wudu beorhtan;      ˛Êr on bence w‰s
1245 ofer ‰elinge      ˝-gesÍne
     heao-ste·pa helm,      hringed byrne,
     ˛rec-wudu ˛rymlÓc.      W‰s ˛e·w hyra,
     ˛‰t hie oft wÊron      an wÓg gearwe,
     ge ‰t h‚m ge on herge,      ge gehw‰er ˛‚ra
1250 efne swylce mÊla,      swylce hira man-dryhtne
     ˛earf gesÊlde;      w‰s seÛ ˛eÛd tilu.


     Sigon ˛‚ tÙ slÊpe.      Sum s‚re angeald
     Êfen-r‰ste,      sw‚ him ful-oft gelamp,
     sian gold-sele      Grendel warode,
1255 unriht ‰fnde,      Ù ˛‰t ende becwom,
     swylt ‰fter synnum.      fi‰t ges˝ne wear,
     wÓd-c˚ werum,      ˛‰tte wrecend ˛‚ gyt
     lifde ‰fter l‚um,      lange ˛rage
     ‰fter g˚-ceare;      Grendles mÙdor,
1260 ides aglÊc-wÓf      yrme gemunde,
     se ˛e w‰ter-egesan      wunian scolde,
     cealde stre·mas,      sian Cain wear
     tÙ ecg-banan      ‚ngan brÍer,
     f‰deren-mÊge;      he ˛‚ f‚g gew‚t,
1265 morre gemearcod      man-dre·m fleÛn,
     wÍsten warode.      fianon wÙc fela
     geÛsceaft-g‚sta;      w‰s ˛Êra Grendel sum,
     heoro-wearh hetelÓc,      se ‰t Heorote fand
     w‰ccendne wer      wÓges bÓdan,
1270 ˛Êr him aglÊca      ‰t-grÊpe wear;
     hw‰re he gemunde      m‰genes strenge,
     gim-f‰ste gife,      ˛e him god sealde,
     and him tÙ anwaldan      ‚re gel˝fde,
     frÙfre and fultum:      ˛˝ he ˛one feÛnd ofercwom,
1275 gehnÊgde helle g‚st:      ˛‚ he he·n gew‚t,
     dre·me bedÊled      de·-wÓc seÛn,
     man-cynnes feÛnd.      And his mÙdor ˛‚ gyt
     gÓfre and galg-mÙd      geg‚n wolde
     sorh-fulne sÓ,      suna de· wrecan.
1280 Com ˛‚ tÙ Heorote,      ˛Êr Hring-Dene
     geond ˛‰t s‰ld swÊfun.      fi‚ ˛Êr sÙna wear
     ed-hwyrft eorlum,      sian inne fealh
     Grendles mÙdor;      w‰s se gryre l‰ssa
     efne sw‚ micle,      sw‚ bi m‰ga cr‰ft,
1285 wÓg-gryre wÓfes      be wÊpned-men,
     ˛onne heoru bunden,      hamere ge˛uren,
     sweord sw‚te f‚h      swÓn ofer helme,
     ecgum dyhtig      andweard scire.
     fi‚ w‰s on healle      heard-ecg togen,
1290 sweord ofer setlum,      sÓd-rand manig
     hafen handa f‰st;      helm ne gemunde,
     byrnan sÓde,      ˛e hine se brÙga angeat.
     HeÛ w‰s on Ùfste,      wolde ˚t ˛anon
     feore beorgan,      ˛‚ heÛ onfunden w‰s;
1295 hrae heÛ ‰elinga      ‚nne h‰fde
     f‰ste befangen,      ˛‚ heÛ tÙ fenne gang;
     se w‰s HrÙg‚re      h‰lea leÛfost
     on gesÓes h‚d      be sÊm tweonum,
     rÓce rand-wÓga,      ˛one ˛e heÛ on r‰ste ‚bre·t,
1300 blÊd-f‰stne beorn.      N‰s BeÛwulf ˛Êr,
     ac w‰s Ùer in      Êr geteohhod
     ‰fter m‚um-gife      mÊrum Ge·te.
     Hre·m wear on Heorote.      HeÛ under heolfre genam
     c˚e folme;      cearu w‰s geniwod
1305 geworden in wÓcum:      ne w‰s ˛‰t gewrixle til,
     ˛‰t hie on b‚ healfa      bicgan scoldon
     freÛnda feorum.      fi‚ w‰s frÙd cyning,
     h‚r hilde-rinc,      on hreÛn mÙde,
     syan he aldor-˛egn      unlyfigendne,
1310 ˛one deÛrestan      de·dne wisse.
     Hrae w‰s tÙ b˚re      BeÛwulf fetod,
     sigor-e·dig secg.      Samod Êr-d‰ge
     eode eorla sum,      ‰ele cempa
     self mid gesÓum,      ˛Êr se snottra b‚d,
1315 hw‰re him al-walda      Êfre wille
     ‰fter we·-spelle      wyrpe gefremman.
     Gang ˛‚ ‰fter flÙre      fyrd-wyre man
     mid his hand-scale      (heal-wudu dynede)
     ˛‰t he ˛one wÓsan      wordum hnÊgde
1320 fre·n Ingwina;      fr‰gn gif him wÊre
     ‰fter neÛd-lau      niht getÊse.


     HrÙg‚r maelode,      helm Scildinga:
     "Ne frin ˛u ‰fter sÊlum!      Sorh is geniwod
     "Denigea leÛdum.      De·d is ƒsc-here,
1325 "Yrmenl‚fes      yldra brÙor,
     "mÓn r˚n-wita      and mÓn rÊd-bora,
     "eaxl-gestealla,      ˛onne we on orlege
     "hafelan weredon,      ˛onne hniton fÍan,
     "eoferas cnysedan;      swylc scolde eorl wesan
1330 "‰eling Êr-gÙd,      swylc ƒsc-here w‰s.
     "Wear him on Heorote      tÙ hand-banan
     "w‰l-gÊst w‰fre;      ic ne w‚t hw‰der
     "atol Êse wlanc      eft-sÓas te·h,
     "fylle gefrÊgnod.      HeÛ ˛‚ fÊhe wr‰c,
1335 "˛e ˛u gystran niht      Grendel cwealdest
     "˛urh hÊstne h‚d      heardum clammum,
     "for˛an he tÙ lange      leÛde mÓne
     "wanode and wyrde.      He ‰t wÓge gecrang
     "ealdres scyldig,      and nu Ùer cwom
1340 "mihtig m‚n-scaa,      wolde hyre mÊg wrecan,
     "ge feor hafa      fÊhe gestÊled,
     "˛‰s ˛e ˛incean m‰g      ˛egne monegum,
     "se ˛e ‰fter sinc-gyfan      on sefan greÛte,
     "hreer-bealo hearde;      nu seÛ hand lige,
1345 "se ˛e eÛw wel-hwylcra      wilna dohte.
     "Ic ˛‰t lond-b˚end      leÛde mÓne
     "sele-rÊdende      secgan h˝rde,
     "˛‰t hie ges‚won      swylce twegen
     "micle mearc-stapan      mÙras healdan,
1350 "ellor-gÊstas:      ˛Êra Ùer w‰s,
     "˛‰s ˛e hie gewislÓcost      gewitan meahton,
     "idese onlÓcnes,      Ùer earm-sceapen
     "on weres w‰stmum      wr‰c-l‚stas tr‰d,
     "n‰fne he w‰s m‚ra      ˛onne Ênig man Ùer,
1355 "˛one on ge‚r-dagum      Grendel nemdon
     "fold-b˚ende:      nÙ hie f‰der cunnon,
     "hw‰er him Ênig w‰s      Êr ‚cenned
     "dyrnra g‚sta.      Hie d˝gel lond
     "warigea, wulf-hleou,      windige n‰ssas,
1360 "frÍcne fen-gel‚d,      ˛Êr fyrgen-stre·m
     "under n‰ssa genipu      nier gewÓte,
     "flÙd under foldan;      nis ˛‰t feor heonon
     "mÓl-gemearces,      ˛‰t se mere stande,
     "ofer ˛‰m hongia      hrÓmge bearwas,
1365 "wudu wyrtum f‰st,      w‰ter oferhelma.
     "fiÊr m‰g nihta gehwÊm      nÓ-wundor seÛn,
     "f˝r on flÙde;      nÙ ˛‰s frÙd leofa
     "gumena bearna,      ˛‰t ˛one grund wite;
     "˛e·h ˛e hÊ-stapa      hundum geswenced,
1370 "heorot hornum trum      holt-wudu sÍce,
     "feorran gefl˝med,      Êr he feorh sele,
     "aldor on Ùfre,      Êr he in wille,
     "hafelan h˝dan.      Nis ˛‰t heÛru stÙw:
     "˛onon ˝-geblond      up ‚stÓge
1375 "won tÙ wolcnum,      ˛onne wind styre
     "l‚ gewidru,      Ù ˛‰t lyft drysma,
     "roderas reÛta.      Nu is rÊd gelang
     "eft ‰t ˛e ‚num!      Eard git ne const,
     "frÍcne stÙwe,      ˛Êr ˛u findan miht
1380 "sinnigne secg:      sÍc gif ˛u dyrre!
     "Ic ˛e ˛‚ fÊhe      feÛ le·nige,
     "eald-gestreÛnum,      sw‚ ic Êr dyde,
     "wundnum golde,      gyf ˛u on weg cymest."


     BeÛwulf maelode,      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes:
1385 "Ne sorga, snotor guma!      sÍlre bi ÊghwÊm,
     "˛‰t he his freÛnd wrece,      ˛onne he fela murne;
     "˚re Êghwylc sceal      ende gebÓdan
     "worolde lÓfes;      wyrce se ˛e mÙte
     "dÙmes Êr de·e!      ˛‰t bi driht-guman
1390 "unlifgendum      ‰fter sÍlest.
     "¬rÓs, rÓces weard;      uton hrae fÍran,
     "Grendles m‚gan      gang sce·wigan!
     "Ic hit ˛e geh‚te:      nÙ he on helm losa,
     "ne on foldan f‰m,      ne on fyrgen-holt,
1395 "ne on gyfenes grund,      g‚ ˛Êr he wille.
     "fiys dÙgor ˛u      ge˛yld hafa
     "we·na gehwylces,      sw‚ ic ˛e wÍne tÙ!"
     ¬hleÛp ˛‚ se gomela,      gode ˛ancode,
     mihtigan drihtne,      ˛‰s se man gespr‰c.
1400 fi‚ w‰s HrÙg‚re      hors gebÊted,
     wicg wunden-feax.      WÓsa fengel
     geatolÓc gengde;      gum-fÍa stÙp
     lind-h‰bbendra.      L‚stas wÊron
     ‰fter wald-swaum      wÓde ges˝ne,
1405 gang ofer grundas;      gegnum fÙr ˛‚
     ofer myrcan mÙr,      mago-˛egna b‰r
     ˛one sÍlestan      s‚wol-le·sne,
     ˛‚ra ˛e mid HrÙg‚re      h‚m eahtode.
     Ofer-eode ˛‚      ‰elinga bearn
1410 ste·p st‚n-hlio,      stÓge nearwe,
     enge ‚n-paas,      un-c˚ gel‚d,
     neowle n‰ssas,      nicor-h˚sa fela;
     he fe·ra sum      beforan gengde
     wÓsra monna,      wong sce·wian,
1415 Ù ˛‰t he fÊringa      fyrgen-be·mas
     ofer h‚rne st‚n      hleonian funde,
     wyn-le·sne wudu;      w‰ter under stÙd
     dreÛrig and gedrÍfed.      Denum eallum w‰s,
     winum Scyldinga,      weorce on mÙde,
1420 tÙ ge˛olianne      ˛egne monegum,
     onc˝ eorla gehwÊm,      syan ƒsc-heres
     on ˛am holm-clife      hafelan mÍtton.
     FlÙd blÙde weÛl      (folc tÙ sÊgon)
     h‚tan heolfre.      Horn stundum song
1425 f˚slÓc fyrd-leÛ.      FÍa eal ges‰t;
     ges‚won ˛‚ ‰fter w‰tere      wyrm-cynnes fela,
     sellÓce sÊ-dracan      sund cunnian,
     swylce on n‰s-hleoum      nicras licgean,
     ˛‚ on undern-mÊl      oft bewitiga
1430 sorh-fulne sÓ      on segl-r‚de,
     wyrmas and wil-deÛr;      hie on weg hruron
     bitere and gebolgne,      bearhtm onge‚ton,
     g˚-horn galan.      Sumne Ge·ta leÛd
     of fl‚n-bogan      feores getwÊfde,
1435 ˝-gewinnes,      ˛‰t him on aldre stÙd
     here-strÊl hearda;      he on holme w‰s
     sundes ˛e sÊnra,      ˛e hyne swylt fornam.
     Hr‰e wear on ˝um      mid eofer-spreÛtum
     heoro-hÙcyhtum      hearde genearwod,
1440 nÓa genÊged      and on n‰s togen
     wundorlÓc wÊg-bora;      weras sce·wedon
     gryrelÓcne gist.      Gyrede hine BeÛwulf
     eorl-gewÊdum,      nalles for ealdre mearn:
     scolde here-byrne      hondum gebroden,
1445 sÓd and searo-f‚h,      sund cunnian,
     seÛ ˛e b‚n-cÙfan      beorgan c˚e,
     ˛‰t him hilde-gr‚p      hrere ne mihte,
     eorres inwit-feng,      aldre gescean;
     ac se hwÓta helm      hafelan werede,
1450 se ˛e mere-grundas      mengan scolde,
     sÍcan sund-gebland      since geweorad,
     befongen fre·-wr‚snum,      sw‚ hine fyrn-dagum
     worhte wÊpna smi,      wundrum teÛde,
     besette swÓn-lÓcum,      ˛‰t hine syan nÙ
1455 brond ne beado-mÍcas      bÓtan ne meahton.
     N‰s ˛‰t ˛onne mÊtost      m‰gen-fultuma,
     ˛‰t him on ˛earfe l‚h      ˛yle HrÙg‚res;
     w‰s ˛‰m h‰ft-mÍce      Hrunting nama,
     ˛‰t w‰s ‚n foran      eald-gestreÛna;
1460 ecg w‰s Óren      ‚ter-te·rum f‚h,
     ‚hyrded heao-sw‚te;      nÊfre hit ‰t hilde ne sw‚c
     manna Êngum      ˛‚ra ˛e hit mid mundum bewand,
     se ˛e gryre-sÓas      geg‚n dorste,
     folc-stede f‚ra;      n‰s ˛‰t forma sÓ,
1465 ˛‰t hit ellen-weorc      ‰fnan scolde.
     H˚ru ne gemunde      mago Ecgl‚fes
     eafoes cr‰ftig,      ˛‰t he Êr gespr‰c
     wÓne druncen,      ˛‚ he ˛‰s wÊpnes onl‚h
     sÍlran sweord-frecan:      selfa ne dorste
1470 under ˝a gewin      aldre genÍan,
     driht-scype dreÛgan;      ˛Êr he dÙme forle·s,
     ellen-mÊrum.      Ne w‰s ˛‰m Ùrum sw‚,
     syan he hine tÙ g˚e      gegyred h‰fde.


     BeÛwulf maelode,      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes:
1475 "ge˛enc nu, se mÊra      maga Healfdenes,
     "snottra fengel,      nu ic eom sÓes f˚s,
     "gold-wine gumena,      hw‰t wit geÛ sprÊcon,
     "gif ic ‰t ˛earfe      ˛Ónre scolde
     "aldre linnan,      ˛‰t ˛u me ‚ wÊre
1480 "for-gewitenum      on f‰der st‰le;
     "wes ˛u mund-bora mÓnum      mago-˛egnum,
     "hond-gesellum,      gif mec hild nime:
     "swylce ˛u ˛‚ m‚dmas,      ˛e ˛u me sealdest,
     "HrÙg‚r leÛfa,      Higel‚ce onsend.
1485 "M‰g ˛onne on ˛‰m golde ongitan      Ge·ta dryhten,
     "geseÛn sunu HrÍles,      ˛onne he on ˛‰t sinc stara,
     "˛‰t ic gum-cystum      gÙdne funde
     "be·ga bryttan,      bre·c ˛onne mÙste.
     "And ˛u €nfer lÊt      ealde l‚fe,
1490 "wr‰tlÓc wÊg-sweord      wÓd-c˚ne man
     "heard-ecg habban;      ic me mid Hruntinge
     "dÙm gewyrce,      oe mec de· nime."
     ƒfter ˛Êm wordum      Weder-Ge·ta leÛd
     Ífste mid elne,      nalas andsware
1495 bÓdan wolde;      brim-wylm onfÍng
     hilde-rince.      fi‚ w‰s hwÓl d‰ges,
     Êr he ˛one grund-wong      ongytan mehte.
     SÙna ˛‰t onfunde,      se ˛e flÙda begong
     heoro-gÓfre beheÛld      hund missera,
1500 grim and grÊdig,      ˛‰t ˛Êr gumena sum
     ‰l-wihta eard      ufan cunnode.
     Gr‚p ˛‚ tÙge·nes,      g˚-rinc gefÍng
     atolan clommum;      nÙ ˛˝ Êr in gescÙd
     h‚lan lÓce:      hring ˚tan ymb-bearh,
1505 ˛‰t heÛ ˛one fyrd-hom      ˛urh-fÙn ne mihte,
     locene leoo-syrcan      l‚an fingrum.
     B‰r ˛‚ seÛ brim-wylf,      ˛‚ heÛ tÙ botme com,
     hringa ˛engel      tÙ hofe sÓnum,
     sw‚ he ne mihte nÙ      (he ˛‰s mÙdig w‰s)
1510 wÊpna gewealdan,      ac hine wundra ˛‰s fela
     swencte on sunde,      sÊ-deÛr monig
     hilde-tuxum      here-syrcan br‰c,
     Íhton aglÊcan.      fi‚ se eorl ongeat,
     ˛‰t he in ni-sele      n‚t-hwylcum w‰s,
1515 ˛Êr him nÊnig w‰ter      wihte ne sceede,
     ne him for hrÙf-sele      hrÓnan ne mehte
     fÊr-gripe flÙdes:      f˝r-leÛht geseah,
     bl‚cne leÛman      beorhte scÓnan.
     Ongeat ˛‚ se gÙda      grund-wyrgenne,
1520 mere-wÓf mihtig;      m‰gen-rÊs forgeaf
     hilde-bille,      hond swenge ne ofte·h,
     ˛‰t hire on hafelan      hring-mÊl ‚gÙl
     grÊdig g˚-leÛ.      fi‚ se gist onfand,
     ˛‰t se beado-leÛma      bÓtan nolde,
1525 aldre scean,      ac seÛ ecg gesw‚c
     ˛eÛdne ‰t ˛earfe:      ˛olode Êr fela
     hond-gemÙta,      helm oft gesc‰r,
     fÊges fyrd-hr‰gl:      ˛‰t w‰s forma sÓ
     deÛrum m‚me,      ˛‰t his dÙm ‚l‰g.
1530 Eft w‰s ‚n-rÊd,      nalas elnes l‰t,
     mÊra gemyndig      mÊg Hygel‚ces;
     wearp ˛‚ wunden-mÊl      wr‰ttum gebunden
     yrre oretta,      ˛‰t hit on eoran l‰g,
     stÓ and st˝l-ecg;      strenge getr˚wode,
1535 mund-gripe m‰genes.      Sw‚ sceal man dÙn,
     ˛onne he ‰t g˚e      geg‚n ˛ence
     longsumne lof,      n‚ ymb his lÓf ceara.
     GefÍng ˛‚ be eaxle      (nalas for fÊhe mearn)
     G˚-Ge·ta leÛd      Grendles mÙdor;
1540 br‰gd ˛‚ beadwe heard,      ˛‚ he gebolgen w‰s,
     feorh-genÓlan,      ˛‰t heÛ on flet gebe·h.
     HeÛ him eft hrae      and-le·n forgeald
     grimman gr‚pum      and him tÙge·nes fÍng;
     oferwearp ˛‚ wÍrig-mÙd      wÓgena strengest,
1545 fÍe-cempa,      ˛‰t he on fylle wear.
     Ofs‰t ˛‚ ˛one sele-gyst      and hyre seaxe gete·h,
     br‚d and br˚n-ecg      wolde hire bearn wrecan,
     ‚ngan eaferan.      Him on eaxle l‰g
     breÛst-net broden;      ˛‰t gebearh feore,
1550 wi ord and wi ecge      ingang forstÙd.
     H‰fde ˛‚ forsÓod      sunu Ecg˛eÛwes
     under gynne grund,      Ge·ta cempa,
     nemne him heao-byrne      helpe gefremede,
     here-net hearde,      and h‚lig god
1555 geweÛld wÓg-sigor,      witig drihten;
     rodera rÊdend      hit on ryht gescÍd,
     ˝elÓce      syan he eft ‚stÙd.


     Geseah ˛‚ on searwum      sige-e·dig bil,
     eald sweord eotenisc      ecgum ˛yhtig,
1560 wÓgena weor-mynd:      ˛‰t w‰s wÊpna cyst,
     b˚ton hit w‰s m‚re      ˛onne Ênig mon Ùer
     tÙ beadu-l‚ce      ‰tberan meahte
     gÙd and geatolÓc      giganta geweorc.
     He gefÍng ˛‚ fetel-hilt,      freca Scildinga,
1565 hreÛh and heoro-grim      hring-mÊl gebr‰gd,
     aldres orwÍna,      yrringa slÙh,
     ˛‰t hire wi halse      heard gr‚pode,
     b‚n-hringas br‰c,      bil eal ˛urh-wÙd
     fÊgne flÊsc-homan,      heÛ on flet gecrong;
1570 sweord w‰s sw‚tig,      secg weorce gefeh.
     Lixte se leÛma,      leÛht inne stÙd,
     efne sw‚ of hefene      h‚dre scÓne
     rodores candel.      He ‰fter recede wl‚t,
     hwearf ˛‚ be wealle,      wÊpen hafenade
1575 heard be hiltum      Higel‚ces ˛egn,
     yrre and ‚n-rÊd.      N‰s seÛ ecg fracod
     hilde-rince,      ac he hrae wolde
     Grendle forgyldan      g˚-rÊsa fela
     ˛‚ra ˛e he geworhte      tÙ West-Denum
1580 oftor micle      ˛onne on Ênne sÓ,
     ˛onne he HrÙg‚res      heor-gene·tas
     slÙh on sweofote,      slÊpende fr‰t
     folces Denigea      f˝f-tyne men
     and Ùer swylc      ˚t of-ferede,
1585 l‚lÓcu l‚c.      He him ˛‰s le·n forgeald,
     rÍe cempa,      tÙ ˛‰s ˛e he on r‰ste geseah
     g˚-wÍrigne      Grendel licgan,
     aldor-le·sne,      sw‚ him Êr gescÙd
     hild ‰t Heorote;      hr‚ wÓde sprong,
1590 syan he ‰fter de·e      drepe ˛rowade,
     heoro-sweng heardne,      and hine ˛‚ he·fde becearf,
     SÙna ˛‰t ges‚won      snottre ceorlas,
     ˛‚ ˛e mid HrÙg‚re      on holm wliton,
     ˛‰t w‰s ˝-geblond      eal gemenged,
1595 brim blÙde f‚h:      blonden-feaxe
     gomele ymb gÙdne      ongeador sprÊcon,
     ˛‰t hig ˛‰s ‰elinges      eft ne wÍndon,
     ˛‰t he sige-hrÍig      sÍcean cÙme
     mÊrne ˛eÛden;      ˛‚ ˛‰s monige gewear,
1600 ˛‰t hine seÛ brim-wylf      ‚broten h‰fde.
     fi‚ com nÙn d‰ges.      N‰s ofge‚fon
     hwate Scyldingas; gew‚t him h‚m ˛onon
     gold-wine gumena.      Gistas sÍtan,
     mÙdes seÛce,      and on mere staredon,
1605 wiston and ne wÍndon,      ˛‰t hie heora wine-drihten
     selfne ges‚won.      fi‚ ˛‰t sweord ongan
     ‰fter heao-sw‚te      hilde-gicelum
     wÓg-bil wanian;      ˛‰t w‰s wundra sum,
     ˛‰t hit eal gemealt      Óse gelÓcost,
1610 ˛onne forstes bend      f‰der onlÊte,
     onwinde w‰l-r‚pas,      se ˛e geweald hafa
     sÊla and mÊla;      ˛‰t is sÙ metod.
     Ne nom he in ˛Êm wÓcum,      Weder-Ge·ta leÛd,
     m‚m-Êhta m‚,      ˛Íh he ˛Êr monige geseah,
1615 b˚ton ˛one hafelan      and ˛‚ hilt somod,
     since f‚ge;      sweord Êr gemealt,
     forbarn broden mÊl:      w‰s ˛‰t blÙd tÙ ˛‰s h‚t,
     Êttren ellor-gÊst,      se ˛Êr inne swealt.
     SÙna w‰s on sunde,      se ˛e Êr ‰t s‰cce geb‚d
1620 wÓg-hryre wr‚ra,      w‰ter up ˛urh-de·f;
     wÊron ˝-gebland      eal gefÊlsod,
     e·cne eardas,      ˛‚ se ellor-g‚st
     oflÍt lÓf-dagas      and ˛‚s lÊnan gesceaft.
     Com ˛‚ tÙ lande      lid-manna helm
1625 swÓ-mÙd swymman,      sÊ-l‚ce gefeah,
     m‰gen-byrenne      ˛‚ra ˛e he him mid h‰fde.
     Eodon him ˛‚ tÙge·nes,      gode ˛ancodon,
     ˛rylÓc ˛egna he·p,      ˛eÛdnes gefÍgon,
     ˛‰s ˛e hi hyne gesundne      geseÛn mÙston.
1630 fi‚ w‰s of ˛‰m hrÙran      helm and byrne
     lungre ‚l˝sed:      lagu drusade,
     w‰ter under wolcnum,      w‰l-dreÛre f‚g.
     FÍrdon for ˛onon      fÍe-l‚stum
     ferhum f‰gne,      fold-weg mÊton,
1635 c˚e strÊte;      cyning-balde men
     from ˛‰m holm-clife      hafelan bÊron
     earfolÓce      heora Êghw‰rum
     fela-mÙdigra:      feÛwer scoldon
     on ‰m w‰l-stenge      weorcum geferian
1640 tÙ ˛‰m gold-sele      Grendles he·fod,
     Ù ˛‰t semninga      tÙ sele cÙmon
     frome fyrd-hwate      feÛwer-tyne
     Ge·ta gongan;      gum-dryhten mid
     mÙdig on gemonge      meodo-wongas tr‰d.
1645 fi‚ com in g‚n      ealdor ˛egna,
     dÊd-cÍne mon      dÙme gewurad,
     h‰le hilde-deÛr.      HrÙg‚r grÍtan:
     fi‚ w‰s be feaxe      on flet boren
     Grendles he·fod,      ˛Êr guman druncon,
1650 egeslÓc for eorlum      and ˛Êre idese mid:
     wlite-seÛn wr‰tlÓc      weras ons‚won.


     BeÛwulf maelode,      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes:
     "Hw‰t! we ˛e ˛‚s sÊ-l‚c,      sunu Healfdenes,
     "leÛd Scyldinga,      lustum brÙhton,
1655 "tÓres tÙ t‚cne,      ˛e ˛u her tÙ lÙcast.
     "Ic ˛‰t unsÙfte      ealdre gedÓgde:
     "wÓge under w‰tere      weorc genÍde
     "earfolÓce,      ‰t-rihte w‰s
     "g˚ getwÊfed,      nyme mec god scylde.
1660 "Ne meahte ic ‰t hilde      mid Hruntinge
     "wiht gewyrcan,      ˛e·h ˛‰t wÊpen duge,
     "ac me ge˚e      ylda waldend,
     "˛‰t ic on wage geseah      wlitig hangian
     "eald sweord e·cen      (oftost wÓsode
1665 "winigea le·sum)      ˛‰t ic ˛˝ wÊpne gebr‰d.
     "OfslÙh ˛‚ ‰t ˛Êre s‰cce      (˛‚ me sÊl ‚geald)
     "h˚ses hyrdas.      fi‚ ˛‰t hilde-bil
     "forbarn, brogden mÊl,      sw‚ ˛‰t blÙd gesprang,
     "h‚tost heao-sw‚ta:      ic ˛‰t hilt ˛anan
1670 "feÛndum ‰tferede;      fyren-dÊda wr‰c,
     "de·-cwealm Denigea,      sw‚ hit gedÍfe w‰s.
     "Ic hit ˛e ˛onne geh‚te,      ˛‰t ˛u on Heorote mÙst
     "sorh-le·s swefan      mid ˛Ónra secga gedryht,
     "and ˛egna gehwylc      ˛Ónra leÛda,
1675 "dugue and iogoe,      ˛‰t ˛u him ondrÊdan ne ˛earft,
     "˛eÛden Scyldinga,      on ˛‚ healfe,
     "aldor-bealu eorlum,      sw‚ ˛u Êr dydest."
     fi‚ w‰s gylden hilt      gamelum rince.
     h‚rum hild-fruman,      on hand gyfen,
1680 enta Êr-geweorc,      hit on Êht gehwearf
     ‰fter deÛfla hryre      Denigea fre·n,
     wundor-smia geweorc,      and ˛‚ ˛‚s worold ofgeaf
     grom-heort guma,      godes andsaca,
     morres scyldig,      and his mÙdor e·c;
1685 on geweald gehwearf      worold-cyninga
     ˛‰m sÍlestan      be sÊm tweÛnum
     ˛‚ra ˛e on Sceden-igge      sceattas dÊlde.
     HrÙg‚r maelode,      hylt sce·wode,
     ealde l‚fe,      on ˛‰m w‰s Ùr writen
1690 fyrn-gewinnes:      syan flÙd ofslÙh,
     gifen geÛtende,      giganta cyn,
     frÍcne gefÍrdon:      ˛‰t w‰s fremde ˛eÛd
     Ícean dryhtne,      him ˛‰s ende-le·n
     ˛urh w‰teres wylm      waldend sealde.
1695 Sw‚ w‰s on ˛Êm scennum      scÓran goldes
     ˛urh r˚n-stafas      rihte gemearcod,
     geseted and gesÊd,      hw‚m ˛‰t sweord geworht,
     Órena cyst      Êrest wÊre,
     wreoen-hilt and wyrm-f‚h.      fi‚ se wÓsa spr‰c
1700 sunu Healfdenes      (swÓgedon ealle):
     "fi‰t l‚ m‰g secgan,      se ˛e sÙ and riht
     "freme on folce,      (feor eal gemon
     "eald Íel-weard),      ˛‰t ˛es eorl wÊre
     "geboren betera!      BlÊd is ‚rÊred
1705 "geond wÓd-wegas,      wine mÓn BeÛwulf,
     "˛Ón ofer ˛eÛda gehwylce.      Eal ˛u hit ge˛yldum healdest,
     "m‰gen mid mÙdes snyttrum.      Ic ˛e sceal mÓne gelÊstan
     "freÛde, sw‚ wit furum sprÊcon;      ˛u scealt tÙ frÙfre weoran
     "eal lang-twidig      leÛdum ˛Ónum,
1710 "h‰leum tÙ helpe.      Ne wear HeremÙd sw‚
     "eaforum Ecgwelan,      ¬r-Scyldingum;
     "ne geweÙx he him tÙ willan,      ac tÙ w‰l-fealle
     "and tÙ de·-cwalum      Deniga leÛdum;
     "bre·t bolgen-mÙd      beÛd-gene·tas,
1715 "eaxl-gesteallan,      Ù ˛‰t he ‚na hwearf,
     "mÊre ˛eÛden.      mon-dre·mum from:
     "˛e·h ˛e hine mihtig god      m‰genes wynnum,
     "eafeum stÍpte,      ofer ealle men
     "for gefremede,      hw‰ere him on ferhe greÛw
1720 "breÛst-hord blÙd-reÛw:      nallas be·gas geaf
     "Denum ‰fter dÙme;      dre·m-le·s geb‚d,
     "˛‰t he ˛‰s gewinnes      weorc ˛rowade,
     "leÛd-bealo longsum.      fiu ˛e lÊr be ˛on,
     "gum-cyste ongit!      ic ˛is gid be ˛e
1725 "‚wr‰c wintrum frÙd.      Wundor is tÙ secganne,
     "h˚ mihtig god      manna cynne
     "˛urh sÓdne sefan      snyttru brytta,
     "eard and eorl-scipe,      he ‚h ealra geweald.
     "HwÓlum he on lufan      lÊte hworfan
1730 "monnes mÙd-ge˛onc      mÊran cynnes,
     "sele him on Íle      eoran wynne,
     "tÙ healdanne      hleÛ-burh wera,
     "gedÍ him sw‚ gewealdene      worolde dÊlas,
     "sÓde rÓce,      ˛‰t he his selfa ne m‰g
1735 "for his un-snyttrum      ende ge˛encean;
     "wuna he on wiste,      nÙ hine wiht dwele,
     "‚dl ne yldo,      ne him inwit-sorh
     "on sefan sweorce,      ne gesacu ÙhwÊr,
     "ecg-hete eÛwe,      ac him eal worold
1740 "wende on willan;      he ˛‰t wyrse ne con,
     "Ù ˛‰t him on innan      ofer-hygda dÊl
     "weaxe and wrida,      ˛onne se weard swefe,
     "s‚wele hyrde:      bi se slÊp tÙ f‰st,
     "bisgum gebunden,      bona swÓe ne·h,
1745 "se ˛e of fl‚n-bogan      fyrenum sceÛte.


     "fionne bi on hrere      under helm drepen
     "biteran strÊle:      him bebeorgan ne con
     "wom wundor-bebodum      wergan g‚stes;
     "˛ince him tÙ lytel,      ˛‰t he tÙ lange heÛld,
1750 "g˝tsa grom-hydig,      nallas on gylp sele
     "f‰tte be·gas      and he ˛‚ for-gesceaft
     "forgyte and forg˝me,      ˛‰s ˛e him Êr god sealde
     "wuldres waldend,      weor-mynda dÊl.
     "Hit on ende-st‰f      eft gelimpe,
1755 "˛‰t se lÓc-homa      lÊne gedreÛse,
     "fÊge gefealle;      fÍh Ùer tÙ,
     "se ˛e unmurnlÓce      m‚dmas dÊle,
     "eorles Êr-gestreÛn,      egesan ne g˝me.
     "Bebeorh ˛e ˛one bealo-nÓ,      BeÛwulf leÛfa,
1760 "secg se betsta,      and ˛e ˛‰t sÍlre geceÛs,
     "Íce rÊdas;      oferhyda ne g˝m,
     "mÊre cempa!      Nu is ˛Ónes m‰gnes blÊd
     "‚ne hwÓle;      eft sÙna bi,
     "˛‰t ˛ec ‚dl oe ecg      eafoes getwÊfe,
1765 "oe f˝res feng      oe flÙdes wylm,
     "oe gripe mÍces      oe g‚res fliht,
     "oe atol yldo,      oe e·gena bearhtm
     "forsite and forsworce;      semninga bi,
     "˛‰t ˛ec, dryht-guma,      de· ofersw˝e.
1770 "Sw‚ ic Hring-Dena      hund missera
     "weÛld under wolcnum,      and hig wÓge bele·c
     "manigum mÊga      geond ˛ysne middan-geard,
     "‰scum and ecgum,      ˛‰t ic me Ênigne
     "under swegles begong      gesacan ne tealde.
1775 "Hw‰t! me ˛‰s on Íle      edwenden cwom,
     "gyrn ‰fter gomene,      seoan Grendel wear,
     "eald-gewinna,      in-genga mÓn:
     "ic ˛Êre sÙcne      singales w‰g
     "mÙd-ceare micle.      fi‰s sig metode ˛anc,
1780 "Ícean drihtne,      ˛‰s ˛e ic on aldre geb‚d,
     "˛‰t ic on ˛one hafelan      heoro-dreÛrigne
     "ofer eald gewin      e·gum starige!
     "G‚ nu tÙ setle,      symbel-wynne dreÛh
     "wÓgge weorad:      unc sceal worn fela
1785 "m‚ma gemÊnra,      sian morgen bi."
     Ge·t w‰s gl‰d-mÙd,      geÛng sÙna tÙ,
     setles neÛsan,      sw‚ se snottra hÍht.
     fi‚ w‰s eft sw‚ Êr      ellen-rÙfum,
     flet-sittendum      f‰gere gereorded
1790 niÛwan stefne.      Niht-helm geswearc
     deorc ofer dryht-gumum.      Dugu eal ‚r‚s;
     wolde blonden-feax      beddes neÛsan,
     gamela Scylding.      Ge·t ungemetes wel,
     rÙfne rand-wÓgan      restan lyste:
1795 sÙna him sele-˛egn      sÓes wÍrgum,
     feorran-cundum      for wÓsade,
     se for andrysnum      ealle beweotede
     ˛egnes ˛earfe,      swylce ˛˝ dÙgore
     he·o-lÓende      habban scoldon.
1800 Reste hine ˛‚ r˚m-heort;      reced hlifade
     ge·p and gold-f‚h,      g‰st inne sw‰f,
     Ù ˛‰t hrefn blaca      heofones wynne
     blÓ-heort bodode.      fi‚ com beorht sunne
     scacan ofer grundas;      scaan onetton,
1805 wÊron ‰elingas      eft tÙ leÛdum
     f˚se tÙ farenne,      wolde feor ˛anon
     cuma collen-ferh      ceÛles neÛsan.
     HÍht ˛‚ se hearda      Hrunting beran,
     sunu Ecgl‚fes,      hÍht his sweord niman,
1810 leÛflÓc Óren;      s‰gde him ˛‰s le·nes ˛anc,
     cw‰ he ˛one g˚-wine      gÙdne tealde,
     wÓg-cr‰ftigne,      nales wordum lÙg
     mÍces ecge:      ˛‰t w‰s mÙdig secg.
     And ˛‚ sÓ-frome      searwum gearwe
1815 wÓgend wÊron,      eode weor Denum
     ‰eling tÙ yppan,      ˛Êr se Ùer w‰s
     h‰le hilde-deÛr,      HrÙg‚r grÍtte.


     BeÛwulf maelode,      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes:
     "Nu we sÊ-lÓend      secgan wylla
1820 "feorran cumene,      ˛‰t we fundia
     "Higel‚c sÍcan.      WÊron her tela
     "willum bewenede;      ˛u ˚s wel dohtest.
     "Gif ic ˛onne on eoran      Ùwihte m‰g
     "˛Ónre mÙd-lufan      m‚ran tilian,
1825 "gumena dryhten,      ˛onne ic gyt dyde,
     "g˚-geweorca      ic beÛ gearo sÙna.
     "Gif ic ˛‰t gefricge      ofer flÙda begang,
     "˛‰t ˛ec ymbe-sittend      egesan ˛˝wa,
     "sw‚ ˛ec hetende      hwÓlum dydon,
1830 "ic ˛e ˛˚senda      ˛egna bringe,
     "h‰lea tÙ helpe.      Ic on Higel‚ce w‚t,
     "Ge·ta dryhten,      ˛e·h ˛e he geong s˝,
     "folces hyrde,      ˛‰t he mec fremman wile
     "wordum and worcum,      ˛‰t ic ˛e wel herige,
1835 "and ˛e tÙ geÛce      g‚r-holt bere
     "m‰genes fultum,      ˛Êr ˛e bi manna ˛earf;
     "gif him ˛onne HrÍrÓc      tÙ hofum Ge·ta
     "ge˛inge, ˛eÛdnes bearn,      he m‰g ˛Êr fela
     "freÛnda findan:      feor-c˝e beÛ
1840 "sÍlran gesÙhte      ˛‰m ˛e him selfa de·h."
     HrÙg‚r maelode      him on andsware:
     "fie ˛‚ word-cwydas      wittig drihten
     "on sefan sende!      ne h˝rde ic snotorlÓcor
     "on sw‚ geongum feore      guman ˛ingian:
1845 "˛u eart m‰genes strang      and on mÙde frÙd,
     "wÓs word-cwida.      WÍn ic talige,
     "gif ˛‰t gegange,      ˛‰t ˛e g‚r nyme,
     "hild heoru-grimme      HrÍles eaferan,
     "‚dl oe Óren      ealdor ˛Ónne,
1850 "folces hyrde,      and ˛u ˛Ón feorh hafast,
     "˛‰t ˛e SÊ-Ge·tas      sÍlran n‰bben
     "tÙ geceÛsenne      cyning Ênigne,
     "hord-weard h‰lea,      gif ˛u healdan wylt
     "m‚ga rÓce.      Me ˛Ón mÙd-sefa
1855 "lÓca leng sw‚ wel,      leÛfa BeÛwulf:
     "hafast ˛u gefÍred,      ˛‰t ˛‚m folcum sceal,
     "Ge·ta leÛdum      and G‚r-Denum
     "sib gemÊnum      and sacu restan,
     "inwit-nÓas,      ˛e hie Êr drugon;
1860 "wesan, ˛enden ic wealde      wÓdan rÓces,
     "m‚mas gemÊne,      manig Ùerne
     "gÙdum gegrÍtan      ofer ganotes b‰;
     "sceal hring-naca      ofer he·u bringan
     "l‚c and luf-t‚cen.      Ic ˛‚ leÛde w‚t
1865 "ge wi feÛnd ge wi freÛnd      f‰ste geworhte
     "Êghw‰s untÊle      ealde wÓsan."
     fi‚ git him eorla hleÛ      inne gesealde,
     mago Healfdenes      m‚mas twelfe,
     hÍt hine mid ˛Êm l‚cum      leÛde swÊse
1870 sÍcean on gesyntum,      sn˚de eft cuman.
     Gecyste ˛‚      cyning ‰elum gÙd,
     ˛eÛden Scildinga,      ˛egen betstan
     and be healse genam;      hruron him te·ras,
     blonden-feaxum:      him w‰s bega wÍn,
1875 ealdum infrÙdum,      Ùres swÓor,
     ˛‰t hÓ seoan      geseÛn mÙston
     mÙdige on mele.      W‰s him se man tÙ ˛on leÛf,
     ˛‰t he ˛one breÛst-wylm      forberan ne mehte,
     ac him on hrere      hyge-bendum f‰st
1880 ‰fter deÛrum men      dyrne langa
     beorn wi blÙde.      Him BeÛwulf ˛anan,
     g˚-rinc gold-wlanc      gr‰s-moldan tr‰d,
     since hrÍmig:      sÊ-genga b‚d
     ‚gend-fre·n,      se ˛e on ancre r‚d.
1885 fi‚ w‰s on gange      gifu HrÙg‚res
     oft geÊhted:      ˛‰t w‰s ‚n cyning
     Êghw‰s orleahtre,      Ù ˛‰t hine yldo benam
     m‰genes wynnum,      se ˛e oft manegum scÙd.


     Cwom ˛‚ tÙ flÙde      fela-mÙdigra
1890 h‰g-stealdra he·p;      hring-net bÊron,
     locene leoo-syrcan.      Land-weard onfand
     eft-sÓ eorla,      sw‚ he Êr dyde;
     nÙ he mid hearme      of hlies nosan
     g‰stas grÍtte,      ac him tÙge·nes r‚d;
1895 cw‰ ˛‰t wilcuman      Wedera leÛdum
     scawan scÓr-hame      tÙ scipe fÙron.
     fi‚ w‰s on sande      sÊ-ge·p naca
     hladen here-wÊdum,      hringed-stefna
     mearum and m‚mum:      m‰st hlifade
1900 ofer HrÙg‚res      hord-gestreÛnum.
     He ˛‰m b‚t-wearde      bunden golde
     swurd gesealde,      ˛‰t he syan w‰s
     on meodu-bence      m‚me ˛˝ weorra,
     yrfe-l‚fe.      Gew‚t him on ˝-nacan,
1905 drÍfan deÛp w‰ter,      Dena land ofgeaf.
     fi‚ w‰s be m‰ste      mere-hr‰gla sum,
     segl s‚le f‰st.      Sund-wudu ˛unede,
     nÙ ˛Êr wÍg-flotan      wind ofer ˝um
     sÓes getwÊfde;      sÊ-genga fÙr,
1910 fle·t f‚mig-heals      for ofer ˝e,
     bunden-stefna      ofer brim-stre·mas,
     ˛‰t hie Ge·ta clifu      ongitan meahton,
     c˚e n‰ssas.      CeÛl up ge˛rang,
     lyft-geswenced      on lande stÙd.
1915 Hrae w‰s ‰t holme      h˝-weard gearo,
     se ˛e Êr lange tÓd,      leÛfra manna
     f˚s, ‰t faroe      feor wl‚tode;
     sÊlde tÙ sande      sÓd-f‰me scip
     oncer-bendum f‰st,      ˛˝ l‰s hym ˝a ˛rym
1920 wudu wynsuman      forwrecan meahte.
     HÍt ˛‚ up beran      ‰elinga gestreÛn,
     fr‰twe and f‰t-gold;      n‰s him feor ˛anon
     tÙ gesÍcanne      sinces bryttan:
     Higel‚c HrÍling      ˛Êr ‰t h‚m wuna,
1925 selfa mid gesÓum      sÊ-wealle ne·h;
     bold w‰s betlÓc,      brego-rÙf cyning,
     he· on healle,      Hygd swÓe geong,
     wÓs, wel-˛ungen,      ˛e·h ˛e wintra lyt
     under burh-locan      gebiden h‰bbe
1930 H‰rees dÙhtor:      n‰s hiÛ hn‚h sw‚ ˛e·h,
     ne tÙ gne· gifa      Ge·ta leÛdum,
     m‚m-gestreÛna.      Mod firyo w‰g,
     fremu folces cwÍn,      firen ondrysne:
     nÊnig ˛‰t dorste      deÛr genÍan
1935 swÊsra gesÓa,      nefne sin-fre·,
     ˛‰t hire an d‰ges      e·gum starede;
     ac him w‰l-bende      weotode tealde,
     hand-gewriene:      hrae seoan w‰s
     ‰fter mund-gripe      mÍce ge˛inged,
1940 ˛‰t hit sceaen-mÊl      scyran mÙste,
     cwealm-bealu c˝an.      Ne bi swylc cwÍnlÓc ˛e·w
     idese tÙ efnanne,      ˛e·h ˛e hiÛ ÊnlÓcu s˝,
     ˛‰tte freou-webbe      feores ons‰ce
     ‰fter lÓge-torne      leÛfne mannan.
1945 H˚ru ˛‰t onhÙhsnode      Heminges mÊg;
     ealo drincende      Ùer sÊdan,
     ˛‰t hiÛ leÛd-bealewa      l‰s gefremede,
     inwit-nÓa,      syan Êrest wear
     gyfen gold-hroden      geongum cempan,
1950 ‰elum diÛre,      syan hiÛ Offan flet
     ofer fealone flÙd      be f‰der l‚re
     sÓe gesÙhte,      ˛Êr hiÛ syan wel
     in gum-stÙle,      gÙde mÊre,
     lÓf-gesceafta      lifigende bre·c,
1955 hiÛld he·h-lufan      wi h‰lea brego,
     ealles mon-cynnes      mÓne gefrÊge
     ˛one sÍlestan      bÓ sÊm tweÛnum
     eormen-cynnes;      for˛am Offa w‰s
     geofum and g˚um      g‚r-cÍne man,
1960 wÓde geweorod;      wÓsdÙme heÛld
     Íel sÓnne,      ˛onon EÛmÊr wÙc
     h‰leum tÙ helpe,      Heminges mÊg,
     nefa G‚rmundes,      nÓa cr‰ftig.


     Gew‚t him ˛‚ se hearda      mid his hond-scole
1965 sylf ‰fter sande      sÊ-wong tredan,
     wÓde waroas.      Woruld-candel sc‚n,
     sigel s˚an f˚s:      hÓ sÓ drugon,
     elne geeodon,      tÙ ˛‰s ˛e eorla hleÛ,
     bonan Ongen˛eÛwes      burgum on innan,
1970 geongne g˚-cyning      gÙdne gefrunon
     hringas dÊlan.      Higel‚ce w‰s
     sÓ BeÛwulfes      sn˚de gec˝ed,
     ˛‰t ˛Êr on worig      wÓgendra hleÛ,
     lind-gestealla      lifigende cwom,
1975 heao-l‚ces h‚l      tÙ hofe gongan.
     Hrae w‰s ger˝med,      sw‚ se rÓca bebe·d,
     fÍe-gestum      flet innan-weard.
     Ges‰t ˛‚ wi sylfne,      se ˛‚ s‰cce gen‰s,
     mÊg wi mÊge,      syan man-dryhten
1980 ˛urh hleÛor-cwyde      holdne gegrÍtte
     meaglum wordum.      Meodu-scencum
     hwearf geond ˛‰t reced      H‰rees dÙhtor:
     lufode ˛‚ leÛde,      lÓ-wÊge b‰r
     hÊlum tÙ handa.      Higel‚c ongan
1985 sÓnne geseldan      in sele ˛am he·n
     f‰gre fricgean,      hyne fyrwet br‰c,
     hwylce SÊ-Ge·ta      sÓas wÊron:
     "H˚ lomp eÛw on l‚de,      leÛfa BiÛwulf,
     "˛‚ ˛u fÊringa      feorr gehogodest,
1990 "s‰cce sÍcean      ofer sealt w‰ter,
     "hilde tÙ Hiorote?      Ac ˛u HrÙg‚re
     "wÓd-c˚ne we·n      wihte gebÍttest,
     "mÊrum ˛eÛdne?      Ic ˛‰s mÙd-ceare
     "sorh-wylmum se·,      sÓe ne tr˚wode
1995 "leÛfes mannes;      ic ˛e lange b‰d,
     "˛‰t ˛u ˛one w‰l-gÊst      wihte ne grÍtte,
     "lÍte S˚-Dene      sylfe geweoran
     "g˚e wi Grendel.      Gode ic ˛anc secge,
     "˛‰s ˛e ic ˛e gesundne      geseÛn mÙste."
2000 BiÛwulf maelode,      bearn Ecg˛iÛwes:
     "fi‰t is undyrne,      dryhten Higel‚c,
     "mÊre gemÍting      monegum fira,
     "hwylc orleg-hwÓl      uncer Grendles
     "wear on ˛am wange,      ˛Êr he worna fela
2005 "Sige-Scildingum      sorge gefremede,
     "yrme tÙ aldre;      ic ˛‰t eal gewr‰c,
     "sw‚ ne gylpan ˛earf      Grendeles m‚ga
     "Ênig ofer eoran      uht-hlem ˛one,
     "se ˛e lengest leofa      l‚an cynnes,
2010 "fenne bifongen.      Ic ˛Êr furum cwom,
     "tÙ ˛am hring-sele      HrÙg‚r grÍtan:
     "sÙna me se mÊra      mago Healfdenes,
     "syan he mÙd-sefan      mÓnne c˚e,
     "wi his sylfes sunu      setl getÊhte.
2015 "Weorod w‰s on wynne;      ne seah ic wÓdan feorh
     "under heofenes hwealf      heal-sittendra
     "medu-dre·m m‚ran.      HwÓlum mÊru cwÍn,
     "friu-sibb folca      flet eall geond-hwearf,
     "bÊdde byre geonge;      oft hiÛ be·h-wrian
2020 "secge sealde,      Êr hiÛ tÙ setle geÛng.
     "HwÓlum for dugue      dÙhtor HrÙg‚res
     "eorlum on ende      ealu-wÊge b‰r,
     "˛‚ ic Fre·ware      flet-sittende
     "nemnan h˝rde,      ˛Êr hiÛ n‰gled sinc
2025 "h‰leum sealde:      siÛ geh‚ten w‰s,
     "geong gold-hroden,      gladum suna FrÙdan;
     "hafa ˛‰s geworden      wine Scyldinga
     "rÓces hyrde      and ˛‰t rÊd tala,
     "˛‰t he mid ˛˝ wÓfe      w‰l-fÊha dÊl,
2030 "s‰cca gesette.      Oft nÙ seldan hwÊr
     "‰fter leÛd-hryre      lytle hwÓle
     "bon-g‚r b˚ge,      ˛e·h seÛ br˝d duge!


     "M‰g ˛‰s ˛onne of˛yncan      ˛eÛden Heaobeardna
     "and ˛egna gehw‚m      ˛‚ra leÛda,
2035 "˛onne he mid fÊmnan      on flett gÊ,
     "dryht-bearn Dena      dugua biwenede:
     "on him gladia      gomelra l‚fe
     "heard and hring-mÊl,      Heaobeardna gestreÛn,
     "˛enden hie ˛‚m wÊpnum      wealdan mÙston,
2040 "Ù ˛‰t hie forlÊddan      tÙ ˛am lind-plegan
     "swÊse gesÓas      ond hyra sylfra feorh.
     "fionne cwi ‰t beÛre,      se ˛e be·h gesyh,
     "eald ‰sc-wÓga,      se ˛e eall geman
     "g‚r-cwealm gumena      (him bi grim sefa),
2045 "onginne geÙmor-mÙd      geongne cempan
     "˛urh hrera gehygd      higes cunnian,
     "wÓg-bealu weccean      and ˛‰t word ‚cwy:
     "'Meaht ˛u, mÓn wine,      mÍce gecn‚wan,
     "'˛one ˛in f‰der      tÙ gefeohte b‰r
2050 "'under here-grÓman      hindeman sÓe,
     "'d˝re Óren,      ˛Êr hyne Dene slÙgon,
     "'weÛldon w‰l-stÙwe,      syan wier-gyld l‰g,
     "'‰fter h‰lea hryre,      hwate Scyldungas?
     "'Nu her ˛‚ra banena      byre n‚t-hwylces,
2055 "'fr‰twum hrÍmig      on flet gÊ,
     "'morres gylpe      and ˛one m‚um byre,
     "'˛one ˛e ˛u mid rihte      rÊdan sceoldest!'"
     "Mana sw‚ and myndga      mÊla gehwylce
     "s‚rum wordum,      Ù ˛‰t sÊl cyme,
2060 "˛‰t se fÊmnan ˛egn      fore f‰der dÊdum
     "‰fter billes bite      blÙd-f‚g swefe,
     "ealdres scyldig;      him se Ùer ˛onan
     "losa lifigende,      con him land geare.
     "fionne biÛ brocene      on b‚ healfe
2065 "‚-sweord eorla;      syan Ingelde
     "wealla w‰l-nÓas      and him wÓf-lufan
     "‰fter cear-w‰lmum      cÙlran weora.
     "fi˝ ic Heaobeardna      hyldo ne telge,
     "dryht-sibbe dÊl      Denum unfÊcne,
2070 "freÛnd-scipe f‰stne.      Ic sceal for sprecan
     "gen ymbe Grendel,      ˛‰t ˛u geare cunne,
     "sinces brytta,      tÙ hwan syan wear
     "hond-rÊs h‰lea.      Syan heofones gim
     "gl‚d ofer grundas,      g‰st yrre cwom,
2075 "eatol Êfen-grom,      ˚ser neÛsan,
     "˛Êr we gesunde      s‰l weardodon;
     "˛Êr w‰s HondsciÛ      hild onsÊge,
     "feorh-bealu fÊgum,      he fyrmest l‰g,
     "gyrded cempa;      him Grendel wear,
2080 "mÊrum magu-˛egne      tÙ m˚-bonan,
     "leÛfes mannes      lÓc eall forswealg.
     "NÙ ˛˝ Êr ˚t ˛‚ gen      Ódel-hende
     "bona blÙdig-tÙ      bealewa gemyndig,
     "of ˛am gold-sele      gongan wolde,
2085 "ac he m‰gnes rÙf      mÓn costode,
     "gr‚pode gearo-folm.      GlÙf hangode
     "sÓd and syllÓc      searo-bendum f‰st,
     "siÛ w‰s or˛oncum      eall gegyrwed
     "deÛfles cr‰ftum      and dracan fellum:
2090 "he mec ˛Êr on innan      unsynnigne,
     "diÛr dÊd-fruma,      gedÙn wolde,
     "manigra sumne:      hyt ne mihte sw‚,
     "syan ic on yrre      upp-riht ‚stÙd.
     "TÙ lang ys tÙ reccenne,      h˚ ic ˛am leÛd-sceaan
2095 "yfla gehwylces      ond-le·n forgeald;
     "˛Êr ic, ˛eÛden mÓn,      ˛Óne leÛde
     "weorode weorcum.      He on weg losade,
     "lytle hwÓle      lÓf-wynna bre·c;
     "hw‰re him siÛ swÓre      swae weardade
2100 "hand on Hiorte      and he he·n ˛onan,
     "mÙdes geÙmor      mere-grund gefeÛll.
     "Me ˛one w‰l-rÊs      wine Scildunga
     "f‰ttan golde      fela le·node,
     "manegum m‚mum,      syan mergen com
2105 "and we tÙ symble      geseten h‰fdon.
     "fiÊr w‰s gidd and gleÛ;      gomela Scilding
     "fela fricgende      feorran rehte;
     "hwÓlum hilde-deÛr      hearpan wynne,
     "gomen-wudu grÍtte;      hwÓlum gyd ‚wr‰c
2110 "sÙ and s‚rlÓc;      hwÓlum syllÓc spell
     "rehte ‰fter rihte      r˚m-heort cyning.
     "HwÓlum eft ongan      eldo gebunden,
     "gomel g˚-wÓga      giogue cwÓan
     "hilde-strengo;      hreer inne weÛll,
2115 "˛onne he wintrum frÙd      worn gemunde.
     "Sw‚ we ˛Êr inne      andlangne d‰g
     "niÛde n‚man,      Ù ˛‰t niht becwom
     "Ùer tÙ yldum.      fi‚ w‰s eft hrae
     "gearo gyrn-wr‰ce      Grendeles mÙdor,
2120 "sÓode sorh-full;      sunu de· fornam,
     "wÓg-hete Wedra.      WÓf unh˝re
     "hyre bearn gewr‰c,      beorn ‚cwealde
     "ellenlÓce;      ˛Êr w‰s ƒsc-here,
     "frÙdan fyrn-witan,      feorh ˚genge;
2125 "nÙer hy hine ne mÙston,      syan mergen cwom,
     "de·-wÍrigne      Denia leÛde
     "bronde forb‰rnan,      ne on bÊl hladan
     "leÛfne mannan:      hiÛ ˛‰t lÓc ‰tb‰r
     "feÛndes f‰mum      under firgen-stre·m.
2130 "fi‰t w‰s HrÙg‚re      hreÛwa tornost
     "˛‚ra ˛e leÛd-fruman      lange bege‚te;
     "˛‚ se ˛eÛden mec      ˛Óne lÓfe
     "healsode hreÛh-mÙd,      ˛‰t ic on holma ge˛ring
     "eorl-scipe efnde,      ealdre genÍde,
2135 "mÊro fremede:      he me mÍde gehÍt.
     "Ic ˛‚ ˛‰s w‰lmes,      ˛e is wÓde c˚,
     "grimne gryrelÓcne      grund-hyrde fond.
     "fiÊr unc hwÓle w‰s      hand gemÊne;
     "holm heolfre weÛll      and ic he·fde becearf
2140 "in ˛am grund-sele      Grendeles mÙdor
     "e·cnum ecgum,      unsÙfte ˛onan
     "feorh Ùferede;      n‰s ic fÊge ˛‚ gyt,
     "ac me eorla hleÛ      eft gesealde
     "m‚ma menigeo,      maga Healfdenes.


2145 "Sw‚ se ˛eÛd-kyning      ˛e·wum lyfde;
     "nealles ic ˛‚m le·num      forloren h‰fde,
     "m‰gnes mÍde,      ac he me m‚mas geaf,
     "sunu Healfdenes,      on sÓnne sylfes dÙm;
     "˛‚ ic ˛e, beorn-cyning,      bringan wylle,
2150 "Ístum ge˝wan.      Gen is eall ‰t ˛e
     "lissa gelong:      ic lyt hafo
     "he·fod-m‚ga,      nefne Hygel‚c ˛ec!"
     HÍt ˛‚ in beran      eafor, he·fod-segn,
     heao-ste·pne helm,      h‚re byrnan,
2155 g˚-sweord geatolÓc,      gyd ‰fter wr‰c:
     "Me ˛is hilde-sceorp      HrÙg‚r sealde,
     "snotra fengel,      sume worde hÍt,
     "˛‰t ic his Êrest      ˛e eft ges‰gde,
     "cw‰ ˛‰t hyt h‰fde      Hiorog‚r cyning,
2160 "leÛd Scyldunga      lange hwÓle:
     "nÙ ˛˝ Êr suna sÓnum      syllan wolde,
     "hwatum Heorowearde,      ˛e·h he him hold wÊre,
     "breÛst-gewÊdu.      Br˚c ealles well!"
     H˝rde ic ˛‰t ˛‚m fr‰twum      feÛwer mearas
2165 lungre gelÓce      l‚st weardode,
     ‰ppel-fealuwe;      he him Íst gete·h
     meara and m‚ma.      Sw‚ sceal mÊg dÙn,
     nealles inwit-net      Ùrum bregdan,
     dyrnum cr‰fte      de· rÍnian
2170 hond-gesteallan.      Hygel‚ce w‰s,
     nÓa heardum,      nefa sw˝e hold
     and gehw‰er Ùrum      hrÙra gemyndig.
     H˝rde ic ˛‰t he ˛one heals-be·h      Hygde gesealde,
     wr‰tlÓcne wundur-m‚um,      ˛one ˛e him Wealh˛eÛ geaf,
2175 ˛eÛdnes dÙhtor,      ˛riÛ wicg somod
     swancor and sadol-beorht;      hyre syan w‰s
     ‰fter be·h-˛ege      breÛst geweorod.
     Sw‚ bealdode      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes,
     guma g˚um c˚,      gÙdum dÊdum,
2180 dre·h ‰fter dÙme,      nealles druncne slÙg
     heor-gene·tas;      n‰s him hreÛh sefa,
     ac he man-cynnes      mÊste cr‰fte
     gin-f‰stan gife,      ˛e him god sealde,
     heÛld hilde-deÛr.      He·n w‰s lange,
2185 sw‚ hyne Ge·ta bearn      gÙdne ne tealdon,
     ne hyne on medo-bence      micles wyrne
     drihten wereda      gedÙn wolde;
     sw˝e oft s‰gdon,      ˛‰t he sleac wÊre,
     ‰eling unfrom:      edwenden cwom
2190 tÓr-e·digum menn      torna gehwylces.
     HÍt ˛‚ eorla hleÛ      in gefetian,
     heao-rÙf cyning,      HrÍles l‚fe,
     golde gegyrede;      n‰s mid Ge·tum ˛‚
     sinc-m‚um sÍlra      on sweordes h‚d;
2195 ˛‰t he on BiÛwulfes      bearm ‚legde,
     and him gesealde      seofan ˛˚sendo,
     bold and brego-stÙl.      Him w‰s b‚m samod
     on ˛am leÛd-scipe      lond gecynde,
     eard Íel-riht,      Ùrum swÓor
2200 sÓde rÓce,      ˛am ˛Êr sÍlra w‰s.
     Eft ˛‰t geiode      ufaran dÙgrum
     hilde-hl‰mmum,      syan Hygel‚c l‰g
     and HeardrÍde      hilde-mÍceas
     under bord-hreÛan      tÙ bonan wurdon,
2205 ˛‚ hyne gesÙhtan      on sige-˛eÛde
     hearde hilde-frecan,      Heao-Scilfingas,
     nÓa genÊgdan      nefan HererÓces.
     Syan BeÛwulfe      br‚de rÓce
     on hand gehwearf:      he geheÛld tela
2210 fÓftig wintru      (w‰s ˛‚ frÙd cyning,
     eald Íel-weard),      Ù ˛‰t ‚n ongan
     deorcum nihtum      draca rÓcsian,
     se ˛e on he·re hÊe      hord beweotode,
     st‚n-beorh ste·pne:      stÓg under l‰g,
2215 eldum unc˚.      fiÊr on innan giÛng
     nia n‚t-hwylces      neÛde gefÍng
     hÊnum horde      hond . d . . ge˛ . . hwylc
     since f‚hne,      he ˛‰t syan . . . . .
     . . . ˛ . . . l . ˛ . . l . g
2220 slÊpende be f˝re,      fyrena hyrde
     ˛eÛfes cr‰fte,      ˛‰t sie . . . . io . . . . .
     . idh . folc-beorn,      ˛‰t he gebolgen w‰s.


     Nealles mid geweoldum      wyrm-horda . . . cr‰ft
     sÙhte sylfes willum,      se ˛e him s‚re gesceÙd,
2225 ac for ˛re·-nÍdlan      ˛eÛw n‚t-hwylces
     h‰lea bearna      hete-swengeas fle·h,
     for ofer-˛earfe      and ˛Êr inne fealh
     secg syn-bysig.      SÙna in ˛‚ tÓde
     ˛‰t . . . . . ˛am gyste      . . . . br . g . stÙd,
2230 hw‰re earm-sceapen . . . . . . .
     . .  . . . sceapen o . . . . i r . . e se fÊs begeat,
     sinc-f‰t geseah:      ˛Êr w‰s swylcra fela
     in ˛am eor-scr‰fe      Êr-gestreÛna,
     sw‚ hy on ge‚r-dagum      gumena n‚t-hwylc
2235 eormen-l‚fe      ‰elan cynnes
     ˛anc-hycgende      ˛Êr geh˝dde,
     deÛre m‚mas.      Ealle hie de· fornam
     Êrran mÊlum,      and se ‚n ˛‚ gen
     leÛda dugue,      se ˛Êr lengest hwearf,
2240 weard wine-geÙmor      wÓscte ˛‰s yldan,
     ˛‰t he lytel f‰c      long-gestreÛna
     br˚can mÙste.      Beorh eal gearo
     wunode on wonge      w‰ter-˝um ne·h,
     niwe be n‰sse      nearo-cr‰ftum f‰st:
2245 ˛Êr on innan b‰r      eorl-gestreÛna
     hringa hyrde      hard-fyrdne dÊl
     f‰ttan goldes,      fe· worda cw‰:
     "Heald ˛u nu, hruse,      nu h‰le ne mÙston,
     "eorla Êhte.      Hw‰t! hit Êr on ˛e
2250 "gÙde bege‚ton;      g˚-de· fornam,
     "feorh-bealo frÍcne      fyra gehwylcne,
     "leÛda mÓnra,      ˛‚ra ˛e ˛is lÓf ofgeaf,
     "ges‚won sele-dre·m.      N‚h hw‚ sweord wege
     "oe fetige      f‰ted wÊge,
2255 "drync-f‰t deÛre:      dugu ellor scÙc.
     "Sceal se hearda helm      hyrsted golde
     "f‰tum befeallen:      feormiend swefa,
     "˛‚ ˛e beado-grÓman      b˝wan sceoldon,
     "ge swylce seÛ here-p‚d,      siÛ ‰t hilde geb‚d
2260 "ofer borda gebr‰c      bite Órena,
     "brosna ‰fter beorne.      Ne m‰g byrnan hring
     "‰fter wÓg-fruman      wÓde fÍran
     "h‰leum be healfe;      n‰s hearpan wyn,
     "gomen gleÛ-be·mes,      ne gÙd hafoc
2265 "geond s‰l swinge,      ne se swifta mearh
     "burh-stede be·te.      Bealo-cwealm hafa
     "fela feorh-cynna      feorr onsended!"
     Sw‚ giÙmor-mÙd      gioho mÊnde,
     ‚n ‰fter eallum      unblÓe hweÛp,
2270 d‰ges and nihtes,      Ù ˛‰t de·es wylm
     hr‚n ‰t heortan.      Hord-wynne fond
     eald uht-sceaa      opene standan,
     se ˛e byrnende      biorgas sÍce
     nacod nÓ-draca,      nihtes fleÛge
2275 f˝re befangen;      hyne fold-b˚end
     wÓde ges‚won.      He gewunian sceall
     hl‚w under hrusan,      ˛Êr he hÊen gold
     wara wintrum frÙd;      ne by him wihte ˛Í sÍl.
     Sw‚ se ˛eÛd-sceaa      ˛reÛ hund wintra
2280 heÛld on hrusan      hord-‰rna sum
     e·cen-cr‰ftig,      Ù ˛‰t hyne ‚n ‚bealh
     mon on mÙde:      man-dryhtne b‰r
     f‰ted wÊge,      frioo-wÊre b‰d
     hl‚ford sÓnne.      fi‚ w‰s hord r‚sod,
2285 onboren be·ga hord,      bÍne getÓad
     fe·-sceaftum men.      Fre· sce·wode
     fira fyrn-geweorc      forman sÓe.
     fi‚ se wyrm onwÙc,      wrÙht w‰s geniwad;
     stonc ˛‚ ‰fter st‚ne,      stearc-heort onfand
2290 feÛndes fÙt-l‚st;      he tÙ for gestÙp,
     dyrnan cr‰fte,      dracan he·fde ne·h.
     Sw‚ m‰g unfÊge      e·e gedÓgan
     we·n and wr‰c-sÓ,      se ˛e waldendes
     hyldo gehealde.      Hord-weard sÙhte
2295 georne ‰fter grunde,      wolde guman findan,
     ˛one ˛e him on sweofote      s‚re geteÛde:
     h‚t and hreÛh-mÙd      hlÊw oft ymbe hwearf,
     ealne ˚tan-weardne;      ne ˛Êr Ênig mon
     w‰s on ˛Êre wÍstenne.      Hw‰re hilde gefeh,
2300 beado-weorces:      hwÓlum on beorh ‰thwearf,
     sinc-f‰t sÙhte;      he ˛‰t sÙna onfand,
     ˛‰t h‰fde gumena sum      goldes gefandod
     he·h-gestreÛna.      Hord-weard onb‚d
     earfolÓce,      Ù ˛‰t Êfen cwom;
2305 w‰s ˛‚ gebolgen      beorges hyrde,
     wolde se l‚a      lÓge forgyldan
     drinc-f‰t d˝re.      fi‚ w‰s d‰g sceacen
     wyrme on willan,      nÙ on wealle leng
     bÓdan wolde,      ac mid bÊle fÙr,
2310 f˝re gef˝sed.      W‰s se fruma egeslÓc
     leÛdum on lande,      sw‚ hyt lungre wear
     on hyra sinc-gifan      s‚re geendod.


     fi‚ se g‰st ongan      glÍdum spÓwan,
     beorht hofu b‰rnan;      bryne-leÛma stÙd
2315 eldum on andan;      nÙ ˛Êr ‚ht cwices
     l‚ lyft-floga      lÊfan wolde.
     W‰s ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg      wÓde ges˝ne,
     nearo-f‚ges nÓ      ne·n and feorran,
     h˚ se g˚-sceaa      Ge·ta leÛde
2320 hatode and h˝nde:      hord eft gesce·t,
     dryht-sele dyrnne      Êr d‰ges hwÓle.
     H‰fde land-wara      lÓge befangen,
     bÊle and bronde;      beorges getr˚wode,
     wÓges and wealles:      him seÛ wÍn gele·h.
2325 fi‚ w‰s BiÛwulfe      brÙga gec˝ed
     sn˚de tÙ sÙe,      ˛‰t his sylfes him
     bolda sÍlest      bryne-wylmum mealt,
     gif-stÙl Ge·ta.      fi‰t ˛am gÙdan w‰s
     hreÛw on hrere,      hyge-sorga mÊst:
2330 wÍnde se wÓsa,      ˛‰t he wealdende,
     ofer ealde riht,      Ícean dryhtne
     bitre gebulge:      breÛst innan weÛll
     ˛eÛstrum ge˛oncum,      sw‚ him ge˛˝we ne w‰s.
     H‰fde lÓg-draca      leÛda f‰sten,
2335 e·-lond ˚tan,      eor-weard ˛one
     glÍdum forgrunden.      Him ˛‰s g˚-cyning,
     Wedera ˛iÛden,      wr‰ce leornode.
     HÍht him ˛‚ gewyrcean      wÓgendra hleÛ
     eall-Órenne,      eorla dryhten
2340 wÓg-bord wr‰tlÓc;      wisse he gearwe,
     ˛‰t him holt-wudu      helpan ne meahte,
     lind wi lÓge.      Sceolde lÊn-daga
     ‰eling Êr-gÙd      ende gebÓdan
     worulde lÓfes      and se wyrm somod;
2345 ˛e·h ˛e hord-welan      heÛlde lange.
     Oferhogode ˛‚      hringa fengel,
     ˛‰t he ˛one wÓd-flogan      weorode gesÙhte,
     sÓdan herge;      nÙ he him ˛‚ s‰cce ondrÍd,
     ne him ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg      for wiht dyde,
2350 eafo and ellen;      for˛on he Êr fela
     nearo nÍende      nÓa gedÓgde,
     hilde-hlemma,      syan he HrÙg‚res,
     sigor-e·dig secg,      sele fÊlsode
     and ‰t g˚e forgr‚p      Grendeles mÊgum,
2355 l‚an cynnes.      NÙ ˛‰t l‰sest w‰s
     hond-gemota,      ˛Êr mon Hygel‚c slÙh,
     syan Ge·ta cyning      g˚e rÊsum,
     fre·-wine folces      Freslondum on,
     HrÍles eafora      hioro-dryncum swealt,
2360 bille gebe·ten;      ˛onan BiÛwulf com
     sylfes cr‰fte,      sund-nytte dre·h;
     + h‰fde him on earme      ... XXX
     hilde-geatwa,      ˛‚ he tÙ holme st‚g.
     Nealles Hetware      hrÍmge ˛orfton
2365 fÍe-wÓges,      ˛e him foran onge·n
     linde bÊron:      lyt eft becwom
     fram ˛am hild-frecan      h‚mes niÛsan.
     Oferswam ˛‚ siÛlea bigong      sunu Ecg˛eÛwes,
     earm ‚n-haga      eft tÙ leÛdum,
2370 ˛Êr him Hygd gebe·d      hord and rÓce,
     be·gas and brego-stÙl:      bearne ne tr˚wode,
     ˛‰t he wi ‰l-fylcum      Íel-stÙlas
     healdan c˚e,      ˛‚ w‰s Hygel‚c de·d.
     NÙ ˛˝ Êr fe·-sceafte      findan meahton
2375 ‰t ˛am ‰elinge      Ênige ˛inga,
     ˛‰t he HeardrÍde      hl‚ford wÊre,
     oe ˛one cyne-dÙm      ciÛsan wolde;
     hw‰re he him on folce      freÛnd-l‚rum heÛld,
     Ístum mid ‚re,      Ù ˛‰t he yldra wear,
2380 Weder-Ge·tum weÛld.      Hyne wr‰c-m‰cgas
     ofer sÊ sÙhtan,      suna ‘hteres:
     h‰fdon hy forhealden      helm Scylfinga,
     ˛one sÍlestan      sÊ-cyninga,
     ˛‚ra ˛e in SwiÛ-rÓce      sinc brytnade,
2385 mÊrne ˛eÛden.      Him ˛‰t tÙ mearce wear;
     he ˛Êr orfeorme      feorh-wunde hle·t
     sweordes swengum,      sunu Hygel‚ces;
     and him eft gew‚t      Ongen˛iÛwes bearn
     h‚mes niÛsan,      syan HeardrÍd l‰g;
2390 lÍt ˛one brego-stÙl      BiÛwulf healdan,
     Ge·tum wealdan:      ˛‰t w‰s gÙd cyning.


     Se ˛‰s leÛd-hryres      le·n gemunde
     uferan dÙgrum,      E·dgilse wear
     fe·-sceaftum feÛnd.      Folce gestepte
2395 ofer sÊ sÓde      sunu ‘hteres
     wÓgum and wÊpnum:      he gewr‰c syan
     cealdum cear-sÓum,      cyning ealdre bine·t.
     Sw‚ he nÓa gehwane      genesen h‰fde,
     slÓra geslyhta,      sunu Ecg˛iÛwes,
2400 ellen-weorca,      Ù ˛one ‚nne d‰g,
     ˛e he wi ˛am wyrme      gewegan sceolde.
     Gew‚t ˛‚ twelfa sum      torne gebolgen
     dryhten Ge·ta      dracan sce·wian;
     h‰fde ˛‚ gefrunen,      hwanan siÛ fÊh ‚r‚s,
2405 bealo-nÓ biorna;      him tÙ bearme cwom
     m‚um-f‰t mÊre      ˛urh ˛‰s meldan hond,
     Se w‰s on ˛am ˛re·te      ˛reotteoa secg,
     se ˛‰s orleges      Ùr onstealde,
     h‰ft hyge-giÙmor,      sceolde he·n ˛onon
2410 wong wÓsian:      he ofer willan giÛng
     tÙ ˛‰s ˛e he eor-sele      ‚nne wisse,
     hlÊw under hrusan      holm-wylme nÍh,
     ˝-gewinne,      se w‰s innan full
     wr‰tta and wÓra:      weard unhiÛre,
2415 gearo g˚-freca,      gold-m‚mas heÛld,
     eald under eoran;      n‰s ˛‰t ˝e ce·p,
     tÙ gegangenne      gumena Ênigum.
     Ges‰t ˛‚ on n‰sse      nÓ-heard cyning,
     ˛enden hÊlo ‚be·d      heor-gene·tum
2420 gold-wine Ge·ta:      him w‰s geÙmor sefa,
     w‰fre and w‰l-f˚s,      Wyrd ungemete ne·h,
     se ˛one gomelan      grÍtan sceolde,
     sÍcean s‚wle hord,      sundur gedÊlan
     lÓf wi lÓce:      nÙ ˛on lange w‰s
2425 feorh ‰elinges      flÊsce bewunden.
     BiÛwulf maelade,      bearn Ecg˛eÛwes:
     "Fela ic on giogoe      gu-rÊsa gen‰s,
     "orleg-hwÓla:      ic ˛‰t eall gemon.
     "Ic w‰s syfan-wintre,      ˛‚ mec sinca baldor,
2430 "fre·-wine folca      ‰t mÓnum f‰der genam,
     "heÛld mec and h‰fde      HrÍel cyning,
     "geaf me sinc and symbel,      sibbe gemunde;
     "n‰s ic him tÙ lÓfe      l‚ra Ùwihte
     "beorn in burgum,      ˛onne his bearna hwylc,
2435 "Herebeald and HÊcyn,      oe Hygel‚c mÓn.
     "W‰s ˛am yldestan      ungedÍfelÓce
     "mÊges dÊdum      moror-bed strÍd,
     "syan hyne HÊcyn      of horn-bogan,
     "his fre·-wine      fl‚ne geswencte,
2440 "miste mercelses      and his mÊg ofscÍt,
     "brÙor Ùerne,      blÙdigan g‚re:
     "˛‰t w‰s feoh-le·s gefeoht,      fyrenum gesyngad
     "hrere hyge-mÍe;      sceolde hw‰re sw‚ ˛e·h
     "‰eling unwrecen      ealdres linnan.
2445 "Sw‚ bi geÙmorlÓc      gomelum ceorle
     "tÙ gebÓdanne,      ˛‰t his byre rÓde
     "giong on galgan,      ˛onne he gyd wrece,
     "s‚rigne sang,      ˛onne his sunu hanga
     "hrefne tÙ hrÙre      and he him helpe ne m‰g,
2450 "eald and in-frÙd,      Ênige gefremman.
     "Symble bi gemyndgad      morna gehwylce
     "eaforan ellor-sÓ;      Ùres ne g˝me
     "tÙ gebÓdanne      burgum on innan
     "yrfe-weardes,      ˛onne se ‚n hafa
2455 "˛urh de·es n˝d      dÊda gefondad.
     "Gesyh sorh-cearig      on his suna b˚re
     "wÓn-sele wÍstne,      wind-gereste,
     "reÛte berofene;      rÓdend swefa
     "h‰le in homan;      nis ˛Êr hearpan swÍg,
2460 "gomen in geardum,      swylce ˛Êr i˙ wÊron.


     "GewÓte ˛onne on sealman,      sorh-leÛ g‰le
     "‚n ‰fter ‚num:      ˛˚hte him eall tÙ r˚m,
     "wongas and wÓc-stede.      Sw‚ Wedra helm
     "‰fter Herebealde      heortan sorge
2465 "weallende w‰g,      wihte ne meahte
     "on ˛am feorh-bonan      fÊhe gebÍtan:
     "nÙ ˛˝ Êr he ˛one heao-rinc      hatian ne meahte
     "l‚um dÊdum,      ˛e·h him leÛf ne w‰s.
     "He ˛‚ mid ˛Êre sorge,      ˛e him siÛ s‚r belamp,
2470 "gum-dre·m ofgeaf,      godes leÛht gece·s;
     "eaferum lÊfde,      sw‚ dÍ e·dig mon,
     "lond and leÛd-byrig,      ˛‚ he of lÓfe gew‚t.
     "fi‚ w‰s synn and sacu      Sweona and Ge·ta,
     "ofer wÓd w‰ter      wrÙht gemÊne,
2175 "here-nÓ hearda,      syan HrÍel swealt,
     "oe him Ongen˛eÛwes      eaferan wÊran
     "frome fyrd-hwate,      freÛde ne woldon
     "ofer heafo healdan,      ac ymb Hreosna-beorh
     "eatolne inwit-scear      oft gefremedon.
2480 "fi‰t mÊg-wine      mÓne gewrÊcan,
     "fÊhe and fyrene,      sw‚ hyt gefrÊge w‰s,
     "˛e·h ˛e Ùer hit      ealdre gebohte,
     "heardan ce·pe:      HÊcynne wear,
     "Ge·ta dryhtne,      g˚ onsÊge.
2485 "fi‚ ic on morgne gefr‰gn      mÊg Ùerne
     "billes ecgum      on bonan stÊlan,
     "˛Êr Ongen˛eÛw      Eofores niÛsade:
     "g˚-helm tÙgl‚d,      gomela Scylfing
     "hre·s heoro-bl‚c;      hond gemunde
2490 "fÊho genÙge,      feorh-sweng ne ofte·h.
     "Ic him ˛‚ m‚mas,      ˛e he me sealde,
     "geald ‰t g˚e,      sw‚ me gifee w‰s,
     "leÛhtan sweorde:      he me lond forgeaf,
     "eard Íel-wyn.      N‰s him Ênig ˛earf,
2495 "˛‰t he tÙ Gifum      oe tÙ G‚r-Denum
     "oe in SwiÛ-rÓce      sÍcean ˛urfe
     "wyrsan wÓg-frecan,      weore gec˝pan;
     "symle ic him on fÍan      beforan wolde,
     "‚na on orde,      and sw‚ tÙ aldre sceall
2500 "s‰cce fremman,      ˛enden ˛is sweord ˛ola,
     "˛‰t mec Êr and sÓ      oft gelÊste,
     "syan ic for dugeum      D‰ghrefne wear
     "tÙ hand-bonan,      H˚ga cempan:
     "nalles he ˛‚ fr‰twe      Fres-cyninge,
2505 "breÛst-weorunge      bringan mÙste,
     "ac in campe gecrong      cumbles hyrde,
     "‰eling on elne.      Ne w‰s ecg bona,
     "ac him hilde-gr‚p      heortan wylmas,
     "b‚n-h˚s gebr‰c.      Nu sceall billes ecg,
2510 "hond and heard sweord      ymb hord wÓgan."
     BeÛwulf maelode,      beÛt-wordum spr‰c
     niÈhstan sÓe:      "Ic genÍde fela
     "g˚a on geogoe;      gyt ic wylle,
     "frÙd folces weard,      fÊhe sÍcan,
2515 "mÊrum fremman,      gif mec se m‚n-sceaa
     "of eor-sele      ˚t gesÍce!"
     GegrÍtte ˛‚      gumena gehwylcne,
     hwate helm-berend      hindeman sÓe,
     swÊse gesÓas:      "Nolde ic sweord beran,
2520 "wÊpen tÙ wyrme,      gif ic wiste h˚
     "wi ˛am aglÊcean      elles meahte
     "gylpe wigrÓpan,      sw‚ ic giÛ wi Grendle dyde;
     "ac ic ˛Êr heau-f˝res      h‚tes wÍne,
     "rÍes and-h‚ttres:      for˛on ic me on hafu
2525 "bord and byrnan.      Nelle ic beorges weard
     "oferfleÛn fÙtes trem,      feÛnd unh˝re,
     "ac unc sceal weoran ‰t wealle,      sw‚ unc Wyrd geteÛ,
     "metod manna gehw‰s.      Ic eom on mÙde from,
     "˛‰t ic wi ˛one g˚-flogan      gylp ofersitte.
2530 "GebÓde ge on beorge      byrnum werede,
     "secgas on searwum,      hw‰er sÍl mÊge
     "‰fter w‰l-rÊse      wunde ged˝gan
     "uncer twega.      Nis ˛‰t eÛwer sÓ,
     "ne gemet mannes,      nefne mÓn ‚nes,
2535 "˛‰t he wi aglÊcean      eofoo dÊle,
     "eorl-scype efne.      Ic mid elne sceall
     "gold gegangan      oe g˚ nime,
     "feorh-bealu frÍcne,      fre·n eÛwerne!"
     ¬r‚s ˛‚ bÓ ronde      rÙf oretta,
2540 heard under helm,      hioro-sercean b‰r
     under st‚n-cleofu,      strengo getr˚wode
     ‚nes mannes:      ne bi swylc earges sÓ.
     Geseah ˛‚ be wealle,      se ˛e worna fela,
     gum-cystum gÙd,      g˚a gedÓgde,
2545 hilde-hlemma,      ˛onne hnitan fÍan,
     (stÙd on st‚n-bogan)      stre·m ˚t ˛onan
     brecan of beorge;      w‰s ˛Êre burnan w‰lm
     heao-f˝rum h‚t:      ne meahte horde ne·h
     unbyrnende      Ênige hwÓle
2550 deÛp ged˝gan      for dracan lÍge.
     LÍt ˛‚ of breÛstum,      ˛‚ he gebolgen w‰s,
     Weder-Ge·ta leÛd      word ˚t faran,
     stearc-heort styrmde;      stefn in becom
     heao-torht hlynnan      under h‚rne st‚n.
2555 Hete w‰s onhrÍred,      hord-weard oncniÛw
     mannes reorde;      n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst,
     freÛde tÙ friclan.      From Êrest cwom
     oru aglÊcean      ˚t of st‚ne,
     h‚t hilde-sw‚t;      hruse dynede.
2560 Biorn under beorge      bord-rand onsw‚f
     wi ˛am gryre-gieste,      Ge·ta dryhten:
     ˛‚ w‰s hring-bogan      heorte gef˝sed
     s‰cce tÙ sÍceanne.      Sweord Êr gebr‰d
     gÙd g˚-cyning      gomele l‚fe,
2565 ecgum ungle·w,      Êghw‰rum w‰s
     bealo-hycgendra      brÙga fram Ùrum.
     StÓ-mÙd gestÙd      wi ste·pne rond
     winia bealdor,      ˛‚ se wyrm gebe·h
     sn˚de tÙsomne:      he on searwum b‚d.
2570 Gew‚t ˛‚ byrnende      gebogen scrÓan tÙ,
     gescÓfe scyndan.      Scyld wel gebearg
     lÓfe and lÓce      l‰ssan hwÓle
     mÊrum ˛eÛdne,      ˛onne his myne sÙhte,
     ˛Êr he ˛˝ fyrste      forman dÙgore
2575 wealdan mÙste,      sw‚ him Wyrd ne gescr‚f
     hrÍ ‰t hilde.      Hond up ‚br‰d
     Ge·ta dryhten,      gryre-f‚hne slÙh
     incge l‚fe,      ˛‰t siÛ ecg gew‚c
     br˚n on b‚ne,      b‚t unswÓor,
2580 ˛onne his ˛iÛd-cyning      ˛earfe h‰fde,
     bysigum gebÊded.      fi‚ w‰s beorges weard
     ‰fter heau-swenge      on hreÛum mÙde,
     wearp w‰l-f˝re,      wÓde sprungon
     hilde-leÛman:      hrÍ-sigora ne gealp
2585 gold-wine Ge·ta,      g˚-bill gesw‚c
     nacod ‰t nÓe,      sw‚ hyt nÙ sceolde,
     Óren Êr-gÙd.      Ne w‰s ˛‰t Íe sÓ,
     ˛‰t se mÊra      maga Ecg˛eÛwes
     grund-wong ˛one      ofgyfan wolde;
2590 sceolde wyrmes willan      wÓc eardian
     elles hwergen,      sw‚ sceal Êghwylc mon
     ‚lÊtan lÊn-dagas.      N‰s ˛‚ long tÙ ˛on,
     ˛‰t ˛‚ aglÊcean      hy eft gemÍtton.
     Hyrte hyne hord-weard,      hreer Ême weÛll,
2595 niwan stefne:      nearo ˛rowode
     f˝re befongen      se ˛e Êr folce weÛld.
     Nealles him on he·pe      hand-gesteallan,
     ‰elinga bearn      ymbe gestÙdon
     hilde-cystum,      ac hy on holt bugon,
2600 ealdre burgan.      Hiora in ‚num weÛll
     sefa wi sorgum:      sibb Êfre ne m‰g
     wiht onwendan,      ˛am ˛e wel ˛ence.


     WÓgl‚f w‰s h‚ten      Weoxst‚nes sunu,
     leÛflÓc lind-wiga,      leÛd Scylfinga,
2605 mÊg ƒlfheres:      geseah his mon-dryhten
     under here-grÓman      h‚t ˛rowian.
     Gemunde ˛‚ ˛‚ ‚re,      ˛e he him Êr forgeaf
     wÓc-stede weligne      WÊgmundinga,
     folc-rihta gehwylc,      sw‚ his f‰der ‚hte;
2610 ne mihte ˛‚ forhabban,      hond rond gefÍng,
     geolwe linde,      gomel swyrd gete·h,
     ˛‰t w‰s mid eldum      E·nmundes l‚f,
     suna ‘hteres,      ˛am ‰t s‰cce wear
     wracu wine-le·sum      Weohst‚nes bana
2615 mÍces ecgum,      and his m‚gum ‰tb‰r
     br˚n-f‚gne helm,      hringde byrnan,
     eald sweord eotonisc,      ˛‰t him Onela forgeaf,
     his g‰delinges      g˚-gewÊdu,
     fyrd-searo f˚slÓc:      nÙ ymbe ˛‚ fÊhe spr‰c,
2620 ˛e·h ˛e he his brÙor      bearn ‚bredwade.
     He fr‰twe geheÛld      fela missera,
     bill and byrnan,      Ù ˛‰t his byre mihte
     eorl-scipe efnan,      sw‚ his Êr-f‰der;
     geaf him ˛‚ mid Ge·tum      g˚-gewÊda
2625 Êghw‰s unrÓm;      ˛‚ he of ealdre gew‚t,
     frÙd on for-weg.      fi‚ w‰s forma sÓ
     geongan cempan,      ˛‰t he g˚e rÊs
     mid his freÛ-dryhtne      fremman sceolde;
     ne gemealt him se mÙd-sefa,      ne his mÊges l‚f
2630 gew‚c ‰t wÓge:      ˛‰t se wyrm onfand,
     syan hie tÙg‰dre      geg‚n h‰fdon.
     WÓgl‚f maelode      word-rihta fela,
     s‰gde gesÓum,      him w‰s sefa geÙmor:
     "Ic ˛‰t mÊl geman,      ˛Êr we medu ˛Ígun,
2635 "˛onne we gehÍton      ˚ssum hl‚forde
     "in biÛr-sele,      ˛e ˚s ˛‚s be·gas geaf,
     "˛‰t we him ˛‚ g˚-geatwa      gyldan woldon,
     "gif him ˛yslÓcu      ˛earf gelumpe,
     "helmas and heard sweord:      ˛Í he ˚sic on herge gece·s
2640 "tÙ ˛yssum sÓ-fate      sylfes willum,
     "onmunde ˚sic mÊra      and me ˛‚s m‚mas geaf,
     "˛Í he ˚sic g‚r-wÓgend      gÙde tealde,
     "hwate helm-berend,      ˛e·h ˛e hl‚ford ˚s
     "˛is ellen-weorc      ‚na ‚˛Ùhte
2645 "tÙ gefremmanne,      folces hyrde,
     "for˛am he manna mÊst      mÊra gefremede,
     "dÊda dollÓcra.      Nu is se d‰g cumen,
     "˛‰t ˚re man-dryhten      m‰genes behÙfa
     "gÙdra g˚-rinca:      wutun gangan tÙ,
2650 "helpan hild-fruman,      ˛enden hyt s˝,
     "glÍd-egesa grim!      God w‚t on mec,
     "˛‰t me is micle leÛfre,      ˛‰t mÓnne lÓc-haman
     "mid mÓnne gold-gyfan      glÍd f‰mie.
     "Ne ˛ynce me gerysne,      ˛‰t we rondas beren
2655 "eft tÙ earde,      nemne we Êror mÊgen
     "f‚ne gefyllan,      feorh ealgian
     "Wedra ˛iÛdnes.      Ic w‚t geare,
     "˛‰t nÊron eald-gewyrht,      ˛‰t he ‚na scyle
     "Ge·ta dugue      gnorn ˛rowian,
2660 "gesÓgan ‰t s‰cce:      sceal ˚rum ˛‰t sweord and helm,
     "byrne and byrdu-scr˚d      b‚m gemÊne."
     WÙd ˛‚ ˛urh ˛one w‰l-rÍc,      wÓg-heafolan b‰r
     fre·n on fultum,      fe· worda cw‰:
     "LeÛfa BiÛwulf,      lÊst eall tela,
2665 "sw‚ ˛u on geogu-feore      ge‚ra gecwÊde,
     "˛‰t ˛u ne ‚lÊte      be ˛e lifigendum
     "dÙm gedreÛsan:      scealt nu dÊdum rÙf,
     "‰eling ‚n-hydig,      ealle m‰gene
     "feorh ealgian;      ic ˛e fullÊstu!"
2670 ƒfter ˛‚m wordum      wyrm yrre cwom,
     atol inwit-g‰st      Ùre sÓe,
     f˝r-wylmum f‚h      fiÛnda niÛsan,
     l‚ra manna;      lÓg-˝um forborn
     bord wi ronde:      byrne ne meahte
2675 geongum g‚r-wigan      geÛce gefremman:
     ac se maga geonga      under his mÊges scyld
     elne geeode,      ˛‚ his ‚gen w‰s
     glÍdum forgrunden.      fi‚ gen g˚-cyning
     mÊra gemunde,      m‰gen-strengo,
2680 slÙh hilde-bille,      ˛‰t hyt on heafolan stÙd
     nÓe gen˝ded:      N‰gling forb‰rst,
     gesw‚c ‰t s‰cce      sweord BiÛwulfes
     gomol and grÊg-mÊl.      Him ˛‰t gifee ne w‰s,
     ˛‰t him Órenna      ecge mihton
2685 helpan ‰t hilde;      w‰s siÛ hond tÙ strong,
     se ˛e mÍca gehwane      mÓne gefrÊge
     swenge ofersÙhte,      ˛onne he tÙ s‰cce b‰r
     wÊpen wundrum heard,      n‰s him wihte ˛Í sÍl.
     fi‚ w‰s ˛eÛd-sceaa      ˛riddan sÓe,
2690 frÍcne f˝r-draca      fÊha gemyndig,
     rÊsde on ˛one rÙfan,      ˛‚ him r˚m ‚geald,
     h‚t and heao-grim,      heals ealne ymbefÍng
     biteran b‚num;      he geblÙdegod wear
     s‚wul-driÛre;      sw‚t ˝um weÛll.


2695 fi‚ ic ‰t ˛earfe gefr‰gn      ˛eÛd-cyninges
     and-longne eorl      ellen c˝an,
     cr‰ft and cÍnu,      sw‚ him gecynde w‰s;
     ne hÍdde he ˛‰s heafolan,      ac siÛ hand gebarn
     mÙdiges mannes,      ˛Êr he his mÊges healp,
2700 ˛‰t he ˛one nÓ-g‰st      nioor hwÍne slÙh,
     secg on searwum,      ˛‰t ˛‰t sweord gede·f
     f‚h and f‰ted,      ˛‰t ˛‰t f˝r ongon
     swerian syan.      fi‚ gen sylf cyning
     geweÛld his gewitte,      w‰ll-seaxe gebr‰d,
2705 biter and beadu-scearp,      ˛‰t he on byrnan w‰g:
     forwr‚t Wedra helm       wyrm on middan.
     FeÛnd gefyldan      (ferh ellen wr‰c),
     and hi hyne ˛‚ begen      ‚broten h‰fdon,
     sib-‰elingas:      swylc sceolde secg wesan,
2710 ˛egn ‰t ˛earfe.      fi‰t ˛am ˛eÛdne w‰s
     sÓast sÓge-hwÓle      sylfes dÊdum,
     worlde geweorces.      fi‚ siÛ wund ongon,
     ˛e him se eor-draca      Êr geworhte,
     swÍlan and swellan.      He ˛‰t sÙna onfand,
2715 ˛‰t him on breÛstum      bealo-nÓ weÛll,
     ‚ttor on innan.      fi‚ se ‰eling giÛng,
     ˛‰t he bÓ wealle,      wÓs-hycgende,
     ges‰t on sesse;      seah on enta geweorc,
     h˚ ˛‚ st‚n-bogan      stapulum f‰ste
2720 Íce eor-reced      innan heÛldon.
     Hyne ˛‚ mid handa      heoro-dreÛrigne
     ˛eÛden mÊrne      ˛egn ungemete till,
     wine-dryhten his      w‰tere gelafede,
     hilde-s‰dne      and his helm onspeÛn.
2725 BiÛwulf maelode,      he ofer benne spr‰c,
     wunde w‰l-ble·te      (wisse he gearwe,
     ˛‰t he d‰g-hwÓla      gedrogen h‰fde
     eoran wynne;      ˛‚ w‰s eall sceacen
     dÙgor-gerÓmes,      de· ungemete ne·h):
2730 "Nu ic suna mÓnum      syllan wolde
     "g˚-gewÊdu,      ˛Êr me gifee sw‚
     "Ênig yrfe-weard      ‰fter wurde,
     "lÓce gelenge.      Ic ˛‚s leÛde heÛld
     "fÓftig wintra:      n‰s se folc-cyning
2735 "ymbe-sittendra      Ênig ˛‚ra,
     "˛e mec g˚-winum      grÍtan dorste,
     "egesan ˛eÛn.      Ic on earde b‚d
     "mÊl-gesceafta,      heÛld mÓn tela,
     "ne sÙhte searo-nÓas,      ne me swÙr fela
2740 "‚a on unriht.      Ic ˛‰s ealles m‰g,
     "feorh-bennum seÛc,      gefe·n habban:
     "for˛am me wÓtan ne ˛earf      waldend fira
     "moror-bealo m‚ga,      ˛onne mÓn sceace
     "lÓf of lÓce.      Nu ˛u lungre
2745 "geong, hord sce·wian      under h‚rne st‚n,
     "WÓgl‚f leÛfa,      nu se wyrm lige,
     "swefe s‚re wund,      since bere·fod.
     "BiÛ nu on Ùfoste,      ˛‰t ic Êr-welan,
     "gold-Êht ongite,      gearo sce·wige
2750 "swegle searo-gimmas,      ˛‰t ic ˛˝ sÍft mÊge
     "‰fter m‚um-welan      mÓn ‚lÊtan
     "lÓf and leÛd-scipe,      ˛one ic longe heÛld."


     fi‚ ic sn˚de gefr‰gn      sunu Wihst‚nes
     ‰fter word-cwydum      wundum dryhtne
2755 h˝ran heao-siÛcum,      hring-net beran,
     brogdne beadu-sercean      under beorges hrÙf.
     Geseah ˛‚ sige-hrÍig,      ˛‚ he bÓ sesse geÛng,
     mago-˛egn mÙdig      m‚um-sigla fela,
     gold glitinian      grunde getenge,
2760 wundur on wealle      and ˛‰s wyrmes denn,
     ealdes uht-flogan,      orcas stondan,
     fyrn-manna fatu      feormend-le·se,
     hyrstum behrorene:      ˛Êr w‰s helm monig,
     eald and Ùmig,      earm-be·ga fela,
2765 searwum gesÊled.      Sinc e·e m‰g,
     gold on grunde,      gumena cynnes
     gehwone ofer-higian,      h˝de se ˛e wylle!
     Swylce he siomian geseah      segn eall-gylden
     he·h ofer horde,      hond-wundra mÊst,
2770 gelocen leoo-cr‰ftum:      of ˛am leÛma stÙd,
     ˛‰t he ˛one grund-wong      ongitan meahte,
     wr‰te giond-wlÓtan.      N‰s ˛‰s wyrmes ˛Êr
     ons˝n Ênig,      ac hyne ecg fornam.
     fi‚ ic on hlÊwe      gefr‰gn hord re·fian,
2775 eald enta geweorc      ‚nne mannan,
     him on bearm hladan      bunan and discas
     sylfes dÙme,      segn e·c genom,
     be·cna beorhtost;      bill Êr-gescÙd
     (ecg w‰s Óren)      eald-hl‚fordes
2780 ˛am ˛‚ra m‚ma      mund-bora w‰s
     longe hwÓle,      lÓg-egesan w‰g
     h‚tne for horde,      hioro-weallende,
     middel-nihtum,      Ù ˛‰t he morre swealt.
     ¬r w‰s on Ùfoste      eft-sÓes georn,
2785 fr‰twum gefyrred:      hyne fyrwet br‰c,
     hw‰er collen-fer      cwicne gemÍtte
     in ˛am wong-stede      Wedra ˛eÛden,
     ellen-siÛcne,      ˛Êr he hine Êr forlÍt.
     He ˛‚ mid ˛‚m m‚mum      mÊrne ˛iÛden,
2790 dryhten sÓnne      driÛrigne fand
     ealdres ‰t ende:      he hine eft ongon
     w‰teres weorpan,      Ù ˛‰t wordes ord
     breÛst-hord ˛urhbr‰c.      BeÛwulf maelode,
     gomel on giohe      (gold sce·wode):
2795 "Ic ˛‚ra fr‰twa      fre·n ealles ˛anc
     "wuldur-cyninge      wordum secge,
     "Ícum dryhtne,      ˛e ic her on starie,
     "˛‰s ˛e ic mÙste      mÓnum leÛdum
     "Êr swylt-d‰ge      swylc gestr˝nan.
2800 "Nu ic on m‚ma hord      mÓne bebohte
     "frÙde feorh-lege,      fremma ge nu
     "leÛda ˛earfe;      ne m‰g ic her leng wesan.
     "H‚ta heao-mÊre      hlÊw gewyrcean,
     "beorhtne ‰fter bÊle      ‰t brimes nosan;
2805 "se scel tÙ gemyndum      mÓnum leÛdum
     "he·h hlifian      on Hrones n‰sse,
     "˛‰t hit sÊ-lÓend      syan h‚tan
     "BiÛwulfes biorh,      ˛‚ ˛e brentingas
     "ofer flÙda genipu      feorran drÓfa."
2810 Dyde him of healse      hring gyldenne
     ˛iÛden ˛rÓst-hydig,      ˛egne gesealde,
     geongum g‚r-wigan,      gold-f‚hne helm,
     be·h and byrnan,      hÍt hyne br˚can well:
     "fiu eart ende-l‚f      ˚sses cynnes,
2815 "WÊgmundinga;      ealle Wyrd forsweÛf,
     "mÓne m‚gas      tÙ metod-sceafte,
     "eorlas on elne:      ic him ‰fter sceal."
     fi‰t w‰s ˛am gomelan      gingeste word
     breÛst-gehygdum,      Êr he bÊl cure,
2820 h‚te heao-wylmas:      him of hrere gew‚t
     s‚wol sÍcean      sÙ-f‰stra dÙm.


     fi‚ w‰s gegongen      guman unfrÙdum
     earfolÓce,      ˛‰t he on eoran geseah
     ˛one leÛfestan      lÓfes ‰t ende
2825 ble·te gebÊran.      Bona swylce l‰g,
     egeslÓc eor-draca,      ealdre bere·fod,
     bealwe gebÊded:      be·h-hordum leng
     wyrm woh-bogen      wealdan ne mÙste,
     ac him Órenna      ecga forn‚mon,
2830 hearde heao-scearpe      homera l‚fe,
     ˛‰t se wÓd-floga      wundum stille
     hre·s on hrusan      hord-‰rne ne·h,
     nalles ‰fter lyfte      l‚cende hwearf
     middel-nihtum,      m‚m-Êhta wlonc
2835 ans˝n ˝wde:      ac he eoran gefeÛll
     for ˛‰s hild-fruman      hond-geweorce.
     H˚ru ˛‰t on lande      lyt manna ˛‚h
     m‰gen-‚gendra      mÓne gefrÊge,
     ˛e·h ˛e he dÊda gehw‰s      dyrstig wÊre,
2840 ˛‰t he wi ‚ttor-sceaan      oree gerÊsde,
     oe hring-sele      hondum styrede,
     gif he w‰ccende      weard onfunde
     b˚an on beorge.      BiÛwulfe wear
     dryht-m‚ma dÊl      de·e forgolden;
2845 h‰fde Êghw‰er      ende gefÍred
     lÊnan lÓfes.      N‰s ˛‚ lang tÙ ˛on,
     ˛‰t ˛‚ hild-latan      holt ofgÍfan,
     tydre treÛw-logan      tyne ‰tsomne,
     ˛‚ ne dorston Êr      dareum l‚can
2850 on hyra man-dryhtnes      miclan ˛earfe;
     ac hy scamiende      scyldas bÊran,
     g˚-gewÊdu,      ˛Êr se gomela l‰g:
     wlitan on WÓgl‚f.      He gewÍrgad s‰t,
     fÍe-cempa      fre·n eaxlum ne·h,
2855 wehte hyne w‰tre;      him wiht ne speÛw;
     ne meahte he on eoran,      ˛e·h he ˚e wel,
     on ˛am frum-g‚re      feorh gehealdan,
     ne ˛‰s wealdendes willan      wiht oncirran;
     wolde dÙm godes      dÊdum rÊdan
2860 gumena gehwylcum,      sw‚ he nu gen dÍ.
     fi‚ w‰s ‰t ˛am geongan      grim andswaru
     Í-begÍte ˛‚m ˛e Êr      his elne forle·s.
     WÓgl‚f maelode,      Weohst‚nes sunu,
     secg s‚rig-fer      seah on unleÛfe:
2865 "fi‰t l‚ m‰g secgan,      se ˛e wyle sÙ sprecan,
     "˛‰t se mon-dryhten,      se eÛw ˛‚ m‚mas geaf,
     "eÛred-geatwe,      ˛e ge ˛Êr on standa,
     "˛onne he on ealu-bence      oft gesealde
     "heal-sittendum      helm and byrnan,
2870 "˛eÛden his ˛egnum,      swylce he ˛rylÓcost
     "ÙhwÊr feor oe ne·h      findan meahte,
     "˛‰t he genunga      g˚-gewÊdu
     "wr‚e forwurpe.      fi‚ hyne wÓg beget,
     "nealles folc-cyning      fyrd-gesteallum
2875 "gylpan ˛orfte;      hw‰re him god ˚e,
     "sigora waldend,      ˛‰t he hyne sylfne gewr‰c
     "‚na mid ecge,      ˛‚ him w‰s elnes ˛earf,
     "Ic him lÓf-wrae      lytle meahte
     "‰tgifan ‰t g˚e      and ongan sw‚ ˛e·h
2880 "ofer mÓn gemet      mÊges helpan:
     "symle w‰s ˛˝ sÊmra,      ˛onne ic sweorde drep
     "ferh-genÓlan,      f˝r unswÓor
     "weÛll of gewitte.      Wergendra tÙ lyt
     "˛rong ymbe ˛eÛden,      ˛‚ hyne siÛ ˛rag becwom.
2885 "Nu sceal sinc-˛ego      and swyrd-gifu
     "eall Íel-wyn      eÛwrum cynne,
     "lufen ‚licgean:      lond-rihtes mÙt
     "˛Êre mÊg-burge      monna Êghwylc
     "Ódel hweorfan,      syan ‰elingas
2890 "feorran gefricgean      fle·m eÛwerne,
     "dÙm-le·san dÊd.      De· bi sÍlla
     "eorla gehwylcum      ˛onne edwÓt-lÓf!"


     HÍht ˛‚ ˛‰t heao-weorc      tÙ hagan biÛdan
     up ofer Íg-clif,      ˛Êr ˛‰t eorl-weorod
2895 morgen-longne d‰g      mÙd-giÙmor s‰t,
     bord-h‰bbende,      bega on wÍnum
     ende-dÙgores      and eft-cymes
     leÛfes monnes.      Lyt swÓgode
     niwra spella,      se ˛e n‰s ger‚d,
2900 ac he sÙlÓce      s‰gde ofer ealle;
     "Nu is wil-geofa      Wedra leÛda,
     "dryhten Ge·ta      de·-bedde f‰st,
     "wuna w‰l-reste      wyrmes dÊdum;
     "him on efn lige      ealdor-gewinna,
2905 "siex-bennum seÛc:      sweorde ne meahte
     "on ˛am aglÊcean      Ênige ˛inga
     "wunde gewyrcean.      WÓgl‚f site
     "ofer BiÛwulfe,      byre Wihst‚nes,
     "eorl ofer Ùrum      unlifigendum,
2910 "healde hige-mÍum      he·fod-wearde
     "leÛfes and l‚es.      Nu ys leÛdum wÍn
     "orleg-hwÓle,      syan underne
     "Froncum and Frysum      fyll cyninges
     "wÓde weore.      W‰s siÛ wrÙht scepen
2915 "heard wi H˚gas,      syan Higel‚c cwom
     "faran flot-herge      on Fresna land,
     "˛Êr hyne Hetware      hilde gehnÊgdon,
     "elne geeodon      mid ofer-m‰gene,
     "˛‰t se byrn-wÓga      b˚gan sceolde,
2920 "feÛll on fÍan:      nalles fr‰twe geaf
     "ealdor dugoe;      ˚s w‰s ‚ syan
     "Merewioinga      milts ungyfee.
     "Ne ic tÙ SweÛ-˛eÛde      sibbe oe treÛwe
     "wihte ne wÍne;      ac w‰s wÓde c˚,
2925 "˛‰tte Ongen˛iÛ      ealdre besnyede
     "HÊcyn HrÍling      wi Hrefna-wudu,
     "˛‚ for on-mÍdlan      Êrest gesÙhton
     "Ge·ta leÛde      G˚-scilfingas.
     "SÙna him se frÙda      f‰der ‘htheres,
2930 "eald and eges-full      ond-slyht ‚geaf,
     "‚breÛt brim-wÓsan,      br˝d ‚heÛrde,
     "gomela iÛ-meowlan      golde berofene,
     "Onelan mÙdor      and ‘htheres,
     "and ˛‚ folgode      feorh-genÓlan
2935 "Ù ˛‰t hÓ Ùeodon      earfolÓce
     "in Hrefnes-holt      hl‚ford-le·se.
     "Bes‰t ˛‚ sin-herge      sweorda l‚fe
     "wundum wÍrge,      we·n oft gehÍt
     "earmre teohhe      andlonge niht:
2940 "cw‰ he on mergenne      mÍces ecgum
     "getan wolde,      sume on galg-treÛwum
     "fuglum tÙ gamene.      FrÙfor eft gelamp
     "s‚rig-mÙdum      somod Êr-d‰ge,
     "syan hie Hygel‚ces      horn and b˝man
2945 "gealdor onge‚ton.      fi‚ se gÙda com
     "leÛda dugoe      on l‚st faran.


     "W‰s siÛ sw‚t-swau      Sweona and Ge·ta,
     "w‰l-rÊs wera      wÓde ges˝ne,
     "h˚ ˛‚ folc mid him      fÊhe tÙwehton.
2950 "Gew‚t him ˛‚ se gÙda      mid his g‰delingum,
     "frÙd fela geÙmor      f‰sten sÍcean,
     "eorl Ongen˛iÛ      ufor oncirde;
     "h‰fde Higel‚ces      hilde gefrunen,
     "wlonces wÓg-cr‰ft,      wires ne tr˚wode,
2955 "˛‰t he sÊ-mannum      onsacan mihte,
     "he·o-lÓendum      hord forstandan,
     "bearn and br˝de;      be·h eft ˛onan
     "eald under eor-weall.      fi‚ w‰s Êht boden
     "Sweona leÛdum,      segn Higel‚ce.
2960 "Freoo-wong ˛one      for ofereodon,
     "syan HrÍlingas      tÙ hagan ˛rungon.
     "fiÊr wear Ongen˛iÛ      ecgum sweorda,
     "blonden-fexa      on bÓd wrecen,
     "˛‰t se ˛eÛd-cyning      ˛afian sceolde
2965 "Eofores ‚nne dÙm:      hyne yrringa
     "Wulf WonrÍding      wÊpne gerÊhte,
     "˛‰t him for swenge      sw‚t Êdrum sprong
     "for under fexe.      N‰s he forht sw‚ ˛Íh,
     "gomela Scilfing,      ac forgeald hrae
2970 "wyrsan wrixle      w‰l-hlem ˛one,
     "syan ˛eÛd-cyning      ˛yder oncirde:
     "ne meahte se snella      sunu WonrÍdes
     "ealdum ceorle      ond-slyht giofan,
     "ac he him on he·fde      helm Êr gescer,
2975 "˛‰t he blÙde f‚h      b˚gan sceolde,
     "feÛll on foldan;      n‰s he fÊge ˛‚ git,
     "ac he hyne gewyrpte,      ˛e·h ˛e him wund hrÓne,
     "LÍt se hearda      Higel‚ces ˛egn
     "br‚dne mÍce,      ˛‚ his brÙor l‰g,
2980 "eald sweord eotonisc,      entiscne helm,
     "brecan ofer bord-weal:      ˛‚ gebe·h cyning,
     "folces hyrde,      w‰s in feorh dropen.
     "fi‚ wÊron monige,      ˛e his mÊg wrion,
     "ricone ‚rÊrdon,      ˛‚ him ger˝med wear,
2985 "˛‰t hie w‰l-stÙwe      wealdan mÙston.
     "fienden re·fode      rinc Ùerne,
     "nam on Ongen˛iÛ      Óren-byrnan,
     "heard swyrd hilted      and his helm somod;
     "h‚res hyrste      Higel‚ce b‰r.
2990 "He ˛‚m fr‰twum fÍng      and him f‰gre gehÍt
     "le·na fore leÛdum      and gelÊste sw‚:
     "geald ˛one g˚-rÊs      Ge·ta dryhten,
     "HrÍles eafora,      ˛‚ he tÙ h‚m becom,
     "Jofore and Wulfe      mid ofer-m‚mum,
2995 "sealde hiora gehw‰rum      hund ˛˚senda
     "landes and locenra be·ga;      ne ˛orfte him ˛‚ le·n ÙwÓtan
     "mon on middan-gearde,      syan hie ˛‚ mÊra geslÙgon;
     "and ˛‚ Jofore forgeaf      ‚ngan dÙhtor,
     "h‚m-weorunge,      hyldo tÙ wedde.
3000 "fi‰t ys siÛ fÊho      and se feÛnd-scipe,
     "w‰l-nÓ wera,      ˛‰s ˛e ic wÍn hafo,
     "˛e ˚s sÍcea tÙ      Sweona leÛde,
     "syan hie gefricgea      fre·n ˚serne
     "ealdor-le·sne,      ˛one ˛e Êr geheÛld
3005 "wi hettendum      hord and rÓce,
     "‰fter h‰lea hryre      hwate Scylfingas,
     "folc-rÊd fremede      oe furur gen
     "eorl-scipe efnde.      Nu is Ùfost betost,
     "˛‰t we ˛eÛd-cyning      ˛Êr sce·wian
3010 "and ˛one gebringan,      ˛e ˚s be·gas geaf,
     "on ‚d-f‰re.      Ne scel ‚nes hw‰t
     "meltan mid ˛am mÙdigan,      ac ˛Êr is m‚ma hord.
     "gold unrÓme      grimme gece·pod
     "and nu ‰t sÓestan      sylfes feore
3015 "be·gas gebohte;      ˛‚ sceal brond fretan,
     "‰led ˛eccean,      nalles eorl wegan
     "m‚um tÙ gemyndum,      ne m‰g sc˝ne
     "habban on healse      hring-weorunge,
     "ac sceall geÙmor-mÙd      golde bere·fod
3020 "oft nalles Êne      el-land tredan,
     "nu se here-wÓsa      hleahtor ‚legde,
     "gamen and gleÛ-dre·m.      For˛on sceall g‚r wesan
     "monig morgen-ceald      mundum bewunden,
     "h‰fen on handa,      nalles hearpan swÍg
3025 "wÓgend weccean,      ac se wonna hrefn
     "f˚s ofer fÊgum,      fela reordian,
     "earne secgan,      h˚ him ‰t Ête speÛw,
     "˛enden he wi wulf      w‰l re·fode."
     Sw‚ se secg hwata      secgende w‰s
3030 l‚ra spella;      he ne le·g fela
     wyrda ne worda.      Weorod eall ‚r‚s,
     eodon unblÓe      under Earna n‰s
     wollen-te·re      wundur sce·wian.
     Fundon ˛‚ on sande      s‚wul-le·sne
3035 hlim-bed healdan,      ˛one ˛e him hringas geaf
     Êrran mÊlum:      ˛‚ w‰s ende-d‰g
     gÙdum gegongen,      ˛‰t se g˚-cyning,
     Wedra ˛eÛden,      wundor-de·e swealt.
     ∆r hÓ gesÍgan      syllÓcran wiht,
3040 wyrm on wonge      wier-r‰htes ˛Êr
     l‚ne licgean:      w‰s se lÍg-draca,
     grimlÓc gryre-g‰st,      glÍdum beswÊled,
     se w‰s fÓftiges      fÙt-gemearces.
     lang on legere,      lyft-wynne heÛld
3045 nihtes hwÓlum,      nyer eft gew‚t
     dennes niÛsian;      w‰s ˛‚ de·e f‰st,
     h‰fde eor-scrafa      ende genyttod.
     Him big stÙdan      bunan and orcas,
     discas l‚gon      and d˝re swyrd,
3050 Ùmige ˛urh-etone,      sw‚ hie wi eoran f‰m
     ˛˚send wintra      ˛Êr eardodon:
     ˛onne w‰s ˛‰t yrfe      e·cen-cr‰ftig,
     i˙-monna gold      galdre bewunden,
     ˛‰t ˛am hring-sele      hrÓnan ne mÙste
3055 gumena Ênig,      nefne god sylfa,
     sigora sÙ-cyning,      sealde ˛am ˛e he wolde
     (he is manna gehyld)      hord openian,
     efne sw‚ hwylcum manna,      sw‚ him gemet ˛˚hte.


     fi‚ w‰s ges˝ne,      ˛‰t se sÓ ne ˛‚h
3060 ˛am ˛e unrihte      inne geh˝dde
     wr‰te under wealle.      Weard Êr ofslÙh
     fe·ra sumne;      ˛‚ siÛ fÊh gewear
     gewrecen wr‚lÓce.      Wundur hw‚r, ˛onne
     eorl ellen-rÙf      ende gefÍre
3065 lÓf-gesceafta,      ˛onne leng ne m‰g
     mon mid his m‚gum      medu-seld b˚an.
     Sw‚ w‰s BiÛwulfe,      ˛‚ he biorges weard
     sÙhte, searo-nÓas:      seolfa ne c˚e,
     ˛urh hw‰t his worulde ged‚l      weoran sceolde;
3070 sw‚ hit Ù dÙmes d‰g      diÛpe benemdon
     ˛eÛdnas mÊre,      ˛‚ ˛‰t ˛Êr dydon,
     ˛‰t se secg wÊre      synnum scildig,
     hergum geheaerod,      hell-bendum f‰st,
     wommum gewitnad,      se ˛one wong str‚de.
3075 N‰s he gold-hw‰t:      gearwor h‰fde
     ‚gendes Íst      Êr gesce·wod.
     WÓgl‚f maelode,      Wihst‚nes sunu:
     "Oft sceall eorl monig      ‚nes willan
     "wrÊc ‚dreÛgan,      sw‚ ˚s geworden is.
3080 "Ne meahton we gelÊran      leÛfne ˛eÛden,
     "rÓces hyrde      rÊd Ênigne,
     "˛‰t he ne grÍtte      gold-weard ˛one,
     "lÍte hyne licgean,      ˛Êr he longe w‰s,
     "wÓcum wunian      Ù woruld-ende.
3085 "HeÛldon he·h gesceap:      hord ys gesce·wod,
     "grimme gegongen;      w‰s ˛‰t gifee tÙ swÓ,
     "˛e ˛one ˛eÛden      ˛yder ontyhte.
     "Ic w‰s ˛Êr inne      and ˛‰t eall geond-seh,
     "recedes geatwa,      ˛‚ me ger˝med w‰s,
3090 "nealles swÊslÓce      sÓ ‚l˝fed
     "inn under eor-weall.      Ic on Ùfoste gefÍng
     "micle mid mundum      m‰gen-byrenne
     "hord-gestreÛna,      hider ˚t ‰tb‰r
     "cyninge mÓnum:      cwico w‰s ˛‚ gena,
3095 "wÓs and gewittig;      worn eall gespr‰c
     "gomol on geho      and eÛwic grÍtan hÍt,
     "b‰d ˛‰t ge geworhton      ‰fter wines dÊdum
     "in bÊl-stede      beorh ˛one he·n
     "micelne and mÊrne,      sw‚ he manna w‰s
3100 "wÓgend weor-fullost      wÓde geond eoran,
     "˛enden he burh-welan      br˚can mÙste.
     "Uton nu Ífstan      Ùre sÓe
     "seÛn and sÍcean      searo-ge˛r‰c,
     "wundur under wealle!      ic eÛw wÓsige,
3105 "˛‰t ge genÙge      ne·n sce·wia
     "be·gas and br‚d gold.      SÓe siÛ bÊr gearo
     "‰dre ge‰fned,      ˛onne we ˚t cymen,
     "and ˛onne geferian      fre·n ˚serne,
     "leÛfne mannan,      ˛Êr he longe sceal
3110 "on ˛‰s waldendes      wÊre ge˛olian."
     HÍt ˛‚ gebeÛdan      byre Wihst‚nes,
     h‰le hilde-diÛr,      h‰lea monegum
     bold-‚gendra,      ˛‰t hie bÊl-wudu
     feorran feredon,      folc-‚gende
3115 gÙdum tÙgÍnes:      "Nu sceal glÍd fretan
     "(weaxan wonna lÍg)      wÓgena strengel,
     "˛one ˛e oft geb‚d      Ósern-sc˚re,
     "˛onne strÊla storm,      strengum gebÊded,
     "scÙc ofer scild-weall,      sceft nytte heÛld,
3120 "feer-gearwum f˚s      fl‚ne full-eode."
     H˚ru se snotra      sunu Wihst‚nes
     ‚cÓgde of corre      cyninges ˛egnas
     syfone tÙsomne      ˛‚ sÍlestan,
     eode eahta sum      under inwit-hrÙf;
3125 hilde-rinc sum      on handa b‰r
     ‰led-leÛman,      se ˛e on orde geÛng.
     N‰s ˛‚ on hlytme,      hw‚ ˛‰t hord strude,
     syan or-wearde      Ênigne dÊl
     secgas gesÍgon      on sele wunian,
3130 lÊne licgan:      lyt Ênig mearn,
     ˛‰t hi Ùfostlice      ˚t geferedon
     d˝re m‚mas;      dracan Íc scufun,
     wyrm ofer weall-clif,      lÍton wÊg niman,
     flÙd f‰mian      fr‰twa hyrde.
3135 fiÊr w‰s wunden gold      on wÊn hladen,
     Êghw‰s unrÓm,      ‰eling boren,
     h‚r hilde-rinc      tÙ Hrones n‰sse.


     Him ˛‚ gegiredan      Ge·ta leÛde
     ‚d on eoran      un-w‚clÓcne,
3140 helmum behongen,      hilde-bordum,
     beorhtum byrnum,      sw‚ he bÍna w‰s;
     ‚legdon ˛‚ tÙ-middes      mÊrne ˛eÛden
     h‰le hiÛfende,      hl‚ford leÛfne.
     Ongunnon ˛‚ on beorge      bÊl-f˝ra mÊst
3145 wÓgend weccan:      wudu-rÍc ‚st‚h
     sweart ofer swioole,      swÙgende lÍg,
     wÙpe bewunden      (wind-blond gel‰g)
     Ù ˛‰t he ˛‚ b‚n-h˚s      gebrocen h‰fde,
     h‚t on hrere.      Higum unrÙte
3150 mÙd-ceare mÊndon      mon-dryhtnes cwealm;
     swylce giÙmor-gyd      + lat . con meowle
     . . . . .      wunden heorde . . .
     serg (?) cearig sÊlde      geneahhe
     ˛‰t hio hyre . . . . gas hearde
3155 . . . . . ede      w‰lfylla wonn . .
     hildes egesan      hyo
     haf mid      heofon rÍce swealh (?)
     Geworhton ˛‚      Wedra leÛde
     hlÊw on hlie,      se w‰s he·h and br‚d,
3160 wÊg-lÓendum      wÓde ges˝ne,
     and betimbredon      on tyn dagum
     beadu-rÙfes bÍcn:      bronda betost
     wealle beworhton,      sw‚ hyt weorlÓcost
     fore-snotre men      findan mihton.
3165 HÓ on beorg dydon      bÍg and siglu,
     eall swylce hyrsta,      swylce on horde Êr
     nÓ-hydige men      genumen h‰fdon;
     forlÍton eorla gestreÛn      eoran healdan,
     gold on greÛte,      ˛Êr hit nu gen lifa
3170 eldum sw‚ unnyt,      sw‚ hit Êror w‰s.
     fi‚ ymbe hlÊw riodan      hilde-deÛre,
     ‰elinga bearn      ealra twelfa,
     woldon ceare cwÓan,      kyning mÊnan,
     word-gyd wrecan      and ymb wer sprecan,
3175 eahtodan eorl-scipe      and his ellen-weorc
     duguum dÍmdon,      sw‚ hit ge-dÍfe bi,
     ˛‰t mon his wine-dryhten      wordum hÍrge,
     ferhum freÛge,      ˛onne he for scile
     of lÓc-haman      lÊne weoran.
3180 Sw‚ begnornodon      Ge·ta leÛde
     hl‚fordes hryre,      heor-gene·tas,
     cwÊdon ˛‰t he wÊre      woruld-cyning
     mannum mildust      and mon-˛wÊrust,
     leÛdum lÓost      and lof-geornost.


THE ATTACK IN FINNSBURG. [Footnote: See v. 1069 _seqq._]

     ". . . . . . . . . . . n‰s byrna nÊfre."
     Hleorode ˛‚      heao-geong cyning:
     "Ne ˛is ne daga e·stan,      ne her draca ne fleÛge,
     "ne her ˛isse healle      hornas ne byrna,
5    "ac fÍr for bera      fugelas singa,
     "gylle grÊg-hama,      g˚-wudu hlynne,
     "scyld scefte oncwy.      Nu sc˝ne ˛es mÙna
     "waol under wolcnum;      nu ‚rÓsa we·-dÊda,
     "˛e ˛isne folces nÓ      fremman willa.
10   "Ac onwacnigea nu,      wÓgend mÓne,
     "hebba eÛwre handa,      hicgea on ellen,
     "winna on orde,      wesa on mÙde!"
     fi‚ ‚r‚s monig gold-hladen ˛egn,      gyrde hine his swurde;
     ˛‚ tÙ dura eodon      drihtlÓce cempan,
15   Sigefer and Eaha,      hyra sweord getugon,
     and ‰t Ùrum durum      Ordl‚f and G˚l‚f,
     and Hengest sylf;      hwearf him on l‚ste.
     fi‚ git G‚rulf      G˚ere styrode,
     ˛‰t hie sw‚ freÛlÓc feorh      forman sÓe
20   tÙ ˛Êre healle durum      hyrsta ne bÊran,
     nu hyt nÓa heard      ‚nyman wolde:
     ac he fr‰gn ofer eal      undearninga,
     deÛr-mÙd h‰le,      hw‚ ˛‚ duru heÛlde.
     "Sigefer is mÓn nama (cw‰ he),      ic eom Secgena leÛd,
25   "wrecca wÓde c˚.      Fela ic we·na geb‚d,
     "heardra hilda;      ˛e is gyt her witod,
     "sw‰er ˛u sylf tÙ me      sÍcean wylle."
     fi‚ w‰s on wealle      w‰l-slihta gehlyn,
     sceolde cÍlod bord      cÍnum on handa
30   b‚n-helm berstan.      Buruh-˛elu dynede,
     Ù ˛‰t ‰t ˛Êre g˚e      G‚rulf gecrang,
     ealra Êrest      eor-b˚endra,
     G˚l‚fes sunu;      ymbe hine gÙdra fela.
     Hwearf flacra hrÊw      hr‰fn, wandrode
35   sweart and sealo-br˚n;      swurd-leÛma stÙd
     swylce eal Finns-buruh      f˝renu wÊre.
     Ne gefr‰gn ic nÊfre wurlÓcor      ‰t wera hilde
     sixtig sige-beorna      sÍl gebÊran,
     ne nÊfre sw‚nas swÍtne      medo sÍl forgyldan,
40   ˛onne Hn‰fe guldon      his h‰g-stealdas.
     Hig fuhton fÓf dagas,      sw‚ hyra n‚n ne feÛl
     driht-gesÓa,      ac hig ˛‚ duru heÛldon.
     fi‚ gew‚t him wund h‰le      on w‰g gangan,
     sÊde ˛‰t his byrne      ‚brocen wÊre,
45   here-sceorpum hrÙr,      and e·c w‰s his helm ˛yrl.
     fi‚ hine sÙna fr‰gn      folces hyrde,
     h˚ ˛‚ wÓgend      hyra wunda genÊson
     oe hw‰er ˛Êra hyssa . . . . . . .



m.: masculine.
f.: feminine.
n.: neuter.
nom., gen.: nominative, genitive, etc.
w.: weak.
w. v.: weak verb.
st.: strong.
st. v.: strong verb.
I., II., III.: first, second, third person.
comp.: compound.
imper.: imperative.
w.: with.
instr.: instrumental.
G. and Goth.: Gothic.
O.N.: Old Norse.
O.S.: Old Saxon.
O.H.G.: Old High German.
M.H.G.: Middle High German.

The vowel ‰ = _a_ in _glad_      }
The diphthong Ê = _a_ in _hair_  } approximately.

The names Leo, Bugge, Rieger, etc., refer to authors of emendations.

Words beginning with ge- will be found under their root-word.

Obvious abbreviations, like subj., etc., are not included in this list.


Abel, Cain's brother, 108.

ƒlf-here (gen. ƒlf-heres, 2605), a kinsman of WÓgl‚f's, 2605.

ƒsc-here, confidential adviser of King HrÙg‚r (1326), older brother of
Yrmenl‚f (1325), killed by Grendel's mother, 1295, 1324, 2123.

B‚n-st‚n, father of Breca, 524.

BeÛ-wulf, son of Scyld, king of the Danes, 18, 19. After the death of his
father, he succeeds to the throne of the Scyldings, 53. His son is
Healfdene, 57.

BeÛ-wulf (BiÛwulf, 1988, 2390; gen. BeÛwulfes, 857, etc., BiÛwulfes, 2195,
2808, etc.; dat. BeÛwulfe, 610, etc., BiÛwulfe, 2325, 2843), of the race of
the Ge·tas. His father is the WÊgmunding Ecg˛eÛw (263, etc.); his mother a
daughter of HrÍel, king of the Ge·tas (374), at whose court he is brought
up after his seventh year with HrÍel's sons, Herebeald, HÊcyn, and
Hygel‚c, 2429 ff. In his youth lazy and unapt (2184 f., 2188 f.); as man he
attains in the gripe of his hand the strength of thirty men, 379. Hence his
victories in his combats with bare hands (711 ff., 2502 ff.), while fate
denies him the victory in the battle with swords, 2683 f. His
swimming-match with Breca in his youth, 506 ff. Goes with fourteen Ge·tas
to the assistance of the Danish king, HrÙg‚r, against Grendel, 198 ff. His
combat with Grendel, and his victory, 711 ff., 819 ff. He is, in
consequence, presented with rich gifts by HrÙg‚r, 1021 ff. His combat with
Grendel's mother, 1442 ff. Having again received gifts, he leaves HrÙg‚r
(1818-1888), and returns to Hygel‚c, 1964 ff.--After Hygel‚c's last battle
and death, he flees alone across the sea, 2360 f. In this battle he crushes
D‰ghrefn, one of the H˚gas, to death, 2502 f. He rejects at the same time
Hygel‚c's kingdom and the hand of his widow (2370 ff.), but carries on the
government as guardian of the young HeardrÍd, son of Hygel‚c, 2378 ff.
After HeardrÍd's death, the kingdom falls to BeÛwulf, 2208,
2390.--Afterwards, on an expedition to avenge the murdered HeardrÍd, he
kills the Scylfing, E·dgils (2397), and probably conquers his country.
--His fight with the drake, 2539 ff. His death, 2818. His burial, 3135 ff.

Breca (acc. Brecan, 506, 531), son of Be·nst‚n, 524. Chief of the
Brondings, 521. His swimming-match with BeÛwulf, 506 ff.

Brondingas (gen. Brondinga, 521), Breca, their chief, 521.

Brosinga mene, corrupted from, or according to M¸llenhoff, written by
mistake for, Breosinga mene (O.N., Brisinga men, cf. Haupts Zeitschr. XII.
304), collar, which the Brisingas once possessed.

Cain (gen. Caines, 107): descended from him are Grendel and his kin, 107,
1262 ff.

D‰g-hrefn (dat. D‰ghrefne, 2502), a warrior of the H˚gas, who, according to
2504-5, compared with 1203, and with 1208, seems to have been the slayer of
King Hygel‚c, in his battle against the allied Franks, Frisians, and H˚gas.
Is crushed to death by BeÛwulf in a hand-to-hand combat, 2502 ff.

Dene (gen. Dena, 242, etc., Denia, 2126, Deniga, 271, etc.; dat. Denum,
768, etc.), as subjects of Scyld and his descendants, they are also called
Scyldings; and after the first king of the East Danes, Ing (Runenlied, 22),
Ing-wine, 1045, 1320. They are also once called HrÍmen, 445. On account of
their renowned warlike character, they bore the names G‚r-Dene, 1, 1857,
Hring-Dene (Armor-Danes), 116, 1280, Beorht-Dene, 427, 610. The great
extent of this people is indicated by their names from the four quarters of
the heavens: E·st-Dene, 392, 617, etc., West-Dene, 383, 1579, S˚-Dene,
463, Nor-Dene, 784.--Their dwelling-place "in Scedelandum," 19, "on
Scedenigge," 1687, "be sÊm tweÛnum," 1686.

Ecg-l‚f (gen. Ecgl‚fes, 499), H˚nfer's father, 499.

Ecg-˛eÛw (nom. Ecg˛eÛw, 263, Ecg˛eÛ, 373; gen. Ecg˛eÛwes, 529, etc.,
Ecg˛iÛwes, 2000), a far-famed hero of the Ge·tas, of the house of the
WÊgmundings. BeÛwulf is the son of Ecg˛eÛw, by the only daughter of HrÍel,
king of the Ge·tas, 262, etc. Among the Wylfings, he has slain Heaol‚f
(460), and in consequence he goes over the sea to the Danes (463), whose
king, HrÙg‚r, by means of gold, finishes the strife for him, 470.

Ecg-wela (gen. Ecg-welan, 1711). The Scyldings are called his descendants,
1711. Grein considers him the founder of the older dynasty of Danish kings,
which closes with HeremÙd. See HeremÙd.

Elan, daughter of Healfdene, king of the Danes, (?) 62. According to the
restored text, she is the wife of Ongen˛eÛw, the Scylfing, 62, 63.

Earna-n‰s, the Eagle Cape in the land of the Ge·tas, where occurred
BeÛwulf's fight with the drake, 3032.

E·dgils (dat. E·dgilse, 2393), son of ‘hthere, and grandson of Ongen˛eÛw,
the Scylfing, 2393. His older brother is

E·nmund (gen. E·nmundes, 2612). What is said about both in our poem
(2201-2207, 2380-2397, 2612-2620) is obscure, but the following may be

The sons of ‘hthere, E·nmund and E·dgils, have rebelled against their
father (2382), and must, in consequence, depart with their followers from
SwiÛrÓce, 2205-6, 2380. They come into the country of the Ge·tas to
HeardrÍd (2380), but whether with friendly or hostile intent is not stated;
but, according to 2203 f., we are to presume that they came against
HeardrÍd with designs of conquest. At a banquet (on feorme; or feorme, MS.)
HeardrÍd falls, probably through treachery, by the hand of one of the
brothers, 2386, 2207. The murderer must have been E·nmund, to whom,
according to 2613, "in battle the revenge of Weohst‚n brings death."
Weohst‚n takes revenge for his murdered king, and exercises upon E·nmund's
body the booty-right, and robs it of helm, breastplate, and sword
(2616-17), which the slain man had received as gifts from his uncle, Onela,
2617-18. But Weohst‚n does not speak willingly of this fight, although he
has slain Onela's brother's son, 2619-20.--After HeardrÍd's and E·nmund's
death, the descendant of Ongen˛eÛw, E·dgils, returns to his home, 2388. He
must give way before BeÛwulf, who has, since HeardrÍd's death, ascended the
throne of the Ge·tas, 2390. But BeÛwulf remembers it against him in after
days, and the old feud breaks out anew, 2392-94. E·dgils makes an invasion
into the land of the Ge·tas (2394-95), during which he falls at the hands
of BeÛwulf, 2397. The latter must have then obtained the sovereignty over
the Sweonas (3005-6, where only the version, Scylfingas, can give a
satisfactory sense).

Eofor (gen. Eofores, 2487, 2965; dat. Jofore, 2994, 2998), one of the
Ge·tas, son of WonrÍd and brother of Wulf (2965, 2979), kills the Swedish
king, Ongen˛eÛw (2487 ff., 2978-82), for which he receives from King
Hygel‚c, along with other gifts, his only daughter in marriage, 2994-99.

Eormen-rÓc (gen. EormenrÓces, 1202), king of the Goths (cf. about him, W.
Grimm, Deutsche Heldensage, p. 2, ff.). H‚ma has wrested the Brosinga mene
from him, 1202.

EomÊr, son of Offa and firyo (cf. firyo), 1961.

Finn (gen. Finnes, 1069, etc.; dat. Finne, 1129), son of Folcwalda (1090),
king of the North Frisians, i.e. of the Eotenas, husband of Hildeburg, a
daughter of HÙc, 1072, 1077. He is the hero of the inserted poem on the
Attack in Finnsburg, the obscure incidents of which are, perhaps, as
follows: In Finn's castle, Finnsburg, situated in Jutland (1126-28), the
HÙcing, Hn‰f, a relative--perhaps a brother--of Hildeburg is spending some
time as guest. Hn‰f, who is a liegeman of the Danish king, Healfdene, has
sixty men with him (Finnsburg, 38). These are treacherously attacked one
night by Finn's men, 1073. For five days they hold the doors of their
lodging-place without losing one of their number (Finnsburg, 41, 42). Then,
however, Hn‰f is slain (1071), and the Dane, Hengest, who was among Hn‰f's
followers, assumes the command of the beleaguered band. But on the
attacking side the fight has brought terrible losses to Finn's men. Their
numbers are diminished (1081 f.), and Hildeburg bemoans a son and a brother
among the fallen (1074 f., cf. 1116, 1119). Therefore the Frisians offer
the Danes peace (1086) under the conditions mentioned (1087-1095), and it
is confirmed with oaths (1097), and money is given by Finn in propitiation
(1108). Now all who have survived the battle go together to Friesland, the
homo proper of Finn, and here Hengest remains during the winter, prevented
by ice and storms from returning home (Grein). But in spring the feud
breaks out anew. G˚l‚f and Osl‚f avenge Hn‰f's fall, probably after they
have brought help from home (1150). In the battle, the hall is filled with
the corpses of the enemy. Finn himself is killed, and the queen is captured
and carried away, along with the booty, to the land of the Danes,

Finna land. BeÛwulf reaches it in his swimming-race with Breca, 580.

Fitela, the son and nephew of the W‰lsing, Sigemund, and his companion in
arms, 876-890. (Sigemund had begotten Fitela by his sister, Sign˝. Cf. more
at length Leo on BeÛwulf, p. 38 ff., where an extract from the legend of
the Walsungs is given.)

Folc-walda (gen. Folc-waldan, 1090), Finn's father, 1090.

Francan (gen. Francna, 1211; dat. Froncum, 2913). King Hygel‚c fell on an
expedition against the allied Franks, Frisians, and H˚gas, 1211, 2917.

Fresan, Frisan, Frysan (gen. Fresena, 1094, Frysna, 1105, Fresna, 2916:
dat. Frysum, 1208, 2913). To be distinguished, are: 1) North Frisians,
whose king is Finn, 1069 ff.; 2) West Frisians, in alliance with the Franks
and H˚gas, in the war against whom Hygel‚c falls, 1208, 2916. The country
of the former is called Frysland, 1127; that of the latter, Fresna land,

Fr..es w‰l (in Fr..es w‰le, 1071), mutilated proper name.

Fre·waru, daughter of the Danish king, HrÙg‚r; given in marriage to
Ingeld, the son of the Heaobeard king, FrÙda, in order to end a war
between the Danes and the Heaobeardnas, 2023 ff., 2065.

FrÙda (gen. FrÙdan), father of Ingeld, the husband of Fre·ware, 2026.

G‚rmund (gen. G‚rmundes, 1963) father of Offa. His grandson is EÛmÊr,

Ge·tas (gen. Ge·ta, 205, etc.; dat. Ge·tum, 195, etc.), a tribe in Southern
Scandinavia, to which the hero of this poem belongs; also called
Wederge·tas, 1493, 2552; or, Wederas, 225, 423, etc.; G˚ge·tas, 1539;
SÊge·tas, 1851, 1987. Their kings named in this poem are: HrÍel; HÊcyn,
second son of HrÍel; Hygel‚c, the brother of HÊcyn; HeardrÍd, son of
Hygel‚c; then BeÛwulf.

Gifas (dat. Gifum, 2495), GepidÊ, mentioned in connection with Danes and
Swedes, 2495.

Grendel, a fen-spirit (102-3) of Cain's race, 107, 111, 1262, 1267. He
breaks every night into HrÙg‚r's hall and carries off thirty warriors, 115
ff., 1583ff. He continues this for twelve years, till BeÛwulf fights with
him (147, 711 ff.), and gives him a mortal wound, in that he tears out one
of his arms (817), which is hung up as a trophy in the roof of Heorot, 837.
Grendel's mother wishes to avenge her son, and the following night breaks
into the hall and carries off ƒschere, 1295. BeÛwulf seeks for and finds
her home in the fen-lake (1493 ff.), fights with her (1498 ff.), and kills
her (1567); and cuts off the head of Grendel, who lay there dead (1589),
and brings it to HrÙg‚r, 1648.

G˚-l‚f and Osl‚f, Danish warriors under Hn‰f, whose death they avenge on
Finn, 1149.

H‚lga, with the surname, _til_, the younger brother of the Danish king,
HrÙg‚r, 61. His son is HrÙulf, 1018, 1165, 1182.

H‚ma wrests the _Brosinga mene_ from EormenrÓc, 1199.

H‰re (gen. H‰rees, 1982), father of Hygd, the wife of Hygel‚c, 1930,

HÊcyn (dat. HÊcynne, 2483), second son of HrÍel, king of the Ge·tas,
2435. Kills his oldest brother, Herebeald, accidentally, with an arrow,
2438 ff. After HrÍel's death, he obtains the kingdom, 2475, 2483. He falls
at Ravenswood, in the battle against the Swedish king, Ongen˛eÛw, 2925. His
successor is his younger brother, Hygel‚c, 2944 ff., 2992.

Helmingas (gen. Helminga, 621). From them comes Wealh˛eÛw, HrÙg‚r's wife,

Heming (gen. Heminges, 1945, 1962). Offa is called Heminges mÊg, 1945;
EÛmÊr, 1962. According to Bachlechner (Pfeiffer's Germania, I., p. 458),
Heming is the son of the sister of G‚rmund, Offa's father.

Hengest (gen. Hengestes, 1092; dat. Hengeste, 1084): about him and his
relations to Hn‰f and Finn, see Finn.

Here-beald (dat. Herebealde, 2464), the oldest son of HrÍel, king of the
Ge·tas (2435), accidentally killed with an arrow by his younger brother,
HÊcyn, 2440.

Here-mÙd (gen. HeremÙdes, 902), king of the Danes, not belonging to the
Scylding dynasty, but, according to Grein, immediately preceding it; is, on
account of his unprecedented cruelty, driven out, 902 ff., 1710.

Here-rÓc (gen. HererÓces, 2207) HeardrÍd is called HererÓces nefa, 2207.
Nothing further is known of him.

Het-ware or Franks, in alliance with the Frisians and the H˚gas, conquer
Hygel‚c, king of the Ge·tas, 2355, 2364 ff., 2917.

Healf-dene (gen. Healfdenes, 189, etc.), son of BeÛwulf, the Scylding (57);
rules the Danes long and gloriously (57 f.); has three sons, Heorog‚r,
HrÙg‚r, and H‚lga (61), and a daughter, Elan, who, according to the
renewed text of the passage, w‰s married to the Scylfing, Ongen˛eÛw, 62,

Heard-rÍd (dat. HeardrÍde, 2203, 2376), son of Hygel‚c, king of the Ge·tas,
and Hygd. After his father's death, while still under age, he obtains the
throne (2371, 2376, 2379); wherefore BeÛwulf, as nephew of HeardrÍd's
father, acts as guardian to the youth till he becomes older, 2378. He is
slain by ‘hthere's sons, 2386. This murder BeÛwulf avenges on E·dgils,

Heao-beardnas (gen. -beardna, 2033, 2038, 2068), the tribe of the
Lombards. Their king, FrÙda, has fallen in a war with the Danes, 2029,
2051. In order to end the feud, King HrÙg‚r has given his daughter,
Fre·waru, as wife to the young Ingeld, the son of FrÙda, a marriage that
does not result happily; for Ingeld, though he long defers it on account of
his love for his wife, nevertheless takes revenge for his father, 2021-2070
(WÓdsÓ, 45-49).

Heao-l‚f (dat. Heao-l‚fe, 460), a Wylfingish warrior. Ecg˛eÛw, BeÛwulf's
father, kills him, 460.

Heao-rÊmas reached by B. in the swimming-race with BeÛwulf, 519.

Heoro-g‚r (nom. 61; Hereg‚r, 467; Hiorog‚r, 2159), son of Healfdene, and
older brother of HrÙg‚r, 61. His death is mentioned, 467. He has a son,
Heoroweard, 2162. His coat of mail BeÛwulf has received from HrÙg‚r
(2156), and presents it to Hygel‚c, 2158.

Heoro-weard (dat. Heorowearde, 2162), Heorog‚r's son, 2161-62.

Heort, 78. Heorot, 166 (gen. Heorotes, 403; dat. Heorote, 475, Heorute,
767, Hiorte, 2100). HrÙg‚r's throne-room and banqueting hall and
assembly-room for his liegemen, built by him with unusual splendor, 69, 78.
In it occurs BeÛwulf's fight with Grendel, 720 ff. The hall receives its
name from the stag's antlers, of which the one-half crowns the eastern
gable, the other half the western.

Hildeburh, daughter of HÙc, relative of the Danish leader, Hn‰f, consort of
the Frisian king, Finn. After the fall of the latter, she becomes a captive
of the Danes, 1072, 1077, 1159. See also under Finn.

Hn‰f (gen. Hn‰fes, 1115), a HÙcing (WÓdsÓ, 29), the Danish King
Healfdene's general, 1070 ff. For his fight with Finn, his death and
burial, see under Finn.

Hond-sciÛ, warrior of the Ge·tas: dat. 2077.

HÙc (gen. HÙces, 1077), father of Hildeburh, 1077; probably also of Hn‰f
(WÓdsÓ, 29).

HrÍel (gen. HrÍles, 1486), son of Swerting, 1204. King of the Ge·tas,
374. He has, besides, a daughter, who is married to Ecg˛eÛw, and has borne
him BeÛwulf, (374), three sons, Herebeald, HÊcyn, and Hygel‚c, 2435. The
eldest of these is accidentally killed by the second, 2440. On account of
this inexpiable deed, HrÍel becomes melancholy (2443), and dies, 2475.

HrÍla (gen. HrÍlan, MS. HrÊdlan, 454), the same as HrÍel (cf. M¸llenhoff
in Haupts Zeitschrift, 12, 260), the former owner of BeÛwulf's coat of
mail, 454.

HrÍ-men (gen. HrÍ-manna, 445), the Danes are so called, 445.

HrÍ-rÓc, son of HrÙg‚r, 1190, 1837.

Hrefna-wudu, 2926, or Hrefnes-holt, 2936, the thicket near which the
Swedish king, Ongen˛eÛw, slew HÊcyn, king of the Ge·tas, in battle.

Hreosna-beorh, promontory in the land of the Ge·tas, near which Ongen˛eÛw's
sons, ‘hthere and Onela, had made repeated robbing incursions into the
country after HrÍel's death. These were the immediate cause of the war in
which HrÍel's son, King HÊcyn, fell, 2478 ff.

HrÙ-g‚r (gen. HrÙg‚res, 235, etc.; dat. HrÙg‚re, 64, etc.), of the
dynasty of the Scyldings; the second of the three sons of King Healfdene,
61. After the death of his elder brother, Heorog‚r, he assumes the
government of the Danes, 465, 467 (yet it is not certain whether Heorog‚r
was king of the Danes before HrÙg‚r, or whether his death occurred while
his father, Healfdene, was still alive). His consort is Wealh˛eÛw (613), of
the stock of the Helmings (621), who has borne him two sons, HrÍrÓc and
HrÙmund (1190), and a daughter, Fre·ware (2023), who has been given in
marriage to the king of the Heaobeardnas, Ingeld. His throne-room (78
ff.), which has been built at great cost (74 ff.), is visited every night
by Grendel (102, 115), who, along with his mother, is slain by BeÛwulf (711
ff., 1493 ff). HrÙg‚r's rich gifts to BeÛwulf, in consequence, 1021, 1818;
he is praised as being generous, 71 ff., 80, 1028 ff., 1868 ff.; as being
brave, 1041 ff., 1771 ff.; and wise, 1699, 1725.--Other information about
HrÙg‚r's reign for the most part only suggested: his expiation of the
murder which Ecg˛eÛw, BeÛwulf's father, committed upon Heaol‚f, 460, 470;
his war with the Heaobeardnas; his adjustment of it by giving his
daughter, Fre·ware, in marriage to their king, Ingeld; evil results of this
marriage, 2021-2070.--Treachery of his brother's son, HrÙulf, intimated,

HrÙ-mund, HrÙg‚r's son, 1190.

HrÙ-ulf, probably a son of H‚lga, the younger brother of King HrÙg‚r,
1018, 1182. Wealh˛eÛw expresses the hope (1182) that, in case of the early
death of HrÙg‚r, HrÙ-ulf would prove a good guardian to HrÙg‚r's young
son, who would succeed to the government; a hope which seems not to have
been accomplished, since it appears from 1165, 1166 that HrÙ-ulf has
abused his trust towards HrÙg‚r.

Hrones-n‰s (dat. -n‰sse, 2806, 3137), a promontory on the coast of the
country of the Ge·tas, visible from afar. Here is BeÛwulf's grave-mound,
2806, 3137.

Hrunting (dat. Hruntinge, 1660), H˚nfer's sword, is so called, 1458, 1660.

H˚gas (gen. H˚ga, 2503), Hygel‚c wars against them allied with the Franks
and Frisians, and falls, 2195 ff. One of their heroes is called D‰ghrefn,
whom BeÛwulf slays, 2503.

[H]˚n-fer, the son of Ecgl‚f, ˛yle of King HrÙg‚r. As such, he has his
place near the throne of the king, 499, 500, 1167. He lends his sword,
Hrunting, to BeÛwulf for his battle with Grendel's mother, 1456 f.
According to 588, 1168, he slew his brothers. Since his name is always
alliterated with vowels, it is probable that the original form was, as
Rieger (Zachers Ztschr., 3, 414) conjectures, Unfer.

H˚n-l‚fing, name of a costly sword, which Finn presents to Hengest, 1144.
See Note.

Hygd (dat. Hygde, 2173), daughter of H‰re, 1930; consort of Hygel‚c, king
of the Ge·tas, 1927; her son, HeardrÍd, 2203, etc.--Her noble, womanly
character is emphasized, 1927 ff.

Hyge-l‚c (gen. Hige-l‚ces, 194, etc., Hygel‚ces, 2387; dat. Higel‚ce, 452,
Hygel‚ce, 2170), king of the Ge·tas, 1203, etc. His grandfather is
Swerting, 1204; his father, HrÍel, 1486, 1848; his older brothers,
Herebeald and HÊcyn, 2435; his sister's son, BeÛwulf, 374, 375. After his
brother, HÊcyn, is killed by Ongen˛eÛw, he undertakes the government (2992
in connection with the preceding from 2937 on). To Eofor he gives, as
reward for slaying Ongen˛eÛw, his only daughter in marriage, 2998. But much
later, at the time of the return of BeÛwulf from his expedition to HrÙg‚r,
we see him married to the very young Hygd, the daughter of H‰re, 1930. The
latter seems, then, to have been his second wife. Their son is HeardrÍd,
2203, 2376, 2387.--Hygel‚c falls during an expedition against the Franks,
Frisians, and H˚gas, 1206, 1211, 2356-59, 2916-17.

Ingeld (dat. Ingelde, 2065), son of FrÙda, the Heaobeard chief, who fell
in a battle with the Danes, 2051 ff. in order to end the war, Ingeld is
married to Fre·waru, daughter of the Danish king, HrÙg‚r, 2025-30. Yet his
love for his young wife can make him forget only for a short while his
desire to avenge his father. He finally carries it out, excited thereto by
the repeated admonitions of an old warrior, 2042-70 (WÓdsÓ, 45-59).

Ing-wine (gen. Ingwina, 1045, 1320), friends of Ing, the first king of the
East Danes. The Danes are so called, 1045, 1320.

Mere-wioingas (gen. Mere-wioinga, 2922), as name of the Franks, 2922.

N‰gling, the name of BeÛwulf's sword, 2681.

Offa (gen. Offan, 1950), king of the Angles (WÓdsÓ, 35), the son of
G‚rmund, 1963; married (1950) to firyo (1932), a beautiful but cruel woman,
of unfeminine spirit (1932 ff.), by whom he has a son, EÛmÊr, 1961.

‘ht-here (gen. ‘htheres, 2929, 2933; ‘hteres, 2381, 2393, 2395, 2613), son
of Ongen˛eÛw, king of the Swedes, 2929. His sons are E·nmund (2612) and
E·dgils, 2393.

Onela (gen. Onelan, 2933), ‘hthere's brother, 2617, 2933.

Ongen-˛eÛw (nom. -˛eÛw, 2487, -˛iÛ, 2952; gen. -˛eÛwes, 2476, -˛iÛwes,
2388; dat. -˛iÛ, 2987), of the dynasty of the Scylfings; king of the
Swedes, 2384. His wife is, perhaps, Elan, daughter of the Danish king,
Healfdene (62), and mother of two sons, Onela and ‘hthere, 2933. She is
taken prisoner by HÊcyn, king of the Ge·tas, on an expedition into Sweden,
which he undertakes on account of her sons' plundering raids into his
country, 2480 ff. She is set free by Ongen˛eÛw (2931), who kills HÊcyn,
2925, and encloses the Ge·tas, now deprived of their leader, in the
Ravenswood (2937 ff.), till they are freed by Hygel‚c, 2944. A battle then
follows, which is unfavorable to Ongen˛eÛw's army. Ongen˛eÛw himself,
attacked by the brothers, Wulf and Eofor, is slain by the latter, 2487 ff.,
2962 ff.

‘s-l‚f, a warrior of Hn‰f's, who avenges on Finn his leader's death, 1149

Scede-land, 19. Sceden-Óg (dat. Sceden-Ógge, 1687), O.N., Sc‚n-ey, the most
southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the Danish
kingdom, and, in the above-mentioned passages of our poem, a designation of
the whole Danish kingdom.

ScÍf or Sce·f. See Note.

Scyld (gen. Scyldes, 19), a ScÍfing. 4. His son is BeÛwulf, 18, 53: his
grandson, Healfdene, 57; his great-grandson, HrÙg‚r, who had two brothers
and a sister, 59 ff.--Scyld dies, 26; his body, upon a decorated ship, is
given over to the sea (32 ff.), just as he, when a child, drifted alone,
upon a ship, to the land of the Danes, 43 ff. After him his descendants
bear his name.

Scyldingas (Scyldungas, 2053; gen. Scyldinga, 53, etc., Scyldunga, 2102,
2160; dat. Scyldingum, 274, etc.), a name which is extended also to the
Danes, who are ruled by the Scyldings, 53, etc. They are also called
¬r-Scyldingas, 464; Sige-Scyldingas, 598, 2005; fieÛd-Scyldingas, 1020;
Here-Scyldingas, 1109.

Scylfingas, a Swedish royal family, whose relationship seems to extend to
the Ge·tas, since WÓgl‚f, the son of Wihst‚n, who in another place, as a
kinsman of BeÛwulf, is called a WÊgmunding (2815), is also called leÛd
Scylfinga, 2604. The family connections are perhaps as follows:--

     WÊgmund.         .......
        |                |
------------------  ----------
Ecg˛eÛw.  Weohst‚n.  Ongen˛eÛw.
   |         |           |
-------- -------- ---------------
BeÛwulf.  WÓgl‚f.  Onela. ‘hthere.
                 E·umund. E·dgils.

The Scylfings are also called Heao-Scilfingas, 63, G˚-Scylfingas, 2928.

Sige-mund (dat. -munde, 876, 885), the son of W‰ls, 878, 898. His (son and)
nephew is Fitela, 880, 882. His fight with the drake, 887 ff.

Swerting (gen. Swertinges, 1204), Hygel‚c's grandfather, and HrÍel's
father, 1204.

Sweon (gen. Sweona, 2473, 2947, 3002), also SweÛ-˛eÛd, 2923. The dynasty of
the Scylfings rules over them, 2382, 2925. Their realm is called SwiÛrice,
2384, 2496.

firyo, consort of the Angle king, Offa, 1932, 1950. Mother of EÛmÊr, 1961,
notorious on account of her cruel, unfeminine character, 1932 ff. She is
mentioned as the opposite to the mild, dignified Hygd, the queen of the

W‰ls (gen. W‰lses, 898), father of Sigemund, 878, 898.

WÊg-mundingas (gen. WÊgmundinga, 2608, 2815). The WÊgmundings are on one
side, Wihst‚n and his son WÓgl‚f; on the other side, Ecg˛eÛw and his son
BeÛwulf (2608, 2815). See under Scylfingas.

Wederas (gen. Wedera, 225, 423, 498, etc.), or Weder-ge·tas. See Ge·tas.

WÍland (gen. WÍlandes, 455), the maker of BeÛwulf's coat of mail, 455.

Wendlas (gen. Wendla, 348): their chief is Wulfg‚r. See Wulfg‚r. The
Wendlas are, according to Grundtvig and Bugge, the inhabitants of Vendill,
the most northern part of Jutland, between Limfjord and the sea.

Wealh-˛eÛw (613, Wealh-˛eÛ, 665, 1163), the consort of King HrÙg‚r, of the
stock of the Helmings, 621. Her sons are HrÍrÓc and HrÙmund, 1190; her
daughter, Fre·waru, 2023.

Weoh-st‚n (gen. Weox-st‚nes, 2603, Weoh-st‚nes, 2863, Wih-st‚nes, 2753,
2908, etc.), a WÊgmunding (2608), father of WÓgl‚f, 2603. In what
relationship to him ƒlfhere, mentioned 2605, stands, is not
clear.--Weohst‚n is the slayer of E·nmund (2612), in that, as it seems, he
takes revenge for his murdered king, HeardrÍd. See E·nmund.

WÓg-l‚f, Weohst‚n's son, 2603, etc., a WÊgmunding, 2815, and so also a
Scylfing, 2604; a kinsman of ƒlfhere, 2605. For his relationship to
BeÛwulf, see the genealogical table under Scylfingas.--He supports BeÛwulf
in his fight with the drake, 2605 ff., 2662 ff. The hero gives him, before
his death, his ring, his helm, and his coat of mail, 2810 ff.

Won-rÍd (gen. WonrÍdes, 2972), father of Wulf and Eofor, 2966, 2979.

Wulf (dat. Wulfe, 2994), one of the Ge·tas, WonrÍd's son. He fights in the
battle between the armies of Hygel‚c and Ongen˛eÛw with Ongen˛eÛw himself,
and gives him a wound (2966), whereupon Ongen˛eÛw, by a stroke of his
sword, disables him, 2975. Eofor avenges his brother's fall by dealing
Ongen˛eÛw a mortal blow, 2978 ff.

Wulf-g‚r, chief of the Wendlas, 348, lives at HrÙg‚r's court, and is his
"‚r and ombiht," 335.

Wylfingas (dat. Wylfingum, 461). Ecg˛eÛw has slain Heool‚f, a warrior of
this tribe, 460.

Yrmen-l‚f, younger brother of ƒschere, 1325.


Eotenas (gen. pl. Eotena, 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. Eotenum, 1146), the
subjects of Finn, the North Frisians: distinguished from eoton, _giant_.
Vid eoton. Cf. Bugge, Beit., xii. 37; Earle, Beowulf in Prose, pp. 146,

HrÍling, son of HrÍel, Hygel‚c: nom. sg. 1924; nom. pl., the subjects of
Hygel‚c, the Geats, 2961.

ScÍfing, the son (?) of ScÍf, or Sce·f, reputed father of Scyld, 4. See


               B.: Bugge.
              Br.: S.A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit.
               C.: Cosijn.
               E.: Earle, Deeds of Beowulf in Prose.
               G.: Garnett, Translation of Beowulf
              Gr.: Grein.
               H.: Heyne.
              Ha.: Hall, Translation of Beowulf.
           H.-So.: Heyne-Socin, 5th ed.
              Ho.: Holder.
               K.: Kemble.
              Kl.: Kluge.
         M¸llenh.: M¸llenhoff.
               R.: Rieger.
               S.: Sievers.
              Sw.: Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 6th ed.
          Ten Br.: Ten Brink.
              Th.: Thorpe.
               Z.: Zupitza.


             Ang.: Anglia.
            Beit.: Paul und Branne's Beitr‰ge.
       Eng. Stud.: Englische Studien.
            Germ.: Germania.
 Haupts Zeitschr.: Haupts Zeitschrift, etc.
 Mod. Lang. Notes: Modern Language Notes.
          Tidskr.: Tidskrift for Philologi.
Zachers Zeitschr.: Zachers Zeitschrift, etc.


l. 1. hw‰t: for this interjectional formula opening a poem, cf. _Andreas,
Daniel, Juliana, Exodus, Fata Apost., Dream of the Rood_, and the
"Listenith lordinges!" of mediaeval lays.--E. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, ed.
Morris, l. 853:

     "Sin I shal beginne the game,
     _What_, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!"

we ... gefrunon is a variant on the usual epic formulÊ ic gefr‰gn (l. 74)
and mÓne gefrÊge (l. 777). _Exodus, Daniel, Phoenix_, etc., open with the
same formula.

l. 1. "G‚r was the javelin, armed with two of which the warrior went into
battle, and which he threw over the 'shield-wall.' It was barbed."--Br.
124. Cf. _Maldon_, l. 296; _Judith_, l. 224; _Gnom. Verses_, l. 22; etc.

l. 4. "Scild of the Sheaf, not 'Scyld the son of Scaf'; for it is too
inconsistent, even in myth, to give a patronymic to a foundling. According
to the original form of the story, Sce·f was the foundling; he had come
ashore with a sheaf of corn, and from that was named. This form of the
story is preserved in Ethelwerd and in William of Malmesbury. But here the
foundling is Scyld, and we must suppose he was picked up with the sheaf,
and hence his cognomen."--E., p. 105. Cf. the accounts of Romulus and
Remus, of Moses, of Cyrus, etc.

l. 6. egsian is also used in an active sense (not in the Gloss.), = _to

l. 15. S. suggests ˛‚ (_which_) for ˛‰t, as object of dreÛgan; and for
aldor-le·se, Gr. suggested aldor-ceare.--_Beit._ ix. 136.

S. translates: "For God had seen the dire need which the rulerless ones
before endured."

l. 18. "Beowulf (that is, Beaw of the Anglo-Saxon genealogists, not our
Beowulf, who was a Geat, not a Dane), 'the son of Scyld in Scedeland.' This
is our ancestral myth,--the story of the first culture-hero of the North;
'the patriarch,' as Rydberg calls him, 'of the royal families of Sweden,
Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England.'"--Br., p. 78. Cf. _A.-S. Chron._
an. 855.

H.-So. omits parenthetic marks, and reads (after S., _Beit._ ix. 135)
eaferan; cf. _Fata Apost._: lof wÓde sprang ˛eÛdnes ˛egna.

"The name _Beowulf_ means literally 'Bee-wolf,' wolf or ravager of
the bees, = bear. Cf. _beorn_, 'hero,' originally 'bear,' and
_beohata_, 'warrior,' in CÊdmon, literally 'bee-hater' or
'persecutor,' and hence identical in meaning with _beowulf_."--Sw.

Cf. "Arcite and Palamon,
    That foughten _breme_, as it were bores two."
         --Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 841, ed. Morris.

Cf. M. M¸ller, _Science of Lang._, Sec. Series, pp. 217, 218; and Hunt's
_Daniel_, 104.

l. 19. Cf. l. 1866, where Scedenig is used, = _Scania_, in Sweden(?).

l. 21. wine is pl.; cf. its apposition wil-gesÓas below. H.-So. compares
_HÈliand_, 1017, for language almost identical with ll. 20, 21.

l. 22. on ylde: cf.
    "_In elde_ is bothe wisdom and usage."
       --Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 1590, ed. Morris.

l. 26. Reflexive objects often pleonastically accompany verbs of motion;
cf. ll. 234, 301, 1964, etc.

l. 28. faro = _shore, strand, edge._ Add these to the meanings in the

l. 31. The object of ‚hte is probably geweald, to be supplied from wordum
weÛld of l. 30.--H.-So.

R., Kl., and B. all hold conflicting views of this passage: _Beit._ xii.
80, ix. 188; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 382, etc. Kl. suggests lÊndagas for

l. 32. "hringed-stefna is sometimes translated 'with curved prow,' but it
means, I think, that in the prow were fastened rings through which the
cables were passed that tied it to the shore."--Br., p. 26. Cf. ll. 1132,
1898. Hring-horni was the mythic ship of the Edda. See Toller-Bosworth for
three different views; and cf. wunden-stefna (l. 220), hring-naca (l.

ll. 34-52. Cf. the burial of Haki on a funeral-pyre ship, _Inglinga Saga;_
the burial of Balder, Sinfiˆtli, Arthur, etc.

l. 35. "And this [their joy in the sea] is all the plainer from the number
of names given to the ship-names which speak their pride and affection. It
is the ∆theling's vessel, the Floater, the Wave-swimmer, the Ring-sterned,
the Keel, the Well-bound wood, the Sea-wood, the Sea-ganger, the Sea-broad
ship, the Wide-bosomed, the Prow-curved, the Wood of the curved neck, the
Foam-throated floater that flew like a bird."--Br., p. 168.

l. 49. "We know from Scandinavian graves ... that the illustrious dead were
buried ... in ships, with their bows to sea-ward; that they were however
not sent to sea, but were either burnt in that position, or mounded over
with earth."--E. See Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, xix.

l. 51. (1) sele-rÊdende (K., S., C.); (2) sÍle-rÊdenne (H.); (3)
sele-rÊdende (H.-So.). Cf. l. 1347; and see Ha.

l. 51. E. compares with this canto Tennyson's "Passing of Arthur" and the
legendary burial-journey of St. James of Campostella, an. 800.

l. 53. The poem proper begins with this, "There was once upon a time," the
first 52 lines being a prelude. Eleven of the "fitts," or cantos, begin
with the monosyllable ˛‚, four with the verb gewÓtan, nine with the formula
HrÙg‚r (BeÛwulf, Unfer) maelode, twenty-four with monosyllables in
general (him, sw‚, sÍ, hw‰t, ˛‚, hÍht, w‰s, m‰g, cwÙm, strÊt).

l. 58. gamel. "The ... characteristics of the poetry are the use of archaic
forms and words, such as mec for mÈ, the possessive sÌn, gamol, dÛgor, sw·t
for eald, dÊg, blÛd, etc., after they had become obsolete in the prose
language, and the use of special compounds and phrases, such as hildenÊdre
(_war-adder_) for 'arrow,' gold-gifa (_gold-giver_) for 'king,' ...
goldwine gumena (_goldfriend of men, distributor of gold to men_) for
'king,'" etc.--Sw. Other poetic words are ides, ielde (_men_), etc.

l. 60. H.-So. reads rÊswa (referring to Heorog‚r alone), and places a point
(with the Ms.) after Heorog‚r instead of after rÊswa. Cf. l. 469; see B.,
_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 193.

l. 62. Elan here (OHG. _Elana, Ellena, Elena, Elina, Alyan_) is thought by
B. (_Tidskr_. viii. 43) to be a remnant of the masc. name Onela, and he
reads: [On-]elan ewÍn, Heaoscilfingas(=es) healsgebedda.

l. 68. For hÍ, omitted here, cf. l. 300. Pronouns are occasionally thus
omitted insubord. clauses.--Sw.

l. 70. ˛one, here = ˛onne, _than_, and micel = m‚re? The passage, by a
slight change, might be made to read, medo-‰rn micle m‚ gewyrcean,--˛one =
_by much larger than_,--in which ˛one (˛onne) would come in naturally.

l. 73. folc-scare. Add _folk-share_ to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.

l. 74. ic wide gefr‰gn: an epic formula very frequent in poetry, = _men
said._ Cf. _Judith_, ll. 7, 246; _Phoenix_, l. 1; and the parallel (noun)
formula, mÓne gefrÊge, ll. 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ll. 78-83. "The hall was a rectangular, high-roofed, wooden building, its
long sides facing north and south. The two gables, at either end, had
stag-horns on their points, curving forwards, and these, as well as the
ridge of the roof, were probably covered with shining metal, and glittered
bravely in the sun."--Br., p. 32.

l. 84. _Son-in-law and father-in-law;_ B., a so-called _dvanda_ compound.
Cf. l. 1164, where a similar compound means _uncle and nephew;_ and
WÓdsÓ's suhtorfÊdran, used of the same persons.

l. 88. "The word dre·m conveys the buzz and hum of social happiness, and
more particularly the sound of music and singing."--E. Cf. l. 3021; and
_Judith_, l. 350; _Wanderer_, l. 79, etc.

ll. 90-99. There is a suspicious similarity between this passage and the
lines attributed by Bede to CÊdmon:

    N˚ wÍ sculan herian heofonrices Weard, etc.
      --Sw., p. 47.

ll. 90-98 are probably the interpolation of a Christian scribe.

ll. 92-97. "The first of these Christian elements [in _BeÛwulf_] is the
sense of a fairer, softer world than that in which the Northern warriors
lived.... Another Christian passage (ll. 107, 1262) derives all the demons,
eotens, elves, and dreadful sea-beasts from the race of Cain. The folly of
sacrificing to the heathen gods is spoken of (l. 175).... The other point
is the belief in immortality (ll. 1202, 1761)."--Br. 71.

l. 100. Cf. l. 2211, where the third dragon of the poem is introduced in
the same words. Beowulf is the forerunner of that other national
dragon-slayer, St. George.

l. 100. onginnan in _BeÛwulf_ is treated like verbs of motion and modal
auxiliaries, and takes the object inf. without tÙ; cf. ll. 872, 1606, 1984,
244. Cf. _gan_ (= _did_) in Mid. Eng.: _gan_ espye (Chaucer, _Knightes
Tale_, l. 254, ed. Morris).

l. 101. B. and H.-So. read, feÛnd on healle; cf. l. 142.--_Beit._ xii.

ll. 101-151. "Grimm connects [Grendel] with the Anglo-Saxon grindel (_a
bolt_ or _bar_).... It carries with it the notion of the bolts and bars of
hell, and hence _a fiend._ ... Ettm¸ller was the first ... to connect the
name with grindan, _to grind, to crush to pieces, to utterly destroy._
Grendel is then _the tearer, the destroyer_."--Br., p. 83.

l. 102. g‰st = _stranger_ (Ha.); cf. ll. 1139, 1442, 2313, etc.

l. 103. See Ha., p. 4.

l. 106. "The perfect and pluperfect are often expressed, as in Modern
English, by hÊf and hÊfde with the past participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 433,
408, 940, 205 (p. p. inflected in the last two cases), etc.

l. 106. S. destroys period here, reads in Caines, etc., and puts ˛one ...
drihten in parenthesis.

l. 108. ˛‰s ˛e = _because_, especially after verbs of thanking (cf. ll.
228, 627, 1780, 2798); _according as_ (l. 1351).

l. 108. The def. article is omitted with Drihten (_Lord_) and Deofol
(_devil_; cf. l. 2089), as it is, generally, sparingly employed in poetry;
cf. tÙ sÊ (l. 318), ofer sÊ (l. 2381), on lande (l. 2311), tÙ r‰ste (l.
1238), on wicge (l. 286), etc., etc.

l. 119. weras (S., H.-So.); wera (K., Th.).--_Beit._ ix. 137.

l. 120. unfÊlo = _uncanny_ (R.).

l. 131. E. translates, _majestic rage;_ adopting Gr.'s view that swy is =
Icel. svii, _a burn_ or _burning_. Cf. l. 737.

l. 142. B. supposes heal-˛egnes to be corrupted from hel˛egnes; cf. l.
101.--_Beit._ xii. 80. See G˚l‚c, l. 1042.

l. 144. See Ha., p. 6, for S.'s rearrangement.

l. 146. S. destroys period after sÍlest, puts w‰s ... micel in parenthesis,
and inserts a colon after tÓd.

l. 149. B. reads s‚rcwidum for syan.

l. 154. B. takes sibbe for accus. obj. of wolde, and places a comma after
Deniga.--_Beit._ xii. 82.

l. 159. R. suggests ac se for atol.

l. 168. H.-So. plausibly conjectures this parenthesis to be a late
insertion, as, at ll. 180-181, the Danes also are said to be heathen.
Another commentator considers the throne under a "spell of enchantment,"
and therefore it could not be touched.

l. 169. ne ... wisse: _nor had he desire to do so_ (W.). See Ha., p. 7, for
other suggestions.

l. 169. myne wisse occurs in _Wanderer_, l. 27.

l. 174. The gerundial inf. with tÙ expresses purpose, defines a noun or
adjective, or, with the verb be, expresses duty or necessity passively; cf.
ll. 257, 473, 1004, 1420, 1806, etc. Cf. tÙ + inf. at ll. 316, 2557.

ll. 175-188. E. regards this passage as dating the time and place of the
poem relatively to the times of heathenism. Cf. the opening lines, _In days
of yore_, etc., as if the story, even then, were very old.

l. 177. g‚st-bona is regarded by Ettm¸ller and G. Stephens (_Thunor_, p.
54) as an epithet of Thor (= _giant-killer_), a kenning for Thunor or Thor,
meaning both _man_ and _monster_.--E.

l. 189. Cf. l. 1993, where similar language is used. H.-So. takes both
mÙd-ceare and mÊl-ceare as accus., others as instr.

ll. 190, 1994. se·: for this use of seÛan cf. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._, ed.
Miller, p. 128, where p. p. soden is thus used.

l. 194. fram h‚m = _in his home_ (S., H.-So.); but fram h‚m may be for fram
him (_from them_, i.e. _his people_, or _from Hrothgar's_). Cf. Ha., p. 8.

l. 197. Cf. ll. 791, 807, for this fixed phrase.

l. 200. See _Andreas, Elene_, and _Juliana_ for swan-r‚d (_= sea_). "The
swan is said to breed wild now no further away than the North of Sweden."
--E. Cf. ganotes b‰, l. 1862.

l. 203. Concessive clauses with ˛e·h, ˛e·h ˛e, ˛e·h ... eal, vary with
subj. and ind., according as fact or contingency is dominant in the mind;
cf. ll. 526, 1168, 2032, etc. (subj.), 1103, 1614 (ind.). Cf. gif, nefne.

l. 204. hÊl, an OE. word found in W¸lker's Glossaries in various forms, =
_augury, omen, divination_, etc. Cf. hÊlsere, _augur_; hÊl, _omen;_
hÊlsung, _augurium_, hÊlsian, etc. Cf. Tac., _Germania_, 10.

l. 207. C. adds "= _impetrare_" to the other meanings of findan given in
the Gloss.

l. 217. Cf. l. 1910; and _Andreas_, l. 993.--E. E. compares Byron's

    "And fast and falcon-like the vessel flew,"
       --_Corsair_, i.17.

and Scott's

    "Merrily, merrily bounds the bark."
      --_Lord of the Isles_, iv. 7.

l. 218. Cf.
    "The fomy stedes on the golden brydel
      --Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 1648, ed. Morris.

l. 219. Does ‚n-tÓd mean _hour_ (Th.), or _corresponding hour_ = ‚nd-tÓd
(H.-So.), or _in due time_ (E.), or _after a time_, when Ù˛res, etc., would
be adv. gen.? See C., _Beit._ viii. 568.

l. 224. eoletes may = (1) _voyage_; (2) _toil, labor_; (3) _hurried
journey;_ but _sea_ or _fjord_ appears preferable.

ll. 229-257. "The scenery ... is laid on the coast of the North Sea and the
Kattegat, the first act of the poem among the Danes in Seeland, the second
among the Geats in South Sweden."--Br., p. 15.

l. 239. "A shoal of simple terms express in _BeÛwulf_ the earliest
sea-thoughts of the English.... The simplest term is SÊ.... To this they
added WÊter, Flod, Stream, Lagu, Mere, Holm, Grund, Heathu, Sund, Brim,
Garsecg, Eagor, Geofon, Fifel, Hron-rad, Swan-rad, Segl-rad,
Ganotes-bÊ."--Br., p. 163-166.

l. 239. "The infinitive is often used in poetry after a verb of motion
where we should use the present participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 711, 721, 1163
1803, 268, etc. Cf. German _spazieren fahren reiten_, etc., and similar
constructions in French, etc.

l. 240, W. reads hringed-stefnan for helmas bÊron. B. inserts (?) after
holmas and begins a new line at the middle of the verse. S. omits B.'s "on
the wall."

l. 245. Double and triple negatives strengthen each other and do not
produce an affirmative in A.-S. or M. E. The neg. is often prefixed to
several emphatic words in the sentence, and readily contracts with vowels,
and h or w; cf. ll. 863, 182, 2125, 1509, 575, 583, 3016, etc.

l. 249. seld-guma = _man-at-arms in another's house_ (Wood); = _low-ranking
fellow_ (Ha.); stubenhocker, _stay-at-home_ (Gr.), Scott's "carpet knight,"
_Marmion_, i. 5.

l. 250. n‰fne (nefne, nemne) usually takes the subj., = _unless_; cf. ll.
1057, 3055, 1553. For ind., = _except_, see l. 1354. Cf. b˚tan, gif, ˛e·h.

l. 250. For a remarkable account of armor and weapons in _BeÛwulf_, see S.
A. Brooke, _Hist. of Early Eng. Lit_. For general "Old Teutonic Life in
BeÛwulf," see J. A. Harrison, _Overland Monthly_.

l. 252. Êr as a conj. generally has subj., as here; cf. ll. 264, 677, 2819,
732. For ind., cf. l. 2020.

l. 253. le·s = _loose_, _roving_. Ettm¸ller corrected to le·se.

l. 256. This proverb (Ùfest, etc.) occurs in _Exod_. (Hunt), l. 293.

l. 258. An "elder" may be a very young man; hence yldesta, = _eminent_, may
be used of Beowulf. Cf. _Laws of ∆lfred_, C. 17: N‚ ˛‰t Êlc eald s˝, ac ˛‰t
he eald s˝ on wÓsdÙme.

l. 273. Verbs of hearing and seeing are often followed by acc. with inf.;
cf. ll. 229, 1024, 729, 1517, etc. Cf. German construction with _sehen,
horen_, etc., French construction with _voir, entendre_, etc., and the
classical constructions.

l. 275. dÊd-hata = _instigator_. Kl. reads dÊd-hwata.

l. 280. ed-wendan, n. (B.; cf. 1775), = edwenden, limited by bisigu. So ten
Br. = _Tidskr_. viii. 291.

l. 287. "Each is denoted ... also by the strengthened forms 'ÊghwÊer
('Êger), ÈghwÊer, etc. This prefixed 'Ê, Ûe corresponds to the Goth,
_aiw_, OHG. _eo_, _io_, and is umlauted from ·, Û by the i of the gi which
originally followed."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 190.

l. 292. "All through the middle ages suits of armour are called

l. 303. "An English warrior went into battle with a boar-crested helmet,
and a round linden shield, with a byrnie of ringmail ... with two javelins
or a single ashen spear some eight or ten feet long, with a long two-edged
sword naked or held in an ornamental scabbard.... In his belt was a short,
heavy, one-edged sword, or rather a long knife, called the seax ... used
for close quarters."--Br., p. 121.

l. 303. For other references to the boar-crest, cf. ll. 1112, 1287, 1454;
Grimm, _Myth._ 195; Tacitus, _Germania_, 45. "It was the symbol of their
[the Baltic ∆stii's] goddess, and they had great faith in it as a
preservative from hard knocks."--E. See the print in the illus. ed. of
Green's _Short History_, Harper & Bros.

l. 303. "See Kemble, _Saxons in England_, chapter on heathendom, and
Grimm's _Teutonic Mythology_, chapter on Freyr, for the connection these
and other writers establish between the Boar-sign and the golden boar which
Freyr rode, and his worship."--Br., p. 128. Cf. _Elene_, l. 50.

l. 304. Gering proposes hleÛr-bergan = _cheek-protectors_; cf. _Beit._ xii.
26. "A bronze disk found at ÷land in Sweden represents two warriors in
helmets with boars as their crests, and cheek-guards under; these are the
hleÛr-bergan."--E. Cf. hauberk, with its diminutive habergeon, < A.-S.
heals, _neck_ + beorgan, _to cover_ or _protect_; and harbor, < A.-S. here,
_army_ + beorgan, id.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ xii. 123. Cf. cinberge, Hunt's
_Exod._ l. 175.

l. 305. For ferh wearde and g˚mÙde grummon, B. and ten Br. read
ferh-wearde (l. 305) and g˚mÙdgum men (l. 306), = _the boar-images ...
guarded the lives of the warlike men_.

l. 311. leÛma: cf. Chaucer, _Nonne Preestes Tale_, l. 110, ed. Morris:

    "To dremen in here dremes
    Of armes, and of fyr with rede _lemes_."

l. 318. On the double gender of sÊ, cf. Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 147; and
note the omitted article at ll. 2381, 318, 544, with the peculiar tmesis of
_between_ at ll. 859, 1298, 1686, 1957. So _CÊdmon_, l. 163 (Thorpe),
_Exod._ l. 562 (Hunt), etc.

l. 320. Cf. l. 924; and _Andreas_, l. 987, where almost the same words
occur. "Here we have manifestly before our eye one of those ancient
causeways, which are among the oldest visible institutions of
civilization." --E.

l. 322. S. inserts comma after scÓr, and makes hring-Óren (= _ring-mail_)
parallel with g˚-byrne.

l. 325. Cf. l. 397. "The deposit of weapons outside before entering a house
was the rule at all periods.... In provincial Swedish almost everywhere a
church porch is called vÂkenhus,... i.e. _weapon-house_, because the
worshippers deposited their arms there before they entered the house."--E.,
after G. Stephens.

l. 333. Cf. Dryden's "mingled metal _damask'd_ o'er with gold."--E.

l. 336. "Êl-, el-, kindred with Goth. _aljis_, other, e.g. in Êl˛Èodig,
el˛Èodig, foreign."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 47.

l. 336. Cf. l. 673 for the functions of an ombiht-˛egn.

l. 343. Cf. l. 1714 for the same beÛd-gene·tas,--"the predecessor title to
that of the Knights of the Table Round."--E. Cf. _Andreas_ (K.), l. 2177.

l. 344. The future is sometimes expressed by willan + inf., generally with
some idea of volition involved; cf. ll. 351, 427, etc. Cf. the use of
willan as principal vb. (with omitted inf.) at ll. 318, 1372, 543, 1056;
and sculan, ll. 1784, 2817.

l. 353. sÓ here, and at l. 501, probably means _arrival_. E. translates
the former by _visit_, the latter by _adventure_.

l. 357. unh‚r = _hairless, bald_ (Gr., etc.).

l. 358. eode is only one of four or five preterits of g‚n (gongan, gangan,
gengan), viz. geÛng (giÛng: ll. 926, 2410, etc.), gang (l. 1296, etc.),
gengde (ll. 1402, 1413). Sievers, p. 217, apparently remarks that eode is
"probably used only in prose." (?!). Cf. geng, _Gen._ ll. 626, 834; _Exod._
(Hunt) l. 102.

l. 367. The MS. and H.-So. read with Gr. and B. gl‰dman HrÙg‚r, abandoning
Thorkelin's gl‰dnian. There is a glass. hilaris gl‰dman.--_Beit._ xii. 84;
same as gl‰d.

l. 369. dugan is a "preterit-present" verb, with new wk. preterit, like
sculan, durran, magan, etc. For various inflections, see ll. 573, 590,
1822, 526. Cf. _do_ in "that will _do_"; _doughty_, etc.

l. 372. Cf. l. 535 for a similar use; and l. 1220. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._,
ed. Miller, uses the same expression several times. "Here, and in all other
places where cniht occurs in this poem, it seems to carry that technical
sense which it bore in the military hierarchy [of a noble youth placed out
and learning the elements of the art of war in the service of a qualified
warrior, to whom he is, in a military sense, a servant], before it bloomed
out in the full sense of _knight_."--E.

l. 373. E. remarks of the hyphened eald-f‰der, "hyphens are risky toys to
play with in fixing texts of pre-hyphenial antiquity"; eald-f‰der could
only = _grandfather_. eald here can only mean _honored_, and the hyphen is
unnecessary. Cf. "old fellow," "my old man," etc.; and Ger. _alt-vater_.

l. 378. Th. and B. propose Ge·tum, as presents from the Danish to the
Geatish king.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 380. h‰bbe. The subj. is used in indirect narration and question, wish
and command, purpose, result, and hypothetical comparison with swelce = _as

ll. 386, 387. Ten Br. emends to read: "Hurry, bid the kinsman-throng go
into the hall together."

l. 387. sibbe-gedriht, for Beowulf's friends, occurs also at l. 730. It is
subject-acc. to seÛn. Cf. ll. 347, 365, and Hunt's _Exod_. l. 214.

l. 404. "Here, as in the later Icelandic halls, Beowulf saw Hrothgar
enthroned on a high seat at the east end of the hall. The seat is sacred.
It has a supernatural quality. Grendel, the fiend, cannot approach
it."--Br., p. 34. Cf. l. 168.

l. 405. "At Benty Grange, in Derbyshire, an Anglo-Saxon barrow, opened in
1848, contained a coat of mail. 'The iron chain work consists of a large
number of links of two kinds attached to each other by small rings half an
inch in diameter; one kind flat and lozenge-shaped ... the others all of
one kind, but of different lengths.'"--Br., p. 126.

l. 407. Wes ... h‚l: this ancient Teutonic greeting afterwards grew into
wassail. Cf. Skeat's _Luke_, i. 28; _Andreas_ (K.), 1827; Layamon, l.
14309, etc.

l. 414. "The distinction between wesan and weoran [in passive relations]
is not very clearly defined, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weoran
generally an action."--Sw. Cf. Mod. German _werden_ and _sein_ in similar

l. 414. Gr. translates h‚dor by _receptaculum_; cf. Gering, _Zachers
Zeitschr._ xii. 124. Toller-Bosw. ignores Gr.'s suggestion.

ll. 420, 421. B. reads: ˛Êr ic (_on_) fÓfelgeban (= _ocean_) ˝de eotena
cyn. Ten Br. reads: ˛Êr ic fÓfelgeban ˝de, eotena h‚m. Ha. suggests
fÓfelgeband = _monster-band_, without further changes.

l. 420. R. reads ˛Êra = _of them_, for ˛Êr.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 399;
_Beit._ xii. 367.

l. 420. "niht has a gen., nihtes, used for the most part only adverbially,
and almost certainly to be regarded as masculine."--Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 158.

l. 425. Cf. also ll. 435, 635, 2345, for other examples of Beowulf's
determination to fight single-handed.

l. 441. ˛e hine = _whom_, as at l. 1292, etc. The indeclinable ˛e is often
thus combined with personal pronouns, = relative, and is sometimes
separated from them by a considerable interval.--Sw.

l. 443. The MS. has Geotena. B. and Fahlbeck, says H.-So., do not consider
the Ge·tas, but the Jutes, as the inhabitants of Swedish West-Gothland.
Alfred translates Juti by Ge·tas, but _Jutland_ by _Gotland_. In the laws
they are called Guti.--_Beit._ xii. 1, etc.

l. 444. B., Gr., and Ha. make unforhte an adv. = _fearlessly_, modifying
etan. Kl. reads anforhte = _timid_.

l. 446. Cf. l. 2910. Th. translates: _thou wilt not need my head to hide_
(i.e. _bury_). Simrock supposes a dead-watch or lyke-wake to be meant.
Wood, _thou wilt not have to bury so much as my head!_ H.-So. supposes
he·fod-weard, _a guard of honor_, such as sovereigns or presumptive rulers
had, to be meant by hafalan h˝dan; hence, _you need not give me any guard_,
etc. Cf. Schmid, _Gesetze der A._, 370-372.

l. 447. S. places a colon after nime.

l. 451. H.-So., Ha., and B. (_Beit._ xii. 87) agree essentially in
translating feorme, _food_. R. translates _consumption of my corpse.
Maintenance, support_, seems preferable to either.

l. 452. Rˆnning (after Grimm) personifies Hild.--_Beovulfs Kvadet_, l. 59.
Hildr is the name of one of the Scandinavian Walkyries, or battle-maidens,
who transport the spirits of the slain to Walhalla. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l.
18, etc.

l. 455. "The war-smiths, especially as forgers of the sword, were garmented
with legend, and made into divine personages. Of these Weland is the type,
husband of a swan maiden, and afterwards almost a god."-- Br., p. 120. Cf.
A. J. C. Hare's account of "Wayland Smith's sword with which Henry II. was
knighted," and which hung in Westminster Abbey to a late date.--_Walks in
London_, ii. 228.

l. 455. This is the Êlces mannes wyrd of Boethius (Sw., p. 44) and the wyrd
bi swÓost of Gnomic Verses, 5. There are about a dozen references to it
in _BeÛwulf_.

l. 455. E. compares the fatalism of this concluding hemistich with the
Christian tone of l. 685 _seq._

ll. 457, 458. B. reads wÊre-ryhtum ( = _from the obligations of

l. 480. Cf. l. 1231, where the same sense, "flown with wine," occurs.

l. 488. "The dugu, the mature and ripe warriors, the aristocracy of the
nation, are the support of the throne."--E. The M. E. form of the word,
_douth_, occurs often. Associated with geogo, ll. 160 and 622.

l. 489. Kl. omits comma after meoto and reads (with B.) sige-hrÍ-secgum, =
_disclose thy thought to the victor-heroes_. Others, as Kˆrner, convert
meoto into an imperative and divide on sÊl = _think upon happiness_. But
cf. onband beadu-r˚ne, l. 501. B. supposes onsÊl meoto =_speak courteous
words_. _Tidskr_. viii. 292; _Haupts Zeitschr._ xi. 411; _Eng. Stud_. ii.

l. 489. Cf. the invitation at l. 1783.

l. 494. Cf. Grimm's _Andreas_, l. 1097, for deal, =_proud, elated,
exulting; Phoenix_ (Bright), l. 266.

l. 499. MS. has Hunfer, but the alliteration requires €nfer, as at ll.
499, 1166, 1489; and cf. ll. 1542, 2095, 2930. See _List of Names_.

l. 501. sÓ = _arrival_ (?); cf. l. 353.

l. 504. ˛on m‚ = _the more_ (?), may be added to the references under ˛on.

l. 506. E. compares the taunt of Eliab to David, I Sam. xvii. 28.

l. 509. dol-gilp = _idle boasting_. The second definition in the Gloss. is

l. 513. "Eagor-stream might possibly be translated the stream of Eagor, the
awful terror-striking stormy sea in which the terrible [Scandinavian] giant
dwelt, and through which he acted."--Br., p. 164. He remarks, "The English
term _eagre_ still survives in provincial dialect for the tide-wave or bore
on rivers. Dryden uses it in his _Threnod. Angust._ 'But like an _eagre_
rode in triumph o'er the tide.' Yet we must be cautious," etc. Cf. Fox's
_Boethius_, ll. 20, 236; Thorpe's _CÊdmon_, 69, etc.

l. 524. Kr¸ger and B. read B‚nst‚nes.--_Beit._ ix. 573.

l. 525. R. reads wyrsan (= wyrses: cf. Mod. Gr. _guten Muthes_) ge˛inges;
but H.-So. shows that the MS. wyrsan ... ˛ingea = wyrsena ˛inga, _can
stand_; cf. gen. pl. banan, _Christ_, l. 66, etc.

l. 534. Insert, under eard-lufa (in Gloss.), earfo, st. n., _trouble,
difficulty, struggle_; acc. pl. earfeo, 534.

l. 545 _seq._ "Five nights Beowulf and Breca kept together, not swimming,
but sailing in open boats (to swim the seas is to sail the seas), then
storm drove them asunder ... Breca is afterwards chief of the Brondings, a
tribe mentioned in _WÓdsÌth_. The story seems legendary, not
mythical."--Br., pp. 60, 61.

ll. 574-578. B. suggests sw‚ ˛Êr for hw‰ere, = _so there it befell me_.
But the word at l. 574 seems = _however_, and at l. 578 = _yet_; cf. l.
891; see S.; _Beit._ ix. 138; _Tidskr_. viii. 48; _Zacher_, iii. 387, etc.

l. 586. Gr. and Grundt. read f‚gum sweordum (no ic ˛‰s fela gylpe!),
supplying fela and blending the broken half-lines into one. Ho. and Kl.
supply geflites.

l. 599. E. translates n˝d-b‚de by _blackmail_; adding "nÍd b‚d, _toll_; nÍd
b‚dere, _tolltaker_."--Land Charters, Gloss, v.

l. 601. MS. has ond = _and_ in three places only (601, 1149, 2041);
elsewhere it uses the symbol 7 = _and_.

l. 612. _seq._ Cf. the drinking ceremony at l. 1025. "The royal lady offers
the cup to Beowulf, not in his turn where he sate among the rest, but after
it has gone the round; her approach to Beowulf is an act apart."--E.

l. 620. "The [loving] cup which went the round of the company and was
tasted by all," like the Oriel and other college anniversary cups.--E.

l. 622. Cf. ll. 160, 1191, for the respective places of young and old.

l. 623. Cf. the circlet of gold worn by Wealh˛eÛw at l. 1164.

l. 631. gyddode. Cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ l. 237 (ed. Morris):

    "Of _yeddynges_ he bar utterly the prys."

Cf. _giddy_.

l. 648. Kl. suggests a period after ge˛inged, especially as B. (_Tidskr_.
viii. 57) has shown that o˛˛e is sometimes = ond. Th. supplies ne.

l. 650. o˛˛e here and at ll. 2476, 3007, probably = _and_.

l. 651. Cf. 704, where sceadu-genga (the _night-ganger_ of _Leechdoms_, ii.
344) is applied to the demon.--E.

l. 659. Cf. l. 2431 for same formula, "to have and to hold" of the Marriage

l. 681. B. considers ˛e·h ... eal a precursor of Mod. Eng. _although_.

l. 682. gÙdra = _advantages in battle_ (Gr.), _battle-skill_ (Ha.), _skill
in war_ (H.-So.). Might not n‚t be changed to nah = ne + ‚h (cf. l. 2253),
thus justifying the translation _ability_ (?) --_he has not the ability
to_, etc.

l. 695. Kl. reads hiera.--_Beit._ ix. 189. B. omits hÓe as occurring in the
previous hemistich.--_Beit._ xii. 89.

l. 698. "Here Destiny is a web of cloth."--E., who compares the Greek
Clotho, "spinster of fate." Women are also called "weavers of peace," as l.
1943. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l. 88; _WÓdsÓ_, l. 6, etc.

l. 711. B. translates ˛‚ by _when_ and connects with the preceding
sentences, thus rejecting the ordinary canto-division at l. 711. He objects
to the use of com as principal vb. at ll. 703, 711, and 721. (_Beit_, xii.)

l. 711. "Perhaps the Gnomic verse which tells of Thyrs, the giant, is
written with Grendel in the writer's mind,--˛yrs sceal on fenne gewunian
‚na inuan lande, _the giant shall dwell in the fen, alone in the land_
(Sweet's Read., p. 187)."--Br. p. 36.

l. 717. Dietrich, in _Haupt._ xi. 419, quotes from ∆lfric, _Hom._ ii. 498:
hÍ beworhte ˛‚ bigelsas mid gyldenum lÊfrum, _he covered the arches with
gold-leaf_,--a Roman custom derived from Carthage. Cf. Mod. Eng. _oriel_ =
_aureolum_, a gilded room.--E. (quoting Skeat). Cf. ll. 2257, 1097, 2247,
2103, 2702, 2283, 333, 1751, for various uses of gold-sheets.

l. 720. B. and ten Br. suggest _hell-thane_ (Grendel) for heal-˛egnas, and
make h‰le refer to Beowulf. Cf. l. 142.

l. 723. Z. reads [ge]hr‚n.

l. 727. For this use of standan, cf. ll. 2314, 2770; and Vergil, _Ecl._ ii. 26:

    "Cum placidum ventis _staret_ mare."

l. 757. gedr‰g. _Tumult_ is one of the meanings of this word. Here, appar.
= _occupation, lair_.

l. 759. R. reads mÙdega for gÙda, "because the attribute cannot be
separated from the word modified unless the two alliterate."

l. 762. Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1537, for a similar use of ˚t = _off_.--E.

l. 769. The foreign words in _BeÛwulf_ (as ceaster-here) are not numerous;
others are (aside from proper names like _Cain, Abel_, etc.) deÛfol
(diabolus), candel (l. 1573), ancor (l. 303), scrÓfan (for- ge-), segn (l.
47), gigant (l. 113), mÓl- (l. 1363), strÊt (l. 320), ombeht (l. 287), gim
(l. 2073), etc.

l. 770. MS. reads cerwen, a word conceived by B. and others to be part of a
fem. compd.: -scerwen like -wenden in ed-wenden, -rÊden, etc. (cf.
meodu-scerpen in _Andreas_, l. 1528); emended to -scerwen, _a great scare
under the figure of a mishap at a drinking-bout_; one might compare
bescerwan, _to deprive_, from bescyrian (Grein, i. 93), hence ealu-seerwen
would = _a sudden taking away, deprivation, of the beer_.--H.-So., p. 93.
See B., _Tidskr_. viii. 292.

l. 771. Ten Br. reads rÍe, rÍnhearde, = _raging, exceeding bold_.

l. 792. Instrumental adverbial phrases like Ênige ˛inga, nÊnige ˛inga (_not
at all_), h˚ru ˛inga (_especially_) are not infrequent. See Cook's Sievers'
Gram., p. 178; March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 182.

l. 811. myre. E. translates _in wanton mood_. Toller-Bosw. does not
recognize _sorrow_ as one of the meanings of this word.

ll. 850, 851. S. reads deÛp for deÛg and erases semicolon after weÛl, =
_the death-stained deep welled with sword-gore_; cf. l. 1424. B. reads
de·-fÊges deÛp, etc., = _the deep welled with the doomed one's
gore_.--_Beit._ xii. 89.

l. 857. The meaning of blaneum is partly explained by fealwe mearas below,
l. 866. Cf. Layamon's "and leop on his _blancke" = steed_, l. 23900; Kent's
_Elene_, l. 1185.

l. 859. Kˆrner, _Eng. Stud_. i. 482, regards the oft-recurring be sÊm
tweÛnum as a mere formula = _on earth_; cf. ll. 1298, 1686. tweÛne is part
of the separable prep. _between_; see be-. Cf. Baskerville's _Andreas_, l.

l. 865. Cf. _Voyage of ‘hthere and Wulfst‚n_ for an account of funeral
horse-racing, Sweet's Read., p. 22.

l. 868. See Ha., p. 31, for a variant translation.

l. 871 _seq._ R. considers this a technical description of improvised
alliterative verse, suggested by and wrought out on the spur of the moment.

l. 872. R. and B. propose secg[an], = _rehearse_, for secg, which suits the
verbs in the next two lines.

ll. 878-98. "It pleases me to think that it is in English literature we
possess the first sketch of that mighty saga [the Volsunga Saga = W‰lsinges
gewin] which has for so many centuries engaged all the arts, and at last in
the hands of Wagner the art of music."--Br., p. 63. Cf. _Nibelung. Lied_,
l. 739.

l. 894. Intransitive verbs, as g‚n, weoran, sometimes take habban, "to
indicate independent action."--Sw. Cf. hafa ... geworden, l. 2027.

l. 895. "br˚can (_enjoy_) always has the genitive."--Sw.; cf. l. 895; acc.,
gen., instr., dat., according to March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 151.

l. 898. Scherer proposes h‚te, = _from heat_, instr. of h‚t, _heat_; cf. l.

l. 901. hÍ ˛‰s ‚ron ˛‚h = _he throve in honor_ (B.). Ten Br. inserts comma
after ˛‚h, making sian introduce a depend. clause.--_Beit._ viii. 568.
Cf. weor-myndum ˛‚h, l. 8; ll. 1155, 1243.--H.-So.

l. 902. HeremÙdes is considered by Heinzel to be a mere epithet = _the
valiant_; which would refer the whole passage to Sigmund (Sigfrid), the
eotenas, l. 903, being the Nibelungen. This, says H.-So., gets rid of the
contradiction between the good "HeremÙd" here and the bad one, l. 1710
_seq._--B. however holds fast to HeremÙd.--_Beit._ xii. 41. on feÛnda
geweald, l. 904,--_into the hands of devils_, says B.; cf. ll. 809, 1721,
2267; _Christ_, l. 1416; _Andreas_, l. 1621; for hine fyren onwÙd, cf.
_Gen._ l. 2579; Hunt's _Dan._ 17: hÓe wlenco anwÙd.

l. 902 _seq._ "HeremÙd's shame is contrasted with the glory of Sigemund,
and with the prudence, patience, generosity, and gentleness of Beowulf as a
chieftain."--Br., p. 66.

l. 906. MS. has lemede. Toller-Bosw. corrects to lemedon.

l. 917. Cf. Hunt's _Exod._, l. 170, for similar language.

l. 925. hÙs, G. hansa, _company_, "the word from which the mercantile
association of the 'Hanseatic' towns took their designation."--E.

l. 927. on sta˛ole = _on the floor_ (B., Rask, ten Br.).--_Beit._ xii. 90.

l. 927. May not ste·pne here = _bright_, from its being immediately
followed by golde f‚hne? Cf. Chaucer's "his eyen _stepe_," _Prol._ l. 201
(ed. Morris); Cockayne's _Ste. Marherete_, pp. 9, 108; _St. Kath._, l.

l. 931. grynna may be for gyrnna (= _sorrows_), gen. plu. of gyrn, as
suggested by one commentator.

l. 937. B. (_Beit._ xii. 90) makes gehwylcne object of wÓd-scofen (h‰fde).
Gr. makes we· nom. absolute.

l. 940. scuccum: cf. G. scheuche, scheusal; Prov. Eng. _old-shock_; perhaps
the pop. interjection _O shucks!_ (!)

l. 959. H. explains we as a "plur. of majesty," which BeÛwulf throws off at
l. 964.

l. 963. feÛnd ˛one fr‰tgan (B. _Beit._ xii. 90).

l. 976. synnum. "Most abstract words in the poetry have a very wide range
of meanings, diverging widely from the prose usage, synn, for instance,
means simply _injury, mischief, hatred_, and the prose meaning _sin_ is
only a secondary one; hata in poetry is not only _hater_, but _persecutor,
enemy_, just as nÓ is both _hatred_ and _violence, strength_; heard is
_sharp_ as well as _hard_."--Sw.

l. 986. S. places w‰s at end of l. 985 and reads stÓra n‰gla, omitting
gehwylc and the commas after that and after sce·wedon. _Beit._ ix. 138;
stÍdra (H.-So.); hand-sporu (H.-So.) at l. 987.

l. 986. Miller (_Anglia_, xii. 3) corrects to Êghwylene, in apposition to

l. 987. hand-sporu. See _Anglia_, vii. 176, for a discussion of the
intrusion of u into the nom. of n-stems.

l. 988. Cf. ll. 2121, 2414, for similar use of unheÛru = ungeheuer.

l. 992. B. suggests he·timbred for h‚ten, and gefr‰twon for -od; Kl.,
hroden (_Beit._ ix. 189).

l. 995, 996. Gold-embroidered tapestries seem to be meant by web =

l. 997. After ˛‚ra ˛e = _of those that_, the depend, vb. often takes sg.
for pl.; cf. ll. 844, 1462, 2384, 2736.--Sw.; Dietrich.

l. 998. "Metathesis of l takes place in seld for setl, bold for botl,"
etc.--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 96. Cf. Eng. proper names, _Bootle,
Battle_field, etc.--Skeat, _Principles_, i. 250.

l. 1000. heorras: cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ (ed. Morris) l. 550:

    "Ther was no dore that he nolde heve of _harre_."

ll. 1005-1007. See _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 391, and _Beit._ xii. 368, for
R.'s and B.'s views of this difficult passage.

l. 1009. Cf. l. 1612 for sÊl and mÊl, surviving still in E. Anglia in "mind
your _seals and meals_," = _times and occasions_, i.e. have your wits about

ll. 1012, 1013. Cf. ll. 753, 754 for two similar comparatives used in

l. 1014. Cf. l. 327 for similar language.

ll. 1015, 1016. H.-So. puts these two lines in parentheses (fylle ...
˛‚ra). Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 91.

l. 1024. One of the many famous swords spoken of in the poem. See Hrunting,
ll. 1458, 1660; H˚nl‚fing, l. 1144, etc. Cf. Excalibur, Roland's sword, the
Nibelung Balmung, etc.

l. 1034. sc˚r-heard. For an ingenious explanation of this disputed word see
Professor Pearce's article in _Mod. Lang. Notes_, Nov. 1, 1892, and ensuing

l. 1039. eoderas is of doubtful meaning. H. and Toller-Bosw. regard the
word here = _enclosure, palings of the court_. Cf. _CÊdmon_, ll. 2439,
2481. The passage throws interesting light on horses and their trappings

l. 1043. Grundt. emends wÓg to wicg, = _charger_; and E. quotes Tacitus,
_Germania_, 7.

l. 1044. "Power over each and both"; cf. "all and some," "one and all."

For Ingwin, see _List of Names_.

l. 1065. Gr. contends that fore here = de, _concerning, about_ (Ebert's
_Jahrb._, 1862, p. 269).

l. 1069. H.-So. supplies fram after eaferum, to govern it, = _concerning_
(?). Cf. _Fight at Finnsburg_, Appendix.

l. 1070. For the numerous names of the Danes, "bright-" "spear-" "east-"
"west-" "ring-" Danes, see these words.

l. 1073. Eotenas = _Finn's people, the Frisians_; cf. ll. 1089, 1142, 1146,
etc., and _Beit._ xii. 37. Why they are so called is not known.

l. 1084. R. proposes wiht Hengeste wi gefeohtan (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii.
394). Kl., wi H. wiht gefeohtan.

ll. 1085 and 1099. we·-l‚f occurs in Wulfstan, _Hom._ 133, ed. Napier.--E.
Cf. daroa l‚f, _Brunanb._, l. 54; ‚des l‚fe, _Phoenix_, 272 (Bright), etc.

l. 1098. elne unflitme = _so dass der eid (der inhalt des eides) nicht
streitig war_.--B., _Beit._ iii. 30. But cf. 1130, where Hengist and Finn
are again brought into juxtaposition and the expression ealles (?) unhlitme

l. 1106. The pres. part. + be, as myndgiend wÊre here, is comparatively
rare in original A.-S. literature, but occurs abundantly in translations
from the Latin. The periphrasis is generally meaningless. Cf. l. 3029.

l. 1108. Kˆrner suggests ecge, = _sword_, in reference to a supposed old
German custom of placing ornaments, etc., on the point of a sword or spear
(_Eng. Stud._ i. 495). Singer, ince-gold = _bright gold_; B., andiÈge =
Goth, _andaugjo, evidently_. Cf. incge l‚fe, l. 2578. Possibly: and inge (=
_young men_) gold ‚hÙfon of horde. For inge, cf. Hunt's _Exod._ l. 190.

ll. 1115-1120. R. proposes (hÍt ˛‚ ...) b‚nfatu b‰rnan ond on bÊl dÙn,
earme on eaxe = _to place the arms in the ashes_, reading g˚rÍc =
_battle-reek_, for -rinc (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 395). B., Sarrazin
(_Beit._ xi. 530), Lichtenfeld (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 330), C., etc.,
propose various emendations. See H.-So., p. 97, and _Beit._ viii. 568. For
g˘rinc ‚st‚h, cf. Old Norse, _stiga · b·l_, "ascend the bale-fire."

l. 1116. sweoloe. "On Dartmoor the burning of the furze up the hillsides
to let new grass grow, is called _zwayling_."--E. Cf. _sultry_, G.
_schw¸l_, etc.

l. 1119. Cf. wudu-rÍc ‚st‚h, l. 3145; and _Exod_. (Hunt), l. 450: wÊlmist

l. 1122. ‰tspranc = _burst forth, arose_ (omitted from the Gloss.), < ‰t +

l. 1130. R. and Gr. read elne unflitme, = _loyally and without contest_, as
at l. 1098. Cf. Ha., p. 39; H.-So., p. 97.

l. 1137. scacen = _gone_; cf. ll. 1125, 2307, 2728.

l. 1142. "The sons of the Eotenas" (B., _Beit._ xii. 31, who conjectures a
gap after 1142).

l. 1144. B. separates thus: H˚n L‚fing, = _H˚n placed the sword L‚fing_,
etc.--_Beit._ xii. 32; cf. R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 396. Heinzel and
Homburg make other conjectures (Herrig's _Archiv_, 72, 374, etc.).

l. 1143. B., H.-So., and Mˆller read: worod rÊdenne, ˛onne him H˚n L‚fing,
= _military brotherhood, when H˚n laid upon his breast_ (the sword)
_L‚fing_. There is a sword _Laufi, Lˆvi_ in the Norse sagas; but swords,
armor, etc., are often called the _leaving_ (l‚f) of files, hammers, etc.,
especially a precious heirloom; cf. ll. 454, 1033, 2830, 2037, 2629, 796,
etc., etc.

l. 1152. roden = _reddened_ (B., _Tidskr_. viii. 295).

l. 1160. For ll. 1069-1160, containing the Finn episode, cf. Mˆller,
_Alteng. Volksepos_, 69, 86, 94; Heinzel, _Anz. f. dtsch. Altert._, 10,
226; B., _Beit._ xii. 29-37. Cf. _WÓdsÓ_, l. 33, etc.

ll. 1160, 1161. leÛ (lied = _song, lay_) and gyd here appear synonyms.

ll. 1162-1165. "Behind the wars and tribal wanderings, behind the
contentions of the great, we watch in this poem the steady, continuous life
of home, the passions and thoughts of men, the way they talked and moved
and sang and drank and lived and loved among one another and for one
another."--Br., p. 18.

l. 1163. Cf. _wonderwork_. So _wonder-death, wonder-bidding,
wonder-treasure, -smith, -sight_, etc. at ll. 1748, 3038, 2174, 1682, 996,
etc. Cf. the German use of the same intensive, = _wondrous_, in
_wunder-schˆn_, etc.

l. 1165. ˛‚ gyt points to some future event when "each" was not "true to
other," undeveloped in this poem, suhtor-gef‰deran = HrÙg‚r and HrÙulf,
l. 1018. Cf. ‚um-swerian, l. 84.

l. 1167 almost repeats l. 500, ‰t fÙtum, etc., where €nfer is first

l. 1191. E. sees in this passage separate seats for youth and middle-aged
men, as in English college halls, chapels, convocations, and churches

l. 1192. ymbutan, _round about_, is sometimes thus separated: ymb hie ˚tan;
cf. _Voyage of ‘hthere_, etc. (Sw.), p. 18, l. 34, etc.; _BeÛwulf_, ll.
859, 1686, etc.

l. 1194. bew‰gned, a [Greek: hapax legomenon], tr. _offered_ by Th.
Probably a p. p. w‰gen, made into a vb. by -ian, like _own, drown_, etc.
Cf. hafenian ( < hafen, < hebban), etc.

l. 1196. E. takes the expression to mean "mantle and its rings or
broaches." "Rail" long survived in Mid. Eng. (_Piers Plow_., etc.).

l. 1196. This necklace was afterwards given by Beowulf to Hygd, ll. 2173,

ll. 1199-1215. From the obscure hints in the passage, a part of the poem
may be approximately dated,--if Hygel‚c is the _Chochi-laicus_ of Gregory
of Tours, _Hist. Francorum_, iii. 3,--about A.D. 512-20.

l. 1200. The Breosinga men (Icel. _Brisinga men_) is the necklace of the
goddess Freya; cf. _Elder Edda, Hamarshemt_. H‚ma stole the necklace from
the Gothic King EormenrÓc; cf. _Traveller's Song_, ll. 8, 18, 88, 111. The
comparison of the two necklaces leads the poet to anticipate Hygel‚c's
history,--a suggestion of the poem's mosaic construction.

l. 1200. For BrÙsinga mene, cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 72. C. suggests fle·h, =
_fled_, for fealh, placing semicolon after byrig, and making hÍ subject of
fle·h and gece·s.

l. 1202. B. conjectures gece·s Ícne rÊd to mean _he became a pious man and
at death went to heaven_. Heime (H‚ma) in the _Thidrekssaga_ goes into a
cloister = to choose the better part (?). Cf. H.-So., p. 98. But cf.
HrÙg‚r's language to Beowulf, ll. 1760, 1761.

l. 1211. S. proposes feoh, = _property_, for feorh, which would be a
parallel for breÛst-gewÊdu ... be·h below.

l. 1213. E. remarks that in the _Laws of Cnut_, i. 26, the devil is called
se wÙdfreca werewulf, _the ravening werwolf_.

l. 1215. C. proposes heals-bÍge onfÍng. _Beit._ viii. 570. For hre‚- Kl.
suggests hrÊ-.

l. 1227. The son referred to is, according to Ettm¸ller, the one that
reigns after HrÙg‚r.

l. 1229. Kl. suggests sÓ, = _be_, for _is_.

l. 1232. S. gives _wine-elated_ as the meaning of druncne.--_Beit._ ix.
139; Kl. _ibid_. 189, 194. But cf. _Judith_, ll. 67, 107.

l. 1235. Cf. l. 119 for similarity of language.

l. 1235. Kl. proposes gea-sceaft; but cf. l. 1267.

l. 1246. Ring armor was common in the Middle Ages. E. points out the
numerous forms of byrne in cognate languages,--Gothic, Icelandic, OHG.,
Slavonic, O. Irish, Romance, etc. Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, i. 126. Cf.
Murray's _Dict._ s. v.

l. 1248. ‚nwÓg-gearwe = _ready for single combat_ (C.); but cf. Ha. p. 43;
_Beit._ ix. 210, 282.

l. 1252. Some consider this _fitt_ the beginning of Part (or Lay) II. of
the original epic, if not a separate work in itself.

l. 1254. K., W., and Ho. read farode = _wasted;_ Kolbing reads furode; but
cf. wÍsten warode, l. 1266. MS. has warode.

ll. 1255-1258. This passage is a good illustration of the constant
parallelism of word and phrase characteristic of A.-S. poetry, and is
quoted by Sw. The changes are rung on ende and swylt, on ges˝ne and wÓdc˚,

l. 1259. "That this story of Grendel's mother was originally a separate lay
from the first seems to be suggested by the fact that the monsters are
described over again, and many new details added, such as would be inserted
by a new singer who wished to enhance and adorn the original tale."--Br.,
p. 41.

l. 1259. Cf. l. 107, which also points to the ancestry of murderers and
monsters and their descent from "Cain."

l. 1261. The MS. has se ˛e, m.; changed by some to seo ˛e. At ll. 1393,
1395, 1498, Grendel's mother is referred to as m.; at ll. 1293, 1505,
1541-1546, etc., as f., the uncertain pronoun designating a creature female
in certain aspects, but masculine in demonic strength and
savageness.--H.-So.; Sw. p. 202. Cf. the masc. epithets at ll. 1380, 2137,

l. 1270. ‚glÊca = _Grendel_, though possibly referring to Beowulf, as at l.

l. 1273. "It is not certain whether anwalda stands for onwealda, or whether
it should be read ‚nwealda, = _only ruler_.--Sw.

l. 1279. The MS. has sunu ˛eod wrecan, which R. changes to sunu
˛eÛd-wrecan, ˛eÛd- = _monstrous_; but why not regard ˛eÛd as opposition to
sunu, = _her son, the prince?_ See Sweet's Reader, and Kˆrner's discussion,
_Eng. Stud._ i. 500.

l. 1281. Ten Br. suggests (for sÙna) s‚ra = _return of sorrows._

l. 1286. "ge˛uren (twice so written in MSS.) stands for ge˛r˙en, _forged_,
and is an isolated p. p."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., 209. But see Toller-Bosw.
for examples; Sw., Gloss.; March, p. 100, etc.

ll. 1292. ˛e hine = _whom;_ cf. ll. 441, 1437, 1292; _HÍliand_, l. 1308.

l. 1298. be sÊm tweonum; cf. l. 1192; Hunt's _Exod_. l. 442; and Mod. Eng.
"to _us_-ward, etc.--Earle's _Philol._, p. 449. Cf. note, l. 1192.

l. 1301. C. proposes Ùer him ‰rn = _another apartment was assigned him_.

l. 1303. B. conjectures under hrÙf genam; but Ha., p. 45, shows this to be
unnecessary, under also meaning _in_, as _in_ (or _under_) these

l. 1319. E. and Sw. suggest nÊgde or nÍgde, _accosted_, < nÍgan = Mid. Ger.
_nÍhwian_, pr. p. _nÍhwiandans, approach_. For hnÊgan, _press down,
vanquish_, see ll. 1275, 1440, etc.

l. 1321. C. suggests ne·d-l‚um for neÛd-lau, _after crushing hostility_;
but cf. freÛnd-lau, l. 1193.

l. 1334. K. and ten Br. conjecture gef‰gnod = _rejoicing in her fill_, a
parallel to Êse wlanc, l. 1333.

l. 1340. B. translates: "and she has executed a deed of blood-vengeance of
far-reaching consequence."--_Beit._ xii. 93.

l. 1345. B. reads geÛ for eÛw (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 205).

ll. 1346-1377. "This is a fine piece of folk-lore in the oldest extant
form.... The authorities for the story are the rustics (ll. 1346, 1356)."

l. 1347. Cf. sele-rÊdende at l. 51.

l. 1351. "The ge [of gewitan] may be merely a scribal error,--a repetition
(dittography) of the preceding ge of gewislÓcost."--Sw.

l. 1352. ides, like firas, _men_, etc., is a poetic word supposed by Grimm
to have been applied, like Gr. [Greek: n˙mphÊ], to superhuman or
semi-divine women.

ll. 1360-1495 _seq._ E. compares this Dantesque tarn and scenery with the
poetical accounts of _∆neid_, vii. 563; _Lucretius_, vi. 739, etc.

l. 1360. firgenstre·m occurs also in the _Phoenix_ (Bright, p. 168) l. 100;
_Andreas_, ll. 779, 3144 (K.); _Gnomic Verses_, l. 47, etc.

l. 1363. The genitive is often thus used to denote measure = by or in
miles; cf. l. 3043; and contrast with partitive gen. at l. 207.

l. 1364. The MS. reads hrinde = hrÓnende (?), which Gr. adopts; K. and Th.
read hrinde-bearwas; hringde, _encircling_ (Sarrazin, _Beit._ xi. 163);
hrÓmge = _frosty_ (Sw.); _with frost-whiting covered_ (Ha.). See Morris,
_Blickling Hom_., Preface, vi., vii.

l. 1364. Cf. Ruin, hrÓmige edoras behrofene, _rimy, roofless halls_.

l. 1366. nÓwundor may = ni- (as in ni-sele, _q. v._) wundor, _wonder of
the deep_.

l. 1368. The personal pronoun is sometimes omitted in subordinate and even
independent clauses; cf. wite here; and Hunt's _Exod_., l. 319.

l. 1370. hornum. Such "datives of manner or respect" are not infrequent
with adj.

l. 1371. "sele is not dependent on Êr, for in that case it would be in the
subjunctive, but Êr is simply an adverb, correlative with the conjunction
Êr in the next line: 'he will (sooner) give up his life, before he will,'

l. 1372. Cf. ll. 318 and 543 for willan with similar omitted inf.

l. 1373. heafola is found only in poetry.--Sw. It occurs thirteen or
fourteen times in this poem. Cf. the poetic gamol, sw‚t (l. 2694), etc.,
for eald, blÙd.

l. 1391. uton: hortatory subj. of wÓtan, _go_, = _let us go;_ cf. French
_allons_, Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_, etc. + inf. Cf. ll. 2649, 3102.

l. 1400. H. is dat. of person indirectly affected, = advantage.

l. 1402. geatolÓc probably = _in his equipments_, as B. suggests (_Beit._
xii. 83), comparing searolÓc.

ll. 1402, 1413 reproduce the wk. form of the pret. of g‚n (Goth,
_gaggida_). Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1096, etc.

l. 1405. S. (_Beit._ ix. 140) supplies [˛Êr heÛ] gegnum fÙr; B. (_ibid._
xii. 14) suggests hwÊr heÛ.

l. 1411. B., Gr., and E. take ‚n-paas = paths wide enough for only one,
like Norwegian _einstig_; cf. stÓge nearwe, just above. _Trail_ is the
meaning. Cf. enge ‚npaas, unc˚ gel‚d, _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 58.

l. 1421. Cf. onc˝, l. 831. The whole passage (ll. 1411-1442) is replete
with suggestions of walrus-hunting, seal-fishing, harpooning of sea-animals
(l. 1438), etc.

l. 1425. E. quotes from the 8th cent. Corpus Gloss., "_Falanx_ foea."

l. 1428. For other mention of nicors, cf. ll. 422, 575, 846. E. remarks,
"it survives in the phrase 'Old Nick' ... a word of high authority ...
Icel. _nykr_, water-goblin, Dan. _nˆk, nisse_, Swed. _n‰cken_, G. _nix,
nixe_, etc." See Skeat, _Nick._

l. 1440. Sw. reads gehnÊged, _prostrated_, and regards nÓa as gen. pl.
"used instrumentally," = _by force._

l. 1441. -bora = _bearer, stirrer;_ occurs in other compds., as mund-,
rÊd-, wÊg-bora.

l. 1447. him = _for him_, a remoter dative of reference.--Sw.

l. 1455. Gr. reads brondne, = _flaming_.

l. 1457. leÛn is the inf. of l‚h; cf. onl‚h (< onleÛn) at l. 1468. lÓhan
was formerly given as the inf.; cf. lÊne = lÊhne.

l. 1458. Cf. the similar dat. of possession as used in Latin.

l. 1458. H.-So. compares the Icelandic saga account of Grettir's battle
with the giant in the cave. h‰ft-mÍce may be = Icel. _heptisax_ (_Anglia_,
iii. 83), "hip-knife."

l. 1459. "The sense seems to be 'pre-eminent among the old treasures.' ...
But possibly foran is here a prep. with the gen.: 'one before the old
treasures.'".--Sw. For other examples of foran, cf. ll. 985, 2365.

l. 1460. ‚ter-te·rum = _poison-drops_ (C., _Beit._ viii. 571; S., _ibid_.
xi. 359).

l. 1467. ˛‰t, comp. relative, = _that which_; "we testify _that_ we do

l. 1480. for-gewitenum is in appos. to me, = _mihi defuncto_.--M.
Callaway, _Am. Journ. of Philol._, October, 1889.

l. 1482. nime. Conditional clauses of doubt or future contingency take gif
or b˚ton with subj.; cf. ll. 452, 594; of fact or certainty, the ind.; cf.
ll. 442, 447, 527, 662, etc. For b˚ton, cf. ll. 967, 1561.

l. 1487. "findan sometimes has a preterit funde in W. S. after the manner
of the weak preterits."--Cook's Sievers' Cram., p, 210.

l. 1490. Kl. reads w‰l-sweord, = _battle-sword_.

l. 1507. "This cave under the sea seems to be another of those natural
phenomena of which the writer had personal knowledge (ll. 2135, 2277), and
which was introduced by him into the mythical tale to give it a local
color. There are many places of this kind. Their entrance is under the
lowest level of the tide."--Br., p. 45.

l. 1514. B. (_Beit._ xii. 362) explains nisele, hrÙfsele as _roof-covered
hall in the deep_; cf. Grettir Saga (_Anglia_, iii. 83).

l. 1538. Sw., R., and ten Br. suggest feaxe for eaxle, = _seized by the

l. 1543. and-le·n (R.); cf. l. 2095. The MS. has hand-le·n.

l. 1546. Sw. and S. read seax.--_Beit._ ix. 140.

l. 1557. H.-So. omits comma and places semicolon after ˝elÓce; Sw. and S.
place comma after gescÍd.

l. 1584. Ùer swylc = _another fifteen_ (Sw.); = _fully as many_ (Ha.).

ll. 1592-1613 _seq._ Cf. _Anglia_, iii; 84 (Grettir Saga).

l. 1595. blondenfeax = _grizzly-haired_ (Bright, Reader, p. 258); cf.
_Brunanb._, l. 45 (Bright).

l. 1599. gewear, impers. vb., = _agree, decide = many agreed upon this,
that_, etc. (Ha., p. 55; cf. ll. 2025-2027, 1997; B., _Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1605. C. supposes wiston = wÓscton = _wished_.--_Beit._ viii. 571.

l. 1607. broden mÊl is now regarded as a comp. noun, = _inlaid or
damascened sword_.--W., Ho.

l. 1611. w‰l-r‚pas = _water-ropes = bands of frost_ (l. 1610) (?). Possibly
the Prov. Eng. weele, _whirlpool_. Cf. wÊl, _gurges_, Wright, Voc., _Gnom.
Verses_, l. 39.--E.

l. 1611. wÊgr‚pas (Sw.) = _wave-bands_ (Ha.).

l. 1622. B. suggests eatna = eotena, eardas, _haunts of the giants_
(Northumbr. ea for eo).

l. 1635. cyning-holde (B., _Beit._ xii. 369); cf. l. 290.

l. 1650. H., Gr., and Ettm¸ller understand idese to refer to the queen.

l. 1651. Cf. _Anglia_, iii. 74, _Beit._ xi. 167, for coincidences with the
Grettir Saga (13th cent.).

l. 1657. Restore MS. reading wigge in place of wÓge.

l. 1664. B. proposes eotenise ... Ëste for e·cen ... oftost, omitting
brackets (_Zackers Zeitschr._ iv. 206). G. translates _mighty ... often_.

l. 1675. ondrÊdan. "In late texts the final n of the preposition on is
frequently lost when it occurs in a compound word or stereotyped phrase,
and the prefix then appears as a: ab˙tan, amang, aweg, aright,
adr'Êdan."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 98.

ll. 1680-1682. Giants and their work are also referred to at ll. 113, 455,
1563, 1691, etc.

l. 1680. Cf. ceastra ... oranc enta geweorc, _Gnomic Verses_, l. 2;
Sweet's Reader, p. 186.

ll. 1687-1697. "In this description of the writing on the sword, we see the
process of transition from heathen magic to the notions of Christian times
.... The history of the flood and of the giants ... were substitutes for
names of heathen gods, and magic spells for victory."--E. Cf. Mohammedan

ll. 1703, 1704. ˛‰t ˛Í eorl nÊre geboren betera (B., _Tidskr._ 8, 52).

l. 1715. ‚na hwearf = _he died solitary and alone_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38); =
_lonely_ (Ha.); = _alone_ (G.).

l. 1723. leÛd-bealo longsum = _eternal hell-torment_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38,
who compares _Ps. Cott._ 57, lÓf longsum).

l. 1729. E. translates on lufan, _towards possession_; Ha., _to

l. 1730. mÙdge˛onc, like lig, sÊ, segn, niht, etc., is of double gender
(m., n. in the case of mÙdge˛.).

l. 1741. The doctrine of nemesis following close on [Greek: hubris], or
overweening pride, is here very clearly enunciated. The only protector
against the things that "assault and hurt" the soul is the "Bishop and
Shepherd of our souls" (l. 1743).

l. 1745 appears dimly to fore-shadow the office of the evil archer Loki,
who in the Scandinavian mythology shoots Balder with a mistletoe twig. The
language closely resembles that of Psalm 64.

l. 1748. Kl. regards wom = wÙ(u)m; cf. wÙh-bogen, l. 2828. See Gloss., p.
295, under wam. Contrast the construction of bebeorgan a few lines below
(l. 1759), where the dat. and acc. are associated.

l. 1748. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 167, for declension of wÙh, _wrong_
= gen. wÙs or wÙges, dat. wÙ(u)m, etc.; pl. gen. wÙra, dat. wÙ(u)m, etc.;
and cf. declension of he·h, hreÛh, r˚h, etc.

l. 1748. wergan g‚stes; cf. _Blickl. Hom._ vii.; _Andreas_, l. 1171. "_Auld
Wearie_ is used in Scotland, or was used a few years ago, ... to mean the
devil."--E. Bede's _Eccles. Hist._ contains (naturally) many examples of
the expression = devil.

l. 1750. on gyld = _in reward_ (B. _Beit._ xii. 95); Ha. translates
_boastfully_; G., _for boasting_; Gr., _to incite to boastfulness_. Cf.
_Christ_, l. 818.

l. 1767. E. thinks this an allusion to the widespread superstition of the
evil eye (_mal occhio, mauvais Êil_). Cf. Vergil, _Ecl._ iii. 103. He
remarks that Pius IX., Gambetta, and President Carnot were charged by their
enemies with possessing this weapon.

l. 1784. wigge geweorad (MS. wigge weorad) is C.'s conjecture; cf.
_Elene_, l. 150. So G., _honored in war_.

l. 1785. The future generally implied in the present of beÛn is plainly
seen in this line; cf. ll. 1826, 661, 1830, 1763, etc.

l. 1794. Some impers. vbs. take acc. (as here, Geat) of the person
affected; others (as ˛yncan) take the dat. of the person, as at ll. 688,
1749, etc. Cf. verbs of dreaming, being ashamed, desiring, etc.--March,
A.-S. Gram., p. 145.

l. 1802. E. remarks that the blaca hrefn here is a bird of good omen, as
opposed to se wonna hrefn of l. 3025. The raven, wolf, and eagle are the
regular epic accompaniments of battle and carnage. Cf. ll. 3025-3028;
_Maldon_, 106; _Judith_, 205-210, etc.

l. 1803. S. emends to read: "then came the light, going bright after
darkness: the warriors," etc. Cf. Ho., p. 41, l. 23. G. puts period before
"the warriors." For onettan, cf. Sw.'s Gloss, and Bright's Read., Gloss.

ll. 1808-1810. M¸llenh. and Grundt. refer se hearda to Beowulf, correct
sunu (MS.) to suna Ecgl‚fes (i.e. Unferth); [_he_] (Beo.) _thanked him_
(Un.) _for the loan_. Cf. ll. 344, 581, 1915.

ll. 1823-1840. "Beowulf departing pledges his services to Hrogar, to be
what afterwards in the mature language of chivalry was called his 'true

l. 1832. Kl. corrects to dryhtne, in appos. with Higel‚ce.

l. 1835 g‚r-holt more properly means _spear-shaft_; cf. ‰sc-holt.

l. 1855. sÍl = _better_ (Grundt.; B., _Beit._ xii. 96), instead of MS. wel.

ll. 1855-1866. "An ideal picture of international amity according to the
experience and doctrine of the eighth century."--E.

l. 1858. S. and Kl. correct to gemÊne, agreeing with sib.--_Beit._ ix. 140,

l. 1862. "The gannet is a great diver, plunging down into the sea from a
considerable height, such as forty feet."--E.

l. 1863. Kl. suggests heafu, = _seas_.

l. 1865. B. proposes ge˛Ùhte, = _with firm thought_, for geworhte; cf. l.

l. 1876. geseÛn = _see again_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 190). S. and B. insert n‚
to modify geseÛn and explain HrÙg‚r's tears. Ha. and G. follow Heyne's
text. Cf. l. 567.

l. 1881. Is beorn here = bearn (be-arn?) of l. 67? or more likely = born,
barn, = _burned?_--S., Th.

l. 1887. orleahtre is a _[Greek: hapax legomenon]_. E. compares Tennyson's
"blameless" king. Cf. also ll. 2015, 2145; and the gÙd cyning of l. 11.

l. 1896. scaan = _warriors_ (cf. l. 1804) has been proposed by C.; but cf.
l. 253.

l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of
HrÙg‚r's men; at l. 1901 the b‚t-weard is specially honored by Beowulf
with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."--E. This circumstance appears
to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb
‚n-tÓd Ù˛res dÙgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both
passages (f‚mig-heals, clifu, n‰ssas, sÊlde, brim, etc.).--The nautical
terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.

l. 1904. R. proposes, gew‚t him on naca, = _the vessel set out_, on
alliterating as at l. 2524 (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402). B. reads on
nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1913. Cf. the same use of ceÛl, = _ship_, in the _A.-S. Chron._, ed.
Earle-Plummer; _Gnomic Verses_, etc.

l. 1914. S. inserts ˛‰t hÍ before on lande.

l. 1916. B. makes leÛfra manna depend on wl‚tode, = _looked for the dear
men ready at the coast_ (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = _remained;_ but cf. l. 1929. S.
conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (_Beit._ ix. 141).

l. 1927 _seq._ "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted
and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle,
and holding their place with dignity."--Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the
exception, l. 1932 _seq._

l. 1933. C. suggests frÍcnu, = _dangerous, bold_, for Thrytho could not be
called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd
seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l.
902 _seq._, Sigemund and HeremÙd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf.
Gr., _Jahrb. f¸r rom. u. eng. Lit._ iv. 279; M¸llenhoff, _Haupts Zeitschr._
xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, _Beit._ iv. 500-521; R. _Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 402; B., _ibid._ iv. 206; Kˆrner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 489-492;
H.-So., p. 106.

l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical
Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and firyo (Gr.'s
_Drida_ of the _Vita OffÊ Secundi_) of the present passage. The tale is
told of her, not of Hygd.

l. 1936. Suchier proposes andÊges, = _eye to eye_; Leo proposes ‚ndÊges, =
_the whole day_; G., _by day_. No change is necessary if an be taken to
govqern hire, = _on her_, and d‰ges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a
genitive of time, = _by day_.

l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsÍce, = _seek, require_; but cf. 2955.

l. 1966. Cf. the _heofoncandel_ of _Exod_. l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's

l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 _seq._ for the actual slayer of Ongen˛eÛw, i.e. Eofor,
to whom Hygel‚c gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.

l. 1981. meodu-scencum = _with mead-pourers_ or _mead-cups_ (G., Ha.);
_draught or cup of mead_ (Toller-Bosw.).

l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [he·-].

l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading hÊ n˚ (for hÊn˚), which he regards as
= Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (hÊ). Cf. H.-So., p. 107;
_Beit._ xii. 9.

l. 1985. sÓnne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third
person, sÓn (declined like mÓn). It is used not only as a true reflexive,
but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. _ejus_)"--Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.

l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of se·; cf. to "glow" with emotion,
"boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used;
cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.

l. 2010. B. proposes f‚cne, = _in treachery_, for fenne. Cf. _Juliana_, l.
350; _Beit._ xii. 97.

l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the
poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,--_ale_
(as here: ealu-wÊg), _mead, beer, wine, lÓ_ (cider? Goth. _lei˛us_, Prov.
Ger. _leit-_ in _leit-haus_, ale-house), etc.

l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for w‰s.

l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weoran, = _agree, be pleased
with_ (Ha.); _appear_ (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).

ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = _gave_) wÊre ‰fter
leÛd-hryre: lytle hwÓle bong‚r b˚ge, ˛e·h seÛ br˝d duge = _oft has a
treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the
murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be._ Cf. Kl., _Beit._ ix.
190; B., _Beit._ xii. 369; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G.,
p. 62.

l. 2036. Cf. Kl, _Beit._ ix. 191; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 404.

l. 2042. For be·h B. reads b‚, = _both_, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.

l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wÓgende, = _fighting_, for

l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this
line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is
not so designated in the MS., though ˛‚ (at l. 2822) is written with
capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.

l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.

l. 2115 _seq._ B. restores thus:

                      fiÊr on innan giÛng
    nia n‚thwylc,      neÛde tÙ gefÍng
    hÊnum horde;      hond ‰tgenam
    seleful since f‚h;      nÍ hÍ ˛‰t syan ‚geaf,
    ˛e·h ˛e hÍ slÊpende      besyrede hyrde
    ˛eÛfes cr‰fte:       ˛‰t se ˛iÛden onfand,
    b˝-folc beorna,       ˛‰t hÍ gebolgen w‰s.

--_Beit._ xii. 99; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 210.

l. 2128. ‰tb‰r here = _bear away_, not given in the Gloss.

l. 2129. B. proposes fÊrunga, = _suddenly_, for Gr.'s reading in the
text.--_Beit._ xii. 98.

l. 2132. MS. has ˛ine life, which Leo translates _by thy leave_ (= ON.
_leyfi_); B., _by thy life_.--_Beit._ xii. 369.

l. 2150. B. renders gen, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my
gracious king" (_Beit._ xii. 99).

l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafa, are poetic archaisms.--Sw.

l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = _prince_, for eafor. W. proposes the compd.
eafor-he·fodsegn, = _helm_; cf. l. 1245.

l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially
when postponed: "Beowulf leÛfa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.:
wudu selesta, etc.

l. 2158. Êrest is possibly the verbal subs. from ‚rÓsan, _to arise, =
arising, origin_. R. suggested Êrist, _arising, origin_. Cf. Bede, _Eccles.
Hist._, ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual)
_resurrection_. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's _Chronicle_, p.
302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., _Beit._ x. 222; and cf. l.

l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wÍn]don, = _weened_, instead of Th.'s [oft

l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals
his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is
"laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid L‚fing on Hengest's breast, l.

l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an
unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son
in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and
was passionate for adventure."--Br., p. 22.

l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., _Beit._ ix.
191, thinks with Ettm. that ˛˚sendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, _Ges.
der Angl_, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like
hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.

l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat"

l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.

l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's
"jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes sÍ ˛e on hearge hÊen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a
Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the
dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire.
Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."--Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. neÛde. E. translates _deftly_; Ha., _with ardor_. H.-So. reads
neÛde, = _with desire, greedily_, instr. of neÛd.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part
Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard g‰st sylfes
willum.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 100.

l. 2225. For ˛eÛw read ˛egn.--K. and Z.

l. 2225. ˛eÛw, st. m., _slave, serf_ (not in H.-So.).

l. 2227. For ofer-˛earfe read Êrnes ˛earfa.--Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

    secg synbysig      sÙna onwl‚tode,
    ˛e·h ˛‚m gyste      gryrebrÙga stÙd,
    hw‰re earmsceapen      innganges ˛earfa
       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
    fe·sceapen,      ˛‚ hyne se fÊr begeat.
                     --_Beit._ xii. 101. Cf. Ha., p. 69.

l. 2232. W. suggests seah or seÓr for geseah, and Gr. suggests searolÓc.

l. 2233. Z. surmises eor-h˚se (for -scr‰fe).

l. 2241. B. proposes lÊn-gestreÛna, = _transitory_, etc.; Th., R. propose
leng (= _longer_) gestreÛna; S. accepts the text but translates "the
long accumulating treasure."

l. 2246. B. proposed (1) hard-fyndne, = _hard to find_; (2) hord-wynne
dÊl,--_a deal of treasure-joy_ (cf. l. 2271).--_Zachers Zeitschr._
iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 102.

l. 2247. fecword = _banning words_ (?) MS. has fec.

l. 2254. Others read feor-[mie], = _furbish_, for fetige: _I own not one
who may_, etc.

l. 2261. The Danes themselves were sometimes called the "Ring-Danes,"
= clad in ringed (or a ring of) armor, or possessing rings. Cf.
ll. 116, 1280.

l. 2264. Note the early reference to hawking. Minstrelsy (hearpan
wyn), saga-telling, racing, swimming, harpooning of sea-animals, feasting,
and the bestowal of jewels, swords, and rings, are the other amusements
most frequent in _BeÛwulf_.

l. 2264. Cf. _Maldon_, ll. 8, 9, for a reference to hawking.

l. 2276. Z. suggests sw˝e ondrÊda; Ho. puts gesÍcean for Gr.'s

l. 2277. Z. and K. read: hord on hr˚san. "Three hundred winters,"
at l. 2279, is probably conventional for "a long time," like hund
missera, l. 1499; hund ˛˚senda, l. 2995; ˛ritig (of Beowulf's strength), l.
379; ˛ritig (of the men slain by Grendel), l. 123; seofan ˛˚sendo, l. 2196,

l. 2285. B. objects to hord as repeated in ll. 2284, 2285; but cf. Ha., p.
77. C. prefers sum to hord. onboren = _inminutus_; cf. B., _Beit._ xii.

l. 2285. onberan is found also at line 991, = _carry off_, with on- = E.
_un--(un-bind, -loose, -tie_, etc.), G. _ent-_. The negro still pronounces
_on-do_, etc.

l. 2299. Cf. H.-So., p. 112, for a defense of the text as it stands. B.
proposes "nor was there any man in that desert who rejoiced in conflict,"
etc. So ten Br.

l. 2326. B. and ten Br,. propose h‚m, = _home_, for him.--_Beit._ xii. 103.

l. 2335. E. translates e·lond utan by _the sea-board front, the
water-washed land on the (its) outside_. See B., _Beit._ xii. 1, 5.

l. 2346. Cf. l. 425, where Beowulf resolves to fight the dragon
single-handed. E. compares _Guy of Warwick_, ll. 49, 376.

l. 2355. Ten Br. proposes laan cynne as apposition to mÊgum.

l. 2360. Cf. Beowulf's other swimming-feat with Breca, ll. 506 _seq._

l. 2362. Gr. inserts ‚na, = _lone-going_, before xxx.: approved by B.; and
Kr¸ger, _Beit._ ix. 575. Cf. l. 379.

l. 2362. "Beowulf has the strength of thirty men in the original tale.
Here, then, the new inventor makes him carry off thirty coats of
mail."--Br., p. 48.

l. 2364. Hetware = Chattuarii, a nation allied against Hygel‚c in his
Frisian expedition; cf. ll. 1208 _seq._, 2917, etc.

l. 2368. B. proposes _quiet sea_ as trans, of siÛlea bigong, and compares
Goth. _anasilan_, to be still; Swed. dial, _sil_, still water between
waterfalls.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 214.

l. 2380. hyne--HeardrÍd; so him, l. 2358.

l. 2384. E. calls attention to SwiÛ-rÓce as identical with the modern
_Sverige_ = Sweden; cf. l. 2496.

l. 2386. Gr. reads on feorme, = _at the banquet_; cf. Mˆller, _Alteng.
Volksepos_, 111, who reads (f)or feorme. The MS. has or.

l. 2391. Cf. l. 11.

l. 2394. B., Gr., and M˚llenh. understand ll. 2393-2397 to mean that
E·dgils, ‘hthere's son, driven from Sweden, returns later, supported by
Beowulf, takes the life of his uncle Onela, and probably becomes himself
O.'s successor and king of Sweden. For another view see H.-So., p. 115. MS.
has freond (l. 2394), which Leo, etc., change to feÛnd. G. translates
_friend_.--_Beit._ xii. 13; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert_. iii. 177.

l. 2395. E·dgils is ‘hthere's son; cf. l. 2381; Onela is ‘hthere's brother;
cf. ll. 2933, 2617.

l. 2402. "Twelfsome"; cf. "fifteensome" at l. 207, etc. As _BeÛwulf_ is
essentially _the_ Epic of Philanthropy, of the true love of man, as
distinguished from the ordinary love-epic, the number twelve in this
passage may be reminiscent of another Friend of Man and another Twelve. In
each case all but one desert the hero.

l. 2437. R. proposes st˝red, = _ordered, decreed_, for strÍd.--_Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 409.

l. 2439. B. corrects to freÛ-wine = _noble friend_, asking, "How can
Herebeald be called HÊcyn's fre·-wine [MS.], _lord?_"

l. 2442. feohle·s gefeoht, "a homicide which cannot be atoned for by
money--in this case an unintentional fratricide."--Sw.

l. 2445. See Ha., pp. 82, 83, for a discussion of ll. 2445-2463. Cf. G., p.

l. 2447. MS. reads wrece, justified by B. (_Tidskr_. viii. 56). W.
conceives wrece as optative or hortative, and places a colon before ˛onne.

l. 2449. For helpan read helpe.--K., Th., S. (_Zeitschr. f. D. Phil._ xxi.
3, 357).

ll. 2454-2455. (1) M¸llenh. (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 232) proposes:

                    ˛onne se ‚n hafa
    ˛urh dÊda n˝d      de·es gefandod.

(2) B. proposes:

    ˛urh dÊda nÓ      de·es gefondad.
       --_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 215.

l. 2458. Cf. sceÛtend, pl., ll. 704, 1155, like rÓdend. Cf. _Judith_, l.
305, etc.

l. 2474. Th. considers the "wide water" here as the M‰lar lake, the
boundary between Swedes and Goths.

l. 2477. On o˛˛e = _and_, cf. B., _Tidskr_. viii. 57. See Ha., p. 83.

l. 2489. B. proposes hre·-bl‚c for Gr.'s heoro-.--_Tikskr_. viii. 297.

l. 2494. S. suggests Íel-wynne.

l. 2502. E. translates for dugeum, _of my prowess_; so Ettm¸ller.

ll. 2520-2522. Gr. and S. translate, "if I knew how else I might combat the
monster's boastfulness."--Ha., p. 85.

l. 2524. and-h‚ttres is H.'s invention. Gr. reads orees and ‚ttres, _blast
and venom_. Cf. oru, l. 2558, and l. 2840 (where ‚ttor- also occurs).

l. 2526. E. quotes fleÛn fÙtes trym from _Maldon_, l. 247.

l. 2546. Gr., H.-So., and Ho. read standan st‚n-bogan (for stÙd on
st‚n-bogan) depending on geseah.

l. 2550. Grundt. and B. propose deÛr, _brave one_, i.e. Beowulf, for deÛp.

L. 2565. MS. has ungleaw (K., Th.), unglaw (Grundt.). B. proposes unsl‚w, =
_sharp_.--_Beit._ xii. 104. So H.-So., Ha., p. 86.

ll. 2570, 2571. (1) May not gescÓfe (MS. to gscipe) = German _schief_,
"crooked," "bent," "aslant," and hence be a parallel to gebogen, _bent,
coiled?_ cf. l. 2568, ˛‚ se wyrm gebe·h sn˚de tÙsomne, and l. 2828. Coiled
serpents spring more powerfully for the coiling. (2) Or perhaps destroy
comma after tÙ and read gesc‰pe, = _his fate_; cf. l. 26: him ˛‚ Scyld
gew‚t tÙ gesc‰p-hwÓle. G. appar. adopts this reading, p. 78.

l. 2589. grund-wong = _the field_, not _the earth_ (so B.); H.-So., _cave_,
as at l. 2771. So Ha., p. 87.

l. 2595. S. proposes colon after stefne.--_Beit._ ix. 141.

l. 2604. M¸llenh. explains leÛd Scylfinga in _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ iii.

l. 2607. ‚re = _possessions, holding_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 192; Ha., p. 88).

l. 2609. folcrihta. Add "folk-right" to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.
Íel-, land-riht, word-riht.

l. 2614. H.-So. reads with Gr. wrÊccan winele·sum Weohst‚n bana, = _whom, a
friendless exile, W. had slain_.

ll. 2635-61. E. quotes Tacitus, _Germania_, xiv.: "turpe comitatui virtutem
principis non adaequare." Beowulf had been deserted by his _comitatus_.

l. 2643. B. proposes ˚ser.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 216.

l. 2649. wutun; l. 3102, uton = pres. subj. pl. 1st person of wÓtan, _to
go_, used like Mod. Eng. _let us_ + inf., Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_,
Fr. _allons_; M. E. (_Layamon_) _uten_. Cf. Psa. ii. 3, etc. March, _A.-S.
Gram._, pp. 104, 196.

l. 2650. B. suggests h‚t for hyt,.--_Beit._ xii. 105.

l. 2656. f‚ne = f‚h-ne; cf. f‚ra = f‚h-ra, l. 578; so he·nne (MS.) =
he·h-ne, etc., l. 984. See Cook's Sievers' Gram.

ll. 2660, 2661. Why not read beadu-scr˚d, as at l. 453, = _battle-shirt?_
B. and R. suppose two half-verses omitted between byrdu-scr˚d and b‚m
gemÊne. B. reads b˝wdu, = _handsome_, etc. Gr. suggests unc n˚, = _to us
two now_, for ˚rum; and K. and Grundt. read beÛn gemÊne for b‚m, etc. This
makes sense. Cf. Ha., p. 89.

l. 2666. Cf. the dat. absolute without preposition.

l. 2681. N‰gling; cf. Hrunting, L‚fing, and other famous wundor-smia
geweorc of the poem.

l. 2687. B. changes ˛onne into ˛one (rel. pro.) = _which_.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 2688. B. supports the MS. reading, wundum.

l. 2688. Cf. l. 2278 for similar language.

l. 2698. B. (_Beit._ xii. 105) renders: "he did not heed the head of the
dragon (which Beowulf with his sword had struck without effect), but he
struck the dragon somewhat further down." Cf. Saxo, vi. p. 272.

l. 2698. Cf. the language used at ll. 446 and 1373, where hafelan also
occurs; and h˝dan.

l. 2700. hwÍne; cf. Lowl. Sc. _wheen_, a number; Chaucer's _woon_, number.

l. 2702. S. proposes ˛‚ (for ˛‰t) ˛‰t f˝r, etc., = _when the fire began_,

l. 2704. "The (hup)-seax has often been found in Saxon graves on the hip of
the skeleton."--E.

l. 2707. Kl. proposes: feorh ealne wr‰c, = _drove out all the life_; cf.
_Gen._ l. 1385.--_Beit._ ix. 192. S. suggests gefylde,--_he felled the
foe_, etc.--_Ibid_. Parentheses seem unnecessary.

l. 2727. d‰g-hwÓl = _time allotted, lifetime_.

l. 2745, 2745. Ho. removes geong from the beginning of l. 2745 and places
it at the end of l. 2744.

l. 2750. R. proposes sigle searogimmas, as at l. 1158.

l. 2767. (1) B. proposes doubtfully oferhÓgean or oferhÓgan, = Goth,
_ufarhauhjan_, p. p. _ufarhauhids_ (Gr. [Greek: tuphwtheis]) = _exceed in
value_.--_Tidskr_. viii. 60. (2) Kl. proposes oferh˝dian, = _to make
arrogant, infatuate_; cf. oferh˝d.--_Beit._ ix. 192.

l. 2770. gelocen leoocr‰ftum = (1) _spell-bound_ (Th., Arnold, E.); (2)
_wrought with hand-craft_ (G.); (3) _meshed, linked together_ (H., Ho.);
cf. _Elene_, ll. 1251, 522.

l. 2778. B. considers bill ... ealdhl‚fordes as Beowulf's short sword, with
which he killed the dragon, l. 2704 (_Tidskr_. viii. 299). R. proposes
ealdhl‚forde. M¸llenh. understands ealdhl‚ford to mean the former possessor
of the hoard. W. agrees to this, but conceives ÊrgescÙd as a compd. = Êre
calceatus, _sheathed in brass_. Ha. translates ÊrgescÙd as vb. and adv.

l. 2791. Cf. l. 224, eoletes ‰t ende; landes ‰t ende, _Exod_. (Hunt).

l. 2792. MS. reads w‰teres weorpan, which R. would change to w‰tere

l. 2806. "Men saw from its height the whales tumbling in the waves, and
called it Whale's Ness (Hrones-nÊs)."--Br. p. 28. Cf. l. 3137.

l. 2815. WÓgl‚f was the next of kin, the last of the race, and hence the
recipient of Beowulf's kingly insignia. There is a possible play on the
word l‚f (WÓg-_l‚f_, ende-_l‚f_).

l. 2818. gingeste word; cf. _novissima verba_, and Ger. _j¸ngst_, lately.

l. 2837. E. translates on lande, _in the world_, comparing _on lÓfe, on

l. 2840. gerÊsde = pret. of gerÊsan (omitted from the Gloss.), same as
rÊsan; cf. l. 2691.

l. 2859. B. proposes de· ‚rÊdan, = _determine death_.--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2861. Change geongum to geongan as a scribal error (?), but cf.
Lichtenheld, _Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 353-355.

l. 2871. S. and W. propose ÙwÍr.--_Beit._ ix. 142.

l. 2873. S. punctuates: wr‚e forwurpe, ˛‚, etc.

l. 2874. H.-So. begins a new sentence with nealles, ending the preceding
one with beget.

l. 2879. ‰tgifan = _to render, to afford_; omitted in Gloss.

ll. 2885-2892. "This passage ... equals the passage in Tacitus which
describes the tie of chief to companion and companion to chief among the
Germans, and which recounts the shame that fell on those who survived their
lord."--Br., p. 56.

l. 2886. cyn thus has the meaning of _gens_ or clan, just as in many
Oriental towns all are of one blood. E. compares Tacitus, _Germania_, 7;
and cf. "kith and kin."

l. 2892. Death is preferable to dishonor. Cf. Kemble, _Saxons_, i. 235.

l. 2901. The _[Greek: angelos]_ begins his _[Greek: angelia]_ here.

l. 2910. S. proposes higemÍe, _sad of soul;_ cf. ll. 2853 and 2864
(_Beit._ ix. 142). B. considers higemÍum a dat. or instr. pl. of an
abstract in -u (_Beit._ xii. 106). H. makes it a dat. pl. = _for the dead_.
For heafod-wearde, etc., cf. note on l. 446.

l. 2920-2921. B. explains "he could not this time, as usual, give jewels to
his followers."--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2922. The Merovingian or Frankish race.

l. 2940 _seq._ B. conjectures:

    cw‰ hÓe on mergenne      mÍces ecgum
    gÍtan wolde,      sumon galgtreowu
    ‚he·wan on holte      ond hÓe ‚hÙan on ˛‚
    fuglum tÙ gamene.

--_Beit._ xii. 107, 372. Cf. S., _Beit._ ix. 143. gÍtan = _cause blood to
be shed._

l. 2950. B. proposes gomela for gÙda; "a surprising epithet for a Geat to
apply to the 'terrible' Ongentheow."--Ha. p. 99. But "good" does not
necessarily mean "morally excellent," as a "good" hater, a "good" fighter.

l. 2959. See H.-So. for an explanatory quotation from Paulus Diaconus, etc.
B., K., and Th. read segn Higel‚ces, = H.'s banner uplifted began to pursue
the Swede-men.--_Beit._ xii. 108. S. suggests sÊce, = _pursuit_.

l. 2977. gewyrpton: this vb. is also used reflexively in _Exod_. (Hunt), l.
130: wyrpton hie wÍrige.

l. 2989. b‰r is Grundt.'s reading, after the MS. "The surviving victor is
the heir of the slaughtered foe."--H.-So. Cf. _Hildebrands Lied_, ll. 61,

l. 2995. "A hundred of thousands in land and rings" (Ha., p. 100). Cf. ll.
2196, 3051. Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 20, who quotes Saxo's _bis senas gentes_
and remarks: "Hrolf Kraki, who rewards his follower, for the slaying of the
foreign king, with jewels, rich lands, and his only daughter's hand,
answers to the Jutish king Hygel‚c, who rewards his liegeman, for the
slaying of OngentheÛw, with jewels, enormous estates, and _his_ only
daughter's hand."

l. 3006. H.-So. suggests Scilfingas for Scyldingas, because, at l. 2397,
Beowulf kills the Scylfing E·dgils and probably acquires his lands. Thus
ll. 3002, 3005, 3006, would indicate that, after Beowulf's death, the
Swedes desired to shake off his hated yoke. M¸llenh., however, regards l.
3006 as a thoughtless repetition of l. 2053.--_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 239.

l. 3008. Cf. the same proverb at l. 256; and _Exod._ (Hunt.) l. 293.

l. 3022. E. quotes:

    "Thai token an harp _gle and game_
    And maked a lai and yaf it name."
                --_Weber_, l. 358.

and from Percy, "The word _glee_, which peculiarly denoted their art (the
minstrels'), continues still in our own language ... it is to this day used
in a musical sense, and applied to a peculiar piece of composition."

l. 3025. "This is a finer use than usual of the common poetic attendants of
a battle, the wolf, the eagle, and the raven. The three are here like three
Valkyrie, talking of all that they have done."--Br., p. 57.

l. 3033. Cf. Hunt's _Dan._ l. 731, for similar language.

l. 3039. B. supplies a supposed gap here:

    [banan e·c fundon      bennum seÛcne
    (nÍ) Êr hÓ ˛Êm      gesÍgan syllÓcran wiht]
    wyrm on wonge...
             --_Beit._ xii. 372.

Cf. Ha., p. 102. W. and Ho. insert [˛Êr] before gesÍgan.

l. 3042. Cf. l. 2561, where gryre-giest occurs as an epithet of the dragon.
B. proposes gry[re-f‚h].

l. 3044. lyft-wynne, _in the pride of the air_, E.; _to rejoice in the
air_, Ha.

l. 3057. (1) He (God) is men's hope; (2) he is the heroes' hope; (3) gehyld
= the secret place of enchanters; cf. hÍlsmanna gehyld, Gr.'s reading,
after A.-S. hÊlsere, haruspex, augur.

l. 3060. B. suggests geh˝de, = _plundered_ (i.e. by the thief), for

ll. 3063-3066. (1) B. suggests wundur [de·e] hw‚r ˛onne eorl ellenrof ende
gefÍre = _let a brave man then somewhere meet his end by wondrous venture_,
etc.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 241; cf. l. 3038. (2) S. supposes an indirect
question introduced by hw‚r and dependent upon wundur, = _a mystery is it
when it happens that the hero is to die, if he is no longer to linger among
his people_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. (3) M¸llenh. suggests: _is it to be wondered
at that a man should die when he can no longer live?_--_Zachers Zeitschr._
xiv. 241. (4) Possibly thus:

                         Wundra hw‰t ˛onne,
    eorl ellen-rÙf,      ende gefÍre
    lÓf-gesceafta,      ˛onne leng ne m‰g (etc.),

in which hw‰t would = ˛urh hw‰t at l. 3069, and eorl would be subject of
the conjectural vb. wundra: "the valiant earl wondereth then through what
he shall attain his life's end, when he no longer may live.... So BeÛwulf
knew not (wondered how) through what _his_ end should come," etc. W. and
Ho. join ˛onne to the next line. Or, for hw‚r read wÊre: Wundur wÊre ˛onne
(= gif), etc., = "would it be any wonder if a brave man," etc., which is
virtually M¸llenhoff's.

l. 3053. galdre bewunden, _spell-bound_, throws light on l. 2770, gelocen
leoo-cr‰ftum. The "accursed" gold of legend is often dragon-guarded and
placed under a spell. Even human ashes (as Shakespeare's) are thus banned.
ll. 3047-3058 recall the so-called "Treasury of Atreus."

l. 3073. herh, hearh, _temple_, is conjectured by E. to survive in _Harrow.
Temple, barrow_, etc., have thus been raised to proper names. Cf. BiÛwulfes
biorh of l. 2808.

l. 3074. H.-So. has strude, = _ravage_, and compares l. 3127. MS. has
strade. S. suggests stride, = _tread_.

l. 3074. H.-So. omits str‚dan, = _tread, stride over_, from the Gloss.,
referring ll. 3174 and 3074 to str˚dan, q. v.

l. 3075. S. proposes: n‰s hÍ goldhw‰tes gearwor h‰fde, etc., = _Beowulf had
not before seen the greedy possessor's favor_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. B. reads,
goldhw‰te gearwor h‰fde, etc., making goldhw‰te modify Íst, = _golden
favor_; but see _Beit._ xii. 373, for B.'s later view.

l. 3086-3087. B. translates, "that which (i.e. the treasure) drew the king
thither was granted indeed, but it overwhelmed us."--_Beit._ xii. 109.

l. 3097. B. and S. propose ‰fter wine de·dum, = _in memory of the dead
friend_.--_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3106. The br‚d gold here possibly includes the i˙-monna gold of l. 3053
and the wunden gold of l. 3135. E. translates br‚d by _bullion_.

l. 3114. B. supposes folc-‚gende to be dat. sg. to gÙdum, referring to

l. 3116. C. considers weaxan, = Lat. _vescor_, to devour, as a parallel to
fretan, and discards parentheses.--_Beit._ viii. 573.

l. 3120. f˚s = _furnished with_; a meaning which must be added to those in
the Gloss.

ll. 3124-3125. S. proposes:

    eÛde eahta sum      under inwit-hrÙf
    hilderinca:      sum on handa b‰r, etc.
                            --_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3136. H.-So. corrects (after B.) to ‰eling_c_, the MS. having _e_.

l. 3145. "It was their [the Icelanders'] belief that the higher the smoke
rose in the air the more glorious would the burnt man be in heaven."--
_Ynglinga Saga_, 10 (quoted by E.). Cf. the funeral pyre of Herakles.

l. 3146-3147. B. conjectures:

                   ... swÙgende lÍc
    wÙpe bewunden      windblonda lÍg

(lÍc from l‚can, see Gloss.).--_Beit._ xii. 110. Why not windblonda l‚c?

l. 3147. M¸llenhoff rejected wind-blond gel‰g because a great fire raises
rather than "lays" the wind; hence B., as above, = "swoughing sported the
flame wound with the howling of wind-currents."

l. 3151 _seq._ B. restores conjecturally:

    swylce giÙmor-gyd      sio geÛ-meowle
    [‰fter BeÛwulfe]      bunden-heorde
    [song] sorg-cearig,      sÊde geneahhe,
    ˛‰t hiÛ hyre [hearm-]dagas      hearde on [dr]Íde,
    w‰lfylla worn,      [w]Ógendes egesan,
    h˝[n]o ond h‰ftn˝d,      heÛf on rÓce wealg.
                   --_Beit._ xii. 100.

Here geÛ-meowle = _old woman_ or _widow;_ bunden-heorde = _with bound
locks;_ heÛf = _lamentation;_ cf. l. 3143. on rÓce wealg is less preferable
than the MS. reading, heofon rÍce swealg = _heaven swallowed the smoke_.--
H.-So. B. thinks Beowulf's widow (geÛmeowle) was probably Hygd; cf. ll.
2370, 3017-3021.

l. 3162. H.-So. reads (with MS.) bronda be l‚fe, for betost, and omits
colon after bÍcn. So B., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 224.

l. 3171. E. quotes Gibbon's accounts of the burial of Attila when the
"chosen squadrons of the Hun, wheeling round in measured evolutions,
chanted a funeral song to the memory of a hero."

ll. 3173-3174. B. proposes:

    woldon gÍn cwÓan      [ond] kyning
    wordgyd wrecan      ond ymb wel sprecan.
                   --_Beit._ xii. 112.

l. 3183. Z., K., Th. read manna for mannum.

l. 3184. "It is the English ideal of a hero as it was conceived by an
Englishman some twelve hundred years ago."--Br., p. 18.


The original MS. of this fragment has vanished, but a copy had been made
and printed by Hickes in his _Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium_, i.
192. The original was written on a single sheet attached to a codex of
homilies in the Lambeth Library. Mˆller, _Alteng. Epos_, p. 65, places the
fragment in the Finn episode, between ll. 1146 and 1147. Bugge (_Beit._
xii. 20) makes it illustrate the conflict in which Hn‰f fell, _i.e._ as
described in _BeÛwulf_ as antecedent to the events there given. Heinzel
(_Anzeiger f. d. Altert_.), however, calls attention to the fact that
Hengest in the fragment is called cyning, whereas in _BeÛwulf_, l. 1086, he
is called ˛egn. See H.-So., p. 125.

"The _Fight at Finnsburg_ and the lays from which our _BeÛwulf_ was
composed were, as it seems to me, sung among the English who dwelt in the
north of Denmark and the south of Sweden, and whose tribal name was the
Jutes or Goths."--Br., p. 101.

l. 1. R. supposes [hor]nas, and conjectures such an introductory
conversation as follows: "Is it dawning in the east, or is a fiery dragon
flying about, or are the turrets of some castle burning?" questions which
the king negatives in the same order. Then comes the positive declaration,
"rather they are warriors marching whose armor gleams in the moonlight."
--_Alt- und Angels. Lesebuch_, 1861. Heinzel and B. conjecture, [beorhtor
hor]nas byrna nÊfre. So. G.--_Beit._ xii. 22; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ x.

l. 5. B. conjectures fugelas to mean _arrows_, and supplies:

    ac hÍr for bera      [fyrdsearu rincas,
    flacre fl‚nbogan],      fugelas singa.

He compares Saxo, p. 95, _cristatis galeis hastisque sonantibus instant_,
as explanatory of l. 6.--_Beit._ xii. 22. But see Brooke, _Early Eng.
Literature_, who supposes fugelas = _raven_ and _eagle_, while grÊg-hama is
= _wulf_ (the "grey-coated one"), the ordinary accompaniers of battle.

l. 11. hicgea, etc.: cf. _Maldon_, l. 5; _Exod_. l. 218.

l. 15. Cf. B. (_Beit._ xii. 25), etc., and Saxo, p. 101, for l. 13.

ll. 18-21. H.-So. remarks: "If, according to Mˆller and Bugge, G‚rulf is
one of the attackers, one of Finn's men, this does not harmonize with his
character as G˚l‚f's son (l. 33), who (l. 16, and _BeÛwulf_, l. 1149) is a
Dane, therefore one of Finn's antagonists." B. (_Beit._ xii. 25)

    ˛‚ gyt G˚dene      G‚rulf styrode,
    ˛‰t hÍ sw‚ freÛlÓc feorh      forman sÓe
    tÙ ˛Êre healle durum      hyrsta ne bÊre,
    n˚ hÓe nÓa heard      ‚nyman wolde;

in which G˚dene is the same as Sigefer, l. 24; hÍ (l. 22) refers to
G‚rulf; and hÓe (l. 21) to hyrsta.

l. 27. sw‰er = _either_ (bad or good, life or death).--H.-So.

l. 29. cÍlod: meaning doubtful; cf. _Maldon_, l. 283. G. renders "curved
board"; Sw. suggests "round"? "hollow"?

l. 30. B. suggests b‚r-helm, = _boar-helm._ Cf. Saxo, p. 96.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 34. B. conjectures: (1) hwearf flacra hrÊw hr‰fen, wandrode; (2) hwearf
flacra hrÊw hr‰fen fram Ùrum = _flew from one corpse to another_.--_Beit._
xii. 27.

l. 43. B. supposes wund h‰le to be a Dane, folces hyrde to be Hn‰f, in
opposition to Holtzmann (_Germania_, viii. 494), who supposes the wounded
man to be a Frisian, and folces hyrde to be their king, Finn.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 45. B. adopts Th.'s reading heresceorp unhrÙr = _equipments
useless_.--_Beit._ xii. 28.

l. 47. "Though wounded, they had retained their strength and activity in
battle."--B., _Beit._ xii. 28.


ll. 105 and 218. MS. and Ho. read won-sÊli and f‚mi-heals.

ll. 143, 183, 186, etc. Read ˛Êm for ˛‰m.

l. 299. MS. reads gÙd-fremmendra. So H.-So.

l. 338. Ho. marks wr‰c- and its group long.

l. 530. Hw‰t should here probably be printed as an interj., hw‰t! Cf. ll.
1, 943, 2249.

l. 2263. Koeppel suggests nis for n‰s.

The editors are much indebted to E. Koeppel (in _Eng. Stud._ xiii. 3) for
numerous corrections in text and glossary.

l. 3070. H.-So. begins a new line with sw‚.



ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) _but_ (like N.H.G. sondern), 109,
135, 339, etc.--2) _but_ (N.H.G. aber), _nevertheless_, 602, 697, etc.--3)
in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

aglÊca, ahlÊca, ‰glÊca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, _trouble_, O.N. agi,
_terror_, + l‚c, _gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble_;
hence): 1) _evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being_; of Grendel, 159, 433,
593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.--2) _great hero, mighty warrior_;
of Sigemund, 894; of BeÛwulf: gen. sg. aglÊcan(?), 1513; of BeÛwulf and the
drake: nom. pl. ˛‚ aglÊcean, 2593.

aglÊc-wÓf, st. n., _demon, devil, in the form of a woman_; of Grendel's
mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., _servant, man-servant_:
nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfg‚r, 336.

ambiht-˛egn (from ambiht n. officium and ˛egn, which see), _servant,
man-servant_: dat. sg. ombiht-˛egne, of BeÛwulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., _on, in, with respect to_, 678; _with, among, at,
upon_ (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248.
Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., _anchor_: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), _anchor-cable_: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39,
40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., _excitement, vexation, horror_: dat. wr‚um on andan, 709,

and-git, st. n., _insight, understanding_: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-h‚tor, st. m. n., _heat coming against one_: gen. sg. rÍes
and-h‚ttres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., _very long._ hence 1) _at whole length, raised up
high_: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers
Ztschr., 4, 217).--2) _continual, entire_; andlangne d‰g, 2116, _the whole
day_; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-le·n, st. n., _reward, payment in full_: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-,
hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rÓsan, surgere, decere), _that which is to be
observed, that which is proper, etiquette_: dat. pl. for andrysnum,
_according to etiquette_, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., _adversary_: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., _blow in return_: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times

and-swaru, st. f., _act of accosting_: 1) to persons coming up, _an
address_, 2861.--2) in reply to something said, _an answer_, 354, 1494,

and-weard, adj., _present, existing_: acc. sg. n. swÓn ofer helme and-weard
(_the image of the boar, which stands on his helm_), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., _countenance_: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., _entirely unharmed_: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-s˝n, f., _the state of being seen_: hence 1) _the exterior, the form_,
251: ans˝n ˝wde, _showed his form_, i.e. appeared, 2835.--2) _aspect,
appearance_, 929; on-s˝n, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., _He who rules over all, God_, 1273. See Note.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), _hostile, frightful, cruel_: of
Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl.
atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597,
2479.--cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

atelÓc, adj., _terrible, dreadful_: atelÓc egesa, 785.


‚, adv. (Goth, ·iv, acc. from aiv-s aevum), _ever, always_, 455, 882, 931,
1479: ‚ syan, _ever afterwards, ever, ever after_, 283, 2921.--_ever_,
780.--Comp. n‚.

‚d st. m. _funeral pile_: acc. sg. ‚d, 3139; dat. sg. ‚de, 1111, 1115.

‚d-faru, st. f., _way to the funeral pile_, dat. sg. on ‚d-f‰re, 3011.

‚dl, st. f. _sickness_, 1737, 1764, 1849.

‚, st. m., _oath in general_, 2740; _oath of allegiance_, 472 (?); _oath
of reconciliation of two warring peoples_, 1098, 1108.

‚-sweord, st. n., _the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath_:
nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

‚um-swerian, m. pl., _son-in-law and father-in-law_: dat. pl., 84.

‚gan, verb, pret. and pres., _to have, to possess_, w. acc.: III. prs. sg.
‚h, 1728; inf. ‚gan, 1089; prt. ‚hte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald,
to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. n‚h hw‚
sweord wege (_I have no one to wield the sword_), 2253.

‚gen, adj., _own, peculiar_, 2677.

‚gend (prs. part. of ‚gan), _possessor, owner, lord_: gen. sg. ‚gendes, _of
God_, 3076.--Compounds: blÊd-, bold-, folc-, m‰gen-‚gend.

‚gend-fre·, w. m., _owner, lord_: gen. sg. ‚gend-fre·n, 1884.

‚hsian, ge-‚hsian, w. v.: 1) _to examine, to find out by inquiring_: pret.
part. ge-‚hsod, 433.--2) _to experience, to endure_: pret. ‚hsode, 1207;
pl. ‚hsodon, 423.

‚ht, st. n. (contracted from ‚-wiht, which see), _something, anything_: ‚ht
cwices, 2315.

‚n, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative
character: 1) _this, that_, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned
before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.--2)
_one_, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb
‚ne niht (_the next night_), 135; ˛urh ‚nes cr‰ft, 700; ˛‚ra ‚num, 1038; ‚n
‰fter ‚num, _one for the other_ (HrÍel for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, ‚n
‰fter eallum, 2269; ‚nes hw‰t, _some single thing, a part_, 3011; se ‚n
leÛda dugue, _the one of the heroes of the people_, 2238; ‚nes willan,
_for the sake of a single one_, 3078, etc.--Hence, again, 3) _alone,
distinguished_, 1459, 1886.--4) _a_, in the sense of an indefinite article:
‚n ... feÛnd, 100; gen. sg. ‚nre bÍne (or to No.2[?]), 428; ‚n ... draca,
221l--5) gen. pl. ‚nra, in connection with a pronoun, _single_; ‚nra
gehwylces, _every single one_, 733; ‚nra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the
dat. pl. in this sense: nemne fe·um ‚num, _except a few single ones_,
1082.--6) solus, _alone_: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form,
145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., ‚na Ge·ta dugue, _alone of the
warriors of the Ge·tas_, 2658.--7) solitarius, _alone, lonely_, see
Ên.--Comp. n‚n.

‚n-feald, adj., _simple, plain, without reserve_: acc. sg. ‚nfealdne
ge˛Ùht, _simple opinion_, 256.

‚n-genga, -gengea, w. m., _he who goes alone_, of Grendel, 165, 449.

‚n-haga, w. m., _he who stands alone_, solitarius, 2369.

‚n-hydig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-r‚d-r, _of one resolve_, i.e. of firm
resolve), _of one opinion_, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

‚nga, adj. (only in the weak form), _single, only_: acc. sg. ‚ngan dÙhtor,
375, 2998; ‚ngan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. ‚ngan brÍer, 1263.

‚n-p‰, st. m., _lonely way, path_: acc. pl. ‚npaas, 1411.

‚n-rÊd, adj. (cf. under ‚n-hydig), _of firm resolution, resolved_, 1530,

‚n-tÓd, st. f., _one time_, i.e. the same time, ymb ‚n-tÓd Ùres dÙgores,
_about the same time the second day_ (they sailed twenty-four hours),
219.--‚n stands as in ‚n-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, _harmonious, of the same

‚nunga, adv., _throughout, entirely, wholly_, 635.

‚r, st. m., _ambassador, messenger_, 336, 2784.

‚r, st. f., 1) _honor, dignity_: ‚rum healdan, _to hold in honor_, 296;
similarly, 1100, 1183.--2) _favor, grace, support_: acc. sg. ‚re, 1273,
2607; dat. sg. ‚re, 2379; gen. pl. hw‰t ... ‚rna, 1188.--Comp. worold-‚r;
also written Êr.

‚r-f‰st, adj., _honorable, upright_, 1169; of H˚nfer (with reference to
588). See f‰st.

‚rian, w. v., (_to be gracious_), _to spare_: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nÊnegum
‚ra; of Grendel, 599.

‚r-st‰f, st. m.,(elementum honoris), _grace, favor_: dat. pl. mid ‚rstafum,
317.--_Help, support_: dat. pl. for ‚r-stafum, _to the assistance_, 382,
458. See st‰f.

‚ter-te·r, m., _poisonous drop_: dat. pl. Óren ‚ter-te·rum f‚h (steel which
is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.

‚ttor, st. n., _poison_, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom.,

‚ttor-sceaa, w. m., _poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon_: gen. sg.
-sceaan, 2840.

‚w‚, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of ‚, which
see), _ever_: ‚w‚ tÙ aldre, _fÙr ever and ever_, 956.


‰dre, adv., _hastily, directly, immediately_, 77, 354, 3107. [Êdre.]

‰ele, adj., _noble_: nom. sg., of BeÛwulf, 198, 1313; of BeÛwulf's father,
263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical
sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. ‰elan cynnes, 2235.

‰eling, st. m., _nobleman, man of noble descent_, especially the
appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of
Scyld, 33; of HrÙg‚r, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of BeÛwulf, 1226, 1245, 1597,
1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of D‰ghrefn,
2507;--then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men:
ƒschere, 1295; HrÙg‚r's courtiers, 118, 983; HeremÙd's courtiers, 907;
Hengest's warriors, 1113; BeÛwulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born
in general, 2889. --Comp. sib-‰eling.

‰elu, st. n., only in the pl., _noble descent, nobility_, in the sense of
noble lineage: acc. pl. ‰elu, 392; dat. pl. cyning ‰elum gÙd, _the king,
of noble birth_, 1871; ‰elum diÛre, _worthy on account of noble lineage_,
1950; ‰elum (hÊle˛um, MS.), 332.--Comp. f‰der-‰elu.

‰fnan, w. v. w. acc., _to perform, to carry out, to accomplish_: inf.
ellen-weorc ‰fnan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1465; pret. unriht ‰fnde,
_perpetrated wrong_, 1255.

ge-‰fnan, 1) _to carry out, to do, to accomplish_: pret. pl. ˛‰t ge‰fndon
sw‚, _so carried that out_, 538; pret. part. ‚ w‰s ge‰fned, _the oath was
sworn_, 1108.--2) _get ready, prepare_: pret. part. ge‰fned, 3107. See

‰fter (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea
of _forth, away, from, back_), a) adv., _thereupon, afterwards_, 12, 341,
1390, 2155.--ic him ‰fter sceal, _I shall go after them_, 2817; in word
‰fter cw‰, 315, the sense seems to be, _spoke back, having turned_; b)
prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) _after_, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; ‰fter
beorne, _after the_ (death of) _the hero_, 2261, so 2262; ‰fter
m‚um-welan, _after_ (obtaining) _the treasure_, 2751.--2) (causal) as
proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, _in
consequence of, conformably to_: ‰fter rihte, _in accordance with right_,
1050, 2111; ‰fter faroe, _with the current_, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944,
2180, etc., ‰fter heao-sw‚te, _in consequence of the blood of battle_,
1607; ‰fter w‰lnÓe, _in consequence of mortal enmity_, 85; _in accordance
with, on account of, after, about_: ‰fter ‰elum (hÊle˛um, MS.)fr‰gn,
_asked about the descent_, 332; ne frin ˛u ‰fter sÊlum, _ask not after my
welfare_, 1323; ‰fter sincgyfan greÛte, _weeps for the giver of treasure_,
1343; him ‰fter deÛrum men dyrne langa, _longs in secret for the dear
man_, 1880; ‚n ‰fter ‚num, _one for the other_, 2462, etc.--3) (local),
_along_: ‰fter gumcynnum, _throughout the races of men, among men_, 945;
sÙhte bed ‰fter b˚rum, _sought a bed among the rooms of the castle_ (the
castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; ‰fter recede wl‚t, _looked
along the hall_, 1573; stone ‰fter st‚ne, _smelt along the rocks_, 2289;
‰fter lyfte, _along the air through the air_, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068,
1317, etc.

‰f-˛unca, w. m., _anger, chagrin, vexatious affair_: nom., 502.

‰glÊcea. See aglÊcea.

‰led (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., _fire_, 3016. [Êled.]

‰led-leÛma, w. m., _(fire-light), torch_: acc. sg. leÛman, 3126. See leÛma.

‰l-fylce (from ‰l-, Goth. ali-s, [Greek: allos], and fylce, O.N. fylki,
collective form from folc), st. n., _other folk, hostile army_: dat. pl.
wi ‰lfylcum, 2372.

‰l-mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., _almighty_: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se
‰l-mihtiga, 92.

‰l-wiht, st. m., _being of another species, monster_: gen. pl. ‰l-wihta
eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

‰ppel-fealu, adj., _dappled sorrel_, or _apple-yellow_: nom. pl.
‰ppel-fealuwe mearas, _apple-yellow steeds_, 2166.

‰rn, st. n., _house_, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, ˛ry-, win-‰rn.

‰sc, st. m., _ash_ (does not occur in BeÛwulf in this sense), _lance,
spear_, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (qu‚ instr.) ‰scum
and ecgum, _with spears and swords_, 1773.

‰sc-holt, st. n., _ash wood, ashen shaft_: nom. pl. ‰sc-holt ufan grÊg,
_the ashen shafts gray above_ (spears with iron points), 330.

‰sc-wÓga, w. m., _spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear_: nom. sg.,

‰t, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something,
hence 1) local, a) _with, near, at, on, in_ (rest): ‰t h˝e, in _harbor_,
32; ‰t symle, _at the meal_, 81, ‰t ‚de, _on the funeral-pile_, 1111, 1115;
‰t ˛e ‚num, _with thee alone_, 1378; ‰t wÓge, _in the fight_, 1338; ‰t
hilde, 1660, 2682; ‰t Ête, _in eating_, 3027, etc. b) _to, towards, at, on_
(motion to): de·es wylm hr‚n ‰t heortan, _seized upon the heart_, 2271;
gehÍton ‰t h‰rgtrafum, _vowed at_ (or _to_) _the temples of the gods_, 175.
c) with verbs of taking away, _away from_ (as starting from near an
object): ge˛eah ˛‰t ful ‰t Wealh˛eÛn, _took the cup from W_., 630; fela ic
geb‚d grynna ‰t Grendle, _from Grendel_, 931; ‰t mÓnum f‰der genam, _took
me from my father to himself_, 2430.--2) temporal, _at, in, at the time
of_: ‰t frumsceafte, _in the beginning_, 45; ‰t ende, _at an end_, 224;
fand sÓnne dryhten ealdres ‰t ende, _at the end of life, dying_, 2791;
similarly, 2823; ‰t feohgyftum, _in giving gifts_, 1090; ‰t sÓestan,
_finally_, 3014.

‰t-grÊpe, adj., _laying hold of_, prehendens, 1270.

‰t-rihte, adv., _almost_, 1658.


Êdre, Ídre, st. f., _aqueduct, canal_ (not in BeÛw.), _vein_ (not in
BeÛw.), _stream, violent pouring forth_: dat. pl. sw‚t Êdrum sprong, _the
blood sprang in streams_, 2967; blÙd Ídrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743.

Êm, st. m., _breath, gasp, snort_: instr. sg. hreer Ême weÛll, _the
breast_ (of the drake) _heaved with snorting_, 2594.

Êfen, st. m., _evening_, 1236.

Êfen-gram, adj., _hostile at evening, night-enemy_: nom. sg. m. Êfen-grom,
of Grendel, 2075.

Êfen-leÛht, st. n., _evening-light_: nom. sg., 413.

Êfen-r‰st, st. f., _evening-rest_: acc. sg. -r‰ste, 647, 1253.

Êfen-sprÊc, st. f., _evening-talk_: acc. sg. gemunde ...Êfen-sprÊce,
_thought about what he had spoken in the evening_, 760.

Êfre, adv., _ever, at any time_, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative
sentences, Êfre ne, _never_, 2601.--Comp. nÊfre.

Êg-hw‚ (O.H.G. Ío-ga-hwÎr), pron., _every, each_: dat. sg. ÊghwÊm, 1385.
The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, _in all, throughout, thoroughly_: Êghw‰s
untÊle, _thoroughly blameless_, 1866; Êghw‰s unrÓm, _entirely innumerable
quantity_, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

Êg-hw‰er (O.H.G. Ío-ga-hwÎdar): 1) _each_ (of two): nom. sg. h‰fde
Êghw‰er ende gefÍred, _each of the two_ (BeÛwulf and the drake) _had
reached the end_, 2845; dat. sg. Êghw‰rum w‰s brÙga fram Ùrum, _to each
of the two_ (BeÛwulf and the drake) _was fear of the other_, 2565; gen. sg.
Êghw‰res ... worda and worca, 287.--2) _each_ (of several): dat. sg. heora
Êghw‰rum, 1637.

Êg-hwÊr, adv., _everywhere_, 1060.

Êg-hwilc (O.H.G. Ío-gi-hwÎlih), pron., unusquisque, _every_ (one): 1) used
as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dÊl Êghwylcne, 622.--2) as substantive, a) with the
partitive genitive: nom. sg. Êg-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. Êghwylcum, 1051.
b) without gen.: nom. sg. Êghwylc, 985, 988; (w‰s) Êghwylc Ùrum tr˝we,
_each one_ (of two) _true to the other_, 1166.

Êg-weard, st. f., _watch on the sea shore_: acc. sg. Êg-wearde, 241.

Êht (abstract form from ‚gan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1)
_possession, power_: acc. sg. on flÙdes Êht, 42; on w‰teres Êht, _into the
power of the water_, 516; on Êht gehwearf Denigea fre·n, _passed over into
the possession of a Danish master_, 1680.--2) _property, possessions,
goods_: acc. pl. Êhte, 2249.--Comp. m‚m-, gold-Êht.

Êht (O.H.G. ‚hta), st. f., _pursuit_: nom. ˛‚ w‰s Êht boden Sweona leÛdum,
segn Higel‚ce, _then was pursuit offered to the people of the Sweonas,
(their) banner to Hygel‚c_ (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during
their flight, fell into the hands of Hygel‚c), 2958.

ge-Êhtan, w. v., _to prize, to speak in praise of_: pret. part. geÊhted,
1866. [ge‰htan.]

ge-Êhtla, w. m., or ge-Êhtle, w. f., _a speaking of with praise, high
esteem_: gen. sg. hy ... wyre ˛incea eorla geÊhtlan, _seem worthy of the
high esteem of the noble-born_, 369. [ge‰htla.]

Ên (oblique form of ‚n), num., _one_: acc. sg. m. ˛one Ênne ˛one..., _the
one whom_..., 1054; oftor micle ˛onne on Ênne sÓ, _much oftener than one
time_, 1580; for onsendon Ênne, _sent him forth alone_, 46.

Êne, adv., _once_: oft nalles Êne, 3020.

Ênig, pron., _one, any one_, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ...
0nige ˛inga, _would in no way, not at all_, 792; lyt Ênig mearn, _little
did any one sorrow_ (i.e. no one), 3130.--With the article: n‰s se
folccyning ... Ênig, _no people's king_, 2735.--Comp. nÊnig.

Ên-lÓc, adj., _alone, excellent, distinguished_: ÊnlÓc ans˝n,
_distinguished appearance_, 251; ˛e·h ˛e hiÛ ÊnlÓcu s˝, _though she be
beautiful_, 1942.

Êr (comparative form, from ‚): 1) adv., _sooner, before, beforehand_, 15,
656, 695, 758, etc., _for a long time_, 2596; eft sw‚ Êr, _again as
formerly_, 643; Êr ne sian, _neither sooner nor later_, 719; Êr and sÓ,
_sooner and later_ (all times), 2501; nÙ ˛˝ Êr (_not so much the sooner_),
_yet not_, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.--2) conjunct., _before, ere_: a)
with the ind.: Êr hiÛ tÙ setle geÛng, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: Êr ge fyr
fÍran, _before you travel farther_, 252; Êr he on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819;
Êr ˛on d‰g cwÙme, _ere the day break_, 732; Êr correlative to Êr adv.: Êr
he feorh sele, aldor an Ùfre, Êr he wille ..., _he will sooner_ (rather)
_leave his life upon the shore, before_ (than) _he will_ ..., 1372.--3)
prepos. with dat., _before_ Êr de·e, _before death_, 1389; Êr d‰ges hwÓle,
_before daybreak_, 2321; Êr swylt-d‰ge, _before the day of death_, 2799.

Êror, comp. adv., _sooner, before-hand_, 810; _formerly_, 2655.

Êrra, comp. adj., _earlier_; instr. pl., Êrran mÊlum, _in former times_,
908, 2238, 3036.

Êrest, superl.: 1) adv., _first of all, foremost_, 6, 617, 1698, etc.--2)
as subst. n., _relation to, the beginning_: acc. ˛‰t ic his Êrest ˛e eft
ges‰gde (_to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of
mail that has been presented_), 2158. See Note.

Êr-d‰g, st. m. (_before-day_), _morning-twilight, gray of morning_: dat.
sg. mid Êrd‰ge, 126; samod Êrd‰ge, 1312, 2943.

Êrende, st. n., _errand, trust_: acc. sg., 270, 345.

Êr-f‰der, st. m., _late father, deceased father_: nom sg. sw‚ his Êrf‰der,

Êr-gestreÛn, st. n., _old treasure, possessions dating from old times_: acc
sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela ÊrgestreÛna, _much of such old treasure_,
2233. See gestreÛn.

Êr-geweorc, st. n., _work dating from old times_: nom. sg. enta Êr-geweorc,
_the old work of the giants_ (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's
water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

Êr-gÙd, adj., _good since old times, long invested with dignity_ or
_advantages_: ‰eling ÊrgÙd, 130; (eorl) ÊrgÙd, 1330; Óren ÊrgÙd
(_excellent sword_), 990, 2587.

Êr-wela, w. m., _old possessions, riches dating from old times_: acc. sg.
Êrwelan, 2748. See wela.

Ês, st. n., _carcass, carrion_: dat. (instr.) sg. Êse, of ƒschere's corpse,

Êt, st. m., _food, meat_: dat, sg., h˚ him ‰t Ête speÛw, _how he fared well
at meat_, 3027.

Êttren (see ‚ttor), adj., _poisonous_: w‰s ˛‰t blÙd tÙ ˛‰s h‚t, Êttren
ellorg‚st, se Êr inne swealt, _so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the
demon_ (Grendel's mother) _who died therein_, 1618


bana, bona, w. m., _murderer_, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan
Ongen˛eÛwes, of Hygel‚c, although in reality his men slew Ongen˛eÛw (2965
ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne w‰s ecg bona, 2507; wear
wracu Weohst‚nes bana, 2614.--Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, g‚st-, hand-, m˚-bana.

bon-g‚r, st. m. _murdering spear_, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, _to command,
to bid_: inf., 74.

b‚d, st. f., _pledge_, only in comp.: n˝d-b‚d.

b‚n, st. n., _bone_: dat. sg. on b‚ne (on the bony skin of the drake),
2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefÍng biteran b‚num (here of the teeth of the
drake), 2693.

b‚n-cÙfa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -cÙfan,

b‚n-f‚g, adj., _variegated with bones_, either with ornaments made of
bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of HrÙg‚r's hall,
781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

b‚n-f‰t, st. n., _bone-vessel_, i.e. the body: acc. pl. b‚n-fatu, 1117.

b‚n-hring, st. m., _the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint_: acc. pl. hire
wi halse ... b‚nhringas br‰c (_broke her neck-joint_), 1568.

b‚n-h˚s, st. n., _bone-house_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. b‚nh˚s gebr‰c, 2509;
similarly, 3148.

b‚n-loca, w. m., _the enclosure of the bones_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. b‚t
b‚nlocan, _bit the body_, 743; nom. pl. burston b‚nlocan, _the body burst_
(of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

b‚t, st. m., _boat, craft, ship_, 211.--Comp. sÊ-b‚t.

b‚t-weard, st. m., _boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft._ dat.
sg. -wearde, 1901.

b‰, st. n., _bath_: acc. sg. ofer ganotes b‰, _over the diver's bath_
(i.e. the sea), 1862.

b‰rnan, w. v., _to cause to burn, to burn_: inf. hÍt ... b‚nfatu b‰rnan,
_bade that the bodies be burned_, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu b‰rnan,
_began to consume the splendid country-seats_ (the dragon), 2314.

for-b‰rnan, w. v., _consume with fire_: inf. hy hine ne mÙston ...
brondefor-b‰rnan, _they_ (the Danes) _could not burn him_ (the dead
ƒschere) _upon the funeral-pile_, 2127.

bÊdan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. beia), _to incite, to encourage_: pret. bÊdde
byre geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bÊdan, w. v., _to press hard_: pret. part. bysigum gebÊded, _distressed
by trouble, difficulty, danger_ (of battle), 2581; _to drive, to send
forth_: strÊla storm strengum gebÊded, _the storm of arrows sent with
strength_, 3118; _overcome_: draca ... bealwe gebÊded, _the dragon ...
overcome by the ills of battle_, 2827.

bÊl (O.N. b‚l), st. n., _fire, flames_: (wyrm) mid bÊle fÙr, _passed
(through the air) with fire_, 2309; h‰fde landwara lÓge befangan, bÊle and
bronde, _with fire and burning_, 2323.--Especially, _the fire of the
funeral-pile, the funeral-pile_, 1110, 1117, 2127; Êr he bÊl cure, _ere he
sought the burning_ (i.e. died), 2819; h‚ta ... hlÊw gewyrcean ... ‰fter
bÊle, _after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up_ (BeÛwulf's
words), 2804.

bÊl-f˝r, st. n., _bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile_: gen. pl. bÊlf˝ra
mÊst, 3144.

bÊl-stede, st. m., _place for the funeral-pile_: dat. sg. in bÊl=stede,

bÊl-wudu, st. m., _wood for the funeral-pile_, 3113.

bÊr, st. f., _bier_, 3106.

ge-bÊran, w. v., _to conduct one's self, behave_: inf. w. adv., ne gefr‰gen
ic ˛‚ mÊge ... sÍl gebÊran, _I did not hear that a troop bore itself
better, maintained a nobler deportment_, 1013; he on eoran geseah ˛one
leÛfestan lÓfes ‰t ende ble·te gebÊran, _saw the best-beloved upon the
earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably_ (i.e. in a helpless
situation), 2825.

ge-bÊtan (denominative from bÊte, _the bit_), w. v., _to place the bit in
the mouth of an animal, to bridle_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s HrÙg‚re hors
gebÊted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning _near_, "but not of one
direction, as ‰t, but more general"): 1) local, _near by, near, at, on_
(rest): be ˝dl‚fe uppe lÊgon, _lay above, upon the deposit of the waves_
(upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; h‰fde be honda, _held by the
hand_ (BeÛwulf held Grendel), 815; be sÊm tweonum, _in the circuit of both
the seas_, 859, 1686; be m‰ste, _on the mast_, 1906; by f˝re, _by the
fire_, 2220; be n‰sse, _at the promontory_, 2244; s‰t be ˛Êm gebrÙrum
twÊm, _sat by the two brothers_, 1192; w‰s se gryre l‰ssa efne sw‚ micle
sw‚ bi m‰ga cr‰ft be wÊpnedmen, _the terror was just so much less, as is
the strength of woman to the warrior_ (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.--2)
also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object,
_on, upon, by_: gefÍng be eaxle, _seized by the shoulder_, 1538; ‚lÍdon
leÛfne ˛eÛden be m‰ste, _laid the dear lord near the mast_, 36; be healse
genam, _took him by the neck, fell upon his neck_, 1873; wÊpen hafenade be
hiltum, _grasped the weapon by the hilt_, 1757, etc.--3) with this is
connected the causal force, _on account of, for, according to_: ic ˛is gid
be ˛e ‚wr‰c, _I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake_, 1724; ˛˚
˛e lÊr be ˛on, _learn according to this, from this_, 1723; be f‰der l‚re,
_according to her father's direction_, 1951.--4) temporal, _while, during_:
be ˛e lifigendum, _while thou livest, during thy life_, 2666. See bÓ.

bed, st. n., _bed, couch_: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792;
dat. pl. beddum, 1241.--Comp: dea-, hlin-, l‰ger-, moror-, w‰l-bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., _bed-fellow_: dat. sg. wolde sÍcan ewÍn tÙ gebeddan,
_wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her_,
666.--Comp. heals-gebedde.

begen, fem. b‚, _both_: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on b‚ healfa,
_on two sides_ (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. b‚m, 2197; and
in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, ˚rum
b‚m, 2661; gen. n. bega, 1874, 2896; bega gehw‰res, _each one of the two_,
1044; bega folces, of _both peoples_, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, _to cause to swell, to swell_), _to irritate_:
w. dat. (pret. subj.) ˛‰t he Ícean dryhtne bitre gebulge, _that he had
bitterly angered the eternal Lord_, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540;
(gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original
meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

‚-belgan, _to anger_: pret. sg. w. acc. Ù ˛‰t hyne ‚n ‚bealh mon on mÙde,
_till a man angered him in his heart_, 2281; pret. part. ‚bolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., _wound_: acc. sg. benne, 2725.--Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., _bench_: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189,
1244.--Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swÍg, st. m., (_bench-rejoicing_), _rejoicing which resounds from the
benches_, 1162.

benc-˛el, st. n., _bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches
stand_: nom. pl. benc-˛elu, 486; acc. pl. benc˛elu beredon, _cleared the
bench-boards_ (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches),

bend, st. m. f., _bond, fetter_: acc. sg. forstes bend, _frost's bond_,
1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.--Comp.: f˝r-, hell-, hyge-, Óren-, oncer-,
searo-, w‰l-bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (_wound-gate_), _wound-opening_: nom. pl. ben-geato,

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., _bearer_: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., _to carry_; III. sg. pres. byre, 296, 448; ˛one
m‚um byre, _carries the treasure_ (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj.
bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; hÍht ˛‚ se
hearda Hrunting beran, _to bring Hrunting_, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran,
2153; pret. b‰r, 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne b‰r f‰ted wÊge, _brought
the lord the costly vessel_, 2282; pl. bÊron, 213, 1636, etc.; bÊran, 2851;
pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.--The following expressions are poetic
paraphrases of the forms _go, come_: ˛‰t we rondas beren eft tÙ earde,
2654; gewÓta for beran wÊpen and gewÊdu, 291; ic gefr‰gn sunu Wihst‚nes
hringnet beran, 2755; wÓgheafolan b‰r, 2662; helmas bÊron, 240
(conjecture); scyldas bÊran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of
the man with his weapons.

‰t-beran, _to carry to_: inf. tÙ beadul‚ce (_battle_) ‰tberan, 1562; pret.
˛‚ hine on morgentÓd on HeaorÊmas holm up ‰tb‰r, _the sea bore him up to
the HeaorÊmas_, 519; hiÛ BeÛwulfe medoful ‰tb‰r _brought BeÛwulf the
mead-cup_, 625; m‰genbyrenne ... hider ˚t ‰tb‰r cyninge mÓnum, _bore the
great burden hither to my king_, 3093; pl. hÓ hyne ‰tbÊron tÙ brimes
faroe, 28.

for-beran, _to hold, to suppress_: inf. ˛‰t he ˛one breÛstwylm forberan ne
mehte, _that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast_, 1878.

ge-beran, _to bring forth, to bear_: pret. part. ˛‰t l‚ m‰g secgan se ˛e
sÙ and riht freme on folce ... ˛‰t ˛es eorl wÊre geboren betera (_that
may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born_),

Ù-beran, _to bring hither_: pret. ˛‚ mec sÊ Ùb‰r on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in bÎran, intpÎran, but in the sense of carere), auferre,
_to carry off, to take away_: inf. Óren ÊrgÙd ˛‰t ˛‰s ahlÊcan blÙdge
beadufolme onberan wolde, _excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody
hand of the demon_, 991; pret. part. (w‰s) onboren be·ga hord, _the
treasure of the rings had been carried off_, 2285.--Compounds with the
pres. part.: helm-, s‚wl-berend.

berian (denominative from b‰r, _naked_), w. v., _to make bare, to clear_:
pret. pl. benc˛elu beredon, _cleared the bench-place_ (by removing the
benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., _to break, to burst_: pret. pl. burston b‚nlocan, 819;
bengeato burston, 1122.--_to crack, to make the noise of breaking_: fingras
burston, _the fingers cracked_ (from BeÛwulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, _break, to fly asunder_: pret. N‰gling forb‰rst, _N‰gling_
(BeÛwulf's sword) _broke in two_, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), _better_: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-lÓc, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. n., of HrÙg‚r's hall, 781;
of Hygel‚c's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), _best, the best_: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca,
1110; neut. nu is Ùfost betost, ˛‰t we ..., _now is haste the best, that
we..._, 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscr˚da betst, 453;
acc. sg. m. ˛egn betstan, 1872.

bÍcn, st. n., _(beacon), token, mark, sign_: acc. sg. betimbredon
beadu-rÙfes bÍcn (of BeÛwulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bÍg. See be·g.

bÍn, st. f., _entreaty_: gen. sg. bÍne, 428, 2285.

bÍna, w. m., _suppliant_, supplex: nom. sg. sw‚ ˛u bÍna eart (_as thou
entreatest_), 352; sw‚ he bÍna w‰s (_as he had asked_), 3141; nom. pl. hy
bÍnan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) _to make good, to remove_: pret. ac ˛u HrÙg‚re wÓdc˚ne we·n
wihte gebÍttest, _hast thou in any way relieved HrÙg‚r of the evil known
afar_, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce onc˝e ealle gebÍtte, _removed
all trouble_, 831. --2) _to avenge_: inf. wihte ne meahte on ˛am feorhbonan
fÊhe gebÍtan, _could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer_, 2466.

beadu, st. f., _battle, strife, combat_: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, _in
combat_, 1540; gen. pl. b‚d beadwa ge-˛inges, _waited for the combats_
(with Grendel) _that were in store for him_, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., _battle-hand_: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grÓma, w. m., _(battle-mask), helmet_: acc. pl. -grÓman, 2258.

beado-hr‰gl, st. n., _(battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail_, 552.

beadu-l‚c, st. n., (_exercise in arms, tilting_), _combat, battle_: dat.
sg. tÙ beadu-l‚ce, 1562.

beado-leÛma, w. m., (_battle-light_), _sword_: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mÍce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. beado-mÍcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: gen. pl. betst beadorinca,

beadu-rÙf, adj., _strong in battle_: gen. sg. -rÙfes, of BeÛwulf, 3162.

beadu-r˚n, st. f., _mystery of battle_: acc. sg. onband beadu-r˚ne, _solved
the mystery of the combat_, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., _battle-sharp, sharp for the battle_, 2705.

beadu-scr˚d, st. n., (_battle-dress_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: gen. pl.
beaduscr˚da betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (_battle-garment_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: acc. sg.
brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings),

beado-weorc, st. n., (_battle-work_), _battle_: gen. sg. gefeh
beado-weorces, _rejoiced at the battle_, 2300.

beald, adj., _bold, brave_: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., _to show one's self brave_: pret. bealdode gÙdum dÊdum
(_through brave deeds_), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., _lord, prince_: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia
bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., _evil, ruin, destruction_: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl.
bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.--Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-,
hreer-, leÛd-, moror-, niht-, sweord-, wÓg-bealu.

bealu, adj., _deadly, dangerous, bad_: instr. sg. hyne s‚r hafa befongen
balwon bendum, _pain has entwined him in deadly bands_, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, death by the sword_(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_:
gen. pl. Êghw‰rum bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hydig, adj., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_: of Grendel,

bealo-nÓ, st. m., (_zeal for destruction_), _deadly enmity_: nom. sg.,
2405; _destructive struggle_: acc. sg. bebeorh ˛e ˛one bealonÓ, _beware of
destructive striving_, 1759; _death-bringing rage_: nom. sg. him on
breÛstum bealo-nÓ weÛll, _in his breast raged deadly fury_ (of the
dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., _splendor, brightness, clearness_: nom.
sg. e·gena bearhtm, 1767.--2) _sound, tone_: acc. sg. bearhtm onge‚ton,
g˚horn galan, _they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound_, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, _lap, bosom_: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc.
sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan
bunan and discas, 2776.--2) figuratively, _possession, property_, because
things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on
bearm licgan, ‚lecgan); dat. sg. him tÙ bearme cwom m‚umf‰t mÊre, _came
into his possession_, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) _child, son_: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.;
Ecgl‚fes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat.
pl. bearnum, 1075.--2) in a broader sense, _scion, offspring, descendant_:
nom. sg. Ongen˛eÛw's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn,
70; gumena bearn, _children of men_, 879; h‰lea bearn, 1190; ‰elinga
bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150;
gen. pl. nia bearna, 1006.--Comp.: brÙor-, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., _birth, birth of a son_: gen. sg. ˛‰t hyre ealdmetod
Íste wÊre bearn-gebyrdo, _has been gracious through the birth of such a
son_ (i.e. as BeÛwulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (_the bearer_, hence properly only the fruit-tree,
especially the oak and the beech), _tree_, collectively _forest_: nom. pl.
hrÓmge bearwas, _rime-covered_ or _ice-clad_, 1364.

be·cen, st. n., _sign, banner_, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht be·cen godes, _of
the sun_, 570; gen. pl. be·cna beorhtost, 2778. See bÍcn.

ge-be·cnian, w. v., _to mark, to indicate_: pret. part. ge-be·cnod, 140.

be·g, st. m., _ring, ornament_: nom. sg. be·h (_neck-ring_), 1212; acc. sg.
be·h (the collar of the murdered king of the Heaobeardnas), 2042; bÍg
(collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwom Wealh˛eÛ for g‚n under
gyldnum be·ge, _she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden
diadem_, 1164; gen. sg. be·ges (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. be·gas (rings
in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. be·ga, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.--
Comp.: earm-, heals-be·g.

be·g-gyfa, w. m., _ring-giver_, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan,

be·g-hroden, adj., _adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps_: nom. sg.
be·ghroden, cwÍn, of HrÙg‚r's consort, perhaps with reference to her
diadem (cf. 1164), 624.

be·h-hord, st. m. n., _ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings_: gen. sg.
be·h-hordes, 895; dat. pl. be·h-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. be·h-horda weard, of
King HrÙg‚r, 922.

be·h-sele, st. m., _ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed_:
nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

be·h-˛egu, st. f., _the receiving of the ring_: dat. sg. ‰fter be·h-˛ege,

be·h-wria, w. m. _ring-band_, ring with prominence given to its having the
form of a band: acc. sg. be·h-wrian, 2019.

be·m, st. m., _tree_, only in the compounds fyrgen-, gleÛ-be·m.

be·tan, st. v., _thrust, strike_: pres. sg. mearh burhstede be·te, _the
steed beats the castle-ground_ (place where the castle is built), i.e. with
his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-be·ten, _died, struck by the
battle-axe_, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) _mountain, rock_: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges,
2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.--2) _grave-mound, tomb-hill_: acc. sg.
biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat
(cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.--Comp.

beorh, st. f., _veil, covering, cap_; only in the comp. he·fod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), _to save, to
shield_: inf. wolde feore beorgan, _place her life in safety_, 1294;
here-byrne ... seÛ ˛e b‚ncÙfan beorgan c˚e, _which could protect his
body_, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), _to take care,
to defend one's self from_: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, _cannot keep
himself from stain_ (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh ˛e ˛one bealont, 1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), _to save, to protect_:
pret. sg. ˛‰t gebearh feore, _protected the life_, 1549; scyld wel gebearg
lÓfe and lÓce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, _to surround protectingly_: pret. sg. bring ˚tan ymb-bearh,

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering_: nom. sg.
beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; ˛‰t beorhte bold,
998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of BeÛwulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. tÙ ˛Êre
byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte fr‰twe, 214, 897;
beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314.
Superl.: be·cna beorhtost, 2778. --2) _excellent, remarkable_: gen. sg.
beorhtre bÙte, 158. --Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., _brilliantly, brightly, radiantly_, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., _to sound clearly_: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swÍg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., _hero, warrior, noble man_: nom. sg. (HrÙg‚r), 1881,
(BeÛwulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (BeÛw.), 1025, (ƒschere), 1300; dat. sg.
beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (BeÛwulf and his companions), 211,
(HrÙg‚r's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (BeÛwulf's liege-men),
2405.--Comp.: folc-, g˚-beorn.

beornan, st. v., _to burn_: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake),
2273.--Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, _to be consumed, to burn_: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668;
for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, _to be burned_: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., _king of warriors, king of heroes_: nom. sg. (as
voc.), 2149.

beÛdan, st. v.: 1) _to announce, to inform, to make known_: inf. biÛdan,
2893.--2) _to offer, to proffer_ (as the notifying of a transaction in
direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him ge˛ingo
budon, _offered them an agreement_, 1086; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s Êht boden
Sweona leÛdum, _then was pursuit offered the Swedish people_, 2958; inf. ic
˛‰m gÙdan sceal m‚mas beÛdan, _I shall offer the excellent man treasures_,

‚-beÛdan, _to present, to announce_: pret. word inne ‚be·d, _made known the
words within_, 390; _to offer, to tender, to wish_: pret. him hÊl ‚be·d,
_wished him health_ (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hÊlo ‚be·d, 2419; eoton
weard ‚be·d, _offered the giant a watcher_, 669.

be-beÛdan, _to command, to order_: pret. sw‚ him se hearda bebe·d, _as the
strong man commanded them_, 401. Similarly, sw‚ se rÓca bebe·d, 1976.

ge-beÛdan: 1) _to command, to order_: inf. hÍt ˛‚ gebeÛdan byre Wihst‚nes
h‰lea monegum, ˛‰t hie..., _the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given
to many of the men..._, 3111.--2) _to offer_: him Hygd gebe·d hord and
rÓce, _offered him the treasure and the chief power_, 2370; inf. g˚e
gebeÛdan, _to offer battle_, 604.

beÛd-gene·t, st. m., _table-companion_: nom. and acc. pl. gene·tas, 343,

beÛn, verb, _to be_, generally in the future sense, _will be_: pres. sg. I.
g˚geweorca ic beÛ gearo sÙna, _I shall immediately be ready for warlike
deeds_, 1826; sg. III. w‚ bi ˛‰m ˛e sceal..., _woe to him who_...! 183;
so, 186; gifee bi is given, 299; ne bi ˛e wilna g‚d (_no wish will be
denied thee_), 661; ˛Êr ˛e bi manna ˛earf, _if thou shalt need the
warriors_, 1836; ne bi swylc cwÍnlÓc ˛e·w, _is not becoming, honorable to
a woman_, 1941; eft sÙna bi _will happen directly_, 1763; similarly, 1768,
etc.; pl. ˛onne biÛ brocene, _then are broken_, 2064; feor c˝e beÛ
sÍlran gesÙhte ˛am ˛e..., "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei
qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. beÛ (biÛ) ˛u on Ùfeste, _hasten!_ 386, 2748;
beÛ wi Ge·tas gl‰d, _be gracious to the Ge·tas_, 1174.

beÛr, st. n., _beer_: dat. sg. ‰t beÛre, _at beer-drinking_, 2042; instr.
sg. beÛre druncen, 531; beÛre druncne, 480.

beÛr-scealc, st. m., _keeper of the beer, cup-bearer_: gen. pl.
beÛr-scealca sum (one of HrÙg‚r's followers, because they served the
Ge·tas at meals), 1241.

beÛr-sele, st. m., _beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk_: dat. sg. in
(on) beÛrsele, 482, 492, 1095; biÛrsele, 2636.

beÛr-˛egu, st. f., _beer-drinking, beer-banquet_: dat. sg. ‰fter beÛr˛ege,
117; ‰t ˛Êre beÛr˛ege, 618.

beÛt, st. n., _promise, binding agreement to something that is to be
undertaken_: acc. sg. he beÛt ne ‚lÍh, _did not break his pledge_, 80; beÛt
eal ... gelÊste, _performed all that he had pledged himself to_, 523.

ge-beÛtian, w. v., _to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's
self_: pret. gebeÛtedon, 480, 536.

beÛt-word, st. n., same as beÛt: dat. pl. beÛt-wordum spr‰c, 2511.

biddan, st. v., _to beg, to ask, to pray_: pres. sg. I. dÙ sw‚ ic bidde!
1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic ˛e
biddan wille ‚nre bÍne, _beg thee for one_, 427; pret. sw‚ he selfa b‰d,
_as he himself had requested_, 29; b‰d hine blÓne (supply wesan) ‰t ˛Êre
beÛr˛ege, _begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet_, 618; ic ˛e lange
b‰d ˛‰t ˛u..., _begged you a long time that you_, 1995; frioowÊre b‰d
hl‚ford sÓnne, _begged his lord for protection_ (acc. of pers. and gen. of
thing), 2283; b‰d ˛‰t ge geworhton, _asked that you_..., 3097; pl. wordum
bÊdon ˛‰t..., 176.

on-bidian, w. v., _to await_: inf. lÊta hilde-bord her onbidian ... worda
ge˛inges, _let the shields await here the result of the conference_ (lay
the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. _sword_: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558;
instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40;
gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.--Comp.: g˚-, hilde-, wÓg-bil.

bindan, st. v., _to bind, to tie_: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, _the
bound wood_, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, _a sword bound
with gold_, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold
chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg.
heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, _to bind_: pret. sg. ˛Êr ic fÓfe geband, _where I had bound
five_(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges ˛egn word Ùer fand sÙe gebunden, _the
king's man found_ (after many had already praised BeÛwulf's deed) _other
words_ (also referring to BeÛwulf, but in connection with Sigemund)
_rightly bound together_, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming
to a gid, 872; wundenmÊl wr‰ttum gebunden, _sword bound with ornaments_,
i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, _bound together by sorrow_, 1744; gomel
g˚wÓga eldo gebunden, _hoary hero bound by old age_ (fettered, oppressed),

on-bindan, _to unbind, to untie, to loose_: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., _that which binds, fetters_: in comp. Ós-gebind.

bite, st. m., _bite_, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite
Órena, _the swords' bite_, 2260; dat. sg. ‰fter billes bite, 2061.--Comp.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) _sharp, cutting, cutting
in_: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran strÊle,
1747; instr. pl. biteran b‚num, _with sharp teeth_, 2693.--2) _irritated,
furious_: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., _bitterly_ (in a moral sense), 2332.

bÓ, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) _near,
at, on, about, by_ (as under be, No. 1): bÓ sÊm tweÛnum, _in the circuit of
both seas_, 1957; ‚r‚s bÓ ronde, _raised himself up by the shield_, 2539;
bÓ wealle ges‰t, _sat by the wall_, 2718. With a freer position: him big
stÙdan bunan and orcas, _round about him_, 3048.--2) _to, towards_
(motion): hwearf ˛‚ bÓ bence, _turned then towards the bench_, 1189; geÛng
bÓ sesse, _went to the seat_, 2757.

bÓd (see bÓdan), st. n., _tarrying hesitation_: ˛Êr wear Ongen˛iÛ on bÓd
wrecen, _forced to tarry_, 2963.

bÓdan, st. v.: 1) _to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait_: inf. nÙ on
wealle leng bÓdan wolde, _would not stay longer within the wall_ (the
drake), 2309; pret. in ˛˝strum b‚d, _remained in darkness_, 87; flota
stille b‚d, _the craft lay still_, 301; receda ... on ˛‰m se rÓca b‚d,
_where the mighty one dwelt_, 310; ˛Êr se snottra b‚d, _where the wise man_
(HrÙg‚r) _waited_, 1314; he on searwum b‚d, _he_ (BeÛwulf) _stood there
armed_, 2569; ic on earde b‚d mÊlgesceafta, _lived upon the paternal ground
the time appointed me by fate_, 2737; pret. pl. sume ˛Êr bidon, _some
remained, waited there_, 400.--2) _to await, to wait for_, with the gen. of
that which is awaited: inf. bÓdan woldon Grendles g˚e, _wished to await
the combat with Grendel, to undertake it_, 482; similarly, 528; wÓges
bÓdan, _await the combat_, 1269; nalas andsware bÓdan wolde, _would await
no answer_, 1495; pret. b‚d beadwa ge˛inges, _awaited the event of the
battle_, 710; sÊgenga b‚d ‚gend-fre·n, _the sea-goer_ (boat) _awaited its
owner_, 1883; sele ... heaowylma b‚d, l‚an lÓges (the poet probably means
to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a
fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but
which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

‚-bÓdan, _to await_, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bÓdan: 1) _to tarry, to wait_: imp. gebÓde ge on beorge, _wait ye on the
mountain_, 2530; pret. part. ˛e·h ˛e wintra lyt under burhlocan gebiden
h‰bbe H‰rees dÙhtor _although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in
the castle_, 1929.--2) _to live through, to experience, to expect_ (w.
acc.): inf. sceal ended‰g mÓnne gebÓdan, _shall live my last day_, 639; ne
wÍnde ... bÙte gebÓdan, _did not hope ... to live to see reparation_, 935;
fela sceal gebÓdan leÛfes and l‚es, _experience much good and much
affliction_, 1061; ende gebÓdan, 1387, 2343; pret. he ˛‰s frÙfre geb‚d,
_received consolation_ (compensation) _therefore_, 7; geb‚d wintra worn,
_lived a great number of years_, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930,
1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. tÙ gebÓdanne Ùres yrfeweardes, _to await
another heir_, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. tÙ gebÓdanne ˛‰t his byre
rÓde on galgan, _to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows_,
2446; pret. dre·m-le·s geb‚d ˛‰t he..., _joyless he experienced it, that
he_..., 1721; ˛‰s ˛e ic on aldre geb‚d ˛‰t ic..., _for this, that I, in my
old age, lived to see that_..., 1780.

on-bÓdan, _to wait, to await_: pret. hordweard onb‚d earfolÓce Ù ˛‰t Êfen
cwom, _scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening_, 2303.

bÓtan, st. v., _to bite_, of the cutting of swords: inf. bÓtan, 1455, 1524;
pret. b‚t b‚nlocan, _bit into his body_ (Grendel), 743; b‚t unswÓor, _cut
with less force_ (BeÛwulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly _that which shines_ here of the horse, not so much
of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., _mixture, heaving mass, a turning_.--Comp.:
sund-, ˝-geblond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., _mixed_, i.e. having gray hair,
_gray-headed_, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792;
blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe,

bl‰c, adj., _dark, black_: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

bl‚c, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining_: acc. sg. bl‚cne leÛman, _a brilliant
gleam_, 1518.--2) of the white death-color, _pale_; in comp. heorobl‚c.

blÊd, st. m.: 1) _strength, force, vigor_: nom. sg. w‰s hira blÊd scacen
(of both tribes), _strength was gone_, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay
slain, 1125; nu is ˛Ónes m‰gnes blÊd ‚ne hwÓle, _now the fulness of thy
strength lasts for a time_, 1762.--2) _reputation, renown, knowledge_ (with
stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. blÊd, 18;
(˛Ón) blÊd is ‚rÊred, _thy renown is spread abroad_, 1704.

blÊd-‚gend, pt., _having renown, renowned_: nom. pl. blÊd-‚gende, 1014.

blÊd-f‰st, adj., _firm in renown, renowned, known afar_: acc. sg.
blÊdf‰stne beorn (of ƒschere, with reference to 1329), 1300.

ble·t, adj., _miserable, helpless_; only in comp. w‰l-ble·t.

ble·te, adv., _miserably, helplessly_, 2825.

blÓcan, st. v., _shine, gleam_: inf., 222

blÓe, adj.: 1) _blithe, joyous, happy_ acc. sg. blÓne, 618.--2)
_gracious, pleasing_: nom. sg. blÓe, 436.--Comp. un-blÓe.

blÓ-heort, adj., _joyous in heart, happy_: nom. sg., 1803.

blÙd, st. n., _blood_: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blÙde, 848;
‰fter deÛrum men him langa beorn wi blÙde, _the hero_ (HrÙg‚r) _longs
for the beloved man contrary to blood_, i.e. he loves him although he is
not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blÙde, 486, 935, 1595,

blÙd-f‚g, adj., _spotted with blood, bloody_, 2061.

blÙdig, adj., _bloody_: acc. sg. f. blÙdge, 991; acc. sg. n. blÙdig, 448;
instr. sg. blÙdigan g‚re, 2441.

ge-blÙdian, w. v., _to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood_: pret. part.
ge-blÙdegod, 2693.

blÙdig-tÙ, adj., _with bloody teeth_: nom. sg. bona blÙdig-tÙ (of
Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

blÙd-reÛw, adj., _bloodthirsty, bloody-minded_: nom. sg. him on ferhe
greÛw breÛst-hord blÙd-reÛw, _in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty
feeling_, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., _command, order_; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., _(to be a messenger), to announce, to make known_: pret.
hrefn blaca heofones wynne blÓ-heort bodode, _the black raven announced
joyfully heaven's delight_ (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., _bow_, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp.
hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. fl‚n-, horn-boga;
bow of the arch, in comp. st‚n-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), _gangway_; here probably the planks
which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan,

bold, st. n., _building, house, edifice_: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998;
(Hygel‚c's residence), 1926; (BeÛwulfs residence), 2197, 2327.--Comp.

bold-‚gend, pt., _house-owner, property-holder_: gen. pl. monegum
bold‚gendra, 3113.

bolgen-mÙd, adj., _angry at heart, angry_, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., _bolster, cushion, pillow_: dat. pl. (reced) geond-brÊded
wear beddum and bolstrum, _was covered with beds and bolsters_,
1241.--Comp. hleÛr-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., _carrier, bringer, leader_: in the comp. mund-, rÊd-,

bord, st. n., _shield_: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda
gebr‰c, _over the crashing of the shields_, 2260.--Comp.: hilde-, wÓg-bord.

bord-h‰bbend, pt., _one having a shield, shield-bearer_: nom. pl. h‰bbende,

bord-hreÛa, w. m., _shield-cover, shield_ with particular reference to its
cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hreÛan, 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., _shield-wall, wall of shields_: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., _shield-wood, shield_: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu,

botm, st. m., _bottom_: dat. sg. tÙ botme (here of the bottom of the
fen-lake), 1507.

bÙt (emendation, cf. bÍtan), st. f.: 1) _relief, remedy_: nom. sg., 281;
acc. sg. bÙte, 935; acc. sg. bÙte, 910.--2) _a performance in expiation, a
giving satisfaction, tribute_: gen. sg. bÙte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) _burning, fire_: nom. sg. ˛‚ sceal brond fretan
(_the burning of the body_), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne mÙston ... bronde
forb‰rnan (_could not bestow upon him the solemn burning_), 2127; h‰fde
landwara lÓge befangen, bÊle and bronde, _with glow, fire, and flame_,
2323.--2) in the passage, ˛‰t hine nÙ brond ne beadomÍcas bÓtan ne meahton,
1455, brond has been translated _sword, brand_ (after the O.N. brand-r).
The meaning _fire_ may be justified as well, if we consider that the old
helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were
mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the
helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.--3) in
the passage, forgeaf ˛‚ BeÛwulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our
text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be
intended as a designation of HrÙg‚r (perhaps _son_), has not up to this
time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., _raging, foaming, going-high_, of ships and of waves:
acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

br‚d, adj.: 1) _extended, wide_: nom. pl. br‚de rÓce, 2208.--2) _broad_:
nom. sg. he·h and br‚d (of BeÛwulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. br‚dne
mÍce, 2979; (seax) br‚d [and] br˚necg, _the broad, short sword with bright
edge_, 1547.--3) _massive, in abundance_. acc, sg. br‚d gold, 3106.

ge-br‰c, st. n., _noise, crash_: acc. sg. borda gebr‰c, 2260.

geond-brÊdan, w. v., _to spread over, to cover entirely_: pret. part.
geond-brÊded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) _to break, to break to pieces_: pret. b‚nhringas br‰c,
(the sword) _broke the joints_, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. ˛‰t ˛Êr
Ênig mon wÊre ne brÊce, _that no one should break the agreement_, 1101;
pret. part. ˛onne biÛ brocene ... ‚-sweord eorla, _then are the oaths of
the men broken_, 2064.--2) probably also simply _to break in upon
something, to press upon_, w. acc.: pret. sg. sÊdeÛr monig hildetuxum
heresyrcan br‰c, _many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the
shirt of mail_ (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it
was still unharmed). 1512.--3) _to break out, to spring out_: inf. geseah
... stre·m ˚t brecan of beorge, _saw a stream break out from the rocks_,
2547; lÍt se hearda Higel‚ces ˛egn br‚dne mÍce ... brecan ofer bordweal,
_caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields_, 2981.--4)
figuratively, _to vex, not to let rest_: pret. hine fyrwyt br‰c, _curiosity
tormented_ (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, _to break to pieces_: pret. b‚nh˚s gebr‰c, _broke in pieces his
body_ (BeÛwulf in combat with D‰ghrefn), 2509.

tÙ-brecan, _to break in pieces_: inf., 781; pret. part. tÙ-brocen, 998.

˛urh-brecan, _to break through_, pret. wordes ord breÛsthord ˛urh-br‰c,
_the word's point broke through his closed breast_, i.e. a word burst out
from his breast, 2793.

brec, st. f., _condition of being broken, breach_: nom. pl. mÙdes breca
(_sorrow of heart_), 171.

‚-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., _to fell to the ground, to kill_ (?): pret.
‚bredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly _to swing round_, hence: 1) _to swing_: inf.
under sceadu bregdan, _swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of
shadows_, 708; pret. br‰gd ealde l‚fe, _swung the old weapon_, 796; br‰gd
feorh-genÓlan, _swung his mortal enemy_ (Grendel's mother), threw her
down, 1540; pl. git e·gorstre·m ... mundum brugdon, _stirred the sea with
your hands_ (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part.
broden (brogden) mÊl, _the drawn sword_, 1617, 1668.--2) _to knit, to knot,
to plait_: inf., figuratively, inwitnet Ùrum bregdan, _to weave a
waylaying net for another_ (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for
another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohr‰gl broden, _a
woven shirt of mail_ (because it consisted of metal rings joined together),
552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

‚-bregdan, _to swing_: pret. hond up ‚-br‰d, _swung, raised his hand_,

ge-bregdan: 1) _swing_: pret. hring-mÊl gebr‰gd, _swung the ringed sword_,
1565; eald sweord e·cen ... ˛‰t ic ˛˝ wÊpne gebr‰gd, _an old heavy sword
that I swung as my weapon_, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc.
w‰llseaxe gebr‰d, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, _to draw out of the
sheath_: sweord Êr gebr‰d, _had drawn the sword before_, 2563.--2) _to
knit, to knot, to plait_: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebroden, 1444.

on-bregdan, _to tear open, to throw open_: pret. onbr‰d ˛‚ recedes m˚an,
_had then thrown open the entrance of the hall_ (onbregdan is used because
the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., _prince, ruler_: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rÙf, adj., _powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength_: nom. sg. m.,

brego-stÙl, st. m., _throne_, figuratively for _rule_: acc. sg. him
gesealde seofon ˛˚sendo, bold and brego-stÙl, _seven thousand_ see under
sceat), _a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince_, 2197; ˛Êr him Hygd
gebe·d ... brego-stÙl, _where H. offered him the chief power_, 2371; lÍt
˛one bregostÙl BeÛwulf healdan, _gave over to BeÛwulf the chief power_ (did
not prevent BeÛwulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

breme, adj., _known afar, renowned_. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., _ship craft_: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

‚-bre·tan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. ‚breÛt
brimwÓsan, _killed the sea-king_ (King HÊcyn), 2931. See breÛtan.

breÛst, st. n.: 1) _breast_: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc.
˛‰t mÓne breÛst were, _which protects my breast_, 453; dat. pl. beadohr‰gl
broden on breÛstum l‰g. 552.--2) _the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart,
the bosom_: nom. sg. breÛst innan weÛll ˛eÛstrum ge˛oncum, _his breast
heaved with troubled thoughts_, 2332; dat. pl. lÍt ˛‚ of breÛstum word ˚t
faran, _caused the words to come out from his bosom_, 2551.

breÛst-gehygd, st. n. f., _breast-thought, secret thought_: instr. pl.
-gehygdum, 2819.

breÛst-gewÊdu, st. n. pl., _breast-clothing, garment covering the breast_,
of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

breÛst-hord, st. m., _breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast,
heart, mind, thought, soul_: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

breÛst-net, st. n., _breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail_: nom.
sg. breÛst-net broden, 1549.

breÛst-weorung, st. f., _ornament that is worn upon the breast_: acc. sg.
breÛst-weorunge, 2505: here the collar is meant which BeÛwulf receives
from Wealh˛eÛw (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173,
presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her
husband Hygel‚c. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (fr‰twe),
which hang down upon the breast, hence the name breÛst-weorung.

breÛst-wylm, st. m., _heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom_: acc.
sg, 1878.

breÛtan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. bre·t
beÛdgene·tas, _killed his table-companions_ (courtiers), 1714.

‚-breÛtan, same as above: pret. ˛one ˛e heÛ on r‰ste ‚bre·t, _whom she
killed upon his couch_, 1299; pret. part. ˛‚ ˛‰t monige gewear, ˛‰t hine
seÛ brimwylf ‚broten h‰fde, _many believed that the sea-wolf_ (Grendel's
mother) _had killed him_, 1600; hÓ hyne ... ‚broten h‰fdon, _had killed
him_ (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., _flood, the sea_: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. tÙ brimes
faroe, _to the sea_, 28; ‰t brimes nosan, _at the sea's promontory_, 2804;
nom. pl. brimu swaredon, _the waves subsided_, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea_: acc. pl. -clifu,

brim-l‚d, st. f., _flood-way, sea-way_: acc. sg. ˛‚ra ˛e mid BeÛwulfe
briml‚de te·h, _who had travelled the sea-way with B._, 1052.

brim-lÓend, pt, _sea-farer, sailor_ acc. p. -lÓende, 568.

brim-stre·m, st. m., _sea-stream, the flood of the sea_: acc. pl. ofer
brim-stre·mas, 1911.

brim-wÓsa, w. m., _sea-king_: acc. sg. brimwÓsan, of HÊcyn, king of the
Ge·tas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., _sea-wolf_ (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg.
seÛ brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., _sea-wave_: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., _to bring, to bear_: prs. sg. I. ic ˛e ˛˚senda ˛egna
bringe tÙ helpe, _bring to your assistance thousands of warriors_, 1830;
inf. sceal hringnaca ofer he·u bringan l‚c and luft‚cen, _shall bring
gifts and love-tokens over the high sea_, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505;
pret. pl. we ˛‚s sÊl‚c ... brÙhton, _brought this sea-offering_ (Grendel's
head), 1654.

ge-bringan, _to bring_: pres. subj. pl. ˛at we ˛one gebringan ... on
‚df‰re, _that we bring him upon the funeral-pile_, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., _to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces_: prs.
sg. III. herep‚d ... brosna ‰fter beorne, _the coat of mail falls to
pieces after_ (the death of) _the hero_, 2261.

brÙor, st. m., _brother_: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brÍer, 1263; gen.
sg. his brÙor bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brÙrum, 588, 1075.

ge-brÙru, pl., _brethren, brothers_: dat. pl. s‰t be ˛Êm gebrÙrum twÊm,
_sat by the two brothers_, 1192.

brÙga, w. m., _terror, horror_: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa
brÙgan, 583.--Comp.: gryre-, here-brÙga.

br˚can, st. v. w. gen., _to use, to make use of_: prs. sg. III. se ˛e longe
her worolde br˚ce, _who here long makes use of the world_, i.e. lives
long, 1063; imp. br˚c manigra mÍda, _make use of many rewards, give good
rewards_, 1179; _to enjoy_: inf. ˛‰t he be·hhordes br˚can mÙste, _could
enjoy the ring-hoard_, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. bre·c
lÓfgesceafta, _enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time_, 1954.
With the genitive to be supplied: bre·c ˛onne mÙste, 1488; imp. br˚c ˛isses
be·ges, _enjoy this ring, take this ring_, 1217. Upon this meaning depends
the form of the wish, wel br˚can (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf.
hÍt hine wel br˚can, 1046; hÍt hine br˚can well, 2813; imp. br˚c ealles
well, 2163.

br˚n, adj., _having a brown lustre, shining_: nom. sg. siÛ ecg br˚n, 2579.

br˚n-ecg, adj., _having a gleaming blade_: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) br‚d
[and] br˚necg, _her broad sword with gleaming blade_, 1547.

br˚n-f‚g, adj., _gleaming like metal_: acc. sg. br˚nf‚gne helm, 2616.

bryne-leÛma, w. m., _light of a conflagration, gleam of fire _: nom. sg.,

bryne-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire_: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly _to break in small pieces_, cf. breÛtan), w. v., _to
bestow, to distribute_: pret. sinc brytnade, _distributed presents_, i.e.
ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., _giver, distributer_, always designating the king: nom. sg.
sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. be·ga bryttan, 35, 352, 1488;
sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (_to be a dispenser_), w. v., _to distribute, to confer_: prs. sg.
III. god manna cynne snyttru brytta, _bestows wisdom upon the human race_,

br˝d, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_: acc. sg. br˝d, 2931; br˝de, 2957, both
times of the consort of Ongen˛eÛw (?).--2) _betrothed, bride_: nom. sg., of
HrÙg‚r's daughter, Fre·ware, 2032.

br˝d-b˚r, st. n., _woman's apartment_: dat. sg. eode ... cyning of
br˝db˚re, _the king came out of the apartment of his wife_ (into which,
according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., _(that which has a bound prow), the framed ship_:
nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., _can_ or _cup, drinking-vessel_: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc.
pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., _castle, city, fortified house_: acc. sg. burh, 523;
dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.--Comp.: freÛ,
freoo-, he·-, hleÛ-, hord-, leÛd-, mÊg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., _castle-bars_: dat. sg. under burh-locan, _under the
castle-bars_, i.e. in the castle (Hygel‚c's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., _castle-place, place where the castle_ or _city
stands_: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., _riches, treasure of a castle_ or _city_: gen. sg. ˛enden
he burh-welan br˚can mÙste, 3101.

burne, w. f., _spring, fountain_: gen. ˛Êre burnan w‰lm, _the bubbling of
the spring_, 2547.

b˚an, st. v.: 1) _to stay, to remain, to dwell_: inf. gif he weard onfunde
b˚an on beorge, _if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain_,
2843.--2) _to inhabit_, w. acc.: meduseld b˚an, _to inhabit the
mead-house_, 3066.

ge-b˚an, w. acc., _to occupy a house, to take possession_: pret. part. he·n
h˚ses, h˚ hit Hring Dene ‰fter beÛr˛ege geb˚n h‰fdon, _how the Danes, after
their beer-carouse, had occupied it_ (had made their beds in it),
117.--With the pres. part. b˚end are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-,

b˚gan, st. v., _to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee_: prs. sg. III.
bon-g‚r b˚ge, _the fatal spear sinks_, i.e. its deadly point is turned
down, it rests, 2032; inf. ˛‰t se byrnwÓga b˚gan sceolde, _that the armed
hero had to sink down_ (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly,
2975; pret. sg. be·h eft under eorweall, _turned, fled again behind the
earth-wall_, 2957; pret. pl. bugon tÙ bence, _turned to the bench_, 327,
1014; hy on holt bugon, _fled to the wood_, 2599.

‚-b˚gan, _to bend off, to curve away from_: pret. fram sylle ‚be·g medubenc
monig, _from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench_, 776.

be-b˚gan, w. acc., _to surround, to encircle_: prs. sw‚ (_which_) w‰ter
beb˚ge, 93; efne sw‚ sÓde sw‚ sÊ beb˚ge windige weallas, _as far as the
sea encircles windy shores_, 1224.

ge-b˚gan, _to bend, to bow, to sink_: a) intrans.: heÛ on flet gebe·h,
_sank on the floor_, 1541; ˛‚ gebe·h cyning, _then sank the king_, 2981; ˛‚
se wyrm gebe·h sn˚de tÙsomne (_when the drake at once coiled itself up_),
2568; gew‚t ˛‚ gebogen scrÓan tÙ, _advanced with curved body_ (the drake),
2570.--b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste
gebe·h, _sank upon the couch in the hall_, 691; similarly gebe·g, 1242.

b˚r, st. n., _apartment, room_: dat. sg. b˚re, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. b˚rum,
140.--Comp. br˝d-b˚r.

b˚tan, b˚ton (from be and ˚tan, hence in its meaning referring to what is
without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, _lest_: b˚tan his
lÓc swice, _lest his body escape_, 967. With ind. following, _but_: b˚ton
hit w‰s m‚re ˛onne Ênig mon Ùer tÙ beadul‚ce ‰tberan meahte, _but it_ (the
sword) _was greater than any other man could have carried to battle_, 1561.
After a preceding negative verb, _except_: ˛‚ra ˛e gumena bearn gearwe ne
wiston b˚ton Fitela mid hine, _which the children of men did not know at
all, except Fitela, who was with him_, 880; ne nom he m‚m-Êhta m‚ b˚ton
˛one hafelan, etc., _he took no more of the rich treasure than the head
alone_, 1615.--2) prep, with dat., _except_: b˚ton folcscare, 73; b˚ton ˛e,
658; ealle b˚ton ‚num, 706.

bycgan, w. v., _to buy, to pay_: inf. ne w‰s ˛‰t gewrixle til ˛‰t hie on b‚
healfa bicgan scoldon freÛnda feorum, _that was no good transaction, that
they, on both sides_ (as well to Grendel as to his mother), _had to pay
with the lives of their friends_, 1306.

be-bycgan, _to sell_: pret. nu ic on m‚ma hord mÓne bebohte frÙde
feorhlege (_now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life_), 2800.

ge-bycgan, _to buy, to acquire; to pay_: pret. w. acc. nÙ ˛Êr Ênige ...
frÙfre gebohte, _obtained no sort of help, consolation_, 974; hit (his,
MS.) ealdre gebohte, _paid it with his life_, 2482; pret. part. sylfes
feore be·gas [geboh]te, _bought rings with his own life_, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (_to make_ beald, which see), _to excite, to encourage, to
brave deeds_: inf. w. acc. sw‚ he Fresena cyn on beÛrsele byldan wolde (by
distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hie on gebyrd
hruron g‚re wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., _birth_; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scr˚d, st. n., _shield-ornament, design upon a shield_(?): nom. sg.,

byre, st. m., (_born_) _son_: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl.
byre, 1189. In a broader sense, _young man, youth_: acc. pl. bÊdde byre
geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

byren, st. f., _burden_; in comp. m‰gen-byren.

byrele, st. m., _steward, waiter, cupbearer_: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., _to feast, to eat_: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., _protector_; in comp. leÛd-gebyrgea.

byrht. See _beorht_.

byrne, w. f., _shirt of mail, mail_: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.;
hringed byrne, _ring-shirt_, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg.
byrnan, 1023, etc.; sÓde byrnan, _large coat of mail_, 1292; hringde
byrnan, 2616; h‚re byrnan, _gray coat of mail_ (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on
byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, _the ring of the shirt of mail_ (i.e.
the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum,
_with gleaming mail_, 3141.--Comp.: g˚-, here-, heao-, Óren-,

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wÓga, w. m., _warrior dressed in a coat of mail_: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., _trouble, difficulty, opposition_: nom. sg. bisigu,
281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., _opposed, in need_, in the compounds lÓf-bysig, syn-bysig.

b˝me, w. f., _a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone_: gen. sg. b˝man
gealdor, _the sound of the trumpet_, 2944.

b˝wan, w. v., _to ornament, to prepare_: inf. ˛‚ ˛e beado-grÓman b˝wan
sceoldon, _who should prepare the helmets_, 2258.


camp, st. m., _combat, fight between two_: dat. sg. in campe (BeÛwulf's
with D‰ghrefn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., _light, candle_: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun,
1573.--Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., _fighter, warrior, hero_: nom. sg. ‰ele cempa, 1313; Ge·ta
cempa, 1552; rÍe cempa, 1586; mÊre cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa,
2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; H˚ga cempan,
2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.--Comp. fÍe-cempa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) _to bear_, w. acc.: efne sw‚ hwylc m‰ga sw‚ ˛one magan
cende, _who bore the son_, 944; pret. part. ˛‰m eafera w‰s ‰fter cenned,
_to him was a son born_, 12.--2) reflexive, _to show one's self, to reveal
one's self_: imp. cen ˛ec mid cr‰fte, _prove yourself by your strength_,

‚-cennan, _to bear_: pret. part. nÙ hie f‰der cunnon, hw‰er him Ênig w‰s
Êr ‚cenned dyrnra g‚sta, _they_ (the people of the country) _do not know
his_ (Grendel's) _father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born
to him_ (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cÍnu, st. f., _boldness_: acc. sg. cÍnu, 2697.

cÍne, adj., _keen, warlike, bold_: gen. p.. cÍnra gehwylcum, 769. Superl.,
acc. pl. cÍnoste, 206.--Comp.: dÊd-, g‚r-cÍne.

ceald, adj., _cold_: acc. pl. cealde stre·mas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum
cearsÓum, _with cold, sad journeys_, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera
cealdost, 546;--Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., _to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self_: prs.
sg. III. n‚ ymb his lÓf ceara, _takes no care for his life_, 1537.

cearig, adj., _troubled, sad_: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sÓ, st. m., _sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow_, i.e.
a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsÓum (of BeÛwulf's expeditions against
E·dgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., _care, sorrow, lamentation_: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg.
[ceare], 3173.--Comp.: ealdor-, g˚-, mÊl-, mÙd-cearu.

cear-w‰lm, st. m., _care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast_: dat.
pl. ‰fter cear-w‰lmum, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. ˛‚ cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-b˚end, pt, _inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a
castle_: dat. pl. ceaster-b˚endum, of those established in HrÙg‚r's
castle, 769.

ce·p, st. m., _purchase, transaction_: figuratively, nom. sg. n‰s ˛‰t ˝e
ce·p, _no easy transaction_, 2416; instr. sg. ˛e·h ˛e Ùer hit ealdre
gebohte, heardan ce·pe, _although the one paid it with his life, a dear
purchase_, 2483.

ge-ce·pian, w. v., _to purchase_: pret. part. gold unrÓme grimme gece·pod,
_gold without measure, bitterly purchased_ (with BeÛwulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., _to separate, to cut off_ (with acc. of the pers. and
instr. of the thing): pret. hine ˛‚ he·fde becearf, _cut off his head_,
1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., _man_: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, _many a wise man_, 909;
dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, _the old man_ (of King HrÍel), 2445; so, ealdum
ceorle, of King Ongen˛eÛw, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, _wise men_, 202,
416, 1592.

ceÛl, st. m., _keel_, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg.
ceÛl, 38, 238; gen. sg. ceÛles, 1807.

ceÛsan, st. v., _to choose_, hence, _to assume_: inf. ˛one cynedÙm ciÛsan
wolde, _would assume the royal dignity_, 2377; _to seek_: pret. subj. Êr he
bÊl cure, _before he sought his funeral-pile_ (before he died), 2819.

ge-ceÛsan, _to choose, to elect_: gerund, tÙ geceÛsenne cyning Ênigne
(sÍlran), _to choose a better king_, 1852; imp. ˛e ˛‰t sÍlre ge-ceÛs,
_choose thee the better_ (of two: bealonÓ and Íce rÊdas), 1759; pret. he
˚sic on herge gece·s tÙ ˛yssum sifate, _selected us among the soldiers for
this undertaking_, 2639; gece·s Ícne rÊd, _chose the everlasting gain_,
i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes leÛht gece·s, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl.
h‰fde ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., _to turn, to change_: inf. ne meahte ... ˛‰s wealdendes
[willan] wiht on-cirran, _could not change the will of the Almighty_, 2858;
pret. ufor oncirde, _turned higher_, 2952; ˛yder oncirde, _turned thither_,

‚-cÓgan, w. v., _to call hither_: pret. ‚cÓgde of corre cyninges ˛egnas
syfone, _called from the retinue of the king seven men_, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? _fetter_, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat.
pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible
claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., _cliff, promontory_: acc. pl. Ge·ta clifu,
1912.--Comp.: brim-, Íg-, holm-, st‚n-clif.

ge-cn‚wan, st. v., _to know, to recognize_: inf. meaht ˛u, mÓn wine, mÍce
gecn‚wan, _mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword_, 2048.

on-cn‚wan, _to recognize, to distinguish_: hordweard oncniÛw mannes reorde,
_distinguished the speech of a man_, 2555.

cniht, st. m., _boy, youth_: dat. pl. ˛yssum cnyhtum, _to these boys_
(HrÙg‚r's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., _being a boy_ or _a youth_: acc. sg. ic hine
c˚e cniht-wesende, _knew him while still a boy_, 372; nom. pl. wit ˛‰t
gecwÊdon cniht-wesende, _we both as young men said that_, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., _to strike, to dash against each other_: pret. pl. ˛onne
... eoferas cnysedan, _when the bold warriors dashed against each other,
stormed_ (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferh, -fer, adj., (properly, _of swollen mind_), _of uncommon
thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others,
high-minded_: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferh, of BeÛwulf, 1807; collen-fer, of
WÓgl‚f, 2786.

corer, st. n., _troop, division of an army, retinue_: dat. sg. ˛‚ w‰s ...
Fin sl‰gen, cyning on corre, _then was Fin slain, the king in the troop_
(of warriors), 1154; of corre cyninges, _out of the retinue of the king_,

costian, w. v., _to try_; pret. (w. gen.) he mÓn costode, _tried me_, 2085.

cÙfa, w. m., _apartment, sleeping-room, couch_: in comp. b‚n-cÙfa.

cÙl, adj., _cool_: compar. cearwylmas cÙlran wura, _the waves of sorrow
become cooler_, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wÓflufan ... cÙlran
weora, _his love for his wife cools_, 2067.

cr‰ft, st. m., _the condition of being able_, hence: 1) _physical
strength_: nom. sg. m‰ga cr‰ft, 1284; acc. sg. m‰genes cr‰ft, 418; ˛urh
‚nes cr‰ft, 700; cr‰ft and cÍnu, 2697; dat. (instr.) sg. cr‰fte, 983,
1220, 2182, 2361.--2) _art, craft, skill_: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum
cr‰fte, _with secret_ (magic) _art_, 2169; dyrnan cr‰fte, 2291; ˛eÛfes
cr‰fte, _with thief's craft_, 2221; dat. pl. deÛfles cr‰ftum, _by devil's
art_ (sorcery), 2089.--3) _great quantity_ (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda cr‰ft,
2223.--Comp.: leoo-, m‰gen-, nearo-, wÓg-cr‰ft.

cr‰ftig, adj.: 1) _strong, stout_: nom. sg. eafoes cr‰ftig, 1467; nÓa
cr‰ftig, 1963. Comp. wÓg-cr‰ftig.--2) _adroit, skilful_: in comp.
lagu-cr‰ftig.--3) _rich_ (of treasures); in comp. e·cen-cr‰ftig.

cringan, st. v., _to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of
those mortally wounded_: pret. subj. on w‰l crunge, _would sink into death,
would fall_, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on w‰le crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. he under rande gecranc, _fell under his
shield_, 1210; ‰t wÓge gecrang, _fell in battle_, 1338; heÛ on flet
gecrong, _fell to the ground_, 1569; in campe gecrong, _fell in single
combat_, 2506.

cuma (_he who comes_), w. m., _newcomer, guest_: nom. sg. 1807.--Comp.:
cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., _to come_: pres. sg. II. gyf ˛u on weg cymest, _if thou
comest from there_, 1383; III. cyme, 2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23;
pl. ˛onne we ˚t cymen, _when we come out_, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281,
1870; pret. sg. com, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwom, 419,
2915; pret. subj. sg. cwÙme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361.
Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, com gongan, 711; com sÓian,
721; com in g‚n, 1645; cwom g‚n, 1163; com scacan, 1803; cwÙmon lÊdan, 239;
cwÙmon sÍcean, 268; cwÙman scrÓan, 651, etc. [pret. cÙm, etc.]

be-cuman, _to come, to approach, to arrive_: pret. syan niht becom,
_after the night had come_, 115; ˛e on ˛‚ leÛde becom, _that had come over
the people_, 192; ˛‚ he tÙ h‚m becom, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn
in becom ... hlynnan under h‚rne st‚n, 2553; lyt eft becwom ... h‚mes
niÛsan, 2366; Ù ˛‰t ende becwom, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of
pers.: ˛‚ hyne siÛ ˛rag becwom, _when this time of battle came over him_,

ofer-cuman, _to overcome, to compel_: pret. ˛˝ he ˛one feÛnd ofercwom,
_thereby he overcame the foe_, 1274: pl. hie feÛnd heora ... ofercÙmon,
700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nÓa ofercumen, _compelled by combats_, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., _banner_: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.--Comp.

cund, adj., _originating in, descended from_: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) _to know, to be acquainted with_ (w. acc. or
depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mÓnne can gl‰dne HrÙulf ˛‰t he ... wile,
_I know my gracious H., that he will_..., 1181; II. eard git ne const,
_thou knowest not yet the land_, 1378; III. he ˛‰t wyrse ne con, _knows no
worse_, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, _knows the land well_,
2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helr˚nan scrÓa, _men do not know
whither_..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine c˚e, _knew him_, 372; c˚e he dugu
˛e·w, _knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers_, 359; so with the
acc., 2013; seolfa ne c˚e ˛urh hw‰t..., _he himself did not know through
what_..., 3068; pl. sorge ne c˚on, 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234.
With both (acc. and depend. clause): nÙ hie f‰der cunnon (scil. nÙ hie
cunnon) hw‰er him Ênig w‰s Êr ‚cenned dyrnra g‚sta, 1356.--2) with inf.
following, _can, to be able_: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, _cannot defend
himself_, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, _cannot say_, 50; pret. sg.
c˚e reccan, 90; beorgan c˚e, 1446; pret. pl. hÍrian ne c˚on, _could not
praise_, 182; pret. subj. healdan c˚e, 2373.

cunnian, w. v., _to inquire into, to try_, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund
cunnian (figurative for _roam over the sea_), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan
higes cunnian, _to try the young warrior's mind_, 2046; pret. eard cunnode,
_tried the home_, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, _tried the
flood_, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

c˚, adj.: 1) _known, well known; manifest, certain_: nom. sg. undyrne c˚,
150, 410; wÓde c˚, 2924; acc. sg. fern. c˚e folme, 1304; c˚e strÊte,
1635; nom. pl. ecge c˚e, 1146; acc. pl. c˚e n‰ssas, 1913.--2) _renowned_:
nom. sg. g˚um c˚, 2179; nom. pl. cystum c˚e, 868.--3) also, _friendly,
dear, good_ (see un-c˚).--Comp.: un-, wÓd-c˚.

c˚-lÓce, adv., _openly, publicly_: comp. nÙ her c˚lÓcor cuman ongunnon
lind-h‰bbende, _no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither_
(the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., _murder, fall_: in comp. de·-cwalu.

cweccan (_to make alive_, see cwic), w. v., _to move, to swing_: pret.
cwehte m‰gen-wudu, _swung the wood of strength_ (= spear), 235.

cwean, st. v., _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwi ‰t
beÛre, _speaks at beer-drinking_, 2042.--b) w. acc.: pret. word ‰fter cw‰,
315; fe· worda cw‰, 2247, 2663.--c) with ˛‰t following: pret. sg. cw‰,
92, 2159; pl. cwÊdon, 3182.--d) with ˛‰t omitted: pret. cw‰ he g˚-cyning
sÍcean wolde, _said he would seek out the war-king_, 199; similarly, 1811,

‚-cwean, _to say, to speak_, w. acc.: prs. ˛‰t word ‚cwy, _speaks the
word_, 2047; pret. ˛‰t word ‚cw‰, 655.

ge-cwean, _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. sw‚ ˛u gecwÊde,
2665.--b)w. acc.: pret. wel-hwylc gecw‰, _spoke everything_, 875; pl. wit
˛‰t gecwÊdon, 535.--c) w. ˛‰t following: pret. gecw‰, 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (_to make die_), _to kill, to murder_: pret. sg. II. ˛u
Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

‚-cwellan, _to kill_: pret. sg. (he) wyrm ‚cwealde, 887; ˛one ˛e Grendel Êr
m‚ne ‚cwealde, _whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered_, 1056; beorn
‚cwealde, 2122.

cwÍn, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_ (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwÍn, 62;
(HrÙg‚r's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.--2) particularly denoting the queen:
nom. sg. be·ghroden cwÍn (Wealh˛eÛw), 624; mÊru cwÍn, 2017; fremu folces
cwÍn (firyo), 1933; acc. sg. cwÍn (Wealh˛eÛw), 666.-Comp. folc-cwÍn.

cwÍn-lÓc, adj., _feminine, womanly_: nom. sg. ne bi swylc cwÍnlÓc ˛e·w
(_such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman_), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder, destruction_: acc. sg. ˛one cwealm
gewr‰c, _avenged the death_ (of Abel by Cain), 107; mÊndon mondryhtnes
cwealm, _lamented the ruler's fall_, 3150.--Comp.: bealo-, de·-,

cwealm-bealu, st. n., _the evil of murder_: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., _one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates
murder_: acc. sg. ˛one cwealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., _quick, having life, alive_: acc. sg. cwicne, 793,
2786; gen. sg. ‚ht cwices, _something living_, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98;
cwico w‰s ˛‚ gena, _was still alive_, 3094.

cwide, st. m., _word, speech, saying_: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hleÛ-, or-
[non-existant form--KTH], word-cwide.

cwÓan, st. v., _to complain, to lament_: inf. w. acc. ongan ... giogue
cwÓan hilde-strengo, _began to lament the_ (departed) _battle-strength of
his youth_, 2113 [ceare] cwÓan, _lament their cares_, 3173.

cyme, st. m., _coming, arrival_: nom. pl. hwanan eÛwre cyme syndon, _whence
your coming is_, i. e. whence ye are, 257.--Comp. eft-cyme.

cymlÓce, adv., (convenienter), _splendidly, grandly_: comp. cymlÓcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., _race_, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage:
nom. sg. Fresena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena
cyn, 421; giganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811,
915, 1726; eÛwrum (of those who desert BeÛwulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen.
sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mÊran cynnes, 1730; l‚an cynnes,
2009, 2355; ˚sses cynnes WÊgmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum,
98.--Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., _that which is suitable or proper_: gen. pl. cynna (of
etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., _innate, peculiar, natural_: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dÙm, st. m., _kingdom, royal dignity_: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., _king_: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning,
620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl.
kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.--Comp. beorn-, eor-, folc-, gu-, he·h-,
leÛd-, sÊ-, sÙ-, ˛eÛd-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "_nobly bold_" (Thorpe), _excellently brave_ (?): nom.
pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., _to kiss_: pret. gecyste ˛‚ cyning ... ˛egen betstan,
_kissed the best thane_ (BeÛwulf), 1871.

cyst (_choosing_, see ceÛsan), st. f., _the select, the best of a thing,
good quality, excellence_: nom. sg. Órenna cyst, _of the swords_, 803,
1698; wÊpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, _choice banquet_, 1233; acc. sg. Órena
cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum c˚e, _known through excellent
qualities_, 868; (cyning) cystum gec˝ed, 924.--Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

c˝. See on-c˝.

c˝an (see c˚), w. v., _to make known, to manifest, to show_: imp. sg.
m‰gen-ellen c˝, _show thy heroic strength_, 660; inf. cwealmbealu c˝an,
1941; ellen c˝an, 2696.

ge-c˝an (_to make known_, hence): 1) _to give information, to announce_:
inf. andsware gec˝an, _to give answer_, 354; gerund, tÙ gec˝anne hwanan
eÛwre cyme syndon (_to show whence ye come_), 257; pret. part. sÙ is
gec˝ed ˛‰t ... (_the truth has become known_, it has shown itself to be
true), 701; Higel‚ce w‰s sÓ BeÛwulfes sn˚de gec˝ed, _the arrival of B.
was quickly announced_, 1972; similarly, 2325.--2) _to make celebrated_, in
pret. part.: w‰s mÓn f‰der folcum gec˝ed (_my father was known to
warriors_), 262; w‰s his mÙdsefa manegum gec˝ed, 349; cystum gec˝ed, 924.

c˝u (properly, _condition of being known_, hence _relationship_), st. f.,
_home, country, land_: in comp. feor-c˝u. [should be c˝, feor-c˝--KTH]

ge-c˝pan, w. v., _to purchase_: inf. n‰s him Ênig ˛earf ˛‰t he ... ˛urfe
wyrsan wÓgfrecan weore gec˝pan, _had need to buy with treasures no
inferior warrior_, 2497.


daro, st. m., _spear_: dat. pl. dareum l‚can (_to fight_), 2849.

ge-d‚l, st. n., _parting, separation_: nom. sg. his worulde ged‚l, _his
separation from the world_ (his death), 3069.--Comp. ealdor-, lÓf-ged‚l.

d‰g, st. m., _day_: nom. sg. d‰g, 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. d‰g, 2400;
andlangne d‰g, _the whole day_, 2116; morgenlongne d‰g (_the whole
morning_), 2895; Ù dÙmes d‰g, _till judgment-day_, 3070; dat. sg. on ˛‰m
d‰ge ˛ysses lÓfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. d‰ges, 1601,
2321; hwÓl d‰ges, _a day's time, a whole day_, 1496; d‰ges and nihtes, _day
and night_, 2270; d‰ges, _by day_, 1936; dat. pl. on tyn dagum, _in ten
days_, 3161.--Comp. Êr-, de·-, ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, ge‚r-, lÊn-, lÓf-,
swylt-, win-d‰g, an-d‰ges.

d‰g-hwÓl, st. f., _day-time_: acc. pl. ˛‰t he d‰ghwÓla gedrogen h‰fde
eoran wynne, _that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days_
(appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.--(After Grein.)

d‰g-rÓm, st. n., _series of days, fixed number of days_: nom. sg. dÙgera
d‰grÓm (_number of the days of his life_), 824.

dÊd, st. f., _deed, action_: acc. sg. deÛrlÓce dÊd, 585; dÙmle·san dÊd,
2891; frÍcne dÊde, 890; dÊd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dÊda, 195; gen. pl.
dÊda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. dÊdum, 1228, 2437, etc.--Comp. ellen-,
fyren-, lof-dÊd.

dÊd-cÍne, adj., _bold in deed_: nom. sg. dÊd-cÍne mon, 1646.

dÊd-fruma, w. m., _doer of deeds, doer_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dÊd-bata, w. m., _he who pursues with his deeds_: nom. sg., of Grendel,

dÊdla, w. m., _doer_: in comp. m‚n-for-dÊdla.

dÊl, st. m., _part, portion_: acc. sg. dÊl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl.
dÊlas, 1733.--Often dÊl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality
which belongs in general to an individual, as, Ù ˛‰t him on innan
oferhygda dÊl weaxe, _till in his bosom his portion of arrogance
increases_: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. BiÛwulfe
wear dryhtm‚ma dÊl de·e, forgolden, _to BeÛwulf his part of the splendid
treasures was paid with death_, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were
allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the
dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dÊlan, w. v., _to divide, to bestow, to share with_, w. acc.: pres. sg.
III. m‚dmas dÊle, 1757; pres. subj. ˛‰t he wi aglÊcean eofoo dÊle, _that
he bestow his strength upon_ (strive with) _the bringer of misery_ the
drake), 2535; inf. hringas dÊlan, 1971; pret. be·gas dÊlde, 80; sceattas
dÊlde, 1687.

be-dÊlan, w. instr., _(to divide), to tear away from, to strip of_: pret.
part. dre·mum (dre·me) bedÊled, _deprived of the heavenly joys_ (of
Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dÊlan: 1) _to distribute_: inf. (w. acc. _of the thing distributed_);
bÊr on innan eall gedÊlan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde,
_distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him_, 71.--2)
_to divide, to separate_, with acc.: inf. sundur gedÊlan lÓf wi lÓce,
_separate life from the body_, 2423; so pret. subj. ˛‰t he gedÊlde ... ‚nra
gehwylces lÓf wi lÓce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., _den, cave_: acc. sg. ˛‰s wyrmes
denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gew‚t dennes niÛsian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) _proper, appropriate_: nom. sg. sw‚ hit
gedÍfe w‰s (bi), _as was appropriate, proper_, 561, 1671, 3176.--2) _good,
kind, friendly_; nom sg. beÛ ˛u suna mÓnum dÊdum gedÍfe, _be friendly to my
son by deeds_ (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained
to the government), 1228.--Comp. un-ge-dÍfelÓce.

dÍman (see dÙm), w. v.: 1) _to judge, to award justly_: pres. subj. mÊro
dÍme, 688.--2) _to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify_: pret. pl. his
ellenweorc duguum dÍmdon, _praised his heroic deed with all their might_,

dÍmend, _judge_: dÊda dÍmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. ˛ryum dealle,

de·d, adj., _dead_: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. de·dne, 1310.

de·, st. m., _death, dying_: nom. sg, de·, 441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. de·,
2169; dat. sg. de·e, 1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. de·es
wylm, 2270; de·es n˝d, 2455.--Comp. g˚-, w‰l-, wundor-de·.

de·-bed, st. n., _death-bed_: dat. sg. de·-bedde f‰st, 2902.

de·-cwalu, st. f., _violent death_, _ruin and death_: dat. pl. tÙ
de·-cwalum, 1713.

de·-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder_: nom. sg. 1671.

de·-d‰g, st. m., _death-day, dying day_: dat. sg. ‰fter de·-d‰ge (_after
his death_), 187, 886.

de·-fÊge, adj., _given over to death_: nom. sg. (Grendel) de·-fÊge deÛg,
_had hidden himself, being given over to death_ (mortally wounded), 851.

de·-sc˚a, w. m., _death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death_: nom. sg.
deorc de·-sc˚a (of Grendel), 160.

de·-wÍrig, adj., _weakened by death_, i.e. dead: acc. sg. de·-wÍrigne,
2126. See wÍrig.

de·-wÓc, st. n. _death's house, home of death_: acc. sg. gew‚t de·wÓc
seÛn (_had died_), 1276.

de·gan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, _hidden_), _to conceal one's self, to
hide_: pret. (for pluperf.) deÛg, 851.--Leo.

deorc, adj., _dark_: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat.
pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc
de·-sc˚a, 160.

deÛfol, st. m. n., _devil_: gen. sg. deÛfles, 2089; gen. pl. deÛfla, of
Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

deÛgol, d˝gol, adj., _concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information,
unknown_: nom. sg. deÛgol dÊdhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. d˝gel lond,
_inaccessible land_, 1358.

deÛp, st. n., _deep, abyss_: acc. sg., 2550.

deÛp, adv. _deeply_: acc. sg. deÛp w‰ter, 509, 1905.

diÛpe, adj., _deep_: hit Ù dÙmes d‰g diÛpe benemdon ˛eÛdnas mÊre, _the
illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a
solemn spell upon it_, 3070.

deÛr, st. n., _animal, wild animal_: in comp. mere-, sÊ-deÛr.

deÛr, adj.: 1) _wild, terrible_: nom. sg. diÛr dÊd-fruma (of Grendel),
2091.--2) _bold, brave_: nom. nÊnig ... deÛr, 1934.--Comp.: heau-,

deÛre, d˝re, adj.: 1) _dear, costly_ (high in price): acc. sg. d˝re Óren,
2051; drincf‰t d˝re (deÛre), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. deÛran sweorde, 561;
dat. sg. deÛrum m‚me, 1529; nom. pl. d˝re swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. deÛre
(d˝re) m‚mas, 2237, 3132.--2) _dear, beloved, worthy_: nom. sg. f., ‰elum
diÛre, _worthy by reason of origin_, 1950; dat. sg. ‰fter deÛrum men, 1880;
gen. sg. deÛrre dugue, 488; superl. acc. sg. aldor˛egn ˛one deÛrestan,

deÛr-lÓc, adj., _bold, brave_: acc. sg. deÛrlÓce dÊd, 585. See deÛr.

disc, st. m., _disc, plate, flat dish_: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dÓgan. See ge-d˝gan.

dol-gilp, st. m., _mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless
audacity_: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-lÓc, adj., _audacious_: gen. pl. mÊst ... dÊda dollÓcra, 2647.

dol-sceaa, w. m., _bold enemy_: acc. sg. ˛one dol-scaan (Grendel), 479.

dÙgor, st. m. n., _day_; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb ‚ntÓd
Ùres dÙgores, _at the same time of the next day_, 219; morgen-leÛht Ùres
dÙgores, _the morning-light of the second day_, 606.--2) day in the usual
sense: acc. sg. n. ˛ys dÙgor, _during this day_, 1396; instr. ˛˝ dÙgore,
1798; forman dÙgore, 2574; gen. pl. dÙgora gehw‚m, 88; dÙgra gehwylce,
1091; dÙgera d‰grim, _the number of his days_ (the days of his life),
824.--3) _day_ in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dÙgrum, _in
later days, times_, 2201, 2393.--Comp. ende-dÙgor.

dÙgor-gerÓm, st. n., _series of days_: gen. sg. w‰s eall sceacen
dÙgor-gerÓmes, _the whole number of his days_ (his life) _was past_, 2729.

dÙhtor, st. f., _daughter_: nom. acc. sg. dÙhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982,

dÙm, st. m.: I., _condition, state in general_; in comp. cyne-,
wis-dÙm.--II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) _judgment, judicial
opinion_: instr. sg. weotena dÙme, _according to the judgment of the
Witan_, 1099. 2) _custom_: ‰fter dÙme, _according to custom_, 1721. 3)
_court, tribunal_: gen. sg. miclan dÙmes, 979; Ù dÙmes d‰g, 3070, both
times of the last judgment.--III., _condition of freedom_ or _superiority_,
hence: 4) _choice, free will_: acc. sg. on sÓnne sylfes dÙm, _according to
his own choice_, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dÙme, 896, 2777. 5) _might,
power_: nom. sg. dÙm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores ‚nne dÙm, 2965; dat. sg.
drihtnes dÙme, 441. 6) _glory, honor, renown_: nom. sg. [dÙm], 955; dÙm
unlytel, _not a little glory_, 886; ˛‰t w‰s forma sÓ deÛrum m‚me ˛‰t his
dÙm ‚l‰g, _it was the first time to the dear treasure_ (the sword Hrunting)
_that its fame was not made good_, 1529; acc. sg. ic me dÙm gewyrce, _make
renown for myself_, 1492; ˛‰t ˛u ne ‚lÊte dÙm gedreÛsan, _that thou let not
honor fall_, 2667; dat. instr. sg. ˛Êr he dÙme forle·s, _here he lost his
reputation_, 1471; dÙme gewurad, _adorned with glory_, 1646; gen. sg.
wyrce se ˛e mÙte dÙmes, _let him make himself reputation, whoever is able_,
1389. 7) _splendor_ (in heaven): acc. sÙ-f‰stra dÙm, _the glory of the
saints_, 2821.

dÙm-le·s, adj., _without reputation, inglorious_: acc. sg. f. dÙmle·san
dÊd, 2891.

dÙn, red. v., _to do, to make, to treat_: 1) absolutely: imp. dÙ sw‚ ic
bidde, _do as I beg_, 1232.--2) w. acc.: inf. hÍt hire selfre sunu on bÊl
dÙn, 1117; pret. ˛‚ he him of dyde Ósernbyrnan, _took off the iron
corselet_, 672; (˛onne) him H˚nl‚fing, ... billa sÍlest, on bearm dyde,
_when he made a present to him of H˚nl‚fing, the best of swords_, 1145;
dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, _took off the gold ring from his neck_,
2810; ne him ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg for wiht dyde, eafo and ellen, _nor did he
reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength_, 2349; pl. hi
on beorg dydon bÍg and siglu, _placed in the (grave-) mound rings and
ornaments_, 3165.--3) representing preceding verbs: inf. tÙ Ge·tum sprec
mildum wordum! sw‚ sceal man dÙn, _as one should do_, 1173; similarly,
1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum weÛld, sw‚ he nu git dÍ, _the creator ruled
over all, as he still does_, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.)
1135; pret. II. sw‚ ˛u Êr dydest, 1677; III. sw‚ he nu gyt dyde, 957;
similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. sw‚ hie oft Êr dydon, 1239; similarly,
3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wÍn' ic ˛‰t he
wille ... Ge·tena leÛde etan unforhte, sw‚ he oft dyde m‰gen HrÍmanna, _I
believe he will wish to devour the Ge·t people, the fearless, as he often
did_ (devoured) _the bloom of the HrÍmen_, 444; gif ic ˛‰t gefricge ...
˛‰t ˛ec ymbesittend egesan ˛˝wa, sw‚ ˛ec hetende hwÓlum dydon, _that the
neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee_ (i.e. distressed),
1829; gif ic Ùwihte m‰g ˛Ónre mÙd-lufan m‚ran tilian ˛onne ic gyt dyde, _if
I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done_, 1825;
similarly, pl. ˛onne ˛‚ dydon, 44.

ge-dÙn, _to do, to make_, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god)
gedÍ him sw‚ gewealdene worolde dÊlas, _makes the parts of the world_
(i.e. the whole world) _so subject that ..._, 1733; inf. ne hyne on
medo-bence micles wyrne drihten wereda gedÙn wolde, _nor would the leader
of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet_, 2187. With adv.: he mec
˛Êr on innan ... gedÙn wolde, _wished to place me in there_, 2091.

draca, w. m., _drake, dragon_: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403,
3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.--Comp.: eor-, f˝r-, lÍg-, lÓg-,

on-drÊdan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., _to fear, to
be afraid of_: inf. ˛‰t ˛u him on-drÊdan ne ˛earft ... aldorbealu, _needest
not fear death for them_, 1675; pret. nÙ he him ˛‚ s‰cce ondrÍd, _was not
afraid of the combat_, 2348.

ge-dr‰g (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., _demeanor, actions_:
acc. sg. sÍcan deÛfla gedr‰g, 757.

drepan, st. v., _to hit, to strike_: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferh-genÓlan,
2881; pret. part. bi on hrere ... drepen biteran strÊle, _struck in the
breast with piercing arrow_, 1746; w‰s in feorh dropen (_fatally hit_),

drepe, st. m., _blow, stroke_: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drÍfan, ge-drÍfan, w. v., _to move, to agitate, to stir up_: inf. gew‚t ...
drÍfan deÛp w‰ter (_to navigate_), 1905; pret. part. w‰ter under stÙd
dreÛrig and gedrÍfed, 1418.

dre·m, st. m., _rejoicing, joyous actions, joy_: nom. sg. h‰lea dre·m,
497; acc. sg. dre·m hl˚dne, 88; ˛u ... dre·m healdende, _thou who livest in
rejoicing_ (at the drinking-carouse), _who art joyous_, 1228: dat. instr.
sg. dre·me bedÊled, 1276; gen. pl. dre·ma le·s, 851; dat. pl. dre·mum (here
adverbial) lifdon, _lived in rejoicing, joyously_, 99; dre·mum bedÊled,
722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.--Comp. gleÛ-, gum-, man-,

dre·m-le·s, adj., _without rejoicing, joyless_: nom. sg. of King HeremÙd,

dreÛgan, st. v.: 1) _to lead a life, to be in a certain condition_: pret.
dre·h ‰fter dÙme, _lived in honor, honorably_, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-˛earfe
ongeat, ˛‰t hie Êr drugon aldorle·se lange hwile, _(God) had seen the great
distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler_ (?), 15.--2)
_to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy_: imp. dreÛh
symbelwynne, _pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal_,
1783; inf. driht-scype dreÛgan (_do a heroic deed_), 1471; pret. sundnytte
dre·h (_had the occupation of swimming_, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361;
pret. pl. hie gewin drugon (_fought_), 799; hÓ sÓ drugon, _made the way,
went_, 1967.--3) _to experience, to bear, to suffer_: scealt werho
dreÛgan, _shall suffer damnation_, 590; pret. ˛egn-sorge dre·h, _bore
sorrow for his heroes_, 131; nearo˛earfe dre·h, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge
˛e hie Êr drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

‚-dreÛgan, _to suffer, to endure_: inf. wrÊc ‚dreÛgan, 3079.

ge-dreÛgan, _to live through, to enjoy_, pret. part. ˛‰t he ... gedrogen
h‰fde eoran wynne, _that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth_ (i.e.
that he was at his death), 2727.

dreÛr, st. m., _blood dropping or flowing from wounds_: instr. sg. dreÛre,
447.--Comp. heoru-, s‚wul-, w‰l-dreÛr.

dreÛr-f‚h, adj., _colored with blood, spotted with blood_: nom. sg. 485.

dreÛrig, adj., _bloody, bleeding_: nom. sg. w‰ter stÙd dreÛrig, 1418; acc.
sg. dryhten sÓnne driÛrigne fand, 2790.--Comp. heoru-dreÛrig.

ge-dreÛsan, st. v., _to fall down, to sink_: pres. sg. III. lÓc-homa lÊne
gedreÛse, _the body, belonging to death, sinks down_, 1755; inf. ˛‰t ˛u ne
‚lÊte dÙm gedreÛsan, _honor fall, sink_, 2667.

drincan, st. v., _to drink_ (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom.
pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. blÙd Ídrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wÓn weras, _the men drank wine_, 1234;
˛Êr guman druncon, _where the men drank_, 1649. The pret. part., when it
stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, _ye
warriors who have drunk, are drinking_, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slÙg
heor-gene·tas, _slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him_,
i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means _drunken_: nom. sg.
beÛre (wÓne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. beÛre druncne, 480.

drÓfan, st. v., _to drive_: pres. pl. ˛‚ ˛e brentingas ofer flÙda genipu
feorran drÓfa, _who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness
of the sea_, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) ˛e·h ˛e he [ne] meahte on mere drÓfan
hringedstefnan, _although he could not drive the ship on the sea_, 1131.

to-drÓfan, _to drive apart, to disperse_: pret. Ù ˛‰t unc flÙd tÙdr‚f,

drohto, st. m., _mode of living_ or _acting, calling, employment_: nom.
sg. ne w‰s his drohto ˛Êr swylce he Êr gemÍtte, _there was no employment
for him_ (Grendel) _there such as he had found formerly_, 757.

drusian, w. v. (cf. dreÛsan, properly, _to be ready to fall_; here of
water), _to stagnate, to be putrid_. pret. lagu drusade (through the blood
of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., _company, troop, band of warriors; noble band_: in
comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., _troop, band of noble warriors_: nom. sg. mÓnra
eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. ‰elinga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (h‰lea)
gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.--Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., _youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man_:
nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., _commander, lord_: a) _temporal lord_: nom. sg.
dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.;
dryhten, 1832.--b) _God_: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat.
sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441;
drihtnes, 941.--Comp.: fre·-, freÛ-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., _one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior_: dat. sg.
drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer
dryhtgumum, 1791 (of HrÙg‚r's warriors).

dryht-lÓc, adj., _(that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble,
excellent_: dryhtlÓc Óren, _excellent sword_, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an
acc. sg. n.) drihtlÓce wÓf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-m‚um, st. m., _excellent jewel, splendid treasure_: gen. pl.
dryhtm‚ma, 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., _(lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed_:
acc. sg. drihtscype dreÛgan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., _excellent, splendid hall_: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485;
dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., _peace_ or _friendship between troops of noble
warriors_: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., _drink_: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-f‰t, st. n., _vessel for drink, to receive the drink_: acc. sg.,
2255; drinc-f‰t, 2307.

drysmian, w. v., _to become obscure, gloomy_ (through the falling rain):
pres. sg. III. lyft drysma, 1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., _to avail, to be capable, to be good_: pres. sg. III. h˚ru se
aldor de·h, _especially is the prince capable_, 369; onne his ellen de·h,
_if his strength avails, is good_, 573; ˛e him selfa de·h, _who is capable
of himself, who can rely on himself_, 1840; pres. subj. ˛e·h ˛Ón wit duge,
_though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail_, 590; similarly, 1661,
2032; pret. sg. ˛u ˚s wel dohtest, _you did us good, conducted yourself
well towards us_, 1822; similarly, nu seÛ hand lige se ˛e eÛw welhwylcra
wilna dohte, _which was helpful to each one of your desires_, 1345; pret.
subj. ˛e·h ˛u heaorÊsa gehwÊr dohte, _though thou wast everywhere strong
in battle_, 526.

dugu (_state of being fit, capable_), st. f.: 1) _capability, strength_:
dat. pl. for dugeum, _in ability_(?), 2502; duguum dÍmdon, _praised with
all their might_(?), 3176.--2) _men capable of bearing arms, band of
warriors_, esp., _noble warriors_: nom. sg. dugu unlytel, 498; dugu,
1791, 2255; dat. sg. for dugue, _before the heroes_, 2021; nalles fr‰twe
geaf ealdor dugue, _gave the band of heroes no treasure_ (more), 2921;
leÛda dugue on l‚st, _upon the track of the heroes of the people_, i.e.
after them, 2946; gen. sg. c˚e he dugue ˛e·w, _the custom of the noble
warriors_, 359; deÛrre dugue, 488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. dugua,
2036.--3) contrasted with geogo, dugu designates the noted warriors of
noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so
gen. sg. dugue and geogoe, 160; gehwylc ... dugue and iogoe, 1675;
dugue and geogoe dÊl Êghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. _to dare_; prs. sg. II. ˛u dearst bÓdan, _darest
to await_, 527; III. he gesÍcean dear, 685; pres. subj. sÍc gyf ˛u dyrre,
_seek_ (Grendel's mother), _if thou dare_, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469,
etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., _door, gate, wicket_: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-d˚fan, st. v., _to dip in, to sink into_: pret. ˛‰t sweord gede·f (_the
sword sank into the drake_, of a blow), 2701.

˛urh-d˚fan, _to dive through; to swim through, diving_: pret. w‰ter up
˛urh-de·f, _swam through the water upwards_ (because he was before at the
bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., _to mislead, to hinder_: prs. III. nÙ hine wiht dwele, ‚dl
ne yldo, _him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age_, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., _useful, good for_: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig,

dynnan, w. v., _to sound, to groan, to roar_: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu,
hruse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) _concealed, secret, retired_: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg.
dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.--2) _secret, malicious,
hidden by sorcery_: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan cr‰fte, _with secret magic art_,
2291; dyrnum cr‰fte, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra g‚sta, _of malicious spirits_
(of Grendel's kin), 1358.--Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., _in secret, secretly_: him ...‰fter deÛrum men dyrne langa,
_longs in secret for the dear man_, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., _bold, daring_: ˛e·h ˛e he dÊda gehw‰s dyrstig wÊre,
_although he had been courageous for every deed_, 2839.

ge-d˝gan, ge-dÓgan, w. v., _to endure, to overcome_, with the acc. of the
thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif ˛u ˛‰t ellenweorc aldre gedÓgest, _if thou
survivest the heroic work with thy life_, 662; III. ˛‰t ˛one hilderÊs h‚l
gedÓge, _that he survives the battle in safety_, 300; similarly, inf.
unfÊge gedÓgan we·n and wr‰csÓ, 2293; hw‰er sÍl mÊge wunde ged˝gan,
_which of the two can stand the wounds better_ (come off with life), 2532;
ne meahte unbyrnende deÛp ged˝gan, _could not endure the deep without
burning_ (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III.
ge-dÓgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

d˝gol. See deÛgol.

d˝re. See deÛre.


ecg, st. f., _edge of the sword, point_: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg,
1525, etc.; acc. sg. wi ord and wi ecge ingang forstÙd, _defended the
entrance against point and edge_ (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550;
mÍces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146.--_Sword, battle-axe, any cutting
weapon_: nom. sg. ne w‰s ecg bona (_not the sword killed him_), 2507; siÛ
ecg br˚n (BeÛwulf's sword N‰gling), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, _the sword
snatched him away_, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. ‰scum and
ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) e·cnum ecgum, 2141;
gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169;--_blade_: ecg w‰s Óren, 1460.--Comp.: br˚n-,
heard-, st˝l-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., _murderer by the sword_: dat. sg. Cain wear tÙ ecg-banan
‚ngan brÍer, 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., _sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out_: nom.
sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-˛racu, st. f., _sword-storm_ (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-˛r‰ce,

ed-hwyrft, st. m., _return_ (of a former condition): ˛‚ ˛Êr sÙna wear
edhwyrft eorlum, sian inne fealh Grendles mÙdor (i.e. after Grendel's
mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the
time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., _to turn back, to yield, to leave off_: inf. gyf him
edwendan Êfre scolde bealuwa bisigu, _if for him the affliction of evil
should ever cease_, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., _turning, change_: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden
torna gehwylces (_reparation for former neglect_), 2189.

edwÓt-lÓf, st. n., _life in disgrace_: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., _even, like_, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., _upon
the same level, near_: him on efn lige ealdorgewinna, _lies near him_,

efnan (see ‰fnan) w. v., _to carry out, to perform, to accomplish_: pres.
subj. eorlscype efne (_accomplish knightly deeds_), 2536; inf. eorlscipe
efnan, 2623; sweorda gel‚c efnan (_to battle_), 1042; gerund. tÙ efnanne,
1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., _even, exactly, precisely, just_, united with sw‚ or swylc:
efne sw‚ swÓe sw‚, _just so much as_, 1093; efne sw‚ sÓde sw‚, 1224; w‰s
se gryre l‰ssa efne sw‚ micle sw‚, _by so much the less as ..._, 1284;
leÛht inne stÙd efne sw‚ ... scÓne, _a gleam stood therein_ (in the sword)
_just as when ... shines_, 1572; efne sw‚ hwylc m‰ga sw‚ ˛one magan cende
(_a woman who has borne such a son_), 944; efne sw‚ hwylcum manna sw‚ him
gemet ˛˚hte, _to just such a man as seemed good to him_, 3058; efne swylce
mÊla swylce ... ˛earf gesÊlde, _just at the times at which necessity
commanded it_, 1250.

eft, adv.: l) _thereupon, afterwards_: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sÙna
bi, _then it happens immediately_, 1763; bÙt eft cuman, _help come again_,
281.--2) _again, on the other side_: ˛‰t hine on ylde eft gewunigen
wilgesÓas, _that in old age again_ (also on their side) _willing
companions should be attached to him_, 22;--_anew, again_: 135, 604, 693,
1557, etc.; eft sw‚ Êr, _again as formerly_, 643.--3) retro, rursus,
_back_: 123, 296, 854, etc.; ˛‰t hig ‰elinges eft ne wÍndon (_did not
believe that he would come back_), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., _return_: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sÓ, st. m., _journey back, return_: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sÓes
georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsÓas te·h, _went the road back_, i.e. returned,

egesa, egsa (_state of terror_, active or passive): l) _frightfulness_:
acc. sg. ˛urh egsan, 276; gen. egesan ne g˝me, _cares for nothing
terrible, is not troubled about future terrors_(?), 1758.--2) _terror,
horror, fear_: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.--Comp.:
glÍd-, lÓg-, w‰ter-egesa.

eges-full, adj., _horrible (full of fear, fearful)_, 2930.

eges-lÓc, adj., _terrible, bringing terror_: of Grendel's head, 1650; of
the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., _causing aversion, hideous_: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably,
perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., _to have terror, distress_: pret.
(as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., _to esteem, to make prominent with praise_: III. pl. pres.
˛‰t ˛e ... weras ehtiga, _that thee men shall esteem, praise_, 1223.

elde (_those who generate_, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the
pl., _men_: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, _among men_, 2612.--See ylde.

eldo, st. f., _age_: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., _foreign land, exile_: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan,
(_shall be banished_), 3020.

ellen, st. n., _strength, heroic strength, bravery_: nom. sg. ellen, 573;
eafo and ellen, 903; Ge·ta ... eafo and ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafo and
ellen, 2350; ellen c˝an, _show bravery_, 2696; ellen fremedon, _exercised
heroic strength, did heroic deeds_, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlÓc
ellen, 638; ferh ellen wr‰c, _life drove out the strength_, i.e. with the
departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on
elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. ˛‚ w‰s ‰t ˛am geongum grim andswaru ÍbegÍte
˛‚m ˛e Êr his elne forle·s, _then it was easy for_ (every one of) _those
who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young
man_ (WÓgl‚f), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense,
_strongly, zealously_, and with the nearly related meaning, _hurriedly,
transiently_, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes l‰t, 1530; ˛‚ him
w‰s elnes ˛earf, 2877.--Comp. m‰gen-ellen.

ellen-dÊd, st. f., _heroic deed_: dat. pl. -dÊdum, 877, 901.

ellen-gÊst, st. m., _strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength_: nom. sg.
of Grendel, 86.

ellen-lÓce, adv., _strongly, with heroic strength_, 2123.

ellen-mÊru, st. f., _renown of heroic strength_, dat. pl. -mÊrum, 829,

ellen-rÙf, adj., _renowned for strength_: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl.
-rÙfum, 1788.

ellen-seÛc, adj., _infirm in strength_: acc. sg. ˛eÛden ellensiÛcne (_the
mortally wounded king, BeÛwulf_), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (_strength-work_), _heroic deed, achievement in
battle_: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., _else, otherwise_: a (modal), _in another manner_, 2521.--b
(local), elles hwÊr, _somewhere else_, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., _to some other place_, 55, 2255.

ellor-g‚st, -gÊst, st. m., _spirit living elsewhere_ (standing outside of
the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorg‚st (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's
mother), 1622; ellorgÊst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgÊstas,

ellor-sÓ, st. m., _departure, death_: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius),
_another_: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-˛eÛdig, adj., _of another people: foreign_: acc. pl. el-˛eÛdige men,

ende, st. m., _the extreme_: hence, 1) _end_: nom. sg. aldres (lÓfes) ende,
823, 2845; Ù ˛‰t ende becwom (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende
lÓfgesceafta (lÓfes, lÊn-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; h‰fde eorscrafa ende
genyttod, _had used the end of the earth-caves_ (had made use of the caves
for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (lÓfes) ‰t ende, 2791, 2824;
eoletes ‰t ende, 224.--2) _boundary_: acc. sg. sÓde rÓce ˛‰t he his selfa
ne m‰g ... ende ge˛encean, _the wide realm, so that he himself cannot
comprehend its boundaries_, 1735.--3) _summit, head_: dat. sg. eorlum on
ende, _to the nobles at the end_ (the highest courtiers), 2022.--Comp.

ende-d‰g, st. m., _last day, day of death_: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dÙgor, st. m., _last day, day of death_: gen. sg. bega on wÍnum
endedÙgores and eftcymes leÛtes monnes (_hesitating between the belief in
the death and in the return of the dear man_), 2897.

ende-l‚f, st. f., _last remnant_: nom. sg. ˛u eart ende-l‚f ˚sses cynnes,
_art the last of our race_, 2814.

ende-le·n, st. n., _final reparation_: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sÊta, w. m., _he who sits on the border, boundary-guard_: nom. sg.
(here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-st‰f, st. m. (elementum finis), _end_: acc. sg. hit on endest‰f eft
gelimpe, _then it draws near to the end_, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., _to end_: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. enge ‚npaas, _narrow paths_, 1411.

ent, st. m., _giant_: gen. pl. enta Êr-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the
dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718;
eald-enta Êr-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., _coming from giants_: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., _to eat, to consume_: pres. sg. III. blÙdig w‰l ... ete
‚n-genga, _he that goes alone_ (Grendel) _will devour the bloody corpse_,
448; inf. Ge·tena leÛde ... etan, 444.

˛urh-etan, _to eat through_: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... ˛urhetone,
_swords eaten through_ (by rust), 3050.


Íc. See e·c.

Íce, adj., _everlasting_; nom. Íce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. Íce
eorreced, _the everlasting earth-hall_ (the dragon's cave), 2720; gece·s
Ícne rÊd, _chose the everlasting gain_ (died), 1202; dat. sg. Ícean
dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. geceÛs Íce rÊdas, 1761.

Ídre. See Êdre.

Í-begÍte, adj., _easy to obtain, ready_: nom. sg. ˛‚ w‰s ‰t ˛am geongum
grim andswaru Í-begÍte, _then from the young man_ (WÓgl‚f) _it was an easy
thing to get a gruff answer_, 2862.

Íe. See e·e.

Íel, st. m., _hereditary possessions, hereditary estate_: acc. sg. swÊsne
Íel, 520; dat. sg. on Íle, 1731.--In royal families the hereditary
possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. Íel Scyldinga, _of the
kingdom of the Scyldings_, 914; (Offa) wÓsdÙme heÛld Íel sÓnne, _ruled
with wisdom his inherited kingdom_, 1961.

Íel-riht, st. n., _hereditary privileges_ (rights that belong to a
hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard Íel-riht, _estate and inherited
privileges_, 2199.

Íel-stÙl, st. m., _hereditary seat, inherited throne_: acc. pl.
Íel-stÙlas, 2372.

Íel-turf, st. f., _inherited ground, hereditary estate_: dat. sg. on mÓnre
Íeltyrf, 410.

Íel-weard, st. m., _lord of the hereditary estate_ (realm): nom. sg.
Íelweard (_king_), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. E·st-Dena Íel wearde (King
HrÙg‚r), 617.

Íel-wyn, st. f., _joy in_, or _enjoyment of, hereditary possessions_: nom.
sg. nu sceal ... eall Íelwyn eÛwrum cynne, lufen ‚licgean, _now shall your
race want all home-joy, and subsistence_(?) (your race shall be banished
from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. he me lond forgeaf, eard
Íelwyn, _presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home_, 2494.

Í-ges˝ne, ˝-gesÍne, adj., _easy to see, visible to all_: nom. sg. 1111,

Ífstan, w. v., _to be in haste, to hasten_: inf. uton nu Ífstan, _let us
hurry now_, 3102; pret. Ífste mid elne, _hastened with heroic strength_,

Íg-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer Íg-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

Íg-stre·m, st. m., _sea-stream, sea-flood_: dat. pl. on Íg-stre·mum, _in
the sea-floods_, 577. See e·gor-stre·m.

Íhtan (M.H.G. Êchten; cf. Êht and ge-Êhtla), w. v. w. gen., _to be a
pursuer, to pursue_: pres. part. ‰glÊca Íhtende w‰s dugue and geogoe,
159; pret. pl. Íhton aglÊcan, _they pursued the bringer of sorrow_
(BeÛwulf)(?), 1513.

Íst, st. m. f., _favor, grace, kindness_: acc. sg. he him Íst gete·h meara
and m‚ma (_honored him with horses and jewels_), 2166; gearwor h‰fde
‚gendes Íst Êr gesce·wod, _would rather have seen the grace of the Lord_
(of God) _sooner_, 3076.--dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce
heÛld, Ístum mid ‚re, 2379; Ístum ge˝wan (_to present_), 2150; him w‰s ...
wunden gold Ístum gee·wed (_presented_), 1195; we ˛‰t ellenweorc Ístum
miclum fremedon, 959.

Íste, adj., _gracious_: w. gen. Íste bearn-gebyrdo, _gracious through the
birth_ (of such a son as BeÛwulf), 946.


eafo, st. n., _power, strength_: nom, sg. eafo and ellen, 603, 903; acc.
sg. eafo and ellen, 2350; we frÍcne genÍdon eafo unc˚es, _we have
boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy_ (Grendel) _have
withstood him_, 961; gen. sg. eafoes cr‰ftig, 1467; ˛‰t ˛ec ‚dl oe ecg
eafoes getwÊfed, _shall rob of strength_, 1764; acc. pl. eafeo (MS.
earfeo) [This reading cancelled. See note to l. 534--KTH], 534; dat. pl.
hine mihtig god ... eafeum stÍpte, _made him great through strength_,
1718. See Note for l. 534.

eafor, st. m., _boar_; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg.
eafor, 2153.

eafora (_offspring_), w. m.: 1) _son_: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora,
375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan,
2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.--2) in broader
sense, _successor_: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., _eight_: acc. pl. eahta mearas, 1036; eode eahta sum, _went as
one of eight, with seven others_, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) _to consider; to deliberate_: pret. pl. w. acc. rÊd
eahtedon, _consulted about help_, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) ˛one
sÍlestan ˛‚ra ˛e mid HrÙg‚re h‚m eahtode, _the best one of those who with
HrÙg‚r deliberated about their home_ (ruled), 1408.--2) _to speak with
reflection of_ (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan
eorlscipe, _spoke of his noble character_, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., _all, whole_: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal benc˛elu,
486; sg. eall Íelwyn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; ˛‰t hit wear eal
gearo, heal‰rna mÊst, 77; ˛‰t hit (wÓgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a
following genitive: ˛Êr w‰s eal geador Grendles gr‚pe, _there was all
together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel_, 836; eall ... lissa,
_all favor_, 2150; w‰s eall sceacen dÙgorgerÓmes, 2728. With apposition:
˛˚hte him eall tÙ r˚m, wongas and wÓcstede, 2462; acc. sg. beÛt eal, 523;
similarly, 2018, 2081; onc˝e ealle, _all distress_, 831; heals ealne,
2692; hlÊw ... ealne ˚tan-weardne, 2298; gif he ˛‰t eal gemon, 1186, 2428;
˛‰t eall geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wÓde-ferh, _through the
whole wide life, through all time_, 1223; instr. sg. ealle m‰gene, _with
all strength_, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles
moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic ˛‰s ealles m‰g ... gefe·n habban, 2740; br˚c
ealles well, 2163; fre·n ealles ˛anc secge, _give thanks to the Lord of
all_, 2795; nom. pl. untydras ealle, 111; sceÛtend ... ealle, 706; we
ealle, 942; acc. pl. feÛnd ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst.
ofer ealle, 650; ealle hie de· fornam, 2237; lÓg ealle forswealg ˛‚ra ˛e
˛Êr g˚ fornam, _all of those whom the war had snatched away_, 1123; dat.
pl. eallum ceaster-b˚endum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. ‚na wi
eallum, _one against all_, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen.
pl. ‰elinga bearn ealra twelfa, _the kinsmen of all twelve nobles_ (twelve
nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. he ‚h ealra
geweald, _has power over all_, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal ˛urhwÙd flÊschoman, _the battle-axe cleft the body
through and through_, 1568; h‰fde ... eal gefeormod fÍt and folma, _had
devoured entirely feet and hands_, 745; se ˛e eall geman g‚r-cwealm gumena,
_who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear_, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: ˛e·h ic eal mÊge, _although I am entirely able_, 681; hÓ on
beorg dydon bÍg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, _they placed in the
grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments_, 3165.--The gen. sg.
ealles, adverbial in the sense of _entirely_, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., _old_: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357,
1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes uhtflogan
(_dragon_), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.--b) of
things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and Ùmig, 2764; acc.
sg. ealde l‚fe (_sword_), 796, 1489; ealde wÓsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559,
1664, etc.; eald gewin, _old_ (lasting years), _distress_, 1782; eald enta
geweorc (_the precious things in the drake's cave_), 2775; acc. pl. ealde
m‚mas, 472; ofer ealde riht, _against the old laws_ (namely, the Ten
Commandments; BeÛwulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a
punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the
commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. _older_: mÓn yldra mÊg, 468; yldra brÙor, 1325; Ù ˛‰t he
(HeardrÍd) yldra wear, 2379.

yldesta, superl. _oldest_, in the usual sense; dat. sg. ˛am yldestan, 2436;
in a moral sense, _the most respected_: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg.
˛one yldestan, 363, both times of BeÛwulf.

eald-f‰der, st. m., _old-father, grandfather, ancestor_: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., _traditions from old times_: gen. pl. eal-fela
eald-gesegena, _very many of the old traditions_, 870.

eald-gesÓ, st. m., _companion ever since old times, courtier for many
years_: nom. pl. eald-gesÓas, 854.

eald-gestreÛn, st. n., _treasure out of the old times_: dat. pl.
eald-gestreÛnum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestreÛna, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., _old-enemy, enemy for many years_: nom. sg. of
Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., _merit on account of services rendered during many
years_: nom. pl. ˛‰t nÊron eald-gewyrht, ˛‰t he ‚na scyle gnorn ˛rowian,
_that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the
distress alone_, 2658.

eald-hl‚ford, st. m., _lord through many years_: gen. sg. bill
eald-hl‚fordes (of the old BeÛwulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., _God ruling ever since ancient times_: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., _lord, chief_ (king or powerful noble): nom. sg.
ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat.
sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448,
1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre stÙd herestrÊl hearda (in vitalibus),
1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not troubled about his life_, 1443; of
ealdre gew‚t, _went out of life, died_, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681,
etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444;
aldres orwÍna, _despairing of life_, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, _having
forfeited life_, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nÍdon, 510, 538.--Phrases: on
aldre (_in life_), _ever_, 1780; tÙ aldre (_for life_), _always_, 2006,
2499; ‚wa tÙ aldre, _for ever and ever_, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., _life's evil_: acc. sg. ˛u ... ondrÊdan ne ˛earft ...
aldorbealu eorlum, _thou needest not fear death for the courtiers_, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., _trouble that endangers life, great trouble_: dat.
sg. he his leÛdum wear ... tÙ aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., _days of one's life_: dat. pl. nÊfre on
aldor-dagum (_never in his life_), 719; on ealder-dagum Êr (_in former
days_), 758.

ealdor-ged‚l, st. n., _severing of life, death, end_: nom. sg. aldor-ged‚l,

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., _life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's
life_ (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg.
ealdorgewinna (_the dragon_), 2904.

ealdor-le·s, adj., _without a ruler_(?): nom. pl. aldor-le·se, 15.

ealdor-le·s, adj., _lifeless, dead_: acc. sg. aldor-le·sne, 1588;
ealdor-le·sne, 3004.

ealdor-˛egn, st. m., _nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier_: acc.
sg. aldor-˛egn (HrÙg‚r's confidential adviser, ƒschere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., _very much_: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena,
_very many old traditions_, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., _to shield, to defend, to protect_: inf. w. acc. feorh
ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. sian he (Hygel‚c) under segne sinc
eal-gode, w‰lre·f werede, _while under his banner he protected the
treasures, defended the spoil of battle_ (i.e. while he was upon the Viking
expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., _all golden, entirely of gold_: nom. sg. sw˝n ealgylden,
1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-Órenne, adj., _entirely of iron_: acc. sg. eall-Órenne wÓgbord, _a
wholly iron battle-shield_, 2339.

ealu, st. n., _ale, beer_: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., _ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale_: dat. sg. in
ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., _terror_, under the figure of a mishap at an
ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum
eallum wear ... ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wÊge, st. n., _ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured
into the cups_: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowÊge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowÊge
(_at the ale-carouse_), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., _all ruling_ (God): nom. sg. f‰der alwalda, 316;
alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., _cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate_; in a broader
sense, _ground in general, abode, place of sojourn_: nom. sg. him w‰s b‚m
... lond gecynde, eard Íel-riht, _the land was bequeathed to them both,
the land and the privileges attached to it._ 2199; acc. sg. fÓfel-cynnes
eard, _the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn_, 104; similarly,
‰lwihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, _thought of his native ground, his home_,
1130; eard git ne const, _thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn._ 1378;
eard and eorlscipe, _prÊdium et nobilitatem_, 1728; eard Íelwyn, _land and
the enjoyment of home_, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, _went
elsewhere from his place of abode_, i.e. died, 56; ˛‰t we rondas beren eft
tÙ earde, _that we go again to our homes_, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl.
e·cne eardas, _the broad expanses_ (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home
was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) _to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest_: pret. pl.
d˝re swyrd sw‚ hie wi eoran f‰m ˛Êr eardodon, _costly swords, as they
had rested in the earth's bosom_, 3051.--2) also transitively, _to
inhabit_: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wÓc eardian elles hwergen,
_inhabit a place elsewhere_ (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., _the living upon one's land, home-life_: acc. sg.
eard-lufan, 693.

earfo-lÓce, adv., _with trouble, with difficulty_, 1637, 1658; _with
vexation, angrily_, 86; _sorrowfully_, 2823; _with difficulty, scarcely_,
2304, 2935.

earfo-˛rag, st. f., _time full of troubles, sorrowful time_: acc. sg.
-˛rage, 283.

earh, adj., _cowardly_: gen. sg. ne bi swylc earges sÓ (_no coward
undertaken that_), 2542.

earm, st. m., _arm_: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wi earm ges‰t, _supported
himself with his arm_, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., _poor, miserable, unhappy_: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides,
_the unhappy woman_, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, _the unhappy band_,
2939.--Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, _a more wretched, more forsaken man_,

earm-be·g, st. m., _arm-ring, bracelet_: gen. pl. earm-be·ga fela searwum
gesÊled, _many arm-rings interlaced_, 2764.

earm-hre·d, st. f., _arm-ornament_. nom. pl. earm-hre·de tw‚, 1195 (Grein's
conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-lÓc, adj., _wretched, miserable_: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-ged‚l
earmlÓc wuran, _his end should be wretched_, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (_properly, wretched by the decree of
fate_), _wretched_: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., _eagle_: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., _shoulder_: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817,
1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, _the woman sobbed on the
shoulder_ (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl.
s‰t fre·n eaxlum ne·h, _sat near the shoulders of his lord_ (BeÛwulf lies
lifeless upon the earth, and WÓgl‚f sits by his side, near his shoulder, so
as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; he for eaxlum gestÙd
Deniga fre·n, _he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes_
(i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette
demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., _he who has his position at the shoulder_ (sc. of
his lord), _trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince_: nom. sg. 1327; acc.
pl. -gesteallan, 1715.


e·c, conj., _also_: 97, 388, 433, etc.; Íc, 3132.

e·cen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., _wide-spread_,
_large_: nom. pl. e·cne eardas, _broad plains_, 1622.--_great, heavy_: eald
sweord e·cen, 1664; dat. pl. e·cnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great
sword in Grendel's habitation.--_great, mighty, powerful_: ‰ele and e·cen,
of BeÛwulf, 198.

e·cen-cr‰ftig, adj., _immense_ (of riches), _enormously great_: acc. sg.
hord-‰rna sum e·cen-cr‰ftig, _that enormous treasure-house_, 2281; nom. sg.
˛‰t yrfe e·cen-cr‰ftig, i˙monna gold, 3052.

e·dig, adj., _blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property_:
nom. sg. wes, ˛enden ˛u lifige, ‰eling e·dig, _be, as long as thou livest,
a prince blessed with riches_, 1226; e·dig mon, 2471.--Comp. sige-, sigor-,

e·dig-lÓce, adv., _in abundance, in joyous plenty_: dre·mum lifdon
e·diglÓce, _lived in rejoicing and plenty_, 100.

e·e, Íe, ˝e, adj., _easy, pleasant_: nom. pl. gode ˛ancedon ˛‰s ˛e him
˝-l‚de e·e wurdon, _thanked God that the sea-ways_ (the navigation) _had
become easy to them_, 228; ne w‰s ˛‰t Íe sÓ, _no pleasant way_, 2587; n‰s
˛‰t ˝e ce·p, _no easy purchase_, 2416; nÙ ˛‰t ˝e by tÙ befleÛnne, _not
easy_ (as milder expression for _in no way, not at all_), 1003.

e·e, ˝e, adv., _easily_. e·e, 478, 2292, 2765.

e·-fynde, adj., _easy to find_: nom. sg. 138.

e·ge, w. n., _eye_: dat. pl. him of e·gum stÙd leÛht unf‰ger, _out of his
eyes came a terrible gleam_, 727; ˛‰t ic ... e·gum starige, _see with eyes,
behold_, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. e·gena bearhtm, 1767.

e·gor-stre·m, st. m., _sea-stream sea_: acc. sg. 513.

e·-land, st. n., _land surrounded by water_ (of the land of the Ge·tas):
acc. sg. e·-lond, 2335; _island_.

e·m, st. m., _uncle, mothers brother_: nom. sg. 882.

e·stan, adv., _from the east_, 569.

e·wan, w. v., _to disclose, to show, to prove_: pres. sg. III. e·we ...
unc˚ne nÓ, _shows evil enmity_, 276. See eÛwan, ˝wan.

ge-e·wan, _to show, to offer_: pret. part. him w‰s ... wunden gold Ístum
ge-e·wed, _was graciously presented_, 1195.


eode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., _fence, hedge, railing_. Among the old Germans, an estate
was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence
the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself.
Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of _house_: acc. pl. hÍht eahta
mearas on flet teÛn, in under eoderas, _gave orders to lead eight steeds
into the hall, into the house_, 1038.--2) figuratively, _lord, prince_, as
protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofo, st. n., _strength_: acc. pl. eofoo, 2535. See eafo.

eofer, st. m.: 1) _boar_, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet:
nom. sg. eofer Órenheard, 1113.--2) figuratively, _bold hero, brave
fighter_ (O.N. iˆfur): nom. pl. ˛onne ... eoferas cnysedan, _when the
heroes rushed upon each other_, 1329, where eoferas and fÍan stand in the
same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-lÓc, st. n. _boar-image_ (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-lÓc scionon,

eofor-spreÛt, st. m., _boar-spear_: dat. pl. mid eofer-spreÛtum
heÛro-hÙcyhtum, _with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks_,

eogu, iogu. See geogo.

eolet, st. m. n., _sea_(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-st‚n, st. m., _precious stone_: acc. pl. -st‚nas, 1209.

eor-cyning, st. m., _king of the land_: gen. sg. eor-cyninges (Finn),

eor-draca, w. m., _earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth_: nom. sg.
2713, 2826.

eore, w. f.: 1) _earth_ (in contrast with heaven), _world_: acc. sg.
‰lmihtiga eoran worhte, 92; wÓde geond eoran, _far over the earth,
through the wide world_, 266; dat. sg. ofer eoran, 248, 803; on eoran,
1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eoran, 753.--2) _earth, ground_: acc. sg. he
eoran gefeÛll, _fell to the ground_, 2835; forlÍton eorla gestreÛn eoran
healdan, _let the earth hold the nobles' treasure_, 3168; dat. sg. ˛‰t hit
on eoran l‰g, 1533; under eoran, 2416; gen. sg. wi eoran f‰m (_in the
bosom of the earth_), 3050.

eor-reced, st. n., _hall in the earth, rock-hall_: acc. sg. 2720.

eor-scr‰f, st. n., _earth-cavern, cave_: dat. sg. eor-[scr‰fe], 2233;
gen. pl. eor-scr‰fe, 3047.

eor-sele, st. m., _hall in the earth, cave_: acc. sg. eor-sele, 2411; dat
sg. of eorsele, 2516.

eor-weall, st. m., _earth-wall_: acc. sg. (Ongen˛eÛw) be·h eft under
eorweall, _fled again under the earth-wall_ (into his fortified camp),
2958; ˛‚ me w‰s ... sÓ ‚l˝fed inn under eorweall, _then the way in, under
the earth-wall was opened to me_ (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eor-weard, st. m., _land-property, estate_: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., _noble born man, a man of the high nobility_: nom. sg. 762,
796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983,
1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.;
gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.--Since the king himself is from the
stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestreÛn, st. n., _wealth of the nobles_: gen. pl. eorl-gestreÛna ...
hardfyrdne dÊl, 2245.

eorl-gewÊde, st. n., _knightly dress, armor_: dat. pl. -gewÊdum, 1443.

eorlÓc (i.e. eorl-lÓc), adj., _what it becomes a noble born man to do,
chivalrous_: acc. sg. eorlÓc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., _condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature,
nobility_: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, _to do
chivalrous deeds_, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., _followers of nobles_: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., _very extensive race, mankind_: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes,

eormen-grund, st. m., _immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth_: acc.
sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-l‚f, st. f., _enormous legacy_: acc. sg. eormen-l‚fe ‰elan cynnes
(_the treasures of the dragon's cave_) 2235.

eorre, adj., _angry, enraged_: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) _giant_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg.
uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.--2) Eotens,
subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See
List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., _gigantic, coming from giants_: acc. sg. eald sweord
eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.


eÛred-geatwe, st. f. pl., _warlike adornments_: acc. pl., 2867.

eÛwan, w. v., _to show, to be seen_: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu ÙhwÊr,
ecghete eÛwe, _nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate_, 1739. See e·wan,

eÛwer: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: eÛwer sum, _that one of you_
(namely, BeÛwulf), 248; fÊhe eÛwer leÛde, _the enmity of the people of
you_ (of your people), 597; nis ˛‰t eÛwer sÓ ... nefne mÓn ‚nes, 2533.--2)
poss. pron., _your_, 251, 257, 294, etc.


ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., _to try, to search for, to find out, to
experience_: w. gen. pret. part. ˛‰t h‰fde gumena sum goldes gefandod,
_that a man had discovered the gold_, 2302; ˛onne se ‚n hafa ˛urh de‚es
n˝d dÊda gefondad, _now the one_ (Herebeald) _has with death's pang
experienced the deeds_ (the unhappy bow-shot of HÊcyn), 2455.

fara, w. m., _farer, traveller_: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., _to move from one place to another, to go, to wander_: inf.
tÙ h‚m faran, _to go home_, 124; lÍton on geflÓt faran fealwe mearas, _let
the fallow horses go in emulation_, 865; cwom faran flotherge on Fresna
land, _had come to Friesland with a fleet_, 2916; com leÛda dugoe on l‚st
faran, _came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people_, i.e. to
follow them, 2946; gerund wÊron ‰elingas eft tÙ leÛdum f˚se tÙ farenne,
_the nobles were ready to go again to their people_, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum
fÙr [˛‚] ofer myrcan mÙr, _there had_ (Grendel's mother) _gone away over
the dark fen_, 1405; sÊgenga fÙr, _the seafarer_ (the ship) _drove along_,
1909; (wyrm) mid bÊle fÙr, (the dragon) _fled away with fire_, 2309; pret.
pl. ˛‰t ... scawan scÓrhame tÙ scipe fÙron, _that the visitors in
glittering attire betook themselves to the ship_, 1896.

gefaran, _to proceed, to act_: inf. h˚ se m‚nsceaa under fÊrgripum gefaran
wolde, _how he would act in his sudden attacks_, 739.

˚t faran, _to go out_: w. acc. lÍt of breÛstum ... word ˚t faran, _let
words go out of his breast, uttered words_, 2552.

faro, st. m., _stream, flood of the sea_: dat. sg. tÙ brimes faroe, 28;
‰fter faroe, _with the stream_, 580; ‰t faroe, 1917.

faru, st. f., _way, passage, expedition_: in comp. ‚d-faru.

f‚cen-st‰f (elementum nequitiae), st. m., _wickedness, treachery, deceit_.
acc. pl. f‚cen-stafas, 1019.

f‚h, f‚g, adj., _many-colored, variegated, of varying color_ (especially
said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of
light are refracted): nom. sg. f‚h (_covered with blood_), 420; blÙde f‚h,
935; ‚tert‚num f‚h (sc. Óren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to
‚terte·rum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum f‚h (_saddle artistically
ornamented with gold_), 1039; sweord sw‚te f‚h, 1287; brim blÙde f‚h, 1595;
w‰ldreÛre f‚g, 1632; (draca) f˝rwylmum f‚h (_because he spewed flame_),
2672; sweord f‚h and f‰ted, 2702; blÙde f‚h, 2975; acc. sg. dreÛre f‚hne,
447; goldsele f‰ttum f‚hne, 717; on f‚gne flÙr treddode, _trod the shining
floor_ (of Heorot), 726; hrÙf golde f‚hne, _the roof shining with gold_,
928; nom. pl. eoforlÓc ... f‚h and f˝r-beard, 305; acc. pl. ˛‚ hilt since
f‚ge, 1616; dat. pl. f‚gum sweordum, 586.--Comp. b‚n-, blÙd-, br˚n-,
dreÛr-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, st‚n-, sw‚t-, w‰l-, wyrm-f‚h.

f‚h, f‚g, f‚, adj.: 1) _hostile_: nom. sg. f‚h feÛnd-scaa, 554; he w‰s f‚g
wi god (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. f‚ne (_the dragon_), 2656; gen. pl. f‚ra,
578, 1464.--2) _liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed_: nom. sg. f‚g,
1264; m‚ne f‚h, _outlawed through crime_, 979; fyren-dÊdum f‚g,
1002.--Comp. nearo-f‚h.

f‚mig-heals, adj., _with foaming neck_: nom. sg. flota f‚mig-heals, 218;
(sÊgenga) f‚mig-heals, 1910.

f‰c, st. n., _period of time_: acc. sg. lytel f‰c, _during a short time_,

f‰der, st. m., _father_: nom. sg. f‰der, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610;
f‰der alwalda, 316; acc. sg. f‰der, 1356; dat. sg. f‰der, 2430; gen. sg.
f‰der, 21, 1480; of God, 188--Comp.: Êr, eald-f‰der.

f‰dera, w. m., _father's brother_ in comp. suhter-gef‰deran.

f‰der-‰elo, st. n. pl., _paternus principatus_ (?): dat. pl. f‰der-‰elum,

f‰deren-mÊg, st. m., _kinsman descended from the same father,
co-descendant_: dat. sg. f‰deren-mÊge, 1264.

f‰m, st. m.: 1) _the outspread, encircling arms_: instr. pl. feÛndes
f‰[mum], 2129.--2) _embrace, encircling_: nom. sg. lÓges f‰m, 782; acc.
sg. in f˝res f‰m, 185.--3) _bosom, lap_: acc. sg. on foldan f‰m, 1394;
wi eoran f‰m, 3050; dat. pl. tÙ f‰der (God's) f‰mum, 188.--4) _power,
property_: acc. in Francna f‰m, 1211.--Cf. sÓd-f‰med, sÓ-f‰me.

f‰mian, w. v., _to embrace, to take up into itself_: pres. subj. ˛‰t minne
lÓchaman ... glÍd f‰mie, 2653; inf. lÍton flÙd f‰mian fr‰twa hyrde, 3134.

ge-f‰g, adj., _agreeable, desirable_ (Old Eng., fawe, _willingly_): comp.
ge-f‰gra, 916.

f‰gen, adj., _glad, joyous_: nom. pl. ferhum f‰gne, _the glad at heart_,

f‰ger, adj., _beautiful, lovely_: nom. sg. f‰ger fold-bold, 774; f‰ger
foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freooburh f‰gere, 522; nom. pl. ˛Êr him
fold-wegas f‰gere ˛˚hton, 867.--Comp. un-f‰ger.

f‰gere, f‰gre, adv., _beautifully, well, becomingly, according to
etiquette_: f‰gere ge˛Êgon medoful manig, 1015; ˛‚ w‰s flet-sittendum
f‰gere gereorded, _becomingly the repast was served_, 1789; Higel‚c ongan
... f‰gre fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

f‰r, st. n., _craft, ship_: nom. sg., 33.

f‰st, adj., _bound, fast_: nom. sg. bi se slÊp tÙ f‰st, 1743; acc. sg.
freÛndscipe f‰stne, 2070; f‰ste friouwÊre, 1097.--The prep. on stands to
denote the where or wherein: w‰s tÙ f‰st on ˛‚m (sc. on fÊhe and fyrene),
137; on ancre f‰st, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: feÛnd-gr‚pum f‰st,
_(held) fast in his antagonist's clutch_, 637; f˝rbendum f‰st, _fast in the
forged hinges_, 723; handa f‰st, 1291, etc.; hygebendum f‰st (beorn him
langa), _fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for_ (i.e.
in secret), 1879.--Comp: ‚r-, blÊd-, gin-, sÙ-, tÓr-, wÓs-f‰st.

f‰ste, adv., _f‰st_ 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.--Comp. f‰stor, 143.

be-f‰stan, w. v., _to give over_: inf. hÍt Hildeburh hire selfre sunu
sweoloe bef‰stan, _to give over to the flames her own son_, 1116.

f‰sten, st. n., _fortified place, or place difficult of access_: acc. sg.
leÛda f‰sten, _the fastness of the Ge·tas_ (with ref. to 2327), 2334;
f‰sten (Ongen˛eÛw's castle or fort), 2951; f‰sten (Grendel's house in the
fen-sea), 104.

f‰st-rÊd, adj., _firmly resolved_: acc. sg. f‰st-rÊdne ge˛Ùht, _firm
determination_, 611.

f‰t, st. m., _way, journey_: in comp. sÓ-f‰t.

f‰t, st. n., _vessel; vase, cup_: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, _the
(drinking-) vessels of men of old times_, 2762.--Comp.: b‚n-, drync-,
m‚um-, sinc-, wundor-f‰t.

f‰t, st. n. (?), _plate, sheet of metal_, especially _gold plate_ (Dietrich
Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... f‰ttum f‚hne, _shining with
gold plates_ (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered
with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde f‰tum befeallen (sc.
wesan), _the gold ornaments shall fall away from it_, 2257.

f‰ted, f‰tt, part., _ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form_: gen. sg.
f‰ttan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. f‰ttan golde, 2103. Elsewhere,
_covered, ornamented with gold plate_: nom. sg. sweord ... f‰ted, 2702;
acc. sg. f‰ted wÊge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. f‰tte scyldas, 333; f‰tte be·gas,
1751. [fÊted, etc.]

f‰ted-hleÛr, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mearas
f‰ted-hleÛre (_eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold_),

f‰t-gold, st. n., _gold in sheets_ or _plates_: acc. sg., 1922.

fÊge, adj.: 1) _forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate_: nom. sg.
fÊge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fÊge and ge-fl˝med, 847; f˚s and fÊge, 1242; acc.
sg. fÊgne flÊsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fÊgum, 2078; gen. sg. fÊges,
1528.--2) _dead_: dat. pl. ofer fÊgum (_over the warriors fallen in the
battle_), 3026.--Comp.: de·-, un-fÊge.

fÊh (_state of hostility_, see f‚h), st. f., _hostile act, feud, battle_:
nom. sg. fÊh, 2404, 3062; acc. sg. fÊhe, 153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.;
also of the unhappy bowshot of the HrÍling, HÊcyn, by which he killed his
brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fÊhe and fyrene, 137; nalas for fÊhe mearn
(_did not recoil from the combat_), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah he ˛Êre fÊhe,
109; gen. pl. fÊha gemyndig, 2690.--Comp. w‰l-fÊh.

fÊho, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. siÛ fÊho, 3000; acc. fÊho, 2490.

fÊlsian, w. v., _to bring into a good condition, to cleanse_: inf. ˛‰t ic
mÙte ... Heorot fÊlsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. HrÙg‚res
... sele fÊlsode, 2353.

ge-fÊlsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. h‰fde gefÊlsod ... sele
HrÙg‚res, 826; Heorot is gefÊlsod, 1177; wÊron ˝-gebland eal gefÊlsod,

fÊmne, w. f., _virgin, recens nupta_: dat. sg. fÊmnan, 2035; gen. sg.
fÊmnan, 2060, both times of HrÙg‚r's daughter Fre·ware.

fÊr, st. m., _sudden, unexpected attack_: nom. sg. (attack upon Hn‰f's band
by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fÊr-gripe, st. m., _sudden, treacherous gripe, attack_: nom. sg. fÊr-gripe
flÙdes, 1517; dat. pl. under fÊrgripum, 739.

fÊr-gryre, st. m., _fright caused by a sudden attack_: dat. pl. wi
fÊr-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

fÊringa, adv., _suddenly, unexpectedly_, 1415, 1989.

fÊr-nÓ, st. m., _hostility with sudden attacks_: gen. pl. hw‰t me Grendel
hafa ... fÊrnÓa gefremed, 476.

feer-gearwe, st. f. pl. _(feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of
the arrow_: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft feer-gearwum f˚s, 3120.

fel, st. n., _skin, hide_: dat. pl. glÙf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, _made
of the skins of dragons_, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., _much, many_: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende,
2107. With worn placed before: hw‰t ˛u worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprÊce,
_how very much you spoke about Breca_, 530.--With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela
fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; tÙ fela micles
... Denigea leÛde, _too much of the race of the Danes_, 695; unc˚es fela,
877; fela l‚es, 930; fela leÛfes and l‚es, 1061.--With gen. pl.: nom. sg.
fela m‚dma, 36; fela ˛Êra wera and wÓfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missera,
153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; m‚um-sigla fela (falo, MS.),
2758; ne me swÙr fela ‚a on unriht, _swore no false oaths_, 2739, etc.;
worn fela m‚ma, 1784; worna fela g˚a, 2543.--Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, _very_, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrÙr, adj., valde agitatus, _very active against the enemy, very
warlike_, 27.

fela-mÙdig, adj., _very courageous_: gen. pl. -mÙdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., _very criminal, very guilty_: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne
secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne),

feÛlan, st. v., _to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self_:
pret. sian inne fealh Grendles mÙdor (in Heorot), 1282; ˛Êr inne fealh
secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227.--_to fall into, undergo,
endure_: searonÓas fealh, 1201.

‰t-feÛlan, w. dat., insistere, adhÊrere: pret. nÙ ic him ˛‰s georne ‰tfealh
_(held him not fast enough_, 969.

fen, st. n., _fen, moor_: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. tÙ fenne, 1296;
fenne, 2010.

fen-freoo, st. f., _refuge in the fen_: dat. sg. in fen-freoo, 852.

feng, st. m., _gripe, embrace_: nom. sg. f˝res feng, 1765; acc. sg. f‚ra
feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.--Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably _he who takes possession_, cf. tÙ fÙn, 1756, and fÙn tÙ
rÓce, _to enter upon the government_), st. m., _lord, prince, king_: nom.
sg. wÓsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-l‚d, st. n., _fen-paths, fen with paths_: acc. pl. frÍcne fengel‚d
(_fens difficult of access_), 1360.

fen-hli, st. n., _marshy precipice_: acc. pl. under fen-hleou, 821.

fen-hop, st. n., _refuge in the fen_: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., _life_; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., _hog, boar_, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg.,

ferh, st. m., _heart, soul_: dat. sg. on ferhe, 755, 949, 1719; gehwylc
hiora his ferhe treÛwde, ˛‰t ..., _each of them trusted to his_
(H˚nfer's) _heart, that_ ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferhes fore-˛anc, 1061; dat.
pl. (adverbial) ferhum f‰gne, _happy at heart_, 1634; ˛‰t mon ... ferhum
freÛge, _that one ... heartily love_, 3178.--Comp.: collen-, sarig-,
swift-, wide-ferh.

ferh-frec, adj., _having good courage, bold, brave_: acc. sg. ferh-frecan
Fin, 1147.

ferh-genÓla, w. m., _mortal enemy_: acc. sg. ferh-genÓlan, of the
drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., _to bear, to bring, to conduct_: pres. II. pl.
hwanon ferigea f‰tte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. tÙ scypum feredon eal
ingesteald eorcyninges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

‰t-ferian, _to carry away, to bear off_: pret. ic ˛‰t hilt ˛anan feÛndum
‰tferede, 1669.

ge-ferian, _bear, to bring, to lead_: pres. subj. I. pl. ˛onne (we)
geferian fre·n ˚serne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles he·fod, 1639; pret.
˛‰t hi ˚t geferedon d˝re m‚mas, 3131; pret. part. her syndon geferede
feorran cumene ... Ge·ta leÛde, _men of the Ge·tas, come from afar, have
been brought hither_ (by ship), 361.

Ù-ferian, _to tear away, to take away_: pret. sg. I. unsÙfte ˛onan feorh
Ù-ferede, 2142.

of-ferian, _to carry off, to take away, to tear away_: pret. Ùer swylc ˚t
offerede, _took away another such_ (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc.
(sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., _to bring near, bring_: pres. subj. n‚h hw‚ ... fe[tige]
f‰ted wÊge, _bring the gold-chased tankard_, 2254; pret. part. hrae w‰s tÙ
b˚re BeÛwulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, _to bring_: inf. hÍt ˛‚ eorla hleÛ in gefetian HrÍles l‚fe,
_caused HrÍel's sword to be brought_, 2191.

‚-fÍdan, w. v., _to nourish, to bring up_: pret. part. ˛Êr he ‚fÍded w‰s,

fÍa (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) _foot-soldiers_: nom. pl. fÍan, 1328,
2545.--2) collective in sing., _band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors_:
nom. fÍa eal ges‰t, 1425; dat. on fÍan, 2498, 2920.--Comp. gum-fÍa.

fÍe, st. n., _gait, going, pace_: dat. sg. w‰s tÙ foremihtig feÛnd on
fÍe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fÍe-cempa, w. m., _foot-soldier_: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fÍe-g‰st, st. m., _guest coming on foot_: dat. pl. fÍe-gestum, 1977.

fÍe-l‚st, st. m., _signs of going, footprint_: dat. pl. fÍrdon for ˛onon
fÍe-l‚stum, _went forth from there upon their trail_, i.e. by the same way
that they had gone, 1633.

fÍe-wÓg, st. m., _battle on foot_: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrÍmge ˛orfton
(sc. wesan) fÍe-wÓges, 2365.

fÍl (= feÛl), st. f. _file_: gen. pl. fÍla l‚fe, _what the files have left
behind_ (that is, the swords), 1033.

fÍran, w. v., iter (A.S. fÙr) facere, _to come, to go, to travel_: pres.
subj. II. pl. Êr ge ... on land Dena furur fÍran, _ere you go farther into
the land of the Danes_, 254; inf. fÍran on fre·n wÊre (_to die_), 27;
gewiton him ˛‚ fÍran (_set out upon their way_), 301; mÊl is me tÙ fÍran,
316; fÍran ... gang sce·wigan, _go, so as to see the footprints_, 1391;
wÓde fÍran, 2262; pret. fÍrdon folctogan ... wundor sce·wian, _the princes
came to see the wonder_, 840; fÍrdon for, 1633.

ge-fÍran: 1) adire, _to arrive at_: pres. subj. ˛onne eorl ende gefÍre
lÓfgesceafta, _reach the end of life_, 3064; pret. part. h‰fde Êghw‰er
ende gefÍred lÊnan lÓfes, _frail life's end had both reached_, 2845.--2)
_to reach, to accomplish, to bring about_: pret. hafast ˛u gefÍred ˛‰t ...,
1222, 1856.--3) _to behave one's self, to conduct one's self_: pret. frÍcne
gefÍrdon, _had shown themselves daring_, 1692.

feal, st. m., _fall_: in comp. w‰l-feal.

feallan, st. v., _to fall, to fall headlong_: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg.
˛‰t he on hrusan ne feÛl, _that it_ (the hall) _did not fall to the
ground_, 773; similarly, feÛll on foldan, 2976; feÛll on fÍan (dat. sg.),
_fell in the band_ (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. ˛onne walu feÛllon,

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., _deprived of, robbed_: freÛndum
befeallen, _robbed of friends_, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... f‰tum
befeallen (sc. wesan), _be robbed of its gold mountings_ (the gold mounting
will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, _to fall, to sink down_: pres. sg. III. ˛‰t se lÓc-homa ...
fÊge gefealle, _that the body doomed to die sinks down_, 1756.--Also, with
the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefeÛll, 2101; he eoran
gefeÛll, 2835.

fealu, adj., _fallow, dun-colored, tawny_: acc. sg. ofer fealone flÙd
(_over the sea_), 1951; fealwe strÊte (with reference to 320), 917; acc.
pl. lÍton on geflÓt faran fealwe mearas, 866.--Comp. ‰ppel-fealo.

feax, st. n., _hair, hair of the head_: dat. sg. w‰s be feaxe on flet boren
Grendles he·fod, _was carried by the hair into the hall_, 1648; him ...
sw‚t ... sprong for under fexe, _the blood sprang out under the hair of
his head_, 2968.--Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-fe·, w. m., _joy_: acc. sg. ˛Êre fylle gefe·n, _joy at the abundant
repast_, 562; ic ˛‰s ealles m‰g ... gefe·n habban (_can rejoice at all
this_), 2741.

fe·, adj., _few_ dat. pl. nemne fe·um ‚num, _except some few_, 1082; gen.
pl. fe·ra sum, _as one of a few, with a few_, 1413; fe·ra sumne, _one of a
few (some few)_, 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. fe· worda cw‰, _spoke
few words_, 2663, 2247.

fe·-sceaft, adj., _miserable, unhappy, helpless_: nom. sg. syan Êrest
wear fe·sceaft funden, 7; fe·sceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg.
fe·sceaftum men, 2286; E·dgilse ... fe·sceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. fe·sceafte
(the Ge·tas robbed of their king, Hygel‚c), 2374.

feoh, feÛ, st. n., (_properly cattle, herd_) here, _possessions, property,
treasure_: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo feÛ ˛ingian, _would not
allay life's evil for treasure_ (tribute), 156; similarly, ˛‚ fÊhe feÛ
˛ingode, 470; ic ˛e ˛‚ fÊhe feÛ le·nige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-feÛn, st. v. w. gen. and instr., _to enjoy one's self, to
rejoice at something_: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah he ˛Êre fÊhe, 109;
hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefÊgon, _enjoyed themselves at
the bounteous repast_, 1015; ˛eÛdnes gefÍgon, _rejoiced at_ (the return of)
_the ruler_, 1628.--b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mÊrum, 828;
secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sÊl‚ce gefeah, m‰gen-byrenne ˛‚ra ˛e he him mid
h‰fde, _rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that_
(Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) _which he had with him_, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., _bestowing of gifts_ or _treasures_: gen. sg.
˛Êre feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. ‰t feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum,
_with rich gifts_, 21.

feoh-le·s, adj., _that cannot be atoned for through gifts_: nom. sg. ˛‰t
w‰s feoh-le·s gefeoht, _a deed of arms that cannot be expiated_ (the
killing of his brother by HÊcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., _combat; warlike deed_: nom. sg. (the killing of his
brother by HÊcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mÍce ˛one ˛Ón fader tÙ gefeohte b‰r,
_the sword which thy father bore to the combat_, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., _to fight_: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wÓg Hengeste wiht
gefeohtan (_could by no means offer Hengest battle_), 1084.

feohte, w. f., _combat_: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., _far, remote_: nom. sg. nis ˛‰t feor heonon, 1362; n‰s him feor
˛anon tÙ gesÍcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (_all that is
far, past_), 1702.

feor, adv., _far, far away_: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor
and (oe) ne·h, _far and (or) near_, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.--b) of time:
ge feor hafa fÊhe gestÊled (_has placed us under her enmity henceforth_),

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and f‰stor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr,
1989; feor, 542.

feor-b˚end, pt., _dwelling far away_: nom. pl. ge feor-b˚end, 254.

feor-c˝, st. f., _home of those living far away, distant land_: nom, pl.
feor-c˝e beÛ sÍlran gesÙhte ˛‰m ˛e him selfa de·h, _foreign lands are
better sought by him who trusts to his own ability_, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, _world_), st. m. and n., _life, principle of
life, soul_: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nÙ ˛on lange w‰s feorh ‰elinges flÊsce
bewunden, _not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the
body_ (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wr‰c, _life expelled the
strength_ (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also),
2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, _preserve
his life_, 2857; feorh ‚legde, _gave up his life_, 852; similarly, Êr he
feorh sele, 1371; feorh oferede, _tore away her life_, 2142; Ù ˛‰t hie
forlÊddan tÙ ˛am lindplegan swÊse gesÓas ond hyra sylfra feorh, _till in
an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their
lives_ (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif ˛u ˛Ón feorh hafast, 1850;
ymb feorh sacan (_to fight for life_), 439; w‰s in feorh dropen, _was
wounded into his life_, i.e. mortally, 2982; wÓdan feorh, as temporal acc.,
_through a wide life_, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. feore, 1294, 1549; tÙ
wÓdan feore, _for a wide life_, i.e. at all times, 934; on sw‚ geongum
feore (_at a so youthful age_), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg.
feores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. b˚ton ... feorum gumena, 73; freÛnda feorum,
1307.--Also, _body, corpse_: ˛‚ w‰s heal hroden feÛnda feorum (_the hall
was covered with the slain of the enemy_), 1153; gehwearf ˛‚ in Francna
f‰m feorh cyninges, _then the body of the king_ (Hygel‚c) _fell into the
power of the Franks_, 1211. --Comp. geogo-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., _(life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer_: dat. sg.
feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., _wound that takes away life, mortal wound_: dat.
(instr.) pl. feorh-bennum seÛc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., _evil destroying life, violent death_: nom. sg., 2078,
2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., _race of the living, mankind_: gen. pl. fela
feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genÓla, w. m., _he who seeks life, life's enemy_ (N.H.G. Tod-feind),
_mortal enemy_: acc. sg. -genÓlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genÓlan, 970; acc. sg.
brÊgd feorh-genÓlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genÓlan, (Ongen˛eÛw)
_pursued his mortal enemies_, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., _the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate_:
acc. sg. on m‚ma hord mine (mÓnne, MS.) bebohte frÙde feorh-lege, _for the
treasure-hoard I sold my old life_, 2801.

feorh-l‚st, st. m., _trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death _: acc. pl.
feorh-l‚stas b‰r, 847.

feorh-seÛc, adj., _mortally wounded_: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., _(stroke robbing of life), fatal blow_: acc. sg.,

feorh-wund, st. f., _mortal wound, fatal injury_: acc. sg. feorh-wunde
hle·t, 2386.

feorm, st. f., _subsistence, entertainment_: acc. sg. nÙ ˛u ymb mÓnes ne
˛earft lÓces feorme leng sorgian, _thou needest no longer have care for the
sustenance of my body_, 451.--2) _banquet_: dat. on feorme (or feorme,
MS.), 2386.

feormend-le·s, adj., _wanting the. cleanser_: acc. pl. geseah ...
fyrn-manna fatu feormend-le·se, 2762.

feormian, w. v., _to clean, to cleanse, to polish_: pres. part. nom pl.
feormiend swefa (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., _to feast, to eat_; pret. part. sÙna h‰fde unlyfigendes
eal gefeormod fÍt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., _to remove_: inf. sibbe ne wolde wi manna hwone
m‰genes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, feÛ ˛ingian, (Grendel) _would not from
friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay
it for tribute_, 156.

feorran, adv., _from afar_: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.;
sian ‰elingas feorran gefricgean fle·m eÛwerne, _when noble men afar
learn of your flight_ (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands),
2890; fÍrdon folctogan feorran and ne·n, _from far and from near_, 840;
similarly, ne·n and feorran ˛u nu [friu] hafast, 1175; w‰s ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg
wÓde ges˝ne ... ne·n and feorran, _visible from afar, far and near_,
2318.--b) temporal: se ˛e c˚e frumsceaft fira feorran reccan (_since
remote antiquity_), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., _foreign-born_: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., _far way_: dat. pl. m‚dma fela of feorwegum, _many
precious things from distant paths_ (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-feÛn. See feohan.

feÛnd, st. m., _enemy_: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; feÛnd on helle (Grendel),
101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. feÛnde, 143, 439; gen. sg.
feÛndes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. feÛnd, 699; dat. pl. feÛndum, 420, 1670;
gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

feÛnd-gr‚p, st. f., _foe's clutch_: dat. (instr.) pl. feÛnd-gr‚pum f‰st,

feÛnd-sceaa, w. m., _one who is an enemy and a robber_: nom. sg. f‚h
feÛnd-scaa (_a hostile sea-monster_), 554.

feÛnd-scipe, st. m., _hostility_: nom. sg., 3000.

feÛwer, num., _four_: nom. feÛwer bearn, 59; feÛwer mearas, 2164; feÛwer,
as substantive, 1638; acc. feÛwer m‚mas, 1028.

feÛwer-tyne, num., _fourteen_: nom. with following gen. pl. feÛwertyne
Ge·ta, 1642.

findan, st. v., _to find, to invent, to attain_: a) with simple object in
acc.: inf. ˛‚ra ˛e he cÍnoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hie at Finnes-h‚m
findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; m‰g ˛Êr fela
freÛnda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; sw‚ hyt weorlÓcost
fore-snotre men findan mihton, _so splendidly as only very wise men could
devise it_, 3164; pret. sg. heal˛egnas fand, 720; word Ùer fand, _found
other words_, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelÓcne
grund-hyrde fond, 2137; ˛‰t ic gÙdne funde be·ga bryttan, 1487; pret. part.
syan Êrest wear fe·sceaft funden (_discovered_), 7.--b) with acc. and
pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sÓnne driÛrigne fand, 2790.--c) with acc. and
inf.: pret. fand ˛‚ ˛Êr inne ‰elinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand w‰ccendne
wer wÓges bÓdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; Ù ˛‰t he
fyrgen-be·mas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon ˛‚ s‚wulle·sne
hlim-bed healdan, 3034.--d) with dependent clause: inf. nÙ ˛˝ Êr fe·sceafte
findan meahton ‰t ˛am ‰elinge ˛‰t he HeardrÍde hl‚ford wÊre (_could by no
means obtain it from the prince_), 2374.

on-findan, _to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice_: a) w. acc.: pret.
sg. landweard onfand eftsÓ eorla, _the coast-guard observed the return of
the earls_, 1892; pret. part. ˛‚ heÛ onfunden w‰s (_was discovered_),
1294.--b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. ˛‚ se gist onfand ˛‰t se beado-leÛma
bÓtan nolde, _the stranger_ (BeÛwulf) _perceived that the sword would not
cut_, 1523; sÙna ˛‰t onfunde, ˛‰t ..., _immediately perceived that_...,
751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., _finger_: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985;
dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

firas, fyras (O.H.G. firahÓ, i.e. _the living_; cf. feorh), st. m., only in
pl., _men_: gen. pl. fira, 91, 2742; monegum fira, 2002; fyra gehwylcne
leÛda mÓnra, 2251; fira fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., _cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice,
outrage_: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fÊhe, 153; fÊhe and
fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fÊhe and fyrene,
137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel),
751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of
_maliciously_, 1745, or _fallaciously_, with reference to HÊcyn's killing
Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dÊd, st. f., _wicked deed_: acc. pl. fyren-dÊda, 1670; instr. pl.
fyren-dÊdum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to
their nocturnal inroads.

firen-˛earf, st. f., _misery through the malignity of enemies_: acc. sg.
fyren-˛earfe, 14.

firgen-be·m, st. m., _tree of a mountain-forest_: acc. pl. fyrgen-be·mas,

firgen-holt, st. m., _mountain-wood, mountain-forest_: acc. sg. on
fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-stre·m, st. m., _mountain-stream_: nom. sg. fyrgen-stre·m, 1360;
acc. sg. under fyrgen-stre·m (marks the place where the mountain-stream,
according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., _fish_: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fÓf, num., _five_: uninflect. gen. fÓf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fÓfe (?),

fÓfel-cyn (O.N. fÓfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., _giant-race_: gen. sg.
fÓfelcynnes eard, 104.

fÓf-tene, fÓf-tyne, num., _fifteen_: acc. f˝ftyne, 1583; gen. fÓftena sum,

fÓf-tig, num., _fifty_: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fÓftig
wintra, 2734; gen. se w‰s fÓftiges fÙt-gemearces lang, 3043.--2) as
adjective: acc. fÓftig wintru, 2210.

fl‚n, st. m., _arrow_: dat. sg. fl‚ne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

fl‚n-boga, w. m., _bow which shoots the fl‚n, bow_: dat. sg. of fl‚n-bogan,
1434, 1745.

flÊsc, st. n., _flesh, body in contrast with soul_: instr. sg. nÙ ˛on lange
w‰s feorh ‰elinges flÊsce bewunden, _not much longer was the son of the
prince contained in his body_, 2425.

flÊsc-hama, w. m., _clothing of flesh_, i.e. the body: acc. sg.
flÊsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) _ground, floor of a hall_: acc. sg. heÛ on flet gebe·h,
_fell to the ground_, 1541; similarly, 1569.--2) _hall, mansion_: nom. sg.
1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; ˛‰t hie him
Ùer flet eal ger˝mdon, _that they should give up entirely to them another
hall_, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-r‰st, st. f., _resting-place in the hall_: acc. sg. flet-r‰ste gebe·g,
_reclined upon the couch in the hall_, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_: acc. pl -sittende, 2023;
dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., _troop from the hall_: nom. sg., 476.

fle·m, st. m., _flight_: acc. sg. on fle·m gewand, _had turned to flight_,
1002; fle·m eÛwerne, 2890.

fleÛgan, st. v., _to fly_: prs. sg. III. fleÛge, 2274.

fleÛn, st. v., _to flee_: inf. on heolster fleÛn, 756; fleÛn on fenhopu,
765; fleÛn under fen-hleou, 821; pret. hete-swengeas fle·h, 2226.

be-fleÛn, w. acc., _to avoid, to escape_: gerund nÙ ˛‰t ˝e by tÙ
befleÛnne, _that is not easy_ (i.e. not at all) _to be avoided_, 1004.

ofer-fleÛn, w. acc., _to flee from one, to yield_: inf. nelle ic beorges
weard oferfleÛn fÙtes trem, _will not yield to the warder of the mountain_
(the drake) _a foot's breadth_, 2526.

fleÛtan, st. v., _to float upon the water, to swim_: inf. nÙ he wiht fram
me flÙd-˝um feor fleÛtan meahte. hraor on helme, _no whit, could he swim
from me farther on the waves_ (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves
marked the distance), _more swiftly in the sea_, 542; pret. sÊgenga fle·t
f‚migheals for ofer ˝e, _floated away over the waves_, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flÓtan, st. v., _to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate_: pres. part.
flÓtende fealwe strÊte mearum mÊton (_rode a race_), 917; pret. sg. II.
eart ˛u se BeÛwulf, se ˛e wi Brecan ... ymb sund flite, _art thou the
BeÛwulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming?_ 507.

ofer-flÓtan, _to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome_: pret.
w. acc. he ˛e ‰t sunde oferfl‚t (_overcome thee in a swimming-wager_), 517.

ge-flÓt, st. n., _emulation_: acc. sg. lÍton on geflÓt faran fealwe mearas,
_let the fallow horses go in emulation_, 866.

floga, w. m., _flyer_; in the compounds: g˚-, lyft-, uht-, wÓ-floga.

flota (see fleÛtan), w. m., _float, ship, boat_: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301;
acc. sg. flotan eÛwerne, 294.--Comp. wÊg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., _fleet_: instr. sg. cwom faran flotherge on Fresna land,

flÙd, st. m., _flood, stream, sea-current_: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.;
acc. sg. flÙd, 3134; ofer fealone flÙd, 1951; dat. sg. tÙ flÙde, 1889; gen.
pl. flÙda begong, _the region of floods_, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flÙda
genipu, 2809.

flÙd-˝, st. f., _flood-wave_: instr. pl. flÙd-˝um, 542.

flÙr, st. m., _floor, stone-floor_: acc. sg. on f‚gne flÙr (the floor was
probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang ˛‚
‰fter flÙre, _along the floor_ (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., _flight_: nom. sg. g‚res fliht, _flight of the
spear_, 1766.

ge-fl˝man, w. v., _to put to flight_: pret. part. gefl˝med, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., _troop, band of warriors; folk_, in the sense of the whole
body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; S˚dene
folc, 464; folc and rÓce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga,
465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sÊ sÓde, _went with a band of warriors
over the wide sea_, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.--The
king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; fre·wine folces, 2358;
or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwÍn, 1933.--The pl., in the sense
of _warriors, fighting men_: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum,
55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. freÛ- (fre·-) wine folca, _of the king_, 430, 2430;
friu-sibb folca, _of the queen_, 2018.--Comp. sige-folc.

folc-‚gend, pres. part., _leader of a band of warriors_: nom. pl.
folc-‚gende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., _man of the multitude, a common man_: nom. sg.
folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwÍn, st. f., _queen of a warlike host_: nom. sg., of Wealh˛eÛw, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., _king of a warlike host_: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-rÊd, st. m, _what best serves a warlike host_: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., _the rights of the fighting men of a nation_: gen. pl.
him Êr forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, sw‚ his f‰der ‚hte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., _part of a host of warriors, nation_: dat. sg.
folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., _position of a band of warriors, place where a band of
warriors is quartered_: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76;
folcstede f‚ra (_the battle-field_), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., _leader of a body of warriors, duke_: nom. pl., powerful
liege-men of HrÙg‚r are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., _earth-house_ (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a
dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. f‰ger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-b˚end, pres. part. _dweller on earth, man_: nom. pl. fold-b˚end, 2275;
fold-b˚ende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-b˚endum, 309.

folde, w. f., _earth, ground_: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; feÛll on
foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, _the bosom of the earth_, 1138; foldan
sce·tas, 96; foldan f‰m, 1394.--Also, _earth, world_: dat. sg. on foldan,

fold-weg, st. m., _field-way, road through the country_: acc. sg. fold-weg,
1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) _to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow_: pret. pl.
˛e·h hie hira be·ggyfan banan folgedon, _although they followed the
murderer of their prince_, 1103.--2) _to pursue, to follow after_: folgode
feorh-genÓlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, _hand_: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743;
acc. pl. fÍt and folma, _feet and hands_, 746; dat. pl. tÙ banan folmum,
158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.--Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, _before_, ante: ˛‰t
he for eaxlum gestÙd Deniga fre·n, 358; for hl‚we, 1121.--b) _before_,
coram, in conspectu: no he ˛Êre feohgyfte for sceÛtendum scamigan ˛orfte,
_had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors_, 1027; for ˛‰m
werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for dugue, _before the noble band of
warriors_, 2021.--Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, _on account of,
through, from_: for wlenco, _from bravery, through warlike courage_, 338,
1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonh˝dum, 434; for onmÍdlan, 2927, etc.--b)
objective, partly denoting a cause, _through, from, by reason of_: for
metode, _for the creator, on account of the creator_, 169; for ˛re·n˝dum,
833; for ˛re·nÍdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, _on account of, in accordance with
the promise of bold deeds_ (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself),
509; him for hrÙfsele hrÓnan ne mehte fÊr-gripe flÙdes, _on account of the
roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him_, 1516;
lÓg-egesan w‰g for horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the treasure_,
2782; for mundgripe mÓnum, _on account of, through the gripe of my hand_,
966; for ˛‰s hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, _through the
stroke_, 2967; ne meahte ... deÛp ged˝gan for dracan lÍge, _could not hold
out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake_, 2550. Here may be
added such passages as ic ˛‰m gÙdan sceal for his mÙd˛r‰ce m‚mas beÛdan,
_will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his
high courage_, 385; ful-oft for l‰ssan le·n teohhode, _gave often reward
for what was inferior_, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not uneasy about
his life_, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ‚rstafum, _to
the assistance_, 382, 458.--2) w. instr. causal, _because of, for_: he hine
feor forwr‰c for ˛˝ mane, 110.--3) w. acc., _for, as, instead of_: for sunu
freÛgan, _love as a son_, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; ne him ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg
for wiht dyde, _held the drake's fighting as nothing_, 2349.

foran, adv., _before, among the first, forward_: sian ... sce·wedon
feÛndes fingras, foran Êghwylc (_each before himself_), 985; ˛‰t w‰s ‚n
foran ealdgestreÛna, _that was one among the first of the old treasures_,
i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; ˛e him foran onge·n linde bÊron, _bore
their shields forward against him_ (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, _before_: he ... beforan gengde, _went before_,
1413; temporal, _before, earlier_, 2498.--2) prep. w. acc. _before_, in
conspectu: mÊre m‚um-sweord manige ges‚won beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., _ford, water-way_: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

for: 1) local, _forth, hither, near_: for near ‰tstÙp, _approached
nearer_, 746; ˛‚ cwom Wealh˛eÛ for g‚n, 1163; similarly, 613; him sele˛egn
for wÓsade, _led him_ (BeÛwulf) _forth_ (to the couch that had been
prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; ˛‰t him sw‚t sprong for under fexe,
_forth under the hair of his head_, 2968. _Forward, further_: gewÓta for
beran wÊpen and gewÊdu, 291; he tÙ for gestÙp, 2290; freoo-wong ˛one for
ofereodon, 2960. _Away, forth_, 45, 904; fyrst for gew‚t, _the time_ (of
the way to the ship) _was out_, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; me
... for-gewitenum, _to me the departed_, 1480; fÍrdon for, _went forth_
(from Grendel's sea), 1633; ˛onne he for scile, _when he must (go) forth_,
i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men for gefremede, _carried
him forth, over all men_, 1719.--2) temporal, _forth, from now on_: heald
for tela niwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal for sprecan gen ymbe Grendel, _shall
from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2070. See furum and furor.

for-gerÓmed, pres. part., _in unbroken succession_, 59.

for-gesceaft, st. f., _that which is determined for farther on, future
destiny_: acc. sg. he ˛‚ for-gesceaft forgyte and forg˝me, 1751.

for-weg, st. m., _road that leads away, journey_: he of ealdre gew‚t frÙd
on for-weg (_upon the way to the next world_), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, _before_, coram, in conspectu: heÛ fore ˛‰m
werede spr‰c, 1216. Causal, _through, for, because of_: nÙ mearn fore fÊhe
and fyrene, 136; fore f‰der dÊdum, _because of the father's deeds_,
2060,--Allied to this is the meaning, _about_, de, super: ˛Êr w‰s sang and
swÍg samod ‰tg‰dere fore Healfdenes hildewÓsan, _song and music about
Healfdene's general_ (the song of Hn‰f), 1065.

fore-mÊre, adj., _renowned beyond (others)_, prÊclarus: superl. ˛‰t w‰s
fore-mÊrost foldb˚endum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., _able beyond (others)_, prÊpotens: nom. sg. w‰s tÙ
foremihtig feÛnd on fÍe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (could flee
too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., _wise beyond (others)_, sapientissimus: nom. pl.
foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-˛anc, st. m., _forethought, consideration, deliberation_: nom. sg.,

forht, adj., _fearful, cowardly_: nom. sg. forht, 2968; he on mÙde wear
forht on ferhe, 755.--Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., _foremost, first_: nom. sg. forma sÓ (_the first time_), 717,
1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sÓe, 741, 2287; forman dÙgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., _first of all, in the first place_: he fyrmest l‰g,

forst, st. m., _frost, cold_: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-˛am, for-˛an, for-˛on, adv. and conj., _therefore, on that account,
then_: for˛am, 149; for˛an, 418, 680, 1060; for˛on ˛e, _because_, 503.

fÙn, st. v., _to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take_: prs. sg. III.
fÍh Ùer tÙ, _another lays hold_ (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid
gr‚pe sceal fÙn wi feÛnde, 439; pret. sg. him tÙge·nes fÍng, _caught at
him, grasped at him_, 1543; w. dat. he ˛‚m fr‰twum fÍng, _received the rich
adornments_ (Ongen˛eÛw's equipment), 2990.

be-fÙn, _to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace_: pret. part.
hyne s‚r hafa ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; heÛ ‰elinga ‚nne
h‰fde f‰ste befangen (_had seized him firmly_), 1296; helm ... befongen
fre·wr‚snum (_encircled by an ornament like a diadem_), 1452; fenne
bifongen, _surrounded by the fen_, 2010; (draca) f˝re befongen, _encircled
by fire_, 2275, 2596; h‰fde landwara lÓge befangen, _encompassed by fire_,

ge-fÙn, w. acc., _to seize, to grasp_: pret. he gefÍng slÊpendne rinc, 741;
g˚rinc gefÍng atolan clommum, 1502; gefÍng ˛‚ be eaxle ... G˚ge·ta leÛd
Grendles mÙdor, 1538; gefÍng ˛‚ fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefÍng, geolwe
linde, 2610; ic on Ùfoste gefÍng micle mid mundum m‰gen-byrenne, _hastily
I seized with my hands the enormous burden_, 3091.

on-fÙn, w. dat., _to receive, to accept, to take_: pres. imp. sg. onfÙh
˛issum fulle, _accept this cup_, 1170; inf. ˛‰t ˛‰t ˛eÛdnes bearn ...
scolde f‰der-‰elum onfÙn, _receive the paternal rank_, 912; pret. sg. hw‚
˛‰m hl‰ste onfÍng, _who received the ship's lading_, 52; hleÛr-bolster
onfÍng eorles andwlitan, _the pillow received the nobleman's face_, 689;
similarly, 853, 1495; heal swÍge onfÍng, _the hall received the loud
noise_, 1215; he onfÍng hrae inwit-˛ancum, _he_ (BeÛwulf) _at once
clutched him_ (Grendel) _devising malice_, 749.

˛urh-fÙn, w. acc., _to break through with grasping, to destroy by
grasping_: inf. ˛‰t heÛ ˛one fyrd-hom ˛urh-fÙn ne mihte, 1505.

wi-fÙn, w. dat., _(to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of_: pret. sg. him
f‰ste wi-fÍng, 761.

ymbe-fÙn, w. acc., _to encircle_: pret. heals ealne ymbefÍng biteran b‚num,
_encircled his_ (BeÛwulf's) _whole neck with sharp bones_ (teeth), 2692.

fÙt, st. m., _foot_: gen. sg. fÙtes trem (_the measure of a foot, a foot
broad_), 2526; acc. pl. fÍt, 746; dat. pl. ‰t fÙtum, _at the feet_, 500,

fÙt-gemearc, st. n., _measure, determining by feet, number of feet_: gen.
sg. se w‰s fÓftiges fÙtgemearces lang (_fifty feet long_), 3043.

fÙt-l‚st, st. m., _foot-print_: acc. sg. (draca) onfand feÛndes fÙt-l‚st,

fracod, adj., _objectionable, useless_. nom. sg. n‰s seÛ ecg fracod
hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. _away from something_: ˛Êr fram sylle
‚be·g medubenc monig, 776, 1716; ˛anon eft gewiton ealdgesÓas ... fram
mere, 856; cyning-balde men from ˛‰m holmclife hafelan bÊron, 1636;
similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: he hine feor forwr‰c
... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, _hither from something_: ˛‚
ic cwom ... from feÛndum, 420; Êghw‰rum w‰s ... brÙga fram Ùrum,
2566.--Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, _of, about, concerning_:
s‰gdest from his sÓe, 532; nÙ ic wiht fram ˛e swylcra searo-nÓa secgan
h˝rde, 581; ˛‰t he fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., _away,
thence_: nÙ ˛˝ Êr fram meahte, 755; _forth, out_: from Êrest cwom oru
aglÊcean ˚t of st‚ne, _the breath of the dragon came forth first from the
rock_ 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) _directed forwards, striving forwards_; in comp.
sÓ-fram.--2) _excellent, splendid_, of a man with reference to his warlike
qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on mÙde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.--Comp. un-from;
see freme, forma.

ge-fr‰gen. See frignan.

fr‰twe, st. f. pl., _ornament, anything costly_, originally _carved
objects_ (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any
costly and artistic work: acc. pl. fr‰twe, 2920; beorhte fr‰twe, 214;
beorhte fr‰twa, 897; fr‰twe.. eorclan-st‚nas, 1208; fr‰twe,...
breÛst-weorunge, 2504, both times of Hygel‚c's collar; fr‰twe and
f‰t-gold, 1922; fr‰twe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl.
˛‚m fr‰twum, 2164; on fr‰tewum, 963; fr‰twum (Heaobeard sword) hrÍmig,
2055; fr‰twum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; fr‰twum (Ongen˛eÛw's armor),
2990; gen. pl. fela ... fr‰twa, 37; ˛‚ra fr‰twa (drake's treasure), 2795;
fr‰twa hyrde (drake), 3134.

fr‰twan, w. v., _to supply with ornaments, to adorn_: inf. folc-stede
fr‰twan, 76.

ge-fr‰twian, w. v., _to adorn_: pret. sg. gefr‰twade foldan sce·tas leomum
and le·fum, 96; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s h‚ten Heort innanweard folmum gefr‰twod,

ge-frÊge, adj., _known by reputation, renowned_: nom. sg. leÛd-cyning ...
folcum gefrÊge, 55; sw‚ hyt gefrÊge w‰s, 2481.

ge-frÊge, st. n., _information through hearsay_: instr. sg. mine gefrÊge
(_as I learned through the narrative of others_), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frÊgnian, w. v., _to become known through hearsay_: pret. part. fylle
gefrÊgnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying
off of ƒschere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly _a wolf_, as one that breaks in, robs; here a
designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of BeÛwulf, 1564.--Comp.:
g˚-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wÓg-freca; fer-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly _distant, foreign_; then _estranged, hostile_: nom
sg. ˛‰t w‰s fremde ˛eÛd Ícean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwÍn, of
firyo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., _to press forward, to further_, hence: 1) in general, _to
perform, to accomplish, to do, to make_: pres. subj. without an object,
fremme se ˛e wille, _let him do (it) whoever will_, 1004. With acc.: imp.
pl. fremma ge nu leÛda ˛earfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; s‰cce
fremman, 2500; fÊhe ... mÊrum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcrÊd
fremede (_did what was best for his men_, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. h˚
˛‚ ‰elingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles f‚censtafas
... ˛enden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. ˛‰t ic ... mÊro fremede, 2135. --2)
_to help on, to support_: inf. ˛‰t he mec fremman wile wordum and worcum
(to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., _to do, to make, to render_: inf. gefremman eorlÓc
ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, _to give help_, 2450; ‰fter we·spelle wyrpe
gefremman, _to work a change after sorrow_ (to give joy after sorrow),
1316; gerund, tÙ gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165,
551, 585, etc.; ˛e·h ˛e hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men for gefremede,
_placed him away, above all men_, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl.
gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed,
476; fem, nu scealc hafa ... dÊd gefremede, 941; absolutely, ˛u ˛e self
hafast dÊdum gefremed, ˛‰t ..., _hast brought it about by thy deeds that_,

fretan, st. v., _to devour, to consume_: inf. ˛‚ (the precious things)
sceal brond fretan, 3015; nu sceal glÍd fretan wÓgena strengel, 3115; pret.
sg. (Grendel) slÊpende fr‰t folces Denigea f˝ftyne men, 1582.

frÍcne, adj., _dangerous, bold_: nom. sg. frÍcne f˝r-draca, 2690;
feorh-bealo frÍcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frÍcne dÊde, 890; frÍcne fengel‚d,
1360; frÍcne stÙwe, 1379; instr. sg. frÍcnan sprÊce (_through provoking
words_), 1105.

frÍcne, adv., _boldly, audaciously_, 960, 1033, 1692.

fre·, w. m., _ruler, lord_, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. fre·, 2286; acc.
sg. fre·n, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. fre·n, 359, 500, 1167,
1681; dat. sg. fre·n, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. eode ... tÙ
hire fre·n sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. fre·n ealles, _the Lord of all_,
2795; gen. sg. fre·n, 27.-- Comp.: ‚gend-, lÓf-, sin-fre·.

fre·-dryhten, st. m., _lord, ruling lord_: gen. sg. fre·-drihtnes, 797.

fre·-wine, st. m., _lord and friend, friendly ruler_: nom. sg. fre·-wine
folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his fre·-wine, 2439.

fre·-wr‚sn, st. f., _encircling ornament like a diadem_: instr. pl. helm
... befongen fre·wr‚snum, 1452; see wr‚sn.

freou, friu, f., _protection, asylum, peace_: acc. sg. wel bi ˛‰m ˛e mÙt
... tÙ f‰der f‰mum freoo wilnian, _who may obtain an asylum in God's
arms_, 188; ne·n and feorran ˛u nu [friu] hafast, 1175.--Comp. fen-freoo.

freoo-burh, st. f., _castle, city affording protection_: acc. sg.
freooburh f‰gere, 522.

freoo-wong, st. m., _field of peace, field of protection_: acc. sg., 2960;
seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoo-wÊr, st. f., _peace-alliance, security of peace_: acc. sg. ˛‚ hie
getr˚wedon on tw‚ healfa f‰ste friou-wÊre, 1097; gen. sg. frioowÊre b‰d
hl‚ford sÓnne, _entreated his lord for the protection of peace_ (i.e. full
pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoo-webbe, w. f., _peace-weaver_, designation of the royal consort
(often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two
nations): nom. sg., 1943.

freÛ-burh, st. f., = fre·-burg (?), _ruler's castle_ (?) (according to
Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. freÛburh, 694.

freÛd, st. f., _friendship_: acc. sg. freÛde ne woldon ofer heafo healdan,
2477; gen. sg. n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan, _was no longer time to
seek for friendship_, 2557; --_favor, acknowledgement_: acc. sg. ic ˛e
sceal mÓne gelÊstan freÛde (_will show myself grateful_, with reference to
1381 ff.), 1708.

freÛ-dryhten (= fre·-dryhten), st. m., _lord, ruler_; according to Grein,
dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. freÛ-drihten min! 1170; dat.
sg. mid his freÛ-dryhtne, 2628.

freÛgan, w. v., _to love; to think of lovingly_: pres. subj. ˛‰t mon his
wine-dryhten ... ferhum freÛge, 3178; inf. nu ic ˛ec ... me for sunu wylle
freÛgan on ferhe, 949.

freÛ-lÓc, adj., _free, free-born_ (here of the lawful wife in contrast with
the bond concubine): nom. sg. freÛlÓc wÓf, 616; freÛlÓcu folc-cwÍn, 642.

freÛnd, st. m., _friend_: acc. sg. freÛnd, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. freÛndum,
916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. freÛnda, 1307, 1839.

freÛnd-lau, st. f., _friendly invitation_: nom. sg. him w‰s ful boren and
freÛnd-lau (_friendly invitation to drink_) wordum bew‰gned, 1193.

freÛnd-l‚r, st. f., _friendly counsel_: dat. (instr.) pl. freÛnd-l‚rum,

freÛnd-lÓce, adv., _in a friendly manner, kindly_: compar. freÛnd-lÓcor,

freÛnd-scipe, st. m., _friendship_: acc. sg. freÛnd-scipe f‰stne, 2070.

freÛ-wine, st. m. (see fre·wine), _lord and friend, friendly ruler_;
according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc.
freÛ-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., _to ask, to inquire into_: inf. ongan sÓnne geseldan f‰gre
fricgean hwylce SÊ-Ge·ta sÓas wÊron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding
fela fricgende feorran rehte, _the old Scilding, asking many questions_
(having many things related to him), _told of old times_ (the conversation
was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, _to learn, to learn by inquiry_: pres. pl. syan hie
ge-fricgea fre·n ˚serne ealdorle·sne, _when they learn that our lord is
dead_, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic ˛‰t gefricge, ˛‰t..., 1827; pl. syan
‰elingas feorran gefricgean fle·m eÛwerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., _to seek, to desire, to strive for_:
inf. n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan, 2557.

frio-sib, st. f., _kin for the confirming of peace_, designation of the
queen (see freoo-webbe), _peace-bringer_: nom. sg. friu-sibb folca,

frignan, fringan, frinan, st. v., _to ask, to inquire_: imp. ne frin ˛u
‰fter sÊlum, _ask not after the well-being!_ 1323; inf. ic ˛‰s wine Deniga
frinan wille ... ymb ˛Ónne sÓ, 351; pret. sg. fr‰gn, 236, 332; fr‰gn gif
..., _asked whether_ ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frinan, _to find out by inquiry, to learn by
narration._ pret. sg. (w. acc.) ˛‰t fram h‚m gefr‰gn Higel‚ces ˛egn
Grendles dÊda, 194; nÙ ic gefr‰gn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.)
˛‚ ic wÓde gefr‰gn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne
gefr‰gen ic ˛‚ mÊge m‚ran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sÍl gebÊran, _I never
heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about
its chief_, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) we ˛eÛdcyninga ˛rym
gefrunon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne g˚cyning gÙdne gefrunon hringas
dÊlan, 1970; (parenthetical) sw‚ guman gefrungon, 667, (after ˛onne)
medo-‰rn micel (_greater_) ... ˛one yldo bearn Êfre gefrunon, 70; pret.
part. h‰fde Higel‚ces hilde gefrunen, 2953; h‰fdon gefrunen ˛‰t..., _had
learned that_ ..., 695; h‰fde gefrunen hwanan siÛ fÊh ‚r‚s, 2404;
healsbe·ga mÊst ˛‚ra ˛e ic on foldan gefr‰gen h‰bbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frÙd, adj.: 1) Êtate provectus, _old, gray_: nom. sg. frÙd, 2626, 2951;
frÙd cyning, 1307, 2210; frÙd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frÙd, 1725, 2115,
2278; se frÙda, 2929; ac. sg. frÙde feorhlege (_the laying down of my old
life_), 2801; dat. sg. frÙdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong
under No. 2), 2124.--2) mente excellentior, _intelligent, experienced,
wise_: nom. sg. frÙd, 1367; frÙd and gÙd, 279; on mÙde frÙd, 1845.--Comp.:
in-, un-frÙd.

frÙfor, st. f., _consolation, compensation, help_: nom. sg. frÙfor, 2942;
acc. sg. frÙfre, 7, 974; fyrena frÙfre, 629; frÙfre and fultum, 1274;
frÙfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tÙ frÙfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frÙfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., _the foremost_, hence: l) _beginning_: nom. sg.
w‰s se fruma egeslÓc leÛdum on lande, sw‚ hyt lungre wear on hyra
sincgifan s‚re geendod (_the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible,
its end distressing through the death of BeÛwulf_), 2310.--2) _he who
stands first, prince_; in comp. dÊd-, hild-, land-, leÛd-, ord-, wÓg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), _descent, origin_: acc. sg. nu ic
eÛwer sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-g‚r, st. m., primipilus, _duke, prince_: dat. sg. frumg‚re (of
BeÛwulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, _beginning_: acc. sg. se ˛e c˚e
frumsceaft fira feorran reccan, _who could tell of the beginning of mankind
in old times_, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, _in the beginning_, i.e at his
birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., _bird_: dat. sg. fugle gelÓcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tÙ
gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., _full, filled_: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. se w‰s innan full wr‰tta
and wÓra, 2413.--Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weor-ful.

ful, adv., plene, _very_: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., _cup, beaker_: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026;
ofer ˝a ful, _over the cup of the waves_ (the basin of the sea filled with
waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfÙh ˛issum fulle, 1170.--Comp.: medo-, sele-full.

fullÊstian, w. v. w. dat, _to give help_: pres. sg. ic ˛e fullÊstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., _help, support, protection_: acc. sg. frÙfor (frÙfre) and
fultum, 699, 1274; m‰genes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.--Comp.

fundian, w. v., _to strive, to have in view_: pres. pl. we fundia Higel‚c
sÍcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furum, adv., primo, _just, exactly; then first_: ˛‚ ic furum weÛld folce
Deninga, _then first governed the people of the Danes_ (had just assumed
the government), 465; ˛‚ hie tÙ sele furum ... gangan cwÙmon, 323; ic ˛Êr
furum cwom tÙ ˛am hringsele, 2010;--_before, previously_: ic ˛e sceal mÓne
gelÊstan freÛde, sw‚ wit furum sprÊcon, 1708.

furur, adv., _further, forward, more distant_, 254, 762, 3007.

f˚s, adj., _inclined to, favorable, ready_: nom. sg. nu ic eom sÓes f˚s,
1476; leÛfra manna f˚s, _prepared for the dear men_, i.e. expecting them,
1917; sigel s˚an f˚s, _the sun inclined from the south_ (midday sun),
1967; se wonna hrefn f˚s ofer fÊgum, _eager over the slain_, 3026; sceft
... feer-gearwum f˚s, 3120; nom. pl. wÊron ... eft to leÛdum f˚se tÙ
farenne, 1806.--Sometimes f˚s means _ready for death_, moribundus: f˚s and
fÊge, 1242.--Comp.: hin-, ˚t-f˚s.

f˚s-lÓc, adj., _prepared, ready_: acc. sg. f˚s-lÓc f[yrd]-leÛ, 1425;
fyrd-searo f˚s-lÓc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu f˚s-lÓcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., _fall_: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, _the fall of the king_ (in the
dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. ˛‰t he on fylle wear, _that he came to a
fall, fell_, 1545.--Comp. hr‚-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., _troop, band of warriors_: in
comp. ‰l-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., _to fell, to slay in battle_: inf. f‚ne
gefyllan, _to slay the enemy_, 2656; pret. pl. feÛnd gefyldan, _they had
slain the enemy_, 2707.

‚-fyllan (see ful), w. v., _to fill_: pret. part. Heorot innan w‰s freÛndum
‚fylled (_was filled with trusted men_), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (_plenty, abundant meal_: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrÊgnod,
1334; gen. sg. n‰s hie ˛Êre fylle gefe·n h‰fdon, 562; fylle gefÊgon,
1015.--Comp.: w‰l-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wÍrig, adj., _weary enough to fall, faint to death_, moribundus: acc.
sg. fyl-wÍrigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) _to bear, to bring, carry_: pret. pl. ˛‚
˛e gif-sceattas Ge·ta fyredon ˛yder tÙ ˛ance, 378.

fyras. See firas.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., _movable, that can be moved_.--Comp. hard-fyrde.--Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade on an expedition, companion in battle_:
dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., _war-dress, coat of mail_: acc. sg. ˛one fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hr‰gl, st. n., _coat of mail, war-dress_: acc. sg. fyrd-hr‰gl, 1528.

fyrd-hw‰t, adj., _sharp, good in war, warlike_: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477.

fyrd-leÛ, st. n., _war-song, warlike music_: acc. sg. horn stundum song
f˚slÓc f[yrd]leo, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., _equipment for an expedition_: acc. sg. fyrd-searu
f˚slÓc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu f˚slÓcu, 232.

fyrd-wyre, adj., _of worth in war, excellent in battle_: nom. sg.
fyrd-wyre man (BeÛwulf), 1317.

ge-fyrran (see for), w. v., _to bring forward, to further_: pret. part.
‚r w‰s on Ùfoste, eftsÓes georn, fr‰twum gefyrred, _he was hurried
forward by the treasure_ (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he
hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded
BeÛwulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., _by-gone days_: dat. pl. fyrndagum (_in old
times_), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., _work, something done in old times_: acc. sg. fira
fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283), 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., _combat in ancient times_: gen. sg. Ùr fyrn-gewinnes
(_the origin of the battles of the giants_), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., _man of ancient times_: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., _counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many
years_: dat. sg. frÙdan fyrnwitan, of ƒschere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., _portion of time, definite time, time_: nom. sg. n‰s hit
lengra fyrst, ac ymb ‚ne niht ..., 134; fyrst for gew‚t, _the time_ (of
going to the harbor) _was past_, 210; n‰s ˛Êr m‚ra fyrst freÛde tÙ friclan,
2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fÓf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. ˛˝
fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., _within the fixed time_,

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., _prying spirit, curiosity_: nom. sg. fyrwyt,
232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-f˝san (f˚s), w. v., _to make ready, to prepare_: part. winde gef˝sed
flota, _the ship provided with wind_ (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) f˝re
gef˝sed, _provided with fire_, 2310; ˛‚ w‰s hringbogan (of the drake)
heorte gef˝sed s‰cce tÙ sÍceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the
question, for what? g˚e gef˝sed, _ready for battle, determined to fight_,

f˝r, st. n., _fire_: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. f˝re, 2220; as
instr. f˝re, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. f˝res f‰m, 185; f˝res feng, 1765.--
Comp.: ‚d-, bÊl-, heau-, w‰l-f˝r.

f˝r-bend, st. m., _band forged in fire_: dat. pl. duru ... f˝r-bendum f‰st,

f˝r-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon_: nom. sg., 2690.

f˝r-heard, adj., _hard through fire, hardened in fire_: nom. pl. (eoforlÓc)
f‚h and f˝r-heard, 305.

f˝r-leÛht, st. n., _fire-light_: acc. sg., 1517.

f˝r-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire, flame-wave_: dat. pl. wyrm ... f˝rwylmum
f‚h, 2672.


galan, st. v., _to sing, to sound_: pres. sg. sorh-leÛ g‰le, 2461; inf.
gryre-leÛ galan, 787; bearhtm onge‚ton, g˚horn galan, _heard the clang,
the battle-trumpet sound_, 1433.

‚-galan, _to sing, to sound_: pret. sg. ˛‰t hire on hafelan hringmÊl ‚gÙl
grÊdig g˚leÛ, _that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon
her head_, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., _tribute, interest_: acc. sg.
gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., _social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings_: nom. sg. gamen,
1161; gomen, 2460; gomen gleÛbe·mes, _the pleasure of the harp_, 2264; acc.
sg. gamen and gleÛdre·m, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.--Comp.

gamen-w‚, st. f., _way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous
society_: dat. sg. of gomen-w‚e, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., _wood of social enjoyment_, i.e. harp: nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s
... gomenwudu grÍted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grÍtte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., _old_; of persons, _having lived many years,
gray_: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398;
gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. ˛one gomelan,
2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; ˛am gomelan,
2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.--Also, _late, belonging to former
time_: gen. pl. gomelra l‚fe (_legacy_), 2037.--Of things, _old, from old
times_: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele l‚fe, 2564; gomel
swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., _with gray hair_: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) _gait, way_: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne
mihte ... ganges ge-twÊman, _could not keep him from going_, 969.--2)
_step, foot-step_: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel),
1405; acc. sg. uton hrae fÍran Grendles m‚gan gang sce·wigan, 1392.--Comp.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (_so far as something goes_), _extent_: acc. sg.
ofer geofenes begang, _over the extent of the sea_, 362; ofer flÙda begang,
1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flÙda begong, 1498; siolea bigong,

gangan. See under g‚n.

ganot, st. m., _diver_, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes b‰ (i.e. the
sea), 1862.

g‚d, st. n., _lack_: nom. sg. ne bi ˛e wilna g‚d (_thou shalt have no lack
of desirable_ [valuable] _things_), 661; similarly, 950.

g‚n, _expanded =_ gangan, st. v., _to go_: pres. sg. III. gÊ ‚ Wyrd sw‚
hiÛ scel, 455; gÊ eft ... tÙ medo, 605; ˛onne he ... on flett gÊ, 2035;
similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. g‚ ˛Êr he wille, _let him go whither
he will_, 1395; imp. sg. II. g‚ nu tÙ setle, 1783; nu ˛u lungre geong, hord
sce·wian, under h‚rne st‚n, 2744; inf. in g‚n, _to go in_, 386, 1645 'for
g‚n, _to go forth, to go thither_, 1164; ˛at hie him tÙ mihton gegnum
gangan, _to go towards, to go to_, 314; tÙ sele ... gangan cwÙmon, 324; in
a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nu ge mÙton gangan ... HrÙg‚r
geseÛn, 395; ˛‚ com of mÙre ... Grendel gongan, _there came Grendel (going)
from the fen_, 712; onge·n gramum gangan, _to go to meet the enemy, to go
to the war_, 1035; cwom ... tÙ hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tÙ, _let us
go thither_, 2649.--As preterite, serve, 1) geÛng or giÛng: he tÙ healle
geÛng, 926; similarly, 2019; se ˛e on orde geÛng, _who went at the head,
went in front, _3126; on innan giÛng, _went in_, 2215; he ... giÛng tÙ ˛‰s
˛e he eorsele ‚nne wisse, _went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall,
_2410; ˛‚ se ‰eling, giÛng, ˛‰t he bÓ wealle ges‰t, _then went the prince_
(BeÛwulf) _that he might sit down by the wall_, 2716.--2) gang: tÙ healle
gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang ˛‚ ‰fter flÙre, _went
along the floor, along the hall_, 1317.--3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): he ...
beforan gengde ..., wong sce·wian, _went in front to inspect the fields_,
1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.--4) from another stem, eode (Goth.
iddja): eode ellenrÙf, ˛‰t he for eaxlum gestÙd Deniga fre·n, 358;
similarly, 403; [wi duru healle Wulfg‚r eode], _went towards the door of
the hall_, 390; eode Wealh˛eÛw for, _went forth_, 613; eode tÙ hire fre·n
sittan, 641; eode yrremÙd, _went with angry feeling_, 727; eode ... tÙ
sele, 919; similarly, 1233; eode ... ˛Êr se snottra b‚d, 1313; eode weor
Denum ‰eling tÙ yppan, _the prince_ (BeÛwulf), _honored by the Danes, went
to the high seat_, 1815; eode ... under inwit-hrÙf, 3124; pl. ˛Êr
swÓferhe sittan eodon, 493; eodon him ˛‚ tÙge·nes, _went to meet him_,
1627; eodon under Earna n‰s, 3032.

‚-gangan, _to go out, to go forth, to befall_: pret. part. sw‚ bit ‚gangen
wear eorla manegum (_as it befell many a one of the earls_), 1235.

full-gangan, _to emulate, to follow after_: pret. sg. ˛onne ... sceft nytte
heÛld, feer-gearwum f˚s fl‚ne full-eode, _when the shaft had employment,
furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow_, 3120.

ge-g‚n, ge-gangan: 1) _to go, to approach_: inf. (w. acc.) his mÙdor ...
geg‚n wolde sorhfulne sÓ, 1278; se ˛e gryre-sÓas geg‚n dorste, _who dared
to go the ways of terror_ (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga
geonga under his mÊges scyld elne geeode, _went quickly under his kinsman's
shield_, 2677; pl. elne geeodon tÙ ˛‰s ˛e ..., _went quickly thither where_
..., 1968; pret. part. syan hie tÙ-g‰dre geg‚n h‰fdon, _when they_
(WÓgl‚f and the drake) _had come together_, 2631; ˛‰t his aldres w‰s ende
gegongen, _that the end of his life had come_, 823; ˛‚ w‰s ended‰g gÙdum
gegongen, ˛‰t se g˚cyning ... swealt, 3037.--2) _to obtain, to reach_:
inf. (w. acc.) ˛onne he ‰t g˚e geg‚n ˛ence longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid
elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, n‰s ˛‰t ˝e ce·p tÙ gegangenne
gumena Ênigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geeodon ... ˛‰t se byrnwÓga b˚gan
sceolde, 2918; pret. part. h‰fde ... gegongen ˛‰t, _had attained it, that_
..., 894; hord ys gesce·wod, grimme gegongen, 3086.--3) _to occur, to
happen_: pres. sg. III. gif ˛‰t gegange ˛‰t ..., _if that happen, that_
..., 1847; pret. sg. ˛‰t geiode ufaran dÙgrum hilde-hl‰mmum, _it happened
in later times to the warriors_ (the Ge·tas), 2201; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s
gegongen guman unfrÙdum earfolÓce ˛‰t, _then it had happened to the young
man in sorrowful wise that_ ..., 2822.

Ù-gangan, _to-go thither_: pret. pl. o ˛‰t hi Ùeodon ... in Hrefnesholt,

ofer-gangan, w. acc., _to go over_: pret. sg. ofereode ˛‚ ‰elinga bearn
ste·p st‚n-hlio, _went over steep, rocky precipices_, 1409; pl.
freoo-wong ˛one for ofereodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., _to go around_: pret. ymb-eode ˛‚ ides Helminga dugue
and geogoe dÊl Êghwylcne, _went around in every part, among the superior
and the inferior warriors_, 621.

g‚r, st. m., _spear, javelin, missile_: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg.
g‚re, 1076; blÙdigan g‚re, 2441; gen. sg. g‚res fliht, 1766; nom. pl.
g‚ras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).--Comp.: bon-, frum-g‚r.

g‚r-cÍne, adj., _spear-bold_: nom. sg., 1959.

g‚r-cwealm, st. m., _murder, death by the spear_: acc. sg. g‚r-cwealm
gumena, 2044.

g‚r-holt, st. n., _forest of spears_, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

g‚r-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), _sea, ocean_: acc. sg. on
g‚r-secg, 49, 537; ofer g‚r-secg, 515.

g‚r-wÓga, w. m., _one who fights with the spear_: dat. sg. geongum
g‚r-wÓgan, of WÓgl‚f, 2675, 2812.

g‚r-wÓgend, pres. part., _fighting with spear, spear-fighter_: acc. pl.
g‚r-wÓgend, 2642.

g‚st, gÊst, st. m., _ghost, demon_: acc. sg. helle g‚st (Grendel), 1275;
gen. sg. wergan g‚stes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl.
dyrnra g‚sta (Grendel's race), 1358; gÊsta gÓfrost (_flames consuming
corpses_), 1124.--Comp.: ellor-, geÛ-sceaft-g‚st; ellen-, w‰l-gÊst.

g‚st-bana, w. m., _slayer of the spirit_, i.e. the devil: nom. sg.
g‚st-bona, 177.

g‰deling, st. m., _he who is connected with another, relation, companion_:
gen. sg. g‰delinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his g‰delingum, 2950.

‰t-g‰dere, adv., _together, united_: 321, 1165, 1191; samod ‰tg‰dere, 329,
387, 730, 1064.

tÙ-gadere, adv., _together_, 2631.

g‰st, gist, gyst, st. m., _stranger, guest_: nom. sg. g‰st, 1801; se g‰st
(the drake), 2313; se grimma g‰st (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc.
sg. gryre-lÓcne gist (the nixy slain by BeÛwulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste,
2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. g‰s[tas], 1894.--Comp.: fÍe-,
gryre-, inwit-, nÓ-, sele-g‰st (-gyst).

g‰st-sele, st. m., _hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall_:
acc. sg., 995.

ge, conj., _and_, 1341; ge ... ge ..., _as well ... as ..._, 1865; ge ...
ge ..., ge ..., 1249; ge swylce, _and likewise, and moreover_, 2259.

ge, pron., _ye, you_, plur. of ˛u, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., _reply_: gen. pl. ˛Ónra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., _thither, towards, away_, with the prep, tÙ, ofer, giving the
direction: ˛‰t hie him tÙ mihton gegnum gangan (_that they might go
thither_), 314; gegnum fÙr [˛‚] ofer myrcan mÙr, _away over the dark moor_,

gehu, geohu, st. f., _sorrow, care_: instr. sg. gioho mÊnde, 2268; dat.
sg. on geho, 3096; on giohe, 2794.

gen (from gegn), adv., _yet, again_. ne w‰s hit lenge ˛‚ gen, ˛‰t ..., _it
was not then long before_ ..., 83; ic sceal for sprecan gen ymb Grendel,
_shall from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2071; nÙ ˛˝ Êr ˚t ˛‚ gen ...
gongan wolde (_still he would not yet go out_), 2082; gen is eall ‰t ˛e
lissa gelong (_yet all my favor belongs to thee_), 2150; ˛‚ gen, _then
again_, 2678, 2703; sw‚ he nu gen dÍ, _as he still does_, 2860; furur
gen, _further still, besides_, 3007; nu gen, _now again_, 3169; ne gen, _no
more, no farther_: ne w‰s ˛‰t wyrd ˛‚ gen, _that was no more fate_ (fate no
longer willed that), 735.

gena, _still_: cwico w‰s ˛‚ gena, _was still living_, 3094.

genga, w. m., _goer_; in comp. in-, sÊ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See g‚n(3).

genge. See ˚-genge.

genunga (from gegnunga), adv., _precisely, completely_, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) _to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition_:
pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.--2) _to equip, to arm for battle_: pret.
sg. gyrede hine BeÛwulf eorl-gewÊdum (_dressed himself in the armor_),

ge-gyrwan: 1) _to make, to prepare_: pret. pl. him ˛‚ gegiredan Ge·ta leÛde
‚d ... unw‚clÓcne, 3138; pret. part. glÙf ... eall gegyrwed deÛfles cr‰ftum
and dracan fellum, 2088.--2) _to fit out, to make ready_: inf. ceÛl
gegyrwan hilde-wÊpnum and heaowÊdum, 38; hÍt him ˝lidan gÙdne gegyrwan,
_had (his) good ship fitted up for him_, 199. Also, _to provide warlike
equipment_: pret. part. syan he hine tÙ g˚e gegyred h‰fde, 1473.--3) _to
endow, to provide, to adorn_: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hr‰gl ... golde
gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. l‚fe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. m‚dmas ...
golde gegyrede, 1029.

getan, w. v., _to injure, to slay_: inf., 2941.

be-gÍte, adj., _attainable_; in comp. Í-begÍte.

geador, adv., _unitedly, together, jointly_, 836; geador ‰tsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., _unitedly, together_, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) _sound_: acc. sg. b˝man gealdor, 2944.--2) _magic song,
incantation, spell_: instr. sg. ˛onne w‰s ˛‰t yrfe ... galdre bewunden
(_placed under a spell_), 3053.

gealga, w. m., _gallows_: dat. sg. ˛‰t his byre rÓde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-mÙd, adj., _gloomy_: nom. sg. gÓfre and galgmÙd, 1278.

gealg-treÛw, st. n., _gallows_: dat. pl. on galg-treÛwu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., _residence_; in BeÛwulf corresponding to the house-complex
of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (_in
Finn's castle_), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; Êr he
on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, _before he went away from his
dwelling-place_, i.e. died, 265.--Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, _made, prepared_; hence, _ready, finished,
equipped_: nom. sg. ˛‰t hit wear eal gearo, heal-‰rna mÊst, 77; wiht
unhÊlo ... gearo sÙna w‰s, _the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did
not delay long_, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca w‰s on bÊl gearu,
_was ready for the funeral-pile_ (for the solemn burning), 1110; ˛eÛd (is)
eal gearo, _the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared_, 1231;
hrae w‰s ‰t holme h˝-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo g˚-freca,
2415; sÓe siÛ bÊr gearo ‰dre ge‰fned, _let the bier be made ready at once_,
3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwr‰ce, _ready for revenge for harm done_, 2119,
acc. sg. gearwe stÙwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., _completely, entirely_: ne ge ... gearwe ne
wisson, _you do not know at all_ ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe
geman witena welhwyle (_remembers him very well_), 265; wisse he gearwe ˛‰t
..., _he knew very well that_ ..., 2340, 2726; ˛‰t ic ... gearo sce·wige
swegle searogimmas (_that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as
they are_), 2749; ic w‚t geare ˛‰t ..., 2657.--Comp. gearwor, _more
readily, rather_, 3077.--Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., _with ready hand_, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., _equipment, dress_; in comp. feer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., _opening, door_; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-lÓc, adj., _well prepared, handsome, splendid_: of sword and armor,
215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wÓsa fengel geatolÓc gengde, _passed
on in a stately manner_, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment, adornment_: acc. recedes geatwa, _the
ornaments of the dragon's cave_ (its treasures), 3089.--Comp.: eÛred-,
gryre-, g˚-, hilde-, wÓg-geatwe.

ge·n (from gegn), adv. in

on-ge·n, adv. and prep., _against, towards_: ˛‰t he me onge·n sle·, 682;
rÊhte onge·n feÛnd mid folme, 748; foran onge·n, _forward towards_, 2365.
With dat.: onge·n gramum, _against the enemy_, 1035.

tÙ-ge·nes, tÙ-genes, prep, _against, towards_: Grendle tÙge·nes, _towards
Grendel, against Grendel_, 667; gr‚p ˛‚ tÙge·nes, _she grasped at_
(BeÛwulf), 1502; similarly, him tÙge·nes fÍng, 1543; eodon him ˛‚ tÙge·nes,
_went towards him_, 1627; hÍt ˛‚ gebeÛdan ... ˛‰t hie bÊl-wudu feorran
feredon gÙdum tÙgÍnes, _had it ordered that they should bring the wood from
far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man_ (i.e. to the place where the
dead BeÛwulf lay), 3115.

ge·p, adj., _roomy, extensive, wide_: nom. sg. reced ... ge·p, _the roomy
hall_, 1801; acc. sg. under ge·pne hrÙf, 837.--Comp.: horn-, sÊ-ge·p.

ge‚r, st. n., _year_: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. ge‚ra, in adverbial sense,
olim, _in former times_, 2665. See un-ge‚ra.

ge‚r-dagas, st. m. pl., _former days_: dat. pl. in (on) ge‚r-dagum, 1,

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., _sea, flood_:
nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen geÛtende, _the streaming flood_, 1691; gen. sg.
geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogo, st. f.: 1) _youth, time of youth_: dat. sg. on geogoe, 409, 466,
2513; on giogoe, 2427; gen. giogue, 2113.--2) contrasted with dugu, _the
younger warriors of lower rank_ (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires
with the knights): nom. sg. geogo, 66; giogo, 1191; acc. sg. geogoe,
1182; gen. dugue and geogoe, 160; dugue and iogoe (geogoe), 1675, 622.

geogu-feorh, st. n., _age of youth_, i.e. age in which one still belongs
in the ranks of the geogo: on geogo- (geogu-) feore, 537, 2665.

geoho. See geho.

geolo, adj., _yellow_: acc. sg. geolwe linde (_the shield of yellow linden
bark_), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., _yellow shield_ (shield with a covering of interlaced
yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., _through, throughout, along, over_: geond ˛isne
middangeard, _through the earth, over the earth_, 75; wide geond eoran,
266, 3100; fÍrdon folctogan ... geond wÓd-wegas, _went along the ways
coming from afar_, 841; similarly, 1705; geond ˛‰t s‰ld, _through the hall,
through the extent of the hall_, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., _young, youthful_: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447;
w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne g˚cyning, 1970; dat. sg.
geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on sw‚ geongum feore, _at a so youthful
age_, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum
and ealdum, 72.--Superl. gingest, _the last_: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word,

georn, adj., _striving, eager_, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sÓes
georn, 2784.--Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., _readily, willingly_: ˛‰t him wine-m‚gas georne h˝rdon, 66;
georne tr˚wode, 670.--_zealously, eagerly_: sÙhte georne ‰fter grunde,
_eagerly searched over the ground_, 2295.--_carefully, industriously_: nÙ
ic him ˛‰s georne ‰tfealh (_held him not fast enough_), 969.--_completely,
exactly_: comp. wiste ˛Í geornor, 822.

geÛ, i˙, adv., _once, formerly, earlier_, 1477; giÛ, 2522; i˙, 2460.

geÛc, st. f., _help, support_: acc. sg. geÛce gefremman, 2675; ˛‰t him
g‚st-bona geÛce gefremede wi ˛eÛd-˛re·um, 177; geÛce gel˝fde, _believed in
the help_ (of BeÛwulf), 609; dat. sg. tÙ geÛce, 1835.

geÛcor, adj., _ill, bad_: nom. sg., 766.--See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geÛ-man, i˙-man, st. m., _man of former times_: gen. pl. i˙-manna, 3053.

geÛ-meowle, w. f., (_formerly a virgin), wife_: acc. sg. iÛ-meowlan, 2932.

geÙmor, adj., _with depressed feelings, sad, troubled_: nom. sg. him w‰s
geÙmor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; mÙdes geÙmor, 2101; fem. ˛‰t w‰s geÙmuru
ides, 1076.

geÙmore, adv., _sadly_, 151.

geÙmor-gid, st. n., _dirge_: acc. sg. giÙmor-gyd, 3151.

geÙmor-lÓc, adj., _sad, painful_: sw‚ bi geÙmorlÓc gomelum ceorle tÙ
gebÓdanne ˛‰t..., _it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..._,

geÙmor-mÙd, adj., _sad, sorrowful_: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giÙmor-mÙd, 2268.

geÙmrian, w. v., _to complain, to lament_: pret. sg. geÙmrode giddum, 1119.

geÛ-sceaft, st. f., (_fixed in past times), fate_: acc. sg. geÛsceaft
grimme, 1235.

geÛsceaft-g‚st, st. m., _demon sent by fate_: gen. pl. fela
geÛsceaft-g‚sta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

geÛtan, st. v. intrans., _to pour, to flow, to stream_: pres. part. gifen
geÛtende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., _icicle_: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., _speech, solemn alliterative song_: nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s ...
gid oft wrecen, 1066; leÛ w‰s ‚sungen, gleÛmannes gyd, _the song was sung,
the gleeman's lay_, 1161; ˛Êr w‰s gidd and gleÛ, 2106; acc. sg. ic ˛is gid
‚wr‰c, 1724; gyd ‚wr‰c, 2109; gyd ‰fter wr‰c, 2155; ˛onne he gyd wrece,
2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.--Comp.:
geÙmor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., _to speak, to speak in alliteration_: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) _if_, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With
subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.--2) _whether_, w. ind.,
272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., _giver_; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., _to give_: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas be·gas geaf
Denum, 1720; he me [m‚mas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624,
etc.; pret. pl. ge‚fon (hyne) on g‚rsecg, 49; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s HrÙg‚re
here-spÍd gyfen, 64; ˛‚ w‰s gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen,
1679; syan Êrest wear gyfen ... geongum cempan (_given in marriage_),

‚-gifan, _to give, to impart_: inf. andsware ... ‚gifan, _to give an
answer_, 355; pret. sg. sÙna him se frÙda f‰der ‘htheres ... ondslyht ‚geaf
(_gave him a counter-blow_), (_hand-blow_?), 2930.

for-gyfan, _to give, to grant_: pret. sg. him ˛‰s lÓf-fre· ... worold-‚re
forgeaf, 17; ˛‰m tÙ h‚m forgeaf HrÍel Ge·ta ‚ngan dÙhtor (_gave in
marriage_), 374; similarly, 2998; he me lond forgeaf, _granted me land_,
2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; m‰gen-rÊs forgeaf hilde-bille, _he
gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow_, i.e. he struck with full force,

of-gifan, (_to give up_), _to leave_: inf. ˛‰t se mÊra maga Ecg˛eÛwes
grund-wong ˛one ofgyfan wolde (_was fated to leave the earth-plain_), 2589;
pret. sg. ˛‚s worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdre·m
ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. n‰s ofge‚fon hwate
Scyldingas, _left the promontory_, 1601; ˛‰t ˛‚ hildlatan holt ofgÍfan,
_that the cowards left the wood_ (into which they had fled), 2847; sg.
pret. for pl. ˛‚ra ˛e ˛is [lÓf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifee, adj., _given, granted_: G˚fremmendra swylcum gifee bi ˛‰t...,
_to such a warrior is it granted that_..., 299; similarly, 2682; sw‚ me
gifee w‰s, 2492; ˛Êr me gifee sw‚ Ênig yrfeweard ‰fter wurde, _if an
heir_, (living) _after me, had been given me_, 2731.--Neut. as subst.: w‰s
˛‰t gifee tÙ swÓ, ˛e ˛one [˛eÛden] ˛yder ontyhte, _the fate was too harsh
that has drawn hither the king_, 3086; gyfee, 555, 820.--Comp. un-gifee.

gif-heal, st. f., _hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall_: acc.
sg. ymb ˛‚ gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., _gift of value_: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stÙl, st. m., _seat from which fiefs are granted, throne_: nom. sg.,
2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., _gift, present_: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., _gift, present, grant; fief_: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc.
sg. gimf‰ste gife ˛e him god sealde, _the great gift that God had granted
him_ (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginf‰stan gife ˛e him god sealde,
2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena,
1174.--Comp.: m‚um-, sinc-gifu.

gigant, st. m., _giant_: nom. pl. gigantas, 113; gen. pl. giganta, 1563,

gild, gyld, st. n., _reparation_: in comp. wier-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., _to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to
pay_: inf. gomban gyldan, _pay tribute_, 11; he mid gÙde gyldan wille
uncran eaferan, 1185; we him ˛‚ g˚geatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg.
heaorÊsas geald mearum and m‚mum, _repaid the battles with horses and
treasures_, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald ˛one g˚rÊs ... Jofore and Wulfe
mid oferm‚mum, _repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great
treasures_, 2992.

an-gildan, _to pay for_: pret. sg. sum s‚re angeald Êfenr‰ste, _one_
(ƒschere) _paid for the evening-rest with death's pain_, 1252.

‚-gildan, _to offer one's self_: pret. sg. ˛‚ me sÊl ‚geald, _when the
favorable opportunity offered itself_, 1666; similarly, ˛‚ him r˚m ‚geald,

for-gildan, _to repay, to do something in return, to reward_: pres. subj.
sg. III. alwalda ˛ec gÙde forgylde, _may the ruler of all reward thee with
good_, 957; inf. ˛one Ênne hÍht golde forgyldan, _he ordered that the one_
(killed by Grendel) _be paid for_ (atoned for) _with gold_, 1055; he ...
wolde Grendle for-gyldan g˚rÊsa fela, _wished to pay Grendel for many
attacks_, 1578; wolde se l‚a lÓge forgyldan drinc-f‰t d˝re, _the enemy
wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel_ (the theft of it),
2306; pret. sg. he him ˛‰s le·n forgeald, _he gave them the reward
therefore_, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hrae wyrsan wrixle
w‰lhlem ˛one, _repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange_, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., _speech in which one promises great things for himself
in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech_: acc. sg. h‰fde ...
Ge·t-mecga leÛd gilp gelÊsted (_had fulfilled what he had claimed for
himself before the battle_), 830; nallas on gylp sele f‰tte be·gas, _gives
no chased gold rings for a boastful speech_, 1750; ˛‰t ic wi ˛one
g˚flogan gylp ofersitte, _restrain myself from the speech of defiance_,
2529; dat. sg. gylpe wigrÓpan (_fulfil my promise of battle_),
2522.--Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., _to make a defiant speech,
to boast, to exult insolently_: pres. sg. I. nÙ ic ˛‰s gilpe (after a break
in the text), 587; sg. III. morres gylpe, _boasts of the murder_, 2056;
inf. sw‚ ne gylpan ˛earf Grendles maga Ênig ... uhthlem ˛one, 2007; nealles
folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan ˛orfte, _had no need to boast of his
fellow-warrior_, 2875; pret. sg. hrÍsigora ne gealp goldwine Ge·ta, _did
not exult at the glorious victory_ (could not gain the victory over the
drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., _speech in which a man promises much for himself for a
coming combat, speech of defiance_: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hl‰den, pret. part., _laden with boasts of defiance_ (i.e. he who has
made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many
combats), _covered with glory_: nom. sg. guma gilp-hl‰den, 869.

gilp-sprÊc, same as gilp-cwide, _speech of defiance, boastful speech_: dat.
sg. on gylp-sprÊce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., _defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word_:
gen. pl. gespr‰c ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., _gem, precious stone, jewel_: nom. sg. heofones gim, _heaven's
jewel_, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rÓce, adj., _rich in jewels_: acc. sg. gimme-rÓce hord-burh h‰lea,

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly _gaping_, hence, _wide,
extended_: acc. sg. gynne grund (_the bottom of the sea_), 1552.

gin-f‰st, adj., _extensive, rich_: acc. sg. gim-f‰ste gife (gim-, on
account of the following _f_), 1272; in weak form, gin-f‰stan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, _to be open, ready_; in

on-ginnan, _to begin, to undertake_: pret. Ù ˛‰t ‚n ongan fyrene fremman
feÛnd on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sÓ BeÛwulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; ˛‚
˛‰t sweord ongan ... wanian, _the sword began to diminish_, 1606; Higel‚c
ongan sÓnne geseldan ... f‰gre fricgean, _began with propriety to question
his companion_, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. nÙ her c˚lÓcor cuman
ongunnon lindh‰bbende, _no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to
come hither_, 244; pret. part. h‰bbe ic mÊra fela ongunnen on geogoe,
_have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown_, 409.

gist. See g‰st.

gistran, adv., _yesterday_: gystran niht, _yesterday night_, 1335.

git, pron., _ye two_, dual of ˛u, 508, 512, 513, etc.

git, gyt, adv., _yet; then still_, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; _hitherto_, 957;
nÊfre git, _never yet_, 583; _still_, 945, 1059, 1135; _once more_, 2513;
_moreover_, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, _to take hold of, to seize, to attain_), in

be-gitan, w. acc., _to grasp, to seize, to reach_: pret. sg. begeat, 1147,
2231; ˛‚ hine wÓg beget, _when war seized him, came upon him_, 2873;
similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit Êr on ˛e gÙde be-ge‚ton, _good men
received it formerly from thee_, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. ˛‰t w‰s HrÙg‚re
hreÛwa tornost ˛‚ra ˛e leÛdfruman lange bege‚te, _the bitterest of the
troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief_, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., _to forget_: pres. sg. III. he ˛‚ forgesceaft forgyte
and forg˝me, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) _to take hold of, to grasp_: imp. sg.
gumcyste ongit, _lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man_, 1724;
pret. sg. ˛e hine se brÙga angeat, _whom terror seized_, 1292.--2) _to
grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to
behold_: pres. subj. I. ˛‰t ic Êrwelan ... ongite, _that I may behold the
ancient wealth_ (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. s‰l timbred
... ongytan, 308, 1497; Ge·ta clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-˛earfe
ongeat, _had perceived their distress from hostile snares_, 14; ongeat ...
grund-wyrgenne, _beheld the she-wolf of the bottom_, 1519; pret. pl.
bearhtm onge‚ton, g˚horn galan, _perceived the noise_, (heard) _the
battle-trumpet sound_, 1432; syan hie Hygel‚ces horn and b˝man gealdor
onge‚ton, 2945.

gÓfre, adj., _greedy, eager_: nom. sg. gÓfre and galgmÙd, of Grendel's
mother, 1278.--Superl.: lÓg..., gÊsta gÓfrost, 1124.--Comp. heoro-gÓfre.

gÓtsian, w. v., _to be greedy_: pres. sg. III. g˝tsa, 1750.

gio-, giÛ-. See geo-, geÛ-.

gladian, w. v., _to gleam, to shimmer_: pres. pl. III. on him gladia
gomelra l‚fe, _upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times_
(armor), 2037.

gl‰d, adj., _gracious, friendly_ (as a form of address for princes): nom.
sg. beÛ wi Ge·tas gl‰d, 1174; acc. sg. gl‰dne HrÙg‚r, 864; gl‰dne
HrÙulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna FrÙdan, 2026.

gl‰de, adv., _in a gracious, friendly way_, 58.

gl‰dnian, w. v., _to rejoice_: inf. w. gen., 367.

gl‰d-mÙd, adj., _joyous, glad_, 1786.

glÍd, st. f., _fire, flame_: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl.
glÍdum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

glÍd-egesa, w. m., _terror on account of fire, fire-terror_: nom. sg.
glÍd-egesa grim (_the fire-spewing of the drake_), 2651.

gle·w (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., _considerate, well-bred_, of social conduct;
in comp. un-gle·w.

gleÛ, st. n., _social entertainment_, (especially by music, play, and
jest): nom. sg. ˛Êr w‰s gidd and gleÛ, 2106.

gleÛ-be·m, st. m., _(tree of social entertainment, of music), harp._ gen.
sg. gleÛ-be·mes, 2264.

gleÛ-dre·m, st. _m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth,
social gaiety_: acc. sg. gamen and gleÛ-dre·m, 3022.

gleÛ-man, m., _(gleeman, who enlivens the social entertainment, especially
with music), harper_: gen. sg. gleÛmannes gyd, 1161.

glitinian (O.H.G. glizinÙn), w. v., _to gleam, to light, to glitter_: inf.
geseah ˛‚ ... gold glitinian, 2759.

glÓdan, st. v., _to glide_: pret. sg. syan heofones gim gl‚d ofer
grundas, _after heaven's gem had glided over the fields_ (after the sun had
set), 2074; pret. pl. glidon ofer g‚rsecg, _you glided over the ocean_
(swimming), 515.

tÙ-glÓdan _(to glide asunder), to separate, to fall asunder_: pret.
g˚-helm tÙ-gl‚d (Ongen˛eÛw's helmet was split asunder by the blow of
Eofor), 2488.

glÙf, st. f., _glove_: nom. sg. glÙf hangode, (on Grendel) _a glove hung_,

gne·, adj., _niggardly_: nom. sg. f. n‰s hiÛ ... tÙ gne· gifa Ge·ta
leÛdum, _was not too niggardly with gifts to the people of the Ge·tas_,

gnorn, st. m., _sorrow, sadness_: acc. sg. gnorn ˛rowian, 2659.

gnornian, w. v., _to be sad, to complain_: pret. sg. earme ... ides
gnornode, 1118.

be-gnornian, w. acc., _to bemoan, to mourn for_: pret. pl. begnornodon ...
hl‚fordes [hry]re, _bemoaned their lord's fall_, 3180.

god, st. m., _god_: nom. sg., 13, 72, 478, etc.; h‚lig god, 381, 1554;
witig god, 686; mihtig god, 702; acc. sg. god, 812; ne wiston hie drihten
god, _did not know the Lord God_, 181; dat. sg. gode, 113, 227, 626, etc.;
gen. sg. godes, 570, 712, 787, etc.

gold, st. n., _gold_: nom. sg., 3013, 3053; icge gold, 1108; wunden gold,
_wound gold, gold in ring-form_, 1194, 3136; acc. sg. gold, 2537, 2759,
2794, 3169; hÊen gold, _heathen gold_ (that from the drake's cave), 2277;
br‚d gold, _massive gold_, 3106; dat. instr. sg. golde, 1055, 2932, 3019;
f‰ttan golde, _with chased gold, with gold in plate-form_, 2103; gehroden
golde, _covered with gold, gilded_, 304; golde gegyrwed (gegyrede),
_provided with, ornamented with gold_, 553, 1029, 2193; golde geregnad,
_adorned with gold_, 778; golde f‚hne (hrÙf), _the roof shining with gold_,
928; bunden golde, _bound with gold_ (see under bindan), 1901; hyrsted
golde (helm), _the helmet ornamented with, mounted with gold_, 2256; gen.
sg. goldes, 2302; f‰ttan goldes, 1094, 2247; scÓran goldes, _of pure gold_,
1695. --Comp. f‰t-gold.

gold-Êht, st. f., _possessions in gold, treasure_: acc. sg., 2749.

gold-f‚h, adj., _variegated with gold, shining with gold_: nom. sg. reced
... gold-f‚h, 1801; acc. sg. gold-f‚hne helm, 2812; nom. pl. gold-f‚g
scinon web ‰fter wagum, _variegated with gold, the tapestry gleamed along
the walls_, 995.

gold-gifa, w. m., _gold-giver_, designation of the prince: acc. sg. mid
mÓnne goldgyfan, 2653.

gold-hroden, pret. part., _(covered with gold), ornamented with gold_: nom.
sg., 615, 641, 1949, 2026; epithet of women of princely rank.

gold-hw‰t, adj., _striving after gold, greedy for gold_: n‰s he goldhw‰t,
_he_ (BeÛwulf) _was not greedy for gold_ (he did not fight against the
drake for his treasure, cf. 3067 ff.) 3075.

gold-m‚m, st. m., _jewel of gold_: acc. pl. gold-m‚mas (the treasures of
the drake's cave), 2415.

gold-sele, st. m., _gold-hall_, i.e. the hall in which the gold was
distributed, ruler's hall: acc. sg., 716, 1254; dat. sg. gold-sele, 1640,

gold-weard, st. m., _gold-ward, defender of the gold_: acc. sg. (of the
drake), 3082.

gold-wine, st. m., _friend who distributes gold_, i.e. ruler, prince: nom.
sg. (partly as voc.) goldwine gumena, 1172, 1477, 1603; goldwine Ge·ta,
2420, 2585.

gold-wlanc, adj., _proud of gold_: nom. sg. g˚rinc goldwlanc (BeÛwulf
rewarded with gold by HrÙg‚r on account of his victory), 1882.

gomban, gomel, gomen. See gamban, gamal, gamen.

gong, gongan. See gang, gangan.

gÙd, adj., _good, fit_, of persons and things: nom. sg., 11, 195, 864,
2264, 2391, etc.; frÙd and gÙd, 279; w. dat. cyning ‰elum gÙd, _the king
noble in birth_, 1871; gumcystum gÙd, 2544; w. gen. wes ˛u ˚s l‚rena gÙd,
_be good to us with teaching_ (help us thereto through thy instruction),
269; in weak form, se gÙda, 205, 355, 676, 1191, etc.; acc. sg. gÙdne, 199,
347, 1596, 1970, etc.; gumcystum gÙdne, 1487; neut. gÙd, 1563; dat. sg.
gÙdum, 3037, 3115; ˛‰m gÙdan, 384, 2328; nom. pl. gÙde, 2250; ˛‚ gÙdan,
1164; acc. pl. gÙde, 2642; dat. pl. gÙdum dÊdum, 2179; gen. pl. gÙdra
g˚rinca, 2649.--Comp. Êr-gÙd.

gÙd, st. n.: 1) _good that is done, benefit, gift_: instr. sg. gÙde, 20,
957, 1185; gÙde mÊre, _renowned on account of her gifts_ (firyo), 1953;
instr. pl. gÙdum, 1862.--2) _ability_, especially in fight: gen. pl. n‚t he
˛‚ra gÙda, 682.

gram, adj., _hostile_: gen. sg. on grames gr‚pum, _in the gripe of the
enemy_ (BeÛwulf), 766; nom. pl. ˛‚ graman, 778; dat. pl. gramum, 424, 1035.

gram-heort, adj., _of a hostile heart, hostile_: nom. sg. grom-heort guma,

gram-hydig, adj., _with hostile feeling, maliciously inclined_: nom. sg.
gromhydig, 1750.

gr‚p, st. f., _the hand ready to grasp, hand, claw_: dat. sg. mid gr‚pe,
438; on gr‚pe, 555; gen. sg. eal ... Grendles gr‚pe, _all of Grendel's
claw, the whole claw_, 837; dat. pl. on grames gr‚pum, 766; (as instr.)
grimman gr‚pum, _with grim claws_, 1543.--Comp.: feÛnd-, hilde-gr‚p.

gr‚pian, w. v., _to grasp, to lay hold of, to seize_: pret. sg. ˛‰t hire
wi halse heard gr‚pode, _that_ (the sword) _griped hard at her neck_,
1567; he ... gr‚pode gearofolm, _he took hold with ready hand_, 2086.

gr‰s-molde, w. f., _grass-plot_: acc. sg. gr‰smoldan tr‰d, _went over the
grass-plot_, 1882.

grÊdig, adj., _greedy, hungry, voracious_: nom. sg. grim and grÊdig, 121,
1500; acc. sg. grÊdig g˚leÛ, 1523.

grÊg, adj., _gray_: nom. pl. ‰sc-holt ufan grÊg, _the ashen wood, gray
above_ (the spears with iron points) 330; acc. pl. grÊge syrcan, _gray_
(i.e. iron) _shirts of mail_, 334.

grÊg-mÊl, adj., _having a gray color_, here = _iron_: nom. sg. sweord
BeÛwulfes gomol and grÊgmÊl, 2683.

grÊpe. See ‰t-grÊpe.

grÍtan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute_: inf. hine sw‚ gÙdne
grÍtan, 347; HrÙg‚r grÍtan, 1647, 2011; eÛwic grÍtan hÍt (_bade me bring
you his last greeting_), 3096; pret. sg. grÍtte Ge·ta leÛd, 626; grÍtte ˛‚
guma Ùerne, 653; HrÙg‚r grÍtte, 1817.-- 2) _to come on, to come near, to
seek out; to touch; to take hold of_: inf. gifstÙl grÍtan, _take possession
of the throne, mount it as ruler_, 168; n‰s se folccyning Ênig ... ˛e mec
g˚winum grÍtan dorste (_attack with swords_), 2736; Wyrd ... se ˛one
gomelan grÍtan sceolde, 2422; ˛‰t ˛one sin-scaan g˚billa n‚n grÍtan
nolde, _that no sword would take hold upon the irreconcilable enemy_, 804;
pret. sg. grÍtte goldhroden guman on healle, _the gold-adorned_ (queen)
_greeted the men in the hall_, 615; nÙ he mid hearme ... g‰stas grÍtte,
_did not approach the strangers with insults_, 1894; gomenwudu grÍtte,
_touched the wood of joy, played the harp_, 2109; pret. subj. II. sg. ˛‰t
˛u ˛one w‰lgÊst wihte ne grÍtte, _that thou shouldst by no means seek out
the murderous spirit_ (Grendel), 1996; similarly, sg. III. ˛‰t he ne grÍtte
goldweard ˛one, 3082; pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s ... gomenwudu grÍted, 1066.

ge-grÍtan, w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute, to address_: pret. sg. holdne
gegrÍtte meaglum wordum, _greeted the dear man with formal words_, 1981;
gegrÍtte ˛‚ gumena gehwylcne ... hindeman sie, _spoke then the last time
to each of the men_, 2517.--2) _to approach, to come near, to seek out_:
inf. sceal ... manig Ùerne gÙdum gegrÍtan ofer ganotes b‰, _many a one
will seek another across the sea with gifts_, 1862.

greÛt, st. m., _grit, sand, earth_: dat. sg. on greÛte, 3169.

greÛtan, st. v., _to weep, to mourn, to lament_: pres. sg. III. se ˛e ‰fter
sincgyfan on sefan greÛte, _who laments in his heart for the
treasure-giver_, 1343.

grim, adj., _grim, angry, wild, hostile_: nom. sg., 121, 555, 1500, etc.;
weak form, se grimma g‰st, 102; acc. sg. m. grimne, 1149, 2137; fem,
grimme, 1235; gen. sg. grimre g˚e, 527; instr. pl. grimman gr‚pum,
1543.--Comp.: beado-, heao-, heoro-, searo-grim.

grimme, adv., _grimly, in a hostile manner, bitterly_, 3013, 3086.

grim-lÓc, adj., _grim, terrible_: nom. sg. grimlÓc gry[re-g‰st], 3042.

grimman, st. v., (properly _to snort_), _to go forward hastily, to hasten_:
pret. pl. grummon, 306.

grindan, st. v., _to grind_, in

for-grindan, _to destroy, to ruin_: pret. sg. w. dat. forgrand gramum,
_destroyed the enemy, killed them_ (?), 424; pret. part. w. acc. h‰fde
lÓgdraca leÛda f‰sten ... glÍdum forgrunden, _had with flames destroyed the
people's feasts_, 2336; ˛‚ his ‚gen (scyld) w‰s glÍdum forgrunden, _since
his own (shield) had been destroyed by the fire_, 2678.

gripe, st. m., _gripe, attack_: nom. sg. gripe mÍces, 1766; acc. sg. grimne
gripe, 1149.--Comp.: fÊr-, mund-, nÓ-gripe.

grÓma, w. m., _mask, visor_: in comp. beado-, here-grÓma.

grÓm-helm, st. m., _mask-helmet, helmet with visor_: acc. pl. grÓm-helmas,

grÓpan, st. v., _to gripe, to seize, to grasp_: pret. sg. gr‚p ˛‚ tÙge·nes,
_then she caught at_, 1502.

for-grÓpan _(to gripe vehemently), to gripe so as to kill, to kill by the
grasp_, w. dat.: pret. sg. ‰t g˚e forgr‚p Grendeles mÊgum, 2354.
wi-grÓpan, w. dat., _(to seize at), to maintain, to hold erect_: inf. h˚
wi ˛am aglÊcean elles meahte gylpe wi-grÓpan, _how else I might maintain
my boast of battle against the monster_, 2522.

grÙwan, st. v., _to grow, to sprout_: pret. sg. him on ferhe greÛw
breÛsthord blÙdreÛw, 1719.

grund, st. m.: 1) _ground, plain, fields_ in contrast with highlands;
_earth_ in contrast with heaven: dat. sg. sÙhte ... ‰fter grunde, _sought
along the ground_, 2295; acc. pl. ofer grundas, 1405, 2074.--2) _bottom,
the lowest part_: acc. sg. grund (of the sea of Grendel), 1368; on gyfenes
grund, 1395; under gynne grund (_bottom of the sea_) 1552; dat. sg. tÙ
grunde (of the sea), 553; grunde (of the drake's cave) getenge, 2759; so,
on grunde, 2766.--Comp.: eormen-, mere-, sÊ-grund.

grund-b˚end, pres. part., _inhabitant of the earth_: gen. pl.
grund-b˚endra, 1007.

grund-hyrde, st. m., _warder of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg. (of
Grendel's mother), 2137.

grund-sele, st. m., _hall at the bottom_ (of the sea): dat sg. in ˛am
[grund]sele, 2140.

grund-wang, st. m., _ground surface, lowest surface_: acc. sg. ˛one
grund-wong (_bottom of the sea_), 1497; (bottom of the drake's cave), 2772,

grund-wyrgen, st. f., _she-wolf of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg.
grund-wyrgenne (Grendel's mother), 1519.

gryn (cf. Gloss. Aldh. "retinaculum, rete grin," Hpts. Ztschr. IX. 429),
st. n., _net, noose, snare_: gen. pl. fela ... grynna, 931. See gyrn.

gryre, st. m., _horror, terror, anything causing terror_: nom. sg., 1283;
acc. sg. wi Grendles gryre, 384; hie Wyrd forsweÛp on Grendles gryre,
_snatched them away into the horror of Grendel, to the horrible Grendel_,
478; dat. pl. mid gryrum ecga, 483; gen. pl. sw‚ fela gryra, 592.--Comp.:
fÊr-, wÓg-gryre.

gryre-brÙga, w. m., _terror and horror, amazement_: nom. sg.
[gryre-]br[Ù]g[a], 2229.

gryre-f‚h, adj., _gleaming terribly_: acc. sg. gryre-f‚hne (_the
fire-spewing drake_, cf. also [draca] f˝rwylmum f‚h, 2672), 2577.

gryre-g‰st, st. m., _terror-guest, stranger causing terror_: nom. sg.
grimlÓc gry[reg‰st], 3042; dat. sg. wi ˛am gryregieste (the dragon), 2561.

gryre-geatwe, st. f. pl., _terror-armor, warlike equipment_: dat. pl. in
hyra gryre-geatwum, 324.

gryre-leÛ, st. n., _terror-song, fearful song_: acc. sg. geh˝rdon
gryreleÛ galan godes and-sacan (_heard Grendel's cry of agony_), 787.

gryre-lÓc, adj., _terrible, horrible_: acc. sg. gryre-lÓcne, 1442, 2137.

gryre-sÓ, st. m., _way of terror, way causing terror_, i.e. warlike
expedition: acc. pl. se ˛e gryre-sÓas geg‚n dorste, 1463.

guma, w. m., _man, human being_: nom. sg., 653, 869, etc.; acc. sg. guman,
1844, 2295; dat. sg. guman (gumum, MS.), 2822; nom pl. guman, 215, 306,
667, etc.; acc. pl. guman, 615; dat. pl. gumum, 127, 321; gen. pl. gumena,
73, 328, 474, 716, etc.--Comp.: driht-, seld-guma.

gum-cyn, st. n., _race of men, people, nation_: gen. sg. we synt gumcynnes
Ge·ta leÛde, _people from the nation of the Ge·tas_, 260; dat. pl. ‰fter
gum-cynnum, _along the nations, among the nations_, 945.

gum-cyst, st. f., _man's excellence, man's virtue_: acc. sg. (or pl.)
gumcyste, 1724; dat. pl. as adv., _excellently, preeminently_: gumcystum
gÙdne be·ga bryttan, 1487; gumcystum gÙd ... hilde-hlemma (BeÛwulf), 2544.

gum-dre·m, st. m., _joyous doings of men_: acc. sg. gum-dre·m ofgeaf
(died), 2470.

gum-dryhten, st. m., _lord of men_: nom. sg. 1643.

gum-fÍa, w. m., _troop of men going on foot_: nom. sg., 1402.

gum-man, st. m., _man_: gen. pl. gum-manna fela, 1029.

gum-stÙl, st. m., _man's seat_ [Greek: kat'ezochÊn] _ruler's seat, throne_:
dat. sg. in gumstÙle, 1953.

g˚, st. f., _combat, battle_: nom. sg., 1124, 1659, 2484, 2537; acc. sg.
g˚e, 604; instr. sg. g˚e, 1998; dat. sg. tÙ (‰t) g˚e, 438, 1473. 1536,
2354, etc.; gen. sg. g˚e, 483, 527, 631, etc.; dat. pl. g˚um, 1959, 2179;
gen. pl. g˚a, 2513, 2544.

g˚-beorn, st. m., _warrior_: gen. pl. g˚-beorna sum (_the strand-guard on
the Danish coast_), 314.

g˚-bil, st. n., _battle-bill_: nom. sg. g˚bill, 2585; gen. pl. g˚-billa
n‚n, 804.

g˚-byrne, w. f., _battle-corselet_: nom. sg., 321.

g˚-cearu, st. f., _sorrow which the combat brings_: dat. sg. ‰fter
g˚-ceare, 1259.

g˚-cr‰ft, st. m., _warlike strength, power in battle_: nom. sg. Grendles
g˚-cr‰ft, 127.

g˚-cyning, st. m., _king in battle, king directing a battle_: nom. sg.,
199, 1970, 2336, etc.

g˚-de·, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 2250.

g˚-floga, w. m., _flying warrior_: acc. sg. wi ˛one g˚flogan (the
drake), 2529.

g˚-freca, w. m., _hero in battle, warrior_ (see freca): nom. sg. gearo
g˚-freca, of the drake, 2415.

g˚-fremmend, pres. part., _fighting a battle, warrior_: gen. pl.
g˚-fremmendra, 246; g˚- (gÙd-, MS.) fremmendra swylcum, _such a warrior_
(meaning BeÛwulf), 299.

g˚-gewÊde, st. n., _battle-dress, armor_: nom. pl. g˚-gewÊdo, 227; acc.
pl. -gewÊdu, 2618, 2631(?), 2852, 2872; gen. pl. -gewÊda, 2624.

g˚-geweorc, st. n., _battle-work warlike deed_: gen. pl., -geweorca, 679,
982, 1826.

g˚-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for combat_: acc. ˛‚ g˚-geatwa
(-getawa, MS.), 2637; dat. in eÛwrum g˚-geatawum, 395.

g˚-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet_: nom. sg., 2488.

g˚-horn, st. n., _battle-horn_: acc. sg., 1433.

g˚-hrÍ, st. f., _battle-fame_: nom. sg., 820.

g˚-leÛ, st. n., _battle-song_: acc., sg., 1523.

g˚-mÙd, adj., _disposed to battle, having an inclination to battle_. nom.
pl. g˚-mÙde, 306.

g˚-rÊs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack_: acc. sg., 2992; gen. pl.
g˚-rÊsa, 1578, 2427.

g˚-reÛw, adj., _fierce in battle_: nom. sg., 58.

g˚-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 839, 1119,
1882; acc. sg., 1502; gen. pl. g˚-rinca, 2649.

g˚-rÙf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 609.

g˚-sceaa, w. m., _battle-foe, enemy in combat_: nom. sg., of the drake,

g˚-scearu, st. f., _decision of the battle_: dat. sg. ‰fter g˚-sceare,

g˚-sele, st. m., _battle-hall, hall in which a battle takes place_: dat
sg. in ˛‰m g˚sele (in Heorot), 443.

g˚-searo, st. n. pl., _battle-equipment, armor_; acc., 215, 328.

g˚-sweord, st. n., _battle-sword_: acc. sg., 2155.

g˚-wÍrig, adj., _wearied by battle dead_: acc. sg. g˚-wÍrigne Grendel,

g˚-wine, st. m., _battle-friend, comrade in battle_ designation of the
sword: acc. sg., 1811; instr. pl. ˛e mec g˚-winum grÍtan dorste, _who
dared to attack me with his war-friends_, 2736.

g˚-wÓga, w. m., _fighter of battles, warrior_: nom. sg., 2112.

gyd. See gid.

gyfan. See gifan.

gyldan. See gildan.

gylden, adj., _golden_: nom. sg. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. segen
gyldenne, 47, 1022; bring gyldenne, 2810; dat. sg. under gyldnum be·ge,
1164.--Comp. eal-gylden.

gylp. See gilp.

gyrdan, w. v., _to gird, to lace_: pret. part. gyrded cempa, _the (sword-)
girt warrior_, 2079.

gyrn, st. n., _sorrow, harm_: nom. sg., 1776.

gyrn-wracu, st. f., _revenge for harm_: dat. sg. tÙ gyrn-wr‰ce, 1139; gen.
sg. ˛‚ w‰s eft hrae gearo gyrn-wr‰ce Grendeles mÙdor, _then was Grendel's
mother in turn immediately ready for revenge for the injury_, 2119.

gyrwan. See gerwan.

gystran. See gistran.

g˝man, w. v. w. gen., _to take care of, to be careful about_: pres. III.
g˝me, 1758, 2452; imp. sg. oferhyda ne g˝m! _do not study arrogance_
(despise it), 1761.

for-g˝man, w. acc., _to neglect, to slight_: pres. sg. III. he ˛‚
for-gesceaft forgyte and forg˝me, 1752.

g˝tsian. See gÓtsian.

gyt. See git.


habban, w. v., _to have_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. I. ˛‰s ic wÍn h‰bbe (_as I
hope_), 383; ˛e ic geweald h‰bbe, 951; ic me on hafu bord and byrnan, _have
on me shield and coat of mail_, 2525; hafo, 3001; sg. II. ˛u nu [friu]
hafast, 1175; pl. I. habba we ... micel Êrende, 270; pres. subj. sg. III.
˛‰t he ˛rittiges manna m‰gencr‰ft on his mundgripe h‰bbe, 381. Blended with
the negative: pl. III. ˛‰t be SÊ-Ge·tas sÍlran n‰bben tÙ geceÛsenne cyning
Ênigne, _that the Sea-Ge·tas will have no better king than you to choose_,
1851; imp. hafa nu and geheald h˚sa sÍlest, 659; inf. habban, 446, 462,
3018; pret. sg. h‰fde, 79, 518, 554; pl. h‰fdon, 539.--2) used as an
auxiliary with the pret. part.: pres. sg. I. h‰bbe ic ... ongunnen, 408;
h‰bbe ic ... ge‚hsod, 433; II. hafast, 954, 1856; III. hafa, 474, 596;
pret. sg. h‰fde, 106, 220, 666, 2322, 2334, 2953, etc.; pl. h‰fdon, 117,
695, 884, 2382, etc. Pret. part. inflected: nu scealc hafa dÊd gefremede,
940; h‰fde se gÙda ... cempan gecorone, 205. With the pres. part. are
formed the compounds: bord-, rond-h‰bbend.

for-habban, _to hold back, to keep one's self_: inf. ne meahte w‰fre mÙd
forhabban in hrere, _the expiring life could not hold itself back in the
breast_, 1152; ne mihte ˛‚ for-habban, _could not restrain himself_, 2610.

wi-habban, _to resist, to offer resistance_: pret. ˛‰t se wÓnsele
wi-h‰fde heao-deÛrum, _that the hall resisted them furious in fight_,

hafela, heafola, w. m., _head_: acc. sg. hafelan, 1373, 1422, 1615, 1636,
1781; n‚ ˛u mÓnne ˛earft hafalan h˝dan, 446; ˛onne we on orlege hafelan
weredon, _protected our heads, defended ourselves_, 1328; se hwÓta helm
hafelan werede, 1449; dat. sg. hafelan, 673, 1522; heafolan, 2680; gen. sg.
heafolan, 2698; nom. pl. hafelan, 1121.--Comp. wÓg-heafola.

hafenian, w. v., _to raise, to uplift_: pret. sg. wÊpen hafenade heard be
hiltum, _raised the weapon, the strong man, by the hilt_, 1574.

hafoc, st. m., _hawk_: nom. sg., 2264.

haga, w. m., _enclosed piece of ground, hedge, farm-enclosure_: dat. sg. tÙ
hagan, 2893, 2961.

haga, w. m. See ‚n-haga.

hama, homa, w. m., _dress_: in the comp. flÊsc-, fyrd-, lÓc-hama, scÓr-ham

hamer, st. m., _hammer_: instr. sg. hamere, 1286; gen. pl. homera l‚fe
(swords), 2830.

hand, hond, st. f., _hand_: nom. sg. 2138; siÛ swÓre ... hand, _the right
hand_, 2100; hond, 1521, 2489, 2510; acc. sg. hand, 558, 984; hond, 657,
687, 835, 928, etc.; dat. sg. on handa, 495, 540; mid handa, 747, 2721; be
honda, 815; dat. pl. (as instr.) hondum, 1444, 2841.

hand-bana, w. m., _murderer with the hand_, or _in hand-to-hand combat_:
dat. sg. tÙ hand-bonan (-banan), 460, 1331.

hand-gemÙt, st. n., _hand-to-hand conflict, battle_: gen. pl. (ecg) ˛olode
Êr fela hand-gemÙta, 1527; nÙ ˛‰t l‰sest w‰s hond-gemÙta, 2356.

hand-gesella, w. m., _hand-companion, man of the retinue_: dat. pl.
hond-gesellum, 1482.

hand-gestealla, w. m., _(one whose position is near at hand), comrade,
companion, attendant_: dat. sg. hond-gesteallan, 2170; nom. pl.
hand-gesteallan, 2597.

hand-geweorc, st. n., _work done with the hands_, i.e. achievement in
battle: dat. sg. for ˛‰s hild-fruman hondgeweorce, 2836.

hand-gewrien, pret. part. _hand-wreathed, bound with the hand._ acc. pl.
w‰lbende ... hand-gewriene, 1938.

hand-locen, pret. part., _joined, united by hand_: nom. sg. (g˚-byrne,
lÓc-syrce) hondlocen (because the shirts of mail consisted of interlaced
rings), 322, 551.

hand-rÊs, st. m., _hand-battle_, i.e. combat with the hands: nom. sg.
hond-rÊs, 2073.

hand-scalu, st. f., _hand-attendance, retinue_: dat. sg. mid his hand-scale
(hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

hand-sporu, st. f., _finger_ (on Grendel's hand), under the figure of a
spear: nom. pl. hand-sporu, 987.

hand-wundor, st. n., _wonder done by the hand, wonderful handwork_: gen.
pl. hond-wundra mÊst, 2769.

hangan. See hÙn.

hangian, w. v., _to hang_: pres. sg. III. ˛onne his sunu hanga hrefne to
hrÙre, _when his son hangs, a joy to the ravens_, 2448; pl. III. ofer ˛‰m
(mere) hongia hrÓmge bearwas, _over which frosty forests hang_, 1364; inf.
hangian, 1663; pret. hangode, _hung down_, 2086.

hatian, w. v. w. acc., _to hate, to be an enemy to, to hurt_: inf. he ˛one
heao-rinc hatian ne meahte l‚um dÊdum (_could not do him any harm_),
2467; pret. sg. h˚ se g˚-sceaa Ge·ta leÛde hatode and h˝nde, 2320.

h‚d, st. m., _form, condition, position, manner_: acc. sg. ˛urh hÊstne h‚d,
_in a powerful manner_, 1336; on gesÓes h‚d, _in the position of follower,
as follower_, 1298; on sweordes h‚d, _in the form of a sword_, 2194. See
under on.

h‚dor, st. m., _clearness, brightness_: acc. sg. under heofenes h‚dor, 414.

h‚dor, adj., _clear, fresh, loud_: nom. sg. scop hwÓlum sang h‚dor on
Heorote, 497.

h‚dre, adv., _clearly, brightly_, 1572.

h‚l, adj., _hale, whole, sound, unhurt_: nom. sg. h‚l, 300. With gen.
heao-l‚ces h‚l, _safe from battle_, 1975. As form of salutation, wes ...
h‚l, 407; dat. sg. h‚lan lÓce, 1504.

h‚lig, adj., _holy_: nom. sg. h‚lig god, 381, 1554; h‚lig dryhten, 687.

h‚m, st. m., _home, residence, estate, land_: acc. sg. h‚m, 1408; HrÙg‚res
h‚m, 718. Usually in adverbial sense: gew‚t him h‚m, _betook himself home_,
1602; tÙ h‚m, 124, 374, 2993; fram h‚m, _at home_, 194; ‰t h‚m, _at home_,
1249, 1924, 1157; gen. sg. h‚mes, 2367; acc. pl. h‚mas, 1128.--Comp.
Finnes-h‚m, 1157.

h‚m-weorung, st. f., _honor_ or _ornament of home_: acc. sg. h‚m-weorunge
(designation of the daughter of Hygel‚c, given in marriage to Eofor), 2999.

h‚r, adj., _gray_: nom. sg. h‚r hilde-rinc, 1308, 3137; acc. sg. under
(ofer) h‚rne st‚n, 888, 1416, 2554; h‚re byrnan (i.e. iron shirt of mail),
2154; dat. sg. h‚rum hildfruman, 1679; f. on he·re hÊe (on heaw ... h ...
e, MS.), 2213; gen. sg. h‚res, _of the old man_, 2989.--Comp. un-h‚r.

h‚t, adj., _hot, glowing, flaming_ nom sg., 1617, 2297, 2548, 2559, etc.;
wyrm h‚t gemealt, _the drake hot_ (of his own heat) _melted_, 898; acc.
sg., 2282(?); inst. sg. h‚tan heolfre, 850, 1424; g. sg. heau-f˝res h‚tes,
2523; acc. pl. h‚te heao-wylmas, 2820.--Sup.: h‚tost heao-sw‚ta, 1669.

h‚t, st. n., _heat, fire_: acc. sg. geseah his mondryhten ... h‚t ˛rowian,
_saw his lord endure the_ (drake's) _heat_, 2606.

hata, w. m., _persecutor_; in comp. dÊd-hata.

h‚tan, st. v.: 1) _to bid, to order, to direct_, with acc. and inf., and
acc. of the person: pres. sg. I. ic magu˛egnas mÓne h‚te ... flotan eÛwerne
‚rum healdan, _I bid my thanes take good care of your craft_, 293; imp. sg.
II. h‚t in g‚n ... sibbegedriht, 386; pl. II. h‚ta heao-mÊre hlÊw
gewyrcean, 2803; inf. ˛‰t healreced h‚tan wolde ... men gewyrcean, _that he
wished to command men to build a hall-edifice_, 68. Pret. sg. hÍht: hÍht
... eahta mearas ... on flet teÛn, _gave command to bring eight horses into
the hall_, 1036; ˛onne Ênne hÍht golde forgyldan, _commanded to make good
that one with gold_, 1054; hÍht ˛‚ ˛‰t heao-weorc tÙ hagan biÛdan,
_ordered the combat to be announced at the hedge_(?), 2893; sw‚ se snottra
hÍht, _as the wise_ (HrÙg‚r) _directed_, 1787; so, 1808, 1809. hÍt: hÍt
him ˝lidan gÙdne gegyrwan, _ordered a good vessel to be prepared for him_,
198; so, hÍt, 391, 1115, 3111. As the form of a wish: hÍt hine wel br˚can,
1064; so, 2813; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s h‚ten hrae Heort innan-weard folmum
gefr‰twod, _forthwith was ordered Heorot, adorned by hand on the inside_
(i.e. that the edifice should be adorned by hand on the inside), 992.--2)
_to name, to call_: pres. subj. III. pl. ˛‰t hit sÊlÓend ... h‚tan
BiÛwulfes biorh, _that mariners may call it BeÛwulf's grave-mound_, 2807;
pret. part. w‰s se grimma g‰st Grendel h‚ten, 102; so, 263, 373, 2603.

ge-h‚tan, _to promise, to give one's word, to vow, to threaten_: pres. sg.
I. ic hit ˛e geh‚te, 1393; so, 1672; pret. sg. he me mÍde gehÍt, _promised
me reward_, 2135; him f‰gre gehÍt le·na (gen. pl.), _promised them proper
reward_, 2990; we·n oft gehÍt earmre teohhe, _with woe often threatened the
unhappy band_, 2938; pret. pl. gehÍton ‰t h‰rgtrafum wig-weorunga, _vowed
offerings at the shrines of the gods_, 175; ˛onne we gehÍton ˚ssum hl‚forde
˛‰t ..., _when we promised our lord that_..., 2635; pret. part. siÛ geh‚ten
[w‰s] ... gladum suna FrÙdan, _betrothed to the glad son of Froda_, 2025.

h‚tor, st. m. n., _heat_: in comp. and-h‚tor.

h‰ft, adj., _held, bound, fettered_: nom. sg., 2409; acc. sg. helle h‰ftan,
_him fettered by hell_ (Grendel), 789.

h‰ft-mÍce, st. m., _sword with fetters_ or _chains_ (cf. fetel-hilt): dat.
sg. ˛‰m h‰ft-mÍce, 1458. See Note.

h‰g-steald, st. m., _man, liegeman, youth_: gen. pl. h‰g-stealdra, 1890.

h‰le, st. m., _man_: nom. sg., 1647, 1817, 3112; acc. sg. h‰le, 720; dat.
pl. hÊlum (hÊnum, MS.), 1984.

h‰le, st. m., _hero, fighter, warrior, man_: nom. sg., 190, 331, 1070;
nom. pl. h‰le, 52, 2248, 2459, 3143; dat. pl. h‰leum 1710, 1962, etc.;
gen. pl. h‰lea, 467, 497, 612, 663, etc.

h‰rg. See hearg.

hÊ, st. f., _heath_: dat. sg. hÊe, 2213.

hÊen, adj., _heathenish_; acc. sg. hÊene s‚wle, 853; dat. sg. hÊnum
horde, 2217; gen. sg. hÊenes, _of the heathen_ (Grendel), 987; gen. pl.
hÊenra, 179.

hÊ-stapa, w. m., _that which goes about on the heath_ (stag): nom. sg.,

hÊl, st. f.: 1) _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. him hÊl ‚be·d, 654; mid
hÊle, 1218.--2) _favorable sign, favorable omen_: hÊl sce·wedon, _observed
favorable signs_ (for BeÛwulf's undertaking), 204.

hÊlo, st. f., _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. hÊlo ‚be·d heor-gene·tum,
2419.--Comp. un-hÊlo.

hÊst (O.H.G. haister‚ hantÓ, manu violenta; heist, ira; heistigo,
iracunde), adj., _violent, vehement_: acc. sg. ˛urh hÊstne h‚d, 1336.

he, fem. heÛ, neut. hit, pers. pron., _he, she, it_; in the oblique cases
also reflexive, _himself, herself, itself_: acc. sg. hine, hÓ, hit; dat.
sg. him, hire, him; gen. sg. his, hire, his; plur. acc. nom. hÓ, hig, hie;
dat. him; gen. hira, heora, hiera, hiora.--he omitted before the verb, 68,
300, 2309, 2345.

hebban, st. v., _to raise, to lift_, w. acc.: inf. sian ic hond and rond
hebban mihte, 657; pret. part. hafen, 1291; h‰fen, 3024.

‚-hebban, _raise, to lift from, to take away_: w‰s ... icge gold ‚hafen of
horde, _taken up from the hoard_, 1109; ˛‚ w‰s ... wÙp up ‚hafen, _a cry of
distress raised_, 128

ge-hegan [ge-hÍgan], w. v., _to enclose, to fence_: ˛ing gehegan, _to mark
off the court, hold court_. Here figurative: inf. sceal ... ‚na gehegan
˛ing wi ˛yrse (_shall alone decide the matter with Grendel_), 425.

hel, st. f., _hell_: nom. sg., 853; acc. sg. helle, 179; dat. sg. helle,
101, 589; (as instr.), 789; gen. sg. helle, 1275.

hel-bend, st. m. f. _bond of hell_: instr. pl. hell-bendum f‰st, 3073.

hel-r˚na, w. m., _sorcerer_: nom. pl. helr˚nan, 163.

be-helan, st. v., _to conceal, to hide_: pret. part. be-holen, 414.

helm, st. m.: 1) _protection in general, defence, covering that protects_:
acc. sg. on helm, 1393; under helm, 1746.--2) _helmet_: nom. sg., 1630;
acc. sg. helm, 673, 1023, 1527, 2988; (helo, MS.), 2724; br˚n-f‚gne,
gold-f‚hne helm, 2616, 2812; dat. sg. under helme, 342, 404; gen. sg.
helmes, 1031; acc. pl. helmas, 240, 2639.--3) _defence, protector_,
designation of the king: nom. sg. helm Scyldinga (HrÙg‚r), 371, 456, 1322;
acc. sg. heofena helm _(the defender of the heavens_ = God), 182; helm
Scylfinga, 2382.--Comp.: grÓm-, g˚-, heao-, niht-helm.

ofer-helmian, w. v. w. acc., _to cover over, to overhang_: pres. sg. III.
ofer-helma, 1365.

helm-berend, pres. part., _helm-wearing_ (warrior): acc. pl. helmberend,
2518, 2643.

helpan, st. v., _to help_: inf. ˛‰t him holt-wudu helpan ne meahte, lind
wi lÓge, _that a wooden shield could not help him, a linden shield against
flame_, 2341; ˛‰t him Órenna ecge mihton helpan ‰t hilde, 2685; wutun
gangan to, helpan hildfruman, _let us go thitherto help the battle-chief_,
2650; w. gen. ongan ... mÊges helpan, _began to help my kinsman_, 2880; so,
pret. sg. ˛Êr he his mÊges (MS. m‰genes) healp, 2699.

help, m. and f., _help, support, maintenance_: acc. sg. helpe, 551, 1553;
dat. sg. tÙ helpe, 1831; acc. sg. helpe, 2449.

hende, _-handed_: in comp. Ódel-hende.

her, adv., _here_, 397, 1062, 1229, 1655, 1821, 2054, 2797, etc.; _hither_,
244, 361, 376.

here (Goth, harji-s), st. m., _army, troops_: dat. sg. on herge, _in the
army, on a warlike expedition, 1249; in the army, among the fighting men_,
2639; as instr. herge, 2348.--Comp.: flot-, scip-, sin-here.

here-brÙga, w. m., _terror of the army, fear of war_: dat. sg. for
here-brÙgan, 462.

here-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, coat of mail_: nom. sg., 1444.

here-grÓma, w. m., _battle-mask_, i.e. helmet (with visor): dat. sg.
-grÓman, 396, 2050, 2606.

here-net, st. n., _battle-net_, i.e. coat of mail (of interlaced rings):
nom. sg., 1554.

here-nÓ, st. m., _battle-enmity, battle of armies_: nom. sg., 2475.

here-p‚d, st. f., _army-dress_, i.e. coat of mail, armor: nom. sg., 2259.

here-rinc, st. m., _army-hero, hero in battle, warrior_: acc. sg. here-rinc
(MS. here ric), 1177.

here-sceaft, st. m., _battle-shaft_, i.e. spear: gen. pl. here-sceafta
he·p, 335.

here-spÍd, st. f., _(war-speed), luck in war_: nom. sg., 64.

here-strÊl, st. m., _war-arrow, missile_: nom. sg., 1436.

here-syrce, w. f., _battle-shirt, shirt of mail_: acc. sg. here-syrcan,

here-wÊd, st. f., _army-dress, coat of mail, armor_: dat. pl. (as instr.)
here-wÊdum, 1898.

here-wÊsma, w. m., _war-might, fierce strength in battle_: dat. pl. an
here-wÊsmum, 678.--Leo.

here-wÓsa, w. m., _leader of the army_, i.e. ruler, king: nom. sg., 3021.

herg, hearg, st. m., _image of a god, grove where a god was worshipped_,
hence to the Christian a wicked place(?): dat. pl. hergum geheaerod,
_confined in wicked places_ (parallel with hell-bendum f‰st), 3073.

herigean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to provide with an army, to support with
an army_: pres. sg. I. ic ˛e wel herige, 1834.--Leo.

hete, st. m., _hate, enmity_: nom. sg. 142, 2555.--Comp.: ecg-, moror-,

hete-lÓc, adj., _hated_: nom. sg., 1268.

hetend, hettend, (pres. part. of hetan, see hatian), _enemy_, hostis: nom.
pl. hetende, 1829; dat. pl. wi hettendum, 3005.

hete-nÓ, st. m., _enmity full of hate_: acc. pl. hete-nÓas, 152.

hete-sweng, st. m., _a blow from hate_: acc. pl. hete-swengeas, 2226.

hete-˛anc, st. m., _hate-thought, a hostile design_: dat. pl. mid his
hete-˛ancum, 475.

hÍdan, ge-hÍdan, w. v. w. gen.: 1) _to protect_: pret. sg. ne hÍdde he ˛‰s
heafolan, _did not protect his head_, 2698.--2) _to obtain_: subj. pret.
sg. III. gehÍdde, 505.

hÍrian, w. v. w. acc., _to praise, to commend_: with reference to God, _to
adore_: inf. heofena helm hÍrian ne c˚on, _could not worship the defence
of the heavens_ (God), 182; ne h˚ru Hildeburh hÍrian ˛orfte Eotena treÛwe,
_had no need to praise the fidelity of the Eotens_, 1072; pres. subj. ˛‰t
mon his wine-dryhten wordum hÍrge, 3177.

ge-heaerian, w. v., _to force, to press in_: pret. part. ge-heaerod,

heao-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, shirt of mail_: nom. sg., 1553.

heao-deÛr, adj., _bold in battle, brave_: nom. sg., 689; dat. pl.
heao-deÛrum, 773.

heao-fyr, st. n., _battle-fire, hostile fire_: gen. sg. heau-f˝res, 2523;
instr. pl. heao-f˝rum, 2548, of the drake's fire-spewing.

heao-grim, adj., _grim in battle_, 548.

heao-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet, war-helmet_: nom. sg., 3157(?).

heao-l‚c, st. n., _battle-play, battle_: dat. sg. ‰t heao-l‚ce, 584; gen.
sg. heao-l‚ces h‚l, 1975.

heao-mÊre, adj., _renowned in battle_: acc. pl. -mÊre, 2803.

heao-rÊs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack in battle, entrance by force_:
nom. sg., 557; acc. pl. -rÊsas, 1048; gen. pl. -rÊsa, 526.

heao-re·f, st. n., _battle-dress, equipment for battle_: acc. sg.
heao-re·f heÛldon (_kept the equipments_), 401.

heao-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: acc. sg. ˛one heao-rinc
(HrÍel's son, HÊcyn), 2467; dat. pl. ˛Êm heao-rincum, 370.

heao-rÙf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 381; nom. pl. heao-rÙfe,

heao-scearp, adj., _sharp in battle, bold_: n. m. pl. (-scearde, MS.),

heao-seÛc, adj., _battle-sick_: dat. sg. -siÛcum, 2755.

heao-ste·p, adj., _high in battle, excelling in battle_: nom. sg. in weak
form, heao-ste·pa, 1246; acc. sg. heao-ste·pne, 2154, both times of the

heao-sw‚t, st. m., _blood of battle_: dat. sg. heao-sw‚te, 1607; as
instr., 1461; gen. pl. h‚tost heao-sw‚ta, 1669.

heao-sweng, st. m., _battle-stroke_ (blow of the sword): dat. sg. ‰fter
heau-swenge, 2582.

heao-torht, adj., _loud, clear in battle_: nom. sg. stefn ... heao-torht,
_the voice clear in battle_, 2554.

heao-wÊd, st. f., _battle-dress, coat of mail, armor_: instr. pl.
heao-wÊdum, 39.

heao-weorc, st. n., _battle-work, battle_: acc. sg., 2893.

heao-wylm, st. m., _hostile (flame-) wave_: acc. pl. h‚te heao-wylmas,
2820; gen. pl. heao-wylma, 82.

heaf, st. n., _sea_: acc. pl. ofer heafo, 2478. See Note.

heafola. See hafela.

heal, st. f., _hall, main apartment, large building_ (consisting of an
assembly-hall and a banqueting-hall): nom. sg. heal, 1152, 1215; heall,
487; acc. sg. healle, 1088; dat. sg. healle, 89, 615, 643, 664, 926, 1010,
1927, etc.; gen. sg. [healle], 389.--Comp.: gif-, meodo-heal.

heal-‰rn, st. n., _hall-building, hall-house_: gen. sg. heal-‰rna, 78.

heal-gamen, st. n., _social enjoyment in the hall, hall-joy_: nom. sg.,

heal-reced, st. n., _hall-building_: acc. sg., 68.

heal-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_ (at the banquet): dat. pl.
heal-sittendum, 2869; gen. pl. heal-sittendra, 2016.

heal-˛egn, st. m., _hall-thane_, i.e. a warrior who holds the hall: gen.
sg. heal-˛egnes, of Grendel, 142; acc. pl. heal-˛egnas, of BeÛwulfs band,

heal-wudu, _hall-wood_, i.e. hall built of wood: nom. sg., 1318.

healdan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to hold, to hold fast; to support_: pret. pl.
h˚ ˛‚ st‚nbogan ... Íce eorreced innan heÛldon (MS. healde), _how the
arches of rock within held the everlasting earth-house_, 2720. Pret. sg.,
with a person as object: heÛld hine to f‰ste, _held him too fast_, 789; w.
the dat. he him freÛndl‚rum heÛld, _supported him with friendly advice_,
2378.--2) _to hold, to watch, to preserve, to keep_; reflexive, _to
maintain one's self, to keep one's self_: pres. sg. II. eal ˛u hit ge˛yldum
healdest, m‰gen mid mÙdes snyttrum, _all that preservest thou continuously,
strength and wisdom of mind_, 1706; III. healde hige-mÍum he·fod-wearde,
_holds for the dead the head-watch_, 2910; imp. sg. II. heald for tela
niwe sibbe, _keep well, from now on, the new relationship_, 949; heald
(heold, MS.) ˛u nu hruse ... eorla Êhte, _preserve thou now, Earth, the
noble men's possessions_, 2248; inf. se ˛e holmclifu healdan scolde, _watch
the sea-cliffs_, 230; so, 705; nacan ... ‚rum healdan, _to keep well your
vessel_, 296; wearde healdan, 319; forlÍton eorla gestreÛn eoran healdan,
3168; pres. part. dre·m healdende, _holding rejoicing_ (i.e. thou who art
rejoicing), 1228; pret. sg. heÛld hine syan fyr and f‰stor, _kept himself
afterwards afar and more secure_, 142; Êgwearde heÛld, _I have (hitherto)
kept watch on the sea_, 241; so, 305; hiÛld he·h-lufan wi h‰lea brego,
_preserved high love_, 1955; ginf‰stan gife ... heÛld, 2184; gold-m‚mas
heÛld, _took care of the treasures of gold_, 2415; heÛld mÓn tela,
_protected well mine own_, 2738; ˛onne ... sceft ... nytte heÛld, _had
employment, was employed_, 3119; heÛld mec, _protected_, i.e. brought me
up, 2431; pret. pl. heao-re·f heÛldon, _watched over the armor_, 401; sg.
for pl. he·fodbeorge ... walan ˚tan heÛld, _outwards, bosses kept guard
over the head_, 1032.--Related to the preceding meaning are the two
following: 3) _to rule and protect the fatherland_: inf. gif ˛u healdan
wylt maga rice, 1853; pret. heÛld, 57, 2738.--4) _to hold, to have, to
possess, to inhabit_: inf. lÍt ˛one brego-stÙl BeÛwulf healdan, 2390;
gerund. tÙ healdanne hleÛburh wera, 1732; pret. sg. heÛld, 103, 161, 466,
1749, 2752; lyftwynne heÛld nihtes hwÓlum, _at night-time had the enjoyment
of the air_, 3044; pret. pl. Ge·ta leÛde hre‚wic heÛldon, _the Ge·tas held
the place of corpses_ (lay dead upon it), 1215; pret. sg. ˛Êr heÛ Êr mÊste
heÛld worolde wynne, _in which she formerly possessed the highest earthly
joy_, 1080.--5) _to win, to receive_: pret. pl. I. heoldon he·h gesceap,
_we received a heavy fate, heavy fate befell us_, 3085.

be-healdan, w. acc.: 1) _to take care of, to attend to_: pret. sg. ˛egn
nytte beheÛld, _a thane discharged the office_, 494; so, 668.--2) _to
hold_: pret. sg. se ˛e flÙda begong ... beheÛld, 1499.--3) _to look at, to
behold_: ˛ryswy beheÛld mÊg Higel‚ces h˚ ..., _great woe saw H.'s
kinsman, how ..._, 737.

for-healdan, w. acc., _(to hold badly), to fall away from, to rebel_: pret.
part. h‰fdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinga, _had rebelled against the
defender of the Scylfings_, 2382.

ge-healdan: 1) _to hold, to receive, to hold fast_: pres. sg. III. se ˛e
waldendes hyldo gehealde, _who receives the Lord's grace_, 2294; pres.
subj. f‰der alwalda ... eÛwic gehealde sÓa gesunde, _keep you sound on
your journey_, 317; inf. ne meahte he ... on ˛am frum-g‚re feorh gehealdan,
_could not hold back the life in his lord_, 2857.--2) _to take care, to
preserve, to watch over; to stop_: imp. sg. hafa nu and geheald h˚sa
sÍlest, 659; inf. gehealdan hÍt hilde-geatwe, 675; pret. sg. he fr‰twe
geheÛld fela missera, 2621; ˛one ˛e Êr geheÛld wi hettendum hord and rÓce,
_him who before preserved treasure and realm_, 3004.--3) _to rule_: inf.
folc gehealdan, 912; pret. sg. geheÛld tela (br‚de rÓce), 2209.

healf, st. f., _half, side, part_: acc. sg. on ˛‚ healfe, _towards this
side_, 1676; dat. sg. h‰leum be healfe, _at the heroes' side_, 2263; acc.
pl. on tw‚ healfa, _upon two sides, mutually_, 1096; on b‚ healfa (healfe),
_on both sides_ (to Grendel and his mother), 1306; _on two sides, on both
sides_, 2064; gen. pl. on healfa gehwone, _in half, through the middle_,

healf, adj., _half_: gen. sg. healfre, 1088.

heals, st. m., _neck_: acc. sg. heals, 2692; dat. sg. wi halse, 1567; be
healse, 1873.--Comp.: the adjectives f‚mig-, wunden-heals.

heals-be·h, st. m., _neck-ring, collar_: acc. sg. ˛one heals-be·h, 2173;
gen. pl. heals-be·ga, 1196.

heals-gebedde, w. f., _beloved bedfellow, wife_: nom. sg. healsgebedde (MS.
healsgebedda), 63.

healsian, w. v. w. acc., _to entreat earnestly, to implore_: pret. sg. ˛‚
se ˛eÛden mec ... healsode hreÛh-mÙd ˛‰t..., _entreated me sorrowful,
that_..., 2133.

heard, adj.: 1) of persons, _able, efficient in war, strong, brave_: nom.
sg. heard, 342, 376, 404, 1575, 2540, etc.; in weak form, se hearda, 401,
1964; se hearda ˛egn, 2978; ˛es hearda he·p, 432; nom. pl. hearde
hilde-frecan, 2206; gen. pl. heardra, 989. Comparative: acc. sg. heardran
h‰le, 720. With accompanying gen.: wÓges heard, _strong in battle_, 887;
dat. sg. nÓa heardum, 2171.--2) of the implements of war, _good, firm,
sharp, hard_: nom. sg. (g˚-byrne, lÓc-syrce) heard, 322, 551. In weak
form: masc. here-strÊl hearda, 1436; se hearda helm, 2256; neutr. here-net
hearde, 1554; acc. sg. (swurd, wÊpen), heard, 540, 2688, 2988; nom. pl.
hearde ... homera l‚fe, 2830; heard and hring-mÊl Heaobeardna gestreÛn,
2038; acc. pl. heard sweord, 2639. Of other things, _hard, rough, harsh,
hard to bear_: acc. sg. hreer-bealo hearde, 1344; nom. sg. wrÙht ...
heard, 2915; here-nÓ hearda, 2475; acc. sg. heoro-sweng heardne, 1591;
instr. sg. heardan ce·pe, 2483; instr. pl. heardan, heardum clammum, 964,
1336; gen. pl. heardra h˝na, 166. Compar.: acc. sg. heardran feohtan,
576.--Comp.: f˝r-, Óren-, nÓ-, regn-, sc˚r-heard.

hearde, adv., _hard, very_, 1439.

heard-ecg, adj., _sharp-edged, hard, good in battle_: nom. sg., 1289.

heard-fyrde, adj., _hard to take away, heavy_: acc. sg. hard-fyrdne,

heard-hycgend, pres. part. _of a warlike disposition, brave_: nom. pl.
-hicgende, 394, 800.

hearg-tr‰f, st. n., _tent of the gods, temple_: dat. pl. ‰t h‰rg-trafum
(MS. hrÊrg trafum), 175.

hearm, st. m., _harm, injury, insult_: dat. sg. mid hearme, 1893.

hearm-sceaa, w. m., _enemy causing injury_ or _grief_: nom. sg.
hearm-scaa, 767.

hearpe, w. f., _harp_: gen. sg. hearpan swÍg, 89, 3024; hearpan wynne
(wyn), 2108, 2263.

he·u, st. f., _sea, waves_: acc. sg. he·u, 1863?

he·u-lÓend, pres. part., _sea-farer, sailor_: nom. pl. -lÓende, 1799;
dat. pl. -lÓendum (designation of the Ge·tas), 2956.

he·fod, st. n., _head_: acc. sg., 48, 1640; dat. sg. he·fde, 1591, 2291,
2974; dat. pl. he·fdum, 1243.

he·fod-beorh, st. f., _head-defence, protection for the head_: acc. sg.
he·fod-beorge, 1031.

he·fod-mÊg, st. m., _head-kinsman, near blood-relative_: dat. pl.
he·fod-mÊgum (_brothers_), 589; gen. pl. he·fod-m‚ga, 2152.

he·fod-segn, st. n., _head-sign, banner_: acc. sg., 2153.

he·fod-weard, st. f., _head-watch_ acc. sg. healde ... he·fod-wearde
leÛfes and l‚es, _for the friend and the foe_ (BeÛwulf and the drake, who
lie dead near each other), 2910.

he·h, he·, adj., _high, noble_ (in composition, also primus): nom. sg. he·h
Healfdene, 57; he· (Higel‚c), 1927; he·h (sele), 82; he·h hlÊw, 2806, 3159;
acc. sg. he·h (segn), 48, 2769; he·hne (MS. he·nne) hrÙf, 984; dat. sg. in
(tÙ) sele ˛am he·n, 714, 920; gen. sg. he·n h˚ses, 116.--_high, heavy_:
acc. he·h gesceap (_an unusual, heavy fate_), 3085.

he·-burh, st. f., _high city, first city of a country_: acc. sg., 1128.

he·h-cyning, st. m., _high king, mightiest of the kings_: gen. sg.
-cyninges (of HrÙg‚r), 1040.

he·h-gestreÛn, st. n., _splendid treasure_: gen. pl. -gestreÛna, 2303.

he·h-lufe, w. f., _high love_: acc. sg. he·h-lufan, 1955.

he·h-sele, st. m., _high hall, first hall in the land, hall of the ruler_:
dat. sg. he·h-sele, 648.

he·h-setl, st. n., _high seat, throne_: acc. sg., 1088.

he·h-stede, st. m., _high place, ruler's place_: dat. sg. on he·h-stede,

he·n, adj., _depressed, low, despised, miserable_: nom. sg., 1275, 2100,
2184, 2409.

he·p, st. m., _heap, crowd, troop_: nom. sg. ˛egna he·p, 400; ˛es hearda
he·p, _this brave band_, 432; acc. sg. here-sceafta he·p, _the crowd of
spears_, 335; mago-rinca he·p, 731; dat. sg. on he·pe, _in a compact body_,
as many as there were of them, 2597.--Comp. wÓg-he·p.

he·wan, st. v., _to hew, to cleave_: inf., 801.

ge-he·wan, _cleave_: pres. subj. ge-he·we, 683.

heou, st. f., _the interior of a building_: dat. sg. ˛‰t he on heoe
gestÙd, _in the interior_ (of the hall, Heorot), 404.

heofon, st. m., _heaven_: nom. sg., 3157; dat. sg. hefene, 1572; gen. sg.
heofenes, 414, 576, 1802, etc.; gen. pl. heofena, 182; dat. pl. under
heofenum, 52, 505.

heolfor, st. n., _gore, fresh_ or _crude blood_: dat. instr. sg. h‚tan
heolfre, 850, 1424; heolfre, 2139; under heolfre, 1303.

heolster, st. n., _haunt, hiding-place_: acc. sg. on heolster, 756.

heonan, adv., _hence, from here_: heonan, 252; heonon, 1362.

heor, st. m., _door-hinge_: nom. pl. heorras, 1000.

heorde, adj. See wunden-heorde.

heor-gene·t, st. m., _hearth-companion_, i.e. a vassal of the king, in
whose castle he receives his livelihood: nom. pl. heor-gene·tas, 261,
3181; acc. pl. heor-gene·tas, 1581, 2181; dat. pl. heor-gene·tum, 2419.

heorot, st. m., _stag_: nom. sg., 1370.

heorte, w. f., _heart_: nom. sg., 2562; dat. sg. ‰t heortan, 2271; gen. sg.
heortan, 2464, 2508.--Comp.: the adjectives blÓ-, grom-, r˚m-,

heoru, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg. heoru bunden (cf. under bÓndan), 1286. In
some of the following compounds heoro- seems to be confounded with here-
(see here).

heoro-bl‚c, adj., _pale through the sword, fatally wounded_: nom. sg.
[heoro-]bl‚c, 2489.

heoru-dreÛr, st. m., _sword-blood_: instr. sg. heoru-dreÛre, 487;
heoro-dreÛre, 850.

heoro-dreÛrig, adj., _bloody through the sword_: nom. sg., 936; acc. sg.
heoro-dreÛrigne, 1781, 2721.

heoro-drync, st. m., _sword-drink_, i.e. blood shed by the sword: instr.
pl. hioro-dryncum swealt, _died through sword-drink_, i.e. struck by the
sword, 2359.

heoro-gÓfre, adj., _eager for hostile inroads_: nom. sg., 1499.

heoro-grim, adj., _sword-grim, fierce in battle_: nom. sg. m., 1565; fem.
-grimme, 1848.

heoro-hÙcihte, adj., _provided with barbs, sharp like swords _: instr. pl.
mid eofer-spreÛtum heoro-hÙcyhtum, 1439.

heoro-serce, w. f., _shirt of mail_: acc. sg. hioro-sercean, 2540.

heoro-sweng, st. m., _sword-stroke_: acc. sg. 1591.

heoro-weallende, pres. part., _rolling around fighting_, of the drake,
2782. See weallian.

heoro-wearh, st. m. _he who is sword-cursed, who is destined to die by the
sword_: nom. sg., 1268.

heÛfan, w. v., _to lament, to moan_: part. nom. pl. hiÛfende, 3143.

‚-heÛran, _to free_ (?): w. acc. pret. sg. br˝d ‚heÛrde, 2931.

heÛre, adj., _pleasant, not haunted, secure_: nom. sg. fem, nis ˛‰t heÛru
stÙw, _that is no secure place_, 1373.--Comp. un-heÛre (-h˝re).

hider, adv., _hither_, 240, 370, 394, 3093, etc.

ofer-higian, w. v. (according to the connection, probably), _to exceed_,
2767. (O.H.G. ubar-hugjan, _to be arrogant_.)

hild, st. f., _battle, combat_: nom. sg., 452, 902, 1482, 2077; hild
heoru-grimme, 1848; acc. sg. hilde, 648; instr. sg. hilde, _through
combat_, 2917; dat. sg. ‰t hilde, 1461.

hilde-bil, st. n., _battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1667; instr. dat. sg.
hilde-bille, 557, 1521.

hilde-bord, st. n., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. hilde-bord, 397; instr. pl.
-bordum, 3140.

hilde-cyst, st. f., _excellence in battle, bravery in battle_: instr. pl.
-cystum, 2599.

hilde-deÛr, adj., _bold in battle, brave in battle_: nom. sg., 312, 835,
1647, 1817; hilde-diÛr, 3112; nom. pl. hilde-deÛre, 3171.

hilde-freca, w. m., _hero in battle_: nom. pl. hilde-frecan, 2206; dat. sg.
hild-frecan, 2367.

hilde-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for battle, adornment for combat_:
acc. hilde-geatwe, 675; gen. -geatwa, 2363.

hilde-gicel, st. m., _battle-icicle_, i.e. the blood which hangs upon the
sword-blades like icicles: instr. pl. hilde-gicelum, 1607.

hilde-gr‚p, st. f., _battle-gripe_: nom. sg., 1447, 2508.

hilde-hlemma, w. m., _one raging in battle, warrior, fighter_: nom. sg.,
2352, 2545; dat. pl. eft ˛‰t ge-eode ... hilde-hl‰mmum, _it happened to the
warriors_ (the Ge·tas), 2202.

hilde-leÛma, w. m., _battle-light, gleam of battle_, hence: 1) the
fire-spewing of the drake in the fight: nom. pl. -leÛman, 2584.--2) _the
gleaming sword_: acc. sg. -leÛman, 1144.

hilde-mecg, st. m., _man of battle, warrior_: nom. pl. hilde-mecgas, 800.

hilde-mÍce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. -mÍceas, 2203.

hilde-rand, st. m., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. -randas, 1243.

hllde-rÊs, st. m., _storm of battle_: acc. sg., 300.

hilde-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 1308, 3125,
3137; dat. sg. hilde-rince, 1496; gen. sg. hilde-rinces, 987.

hilde-s‰d, adj., _satiated with battle, not wishing to fight any more_:
acc. sg. hilde-s‰dne, 2724.

hilde-sceorp, st. n., _battle-dress, armor, coat of mail_: acc. sg., 2156.

hilde-setl, st. n., _battle-seat_ (saddle): nom. sg., 1040.

hilde-strengo, st. f., _battle-strength, bravery in battle_: acc., 2114.

hilde-sw‚t, st. m., _battle-sweat_: nom. sg. h‚t hilde-sw‚t (the hot, damp
breath of the drake as he rushes on), 2559.

hilde-tux, st. m., _battle-tooth_: instr. pl. hilde-tuxum, 1512.

hilde-wÊpen, st. m., _battle-weapon_: instr. pl. -wÊpnum, 39.

hilde-wÓsa, w. m., _leader in battle, general_: dat. sg. fore Healfdenes
hildewÓsan, _Healfdene's general_ (Hn‰f), 1065.

hild-freca. See hilde-freca

hild-fruma, st. m., _battle-chief_: dat. sg. -fruma, 1679, 2650; gen. sg.
˛‰s hild-fruman, 2836.

hlld-lata, w. m., _he who is late in battle, coward_: nom. pl. ˛‚
hild-latan, 2847.

hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_: nom. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. ˛‰t hilt,
1669; hylt, 1668. Also used in the plural; acc. ˛‚ hilt, 1615; dat. pl, be
hiltum, 1575.--Comp.: fetel-, wreoen-hilt.

hilte-cumbor, st. n., _banner with a staff_: acc. sg., 1023.

hilted, pret. part., _provided with a hilt_ or _handle_: acc. sg. heard
swyrd hiked, _sword with a_ (rich) _hilt_, 2988.

hin-f˚s, adj., _ready to die_: nom. sg. hyge w‰s him hinf˚s (i.e. he felt
that he should not survive), 756.

hindema, adj. superl., _hindmost, last_: instr. sg. hindeman sÓe, _the
last time, for the last time_, 2050, 2518.

hirde, hyrde, st. m., (_herd_) _keeper, guardian, possessor_: nom. sg.
folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2982; rÓces hyrde, 2028; fyrena hyrde, _the
guardian of mischief, wicked one_, 751, 2220; wuldres hyrde, _the king of
glory, God_, 932; hringa hyrde, _the keeper of the rings_, 2246; cumbles
hyrde, _the possessor of the banner, the bearer of the banner_, 2506;
folces hyrde, 1850; fr‰twa hyrde, 3134; rÓces hyrde, 3081; acc. pl. h˚ses
hyrdas, 1667.--Comp.: grund-hyrde.

hit (O.N. hita), st. f. (?), _heat_: nom. sg. ˛enden hyt s˝, 2650.

hladan, st. v.: 1) _to load, to lay_: inf. on bÊl hladan leÛfne mannan,
_lay the dear man on the funeral-pile_, 2127; him on bearm hladan bunan and
discas, _laid cups and plates upon his bosom, loaded himself with them_,
2776; pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s wunden gold on wÊn hladen, _laid upon the wain_,
3135.--2) _to load, to burden_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s ... sÊge·p naca hladen
herewÊdum, _loaded with armor_, 1898.--Comp. gilp-hl‰den.

ge-hladan, w. acc., _to load, to burden_: pret. sg. sÊb‚t gehlÙd (MS
gehleod), 896.

hl‚ford, st. m., _lord, ruler_: nom. sg., 2376; acc. sg., 267; dat. sg.
hl‚forde, 2635; gen. sg. hl‚fordes, 3181.--Comp. eald-hl‚ford.

hl‚ford-le·s; adj., _without a lord_: nom. pl. hl‚ford-le·se, 2936.

hl‚w, hlÊw, st. m., _grave-hill_: acc. sg. hlÊw, 2803, 3159, 3171; dat. sg.
for hl‚we, 1121. Also, _grave-chamber_ (the interior of the grave-hill),
_cave_: acc. sg. hl‚w [under] hrusan, 2277; hlÊw under hrusan, 2412; dat.
sg. on hlÊwe, 2774. The drake dwells in the rocky cavern which the former
owner of his treasure had chosen as his burial-place, 2242-2271.

hl‰st, st. n., _burden, load_: dat. sg. hl‰ste, 52.

hlem, st. m., _noise, din of battle, noisy attack_: in the compounds, uht-,

hlemma, w. m., _one raging, one who calls_; see hilde-hlemma.

‚-hlehhan, st. v., _to laugh aloud, to shout, to exult_: pret. sg. his mÙd
‚hlÙg, _his mood exulted_, 731.

hleahtor, st. m., _laughter_: nom. sg., 612; acc. sg., 3021.

hle·pan, st. v., _to run, to trot, to spring_: inf. hle·pan lÍton ...
fealwe mearas, 865.

‚-hleapan, _to spring up_: pret. ‚hleÛp, 1398.

hleou. See hli.

hleonian, w. v., _to incline, to hang over_: inf. o ˛‰t he ...
fyrgen-be·mas ofer h‚rne st‚n hleonian funde, _till he found mountain-trees
hanging over the gray rocks_, 1416.

hleÛ, st. m., _shady, protected place; defence, shelter_; figurative
designation of the king, or of powerful nobles: wÓgendra hleÛ, of HrÙg‚r,
429; of Sigemund, 900; of BeÛwulf, 1973, 2338; eorla hleÛ, of HrÙg‚r,
1036, 1867; of BeÛwulf, 792; of Hygel‚c, 2191.

hleÛ-burh, st. f., _ruler's castle_ or _city_: acc. sg., 913, 1732.

hleÛor-cwyde, st. m., _speech of solemn sound, ceremonious words_, 1980.

hleÛr, st. n., _cheek, jaw_: in comp. f‰ted-hleÛr (adj.).

hleÛr-bera, w. m., _cheek-bearer_, the part of the helmet that reaches down
over the cheek and protects it: acc. pl. ofer hleÛr-beran (_visor_?), 304.

hleÛr-bolster, st. m., _cheek-bolster, pillow_: nom. sg., 689.

hleÛtan, st. v. w. acc., _to obtain by lot, to attain, to get_: pret. sg.
feorh-wunde hle·t, 2386.

hlifian, w. v., _to rise, to be prominent_: inf. hlifian, 2806; pret.
hlifade, 81, 1800, 1899.

hli, st. n., _cliff, precipice of a mountain_: dat. sg. on hlie, 3159;
gen. sg. hlies, 1893; pl. hlio in composition, st‚n-hlio; hleou in the
compounds fen-, mist-, n‰s-, wulf-hleou.

hlin-bed (Frisian hlen-bed, Richthofen 206^28, for which another text has
cronk-bed), st. n., [Greek: klinidion], _bed for reclining, sick-bed_: acc.
sg. hlim-bed, 3035.

tÙ-hlÓdan, st. v., _to spring apart, to burst_: pret. part. nom. pl.
tÙ-hlidene, 1000.

hl˚d, adj., _loud_: acc. sg. dre·m ... hl˚dne, 89.

hlyn, st. m., _din, noise, clatter_: nom. sg., 612.

hlynnan, hlynian, w. v., _to sound, to resound_: inf. hlynnan (of the
voice), 2554; of fire, _to crackle_: pret. sg. hlynode, 1121.

hlynsian, w. v., _to resound, to crash_: pret. sg. reced hlynsode, 771.

hlytm, st. m., _lot_: dat. sg. n‰s ˛‚ on hlytme, hw‚ ˛‰t hord strude, _it
did not depend upon lot who should plunder the hoard_, i.e. its possession
was decided, 3127.

hn‚h, adj.: 1) _low, inferior_: comp. acc. sg. hn‚gran, 678; dat. sg.
hn‚hran rince, _an inferior hero, one less brave_, 953.--2) _familiarly
intimate_: nom. sg. n‰s hiÛ hn‚h sw‚ ˛e·h, _was nevertheless not familiarly
intimate_ (with the Ge·tas, i.e. preserved her royal dignity towards them),
(_niggardly_?), 1930.

hnÊgan, w. v. w. acc., (for nÊgan), _to speak to, to greet_: pret. sg. ˛‰t
he ˛one wÓsan wordum hnÊgde fre·n Ingwina, 1319.

ge-hnÊgan, w. acc., _to bend, to humiliate, to strike down, to fell_: pret.
sg. ge-hnÊgde helle g‚st, 1275; ˛Êr hyne Hetware hilde gehnÊgdon, 2917.

hnitan, st. v., _to dash against, to encounter_, here of the collision of
hostile bands: pret. pl. ˛onne hniton (hnitan) fÍan, 1328, 2545.

homa, w. m., _place of concealment, cave_, hence, _the grave_: dat. sg. in
homan, 2459.

hof, st. n., _enclosed space, court-yard, estate, manor-house_: acc. sg.
hof (HrÙg‚r's residence), 312; dat. sg. tÙ hofe sÓnum (Grendel's home in
the sea), 1508; tÙ hofe (Hygel‚c's residence), 1975; acc. pl. beorht hofu,
2314; dat. pl. tÙ hofum Ge·ta, 1837.

hogode. See hycgan.

hold, adj., _inclined to, attached to, gracious, dear, true_: nom. sg. w.
dat. of the person, hold weorod fre·n Scyldinga, _a band well disposed to
the lord of the Scyldings_, 290; mandrihtne hold, 1230; Hygel‚ce w‰s ...
nefa sw˝e hold, _to H. was his nephew_ (BeÛwulf) _very much attached_,
2171; acc. sg. ˛urh holdne hige, _from a kindly feeling, with honorable
mind_, 267; holdne wine, 376; holdne, 1980; gen. pl. holdra, 487.

hold. See healdan.

holm, st. m., _deep sea_: nom. sg., 519, 1132, 2139; acc. sg., 48, 633;
dat. sg. holme, 543, 1436, 1915; acc. pl. holmas, 240.--Comp. wÊg-holm.

holm-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: dat. sg. on ˛am holm-clife, 1422; from ˛‰m
holmclife, 1636; acc. pl. holm-clifu, 230.

holm-wylm, st. m., _the waves of the sea_: dat. sg. holm-wylme, 2412.

holt, st. n., _wood, thicket, forest._ acc. sg. on holt, 2599; holt,
2847.--Comp.: ‰sc-, fyrgen-, g‚r-, Hrefnes-holt.

holt-wudu, st. m., _forest-wood_: 1) of the material: nom. sg., 2341.--2) =
_forest_: acc. sg., 1370.

hord, st. m. and n., _hoard, treasure_: nom. sg., 2284, 3085; be·ga hord,
2285; m‚ma hord, 3012; acc. sg. hord, 913, 2213, 2320, 2510, 2745, 2774,
2956, 3057; s‚wle hord, 2423; ˛‰t hord, 3127; dat. sg. of horde, 1109; for
horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the hoard_, 2782; hÊnum horde,
2217; gen. sg. hordes, 888.--Comp.: be·h-, breÛst-, word-, wyrm-hord.

hord-‰rn, st. n., _place in which a treasure is kept, treasure-room_: dat.
hord-‰rne, 2832; gen. pl. hord-‰rna, 2280.

hord-burh, st. f., _city in which is the treasure_ (of the king's),
_ruler's castle_: acc. sg., 467.

hord-gestreÛn, st. n., _hoard-treasure, precious treasure_: dat. pl.
hord-gestreÛnum, 1900; gen. pl. m‰gen-byrenne hord-gestreÛna, _the great
burden of rich treasures_, 3093.

hord-m‚um, st. m., _treasure-jewel, precious jewel_: acc. sg. (-madmum,
MS.), 1199.

hord-wela, w. m., _treasure-riches, abundance of treasures_: acc. sg.
hord-welan, 2345.

hord-weard, st. m., _warder of the treasure, hoard-warden_: 1) of the king:
nom. sg., 1048; acc. sg., 1853.--2) of the drake: nom. sg., 2294, 2303,
2555, 2594.

hord-weorung, st. f., _ornament out of the treasure, rich ornament_: acc.
sg.--weorunge, 953.

hord-wyn, st. f., _treasure-joy, joy-giving treasure_: acc. sg. hord-wynne,

horn, st. m., _horn_: 1) upon an animal: instr. pl. heorot hornum trum,
1370.--2) wind-instrument: nom. sg., 1424; acc. sg., 2944.--Comp. g˚-horn.

horn-boga, w. m., _bow made of horn_: dat. sg. of horn-bogan, 2438.

horn-ge·p, adj., of great extent between the (stag-)horns adorning the
gables(?): nom. sg. sele ... he·h and horn-ge·p, 82.

horn-reced, st. n., building whose two gables are crowned by the halves of
a stag's antler(?): acc. sg., 705. Cf. Heyne's Treatise on the Hall,
Heorot, p. 44.

hors, st. n., _horse_: nom. sg., 1400.

hÙciht, adj., _provided with hooks, hooked_: in comp. heoro-hÙciht.

be-hÙfian, w. v. w. gen., _to need, to want_: pres. sg. III. nu is se d‰g
cumen ˛at ˚re man-dryhten m‰genes behÙfa gÙdra g˚rinca, _now is the day
come when our lord needs the might of strong warriors_, 2648.

on-hÙhsnian, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. sg. ˛‰t onhÙhsnode Heminges mÊg (on
hohsnod, MS.), 1945.

hÙlinga, adv., _in vain, without reason_, 1077.

be-hÙn, st. v., _to hang with_: pret. part. helmum behongen, 3140.

hop, st. n., _protected place, place of refuge, place of concealment_, in
the compounds fen-, mÙr-hop.

hÙs (Goth, hansa), st. f., _accompanying troop, escort_: instr. sg. m‰ga
hÙse, _with an accompanying train of servingwomen_, 925.

hr‰e, adv., _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 224, 741, 749, 1391, etc.;
hrae, 1438; hree, 992; compar. hraor, 543.

hran-fix, st. m., _whale_: acc. pl. hron-fixas, 540.

hran-r‚d, st. f., _whale-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. ofer hron-r‚de, 10.

hr‚, st. n., _corpse_: nom. sg., 1589.

hr‚-fyl, st. m., _fall of corpses, killing, slaughter_: acc. sg., 277.

hr‰dlÓce, adv., _hastily, immediately_, 356, 964.

hr‰fn, hrefn, st. m., _raven_: nom. sg. hrefn blaca, _black raven_, 1802;
se wonna hrefn, _the dark raven_, 3025; dat. sg. hrefne, 2449.

hr‰gl, st. n., _dress, garment, armor_: nom. sg., 1196; gen. sg., hr‰gles,
1218; gen. pl. hr‰gla, 454--Comp.: beado-, fyrd-, mere-hr‰gl.

hree. See hrae.

hreer, st. m., _breast, bosom_ nom. sg. hreer inne weÛll _(it surged in
his breast_), 2114; hreer Ême weÛll, 2594; dat. sg. in hrere, 1152; of
hrere, 2820.--_Breast_ as the seat of feeling, _heart_: dat. sg. ˛‰t w‰s
... hrere hygemÍe, _that was depressing to the heart_ (of the slayer,
HÊcyn), 2443; on hrere, 1879, 2329; gen. pl. ˛urh hrera gehygd,
2046.--_Breast_ as seat of life: instr. sg. hrere, parallel with aldre,

hreer-bealo, st. n., _evil that takes hold on the heart, evil severely
felt_: acc. sg., 1344.

hrefn. See hr‰fn.

hrÍ, st. f., _glory_; in composition, g˚-hrÍ; _renown, assurance of
victory_, in sige-hrÍ.

hrÍe, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg. hrÍ (on account of the
following ‰t, final _e_ is elided, as wÍnic for wÍne ic, 442; frÙfor and
fultum for frÙfre and fultum, 699; firen ondrysne for firene ondr., 1933),

hrÍ-sigor, st. m., _glorious victory_: dat. sg. hrÍ-sigora, 2584.

hrÍmig, adj., _boasting, exulting_: with instr. and gen. h˚e hrÍmig, 124;
since hrÍmig, 1883; fr‰twum hrÍmig, 2055; nom. pl. nealles Hetware hrÍmge
˛orfton (sc. wesan) fÍe-wÓges, 2365.

on-hrÍran, w. v., _to excite, to stir up_: pret. part. on-hrÍred, 549,

hre‚-wÓc, st. n., _place of corpses_: acc. sg. Ge·ta leÛde hre‚-wÓc
heÛldon, _held the place of corpses_, 1215.

hre·d, st. f., _ornament_(?), in comp. earm-hre·d. See hreÛan.

hre·m, st. m., _noise, alarm_:: nom. sg., 1303.

hreÛa, w. m., _cover_, in the compound bord-hreÛa.

hreÛan, ge-hreÛan, st. v., _to cover, to clothe_; only in the pret. part.
hroden, gehroden, _dressed, adorned_: hroden, 495, 1023; ˛‚ w‰s heal hroden
feÛnda feorum, _then was the hall covered with the corpses of the enemy_,
1152; ge-hroden golde, _adorned with gold_, 304.--Comp.: be·g-,

hreÛh, hreÛw, hreÛ, adj., _excited, stormy, wild, angry, raging; sad,
troubled_: nom. sg. (BeÛwulf) hreÛh and heoro-grim, 1565; ˛‰t ˛am gÙdan w‰s
hreÛw on hrere, (_that came with violence upon him, pained his heart_),
2329; hreÛ wÊron ˝a, _the waves were angry, the sea stormy_, 548; n‰s him
hreÛh sefa, _his mind was not cruel_, 2181; dat. sg. on hreÛn mÙde, _of sad
heart_, 1308; on hreÛum mÙde, _angry at heart_, 2582.

hreÛh-mÙd, adj., _of sad heart_, 2133; _angry at heart_, 2297.

hreÛsan, st. v., _to fall, to sink, to rush_: pret. hre·s, 2489, 2832;
pret. pl. hruron, 1075; hie on weg hruron, _they rushed away_, 1431; hruron
him te·ras, _tears burst from him_, 1873.

be-hreÛsan, _to fall from, to be divested of_: pret. part. acc. pl.
fyrn-manna fatu ... hyrstum behrorene, _divested of ornaments_ (from which
the ornaments had fallen away), 2760.

hreÛw, st. f., _distress, sorrow_: gen. pl. ˛‰t w‰s HrÙg‚re hreÛwa
tornost, _that was to HrÙg‚r the bitterest of his sorrows_, 2130.

hring, st. m.: 1) _ring_: acc. sg. ˛one hring, 1203; hring gyldenne, 2810;
acc. pl. hringas, 1196, 1971, 3035; gen. pl. hringa, 1508, 2246.--2) _shirt
of mail_ (of interlaced rings): nom. sg. hring, 1504; byrnan hring,
2261.--Comp. b‚n-hring.

hringan, w. v., _to give forth a sound, to ring, to rattle_: pret. pl.
byrnan hringdon, 327.

hring-boga, w. m., _one who bends himself into a ring_: gen. sg.
hring-bogan (of the drake, bending himself into a circle), 2562.

hringed, pret. part., _made of rings_: nom. sg. hringed byrne, 1246; acc.
sg. hringde byrnan, 2616.

hringed-stefna, w. m., _ship whose stem is provided with iron rings_
(cramp-irons), especially of sea-going ships (cf. Fri-˛iofs saga, I:
˛orsteinn ‚tti skip ˛at er Ellidi hÍt, ... borit war spengt iarni): nom.
sg., 32, 1898; acc. sg. hringed-stefnan, 1132.

hring-Óren, st. n., _ring-iron, ring-mail_: nom. sg., 322.

hring-mÊl, adj., _marked with rings_, i.e. ornamented with rings, or marked
with characters of ring-form: nom. acc. sg., of the sword, 1522, 1562(?);
nom. pl. heard and hring-mÊl Heaobeardna gestreÛn (_rich armor_), 2038.

hring-naca, w. m., _ship with iron rings, sea-going ship_: nom. sg., 1863.

hring-net, st. n., _ring-net_, i.e. a shirt of interlaced rings: acc. sg.,
2755; acc. pl. hring-net, 1890.

hring-sele, st. m., _ring-hall_, i.e. hall in which are rings, or in which
rings are bestowed: acc. sg., 2841; dat. sg., 2011, 3054.

hring-weorung, st. f., _ring-ornament_: acc. sg. -weorunge, 3018.

hrÓnan, st. v. w. dat.: 1) _to touch, lay hold of_: inf. ˛‰t him heardra
n‚n hrÓnan wolde Óren ÊrgÙd (_that no good sword of valiant men would make
an impression on him_), 989; him for hrÙf-sele hrÓnan ne mehte fÊrgripe
flÙdes (_the sudden grip of the flood might not touch him owing to the
hall-roof_), 1516; ˛‰t ˛am hring-sele hrÓnan ne mÙste gumena Ênig _(so that
none might touch the ringed-hall), _3054; pret. sg. sian he hire folmum
[hr]‚n (_as soon as he touched it with his hands_), 723; Ù ˛‰t de·es wylm
hr‚n ‰t heortan (_seized his heart_), 2271. Pret. subj. ˛e·h ˛e him wund
hrÓne (_although he was wounded_), 2977.--2) (O.N. hrÓna, _sonare,
clamare), to resound, rustle_: pres. part. nom. pl. hrÓnde bearwas (for
hrÓnende) 1364; but see Note.

hroden. See hreÛan.

hron-fix. See hran-fix.

hrÙor, st. m., _joy, beneficium_: dat sg. hrefne tÙ hrÙre, 2449; gen. pl.
hrÙra, 2172.

hrÙf, st. m., _roof, ceiling of a house_: nom. sg., 1000; acc. sg. under
Heorotes hrÙf, 403; under ge·pne hrÙf, 838; geseah ste·pne hrÙf (here
_inner roof, ceiling_), 927; so, ofer he·hne hrÙf, 984; ymb ˛‰s helmes
hrÙf, 1031; under beorges hrÙf, 2756.--Comp. inwit-hrÙf.

hrÙf-sele, st. m., _covered hall_: dat. sg. hrÙf-sele, 1516.

hrÙr, adj., _stirring, wide-awake, valorous_: dat. sg. of ˛‰m hrÙran,
1630.--Comp. fela-hrÙr.

hruron. See hreÛsan.

hruse, w. f., _earth, soil_: nom. sg., 2248, 2559; acc. sg. on hrusan, 773,
2832; dat. sg. under hrusan, 2412.

hrycg, st. m., _back_: acc. sg. ofer w‰teres hrycg (_over the water's back,
surface_), 471.

hryre, st. m., _fall, destruction, ruin_: acc. sg., 3181; dat. sg., 1681,
3006.--Comp.: leÛd-, wÓg-hryre.

hrysian, w. v., _to shake, be shaken, clatter_: pret. pl. syrcan hrysedon
(_corselets rattled_, of men in motion), 226.

hund, st. m., _dog_: instr. pl. hundum, 1369.

hund, num., _hundred_: ˛reÛ hund, 2279; w. gen. pl. hund missera, 1499;
hund ˛˚senda landes and locenra be·ga, 2995.

h˚, adv., _how, quomodo_, 3, 116, 279, 738, 845, 2319, 2520, 2719, etc.

hu, st. f., _booty, plunder_: dat. (instr.) sg. h˚e, 124.

h˚ru, adv., _above all, certainly_, 369; _indeed, truly_, 182, 670, 1072,
1466, 1945, 2837; _yet, nevertheless_, 863; _now_, 3121.

h˚s, st. n., _house_: gen. sg. h˚ses, 116; gen. pl. h˚sa sÍlest (Heorot),
146, 285, 659, 936.

hwan, adv., _whither_: tÙ hwan syan wear hondrÊs h‰lea (_what issue the
hand-to-hand fight of the heroes had_), 2072.

hwanan, hwanon, adv., _whence_: hwanan, 257, 2404; hwanon, 333.

hw‚, interrog. and indef. pron., _who_: nom. sg. m. hw‚, 52, 2253, 3127;
neut. hw‰t, 173; ‚nes hw‰t (_a part only_), 3011; hw‰t ˛‚ men wÊron (_who
the men were_), 233, etc.; hw‰t syndon ge searo-h‰bbendra (_what armed men
are ye?_), 237; acc. sg. m. wi manna hwone (_from (?) any man_), 155;
neut. ˛urh hw‰t, 3069; hw‰t wit geÛ sprÊcon, 1477; hw‰t ... h˝no (gen.),
fÊr-nÓa (_what shame and sudden woes_), 474; so, hw‰t ˛u worn fela (_how
very much thou_), 530; swylces hw‰t, 881; hw‰t ... ‚rna, 1187; dat. m.
hw‚m, 1697.--Comp. Êg-hw‚.

hw‰t, interj., _what! lo! indeed!_ 1, 943, 2249.

ge-hw‚, w. part, gen., _each, each one_: acc. sg. m. wi feÛnda gehwone,
294; nÓa gehwane, 2398; mÍca gehwane, 2686; gum-cynnes gehwone, 2766; fem,
on healfa gehwone, 801; dat. sg. m. dÙgora gehw‚m, 88; ‰t nÓa gehw‚m, 883;
˛egna gehw‚m, 2034; eorla gehwÊm, 1421; fem. in mÊga ge-hwÊre, 25; nihta
gehwÊm, 1366; gen. sing. m. manna gehw‰s, 2528; fem. dÊda gehw‰s, 2839.

hw‚r. See hwÊr.

hw‰der. See hwider.

hw‰er, pron., _which of two_: nom. sg. hw‰er ... uncer twega, 2531; sw‚
hw‰er, _utercunque_: acc. sg. on sw‚ hw‰ere hond sw‚ him gemet ˛ince,
687.--Comp. Êg-hw‰er.

ge-hw‰er, _each of two, either-other_: nom. sg. m. w‰s gehw‰er Ùrum
lifigende l‚, 815; w‰s ... gehw‰er Ùrum hrÙra gemyndig, 2172; ne
gehw‰er incer (_nor either of you two_), 584; nom. sg. neut. gehw‰er ˛‚ra
(_either of them_, i.e. ready for war or peace), 1249; dat. sg. hiora
gehw‰rum, 2995; gen. sg. bega gehw‰res, 1044.

hw‰er, hw‰ere, hw‰re, 1) adv., _yet, nevertheless_: hw‰re, 555, 891,
1271, 2099, 2299, 2378, etc.; hw‰re sw‚ ˛e·h, _however, notwithstanding_,
2443; hw‰ere, 574, 578, 971, 1719--2) conj., = _utrum, whether_: hw‰re,
1315; hw‰er, 1357, 2786.

hw‰t, adj., _sharp, bold, valiant_: nom. sg. se secg hwata, 3029; dat. sg.
hwatum, 2162; nom. pl. hwate, 1602, 2053; acc. pl. hwate, 2643,
3006.--Comp.: fyrd-, gold-hw‰t.

hw‰t. See hw‚.

hwÊr, adv., _where_: elles hwÊr, _elsewhere_, 138; hwÊr, _somewhere_, 2030.
In elliptical question: wundur hw‚r ˛onne..., _is it a wonder when...?_
3063.--Comp. Ù-hwÊr.

ge-hwÊr, _everywhere_: ˛e·h ˛u heao-rÊsa gehwÊr dohte (_everywhere good in
battle_), 526.

hwelc. See hwylc.

hwergen, adv., _anywhere_: elles hwergen, _elsewhere_, 2591.

hwettan, w. v., _to encourage, urge_: pres. subj. sw‚ ˛in sefa hwette (_as
thy mind urges, as thou likest_), 490; pret. pl. hwetton higerÙfne (_they
whetted the brave one_), 204.

hwÍne, adv., _a little, paululum_, 2700.

hwealf, st. f., _vault_: acc. sg. under heofones hwealf, 576, 2016.

hweorfan, st. v., _to stride deliberately, turn, depart, move, die_: pres.
pl. ˛‚ra ˛e cwice hwyrfa, 98; inf. hwÓlum he on lufan lÊte hworfan monnes
mÙd-ge˛onc (_sometimes on love_ (?) _possessions_ (?) _permits the thoughts
of man to turn_), 1729; londrihtes mÙt ... monna Êghwylc Ódel hweorfan (_of
rights of land each one of men must be deprived_), 2889; pret. sg. f‰der
ellor hwearf ... of earde (_died_), 55; hwearf ˛‚ hr‰dlÓce ˛Êr HrÙg‚r s‰t,
356; hwearf ˛‚ bÓ bence (_turned then to the bench_), 1189; so, hwearf ˛‚
be wealle, 1574; hwearf geond ˛‰t reced, 1982; hlÊw oft ymbe hwearf (_went
oft round the cave_), 2297; nalles ‰fter lyfte l‚cende hwearf (_not at all
through the air did he go springing_), 2833; subj. pret. sg, Êr he on weg
hwurfe ... of geardum (_died_), 264.

and-hweorfan, _to move against_: pret. sg. Ù ˛‰t ... noran wind
heao-grim and-hwearf (_till the fierce north wind blew in our faces_),

‰t-hweorfan, _to go to_: pret. sg. hwÓlum he on beorh ‰t-hwearf (_at times
returned to the mountain_), 2300.

ge-hweorfan, _to go, come_: pret. sg. gehwearf ˛‚ in Francna f‰m feorh
cyninges, 1211; hit on Êht gehwearf ... Denigea fre·n, 1680; so, 1685,

geond-hweorfan, _to go through from end to end_: pres. sg. flet eall
geond-hwearf, 2018.

hwider, adv., _whither_: hwyder, 163; hw‰der (hw‰er, MS.), 1332.

hwÓl, st. f., _time, space of time_: nom. sg. w‰s seÛ hwÓl micel (_it was a
long time_), 146; ˛‚ w‰s hwÓl d‰ges (_the space of a day_), 1496; acc. sg.
hwÓle, _for a time_, 2138; _a while_, 105, 152; lange (longe) hwÓle, _a
long while_, 16, 2781; ‚ne hwÓle, _a while_, 1763; lytle hwÓle, _brief
space_, 2031, 2098; Ênige hwÓle, _any while_, 2549; l‰ssan hwÓle, _a lesser
while_, 2572; dat. sg. Êr d‰ges hwÓle, _before daybreak_, 2321; dat. pl.
nihtes hwÓlum, _sometimes at night_, 3045. Adv., _sometimes, often_:
hwÓlum, 175, 496, 917, 1729, 1829, 2017, 2112, etc.; hwÓlum ... hwÓlum,
2108-9-10.--Comp.: d‰g-, gesc‰p-, orleg-, sige-hwÓl.

hwÓt, adj., _brilliant, flashing_: nom. sg. se hwÓta helm, 1449.

hworfan. See hweorfan.

hwÙpan, st. v., _to cry, cry out mourn_: pret. sg. hweÛp, 2269.

hwyder. See hwider.

hwylc, pron., _which, what, any_: 1) adj.: nom. sg. m. sceaa ic n‚t hwylc,
274; fem, hwylc orleghwÓl, 2003; nom. pl. hwylce SÊge·ta sÓas wÊron,
1987.--2) subst., w. gen. pl. nom. m.: Frisna hwylc, 1105; fem, efne sw‚
hwylc m‰ga sw‚ ˛one magan cende (_whatever woman brought forth this son_),
944; neut. ˛onne his bearna hwylc (_than any one of his sons_), 2434; dat.
sg. efne sw‚ hwylcum manna sw‚ him gemet ˛˚hte, 3058.--Comp.: Êg-, n‚t-,

ge-hwylc, ge-hwilc, ge-hwelc, w. gen. pl., _each_: nom. sg. m. gehwylc,
986, 1167, 1674; acc. sg. m. gehwylcne, 937, 2251, 2517; gehwelcne, 148;
fem, gehwylce, 1706; neut. gehwylc, 2609; instr. sg. dÙgra gehwylce, 1091;
so, 2058, 2451; dat. sg. m. gehwylcum, 412, 769, 785, etc.; fem, ecga
gehwylcre, 806; neut. cynna gehwylcum, 98; gen. sg. m. and neut. gehwylces,
733, 1397, 2095.

hwyrft, st. m., _circling movement, turn_: dat. pl. adv. hwyrftum scrÓa
(_wander to and fro_), 163.--Comp. ed-hwyrft.

hycgan, w. v., _to think, resolve upon_: pret. sg. ic ˛‰t hogode ˛‰t ...
(_my intention was that ..._), 633.--Comp. w. pres. part.: bealo-, heard-,
swÓ-, ˛anc-, wÓs-hycgend.

for-hycgan, _to despise, scorn, reject with contempt_: pres. sg. I. ic ˛‰t
˛onne for-hicge ˛‰t ..., _reject with scorn the proposition that ..._, 435.

ge-hycgan, _to think, determine upon_: pret. sg. ˛‚ ˛u ... feorr gehogodest
s‰cce sÍcean, 1989.

ofer-hycgan, _to scorn_: pret. sg. ofer-hogode ˛‚ hringa fengel ˛‰t he ˛one
wÓdflogan weorode gesÙhte (_scorned to seek the wide-flier with a host_),

hydig (for hygdig), adj., _thinking, of a certain mind_: comp. ‚n-, bealo-,
grom-, nÓ-, ˛rÓst-hydig.

ge-hygd, st. n., _thought, sentiment_: acc. sg. ˛urh hrera gehygd,
2046.--Comp.: breÛst-, mÙd-gehygd, won-hyd.

hyge, hige, st. m., _mind, heart, thought_: nom. sg. hyge, 756; hige, 594;
acc. sg. ˛urh holdne hige, 267; gen. sg. higes, 2046; dat. pl. higum, 3149.

hyge-bend, st. m. f., _mind-fetter, heart-band_: instr. pl. hyge-bendum
f‰st, _fast in his mind's fetters, secretly_, 1879.

hyge-geÙmor, adj., _sad in mind_: nom. sg. hyge-giÙmor, 2409.

hyge-mÍe, adj.: 1) _sorrowful, soul-crushing_: nom. sg., 2443.--2)
_life-weary, dead_: dat. pl. hyge-mÍum (-mÊum, MS.), 2910.

hyge-rÙf, adj., _brave, valiant, vigorous-minded_: nom. sg. [hygerÙf], 403;
acc. sg. hige-rÙfne, 204.

hyge-sorh, st. f., _heart-sorrow_: gen. pl. -sorga, 2329.

hyge-˛yhtig, adj., _doughty, courageous_: acc. sg. hige-˛ihtigne (of
BeÛwulf), 747. See ˛yhtig.

hyge-˛rym, st. m., _animi majestas, high-mindedness_: dat. pl. for
hige-˛rymmum, 339.

hyht, st. m., _thought, pleasant thought, hope_ (Dietrich): nom. sg., 179.

ge-hyld (see healdan), st. n., _support, protection_: nom. sg., 3057.--Leo.

hyldan, w. v., _to incline one's self, lie down to sleep_: pret. sg. hylde
hine, _inclined himself, lay down_, 689.

hyldo, st. f., _inclination, friendliness, grace_: acc. sg. hyldo, 2068,
2294; gen. sg. hyldo, 671, 2999.

‚-hyrdan, w. v., _harden_: pret. part. ‚-hyrded, 1461.

hyrde. See hirde.

hyrst, st. f., _accoutrements, ornament, armor_: acc. sg. hyrste
(Ongen˛eÛw's _equipments and arms_), 2989; acc. pl. hyrsta, 3166; instr.
pl. hyrstum, 2763.

hyrstan, w. v., _to deck, adorn_: pret. part. hyrsted sweord, 673; helm
[hyr]sted golde, 2256.

hyrtan, w. v., _to take heart, be emboldened_: pret. sg. hyrte hyne
hord-weard (_the drake took heart_; see 2566, 2568, 2570), 2594.

hyse, st. m., _youth, young man_: nom. sg. as voc., 1218.

hyt. See hit.

h˝dan, w. v., _to hide, conceal, protect, preserve_: pres. subj. h˝de
[hine, _himself_] se ˛e wylle, 2767; inf. w. acc. nÙ ˛u mÓnne ˛earft
hafalan h˝dan, 446; Êr he in wille hafelan [h˝dan] (_ere in it he_ [the
stag] _will hide his head_), 1373.

ge-h˝dan, w. acc., _to conceal, preserve_: pret. sg. geh˝dde, 2236, 3060.

h˝, st. f., _haven_: dat. sg. ‰t h˝e, 32.

h˝-weard, st. m., _haven-warden_: nom. sg., 1915.

h˝nan (see he·n), w. v. w. acc., _to crush, afflict, injure_: pret. sg.
h˝nde, 2320.

h˝nu, st. f., _oppression, affliction, injury_: acc. sg. h˝nu, 277; gen.
sg. hw‰t ... h˝no, 475; fela ... h˝no, 594; gen. pl. heardra h˝na, 166.

h˝ran, w. v.: 1) _to hear, perceive, learn_: a) w. inf. or acc. with inf.:
I. pret. sg. h˝rde ic, 38, 582, 1347, 1843, 2024; III. sg. ˛‰t he fram
Sigemunde secgan h˝rde, 876; I. pl. sw‚ we sÙlÓce secgan h˝rdon, 273. b)
w. acc.: nÊnigne ic ... sÍlran h˝rde hordm‚um (_I heard of no better
hoard-jewel_), 1198. c) w. dependent clause: I. sg. pret. h˝rde ic ˛‰t ...,
62, 2164, 2173.--2) w. dat. of person, _to obey_: inf. Ù ˛‰t him Êghwylc
˛‚ra ymbsittendra h˝ran scolde, 10; h˝ran heao-siÛcum, 2755; Pret. pl. ˛‰t
him winem‚gas georne h˝rdon, 66.

ge-h˝ran, _to hear, learn_: a) w. acc.: II. pers. sg. pres. mÓnne geh˝ra
‚nfealdne ge˛Ùht, 255; III. sg. pret. geh˝rde on BeÛwulfe f‰strÊdne ge˛Ùht,
610. b) w. acc. and inf.: III. pl. pret. geh˝rdon, 786. c) w. depend.
clause: I. pres. sg. ic ˛‰t geh˝re ˛‰t ..., 290.


ic, pers. pron. _I_: acc. mec, dat. me, gen. mÓn; dual nom. wit, acc.
uncit, unc, dat. unc, gen. uncer; pl. nom. we, acc. ˚sic, ˚s, dat. ˚s, gen.
˚ser. ic omitted before the verb, 470.

icge, _gold_ (perhaps related to Sanskrit ÓÁ, = dominare, imperare, O.H.G.
Íht, _wealth_, opes), _treasure?, sword_ (edge)?, 1108.--Kˆrner.

ides, st. f., _woman, lady, queen_: nom. sg., 621, 1076, 1118, 1169; dat.
sg. idese, 1650, 1942. Also of Grendel's mother: nom. sg., 1260; gen. sg.
idese, 1352.

in. See inn.

in: I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat. (local, indicating rest), _in_:
in geardum, 13, 2460; in ˛‰m g˚sele, 443; in beÛrsele, 2636; so, 89, 482,
589, 696, 729, 2140, 2233, etc.; in mÊga gehwÊre, 25; in ˛˝strum, 87; in
Caines cynne, 107; in hyra gryregeatwum (_in their accoutrements of terror,
war-weeds_), 324; so, 395; in campe (_in battle_), 2506; hiora in ‚num (_in
one of them_), 2600. Prep. postpositive: Scedelandum in, 19. Also, _on,
upon_, like on: in ealo-bence, 1030; in gumstÙle, 1953; in ˛am wongstede
(_on the grassy plain, the battle-field_), 2787; in bÊlstede, 3098.
Temporal: in ge‚r-dagum, 1.--2) w. acc. (local, indicating motion), _in,
into_: in woruld, 60; in f˝res f‰m, 185; so, 1211; in Hrefnesholt, 2936.
Temporal, _in, at, about, toward_: in ˛‚ tÓde (in watide, MS.), 2228.

II. adv., _in_ (here or there), 386, 1038, 1372, 1503, 1645, 2153, 2191,
2228; inn, 3091.

incge, adj. (perhaps related to icge), instr. sg. incge l‚fe (_with the
costly sword_ ? or _with mighty sword_?), 2578.--[_Edge_: incge l‚fe, _edge
of the sword_.--K. Kˆrner?]

in-frÙd, adj., _very aged_: nom. sg., 2450; dat. sg. in-frÙdum, 1875.

in-gang, st. m., _entrance, access to_: acc. sg., 1550.

in-genga, w. m., _in-goer, visitor_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 1777.

in-gesteald, st. m., _house-property, possessions in the house_: acc. sg.,

inn, st. n., _apartment, house_: nom. sg. in, 1301.

innan, adv., _within, inside_, 775, 1018, 2413, 2720; on innan (_in the
interior_), _within_, 1741, 2716; ˛Êr on innan (_in there_), 71; burgum on
innan (_within his city_), 1969. Also, _therein_: ˛Êr on innan, 2090, 2215,

innan-weard, adv., _inwards, inside, within_, 992, 1977; inne-weard, 999.

inne, adv.: 1) _inside, within_, 643, 1282, 1571, 2114, 3060; word inne
‚be·d (_called, sent word, in_, i.e. standing in the hall door), 390; _in
it_ (i.e. the battle), 1142; ˛Êr inne (_therein_), 118, 1618, 2116, 2227,
3088.--2) = _insuper, still further, besides_, 1867.

inwit, st. n., _evil, mischief, spite, cunning hostility_, as in

inwit-feng, st. m., _malicious grasp, grasp of a cunning foe_: nom. sg.,

inwit-g‰st, st. m., _evil guest, hostile stranger_: nom. sg., 2671.

inwit-hrÙf, st. m., _hostile roof, hiding-place of a cunning foe_: acc. sg.
under inwit-hrÙf, 3124.

inwit-net, st. n., _mischief-net, cunning snare_: acc. sg., 2168.

inwit-nÓ, st. n., _cunning hostility, hostile contest_: nom. pl.
inwit-nÓas (_hostility through secret attack_), 1859; gen. pl. inwit-nÓa,

inwit-scear, st. m., _massacre through cunning, murderous attack_: acc. sg.
eatolne inwit-scear, 2479.

inwit-searo, st. n., _cunning, artful intrigue_: acc. sg. ˛urh inwit-searo,
1102. See searo.

inwit-sorh, st. f., _grief, remorse, mourning springing from hostile
cunning_: nom. sg., 1737; acc. sg. inwid-sorge, 832.

inwit-˛anc, adj., _ill-disposed, malicious_: dat. sg. he onfÍng hrae
inwit-˛ancum (_he quickly grasped the cunning-in-mind_ [Grendel]), 749.

irnan (for rinnan), st. v., _to run_: so be-irnan, _to run up to_, occur_:
pret. sg him on mÙd be-arn (_came into his mind_), 67.

on-irnan, _to open_: pret. sg. duru sÙna onarn, 722.

irre-mÙd, adj. See yrre-mÙd.


Ódel, adj., _empty, bare; deprived of_: nom. sg., 145, 413; w. gen.
lond-rihtes ˛Êre mÊgburge Ódel (_deprived of his land-possessions among the
people_ [of the Ge·tas]), 2889.

Ódel-hende, adj., _empty-handed_, 2082.

Óren, st. n., _iron, sword_: nom. sg. dryhtlÓc Óren (_the doughty, lordly
sword_), 893; Óren Êr-gÙd, 990; acc. sg. leÛflÓc Óren, 1810; gen. pl. Órena
cyst (_choicest of swords_), 674; Órenna cyst, 803; Órenna ecge (_edges of
swords_), 2684.

Óren, adj., _of iron_: nom. sg. ecg w‰s Óren, 1460.

Óren-bend, st. f., _iron band, bond, rivet_: instr. pl. Óren-bendum f‰st
(bold), 775, 999.

Óren-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. Óren-byrnan, 2987. See

Óren-heard, adj., _hard as iron_: nom. sg., 1113.

Órenne, adj., _of iron_: in comp. eall-Órenne.

Óren-˛re·t, st. m., _iron troop, armored band_: nom. sg., 330.

Ós, st. n., _ice_: dat. sg. Óse, 1609.

Ósern-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. Ósern-byrnan, 672. See

Ósern-sc˚r, st. f., _iron shower, shower of arrows_: gen. sg. ˛one ˛e oft
geb‚d Ósern-sc˚re, 3117.

Ós-gebind, st. n., _fetters of ice_: instr. sg. Ós-gebinde, 1134.

Ósig, adj., _shining, brilliant_ (like brass): nom. sg. Ósig (said of a
vessel covered with plates(?) of metal), 33.--Leo.


i˙. See geÛ.

i˙-man. See geÛ-man.

iÛ-meÛwle. See geÛ-meÛwle.


lau, st. f., _invitation_.--Comp.: freÛnd-, neÛd-lau.

ge-lafian, w. v. w. acc. pers. and instr. of the thing, _to refresh, lave_:
pret. sg. wine-dryhten his w‰tere gelafede, 2723.

lagu, st. m., _lake, sea_: nom. sg., 1631.

lagu-cr‰ftig, adj., _acquainted with the sea_: nom. sg. lagu-cr‰ftig mon
(_pilot_), 209.

lagu-strÊt, st. f., _path over the sea_: acc. sg. ofer lagu-strÊte, 239.

lagu-stre·m, st. m., _sea-current, flood_: acc. pl. ofer lagu-stre·mas,

land, st. n., _land_: nom. sg. lond, 2198; acc. sg. land, 221, 2063; lond,
2472, 2493; land Dena, 242, 253; lond Brondinga, 521; Finna land, 580; dat.
sg. on lande (_in the land_), 2311, 2837; _at near, land, shore_, 1914; tÙ
lande (_to the land, ashore_), 1624; gen. sg. landes, 2996; gen. pl. ofer
landa fela (_over much country, space; afar_), 31l.--Comp.: el-, e·-land.

land-b˚end, part, pres., terricola, _inhabitant of the land_: nom. pl.
lond-b˚end, 1346; dat. pl. land-b˚endum, 95.

land-fruma, w. m., _ruler, prince of the country_: nom. sg., 31.

land-gemyrcu, st. n. pl., _frontier, land-mark_: acc. pl., 209.

land-geweorc, st. n., _land-work, fortified place_: acc. sg. leÛda
land-geweorc, 939. See weorc, geweorc.

land-riht, st. n., _prerogatives based upon land-possessions, right to
possess land_, hence _real estate_ itself: gen. sg. lond-rihtes Ódel, 2887.

land-waru, st. f., _inhabitants, population_: acc. pl. land-wara, 2322.

land-weard, st. m., _guard, guardian of the frontier_: nom. sg., 1891.

lang, long, adj., _long_: 1) temporal: nom. sg. tÙ lang, 2094; n‰s ˛‚ long
(lang) tÙ ˛on (_not long after_), 2592, 2846; acc. sg. lange hwÓle (_for a
long time_), 16, 2160, 2781; longe (lange) ˛rage, 54, 114, 1258; lange tÓd,
1916. Compar. nom. sg. lengra fyrst, 134.--2) local, nom. sg. se w‰s
fÓftiges fÙtgemearces lang, 3044.--Comp.: and-, morgen-, niht-, up-lang.

lange, longe, adv., _long_: lange, 31, 1995, 2131, 2345, 2424; longe, 1062,
2752, 3109; tÙ lange (_too long, excessively long_), 906, 1337, 1749.
Compar. leng, 451, 1855, 2802, 3065; nÙ ˛˝ leng (_none the longer_), 975.
Superl. lengest (_longest_), 2009, 2239.

ge-lang, adj., _extending, reaching to something_ or _somebody_, hence
_ready, prepared_: n˚ is rÊd gelang eft ‰t ˛e ‚num (_now is help [counsel]
at hand in thee alone_), 1377; gen is eall ‰t ˛e lissa gelong (_all of
favor is still on thee dependent, is thine_), 2151. See ge-lenge.

lang-ge-streÛn, st. n., _long-lasting treasure_: gen. pl. long-gestreÛna,

langian, w. v., reflex, w. dat, _to long, yearn_: pres. sg. III. him
...‰fter deÛrum men dyrne langa beorn (_the hero longeth secretly after
the dear man_), 1880.

lang-sum, adj., _long-lasting, continuing_: nom. sg. longsum, 134, 192,
1723; acc. sg. long-sumne, 1537.

lang-twidig, adj., _long-granted, assured_: nom. sg., 1709.

lata, w. m., _a lazy, cowardly one_; in comp. hild-lata.

l‚, interj., _yes! indeed!_ 1701, 2865.

l‚c, st. n.: 1) _measured movement, play_: in comp. beadu-, heao-l‚c.--2)
_gift, offering_: acc. pl. l‚c, 1864; l‚lÓcu l‚c (_loathly offering,
prey_), 1585; dat. pl. l‚cum, 43, 1869.--Comp. sÊ-l‚c.

ge-l‚c, st. n., _sport, play_: acc. pl. sweorda gel‚c (_battle_), 1041;
dat. pl. ‰t ecga gel‚cum, 1169.

l‚can, st. v., _to move in measured time, dancing, playing, fighting,
flying_, etc.: inf. dareum l‚can (_fight_), 2849; part. pres. ‰fter lyfte
l‚cende (_flying through the air_), 2833.

for-l‚can, _to deceive, betray_: part, pret. he wear on feÛnda geweald
for forl‚cen (_deceitfully betrayed into the enemy's hands_), 904.

l‚d, st. f., _street, way, journey_: dat. sg. on l‚de, 1988; gen. sg. l‚de,
569.--Comp.: brim-, sÊ-l‚d.

ge-l‚d, st. n., _way, path, road_: acc. sg. unc˚ gel‚d, 1411.

l‚, adj., _loathly, evil, hateful, hostile_: nom. sg. l‚, 816; l‚
lyft-floga, 2316; l‚ (_enemy_), 440; ne leÛf ne l‚, 511; neut. l‚, 134,
192; in weak form, se l‚a (of the dragon), 2306; acc. sg. l‚ne (wyrm),
3041; dat. sg. l‚um, 440, 1258; gen. sg. l‚es (of the enemy), 842; fela
l‚es (_much evil_), 930; so, 1062; l‚an lÓges, 83; l‚an cynnes, 2009,
2355; ˛‰s l‚an (of the enemy), 132; acc. pl. neut. l‚ gewidru (_hateful
storms_), 1376; dat. instr. pl. wi l‚um, 550; l‚um scuccum and scinnum,
939; l‚um dÊdum (_with evil deeds_), 2468; l‚an fingrum, 1506; gen. pl.
l‚ra manna, spella, 2673, 3030; l‚ra (_the enemy_), 242. Compar. nom. sg.
l‚ra ... beorn, 2433.

l‚-bite, st. m., _hostile bite_: dat. sg. l‚-bite lÓces (_the body's
hostile bite_ = the wound), 1123.

l‚-geteÛna, w. m., _evil-doer, injurer_: nom. sg., 975; nom. pl.
l‚-geteÛnan, 559.

l‚-lÓc, adj., _loathly, hostile_: acc. pl. l‚-lÓcu, 1585.

l‚f, st. f.: 1) _what is left, relic; inheritance, heritage, legacy_: nom.
sg. HrÍlan l‚f (BeÛwulf's corselet), 454; nom. pl. fÍla l‚fe (_the
leavings of files_ = swords, Grein), 1033; so, homera l‚fe, 2830; on him
gladia gomelra l‚fe, heard and hringmÊl Heaobeardna gestreÛn (_on him
gleams the forefather's bequest, hard and ring-decked, the Heaobeardas'
treasure_, i.e. the equipments taken from the slain king of the
Heaobeardas), 2037; acc. sg. sweorda l‚fe (_leavings of the sword_, i.e.
those spared by the sword), 2937.--2) _the sword as a specially precious
heir-loom_: nom. sg., 2629; acc. sg. l‚fe, 796, 1489, 1689, 2192, 2564;
instr. sg. incge l‚fe, 2578.--Comp.: ende-, eormen-, we·-, yrfe-, ˝-l‚f.

l‚r, st. f., _lore, instruction, prescription_: dat. sg. be f‰der l‚re,
1951; gen. pl. l‚ra, 1221; l‚rena, 269.--Comp. freÛnd-l‚r.

l‚st, st. m., _footstep, track_: acc. sg. l‚st, 132, 972, 2165; on l‚st
(_on the traces of, behind_), 2946; nom. pl. l‚stas, 1403; acc. pl. l‚stas,
842.--Comp.: fÍe-, feorh-, fÙt-, wr‰c-l‚st.

l‰ger. See leger.

l‚ger-bed, st. n., _bed to lie on_ : instr. sg. leger-bedde, 1008.

l‰s, adj., _less_, 1947; ˛˝ l‰s (_the less_), 487; conjunct, _that not,
lest_, 1919.

l‰ssa, adj., _less, fewer_: nom. sg. l‰ssa, 1283; acc. sg. m. l‰ssan, 43;
fem, l‰ssan hwÓle, 2572; dat. sg. for l‰ssan (_for less, smaller_), 952.
Superl. nom. sg. nÙ ˛‰t l‰sest w‰s hond-gemÙt[a], 2355.

l‰t, adj., _negligent, neglectful_; w. gen.: nom. sg. elnes l‰t, 1530.

lÊdan, w. v. w. acc.: _to lead, guide, bring_: inf. lÊdan, 239; pret. pl.
lÊddon, 1160.

for-1Êdan, _to mislead_: pret. pl. for-lÊddan, 2440 (?).

ge-lÊdan, _lead, bring_: part. pret. ge-lÊded, 37.

lÊfan, w. v.: 1), _to bequeathe, leave_: imper. sg. ˛Ónum magum lÊf folc
and rÓce, 1179; pret. sg. eaferum lÊfde ... lond and leÛdbyrig, 2471.--2)
_spare, leave behind_: ‚ht cwices lÊfan (_to spare aught living_), 2316.

lÊn-dagas, st. m. pl., _loan-days, transitory days_ (of earthly existence
as contrasted with the heavenly, unending): acc. pl. lÊn-dagas, 2592; gen.
pl. lÊn-daga, 2342.

lÊne, adj., _inconstant, perishable, evanescent, given over to death or
destruction_: nom. sg., 1755, 3179; acc. sg. of rust-eaten treasures, 3130;
˛‚s lÊnan gesceaft (_this fleeting life_), 1623; gen. sg. lÊnan lÓfes,

lÊran, w. v., _to teach, instruct_: imper. sg. ˛u ˛e lÊr be ˛on (_learn
this, take this to heart_), 1723.

ge-lÊran, _to teach, instruct, give instruction_: inf. ic ˛‰s HrÙg‚r m‰g
... rÊd gelÊran (_I can give H. good advice about this_), 278; so, 3080;
pret. pl. ˛‚ me ˛‰t ge-lÊrdon leÛde mÓne (_gave me the advice_), 415.

lÊstan, w. v.: 1) _to follow, to sustain, serve_: inf. ˛‰t him se lÓc-homa
lÊstan nolde (_that his body would not sustain him_), 813.--2) _perform_:
imper. lÊst eall tela (_do all well_), 2664.

ge-lÊstan: 1) _to follow, serve_: pret. sg. (sweord) ˛‰t mec Êr and oft
gelÊste, 2501.--2) _to fulfil, grant_: subj. pres. pl. ˛‰t ... wilgesÓas,
˛onne wÓg cume, leÛde gelÊstan (_render war service_), 24; inf. ic ˛e sceal
mÓne gelÊstan freÛde (_shall grant thee my friendship, be grateful_), 1707;
pret. sg. beÛt ... gelÊste (_fulfilled his boast_), 524; gelÊste sw‚ (_kept
his word_), 2991; pres. part. h‰fde E·st-Denum ... gilp gelÊsted (_had
fulfilled for the East Danes his boast_), 830.

lÊtan, st. v., _to let, allow_, w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. III. lÊte,
1729; imper. pl. II. lÊta, 397; sg. II. lÊt, 1489; pret. sg. lÍt, 2390,
2551, 2978, 3151(?); pret. pl. lÍton, 48, 865, 3133; subj. pret. sg. II.
lÍte, 1997; sg. III. lÍte, 3083.

‚-lÊtan: 1) _to let, allow_: subj. pres. sg. II. ˛‰t ˛u ne ‚lÊte ... dÙm
ge-dreÛsan, 2666.--2) _to leave, lay aside_: inf. ‚lÊtan lÊn-dagas (_die_)
2592; so, ‚lÊtan lÓf and leÛdscipe, 2751.

for-lÊtan: 1) _to let, permit_, w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg. for-lÍt, 971;
pret. pl. for-lÍton, 3168. Also with inf. omitted: inf. nolde eorla hleÛ
... ˛one cwealmcuman cwicne (i.e. wesan) forlÊtan (_would not let the
murderous spirit go alive_), 793.--2) _to leave behind, leave_: pret. sg.
in ˛am wong-stede ... ˛Êr he hine Êr forlÍt (_where he had previously left
him_), 2788.

of-lÊtan, _to leave, lay aside_: pres. sg. II. gyf ˛u Êr ˛onne he worold
oflÊtest (_leavest the world, diest_), 1184; so pret. sg. oflÍt lÓf-dagas
and ˛‚s lÊnan gesceaft, 1623.

on-lÊtan, _to release, liberate_: pres. sg. III. ˛onne forstes bend f‰der
on-lÊte (_as soon as the Father looseth the frost's fetters_), 1610.

‚-lecgan, w. v.: 1) _to lay, lay down_: pret. sg. syan hilde-deÛr hond
‚-legde ... under ge·pne hrÙf, 835; ˛‰t he on BeÛwulfes bearm ‚-legde
(_this_ [the sword] _he laid in B.'s bosom, presented to him_), 2195; pret.
pl. ‚-ledon ˛‚ leÛfne ˛eÛden ... on bearm scipes, 34; ‚-legdon ˛‚ tÙ middes
mÊrne ˛eÛden _(laid the mighty prince in the midst_ [of the pyre]),
3142.--2) _to lay aside, give up_: sian ... in fen-freoo feorh ‚-legde
(_laid down his life, died_), 852; nu se here-wÓsa hleahtor ‚-legde, gamen
and gleÛ-dre·m _(now the war-chief has left laughter_, etc.), 3021.

leger, st. n., _couch, bed, lair_: dat. sg. on legere, 3044.

lemian, w. v., _to lame, hinder, oppress_: pret. sg. (for pl.) hine
sorh-wylmas lemede tÙ lange, 906. MS.

leng. See lang.

lenge, adj., _extending along_ or _to, near_ (of time): nom. sg. neut. ne
w‰s hit lenge ˛‚ gen (_nor was it yet long_), 83.

ge-lenge, adj., _extending, reaching to, belonging_: nom. sg. yrfe-weard
... lÓce gelenge (_an heir belonging to one's body_), 2733.

let, st. m., _place of rest, sojourn?_ in comp. eo-let (_voyage?_).

lettan, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. pl. (acc. pers. and gen. thing), ˛‰t
syan n‚ ... brim-lÓende l‚de ne letton (_might no longer hinder
seafarers from journeying_), 569.

‚-lÍdon. See ‚-lecgan.

lÍg, st. m., _flame, fire_: nom. sg. wonna lÍg (_the lurid flame_), 3116;
swÙgende lÍg, 3146; dat. sg. for dracan lÍge, 2550. See lÓg.

lÍg-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, flaming dragon_: nom. sg., 3041.

*leahan, le·n, st. v. w. acc. _to scold, blame_: pres. sg. III. lyh, 1049;
pret. sg. lÙg, 1812; pret. pl. lÙgon, 203, 863.

be-le·n, _to dissuade, prevent_: inf. ne inc Ênig mon ... bele·n mihte
sorhfullne sÓ (_no one might dissuade you twain from your difficult
journey_), 511.

leahtre. See or-leahtre.

le·f, st. n., _leaf, foliage_: instr. pl. le·fum, 97.

le·fnes-word, st. n., _permission, leave_: acc. pl., 245.

le·n. See leahan.

le·n, st. n., _reward, compensation_: acc. sg., 114, 952, 1221, 1585, 2392;
dat. sg. le·ne, 1022. Often in the pl.: acc. ˛‚ le·n, 2996; dat. ˛am
le·num, 2146; gen. le·na, 2991.--Comp.: and-, ende-le·n.

le‚n (for lÊn, O.H.G. lÍhan), st. n, _loan_, 1810.

le·nian, w. v., _to reward, compensate_: pres. sg. I. ic ˛e ˛‚ fÊhe feÛ
le·nige (_repay thee for the contest with old-time treasures_), 1381; pret.
sg. me ˛one w‰l-rÊs wine Scyldinga f‰ttan golde fela le·node (_the friend
of the Scyldings rewarded me richly for the combat with plated gold_),

le·s, adj., _false_: nom. pl. le·se, 253.

le·s, adj., _deprived of, free from_, w. gen.: nom. sg. dre·ma le·s, 851;
dat. sg. winigea le·sum, 1665.--Comp.: dÙm-, dre·m-, ealdor-, feoh-,
feormend-, hl‚ford-, s‚wol-, sige-, sorh-, tÓr-, ˛eÛden-, wine-, wyn-le·s.

le·sig, adj., _concealing one's self_; in comp. sin-le·sig(?).

leoo-cr‰ft, st. m., _the art of weaving_ or _working in meshes, wire_,
etc.: instr. pl. segn eall-gylden ... gelocen leoo-cr‰ftum (_a banner all
hand-wrought of interlaced gold_), 2770.

leoo-syrce, w. f., _shirt of mail (limb-sark)_: acc. sg. locene
leoo-syrcan (_locked linked sark_), 1506; acc. pl. locene leoo-syrcan,

leomum. See lim.

leornian, w. v., _to learn, devise, plan_: pret. him ˛‰s g˚-cyning ...
wr‰ce leornode (_the war-king planned vengeance therefor_), 2337.

leÛd, st. m., _prince_: nom. sg., 341, 348, 670, 830, 1433, 1493, 1613,
1654, etc.; acc. leÛd, 626.

leÛd, st. f., _people_: gen. sg. leÛde, 597, 600, 697. In pl. indicates
_individuals, people, kinsmen_: nom. pl. leÛde, 362, 415, 1214, 2126, etc.;
gum-cynnes Ge·ta leÛde (_people of the race of the Ge·tas_), 260; acc. pl.
leÛde, 192, 443, 1337, 1346, etc.; dat. pl. leÛdum, 389, 521, 619, 698,
906, 1160, etc.; gen. pl. leÛda, 205, 635, 794, 1674, 2034, etc.

leÛd-bealo, st. n., (_mischief, misfortune affecting an entire people_),
_great, unheard-of calamity_: acc. sg., 1723; gen. pl. leÛd-bealewa, 1947.

leÛd-burh, st. f., _princely castle, stronghold of a ruler, chief city_:
acc. pl. -byrig, 2472.

leÛd-cyning, st. m., _king of the people_: nom. sg., 54.

leÛd-fruma, w. m., _prince of the people, ruler_: acc. sg. leÛd-fruman,

leÛd-gebyrgea, w. m., _protector of the people, prince_: acc. sg.
-gebyrgean, 269.

leÛd-hryre, st. m., _fall, overthrow, of the prince, ruler_: dat. sg. ‰fter
leÛd-hryre (_after the fall of the king of the Heaobeardas_, FrÙda, cf.
2051), 2031; gen. sg. ˛‰s leÛd-hryres (of the fall of Heardred, cf. 2389),

leÛd-sceaa, w. m., _injurer of the people_: dat. sg. ˛am leÛd-sceaan,

leÛd-scipe, st. m., _the whole nation, people_: acc. sg., 2752; dat. sg. on
˛am leÛd-scipe, 2198.

leÛ, st. n., _song, lay_: nom. sg., 1160.--Comp.: fyrd-, gryre-, g˚-,

leÛf, adj., _lief, dear_: nom. sg., 31, 54, 203, 511, 521, 1877, 2468; weak
form m., leÛfa, 1217, 1484, 1855, 2664; acc. sg. m. leÛfne, 34, 297, 619,
1944, 2128, 3109, 3143; gen. sg. leÛfes (m.), 1995, 2081, 2898; (neut.),
1062, 2911; dat. pl. leÛfum, 1074; gen. pl. leÛfra, 1916. Compar. nom. sg.
neut. leÛfre, 2652. Superl. nom. sg. m. leÛfost, 1297; acc. sg. ˛one
leÛfestan, 2824.

leÛflÓc, _dear, precious, valued_: nom. sg. m. leÛflÓc lind-wÓga, 2604;
acc. sg. neut. leÛflÓc Óren, 1810.

leÛgan, st. v., _to lie, belie, deceive_. subj. pres. n‰fne him his wlite
leÛge (_unless his looks belie him_), 250; pret. sg. he ne le·g fela wyrda
ne worda, 3030.

‚-leÛgan, _to deceive, leave unfulfilled_: pret. sg. he beÛt ne ‚-lÍh (_he
left not his promise unfulfilled_), 80.

ge-leÛgan, _to deceive, betray_: pret. sg. him seÛ wÍn gele·h (_hope
deceived him_), 2324.

leÛht, st. n., _light, brilliance_: nom. sg., 569, 728, 1751 (?); acc. sg.
sunnan leÛht, 649; godes leÛht gece·s (_chose God's light, died_), 2470;
dat. sg. tÙ leÛhte, 95.--Comp.: Êfen-, f˝r-, morgen-leÛht.

leÛht, adj., _luminous, bright_: instr. sg. leÛhtan sweorde, 2493.

leÛma, w. m.: 1) _light, splendor_: nom. sg., 311, 2770; acc. sg. leÛman,
1518; sunnan and mÙnan leÛman (_light of sun and moon_), 95.--2) (as beadu-
and hilde-leÛma), _the glittering sword_: nom. sg. lixte se leÛma (_the
blade-gleam flashed_), 1571.

leÛsan, st. v., = amitti, in

be-leÛsan, _to deprive, be deprived of_: pres. part. (heÛ) wear beloren
leÛfum bearnum and brÙrum (_was deprived of her dear children and
brethren_), 1074.

for-leÛsan, with dat. instr., _to lose something_: pret. sg. ˛Êr he dÙme
for-le·s, ellen-mÊrum (_there lost he the glory, the repute, of his heroic
deeds_), 1471; pret. sg. for pl. ˛‚m ˛e Êr his elne for-le·s (_to him who,
before, had lost his valor_), 2862; part. pret. nealles ic ˛‚m le·num
for-loren h‰fde (_not at all had I lost the rewards_), 2146.

libban, w. v., _to live, be, exist_: pres. sing. III. lifa, 3169; lyfa,
945; leofa, 975, 1367, 2009; subj. pres. sg. II. lifige, 1225; pres. part.
lifigende, 816, 1954, 1974, 2063; dat. sg. be ˛e lifigendum (_in thy
lifetime_), 2666; pret. sg. lifde, 57, 1258; lyfde, 2145; pret. pl. lifdon,
99. See unlifigende.

licgan, st. v.: 1) _to lie, lie down_ or _low_: pres. sg. nu seÛ hand lige
(_now the hand lies low_), 1344; nu se wyrm lige, 2746, so 2904; inf.
licgan, 3130; licgean, 967, 3083; pret. sg. l‰g, 40, 552, 2078; syan
HeardrÍd l‰g (_after HeardrÍd had fallen_), 2389; pret. pl. l‚gon, 3049;
lÊgon, 566.--2) _to lie prostrate, rest, fail_: pret. sg. nÊfre on Ùre l‰g
wÓd-c˚es wÓg (_never failed the far-famed one's valor at the front_),
1042; syan wier-gyld l‰g (_after vengeance failed_, or, _when Withergyld
lay dead_, if _W._ is a proper name), 2052.

‚-licgan, _to succumb, fail, yield_: inf. 2887; pret. sg. ˛‰t his dÙm ‚-l‰g
(_that its power failed it_), 1529.

ge-licgan, _to rest, lie still_: pret. sg. wind-blond gel‰g, 3147.

lida, w. m., _boat, ship_ (as in motion); in comp.: sund-, ˝-lida.

lid-man, st. m., _seafarer, sailor_: gen. pl. lid-manna, 1624.

lim, st. n., _limb, branch_: instr. pl. leomum, 97.

limpan, st. v., _to happen, befall_ (well or ill); impers. w. dat. pret.
sg. h˚ lomp eÛw on l‚de (_how went it with you on the journey?_), 1988.

‚-limpan, _to come about, offer itself_: pret. sg. Ù ˛‰t sÊl ‚-lamp (_till
the opportunity presented itself_), 623; pret. part, ˛‚ him ‚-lumpen w‰s
wistfylle wÍn (_since a hope of a full meal had befallen him_), 734.

be-limpan, _to happen to, befall_: pret. sg. him siÛ s‚r belamp, 2469.

ge-limpan, _to happen, occur, turn out_: pres. sg. III. hit eft gelimpe
˛‰t..., 1754; subj. pres. ˛isse ans˝ne alwealdan ˛anc lungre gelimpe
(_thanks to the Almighty forthwith for this sight!_), 930; pret. sg. him on
fyrste gelamp ˛‰t..., 76; sw‚ him ful-oft gelamp (_as often happened to
them_), 1253; ˛‰s ˛e hire se willa gelamp ˛‰t ... (_because her wish had
been fulfilled_), 627; frÙfor eft gelamp s‚rig-mÙdum, 2942; subj. pret. gif
him ˛yslÓcu ˛earf gelumpe, 2638; pret. part. Denum eallum wear ... willa
gelumpen, 825.

lind, st. f. (properly _linden_; here, a a wooden shield covered with
linden-bark or pith): nom. sg., 2342; acc. sg. geolwe linde, 2611; acc. pl.
linde, 2366.

lind-gestealla, w. m., _shield-comrade, war-comrade_: nom. sg., 1974.

lind-h‰bbend, pres. part., _provided with a shield_, i.e. warrior: nom. pl.
-h‰bbende, 245; gen. pl. h‰bbendra, 1403.

lind-plega, w. m., _shield-play_, i.e. battle: dat. sg. lind-plegan, 1074,

lind-wÓga, w. m., _shield-fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 2604.

linnan, st. v., _to depart, be deprived of_: inf. aldre linnan (_depart
from life_), 1479; ealdres linnan, 2444.

lis, st. f., _favor, affection_: gen. pl. eall ... lissa, 2151.

list, st. m., _art, skill, cleverness, cunning_: dat. pl. adverbial, listum
(_cunningly_), 782.

lixan, w. v., _to shine, flash_: pret. sg. lixte, 311, 485, 1571.

lÓc, st. n.: 1) _body, corpse_: nom. sg., 967; acc. sg. lÓc, 2081; ˛‰t lÓc
(_the body, corpse_), 2128; dat. sg. lÓce, 734, 1504, 2424, 2572, 2733,
2744; gen. sg. lÓces, 451, 1123.-- 2) _form, figure_: in comp. eofor-,

ge-lÓc, adj., _like, similar_: nom. pl. m. ge-lÓce, 2165. Superl.
ge-lÓcost, 218, 728, 986, 1609.

lÓc-hama, -homa, w. m. _(body-home, garment), body_: nom. sg. lÓc-homa,
813, 1008, 1755; acc. sg. lÓc-haman, 2652; dat. sg. lÓc-haman, 3179.

lÓcian, w. v., _to please, like_ (impers.): pres. sg. III. me ˛Ón mÙd-sefa
lÓca leng sw‚ wel, 1855; pret. pl. ˛am wÓfe ˛‚ word wel lÓcodon, 640.

lÓcnes. See on-lÓcnes.

lÓc-s‚r, st. n., _bodily pain_: acc. sg. lÓc-s‚r, 816.

lÓc-syrce, w. f., _body-sark, shirt of mail covering the body_: nom. sg.,

1Óan, st. v., _to move, go_: pres. part. nom. pl. ˛‚ lÓende (_navigantes,
sailors_), 221; ˛‚ w‰s sund liden (_the water was then traversed_),
223.--Comp.: he·u-, mere-, wÊg-lÓend.

lÓe (O.H.G. lindi), adj., _gentle, mild, friendly_: nom. sg. w. instr.
gen. l‚ra lÓe, 1221. Superl. nom. sg. lÓost, 3184.

li-wÊge, st. n., _can in which lÓ_ (a wine-like, foaming drink) _is
contained_: acc. sg., 1983.

lÓf, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. lÓf, 97, 734, 1537, 2424, 2744, 2752; dat.
sg. lÓfe, 2572; tÙ lÓfe (_in one's life, ever_) 2433; gen. sg. lÓfes, 197,
791, 807, 2824, 2846; worolde lÓfes (_of the earthly life_), 1388,
2344.--Comp. edwÓt-lÓf.

lÓf-bysig, adj. _(striving for life or death), weary of life, in torment of
death_: nom. sg., 967.

lÓf-dagas, st. m. pl., _lifetime_: acc.-dagas, 794, 1623.

lÓf-fre·, w. m., _lord of life, God_: nom. sg., 16.

lÓf-ged‚l, st. n., _separation from life_: nom. sg., 842.

lÓf-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, destiny_: gen. pl.-gesceafta, 1954, 3065.

lÓf-wrau, st. f., _protection for one's life, safety_: acc. sg. lÓf-wrae,
2878; dat. sg. tÙ lÓf-wrae, 972.

lÓf-wyn, st. f., _pleasure, enjoyment, joy_ (of life): gen. pl. lÓf-wynna,

lÓg, st. m. n., _flame, fire_: nom. sg., 1123; dat. instr. sg. lÓge, 728,
2306, 2322, 2342; gen. sg. lÓges, 83, 782. See lÍg.

lÓg-draca, w. m., _ fire-drake, flaming dragon_; nom. pl., 2334. See

lÓg-egesa, w. m., _horror arising through fire, flaming terror_: acc. sg.,

lÓge-torn, st. m., _false, pretended insult_ or _injury, fierce anger_(?):
dat. sg. ‰fter lÓge-torne _(on account of a pretended insult?_ or _fierce
anger?_ cf. Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 208), 1944.

lÓg-˝, st. m., _wave of fire_: instr. pl. lÓg-˝um, 2673.

leÛn, st. v., _to lend_: pret. sg. ˛‰t him on ˛earfe l‚h ˛yle HrÙg‚res
(_which H.'s spokesman lent him in need_), 1457.

on-leÛon, _to lend, grant as a loan_, with gen. of thing and dat. pers.:
pret. sg. ˛‚ he ˛‰s wÊpnes on-l‚h sÍlran sweord-frecan, 1468.

loca, w. m., _bolt, lock_: in comp. b‚n-, burh-loca.

locen. See l˚can.

lond, long. See land, lang.

lof, st. m. n., _praise, repute_: acc. sg. lof, 1537.

lof-dÊd, st. f., _deed of praise_: instr. pl. lof-dÊdum, 24.

lof-georn, adj., _eager for praise, ambitious_: superl. nom. sg.
lof-geornost, 3184.

loga, w. m., _liar_; in comp. treÛw-loga.

losian, w. v., _to escape, flee_: pres. sg. III. losa, 1393, 2063; pret.
sg. he on weg losade (_fled away_), 2097.

lÙcian, w. v., _to see, look at_: pres. sg. II. sÊ-l‚c ... ˛e ˛u her tÙ
lÙcast (_booty of the sea that thou lookest on_), 1655.

ge-lÙme, adv., _often, frequently_, 559.

lufe, w. f., _love_: in comp. he·h-, mÙd-, wÓf-lufe.

lufa (cf. and-leofa, big-leofa, _nourishment_), w. m., _food, subsistence;
property, real estate_: acc. sg. on lufan (_on possessions_), 1729.--Comp.

lufen, st. f. (cf. lufa), _subsistence, food; real estate, (enjoyment?)_:
nom. sg. lufen (parallel with Íel-wyn), 2887.

luf-t‚cen, st. n., _love-token_: acc. pl. luf-t‚cen, 1864.

lufian, w. v., _to love, serve affectionately_: pret. sg. III. lufode ˛‚
leÛde (_was on affectionate terms with the people_), 1983.

lungre, adv.: 1) _hastily, quickly, forthwith_, 930, 1631, 2311, 2744.--2)
_quite, very, fully_: feÛwer mearas lungre gelÓce (_four horses quite
alike_), 2165.

lust, st. m., _pleasure, joy_: dat. pl. adv. lustum (_joyfully_), 1654; so,
on lust, 619, cf. 600.

l˚can, st. v., _to twist, wind, lock, interweave_: pret. part. acc. sg. and
pl. locene leoo-syrcan (_shirt of mail wrought of meshes or rings
interlocked_), 1506, 1891; gen. pl. locenra be·ga (_rings wrought of gold
wire_), 2996.

be-l˚can: 1) _to shut, close in or around_: pret. sg. winter ˝e be-le·c
Ós-gebinde (_winter locked the waves with icy bond_), 1133.-- 2) _to shut
in, off, preserve, protect_: pret. sg. I. hig wÓge bele·c manegum mÊga (_I
shut them in, protected them, from war arising from many a tribe_), 1771.
Cf. me wÓge bel˚c wr‚um feÛndum (_protect me against mine enemies_), Ps.
34, 3.

ge-l˚can, _to unite, link together, make_: pret. part. gelocen, 2770.

on-l˚can, _to unlock, open_: pret. sg. word-hord on-le·c (_opened the
word-hoard, treasure of speech_), 259.

tÙ-lucan, _(to twist, wrench, in two) to destroy_: inf., 782.

lyft, st. f. (m. n.?), _air_: nom. sg., 1376; dat. sg. ‰fter lyfte (_along,
through, the air_), 2833.

lyft-floga, w. m., _air-flier_: nom. sg. (of the dragon), 2316.

lyft-geswenced, pret. part., _urged, hastened on, by the wind_, 1914.

lyft-wyn, st. f., _enjoyment of the air_: acc. sg. lyft-wynne, 3044.

lyh. See leahan.

lystan, w. v., _to lust after, long for_: pret. sg. Ge·t ungemetes wel ...
restan lyste(_the Ge·t_ [BeÛwulf] _longed sorely to rest_), 1794.

lyt, adj. neut. (= parum), _little, very little, few_: lyt eft becwom ...
h‚mes niÛsan (_few escaped homeward_), 2366; lyt Ênig (_none at all_),
3130; usually with gen.: wintra lyt, 1928; lyt ... he·fod-m‚ga, 2151;
wergendra tÙ lyt (_too few defenders_), 2883; lyt swÓgode nÓwra spella (_he
kept to himself little, none at all, of the new tidings_), 2898; dat. sg.
lyt manna (_too few of men_), 2837.

lytel, adj., _small, little_: nom. sg. neut. tÙ lytel, 1749; acc. sg. f.
lytle hwÓle (_a little while_), 2031, 2098; lif-wrae lytle (_little
protection for his life_), 2878.--Comp. un-lytel.

lyt-hwÙn, adv., _little = not at all_: lyt-hwÙn lÙgon, 204.

l˝fe, st. n., _leave, permission, (life?)_: instr. sg. ˛Óne l˝fe (life,
MS.), 2132.--Leo. Cf. O.N. leyfi, n., _leave, permission_, in Mˆbius'
Glossary, p. 266.

l˝fan, w. v., (fundamental meaning _to believe, trust_) in

‚-l˝fan, _to allow, grant, entrust_: pret. sg. nÊfre ic Ênegum men Êr
‚l˝fde ... ˛ry-‰rn Dena (_never before to any man have I entrusted the
palace of the Danes_), 656; pret. part. (˛‚ me w‰s) sÓ ... ‚l˝fed inn
under eor-weall (_the way in under the wall of earth was allowed me_),

ge-l˝fan, w. v., _to believe, trust_: 1) w. dat.: inf. ˛Êr gel˝fan sceal
dryhtnes dÙme se ˛e hine de· nime (_whomever death carrieth away, shall
believe it to be the judgment of God_, i.e. in the contest between BeÛwulf
and Grendel), 440.--2) w. acc.: pret. sg. geÛce gel˝fde brego Beorht-Dena
(_believed in, expected, help_, etc.), 609; ˛‰t heÛ on Ênigne eorl gel˝fde
fyrena frÙfre (_that she at last should expect from any earl comfort, help,
out of these troubles_), 628; se ˛e him bealwa tÙ bÙte gel˝fde (_who
trusted in him as a help out of evils_), 910; him tÙ anwaldan ‚re gel˝fde
(_relied for himself on the help of God_), 1273.

‚-l˝san, w. v., _to loose, liberate_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s of ˛‰m hrÙran helm
and byrne lungre ‚-l˝sed (_helm and corselet were straightway loosed from
him_), 1631.


maelian, w. v. (sermocinari), _to speak, talk_: pret. sg. maelode, 286,
348, 360, 371, 405, 456, 499, etc.; maelade, 2426.

maga, w. m., _son, male descendant, young man_: nom. sg. maga Healfdenes
(HrÙg‚r), 189, 1475, 2144; maga Ecg˛eÛwes (BeÛwulf), 2588: maga (Grendel),
979; se maga geonga (WÓgl‚f), 2676; Grendeles maga (_a relative of
Grendel_), 2007; acc. sg. ˛one magan, 944.

magan, v. with pret.-pres. form, _to be able_: pres. sg. I. III. m‰g, 277,
478, 931, 943, 1485, 1734, etc.; II. meaht ˛u, 2048; subj. pres. mÊge,
2531, 2750; ˛e·h ic eal mÊge (_even though I could_), 681; subj. pl. we
mÊgen, 2655; pret. sg. meahte, 542, 755, 1131, 1660, 2465, etc.; mihte,
190, 207, 462, 511, 571, 657, 1509, 2092, 2610; mehte, 1083, 1497, 1516,
1878; pl. meahton, 649, 942, 1455, 1912, 2374, 3080; mihton, 308, 313,
2684, 3164; subj. pret. sg. meahte, 243, 763, 2521; pres. sg. m‰g,
sometimes = licet, _may, can, will_ (fut.), 1366, 1701, 1838, 2865.

mago (Goth. magu-s), st. m., _male, son_: nom. sg. mago Ecgl‚fes (Hunfer),
1466; mago Healfdenes (HrÙg‚r), 1868, 2012.

mago-dryht, st. f., _troop of young men, band of men_: nom. sg. mago-driht,

mago-rinc, st. m., _hero, man_ (preeminently): gen. pl. mago-rinca, he·p,

magu-˛egn, mago-˛egn, st. m., _vassal, war-thane_: nom. sg. 408, 2758; dat.
sg. magu-˛egne, 2080; acc. pl. magu-˛egnas, 293; dat. pl. mago-˛egnum,
1481; gen. pl. mago-˛egna ... ˛one sÍlestan (_the best of vassals_), 1406.

man, mon, st. m.: 1) _man, human being_: nom. sg. man, 25, 503, 534, 1049,
1354, 1399, 1535, 1877, etc.; mon, 209, 510, 1561, 1646, 2282, etc.; acc.
sg. w. mannan, 297, 577, 1944, 2128, 2775; wÓd-c˚ne man, 1490; dat. sg.
men, 656, 753, 1880; menn, 2190; gen. sg. mannes, 1195 (?), 2081, 2534,
2542; monnes, 1730; nom. pl. men, 50, 162, 233, 1635, 3167; acc. pl. men,
69, 337, 1583, 1718; dat. pl. mannum, 3183; gen. pl. manna, 155, 201, 380,
702, 713, 736, etc.; monna, 1414, 2888.--2) indef. pron. = _one, they,
people_ (Germ. _man_): man, 1173, 1176; mon, 2356, 3177.--Comp.: fyrn-,
gleÛ-, gum-, i˙-, lid-, sÊ-, wÊpned-man.

man. See munan.

man-cyn, st. n., _mankind_: dat. sg. man-cynne, 110; gen. sg. man-cynnes,
164, 2182; mon-cynnes, 196, 1956.

man-dre·m, st. m., _human joy, mundi voluptas_: acc. sg. man-dre·m, 1265;
dat. pl. mon-dre·mum, 1716.

man-dryhten, st. m. (_lord of men_), _ruler of the people, prince, king_:
nom. sg. man-dryhten, 1979, 2648; mon-drihten, 436; mon-dryhten, 2866; acc.
sg. mon-dryhten, 2605; dat. sg. man-drihtne, 1230; man-dryhtne, 1250, 2282;
gen. sg. man-dryhtnes, 2850; mon-dryhtnes, 3150.

ge-mang, st. m., _troop, company_: dat. sg. on gemonge (_in the troop_ [of
the fourteen Ge·tas that returned from the sea]), 1644.

manian, w. v., _to warn, admonish_: pres. sg. III. mana sw‚ and myndga
... s‚rum wordum (_so warneth and remindeth he with bitter words_), 2058.

manig, monig, adj., _many, many a, much_: 1) adjectively: nom. sg. rinc
manig, 399; geong manig (_many a young man_), 855; monig snellÓc sÊ-rinc,
690; medu-benc monig, 777; so 839, 909, 919, 1511, 2763, 3023, etc.; acc.
sg. medo-ful manig, 1016; dat. sg. m. ˛egne monegum, 1342, 1420; dat. sg.
f. manigre mÊge, 75; acc. pl. manige men, 337; dat. pl. manegum m‚mum,
2104; monegum mÊgum, 5; gen. pl. manigra mÍda, 1179.--2) substantively:
nom. sg. manig, 1861; monig, 858; dat. sg. manegum, 349, 1888; nom. pl.
manige, 1024; monige, 2983; acc. pl. monige, 1599; gen. pl. manigra,
2092.--3) with depend. gen. pl.: dat. manegum mÊga, 1772; monegum fira,
2002; h‰lea monegum bold-‚gendra, 3112; acc. pl. rinca manige, 729;
(m‚m)-Êhta monige, 1614.

manig-oft, adv., _very often, frequently_, 171 [if manig and oft are to be

man-lÓce, adv., _man-like, manly_, 1047.

man-˛wÊre, adj., _kind, gentle toward men, philanthropic_: nom. sg. superl.
mon-˛wÊrust, 3183.

m‚, contracted compar., _more_: with partitive gen., 504, 736, 1056.

m‚um, m‚um, st. m., _gift, jewel, object of value_: acc. sg. m‚um,
169, 1053, 2056, 3017; dat. instr. sg. m‚me, 1529, 1903; nom. pl. m‚mas,
1861; acc. pl. m‚dmas, 385, 472, 1028, 1483, 1757, 1868, etc.; dat. instr.
pl. m‚mum, m‚dmum, 1049, 1899, 2104, 2789; gen. pl. m‚ma, 1785, 2144,
2167, etc.; m‚dma, 36, 41.--Comp.: dryht-, gold-, hord-, ofer-, sinc-,

m‚m-Êht, st. f., _treasure in jewels, costly objects_: gen. pl. m‚m-Êhta,
1614, 2834.

m‚um-f‰t, st. n., _treasure-casket_ or _cup, costly vessel_: nom. sg.,

m‚m-gestreÛn, st. n., _precious jewel_: gen. pl. m‚m-gestreÛna, 1932.

m‚um-gifu, st. f., _gift of valuable objects, largess of treasure_: dat.
sg. ‰fter m‚um-gife, 1302.

m‚um-sigl, st. n., _costly, sun-shaped ornament, valuable decoration_:
gen. pl. m‚um-sigla, 2758.

m‚um-sweord, st. n., _costly sword_ (inlaid with gold and jewels): acc.
sg., 1024.

m‚um-wela, w. m., _wealth of jewels, valuables_:: dat. sg.
‰fter-m‚um-welan (_after the sight of the wealth of jewels_), 2751.

m‚gas. See mÊg.

m‚ge, w. f., _female relative_: gen. sg. Grendles m‚gan (_mother_), 1392.

m‚n, st. n., _crime, misdeed_: instr. sg. m‚ne, 110, 979; adv.,
_criminally_, 1056.

m‚n-for-dÊdla, w. m., _evil-doer, criminal_: nom. pl. m‚n-for-dÊdlan, 563.

m‚n-scaa, w. m., _mischievous, hurtful foe, hostis nefastus_: nom. sg.
713, 738, 1340; m‚n-sceaa, 2515.

m‚ra (comp. of micel), adj., _greater, stronger, mightier_: nom. sg. m.
m‚ra, 1354, 2556; neut. m‚re, 1561; acc. sg. m. m‚ran, 2017; mund-gripe
m‚ran (_a mightier hand-grip_), 754; with following gen. pl. m‚ran ...
eorla (_a more powerful earl_), 247; fem. m‚ran, 533, 1012; neut. m‚re,
518; with gen. pl. mor-beala m‚re _(more, greater, deeds of murder_), 136;
gen. sg. f. m‚ran, 1824.

mÊst (superl. of micel, m‚ra), _greatest, strongest_: nom. sg. neut. (with
partitive gen.), mÊst, 78, 193; fem. mÊst, 2329; acc. sg. fem. fÊhe mÊste,
459; mÊste ... worolde wynne (_the highest earthly pleasure_), 1080; neut.
n. (with partitive gen.) mÊst mÊra, 2646; hond-wundra mÊst, 2769; bÊl-f˝ra
mÊst, 3144; instr. sg. m. mÊste cr‰fte, 2182.

m‰cg. See mecg.

m‰g, st. f., _wife, maid, woman_: nom. sg., 3017; gen. pl. m‰ga hÙse
(_accompanied by her maids of honor_), 925; m‰ga, 944, 1284.

m‰gen, st. n.: 1) _might, bodily strength, heroic power_: acc. sg. m‰gen,
518, 1707; instr. sg. m‰gene, 780(?), 2668; gen. sg. m‰genes, 418, 1271,
1535, 1717, etc.; m‰gnes, 671, 1762; m‰genes strang, strengest (_great in
strength_), 1845, 196; m‰genes rÙf (id.), 2085.--2) _prime, flower_ (of a
nation), _forces available in war_: acc. sg. sw‚ he oft (i.e. etan) dyde
m‰gen HrÍmanna (_the best of the Hremen_), 445; gen. sg. wi manna hwone
m‰genes Deniga (_from(?) any of the men of the Danes_), 155.--Comp.

m‰gen-‚gend, pres. part., _having great strength, valiant_: gen. pl.
-‚gendra, 2838.

m‰gen-byren, st. f., _huge burthen_: acc. sg. m‰gen-byrenne, 3092; dat.
(instr.) sg., 1626.

m‰gen-cr‰ft, st. m., _great, hero-like, strength_: acc. sg., 380.

m‰gen-ellen, st. n. (the same), acc. sg., 660.

m‰gen-fultum, st. m., _material aid_: gen. pl. n‰s ˛‰t ˛onne mÊtost
m‰gen-fultuma (_that was not the least of strong helps_, i.e. the sword
Hrunting), 1456.

m‰gen-rÊs, st. m., _mighty attack, onslaught_: acc. sg., 1520.

m‰gen-strengo, st. f., _main strength, heroic power_: acc. sg., 2679.

m‰gen-wudu, st. m., _might-wood_, i.e. the spear, lance: acc. sg., 236.

m‰st, st. m., _mast_: nom. sg., 1899; dat. sg. be m‰ste (_beside the
mast_), 36; _to the mast_, 1906.

mÊum. See m‚um, hyge-mÊum.

mÊg, st. m., _kinsman by blood_: nom. sg. mÊg, 408, 738, 759, 814, 915,
1531, 1945, etc; (_brother_), 468, 2605? acc. sg. mÊg (_son_), 1340;
(_brother_), 2440, 2485, 2983; dat. sg. mÊge, 1979; gen. sg. mÊges, 2629,
2676, 2699, 2880; nom. pl. m‚gas, 1016; acc. pl. m‚gas, 2816; dat. pl.
m‚gum, 1179, 2615, 3066; (_to brothers_), 1168; mÊgum, 2354; gen. pl. m‚ga,
247, 1080, 1854, 2007, 2743.--Comp.: f‰deren-, he·fod-, wine-mÊg.

mÊg-burh, st. f., _borough of blood-kinsmen, entire population united by
ties of blood_; (in wider sense) _race, people, nation_: gen. sg.
lond-rihtes ... ˛Êre mÊg-burge (_of land possessions among the people_,
i.e. of the Ge·tas), 2888.

mÊg, st. f., _race, people_: acc. sg. mÊge, 1012; dat. sg. mÊge, 75;
dat. pl. mÊgum, 5; gen. pl. mÊga, 25, 1772.

mÊg-wine, st. m., _blood kinsman, friend_, 2480 (nom. pl.).

mÊl, st. n.: l) _time, point of time_: nom. sg. 316; ˛‚ w‰s sÊl and mÊl
(_there was_ [appropriate] _chance and time_), 1009; acc. sg. mÊl, 2634;
instr. pl. Êrran mÊlum, 908, 2238, 3036; gen. pl. mÊla, 1250; sÊla and
mÊla, 1612; mÊla gehwylce (_each time, without intermission_), 2058.--2)
_sword, weapon_: nom. sg. broden (brogden) mÊl (_the drawn sword_), 1617,
1668 (cf. Grimm, Andreas and Elene, p. 156).--3) _mole, spot,
mark_.--Comp.: grÊg-, hring-, sceaen-, wunden-mÊl.

mÊl-cearu, st. f., _long-continued sorrow, grief_: acc. sg. mÊl-ceare, 189.

mÊl-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, appointed time_: acc. pl. ie on earde b‚d
mÊl-gesceafta (_awaited the time allotted for me by fate_), 2738.

mÊnan, w. v., with acc. in the sense of (1) _to remember, mention,
proclaim_: inf. mÊnan, 1068; pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s BeÛwulfes mÊro mÊned,
858.--2) _to mention sorrowfully, mourn_: inf. 3173; pret. sg. gioho mÊnde
(_mourned sorrowfully_), 2268; pret. pl. mÊndon, 1150, 3150.

ge-mÊnan (see m‚n), w. v. with acc., _to injure maliciously, break_: subj.
pret. pl. ge-mÊnden, 1102.

ge-mÊne, adj., _common, in common_: nom. sg. gemÊne, 2474; ˛Êr unc hwÓle
w‰s hand gemÊne (i.e. in battle), 2138; sceal ˚rum ˛‰t sweord and helm b‚m
gemÊne (i.e. wesan), 2661; nom. pl. gemÊne, 1861; dat. pl. ˛‰t ˛‚m folcum
sceal ... sib gemÊnum (attraction for gemÊne, i.e. wesan), 1858; gen. pl.
unc sceal (i.e. wesan) fela m‚ma gemÊnra (_we two shall share many
treasures together_), 1785.

mÊru, st. f.: 1) _glory, a heroes fame_: nom. sg. 858; acc. sg. mÊro,
660, 688; acc. pl. mÊra, 2997; instr. pl. mÊrum (_gloriously_), 2515:
gen. pl. mÊra, 504, 1531.--2) _deed of glory, heroism_: acc. sg. mÊro,
2135; gen. pl. mÊra, 408, 2646.--Comp. ellen-mÊru.

mÊre, adj., _memorable; celebrated, noble; well known, notorious_: nom. sg.
m. mÊre, 103, 129, 1716, 1762; se mÊra, 763, 2012, 2588; also as vocative
m. se mÊra, 1475; nom. fem. mÊru, 2017; mÊre, 1953; neut. mÊre, 2406; acc.
sg. m. mÊrne, 36, 201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2789, 3099; neut. mÊre, 1024;
dat. sg. mÊrum, 345, 1302, 1993, 2080, 2573; tÙ ˛‰m mÊran, 270; gen. sg.
mÊres, 798; mÊran, 1730; nom. pl. mÊre, 3071; superl. mÊrost, 899,--Comp.:
fore-, heao-mÊre.

mÊst. See m‚ra.

mÊte, adj., _moderate, small_: superl. nom. sg. mÊtost, 1456.

mecg, m‰cg, st. m., _son, youth, man_. in comp. hilde-, oret-mecg,

medla. See on-medla.

medu, st. m., _mead_: acc. sg. medu, 2634; dat. sg. tÙ medo, 605.

medo-‰rn, st. n., _mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-‰rn (Heorot), 69.

medu-benc, st. f., _mead-bench, bench in the mead-hall_: nom. sg.
medu-benc, 777; dat. sg. medu-bence, 1053; medo-bence, 1068, 2186;
meodu-bence, 1903.

medu-dre·m, st. m., _mead-joy, joyous carousing during mead-drinking_: acc.
sg. 2017.

medo-ful, st. n., _mead-cup_: acc. sg. 625, 1016.

medo-heal, st. f., _mead-hall_: nom. sg., 484; dat. sg. meodu-healle, 639.

medu-scenc, st. m., _mead-can, vessel_: instr. pl. meodu-scencum, 1981.

medu-seld, st. n., _mead-seat, mead-house_: acc. sg., 3066.

medo-setl, st. n., _mead-seat upon which one sits mead-drinking_: gen. pl.
meodo-setla, 5.

medo-stÓg, st. f., _mead-road, road to the mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-stÓg,

medo-wang, st. m., _mead-field_ (where the mead-hall stood): acc. pl.
medo-wongas, 1644.

meel, st. n., _assembly, council_: dat. sg. on mele, 1877.

meel-stede, st. m., (properly _place of speech, judgment-seat_), here
_meeting-place, battle-field_ (so, also 425, the battle is conceived under
the figure of a parliament or convention): dat. sg. on ˛‰m meel-stede,

meel-word, st. n., _words called forth at a discussion; address_: instr.
pl. meel-wordum, 236.

melda, w. m., _finder, informer, betrayer_: gen. sg. ˛‰s meldan, 2406.

meltan, st. v. intrans., _to consume by fire, melt or waste away_: inf.,
3012; pret. sg. mealt, 2327; pl. multon, 1121.

ge-meltan, the same: pret. sg. gemealt, 898, 1609, 1616; ne gemealt him se
mÙd-sefa (_his courage did not desert him_), 2629.

men. See man.

mene, st. m., _neck ornament, necklace, collar_: acc. sg., 1200.

mengan, w. v., _to mingle, unite, with_, w. acc. of thing: inf. se ˛e
mere-grundas mengan scolde, 1450.

ge-mengan, _to mix with, commingle_: pret. part. 849, 1594.

menigu, st. f., _multitude, many_: nom. and acc. sg. m‚ma menigeo
(_multitude of treasures, presents_), 2144; so, m‰nigo, 41.

mercels, st. m., _mark, aim_: gen. sg. mercelses, 2440.

mere, st. m., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg. se mere, 1363; acc. sg. on mere, 1131,
1604; on nicera mere, 846; dat. sg. fram mere, 856.

mere-deÛr, st. n., _sea-beast_: acc. sg., 558.

mere-fara, w. m., _seafarer_: gen. sg. mere-faran, 502.

mere-fix, st. m., _sea-fish_: gen. pl. mere-fixa (_the whale_, cf. 540),

mere-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom_: acc. sg., 2101; acc. pl. mere-grundas,

mere-hr‰gl, st. n., _-sea-garment_, i.e., sail: gen. pl. mere-hr‰gla sum,

mere-lÓend, pres. part., _moving on the sea, sailor_: nom. pl.
mere-lÓende, 255.

mere-strÊt, st. f., _sea-street, way over the sea_: acc. pl. mere-strÊta

mere-strengo, st. f., _sea-power, strength in the sea_: acc. sg., 533.

mere-wÓf, st. n., _sea-woman, mer-woman_: acc. sg. (of Grendel's mother),

mergen. See morgen.

met, st. n., _thought, intention_ (cf. metian = meditari): acc. pl. onsÊl
meoto, 489 (meaning doubtful; see Bugge, Journal 8, 292; Dietrich, Haupt's
Zeits. 11, 411; Kˆrner, Eng. Stud. 2, 251).

ge-met, st. n., _an apportioned share; might, power, ability _: nom. sg.
nis ˛‰t ... gemet mannes nefne mÓn ‚nes (_nobody, myself excepted, can do
that_), 2534; acc. sg. ofer mÓn gemet (_beyond my power_), 2880; dat. sg.
mid gemete, 780.

ge-met, adj., _well-measured, meet, good_: nom. sg. sw‚ him gemet ˛ince
(˛˚hte), (_as seemed meet to him_), 688, 3058. See un-gemete, adv.

metan, st. v., _to measure, pass over_ or _along_: pret. pl. fealwe strÊte
mearum mÊton (_measured the yellow road with their horses_), 918; so, 514,

ge-metan, the same: pret. sg. medu-stÓg gem‰t.(_measured, walked over, the
road to the mead-hall_), 925.

metod, st. m. (the measuring, arranging) _Creator, God_: nom. sg., 110,
707, 968, 1058, 2528; scÓr metod, 980; sÙ metod, 1612; acc. sg. metod,
180; dat. sg. metode, 169, 1779; gen. sg. metodes, 671.--Comp. eald-metod.

metod-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _the Creator's determination, divine purpose,
fate_: acc. sg. -sceaft, 1078.--2) _the Creators glory_: acc. sg.
metod-sceaft seÛn (i.e. die), 1181; dat. sg. tÙ metod-sceafte, 2816.

mÍce, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg., 1939; acc. sg. mÍce, 2048; br‚dne mÍce,
2979; gen. sg. mÍces, 1766, 1813, 2615, 2940; dat. pl. instr. mÍcum, 565;
gen. pl. mÍca, 2686.--Comp.: beado-, h‰ft-, hilde-mÍce.

mÍd, st. f., _meed, reward_: acc. sg. mÍde, 2135; dat. sg. mÍde, 2147; gen.
pl. mÍda, 1179.

ge-mÍde, st. n., _approval, permission_ (Grein): acc. pl. ge-mÍdu, 247.

mÍe, adj., _tired, exhausted, dejected_: in comp. hyge-, sÊ-mÍe.

mÍtan, w. v., _to meet, find, fall in with_: with acc., pret. pl. syan
ƒscheres ... hafelan mÍtton, 1422; subj. pret. sg. ˛‰t he ne mÍtte ... on
elran man mundgripe m‚ran (_that he never met, in any other man, with a
mightier hand-grip_), 752.

ge-mÍtan, with acc., the same: pret. sg. gemÍtte, 758, 2786; pl. n‰s ˛‚
long tÙ ˛on, ˛‰t ˛‚ aglÊcean hy eft gemÍtton (_it was not long after that
the warriors again met each other_), 2593.

ge-mÍting, st. f., _meeting, hostile coming together_: nom. sg., 2002.

meagol, adj., _mighty, immense; formal, solemn_: instr. pl. meaglum wordum,

mearc, st. f., _frontier, limit, end_: dat. sg. tÙ mearce (_the end of
life_), 2385.--Comp. Weder-mearc, 298.

ge-mearc, st. n., _measure, distance_: comp. fÙt-, mÓl-ge-mearc.

mearcian, w. v., _to mark, stain_: pres. ind. sg. mearca mÙrhopu (_will
stain, mark, the moor with the blood of the corpse_), 450.

ge-mearcian, the same: pret. part. (Cain) morre gemearcod (_murder-marked_
[cf. 1 Book Mos. IV. 15]), 1265; sw‚ w‰s on ˛Êm scennum ... gemearcod ...
hw‚m ˛‰t sweord geworht wÊre (_engraved for whom the sword had been
wrought_), 1696.

mearc-stapa, w. m., _march-strider, frontier-haunter_ (applied to Grendel
and his mother): nom. sg., 103; acc. pl. mearc-stapan, 1349.

mearh, st. m., _horse, steed_: nom. pl. mearas, 2164; acc. pl. mearas, 866,
1036; dat. pl. inst. mearum, 856, 918; mearum and m‚mum, 1049, 1899; gen.
pl. meara and m‚ma, 2167.

mearn. See murnan.

meodu. See medu.

meoto. See met.

meotud. See metod.

meowle, w. f., _maiden_: comp. geÛ-meowle.

micel, adj., _great, huge, long_ (of time): nom. sg. m., 129, 502; fem.,
67, 146, 170; neut., 772; acc. sg. m. micelne, 3099; fem, micle, 1779,
3092; neut. micel, 270, 1168. The comp. m‚re must be supplied before ˛one
in: medo-‰rn micel ... (m‚re) ˛one yldo beam Êfre ge-frunon, 69; instr. sg.
ge-trume micle, 923; micle (_by much, much_); micle leÛfre (_far dearer_),
2652; efne sw‚ micle (l‰ssa), (_[less] even by so much_), 1284; oftor micle
(_much oftener_), 1580; dat. sg, weak form miclan, 2850; gen. sg. miclan,
979. The gen. sg. micles is an adv. = _much, very_: micles wyrne gedÙn
(_deem worthy of much_, i.e. honor very highly), 2186; tÙ fela micles (_far
too much, many_), 695; acc. pl. micle, 1349. Compar., see m‚ra.

mid, I. prep. w. dat., instr., and acc., signifying preÎminently _union,
community, with_, hence: 1) w. dat.: a) _with, in company, community,
with_; mid Finne, 1129; mid HrÙg‚re, 1593; mid scip-herge, 243; mid
gesÓum (_with his comrades_), 1314; so, 1318, 1964, 2950, etc.; mid his
freÛ-drihtne, 2628; mid ˛Êm l‚cum (_with the gifts_), 1869; so, 2789, 125;
mid hÊle (_with good luck!_), 1218; mid bÊle fÙr (_sped off amid fire_),
2309. The prep. postponed: him mid (_with him, in his company_), 41; _with
him_, 1626; ne w‰s him Fitela mid (_was not with him_), 890. b) _with,
among_: mid Ge·tum (_among the Ge·tas_), 195, 2193, 2624; mid Scyldingum,
274; mid Eotenum, 903; mid yldum (eldum), 77, 2612; mid him (_with, among,
one another_), 2949. In temporal sense: mid Êr-d‰ge (_at dawn_), 126.--2)
_with, with the help of, through_, w. dat.: mid ‚r-stafum (_through his
grace_), 317; so, 2379; mid gr‚pe (_with the fist_), 438; so, 1462, 2721;
mid his hete-˛oncum (_through his hatred_), 475; mid sweorde, 574; so,
1660, 2877; mid gemete (_through, by, his power_), 780; so, 1220, 2536,
2918; mid gÙde (_with benefits_), 1185; mid hearme (_with harm, insult_),
1893; mid ˛Êre sorge (_with [through?] this sorrow_), 2469; mid rihte (_by
rights_), 2057. With instr.: mid ˛˝ wÓfe (_through [marriage with] the
woman_), 2029.--3) w. acc., _with, in community, company, with_: mid his
eorla gedriht, 357; so, 634, 663, 1673; mid hine, 880; mid mÓnne
gold-gyfan, 2653.

II. adv., mid, _thereamong, in the company_, 1643; _at the same time,
likewise_, 1650.

middan-geard, st. m., _globe, earth_: acc. sg., 75, 1772; dat. sg. on
middan-gearde, 2997; gen. sg. middan-geardes, 504, 752.

midde, w. f., _middle = medius_: dat. sg. on middan (_through the middle,
in two_), 2706; gen. sg. (adv.) tÙ-middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

middel-niht, st. f., _midnight_: dat. pl. middel-nihtum, 2783, 2834.

miht, st. f., _might, power, authority_: acc. sg. ˛urh drihtnes miht
(_through the Lord's help, power_), 941; instr. pl. selfes mihtum, 701.

mihtig, adj.: 1) _physically strong, powerful_: acc. sg. mihtig mere-deÛr,
558; mere-wÓf mihtig, 1520.--2) _possessing authority, mighty_: nom. sg.
mihtig god, 702, 1717, 1726; dat. sg. mihtigan drihtne, 1399.--Comp.: ‰l-,

milde, adj., _kind, gracious, generous_: nom. sg. mÙdes milde
(_kind-hearted_), 1230; instr. pl. mildum wordum (_graciously_), 1173.
Superl. nom. sg. worold-cyning mannum mildust (_a king most liberal to
men_), 3183.

milts, st. f., _kindness, benevolence_: nom. sg., 2922.

missan, w. v. with gen., _to miss, err in_: pret. sg. miste mercelses
(_missed the mark_), 2440.

missere, st. n., _space of a semester, half a year_: gen. pl. hund missera
(_fifty winters_), 2734, 2210; generally, _a long period of time, season_,
1499, 1770; fela missera, 153, 2621.

mist-hli, st. n., _misty cliff, cloud-capped slope_: dat. pl. under
mist-hleoum, 711.

mistig, adj., _misty_: acc. pl. mistige mÙras, 162.

mÓl-gemearc, st. n., _measure by miles_: gen. sg. mÓl-gemearces, 1363.

mÓn: 1) poss. pron., _my, mine_, 255, 345, etc.; Hygel‚c mÓn (_my lord_, or
_king, H._), 2435.--2) gen. sg. of pers. pron. ic, _of me_, 2085, 2534,

molde, w. f., _dust; earth, field_: in comp. gr‰s-molde.

mon. See man.

ge-mong. See ge-mang.

mor-bealu, st. n., _murder, deadly hale_ or _deed of murder_: gen. pl.
mor-beala, 136.

moror, st. n., _deed of violence, murder_: dat. instr. sg. morre, 893,
1265, 2783; gen. sg. morres, 2056; morres scyldig (_guilty of murder_),

moror-bed, st. n., _bed of death, murder-bed_: acc. sg. w‰s ˛am yldestan
... moror-bed strÍd (_a bed of death was spread for the eldest_, i.e.
through murder his death-bed was prepared), 2437.

moror-bealu, st. n., _death-bale, destruction by murder_: acc. sg.
moror-bealo, 1080, 2743.

moror-hete, st. m., _murderous hate_: gen. sg. ˛‰s moror-hetes, 1106.

morgen, morn, mergen, st. m., _morning, forenoon_; also _morrow_: nom. sg.
morgen, 1785, 2125; (_morrow_), 2104; acc. sg. on morgen (_in the
morning_), 838; dat. sg. on morgne, 2485; on mergenne, 565, 2940; gen. pl.
morna gehwylce (_every morning_), 2451.

morgen-ceald, adj., _morning-cold, dawn-cold_: nom. sg. g‚r morgen-ceald
(_spear chilled by the early air of morn_), 3023.

morgen-lang, adj., _lasting through the morning_: acc. sg. morgen-longne
d‰g (_the whole forenoon_), 2895.

morgen-leÛht, st. n., _morning-light_: nom. sg., 605, 918.

morgen-swÍg, st. m., _morning-cry, cry at morn_: nom. sg., 129.

morgen-tÓd, st. f., _morning-tide_: acc. sg. on morgen-tÓde, 484, 818(?)

morn. See morgen.

mÙd, st. n.: 1) _heart, soul, spirit, mood, mind, manner of thinking_: nom.
sg., 50, 731; w‰fre mÙd (_the flicker ing spirit, the fading breath_),
1151; acc. sg. on mÙd (_into his mind_), 67; dat. instr. sg. mÙde ge˛ungen
(_of mature, lofty spirit_), 625; on mÙde (_in heart, mind_), 754, 1845,
2282? 2528; on hreÛum mÙde (_fierce of spirit_), 2582; gen. sg. modes, 171,
811, 1707; modes blÓe (_gracious-minded, kindly disposed_), 436; so, mÙdes
milde, 1230; mÙdes seÛce (_depressed in mind_), 1604.--2) _boldness,
courage_: nom. and acc. sg., 1058, 1168. 3) _passion, fierceness_: nom.
sg., 549.--Comp. form adj.: galg-, geÙmor-, gl‰d-, g˚-, hreÛh-, irre-,
s‚rig-, stÓ-, swÓ-, wÍrig-mÙd.

mÙd-cearu, st. f., _grief of heart_: acc. sg. mÙd-ceare, 1993, 3150.

mÙd-gehygd, st. f ., _thought of the heart; mind_: instr. pl. mÙd-gehygdum,

mÙd-ge-˛anc, st. n., _mood-thought, meditation_: acc. sg. mÙd-ge-˛onc,

mÙd-giÙmor, adj., _grieved at heart, dejected_: nom. sg., 2895.

mÙdig, adj., _courageous_: nom. sg., 605, 1644, 1813, 2758; he ˛‰s (˛‰m,
MS.) mÙdig w‰s (_had the courage for it_), 1509; se mÙdega, 814; dat. sg.
mid ˛am mÙdigan, 3012; gen. sg. mÙdges, 502; mÙdiges, 2699; Ge·ta leÛd
georne tr˚wode mÙdgan m‰gnes (_trusted firmly in his bold strength_), 671;
nom. pl. mÙdge, 856; mÙdige, 1877; gen. pl. mÙdigra, 312, 1889.--Comp,

mÙdig-lÓc, adj., _of bold appearance_: compar. acc. pl. mÙdiglÓcran, 337.

mÙd-lufe, w. f., _hearts affection, love_: gen. sg. ˛Ónre mÙd-lufan, 1824.

mÙd-sefa, w. m., _thought of the heart; brave, bold temper; courage_: nom.
sg., 349, 1854, 2629; acc. sg. mÙd-sefan, 2013; dat. sg. mÙd-sefan, 180.

mÙd-˛racu, st. f., _boldness, courage, strength of mind_: dat. sg. for his
mÙd-˛r‰ce, 385.

mÙdor, f., _mother_: nom. sg., 1259, 1277, 1283, 1684, 2119; acc. sg.
mÙdor, 1539, 2140, 2933.

mÙna, w. m., _moon_: gen. sg. mÙnan, 94.

mÙr, st. m., _moor, morass, swamp_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mÙr, 1406; dat.
sg. of mÙre, 711; acc. pl. mÙras, 103, 162, 1349.

mÙr-hop, st. n., _place of refuge in the moor, hiding-place in the swamp_:
acc. pl. mÙr-hopu, 450.

ge-mÙt, st. n., _meeting_: in comp. hand-, torn-ge-mÙt.

mÙtan, pret.-pres. v.: 1) _power_ or _permission to have something, to be
permitted; may, can_: pres. sg. I., III. mÙt, 186, 442, 604; II. mÙst,
1672; pl. mÙton, 347, 365, 395; pres. subj. ic mÙte, 431; III. se ˛e mÙte,
1388; pret sg. mÙste, 168, 707, 736, 895, 1488, 1999, 2242, 2505, etc.; pl.
mÙston, 1629, 1876, 2039, 2125, 2248; pres. subj. sg. II. ˛‰t ˛u hine
selfne geseÛn mÙste (_mightest see_), 962.--2) _shall, must, be obliged_:
pres. sg. mÙt, 2887; pret. sg. mÙste, 1940; ˛Êr he ˛˝ fyrste forman dÙgore
wealdan mÙste, sw‚ him Wyrd ne gescr‚f, hrÍ ‰t hilde (_if he must for the
first time that day be victorious, as Fate had denied him victory_, cf.
2681, 2683 seqq.), 2575.

ge-munan, pret.-pres. v., _to have in mind, be mindful; remember, think
of_, w. acc.: pres. sg. hine gearwe geman witena wel-hwylc (_each of the
knowing ones still remembers him well_), 265; ic ˛e ˛‰s le·n geman (_I
shall not forget thy reward for this_), 1221; ic ˛‰t eall gemon (_I
remember all that_), 2428; so, 1702, 2043; gif he ˛‰t eall gemon hw‰t ...
(_if he is mindful of all that which_ ...), 1186; ic ˛‰t mÊl gemon hwÊr...
(_I remember the time when_...), 2634; pret. sg. w. gemunde... Êfen-sprÊce
(_recalled his evening speech_), 759; so, 871, 1130, 1260, 1271, 1291,
2115, 2432, 2607, 2679; se ˛‰s leÛd-hryres le·n ge-munde (_was mindful of
reward for the fall of the ruler_), 2392; ˛‰t he Eotena bearn inne gemunde
(_that he in this should remember, take vengeance on, the children of the
Eotens_), 1142; so, hond gemunde fÊho genÙge (_his hand remembered strife
enough_), 2490; ne ge-munde mago Ecgl‚fes ˛‰t ... (_remembered not that
which_ ...), 1466; pret. pl. helle gemundon in mÙd-sefan (_their thoughts_
[as heathens] _fixed themselves on, remembered, hell_), 179.

on-munan, w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to admonish, exhort_: pret. sg.
onmunde ˚sic mÊra (_exhorted us to deeds of glory_), 2641.

mund, st. f., _hand_: instr. pl. mundum, mid mundum, 236, 514, 1462, 3023,

mund-bora, w. m., _protector, guardian, preserver_: nom. sg., 1481, 2780.

mund-gripe, st. m., _hand-grip, seizure_: acc. sg. mund-gripe, 754; dat.
sg. mund-gripe, 380, 1535; ‰fter mund-gripe (_after having seized the
criminal_), 1939.

murnan, st. v., _to shrink from, be afraid of, avoid_: pret. sg. nÙ mearn
fore fÊhe and fyrene, 136; so, 1538; nalles for ealdre mearn (_was not
apprehensive for his life_), 1443.--2) _to mourn, grieve_: pres. part. him
w‰s ... murnende mÙd, 50; pres. subj., ˛onne he fela murne (_than that he
should mourn much_), 1386.

be-murnan, be-meornan, with acc., _to mourn over_: pret. be-mearn, 908,

murn-lÓce. See un-murn-lÓce.

m˚-bana, w. m., _mouth-destroyer_: dat. sg. tÙ m˚-bonan (of Grendel
because he bit his victim to death), 2080.

m˚a, w. m., _mouth, entrance_: acc. sg. recedes m˚an (_mouth of the
house, door_), 725.

ge-mynd, st. f., _memory, memorial, remembrance_: dat. pl. tÙ gemyndum,
2805, 3017. See weor-mynd.

myhdgian, w. v., _to call to mind, remember_: pres. sg. myndga, 2058;
pres. part. w. gen. gif ˛onne Fresna hwylc ... ˛‰s moror-hetes myndgiend
wÊre (_were to call to mind the bloody feud_), 1106.

ge-myndgian, w. v. w. acc., _to remember_: bi gemyndgad ... eaforan
ellor-sÓ (_is reminded of his son's decease_), 2451.

ge-myndig, adj., _mindful_: nom. sg. w. gen., 614, 869, 1174, 1531, 2083,

myne, st. m.: 1) _mind, wish_: nom. sg., 2573.--2) _love_(?): ne his myne
wisse (_whose_ [God's] _love he knew not_), 169.

ge-mynian, w. v. w. acc., _to be mindful of_: imper. sg. gemyne mÊro! 660.

myntan, w. v., _to intend, think of, resolve_: pret. sg. mynte ... manna
cynnes sumne besyrwan (_meant to entrap all_(?) [see sum], _some one of
(?), the men_), 713; mynte ˛‰t he gedÊlde ... (_thought to sever_), 732;
mynte se mÊra, ˛Êr he meahte sw‚, wÓdre gewindan (_intended to flee_), 763.

myrce, adj., _murky, dark_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan mÙr, 1406.

myr, st. f., _joy, mirth_: dat. (instr.) sg. mÙdes myre, 8n.


naca, w. m., _vessel, ship_: acc. sg. nacan, 295; gen. sg. nacan,
214.--Comp.: hring-, ˝-naca.

nacod, adj., _naked_: nom. and acc. sg. swurd, g˚-bill nacod, 539, 2586;
nacod nÓ-draca, 2274.

nalas, nales, nallas. See nealles.

nama, w. m., _name_: nom. sg. BeÛwulf is mÓn nama, 343; w‰s ˛‰m h‰ft-mÍce
Hrunting nama, 1458; acc. sg. scÙp him Heort naman (_gave it the name
Hart_), 78.

n‚ (from ne-‚), strength, negative, _never, not all_, 445, 567, 1537.

n‚h, from ne-‚h. See ‚gan.

n‚n (from ne-‚n), indef. pron., _none, no_: with gen. pl. g˚-billa n‚n,
804; adjectively, n‚n ... Óren ÊrgÙd, 990.

n‚t, from ne-w‚t: _I know not=nescio_. See witan.

n‚t-hwylc (nescio quis, ne-w‚t-hwylc, _know not who, which_, etc.), indef.
pron., _any, a certain one, some or other_: 1) w. partitive gen.: nom. sg.
gumena n‚t-hwylc, 2234;. gen. sg. n‚t-hwylces (˛‚ra banena), 2054; nia
n‚t-hwylces(?), 2216; n‚t-hwylces h‰lea bearna, 2225.--2) adjectively:
dat. sg. in ni-sele n‚t-hwylcum, 1514.

n‰bben, from ne-h‰bben (subj. pres.). See habban.

n‰fne. See nefne.

n‰gel, st. m., _nail_: gen. pl. n‰gla (of the finger-nails), 986.

n‰gled, part., _nailed?, nail-like?, buckled?_: acc. sg. neut. n‰gled (MS.
gled) sinc, 2024.

n‰s, st. m., _naze, rock projecting into the sea, cliff, promontory_: acc.
sg. n‰s, 1440, 1601, 2899; dat. sg. n‰sse, 2244, 2418; acc. pl. windige
n‰ssas, 1412; gen. pl. n‰ssa, 1361.

n‰s, from ne-w‰s (_was not_). See wesan.

n‰s, neg. adv., _not, not at all_, 562, 2263.

n‰s-hli, st. n., _declivity, slope of a promontory that sinks downward to
the sea_: dat. pl. on n‰s-hleoum, 1428.

nÊfre, adv., _never_, 247, 583, 592, 656, 719, 1042, 1049, etc.; also
strengthened by ne: nÊfre ne, 1461.

ge-nÊgan, w. v. w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to attack, press_; pret.
pl. nÓa genÊgdan nefan HererÓces (_in combats pressed hard upon H.'s
nephew_), 2207; pret. part. wear ... nÓa genÊged, 1440.

nÊnig (from ne-Ênig), pron., _not any, none, no_: 1) substantively w. gen.
pl.: nom. sg., 157, 242, 692; dat. sg. nÊnegum, 599; gen. pl. nÊnigra,
950.--2) adjectively: nom. sg. Ùer nÊnig, 860; nÊnig w‰ter, 1515; nÊnig
... deÛr, 1934; acc. sg. nÊnigne ... hord-m‚um, 1199.

nÊre, from ne-wÊre (_were not, would not be_). See wesan.

ne, simple neg., _not_, 38, 50, 80, 83, 109, etc.; before imper. ne sorga!
1385; ne g˝m! 1761, etc. Doubled =_certainly not, not even that_: ne ge ...
gearwe ne wisson (_ye certainly have not known_, etc.), 245; so, 863; ne ic
... wihte ne wÍne (_nor do I at all in the least expect_), 2923; so, 182.
Strengthened by other neg.: nÙer ... ne, 2125; sw‚ he ne mihte nÙ ... (_so
that he absolutely could not_), 1509.

ne ... ne, _not ... and not, nor; neither ... nor_, 154-157, 511,
1083-1085, etc. Another neg. may supply the place of the first ne: so, nÙ
... ne, 575-577, 1026-1028, 1393-1395, etc.; nÊfre ... ne, 583-584; nalles
... ne, 3016-3017. The neg. may be omitted the first time: Êr ne sian
(_neither before nor after, before nor since_), 719; s˚ ne nor (_south
nor north_), 859; ‚dl ne yldo (_neither illness nor old age_), 1737; wordum
ne worcum (_neither by word nor deed_), 1101; wiston and ne wÍndon (_knew
not and weened not_), 1605.

nefa, w. m., _nephew, grandson_: nom. sg. nefa (_grandson_), 1204; so,
1963; (_nephew_), 2171; acc. sg. nefan (_nephew_), 2207; dat. sg. nefan
(_nephew_), 882.

nefne, n‰fne, nemne (orig. from ne-gif-ne): 1) subj.: a) with depend.
clause = _unless_: nefne him witig god wyrd forstÙde (_if fate, the wise
God, had not prevented him_), 1057; nefne god sylfa ... sealde (_unless God
himself_, etc.), 3055; n‰fne him his wlite leÛge (MS. nÊfre) (_unless his
face belie him_), 250; n‰fne he w‰s m‚ra (_except that he was huger_),
1354; nemne him heao-byrne helpe ge-fremede, 1553; so, 2655.--b) w.
follow. substantive = _except, save, only_: nefne sin-fre· (_except the
husband_), 1935; ic lyt hafo he·fod-m‚ga nefne Hygel‚c ˛ec (_have no near
kin but thee_), 2152; nis ˛‰t eÛwer (gen. pl.) sÓ ... nefne mÓn ‚nes,
2534.--2) Prep. with dat., _except_: nemne fe·um ‚num, 1082.

ge-nehost. See ge-neahhe.

nelle, from ne-wille (_I will not_). See willan.

nemnan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to name, call_: pres. pl. ˛one yldestan
oret-mecgas BeÛwulf nemna (_the warriors call the most distinguished one
BeÛwulf_), 364; so inf. nemnan, 2024; pret. pl. nemdon, 1355.--2) _to
address_, as in

be-nemnan, _to pronounce solemnly, put under a spell_: pret. sg. Fin
Hengeste ... ‚um be-nemde ˛‰t (_asserted, promised under oath that_ ...),
1098; pret. pl. sw‚ hit Ù dÙmes d‰g diÛpe benemdon ˛eÛdnas mÊre (_put
under a curse_), 3070.

nemne. See nefne.

nerian, ge-nerian, w. v., _to save, rescue, liberate_: pres. sg. Wyrd oft
nere unfÊgne eorl, 573; pret. part. h‰fde ... sele HrÙg‚res ge-nered wi
nÓe (_saved from hostility_), 828.

ge-nesan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to remain over, be preserved_: pret. sg.
hrÙf ‚na gen‰s ealles ansund (_the roof alone was quite sound_), 1000.--2)
w. acc., _to endure successfully, survive, escape from_: pret. sg. se ˛‚
s‰cce ge-n‰s, 1978; fela ic ... g˚-rÊsa ge-n‰s, 2427; pret. part. sw‚ he
nÓa gehwane genesen h‰fde, 2398.

net, st. n., _net_: in comp. breÛst-, here-, hring-, inwit-, searo-net.

nÍdla, w. m., _dire necessity, distress_: in comp. ˛re·-nÍdla.

nÍan (G. nan˛jan), w. v., _to venture, undertake boldly_: pres. part.
nearo nÍende (_encountering peril_), 2351; pret. pl. ˛Êr git ... on deÛp
water aldrum nÍdon (_where ye two risked your lives in the deep water_),
510; so, 538.

ge-nÍan, the same: inf. ne dorste under ˝a gewin aldre ge-nÍan, 1470.
With depend. clause: nÊnig ˛‰t dorste genÍan ˛‰t (_none durst undertake
to_ ...), 1934; pret. sg. he under h‚rne st‚n ‚na genÍde frÍcne dÊde (_he
risked alone the bold deed, venturing under the grey rock_), 889; (ic) wÓge
under w‰tere weorc genÍde earfo-lÓce (_I with difficulty stood the work
under the water in battle_, i.e. could hardly win the victory), 1657; ic
genÍde fela g˚a (_ventured on, risked, many contests_), 2512; pres. pl.
(of majesty) we ... frÍcne genÍdon eafo unc˚es (_we have boldly risked,
dared, the monster's power_), 961.

nÍh. See ne·h.

ge-neahhe, adv., _enough, sufficiently_, 784, 3153; superl. genehost br‰gd
eorl BeÛwulfes ealde l‚fe (_many an earl of B.'s_), 795.

nealles (from ne-ealles), adv., _omnino non, not at all, by no means_:
nealles, 2146, 2168, 2180, 2223, 2597, etc.; nallas, 1720, 1750; nalles,
338, 1019, 1077, 1443, 2504, etc.; nalas, 43, 1494, 1530, 1538; nales,

nearo, st. n., _strait, danger, distress_: acc. sg. nearo, 2351, 2595.

nearo, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. f. nearwe, 1410.

nearwe, adv., _narrowly_, 977.

nearo-cr‰ft, st. m., _art of rendering difficult of access?,
inaccessibility_ (see 2214 seqq.): instr. pl. nearo-cr‰ftum, 2244.

nearo-f‚h, m., _foe that causes distress, war-foe_: gen. sg. nearo-f‚ges,

nearo-˛earf, st. f., _dire need, distress_: acc. sg. nearo-˛earfe, 422.

ge-nearwian, w. v., _to drive into a corner, press upon_: pret. part.
genearwod, 1439.

ne·h, nÍh: 1) adj., _near, nigh_: nom. sg. ne·h, 1744, 2729. In superl.
also = _last_: instr. sg. n˝hstan sÓe (_for the last time_), 1204;
niÈhstan sÓe, 2512.

2) adv., _near_: feor and (oe) ne·h, 1222, 2871; 3) prep, sÊ-grunde ne·h,
564; so, 1925, 2243; holm-wylme nÍh, 2412. Compar. ne·r, 746.

ne·n, adv., _near by, (from) close at hand_, 528; (neon, MS.), 3105;
feorran and ne·n, 840; ne·n and feorran, 1175, 2318.

ge-ne·t, st. m., _comrade, companion_: in comp. beÛd-, heor-gene·t.

nioor. See nier.

neowol, adj., _steep, precipitous_: acc. pl. neowle, 1412.

neÛd, st. f., _polite intercourse regulated by etiquette?, hall-joy?_: acc.
sg. niÛde, 2117; inst. (= _joy_), 2216.

neÛd-lau, st. f., _polite invitation; wish_: dat. sg. ‰fter neÛd-lau
(_according to his wishes_), 1321.

neÛsan, neÛsian, w. v. w. gen., _to seek out, look for; to attack_: inf.
neÛsan, 125, 1787, 1792, 1807, 2075; niÛsan, 2389, 2672; neÛsian, 115,
1126; niÛsian, 3046; pret. sg. niÛsade, 2487.

neÛtan, st. v., _to take, accept_, w. gen.; _to use, enjoy_: imper. sg.
neÛt, 1218.

be-neÛtan, w. dat., _to rob, deprive of_: inf. hine aldre be-neÛtan, 681;
pret. sg. cyning ealdre bi-ne·t (_deprived the king of life_), 2397.

nicor, st. m., _sea-horse, walrus, sea-monster_ (cf. Bugge in Zacher's
Journal, 4, 197): acc. pl. niceras, 422, 575; nicras, 1428; gen. pl.
nicera, 846.

nicor-h˚s, st. n., _house_ or _den of sea-monsters_: gen. pl. nicor-h˚sa,

ni st. m., _man, human being_: gen. pl. nia, 1006; nia? (passage
corrupt), 2216.

nier, nyer, neoor, adv., _down, downward_: nier, 1361; nioor, 2700;
nyer, 3045.

ni-sele, st. m., _hall, room, in the deep_ (Grein): dat. sg. [in] ni-sele
n‚t-hwylcum, 1514.

nigen, num., _nine_: acc. nigene, 575.

niht, st. f. _night_: nom. sg., 115, 547. 650, 1321, 2117; acc. sg. niht,
135, 737, 2939; gystran niht (_yester-night_), 1335; dat. sg. on niht, 575,
684; on wanre niht, 703; gen. sg. nihtes hwÓlum (_sometimes at night, in
the hours of the night_), 3045; as adv. = _of a night, by night_, G.
nachts, 422, 2274; d‰ges and nihtes, 2270; acc. pl. seofon niht
(_se'nnight, seven days_, cf. Tac. Germ, 11), 517; dat. pl. sweartum
nihtum, 167; deorcum nihtum, 275, 221; gen. pl. nihta, 545, 1366.--Comp.:
middel-, sin-niht.

niht-bealu, st. n., _night-bale, destruction by night_: gen. pl.
niht-bealwa, 193.

niht-helm, st. m., _veil_ or _canopy of night_: nom. sg., 1790.

niht-long, adj., _lasting through the night_: acc. sg. m. niht-longne fyrst
(_space of a night_), 528.

niht-weorc, st. n., _night-work, deed done at night_: instr. sg.
niht-weorce, 828.

niman, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to take, hold, seize, undertake_: pret. sg. nam
˛‚ mid handa hige-˛ihtigne rinc, 747; pret. pl. we . . . niÛde n‚man,
2117.--2) _to take, take away, deprive of_: pres. sg. se ˛e hine de· nime
(_he whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 447; nyme, 1847; nyme n˝d-b‚de,
599; subj. pres. gif mec hild nime, 452, 1482; pret. sg. ind. nam on
Ongen˛iÛ Óren-byrnan, 2987; ne nom he ... m‚m-Êhta m‚ (_he took no more of
the rich treasures_), 1613; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s ... seÛ cwÍn numen (_the
queen carried off_), 1154.

be-niman, _to deprive of_: pret. sg. Ù ˛‰t hine yldo benam m‰genes wynnum
(_till age bereft him of joy in his strength_), 1887.

for-niman, _to carry off_: pres. sg. ˛e ˛‚ de· for-nam (_whom death
carried off_), 488; so, 557, 696, 1081, 1124, 1206, 1437, etc. Also, dat.
for acc.: pret. pl. him Órenna ecge forn‚mon, 2829.

ge-niman: 1) _to take, seize_: pret. sg. (hine) be healse ge-nam (_clasped
him around the neck, embraced him_), 1873.--2) _to take, take away_: pret.
on reste genam ˛ritig ˛egna, 122; heÛ under heolfre genam c˚e folme, 1303;
segn e·c genom, 2777; ˛‚ mec sinca baldor ... ‰t mÓnum f‰der genam (_took
me at my father's hands, adopted me_), 2430; pret. part. genumen, 3167.

ge-nip, st. n., _darkness, mist, cloud_: acc. pl. under n‰ssa genipu, 1361;
ofer flÙda genipu, 2809.

nis, from ne-is (_is not_): see wesan.

niwe, niÛwe, adj., _new, novel; unheard-of_: nom. sg. swÍg up ‚-st‚g niwe
geneahhe (_a monstrous hubbub arose_), 784; beorh ... niwe (_a
newly-raised(?) grave-mound_), 2244; acc. sg. niwe sibbe (_the new
kinship_), 950; instr. sg. niwan stefne (properly, nov‚ voce; here = de
novo, iterum, _again_), 2595; niÛwan stefne (_again_), 1790; gen. pl. niwra
spella (_new tidings_), 2899.

ge-niwian, w. v., _to renew_: pret. part. ge-niwod, 1304, 1323; geniwad,

niw-tyrwed, pret. part., _newly-tarred_: acc. sg. niw-tyrwedne (-tyrwydne,
MS.) nacan, 295.

nÓ, st. m., properly only _zeal, endeavor_; then _hostile endeavor,
hostility, battle, war_: nom. sg., 2318; acc. sg. nÓ, 184, 276; Wedera nÓ
(_enmity against the W., the sorrows of the Weders_), 423; dat. sg. wi
(‰t) nÓe, 828, 2586; instr. nÓe, 2681; gen. pl. nÓa, 883, 2351, 2398,
etc.; also instr. = _by, in, battle_, 846, 1440, 1963, 2171, 2207.--Comp.:
bealo-, fÊr-, here-, hete-, inwit-, searo-, w‰l-nÓ.

nÓ-draca, w. m., _battle-dragon_: nom. sg., 2274.

nÓ-gast, st. m., _hostile alien, fell demon_: acc. sg. ˛one nÓ-g‰st (_the
dragon_), 2700.

nÓ-geweorc, st. n., _work of enmity, deed of evil_: gen. pl. -geweorca,

nÓ-grim, adj., _furious in battle, savage_: nom. sg., 193.

nÓ-heard, adj., _valiant in war_: nom. sg., 2418.

nÓ-hydig, adj., _eager for battle, valorous_: nom. pl. nÓ-hydige men,

ge-nÓla, w. m., _foe, persecutor, waylayer_: in comp. ferh-,

nÓ-wundor, st. n., _hostile wonder, strange marvel of evil_: acc. sg.,

nÓpan, st. v., _to veil, cover over, obscure_; pres. part. nÓpende niht,
547, 650.

nolde, from ne-wolde (_would not_); see willan.

nor, adv., _northward_, 859.

noran, adv., _from the north_, 547.

nose, w. f., _projection, cliff, cape_: dat. sg. of hlies nosan, 1893; ‰t
brimes nosan, 2804.

nÙ (strengthened neg.), _not, not at all, by no means_, 136, 244, 587, 755,
842, 969, 1736, etc.; strengthened by following ne, 459(?), 1509; nÙ ... nÙ
(_neither ... nor_), 541-543; so, nÙ ... ne, 168. See ne.

nÙer (from n‚-hw‰er), neg., _and not, nor_, 2125.

ge-nÙh, adj., _sufficient, enough_: acc. sg. fÊho genÙge, 2490; acc. pl.
genÙge ... be·gas, 3105.

nÙn, st. f., [Eng. _noon_], ninth hour of the day, three o'clock in the
afternoon of our reckoning_ (the day was reckoned from six o'clock in the
morning; cf. Bouterwek Scre·dunga, 24 _2_: we h‚ta Ênne d‰g fram sunnan
upgange Ù Êfen): nom. sg. nÙn, 1601.

nu, adv.: l) _now, at present_, 251, 254, 375, 395, 424, 426, 489, etc.: nu
gyt (_up to now, hitherto_), 957; nu gen (_now still, yet_), 2860; (_now
yet, still_), 3169.--2) conj., _since, inasmuch as_: nu ˛u lungre geong ...
nu se wyrm lige (_go now quickly, since the dragon lieth dead_), 2746; so,
2248; ˛‰t ˛u me ne forwyrne ... nu ic ˛us feorran com (_that do not thou
refuse me, since I am come so far_), 430; so, 1476; nu ic on m‚ma hord
mÓne bebohte frÙde feorh-lege, fremma ge nu (_as I now..., so do ye_),
2800; so, 3021.

nyme, conj. w. subj., _if not, unless_, 782; nyme mec god scylde (_if God
had not shielded me_), 1659.

nyt, st. f., _duty, service, office, employment_: acc. sg. ˛egn nytte
beheÛld (_did his duty_), 494; so, 3119.--Comp.: sund-, sundor-nyt.

nyt, adj., _useful_: acc. pl. m. nytte, 795; comp. un-nyt.

ge-nyttian, w. v., _to make use of, enjoy_: pret. part. h‰fde eor-scrafa
ende ge-nyttod (_had enjoyed, made use of_), 3047.

n˝d, st. f., _force, necessity, need, pain_: acc. sg. ˛urh de·es n˝d,
2455; instr. sg. n˝de, 1006. In comp. (like n˝d-maga, consanguineus, in
∆thelred's Laws, VI. 12, Schmid, p. 228; nÍd-maga, in Cnut's Laws, I. 7,
ibid., p. 258); also, _tie of blood._--Comp. ˛re·-n˝d.

ge-n˝dan, w. v.: 1) _to force, compel_: pret. part. nÓe ge-n˝ded (_forced
by hostile power_), 2681.--2) _to force upon_: pret. part. acc. sg. f. n˝de
gen˝dde ... gearwe stÙwe (_the inevitable place prepared for each_, i.e.
the bed of death), 1006.

n˝d-b‚d, st. f., _forced pledge, pledge demanded by force_: acc. pl.
n˝d-b‚de, 599.

n˝d-gestealla, w. m., _comrade in need_ or _united by ties of blood_: nom.
pl. n˝d-gesteallan, 883.

n˝d-gripe, st. m., _compelling grip_: dat. sg. in n˝d-gripe (mid-gripe,
MS.), 977.

n˝d-wracu, st. f., _distressful persecution, great distress_: nom. sg.,

n˝hst. See ne·h.


oe, conj.: 1) _or; otherwise_, 283, 437, 636, 638, 694, 1492, 1765,
etc.--2) _and_(?), _till_(?), 650, 2476, 3007.

of, prep. w. dat., _from, off from_: 1) _from some point of view_: ge-seah
of wealle (_from the wall_), 229; so, 786; of hefene scÓne (_shineth from
heaven_), 1572; of hlies nosan g‰stas grÍtte (_from the cliff's
projection_), 1893; of ˛am leÛma stÙd (_from which light streamed_), 2770;
˛Êr w‰s m‚ma fela of feorwegum ... gelÊded (_from distant lands_), 37; ˛‚
com of mÙre (_from the moor_), 711, 922.--2) _forth from, out of_: hwearf
of earde (_wandered from his home, died_), 56; so, 265, 855, 2472; ˛‚ ic of
searwum com (_when I had escaped from the persecutions of the foe_), 419;
˛‚ him HrÙg‚r gew‚t ... ˚t of healle (_out of the hall_), 664; so, 2558,
2516; 1139, 2084, 2744; wudu-rÍc ‚-st‚h sweart of (ofer) swioole (_black
wood-reek ascended from the smoking fire_), 3145; (icge gold) ‚-h‰fen of
horde (_lifted from the hoard_), 1109; lÍt ˛‚ of breÛstum ... word ˚t faran
(_from his breast_), 2551; dyde ... helm of hafelan (_doffed his helmet_),
673; so, 1130; sealdon wÓn of wunder-fatum (_presented wine from wondrous
vessels_), 1163; sian hyne HÊcyn of horn-bogan ... fl‚ne geswencte
(_with an arrow shot from the horned bow_), 2438; so, 1434. Prep.
postponed: ˛‚ he him of dyde Ósern-byrnan (_doffed his iron corselet_),

ofer, prep. w. dat. and acc., _over, above_: 1) w. dat, _over_ (rest,
locality): WÓgl‚f site ofer BiÛwulfe, 2908; ofer ‰elinge, 1245; ofer
eoran, 248, 803, 2008; ofer wer-˛eÛde (_over the earth, among mankind_),
900; ofer ˝um, 1908; ofer hron-r‚de (_over the sea_), 10; so, 304, 1287,
1290, etc.; ofer ealowÊge (_over the beer-cup, drinking_), 481.--2) w. acc.
of motion: a) _over_ (local): ofer ˝e (_over the waves_), 46, 1910; ofer
swan-r‚de (_over the swan-road, the sea_), 200; ofer wÊgholm, 217; ofer
geofenes be-gang, 362; so, 239, 240, 297, 393, 464, 471, etc.; ofer bolcan
(_over the gangway_), 231; ofer landa fela (_over many lands_), 311; so,
1405, 1406; ofer he·hne hrÙf (_along upon (under?) the high roof_), 984;
ofer eormen-grund (_over the whole earth_), 860; ofer ealle (_over all, on
all sides_), 2900, 650; so, 1718;--606, 900, 1706; ofer borda gebr‰c
(_over, above, the crashing of shields_), 2260; ofer bord-(scild) weall,
2981, 3119. Temporal: ofer ˛‚ niht (_through the night, by night_), 737. b)
w. verbs of saying, speaking, _about, of, concerning_: he ofer benne spr‰c,
2725. c) _beyond, over_: ofer mÓn ge-met (_beyond my power_), 2880;--hence,
_against, contrary to_: he ofer willan giÛng (_went against his will_),
2410; ofer ealde riht (_against the ancient laws_, i.e. the ten
commandments), 2331;--also, _without_: wÓg ofer wÊpen (_war sans,
dispensing with, weapons_), 686;--temporal = _after_: ofer eald-gewin
(_after long, ancient, suffering_), 1782.

ofer-hygd, st. n., _arrogance, pride, conceit_: gen. pl. ofer-hygda, 1741;
ofer-hyda, 1761.

ofer-m‚um, st. m., _very rich treasure_: dat. pl. ofer-m‚mum, 2994.

ofer-m‰gen, st. n., _over-might, superior numbers_: dat. sg. mid
ofer-m‰gene, 2918.

ofer-˛earf, st. f., _dire distress, need_: dat. sg. [for ofer] ˛ea[rfe],

oft, adv., _often_, 4, 165, 444, 572, 858, 908, 1066, 1239, etc.; oft [nÙ]
seldan, 2030; oft nalles Êne, 3020; so, 1248, 1888. Compar. oftor, 1580.
Superl. oftost, 1664.

om-, on-. See am-, an-.

ombiht. See ambiht.

oncer. See ancer.

ond. See and.

ons˝n. See ans˝n.

on, prep. w. dat. and acc., signifying primarily _touching on, contact
with_: I. local, w. dat.: a) _on, upon, in at_ (of exterior surface): on
he·h-stede (_in the high place_), 285; on mÓnre Íel-tyrf (_in my native
place_), 410; on ˛‰m meel-stede, 1083; so, 2004; on ˛am holmclife, 1422;
so, 1428; on foldan (_on earth_), 1197; so, 1533, 2997; on ˛Êre medu-bence
(_on the mead-bench_), 1053; beornas on blancum (_the heroes on the
dapple-greys_), 857, etc.; on r‰ste (_in bed_), 1299; on stapole (_at,
near, the pillar_), 927; on wealle, 892; on wage (_on the wall_), 1663; on
˛‰m w‰l-stenge (_on the battle-lance_), 1639; on eaxle (_on his shoulder_),
817, 1548; on bearme, 40; on breÛstum, 552; on hafelan, 1522; on handa (_in
his hand_), 495, 540; so, 555, 766; on him byrne sc‚n (_on him shone the
corselet_), 405; on Ùre (_at the front_), 1042; on corre (_at the head of,
among, his troop_), 1154; scip on ancre (_the ship at anchor_), 303; ˛‰t he
on heoe ge-stÙd (_until he stood in the hall_), 404; on f‰der st‰le (_in a
father's place_), 1480; on ˝um (_on the waves, in the water_), 210, 421,
534, 1438; on holme, 543; on Íg-stre·mum, 577; on segl-r‚de, 1438, etc.; on
flÙde, 1367. The prep. postponed: Freslondum on, 2358.--b) _in, inside of_
(of inside surface): secg on searwum (_a champion in armor_), 249; so, 963;
on wÓg-geatwum, 368; (reced) on ˛‰m se rÓca b‚d (_in which the mighty one
abode_), 310; on Heorote (_in Heorot_), 475, 497, 594, 1303; on beÛr-sele,
492, 1095; on healle, 615, 643; so, 639, 1017, 1026, etc.; on burgum (_in
the cities, boroughs_), 53; on helle, 101; on sefan mÓnum (_in my mind_),
473; on mÙde, 754; so, 755, 949, 1343, 1719, etc.; on aldre (_in his
vitals_), 1435; on middan (in medio), 2706.--c) _among, amid_: on searwum
(_among the arms_), 1558; on gemonge (_among the troop_), 1644; on ˛am
leÛd-scipe (_among the people_), 2198; nyme lÓges f‰m swulge on swaule
(_unless the embracing flame should swallow it in smoke_), 783;--_in, with,
touched by, possessing something_: ˛‚ w‰s on s‚lum sinces brytta (_then was
the dispenser of treasure in joy_), 608; so, 644, 2015; w‰s on hreÛn mÙde,
1308; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582, 2296; heÛ w‰s on Ùfste (_she was in
haste_), 1293; so, 1736, 1870; ˛‚ w‰s on blÙde brim weallende (_there was
the flood billowing in, with, blood_), 848; (he) w‰s on sunde (_was
a-swimming_), 1619; w‰s tÙ fore-mihtig feÛnd on fÍe (_too powerful in
speed_), 971; ˛Êr w‰s swÓgra secg ... on gylpsprÊce (_there was the
champion more silent in his boasting speech_), 982;--_in; full of,
representing, something_: on weres w‰stmum (_in man's form_), 1353.--d)
_attaching to_, hence _proceeding from; from something_: ge-h˝rde on
BeÛwulfe f‰st-rÊdne ge-˛Ùht (_heard in, from, B. the fixed resolve_), 610;
˛‰t he ne mÍtte ... on elran men mund-gripe m‚ran, 753;--hence, with verbs
of taking: on r‰ste genam (_took from his bed_), 122; so, 748, 2987; hit Êr
on ˛e gÙde be-ge‚ton (_took it before from thee_), 2249.--e) _with_: sw‚
hit lungre wear on hyra sinc-gifan s‚re ge-endod (_as it, too, soon
painfully came to an end with the dispenser of treasure_), 2312.--f) _by_:
m‰g ˛onne on ˛‰m golde ongitan Ge·ta dryhten (_the lord of the Geatas may
perceive by the gold_), 1485.--g) _to_, after weoran: ˛‰t he on fylle
wear (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.

With acc.: a) w. verbs of moving, doing, giving, seeing, etc., _up to, on,
upon, in_: ‚-lÍdon ˛‚ leÛfne ˛eÛden ... on bearm scipes, 35; on stefn (on
wang) stigon, 212, 225; ˛‚ him mid scoldon on flÙdes Êht feor ge-wÓtan, 42;
se ˛e wi Brecan wunne on sÓdne sÊ (_who strovest in a swimming-match with
B. on the broad sea_), 507, cf. 516; ˛‰t ic on holma ge-˛ring eorlscipe
efnde (_that I should venture on the sea to do valiant deeds_), 2133; on
feÛnda geweald sÓian, 809; ˛‚ra ˛e on swylc stara, 997; so, 1781; on
lufan lÊte hworfan (_lets him turn his thoughts to love?, to
possessions?_), 1729; him on mÙd bearn (_came into his mind, occurred to
him_), 67; rÊsde on ˛one rÙfan (_rushed on the powerful one_), 2691; (cwom)
on worig (_came into the palace_), 1973; so, 27, 242, 253, 512, 539, 580,
677, 726, etc.; on weg (_away_), 764, 845, 1383, 1431, 2097.--b) _towards,
on_: gÙde gewyrcean ... on f‰der wine (pl.), 21.--c) aim or object, _to,
for the object, for, as, in, on_: on ˛earfe (_in his need, in his strait_),
1457; so, on hyra man-dryhtnes miclan ˛earfe, 2850; wr‚um on andan (_as a
terror to the foe_), 709; HrÙg‚r maelode him on andsware (_said to him in
reply_), 1841; betst beado-rinca w‰s on bÊl gearu (_on the pyre ready_),
1110; wÓg-heafolan b‰r fre·n on fultum (_for help_), 2663; wear on bÓd
wrecen (_forced to wait_), 2963.--d) ground, reason, _according to, in
conformity with_: rodera rÊdend hit on ryht gescÍd (_decided it in
accordance with right_), 1556; ne me swÙr fela ‚a on unriht (_swore no
oaths unjustly, falsely_), 2740; on spÍd (_skilfully_), 874; nallas on gylp
sele f‰tte be·gas (_giveth no gold-wrought rings as he promised_), 1750;
on sÓnne selfes dÙm (_boastingly, at his own will_), 2148; him eal worold
wende on willan (_according to his will_), 1740.--e) w. verbs of buying,
_for, in exchange for_: me ic on m‚ma hord mÓne be-bohte frÙde feorh-lege
(_for the hoard of jewels_), 2800.--f) _of, as to_: ic on Higel‚ce w‚t,
Ge·ta dryhten (_I know with respect to, as to, of, H._), 1831; so, 2651;
˛‰t heÛ on Ênigne eorl ge-l˝fde fyrena frÙfre (_that she should rely on any
earl for help out of trouble_), 628; ˛‚ hie ge-tr˚wedon on tw‚ healfa (_on
both sides, mutually_), 1096; so, 2064; ˛‰t ˛u him ondrÊdan ne ˛earft ...
on ˛‚ healfe (_from, on this side_), 1676.--g) after superlatives or
virtual superlatives = _among_: n‰s ... sinc-m‚um sÍlra (= ˛‰t w‰s
sinc-m‚ma sÍlest) on sweordes h‚d (_there was no better jewel in sword's
shape_, i.e. among all swords there was none better), 2194; se w‰s HrÙg‚re
h‰lea leÛfost on ge-sÓes h‚d (_dearest of men as, in the character of,
follower_, etc.), 1298.

II. Of time: a) w. dat., _in, inside of, during, at_: on fyrste (_in time,
within the time appointed_), 76; on uhtan (_at dawn_), 126; on mergenne
(_at morn, on the morrow_), 565, 2940; on niht, 575; on wanre niht, 703; on
tyn dagum, 3161; so, 197, 719, 791, 1063, etc.; on geogoe (_in youth_),
409, 466; on geogo-feore, 537; so, 1844; on orlege (_in, during, battle_),
1327; h˚ lomp eÛw on l‚de (_on the way_), 1988; on gange (_in going, en
route_), 1885; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582.--b) w. acc., _towards,
about_: on undern-mÊl (_in the morning, about midday_), 1429; on
morgen-tÓd, 484, 518; on morgen, 838; on ende-st‰f (_toward the end, at
last_), 1754; oftor micle ˛onne on Ênne sÓ (_far oftener than once_),

III. With particles: him on efn (_beside, alongside of, him_), 2904; on
innan (_inside, within_), 71, 1741, 1969, 2453, 2716; ˛Êr on innan (_in
there_), 2090, 2215, 2245. With the relative ˛e often separated from its
case: ˛e ic her on starie (_that I here look on, at_), 2797; ˛e ge ˛Êr on
standa (_that ye there stand in_), 2867.

on-c˝ (cf. Dietrich in Haupt's Zeits. XI., 412), st. f., _pain,
suffering_: nom. sg., 1421; acc. sg. or pl. on-c˝e, 831.

on-drysne, adj., _frightful, terrible_: acc. sg. firen on-drysne, 1933.

onettan (for anettan, from root an-, Goth. inf. anan, _to breathe, pant_),
w. v., _to hasten_: pret. pl. onetton, 306, 1804.

on-lÓcnes, st. f., _likeness, form, figure_: nom. sg., 1352.

on-mÍdla, w. m., _pride, arrogance_: dat. sg. for on-mÍdlan, 2927. Cf.
Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 218 seqq.

on-sÊge, adj., _tending to fall, fatal_: nom. sg. ˛‚ w‰s HondsciÛ (dat.)
hild on-sÊge, 2077; HÊcynne wear ... g˚ on-sÊge, 2484.

on-weald, st. m., _power, authority_: acc. sg. (him) bega ge-hw‰res ...
onweald ge-te·h (_gave him power over, possession of, both_), 1044.

open, adj., _open_: acc. sg. hord-wynne fond ... opene standan, 2272.

openian, w. v., _to open_, w. acc.: inf. openian, 3057.

orc (O.S. orc, Goth. a˙rkei-s), st. m., _crock, vessel, can _: nom. pl.
orcas, 3048; acc. pl. orcas, 2761.

orcnÍ, st. m., _sea-monster_: nom. pl. orcnÍas, 112.

ord, st. n. _point_: nom. sg. Ù ˛‰t wordes ord breÛst-hord ˛urh-br‰c
(_till the word-point broke through his breast-hoard, came to utterance_),
2792; acc. sg. ord (_sword-point_), 1550; dat. instr. orde (id.), 556; on
orde (_at the head of, in front_ [of a troop]), 2499, 3126.

ord-fruma, w. m., _head lord, high prince_: nom. sg., 263.

oret-mecg, st. m., _champion, warrior, military retainer_: nom. pl.
oret-mecgas, 363, 481; acc. pl. oret-mecgas, 332.

oretta, w. m., _champion, fighter, hero_: nom. sg., 1533, 2539.

or-leg, st. n., _war, battle_: dat. sg. on orlege, 1327; gen. sg. or-leges,

or-leg-hwÓl, st. f., _time of battle, war-time_: nom. sg. [or-leg]-hwÓl,
2003; gen. sg. orleg-hwÓle, 2912; gen. pl orleg-hwÓla, 2428.

or-leahtre, adj., _blameless_: nom. sg 1887.

or-˛anc (cf. Gloss. Aldhelm. mid or-˛ance = argumento in Haupt XI., 436;
or˛ancum = machinamentis, _ibid._ 477; or-˛anc-scipe = mechanica, 479), st.
m., _mechanical art, skill_: instr. pl. or-˛oncum, 2088; smies or-˛ancum,

or-wÍna, adj. (weak form), _hopeless, despairing_, w. gen.: aldres or-wÍna
(_hopeless of life_), 1003, 1566.

or-wearde, adj., _unguarded, without watch_ or _guard_: adv., 3128.

oru, st. n., _breath, snorting_: nom. sg., 2558; dat. oree, 2840.


Ù (Goth. und, O.H.G. unt, unz): 1) prep. w. acc., _to, till, up to_, only
temporal: Ù ˛one ‚nne d‰g, 2400; Ù dÙmes d‰g, 3070; Ù woruld-ende,
3084.--2) Ù ˛‰t, conj. w. depend, indicative clause, _till, until_, 9, 56,
66, 100, 145. 219, 296, 307, etc.

Ùer (Goth. an˛ar), num.: 1) _one or other of two, a second_, = alter: nom.
sg. subs.: se Ùer, 2062; Ùer(_one_ i.e. of my blood-relations, HÊcyn and
Hygel‚c), 2482; Ùer ... Ùer (_the one ... the other_), 1350-1352. Adj.:
Ùer ... mihtig m‚n-sceaa (_the second mighty, fell foe_, referring to
1350), 1339; se Ùer ... h‰le, 1816; fem. niht Ùer, 2118; neut. Ùer ge‚r
(_the next, second, year_), 1134; acc. sg. m. Ùerne, 653, 1861, 2441,
2485; ˛enden re·fode rinc Ùerne(_whilst one warrior robbed the other_,
i.e. Eofor robbed Ongen˛eÛw), 2986; neut. Ùer swylc(_another such, an
equal number_), 1584; instr. sg. Ùre sÓe (_for the second time, again_),
2671, 3102; dat. sg. Ùrum, 815, 1030, 1166, 1229, 1472, 2168, 2172, etc.;
gen. sg. m. Ùres dÙgores, 219, 606; neut. Ùres, 1875.--2) _another, a
different one_, = alius: nom. sg., subs. Ùer, 1756; Ùer nÊnig (_no
other_), 860. Adj.: Ênig Ùer man, 503, 534; so, 1561; Ùer in (_a
different house_ or _room_), 1301; acc. sg. Ùer flet, 1087; gen. sg. Ùres
... yrfe-weardes, 2452; acc. pl. ealo drincende Ùer sÊdan (_ale drinkers
said other things_), 1946; acc. pl. neut. word Ùer, 871.

Ùfer, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. on Ùfre, 1372.

Ùfost, st. f., _haste_: nom. sg. Ùfost is sÍlest tÙ gec˝anne (_haste is
best to make known, best to say at once_), 256; so, 3008; dat. sg. beÛ ˛u
on Ùfeste (Ùfoste) (_be in haste, hasten_), 386, 2748; on Ùfste, 1293; on
Ùfoste, 2784, 3091.

Ùfost-lÓce, adv., _in haste, speedily_, 3131.

Ù-hwÊr, adv., _anywhere_, 1738, 2871.

Ùmig, adj., _rusty_: nom. sg., 2764; nom. pl. Ùmige, 3050.

Ùr, st. n., _beginning, origin; front_: nom. sg., 1689; acc. sg., 2408;
dat. sg. on Ùre, 1042.

Ù-wiht, _anything, aught_: instr. sg. Ù-wihte (_in any way_), 1823, 2433.


p‚d, st. f., _dress_; in comp. here-p‚d.

p‰, st. m., _path, road, way_; in comp. ‚n-p‰.

plega, w. m., _play, emulous contest_; lind-plega, 1074.


rae, adv., _quickly, immediately_, 725, Cf. hr‚e.

rand, rond, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg, rand, 683; rond, 657, 2567, 2610;
dat. ronde (rond, MS.), 2674; under rande, 1210; bÓ ronde, 2539; acc. pl.
randas, 231; rondas, 326, 2654.--Comp.: bord-, hilde-, sÓd-rand.

rand-h‰bbend, pres. part., _shield-bearer_, i.e. _man at arms, warrior_:
gen. pl. rond-h‰bbendra, 862.

rand-wÓga, w. m., _shield-warrior, shield-bearing warrior_: nom. sg., 1299;
acc. sg. rand-wÓgan, 1794.

r‚d, st. f., _road, street_; in comp. hran-, segl-, swan-r‚d.

ge-r‚d, adj., _clever, skilful, ready_: acc. pl. neut. ge-r‚de, 874.

r‚p, st. m., _rope, bond, fetter_: in comp. w‰l-r‚p.

r‚sian, w. v., _to find, discover_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s hord r‚sod, 2284.

r‰st. See rest.

rÊcan, w. v., _to reach, reach after_: pret. sg. rÊhte onge·n feÛnd mid
folme (_reached out his hand toward the foe_), 748.

ge-rÊcan, _to attain, strike, attack_: pret. sg. hyne ... wÊpne ge-rÊhte
(_struck him with his sword_), 2966; so, 556.

rÊd, st. m.: 1) _advice, counsel, resolution; good counsel, help_: nom. sg.
nu is rÊd gelong eft ‰t ˛e ‚num (_now is help to be found with thee
alone_), 1377; acc. sg. rÊd, 172, 278, 3081.--2) _advantage, gain, use_:
acc. sg. ˛‰t rÊd tala (_counts that a gain_), 2028; Ícne rÊd (_the eternal
gain, everlasting life_), 1202; acc. pl. Íce rÊdas, 1761.--Comp.: folc-rÊd,
and adj., ‚n-, f‰st-rÊd.

rÊdan, st. v., _to rule; reign; to possess_: pres. part. rodera rÊdend
(_the ruler of the heavens_), 1556; inf. ˛one ˛e ˛u mid rihte rÊdan
sceoldest (_that thou shouldst possess by rights_), 2057; wolde dÙm godes
dÊdum rÊdan gumena gehwylcum (_God's doom would rule over, dispose of,
every man in deeds_), 2859. See sele-rÊdend.

rÊd-bora, w. m. _counsellor, adviser_: nom. sg., 1326.

rÊden, st. f., _order, arrangement, law_: see Note on 1143; comp.

‚-rÊran, w. v.: 1) _to raise, lift up_: pret. pl. ˛‚ wÊron monige ˛e his
mÊg ... ricone ‚-rÊrdon (_there were many that lifted up his brother
quickly_), 2984.--2) figuratively, _to spread, disseminate_: pret. part.
blÊd is ‚-rÊred (_thy renown is far-spread_), 1704.

rÊs, st. m., _on-rush, attack, storm_: acc. sg. g˚e rÊs (_the storm of
battle, attack_), 2627; instr. pl. g˚e rÊsum, 2357.--Comp.: g˚-, hand-,
heao-, m‰gen-, w‰l-rÊs.

(ge-)rÊsan, w. v., _to rush (upon)_: pret. sg. rÊsde on ˛one rÙfan, 2691,

rÊswa, w. m., _prince, ruler_: dat. sg. weoroda rÊswan, 60.

reccan, w. v., _to explicate, recount, narrate_: inf. frum-sceaft fira
feorran reccan (_recount the origin of man from ancient times_), 91;
gerund, tÙ lang is tÙ reccenne, h˚ ic ... (_too long to tell how I_...),
2094; pret. sg. syllÓc spell rehte (_told a wondrous tale_), 2111; so
intrans. feorran rehte (_told of olden times_), 2107.

reced, st. n., _building, house; hall_ (complete in itself): nom. sg., 412,
771, 1800; acc. sg., 1238; dat. sg. recede, 721, 729, 1573; gen. sg.
recedes, 326, 725, 3089; gen. pl. receda, 310.--Comp.: eor-, heal-, horn-,

regn-heard, adj., _immensely strong, firm_: acc. pl. rondas regn-hearde,

regnian, rÍnian, w. v., _to prepare, bring on_ or _about_: inf. de·
rÍn[ian] hond-gesteallan (_prepare death for his comrade_), 2169.

ge-regnian, _to prepare, deck out, adorn_: pret. part. medu-benc monig ...
golde ge-regnad, 778.

regn-, rÍn-weard, st. m., _mighty guardian_: nom. pl. rÍn-weardas (of
BeÛwulf and Grendel contending for the possession of the hall), 771.

rest, r‰st, st. f.: 1) _bed, resting-place_: acc. sg. r‰ste, 139; dat. sg.
on r‰ste (genam) (_from his resting-place_), 1299, 1586; tÙ r‰ste (_to
bed_), 1238. Comp.: flet-r‰st, sele-rest, w‰l-rest.--2) _repose, rest_; in
comp. Êfen-r‰st.

ge-reste (M.H.G. reste), f., _resting-place_: in comp. wind-gereste.

restan, w. v.: 1) _to rest_: inf. restan, 1794; pret. sg. reflex. reste
hine ˛‚ r˚m-heort, 1800.--2) _to rest, cease_: inf., 1858.

rÍc (O.H.G. rouh), st. m., _reek, smoke_: instr. sg. rÍce, 3157.--Comp.:
w‰l-, wudu-rÍc.

rÍcan (O.H.G. ruohjan), w. v. w. gen., _to reck, care about something, be
anxious_: pres. sg. III. wÊpna ne rÍce (_recketh not for weapons, weapons
cannot hurt him_), 434.

rÍe, adj., _wroth, furious_: nom. sg., 122, 1586; nom. pl. rÍe, 771.
Also, of things, _wild, rough, fierce_: gen. sg. rÍes and-h‚ttres
(_fierce, penetrating heat_), 2524.

re·f, st. n., _booty, plunder in war; clothing, garments_ (as taken by the
victor from the vanquished): in comp. heao-, w‰l-re·f.

re·fian, w. v., _to plunder, rob_, w. acc.: inf. hord re·fian, 2774; pret.
sg. ˛enden re·fode rinc Ùerne, 2986; w‰l re·fode, 3028; pret. pl. w‰l
re·fedon, 1213.

be-re·fian, w. instr., _to bereave, rob of_: pret. part. since be-re·fod,
2747; golde be-re·fod, 3019.

reord, st. f., _speech, language; tone of voice_: acc. sg. on-cniÛw mannes
reorde (_knew, heard, a human voice_), 2556.

reordian, w. v., _to speak, talk_: inf. fela reordian _(speak much_), 3026.

ge-reordian, _to entertain, to prepare for_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s eft sw‚ Êr
... flet-sittendum f‰gere ge-reorded (_again, as before, the guests were
hospitably entertained_), 1789

reÛt, st. m.?, f.?, _noise, tumult_? (_grave_?): instr. sg. reÛte, 2458.
Bugge, in Zachers Zeits. 4, 215, takes reÛte as dat. from reÛt (_rest,

reÛc, adj., _savage, furious_: nom. sg., 122.

be-reÛfan, st. v., _to rob of, bereave_: pret. part. w. instr. acc. sg.
fem. golde berofene, 2932; instr. sg. reÛte berofene, 2458.

reÛn. See rÙwan.

reÛtan, st. v., _to weep_: pres. pl. Ù ˛‰t ... roderas reÛta, 1377.

reÛw, adj., _excited, fierce, wild_: in comp. blÙd-, g˚-, w‰l-reÛw. See

ricone, _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 2984.

riht, st. n., _right_ or _privilege; the_ (abstract) _right_: acc. sg. on
ryht (_according to right_), 1556; sÙ and riht (_truth and right_), 1701;
dat. sg. wi rihte, 144; ‰fter rihte (_in accordance with right_), 1050;
syllÓc spell rehte ‰fter rihte _(told a wondrous tale truthfully_), 2111;
mid rihte, 2057; acc. pl. ealde riht (_the ten commandments_), 2331;
--Comp. in Íel-, folc-, land-, un-, word-riht.

riht, adj., _straight, right_: in comp. up-riht.

rihte, adv., _rightly, correctly_, 1696. See ‰t-rihte.

rinc, st. m., _man, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 399, 2986; also of Grendel,
721; acc. sg. rinc, 742, 748; dat. sg. rince, 953; of HrÙg‚r, 1678; gen.
pl. rinca, 412, 729.--Comp. in beado-, g˚-, here-, heao-, hilde-, mago-,

ge-risne, ge-rysne, adj., _appropriate, proper_: nom. sg. n. ge-rysne,

rÓce, st. n.: 1) _realm, land ruled over_: nom. sg., 2200, 2208; acc. sg.
rÓce, 913, 1734, 1854, 3005; gen. sg. rÓces, 862, 1391, 1860, 2028, 3081.
Comp. SwiÛ-rÓce.--2) _council of chiefs, the king with his chosen
advisers_(?): nom. sg. oft ges‰t rÓce tÙ r˚ne, 172.

rÓce, adj., _mighty, powerful_: nom. sg. (of HrÙg‚r), 1238; (of Hygel‚c),
1210; (of ƒsc-here), 1299; weak form, se rÓca (HrÙg‚r), 310; (BeÛwulf),
399; (Hygel‚c), 1976.--Comp. gimme-rÓce.

rÓcsian, rÓxian, w. v. intrans., _to rule, reign_: inf. rÓcsian, 2212;
pret. sg. rÓxode, 144.

rÓdan, st. v., _to ride_: subj. pres. ˛‰t his byre rÓde giong on galgan,
2446; pres. part. nom. pl. rÓdend, 2458; inf. wicge rÓdan, 234; mearum
rÓdan, 856; pret. sg. sÊ-genga ... se ˛e on ancre r‚d, 1884; him tÙ-ge·nes
r‚d (_rode to meet them_), 1894; pret. pl. ymbe hlÊw riodan (_rode round
the grave-mound_), 3171.

ge-rÓdan, w. acc., _to ride over_: pret. sg. se ˛e n‰s ge-r‚d (_who rode
over the promontory_), 2899.

rÓm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. d‰g-, un-rÓm.

ge-rÓm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dÙgor-ge-rim.

ge-rÓman, w. v., _to count together, enumerate in all_: pret. part. in
comp. for-gerÓmed.

‚-rÓsan, st. v., _to arise, rise_: imper. sg. ‚-rÓs, 1391; pret. sg. ‚-r‚s
˛‚ se rÓca, 399; so, 652, 1791, 3031; ‚-r‚s ˛‚ bÓ ronde (_arose by his
shield_), 2539; hwanan siÛ fÊh ‚-r‚s (_whence the feud arose_), 2404.

rodor, st. m., _ether, firmament, sky_ (from _radius_?, Bugge): gen. sg.
rodores candel, 1573; nom. pl. roderas, 1377; dat. pl. under roderum, 310;
gen. pl. rodera, 1556.

rÙf, adj., _fierce, of fierce, heroic, strength, strong_: nom. sg., 2539;
also with gen. m‰genes rÙf (_strong in might_), 2085; so, ˛e·h ˛e he rÙf
sÓe nÓ-geweorca, 683; acc. sg. rÙfne, 1794; on ˛one rÙfan, 2691.--Comp.:
beadu-, brego-, ellen-, heao-, hyge-, sige-rÙf.

rÙt, adj., _glad, joyous_: in comp. un-rÙt.

rÙwan, st. v., _to row_ (with the arms), _swim_: pret. pl. reÛn (for
reÛwon), 512, 539.

r˚m, st. m., _space, room_: nom. sg., 2691.

r˚m, adj.: 1) _roomy, spacious_: nom. sg. ˛˚hte him eall tÙ r˚m, wongas and
wÓc-stede (_fields and dwelling seemed to him all too broad_, i.e. could
not hide his shame at the unavenged death of his murdered son), 2462.--2)
in moral sense, _great, magnanimous, noble-hearted_: acc. sg. ˛urh r˚mne
sefan, 278.

r˚m-heort, adj., _big-hearted, noble-spirited_: nom. sg., 1800, 2111.

ge-r˚m-lÓc, adj., _commodious, comfortable_: compar. ge-r˚m-lÓcor, 139.

r˚n, st. f., _secrecy, secret discussion, deliberation_ or _council_: dat.
sg. ge-s‰t rÓce tÙ r˚ne, 172.--Comp. beado-r˚n.

r˚n-st‰f, st. m., _rune-stave, runic letter_: acc. pl. ˛urh r˚n-stafas,

r˚n-wita, w. m., _rune-wit, privy councillor, trusted adviser_: nom. sg.,

ge-rysne. See ge-risne.

ge-r˝man, w. v.: 1) _to make room for, prepare, provide room_: pret. pl.
˛‰t hie him Ùer flet eal ge-r˝mdon, 1087; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s Ge·t-m‰cgum
... benc ger˝med, 492; so, 1976.--2) _to allow, grant, admit_: pret. part.
˛‚ me ge-r˝med w‰s (sÓ) (_as access was permitted me_), 3089; ˛‚ him
ger˝med wear, ˛‰t hie w‰l-stÙwe wealdan mÙston, 2984.


ge-saca, w. m., _opponent, antagonist, foe_: acc. sg. ge-sacan, 1774.

sacan, st. v., _to strive, contend_: inf. ymb feorh sacan, 439.

ge-sacan, _to attain, gain by contending_ (Grein): inf. gesacan sceal
s‚wl-berendra ... gearwe stÙwe _(gain the place prepared_, i.e. the
death-bed), 1005.

on-sacan: 1) (originally in a lawsuit), _to withdraw, take away, deprive
of_: pres. subj. ˛‰tte freouwebbe feores on-s‰ce ... leÛfne mannan,
1943.--2) _to contest, dispute, withstand_: inf. ˛‰t he sÊmannum on-sacan
mihte (i.e. hord, bearn, and br˝de), 2955.

sacu, st. f., _strife, hostility, feud_: nom. sg., 1858, 2473; acc. sg.
s‰ce, 154; s‰cce, 1978, 1990, 2348, 2500, 2563; dat. sg. ‰t (tÙ) s‰cce,
954, 1619, 1666, 2613, 2660, 2682, 2687; gen. sg. secce, 601; gen. pl.
s‰cca, 2030.

ge-sacu, st. f., _strife, enmity_: nom. sg., 1738.

sadol, st. m., _saddle_: nom. sg., 1039.

sadol-beorht, adj., _with bright saddles_ (?): acc. pl. sadol-beorht, 2176.

ge-saga. See secgan.

samne, somne, adv., _together, united_; in ‰t-somne, _together, united_,
307, 402, 491, 544, 2848.

tÙ-somne (_together_), 3123; ˛‚ se wyrm ge-be·h sn˚de tÙ-somne (_when the
dragon quickly coiled together_), 2569.

samod, somod: I. adv., _simultaneously, at the same time_: somod, 1212,
1615, 2175, 2988; samod, 2197; samod ‰t-g‰dere, 387, 730, 1064.--II. prep.
w. dat., _with, at the same time with_: samod Êr-d‰ge (_with the break of
day_), 1312; somod Êr-d‰ge, 2943.

sand, st. n., _sand, sandy shore_: dat. sg. on sande, 295, 1897, 3043(?);
‰fter sande (_along the shore_), 1965; wi sande, 213.

sang, st. m., _song, cry, noise_: nom. sg. sang, 1064; swutol sang scÙpes,
90; acc. sg. sige-le·sne sang (Grendel's cry of woe), 788; s‚rigne sang
(HrÍel's dirge for Herebeald), 2448.

s‚l, st. m., _rope_: dat. sg. s‚le, 1907; on s‚le (sole, MS.), 302.

s‚l. See sÊl.

s‚r, st. n., _wound, pain_ (physical or spiritual): nom. sg. s‚r, 976; siÛ
s‚r, 2469; acc. sg. s‚r, 788; s‚re, 2296; dat. (instr.) sg. s‚re, 1252,
2312, 2747.--Comp. lÓc-s‚r.

s‚r, adj., _sore, painful_: instr. pl. s‚rum wordum, 2059.

s‚re, adv., _sorely, heavily, ill_, graviter: se ˛e him [s‚]re gesceÙd
(_who injured him sorely_), 2224.

s‚rig, adj., _painful, woeful_: acc. sg. s‚rigne sang, 2448.

s‚rig-fer, adj., _sore-hearted, grieved_: nom. sg. s‚rig-fer (WÓgl‚f),

s‚rig-mÙd, adj., _sorrowful-minded, saddened_: dat. pl. s‚rig-mÙdum, 2943.

s‚r-lÓc, adj., _painful_: nom. sg., 843; acc. sg. neut., 2110.

s‚wol, s‚wl, st. f., _soul_ (the immortal principle as contrasted with lÓf,
the physical life): nom. sg. s‚wol, 2821; acc. sg. s‚wle, 184, 802; hÊene
s‚wle, 853; gen. sg. s‚wele, 1743; s‚wle, 2423.

s‚wl-berend, pres. part., _endowed with a soul, human being_: gen. pl.
s‚wl-berendra, 1005.

s‚wul-dreÛr, st. n., (blood gushing from the seat of the soul), _soul-gore,
heart's blood, life's blood_: instr. sg. s‚wul-driÛre, 2694.

s‚wul-le·s, adj., _soulless, lifeless_: acc. sg. s‚wol-le·sne, 1407;
s‚wul-le·sne, 3034.

s‰ce, s‰cce. See sacu.

s‰d, adj., _satiated, wearied_: in comp. hilde-s‰d.

s‰l, st. n., _habitable space, house_, _hall_: dat. sg. sel, 167; s‰l, 307,
2076, 2265.

s‰ld, st. n., _hall, king's hall_ or _palace_: acc. sg. geond ˛‰t s‰ld
(Heorot), 1281.

sÊ, st. m. and f., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg., 579, 1224; acc. sg. on sÓdne sÊ,
507; ofer sÊ, 2381; ofer sÊ sÓde, 2395; dat. sg. tÙ sÊ, 318; on sÊ, 544;
dat. pl. be sÊm tweonum, 859, 1298, 1686, 1957.

sÊ-b‚t, st. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg., 634, 896.

sÊ-cyning, st. m., _sea-king, king ruling the sea_: gen. pl. sÊ-cyninga,

sÊ-deÛr, st. n., _sea-beast, sea-monster_: nom. sg., 1511.

sÊ-draca, w. m., _sea-dragon_: acc. pl. sÊ-dracan, 1427.

ge-sÊgan, w. v., _to fell, slay_: pret. part. h‰fdon eal-fela eotena cynnes
sweordum ge-sÊged (_felled with the sword_), 885.

sÊge. See on-sÊge.

sÊ-genga, w. m., _sea-goer_, i.e. sea-going ship: nom. sg., 1883, 1909.

sÊ-ge·p, adj., _spacious_ (broad enough for the sea): nom. sg. sÊ-ge·p
naca, 1897.

sÊ-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom, ocean-bottom_: dat. sg. sÊ-grunde, 564.

sÊl, s‚l, sÍl, st. f.: 1) _favorable opportunity, good_ or _fit time_: nom.
sg. sÊl, 623, 1666, 2059; sÊl and mÊl, 1009; acc. sg. sÍle, 1136; gen. pl.
sÊla and mÊla, 1612.--2) _Fate_(?): see Note on l. 51.--3) _happiness,
joy_: dat. pl. on s‚lum, 608; sÊlum, 644, 1171, 1323. See sÍl, adj.

ge-sÊlan, w. v., _to turn out favorably, succeed_: pret. sg. him ge-sÊlde
˛‰t ...(_he was fortunate enough to_, etc.), 891; so, 574; efne swylce
mÊla, swylce hira man-dryhtne ˛earf ge-sÊlde (_at such times as need
disposed it for their lord_), 1251.

sÊlan (see s‚l), w. v., _to tie, bind_: pret. sg. sÊlde ... sÓ-f‰me scip,
1918; pl. sÊ-wudu sÊldon, 226.

ge-sÊlan, _to bind together, weave, interweave_: pret. part. earm-be·ga
fela searwum ge-sÊled (_many curiously interwoven armlets_, i.e. made of
metal wire: see Guide to Scandinavian Antiquities, p. 48), 2765.

on-sÊlan, with acc., _to unbind, unloose, open_: on-sÊl meoto, sige-hrÍ
secgum (_disclose thy views to the men, thy victor's courage_; or, _thy
presage of victory_?), 489.

sÊ-l‚c, st. n., _sea-gift, sea-booty_: instr. sg. sÊ-l‚ce, 1625; acc. pl.
˛‚s sÊ-l‚c, 1653.

sÊ-l‚d, st. f., _sea-way, sea-journey_: dat. sg. sÊ-l‚de, 1140, 1158.

sÊ-lÓend, pres. part., _seafarer_: nom. pl. sÊ-lÓend, 411, 1819, 2807;
sÊ-lÓende, 377.

sÊ-man, m., _sea-man, sea-warrior_: dat. pl. sÊ-mannum, 2955; gen. pl.
sÊ-manna, 329 (both times said of the Ge·tas).

sÊmra, weak adj. compar., _the worse, the weaker_: nom. sg. sÊmra, 2881;
dat. sg. sÊmran, 954.

sÊ-mÍe, adj., _sea-weary, exhausted by sea-travel_: nom. pl. sÊ-mÍe, 325.

sÊ-n‰s, st. m., _sea-promontory, cape, naze_: acc. pl. sÊ-n‰ssas, 223, 571.

sÊne, adj., _careless, slow_: compar. sg. nom. he on holme w‰s sundes ˛Í
sÊnra, ˛e hyne swylt fornam (_was the slower in swimming in the sea, whom
death took away_), 1437.

sÊ-rinc, st. m., _sea-warrior_ or _hero_: nom. sg., 691.

sÊ-sÓ, st. m., _sea-way, path, journey_: dat. sg. ‰fter sÊ-sÓe, 1150.

sÊ-wang, st. m., _sea-shore_ or _beach_: acc. sg. sÊ-wong, 1965.

sÊ-weal, st. m., _(sea-wall), seashore_: dat. sg. sÊ-wealle, 1925.

sÊ-wudu, st. m., _(sea-wood), vessel, ship_: acc. sg. sÊ-wudu, 226.

sÊ-wylm, st. m., _sea-surf, billow_: acc. pl. ofer sÊ-wylmas, 393.

scacan, sceacan, st. v., properly, _to shake one's self_; hence, _to go,
glide, pass along_ or _away_: pres. sg. ˛onne mÓn sceace lÓf of lÓce,
2743; inf. ˛‚ com beorht [sunne] scacan [ofer grundas], (_the bright sun
came gliding over the fields_), 1804; pret. sg. dugu ellor scÙc _(the
chiefs are gone elsewhither_, i.e. have died), 2255; ˛onne strÊla storm ...
scÙc ofer scild-weall (_when the storm of arrows leapt over the wall of
shields_), 3119; pret. part. w‰s hira blÊd scacen (_their bravest men had
passed away_), 1125; ˛‚ w‰s winter scacen (_the winter was past_), 1137;
so, sceacen, 2307, 2728.

scadu, sceadu, st. f., _shadow, concealing veil of night_: acc. sg. under
sceadu bregdan (i.e. kill), 708.

scadu-genga, w. m., _shadow-goer, twilight-stalker_ (of Grendel): nom. sg.
sceadu-genga, 704.

scadu-helm, st. m., _shadow-helm, veil of darkness_: gen. pl. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu (_shapes of the shadow, evil spirits wandering by night_), 651.

scalu, st. f., _retinue, band_ (part of an armed force); in comp.
hand-scalu: mid his hand-scale (hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

scamian, w. v., _to be ashamed_: pres. part. nom. pl. scamiende, 2851; nÙ
he ˛Êre feoh-gyfte ... scamigan ˛orfte (_needed not be ashamed of his
treasure-giving_), 1027.

scawa (see sceáwian), w. m., _observer, visitor_: nom. pl. scawan, 1896.

ge-sc‚d, st. n., _difference, distinction_: acc. sg. Êg-hw‰res gesc‚d,
worda and worca (_difference between, of, both words and deeds_), 288.

ge-sc‚dan, st. v., _to decide, adjudge_: pret. sg. rodera rÊdend hit on
ryht gescÍd (_decided it in accordance with right_), 1556.

sc‚nan? See scÓnan, pret. pl. scionon, 303; the imaginary sc‚nan having
been abandoned.

ge-sc‰p-hwÓle, st. f., _fated hour, hour of death (appointed rest?)_: dat.
sg. tÙ gesc‰p-hwÓle (_at the fated hour_), 26.

scean, w. v., _to scathe, injure_: inf. w. dat. pers., 1034; aldre
scean (_hurt her life_), 1525; ˛‰t on land Dena l‚ra nÊnig mid scipherge
scean ne meahte (_injure through robber incursions_), 243; pret. sg. ˛Êr
him nÊnig w‰ter wihte ne sceede, 1515.

ge-scean, the same: inf. ˛‰t him ... ne mihte eorres inwit-feng aldre
gescean, 1448.

scenc, st. m., _vessel, can_: in comp. medu-scenc.

scencan, w. v., _to hand drink, pour out_: pret. sg. scencte scÓr wered,
496 (cf. skinker = cup-bearer).

scenne, w. f.?, _sword-guard?_: dat. pl. on ˛Êm scennum scÓran goldes,

sceran, st. v., _to shear off, cleave, hew to pieces_: pres. sg. ˛onne
heoru bunden ... swÓn ofer helme andweard scire (_hews off the boar-head
on the helm_), 1288.

ge-sceran, _to divide, hew in two_: pret. sg. helm oft ge-sc‰r (_often
clove the helm in two_), 1527; so, gescer, 2974.

scerwen, st. f.?, in comp. ealu-scerwen (_ale-scare_ or _panic_?), 770.

scÍt. See sceÛtan.

sceadu. See scadu.

sceaa, w. m.: 1) _scather, foe_: gen. pl. sceaena, 4.--2) _fighter,
warrior_: nom. pl. scaan, 1804.--Comp.: ‚ttor-, dol-, feÛnd-, g˚-,
hearm-, leÛd-, m‚n-, sin-, ˛eÛd-, uht-sceaa.

sceaan, st. v. w. dat., _to scathe, injure, crush_: pret. sg. se ˛e oft
manegum scÙd (_which has oft oppressed many_), 1888.

ge-sceaan, w. dat., the same: pret. sg. sw‚ him Êr gescÙd hild ‰t Heorote,
1588; se ˛e him s‚re ge-sceÙd (_who injured him sorely_), 2224; nÙ ˛˝ Êr in
gescÙd h‚lan lÓce, 1503; bill Êr gescÙd eald-hl‚fordes ˛am ˛‚ra m‚ma
mund-bora w‰s (_the weapon of the ancient chieftain had before laid low the
dragon, the guardian of the treasure_), 2778 (or, _sheathed in brass_?, if
Êr and gescÙd form compound).

sceaen-mÊl, st. n., _deadly weapon, hostile sword_: nom. sg., 1940.

sceaft, st. m., _shaft, spear, missile_: nom. sg. sceft, 3119.--Comp.:
here-, w‰l-sceaft.

ge-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _creation, earth, earthly existence_: acc. sg. ˛‚s
lÊnan ge-sceaft, 1623.--2) _fate, destiny_: in comp. for-, lÓf-,

scealc, st. m., _servant, military retainer_: nom. sg., 919; (of BeÛwulf),
940.--Comp beÛr-scealc.

ge-sceap, st. n.: 1) _shape, creature_: nom. pl. scadu-helma ge-sceapu,
651.--2) _fate, providence_: acc. sg. he·h ge-sceap (_heavy fate_), 3085.

sceapan, sceppan, scyppan, st. v., _to shape, create, order, arrange,
establish_: pres. part. scyppend (_the Creator_), 106; pret. sg. scÙp him
Heort naman (_shaped, gave, it the name Heorot_), 78; pres. part. w‰s siÛ
wrÙht scepen heard wi H˚gas, syan Hygel‚c cwom (_the contest with the
H˚gas became sharp after H. had come_), 2915.

ge-sceapan, _to shape, create_: pret. sg. lÓf ge-sceÙp cynna gehwylcum, 97.

scear, st. m., _massacre_: in comp. g˚-, inwit-scear, 2429, etc.

scearp, adj., _sharp, able, brave_: nom. sg. scearp scyld-wÓga,
288.--Comp.: beadu-, heao-scearp.

scearu, st. f., _division, body, troop_: in comp. folc-scearu; _that is
decided_ or _determined_, in g˚-scearu (_overthrow_?), 1214.

sceat, st. m., _money_; also _unit of value in appraising_ (cf. Rieger in
Zacher's Zeits. 3, 415): acc. pl. sceattas, 1687. When numbers are given,
sceat appears to be left out, cf. 2196, 2995 (see ˛˚send).--Comp.

sce·t, st. m., _region, field_: acc. pl. gefr‰twade foldan sce·tas leomum
and le·fum, 96;--_top, surface, part_: gen. pl. eoran sce·ta, 753.

sce·were, st. m., _observer, spy_: nom. pl. sce·weras, 253.

sce·wian, w. v. w. acc., _to see, look at, observe_: inf. sce·wian, 841,
1414, 2403, 2745, 3009, 3033; sce·wigan, 1392; pres. sg. II. ˛‰t ge genÙge
ne·n sce·wia be·gas and br‚d gold, 3105; subj. pres. ˛‰t ic ... sce·wige
swegle searo-gimmas, 2749; pret. sg. sce·wode, 1688, 2286, 2794; sg. for
pl., 844; pret. pl. sce·wedon, 132, 204, 984, 1441.

ge-sce·wian, _to see, behold, observe_: pret. part. ge-sce·wod, 3076, 3085.

sceorp, st. n., _garment_: in comp. hilde-sceorp.

sceÛtan, st. v., _to shoot, hurl missiles_: pres. sg. se ˛e of fl‚n-bogan
fyrenum sceÛte, 1745; pres. part. nom. pl. sceÛtend (_the warriors,
bowmen_), 704, 1155; dat. pl. for sceÛtendum (MS. scotenum), 1027.

ge-sceÛtan, w. acc., _to shoot off, hurry_: pret. sg. hord eft gesce·t
(_the dragon darted again back to the treasure_), 2320.

of-sceÛtan, _to kill by shooting_: pret. sg. his mÊg of-scÍt ... blÙdigan
g‚re _(killed his brother with bloody dart_), 2440.

scild, scyld, st. m., _shield_: nom. sg. scyld, 2571; acc. sg. scyld, 437,
2076; acc. pl. scyldas, 325, 333, 2851.

scildan, scyldan, w. v., _to shield, protect_: pret. subj. nyme mec god
scylde (_if God had not shielded me_), 1659.

scild-freca, w. m., _shield-warrior_ (warrior armed with a shield): nom.
sg. scyld-freca, 1034.

scild-weall, st. m., _wall of shields_: acc. sg. scild-weall, 3119.

scild-wÓga, w. m., _shield-warrior_: nom. sg. scyld-wÓga, 288.

scinna, w. m., _apparition, evil spirit_: dat. pl. scynnum, 940.

scip, st. n., _vessel, ship_: nom. sg., 302; acc. sg., 1918; dat. sg. tÙ
scipe, 1896; gen. sg. scipes, 35, 897; dat pl. tÙ scypum (scypon, MS.),

scip-here, st. m., (exercitus navalis) _armada, fleet_: dat. sg. mid
scip-herge, 243.

ge-scÓfe (for ge-sc˝fe), adj., _advancing_ (of the dragon's movement),
2571; = G. _schief_?

scÓnan, st. v., _to shine, flash_: pres. sg. sunne ... s˚an scÓne, 607;
so, 1572; inf. geseah bl‚cne leÛman beorhte scÓnan, 1518; pret. sg.
(g˚-byrne, woruld--candel) sc‚n, 321, 1966; on him byrne sc‚n, 405; pret.
pl. gold-f‚g scinon web ‰fter wagum, 995; scionon, 303.

scÓr, adj., _sheer, pure, shining_: nom. sg. hring-Óren scÓr, 322; scÓr
metod, 980; acc. sg. n. scÓr wered, 496; gen. sg. scÓran goldes, 1695.

scÓr-ham, adj., _bright-armored, clad in bright mail_: nom. pl. scÓr-hame,

scoten. See sceÛten.

ge-scÙd, pret. part., _shod_ (calceatus), _covered_: in comp.
Êr-ge-scÙd(?). See ge-sceaan, and Note.

scÙp, st. m., _singer, shaper, poet_: nom. sg., 496, 1067; gen. sg. scÙpes,

scr‰f, st. n., _hole in the earth, cavern_: in comp. eor-scr‰f.

scrÓan, st. v., _to stride, go_: pres. pl. scrÓa, 163; inf. scrÓan,
651, 704; scrÓan tÙ, 2570.

scrÓfan, st. v., _to prescribe, impose_ (punishment): inf. h˚ him (Grendel)
scÓr metod scrÓfan wille, 980.

for-scrÓfan, w. dat. pers., _to proscribe, condemn_: pret. part. sian him
scyppend for-scrifen h‰fde, 106.

ge-scrÓfan, _to permit, prescribe_: pret. sg. sw‚ him Wyrd ne ge-scr‚f (_as
Weird did not permit him_), 2575.

scr˚d, st. m., _clothing, covering; ornament_: in comp. beadu-,

scucca, w. m., _shadowy sprite, demon_: dat. pl. scuccum, 940.

sculan, aux. v. w. inf.: 1) _shall, must_ (obligation): pres. sg. I., III.
sceal, 20, 24, 183, 251, 271, 287, 440, 978, 1005, 1173, 1387, 1535, etc.;
scel, 455, 2805, 3011; II. scealt, 589, 2667; subj. pres. scyle, 2658;
scile, 3178; pret. ind. sg. I., III. scolde, 10, 806, 820, 966, 1071, 1444,
1450, etc.; sceolde, 2342, 2409, 2443, 2590, 2964; II. sceoldest, 2057; pl.
scoldon, 41, 833, 1306, 1638; subj. pret. scolde, 1329, 1478; sceolde,
2709.--2) w. inf. following it expresses futurity, = _shall, will_: pres.
sg. I., III. sceal beÛdan (_shall offer_), 384; so, 424, 438, 602, 637,
1061, 1707, 1856, 1863, 2070; sceall, 2499, 2509, etc.; II. scealt, 1708;
pl. wit sculon, 684; subj. pret. scolde, 280, 692, 911; sceolde, 3069.--3)
sculan sometimes forms a periphrastic phrase or circumlocution for a simple
tense, usually with a slight feeling of obligation or necessity: pres. sg.
he ge-wunian sceall (_he inhabits; is said to inhabit?_), 2276; pret. sg.
se ˛e w‰ter-egesan wunian scolde, 1261; w‰cnan scolde (_was to awake_), 85;
se ˛one gomelan grÍtan sceolde (_was to, should, approach_), 2422; ˛‰t se
byrn-wÓga b˚gan sceolde (_the corseleted warrior had to bow, fell_), 2919;
pl. ˛‚ ˛e beado-grÓman b˝wan sceoldon (_they that had to polish or deck the
battle-masks_), 2258; so, 230, 705, 1068.--4) w. omitted inf., such as
wesan, gangan: unc sceal worn fela m‚ma ge-mÊnra (i.e. wesan). 1784; so,
2660; sceal se hearda helm ... f‰tum befeallen (i.e. wesan), 2256; ic him
‰fter sceal (i.e. gangan), 2817; subj. ˛onne ˛u for scyle (i.e. gangan),
1180. A verb or inf. expressed in an antecedent clause is not again
expressed with a subsequent sceal: gÊ ‚ Wyrd sw‚ hiÛ scel (_Weird goeth
ever as it shall_ [go]), 455; g˚-bill ge-sw‚c sw‚ hit nÙ sceolde (i.e.
ge-swÓcan), 2586.

sc˚a, w. m., _shadowy demon_: in comp. de·-sc˚a.

sc˚fan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to move forward, hasten_: pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s
morgen-leÛht scofen and scynded, 919.--2) w. acc., _to shove, push_: pret.
pl. guman ˚t scufon ... wudu bundenne (_pushed the vessel from the land_),
215; dracan scufun ... ofer weall-clif (_pushed the dragon over the
wall-like cliff_), 3132. See wÓd-scofen(?)

be-sc˚fan, w. acc., _to push, thrust down, in_: inf. w‚ bi ˛‰m ˛e sceal
... s‚wle be-sc˚fan in f˝res f‰m (_woe to him that shall thrust his soul
into fire's embrace_), 184.

sc˚r, st. m., _shower, battle-shower_: in comp. Ósern-sc˚r.

sc˚r-heard, adj., _fight-hardened? (file-hardened?_): nom. pl. sc˚r-heard,

scyld, scyldan. See scild, scildan.

scyldig, adj., _under obligations_ or _bound for; guilty of_, w. gen. and
instr.: ealdres (morres) scyldig, 1339, 1684, 2062; synnum scyldig
(_guilty of evil deeds_), 3072.

scyndan, w. v., _to hasten_: inf. scyndan, 2571; pret. part, scynded, 919

scynna. See scinna.

scyppend. See sceapan.

scyran, w. v., _to arrange, decide_: inf. ˛‰t hit sceaen-mÊl scyran mÙste
(_that the sword must decide it_), 1940. O.N. skora, _to score, decide_.

sc˝ne, adj., _sheen, well-formed, beautiful_: nom. sg. m‰g sc˝ne, 3017.

se, pron. dem. and article, _the_: m. nom., 79, 84, 86, 87, 90, 92, 102,
etc.; fem, seÛ, 66, 146, etc.; neut. ˛‰t;--relative: se (_who_), 1611,
2866; se ˛e (_he who_), 2293; seÛ ˛e (_she who_), 1446; se ˛e (for seÛ ˛e),
1345, 1888, 2686; cf. 1261, 1498; (Grendel's mother, as a wild, demonic
creature, is conceived now as man, now as woman: woman, as having borne a
son; man, as the incarnation of savage cunning and power); se for seÛ,
2422; dat. sg. ˛am (for ˛am ˛e), 2780.

secce. See sacu.

secg, st. m., _man, warrior, hero, spokesman_ (secgan?): nom. sg., 208,
872, 2228, 2407, etc.; (BeÛwulf), 249, 948, 1312, 1570, 1760, etc.;
(Wulfg‚r), 402; (H˚nfer), 981; (WÓgl‚f), 2864; acc. sg. sinnigne secg
(Grendel's mother, cf. se), 1380; dat. sg. secge, 2020; nom. pl. secgas,
213, 2531, 3129; dat. pl. secgum, 490; gen. pl. secga, 634, 843, 997, 1673.

secg, st. f., _sword_ (sedge?): acc. sg. secge, 685.

secgan, w. v., _to say, speak_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. gode ic ˛anc secge,
1998; so, 2796; pres. part. sw‚ se secg hwata secgende w‰s l‚ra spella
(partitive gen.), 3029; inf. secgan, 582, 876, 881, 1050; pret. sg. s‰gde
him ˛‰s le·nes ˛anc, 1810; pret. sg. II. hw‰t ˛u worn fela ... s‰gdest from
his sÓe, 532.--2) without acc inf. sw‚ we sÙlÓce secgan h˝rdon, 273;
pret. sg. s‰gde, 2633, 2900--3) w. depend. clause: pres. sg. ic secge, 591;
pl. III. secga, 411; inf. secgan, 51, 391, 943, 1347, 1701, 1819, 2865,
3027; gerund. tÙ secganne, 473, 1725; pret. sg. s‰gde, 90, 1176; pl.
s‰gdon, 377, 2188; sÊdan, 1946.

‚-secgan (edicere), _to say out, deliver_: inf. wille ic ‚-secgan suna
Healfdenes ... mÓn Êrende, 344.

ge-secgan, _to say, relate_: imper. sg. II. ge-saga, 388; ˛‰t ic his Êrest
˛e eft ge-s‰gde (_that I should, after, tell thee its origin_), 2158; pret.
part. ges‰gd, 141; gesÊd, 1697.

sefa, w. m., _heart, mind, soul, spirit_: nom. sg., 49, 490, 595, 2044,
2181, 2420, 2601, 2633; acc. sg. sefan, 278, 1727, 1843; dat. sg. sefan,
473, 1343, 1738.--Comp. mÙd-sefa.

ge-segen, st. f., _legend, tale_: in comp. eald-ge-segen.

segl, st. n., _sail_: nom. sg., 1907.

segl-r‚d, st. f., _sail-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. on segl-r‚de, 1430.

segn, st. n., _banner_, vexillum: nom. sg., 2768, 2959; acc. sg. segen, 47,
1022; segn, 2777; dat. sg. under segne, 1205.--Comp. he·fod-segn.

sel, st. n., _hall, palace_. See s‰l.

seld, st. n., _dwelling, house_: in comp. medu-seld.

ge-selda, w. m., contubernalis, _companion_: acc. sg. geseldan, 1985.

seldan, adv., _seldom_: oft [nÙ] seldan, 2030.

seld-guma, w. m., _house-man, home-stayer(?); common man?, house-carl?_:
nom. sg., 249.

sele, st. m. and n., _building consisting of one apartment; apartment,
room_: nom. sg., 81, 411; acc. sg. sele, 827, 2353; dat. sg. tÙ sele, 323,
1641; in (on, tÙ) sele ˛am he·n, 714, 920, 1017, 1985; on sele (_in the den
of the dragon_), 3129.--Comp.: be·h-, beÛr-, dryht-, eor-, gest-, gold-,
grund-, g˚-, he·h-, hring-, hrÙf-, ni-, win-sele.

sele-dre·m, st. m., _hall-glee, joy in the hall_: acc. sg. ˛‚ra ˛e ˛is lÓf
ofgeaf, ges‚won sele-dre·m (referring to the joy of heaven?), 2253.

sele-ful, st. n., _hall-goblet_: acc. sg., 620.

sele-gyst, st. m., _hall-guest, stranger in hall_ or _house_: acc. sg. ˛one
sele-gyst, 1546.

sele-rÊdend, pres. part., _hall-ruler, possessor of the hall_: nom. pl.,
51; acc. leÛde mÓne sele-rÊdende, 1347.

sele-rest, st. f., _bed in the hall_: acc. sg. sele-reste, 691.

sele-˛egn, st. m., _retainer, hall-thane, chamberlain_: nom. sg., 1795.

sele-weard, st. m., _hall-ward, guardian of the hall_: acc. sg., 668.

self, sylf, pron., _self_: nom. sg. strong form, self, 1314, 1925 (?
selfa); ˛u self, 595; ˛u ˛e self, 954; self cyning (_the king himself, the
king too_), 921, 1011; sylf, 1965; in weak form, selfa, 1469; he selfa, 29,
1734; ˛‰m ˛e him selfa de·h (_that can rely upon, trust to, himself_),
1840; seolfa, 3068; he sylfa, 505; god sylfa, 3055; acc. sg. m. selfne,
1606; hine selfne (_himself_), 962; hyne selfne (_himself_, reflex.), 2876;
wi sylfne (_beside_), 1978; gen. sg. m. selfes, 701, 896; his selfes,
1148; on sÓnne sylfes dÙm (_at his own will_), 2148; sylfes, 2224, 2361,
2640, 2711, 2777, 3014; his sylfes, 2014, 2326; fem. hire selfre, 1116;
nom. pl. selfe, 419; S˚-Dene sylfe, 1997.

ge-sella, w. m., _house-companion, comrade_: in comp. hand-gesella.

sellan, syllan, w. v.: 1) w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to give,
deliver; permit, grant, present_: pres. sg. III. sele him on Íle eoran
wynne, 1731; inf. syllan, 2161, 2730; pret. sg. sealde, 72, 673, 1272,
1694, 1752, 2025, 2156, 2183, 2491, 2995; nefne god sylfa sealde ˛am ˛e he
wolde hord openian (_unless God himself gave to whom he would to open the
hoard_), 3056; pret. sg. II. sealdest, 1483.--2) _to give, give up_ (only
w. acc. of thing): Êr he feorh sele (_he prefers to give up his life_),
1371; nallas on gylp sele f‰tte be·gas (_giveth out gold-wrought rings_,
etc.), 1750; pret. sg. sinc-fato sealde, 623; pl. byrelas sealdon wÓn of
wunder-fatum, 1162.

ge-sellan, w. acc. and dat. of pers., _to give, deliver; grant, present_:
inf. ge-sellan, 1030; pret. sg. ge-sealde, 616, 1053, 1867, 1902, 2143,

sel-lÓc, syl-lÓc (from seld-lÓc), adj., _strange, wondrous_: nom. sg. glÙf
... syllÓc, 2087; acc. sg. n. syllÓc spell, 2110; acc. pl. sellÓce
sÊ-dracan, 1427. Compar. acc. sg. syllÓcran wiht (the dragon), 3039.

semninga, adv., _straightway, at once_ 645, 1641, 1768.

sendan, w. v. w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers., _to send_: pret. sg. ˛one
god sende folce tÙ frÙfre (_whom God sent as a comfort to the people_), 13;
so, 471, 1843.

for-sendan, _to send away, drive off_ pret. part. he wear on feÛnda
geweald ... sn˚de for-sended, 905.

on-sendan, _to send forth, away_, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers.:
imper. sg. on-send, 452, 1484; pret. sg. on-sende, 382; pl. ˛e hine ...
for on-sendon Ênne ofer ˝e (_who sent him forth alone over the sea_), 45;
pret. part. bealo-cwealm hafa fela feorh-cynna feorr on-sended, 2267.

sendan (cf. Gl. Aldhelm, sanda = ferculorum, epularum, in Haupt IX. 444),
w. v., _to feast, banquet_: pres. sg. III. sende, 601.--Leo.

serce, syrce, w. f., _sark, shirt of mail_: nom. sg. syrce, 1112; nom. pl.
syrcan, 226; acc. pl. grÊge syrcan, 334.--Comp.: beadu-, heoro-serce;
here-, leoo-, lÓc-syrce.

sess, st. m., _seat, place for sitting_: dat. sg. sesse, 2718; ˛‚ he bÓ
sesse geÛng (_by the seat_, i.e. before the dragon's lair), 2757.

setl, st. n., _seat, settle_: acc. sg., 2014; dat. sg. setle, 1233, 1783,
2020; gen. sg. setles, 1787; dat. pl. setlum, 1290.--Comp.: he·h-, hilde-,

settan, w. v., _to set_: pret. sg. setton sÊ-mÍe sÓde scyldas ... wi ˛‰s
recedes weall (_the sea-wearied ones set their broad shields against the
wall of the hall_), 325; so, 1243.

‚-settan, _to set, place, appoint_: pret. pl. hie him ‚-setton segen
[gyl]-denne he·h ofer he·fod, 47; pret. part. h‰fde kyninga wuldor Grendle
tÙ-ge·nes ... sele-weard ‚-seted, 668.

be-settan, _to set with, surround_: pret. sg. (helm) besette swÓn-lÓcum
(_set the helm with swine-bodies_), 1454.

ge-settan: 1) _to set, set down_: pret. part. sw‚ w‰s ...˛urh r˚n-stafas
rihte ge-mearcod, ge-seted and ge-sÊd (_thus was ... in rune-staves rightly
marked, set down and said_), 1697.--2) _to set, ordain, create_: pret. sg.
ge-sette ... sunnan and mÙnan leÛman tÙ leÛhte land-b˚endum, 94.--3) =
componere, _to lay aside, smooth over, appease_: pret. sg. ˛‰t he mid ˛˝
wÓfe w‰l-fÊha ... dÊl ... ge-sette, 2030.

sÍcan, w. v., _to follow after_, hence: 1) _to seek, strive for_, w. acc.:
pret. sg. sinc-f‰t sÙhte _(sought the costly cup_), 2301; ne sÙhte
searo-nÓas, 2739; so, 3068. Without acc.: ˛onne his myne sÙhte (_than his
wish demanded_), 2573; hord-weard sÙhte georne ‰fter grunde (_the
hoard-warden sought eagerly along the ground_), 2294.--2) _to look for,
come_ or _go some whither, attain something_, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. se ˛e
... biorgas sÍce, 2273; subj. ˛e·h ˛e hÊ-stapa holt-wudu sÍce, 1370;
imper. sÍc gif ˛u dyrre (_look for her_, i.e. Grendel's mother, _if thou
dare_), 1380; inf. sÍcean, 200, 268, 646, 1598, 1870, 1990, 2514(?), 3103,
etc.; sÍcan, 665, 1451; drihten sÍcean (_seek, go to, the Lord_), 187;
sÍcean wyn-le·s wÓc (_Grendel was to seek a joyless place_, i.e. Hell),
822; so, sÍcan deÛfla gedr‰g, 757; s‚wle sÍcan (_seek the life, kill_),
802; so, sÍcean s‚wle hord, 2423; gerund. s‰cce tÙ sÍceanne, 2563; pret.
sg. I., III. sÙhte, 139, 208, 376, 417, 2224; II. sÙhtest, 458; pl. sÙhton,
339.--3) _to seek, attack_: ˛e ˚s sÍcea tÙ SweÛna leÛde, 3002; pret. pl.
hine wr‰c-m‰cgas ofer sÊ sÙhtan, 2381.

ge-sÍcan: 1) _to seek_, w. acc.: inf. gif he gesÍcean dear wÓg ofer wÊpen,
685.--2) _to look for, come_ or _go to attain_, w. acc.: inf. ge-sÍcean,
693; gerund, tÙ ge-sÍcanne, 1923; pret. sg. ge-sÙhte, 463, 520, 718, 1952;
pret. part. nom. pl. feor-c˝e beÛ sÍlran ge-sÙhte ˛am ˛e hine selfa
de·h, 1840.--3) _to seek with hostile intent, to attack_: pres. sg.
ge-sÍce 2516; pret. sg. ge-sÙhte, 2347; pl. ge-sÙhton, 2927; ge-sÙhtan,

ofer-sÍcan, w. acc., _to surpass, outdo_ (in an attack): pres. sg. w‰s siÛ
hond tÙ strong, se ˛e mÍca gehwane ... swenge ofer-sÙhte, ˛onne he tÙ s‰cce
b‰r wÊpen wundrum heard (_too strong was the hand, that surpassed every
sword in stroke, when he_ [BeÛwulf] _bore the wondrous weapon to battle_,
i.e. the hand was too strong for any sword; its strength made it useless in
battle), 2687.

sÍl, st. f. See sÊl.

sÍl, sÊl, adj., _good, excellent, fit_, only in compar.: nom. sg. m. sÍlra,
861, 2194; ˛Êm ˛Êr sÍlra w‰s (_to the one that was the better_, i.e.
Hygel‚c), 2200; de· bi sÍlla ˛onne edwÓt-lÓf, 2891; neut. sÍlre, 1385;
acc. sg. m. sÍlran ˛e (_a better than thee_), 1851; sÍlran, 1198; neut. ˛‰t
sÍlre, 1760; dat. sg. m. sÍlran sweord-frecan, 1469; nom. pl. fem. sÍlran,
1840. Superl., strong form: nom. sg. neut. sÍlest, 173, 1060; h˚sa sÍlest,
146, 285, 936; Ùfost is sÍlest, 256; bolda sÍlest, 2327; acc. sg. neut.
hr‰gla sÍlest, 454; h˚sa sÍlest, 659; billa sÍlest, 1145;--weak form: nom.
sg. m. reced sÍlesta, 412; acc. sg. m. ˛one sÍlestan, 1407, 2383; (˛‰s,
MS.), 1957; dat. sg. m. ˛‰m sÍlestan, 1686; nom. pl. sÍlestan, 416; acc.
pl. ˛‚ sÍlestan, 3123.

sÍl, compar. adv., _better, fitter, more excellent_, 1013, 2531; ne by him
wihte ˛Í sÍl (_he shall be nought the better for it_), 2278; so, 2688.

sealma (Frisian selma, in bed-selma), w. m., _bed-chamber, sleeping-place_:
acc. sg. on sealman, 2461.

sealt, adj., _salty_: acc. sg. neut. ofer sealt w‰ter (_the sea_), 1990.

searo (G. sarwa, pl.), st. n.: 1) _armor, accoutrements, war-gear_: nom.
pl. sÊ-manna searo, 329; dat. pl. secg on searwum (_a man, warrior, in
panoply_), 249, 2701; in (on) searwum, 323, 1558; 2531, 2569; instr. pl.
searwum, 1814.--2) _insidiae, ambuscade, waylaying, deception, battle_: ˛‚
ic of searwum cwom, f‚h from feÛndum, 419.--3) _cunning, art, skill_:
instr. pl. sadol searwum f‚h (_saddle cunningly ornamented_), 1039;
earmbe·ga fela, searwum ge-sÊled (_many cunningly-linked armlets_),
2765.--Comp. fyrd-, g˚-, inwit-searo.

searo-bend, st. f., _band, bond, of curious workmanship_: instr. pl.
searo-bendum f‰st, 2087.

searo-f‚h, adj., _cunningly inlaid, ornamented, with gold_: nom. sg.
here-byrne hondum ge-broden, sÓd and searo-f‚h, 1445.

searo-ge-˛r‰c, st. n., _heap of treasure-objects_: acc. sg., 3103.

searo-gim, st. m., _cunningly set gem, rich jewel_: acc. pl. searo-gimmas,
2750; gen. pl. searo-gimma, 1158.

searo-grim, adj., _cunning and fierce_: nom. sg., 595.

searo-h‰bbend, pres. part. as subst., _arms-bearing, warrior with his
trappings_: gen. pl. searo-h‰bbendra, 237.

searo-net, st. n., _armor-net, shirt of mail, corselet_: nom. sg., 406.

searo-nÓ, st. m.: 1) _cunning hostility, plot, wiles_: acc. pl.
searo-nÓas, 1201, 2739.--2) also, only _hostility, feud, contest_: acc.
pl. searo-nÓas, 3068; gen. pl. searo-nÓa, 582.

searo-˛anc, st. m., _ingenuity_: instr. pl. searo-˛oncum, 776.

searo-wundor, st. n., _rare wonder_: acc. sg., 921.

seax, st. n., _shortsword, hip-knife; dagger_: instr. sg. seaxe,
1546.--Comp. w‰l-seax.

seax-ben, st. f., _dagger-wound_: instr. pl. siex-bennum, 2905.

seofon, num., _seven_, 517; seofan, 2196; decl. acc. syfone, 3123.

seomian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to be tied; lie at rest_: inf. siomian, 2768;
pret. sg. seomode, 302.--2) w. acc., _to put in bonds, entrap, catch_:
pret. sg. dugue and geogoe seomade (cf. 2086-2092), 161.

seonu, st. f., _sinew_: nom. pl. seonowe, 818.

seÛc, adj., _feeble, weak; fatally ill_: nom. sg. feorh-bennum seÛc (of
BeÛwulf, _sick unto death_), 2741; siex-bennum seÛc (of the dead dragon),
2905; nom. pl. mÙdes seÛce (_sick of soul_), 1604.--Comp.: ellen-, feorh-,

seÛan, st. v. w. acc., _to seethe, boil_; figuratively, _be excited over,
brood_: pret. sg. ic ˛‰s mÙd-ceare sorh-wylmum se· (_I pined in
heart-grief for that_), 1994; so, 190.

seÛlo, st. m.?, _bight, bay_ (cf. Dietrich in Haupt XI. 416): gen. pl.
siÛlea bi-gong (_the realm of bights_ = the [surface of the] sea?), 2368.

seÛn, s˝n, st. f., _aspect, sight_: in comp. wlite-, wundor-seÛn, an-s˝n.

seÛn, st. v., _to see_: a) w. acc.: inf. searo-wunder seÛn, 921; so, 387,
1181, 1276, 3103; ˛Êr m‰g nihta ge-hwÊm nÓ-wundor seÛn (_there may every
night be seen a repulsive marvel_), 1366; pret. sg. ne seah ic ...
heal-sittendra medudre·m m‚ran, 2015.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.: ne
seah ic el˛eÛdige ˛us manige men mÙdiglÓcran, 336.--c) w. prep. or adv.:
pret. sg. seah on enta ge-weorc, 2718; seah on un-leÛfe, 2864; pl. folc tÙ
sÊgon (_looked on_), 1423.

ge-seÛn, _to see, behold_: a) w. acc.: pres. sg. III. se ˛e be·h ge-syh,
2042; inf. ge-seÛn, 396, 571, 649, 962, 1079, etc.; pret. sg. geseah, 247,
927, 1558, 1614; pl. ge-s‚won, 1606, 2253.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.,
pres. sg. III. ge-syh ... on his suna b˚re win-sele wÍstne (_sees in his
son's house the wine-hall empty_; or, _hall of friends_?), 2456.--c) w.
inf.: pret. sg. ge-seah ... beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas (_saw shining
shields borne over the gang-plank_), 229; pret. pl. mÊre m‚um-sweord
monige ge-s‚won beforan beorn beran, 1024.--d) w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg.
ge-seah, 729, 1517, 1586, 1663, 2543, 2605, etc.; pl. ge-s‚won, 221, 1348,
1426; ge-sÍgan, 3039; ge-sÍgon, 3129.--e) w. depend, clause: inf. m‰g ˛onne
... geseÛn sunu HrÍles, ˛‰t ic (_may the son of H. see that I..._), 1486;
pret. pl. ge-s‚won, 1592.

geond-seÛn, _to see, look through, over_, w. acc.: pret. sg. (ic) ˛‰t eall
geond-seh, 3088.

ofer-seÛn, _to see clearly, plainly_: pret. pl. ofer-s‚won, 419.

on-seÛn, _to look on, at_, w. acc.: pret. pl. on-s‚won, 1651.

seÛwian, w. v., _to sew, put together, link_: pret. part. searo-net seÛwed
smies or-˛ancum (_the corselet woven by the smith's craft_), 406.

sib, st. f., _peace, friendship, relationship_: nom. sg., 1165, 1858; sibb,
2601; acc. sibbe, 950, 2432, 2923; instr. sg. sibbe (_in peace_?),
154.--Comp.: dryht-, frio-sib.

sib-‰eling, st. m., _nobilis consanguineus, kindred prince_ or _nobleman_:
nom. pl. -‰elingas, 2709.

sibbe-gedryht, st. f., _body of allied_ or _related warriors_: acc. sg.
sibbe-gedriht (the Danes), 387; (the Ge·tas), 730.

sian, syan: 1) adv.: a) _since, after, from now on, further_, 142, 149,
283, 567, 1903, 2052, 2065, 2176, 2703, 2807, 2921; seoan, 1876.--b)
_then, thereupon, after_, 470, 686, 1454, 1557, 1690, 2208; seoan, 1938;
Êr ne sian (_neither before nor after_), 719.

2) Conj.: a) w. ind. pres., _as soon as, when_, 413, 605, 1785, 2889,
2912.--b) w. ind. pret., _when, whilst_, 835, 851, 1205, 1207, 1421, 1590,
2357, 2961, 2971, 3128; seoan, 1776;--_since_, 649, 657, 983, 1199, 1254,
1309, 2202;--_after_, either with pluperf.: sian him scyppend forscrifen
h‰fde (_after the Creator had proscribed him_), 106; so, 1473; or with
pret. = pluperf.: syan niht becom (_after night had come on_), 115; so,
6, 132, 723, 887, 902, 1078, 1149, 1236, 1262, 1282, 1979, 2013, 2125; or
pret. and pluperf. together, 2104-2105.

siex. See seax.

sige-dryhten, st. m., _lord of victory, victorious lord_: nom. sg.
sige-drihten, 391.

sige-e·dig, adj., _blest with victory, victorious_: acc. sg. neut.
sige-e·dig bil, 1558.

sige-folc, st. n., _victorious people, troop_: gen. pl. sige-folca, 645.

sige-hrÍ, st. f., _confidence of victory_(?): acc. sg., 490. See Note.

sige-hrÍig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 94, 1598, 2757.

sige-hwÓl, st. f., _hour_ or _day of victory_: gen. sg. sige-hwÓle, 2711.

sige-le·s, adj., _devoid of victory, defeated_: acc. sg. sige-le·sne sang,

sige-rÙf, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 620.

sige-˛eÛd, st. f., _victorious warrior troop_: dat. sg. on sige-˛eÛde,

sige-wÊpen, st. n., _victor-weapon, sword_: dat. pl. sige-wÊpnum, 805.

sigl, st. n.: 1) _sun_: nom. sg. sigel, 1967.--2) _sun-shaped ornament_:
acc. pl. siglu, 3165; sigle (bracteates of a necklace), 1201; gen. pl.
sigla, 1158.--Comp. m‚um-sigl.

sigor, st. m., _victory_: gen. sg. sigores, 1022; gen. pl. sigora, 2876,
3056.--Comp.: hrÍ-, wÓg-sigor.

sigor-e·dig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg. sigor-e·dig secg (of BeÛwulf),
1312, 2353.

sin. See syn.

sinc, st. n., _treasure, jewel, property_: nom. sg., 2765; acc. sg. sinc,
81, 1205, 1486, 2384, 2432; instr. sg. since, 1039, 1451, 1616, 1883, 2218,
2747; gen. sg. sinces, 608, 1171, 1923, 2072; gen. pl. sinca, 2429.

sinc-f‚h, adj., _treasure-decked_: acc. sg. neut. weak form, sinc-f‚ge sel,

sinc-f‰t, st. n., _costly vessel_: acc. sg., 2232, 2301;--_a costly
object_: acc. sg., 1201 (i.e. mene); acc. pl. sinc-fato, 623.

sinc-ge-streÛn, st. n., _precious treasure, jewel of value _: instr. pl.
-gestreÛnum, 1093; gen. pl. -gestreÛna, 1227.

sinc-gifa, w. m., _jewel-giver, treasure-giver = prince, ruler_: acc. sg.
sinc-gyfan, 1013; dat. sg. sinc-gifan (of BeÛwulf), 2312; (of ƒschere),

sinc-m‚um, st. m., _treasure_: nom. sg., 2194.

sinc-˛ego, f., _acceptance, taking, of jewels_: nom. sg., 2885.

sin-dolh, st. n., _perpetual_, i.e. incurable, _wound_: nom. sg. syn-dolh,

sin-fre·, w. m., _wedded lord, husband_: nom. sg., 1935.

sin-gal, adj., _continual, lasting_: acc. sg. fem, sin-gale s‰ce, 154.

sin-gales, adv. gen. sg., _continually, ever_, 1778; syngales, 1136.

singala, adv. gen. pl., the same, 190.

singan, st. v., _to sound, ring, sing_: pret. sg. hring-Óren scÓr song in
searwum (_the ringed iron rang in the armor_), 323; horn stundum song
f˚s-lÓc f[yrd]-leÛ (_at times the horn rang forth a ready battle-song_),
1424; scÙp hwÓlum sang (_the singer sang at whiles_), 496.

‚-singan, _to sing out, sing to an end_: pret. part. leÛ w‰s ‚-sungen,

sin-here, st. m., (_army without end_?), _strong army, host_: instr. sg.
sin-herge, 2937.

sin-niht, st. f., _perpetual night, night after night_: acc. pl. sin-nihte
(_night after night_), 161.

sin-sceaa, w. m., _irreconcilable foe_: nom. sg. syn-scaa, 708; acc. sg.
syn-scaan, 802.

sin-snÊd, st. f., (_continuous biting_) _bite after bite_: dat. pl.
syn-snÊdum swealh (_swallowed bite after bite, in great bites_), 744.

sittan, st. v.: 1) _to sit_: pres. sg. WÓgl‚f site ofer BiÛwulfe, 2907;
imper. sg. site nu tÙ symle, 489; inf. ˛Êr swÓ-ferhe sittan eodon
(_whither the strong-minded went and sat_), 493; eode ... tÙ hire fre·n
sittan (_went to sit by her lord_), 642; pret. sg. on wicge s‰t (_sat on
the horse_), 286; ‰t fÙtum s‰t (_sat at the feet_), 500, 1167; ˛Êr HrÙg‚r
s‰t (_where H. sat_), 356; so, 1191, 2895; he gewÍrgad s‰t ... fre·n eaxlum
ne·h, 2854; pret. pl. sÊton, 1165; gistas sÍtan (MS. sÍcan) ... and on mere
staredon (_the strangers sat and stared on the sea_), 1603.--2) _to be in a
certain state_ or _condition_ (_quasi_ copula): pret. sg. mÊre ˛eÛden ...
unblÓe s‰t, 130.--Comp.: flet-, heal-sittend.

be-sittan, obsidere, _to surround, besiege_, w. acc.: bes‰t ˛‚ sin-herge
sweorda l‚fe wundum wÍrge (_then besieged he with a host the leavings of
the sword, wound-weary_), 2937.

for-sittan, obstrui, _to pass away, fail_: pres. sg. e·gena bearhtm
for-site (_the light of the eyes passeth away_), 1768.

ge-sittan: 1) _to sit, sit together_: pret. sg. monig-oft ge-s‰t rÓce to
r˚ne (_very often sat the king deliberating with his council_ (see rÓce),
171; wi earm ge-s‰t (_supported himself upon his arm, sat on his arm_?),
750; fÍa eal ge-s‰t (_the whole troop sat down_), 1425; ge-s‰t ˛‚ wi
sylfne (_sat there beside, near to, him_, i.e. Hygel‚c), 1978;

ge-s‰t ˛‚ on n‰sse, 2418; so, 2718; pret. part. (syan) ... we tÙ symble
ge-seten h‰fdon, 2105.--2) w. acc., _to seat one's self upon_ or _in
something, to board_: pret. sg. ˛‚ ic ... sÊ-b‚t ge-s‰t, 634.

of-sittan, w. acc., _to sit over_ or _upon_: pret. sg. of-s‰t ˛‚ ˛one
sele-gyst, 1546.

ofer-sittan, w. acc., _to dispense with, refrain from_ (cf. ofer, 2 [c]):
pres. sg. I. ˛‰t ic wi ˛one g˚-flogan gylp ofer-sitte, 2529; inf. secge
ofer-sittan, 685.

on-sittan (O.H.G. int-sizzan, _to start from one's seat, to be startled_),
w. acc., _to fear_: inf. ˛‚ fÊhe, atole ecg-˛r‰ce eÛwer leÛde sÓwe
onsittan _to dread the hostility, the fierce contest, of your people_, 598.

ymb-sittan, _to sit around_, w. acc.: pret. pl. (˛‰t hie) ... symbel
ymb-sÊton (_sat round the feast_), 564. See ymb-sittend.

sÓd, adj.: 1) _wide, broad, spacious, large_: nom. sg. (here-byrne, glÙf)
sÓd, 1445, 2087; acc. sg. m. sÓdne scyld, 437; on sÓdne sÊ, 507; fem.
byrnan sÓde (of a corselet extending over the legs), 1292; ofer sÊ sÓde,
2395; neut. sÓde rÓce, 1734, 2200; instr. sg. sÓdan herge, 2348; acc. pl.
sÓde sÊ-n‰ssas, 223; sÓde scyldas, 325; gen. pl. sÓdra sorga (_of great
sorrows_), 149.--2) in moral sense, _great, noble_: acc. sg. ˛urh sÓdne
sefan, 1727.

side, adv., _far and wide, afar_, 1224.

sÓd-f‰me, adj., _broad-bosomed_: acc. sg. sÓd-f‰me scip, 1918.

sÓd-f‰med, _quasi_ pret. part., the same: nom. sg. sÓd-f‰med scip, 302.

sÓd-rand, st. m., _broad shield_: nom. sg., 1290.

sÓ (G. se˛u-s), adj., _late_: superl. nom. sg. sÓast sige-hwÓle (_the
last hour, day, of victory_), 2711; dat. sg. ‰t sÓestan (_in the end, at
last_), 3014.

sÓ, adv. compar., _later_: Êr and sÓ (_sooner and later, early and
late_), 2501.

sÓ (G. sin˛-s), st. m.: l) _road, way, journey, expedition_; esp., _road
to battle_: nom. sg., 501, 3059, 3090; n‰s ˛‰t Íe sÓ (_that was no easy
road, task_), 2587; so, ˛‰t w‰s geÛcor sÓ, 766; acc. sg. sÓ, 353, 512,
909, 1279, 1430, 1967; instr. dat. sÓe, 532, 1952, 1994; gen. sg. sÓes,
579, 1476, 1795, 1909. Also, _return_: nom. sg., 1972.--2) _undertaking,
enterprise_; esp., _battle-work_: nom. sg. nis ˛‰t eÛwer sÓ, 2533; ne bi
swylc earges sÓ (_such is no coward's enterprise_), 2542; acc. sg. sÓ,
873. In pl.= _adventures_: nom. sÓas, 1987; acc. sÓas, 878; gen. sÓa,
318.--3) time (as iterative): nom. sg. n‰s ˛‰t forma sÓ (_that was not the
first time_), 717, 1464; so, 1528, 2626; acc. sg. oftor micle ˛onne on Ênne
sÓ, 1580; instr. sg. (forman, Ùre, ˛riddan) sÓe, 741, 1204, 2050, 2287,
2512, 2518, 2671, 2689, 3102.--Comp.: cear-, eft-, ellor-, gryre-, sÊ-,
wil-, wrÊc-sÓ.

ge-sÓ, st. m., _comrade, follower_: gen. sg. ge-sÓes, 1298; nom. pl.
ge-sÓas, 29; acc. pl. ge-sÓas, 2041, 2519; dat. pl. ge-sÓum, 1314, 1925,
2633; gen. pl. ge-sÓa, 1935.--Comp.: eald-, wil-gesÓ.

sÓ-f‰t, st. m., _way, journey_: acc. sg. ˛one sÓ-f‰t, 202; dat. sg.
sÓ-fate, 2640.

sÓ-fram, -from, adj., _ready for the journey_: nom. pl. sÓ-frome, 1814.

sÓian, w. v., _to journey, march_: inf., 721, 809; pret. sg. sÓode, 2120.

for-sÓian, _iter fatale inire_ (Grein): pret. sg. h‰fde ˛‚ for-sÓod sunu
Ecg-˛eÛwes under gynne grund _(would have found his death_, etc.), 1551.

sÓe, s˝. See wesan.

sÓgan, st. v., _to descend, sink, incline_: pret. pl. sigon ‰t-somne
(_descended together_), 307; sigon ˛‚ tÙ slÊpe _(they sank to sleep_),

ge-sÓgan, _to sink, fall_: inf. ge-sÓgan ‰t s‰cce (_fall in battle_), 2660.

sÓn, poss. pron., _his_: acc. sg. m. sÓnne, 1961, 1985, 2284, 2790; dat.
sg. sÓnum, 1508.

slÊp, st. m., _sleep_: nom. sg., 1743; dat. sg. tÙ slÊpe, 1252.

slÊpan, st. v., _to sleep_: pres. part. nom. sg. slÊpende, 2220; acc. sg.
he gefÍng ... slÊpendne rinc (_seized a sleeping warrior]_, 742; acc. pl.
slÊpende fr‰t folces Denigea fÓftyne men _(devoured, sleeping, fifteen of
the people of the Danes_), 1582.

sleac, adj., _slack, lazy_: nom. sg., 2188.

sleahan, sle·n: 1) _to strike, strike at_: a) intrans.: pres. subj. sg. ˛‰t
he me onge·n sle· (_that he should strike at me_), 682; pret. sg. yrringa
slÙh (_struck angrily_), 1566; so, slÙh hilde-bille, 2680. b) trans.: pret.
sg. ˛‰t he ˛one nÓ-g‰st nioor hwÍne slÙh _(that he struck the dragon
somewhat lower_, etc.), 2700.--2) w. acc.: _to slay, kill_: pret. sg. ˛‰s
˛e he Abel slÙg (_because he slew A._), 108; so, slÙg, 421, 2180; slÙh,
1582, 2356; pl. slÙgon, 2051; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s Fin sl‰gen, 1153.

ge-sle·n, w. acc.: 1) _to fight a battle_: pret. sg. ge-slÙh ˛Ón f‰der
fÊhe mÊste, 459.--2) _to gain by fighting_: syan hie ˛‚ mÊra ge-slÙgon,

of-sle·n, _to ofslay, kill_, w. acc.: pret. sg. of-slÙh, 574, 1666, 3061.

slÓe (G. slei˛-s), adj., _savage, fierce, dangerous_: acc. sg. ˛urh slÓne
nÓ, 184; gen. pl. slÓra ge-slyhta, 2399.

slÓen, adj., _furious, savage, deadly_ nom. sg. sweord-bealo slÓen, 1148.

slÓtan, st. v., _to slit, tear to pieces_, w. acc.: pret. sg. sl‚t
(slÊpendne rinc), 742.

slyht, st. m., _blow_: in comp. and-slyht.

ge-slyht, st. n. (collective), _battle, conflict_: gen. pl. slÓra
ge-slyhta, 2399.

smi, st. m., _smith, armorer_: nom. sg. wÊpna smi, 1453; gen. sg. smies,
406.--Comp. wundor-smi.

be-smiian, w. v., _to surround with iron-work, bands_, etc.: pret. part.
he (the hall Heorot) ˛‰s f‰ste w‰s innan and ˚tan Óren-bendum searo-˛oncum
besmiod (i.e. the beams out of which the hall was built were held together
skilfully, within and without, by iron clamps), 776.

snell, adj., _fresh, vigorous, lively; of martial temper_: nom. sg. se
snella, 2972.

snellÓc, adj., the same: nom. sg., 691.

snotor, snottor, adj., _clever, wise, intelligent_: nom. sg. snotor, 190,
827, 909, 1385; in weak form, (se) snottra, 1314, 1476, 1787; snotra, 2157,
3121; nom. pl. snotere, 202, 416; snottre, 1592.--Comp. fore-snotor.

snotor-lÓce, adv., _intelligently, wisely_: compar. snotor-lÓcor, 1483.

sn˚de, adv., _hastily, quickly, soon_, 905, 1870, 1972, 2326, 2569, 2753.

be-snyian, w. v., _to rob, deprive of_: pret. sg. ˛‰tte Ongen˛iÛ ealdre
be-snyede HÊcyn, 2925.

snyrian, w. v., _to hasten, hurry_: pret. pl. snyredon ‰t-somne (_hurried
forward together_), 402.

snyttru, f., _intelligence, wisdom_: acc. sg. snyttru, 1727; dat. pl. mid
mÙdes snyttrum, 1707; ˛e we ealle Êr ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed
which all of us together could not accomplish before with all our wisdom_),
943. Adv., _wisely_, 873.

somne. See samne.

sorgian, w. v.: 1) _to be grieved, sorrow_: imper. sg. II. ne sorga!
1385.--2) _to care for, trouble one's self about_: inf. nÙ ˛u ymb mÓnes ne
˛earft lÓces feorme leng sorgian (_thou needst not care longer about my
life's [body's] sustenance_), 451.

sorh, st. f., _grief, pain, sorrow_: nom. sg., 1323; sorh is me tÙ secganne
(_pains me to say_), 473; acc. sg. sorge, 119, 2464; dat. instr. sg. mid
˛Êre sorge, 2469; sorge (_in sorrow, grieved_), 1150; gen. sg. worna fela
... sorge, 2005; dat. pl. sorgum, 2601; gen. pl. sorga, 149.--Comp.: hyge-,
inwit-, ˛egn-sorh.

sorh-cearig, adj., _curis sollicitus, heart-broken_: nom. sg., 2456.

sorh-ful, adj., _sorrowful, troublesome, difficult_: nom. sg., 2120; acc.
sg. sorh-fullne (sorh-fulne) sÓ, 512, 1279, 1430.

sorh-le·s, adj., _free from sorrow_ or _grief_: nom. sg., 1673.

sorh-leo, st. n., _dirge, song of sorrow_: acc. sg., 2461.

sorh-wylm, st. m., _wave of sorrow_ nom. pl. sorh-wylmas, 905.

sÙcn, st. f., _persecution, hostile pursuit_ or _attack_ (see sÍcan): dat,
(instr.) ˛Êre sÙcne (by reason of Grendel's persecution), 1778.

sÙ, st. n., _sooth, truth_:: acc. sg. sÙ, 532, 701, 1050, 1701, 2865;
dat. sg. tÙ sÙe (_in truth_), 51, 591, 2326.

sÙ, adj., _true, genuine_: nom. sg, ˛‰t is sÙ metod, 1612; acc. sg. n.
gyd ‚wr‰c sÙ and s‚r-lÓc, 2110.

sÙe, adv., _truly, correctly, accurately_, 524; sÙe gebunden (of
alliterative verse: _accurately put together_), 872.

sÙ-cyning, st. m., _true king_: nom. sg. sigora sÙ-cyning (_God_), 3056.

sÙ-f‰st, adj., _soothfast, established in truth, orthodox_ (here used of
the Christian martyrs): gen. pl. sÙ-f‰stra dÙm (_glory, realm, of the
saints_), 2821.

sÙ-lÓce, adv., _in truth, truly, truthfully_, 141, 273, 2900.

sÙfte, adv., _gently, softly_: compar. ˛˝ sÍft (_the more easily_),
2750.--Comp. un-sÙfte.

sÙna, adv., _soon, immediately_, 121, 722, 744, 751, 1281, 1498, 1592,
1619, 1763, etc.

on-spannan, st. v., _to un-span, unloose_: pret. sg. his helm on-speÛn
(_loosed his helm_), 2724.

spel, st. n., _narrative, speech_: acc. sg. spell, 2110; acc. pl. spel,
874; gen. pl. spella, 2899, 3030.--Comp. we·-spel.

spÍd, st. f.: 1) _luck, success_: in comp. here-, wÓg-spÍd.--2) _skill,
facility_: acc. sg. on spÍd (_skilfully_), 874.

spÓwan, st. v., _to spit, spew_, w. instr.: inf. glÍdum spÓwan (_spit
fire_), 2313

spor, st. n., _spur_: in comp. hand-spor.

spÙwan, st. v., _to speed well, help, avail_: pret. sg. him wiht ne speÛw
(_availed him naught_), 2855; h˚ him ‰t Ête speÛw (_how he sped in the
eating_), 3027.

sprÊc, st. f., _speech, language_: instr. sg. frÍcnan sprÊce (_through
bold, challenging, discourse_), 1105.--Comp.: Êfen-, gylp-sprÊc.

sprecan, st. v., _to speak_: inf. ic sceal for sprecan gen ymbe Grendel
_(I shall go on speaking about G._), 2070; w. acc. se ˛e wyle sÙ sprecan
(_he who will speak the truth_), 2865; imper. tÙ Ge·tum sprec (sprÊc, MS.),
1172; pret. sg. III. spr‰c, 1169, 1699, 2511, 2725; word ‰fter spr‰c, 341;
nÙ ymbe ˛‚ fÊhe spr‰c, 2619; II. hw‰t ˛u worn fela ... ymb Brecan sprÊce
(_how much thou hast spoken of Breca!_), 531; pl. hw‰t wit geÛ sprÊcon
(_what we two spoke of before_), 1477; gomele ymb gÙdne on-geador sprÊcon,
˛‰t big ... _(the graybeards spoke together about the valiant one, that
they ..._), 1596; sw‚ wit furum sprÊcon (_as we two spoke, engaged,
before_), 1708; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s ... ˛ry-word sprecen, 644.

ge-sprecan, w. acc., _to speak_: pret. sg. ge-spr‰c, 676, 1399, 1467, 3095.

spreÛt, st. m., _pole; spear, pike_: in comp. eofor-spreÛt.

springan, st. v., _to jump, leap; flash_: pret. sg. hr‚ wÓde sprong _(the
body bounded far_), 1589; sw‚t Êdrum sprong for under fexe (_the blood
burst out in streams from under his hair_), 2967; pl. wÓde sprungon
hilde-leÛman (_flashed afar_), 2583. Also figuratively: blÊd wÓde sprang
(_his repute spread afar_), 18.

ge-springan, _to spring forth_: pret. sg. sw‚ ˛‰t blÙd ge-sprang (_as the
blood burst forth_), 1668. Figuratively, _to arise, originate_: pret. sg.
Sigemunde gesprong ‰fter de·-d‰ge dÙm un-lytel, 885.

on-springan, _to burst in two, spring asunder_: pret. pl. seonowe
onsprungon, burston b‚nlocan 818.

standan, st. v.: 1) absolutely or with prep., _to stand_: pres. III. pl.
eÛred-geatwe ˛e ge ˛Êr on standa (_the warlike accoutrements wherein ye
there stand_), 2867; inf. ge-seah ... orcas stondan (_saw vessels
standing_), 2761; pret. sg. ‰t h˝e stÙd hringed-stefna (_in the harbor
stood the curved-prowed?, metal-covered?, ship_), 32; stÙd on stapole
(_stood near the [middle] column_), 927; so, 1914, 2546; ˛‰t him on aldre
stÙd here-strÊl hearda (_that the sharp war-arrow stood in his vitals_),
1435; so, 2680; pl. g‚ras stÙdon ... samod ‰t-g‰dere (_the spears stood
together_), 328; him big stÙdan bunan and orcas (_by him stood cans and
pots_), 3048. Also of still water: pres. sg. III. nis ˛‰t feor heonon ...
˛‰t se mere stande, 1363.--2) with predicate adj., _to stand, continue in
a certain state_: subj. pres. ˛‰t ˛es sele stande ... rinca ge-hwylcum Ódel
and unnyt (_that this hall stands empty and useless for every warrior_),
411; inf. hord-wynne fand eald uht-sceaa opene standan, 2272; pret. sg. Ù
˛‰t Ódel stÙd h˚sa sÍlest, 145; so, 936; w‰ter under stÙd dreÛrig and
ge-drÍfed, 1418--3) _to belong_ or _attach to; issue_: pret. sg. Nor-Denum
stÙd atelÓc egesa (_great terror clung to, overcame, the North Danes_),
784; ˛‚ra ‚num stÙd sadol searwum f‚h (_on one of the steeds lay an
ingeniously-inlaid saddle_), 1038; byrne-leÛma eldum on andan (_burning
light stood forth, a horror to men_), 2314; leÛht inne stÙd (_a light stood
in it_, i.e. the sword), 1571; him of e·gum stÙd ... leÛht unf‰ger (_an
uncanny light issued from his eyes_), 727; so, ˛‰t [fram] ˛am gyste
[gryre-] brÙga stÙd, 2229.

‚-standan, _to stand up, arise_: pret. sg. ‚-stÙd, 760, 1557, 2093.

‰t-standan, _to stand at, near_, or _in_: pret. sg. ˛‰t hit (i.e. ˛‰t
swurd) on wealle ‰t-stÙd, 892.

for-standan, _to stand against_ or _before_, hence: 1) _to hinder,
prevent_: pret. sg. (breÛst-net) wi ord and wi ecge in-gang for-stÙd
(_the shirt of mail prevented point or edge from entering_), 1550; subj.
nefne him witig god wyrd for-stÙde (_if the wise God had not warded off
such a fate from them_, i.e. the men threatened by Grendel), 1057.--2)
_defend_, w. dat. of person against whom: inf. ˛‰t he ... mihte
he·o-lÓendum hord for-standan, bearn and br˝de (_that he might protect
his treasure, his children, and his spouse from the sea-farers_), 2956.

ge-standan, intrans., _to stand_: pret. sg. ge-stÙd, 358, 404, 2567; pl.
nealles him on he·pe hand-gesteallan ... ymbe gestÙdon (_not at all did his
boon-companions stand serried around him_), 2597.

stapa, w. m., _stepper, strider_: in comp. hÊ-, mearc-stapa.

stapan, st. v., _to step, stride, go forward_: pret. sg. eorl furur stÙp,
762; gum-fÍa stop lind-h‰bbendra (_the troop of shield-warriors strode
on_), 1402.

‰t-stapan, _to stride up_ or _to_: pret. sg. for ne·r ‰t-stÙp (_strode up
nearer_), 746.

ge-stapan, _to walk, stride_: pret. sg. he to for gestÙp dyrnan cr‰fte,
dracan he·fde ne·h (_he_, i.e. the man that robbed the dragon of the
vessel, _had through hidden craft come too near the dragon's head_), 2290.

stapol, st. m., (=[Greek: b·sis]), _trunk of a tree_; hence, _support,
pillar, column_: dat. sg. stÙd on stapole (_stood by_ or _near the wooden
middle column of Heorot_), 927; instr. pl. ˛‚ st‚n-bogan stapulum f‰ste
(_the arches of stone upheld by pillars_), 2719. See Note.

starian, w. v., _to stare, look intently at_: pres. sg. I. ˛‰t ic on ˛one
hafelan ... e·gum starige (_that I see the head with my eyes_), 1782; ˛‚ra
fr‰twa ... ˛e ic her on starie (_for the treasures ... that I here look
upon_), 2797; III. ˛onne he on ˛‰t sine stara, 1486; sg. for pl. ˛‚ra ˛e
on swylc stara, 997; pret. sg. ˛‰t (sin-fre·) hire an d‰ges e·gum starede,
1936; pl. on mere staredon, 1604.

st‚n, st. m., 1) _stone_: in comp. eorclan-st‚n.--2) _rock_: acc. sg. under
(ofer) h‚rne st‚n, 888, 1416, 2554, 2745; dat. sg. st‚ne, 2289, 2558.

st‚n-beorh, st. m., _rocky elevation, stony mountain_: acc. sg. st‚n-beorh
ste·pne, 2214.

st‚n-boga, w. m., _stone arch, arch hewn out of the rock_: dat. sg.
st‚n-bogan, 2546; nom. pl. st‚n-bogan, 2719.

st‚n-clif, st. n., _rocky cliff_: acc. pl. st‚n-cleofu, 2541.

st‚n-f‚h, adj., _stone-laid, paved with stones of different colors_: nom.
sg. strÊt w‰s st‚n-f‚h (_the street was of different colored stones_), 320.

st‚n-hli, st. n., _rocky slope_: acc. pl. st‚n-hlio, 1410.

st‰f, st. m.: 1) _staff_: in comp. r˚n-staf.--2) _elementum_: in comp. ‚r-,
ende-, f‚cen-st‰f.

st‰l, st. m., _place, stead_: dat. sg. ˛‰t ˛u me ‚ wÊre for-gewitenum on
f‰der st‰le (_that thou, if I died, wouldst represent a father's place to
me_), 1480.

stÊlan, w. v., _to place; allure_ or _instigate_: inf. ˛‚ ic on morgne
ge-fr‰gn mÊg Ùerne billes ecgum on bonan stÊlan _(then I learned that on
the morrow one brother instigated the other to murder with the sword's
edge_; or, _one avenged the other on the murderer_?, cf. 2962 seqq.), 2486.

ge-stÊlan, _to place, impose, institute_: pret. part. ge feor hafa fÊhe
ge-stÊled (_Grendel's mother has further begun hostilities against us_),

stede, st. m., _place, -stead_: in comp. bÊl-, burh-, folc-, he·h-, meel-,
wang-, wÓc-stede.

stefn, st. f., _voice_: nom. sg., 2553; instr. sg. niwan (niÛwan) stefne
(properly nov‚ voce) = denuo, _anew, again_, 2595, 1790.

stefn, st. m., _prow of a ship_: acc. sg., 213; see bunden-, hringed-,

on-stellan, w. v., _constituere, to cause, bring about_: pret. sg. se ˛‰s
or-leges Ùr on-stealde, 2408.

steng, st. m., _pole, pike_: in comp w‰l-steng.

ge-steppan, w. v., _to stride, go_: pret. sg. folce ge-stepte ofer sÊ sÓde
sunu ‘htheres (_O.'s son_, i.e. E·dgils, _went with warriors over the broad
sea_), 2394.

stede (O.H.G. st‚ti, M.H.G. stÊte), adj., _firm, steady_: nom. sg. w‰s
stÍde n‰gla ge-hwylc st˝le ge-lÓcost (_each nail-place was firm as steel_),

stÍpan, w. v. w. acc., _to exalt, honor_: pret. sg. ˛e·h ˛e hine mihtig god
... eafeum stÍpte, 1718.

ge-steald, st. n., _possessions, property_: in comp. in-gesteald, 1156.

ge-stealla, w. m., (contubernalis), _companion, comrade_: in comp. eaxl-,
fyrd-, hand-, lind-, n˝d-ge-stealla.

stearc-heort, adj., (fortis animo), _stout-hearted, courageous_: nom. sg.
(of the dragon), 2289; (of BeÛwulf), 2553.

ste·p, adj., _steep, projecting, towering_: acc. sg. ste·pne hrÙf, 927;
st‚n-beorh ste·pne, 2214; wi ste·pne rond, 2567; acc. pl. m. beorgas
ste·pe, 222; neut. ste·p st‚n-hlio, 1410.--Comp. heao-ste·p.

stille, adj., _still, quiet_: nom. sg. wÓd-floga wundum stille, 2831.

stille, adv., _quietly_, 301.

stincan, st. v., _to smell; snuff_: pret. sg. stonc ˛‚ ‰fter st‚ne
(_snuffed along the stone_), 2289.

stÓ, adj., _hard, stiff_: nom. sg. wunden-mÊl (swurd) ... stÓ and
st˝lecg, 1534.

stÓ-mÙd, adj., _stout-hearted, unflinching_: nom. sg., 2567.

stÓg, st. m., _way, path_: nom. sg., 320, 2214; acc. pl. stÓge nearwe,
1410--Comp. medu-stÓg.

stÓgan, st. v., _to go, ascend_: pret. sg. ˛‚ he tÙ holme [st]‚g (_when he
plunged forward into the sea_), 2363; pl. beornas ... on stefn stigon, 212;
Wedera leÛde on wang stigon, 225; subj. pret. Êr he on bed stige, 677.

‚-stÓgan, _to ascend_: pres. sg. ˛onon ˝-geblond up ‚-stÓge won tÙ
wolcnum, 1374; g˚-rinc ‚-st‚h (_the fierce hero ascended_, i.e. was laid
on the pyre? or, _the fierce smoke_ [rÍc] _ascended?_), 1119; gamen eft
‚-st‚h (_joy again went up, resounded_), 1161; wudu-rÍc ‚-st‚h sweart of
swioole, 3145; swÍg up ‚-st‚g, 783.

ge-stÓgan, _to ascend, go up_: pret. sg. ˛‚ ic on holm ge-st‚h, 633.

storm, st. m., _storm_: nom. sg. strÊla storm (_storm of missiles_), 3118;
instr. sg. holm storme weÛl (_the sea billowed stormily_), 1132.

stÙl, st. m., _chair, throne, seat_: in comp. brego-, Íel-, gif-,

stÙw, st. f., _place, -stow_: nom. sg. nis ˛‰t heÛru stÙw (_a haunted
spot_), 1373; acc. sg. frÍcne stÙwe, 1379; grund-b˚endra gearwe stÙwe _(the
place prepared for men_, i.e. death-bed; see gesacan and ge-n˝dan), 1007:
comp. w‰l-stow.

strang, strong, adj., _strong; valiant; mighty_: nom. sg. w‰s ˛‰t ge-win tÙ
strang (_that sorrow was too great_), 133; ˛u eart m‰genes strang (_strong
of body_), 1845; w‰s siÛ hond tÙ strong (_the hand was too powerful_),
2685; superl. wÓgena strengest (_strongest of warriors_), 1544; m‰genes
strengest (_strongest in might_), 196; m‰gene strengest, 790.

str‚dan? (cf. strÊde = passus, gressus), _to tread_, (be)-_stride, stride
over_ (Grein): subj. pres. se ˛one wong str‚de, 3074. See Note.

strÊl, st. m., _arrow, missile_: instr. sg. biteran strÊle, 1747; gen. pl.
strÊla storm, 3118.

strÊt, st. f., _street, highway_: nom. sg., 320; acc. sg. strÊte, 1635;
fealwe strÊte, 917.--Comp.: lagu-, mere-strÊt.

strengel, st. m., (_endowed with strength_), _ruler, chief_: acc. sg.
wÓgena strengel, 3116.

strengo, st. f., _strength, power, violence_: acc. sg. m‰genes strenge,
1271; dat. sg. strenge, 1534; strengo, 2541;--dat. pl. strengum =
_violently, powerfully_ [_loosed from the strings_?], 3118: in comp.
hilde-, m‰gen-, mere-strengo.

strÍgan (O.S. strÙwian), w. v., _to strew, spread_: pret. part, w‰s ˛‰m
yldestan ... mororbed strÍd (_the death-bed was spread for the eldest
one_), 2437.

stre·m, st. m., _stream, flood, sea_: acc. sg. stre·m, 2546; nom. pl.
stre·mas, 212; acc. pl. stre·mas, 1262: comp. brim-, e·gor-, firgen-,

ge-streÛn (cf. streÛn = robur, vis), st. n., _property, possessions_;
hence, _valuables, treasure, jewels_: nom. pl. Heao-beardna ge-streÛn
(_the costly treasure of the Heathobeardas_, i.e. the accoutrements
belonging to the slain H.), 2038; acc. pl. ‰elinga, eorla ge-streÛn, 1921,
3168.--Comp.: Êr-, eald-, eorl-, he·h-, hord-, long-, m‚m-, sinc-,

str˚dan, st. v., _to plunder, carry off_: subj. pres. n‰s ˛‚ on hlytme hw‚
˛‰t hord strude, 3127.

ge-str˝nan, w. v. w. acc., _to acquire, gain_: inf. ˛‰s ˛e (_because_) ic
mÙste mÓnum leÛdum ... swylc ge-str˝nan, 2799.

stund, st. f., _time, space of time, while_: adv. dat. pl. stundum (_at
times_), 1424.

styrian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to arrange, put in order, tell_: inf. secg eft
on-gan sÓ BeÛwulfes snyttrum styrian (_the poet then began to tell B.'s
feat skilfully_, i.e. put in poetic form), 873.--2) _to rouse, stir up_:
pres. sg. III. ˛onne wind styre l‚ ge-widru (_when the wind stirreth up
the loathly weather_), 1375.--3) _to move against, attack, disturb_: subj.
pres. ˛‰t he ... hring-sele hondum styrede (_that he should attack the
ring-hall with his hands_), 2841.

styrman, w. v., _to rage, cry out_: pret. sg. styrmde, 2553.

st˝le, st. n., _steel_: dat. sg. st˝le, 986.

st˝l-ecg, adj., _steel-edged_: nom. sg., 1534.

be-st˝man, w. v., _to inundate, wet, flood_: pret. part. (wÊron) eal
benc-˛elu blÙde be-st˝med, 486.

suhtor-ge-f‰deran (collective), w. m. pl., _uncle and nephew, father's
brother and brother's son_: nom. pl., 1165.

sum, pron.: 1) indef., _one, a, any, a certain_; neut. _something_: a)
without part. gen.: nom. sg. sum, 1252; hilde-rinc sum, 3125; neut. ne
sceal ˛Êr dyrne sum wesan (_naught there shall be hidden_), 271; acc. sg.
m. sumne, 1433; instr. sg. sume worde (_by a word, expressly_), 2157; nom.
pl. sume, 400, 1114; acc. pl. sume, 2941. b) with part. gen.: nom. sg.
gumena sum (_one of men, a man_), 1500, 2302; mere-hr‰gla sum, 1906; ˛‰t
w‰s wundra sum, 1608; acc. sg. gylp-worda sum, 676. c) with gen. of
cardinals or notions of multitude: nom. sg. fÓftena sum (_one of fifteen,
with fourteen companions_), 207; so, eahta sum, 3124; fe·ra sum (_one of
few, with a few_), 1413; acc. sg. manigra sumne (_one of many, with many_),
2092; manna cynnes sumne (_one of the men_), i.e. one of the watchmen in
Heorot), 714; fe·ra sumne (_some few, one of few_; or, _one of the foes_?),
3062.--2) with part. gen. sum sometimes = _this, that, the
afore-mentioned_: nom. sg. eÛwer sum (_a certain one, that one, of you_,
i.e. BeÛwulf), 248; g˚-beorna sum (_the afore-mentioned warrior_, i.e. who
had shown the way to HrÙg‚r's palace), 314; eorla sum (_the said knight_,
i.e. BeÛwulf), 1313; acc. sg. hord-‰rna sum (_a certain hoard-hall_), 2280.

sund, st. m.: 1) _swimming_: acc. sg. ymb sund, 507; dat. sg. ‰t sunde (_in
swimming_), 517; on sunde (_a-swimming_), 1619; gen. sg. sundes, 1437.--2)
_sea, ocean, sound_: nom. sg., 223; acc. sg. sund, 213, 512, 539, 1427,

ge-sund, adj., _sound, healthy, unimpaired_: acc. sg. m. ge-sundne, 1629,
1999; nom. pl. ge-sunde, 2076; acc. pl. w. gen. f‰der alwalda ... eÛwic
ge-healde sÓa ge-sunde (_the almighty Father keep you safe and sound on
your journey!_), 318.--Comp. an-sund.

sund-ge-bland, st. n., (_the commingled sea_), _sea-surge, sea-wave_: acc.
sg., 1451.

sund-nyt, st. f., _swimming-power_ or _employment, swimming_: acc. sg.
sund-nytte dre·h (_swam through the sea_), 2361.

sundur, sundor, adv., _asunder, in twain_: sundur gedÊlan (_to separate,
sunder_), 2423.

sundor-nyt, st. f., _special service_ (service in a special case): acc. sg.
sundor-nytte, 668.

sund-wudu, st. m., (_sea-wood_), _ship_: nom. acc. sg. sund-wudu, 208,

sunne, w. f., _sun_: nom. sg., 607; gen. sg. sunnan, 94, 649.

sunu, st. m., _son_: nom. sg., 524, 591, 646, 981, 1090, 1486, etc.; acc.
sg. sunu, 268, 948, 1116, 1176, 1809, 2014, 2120; dat. sg. suna, 344, 1227,
2026, 2161, 2730; gen. sg. suna, 2456, 2613, (1279); nom. pl. suna, 2381.

s˚, adv., _south, southward_, 859.

s˚an, adv., _from the south_, 607; sigel s˚an f˚s (_the sun inclined from
the south_), 1967.

swarian, w. v., _to sink to rest, grow calm_: brimu swaredon (_the waves
became calm_), 570. See swerian.

swau, st. f., _trace, track, pathway_: acc. sg. swae, 2099.--Comp.:
sw‚t-, wald-swau.

swaul, st. m.? n.?, _smoke, mist_ (Dietrich in Haupt V. 215): dat. sg. on
swaule, 783. See sweool.

swancor, adj., _slender, trim_: acc. pl. ˛riÛ wicg swancor, 2176.

swan-r‚d, st. f., _swan-road, sea_: acc. sg. ofer swan-r‚de, 200.

and-swarian, w. v., _to answer_: pret. sg. him se yldesta and-swarode, 258;
so, 340.

sw‚: 1) demons, adv., _so, in such a manner, thus_: sw‚ sceal man dÙn,
1173, 1535; sw‚ ˛‚ driht-guman dre·mum lifdon, 99; ˛‰t ge-‰fndon sw‚ (_that
we thus accomplished_), 538; ˛Êr hie meahton (i.e. feorh ealgian), 798; so,
20, 144, 189, 559, 763, 1104, 1472, 1770, 2058, 2145, 2178, 2991; sw‚
manlÓce _(so like a man_), 1047; sw‚ fela (_so many_), 164, 592; sw‚
deÛrlÓce dÊd (_so valiant a deed_), 585; hine sw‚ gÙdne (_him so good_),
347; on sw‚ geongum feore (_in so youthful age_), 1844; ge-dÍ him sw‚
ge-wealdene worolde dÊlas ˛‰t ... (_makes parts of the world so subject to
him that_...), 1733. In comparisons = _ever, the_ (adv.): me ˛Ón mÙd-sefa
lÓca leng sw‚ wel (_thy mind pleases me ever so well, the longer the
better_), 1855. As an asseverative = _so_: sw‚ me Higel‚c sÓe ... mÙdes
blÓe (_so be Higelac gracious-minded to me!_), 435; sw‚ ˛e·h
(_nevertheless, however_), 973, 1930, 2879; sw‚ ˛Íh, 2968; hw‰re sw‚ ˛e·h
(_yet however_), 2443.--2): a) conj., _as, so as_: Ù ˛‰t his byre mihte
eorlscipe efnan sw‚ his Êrf‰der (_until his son might do noble deeds, as
his old father did_), 2623; eft sw‚ Êr (_again as before_), 643;--with
indic.: sw‚ he selfa b‰d (_as he himself requested_), 29; sw‚ he oft dyde
(_as he often did_), 444; gÊ ‚ Wyrd sw‚ hiÛ sceal, 455; sw‚ guman
gefrungon, 667; so, 273, 352, 401, 561, 1049, 1056, 1059, 1135, 1232, 1235,
1239, 1253, 1382, etc.;--with subj.: sw‚ ˛Ón sefa hwette _(as pleases thy
mind_, i.e. any way thou pleasest), 490. b) _as, as then, how_, 1143; sw‚
hie ‚ wÊron ... n˝d-gesteallan (_as they were ever comrades in need_), 882;
sw‚ hit diÛpe ... be-nemdon ˛eÛdnas mÊre (_as, [how?] the mighty princes
had deeply cursed it_), 3070; sw‚ he manna w‰s wÓgend weorfullost (_as he
of men the worthiest warrior was_), 3099. c) _just as, the moment when_:
sw‚ ˛‰t blÙd gesprang, 1668. d) _so that_: sw‚ he ne mihte nÙ (_so that he
might not..._), 1509; so, 2185, 2007.--3) = qui, quae, quod, German so:
worhte wlite-beorhtne wang sw‚ w‰ter beb˚ge (_wrought the beauteous plain
which_ (acc.) _water surrounds_), 93.--4) sw‚ ... sw‚ = _so ... as_, 595,
687-8, 3170; efne sw‚ ... sw‚ (_even so ... as_), 1093-4, 1224, 1284; efne
sw‚ hwylc m‰ga sw‚ (_such a woman as, whatsoever woman_), 944; efne sw‚
hwylcum manna sw‚ (_even so to each man as_), 3058.

for-sw‚fan, st. v., _to carry away, sweep off_: pret. sg. ealle Wyrd
for-sweÛf mÓne m‚gas tÙ metod-sceafte, 2815.

for-sw‚pan, st. v., _to sweep off, force_: pret. sg. hie Wyrd forsweÛp on
Grendles gryre, 477.

sw‚t, st. m., (_sweat_), _wound-blood_: nom. sg., 2694, 2967; instr. sg.
sw‚te, 1287.--Comp. heao-, hilde-sw‚t.

sw‚t-f‚h, adj., _blood-stained_: nom. sg., 1112.

sw‚tig, adj., _gory_: nom. sg., 1570.

sw‚t-swau, st. f., _blood-trace_: nom. sg., 2947.

be-swÊlan, w. v., _to scorch_: pret. part. w‰s se lÍg-draca ... glÍdum
beswÊled, 3042.

swÊs, adj., _intimate, special, dear_: acc. sg. swÊsne Íel, 520; nom. pl.
swÊse ge-sÓas, 29; acc. pl. leÛde swÊse, 1869; swÊse ge-sÓas, 2041; gen.
pl. swÊsra ge-sÓa, 1935.

swÊs-lÓce, adv., _pleasantly, in a friendly manner_, 3090.

swebban, w. v., (_to put to sleep_), _to kill_: inf. ic hine sweorde
swebban nelle, 680; pres. sg. III. (absolutely) swefe, 601.

‚-swebban, _to kill, slay_: pret. part. nom. pl. sweordum ‚-swefede, 567.

swerian, w. v., _to lessen, diminish_: inf. ˛‰t ˛‰t fyr ongan swerian,
2703; pret. sian HeremÙdes hild swerode, 902.

swefan, st. v.: 1) _to sleep_: pres. sg. III. swefe, 1742; inf. swefan,
119, 730, 1673; pret. sg. sw‰f, 1801; pl. swÊfon, 704; swÊfun, 1281.--2)
_to sleep the death-sleep, die_: pres. sg. III. swefe, 1009, 2061, 2747;
pl. swefa, 2257, 2458.

swegel, st. n., _ether, clear sky_: dat. sg. under swegle, 1079, 1198; gen.
sg. under swegles begong, 861, 1774.

swegle, adj., _bright, etherlike, clear_: acc. pl. swegle searo-gimmas,

swegel-wered, _quasi_ pret. part., _ether-clad_: nom. sg. sunne
swegl-wered, 607.

swelgan, st. v., _to swallow_: pret. sg. w. instr. syn-snÊdum swealh
(_swallowed in great bites_), 744; object omitted, subj. pres. nyme lÓges
f‰m swulge on swaule, 783.

for-swelgan, w. acc., _to swallow, consume_: pret. sg. for-swealg, 1123,

swellan, st. v., _to swell_: inf. ˛‚ siÛ wund on-gan ... swÍlan and
swellan, 2714.

sweltan, st. v., _to die, perish_: pret. sg. swealt, 1618, 2475; draca
morre swealt (_died a violent death_), 893, 2783; wundor-de·e swealt,
3038; hioro-dryncum swealt, 2359.

swencan, w. v., _to swink, oppress, strike_: pret. sg. hine wundra ˛‰s fela
swencte (MS. swecte) on sunde, 1511.

ge-swencan, _to oppress, strike, injure_: pret. sg. syan hine HÊcyn ...
fl‚ne geswencte, 2439; pret. part. synnum ge-swenced, 976; hÊstapa hundum
ge-swenced, 1369.--Comp. lyft-ge-swenced.

sweng, st. m., _blow, stroke_: dat. sg. swenge, 1521, 2967; swenge _(with
its stroke_), 2687; instr. pl. sweordes swengum, 2387.--Comp.: feorh-,
hete-, heao-, heoro-sweng.

swerian, st. v., _to swear_: pret. w. acc. I. ne me swÙr fela ‚a on unriht
(_swore no false oaths_), 2739; he me ‚as swÙr, 472.

for-swerian, w. instr., _to forswear, renounce (protect with magic
formulÊ?)_: pret. part. he sige-wÊpnum for-sworen h‰fde, 805.

swÍg, st. m., _sound, noise, uproar_: nom. sg. swÍg, 783; hearpan swÍg, 89,
2459, 3024; sige-folca swÍg, 645; sang and swÍg, 1064; dat. sg. swÍge,
1215.--Comp.: benc-, morgen-swÍg.

swÍlan, w. v., _to burn_ (here of wounds): inf. swÍlan, 2714. See swÊlan.

sweart, adj., _swart, black, dark_: nom. sg. wudu-rÍc sweart, 3146; dat.
pl. sweartum nihtum, 167.

sweool (cf. O.H.G. suedan, suethan = cremare; M.H.G. swadem = vapor; and
Dietrich in Haupt V., 215), st. m.? n.?, _vapor, smoke, smoking flame_:
dat. sg. ofer swioole (MS. swic ole), 3146. See swaul.

sweofot, st. m., _sleep_: dat. sg. on sweofote, 1582, 2296.

sweolo, st. m., _heat, fire, flame_: dat. sg. sweoloe, 1116. Cf. O.H.G.
suilizo, suilizunga = ardor, cauma.

sweorcan, st. v., _to trouble, darken_. pres. sg. III. ne him inwit-sorh on
sefan sweorce (_darkens his soul_), 1738.

for-sweorcan, _to grow dark_ or _dim_: pres. sg. III. e·gena bearhtm
for-site and for-sworce, 1768.

ge-sweorcan (intrans.), _to darken_: pret. sg. niht-helm ge-swearc, 1790.

sweord, swurd, swyrd, st. n., _sword_: nom. sg. sweord, 1287, 1290, 1570,
1606, 1616, 1697; swurd, 891; acc. sg. sweord, 437, 673, 1559, 1664, 1809,
2253, 2500, etc.; swurd, 539, 1902; swyrd, 2611, 2988; instr. sg. sweorde,
561, 574, 680, 2493, 2881; gen. sg. sweordes, 1107, 2194, 2387; acc. pl.
sweord, 2639; nom. pl., 3049; instr. pl. sweordum, 567, 586, 885; gen. pl.
sweorda, 1041, 2937, 2962.--Comp.: g˚-, m‚um-, wÊg-sweord.

sweord, st. f., _oath_: in comp. ‚-sweord _(sword-oath_?), 2065.

sweord-bealo, st. n., _sword-bale, death by the sword_: nom. sg., 1148.

sweord-freca, w. m., _sword-warrior_: dat. sg. sweord-frecan, 1469.

sweord-gifu, st. f., _sword-gift, giving of swords_: nom. sg. swyrd-gifu,

sweotol, swutol, adj.: 1) _clear, bright_: nom. sg. swutol sang scÙpes,
90.--2) _plain, manifest_: nom. sg. syndolh sweotol, 818; t‚cen sweotol,
834; instr. sg. sweotolan t‚cne, 141.

sweÛf, sweÛp. See sw‚fan, sw‚pan.

swi, st. n.? (O.N. swii), _burning pain_: in comp. ˛ry-swi(?).

swift, adj., _swift_: nom. sg. se swifta mearh, 2265.

swimman, swymman, st. v., _to swim_: inf. swymman, 1625.

ofer-swimman, w. acc., _to swim over_ or _through_: pret. sg. ofer-swam
siolea bigong (_swam over the sea_), 2368.

swincan, st. v., _to struggle, labor, contend_: pret. pl. git on w‰teres
Êht seofon niht swuncon, 517.

ge-swing, st. n., _surge, eddy_: nom. sg. atol ˝a geswing, 849.

swingan, st. v., _to swing one's self, fly_: pres. sg. III. ne gÙd hafoc
geond s‰l swinge, 2265.

swÓcan, st. v.: 1) _to deceive, leave in the lurch, abandon_: pret. sg.
nÊfre hit (_the sword_) ‰t hilde ne sw‚c manna Êngum, 1461.--2) _to
escape_: subj. pret. b˚tan his lÓc swice, 967.

ge-swÓcan, _to deceive, leave in the lurch_: pret. sg. g˚-bill ge-sw‚c
nacod ‰t nÓe, 2585, 2682; w. dat. seÛ ecg ge-sw‚c ˛eÛdne ‰t ˛earfe (_the
sword failed the prince in need_), 1525.

swÓ, sw˝ (Goth, swin˛-s), adj., _strong, mighty_: nom. sg. w‰s ˛‰t ge-win
tÙ sw˝, 191.--Comp. nom. sg. siÛ swÓre hand (_the right hand_), 2099;
_harsh_, 3086.

swÓe, adv., _strongly, very, much_, 598, 998, 1093, 1744, 1927; sw˝e,
2171, 2188. Compar. swÓor, _more, rather, more strongly_, 961, 1140, 1875,
2199--Comp. un-swÓe.

ofer-swÓian, w. v., _to overcome, vanquish_, w. acc. of person: pres. sg.
III. ofersw˝e, 279, 1769.

swÓ-ferh, adj., (_fortis animo_), _strong-minded, bold, brave_: nom. sg.
sw˝-ferh, 827; gen. sg. swÓ-ferhes, 909; nom. pl. swÓ-ferhe, 493;
dat. pl. swÓ-ferhum, 173.

swÓ-hycgend, pres. part. (_strenue cogitans_), _bold-minded, brave in
spirit_: nom. sg. swÓ-hycgende, 920; nom. pl. swÓ-hycgende, 1017.

swÓ-mÙd, adj., _strong-minded_: nom. sg., 1625.

on-swÓfan, st. v. w. acc., _to swing, turn, at_ or _against, elevate_:
pret. sg. biorn (BeÛwulf) bord-rand on-sw‚f wi ˛am gryre-gieste, 2560.

swÓgian, w. v., _to be silent, keep silent_: pret. sg. lyt swÓgode niwra
spella (_kept little of the new tidings silent_), 2898; pl. swÓgedon ealle,

swÓgor, adj., _silent, taciturn_: nom, sg. weak, ˛‚ w‰s swÓgra secg ... on
gylp-sprÊce g˚-ge-weorca, 981.

swÓn, sw˝n, st. n., _swine, boar_ (image on the helm): nom. sg. sw˝n, 1112;
acc. sg. swÓn, 1287.

swÓn-lÓc, st. n., _swine-image_ or _body_: instr. pl. swÓn-lÓcum, 1454.

swÙgan, st. v., _to whistle, roar_: pres. part. swÙgende lÍg, 3146.

swutol. See sweotol.

swylc, swilc (Goth, swa-leik-s), demons, adj. = _talis, such, such a_;
relative = _qualis, as, which_: nom. sg. swylc, 178, 1941, 2542, 2709;
swylc ... swylc=talis ... qualis, 1329; acc. sg. swylc, 2799; eall ...
swylc (_all ... which, as_), 72; Ùer swylc (_such another_, i.e. hand),
1584; on swylc (_on such things_), 997; dat. sg. g˚-fremmendra swylcum
(_to such a battle-worker_, i.e. BeÛwulf), 299; gen. sg. swylces hw‰t
(_some such_), 881; acc. pl. swylce, 2870; call swylce ... swylce, 3166;
swylce twegen (_two such_), 1348; ealle ˛earfe swylce (_all needs that_),
1798; swylce hie ... findan meahton sigla searo-gimma (_such as they might
find of jewels and cunning gems_), 1157; efne swylce mÊla swylce (_at just
such times as_), 1250; gen. pl. swylcra searo-nÓa, 582; swylcra fela ...
Êr-gestreÛna, 2232.

swylce, adv., _as, as also, likewise, similarly_, 113, 293, 758, 831, 855,
908, 921, 1147, 1166, 1428, 1483, 2460, 2825; ge swylce (_and likewise_),
2259; swilce, 1153.

swylt, st. m., _death_: nom. sg., 1256, 1437.

swylt-d‰g, st. m., _death-day_: dat. sg. Êr swylt-d‰ge, 2799.

swynsian, w. v., _to sound_: pret. sg. hlyn swynsode, 612.

swyrd. See sweord.

sw˝l. See swÓ.

sw˝n. See swÓn.

syan (seian, Gen. 1525), w. v., _to punish, avenge_, w. acc.: inf. ˛onne
hit sweordes ecg syan scolde (_then the edge of the sword should avenge
it_), 1107.

syan. See sian.

syfan-wintre, adj., _seven-winters-old_: nom. sg., 2429.

syh. See seÛn.

syl (O.H.G. swella), st. f., _sill, bench-support_: dat. sg. fram sylle,

sylfa. See selfa.

syllan. See sellan.

syllÓc. See sellÓc.

symbol, syml, st. n., _banquet, entertainment_: acc. sg. symbel, 620, 1011;
geaf me sinc and symbel (_gave me treasure and feasting_, i.e. made me his
friend and table-companion), 2432; ˛‰t hie ... symbel ymbsÊton (_that they
might sit round their banquet_), 564; dat. sg. symle, 81, 489, 1009;
symble, 119, 2105; gen. pl. symbla, 1233.

symble, symle, adv., _continually, ever_: symble, 2451; symle, 2498; symle
w‰s ˛˝ sÊmra (_he was ever the worse, the weaker_, i.e. the dragon), 2881.

symbel-wyn, st. f., _banqueting-pleasure, joy at feasting_: acc. sg.
symbel-wynne dreÛh, 1783.

syn, st. f., _sin, crime_: nom. synn and sacu, 2473; dat. instr. pl.
synnum, 976, 1256, 3072.

syn. See sin.

syn-bysig, adj., (culpa laborans), _persecuted on account of guilt?_
(Rieger), _guilt-haunted?_: nom. sg. secg syn-[by]sig, 2228.

ge-syngian, w. v., _to sin, commit a crime_: pret. part. ˛‰t w‰s feohle·s
ge-feoht, fyrenum ge-syngad, 2442.

synnig, adj., _sin-laden, sinful_: acc. sg. m. sinnigne secg, 1380.--Comp.:
fela-, un-synnig.

ge-synto, f., _health_: dat. pl. on gesyntum, 1870.

syrce. See serce.

syrwan, w. v. w. acc., _to entrap, catch unawares_: pret. sg. dugue and
geogoe seomade and syrede, 161.

be-syrwan: 1) _to compass_ or _accomplish by finesse; effect_: inf. dÊd ˛e
we ealle Êr ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed that all of us could not
accomplish before with all our wisdom_), 943.--2) _to entrap by guile and
destroy_: inf. mynte se m‚nscaa manna cynnes sumne be-syrwan (_the fell
foe thought to entrap some one (all?_, see sum) _of the men_), 714.

s˝n, f., _seeing, sight, scene_: comp, an-s˝n.

ge-s˝ne, adj., _visible, to be seen_: nom. sg. 1256, 1404, 2948, 3059,
3160.--Comp.: Í-ge-s˝ne, ˝-ge-sÍne.


taligean, w. v.: 1) _to count, reckon, number; esteem, think_: pres. sg. I.
nÙ ic me ... hn‚gran g˚-geweorca ˛onne Grendel hine (_count myself no
worse than G. in battle-works_), 678; wÍn ic talige ...˛‰t (_I count on the
hope ... that_), 1846; telge, 2068; sg. III. ˛‰t rÊd tala ˛‰t (_counts it
gain that_), 2028.--2) _to tell, relate_: sÙ ic talige (_I tell facts_),
532; sw‚ ˛u self talast (_as thou thyself sayst_), 595.

t‚cen, st. n., _token, sign, evidence_: nom. sg. t‚cen sweotol, 834; dat.
instr. sg. sweotolan t‚cne, 141; tÓres tÙ t‚cne, 1655.--Comp. luf-t‚cen.

t‚n, st. m., _twig_: in comp. ‚ter-t‚n. [emended to ‚ter-te·rum in

ge-tÊcan, w. v., _to show, point out_: pret. sg. him ˛‚ hilde-deÛr hof
mÙdigra torht ge-tÊhte (_the warrior pointed out to them the bright
dwelling of the bold ones_, i.e. Danes), 313. Hence, _to indicate, assign_:
pret. sÙna me se mÊra mago Healfdenes ... wi his sylfes sunu setl getÊhte
(_assigned me a seat by his own son_), 2014.

tÊle, adj., _blameworthy_: in comp. un-tÊle.

ge-tÊse, adj., _quiet, still_: nom. sg. gif him wÊre ... niht ge-tÊse
(_whether he had a pleasant, quiet, night_), 1321.

tela, adv., _fittingly, well_, 949, 1219, 1226, 1821, 2209, 2738.

telge. See talian.

tellan, w. v., _to tell, consider, deem_: pret. sg. ne his lÓf-dagas leÛda
Ênigum nytte tealde (_nor did he count his life useful to any man_), 795;
˛‰t ic me Ênigne under swegles begong ge-sacan ne tealde (_I believed not
that I had any foe under heaven_), 1774; cw‰ he ˛one g˚-wine gÙdne tealde
(_said he counted the war-friend good_), 1811; he ˚sic g‚r-wÓgend gÙde
tealde (_deemed us good spear-warriors_), 2642; pl. sw‚ (_so that_) hine
Ge·ta beam gÙdne ne tealdon, 2185.--2) _to ascribe, count against, impose_:
pret. sg. (firyo) him w‰lbende weotode tealde hand-gewriene, 1937.

ge-tenge, adj., _attached to, lying on_: w. dat. gold ... grunde ge-tenge,

te·r, st. m., _tear_: nom. pl. te·ras, 1873.

teoh, st. f., _troop, band_: dat. sg. earmre teohhe, 2939.

(ge?)-teohhian, w. v., _to fix, determine, assign_: pret. sg. ic for l‰ssan
le·n teohhode ... hn‚hran rince, 952; pres. part. w‰s Ùer in Êr geteohhod
(_assigned_)... mÊrum Ge·te, 1301.

teÛn, st. v., _to draw, lead_: inf. hÍht ... eahta mearas ... on flet teÛn
(_bade eight horses be led into the hall_), 1037; pret. sg. me tÙ grunde
te·h f‚h feÛnd-sceaa (_the many-hued fiend-foe drew me to the bottom_),
553; eft-sÓas te·h (_withdrew, returned_), 1333; sg. for pl. Êg-hwylcum
...˛‚ra ˛e mid BeÛwulfe brim-l‚de te·h (_to each of those that crossed the
sea with B._) 1052; pret. part. ˛‚ w‰s ... heard ecg togen (_then was the
hard edge drawn_), 1289; wear ... on n‰s togen (_was drawn to the
promontory_), 1440.

‚-teÛn, _to wander, go_, intrans.: pret. sg. tÙ Heorute ‚-te·h (_drew to
Heorot_), 767.

ge-teÛn: 1) _to draw_: pret. sg. gomel swyrd ge-te·h, 2611; w. instr. and
acc. hyre seaxe ge-te·h, brad br˚n-ecg, 1546.--2) _to grant, give, lend_:
imp. nÙ ˛u him wearne geteÛh ˛Ónra gegn-cwida gl‰dnian (_refuse not to
gladden them with thy answer_), 366; pret. sg. and ˛‚ BeÛwulfe bega
gehw‰res eodor Ingwina onweald ge-te·h (_and the prince of the Ingwins
gave B. power over both_), 1045; so, he him Íst gete·h (_gave possession
of_), 2166.

of-teÛn, _to deprive, withdraw_, w. gen. of thing and dat. pers.: pret. sg.
Scyld ScÍfing ... monegum mÊgum meodo-setla of-te·h, 5; w. acc. of thing,
hond ... feorh-sweng ne of-te·h, 2490; w. dat. hond (hord, MS.) swenge ne
of-te·h, 1521.

˛urh-teÛn, _to effect_: inf. gif he torn-gemÙt ˛urh-teÛn mihte, 1141.

teÛn (cf. teÛh, _materia_, O.H.G. ziuc), w. v. w. acc., _to make, work_:
pret. sg. teÛde, 1453;--_to furnish out, deck_: pret. pl. nalas hi hine
l‰ssan l‚cum teÛdan (_provided him with no less gifts_), 43.

ge-teÛn, _to provide, do, bring on_: pres. sg. unc sceal weoran ... sw‚
unc Wyrd ge-teÛ, 2527; pret. sg. ˛e him ... s‚re ge-teÛde (_who had done
him this harm_), 2296.

ge-teÛna, w. m., _injurer, harmer_: in comp. l‚-ge-teÛna.

til, adj., _good, apt, fit_: nom. sg. m. H‚lga til, 61; ˛egn ungemete till
(of WÓgl‚f), 2722; fem. w‰s seÛ ˛eÛd tilu, 1251; neut. ne w‰s ˛‰t ge-wrixle
til, 1305.

tilian, w. v. w. gen., _to gain, win_: inf. gif ic ... Ùwihte m‰g ˛Ónre
mÙd-lufan m‚ran tilian (_if I ... gain_), 1824.

timbrian, w. v., _to build_: pret. part. acc. sg. s‰l timbred (_the
well-built hall_), 307.

be-timbrian, (construere), _to finish building, complete_: pret. pl.
betimbredon on tyn dagum beadu-rÙfes bÍcn, 3161.

tÓd, st. f., _-tide, time_: acc. sg. twelf wintra tÓd, 147; lange tÓd,
1916; in ˛‚ tÓde, 2228.--Comp.: ‚n-, morgen-tÓd.

ge-tÓian (from tigian), w. v., _to grant_: pret. part. impers. w‰s ...
bÍne (gen.) ge-tÓad fe·sceaftum men, 2285.

tÓr, st. m., _glory, repute in war_. gen. sg. tÓres, 1655.

tÓr-e·dig, adj., _glorious, famous_: dat. sg. tÓr-e·digum menn (of
BeÛwulf), 2190.

tÓr-f‰st, adj., _famous, rich in glory_. nom. sg. (of HrÙg‚r), 923.

tÓr-le·s, adj., _without glory, infamous_: gen. sg. (of Grendel), 844.

toga, w. m., _leader_: in comp. folc-toga.

torht, adj., _bright, brilliant_: acc. sg. neut. hof ... torht,
313.--Comp.: wuldor-torht, heao-torht (_loud in battle_).

torn, st. n.: 1) _wrath, insult, distress_: acc. sg. torn, 147, 834; gen.
pl. torna, 2190.--2) _anger_: instr. sg. torne ge-bolgen, 2402.--Comp.

torn, adj., _bitter, cruel_: nom. sg, hreÛwa tornost, 2130.

torn-ge-mÙt, st. n., (_wrathful meeting_), _angry engagement, battle_: acc.
sg., 1141.

tÙ, I. prep. w. dat. indicating direction or tending to, hence: 1) local =
whither after verbs of motion, _to, up to, at_: com tÙ recede (_to the
hall_), 721; eode tÙ sele, 920; eode tÙ hire fre·n sittan, 642; gÊ eft ...
tÙ medo (_goeth again to mead_), 605; wand tÙ wolcnum (_wound to the
welkin_), 1120; sigon tÙ slÊpe (_sank to sleep_), 1252; 28, 158, 234, 438,
553, 926, 1010, 1014, 1155, 1159, 1233, etc.; lÓ-wÊge b‰r hÊlum tÙ handa
(_bore the ale-cup to the hands of the men? at hand?_), 1984; Ù ˛‰t niht
becom Ùer tÙ yldum, 2118; him tÙ bearme cwom m‚um-f‰t mÊre (_came to his
hands, into his possession_), 2405; sÊlde tÙ sande sÓd-f‰me scip
(_fastened the broad-bosomed ship to the shore_), 1918; ˛at se harm-scaa
tÙ Heorute ‚-te·h (_went forth to Heorot_), 767. After verb sittan: site nu
tÙ symble (_sit now to the meal_), 489; sian ... we tÙ symble geseten
h‰fdon, 2105; tÙ ham (_home, at home_), 124, 374, 2993. With verbs of
speaking: maelode tÙ his wine-drihtne (_spake to his friendly lord_), 360;
tÙ Ge·tum sprec, 1172; so, hÍht ˛‰t heao-weorc tÙ hagan biÛdan (_bade the
battle-work be told at the hedge_), 2893.--2) with verbs of bringing and
taking (cf. under on, I., d): hrae w‰s tÙ b˚re BeÛwulf fetod (_B. was
hastily brought from a room_), 1311; sian H‚ma ‰t-w‰g tÙ ˛Êre byrhtan
byrig BrÙsinga mene (_since H. carried the Brosing-necklace off from the
bright city_), 1200; we·n ‚hsode. fÊho to Frysum (_suffered woe, feud as
to, from, the Frisians_), 1208.--3) =end of motion, hence: a) _to, for, as,
in_: ˛one god sende folce tÙ frÙfre (_for, as, a help to the folk_), 14;
gesette ... sunnan and mÙnan leÛman to leÛhte (_as a light_), 95; ge-s‰t
... tÙ rune (_sat in counsel_), 172; wear he Heao-l‚fe tÙ hand-bonan,
460; bringe ... tÙ helpe (_bring to, for, help_), 1831; Jofore forgeaf
‚ngan dÙhtor ... hyldo tÙ wedde (_as a pledge of his favor_), 2999; so,
508(?), 666, 907, 972, 1022, 1187, 1263, 1331, 1708, 1712, 2080, etc.;
secgan tÙ sÙe (_to say in sooth_), 51; so, 591, 2326. b) with verbs of
thinking, hoping, etc., _on, for, at, against_: he tÙ gyrn-wr‰ce swÓor
˛Ùhte ˛onne tÙ sÊ-l‚de (_thought more on vengeance than on the
sea-voyage_), 1139; s‰cce ne wÍne tÙ G‚r-Denum (_nor weeneth of conflict
with the Spear-Danes_), 602; ˛onne wÍne ic tÙ ˛e wyrsan ge˛inges (_then I
expect for thee a worse result_), 525; ne ic to SweÛ˛eÛde sibbe oe treÛwe
wihte ne wÍne (_nor expect at all of, from, the Swedes_ ...), 2923; wiste
˛‰m ahlÊcan tÙ ˛‰m he·h-sele hilde ge-˛inged (_battle prepared for the
monster in the high hall_), 648; wel bi ˛‰m ˛e mot tÙ f‰der f‰mum freoo
wilnian (_well for him that can find peace in the Father's arms_), 188;
˛‚ra ˛e he ge-worhte tÙ West-Denum (_of those that he wrought against the
West-Danes_), 1579.--4) with the gerund, inf.: tÙ gefremmanne (_to do_),
174; tÙ ge-c˝anne (_to make known_), 257; tÙ secganne (_to say_), 473; to
befleÛnne (_to avoid, escape_), 1004; so, 1420, 1725, 1732, 1806, 1852,
1923, 1942, etc. With inf.: tÙ fÍran, 316; tÙ friclan, 2557.--5) temporal:
gew‚t him tÙ gesc‰p-hwÓle (_went at(?) the hour of fate_; or, _to his fated
rest?_), 26; tÙ wÓdan feore (_ever, in their lives_), 934; ‚wa tÙ aldre
(_for life, forever_), 956; so, tÙ aldre, 2006, 2499; tÙ life (_during
life, ever_), 2433.--6) with particles: wÙd under wolcnum tÙ ˛‰s ˛e ...
(_went under the welkin to the point where_ ...), 715; so, elne ge-eodon tÙ
˛‰s ˛e, 1968; so, 2411; he him ˛‰s le·n for-geald ... tÙ ˛‰s ˛e he on reste
geseah Grendel licgan (_he paid him for that to the point that he saw G.
lying dead_), 1586; w‰s ˛‰t blÙd tÙ ˛‰s h‚t (_the blood was hot to that
degree_), 1617; n‰s ˛‚ long tÙ ˛on ˛‰t (_'twas not long till_), 2592, 2846;
w‰s him se man tÙ ˛on leÛf ˛‰t (_the man was dear to him to that degree_),
1877; tÙ hwan sian wear hond-rÊs h‰lea (_up to what point, how, the
hand-contest turned out_), 2072; tÙ middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

II. Adverbial modifier, _quasi_ preposition [better explained in many cases
as prep. postponed]: l) _to, towards, up to, at_: geÛng sÙna tÙ, 1786; so,
2649; fÍh Ùer tÙ, 1756; sÊ-l‚c ... ˛e ˛u her tÙ lÙcast (_upon which thou
here lookest_), 1655; folc tÙ sÊgon (_the folk looked on_), 1423; ˛‰t hÓ
him tÙ mihton gegnum gangan (_might proceed thereto_), 313; se ˛e him
bealwa tÙ bÙte gel˝fde (_who believed in help out of evils from him_, i.e.
BeÛwulf), 910; him tÙ anwaldan ‚re ge-lyfde (_trusted for himself to the
Almighty's help_), 1273; ˛e ˚s sÍcea tÙ SweÛna leÛde (_that the Swedes
will come against us_), 3002.--2) before adj. and adv., _too_: tÙ strang
(_too mighty_), 133; tÙ f‰st, 137; tÙ sw˝, 191; so, 789, 970, 1337, 1743,
1749, etc.; tÙ fela micles (_far too much_), 695; he tÙ for ge-stÙp (_he
had gone too far_), 2290.

tÙ (G. tun˛u-s), st. m., _tooth_: in comp. blÙdig-tÙ (adj.).

tredan, st. v. w. acc., _to tread_: inf. sÊ-wong tredan, 1965; el-land
tredan, 3020; pret. sg. wr‰c-l‚stas tr‰d, 1353; medo-wongas tr‰d, 1644;
gr‰s-moldan tr‰d, 1882.

treddian, tryddian (see trod), w. v., _to stride, tread, go_: pret. sg.
treddode, 726; tryddode getrume micle (_strode about with a strong troop_),

trem, st. n., _piece, part_: acc. sg. ne ... fÙtes trem (_not a foot's
breadth_), 2526.

treÛw, st. f., _fidelity, good faith_: acc. sg. treÛwe, 1073; sibbe oe
treÛwe, 2923.

treÛw, st. n., _tree_: in comp. galg-treÛw.

treÛwian. See tr˚wian.

treÛw-loga, w. m., _troth-breaker, pledge-breaker_: nom. pl. treÛw-logan,

trodu, st. f., _track, step_: acc. sg. or pl. trode, 844.

ge-trum, st. n., _troop, band_: instr. sg. ge-trume micle, 923.

trum, adj., _strong, endowed with_: nom. sg. heorot hornum trum, 1370.

ge-tr˚wan, w. v. w. acc., _to confirm, pledge solemnly_: pret. sg. ˛‚ hie
getr˚wedon on tw‚ healfe f‰ste friou-wÊre, 1096.

tr˚wian, treÛwan, w. v., _to trust in, rely on, believe in_: 1) w. dat.:
pret. sg. sÓe ne tr˚wode leÛfes mannes (_I trusted not in the dear man's
enterprise_), 1994; bearne ne tr˚wode ˛‰t he ... (_she trusted not the
child that_ ...), 2371; gehwylc hiora his ferhe treÛwde ˛‰t he ... (_each
trusted his heart that_ ...), 1167.--2) w. gen.: pret. sg. Ge·ta leÛd
georne tr˚wode mÙdgan m‰gnes, 670; wires ne tr˚wode, 2954.

ge-tr˚wian, _to rely on, trust in_, w. dat.: pret. sg. strenge ge-tr˚wode,
mund-gripe m‰genes, 1534;--w. gen. pret. sg. beorges ge-tr˚wode, wÓges and
wealles, 2323; strenge ge-tr˚wode ‚nes mannes, 2541.

tryddian. See treddian.

tr˝we, adj., _true, faithful_: nom. sg. ˛‚ gyt w‰s ... Êghwylc Ùrum tr˝we,

ge-tr˝we, adj., _faithful_: nom. sg. her is Êghwylc eorl Ùrum ge-tr˝we,

turf, st. f., _sod, soil, seat_: in comp. Íel-turf.

tux, st. m., _tooth, tusk_: in comp. hilde-tux.

ge-twÊfan, w. v. w. acc. of person and gen. thing, _to separate, divide,
deprive of, hinder_: pres. sg. III. ˛‰t ˛ec ‚dl oe ecg eafoes ge-twÊfe
(_robs of strength_), 1764; inf. god e·e m‰g ˛one dol-scaan dÊda
ge-twÊfan (_God may easily restrain the fierce foe from his deeds_), 479;
pret. sg. sumne Ge·ta leÛd ... feores getwÊfde (_cut him off from life_),
1434; nÙ ˛Êr wÊg-flotan wind ofer ˝um sÓes ge-twÊfde (_the wind hindered
not the wave-floater in her course over the water_), 1909; pret. part. ‰t
rihte w‰s g˚ ge-twÊfed (_almost had the struggle been ended_), 1659.

ge-twÊman, w. v. acc. pers. and gen. thing, _to hinder, render incapable
of, restrain_: inf. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges getwÊman, 969.

twegen, m. f. n. tw‚, num., _twain, two_: nom. m. twegen, 1164; acc. m.
twegen, 1348; dat. twÊm, 1192 gen. twega, 2533; acc. f. tw‚, 1096, 1195.

twelf, num., _twelve_, gen. twelfa, 3172.

tweone (Frisian twine), num. = _bini, two_: dat. pl. be sÊm tweonum, 859,
1298; 1686.

twidig, adj., in comp. lang-twidig (_long-assured_), 1709.

tyder, st. m., _race, descendant_: in comp. un-tyder, 111.

tydre (Frisian teddre), adj., _weak, unwarlike, cowardly_: nom. pl. tydre,

tyn, num., _ten_: uninflect. dat. on tyn dagum, 3161; inflect. nom. tyne,

tyrwian, w. v., _to tar_: pret. part. tyrwed in comp.: niw-tyrwed.

on-tyhtan, w. v., _to urge on, incite, entice_: pret. sg. on-tyhte, 3087.


˛afian, w. v. w. acc., _to submit to, endure_: inf. ˛‰t se ˛eÛd-cyning
˛afian sceolde Eofores ‚nne dÙm, 2964.

˛anc, st. m.: 1) _thought_: in comp. fore-, hete-, or-, searo-˛anc;
inwit-˛anc (adj.).--2) _thanks_ (w. gen. of thing): nom. sg., 929, 1779;
acc. sg. ˛anc, 1998, 2795.--3) _content, favor, pleasure_: dat. sg. ˛‚ ˛e
gif-sceattas Ge·ta fyredon ˛yder tÙ ˛ance (_those that tribute for the
Ge‚tas carried thither for favor_). 379.

ge-˛anc, st. m., _thought_: instr. pl. ˛eÛstrum ge-˛oncum, 2333.--Comp.

˛anc-hycgende, pres. part., _thoughtful_, 2236.

˛ancian, w. v., _to thank_: pret. sg. gode ˛ancode ... ˛‰s ˛e hire se willa
ge-lamp (_thanked God that her wish was granted_), 626; so, 1398; pl.
˛ancedon, 627(?).

˛anon, ˛onon, ˛onan, adv., _thence_: 1) local: ˛anon eft gew‚t (_he went
thence back_), 123; ˛anon up ... stigon (_went up thence_), 224; so, ˛anon,
463, 692, 764, 845, 854, 1293; ˛anan, 1881; ˛onon, 520, 1374, 2409; ˛onan,
820, 2360, 2957.--2) personal: ˛anon untydras ealle on-wÙcon (_from him_,
i.e. Cain, etc.), 111; so, ˛anan, 1266; ˛onon, 1961; unsÙfte ˛onon feorh
Ù-ferede (i.e. from Grendel's mother), 2141.

˛‚, adv.: l) _there, then_, 3, 26, 28, 34, 47, 53, etc. With ˛Êr: ˛‚ ˛Êr,
331. With nu: nu ˛‚ (_now then_), 658.--2) conjunction, _when, as, since_,
w. indic., 461, 539, 633, etc.;--_because, whilst, during, since_, 402,
465, 724, 2551, etc.

˛‰t, I. demons, pron. acc. neut. of se: demons, nom. ˛‰t (_that_), 735,
766, etc.; instr. sg. ˛˝, 1798, 2029; ˛‰t ic ˛˝ wÊpne ge-br‰d (_that I
brandished as(?) a weapon; that I brandished the weapon?_), 1665; ˛˝
weorra (_the more honored_), 1903; ˛˝ sÍft (_the more easily_), 2750; ˛˝
l‰s hym ˝e ˛rym wudu wynsuman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the
waves the winsome boat might carry away_), 1919; nÙ ˛˝ Êr (_not sooner_),
755, 1503, 2082, 2374, 2467; nÙ ˛˝ leng (_no longer, none the longer_),
975. ˛˝ =adv., _therefore, hence_, 1274, 2068; ˛Í ... ˛Í = _on this
account; for this reason ... that, because_, 2639-2642; wiste ˛Í geornor
(_knew but too well_), 822; he ... w‰s sundes ˛Í sÊnra ˛e hine swylt fornam
(_he was the slower in swimming as [whom?] death carried him off_), 1437;
n‰s him wihte ˛Í sÍl (_it was none the better for him_), 2688; so, 2278.
Gen. sg. ˛‰s = adv., _for this reason, therefore_, 7, 16, 114, 350, 589,
901, 1993, 2027, 2033, etc. ˛‰s ˛e, especially after verbs of thanking, =
_because_, 108, 228, 627, 1780, 2798;--also = secundum quod: ˛‰s ˛e hie
gewislÓcost ge-witan meahton, 1351;--_therefore, accordingly_, 1342, 3001;
tÙ ˛‰s (_to that point; to that degree_), 715, 1586, 1617, 1968, 2411; ˛‰s
georne (_so firmly_), 969; ac he ˛‰s f‰ste w‰s ... besmiod (_it was too
firmly set_), 774; nÙ ˛‰s frÙd leofa gumena bearna ˛‰t ˛one grund wite
(_none liveth among men so wise that he should know its bottom_), 1368; he
˛‰s (˛‰m, MS.) mÙdig w‰s (_had the courage for it_), 1509.

II. conj. (relative), _that, so that_, 15, 62, 84, 221, 347, 358, 392, 571,
etc.; Ù ˛‰t (_up to that, until_); see Ù.

˛‰tte (from ˛‰t ˛e, see ˛e), _that_, 151, 859, 1257, 2925, etc.; ˛‰t ˛e
(_that_), 1847.

˛Êr: 1) demons. adv., _there (where)_, 32, 36, 89, 400, 757, etc.;
moror-bealo m‚ga, ˛Êr heÛ Êr mÊste heÛld worolde wynne (_the death-bale of
kinsmen where before she had most worldly joy_), 1080. With ˛‚: ˛‚ ˛Êr,
331; ˛Êr on innan (_therein_), 71. Almost like Eng. expletive _there_, 271,
550, 978, etc.;--_then, at that time_, 440;--_thither_: ˛Êr swÓ-ferhe
sittan eodon (_thither went the bold ones to sit_, i.e. to the bench), 493,
etc.--2) relative, _where_, 356, 420, 508, 513, 522, 694, 867, etc.; eode
... ˛Êr se snottra b‚d (_went where the wise one tarried_), 1314; so,
1816;--_if_, 763, 798, 1836, 2731, etc.;--_whither_: g‚ ˛Êr he wille, 1395.

˛e, I. relative particle, indecl., partly standing alone, partly associated
with se, seÛ, ˛‰t: Hunfer maelode, ˛e ‰t fÙtum s‰t (_H., who sat at his
feet, spake_), 500; so, 138, etc.; w‰s ˛‰t gewin tÙ sw˝ ˛e on ˛‚ leÛde
be-com (_the misery that had come on the people was too great_), 192, etc.;
ic wille ... ˛e ˛‚ and-sware ‰dre ge-c˝an ˛e me se gÙda ‚-gifan ˛ence (_I
will straightway tell thee the answer that the good one shall give_), 355;
Ù ˛one ‚nne d‰g ˛e he ... (_till that very day that he_ ...), 2401; heÛ ˛‚
fÊhe wr‰c ˛e ˛u ... Grendel cwealdest (_the fight in which thou slewest
G._), 1335; mid ˛Êre sorge ˛e him siÛ s‚r belamp (_with the sorrow
wherewith the pain had visited him_), 2469; pl. ˛onne ˛‚ dydon ˛e ...
(_than they did that_ ...), 45; so, 378, 1136; ˛‚ m‚mas ˛e he me sealde
(_the treasures that he gave me_), 2491; so, ginf‰stan gife ˛e him god
sealde (_the great gifts that God had given him_), 2183. After ˛‚ra ˛e (_of
those that_), the depend. verb often takes sg. instead of pl. (Dietrich,
Haupt XI., 444 seqq.): wundor-siÛna fela secga ge-hwylcum ˛‚ra ˛e on swylc
stara (_to each of those that look on such_), 997; so, 844, 1462, 2384,
2736. Strengthened by se, seÛ, ˛‰t: s‰gde se ˛e c˚e (_said he that knew_),
90; w‰s se grimma g‰st Grendel h‚ten, se ˛e mÙras heÛld (_the grim stranger
hight Grendel, he that held the moors_), 103; here-byrne ... seÛ ˛e
b‚n-cofan beorgan c˚e (_the corselet that could protect the body_), 1446,
etc.; ˛Êr ge-l˝fan sceal dryhtnes dÙme se ˛e hine de· nime (_he shall
believe in God's judgment whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 1437, 1292
(cf. Heliand I., 1308).

˛‰s ˛e. See ˛‰t.

˛e·h ˛e. See ˛e·h.

for ˛am ˛e. See for-˛am.

˛˝, ˛Í, _the, by that_, instr. of se: ‚hte ic holdra ˛˝ l‰s ... ˛e de·
for-nam (_I had the less friends whom death snatched away_), 488; so, 1437.

˛eccan, w. v., _to cover_ (thatch), _cover over_: inf. ˛‚ sceal brond
fretan, ‰led ˛eccean (_fire shall eat, flame shall cover, the treasures_),
3016; pret. pl. ˛Êr git e·gor-stre·m earmum ˛ehton (_in swimming_), 513.

˛egn, st. m., _thane, liegeman, king's higher vassal; knight_: nom. sg.,
235, 494, 868, 2060, 2710; (BeÛwulf), 194; (WÓgl‚f), 2722; acc. sg. ˛egen
(BeÛwulf, MS. ˛egn), 1872; dat. sg. ˛egne, 1342, 1420; (Hengest), 1086;
(WÓgl‚f), 2811; gen. sg. ˛egnes, 1798; nom. pl. ˛egnas, 1231; acc. pl.
˛egnas, 1082, 3122; dat. pl. ˛egnum, 2870; gen. pl. ˛egna, 123, 400, 1628,
1674, 1830, 2034, etc.--Comp.: ambiht-, ealdor-, heal-, magu-, sele-˛egn.

˛egnian, ˛Ínian, w. v., _to serve, do liege service_: pret. sg. ic him
˛Ínode deÛran sweorde (_I served them with my good sword_, i.e. slew them
with it), 560.

˛egn-sorh, st. f., _thane-sorrow, grief for a liegeman_: acc. sg.
˛egn-sorge, 131.

˛egu, st. f., _taking_: in comp.: be·h-, beÛr-, sinc-˛egu.

˛el, st. n., _deal-board, board for benches_: in comp. benc-˛el, 486, 1240.

˛encan, w. v.: 1) _to think_: absolutely: pres. sg. III. se ˛e wel ˛ence,
289; so, 2602. With depend. clause: pres. sg. nÊnig heora ˛Ùhte ˛‰t he ...
(_none of them thought that he_), 692.--2) w. inf., _to intend_: pres. sg.
III. ˛‚ and-sware ... ˛e me se gÙda ‚-gifan ˛ence (_the answer that the
good one intendeth to give me_), 355; (blÙdig w‰l) byrgean ˛ence, 448;
˛onne he ... geg‚n ˛ence longsumne lof (_if he will win eternal fame_),
1536; pret. sg. ne ˛‰t aglÊca yldan ˛Ùhte (_the monster did not mean to
delay that_), 740; pret. pl. wit unc wi hronfixas werian ˛Ùhton, 541;
(hine) on healfa ge-hwone he·wan ˛Ùhton, 801.

‚-˛encan, _to intend, think out_: pret. sg. (he) ˛is ellen-weorc ‚na
‚-˛Ùhte tÙ ge-fremmanne, 2644.

ge-˛encan, w. acc.: 1) _to think of_: ˛‰t he his selfa ne m‰g ... ende
ge-˛encean (_so that he himself may not think of, know, its limit_),
1735.--2) _to be mindful_: imper. sg. ge-˛enc nu ... hw‰t wit geÛ sprÊcon,

˛enden: 1) adv., _at this time, then, whilst_: nalles f‚cen-stafas
fieÛd-Scyldingas ˛enden fremedon (_not at all at this time had the Scyldings
done foul deeds_), 1020 (referring to 1165; cf. WÓdsÓ, 45 seqq.); ˛enden
re·fode rinc Ùerne (_whilst one warrior robbed another_, i.e. Eofor robbed
Ongen˛eÛw), 2986.--2) conj., _so long as, whilst_, 30, 57, 284, 1860, 2039,
2500, 3028;--_whilst_, 2419. With subj., _whilst, as long as_: ˛enden ˛u
mÙte, 1178; ˛enden ˛u lifige, 1255; ˛enden hyt s˝ (_whilst the heat
lasts_), 2650.

˛engel, st. m., _prince, lord, ruler_: acc. sg. hringa ˛engel (BeÛwulf),

˛es (m.), ˛eÛs (f.), ˛is (n.), demons. pron., _this_: nom. sg. 411, 432,
1703; f., 484; nom. acc. neut., 2156, 2252, 2644; ˛ys, 1396; acc. sg. m.
˛isne, 75; f. ˛‚s, 1682; dat. sg. neut. ˛issum, 1170; ˛yssum, 2640; f.
˛isse, 639; gen. m. ˛isses, 1217; f. ˛isse, 929; neut. ˛ysses, 791, 807;
nom. pl. and acc. ˛‚s, 1623, 1653, 2636, 2641; dat. ˛yssum, 1063, 1220.

˛Í. See ˛‰t.

˛Íh. See ˛e·h.

˛earf, st. f., _need_: nom. sg. ˛earf, 1251, 2494, 2638; ˛‚ him w‰s manna
˛earf (_as he was in need of men_), 201; acc. sg. ˛earfe, 1457, 2580, 2850;
fremma ge nu leÛda ˛earfe (_do ye now what is needful for the folk_),
2802; dat. sg. ‰t ˛earfe, 1478, 1526, 2695, 2710; acc. pl. se for andrysnum
ealle beweotede ˛egnes ˛earfe (_who would supply in courtesy all the
thane's needs_), 1798 (cf. sele-˛egn, 1795).--Comp.: firen-, nearo-,

˛earf. See ˛urfan.

ge-˛earfian, w. v., = _necessitatem imponere_: pret. part. ˛‚ him sw‚
ge-˛earfod w‰s (_since so they found it necessary_), 1104.

˛earle, adv., _very, exceedingly_, 560.

˛e·h, ˛Íh, conj., _though, even though_ or _if_: 1) with subj. ˛e·h, 203,
526, 588, 590, 1168, 1661, 2032, 2162. Strengthened by ˛e: ˛e·h ˛e, 683,
1369, 1832, 1928, 1942, 2345, 2620; ˛e·h ... eal (_although_), 681.--2)
with indic.: ˛e·h, 1103; ˛Íh, 1614.--3) doubtful: ˛e·h he ˚e wel, 2856;
sw‚ ˛e·h (_nevertheless_), 2879; nÙ ... sw‚ ˛e·h (_not then however_), 973;
n‰s ˛e forht sw‚ ˛Íh (_he was not, though, afraid_), 2968; hw‰re sw‚ ˛e·h
(_yet however_), 2443.

˛e·w, st. m., _custom, usage_: nom. sg., 178, 1247; acc. sg. ˛e·w, 359;
instr. pl. ˛e·wum (_in accordance with custom_), 2145.

˛eÛd, st. f.: 1) _war-troop, retainers_: nom. sg., 644, 1231, 1251.--2)
_nation, folk_: nom. sg., 1692; gen. pl. ˛eÛda, 1706.--Comp.: sige-,

˛eÛd-cyning, st. m., (=folc-cyning), _warrior-king, king of the people_:
nom. sg. (HrÙg‚r), 2145; (Ongen˛eÛw), 2964, 2971; ˛iÛd-cyning (BeÛwulf),
2580; acc. sg. ˛eÛd-cyning (BeÛwulf), 3009; gen. sg. ˛eÛd-cyninges
(BeÛwulf), 2695; gen. pl. ˛eÛd-cyninga, 2.

˛eÛden, st. m., _lord of a troop, war-chief, king; ruler_: nom. sg., 129,
365, 417, 1047, 1210, 1676, etc.; ˛iÛden, 2337, 2811; acc. sg. ˛eÛden, 34,
201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2884, 3080; ˛iÛden, 2789; dat. sg. ˛eÛdne, 345,
1526, 1993, 2573, 2710, etc.; ˛eÛden, 2033; gen. sg. ˛eÛdnes 798, 911,
1086, 1628, 1838, 2175; ˛iÛdnes, 2657; nom. pl. ˛eÛdnas, 3071.

˛eÛden-le·s, adj., _without chief_ or _king_: nom. pl. ˛eÛden-le·se, 1104.

˛eÛd-gestreÛn, st. n., _people's-jewel, precious treasure_: instr. pl.
˛eÛd-ge-streÛnum, 44; gen. pl. ˛eÛd-ge-streÛna, 1219.

˛eÛdig, adj., _appertaining to a_ ˛eÛd: in comp. el-˛eÛdig.

˛eÛd-scaa, w. m., _foe of the people, general foe_: nom. sg. ˛eÛd-sceaa
(_the dragon_), 2279, 2689.

˛eÛd-˛re·, st. f. m., _popular misery, general distress_: dat. pl. wi
˛eÛd-˛re·um, 178.

˛eÛf, st. m., _thief_: gen. sg. ˛eÛfes cr‰fte, 2221.

˛eÛn, st. v.: 1) _to grow, ripen, thrive_: pret. sg. weormyndum ˛‚h (_grew
in glory_), 8.--2) _to thrive in, succeed_: pret. sg. h˚ru ˛‰t on lande lyt
manna ˛‚h (_that throve to few_), 2837. See Note, l. 901.

ge-˛eÛn, _to grow, thrive; increase in power and influence_: imper. ge-˛eÛh
tela, 1219; inf. lof-dÊdum sceal ... man ge˛eÛn, 25; ˛‰t ˛‰t ˛eÛdnes bearn
ge-˛eÛn scolde, 911.

on-˛eÛn? _to begin, undertake_, w. gen.: pret. he ˛‰s Êr on˛‚h, 901. [In
MS. Emended in text.--KTH] See Note, l. 901.

˛eon (for ˛eÛwan), w. v., _to oppress, restrain_: inf. n‰s se folc-cyning
ymb-sittendra Ênig ˛‚ra ˛e mec ... dorste egesan ˛eÛn (_that durst oppress
me with terror_), 2737.

˛eÛstor, adj., _dark, gloomy_: instr. pl. ˛eÛstrum ge-˛oncum, 2333.

˛icgan, st. v. w. acc., _to seize, attain, eat, appropriate_: inf. ˛‰t he
(Grendel) m‚ mÙste manna cynnes ˛icgean ofer ˛‚ niht, 737; symbel ˛icgan
(_take the meal, enjoy the feast_), 1011; pret. pl. ˛‰t hie me ˛Ígon, 563;
˛Êr we medu ˛Ígun, 2634.

ge-˛icgan, w. acc., _to grasp, take_: pret. sg. (symbel and sele-ful, ful)
ge-˛eah, 619, 629; BeÛwulf ge-˛ah ful on flette, 1025; pret. pl. (medo-ful
manig) ge-˛Êgon, 1015.

˛ider, ˛yder, adv., _thither_: ˛yder, 3087, 379, 2971.

˛ihtig, ˛yhtig, adj., _doughty, vigorous, firm_: acc. sg. neut. sweord ...
ecgum ˛yhtig, 1559.--Comp. hyge-˛ihtig.

˛incan. See ˛yncan.

˛ing, st. n.: 1) _thing_: gen. pl. Ênige ˛inga (_ullo modo_), 792, 2375,
2906.--2) _affair, contest, controversy_: nom. sg. me wear Grendles ˛ing
... undyrne c˚ (_Grendel's doings became known to me_), 409.--3)
_judgment, issue, judicial assembly_(?): acc. sg. sceal ... ‚na gehegan
˛ing wi ˛yrse (_shall bring the matter alone to an issue against the
giant_: see hegan), 426.

ge-˛ing, st. n.: 1) _terms, covenant_: acc. pl. ge-˛ingo, 1086.--2) _fate,
providence, issue_: gen. sg. ge-˛inges, 398, 710; (ge-˛ingea, MS.), 525.

ge-˛ingan, st. v., _to grow, mature, thrive_ (Dietrich, Haupt IX., 430):
pret. part. cwÍn mÙde ge-˛ungen (_mature-minded, high-spirited, queen_),
625. See wel-˛ungen.

ge-˛ingan (see ge-˛ing), w. v.: 1) _to conclude a treaty_: w. refl. dat,
_enter into a treaty_: pres. sg. III. gif him ˛onne HrÍrÓc tÙ hofum Ge·ta
ge-˛inge _(if H. enters into a treaty_ (seeks aid at?) _with the court of
the Ge·tas_, referring to the old German custom of princes entering the
service or suite of a foreign king), 1838. Leo.--2) _to prepare, appoint_:
pret. part. wiste [‰t] ˛‰m ahlÊcan ... hilde ge-˛inged, 648; hrae w‰s ...
mÍce ge-˛inged, 1939.

˛ingian, w. v.: 1) _to speak in an assembly, make an address_: inf. ne
h˝rde ic snotor-lÓcor on sw‚ geongum feore guman ˛ingian (_I never heard a
man so young speak so wisely_), 1844.--2) _to compound, settle, lay aside_:
inf. ne wolde feorh-bealo ... feÛ ˛ingian (_would not compound the
life-bale for money_), 156; so, pret. sg. ˛‚ fÊhe feÛ ˛ingode, 470.

˛Óhan. See ˛eÛn.

˛in, possess, pron., _thy, thine_, 267, 346, 353, 367, 459, etc.

ge-˛Ùht, st. m., _thought, plan_: acc. sg. ‚n-fealdne ge-˛Ùht, 256;
f‰st-rÊdne ge-˛Ùht, 611.

˛olian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to endure, bear_: inf. (inwid-sorge) ˛olian,
833; pres. sg. III. ˛re·-n˝d ˛ola, 284; pret. sg. ˛olode ˛ryswy,
131.--2) _to hold out, stand, survive_: pres. sg. (intrans.) ˛enden ˛is
sweord ˛ola (_as long as this sword holds out_), 2500; pret. sg. (seÛ ecg)
˛olode Êr fela hand-gemÙta, 1526.

ge-˛olian: 1) _to suffer, bear, endure_: gerund. tÙ ge-˛olianne, 1420;
pret. sg. earfo-lice ˛rage ge-˛olode..., ˛‰t he ... dre·m geh˝rde (_bore
ill that he heard the sound of joy_), 87; torn ge-˛olode (_bore the
misery_), 147.--2) _to have patience, wait_: inf. ˛Êr he longe sceal on ˛‰s
waldendes wÊre ge-˛olian, 3110.

˛on (Goth, ˛an) = _tum, then, now_, 504; ‰fter ˛on (_after that_), 725; Êr
˛on d‰g cwÙme (_ere day came_), 732; nÙ ˛on lange (_it was not long till
then_), 2424; n‰s ˛‚ long tÙ ˛on (_it was not long till then_), 2592, 2846;
w‰s him se man tÙ ˛on leÛf ˛‰t ... _(the man was to that degree dear to him
that ..._), 1877.

˛onne: 1) adv., _there, then, now_, 377, 435, 525, 1105, 1456, 1485, 1672,
1823, 3052, 3098(?).--2) conj., _if, when, while_: a) w. indic., 573, 881,
935, 1034, 1041, 1043, 1144, 1286, 1327, 1328, 1375, etc.; ˛‰t ic
gum-cystum gÙdne funde be·ga bryttan, bre·c ˛onne mÙste (_that I found a
good ring-giver and enjoyed him whilst I could_), 1488. b) w. subj., 23,
1180, 3065; ˛onne ...˛onne (_then ... when_), 484-85, 2447-48; gif ˛onne
...˛onne (_if then ... then_), 1105-1107. c) _than_ after comparatives, 44,
248, 469, 505, 534, 679, 1140, 1183, etc.; a comparative must be supplied,
l. 70, before ˛one: ˛‰t he ... h‚tan wolde medo-‰rn micel men ge-wyrcean
˛one yldo bearn Êfre ge-frunon (_a great mead-house_ (greater) _than men
had ever known_).

˛racu, st. f., _strength, boldness_: in comp. mÙd-˛racu; = impetus in

˛rag, st. f., _period of time, time_: nom. sg. ˛‚ hine siÛ ˛rag be-cwom
(_when the_ [battle]-_hour befell him_), 2884; acc. sg. ˛rage (_for a
time_), 87; longe (lange) ˛rage, 54, 114.--Comp. earfo-˛rag.

ge-˛r‰c, st. n., _multitude, crowd_: in comp. searo-ge-˛r‰c.

˛rec-wudu, st. m., (_might-wood_), _spear_ (cf. m‰gen-wudu): acc. sg.,

˛re·, st. m. f., _misery, distress_: in comp. ˛eÛd-˛re·, ˛re·-nÍdla, -n˝d.

˛re·-nÍdla, w. m., _crushing distress, misery_: dat. sg. for ˛re·-nÍdlan,

˛rea-n˝d, st. f., _oppression, distress_: acc. sg. ˛re·-n˝d, 284; dat. pl.
˛re·-n˝dum, 833.

˛re·t, st. m., _troop, band_: dat. sg. on ˛am ˛re·te, 2407; dat. pl.
sceaena ˛re·tum, 4.--Comp. Óren-˛re·t.

˛re·tian, w. v. w. acc., _to press, oppress_: pret. pl. mec ...˛re·tedon,

˛reot-teoa, num. adj. w. m., _thirteenth_: nom. sg. ˛reot-teoa secg,

˛reÛ, num. (neut.), _three_: acc. ˛riÛ wicg, 2175; ˛reÛ hund wintra, 2279.

˛ridda, num. adj. w. m., _third_: instr. ˛riddan sÓe, 2689.

ge-˛ring, st. n., _eddy, whirlpool, crush_: acc. on holma ge-˛ring, 2133.

˛ringan, st. v., _to press_: pret. sg. wergendra tÙ lyt ˛rong ymbe ˛eÛden
(_too few defenders pressed round the prince_), 2884; pret. pl. syan
HrÍlingas tÙ hagan ˛rungon (_after the Hrethlingas had pressed into the
hedge_), 2961.

for-˛ringan, _to press out; rescue, protect_: inf. ˛‰t he ne mehte ...˛‚
we·-l‚fe wÓge for-˛ringan ˛eÛdnes ˛egne (_that he could not rescue the
wretched remnant from the king's thane by war_), 1085.

ge-˛ringan, _to press_: pret. sg. ceÛl up ge˛rang (_the ship shot up_),
i.e. on the shore in landing), 1913.

˛ritig, num., _thirty_ (neut. subst.): acc. sg. w. partitive gen.: ˛ritig
˛egna, 123; gen. ˛rittiges (XXXtiges MS.) manna, 379.

˛rÓst-hydig, adj., _bold-minded, valorous_: nom. sg. ˛iÛden ˛rÓst-hydig
(BeÛwulf), 2811.

˛rowian, w. v. w. acc., _to suffer, endure_: inf. (h‚t, gnorn) ˛rowian,
2606, 2659; pret. sg. ˛rowade, 1590, 1722; ˛rowode, 2595.

˛ry, st. f., _abundance, multitude_, _excellence, power_: instr. pl.
˛ryum (_excellently, extremely; excellent in strength?_), 494.

˛ry-‰rn, st. n., _excellent house, royal hall_: acc. sg. (of Heorot), 658.

˛rylÓc, adj., _excellent, chosen_: nom. sg. ˛ry-lÓc ˛egna he·p, 400,
1628; superl. acc. pl. ˛ry-lÓcost, 2870.

˛r˝-sw˝, st. n.?, _great pain_ (?): acc., 131, 737 [? adj., _very
powerful, exceeding strong_].

˛ry-word, st. n., _bold speech, choice discourse_: nom. sg., 644. (Great
store was set by good table-talk: cf. Lachmann's Nibelunge, 1612; RÓgsm‚l,
29, 7, in Mˆbius, p. 79b, 22.)

˛rym, st. m.: 1) _power, might, force_: nom. sg. ˝a ˛rym, 1919; instr. pl.
= adv. ˛rymmum (_powerfully_), 235.--2) _glory, renown_: acc. sg. ˛rym,
2.--Comp. hyge-˛rym.

˛rym-lÓc, adj., _powerful, mighty_: nom. sg. ˛rec-wudu ˛rym-lÓc (_the
mighty spear_), 1247.

˛u, pron., _thou_, 366, 407, 445, etc.; acc. sg. ˛ec (poetic), 948, 2152,
etc.; ˛e, 417, 426, 517, etc.; after compar. sÍlran ˛e (_a better one than
thee_), 1851. See ge.

˛unca, w. m. See ‰f-˛unca.

ge-˛ungen. See ge-˛ingan, st. v.

˛urfan, pret.-pres. v., _to need_: pres. sg. II. nÙ ˛u ne ˛earft ...
sorgian (_needest not care_), 450; so, 445, 1675; III. ne ˛earf ...
onsittan (_need not fear_), 596; so, 2007, 2742; pres. subj. ˛‰t he ...
sÍcean ˛urfe, 2496; pret. sg. ˛orfte, 157, 1027, 1072, 2875, 2996; pl.
nealles Hetware hrÍmge ˛orfton (i.e. wesan) fÍe-wÓges (_needed not boast
of their foot-fight_), 2365.

ge-˛uren. See ˛weran.

˛urh, prep. w. acc. signifying motion through, hence: I. local, _through,
throughout_: wÙd ˛‚ ˛urh ˛one w‰l-rÍc (_went then through the
battle-reek_), 2662.--II. causal: l) _on account of, for the sake of, owing
to_: ˛urh slÓne nÓ (_through fierce hostility, heathenism_), 184; ˛urh
holdne hige (_from friendliness_), 267; so, ˛urh r˚mne sefan, 278; ˛urh
sÓdne sefan, 1727; eÛwe ˛urh egsan unc˚ne nÓ (_shows unheard-of
hostility by the terror he causes_), 276; so, 1102, 1336, 2046. 2) _by
means of, through_: heao-rÊs for-nam mihtig mere-deÛr ˛urh mÓne hand, 558;
˛urh ‚nes cr‰ft, 700; so, 941, 1694, 1696, 1980, 2406, 3069.

˛us, adv., _so, thus_, 238, 337, 430.

˛unian, w. v., _to din, sound forth_: pret. sg. sund-wudu ˛unede, 1907.

˛˚send, num., _thousand_: 1) fem. acc. ic ˛e ˛˚senda ˛egna bringe tÙ helpe,
1830.--2) neut. with measure of value (sceat) omitted: acc. seofan ˛˚sendo,
2196; gen. hund-˛˚senda landes and locenra be·ga (100,000 _sceattas' worth
of land and rings_), 2995.--3) uninflected: acc. ˛˚send wintra, 3051.

˛wÊre, adj., _affable, mild_: in comp. man-˛wÊre.

ge-˛wÊre, adj., _gentle, mild_: nom. pl. ge-˛wÊre, 1231.

ge-˛weran, st. v., _to forge, strike_: pret. part. heoru ... hamere
ge-˛uren (for ge-˛woren) (_hammer-forged sword_), 1286.

˛yhtig. See ˛ihtig.

ge-˛yld (see ˛olian), st. f.: 1) _patience, endurance_: acc. sg. ge-˛yld,
1396.--2) _steadfastness_: instr. pl. = adv.: ge-˛yldum (_steadfastly,
patiently_), 1706.

˛yle, st. m., _spokesman, leader of the conversation at court_: nom. sg.,
1166, 1457.

˛yncan, ˛incean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to seem, appear_: pres. sg. III.
˛ince him tÙ lytel (_it seems to him too little_), 1749; ne ˛ynce me
gerysne, ˛‰t we _(it seemeth to me not fit that we_ ...), 2654; pres. pl.
hy ... wyre ˛incea eorla ge-Êhtlan (_they seem worthy contenders with_
(?) _earls_; or, _worthy warriors_), 368; pres. subj. sw‚ him ge-met ˛ince,
688; inf. ˛incean, 1342; pret. sg. ˛˚hte, 2462, 3058; nÙ his lÓf-ged‚l
s‚r-lÓc ˛˚hte secga Ênigum (_his death seemed painful to none of men_),
843; pret. pl. ˛Êr him fold-wegas f‰gere ˛˚hton, 867.

of-˛incan, _to displease, offend_: inf. m‰g ˛‰s ˛onne of-˛yncan ˛eÛden
(dat.) Heao-beardna and ˛egna gehw‚m ˛‚ra leÛda, 2033.

˛yrs, st. m., _giant_: dat. sg. wi ˛yrse (Grendel), 426.

˛ys-lÓc, adj., _such, of such a nature_: nom. sg. fem. ˛ys-lÓcu ˛earf,

˛˝. See ˛‰t.

˛˝wan (M.H.G. diuhen, O.H.G. duhan), w. v., _to crush, oppress_: inf. gif
˛ec ymb-sittend egesan ˛˝wa (_if thy neighbors oppress thee with dread_),

˛˝stru, st. f., _darkness_: dat. pl. in ˛˝strum, 87.

ge-˛˝we, adj., _customary, usual_: nom. sg. sw‚ him ge-˛˝we ne w‰s (_as was
not his custom_), 2333.


ufan, _adv., from above_, 1501; _above_, 330.

ufera (prop. _higher_), adj., _later_: dat. pl. ufaran dÙgrum, 2201, 2393.

ufor, adv., _higher_, 2952.

uhte, w. f., _twilight_ or _dawn_: dat. or acc. on uhtan, 126.

uht-floga, w. m., _twilight-flier, dawn-flier_ (epithet of the dragon):
gen. sg. uht-flogan, 2761.

uht-hlem, st. m., _twilight-cry, dawn-cry_: acc. sg., 2008.

uht-sceaa, w. m., _twilight-_ or _dawn-foe_: nom. sg., 2272.

umbor, st. n., _child, infant_: acc. sg., 46; dat. sg., 1188.

un-blÓe, adv.(?), _unblithely, sorrowfully_, 130, 2269; (adj., nom. pl.?),

un-byrnende, pres. part., _unburning, without burning_, 2549.

unc, dat. and acc. of the dual wit, _us two, to us two_, 1784, 2138, 2527;
gen. hw‰er ... uncer twega (_which of us two_), 2533; uncer Grendles (_of
us two, G. and me_), 2003.

uncer, poss. pron., _of us two_: nom. sg. [uncer], 2002(?); dat. pl. uncran
eaferan, 1186.

un-c˚, adj.: 1) _unknown_: nom. sg. stÓg ... eldum unc˚, 2215; acc. sg.
neut. unc˚ ge-l‚d (_unknown ways_), 1411.--2) _unheard-of, barbarous,
evil_: acc. sg. un-c˚ne nÓ, 276; gen. sg. un-c˚es (_of the foe_,
Grendel), 961.

under, I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat., answering question where? =
_under_ (of rest), contrasted with _over_: b‚t (w‰s) under beorge, 211; ˛‚
cwom Wealh˛eÛ for g‚n under gyldnum be·ge (_W. walked forth under a golden
circlet_, i.e. decked with), 1164; sian he under segne sine ealgode
(_under his banner_), 1205; he under rande ge-cranc (_sank under his
shield_), 1210; under wolcnum, 8, 1632; under heofenum, 52, 505; under
roderum, 310; under helme, 342, 404; under here-grÓman, 396, 2050, 2606;
so, 711, 1198, 1303, 1929, 2204, 2416, 3061, 3104.--2) w. acc.: a)
answering question whither? = _under_ (of motion): ˛‚ secg wÓsode under
Heorotes hrÙf, 403; sian Êfen-leÛht under heofenes h‚dor be-holen
weore, 414; under sceadu bregdan, 708; fleÛn under fen-hleou, 821; hond
‚legde ... under ge·pne hrÙf, 837; teÛn in under eoderas, 1038; so, 1361,
1746, 2129, 2541, 2554, 2676, 2745; so, h‰fde ˛‚ for-sÓod sunu Ecg-˛eÛwes
under gynne grund, 1552 (for-sÓian requires acc.). b) after verbs of
venturing and fighting, with acc. of object had in view: he under h‚rne
st‚n ...‚na ge-nÍde frÍcne dÊde, 888; ne dorste under ˝a ge-win aldre
ge-nÍan, 1470. c) indicating extent, with acc. after expressions of limit,
etc.: under swegles begong (_as far as the sky extends_), 861, 1774; under
heofenes hwealf (_as far as heaven's vault reaches_), 2016.

II. Adv., _beneath, below_: stÓg under l‰g (_a path lay beneath_, i.e. the
rock), 2214.

undern-mÊl, st. n., _midday_: acc. sg., 1429.

un-dyrne, un-derne, adj., _without concealment, plain, clear_: nom. sg.,
127, 2001; un-derne, 2912.

un-dyrne, adv., _plainly, evidently_; un-dyrne c˚, 150, 410.

un-f‰ger, adj., _unlovely, hideous_: nom. sg. leÛht un-f‰ger, 728.

un-fÊcne, adj., _without malice, sincere_: nom. sg., 2069.

un-fÊge, adj., _not death-doomed_ or "_fey_": nom. sg., 2292; acc. sg.
un-fÊgne eorl, 573.

un-flitme, adv., _solemnly, incontestably_: Finn Hengeste elne unflitme
‚um benemde (_F. swore solemnly to H. with oaths_) [if an adj., elne un-f.
= _unconquerable in valor_], 1098.

un-forht, adj., _fearless, bold_: nom. sg., 287; acc. pl. unforhte (adv.?),
444. See Note.

un-from, adj., _unfit, unwarlike_: nom. sg., 2189.

un-frÙd, adj., _not aged, young_: dat sg. guman un-frÙdum, 2822.

un-gedÍfelÓce, adv., _unjustly, contrary to right and custom_, 2436.

un-gemete, adv., _immeasurably, exceedingly_, 2421, 2722, 2729.

un-gemetes, adv. gen. sg., the same, 1793.

un-ge‚ra, adv., (_not old_), _recently, lately_, 933; _soon_, 603.

un-gifee, adj., _not to be granted; refused_: nom. sg., 2922.

un-gle·w, adj., _regardless, reckless_: acc. sg. sweord ... ecgum ungle·w
(of a sharp-edged sword), 2565.

un-h‚r, adj., _very gray_: nom. sg., 357; (_bald_?).

un-hÊlo, st. f., _mischief, destruction_: gen. sg. wiht un-hÊlo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120.

un-heÛre, un-h˝re, adj., _monstrous, horrible_: nom. sg. m., weard un-hiÛre
(the dragon), 2414; neut. wÓf un-h˝re (Grendel's mother), 2121; nom. pl.
neut. hand-sporu ... unheÛru (of Grendel's claws), 988.

un-hlytme, un-hlitme, adv. (cf. A.S. hlytm = _lot_; O.N. hluti = _part
division_), _undivided, unseparated_, _united_, 1130 [unless = un-flitme,
1098]. See Note.

un-leÛf, adj., _hated_: acc. pl. seah on un-leÛfe, 2864.

un-lifigende, pres. part., _unliving, lifeless_: nom. sg. un-lifigende,
468; acc. sg. un-lyfigendne, 1309; dat. sg. un-lifgendum, 1390; gen. sg.
un-lyfigendes, 745.

un-lytel, adj., _not little, very large_: nom. sg. dugu un-lytel (_a great
band of warriors_? or _great joy_?), 498; dÙm un-lytel (_no little glory_),
886; acc. sg. torn un-lytel (_very great shame, misery_), 834.

un-murnlÓce, adv., _unpityingly, without sorrowing_, 449, 1757.

unnan, pret.-pres. v., _to grant, give; wish, will_: pret.-pres. sg. I. ic
˛e an tela sinc-gestreÛna, 1226; weak pret. sg. I. ˚e ic swÓor ˛‰t ˛u
hine selfne ge-seÛn mÙste, 961; III. he ne ˚e ˛‰t ...(_he granted not that
..._), 503; him god ˚e ˛‰t ... he hyne sylfne ge-wr‰c (_God granted to him
that he avenged himself_), 2875; ˛e·h he ˚e wel (_though he well would_),

ge-unnan, _to grant, permit_: inf. gif he ˚s ge-unnan wile ˛‰t we hine ...
grÍtan mÙton, 346; me ge-˚e ylda waldend, ˛‰t ic ... ge-seah hangian (_the
Ruler of men permitted me to see hanging ..._), 1662.

un-nyt, adj., _useless_: nom. sg., 413, 3170.

un-riht, st. n., _unright, injustice, wrong_: acc. sg. unriht, 1255, 2740;
instr. sg. un-rihte (_unjustly, wrongly_), 3060.

un-rÓm, st. n., _immense number_: nom. sg., 1239, 3136; acc. sg., 2625.

un-rÓme, adj., _countless, measureless_: nom. sg. gold un-rÓme, 3013.

un-rÙt, adj., _sorrowing_: nom. pl. un-rÙte, 3149.

un-snyttru, st. f., _lack of wisdom_: dat. pl. for his un-snyttrum (_for
his unwisdom_), 1735.

un-softe, adv., _unsoftly, with violence_ (_hardly_?), 2141; _scarcely_,

un-sw˝e, adv., _not strongly_ or _powerfully_: compar. (ecg) b‚t unswÓor
˛onne his ˛iÛd-cyning ˛earfe h‰fde (_the sword bit less sharply than the
prince of the people needed_), 2579; f˝r unswÓor weÛll, 2882.

un-synnig, adj., _guiltless, sinless_: acc. sg. un-synnigne, 2090.

un-synnum, adv. instr. pl., _guiltlessly_, 1073.

un-tÊle, adj., _blameless_: acc. pl. un-tÊle, 1866.

un-tyder, st. m., _evil race, monster_: nom. pl. un-tydras, 111. [Cf. Ger.

un-w‚clÓc, adj., _that cannot be shaken; firm, strong_: acc. sg. ‚d ...
un-w‚clÓcne, 3139.

un-wearnum, adv. instr. pl., _unawares, suddenly_; (_unresistingly_?), 742.

un-wrecen, pret. part., _unavenged_, 2444.

up, adv., _up, upward_, 224, 519, 1374, 1620, 1913, 1921, 2894; (of the
voice), ˛‚ w‰s ... wÙp up ‚hafen, 128; so, 783.

up-lang, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 760.

uppe (adj., ˚fe, ˚ffe), adv., _above_, 566.

up-riht, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 2093.

uton. See wuton.


˚-genge, adj., _transitory, evanescent, ready to depart_, (_fled_?): ˛Êr
w‰s ƒsc-here ... feorh ˚-genge, 2124.

˚s, pers. pron. dat. and acc. of we (see we), _us, to us_, 1822, 2636,
2643, 2921, 3002, 3079; acc. (poetic), ˚sic, 2639, 2641, 2642;--gen. ˚re:
˚re Êg-hwylc (_each of us_), 1387; ˚ser, 2075.

˚ser, possess, pron.: nom. sg. ˚re man-drihten, 2648; dat. sg. ˚ssum
hl‚forde, 2635; gen. sg. neut. ˚sses cynnes, 2814; dat. pl. ˚rum ... b‚m
(_to us both, two_) (for unc b‚m), 2660.

˚t, adv., _out_, 215, 537, 664, 1293, 1584, 2082, 2558, 3131.

˚tan, adv., _from without, without_, 775, 1032, 1504, 2335.

˚t-f˚s, adj., _ready to go_: nom. sg. hringed-stefna Ósig and ˚t-f˚s, 33.

˚t-weard, adj., _outward, outside, free_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel) w‰s
˚t-weard, 762.

˚tan-weard, adj., _without, outward, from without_: acc. sg. hlÊw ... ealne
˚tan-weardne, 2298.


*wacan, st. v., _to awake, arise, originate_: pret. sg. ˛anon (from Cain)
wÙc fela geÛ-sceaft-g‚sta, 1266; so, 1961; pl. ˛‚m feÛwer bearn ... in
worold wÙcun, 60.

*on-wacan: 1) _to awake_ (intrans.): pret. sg. ˛‚ se wyrm on-wÙc (_when the
drake awoke_), 2288.--2) _to be born_: pret. sg. him on-wÙc he·h Healfdene,
56; pl. on-wÙcon, 111.

wacian, w. v., _to watch_: imper. sg. waca wi wr‚um! 661.

wadan, st. v., (cf. wade, waddle) _to traverse; stride, go_: pret. sg. wÙd
˛urh ˛one w‰l-rÍc, 2662; wÙd under wolcnum (_stalked beneath the clouds_),

ge-wadan, _to attain by moving, come to, reach_: pret. part. Ù ˛‰t ...
wunden-stefna ge-waden h‰fde, ˛‰t ˛‚ lÓende land ge-s‚won (_till the ship
had gone so far that the sailors saw land_), 220.

on-wadan, w. acc., _to invade, befall_: pret. sg. hine fyren on-wÙd(?),

˛urh-wadan, _to penetrate, pierce_: pret. sg. ˛‰t swurd ˛urh-wÙd wr‰t-lÓcne
wyrm, 891; so, 1568.

wag, st. m., _wall_: dat. sg. on wage, 1663; dat. pl. ‰fter wagum (_along
the walls_), 996.

wala, w. m., _boss_: nom. pl. walan, 1032 (cf. Bouterwek in Haupt XI., 85

walda, w. m., _wielder, ruler_: in comp. an-, eal-walda.

wald-swau, st. f., _forest-path_: dat. pl. ‰fter wald-swaum (_along the
wood-paths_), 1404.

wam, wom, st. m., _spot, blot, sin_: acc. sg. him be-beorgan ne con wom
(_cannot protect himself from evil_ or _from the evil strange orders_,
etc.; wom = wogum? = _crooked_?), 1748; instr. pl. wommum, 3074.

wan, won, adj., _wan, lurid, dark_: nom. sg, ˝-geblond ... won (_the dark
waves_), 1375; se wonna hrefn (_the black raven_), 3025; wonna lÍg (_lurid
flame_), 3116; dat. sg. f. on wanre niht, 703; nom. pl. neut. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu ... wan, 652.

wang, st. m., _mead, field; place_: acc. sg. wang, 93, 225; wong, 1414,
2410, 3074; dat. sg. wange, 2004; wonge, 2243, 3040; acc. pl. wongas,
2463.--Comp.: freoo-, grund-, medo-, sÊ-wang.

wang-stede, st. m., (locus campestris), _spot, place_: dat. sg. wong-stede,

wan-h˝d (for hygd), st. f., _heedlessness, recklessness_: dat. pl. for his
won-h˝dum, 434.

wanian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to decrease, wane_: inf. ˛‚ ˛‰t sweord ongan
... wanian, 1608.--2) w. acc., _to cause to wane_ or _lessen_: pret. sg. he
tÙ lange leÛde mÓne wanode, 1338.

ge-wanian, _to decrease, diminish_: pret. part. is mÓn flet-werod ...
ge-wanod, 477.

wan-sÊlig, adj., _unhappy, wretched_: nom. sg. won-sÊlig wer (Grendel),

wan-sceaft, st. f., _misery, want_: acc. sg. won-sceaft, 120.

warian, w. v. w. acc., _to occupy, guard, possess_: pres. sg. III. ˛Êr he
hÊen gold wara (_where he guards heathen gold_), 2278; pl. III. hie
(Grendel and his mother) d˝gel land warigea, 1359; pret. sg. (Grendel)
goldsele warode, 1254; (Cain) wÍsten warode, 1266.

waro, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. tÙ waroe, 234; acc. pl. wide waroas,

waru, st. f., _inhabitants_, (collective) _population_: in comp. land-waru.

w‚, interj., _woe!_ w‚ bi ˛‰m ˛e... (_woe to him that..._), 183.

w‚u, st. f., _way, journey_: in comp. gamen-w‚u.

w‚nian, w. v., _to weep, whine, howl_, w. acc.: inf. geh˝rdon ... s‚r
w‚nigean helle h‰ftan (_they heard the hell-fastened one lamenting his
pain_), 788; pret. sg. [w‚node], 3152(?).

w‚t. See witan.

w‰cean, w. v., _to watch_: pret. part w‰ccende, 709, 2842; acc. sg. m.
w‰ccendne wer, 1269. See wacian.

w‰cnan, w. v., _to be awake, come forth_: inf., 85.

w‰d, st. n., (the moving) _sea, ocean_: nom. wado weallende, 546; wadu
weallendu, 581; gen. pl. wada 508.

w‰fre, adj., _wavering_ (like flame), _ghostlike, without distinct bodily
form_: nom. sg. w‰l-gÊst w‰fre (of Grendel's mother), 1332;--_flickering,
expiring_: nom. sg. w‰fre mÙd, 1151; him w‰s geÙmor sefa, w‰fre and
w‰l-f˚s, 2421.

be-w‰gnan, w. v., _to offer_: pret part, him w‰s ... freÛnd-lau wordum
be-w‰gned, 1194.

w‰l, st. n., _battle, slaughter, the slain in battle_: acc. sg. w‰l, 1213,
3028, blÙdig w‰l, 448; oe on w‰l crunge (_or in battle, among the slain,
fall_), 636; dat. sg. sume on w‰le crungon (_some fell in the slaughter_),
1114; dat. sg. in Fr...es w‰le (proper name in MS. destroyed), 1071; nom.
pl. walu, 1043.

w‰l-bed, st. n., _slaughter-bed, deathbed_: dat. sg. on w‰l-bedde, 965.

w‰l-bend, st. f., _death-bond_: acc. sg. or pl. w‰l-bende ...
hand-gewriene, 1937.

w‰l-ble·t, adj., _deadly, mortal, cruel_: acc. sg. wunde w‰l-ble·te, 2726.

w‰l-de·, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 696.

w‰l-dreÛr, st. m., _battle-gore_: instr. sg. w‰l-dreÛre, 1632.

w‰l-f‚h, adj., _slaughter-stained, blood-stained_: acc. sg. w‰l-f‚gne
winter, 1129.

w‰l-f‰h, st. f., _deadly feud_: gen. pl. w‰l-fÊha, 2029.

w‰l-feall, st. m., _(fall of the slain), death, destruction_: dat. sg. tÙ
w‰l-fealle, 1712.

w‰l-f˚s, adj., _ready for death, foreboding death_: nom. sg., 2421.

w‰l-fyllo, st. f., _fill of slaughter_: dat. sg. mid ˛Êre w‰l-fulle (i.e.
the thirty men nightly slaughtered at Heorot by Grendel), 125; w‰l-fylla?

w‰l-f˝r, st. n.: 1) _deadly fire_: instr. sg. w‰l-f˝re (of the fire-spewing
dragon), 2583.--2) _corpse-consuming fire, funeral pyre_: gen. pl. w‰l-f˝ra
mÊst, 1120.

w‰l-gÊst, st. m., _deadly sprite_ (of Grendel and his mother): nom. sg.
w‰l-gÊst, 1332; acc. sg. ˛one w‰l-gÊst, 1996.

w‰l-hlem, st. m., _death-stroke_: acc. sg. w‰l-hlem ˛one, 1996.

w‰lm, st. m., _flood, whelming water_: nom. sg. ˛Êre burnan w‰lm, 2547;
gen. sg. ˛‰s w‰lmes (_of the surf_), 2136.--Comp. cear-w‰lm.

w‰l-nÓ, st. m., _deadly hostility_: nom. sg., 3001; dat. sg. ‰fter
w‰l-nÓe, 85; nom. pl. w‰l-nÓas, 2066.

w‰l-r‚p, st. m., _flood-fetter, i.e. ice_: acc. pl. w‰l-r‚pas, 1611; (cf.
w‰ll, wel, wyll = _well, flood_: leax sceal on w‰le mid sceÛte scrÓan,
Gnom. Cott. 39).

w‰l-rÊs, st. m., _deadly onslaught_: nom. sg., 2948; dat. sg. w‰l-rÊse,
825, 2532.

w‰l-rest, st. f., _death-bed_, acc. sg. w‰l-reste, 2903.

w‰l-rÍc, st. m., _deadly reek_ or _smoke_: acc. sg. wÙd ˛‚ ˛urh ˛one
w‰l-rÍc, 2662.

w‰l-re·f, st, n., _booty of the slain, battle-plunder_: acc. sg., 1206.

w‰l-reÛw, adj., _bold in battle_: nom. sg., 630.

w‰l-sceaft, st. m., _deadly shaft, spear_: acc. pl. w‰l-sceaftas, 398.

w‰l-seax, st. n., _deadly knife, war-knife_: instr. sg. w‰ll-seaxe, 2704.

w‰l-stenge, st. m., _battle-spear_: dat. sg. on ˛am w‰l-stenge, 1639.

w‰l-stÙw, st. f., _battle-field_: dat. sg. w‰l-stÙwe, 2052, 2985.

w‰stm, st. m., _growth, form, figure_: dat. sg. on weres w‰stmum (_in man's
form_), 1353.

w‰ter, st. n., _water_: nom. sg., 93, 1417, 1515, 1632; acc. sg. w‰ter,
1365, 1620; deÛp w‰ter (_the deep_), 509, 1905; ofer wÓd w‰ter (_over the
high sea]_, 2474; dat. sg. ‰fter w‰tere _(along the Grendel-sea_), 1426;
under w‰tere (_at the bottom of the sea_), 1657; instr. w‰tere, 2723;
w‰tre, 2855; gen. sg. ofer w‰teres hrycg (_over the surface of the sea_),
471; on w‰teres Êht, 516; ˛urh w‰teres wylm (_through the sea-wave_), 1694;
gen. = instr. w‰teres weorpan (_to sprinkle with water_), 2792.

w‰ter-egesa, st. m., _water-terror_, i.e. _the fearful sea_: acc. sg., 1261

w‰ter-˝, st. f., _water-wave, billow_: dat. pl. w‰ter-˝um, 2243.

wÊd, st. f., _(weeds), garment_: in comp. here-, hilde-wÊd.

ge-wÊde, st. n., _clothing_, especially _battle-equipments_: acc. pl.
gewÊdu, 292.--Comp. eorl-gewÊde.

wÊg, st. m., _wave_: acc. sg. wÊg, 3133.

wÊg-bora, w. m., _wave-bearer, swimmer_ (bearing or propelling the waves
before him): nom. sg. wundorlÓc wÊg-bora (of a sea-monster), 1441.

wÊg-flota, w. m., _sea-sailer, ship_: acc. sg. wÍg-flotan, 1908.

wÊg-holm, st. m., _the wave-filled sea_: acc. sg. ofer wÊg-holm, 217.

wÊge, st. n., _cup, can_: acc. sg. f‰ted wÊge, 2254, 2283.--Comp.: ealo-,

wÊg-lÓend, pres. part., _sea-farer_: dat. pl. wÊg-lÓendum (et lÓendum,
MS.), 3160.

wÊg-sweord, st. n., _heavy sword_: acc. sg., 1490.

wÊn, st. m., _wain, wagon_: acc. sg. on wÊn, 3135.

wÊpen, st. n., _weapon; sword_: nom. sg., 1661; acc. sg. wÊpen, 686, 1574,
2520, 2688; instr. wÊpne, 1665, 2966; gen. wÊpnes, 1468; acc. pl. wÊpen,
292; dat. pl. wÊpnum, 250, 331, 2039, 2396. --Comp.: hilde-, sige-wÊpen.

wÊpned-man, st. m., _warrior, man_: dat. sg. wÊpned-men, 1285.

wÊr, st. f., _covenant, treaty_: acc. sg. wÊre, 1101;--_protection, care_:
dat. sg. on fre·n (on ˛‰s waldendes) wÊre (_into God's protection_), 27,
3110.--Comp.: frioo-wÊr.

wÊsma, w. m., _fierce strength, war-strength_: in comp. here-wÊsma, 678.

we, pers. pron., _we_, 942, 959, 1327, 1653, 1819, 1820, etc.

web, st. n., _woven work, tapestry_:, nom. pl. web, 996.

webbe, w. f., _webster, female weaver_: in comp. freou-webbe.

weccan, weccean, w. v. w. acc., _to wake, rouse; recall_: inf. wÓg-bealu
weccan (_to stir up strife_), 2047; nalles hearpan swÍg (sceal) wÓgend
weccean (_the sound of the harp shall not wake up the warriors_), 3025;
ongunnon ˛‚ ... bÊl-f˝ra mÊst wÓgend weccan (_the warriors then began to
start the mightiest of funeral pyres_), 3145; pret. sg. wehte hine w‰tre
(_roused him with water_, i.e. WÓgl‚f recalled BeÛwulf to consciousness),

tÙ-weccan, _to stir up, rouse_: pret, pl. h˚ ˛‚ folc mid him (_with one
another_), fÊhe tÙ-wehton, 2949.

wed, st. n., (cf. wed-ding), _pledge_: dat. sg. hyldo tÙ wedde (_as a
pledge of his favor_), 2999.

weder, st. n., _weather_: acc. pl. wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137; gen. pl.
wedera cealdost, 546.

ge-wef, st. n., _woof, weaving_: acc. pl. wÓg-spÍda ge-wiofu (_the woof of
war-speed_: the battle-woof woven for weal or woe by the Walkyries; cf.
Njals-saga, 158), 698.

weg, st. m., _way_: acc. sg. on weg (_away, off_), 264, 764, 845, 1431,
2097; gyf ˛u on weg cymest (_if thou comest off safe_, i.e. from the battle
with Grendel's mother), 1383.--Comp.: feor-, fold-, for-, wÓd-weg.

wegan, st. v. w. acc., _to bear, wear, bring, possess_: subj. pres. n‚h hw‚
sweord wege (_I have none that may bear the sword_), 2253; inf. nalles
(sceal) eorl wegan m‚um tÙ ge-myndum (_no earl shall wear a memorial
jewel_), 3016; pret. ind. he ˛‚ fr‰twe w‰g ... ofer ˝a ful (_bore the
jewels over the goblet of the waves_), 1208; w‰l-seaxe ... ˛‰t he on byrnan
w‰g, 2705; heortan sorge w‰g (_bore heart's sorrow_); so, 152, 1778, 1932,

‰t-wegan = _auferre, to carry off_: syan H‚ma ‰t-w‰g tÙ ˛Êre byrhtan
byrig Brosinga mene (_since H. bore from the bright city the
Brosing-collar_), 1199.

ge-wegan (O.N. wega), _to fight_: inf. ˛e he wi ˛am wyrme ge-wegan
sceolde, 2401.

wel, adv.: 1) _well_: wel bi ˛‰m ˛e ... (_well for him that ...!_), 186;
se ˛e wel ˛ence (_he that well thinketh, judgeth_), 289; so, 640, 1046,
1822, 1834, 1952, 2602; well, 2163, 2813.--2) _very, very much_: Ge·t
ungemetes wel ... restan lyste (_the Geat longed sorely to rest_),
1793.--3) _indeed, to be sure_, 2571, 2856.

wela, w. m., _wealth, goods, possessions_: in comp. Êr-, burg-, hord-,

wel-hwylc, indef. pron., = quivis, _any you please, any_ (each, all): gen.
pl. wel-hwylcra wilna, 1345; w. partitive gen.: nom. sg. witena wel-hwylc,
266;--substantively: acc. neut. wel-hwylc, 875.

welig, adj., _wealthy, rich_: acc. sg. wÓc-stede weligne WÊgmundinga, 2608.

wel-˛ungen, pres. part., _well-thriven_ (in mind), _mature, high-minded_:
nom. sg. Hygd (w‰s) swÓe geong, wÓs, wel-˛ungen, 1928.

wenian, w. v., _to accustom, attract, honor_: subj. pret. ˛‰t ...
Folcwaldan sunu ... Hengestes he·p hringum wenede (_sh. honor_), 1092.

be-(bi-)wenian, _entertain, care for, attend_: pret. sg. m‰g ˛‰s ˛onne
of-˛yncan ˛eÛden Heao-beardna ... ˛onne he mid fÊmnan on flet gÊ,
dryht-bearn Dena dugua bi-wenede (_may well displease the prince of the
H.... when he with the woman goes into the hall, that a noble scion of the
Danes should entertain, bear wine to, the knights_, cf. 494 seqq.; or, _a
noble scion of the Danes should attend on her?_), 2036; pret. part. nom.
pl. wÊron her tela willum be-wenede, 1822.

wendan, w. v., _to turn_: pres. sg. III. him eal worold wende on willan
(_all the world turns at his will_), 1740.

ge-wendan, w. acc.: l) _to turn, turn round_: pret. sg. wicg gewende
(_turned his horse_), 315.--2) _to turn_ (intrans.), _change_: inf. w‚ bi
˛‰m ˛e sceal ... frÙfre ne wÍnan, wihte ge-wendan (_woe to him that shall
have no hope, shall not change at all_), 186.

on-wendan, _to avert, set aside_: 1) w. acc.: inf. ne mihte snotor h‰le
we·n on-wendan, 191.--2) intrans.: sibb Êfre ne m‰g wiht on-wendan ˛am ˛e
wel ˛ence (_in, to, him that is well thinking friendship can not be set
aside_), 2602.

wer, st. m., _man, hero_: nom. sg. (Grendel), 105; acc. sg. wer (BeÛwulf),
1269, 3174; gen. sg. on weres w‰stmum (_in man's form_), 1353; nom. pl.
weras, 216, 1223, 1234, 1441, 1651; dat. pl. werum, 1257; gen. pl. wera,
120, 994, 1732, 3001; (MS. weora), 2948.

wered, st. n., (as adj. = _sweet_), _a sort of beer_ (probably without hops
or such ingredients): acc. sg. scÓr wered, 496.

were-feohte, f., _defensive fight, fight in self-defence_: dat. pl. for
were-fyhtum (fere fyhtum, MS.), 457.

werho, st. f., _curse, outlawry, condemnation_: acc. sg. ˛u in helle
scealt werho dreÛgan, 590.

werian, _to defend, protect_: w. vb., pres. sg. III. beaduscr˚da ... ˛‰t
mÓne breÛst were, 453; inf. wit unc wi hron-fixas werian ˛Ùhton, 541;
pres. part. w. gen. pl. wergendra tÙ lyt (_too few defenders_), 2883; pret.
ind. w‰l-re·f werede (_guarded the battle-spoil_), 1206; se hwÓta helm
hafelan werede (_the shining helm protected his head_), 1449; pl. hafelan
weredon, 1328; pret. part. nom. pl. ge ... byrnum werede (_ye_ ...
_corselet-clad_), 238, 2530.

be-werian, _to protect, defend_: pret. pl. ˛‰t hie ... leÛda land-geweorc
l‚um be-weredon scuccum and scinnum (_that they the people's land-work
from foes, from monsters and demons, might defend_), 939

werig, adj., _accursed, outlawed_: gen. sg. wergan g‚stes (Grendel), 133;
(of the devil), 1748.

werod, weorod, st. n., _band of men, warrior-troop_: nom. sg. werod, 652;
weorod, 290, 2015, 3031; acc. sg. werod, 319; dat. instr. sg. weorode,
1012, 2347; werede, 1216; gen. sg. werodes, 259; gen. pl. wereda, 2187;
weoroda, 60.--Comp.: eorl-, flet-werod.

wer-˛eÛd, st. f., _people, humanity_: dat. sg. ofer wer-˛eÛde, 900.

wesan, v., _to be_: pres. sg. I. ic eom, 335, 407; II. ˛u eart, 352, 506;
III. is, 256, 272, 316, 343, 375, 473, etc.; nu is ˛Ónes m‰genes blÊd ‚ne
hwÓle (_the prime [fame?] of thy powers lasteth now for a while_), 1762;
ys, 2911, 3000, 3085; pl. I. we synt, 260, 342; II. syndon, 237, 393; III.
syndon, 257, 361, 1231; synt, 364; sint, 388; subj. pres. sÓe, 435, 683,
etc.; s˝, 1832, etc.; sig, 1779, etc.; imper. sg. II. wes, 269 (cf.
wassail, wes hÊl), 407, 1171, 1220, 1225, etc.; inf. wesan, 272, 1329,
1860, 2709, etc. The inf. wesan must sometimes be supplied: nealles Hetware
hrÍmge ˛orfton (i.e. wesan) fÍe-wÓges, 2364; so, 2498, 2660, 618, 1858;
pres. part. wesende, 46; dat. sg. wesendum, 1188; pret. sg. I., III. w‰s,
11, 12, 18, 36, 49, 53, etc.; w‰s on sunde (_was a-swimming_), 1619; so,
848, 850(?), 970, 981, 1293; progressive, w‰s secgende (for sÊde), 3029;
II. wÊre, 1479, etc.; pl. wÊron, 233, 536, 544, etc.; wÊran (w. reflex,
him), 2476; pret. subj. wÊre, 173, 203, 594, 946, etc.; progressive,
myndgiend wÊre (for myndgie), 1106.--Contracted neg. forms: , nis = ne +
is, 249, 1373, etc.; n‰s = ne + w‰s, 134, 1300, 1922, 2193, etc. (cf.
uncontracted: ne w‰s, 890, 1472); nÊron = ne + wÊron, 2658; nÊre = ne +
wÊre, 861, 1168. See cniht-wesende.

wÍg. See wÊg.

wÍn, st. f., _expectation, hope_: nom. sg., 735, 1874, 2324; nu is leÛdum
wÍn orleg-hwÓle (gen.) (_now the people have weening of a time of strife_),
2911; acc. sg. ˛‰s ic wÍn h‰bbe (_as I hope, expect_), 383; so, ˛‰s ˛e ic
[wÍn] hafo, 3001; wÍn ic talige, 1846; dat. pl. bega on wÍnum _(in
expectation of both_, i.e. the death and the return of BeÛwulf), 2896. See

wÍnan, w. v., _to ween, expect, hope_: 1) absolutely; pres. sg. I. ˛‰s ic
wÍne (_as I hope_), 272; sw‚ ic ˛e wÍne tÙ _(as I hope thou wilt_: BeÛwulf
hopes HrÙg‚r will now suffer no more pain), 1397.--2) w. gen. or acc.
pres. sg. I. ˛onne wÍne ic tÙ ˛e wyrsan ge-˛inges, 525; ic ˛Êr heau-f˝res
h‚tes wÍne, 2523; III. secce ne wÍne to G‚r Denum (_weeneth not of contest
with the Gar-Danes_), 601; inf. (beorhtre bÙte) wÍnan (_to expect, count
on, a brilliant_ [? _a lighter penalty_] _atonement_), 157; pret. pl. ˛‰s
ne wÍndon Êr witan Scyldinga ˛‰t ... _the wise men of the Scyldings weened
not of this before, that_...), 779; ˛‰t hig ˛‰s ‰elinges eft ne wÍndon ˛‰t
he ... sÍcean cÙme _(that they looked not for the atheling again that he_
... _would come to seek_ ...), 1598.--3) w. acc. inf.: pret. sg. wÍnde,
934.--4) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I. wÍne ic ˛‰t..., 1185; wÍn' ic
˛‰t..., 338, 442; pret. sg. wÍnde, 2330; pl. wÍndon, 938, 1605.

wêpan, st. v., _to weep_: pret. sg. [weÛp], 3152 (?).

wêrig, adj., _weary, exhausted_, w. gen.: nom. sg. sies wÍrig (_weary from
the journey, way-weary_), 579; dat. sg. sies wÍrgum, 1795;--w. instr.:
acc. pl. wundum wÍrge _(wound-weary_), 2938.--Comp.: de·-, fyl-,

ge-werigean, w. v., _to weary, exhaust_: pret. part. ge-wÍrgad, 2853.

wÍrig-mÙd, adj., _weary-minded (animo defessus)_: nom. sg., 845, 1544.

wÍste, adj., _waste, uninhabited_: acc. sg. win-sele wÍstne, 2457.

wÍsten, st. n., _waste, wilderness_: acc. sg. wÍsten, 1266.

wÍsten, st. f., _waste, wilderness_: dat. sg. on ˛Êre wÍstenne, 2299.

weal, st. m.: 1 _wall, rampart_: dat. instr. sg. wealle, 786, 892, 3163;
gen. sg. wealles, 2308.--2) _elevated sea-shore_: dat. sg. of wealle, 229;
acc. pl. windige weallas, 572, 1225.--3) _wall of a building_: acc, sg. wi
˛‰s recedes weal, 326; dat. sg. be wealle, 1574; hence, the inner and outer
rock-walls of the dragon's lair (cf. Heyne's essay: Halle Heorot, p. 59):
dat. sg., 2308, 2527, 2717, 2760, 3061, 3104; gen. sg. wealles,
2324.--Comp.: bord-, eor-, sÊ-, scyld-weal.

ge-wealc, st. n., _rolling_: acc. sg. ofer ˝a ge-wealc, 464.

ge-weald, st. n., _power, might_: acc. sg. on feÛnda ge-weald _(into the
power of his foes_), 809, 904; so, 1685; geweald ‚gan, h‰bban, ‚-beÛdan (w.
gen. of object = _to present) = to have power over_, 79, 655, 765, 951,
1088, 1611, 1728. See on-weald.

wealdan, st. v., _to wield, govern, rule over, prevail_: 1) absolutely or
with depend, clause: inf. gif he wealdan mÙt (_if he may prevail_), 442;
˛Êr he ... wealdan mÙste sw‚ him Wyrd ne ge-scr‚f (_if [where?] he was to
prevail, as Weird had not destined for him_), 2575; pres. part. waldend
(_God_), 1694; dat. wealdende, 2330; gen. waldendes, 2293, 2858, 3110.--2)
with instr. or dat.: inf. ˛‚m wÊpnum wealdan (_to wield, prevail with, the
weapons_), 2039; Ge·tum wealdan (_to rule the Ge·tas_), 2391; ˛e·h-hordum
wealdan (_to rule over, control, the treasure of rings_), 2828; w‰l-stÙwe
wealdan (_to hold the field of battle_), 2985; pret. sg. weÛld, 465, 1058,
2380, 2596; ˛enden wordum weÛld wine Scyldinga (_while the friend of the S.
ruled the G._), 30; pl. weÛldon, 2052.--3) with gen.: pres. sg. I. ˛enden
ic wealde wÓdan rÓces, 1860; pres. part. wuldres wealdend(waldend), 17,
183, 1753; weard, 2514; the _'dragon_ is called ylda waldend, 1662; waldend
fira, 2742; sigora waldend, 2876 (designations of God); pret. sg. weÛld,
703, 1771.

ge-wealdan, _to wield, have power over, arrange_: 1) w. acc.: pret. sg.
h‚lig god ge-weÛld wÓg-sigor, 1555.--2) w. dat.: pret. cyning ge-weÛld his
ge-witte (_the king possessed his senses_), 2704.--3) w. gen.: inf. he ne
mihte nÙ ... wÊpna ge-wealdan, 1510.

ge-wealden, pret. part., _subject, subjected_: acc. pl. gedÍ him sw‚
gewealdene worolde dÊlas, 1733.

weallan, st. v.: 1) _to toss, be agitated_ (of the sea): pres. part. nom.
pl. wadu weallende (weallendu), 546, 581; nom. sg. brim weallende, 848;
pret. ind. weÛl, 515, 850, 1132; weÛll, 2139.--2) figuratively (of
emotions), _to be agitated_: pres. pl. III. syan Ingelde wealla
w‰l-nÓas (_deadly hate thus agitates Ingeld_), 2066; pres. part.
weallende, 2465; pret. sg. hreer inne weÛll (_his heart was moved within
him_), 2114; hreer Ême weÛll (_his breast_ [the dragon's] _swelled from
breathing, snorting_), 2594; breÛst innan weÛll ˛eÛstrum ge-˛oncum, 2332;
so, weÛll, 2600, 2715, 2883.

weall-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer weall-clif, 3133.

weallian, w. v., _to wander, rove about_: pres. part. in comp.
heoro-weallende, 2782.

weard, st. m., _warden, guardian; owner_: nom. sg. weard Scyldinga (_the
Scyldings' warden of the march_), 229; weard, 286, 2240; se weard, s‚wele
hyrde, 1742; the _king_ is called be·h-horda weard, 922; rÓces weard, 1391;
folces weard, 2514; the _dragon_ is called weard, 3061; weard un-hiÛre,
2414; beorges weard, 2581; acc. sg, weard, 669; (dragon), 2842; beorges
weard (dragon), 2525, 3067.--Comp.: b‚t-, Íel-, gold-, he·fod-, hord-,
h˝-, land-, rÍn-, sele-, yrfe-weard.

weard, st. m., _possession_ (Dietrich in Haupt XI., 415): in comp.
eor-weard, 2335.

weard, st. f., _watch, ward_: acc. sg. wearde healdan, 319; wearde heÛld,
305.--Comp. Êg-weard.

weard, adj., _-ward_: in comp. and-, innan-, ˚t-weard, 1288, etc.

weardian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to watch, guard, keep_: inf. he his folme
forlÍt tÙ lÓf-wrae, l‚st weardian (_Grendel left his hand behind as a
life-saver, to guard his track_ [Kemble]), 972; pret. sg. him siÛ swÓre
swae weardade hand on Hiorte (_his right hand kept guard for him in H._,
i.e. showed that he had been there), 2099; sg. for pl. h˝rde ic ˛‰t ˛‚m
fr‰twum feÛwer mearas lungre gelÓce last weardode (_I heard that four
horses, quite alike, followed in the traces of the armor_), 2165.--2) _to
hold, possess, inhabit_: pret. sg. fÓfel-cynnes eard ... weardode (_dwelt
in the abode of the sea-fiends_), 105; reced weardode un-rÓm eorla (_an
immense number of earls held the hall_), 1238; pl. ˛Êr we gesunde s‰l
weardodon, 2076.

wearh, st. m., _the accursed one; wolf_: in comp. heoro-wearg, 1268.

wearn, st. f.: 1) _resistance, refusal_, 366.--2) _warning?, resistance?_
See un-wearnum, 742.

weaxan, st. v., _to wax, grow_: pres. sg. III. Ù ˛‰t him on innan
ofer-hygda dÊl weaxe (_till within him pride waxeth_), 1742; inf. weaxan,
3116; pret. sg. weÙx, 8.

ge-weaxan, _to grow up_: pret. sg. oft ˛‰t seÛ geogo ge-weÙx, 66.

ge-weaxan to, _to grow to_ or _for something_: pret. sg. ne ge-weÙx he him
to willan (_grew not for their benefit_), 1712.

we·, w. m., _woe, evil, misfortune_: nom. sg., 937; acc. sg. wean, 191,
423, 1207, 1992, 2293, 2938; gen. pl. we·na, 148, 934, 1151, 1397.

we·-l‚f, st. f., _wretched remnant_: acc. pl. ˛‚ we·-l‚fe (_the wretched
remnant_, i.e. Finn's almost annihilated band), 1085, 1099.

we·-spel, st. n., _woe-spell, evil tidings_: dat. sg. we·-spelle, 1316.

ge-weoldum. See ge-wild.

weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, labor, deed_: acc. sg., 74; (_war-deed_), 1657;
instr. sg. weorce, 1570; dat. pl. weorcum, 2097; wordum ne (and) worcum,
1101, 1834; gen. pl. worda and worca, 289.--2) _work, trouble, suffering_:
acc. sg. ˛‰s gewinnes weorc (_misery on account of this strife_), 1722;
dat. pl. adv. weorcum (_with labor_), 1639.--Comp.: bÊdo-, ellen-, heao-,

ge-weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, deed, labor_: nom. acc. sg., 455, 1563, 1682,
2718, 2775; gen. sg. ge-weorces, 2712. Comp.: Êr-, fyrn-, g˚-, hond-,
nÓ-ge-weorc.--2) _fortification, rampart_: in comp. land-geweorc, 939.

weorce, adj., _painful, bitter_: nom. sg., 1419.

weor, st. n., _precious object, valuable_: dat. sg. weore, 2497.

weor, adj., _dear, precious_: nom. sg. weor Denum ‰eling (_the atheling
dear to the Danes_, BeÛwulf), 1815; compar. nom. sg. ˛‰t he syan w‰s ...
m‚me ˛˝ weorra (_more honored from the jewel_), 1903; cf. wyre.

weoran, st. v.: 1) _to become_: pres. sg. III. beholen weore (_is
concealed_), 414; underne weore (_becomes known_), 2914; so, pl. III.
weora, 2067; wura, 282; inf. weoran, 3179; wuran, 808; pret. sg. I.,
III. wear, 6, 77, 149, 409, 555, 754, 768, 819, 824, etc.; pl. wurdon,
228; subj. pret. wurde, 2732.--2) inf. to frÙfre weoran (_to become a
help_), 1708; pret. sg. wear he Heaol‚fe tÙ hand-bonan, 460; so, wear,
906, 1262; ne wear HeremÙd sw‚ (i.e. to frÙfre) eaforum Ecgwelan, 1710;
pl. wurdon, 2204; subj. pret. sg. II. wurde, 588.--3) pret. sg. ˛‰t he on
fylle wear (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.--4) _to happen, befall_: inf.
unc sceal weoran ... sw‚ unc Wyrd ge-teÛ (_it shall befall us two as Fate
decrees_), 2527; ˛urh hw‰t his worulde ged‚l weoran sceolde, 3069; pret.
sg. ˛‚ ˛Êr sÙna wear ed-hwyrft eorlum (_there was soon a renewal to the
earls_, i.e. of the former perils), 1281.

ge-weoran: 1) _to become_: pret. sg. ge-wear, 3062; pret. part. cearu w‰s
geniwod ge-worden (_care was renewed_), 1305; sw‚ us ge-worden is,
3079.--2) _to finish; complete?_: inf. ˛‰t ˛u ... lÍte S˚-Dene sylfe
ge-weoran g˚e wi Grendel (_that thou wouldst let the S. D. put an end to
their war with Grendel_), 1997.--3) impersonally with acc., _to agree,
decide_: pret. sg. ˛‚ ˛‰s monige ge-wear ˛‰t ... (_since many agreed that_
...), 1599; pret. part. hafa ˛‰s ge-worden wine Scyldinga, rÓces hyrde,
and ˛‰t rÊd tala ˛‰t he ... (_therefore hath it so appeared(?) advisable
to the friend of the S., the guardian of the realm, and he counts it a gain
that_ ...), 2027.

weor-ful, adj., _glorious, full of worth_: nom. sg. weor-fullost, 3100.

weorian, w. v., _to honor, adorn_: pret. sg. ˛Êr ic ... ˛Óne leÛde
weorode weorcum (_there honored I thy people by my deeds_), 2097; subj.
pret. (˛‰t he) ‰t feoh-gyftum ... Dene weorode (_that he would honor the
Danes at, by, treasure-giving_), 1091.

ge-weorian, ge-wurian, _to deck, ornament_: pret. part. hire syan w‰s
‰fter be·h-˛ege breÛst ge-weorod, 2177; wÊpnum ge-weorad, 250; since
ge-weorad, 1451; so, ge-wurad, 331, 1039, 1646; wide ge-weorad (_known,
honored, afar_), 1960.

weor-lÓce, adv., _worthily, nobly_: superl. weor-lÓcost, 3163.

weor-mynd, st. f. n., _dignity, honor, glory_: nom. sg., 65; acc. sg.
geseah ˛‚ eald sweord ..., wÓgena weormynd (_saw an ancient sword there,
the glory of warriors_), 1560; dat. instr. pl. weor-myndum, 8; tÙ
wor-myndum, 1187; gen. pl. weor-mynda dÊl, 1753.

weorung, st. f., _ornament_: in comp. breÛst-, h‚m-, heorft-, hring-,

weorod. See werod.

weorpan, st. v.: 1) _to throw, cast away_, w. acc.: pret. sg. wearp ˛‚
wunden-mÊl wr‰ttum gebunden yrre oretta, ˛‰t hit on eoran l‰g (_the
wrathful warrior threw the ornamented sword, that it lay on the earth_),
1532.--2) _to throw around_ or _about_, w. instr.: pret. sg. beorges weard
. .. wearp w‰l-f˝re (_threw death-fire around_), 2583.--3) _to throw upon_:
inf. he hine eft ongan w‰teres (instr. gen.) weorpan (_began to cast water
upon him again_), 2792.

for-weorpan, w. acc., _to cast away, squander_: subj. pret. ˛‰t he genunga
g˚-gewÊdu wr‚e for-wurpe (_that he squandered uselessly the
battle-weeds_, i.e. gave them to the unworthy), 2873.

ofer-weorpan, _to stumble_: pret. sg. ofer-wearp ˛‚ ... wÓgena strongest,

weotian, w. v., _to provide with, adjust_(?): pret. part. acc. pl.
w‰l-bende weotode, 1937.

be-weotian, be-witian, w. v. w. acc., _to regard, observe, care for_: pres.
pl. III. be-witia, 1136; pret. sg. ˛egn ... se ˛e ... ealle be-weotede
˛egnes ˛earfe (_who would attend to all the needs of a thane_), 1797; draca
se ˛e ... hord be-weotode (_the drake that guarded a treasure_), 2213;--_to
carry out, undertake_: pres. pl. III. ˛‚ ... oft be-witiga sorh-fulne sÓ
on segl-r‚de, 1429.

wicg, st. n., _steed, riding-horse_: nom. sg., 1401; acc. sg. wicg, 315;
dat. instr. sg. wicge, 234; on wicge, 286; acc. pl. wicg, 2175; gen. pl.
wicga, 1046.

ge-widor, st. n., _storm, tempest_: acc. pl. l‚ ge-widru (_loathly
weather_), 1376.

wi prep. w. dat. and acc., with fundamental meanings of division and
opposition: 1) w. dat., _against, with_ (in hostile sense), _from_: ˛‚ wi
gode wunnon, 113; ‚na (wan) wi eallum, 145; ymb feorh sacan, l‚ wi
l‚um, 440; so, 426, 439, 550, 2372, 2521, 2522, 2561, 2840, 3005; ˛‰t him
holt-wudu ... helpan ne meahte, lind wi lÓge, 2342; hw‰t ... sÍlest wÊre
wi fÊr-gryrum tÙ ge-fremmanne, 174; ˛‰t him g‚st-bona geÛce gefremede wi
˛eÛd-˛re·um, 178; wi rihte wan (_strove against right_), 144; h‰fde ...
sele HrÙg‚res ge-nered wi nÓe (_had saved H.'s hall from strife_), 828;
(him dyrne langa ...) beorn wi blÙde (_the hero longeth secretly contrary
to his blood_, i.e. H. feels a secret longing for the non-related BeÛwulf),
1881; sundur ge-dÊlan lÓf wi lÓce (_to sunder soul from body_), 2424;
stre·mas wundon sund wi sande (_the currents rolled the sea against the
sand_), 213; lÓg-˝um forborn bord wi ronde (rond, MS.) (_with waves of
flame burnt the shield against, as far as, the rim_), 2674; holm storme
weÛl, won wi winde (_the sea surged, wrestled with the wind_), 1133; so,
hiora in ‚num weÛll sefa wi sorgum (_in one of them surged the soul with
sorrow_ [_against_?, Heyne]), 2601; ˛‰t hire wi healse heard gr‚pode
(_that the sharp sword bit against her neck_), 1567.--2) w. acc.: a)
_against, towards_: wan wi HrÙg‚r (_fought against H._), 152; wi feÛnda
gehwone, 294; wi wr‚ werod, 319; so, 540, 1998, 2535; hine h‚lig god ˚s
on-sende wi Grendles gryre, 384; ˛‰t ic wi ˛one g˚-flogan gylp
ofer-sitte (_that I refrain from boastful speech against the
battle-flier_), 2529; ne wolde wi manna ge-hwone ... feorh-bealo feorran
(_would not cease his life-plotting against any of the men_; or, _withdraw
life-bale from_, etc.? or, _peace would not have with any man..., mortal
bale withdraw_?, Kemble), 155; ic ˛‚ leÛde w‚t ge wi feÛnd ge wi freÛnd
f‰ste geworhte (_towards foe and friend_), 1865; heÛld he·h-lufan wi
h‰lea brego (_cherished high love towards the prince of heroes_), 1955;
wi ord and wi ecge ingang forstÙd (_prevented entrance to spear-point and
sword-edge_), 1550. b) _against, on, upon, in_: setton sÓde scyldas ... wi
˛‰s recedes weal (_against the wall of the hall_), 326; wi eoran f‰m
(eardodon) (_in the bosom of the earth_), 3050; wi earm ge-s‰t (_sat on,
against, his arm_), 750; so, stÓ-mÙd ge-stÙd wi ste·pne rond, 2567; [wi
duru healle eode] (_went to the door of the hall_), 389; wi Hrefna-wudu
(_over against, near, H._), 2926; wi his sylfes sunu setl ge-tÊhte
(_showed me to a seat with, near, beside, his own son_), 2014. c) _towards,
with_ (of contracting parties): ˛‰t hie healfre ge-weald wi Eotena bearn
‚gan mÙston (_that they power over half the hall with the Eotens' sons were
to possess_), 1089; ˛enden he wi wulf w‰l re·fode (_whilst with the wolf
he was robbing the slain_), 3028.--3) Alternately with dat. and acc.,
_against_: nu wi Grendel sceal, wi ˛am aglÊcan, ‚na gehegan ˛ing wi
˛yrse, 424-426;--_with, beside_: ge-s‰t ˛‚ wi sylfne..., mÊg wi mÊge,

wier-gyld, st. n., _compensation_: nom. sg., 2052, [proper name?].

wier-r‰htes, adv., _opposite, in front of_, 3040.

wire, st. n., _resistance_: gen. sg. wires ne tr˚wode, 2954.

wig-weorung, st. f., _idol-worship, idolatry, sacrifice to idols_: acc.
pl. -weorunga, 176.

wiht, st. f.: 1) _wight, creature, demon_: nom. sg. wiht unhÊlo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120; acc. sg. syllÓcran wiht (the dragon),
3039.--2) _thing, something, aught_: nom. sg. w. negative, ne hine wiht
dwele (_nor does aught check him_), 1736; him wiht ne speÛw (_it helped
him naught_), 2855; acc. sg. ne him ˛‰s wyrmes wÓg for wiht dyde (_nor did
he count the worm's warring for aught_), 2349; ne meahte ic ... wiht
gewyrcan _(I could not do aught_ ...), 1661;--w. partitive gen.: nÙ ...
wiht swylcra searo-nia, 581;--the acc. sg. = adv. like Germ. _nicht_: ne
hie h˚ru wine-drihten wiht ne lÙgon (_did not blame their friendly lord
aught_), 863; so, ne wiht = _naught, in no wise_, 1084, 2602, 2858; nÙ
wiht, 541; instr. sg. wihte (_in aught, in any way_), 1992; ne ... wihte
(_by no means_), 186, 2278, 2688; wihte ne, 1515, 1996, 2465, 2924.--Comp.:
‚-wiht (‚ht = _aught_), ‰l-wiht, Ù-wiht.

wil-cuma, w. m., _one welcome_ (qui gratus advenit): nom. pl. wil-cuman
Denigea leÛdum (_welcome to the people of the Danes_), 388; so, him (the
lord of the Danes) wil-cuman, 394; wil-cuman Wedera leÛdum (_welcome to the
Ge·tas_), 1895.

ge-wild, st. f., _free-will_? dat. pl. nealles mid ge-weoldum (_sponte,
voluntarily_, Bugge), 2223.

wil-deÛr (for wild-deÛr), st. n., _wild beast_: acc. pl. wil-deÛr, 1431.

wil-gesÓ, st. m., _chosen_ or _willing companion_: nom. pl. -ge-sÓas, 23.

wil-geofa, w. m., _ready giver_ (= voti largitor: princely designation),
_joy-giver_?: nom. sg. wil-geofa Wedra leÛda, 2901.

willa, w. m.: 1) _will, wish, desire, sake_: nom. sg. 627, 825; acc. sg.
willan, 636, 1740, 2308, 2410; instr. sg. ‚nes willan (_for the sake of
one_), 3078; so, 2590; dat. sg. tÙ willan, 1187, 1712; instr. pl. willum
(_according to wish_), 1822; sylfes willum, 2224, 2640; gen. pl. wilna,
1345.--2) _desirable thing, valuable_: gen. pl. wilna, 661, 951.

willan, aux. v., _will_: in pres. also _shall_ (when the future action is
depend. on one's free will): pres. sg. I. wille ic ‚-secgan (_I will set
forth, tell out_), 344; so, 351, 427; ic tÙ sÊ wille (_I will to sea_),
318; wylle, 948, 2149, 2513; sg. II. ˛u wylt, 1853; sg. III. he wile, 346,
446, 1050, 1182, 1833; wyle, 2865; wille, 442, 1004, 1185, 1395; Êr he in
wille (_ere he will in_, i.e. go or flee into the fearful sea), 1372;
wylle, 2767; pl. I. we ... wylla, 1819; pret. sg. I., III. wolde, 68, 154,
200, 646, 665, 739, 756, 797, 881, etc.; nÙ ic fram him wolde (i.e.
fleÛtan), 543; so, sw‚ he hira m‚ wolde (i.e. ‚-cwellan), 1056; pret. pl.
woldon, 482, 2637, 3173; subj. pret., 2730.--Forms contracted w. negative:
pres. sg. I. nelle (= ne + wille, _I will not_, nolo), 680, 2525(?); pret.
sg. III. nolde (= ne + wolde), 792, 804, 813, 1524; w. omitted inf. ˛‚
metod nolde, 707, 968; pret. subj. nolde, 2519.

wilnian, w. v., _to long for, beseech_: inf. wel bi ˛‰m ˛e mÙt ... tÙ
f‰der f‰mum freoo wilnian (_well for him that may beseech protection in
the Father's arms_), 188.

wil-sÓ, st. m., _chosen journey_: acc. sg. wil-sÓ, 216.

ge-win, st. n.: 1) _strife, struggle, enmity, conflict_: acc. sg., 878; ˛‚
hie ge-win drugon (_endured strife_), 799; under ˝a ge-win (_under the
tumult of the waves_), 1470; gen. sg. ˛‰s ge-winnes weorc (_misery for this
strife_), 1722.--2) _suffering, oppression_: nom. sg., 133, 191; acc. sg.
eald ge-win, 1782.--Comp.: fyrn-, ˝-ge-win.

wÓn-‰rn, st. n., _hall of hospitality, hall, wine-hall_: gen. sg.
wÓn-‰rnes, 655.

wind, st. m., _wind, storm_: nom. sg., 547, 1375, 1908; dat. instr. sg.
winde, 217; wi winde, 1133.

windan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to wind, whirl_: pret. sg. wand tÙ wolcnum
w‰l-f˝ra mÊst, 1120.--2) w. acc., _to twist, wind, curl_: pret. pl.
stre·mas wundon sund wi sande, 212; pret. part. wunden gold (_twisted,
spirally-twined, gold_), 1194, 3135; instr. pl. wundnum (wundum, MS.)
golde, 1383.

‰t-windan, _to wrest one's self from, escape_: pret. sg. se ˛‰m feÛnde
‰t-wand, 143.

be-windan, _to wind with_ or _round, clasp, surround, envelop_ (involvere):
pret. sg. ˛e hit (the sword) mundum be-wand, 1462; pret. part. wÓrum
be-wunden (_wound with wires_) 1032; feorh ... flÊsce be-wunden
(_flesh-enclosed_), 2425; g‚r ... mundum be-wunden (_a spear grasped with
the hands_), 3023; i˚-manna gold galdre be-wunden (_spell-encircled gold_),
3053; (‚st‚h ...) lÍg wÙpe be-wunden (_uprose the flame mingled with a
lament_), 3147.

ge-windan, _to writhe, get loose, escape_: inf. wÓdre ge-windan (_to flee
further_), 764; pret. sg. on fle·m ge-wand, 1002.

on-windan, _to unwind, loosen_: pres. sg. (˛onne f‰der) on-winde
w‰l-r‚pas, 1611.

win-d‰g, st. m., _day of struggle_ or _suffering_: dat. pl. on ˛yssum
win-dagum (_in these days of sorrow_, i.e. of earthly existence), 1063.

wind-bland (blond), st. n., _wind-roar_: nom. sg., 3147.

wind-gereste, f., _resting-place of the winds_: acc. sg., 2457.

windig, adj., _windy_: acc. pl. windige (weallas, n‰ssas), 572, 1359;
windige weallas (wind geard weallas, MS.), 1225.

wine, st. m., _friend, protector_, especially the _beloved ruler_: nom. sg.
wine Scyldinga, leÛf land-fruma (Scyld), 30; wine Scyldinga (HrÙg‚r), 148,
1184. As vocative: mÓn wine, 2048; wine mÓn, BeÛwulf (Hunfer), 457, 530,
1705; acc. sg. holdne wine (HrÙg‚r), 376; wine Deniga, Scyldinga, 350,
2027; dat. sg. wine Scyldinga, 170; gen. sg. wines (BeÛwulf), 3097; acc.
pl. wine, 21; dat. pl. Denum eallum, winum Scyldinga, 1419; gen. pl.
winigea le·sum, 1665; winia bealdor, 2568.--Comp.: fre·-, freÛ-, gold-,
g˚-, mÊg-wine.

wine-dryhten, st. m., (dominus amicus), _friendly lord, lord and friend_:
acc. sg. wine-drihten, 863, 1605; wine-dryhten, 2723, 3177; dat. sg.
wine-drihtne, 360.

wine-geÙmor, adj., _friend-mourning_: nom. sg., 2240.

wine-le·s, adj., _friendless_: dat. sg. wine-le·sum, 2614.

wine-mÊg, st. m., _dear kinsman_: nom. pl. wine-m‚gas, 65.

ge-winna, w. m., _striver, struggler, foe_: comp. eald-, ealdor-gewinna.

winnan, st. v., _to struggle, fight_: pret. sg. III. wan ‚na wi eallum,
144; Grendel wan ... wi HrÙg‚r, 151; holm ... won wi winde (_the sea
fought with the wind_: cf. wan wind endi water, Heliand, 2244), 1133; II.
eart ˛u se BeÛwulf, se ˛e wi Brecan wunne, 506; pl. wi gode wunnon, 113;
˛Êr ˛‚ graman wunnon (_where the foes fought_), 778.

wÓn-reced, st. n., _wine-hall, guest-hall, house for entertaining guests_:
acc. sg., 715, 994.

wÓn-sele, st. m., the same, _wine-hall_: nom. sg., 772; dat. sg. wÓn-sele,
696 (cf. Heliand Glossary, 369 [364]).

winter, st. m. n.: 1) _winter_: nom. sg., 1133, 1137; acc. sg. winter,
1129; gen. sg. wintres, 516.--2) _year_ (counted by winters): acc. pl.
fÓftig wintru (neut.), 2210; instr. pl. wintrum, 1725, 2115, 2278; gen. pl.
wintra, 147, 264, 1928, 2279, 2734, 3051.

wintre, adj., _so many winters_ (old): in comp. syfan-wintre.

ge-wislÓce, adv., _certainly, undoubtedly_: superl. gewislÓcost, 1351.

wist, st. f., fundamental meaning = _existentia_, hence: 1) _good
condition, happiness, abundance_: dat. sg. wuna he on wiste, 1736.--2)
_food, subsistence, booty_: dat. sg. ˛‚ w‰s ‰fter wiste wÙp up ‚-hafen (_a
cry was then uplifted after the meal_, i.e. Grendel's meal of thirty men),

wist-fyllo, st. f., _fulness_ or _fill of food, rich meal_: gen. sg.
wist-fylle, 735.

wit, st. n., (wit), _understanding_: nom. sg., 590.--Comp.: fyr-, in-wit.

ge-wit, st. n.: 1) _consciousness_. dat. sg. ge-weÛld his ge-witte,
2704.--2) _heart, breast_: dat. sg. f˝r unswÓor weÛll (_the fire surged
less strongly from the dragon's breast_), 2883.

wit, pers. pron. dual of we, _we two_, 535, 537, 539, 540, 544, 1187, etc.
See unc, uncer.

wita, weota, w. m., _counsellor, royal adviser_; pl., _the king's council
of nobles_: nom. pl. witan, 779: gen. pl. witena, 157, 266, 937 weotena,
1099.--Comp.: fyrn-, r˚n-wita.

witan, pret.-pres. v., _to wot, know_. 1) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I.,
III. w‚t, 1332, 2657; ic on Higel‚ce w‚t ˛‰t he ... (_I know as to H., that
he_ ...), 1831; so, god w‚t on mec ˛‰t ...(_God knows of me, that_ ...),
2651; sg. II. ˛u w‚st, 272; weak pret. sg. I., III. wiste, 822; wisse,
2340, 2726; pl. wiston, 799, 1605; subj. pres. I. gif ic wiste, 2520.--2)
w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. I. ic w‚t, 1864.--3) w. object, predicative
part, or adj.: pret. sg. III. tÙ ˛‰s he win-reced ... gearwost wisse,
f‰ttum f‚hne, 716; so, 1310; wiste ˛‰m ahlÊcan hilde ge-binged, 647.--4) w.
acc., _to know_: inf. witan, 252, 288; pret. sg. wisse, 169; wiste his
fingra ge-weald on grames gr‚pum, 765; pl. II. wisson, 246; wiston, 181.

n‚t = ne + w‚t, _I know not_: 1) elliptically with hwylc, indef. pronoun =
_some or other_: sceaa ic n‚t hwylc.--2) w. gen. and depend. clause: n‚t
he ˛‚ra gÙda, ˛‰t he me on-ge·n sle·, 682.

ge-witan, _to know, perceive_: inf. ˛‰s ˛e hie gewis-lÓcost ge-witan
meahton, 1351.

be-witian. See be-weotian.

witig, adj., _wise, sagacious_: nom. sg. witig god, 686, 1057; witig
drihten (God), 1555; wittig drihten, 1842.

ge-wittig, adj., _conscious_: nom. sg. 3095.

ge-witnian, w. v., _to chastise, punish_: wommum gewitnad (_punished with
plagues_), 3074.

wÓc, st. n., _dwelling, house_: acc. sg. wÓc, 822, 2590;--often in pl.
because houses of nobles were complex: dat. wÓcum, 1305, 1613, 3084; gen.
wÓca, 125, 1126.

ge-wÓcan, st. v., _to soften, give way, yield_ (here chiefly of swords):
pret. sg. ge-w‚c, 2578, 2630.

wÓc-stede, st. m., _dwelling-place_: nom. sg. 2463; acc. sg. wÓc-stede,

wÓd, adj., _wide, extended_: 1) space: acc. sg. neut. ofer wÓd w‰ter, 2474;
gen. sg. wÓdan rÓces, 1860; acc. pl. wÓde sÓas, waroas, 878, 1966.--2)
temporal: acc. sg. wÓdan feorh (acc. of time), 2015; dat. sg. tÙ wÓdan
feore, 934.

wÓde, adv., _widely, afar_, 18, 74, 79, 266, 1404, 1589, 1960, etc.; wÓde
c˚ (_widely, universally, known_), 2136, 2924; so, underne wÓde, 2914;
wÓde geond eoran (_over the whole earth, widely_), 3100;--modifier of
superl.: wreccena wÓde mÊrost (_the most famous of wanderers, exiles_),
899.--Compar. wÓdre, 764.

wÓd-c˚, adj., _widely known, very celebrated_: nom. sg. neut., 1257; acc.
sg. m. wÓd-c˚ne man (BeÛwulf), 1490; wÓd-c˚ne we·n, 1992; wÓd-c˚es
(HrÙg‚r), 1043.

wÓde-ferh, st. m. n., (_long life_), _great length of time_: acc. sg. as
acc. of time: wÓde-ferh (_down to distant times, always_), 703, 938; ealne
wÓde-ferh, 1223.

wÓd-floga, w. m., _wide-flier_ (of the dragon): nom. sg., 2831; acc. sg.
wÓd-flogan, 2347.

wÓd-scofen, pret. part., _wide-spread_? _causing fear far and wide_? 937.

wÓd-weg, st. m., _wide way, long journey_: acc. pl. wÓd-wegas, 841, 1705.

wÓf, st. n., _woman, lady, wife_: nom. sg. freÛ-lÓc wÓf (Queen Wealh˛eÛw),
616; wÓf un-h˝re (Grendel's mother), 2121; acc. sg. drihtlÓce wÓf (Finn's
wife), 1159; instr. sg. mid ˛˝ wÓfe (HrÙg‚r's daughter, Fre·waru), 2029;
dat. sg. ˛am wÓfe (Wealh˛eÛw), 640; gen. sg. wÓfes (as opposed to _man_),
1285; gen. pl. wera and wÓfa, 994.--Comp.: aglÊc-, mere-wÓf.

wÓf-lufe, w. f., _wife-love, love for a wife, woman's love_: nom. pl.
wÓf-lufan, 2066.

wÓg, st. m.: 1) _war, battle_: nom. sg., 23, 1081, 2317, 2873; acc. sg.,
686, 1084, 1248; dat. sg. wÓge, 1338, 2630; as instr., 1085; (wigge, MS.),
1657, 1771; gen. sg. wÓges, 65, 887, 1269.--2) _valor, warlike prowess_:
nom. sg. w‰s his mÙd-sefa manegum ge-c˝ed, wÓg and wÓsdÙm, 350; wÓg, 1043;
wÓg ... eafo and ellen, 2349; gen. sg. wÓges, 2324.--Comp. fÍe-wÓg.

wÓga, w. m., _warrior, fighter_: nom. sg., 630; dat. pl. wÓgum, 2396; gen.
pl. wÓgena, 1544, 1560, 3116.--Comp.: ‰sc-, byrn-, g‚r-, g˚-, lind-,
rand-, scyld-wÓga.

wÓgan, st. v., _to fight_: pres. sg. III. wÓge, 600; inf., 2510.

wÓgend, pres. part., _fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 3100; nom. pl. wÓgend,
1126, 1815, 3145; acc. pl. wÓgend, 3025; gen. pl. wÓgendra, 429, 900, 1973,
2338.--Comp. g‚rwÓgend.

wÓg-bealu, st. n., _war-bale, evil contest_: acc. sg., 2047.

wÓg-bil, st. n., _war-bill, battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1608.

wÓg-bord, st. n., _war-board_ or _shield_: acc. sg., 2340.

wÓg-cr‰ft, st. m., _war-power_: acc. sg., 2954.

wÓg-cr‰ftig, adj., _vigorous in fight, strong in war_: acc. sg.
wÓg-cr‰ftigne (of the sword Hrunting), 1812.

wÓg-freca, w. m., _war-wolf, war-hero_: acc. sg. wÓg-frecan, 2497; nom. pl.
wÓg-frecan, 1213.

wÓg-fruma, w. m., _war-chief_ or _king_: nom. sg., 665; acc. sg.
wÓg-fruman, 2262.

wÓg-geatwe, st. f. pl., _war-ornaments, war-gear_: dat. pl. on wÓg-geatwum
(-getawum, MS.), 368.

wÓg-ge-weorad, pret. part., _war-honored, distinguished in war_, 1784? See

wÓg-gryre, st. m., _war-horror_ or _terror_: nom. sg., 1285.

wÓg-hete, st. m., _war-hate, hostility_: nom. sg., 2121.

wÓg-heafola, w. m., _war head-piece, helmet_: acc. sg. wÓg-heafolan,

wÓg-he·p, st. m., _war-band_: nom sg., 447.

wÓg-hryre, st. m., _war-ruin, slaughter, carnage_: acc. sg., 1620.

wÓg-sigor, st. m., _war-victory_: acc. sg., 1555.

wÓg-sped, st. f.?, _war-speed, success in war_: gen. pl. wÓg-spÍda, 698.

wÓn, st. n., _wine_: acc. sg., 1163, 1234; instr. wÓne, 1468.

wÓr, st. n., _wire, spiral ornament of wire_: instr. pl. wÓrum, 1032; gen.
pl. wÓra, 2414.

wÓs, adj., _wise, experienced, discreet_: nom. sg. m. wÓs (_in his mind,
conscious_), 3095; f. wÓs, 1928; in w. form, se wÓsa, 1401, 1699, 2330;
acc. sg. ˛one wÓsan, 1319; gen. pl. wÓsra, 1414; w. gen. nom. sg. wÓs
wordcwida (_wise of speech_), 1846.

wÓsa, w. m., _guide, leader_: nom. sg. werodes wÓsa, 259.--Comp.: brim-,
here-, hilde-wÓsa.

wÓscte. See w˝scan.

wÓs-dÙm, st. m., _wisdom, experience_: nom. sg., 350; instr. sg. wÓs-dÙme,

wÓse, w. f., _fashion, wise, custom_: acc. sg. (instr.) ealde wÓsan (_after
ancient custom_), 1866.

wÓs-f‰st, adj., _wise, sagacious_ (sapienti‚ firmus): nom. sg. f., 627.

wÓs-hycgende, pres. part. _wise-thinking, wise_, 2717.

wÓsian, w. v., _to guide_ or _lead to, direct, point out_: 1) w. acc.: inf.
he·n wong wÓsian, 2410; pret. sg. secg wÓsade land-gemyrcu, 208.--2) w.
dat.: pres. sg. I. ic eÛw wÓsige (_I shall guide you_), 292, 3104; pret.
sg. se ˛Êm heao-rincum hider wÓsade, 370; sÙna him sele-˛egn ... for
wÓsade _(the hall-thane led him thither forthwith_, i.e. to his couch),
1796; stÓg wÓsode gumum ‰t-g‰dere, 320; so, 1664.--3) w. prep.?: pret. sg.
˛‚ secg wÓsode under Heorotes hrÙf (_when the warrior showed them the way
under Heorot's roof_, [but under H.'s hrÙf depends rather on snyredon
‰tsomne]), 402.

wÓtan, st. v., properly _to look at; to look at with censure, to blame,
reproach, accuse_, w. dat. of pers. and acc. of thing: inf. for-˛am me
wÓtan ne ˛earf waldend fira moror-bealo m‚ga, 2742.

‰t-wÓtan, _to blame, censure_ (cf. 'twit), w. acc. of thing: pret. pl.
‰t-witon we·na dÊl, 1151.

ge-wÓtan, properly _spectare aliquo; to go_ (most general verb of motion):
1) with inf. after verbs of motion: pret. sg. ˛anon eft ge-w‚t ... tÙ h‚m
faran, 123; so, 2570; pl. ˛anon eft gewiton ... mearum rÓdan, 854.
Sometimes with reflex, dat.: pres. sg. him ˛‚ Scyld ge-w‚t ... fÍran on
fre·n wÊre, 26; gew‚t him ... rÓdan, 234; so, 1964; pl. ge-witon, 301.--2)
associated with general infinitives of motion and aim: imper. pl. ge-wÓta
for beran wÊpen and gewÊdu, 291; pret. sg. ge-w‚t ˛‚ neÛsian he·n h˚ses,
115; he ˛‚ f‚g ge-w‚t ... man-dre·m fleÛn, 1264; nyer eft gew‚t dennes
niÛsian, 3045; so, 1275, 2402, 2820. So, with reflex, dat.: him eft gew‚t
... h‚mes niÛsan, 2388; so, 2950; pl. ge-witon, 1126.--3) without inf. and
with prep, or adv.: pres. sg. III. ˛Êr firgen-stre·m under n‰ssa genipu
nier ge-wÓte, 1361; ge-wÓte on sealman, 2461; inf. on flÙdes Êht feor
ge-wÓtan, 42; pret. sg. ge-w‚t, 217; him ge-w‚t, 1237, 1904; of lÓfe,
ealdre ge-w‚t (_died_), 2472, 2625; fyrst for ge-w‚t (_time went on_),
210; him ge-w‚t ˚t of healle, 663; ge-w‚t him h‚m, 1602; pret. part. dat.
sg. me for-ge-witenum (_me defuncto, I dead_), 1480.

Ù-wÓtan, _to blame, censure, reproach_: inf. ne ˛orfte him ˛‚ le·n
Ù-wÓtan mon on middan-gearde, 2997.

wlanc, wlonc, adj., _proud, exulting_: nom. sg. wlanc, 341; w. instr. Êse
wlanc (_proud of, exulting in, her prey, meal_), 1333; wlonc, 331; w. gen.
m‚m-Êhta wlonc (_proud of the treasures_), 2834; gen. sg. wlonces,
2954.--Comp. gold-wlanc.

wl‚tian, w. v., _to look_ or _gaze out, forth_: pret. sg. se ˛e Êr ... feor
wl‚tode, 1917.

wlenco, st. f., _pride, heroism_: dat. sg. wlenco, 338, 1207; wlence, 508.

wlite, st. m. _form, noble form, look, beauty_: nom. sg., 250.

wlite-beorht, adj., _beauteous, brilliant in aspect_: acc. sg.
wlite-beorhtne wang, 93.

wlite-seÛn, st. n. f., _sight, spectacle_: acc. sg., 1651.

wlitig, adj., _beautiful, glorious, fair in form_: acc. sg. wlitig
(sweord), 1663.

wlÓtan, st. v., _to see, look, gaze_: pret. sg. he ‰fter recede wl‚t
(_looked along the hall_), 1573; pret. pl. on holm wliton (_looked on the
sea_), 1593; wlitan on WÓgl‚f, 2853.

geond-wlÓtan, w. acc., _to examine, look through, scan_: inf. wr‰te
giond-wlÓtan, 2772.

woh-bogen, pret. part., (_bent crooked), crooked, twisted_: nom. sg. wyrm
woh-bogen, 2828.

wolcen, st. n. m., _cloud_ (cf. welkin): dat. pl. under wolcnum (_under the
clouds, on earth_), 8, 652, 715, 1771; tÙ wolcnum, 1120, 1375.

wollen-te·r, adj., _tear-flowing, with flowing tears_: nom. pl.
wollen-te·re, 3033.

wom. See wam.

won. See wan.

worc. See weorc.

word, st. n.: 1) _word, speech_: nom. sg., 2818; acc. sg. ˛‰t word, 655,
2047; word, 315, 341, 390, 871, 2552; instr. sg. worde, 2157; gen. sg.
wordes, 2792; nom. pl. ˛‚ word, 640; word, 613; acc. pl. word (of an
alliterative song), 871; instr. pl, wordum, 176, 366, 627, 875, 1101, 1173,
1194, 1319, 1812, etc.; ge-saga him wordum (_tell them in words,
expressly_), 388. The instr. wordum accompanies biddan, ˛ancian, be-w‰gnan,
secgan, hÍrgan, to emphasize the verb, 176, 627, 1194, 2796, 3177; gen. pl.
worda, 289, 398, 2247, 2263(?), 3031.--2) _command, order_: gen. sg. his
wordes geweald habban (_to rule, reign_), 79; so, instr. pl. wordum weÛld,
30.--Comp.: beÛt-, gylp-, meel-, ˛ry-word.

word-cwide, st. m., (_word-utterance_), _speech_: acc. pl. word-cwydas,
1842; dat. pl. word-cwydum, 2754; gen. pl. word-cwida, 1846.

word-gid, st. m, _speech, saying_: acc. sg. word-gyd, 3174.

word-hord, st. n., _word-hoard, treasury of speech, mouth_: acc. sg.
word-hord on-le·c (_unlocked his word-hoard_, opened his mouth, spoke),

word-riht, st. n., _right speech, suitable word_: gen. pl. WÓgl‚f maelode
word-rihta fela, 2632.

wor-mynd. See weor-mynd.

worig (for weorig), st. m., _palace, estate, court_: acc. sg. on worig
(_into the palace_), 1973.

worn, st. n., _multitude, number_: acc. sg. worn eall (_very many_), 3095;
wintra worn (_many years_), 264; ˛onne he wintrum frÙd worn ge-munde (_when
he old in years thought of their number_), 2115. Used with fela to
strengthen the meaning: nom. acc. sg. worn fela, 1784; hw‰t ˛u worn fela
... sprÊce (_how very much thou hast spoken!_), 530; so, eal-fela
eald-gesegena worn, 871; gen. pl. worna fela, 2004, 2543.

woruld, worold, st. f., _humanity, world, earth_: nom. sg. eal worold,
1739; acc. sg. in worold (wacan) (_to be born, come into the world_), 60;
worold oflÊtan, of-gifan (_die_), 1184, 1682; gen. sg. worolde, 951, 1081,
1388, 1733; worulde, 2344; his worulde ge-d‚l (_his separation from the
world, death_), 3069; worolde br˚can (_to enjoy life, live_), 1063; worlde,

worold-‚r, st. f., _worldly honor_ or _dignity_: acc. sg. worold-‚re, 17.

woruld-candel, st. f., _world-candle, sun_: nom. sg., 1966.

worold-cyning, st. m., _world king, mighty king_: nom. sg., 3182; gen. pl.
worold-cyninga, 1685.

woruld-ende, st. m., _world's end_: acc. sg., 3084.

worold-rÊden, st. f., _usual course, fate of the world, customary fate_:
dat. sg. worold-rÊdenne, 1143?

wÙp, st. m., (_whoop_), _cry of grief, lament_: nom. sg., 128; acc. sg.
wÙp, 786; instr. sg. wÙpe, 3147.

wracu, st. f., _persecution, vengeance, revenge_: nom. sg. wracu (MS,
uncertain), 2614; acc. sg. wr‰ce, 2337.--Comp.: gyrn-, n˝d-wracu.

wrau, st. f., _protection, safety_: in comp. lÓf-wrau.

wr‚, adj., _wroth, furious, hostile_: acc. sg. neut. wr‚, 319; dat. sg.
wr‚um, 661, 709; gen. pl. wr‚ra, 1620.

wr‚e, adv., _contemptibly, disgracefully_, 2873.

wr‚-lÓce, adv., _wrathfully, hostilely_ (in battle), 3063.

wr‚sn, st. f., _circlet of gold for the head, diadem, crown_: in comp.

wr‰c-l‚st, st. m., _exile-step, exile, banishment_: acc. sg. wr‰c-l‚stas
tr‰d (_trod exile-steps, wandered in exile_), 1353.

wr‰c-m‰cg, st. m., _exile, outcast_: nom. pl. wr‰c-m‰cgas, 2380.

wr‰c-sÓ, st. m., _exile-journey, banishment, exile, persecution_: acc.
sg., 2293; dat. sg. -sÓum, 338.

wr‰t, st. f., _ornament, jewel_: acc. pl. wr‰te (wrÊce, MS.), 2772, 3061;
instr. pl. wr‰ttum, 1532; gen. pl. wr‰tta, 2414.

wr‰t-lÓc, adj.: 1) _artistic, ornamental; valuable_: acc. sg. wr‰t-lÓcne
wundur-m‚um, 2174; wr‰t-lÓc wÊg-sweord, 1490; wÓg-bord wr‰t-lÓc,
2340.--2) _wondrous, strange_: acc. sg. wr‰t-lÓcne wyrm [from its rings or
spots?], 892; wlite-seÛn wr‰t-lÓc, 1651.

wrÊc, st. f., _persecution_; hence, _wretchedness, misery_: nom. sg., 170;
acc. sg. wrÊc, 3079.

wrecan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to press, force_: pret. part. ˛Êr w‰s Ongen˛eÛ
... on bÓd wrecen, 2963.--2) _to drive out, expel_: pret. sg. ferh ellen
wr‰c, 2707.--3) _to wreak_ or _utter_: gid, spel wrecan (_to utter words or
songs_); subj. pres. sg. III. he gyd wrece, 2447; inf. wrecan spel ge-r‚de,
874; word-gyd wrecan, 3174; pret. sg. gyd ‰fter wr‰c, 2155; pres. part. ˛Êr
w‰s ... gid wrecen, 1066.--4) _to avenge, punish_: subj. pres. ˛‰t he his
freÛnd wrece, 1386; inf. wolde hire mÊg wrecan, 1340; so, 1279, 1547; pres.
part. wrecend (_an avenger_), 1257; pret. sg. wr‰c Wedera nÓ, 423; so,
1334, 1670.

‚-wrecan, _to tell, recount_: pret. sg. ic ˛is gid be ˛e ‚-wr‰c (_I have
told this tale for thee_), 1725; so, 2109.

for-wrecan, w. acc., _to drive away, expel; carry away_: inf. ˛˝ l‰s him
˝a ˛rym wudu wyn-suman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the waves
might carry away the winsome ship_), 1920; pret. sg. he hine feor for-wr‰c
... man-cynne fram, 109.

ge-wrecan, w. acc., _to avenge, wreak vengeance upon, punish_: pret. sg.
ge-wr‰c, 107, 2006; he ge-wr‰c (i.e. hit, _this_) cealdum cear-sÓum, 2396;
he hine sylfne ge-wr‰c (_avenged himself_), 2876; pl. ge-wrÊcan, 2480;
pret. part. ge-wrecen, 3063.

wrecca, w. m., (_wretch_), _exile, adventurer, wandering soldier, hero_:
nom. sg. wrecca (Hengest), 1138; gen. pl. wreccena wÓde mÊrost (Sigemund),

wreoen-hilt, adj., _wreathen-hilted, with twisted hilt_: nom. sg., 1699.

wridian, w. v., _to flourish, spring up_: pret. sg. III. wrida, 1742.

wria, w. m., _band_: in comp. be·g-wria (_bracelet_), 2019.

wrixl, st. n., _exchange, change_: instr. sg. wyrsan wrixle (_in a worse
way, with a worse exchange_), 2970.

ge-wrixle, st. n., _exchange, arrangement, bargain_: nom. sg. ne w‰s ˛‰t
ge-wrixle til (_it was not a good arrangement, trade_), 1305.

wrixlan, w. v., _to exchange_: inf. wordum wrixlan (_to exchange words,
converse_), 366; 875 (_tell_).

wrÓan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to bind, fasten, wreathe together_: inf. ic
hine (him, MS.) ... on w‰l-bedde wrÓan ˛Ùhte, 965.--2) _to bind up_ (a
wounded person, a wound): pret. pl. ˛‚ wÊron monige ˛e his mÊg wrion,
2983. See hand-gewrien.

wrÓtan, st. v., _to incise, engrave_: pret. part. on ˛‰m (hilte) w‰s Ùr
writen fyrn-gewinnes (_on which was engraved the origin of an ancient
struggle_), 1689.

for-wrÓtan, _to cut to pieces_ or _in two_: pret. sg. for-wr‚t Wedra helm
wyrm on middan, 2706.

wrÙht, st. m. f., _blame, accusation, crime_; here _strife, contest,
hostility_: nom. sg., 2288, 2474, 2914.

wudu, st. m., _wood_: 1) _material, timber_: nom. pl. wudu, 1365; hence,
_the wooden spear_: acc. pl. wudu, 398.--2) _forest, wood_: acc. sg. wudu,
1417.--3) _wooden ship_: nom. sg. 298; acc. sg. wudu, 216, 1920.--Comp.:
bÊl-, bord-, gamen-, heal-, holt-, m‰gen-, sÊ-, sund-, ˛rec-wudu.

wudu-rÍc, st. m., _wood-reek_ or _smoke_: nom. sg., 3145.

wuldor, st. n., _glory_: nom. sg. kyninga wuldor (_God_), 666; gen. sg.
wuldres wealdend, 17, 183, 1753; wuldres hyrde, 932, (designations of God).

wuldor-cyning, st. m., _king of glory, God_. dat. sg. wuldur-cyninge, 2796

wuldor-torht, adj., _glory-bright, brilliant, clear_: acc. pl.
wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137.

wulf, st. m., _wolf_: acc. sg., 3028.

wulf-hli, st. n., _wolf-slope, wolf's retreat, slope whereunder wolves
house_: acc. pl. wulf-hleou, 1359.

wund, st. f., _wound_: nom. sg., 2712, 2977; acc. sg. wunde, 2532, 2907;
acc. sg. wunde, 2726; instr. pl. wundum, 1114, 2831, 2938.--Comp.

wund, adj., _wounded, sore_: nom. sg., 2747; dat. sg. wundum, 2754; nom.
pl. wunde, 565, 1076.

wunden-feax, adj., _curly-haired_ (of a horse's mane): nom. sg., 1401.

wunden-heals, adj., _with twisted_ or _curved neck_ or _prow_: nom. sg.
wudu wunden-hals (_the ship_), 298.

wunden-heorde?, _curly-haired_?: nom. sg. f., 3153.

wunden-mÊl, adj., _damascened, etched, with wavy ornaments_(?): nom. sg.
neut., 1532 (of a sword).

wunden-stefna, w. m. _curved prow, ship_: nom. sg., 220.

wundor, st. n.: 1) _wonder, wonderwork_: nom. sg., 772, 1725; wundur, 3063;
acc. sg. wundor, 841; wunder, 932; wundur, 2760, 3033, 3104; dat. sg.
wundre, 932; instr. pl. wundrum (_wondrously_), 1453, 2688; gen. pl.
wundra, 1608.--2) _portent, monster_: gen. pl. wundra, 1510.--Comp.: hand-,
nÓ-, searo-wundor.

wundor-bebod, st. n., _wondrous command, strange order_: instr. pl.
-bebodum, 1748.

wundor-de·, st. m., _wonder-death, strange death_: instr. sg. wundor
de·e, 3038.

wundor-f‰t, st. n., _wonder-vat, strange vessel_: dat. pl. of wundor-fatum
(_from wondrous vessels_), 1163.

wundor-lÓc, adj., _wonder like, remarkable_: nom. sg., 1441.

wundor-m‚um, st. m., _wonder-jewel, wonderful treasure_: acc. sg., 2174.

wundor-smi, st. m., _wonder-smith, skilled smith, worker of marvellous
things_: gen. pl. wundor-smia geweorc (the ancient giant's sword), 1682.

wundor-seÛn, st. f., _wondrous sight_: gen. pl. wunder-siÛna, 996.

wunian, w. v.: 1) _to stand, exist, remain_: pres. sg. III. ˛enden ˛Êr
wuna on he·h-stede h˚sa sÍlest (_as long as the best of houses stands
there on the high place_), 284; wuna he on wiste (_lives in plenty_),
1736; inf. on sele wunian (_to remain in the hall_), 3129; pret. sg. wunode
mid Finne (_remained with F._), 1129.--2) w. acc. or dat., _to dwell in, to
inhabit, to possess_: pres. sg. III. wuna w‰l-reste (_holds his
death-bed_), 2903; inf. w‰ter-egesan wunian scolde..., stre·mas, 1261;
wÓcum wunian, 3084; w. prep.: pres. sg. Higel‚c ˛Êr ‰t h‚m wuna, 1924.

ge-wunian, w. acc.: 1) _to inhabit_: inf. ge-[wunian], 2276.--2) _to remain
with, stand by_: subj. pres. ˛‰t hine on ylde eft ge-wunigen wil-ge-sÓas,

wuran. See weoran.

wuton, v. from wÓtan, used as interj., _let us go! up!_ w. inf.: wutun
gangan tÙ (_let us go to him!_), 2649; uton hrae fÍran! 1391; uton nu
Ífstan, 3102.

wylf, st. f., _she-wolf_: in comp. brim-wylf.

wylm, st. m., _surge, surf, billow_: num. sg. flÙdes wylm, 1765; dat.
wintres wylme (_with winter's flood_), 516; acc. sg. ˛urh w‰teres wylm,
1694; acc. pl. heortan wylmas, 2508.--Comp.: breÛst-, brim-, byrne-, cear-,
f˝r-, heao-, holm-, sÊ-, sorh-wylm. See w‰lm.

wyn, st. f., _pleasantness, pleasure, joy, enjoyment_: acc. sg. mÊste ...
worolde wynne (_the highest earthly joy_), 1081; eoran wynne (_earth-joy,
the delightful earth_), 1731; heofenes wynne (_heaven's joy_, the rising
sun), 1802; hearpan wynne (_harp-joy, the pleasant harp_), 2108; ˛‰t he ...
ge-drogen h‰fde eoran wynne (_that he had had his earthly joy_), 2728;
dat. sg. weorod w‰s on wynne, 2015; instr. pl. m‰genes wynnum (_in joy of
strength_), 1717; so, 1888.--Comp.: Íel-, hord-, lÓf-, lyft-, symbel-wyn.

wyn-le·s, adj., _joyless_: acc. sg. wyn-le·sne wudu, 1417; wyn-le·s wÓc,

wyn-sum, adj., _winsome, pleasant_: acc. sg. wudu wyn-suman (_the ship_),
1920; nom. pl. word wÊron wyn-sume, 613.

wyrcan, v. irreg.: 1) _to do, effect_, w. acc.: inf. (wundor) wyrcan,
931.--2) _to make, create_, w. acc.: pret. sg. ˛‰t se ‰l-mihtiga eoran
worh[te], 92; sw‚ hine _(the helmet_) worhte wÊpna smi, 1453.--3) _to
gain, win, acquire_, w. gen.: subj. pres. wyrce, se ˛e mÙte, dÙmes Êr
de·e, 1388.

be-wyrcan, _to gird, surround_: pret. pl. bronda betost wealle be-worhton,

ge-wyrcan: 1) intrans., _to act, behave_: inf. sw‚ sceal geong guma gÙde
gewyrcean ... on f‰der wine ˛‰t ... (_a young man shall so act with
benefits towards his father's friends that_ ...), 20.--2) w. acc., _to do,
make, effect, perform_: inf. ne meahte ic ‰t hilde mid Hruntinge wiht
ge-wyrcan, 1661; sweorde ne meahte on ˛am aglÊcan ... wunde ge-wyrcean,
2907; pret. sg. ge-worhte, 636, 1579, 2713; pret. part. acc. ic ˛‚ leÛde
w‚t ... f‰ste ge-worhte. 1865.--3) _to make, construct_: inf. (medo-‰rn)
ge-wyrcean, 69; (wÓg-bord) ge-wyrcean, 2338; (hlÊw) ge-wyrcean, 2803; pret.
pl. II. ge-worhton, 3097; III. ge-worhton, 3158; pret. part. ge-worht,
1697.--4) _to win, acquire_: pres. sg. ic me mid Hruntinge dÙm ge-wyrce,

Wyrd, st. f., _Weird_ (one of the Norns, guide of human destiny; mostly
weakened down = _fate, providence_): nom. sg., 455, 477, 572, 735, 1206,
2421, 2527, 2575, 2815; acc. sg. wyrd, 1057, 1234; gen. pl. wyrda, 3031.
(Cf. Weird Sisters of Macbeth.)

wyrdan, w. v., _to ruin, kill, destroy_: pret. sg. he tÙ lange leÛde mine
wanode and wyrde, 1338.

‚-wyrdan, w. v., _to destroy, kill_: pret. part.: ‰eling monig wundum
‚-wyrded, 1114.

wyre, adj., _noble; worthy, honored, valued_: acc. sg. m. wyrne (ge-dÙn)
(_to esteem worthy_), 2186; nom. pl. wyre, 368; compar. nom. sg. rÓces
wyrra (_worthier of rule_), 862.--Comp. fyrd-wyre. See weor.

wyrgen, st, f., _throttler_ [cf. sphinx], _she-wolf_; in comp.

ge-wyrht, st. n., _work; desert_; in comp. eald-gewyrht, 2658.

wyrm, st. m., _worm, dragon, drake_: nom. sg., 898, 2288, 2344, 2568, 2630,
2670, 2746, 2828; acc. sg. wyrm, 887, 892, 2706, 3040, 3133; dat. sg.
wyrme, 2308, 2520; gen. wyrmes, 2317, 2349, 2760, 2772, 2903; acc. pl.
wyrmas, 1431.

wyrm-cyn, st. m., _worm-kin, race of reptiles, dragons_: gen. sg.
wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426.

wyrm-f‚h, adj., _dragon-ornamented, snake-adorned_ (ornamented with figures
of dragons, snakes, etc.: cf. Dietrich in Germania X., 278): nom. sg.
sweord ... wreoen-hilt and wyrm-f‚h, 1699.

wyrm-hord, st. n., _dragon-hoard_: gen. pl. wyrm-horda, 2223.

for-wyrnan, w. v., _to refuse, reject_: subj. pres. II. ˛‰t ˛u me nÙ
for-wyrne, ˛‰t... (_that thou refuse me not that_...), 429; pret. sg. he ne
for-wyrnde worold-rÊdenne, 1143.

ge-wyrpan, w. v. reflex., _to refresh one's self, recover_: pret. sg. he
hyne ge-wyrpte, 2977.

wyrpe, st. m., _change_: acc. sg. ‰fter we·-spelle wyrpe ge-fremman (_after
the woe-spell to bring about a change of things_), 1316.

wyrsa, compar. adj., _worse_: acc. sg. neut. ˛‰t wyrse, 1740; instr. sg.
wyrsan wrixle, 2970; gen. sg. wyrsan ge˛inges, 525; nom. acc. pl. wyrsan
wÓg-frecan, 1213, 2497.

wyrt, st. f., [_-wort_], _root_: instr. pl. wudu wyrtum f‰st, 1365.

w˝scan, w. v., _to wish, desire_: pret. sg. wÓscte (rihde, MS.) ˛‰s yldan
(_wished to delay that_ or _for this reason_, 2440, 1605(?). See Note.


yfel, st n., _evil_: gen. pl. yfla, 2095.

yldan, w. v., _to delay, put off_: inf. ne ˛‰t se aglÊca yldan ˛Ùhte, 740;
weard wine-geÙmor wÓscte ˛‰s yldan, ˛‰t he lytel f‰c long-gestreÛna br˚can
mÙste, 2240.

ylde, st. m. pl., _men_: dat. pl. yldum, 77, 706, 2118; gen. pl. ylda, 150,
606, 1662. See elde.

yldest. See eald.

yldo, st. f., _age (senectus), old age_: nom. sg., 1737, 1887; atol yldo,
1767; dat. sg. on ylde, 22.--2) _age (Êtas), time, era_: gen. sg. yldo
bearn, 70. See eldo.

yldra. See eald.

ylf, st. f., _elf (incubus, alp_): nom. pl. ylfe, 112.

ymb, prep. w. acc.: 1) local, _around, about, at, upon_: ymb hine (_around,
with, him_), 399. With prep, postponed: hine ymb, 690; ymb brontne ford
(_around the seas, on the high sea_), 568; ymb ˛‚ gif-healle (_around the
gift-hall, throne-hall_), 839; ymb ˛‰s helmes hrÙf (_around the helm's
roof, crown_), 1031.--2) temporal, _about, after_: ymb ‚n-tÓd Ùres dÙgores
(_about the same time the next day_), 219; ymb ‚ne niht (_after a night_),
135.--3) causal, _about, on account of, for, owing to_: (frÓnan) ymb ˛Ónne
sÓ (_on account of, concerning?, thy journey_), 353; hw‰t ˛u ... ymb
Brecan sprÊce (_hast spoken about B._), 531; so, 1596, 3174; n‚ ymb his lÓf
ceara (_careth not for his life_), 1537; so, 450; ymb feorh sacan, 439;
sundor-nytte beheÛld ymb aldor Dena, 669; ymb sund (_about the swimming,
the prize for swimming_), 507.

ymbe, I. prep. w. acc. = ymb: 1) local, 2884, 3171; hlÊw oft ymbe hwearf
(prep, postponed), 2297. 2) causal, 2071, 2619.--II. adv., _around_: him
... ymbe, 2598.

ymb-sittend, pres. part., _neighbor_ gen. pl. ymb-sittendra, 9.

ymbe-sittend, the same: nom. pl. ymbe-sittend, 1828; gen. pl.
ymbe-sittendra, 2735.

yppe, w. f., _high seat, dais, throne_: dat. sg. eode ... tÙ yppan, 1816.

yrfe, st. n., _bequest, legacy_: nom. sg., 3052.

yrfe-l‚f, st. f., _sword left as a bequest_: acc. sg. yrfe-l‚fe, 1054;
instr. sg. yrfe-l‚fe, 1904.

yrfe-weard, st. m., _heir, son_: nom. sg., 2732; gen. sg. yrfe-weardes,
2454. (-as, MS.)

yrmo, st. f., _misery, shame, wretchedness_: acc. sg. yrme, 1260, 2006.

yrre, st. n., _anger, ire, excitement_: acc. sg. godes yrre, 712; dat. sg,
on yrre, 2093.

yrre, adj., _angry, irate, furious_: nom. sg. yrre oretta (BeÛwulf), 1533;
˛egn yrre (the same), 1576; g‰st yrre (Grendel), 2074; nom. pl. yrre, 770.
See eorre.

yrringa, adv., _angrily, fiercely_, 1566, 2965.

yrre-mÙd, adj., _wrathful-minded, wild_: nom. sg., 727.

ys, _he is_. See wesan.


˝ (O.H.G. unda), st. f., _wave; sea_: nom. pl. ˝a, 548; acc. pl. ˝e, 46,
1133, 1910; dat. pl. ˝um, 210, 421, 534, 1438, 1908; ˝um weallan (_to
surge with waves_), 515, 2694; gen. pl. ˝a, 464, 849, 1209, 1470,
1919.--Comp: flÙd-, lÓg-, w‰ter-˝.

˝an, w. v., _to ravage, devastate, destroy_: pret. sg. ˝de eotena cyn,
421 (cf. Óende = _depopulating_, Bosworth, from ∆lfric's Glossary; pret.
˝de, Wanderer, 85).

˝e. See e·e.

˝e-lÓce, adv., _easily_: ˝e-lÓce he eft ‚-stÙd (_he easily arose
afterwards_), 1557.

˝-gebland, st. n., _mingling_ or _surging waters, water-tumult_: nom. sg.
-geblond, 1374, 1594; nom. pl. -gebland, 1621.

˝-gewin, st. n., _strife with the sea, wave-struggle, rushing of water_:
dat. sg. ˝-gewinne, 2413; gen. sg. -gewinnes, 1435.

˝-l‚d, st. f., _water-journey, sea-voyage_: nom. pl. ˝-l‚de, 228.

˝-l‚f, st. f., _water-leaving, what is left by the water (undarum
reliquiae), shore_: dat. sg. be ˝-l‚fe, 566.

˝-lida, w. m., _wave-traverser, ship_: acc. sg. ˝-lidan, 198.

˝-naca, w. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg. [˝-]nacan, 1904.

˝-gesÍne. See Í-ges˝ne.

˝wan, w. v. w. acc., _to show_: pret. sg. an-s˝n ˝wde (_showed itself,
appeared_), 2835. See e·wan, eÛwan.

ge-˝wan, w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to lay before, offer_: inf.,


‚brecan, st. v., _to shatter_: part. his byrne ‚brocen wÊre (_his byrnie
was shattered_).

‚nyman, st. v., _to take, take away_.

b‚n-helm, st. m., _bone-helmet; skull_, [_shield_, Bosw.].

buruh-˛elu, st. f., _castle-floor_.

cÍlod, part, (adj.?), _keeled_, i.e. boat-shaped or hollow.

dagian, w. v., _to dawn_: ne ˛is ne dagia e·stan (_this is not dawning
from the east_).

deÛr-mÙd, adj., _brave in mood_: deÛr-mÙd h‰le.

driht-gesÓ, st m., _companion, associate_.

e·stan, adv., _from the east_.

eor-b˚end, st. m., _earth-dweller, man_.

fÍr, st. m. _fear, terror_.

f˝ren, adj., _flaming, afire_: nom. f. swylce eal Finns-buruh f˝renu wÊre
(_as if all Finnsburh were afire_).

gehlyn, st. n., _noise, tumult_.

gellan, st. v., _to sing_ (i.e. ring or resound): pres. sg. gylle
grÊg-hama (_the gray garment_ [byrnie] _rings_); (_the gray wolf

genesan, st. v., _to survive, recover from_: pret. pl. ˛‚ wÓgend hyra wunda
genÊson (_the warriors were recovering from their wounds_).

gold-hladen, adj., _laden with gold_ (wearing heavy gold ornaments).

grÊg-hama, w. m., _gray garment, mail-coat_; (_wolf_?--Brooke).

g˚-wudu, st. m., _war-wood, spear_.

h‰g-steald, st. m., _one who lives in his lord's house, a house-carl._

heao-geong, adj., _young in war._

here-sceorp, st. n., _war-dress, coat of mail_.

hleorian, w. v., _to speak, exclaim_: pret. sg. hleorode ... cyning (_the
prince exclaimed_).

hrÊw, st. n., _corpse_.

hrÙr, adj., _strong_: here-sceorpum hrÙr (_strong_ [though it was] _as
armor_, Bosw.).

lac (la?)? for flacor, _fluttering?_

oncwean, st. v., _to answer_: pres. sg. scyld scefte oncwy (_the shield
answers the spear_).

onwacnian, w. v., _to awake, arouse one's self_: imper. pl. onwacnigea...,
wÓgend mine (_awake, my warriors!_).

sceft (sceaft), st. m., _spear, shaft_.

sealo-br˚n, adj., _dusky-brown_.

sige-beorn, st. m., _victorious hero, valiant warrior_.

sw‰er (sw‚ hw‰er), pron., _which of two, which_.

sw‚n, st. m., _swain, youth; warrior_.

sweart, adj., _swart, black_.

swÍt, adj., _sweet_: acc. m. swÍtne medo ... forgyldan (_requite the sweet
mead_, i.e. repay, by prowess in battle, the bounty of their chief).

swurd-leÛma, w. m., _sword-flame, flashing of swords_.

˛yrl, adj., _pierced, cloven_.

undearninga, adv., _without concealment, openly_.

wandrian, w. v., _to fly about, hover_: pret. sg. hr‰fn wandrode (_the
raven hovered_).

waol, st. m., _the full moon_ [Grein]; [adj., _wandering_, Bosw.].

w‰l-sliht (-sleaht), st. m., _combat, deadly struggle_: gen. pl. w‰l-slihta
gehlyn (_the din of combats_)

we‚-dÊd, st. f., _deed of woe_: nom. pl. ‚risa we‚-dÊda.

witian (weotian), w. v., _to appoint, determine_: part. ˛e is ... witod.

wurlÓce (weorlÓce), adv., _worthily, gallantly_: compar. wur-lÓcor.

w‰g, weg, st. m., _way_.


ARGUMENT, recals = recalls
ll. 131, 737 ˛ry-swy = ˛r˝-sw˝
l. 256 Ùfest = Ùfost
l. 303 sciÛnon = scionon
l. 706 buton = b˚ton
l. 1115 ‚t = ‰t
l. 1133 wÓ = wi
ll. 1304, 1560, 1616 missing caesuras supplied
l. 1436 here-str‰l = here-strÊl
l. 1642 feÙwer- = feÛwer
l. 1747 str‰le = strÊle
l. 1828 ˛ywa = ˛˝wa
l. 1926 betlic = betlÓc
l. 2224 gesceÛd = gesceÙd
ll. 2288, 3036 w‚s = w‰s
l. 2453 to = tÙ
l. 2503 Huga = H˚ga
l. 2586 nie = nÓe
l. 2587 si = sÓ
l. 2684 irenna = Órenna
l. 2915 Hugas = H˚gas
l. 2956 he·o-liendum = heao-lÓendum
l. 3000 fi‚t = fi‰t; feÙnd- = feÛnd-
l. 3056 sÛ = sÙ
l. 3137 HrÙnes = Hrones
list of names, under:
 Dene, ScedenÓgge = Scedenigge
 E·dgils, Ohthere = ‘hthere
 Fre·waru, Freawaru = Fre·waru
 HrÙg‚r, HrÙ-g‚re = HrÙg‚re
 Hygelac, HÊre = H‰re
l. 31, of l. 31 = of l. 30
l. 1441, wÙ- = wÊg-
l. 1916, leÙfra = leÛfra
GLOSSARY, under headword
 ‰ele, Beowulf's = BeÛwulf's
 ‚n, gehwilces = gehwylces
 Êg-hw‚, Êgh-w‰s = Êghw‰s
 ‰t-beran, beadol‚ce = beadul‚ce
 beadu-l‚c, beado- = beadu- (twice)
 be·g, beages = be·ges
 beorh, he·ford- = he·fod
 beÛdan, leodum = leÛdum
 beÛn, cwÍnlic = cwÍnlÓc
 biddan, bline = blÓne
 bitter, str‰le = strÊle
 ge-bÓdan, therefor = therefore
 on-bÓdan, earfÙlÓce = earfolÓce
 brecan, lÍtdse = lÍt se
 burne, of of = of
 b˚tan, swÓce = swice
 cempa, Huga = H˚ga
 ge-ceÛsan, usic = ˚sic
 on-cirran, wealdendas = wealdendes
 corer, ˛‰ = ˛‚
 cunnan, ˛e·we = ˛e·w
 c˚, wÓ- = wÓd-
 dÙgor, gehwam = gehw‚m
 dÙn, ymbsittend = ymbesittend; hettend = hetend; ˛ywa = ˛˝wa
 drÓfan, feoran = feorran
 dryhten, fre·h- = fre·-
 dryht-scipe, drihtscipe = drihtscype
 ge-d˝gan, wr‰csi = wr‰csÓ
 eal, oncye = onc˝e
 ealdor, herestr‰l = herestrÊl
 e·cen-cr‰ftig, i˙manna = i˙monna
 eofor-spreÛt, hocyhtum = hÙcyhtum
 eorlÓc, eorlic [ellen] = eorlÓc
 f‚h, w‚ldreÛre = w‰ldreÛre
 Ù-ferian, panon = ˛onan
 fela, maum- = m‚um
 fÍran, w‰re = wÊre
 feÛnd, feonda = feÛnda
 fleÛn, fenhÙpu = fenhopu
 floga, wÓ- = wÓd-
 folc-toga, HrÙgar = HrÙg‚r
 for, wonhydum = wonh˝dum; handgeweorc = hondgeweorc
 fÙt-gemearc, long = lang
 ge-frignan, ˛eodcyninga = ˛eÛdcyninga
 ge-fyrran, fratwum = fr‰twum
 ge-f˝san, to sÍcanne = tÙ sÍceanne
 g‚n, swa = sw‚; [or] giong = giÛng; flore = flÙre; sÓttan = sittan
 ge-gan, WÓglaf = WÓgl‚f
 g‚r-wÓga, WÓglaf = WÓgl‚f
 g‰st, fÍde- = fÍe-
 gegn-cwide, ˛inra = ˛Ónra
 ge-gyrwan, ylidan = ˝lidan
 geÛc, g·st = g‚st
 geÙmore-lÓc, [bi] geÙmorlic = geÙmorlÓc
 for-gildan, therefor = therefore
 gold-wlanc, gurinc = g˚rinc
 grÍtan, walgÊst = w‰lgÊst
 grim, searo-grimm = searo-grim
 habban, gecorene = gecorone
 wi-habban, winsele = wÓnsele
 hatan, sÊliend = sÊlÓend
 hatian, gu-sceaa = g˚-sceaa
 h‚r, he‚re = he·re
 here-strÊl, -str‰l = strÊl
 heard, -str‰l = -strÊl; regen- = regn-
 heorte, starc- = stearc
 heoro-dreÛr, heoro-dreore (citation) = heoro-dreÛre
 hli, hliu = hlio (twice)
 hÙp, hÙp = hop (twice)
 hreow, ˛‚t = ˛‰t
 hrÙf, gese·h = geseah
 hwÓl, seo = seÛ
 h˝ran, Êghwilc = Êghwylc
 inne, abe·d = ‚be·d
 Óren, drihtlÓc = dryhtlÓc
 l‚, gewiru = gewidru; scynnum = scinnum
 be-le·n, bele‚n = bele·n
 mÍtan, Aescheres = ƒscheres
 mearcian, mÙrhÙpu = mÙrhopu
 ge-mearian, hwam = hw‚m
 moror-bed, stred = strÍd
 mÙd, sti- = stÓ-
 nÊnig, hor-m‚um = hord-m‚um
 on, he·e = heoe; willen = willan
 rÊd, fÊst- = f‰st
 reccan, hu = h˚
 rÓdan, gealgan = galgan
 sang, -leasne = le·sne
 sceapan, Hugas = H˚gas (twice)
 sc‚nan, sciÛnon = scionon
 scÓnan, scÓnon = scinon
 secg, synnigne = sinnigne
 ge-sÍcan, -cye = c˝e
 ge-sÓgan, ‰ts‰cce = ‰t s‰cce
 ge-sle·n, ge-slÙgan = ge-slÙgon
 standan, str‰l = strÊl
 stapan, furor = furur
 ge-steppan, Ohtheres = ‘hteres
 stincan, ˛‰ = ˛‚
 styrian, ge-wiru = ge-widru
 sweord, maum- = m‚um
 ge-swÓcan, ˛eodne = ˛eÛdne
 teÛn (w. v.), nal‰s = nalas; teodan = teÛdan
 tÙ, h‰lum = hÊlum; sitte = site; Eofore = Jofore
 ge-tr˚wan, -w‰re = wÊre
 ge-twÊfan, Ùe = oe
 ˛Êr, snotera = snottra
 ˛e, gimf‰stan = ginf‰stan
 of-˛incan, gehwam = gehw‚m
 ge-˛olian, ˛‚t = ˛‰t
 ˛u, sÊlran = selran
 ˛˚send, seÛfon = seofan
 un-heÛre, -speru = -sporu
 ˚s, Êg-hwilc = Êg-hwylc
 wacan, wÙcon = wÙcun
 werian, beaduscr˚d = beaduscr˚da
 be-werian, scynnum = scinnum
 wÍn, orlÍg = orleg; Ùr-wena = or-wÍna
 weorian, leÙde = leÛde
 willa, wyllum = willum
 wilnian, f‰er = f‰der
 n‚t, hwilc = hwylc (twice)
 ge-wÓtan, w‰re = wÊre

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