By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Rāmāyana Volume 4 Uttara Kānda
Author: Vālmiki
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Rāmāyana Volume 4 Uttara Kānda" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


This file was produced from page images at the Internet Archive.

Transcriber’s Note

This book was transcribed from two scans of the original found at the
Internet Archive. Words in italics in this etext were italicized in the
original book. I have corrected obvious misspellings but I’ve left
variant spellings alone. Inconsistent spellings of names and incorrect
punctuation have been fixed.





                        EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY

                       *MANMATHA NATH DUTT, M.A.*



    UTTARAKĀNDAM ......................................................
      SECTION I. ......................................................
      SECTION II. .....................................................
      SECTION III. ....................................................
      SECTION IV. .....................................................
      SECTION V. ......................................................
      SECTION VI. .....................................................
      SECTION VII. ....................................................
      SECTION VIII. ...................................................
      SECTION IX. .....................................................
      SECTION X. ......................................................
      SECTION XI. .....................................................
      SECTION XII. ....................................................
      SECTION XIII. ...................................................
      SECTION XIV. ....................................................
      SECTION XV. .....................................................
      SECTION XVI. ....................................................
      SECTION XVII. ...................................................
      SECTION XVIII. ..................................................
      SECTION XIX. ....................................................
      SECTION XX. .....................................................
      SECTION XX. .....................................................
      SECTION XXII. ...................................................
      SECTION XXIII. ..................................................
      SECTION XXIV. ...................................................
      SECTION XXV. ....................................................
      SECTION XXVI. ...................................................
      SECTION XXVII. ..................................................
      SECTION XXVIII. .................................................
      SECTION XXIX. ...................................................
      SECTION XXX. ....................................................
      SECTION XXXI. ...................................................
      SECTION XXXII. ..................................................
      SECTION XXXIII. .................................................
      SECTION XXXIV. ..................................................
      SECTION XXXV. ...................................................
      SECTION XXXVI. ..................................................
      SECTION XXXVII. .................................................
      SECTION XXXVIII. ................................................
      SECTION XXXIX. ..................................................
      SECTION XL. .....................................................
      SECTION XLI. ....................................................
      SECTION XLIII. ..................................................
      SECTION XLIV. ...................................................
      SECTION XLV. ....................................................
      SECTION XLVI. ...................................................
      SECTION XLVII. ..................................................
      SECTION XLVIII. .................................................
      SECTION XLIX. ...................................................
      SECTION XLX. ....................................................
      SECTION LI. .....................................................
      SECTION LII. ....................................................
      SECTION LIII. ...................................................
      SECTION LIV. ....................................................
      SECTION LV. .....................................................
      SECTION LVI. ....................................................
      SECTION LVII. ...................................................
      SECTION LVIII. ..................................................
      SECTION LIX. ....................................................
      SECTION LX. .....................................................
      SECTION LXI. ....................................................
      SECTION LXII. ...................................................
      SECTION LXIII. ..................................................
      SECTION LXIV. ...................................................
      SECTION LXV. ....................................................
      SECTION LXVI. ...................................................
      SECTION LXVII. ..................................................
      SECTION LXVIII. .................................................
      SECTION LXIX. ...................................................
      SECTION LXX. ....................................................
      SECTION LXXI. ...................................................
      SECTION LXXII. ..................................................
      SECTION LXXIII. .................................................
      SECTION LXXXV. ..................................................
      SECTION LXXVI. ..................................................
      SECTION LXXVII. .................................................
      SECTION LIXVIII. ................................................
      SECTION LXXVIII. ................................................
      SECTION LXXIX. ..................................................
      SECTION LXXX. ...................................................
      SECTION LXXXI. ..................................................
      SECTION LXXXII. .................................................
      SECTION LXXXIII. ................................................
      SECTION LXXXIV. .................................................
      SECTION LXXXV. ..................................................
      SECTION LXXXVI. .................................................
      SECTION LXXXVII. ................................................
      SECTION LXXXVIII. ...............................................
      SECTION LXXXV. ..................................................
      SECTION XC. .....................................................
      SECTION CXI. ....................................................
      SECTION CXII. ...................................................
      SECTION XCIII. ..................................................
      SECTION XCIV. ...................................................
      SECTION XCV. ....................................................
      SECTION CXVI. ...................................................
      SECTION CXVII. ..................................................
      SECTION XCVIII. .................................................
      SECTION XCIX. ...................................................
      SECTION C. ......................................................
      SECTION CI. .....................................................
      SECTION CII. ....................................................
      SECTION CIII. ...................................................
      SECTION CIV. ....................................................
      SECTION CV. .....................................................
      SECTION CVI. ....................................................
      SECTION CVII. ...................................................
      SECTION CVIII. ..................................................
      SECTION CIX. ....................................................
      SECTION CX. .....................................................
      SECTION CXI. ....................................................
      SECTION CXII. ...................................................
      SECTION CXIII. ..................................................
      SECTION ICXIV. ..................................................
      SECTION CXV. ....................................................
      SECTION CXVI. ...................................................
      SECTION CXVII. ..................................................
      SECTION CXIX. ...................................................
      SECTION CXX. ....................................................
      SECTION CXXI. ...................................................
      SECTION CXXII. ..................................................
      SECTION CXXIII. .................................................
      SECTION CXXIV. ..................................................


                             *His Highness*






                        *Maharaja of Travancore*



                         *MANMATHA NATH DUTT.*

        _In testimony of his veneration for His Highness and in_

      _Grateful acknowledgement of the distinction conferred upon_

     _Him while in His Highness’ capital, and the great pecuniary_

        _Help rendered by his Highness in publishing this work._



On the Rākshasas having been slain, all the ascetics, for the purpose of
congratulating Rāghava, came to Rāma as he gained (back) his kingdom.
Kauçika, and Yavakrita, and Gārgya, and Gālava, and Kanva—son unto
Mādhālithi,—who dwelt in the east, (came thither); and the reverend
Swastyāstreya, and Namuchi, and Pramuchi, and Agastya, and the
worshipful Atri, and Sumukha, and Vimukha,—who dwelt in the south,—came
in company with Agastya.¹ And Nrishadgu, and Kahashi, and Dhaumya, and
that mighty sage—Kauçeya—who abode in the western quarter, came there
accompanied by their disciples. And Vasishtha and Kaçyapa and Atri and
Viçwamitra with Gautama and Jamadagni and Bharadwaja and also the seven
sages,² who for aye resided in the northern quarter, (came there). And
on arriving at the residence of Rāghava, those high-souled ones,
resembling the fire in radiance, stopped at the gate, with the intention
of communicating their arrival (to Rāma) through the warder. And that
foremost of ascetics—the righteous Agastya—versed in various branches of
learning and cognizant of the Vedas along with their branches,—addressed
the warder, saying,—"Do thou say unto Daçaratha’s son that we—the
sages—have come (here)." Then at the words of Agastya, the gate-keeper
quick³ and swift presented himself with celerity before the high-souled
Rāghava. And that one versed in polity and emotional expressions, of
worthy ways, possessed of ability and endowed with patience, swiftly
seeing Rāma resembling the full moon in brightness, communicated unto
him the arrival of that supreme of saints—Agastya. Hearing of the
arrival of the anchorets, possessed of the effulgence of the sun
new-risen, he answered the warder, saying,—"Do thou usher them in,
having regard to their comfort." And seeing the ascetics before him,
Rāma with joined hands worshipped their feet with _arghyas_, and with
regard consecrated a cow unto each, and saluting them with a collected
mind, he ordered seats (for the saints). And having, according to their
rank, seated themselves on gorgeous and superb seats of Kuça or
deer-skins embroidered with gold, those foremost of sages—those mighty
saints, versed in the Vedas,—along with their disciples and leaders,
having (previously) been asked as to their welfare, addressed Rāma,
saying,—"O son of Raghu. O mighty-armed one, complete welfare is ours.
By good luck it is that we see thee fortunate, with all thy foes
finished. By good luck it is that, O king, Rāvana—destroyer of
creatures—hath been slain by thee. Sure, O Rāma, it was no great matter
for thee (to slay) Rāvana along with his sons and grandsons. Furnished
with thy bow, thou canst, without doubt, destroy the three worlds
themselves. By good fortune it is, O Rāma, that Rāvana along with his
sons and grandsons hath been slain by thee. By good fortune it is that
to-day we see thee victorious along with Sitā, and, O righteous-souled
one, with thy brother, Lakshmana, (ever) compassing thy profit. (By good
fortune it is) that, O king, to-day we behold (thee) in company with thy
mothers and thy brothers. By good fortune it is that those
night-rangers, Prahasta, and Vikata, and Virupāksha, and Mahodara, and
the unconquerable Akampana, have all been slain (by thee). By good
fortune it is, O Rāma, that he than whose proportions there are no
other’s greater on earth,—even Kumbhakarna, was brought down (by thee).
By good luck it is, O Rāma, that those highly powerful night-rangers.
Triçiras and Atikāya and Devāntaka and Narāntaka, have been slain by
thee. By good luck it is that thou hadst been encountered in a
hand-to-hand combat with that foremost of Rākshasas, incapable of being
slain by the celestials themselves; and achieved victory (ultimately).
To defeat Rāvana in battle was (for thee) a small matter; but it is a
piece of good fortune that Rāvana’s son, who had confronted thee for
combat, hath been slain (by thee) in battle. By good fortune it is that
thou, O mighty-armed one, hadst been liberated from (the bonds of) that
foe of the celestials whose course resembled that of Time⁴;—and that
thou also hadst secured victory. Hearing of the destruction of Indrajit,
we congratulate thee (on thy success). He was incapable of being slain
by all creatures, and in battle possessed mighty powers of illusion.
Hearing that Indrajit slain, amazement hath seized us all. Having
conferred on us this holy freedom from fear, O Kākutstha, O repressor of
enemies, thou through good fortune, wilt grow in victory." Hearing the
speech of the ascetics of sacred souls, Rāma, coming under the influence
of a mighty wonder, said with joined hands,—"Ye worshipful ones,
wherefore, passing by those exceedingly powerful ones Kumbhakarna and
the night-ranger, Rāvana—do ye praise Rāvana’s son? Wherefore, passing
by Mahodara, and Prahasta, and the Rākshasa—Virupaksha—and Matta, and
Unmatta, and the irrepressible Devāntaka and Narāntaka—redoubtable
heroes all—do ye extoll Rāvana’s son? And wherefore, passing by Atikāya
and Triçiras and Dhumrāksha,—that night-ranger—all endowed with
exceeding prowess,—do you extoll Rāvana’s son? What was his prowess? And
what his strength? And what his might? And by virtue of what cause did
he surpass Rāvana? If I can well hear the same, (do ye tell it me). I by
no means command you. If the thing can bear disclosure, I would hear it.
Pray, speak out. How was Sakra vanquished by him, and how also did he
obtain the boon? And how was the son powerful,—and not his sire—Rāvana?
How could that Rākshasa, surpassing his sire, conquer Sakra in mighty
encounter, and how did he obtain the boon? O foremost of anchorets, do
thou to-day unfold all this unto me, who ask (for the same)."

    ¹ The name of Agastya had before been just specified among the
      incomers; but so it is in the text.—T.

    ² _Ursa Major_, or the great bear, the seven stars of which are the
      souls of as many saints,—Marichi, Atrai, Angiras, Pulastya,
      Pulaha, Kratu and Vasistha.—T

    ³ _Turnam_—according to the commentator, is _mental celerity_, and
      _drutam—physical_. This distinction, however, is seldom, if ever,
      observed by Sanskrit authors.—T.

    ⁴ _i.e._ surpassing perception.—T.


Hearing those words of his, the exceedingly energetic Kumbhayoni spoke
as follows,—"Having regard to his (Indrajit’s) energy and might, I shall
relate unto thee the history of his race, in the light of which thou
wilt perceive why Rāvana’s son had been capable of slaying his enemies,
but could not himself be slain by them. I shall, O Rāghava, describe
unto thee Rāvana’s race and birth, as well as the boon that had been
conferred on him.

"Formerly in the Krita age, O Rāma, there was a Brahmarshi—lord (of
creatures)—son unto Prajāpati, and like unto the very self of the
great-father. His virtues, springing from righteousness and excellency
of character, are past all delineation; I can only say that, forsooth,
he went by the name of Prajāpati’s son. Verily on account of his being
the son of Prajāpati, he was the darling of the deities; as by virtue of
his spotless perfections, that magnanimous one was loved of all
creatures. And on a religious mission that foremost of ascetics,
repairing to the asylum of Trinavindu at the side of the mighty
mountain, Meru, took up his abode there. And with his senses centered on
the study of the Vedas, that righteous-souled one, going to the
hermitage, carried on austerities; but his religious rites were
disturbed by certain girls. And daughters of sages and Pannagas and
those of Rājarshis,—as well as those of Apsarās, sporting, arrived at
that quarter. And on account of every season being genial at that spot
and also of the loveliness of the wood, the damsels, repairing to this
place, ever disport there. And on account of the beauty of that region,
those wenches, coming to where that twice-born one, Pulastya was, used
to sing, to play on instruments, and to dance; and thus those blameless
beauties disturbed the rites of that anchoret practising austerities.
Thereat, the mighty ascetic, waxing wroth, said,—’She that comes within
my kin, shall conceive.’ Hearing the words of the high-souled one, (the
damsels), afraid of a Brāhmana’s curse, ceased to haunt that place. But
Trinavindu’s daughter had not heard anything of all this; and, going to
the asylum, she ranged it fearlessly. And she did not see there any of
her associates come to that spot. And at that time that exceedingly
energetic and mighty sage, Prajāpati’s son, with his soul sanctified
through asceticism, was engaged in the study of the Veda. And, hearing
the sounds of Vaidika recitation, and seeing that storehouse of
asceticism, she had her body turned pale, and signs of pregnancy
displayed themselves. And, seeing that evil befall her, she was wrought
up with anxiety; and, understanding matters, she said,—’What is this?’
And, going to her father’s hermitage, stayed there. And, seeing her in
this condition, Trinavindu said,—’Wherefore is the person that thou
bearest unlike what it used to be?’ Thereat, in woe-begone guise, with
joined hands, his daughter replied unto that one having asceticism for
his riches,—’O father, cause know I none whereby I have come by this
appearance. But, searching for my associates, I had ere this alone
repaired to the noble asylum of the Maharshi Pulastya of a purified
spirit. But associate found there I none, that had come thither. And
seeing this change for the worse of my form, I from fear have come
hither.’ Thereat the Rajarshi, Trinavindu, having a live effulgence
through asceticism, entered into contemplation, and saw the consequence
of the sage’s act. And coming to know that curse of the Maharshi of a
purified spirit, he, taking his daughter, went to Pulastya and said,—’O
worshipful one, O mighty sage, do thou accept this daughter of mine,
adorned with her native perfections, who of herself hath come to thee as
alms.⁵ She will, without doubt, constantly tend thee, practising
asceticism, and having thy senses fatigued.’ When that virtuous (sage)
had said this, the twice-born Rajarshi, desirous of accepting the girl
(after due nuptial rites), said unto the former,—’Well!’ Having given
away his daughter, the king went (back) to his asylum; and the girl
stayed there, gratifying her husband with her virtues. And that best of
ascetics was gratified with her character and behavior. And well pleased
(with her), that highly energetic one said,—’O thou of shapely hips,
well-pleased am I with thee with thy wealth of worth, and therefore, O
exalted one, I will to-day confer on thee a son like unto thyself, who
will perpetuate both the lines⁶—being celebrated as Paulastya. And as
thou hadst heard the Veda recited by me, so, without doubt, he shall be
named _Viçravā_.’⁷ Thus addressed, that noble damsel with her soul
wrought up with delight, in a short time brought forth her son _Viçravā_
famed over the three worlds and furnished with virtue and fame; versed
in the Vedas, of an impartial spirit, and ever engaged in observing
vows. And the ascetic, _Viçravā_, was furnished with asceticism even
like his sire."

    ⁵ Compare Lear:—’Let your study be to content your lord who hath
      received you at fortune’s _alms_.’—Act I., Scene I., lines 67—69.

    ⁶ _i.e._ maternal and paternal lines.

    ⁷ From the root, _Sru—to hear_.


"And Pulastya’s son—that prime of ascetics—Viçravā—in a short time was
engaged in asceticism like his father. And he was truthful, and of
excellent character and controlled senses; was ever engaged in the study
of the Vedas; and was of a sanctified spirit; and he was not addicted to
any of the pleasures of life, and was always studious of religion.
Learning of his ways, that mighty ascetic, Bharadwāja, gave unto Viçravā
for his wife, his own daughter, Devavarnini. And having religiously wed
Bharadwāja’s daughter, that foremost of ascetics, Viçravā, conceiving
the highest delight, began to reflect on the welfare of his offspring
with an intelligence concentrated on them. And on her that one cognizant
of righteousness begot a child, exceedingly wonderful, endowed with
energy, and adorned with all Brahmā⁸ qualities. On his having been born,
his grand-father was rejoiced, and, marking the profitable intelligence
(of the boy, he thought that) he would be the lord of riches. And
well-pleased, (Pulastya) in company with the Devarshis
(thought),—’Inasmuch as this is Viçravā’s offspring, and as he resembles
Viçravā himself, so he should be known by the name of Vaiçravana. And
then the exceedingly energetic Vaiçravana, repairing to the wood of
asceticism, increased (in power) like unto a fire fed by sacrificial
oblations. And as he was staying in the hermitage, that high-souled one
thought,—’I shall practise prime righteousness: verily virtue is the
supreme way.’ And for a thousand years, he, having his senses
controlled, practised rigid austerities in that mighty forest, observing
(all the while) the most rigorous restrictions. And on a thousand years
having been numbered, he by turns observed the rules relative to each
term; (at first) living on water, (then) on air, and (last) going
absolutely without any fare. Thus passed away a thousand years like one.
And then the highly energetic Brahmā along with Indra and the
celestials, coming to that asylum, addressed (Vaiçravana), saying,—’O
child, I am well-pleased with thee for this act of thine, O thou of
excellent vows. Do thou, good betide thee, ask for the boon (that thou
wouldst have), for, O magnanimous one, thou art worthy of a boon. 9 Then
Vaiçravana said unto the great-father, who was present,—’O reverend one,
I crave for the power of maintaining and protecting people.’ Thereat,
Brahmā along with the deities gladly said in a gratified spirit,—’Very
well! I am about to create the fourth of the Protectors of
creatures—Yama, Indra and Varuna,—the position which is sought for by
thee. Do thou, O thou cognizant of righteousness, attain the same; do
thou receive the position of the lord of riches. Thou shalt be the
fourth among Sakra, the lord of waters, etc. And do thou take for thy
vehicle this car, named Pushpaka, resembling the Sun himself, and thus
raise thyself to an equality with the celestials. Good betide thee! We
shall (now) go whither we had come, having, my child, done my duty and
bestowed on thee the couple of boons.’ Having said this, Brahmā along
with the celestials went to his own quarters. On the deities with Brahmā
at their head, having departed for the heavenly regions, the
self-possessed lord of wealth of subdued senses with joined hands spoke
unto his sire, saying,—’O reverend one, I have received the wished-for
boon from the great-father, but the exalted lord of creatures hath not
fixed any abode for me. Therefore, O lord, do thou seek out some
dwelling for me, where no creature whatever can come by misfortune.’
Thus accosted by his son, that best of ascetics, Viçravā, spoke, O
righteous one,—’Listen! O excellent one. On the shore of the Southern
sea there is a mount named Trikuta. On its brow is a beautiful and broad
city built by Viçwakarmā, named Lankā, resembling the city itself of
Indra the great, designed for the abode of Rākshasas,—like unto the
Amaravati of Indra. There in Lankā, do thou, forsooth, reside. That
romantic city is surrounded with a golden wall and a moat, and is
furnished with engines and weapons; and hath gateways of gold and
lapises. Formerly she was renounced by the Rākshasas afflicted with the
fear of Vishnu; and was empty of swarms of Rakshas, who had gone to the
nethermost regions. Now Lankā is vacant,—and there is no one that lords
it over her. Do thou, my child, for abode, at thine ease repair thither.
Thy stay there shall meet with no rub, and no manner of disturbance
shall occur there.’ Hearing the righteous speech of his sire, that
virtuous-souled one along with thousands of delighted and joyous
Rākshasas, began to reside in Lankā stationed on the top of the mount.
In a short time (Lankā), through his sway, abounded (in wealth). And
that foremost of Nairitas, the righteous son of Viçravā, well-pleased,
abode in Lankā having the Ocean for her entrenchment. At times the
righteous-souled lord of riches, mounted on Pushpaka, in humble guise
visited his father and mother. And hymned by hosts of deities and
Gandharvas, having his mansion graced with the dancing of Apsarās, and
floating on rays like the sun himself, that ruler of riches went to his

    ⁸ Such as self-control, asceticism, purity, etc.


Hearing the words uttered by Agastya, Rāma wondered as to how formerly
Rākshasas were generated in Lankā. And then shaking his head, he, struck
with wonder, momentarily eying Agastya, addressed Agastya resembling
fire, saying,—"O worshipful one, hearing thy words that formerly Lankā
had been in the possession of the flesh-eaters, I have been seized with
great amazement. We had heard that the Rākshasas had sprung in the race
of Pulastya. But now thou hast said that they owe their origin to a
different source. But were they more powerful than Rāvana and
Kumbhakarna and Prahasta and Vikata and the sons of Rāvana? Who was
their progenitor? And what was the name of that one of terrific
strength? And through what transgression were they driven out by Vishnu?
All this, O sinless one, do thou tell me in detail, and do thou dispell
my curiosity even as the sun dispells darkness."

Hearing Rāghava’s words, fair and fraught with polished phrase and
period, Agastya, struck with surprise, said unto Rāghava,—"The lord of
creatures sprung from water, first created water. And the lotus-born one
generated creatures for protecting that element. And thereupon those
creatures humbly presented themselves before the creator, saying,—’What
shall we do? We are sore tried by hunger and thirst.’ The lord of
creatures, laughing, addressed them, saying,—’Ye men, do ye carefully
guard this (water).’ Thereat some said ’Rakshāma,’⁹ and others
’Yakshāma.’¹⁰ Thus accosted by those afflicted with hunger and thirst,
the creator said,—’Those among you who have said ’Rakshāma,’ shall be
Rākshasas; and those among you who have said ‘Yakshāma,’ shall be
Yakshas. And there sprang the brothers—repressors of foes—Heti and
Praheti—lords of Rākshasas, resembling Madhu Kaitava himself. Praheti,
who was righteous, went to the wood of asceticism. And Heti exerted
himself to the utmost to get himself wived. And that magnanimous one of
immeasurable soul married the exceedingly terrific sister of Kāla, named
Bhaya.¹¹ And on her Heti—foremost of Rākshasas and best of those having
sons—begat a son, known as Vidyutkeça. And Heti’s son, the exceedingly
energetic Vidyutkeça, possessed of the splendour of the sun, grew up
even like a lotus in water. And when that night-ranger arrived at proper
youth, his sire turned his attention towards his marriage. And that best
of Rākshasas—Heti—in the interests of his son asked for the hand of
Sandhyā’s daughter, like unto Sandhyā¹² herself in potency. Sandhyā,
reflecting that she needs must have to be given away by her, bestowed
her on Vidyutkeça, O Rāghava. Having obtained Sandhyā’s daughter, the
night-ranger, Vidyutkeça, sports with her even as Maghavān doth with the
daughter of Pulomā. And it came to pass that after a length of time, O
Rāma, Sāla Katankatā was filled with child by Vidyutkeça, as the clouds
are furnished with water by the Ocean. And then repairing to Mandara,
the Rākshasi brought forth her child, having the splendour of
rain-charged clouds; even as Gangā had delivered herself of the child
begotten by Fire.¹³ And having delivered herself of her offspring, she
again became bent on disporting with Vidyutkeça. And then forsaking her
son, she began to sport with her husband; and the child having sounds
resembling the rumbling of clouds, was renounced (by his mother). And
forsaken by them both, the infant furnished with the brightness of the
autumnal sun, entering his clenched fist into his mouth, began to cry
slowly. And it so fell that, journeying with Pārvati, Siva, riding his
bull through the aerial regions, heard the sounds of weeping. And along
with Umā, he saw the Rākshasa’s son, as he was crying. And sent by
Pārvati, whose heart was moved by compassion, Bhava—destroyer of
Tripurā—made that Rākshasa’s offspring attain the age of his mother, and
conferred on him immortality. And for compassing Pārvati’s pleasure,
Mahādeva, indestructible and undeteriorating, granted (the Rākshasa) the
power of ranging the air. And, O son of the king, Umā also bestowed a
boon: ’Henceforth the Rākshasis shall conceive in a day, bring forth
(child) in a day, and the child shall in a day be furnished with the age
of its mother.’ And then the great and magnanimous Sukeça, puffed up
with the receipt of the boons, having obtained auspiciousness at the
hands of the lord, Hara, began to range everywhere, even as Purandara
did on having obtained heaven."

    ⁹ _i.e._ _We shall protect._

   ¹⁰ _We shall worship._

   ¹¹ _Fear._

   ¹² The evening Twilight, spouse of the Sun.

   ¹³ Maheçwara.


"Seeing Sukeça righteous and furnished with the boon, a virtuous
Gandharva, named Grāmani, of the effulgence of fire, who had a daughter,
called Devavati, like unto a second Sri herself, famed over the three
worlds, and endowed with beauty and youth,—bestowed her on Sukega as if
he had bestowed the goddess of fortune of the Rakshas. And like an
indigent person on obtaining wealth, Devavati, on obtaining her beloved
husband, affluent in consequence of having received the boon, was
(greatly) delighted. And in her company, that night-ranger appeared
graceful, even as a mighly elephant sprung from Anjana¹⁴ doth in the
company of a she-elephant. In good time Sukeça, O Rāghava, begot (on
her) three sons, resembling the three Fires, And that lord of Rākshasas
begot (on her) three sons, resembling his three eyes—the Rākshasas
Malyavān, Sumāli and that foremost of the strong—Māli; all resembling
the three worlds possessing themselves in calmness; like unto the three
Fires established; fierce like unto the three vinntras,—dreadful like
three diseases springing respectively from morbid Air, Bile and
Phlegm.¹⁵ And the sons of Sukeça, having the energy of the three Fires,
grew up like a disease which hath been disregarded. And learning that
their father had received a boon by virtue of his power proceeding from
asceticism, the brothers, firmly resolved, went to Meru for practising
penances. And adopting rigid restrictions, the Rākshasas, O best of
kings, entered upon austerities, terrible, and capable of arousing the
fear of all beings. And practising penances rare on earth with truth and
candour and self-control, they afflicted the three worlds with gods,
Asuras and human beings. Then that lord—the four-faced one—stationed on
a superb car, addressed Sukeça’s sons, saying,—’I am for conferring
boons (on you).’ Knowing that Brahmā surrounded by Indra and the other
celestials was ready to bestow boons, they, with joined hands, said,
trembling like trees, ‘O god that hast been adored through asceticism,
if thou dost intend to confer on us a boon, let us be invincible,
capable of slaying foes, immortal, lordly, and ever devoted to each
other.’ Thereat, saying ‘So be it,’ unto the sons of Sukeça, the lord
Brahmā, (ever) cherishing Brāhmanas with affection, went to the Brahmā
regions. O Rāma, having obtained the boons, those night-rangers,
rendered intrepid in consequence of having the boon conferred on them,
began to disturb celestials and Asuras. And like unto men abiding in
hell, the celestials, Charanas and hosts of sages, being harassed (by
Rakshasas), did not find any deliverer. And then, O foremost of the
Raghus, the Rakshasas, assembled together, joyfully said unto the
undeteriorating Viçwakarmā—prince of artists,—‘Thou by thy own energy
art the architect of the great gods, endowed with energy and prowess and
strength. Do thou, O magnanimous one, construct a fabric for us after
our heart hard by Himavān, or Meru, or Mandara. And do thou erect a
magnificent mansion for us resembling the mansion itself of Maheçwara.’
Thereat Viçwakarmā—the mighty-arm of the Rakshasas—spoke of a building
like the Amarāvati of Sakra, ‘On the shore of the Southern sea is a
mountain named Trikuta. A second also is there called Suvela, ye lords
of Rākshasas. On the midmost peak of that mountain resembling clouds,
inaccessible even to the fowls of the air, all the four quarters have
been hewn with bones.¹⁶ If I am desired by you, I can construct the city
of Lankā (there), having an area of thirty Yojanas, and measuring an
hundred in length; surrounded with a golden wall and furnished with
golden gateways. In her do ye dwell, ye irrepressible ones, ye foremost
of Rākshasas; even as do the celestials with Indra, approaching
Amarāvati, And occupying the citadel of Lankā, backed by innumerable
Rākshasas, ye will be invincible to foes and capable of destroying
them.’ Hearing Viçwakarmā’s speech, those foremost of Rakshasas,
accompanied by thousands of followers, went to the palace and set up in
the same, having a strong wall and a moat, abounding in hundreds of
golden edifices. And obtaining Lankā, the night-rangers, exceedingly
delighted, began to dwell therein. At this time, O Rāghava, there lived
at her pleasure a Gandharvi, named Narmadā. O son of Raghu, she had
three daughters, resembling Sri, Hri, and Kirti in splendour. And albeit
no Rākshasi herself, she, beginning with the eldest, gladly married to
the Rākshasas her daughters having faces resembling the full moon. And
under the influence of the star, Bhagadaivata, those three exalted
daughters of a Gandharvi were respectively conferred by their mother on
the three several Rākshasas of eminence. And having wedded, O Rāma,
Sukeça’s sons began to sport with their wives, like celestials sporting
with Apsarās. Malyavān’s beautiful spouse was named Sundari. On her he
begot, do thou understand, whom;—Vajramusthi, and Virupāksha, and the
Rākshasa—Burmukha,—and Suptaghna, and Yajnakopa, and Matta and Unmatta;
and, O Rāma, there was also born a lovely daughter of Sundari, Analā.
And Sumāli’s wife, of face like the full Moon, named Ketumati, was
dearer to him than his life itself. O mighty king, do thou, gradually,
know the offspring that were begot by Sumāli on Ketumati,—Prahasta, and
Kampana, and Vikata, and Kālikāmukha, and Dhumrāksha, and Danda, and the
redoubtable Supārcwa, and Sanhrādi, and Praghasa, and the Rākshasa,
Bhāsakarna, and Rākā, and Pashpotkatā, and Kaikasi of luminous smiles,
and Kumbhinasi—these are known as the offspring of Sumāli. Māli had for
wife a graceful Gandharvi, having eyes resembling lotus-petals, of a
lovely look, and like unto the most magnificent Yakshi of them all. Do
thou, O master, listen to me as I mention to thee, O Rāghava, the
offspring that Sumāli’s younger brother begat on her,—Anala, and Nila,
and Sampāti. These night-rangers—sons unto Māli—were the courtiers of
Bibhisana. And those three foremost of Rākshasas, accompanied by
hundreds of sons—night-rangers all—elated on account of their
measureless prowess, began to worry the sages and serpents and Yakshas,
and celestials with Indra (at their head). And incapable of being
confronted (in battle), these resembling Death himself in
energy,—wondrous elated in consequence of the boon having been conferred
on them, ranging the world like unto the Wind, were ever engaged in
disturbing the sacrifices (of the sages)."

   ¹⁴ The designation of an elephant.

   ¹⁵ The entire edifice of Hindu Pathology is based on the three-fold
      division of the morbid humours into Air, Bile and Phlegm. This
      division, albeit it may appear crude and unscientific to
      Europeans, taken all, in all, wonderfully answers its purpose. The
      tact displayed by Hindu physicians in diagnosing diseases on this
      method is wonderful. From feeling the Pulse alone, a Hindu
      physician, getting at the predominance of one or more morbid
      humours of the system, can accurately ascertain a patient’s
      health. The infallibility with which predictions of death are
      generally made, attests the scientific soundness of the division
      in question, and renders superfluous any elaborate argument in its

   ¹⁶ Tanka—may also mean a hatchet or a sword.—T,


"Thus afflicted, the deities, sages, and ascetics, wrought up with fear,
sought the protection of that god of gods—Maheçwara—creator and
destroyer of the cosmos,—unborn, of an unmanifest form, the stay of all
creatures, worthy of being adored,—and the supreme preceptor (of all).
And coming to that enemy of Kāma¹⁷ and foe of Tripurā—the three-eyed
(Deity), the gods, with their voices faltering through fear, represented
with joined hands,—’O reverend one, the creatures of the lord of
creatures are being (sorely) troubled by the sons of Sukeça, given to
harassing their foes,—swollen with insolence on account of the boon
conferred on them by the great-father, Our asylums,—constituting our
refuges,—have been divested of their power of granting shelter; and
driving off the deities from the etherial regions, they are sporting
there like the immortals. ’I am Vishnu!’ ’I am Rudra!’ ’I am the king of
the celestials!’ ’I am Yama!’ ’I am Varuna!’ ’I am the Moon!’ ’I am the
Sun!’—flattering themselves in this fashion, Māli and Sumāli and the
Rākshasa—Malyavān—as well as those going before them, are annoying (the
gods), breathing exhilaration of martial spirits. Therefore, god, it
behoveth thee to liberate us from fear, who have been greatly tormented
by it. Do thou, assuming thy terrific form, slay the thorns of the
celestials." Thus addressed by the immortals in a body, that lord,
Kaparddi of red-blue hue, reflecting that it would be wrong for him to
destroy Sukeça (with his own hands), spoke unto the gods:—"I shall not
slay them, ye gods; they are incapable of being slain by me. But I shall
unfold unto you the way in which they will be destroyed. Do ye, ye
Maharshis, in the heat of this affair, seek the shelter of Vishnu. That
lord will slay them." Thereat, saluting Maheçwara with the sounds of
_Jaya_, (the celestials) afflicted with the fear of the night-rangers,
presented themselves before Vishnu. And bowing down unto the god holding
the conch, discus and mace, and paying him high homage, they, greatly
flurried, addressed him about the sons of Sukeça, saying,—"O god, by
virtue of the boon (that hath been bestowed on them), resembling the
three fires, Sukeça’s three sons, assailing us, have deprived us of our
abode. There is a city named Lankā, stationed on the top of Trikuta,
(extremely) difficult of entrance. Taking up their station at that
place, the night-rangers in a body pursue us. Do thou, O slayer of
Madhu, destroy them for our welfare. We have sought thy shelter. Become
our refuge, O foremost of celestials. Do thou dedicate to Yama the
lotuses of their faces, severed (in pieces) with thy discus. Save thee,
we have none who can, while tormented with fright, inspire us with
courage. Slay in encounter the elated Rākshasas along with their
adherents; and even as the sun drieth up dew, do thou dispell this fear
of ours." Thus accosted by the deities, that god of gods—Janārddana—who
bringeth fear unto foes—cheering up the celestials, said unto them,—"I
know the Rākshasa, Sukeça, as flushed with the boon bestowed by Içāna.
And I also know his sons, of whom Malyavān is the eldest. Those worst of
Rākshasas that have over-riden your dignity will I, wrought up with
wrath, slay (in battle); therefore, ye gods, be of good cheer." Thus
addressed by the mighty Vishnu, the gods, highly rejoiced, went to their
respective quarters, extolling Janārdana.

"And hearing of the activity of the celestials, the
night-ranger—Malyavān—addressed his heroic brothers, saying,—’The
immortals and sages, going to Sankara, spake these words, desirous of
our destruction,—The terrific sons of Sukeça, puffed up, and swollen on
account of their strength flowing from the boon, are crossing us at
every step. We have been overpowered by the Rākshasas. And, O lord of
creatures, from fear of those wicked-minded ones, we cannot remain in
our own homes. Therefore, to do us good, do thou, O three-eyed one,
destroy them; and, O best of consuming ones, do thou with thy roars,
burn them up.—Thus addressed by the deities, the slayer of Andhaka,
hearing their speech, said, shaking his head and hands,—Ye gods,
Sukeça’s sons are incapable of being slain by me in battle. But I shall
tell you the means whereby they may be slain. Do ye seek the shelter of
him who holdeth the discus and mace in his hands, and who is clad in a
yellow attire,—of Janārdana, Hari, even of the auspicious
Nārāyana.—Having received this counsel of Hara, they, rendering
reverence unto that enemy of Kāma, came to the abode of Nārāyana and
communicated everything unto him. Then Nārāyana spoke unto the
celestials with Indra at their head,—I will slay those foes of the
celestials. Ye gods, cast off all fear!—O foremost of Rākshasas, Hari
promised unto the frightened celestials that he would slay us. Therefore
do ye think as to what is fit. Hiranyakaçipu hath met with death (at the
hands of Hari), as also other enemies of the immortals. And Namuchi and
Kālanemi, and that foremost of heroes,—Sanhrāda—and Rādheya, and
Vahumāyi, and the virtuous Lokapāla, and Yāmala, and Arjuna, and
Hārdikya, and Sumbha and Niçumbhaka,—Asuras and Dānavas endowed with
strength and possessed of terrific prowess—all these, who, having come
to the field, had never been heard of as worsted, who had performed
hundreds of sacrifices, who had been well skilled in illusion, who had
been versed in every branch of knowledge, and who were the terrors of
their foes—have by hundreds and by thousands been destroyed by Nārāyana.
Learning this, it behoveth you to do what would conduce to the behoof of
all. It is a sore task to defeat Nārāyana, who wisheth to slay us.’
Thereat Sumāli and Māli, hearing the words of Mālyavān, said unto their
eldest brother, like the Acwins addressing Vāsava,—’We have studied,
performed sacrifices, practised charity, and obtained riches; and
attaining long health and long life, we have established sterling
righteousness in our path. And with arms plunging into the sea of
celestials, we have conquered our unrivalled enemies. Therefore, we have
no fear touching death. Even Nārāyana and Rudra, Sakra and Yama, ever
fear to stay before us (in the field). And, O lord of Rākshasas, there
is no occasion for Vishnu’s displeasure of us. The mind of Vishnu hath
wavered in consequence of the evil caused by the celestials. Therefore
will we even avenge ourselves on the gods, from whom hath sprung this
wrong.’ Having taken counsel together, those powerful ones conciliated
their forces. And proclaiming (their order) that preparations were to be
made, all the foremost Nairitas sallied forth for battle, like unto
those led by Jamva and Vritra. And, O Rāma, having thus taken counsel
together, with all the preparations complete, those huge-bodied and
redoubtable Rakshas marched forth for conflict, mounted on cars, and
elephants, and horses resembling elephants, and mules, and kine, and
camels, and purpoises,¹⁸ and serpents, _makaras_, and tortoises, and
fishes, and fowls resembling Garuda himself, lions and tigers and boars
and _Srimaras_¹⁹ and _Chāmaras_.²⁰ And puffed up with pride of prowess,
the Rakshas march, leaving Lankā, and the enemies of the celestials went
to the heavenly regions for battle. And perceiving the destruction of
Lankā at hand, those deities that had taken up their quarters there,
everywhere were struck with fear and felt their spirits depressed. And
mounting the best of cars, the Rākshasas by hundreds and thousands with
intent minds swiftly sallied forth for the celestial regions. And the
deities (aforementioned) followed the tract of the Rākshasas. And at the
command of Kāla, terrible evil omens foreshadowing the destruction of
the Rākshasa-chiefs began to arise on the earth well as in the sky. The
clouds showered down bones and hot blood. The oceans overleapt their
continents;²¹ and the mountains shook. And jackals of terrific forms,
having voices resembling the roaring of clouds,—bursting out into a
horse-laugh, began to emit cries frightfully. Creatures were one after
another seen to drop down; and mighty swarms of vultures, with mouths
belching forth flames, began to wheel over the Rākshasa, like unto Kāla
himself. And blood-footed pigeons and Sārikās²² darted off (around). And
crows and two-legged cats began to cry in loud accents. But fast bound
with the noose of Death, the Rākshasas, proud of their strength,
disregarding these omens, march on, and do not stay their
course,—Mālyavān and Sumāli possessed of prodigious strength, going
before the Rākshasas, like flaming fires. And even as the gods take
refuge under Dhata, the night-rangers take refuge under Malyavān
resembling the mountain, Malyavān. And under the command of Māli, that
host of Rākshasas, roaring like mighty clouds, inspired with the desire
of victory, went to the celestial regions. And the lord Nārāyana,
hearing of the preparations of the Rākshasas from a celestial messenger,
set his heart on fight. And equipped with weapons and quivers, he
mounted on Vinata’s offspring.²³ And donning on his mail furnished with
the effulgence of a thousand suns, fastening his spotless quivers filled
with shafts, being engirt with his waist-band and bright falchion, and
equipped with his conch, discus, mace, _Sārnga_,²⁴ sword, and other
superior weapons, that lotus-eyed lord, seated on Vinata’s offspring
like a very mountain, set out speedily for compassing the destruction of
the Rākshasas. And seated on Suparna’s²⁵ back, the blue-brown Hari clad
in yellow attire resembled a mass of clouds on the crest of the golden
mountain, with lightning playing through it. And hymned by Siddhas and
celestials and sages and mighty (semi-divine) serpents and Gandharvas
and Yakhas, the enemy of the Asura hosts presented himself, bearing in
his hands the discus, sword, that weapon—_Sārnga_—and the conch. And the
Rākshasa-hosts, struck by the wind produced by the wings of Suparna,
with their pennons swinging to and fro and their weapons scattered
about, quaked like the blue summit of a mountain with its crags tossed
about. Then the night-rangers, hemming in Mādhava,²⁶ began to pierce him
with thousands of excellent sharpened weapons dyed in flesh and blood,
and resembling the fire of Doomsday."

   ¹⁷ The Hindu Cupid. Mahādeva had burnt to ashes Kāma, when he had the
      fool-hardiness to disturb the contemplation of the former. By the
      way, Kālidāsa has reared his faery fabric, entitled _Kumāra
      Sambhava_, on the basis of this legend.—T.

   ¹⁸ How purpoises could be pressed into the service passes my
      conception, unless _Siçumāra_ have any other meaning.—T.

   ¹⁹ Wilson gives the meanings: (i) ’a kind of animal’ and (2) ’a young

   ²⁰ _Bos Grunniens._

   ²¹ Used in the Shakesperean sense: _Vide Macbeth_.

   ²² A species of harlot.

   ²³ Garuda, Nārāyana’s vehicle.

   ²⁴ The bow of Vishnu is so named.

   ²⁵ Lit. _fair-feathered_—a name of Garuda.

   ²⁶ One of the many designations of Vishnu,


"And as clouds assail a mountain with showers, then the Rākshasas,
representing clouds, setting up shouts, began to assail Nārāyana
representing a mountain. And Vishnu of a bright brown-blue hue, being
surrounded by the flower of the night-rangers with dark visages,
resembled the mountain, Anjana, on which the clouds pour down. And as
locusts (flood) a field, gnats (throng) about a flame, gad-flies
(cluster) around a pot of honey, or _makaras_ (range) the deep, so the
shafts shot by the bows of the Rakhas, having (the energy of) the
thunder-bolt and endowed with (the velocity of) the wind or thought,
pierce Hari as if at the universal dissolution. And those mounted on
cars (assailed him) with their cars, and those mounted on the backs of
elephants (assailed him) with their elephants, and those riding horses
(assailed him) with their horses, and the foot-soldiers attacked him,
stationed in the sky; and the foremost of Rākshasas resembling
mountains, by means of darts, _rishtis_ and _tomaras_, suspended the
respiration of Hari even as the _prānāyāma_²⁷ doth that of a twice-born
one. On being sore tried by the night-rangers, like the great Ocean by
the fishes (residing in it), that invincible one, taking his _Sārnga_,
showered shafts among the Rākshasas. And with sharpened arrows
resembling the thunder, and endowed with the velocity of the wind, shot
from his bow drawn to its fullest stretch, Vishnu cut off (Rākshasas) by
hundreds and by thousands. And dashing away (the Rākshasa ranks) with
his arrowy shower, even as the wind aroused dasheth away a downpour,
that best of male beings blew his mighty conch—Pānchajanya. And winded
by Hari with his utmost might, that water-sprung king of conchs, endowed
with terrific blares, roared, as if afflicting the three worlds. And the
sounds of that king of conchs struck terror into the Rākshasas, even as
in a mighty forest a lion (strikes terror into the hearts of) elephants
in rut. And thereat the horses could not keep their ground, and the
elephants were reft of their temporal flow, and shorn of their virtue at
the roars of the conch, heroes began to topple down from their cars. And
dight with dainty feathered parts having heads, the shafts discharged
from the _Sārnga_, resembling thunder-bolts, riving those Rakshas,
entered the earth. And in that conflict, pierced by the arrows
discharged from Nārāyana’s arm, the Rākshasas began to drop to the
ground like mountains struck with the thunder-bolt. And the wounds on
the persons of the foes inflicted by the discus of Vishnu discharge
blood in streams, like mountains discharging streams of red chalk. And
the sounds of that king of conchs, as well as those of the _Sārnga_,
combined with the roars emitted by Vishnu himself, swallowed up the
roars of the Rākshasas. And Hari by means of his shafts cut off their
necks, and arrows, and standards, and bows, and cars, and ensigns, and
quivers. And like fierce rays streaming about from the sun, like
torrents dashing from the ocean, like elephants coming down a mountain,
or like showers descending from clouds, the shafts shot by Nārāyana
pursue (the foes) by hundreds and by thousands. And even as an elephant
pursueth a tiger, a tiger a wolf, a wolf a dog, a dog a cat, a cat a
snake, or a snake a rat, so the mighty Vishnu pursueth the Rākshasa
host; and others, (struck down by him), measure their lengths on the
ground. Then, having despatched thousands of Rākshasas, the destroyer of
Madhu blew his water-sprung (conch), even as the sovereign of the
celestials filleth clouds (with rain). And agitated by the arrows of
Nārāyana, with their senses bewildered by the blares of the conch, the
broken Rākshasa forces made for Lankā. And on the Rākshasa army having
been broken in consequence of the beating it got at the hands of
Nārāyana, Sumāli with showers of shafts resisted Hari in the encounter;
and as a mist envelopes the Sun, he enveloped him (with his arrows).
Thereat, the Rākshasas again summoned up their fortitude. And fired with
rage, that Rākshasa, inflated with insolence on account of his strength,
setting up a tremendous roar, darted at his antagonist in the conflict,
thereby seeming to revive the Rākshasas. And as an elephant flourishes
its trunk, that Rākshasa, lifting up his arm adorned with ornaments,
began to roar from rapture, like a mass of clouds lighted up with
lightning. And (Vishnu) cut off the head flaming with ear-rings of the
charioteer of the shouting Sumāli; and thereat the horses of that
Rākshasa aimlessly strayed hither and thither. And with his bewildered
steeds Sumāli wanders like a person deprived of patience, whose senses
are under a hallucination. And on Sumāli’s car being drawn at random by
his steeds, Māli, taking his bow and equipped therewith, darted at
Vishnu’s car and assailed that mighty-armed one as he was descending on
the field of fight. And like birds entering the Krauncha,²⁸ the arrows
discharged from Māli’s bow, graced with gold, hit Hari and entered (into
his body). And thereat, as a person holding his senses under subjection
is not thrown out of his mental balance, Vishnu, assailed in that
encounter with thousands of arrows shot by Māli, was not disturbed ever
so little. And then that creator of all beings, the reverend
Gadādhara,²⁹ twanging his bow-string, showered vollies of shafts on
Māli. And getting at Māli’s body, the arrows furnished with the
luminousness of lightning, drink his blood, like unto serpents drinking
nectar. And baffling Māli, the holder of the conch, discus, and mace,
brought down Māli’s crown, standard, bow and steeds. And then that
foremost of night-rangers, on being deprived of his car, sprang forward,
mace in hand, even as a lion bounds up from the brow of a hillock. And
he with his mace smote at the forehead of that lord of birds, even as
the Destroyer had smitten Içāna,³⁰ or as Indra smiteth a mountain with
his thunder-bolt. On being severely struck by Māli with his mace,
Garuda, writhing in torments, moved the god away from the field of
battle. On the god having been removed from the field by Māli as well as
Garuda, there arose a mighty din of Rakshas roaring (in chorus). And
hearing the cheers of the Rakshas, Indra’s younger brother, the reverend
Hari, sitting awry on that lord of birds, albeit moved off from the
scene of conflict, waxing enraged, from a desire of slaying (Māli)
hurled his disc at him. And thereat the disc, possessed of the splendour
of the solar disc, and resembling the wheel³¹ itself of Kāla, flooding
all the heavens with radiance, brought down Māli’s head to the ground.
And that head of the lord of Rākshasas, terrific to behold, on being cut
off (by Vishnu), vomitting blood, fell down before (the Rākshasas), as
formerly Rāhu’s head’ had fallen. And then the deities experiencing
excess of joy set up leonine cheers with might and main,
crying,—’Excellent, O god.’ Seeing Māli slain, Sumāli and Malyavān,
burning in grief, fled precipitately towards Lankā along with their
forces. And Garuda, being cheered, turned round, and growing enraged, as
before drove the Rākshasas with the wind of his wings. And (some) with
their lotus-faces cut by the discus, (some) with their chests crushed
with the mace, (some) with their necks torn off by the plough, (some)
with their heads riven by the club, and some hewn by the sword, and
others pierced by arrows, the Rākshasas began to drop fast from the sky
into the waters of the ocean. And as the thunder-bolt with lightning
(riveth) a mighty mass of clouds, Nārāyana by means of the thunder-bolts
of his arrows discharged from his bow, rived the night-rangers with
their hair dishevelled and streaming (in the wind). And the forces
having their umbrellas rent, their arms falling off, their goodly
garments scattered, their entrails coming out and their eyes
rolling,—became incapable of distinguishing their own party from that of
the foe. And even like (the roars and the vehemence) displayed by
elephants on being attacked by lions, the roars and the vehemence of the
night-rangers and their elephants, sore assailed by the Primaeval
Lion,³² were equal. And driven by Hari’s networks of arrows, and
discharging (all the while) their own showers of shafts, those
night-rangers resembling the clouds of doom, are driven like the
veritable clouds of the universal dissolution drifted by the wind. And
hewn in twain with swords, the foremost Rākshasas fell like unto hills
(toppling headlong). And the Earth was seen to be (covered) with
night-rangers resembling dark clouds, adorned with jewelled necklaces
and ear-rings,—falling down,—as if covered with dark mountains dropping

   ²⁷ The practice of regulating respiration and finally suspending the
      same. This is practised by the Yogis of India, who attribute
      wonderful virtues to it.—T.

   ²⁸ The mountain so named.

   ²⁹ Lit. _the holder of the mace_, a name of Vishnu.

   ³⁰ There took place an encounter between Rudra and Yama in the Sweta
      forest, for the protection of Mārkandeya and a certain king. In
      this battle, Yama had smitten Rudra. This is narrated in the

   ³¹ The wheel of Kāla or Time, representing the Reaper consists,
      remarks Rāmānuja, of days, months, years, decades, centuries,
      aeons, _etc._—T.

   ³² Vishnu as a _man-lion_ had formerly taken the conceit out of
      Hiranyakaçipu—the Asura king—and slain him, to rid his
      devotee—Prahlāda—of his mortal foe in the form of a father.—T.


"On that host being sore pressed at its back by Padmanābha,³³ Mālyavān
turned back even as the ocean doth on meeting with its shore. And with
his eyes reddened, that night-ranger waxing wroth, shaking his head,
addressed that prime of male persons—Padmanābha,—saying,—’O Nārāyana,
thou art ignorant of the time-honored morality of Kshatriyas; and
therefore like a base wight thou slayest us, desisting from fight and
exercised with fear. O lord of the celestials, he that commits the crime
of slaying one that desists from fight, cannot go to the celestial
regions as the fruit of meritorious acts. If thou art bent upon battle,
O holder of the conch, the discus and the mace, taking up my post
(here), I shall see (thy strength). Do thou show (me) the same.’ Seeing
Mālyavān resembling the mountain, Mālyavān, stay, the powerful younger
brother of the sovereign of the celestials spoke unto him,—’I have
removed the fear of the deities, affrighted at you, by promising that I
will make root and branch work with the Rākshasas; and that same promise
I am now fulfilling. I should always lay down my life for serving the
celestials; and you I will slay even if ye should go to the nethermost
regions.’ As that god of gods having eyes resembling red lotuses was
speaking thus, the lord of Rākshasas in high wrath pierced his breast
with a dart. And hurled by the hand of Mālyavān, the dart resonant with
bells, appeared graceful on Hari’s breast like lightning embosomed in
clouds. Thereat drawing out the same dart, that one dear unto the
Wielder of the Dart,³⁴ having eyes resembling red lotuses, aiming at
Mālyavān, hurled it at him. Thereat the dart discharged by the hand of
Govinda like unto the Dart discharged by the hand of Skanda, rushing
towards the Rākshasa like a meteor coursing towards the Anjana mountain,
descended on the spacious chest of the lord of Rākshasas decked with the
weight of a chain, even as the thunder-clap bursts at the summit of a
mountain. And on having his mail rent, Mālyavān was utterly deprived of
his senses; but (anon) reposing for a while, he again stood like a
moveless hill. Then taking up a javelin made of black iron girt with
many a thorn, he furiously smote that deity on the chest. And that
night-ranger delighting in battle, dealing a box at Vāsava’s younger
brother, moved away to a distance measuring a bow’s length. And now
there arose a mighty tumult in the sky of ’Excellent!’ ’Excellent!’ And
having struck Vishnu, the Rākshasa also hit Garuda. Thereat Vinatā’s
son, growing enraged, drove the Rākshasas away with the wind of his
wings, even as a lusty wind bloweth about sere leaves. And seeing his
elder brother driven by the wind produced by the wing’s of that bird,
Sumāli along with his forces, made for Lankā. And pushed off by the
violence of the wind of (Garuda’s) wings, the Rākshasa Mālyavān also,
joined by his own forces, departed for Lankā, covered with shame. Thus,
O Rāma, O lotus-eyed one, (the Rākshasas) had innumerable warriors
beaten down and their foremost leaders slain. And albeit inflated with
pride, they, incapable of coping with Vishnu, leaving Lankā, went to the
nether regions with their wives for dwelling there. O best of the
Raghus, these Rākshasas of celebrated prowess, related to the race of
Sālakantankatā, remained under the leadership of the Rākshasa Sumāli.
All those exalted Rākshasas going under the name of Paulastya that had
been headed by Sumāli, Malyavān and Māli, were stronger than Rāvana. No
other than the god Nārāyana, holding the conch, the discus and the mace,
could slay those Rākshasas—foes to the celestials and thorns in the side
of the deities. And thou art that eternal god—the four armed
Nārāyana,—the lord, undeteriorating and unconquerable, sprung to
exterminate Rākshasas. The creator of beings—that one ever cherishing
those seeking his refuge—appeareth at times to compass the destruction
of marauders, bringing the religion of people to rack and ruin.³⁵ Thus,
O lord of men, to-day I have truly related unto thee at length the
origin of the Rākshasas. Again, foremost of the Raghus, do thou
understand the matchless birth and potency of Rāvana and his sons
related in detail. And that powerful Rākshasa, Sumāli, afflicted with
the fear of Vishnu, along with his sons and grand-sons for a long time
ranged the nether regions, and the lord of riches resided in Lankā."

   ³³ Lit. _the lotus-naveled_—a name of Vishnu.

   ³⁴ A name of Kārtikeya—the celestial generalissimo.

   ³⁵ This tallies wonderfully with the corresponding view given in the
      Bible. Great men appear in the fullness of time to bring about
      reforms in religion, when, as was the case before the birth of
      Christ, men have wandered farthest from the true path.—T


"After a while the Rākshasa named Sumāli, coming up from the nether
regions, began to range all over the earth. And resembling dark clouds,
that lord of Rākshasas decked in ear-rings of burnished gold, taking his
daughter like unto Sree herself without her lotus, and wandering over
the earth, saw the lord of riches journeying in his Pushpaka, going to
see his sire—that lord, the son of Pulastya. And seeing that one
resembling an immortal and like unto fire, journeying on, (Sumāli)
struck with amazement, entered the nether regions from the earth. And
that mighty-minded one reflected thus,—’By adopting what measure may the
welfare of the Rākshasas be brought about, and how can we increase (in
power)?’ And that great-minded lord of Rākshasas, resembling dark
clouds, decked in burnished ear-rings of gold, then began to reflect.
And then the Raksha addressed his daughter, named Kaikasi, saying,—’O
daughter, the time hath come when I should give thee away. Thy youth is
about to be passed. (Kept back) by the fear of refusal, no suitor hath
sought thee (up to this time). But desirous of acquiring religious
merit, we are striving our best in thy interests. My daughter, thou art
furnished with every perfection like unto Sree herself. The being father
to a daughter is misery to every one that seeketh honor. O daughter, one
doth not know who shall ask for one’s daughter. Wherever may a daughter
be conferred, a daughter stayeth, placing in uncertainty the three
races³⁶ to which she is related. Do thou, my daughter, seek for thy
husband that best and foremost of ascetics sprung in the line of
Prajapati—Pulastya’s son,—Viçrava, and of thyself accept him (for thy
lord). And then, O daughter, even as is this lord of riches, so thou
wilt, without doubt, have sons resembling the Sun himself in energy.’
Hearing that speech of his, the daughter for the sake of the dignity of
her sire, going to where Viçrava was practising penances, stood there.
In the meanwhile, O Rāma, that twice-born one—Pulastya’s son—was
performing the Agnihotra, like the fourth Fire itself. And without
minding that terrific time, (Kaikasi), having regard to the dignity of
her sire, coming up before him, stood (there) hanging her head down
towards his feet and throwing up the earth with her great foe. And
seeing that one of shapely hips, having a face fair as the full Moon,
(that exceedingly high-minded ascetic) flaming in energy accosted her
thus,—’O gentle on, whose daughter art thou? And whence dost thou come
hither? And what is thy errand? And for whom (dost thou come)? O
beauteous (damsel), truly tell me this.’ Thus addressed, the girl, with
joined hands, said,—’O ascetic, thou art competent to get at my intent
by virtue of thy own power. Yet, O Brahmarshi, know me as having come
here at the mandate of my sire. My name is Kaikasi. The rest do thou
read thyself.’ And thereupon, the ascetic, entering into contemplation,
said these words,—’O gentle lady, I have learnt the purpose that is in
thy heart. O thou having the gait of a mad elephant, there reigns a
powerful desire in thee for having offspring. Inasmuch as thou hast come
to me at this fierce hour, hearken, thou amiable one, as to the kind of
offspring that thou shalt bring forth. Thou shalt, O thou of graceful
hips, bring forth terrible and grim-visaged Rākshasas delighting in
frightful friends, and of cruel deeds.’ Hearing his speech, she, bowing
down, said,—’O reverend (ascetic), such sons of terrific ways seek I not
from thee that followest the Veda. Therefore it behoveth thee to favor
me.’ On being thus besought by the girl, Viçrava—best of ascetics—again
addressed Kaikasi, like the full Moon addressing Rohini,³⁷—’O fair-faced
one, the son that thou bringest forth last, shall be like unto my
line,—he shall, without doubt—be righteous-souled.’ Having been thus
accosted, the girl, O Rāma, after a length of time brought forth a very
terrible and hideous offspring having the form of a Raksha,—having ten
necks, furnished with large teeth, and resembling a heap of collyrium,
with coppery lips, twenty arms, huge faces, and flaming hair. On his
having been born, jackals with flaming mouths and other ferocious beasts
began to gyrate on the left. And that god showered down blood; and the
clouds uttered forth harsh sounds. And the Sun was deprived of his
splendour; and meteors began to dart to the earth. And the earth shook;
and the wind swept away violently. And that lord of streams—the ocean,
which was calm before, became agitated. And his sire resembling his
grand-father named him, (saying),—’As this one hath been born with ten
necks, he shall be called Ten-necked.’ After him was born Kumbhakarna
endowed with prodigious strength, than whose proportions there are none
other’s on earth. Then was born she that, having a frightful visage,
goeth under the name of Surpanakhā; the righteous Bibhishana is the
youngest son of Kaikasi. On that one endowed with great strength having
been born, blossoms were showered down from heaven; and celestial
kettle-drums were sounded in the heavenly regions. And then there arose
the sounds of ’Excellent!’ ’Excellent!’ And in that extensive forest
those exceedingly energetic ones—Kumbhakarna and the Ten-necked one grew
up,—and became the sources of anxiety to people. And Kumbhakarna,
maddened to the height, devouring mighty saints devoted to religion,
constantly ranged the triune world in a dissatisfied spirit. But the
righteous Bibhishana, ever intent on piety, dwelt there, studying the
Veda, restraining his fare, and controlling his senses. And it came to
pass that after a length of time the god, Vaiçravana—lord of riches—came
to see his sire, mounted on Pushpaka. Seeing him, the
Rākshasi—Kaikasi—flaming up in energy, coming to the Ten-necked one,
represented to him,—’O son, behold thy brother, Vaiçravana, enfolded in
effulgence; and, albeit of equal fraternity, behold thee in this plight!
Therefore, O Ten-necked one, O thou of measureless prowess, do thou so
strive that thou also, my son, may be like Vaiçravana himself. Hearing
that speech of his mother, the powerful Ten-necked one was wrought up
with exceeding great ill-will, and he vowed then,—’I truly promise unto
thee that I will be equal to my brother (in energy), or excel him in it.
Therefore do thou cast off this sorrow that is in thy heart.’ And
influenced by that passion, the Ten-necked one with his younger brother
began to perform rigid acts, with his mind fixed on asceticism. ’I must
through austerities have my wish,’ thus fixed and resolved, he for
compassing his end, came to the sacred asylum of Gokarna. And there the
Rākshasa of unrivalled prowess along with his younger brother carried on
austerities and thus gratified that lord—the great-father. And beings
gratified (with him), he conferred on him boons bringing on victory."

   ³⁶ The races respectively of her father, mother and husband.

   ³⁷ Hesperus.


Then Rāma spoke unto the ascetic,—"O Brāhmana, how did those exceedingly
mighty brothers carry on austerities in that forest; and what kind of
penances were theirs?" Thereat there Agastya said unto Rāma of a
complacent mind,—"The brothers severally observed the morality proper to
each. And Kumbhakarna, putting forth his best energies, constantly abode
in the path of righteousness. And remaining in the midst of five fires
in summer, he practised austerities, and in the rainy season, soaked in
water (poured down) by clouds, he sat in the heroic attitude.³⁸ And in
winter he always remained in the water. Thus passed away ten thousand
years of that one putting forth exertions in behalf of religion, and
established in the path of honesty. And the virtuous Bibhishana, ever
intent on virtue and pure of spirit, remained standing on one leg for
five thousand years. And when he had completed (his term of
restriction), swarms of Apsarās danced, and blossoms showered, and the
deities hymned (him). And for five thousand years, he adored the Sun,
and with his mind concentrated in the study of the Veda, remained with
his head and hands raised up. In this wise Bibhishana like a deity in
Nandana passed away ten thousand years, observing restrictions. And the
Ten-necked one passed ten thousand years without fare. On a thousand
years being complete, he offered his own head as a sacrifice to Fire. In
this way he passed away nine thousand years; and nine of his heads
entered into Fire. And as in the tenth year he intended to strike off
his tenth head, the Great-father presented himself at that place. And
well-pleased, the Great-father came there along with the celestials. ’O
Ten-necked one,’ said (the Great-father), ’I am well-pleased with thee.
Do thou, O thou cognizant of righteousness, at once ask for the boon
that thou wishest to have. What wish of thine shall I realize? Thy toil
must not go for nothing.’ Thereat, the Ten-necked one, bowing down his
head unto the deity, said with a delighted heart,—his words faltering
with ecstacy,—’O Reverend one, creatures have no other fear than (that
of) death; and enemy there is none that is like unto death. Therefore
immortality is even what I crave for.’ Thus accosted, Brahmā spoke unto
the Ten-necked one,—Thou canst not be immortal. Do thou therefore ask of
me some other boon.’ Thus addressed by the creator, Brahmā, the
Ten-necked one, O Rāma, standing before him with joined hands, said,—’O
lord of creatures, I would, O eternal one, be incapable of being slain
by birds and serpents, Yakshas, Daityas, Dānavas and Rākshasas, and the
deities; for, O thou that art worshipped by the immortals, anxiety I
have none from any other beings. Indeed, I deem as straw creatures such
as men _etc._’ Thus accosted by the Raksha—the Ten-necked one—that
righteous-souled one, the Great-father, along with the celestials,
said,—’O foremost of Rākshasas, what thou sayest shall come to pass.’
Having, O Rāma, said this unto the Ten-necked one, the Great-father
(again spoke),—’Hear! I, having been gratified, will confer on thee a
fresh boon. O Rākshasa, O sinless one, those heads of thine which have
been offered as sacrifices and which have sunk into the fire, shall
again be thine. And, O placid one, I shall also confer on thee another
boon difficult of being obtained,—The form that thou shalt wish to wear,
shall instantly be thine. As soon as the Ten-necked Raksha had spoken
thus, the heads that had been offered as sacrifices into the fire, rose
up again. Having said this unto the Ten-necked one, the Great-sire of
all creatures addressed Bibhishana, saying,—’O Bibhishana, gratified
have I been by thee, whose intelligence is established in righteousness.
Therefore, my child, O righteous-souled one, O thou of excellent vows,
ask for the boon that thou wouldst have.’ Thereat the virtuous
Bibhishana spoke with joined hands,—’O reverend one, since the spiritual
preceptor of all creatures himself (is pleased) with me,—I (deem myself)
as furnished with every perfection, even as the Moon is environed with
rays. If thou wilt bestow on me a boon with pleasure, then, thou of
excellent vows, hear of the boon that I would have. May my mind remain
fast fixed on righteousness, even when I shall happen to fall into high
peril; and may I attain Brahmā knowledge without any instructions! And
may every sense of mine sprung during the observance of particular modes
of life, be in unison with righteousness,—so that I may practise the
form of religion (in harmony with any particular mode of life!) O
exceedingly noble one, this best of boons, is even what is sought for by
me, for nothing in this world is incapable of being attained by those
attached to righteousness.’ Then the lord of creatures, being again
delighted, spoke unto Bibhishana,—’As thou art virtuous, so all this
shall come to pass on thy behalf. And inasmuch as in spite of thy having
been born in the Rākshasa race, thy thoughts, O destroyer of enemies, do
not originate in sin, I confer on thee immortality.’ Having said this,
he intended to grant boons unto Kumbhakarna. Thereat the celestials in a
body represented to the lord of creatures with joined hands,—’On
Kumbhakarna thou shouldst confer no boons, since thou knowest in what
manner doth this wicked-minded one frighten people. And, O Brahman,
seven Apsarās in Nandana, ten attendants of Mahendra, as well as sages
and human beings, have been devoured by this one. Considering what this
Rākshasa did when he had not obtained any boon whatever, if he obtain
one now he shall eat up the three worlds. Do thou then, O lord having
immeasurable prowess, pretending to give him a boon, give stupifaction
(instead). Thereby the welfare of people would be secured, and the honor
of this one too shall be maintained.’ Thus addressed by the celestials,
Brahmā, the Lotus-sprung one, pondered. The goddess, Saraswati, who was
by his side was also agitated with anxiety. And remaining by him,
Saraswati with joined hands observed,—‘O god, I have come here. What
work shall I accomplish?’ And the lord of creatures, on having her,
spake unto ’Saraswati,—‘O Vāni!³⁹ be thou the goddess of speech of this
foremost of Rākshasas,⁴⁰ favorable unto the deities. Having said,—‘So be
it,’ she entered (within Kumbhakarna’s throat); and Prajāpati said,—‘O
Kumbhakarna, O mighty-armed one, do thou ask for the boon that thou
wouldst have. Hearing those words, Kumbhakarna said,—‘O god of gods, my
wish is that I may sleep for a good many years.’ Thereupon, saying,—‘So
be it,’ Brahmā along with the celestials went away; and the goddess,
Saraswati, also again left the Rākshasa. And on Brahmā accompanied by
the deities going to the celestial regions, he was renounced by
Saraswati, and then he regained his consciousness. And then the
wicked-minded Kumbhakarna sorrowfully thought,—‘What is this speech that
has to-day come out from my lips? Meseems I had then been stupified by
the deities that had come.’ Having thus obtained the boons, the brothers
endowed with flaming energy, going to the Sleshmātaka wood, began to
dwell there peacefully."

   ³⁸ Hindu Yogis practise various attitudes, which are favorable to the
      regulation of respiration.—T.

   ³⁹ Lit. word, a designation of Saraswati.

   ⁴⁰ i.e. preside over Kumbhakarna’s speech while asking for the
      boon,—and let him, through thy power, ask for such a gift as may
      turn out profitable to the gods.—T.


"Learning that these night-rangers had obtained boons, Sumāli with his
followers, casting off fear, rose up from the nether regions. And
wrought up with exceeding great wrath, the counsellors of that
Raksha—Māricha and Prahasta and Virupāksha and Mahodara—also rose up.
And accompanied by his counsellors—foremost of Rākshasas—Sumāli
presenting himself before the Ten-necked one and embracing him,
addressed him, saying,—‘By good fortune it is, O child, that through
thee we have had the wish that was in our heart, inasmuch as thou hast
received the best of boons from him that is the foremost in all these
three worlds. O mighty-armed one, that great fear arising from Vishnu,
from which leaving Lankā, we had gone to the nethermost abysses, hath
been removed. Full many a time, brought down by that fear, we, on being
pursued (by our enemies), forsaking our homes, had gone to the nether
regions along with all those (related to us). This Lankā was our city,
inhabited by Rākshasas. (Now) it is inhabited by thy brother—the
intelligent lord of riches. O mighty-armed one, if thou canst through
self-control or charity or by a sudden display of prowess, repossess
thyself of the same, a (great) thing shall have been achieved; and then,
O child, thou shouldst, without doubt, be the lord of Lankā; and this
Rākshasa race, which hath sunk, shall have been raised up by thee. And,
O thou endowed with prodigious strength, thou shalt be the lord of all.’
Then the Ten-necked one addressed his maternal grand-father, who was
present, saying,—‘The lord of riches is our superior; therefore thou
ought not to speak thus.’ On that dignified Rākshasa-chief having
through moderation thus passed it by, that Raksha, understanding his
intent, did not then say anything more. And it came to pass that when
Rāvana had resided there for a time, Prahasta addressed him in a humble
speech,—’O Ten-necked one, O long-armed (hero), it doth not behove thee
to speak thus. Fraternal feeling there is none among heroes. Listen to
these words of mine! There were two sisters—Aditi and Diti. And mutually
attached to each other, those (damsels) endowed with surpassing beauty,
became the wives of that lord of creatures—Kaçyapa. And Aditi brought
forth the gods,—who are the lords of the three worlds. And Diti gave
birth to the Daityas,—offspring of Kaçyapa. O thou cognizant of
righteousness, formerly this earth, O hero, having the ocean for her
garment, and furnished with mountains, belonged to the Daityas; and
(gradually) they grew very powerful. And then this undeteriorating
triune world was brought under the dominion of the celestials. So that
thou art not the only one that would act inimically (to thy brother);
but this course had formerly been pursued by both the celestials and the
Asuras. Therefore do thou act in conformity with my word.’ Thus
exhorted, the Ten-necked one, with a delighted heart, reflecting for a
moment, said, ‘Very well.’ And wrought up with delight, the Ten-necked
one endowed with prowess the very same day went to the forest,
accompanied by the night-rangers. And arriving at Trikuta, that one
skilled in speech—the night-ranger, Rāvana—sent Prahasta in the capacity
of an ambassador: ‘O Prahasta, hie thee; and tell the foremost of
Nairitas—the lord of riches—in my words informed with mildness,—This
city of Lankā, O king, belongs to the high-souled Rakshasas; but thou
hast established thyself in her. This, O sinless one, is not proper for
thee. Therefore, O thou of unrivalled prowess, if thou shouldst render
the same (back), I shall be highly gratified; and righteousness also
thou wilt maintain.—’ Thereupon, repairing to Lankā, well-protected by
the giver of riches, Prahasta communicated these words unto the highly
generous ruler of riches,—‘O thou of excellent vows, I have been sent to
thee by thy brother, the Ten-necked one, O long-armed one, O foremost of
those versed in all branches of learning, do thou listen to my words, O
lord of wealth,—and what the Ten-faced one says,—This beautiful city, O
thou furnished with expansive eyes, was formerly inhabited by Rākshasas
of dreadful prowess headed by Sumāli; and for that reason, O son of
Viçrava, he asks thee this. Do thou, my child, grant this unto him, who
is humbly begging for it.’—Hearing these words from Prahasta, the god
Vaiçravana, best of those skilled in speech, answered the former,
saying,—‘My father had given this unto me, when it had been emptied of
night-rangers; and, O Raksha, I have inhabited this place, furnished
with charity, honor, and other virtues. Go and tell the Ten-necked one,
as this city and this kingdom are mine, so they are thine, O
mighty-armed one. Do thou enjoy this kingdom without a foe. May my
kingdom and wealth never undergo division when thou art present!’ Having
said this, the lord of riches sought the side of his sire,—and, paying
him reverence, he communicated Rāvana’s wish unto him: ’My father, this
Ten-necked one had sent a messenger to me, saying,—Give (back) the city
of Lankā, which had before been inhabited by hosts of Rakshas.—Now, O
thou of excellent vows, do thou tell me what I should do.’ Thus
accosted, that foremost of ascetics, the Brahmarshi—Viçrava—spoke unto
the lord of riches (standing) with joined hands,—‘O son, listen to my
words. The mighty-armed Ten-necked one had (once) spoken in my presence
(to that effect). Thereat I greatly rebuked that wicked-minded one; and
I said again and again in anger,—Thou disregardest (thy religion and
honor). Do thou listen to my words fraught with religion and profit. Of
a wicked heart, thou, with thy understanding spoilt in consequence of
the granting of the boon, canst not distinguish between those deserving
honor and those not; and, further, through my curse, thou hast come by a
fierce nature. Therefore, O mighty-armed one, go to the mountain,
Kailaça. Do thou, along with thy retainers, for the purpose of dwelling
there, take up thy quarters (there). There floweth the Mandākini—best of
streams, with her water covered with golden lotuses resembling suns, as
also with lilies and blue lotuses and various other fragrant flowers.
And coming there frequently, celestials with Gandharvas and Apsarās and
serpents and Kinnaras, ever sport there, O lord of riches, thou ought
not to enter into hostilities with that Raksha. Thou knowest how he hath
obtained a great boon.’ Thus addressed, Viçravana, for the sake of his
father’s dignity, with his wives and sons, with his counsellors and his
vehicles and wealth went (to Kailaça). And Prahasta, going (back),
joyfully spoke unto the high-souled Ten-necked one, (seated) with his
counsellors and his younger brothers,—’The city of Lankā is (now) empty.
Renouncing her, the bestower of riches hath gone out of her. (Now)
entering into her, along with us, do thou there maintain thine own
religion.’ Thus addressed by Prahasta, the redoubtable Ten-necked one
entered the city of Lankā with his brothers and forces and followers.
And then even as the lord of the celestials ascends heaven, that foe of
the immortals ascended Lankā well-divided by highways,—which had been
forsaken by the lord of wealth. And having been installed, that
night-ranger—the Ten-faced one—dwelt in that city; and that city teemed
with night-rangers resembling dark clouds. And the lord of riches, for
the sake of his father’s dignity, dwelt in a palace situated on the hill
bright as moon-light, graced with ornamented superb piles; even as
Purandara dwells in Amaravati."


"The lord of Rākshasas was installed along with his brothers. And then
he thought of the giving away in marriage of his Rākshasi sister. Then
that Rākshasa bestowed his sister, the Rākshasi Surpanakhā, on that lord
of the Dānavas and king of the Kālakas—Vidyujjibha. And having given her
away, the Raksha was wandering about for the purpose of hunting, when,
Rāma, he happened to see Diti’s son, named Maya. And seeing him
accompanied by his daughter, that night-ranger—the Ten-necked one—asked
him, saying,—’Who art thou that (wanderest) alone in this forest devoid
of men as well as deer? And art thou accompanied by this one having the
eyes of a young deer?’ Thereat Maya, O Rāma, answered that night-ranger,
when he had asked this,—’Listen. I shall tell thee all about this. Thou
mayst ere this have heard of an Apsarā named Hemā. She like unto the
Paulomi of Satakratu was bestowed on me by the gods. And I passed a
thousand years, being devoted to her. Thirteen years have passed away
since she had gone on a business of the celestials, as also the
fourteenth year. Then I through my extraordinary skill constructed a
golden palace, adorned with diamonds and lapises. There I dwelt,
aggrieved and sorrowful on account of her separation. From thence,
taking my daughter, I have come to this wood. This, O king, is my
daughter, grown in her womb. I have come hither with her, seeking for
her husband. Verily being father to a daughter is misery to every one
that seeketh one’s honour. A daughter, forsooth, stayeth, ever placing
the two lines⁴¹ in uncertainty. And on this wife of mine I have also
begat two sons;—the first is Māyāvi and the next Dundubhi. Thus have I
truly related everything unto thee that hadst asked for it. But, my
child, how can I know thee now? Who art thou?’ Thus addressed, the
Raksha humbly said,—Ten-necked by name, I am the son of the ascetic,
Paulastya, who was born as the third son of Brahmā.’ Thus accosted, O
Rāma, by that lord of Rākshasas, that Dānava and foremost of Dānavas,
Maya, learning that he was the son of the Maharshi, Paulastya, there
desired in his heart to give away his daughter to him. And taking her
hand with his own, Maya—lord of Daityas—laughing, said unto that lord of
the Rlkshasas,—’This daughter of mine, O king, borne by the Apsarā,
Hemā, this my daughter named Mandodari do thou accept as thy wife.’
’Well’ thereupon the Ten-necked answered him, O Rāma. And lighting a
fire, he took her hand. Maya, O Rāma, knew the curse of the sage
touching him.⁴² Knowing this, he gave away his daughter, having regard
to the race of Rāvana’s paternal grand-father; and he also conferred on
him an exceedingly wonderful dart acquired through the most rigid
austerities,—by which he wounded Lakshmana. Having thus wedded, that
master—Lankā’s lord—going (back) to that city, married his brothers. And
Rāvana married the grand-daughter of Virochana (on the maternal side)
named Vajrajwālā, to Kumbhakarna.—And Bibhishana obtained for his wife
the righteous (damsel) named Saramā—daughter unto the
high-souled—Sailusha—sovereign of the Gandharvas. (Saramā) was born on
the shores of the lake, Mānasa. And while the lake, Mānasa, was swollen
with water on the arrival of the rains, her mother, hearing her cries,
affectionately said,—_Saromāvarddhata_—’O lake, do not swell,’ and from
this circumstance, her name became Saramā. Having thus wedded, those
Rākshasas, taking each his wife, set about sporting there, like unto
Gandharvas sporting in Nandana. And then was born Mandodari’s
son—Meghanāda. Him ye call Indrajit. As soon as he was born, Rāvana’s
son, formerly crying, emitted a tremendous roar resembling the rumbling
of clouds. And, O Rāghava, Lankā was petrified at his voice; and
(accordingly) his sire himself kept his name, Meghanāda. And, O Rāma,
remaining hidden like a fire by fuel, Rāvana’s son, rejoicing (the
bosoms of) his father and mother, grew up in Rāvana’s elegant inner

   ⁴¹ The lines, namely, of her father and mother. The line of a mother
      as distinct from that of a father would be impossible under the
      present economy of Hindu society inasmuch as, as soon as a girl is
      married, she by that ceremony leaves her father’s line and becomes
      incorporated with that of her husband. But this seems to have been
      otherwise in ancient times. This opens up an interesting social
      problem for the research of orientalists.—T.

   ⁴² Respecting his birth.


"And once on a time it came to pass that, dispatched by the lord of
creatures, Sleep in her (native) form powerfully overpowered
Kumbhakarna. And then Kumbhakarna spoke unto his brother, who was
seated,—’O king, Sleep obstructs me. Do thou, therefore, have my mansion
made.’ And, thereupon, employed by the king, architects resembling
Viçwakarmā constructed an edifice beautiful to behold, measuring the
smooth space of a Yojana diagonally and two in area; graceful to the
view, and having no obstruction (to hide its beauty). And the Rākshasa
caused a splendid and delightful pile to be built, adorned all round
with pillars decked with gold and crystal,—having stairs composed of
lapises, furnished with networks of small bells, set with ivory
gateways, and containing daises dight with diamonds and crystal,—elegant
throughout, and enduring,—like unto a goodly cave of Maru. And there,
overcome with slumber, the wondrous strong Kumbhakarna, lying down for
many thousand years, did not wake up. And while Kumbhakarna was
overpowered by sleep, Daçānana⁴³ without let began to destroy Devarshis,
Yakshas and Gandharvas,—and going to graceful gardens, Nandana, etc., he
devastated them (ruthlessly). And that Rākshasa spread destruction, even
as an elephant sporting agitates a river, as the wind bringeth down
trees, or as the thunder-bolt riveth mountain-peaks. Hearing of the
doings of Daçagriva,⁴⁴ and remembering his conduct chiming in with his
race, the righteous lord of riches—Vaiçravana—showing his fraternal
affection, despatched a messenger to Lankā, seeking the welfare of
Daçagriva. And going to the city of Lankā, he presented himself before
Bibhishana. And having received him with honor, he asked him as to the
cause of his visit. And having enquired after the welfare of the king as
well as his kindred, Bibhishana, showed him unto Daçānana seated in his
court. And seeing the king there flaming in his own energy, he (the
messenger), saluting him (Rāvana) with the word—_Jaya_⁴⁵—stood silent.
And the envoy addressed Dacagriva seated on a superb couch, graced with
a costly coverlet,—’O king, I shall tell thee all that thy brother hath
said, worthy of both the character and race of your father and
mother,—Enough of wrong-doing. Now thou shouldst mend thy ways. If thou
canst, stay in righteousness. I have seen Nandana ravaged; and I have
heard of the sages slain, and O king, of the preparations the deities
are making against thee. I have been utterly disregarded by thee; but
even if a boy should transgress, he should for all that be protected by
his friends. Self-restrained and controlling my senses, I, adopting a
terrific vow, had gone to the breast of the Himavān for practising
righteousness. There I saw that lord of the gods in company with Umā.
There I happened to cast my left eye on the goddess, for knowing, O
mighty king, who she was,—and not for any other reason. Rudrāni was
staying then, wearing a surpassing form. Thereupon through the divine
energy of the goddess my left eye was burnt and seemed to be covered
with dust, and its lustre became tawny. Then I, going to another
spacious peak of the mountain, became engaged in silently observing a
mighty vow. On my term of restraint having been complete, that lord of
the gods—Maheçwara—with a gratified heart addressed me, saying,—O
righteous one, O thou of fair vows, I am well-pleased with this
asceticism of thine. I also had observed this vow; and thou also, O lord
of riches, hast done the same, A third person there is none that
practiseth such a vow. This vow is hard to perform, and formerly it was
I that introduced it. Therefore, O mild one, O lord of riches, do thou
contract friendship with me. And thou hast conquered me by thy penances.
Therefore, O sinless one, be thou my friend. And this thy left eye hath
been burnt through the energy of the goddess, and hath turned tawny in
consequence of having seen the grace of the goddess; so thy name shall
ever be Ekākshipingali.—Then at Sankara’s command I have obtained the
privilege of companionship (with him). Having come here I have heard of
thy evil designs. Do thou then desist from this impious course, tending
to sully thy line, The celestials along with the sages are pondering
over the means of compassing thy death.—’ Thus addressed, the Ten-necked
one, with his eyes reddened in wrath, rubbing his hands and knashing his
teeth, said,—’O messenger, I have learnt what thou hast uttered. Neither
thou nor this brother of mine by whom thou hast been despatched, (shall
live); nor doth the keeper of riches say what is for my good. And the
fool makes me hear the circumstance of his having made friends with
Maheçwara. I shall never forgive what thou hast said. Up to this I had
borne him, considering that he, being my elder brother and as such my
superior should not be slain by me. But now hearing his (utterances),
even this is my resolve. Depending upon the might of my arms, I shall
conquer the three worlds. On his account solely I shall on the instant
despatch the four Lokapālas to the abode of Death.’ Having said this,
Lankā’s lord killed the emissary with his sword and made him over to the
wicked Rākshasas for being eaten. Then, having performed Swastyāyana,⁴⁶
Rāvana, ascending his car, went to where the lord of riches was, bent on
conquering the three worlds."

   ⁴³ Henceforth we shall use this significant surname of Rāvana,
      meaning _Ten-faced_.

   ⁴⁴ Ten-necked.

   ⁴⁵ _Jaya_ may mean (1) victory and (2) all the deities of the Hindu

   ⁴⁶ A religious ceremony performed for propitiating any deity or
      malign star, and so warding off an impending disaster, or bringing
      luck to any undertaking. This has obtained to this day in Hindu


"Accompanied by his six counsellors—Mahodara and Prahasta, Māricha, Suka
and Sārana, and the heroic Dhumrāksha—eager for encounter—the graceful
Rāvana, elated with his strength sallied out, as if consuming all
creatures with his wrath. And leaving behind cities and streams and
hills and woods and groves, he in a moment came to the mountain—Kailaça.
And hearing that wicked-minded lord of Rākshasas, breathing high
spirits, had arrived at the mount in company with his counsellors, the
Yakshas could not stay before that Raksha,—and knowing ’This one is the
king’s brother’—went to where the lord of riches was. Going to him they
in full related all about the doings of his brother. And on being
permitted by the bestower of treasures, they went out for battle. And
then, like unto the agitation of the ocean, there took place a mighty
ferment of the forces of the Nairita king, as if making the mountain
tremble. And then there took place an encounter between the Yakshas and
the Rākshasas; and therein the councillors of the Rākshasa were smitten
fiercely. And finding his forces in that plight, Daçagriva set up full
many a cheerful shout and in wrath began to speak. Of the councillors of
the Rākshasa-chief, each coped with a thousand Yakshas. And then struck
with maces and clubs and swords and darts and _tomaras_, the Ten-necked
one dived into (that deep) of a host. And rendered inert and sore
assailed, Daçānana was deprived of his movements with vollies of weapons
remembling torrents of rain. And albeit drenched with blood streaming
down in hundreds of torrents, he like a mountain flooded with a
downpour, being wounded with the weapons of the Yakshas,—doth not betray
any smart. And that high-souled one, raising up his mace resembling the
rod itself of Time, entered into that army, despatching Yakshas to the
abode of Yama. And as a flaming fire burneth up an extensive sward of
grass stocked with dry fire-wood, he began to consume that Yaksha army.
And as the wind scattereth clouds, the small remnant of Yaksha army was
scattered by the redoubtable councillors (of Rāvana)—Mahodara, Suka,
etc. And some were wounded, and (some) broken down, and (some) measured
their lengths on the ground in the encounter, and other Yakshas deprived
of their arms in the field, being fatigued, sank down, embracing each
other, even as banks drop down, on being worn away by water. And no room
was left (in the sky) in consequence of its being thronged by hosts of
sages; and warriors, wounded and rushing for conflict, and (finally)
ascending heaven.⁴⁷ And finding the foremost Yakshas endowed with great
strength give way, the mighty-armed lord of riches dispatched (other)
Yakshas. In the meantime, O Rāma, a Yaksha named Sanyodhakantaka,
accompanied by an extensive force and a large number of vehicles,—on
being despatched, rushed (on the foe). And wounded in the conflict (by
Sanyodhakantaka) with his discus, as if by Vishnu himself, Māricha
toppled down to the ground from the mountain, like unto a planet whose
merit hath waned, And in a moment regaining his consciousness and
resting (for a while), that night-ranger fought with the Yaksha; and
thereat, on being defeated, he⁴⁸ fled. Then (Rāvana) entered within the
gate-way (of the palace), garnished with gold, and decked with lapises
and silver, And thereat, O king, the warder named Suryyabhānu prevented
the night-ranger—Daçagriva—as he was entering. And albeit prevented, the
night-ranger entered in. And when, O Rāma, that Rākshasa was prevented,
he did not stay. And then struck by that Yaksha with the gate-way
uprooted, he, discharging blood in streams, looked like a hill with
minerals running on it. And hit with that gate-way resembling a
mountain-summit in splendour, that hero did not sustain any injury, on
account of the boon he had received from the Self-sprung. And on being
struck by the same gate-way, the Yaksha ceased to be seen, his body
having then been consumed to ashes. And witnessing the prowess of the
Raksha, all began to flee; and then they afflicted with affright,
fatigued, and with pale faces, entered into rivers and caves, leaving
their arms behind."

   ⁴⁷ The idea of the author is: "The welkin was thronged with sages as
      well as warriors, who swelled the ranks of the sages stationed in
      the sky, by ascending heaven after having fallen in fight."—T.

   ⁴⁸ The Yaksha, that is.


"Seeing the foremost of the Yakshas by thousands undergoing trepidation,
the lord of riches spoke unto a mighty Yaksha—Manichara,—’O foremost of
Yakshas, slay the wicked Rāvana, set on sin; and do thou (thus) become
the refuge of those heroic Yakshas, who are carrying on the conflict.’
Thus addressed, the mighty-armed and invincible Mānibhadra, surrounded
by four thousand Yakshas began the fight. And attacking the Rākshasas
with maces and clubs and bearded darts, and with darts _tomoras_ and
bludgeons, the Yakshas rushed at (their adversaries). And fast safely
whirling about like hawks, they fought fiercely. And (some) said, ’Well,
give me battle,’ and (others), ’I don’t want,’ and (others, again), ’Let
me have (fight)’. And then the celestials and the Gandharvas and the
sages studying the Vedas, beholding the great encounter, were filled
with mighty amazement. And a thousand of the Yakshas were slain by
Prahasta in the conflict; and another thousand of capable warriors were
slain by Mahodara. And O king, in the twinkling of an eye Māricha,
waxing wroth and eager for encounter brought down two thousand (of
enemy’s soldiers). Where is the candid-coursing fight of the Yakshas and
where the fight of the Rakshas by help of the power of illusion; and
therefore in that battle the advantage was on the side of the Rākshasas.
And Dhumrācksha, confronting Mānibhadra in the mighty conflict hit him
at the chest with a bludgeon; but he did not move thereat. And then
Mānibhadra dealt the Rākshasa a blow with his mace; and thereat
Dhumrācksha smit at the head fell down senseless (on the ground). And
seeing Dhumrāckhsa wounded and down, bathed in blood, the Ten-necked one
rushed at Mānibhadra in the encounter. And then that foremost of Yakshas
hit Daçānana with three darts as he was rushing in wrath. And on being
thus hit, (Rāvana) struck at Mānibhadra’s head; and at that stroke his
crown was depressed at one side. And from that day forth that Yaksha
remained with his head hollow on one side. And on the high-souled
Mānibhadra having been baffled, a great uproar, O king, rose in that
mountain. And then at a distance, the lord of riches, mace in hand,
accompanied by Sukra and Praushthapada and Padma and Sanka saw (Rāvana)
in the field. And seeing his brother in the encounter with his glory
obscured through the curse (he had ere this come by), the intelligent
(lord of Yakshas) spoke in words worthy of the line of his
grand-father,—’As, O wicked-minded one, thou desistest not, albeit
forbidden by me, thou shalt, afterwards attaining the fruit of this, and
repairing to hell, know (the fate that followeth thee). That perverse
one, that through ignorance having drunk poison, neglects to adopt
proper measures, knoweth the consequence of his act ultimately. The gods
have set their face against thee on account of a certain misdeed of
thine; and having for this, been reduced to this condition, thou dost
not understand things. He that dishonoreth his father and mother⁴⁹ and
spiritual preceptor, reapeth the fruit of his act on coming under the
sway of the sovereign of the dead. Having regard that this body is
uncertain, that foolish person, that doth not acquire asceticism, dying
goeth the way that he deserveth. The mind of a perverse man doth not
willingly incline towards good; and he reapeth as he soweth. In this
world people, making their own good fortune and beauty, strength, sons,
wealth and valor, gain these by virtue of their pious acts. Being given
to such iniquitous acts, thou wilt go to hell; and thy designs being
such, I will not hold parley with thee. Honest people should act
carefully in connection with the wicked.’—Thus reprimanded by him, his
(Rāvana’s) councillors, headed by Māricha, on being struck, took to
their heels. Then Daçagriva on being struck in the head with the mace by
the lord of Yakshas, did not move from his place. And then, O Rāma, the
Yaksha and Rākshasa, smiting each other in mighty encounter, did not get
bewildered or experience fatigue. And then the bestower of riches
discharged a fiery weapon at him; and thereat the lord of Rākshasas
resisted it with a Varuna weapon. And then the Rākshasa king entered
upon Rākshasi-illusion; and began to assume a thousand shapes for
compassing the destruction (of his adversary). And the Ten-necked one
(successively) assumed the shapes of a tiger, a boar, a cloud, a hill,
the ocean, a tree, a Yaksha and a Daitya. Thus he wore full many forms
and he was not visible in his native shape. And then, O Rāma, seizing a
mighty weapon the Ten-necked one, whirling the same, brought that
redoubtable mace down on the head of the bestower of riches. Thus
smitten by him, the lord of wealth, baffled, toppled down to the earth
covered with blood like an _açoka_ whose roots have been hewn away.
Thereat Padma and other Nidhi deities, surrounding the granter of
wealth, raised him up and brought him to the Nandana wood. Conquering
the bestower of wealth, the lord of Rākshasas, with a delighted heart,
possessed himself of his Pushpaka, the car, as a sign of victory;
furnished with golden pillars, gateways set with lapises, covered with
networks of pearls, having trees yielding the fruits of all seasons,
endowed with the celerity of thought, ranging everywhere at will,
wearing forms at pleasure, capable of coursing in the sky, with golden
and jewelled stairs, and daises of polished gold,—the vehicle of the
gods—undeteriorating, bringing delight to the mind and sight; wonderous
exceedingly: painted with images designed to fill the mind with
reverence,—constructed by Brahmā, containing all objects of desire,
charming and nonpariel not cold and not yet hot, granting gratification
in every season, and graceful to the view. And ascending that (car)
coursing at will, won by his prowess, that utterly wicked one, out of
swelling insolence, deemed himself master of the three worlds. And
having vanquished the deity Vaiçravana, he descended from Kailāça. And
having by his energy obtained the victory, the powerful night-ranger
wearing a bright diadem and necklace, and seated on that superb
car,—appeared radiant in his court like Fire himself."

   ⁴⁹ Unless he serveth his parents, his heart doth not incline to


"O Rāma, having vanquished his brother, the lord of riches, the king of
Rākshasas went to the great wood of reeds, where Mahāsena was born. And
the Ten-necked one saw the great golden wood of reeds. Furnished with
networks of solar rays, and appearing like a second Sun, and ascending
the mountain, he was surveying the heart of the forest, when, O Rāma,
Pushpaka was (suddenly) deprived of its motion. And the lord of
Rākshasas could not comprehend how the car which had been so made as to
course in accordance with the wish of the rider, could have its course
impeded; and thereat he in company with his councillors thought,
’Wherefore doth not this Pushpaka course at my desire over this
mountain? Whose act is this?’ Thereat Māricha—foremost of intelligent
ones—said,—That Pushpaka doth not course cannot, sire, be without cause;
or it may be that in consequence of Pushpakā not having borne any other
than the bestower of riches, it hath ceased its course not having the
lord of wealth for its rider.’ As they were speaking thus, that
attendant of Bhava, Nandi, terrific, of yellow black hue, dwarfish,
frightful, with his head shaven, having short arms, and stout,—coming up
to them, said (this). And the lordly Nandi, undaunted, addressed the
sovereign of the Rākshasas, saying: ’Desist thou O Ten-necked one;
Sankara sporteth in the mountain; and (now) He is incapable of being
approached by every one—birds, serpents and Yakshas; gods, Gandharvas
and Rakshas?’ Hearing Nandi’s speech, (Rāvana), wrought up with wrath,
his eyes coppery, and his ear-rings shaking, leapt down from Pushpaka.
And saying, ’Who is this Sankara?’ he came down to the base of the
mount, and beheld there Nandi stationed at the side of that deity,
supporting himself on his flaming dart, resembling a second Sankara. And
seeing that one having the face of a monkey, the Rākshasa, deriding him,
burst out into laughter, and seemed as if a mass of clouds were sending
roars. Thereat, growing enraged, the reverend Nandi—Sankara’s other
body—spoke unto that Raksha—The Ten-necked one—present there; ’As O
Daçanana, deriding me for my monkey-form, thou hast indulged in a
laughter resembling the bursting of thunder, so monkeys endowed with
prowess, and possessed of my form and energy shall be born for
compassing the destruction of thy race. And armed with teeth and claws,
and fierce and furnished with the fleetness of thought, and mad for
encounter, and bursting with vigor, and resembling moving mountains. And
being born, they shall crush thy high pride and power along with thy
courtiers and sons. But, O night-ranger, I can even now end thee quite;
yet I must not slay thee for thou hast ere this been slain by thine
acts.’ When that high-souled god had spoken thus celestial kettle-drums
sounded and a blossomy shower rained from the sky. But without hefting
Nandi’s speech, that highly powerful one—Daçanana—coming to the
mountain, said,—’O Gopati, I will even uproot this mountain, for whom
Pushpaka was deprived of its motion as I was journeying. It must be
known by what influence Bhavaswara sporteth here king-like. He doth not
know that an occasion of fear hath presented itself?’ Having said this,
O Rāma, Rāvana seizing the mountain with his arms, lifted it up at once;
and then the mountain trembled greatly. And in consequence of the
mountain shaking the attendants of the deity (dwelling in it) also
shook. And Pārvati also trembled and embraced Maheçwara. And then, O
Rāma, Mahādeva—foremost of the deities—even Hara, as in sport pressed
the mount with his great toe. And thereat his arms, resembling blocks of
stone felt the shock and then there the councillors of that Raksha were
struck with amaze. And the Raksha, from wrath and the pain felt in his
arms, set up a shout that shook the entire triune world. And his
councillors considered it as the concussion of the thunder at the
universal disruption. And then the celestials with Indra at their head
shook on their way; and the sea was wild and the mountains shook. And
Yakshas and Vidyadharas and Siddhas asked, ’What is this.’ ’Do thou
propitiate Umā’s lord—the blue-throated Mahādeva; for, O Daçanana, save
him thy refuge see we none in this matter. Bowing thyself down, do thou
seek him as thy shelter. Then the kind Sankara, on being gratified, will
confer on thee his favor.’ Thus accosted by his councillors, the
Ten-faced one, bowing down to him having the bull for his standard,
began to hymn him with various _soma_ hymns; and the Raksha passed away
a good thousand years in lamentations. And thereat that Lord Mahadeva,
pleased, set free the hands of Daçanana stationed at the top of the
mount, and O Rāma, addressed him, saying, ’O Dacānana, pleased am I with
thee on account of thy hymns. And as in consequence of thy arms having
been hurt by the mountain, thou hast uttered a terrific yell, which
struck horror unto the three worlds and put them shaking, therefore, O
King, thy name shall be Rāvana. And deities and men and Yakshas and
others living on earth shall call thee Rāvana—terror to creatures. So, O
Paulastya, which way thou wishest, and permitted by me, O Lord of
Rākshasas, go thou.’ Thus accosted by Sambhu, Lankā’s lord said of
himself. ’If thou art pleased with me, grant me a boon, who ask thee for
it. I have already obtained a boon, bestowing on me immunity from death
at the hands of gods, Gandharvas and Dānavas; and Rākshasas and Guyhakas
and Nagas; and others also that are of more than ordinary strength. Man
count I not O god: they, I deem, are insignificant. I have also, O
destroyer of Tripura, received a long lease of life from Brahmā. Now I
wish to pass the remainder of my days in peace: and do thou grant me a
weapon.’ Thus addressed by him, (Rāvana,) Sankara gave him an
exceedingly effulgent sword, famed as Chandrahasa; and the master of
spectres then also granted him peace for the rest of his life. And
making (the sword) over to him, Sambhu said,—’Thou must not disregard
this. If disregarded, it will for certain come (back) to me?’ Having
thus received his name from Maheçwara, Rāvana, saluting Mahadeva,
ascended Pushpaka. And then, O Rāma, Rāvana, began to go round the
earth. And opposed at places, by the heroic Kshatriyas endowed with
energy and irrepressible in fight, who refused submission, he
exterminated them along with their retainers; while other men of wisdom,
knowing the Raksha to be invincible, said unto the Rākshasa elated with
strength,—’We have been conquered?’"


"And then, O King, the mighty-armed Rāvana ranging the earth, came to
Himavān and began to go round it. And it came to pass that there he saw
a damsel wearing a dark deer-skin and matted locks, leading the life of
a saint, and flaming like a celestial. And seeing the girl observing
high vows, endowed with beauty, he, with his soul overwhelmed with lust
asked her, laughing, ’How is it, O amiable one that thou actest thus
contrary to thy youth? This course of life surely doth not befit thy
beauty. Thy loveliness, O timid one, is peerless, capable of maddening
folk with desire. It doth not behove thee to lead an ascetic mode of
life,—this would suit an old person. Whose daughter art thou, O gentle
lady? And what is this (vow) that thou practisest? And O fair faced
wrench, who is thy husband? He who hath thee for his wife, is, O
timorous one, hath religious merit on earth. Tell all about this to me
who ask for it. For whom dost thou put thyself to trouble?’ Thus
accosted by Rāvana, that illustrious girl, having asceticism for wealth,
having received him hospitably in due form, said, ’My sire is named
Kuçodwaja—a Brahmarshi of immeasurable energy, son unto Vrihaspati,
endowed with grace, and like unto Vrihaspati himself in intelligence.
And while that high-souled one was engaged in the daily study of the
Vedas, I was born as his word-impregnated daughter, named Vedavati. When
the gods and the Gandharvas and the Yakshas, Rākshasas, and Pannagas,
coming to my sire asked for me, O foremost of Rākshasas, my father did
not bestow me on any one of them. And I shall tell thee the reason
thereof; listen, O long-armed one. My father’s intended son-in-law was
even Vishnu—sovereign of the celestials, and the lord of the triune
world; and my father would not bestow me on any other. And hearing this,
a certain king of the Daityas, named Sumbhu—proud, of his prowess was
wrought up with wrath, and one night as my sire was on bed, that wicked
one slew him. Thereat my forlorn mother, of exalted righteousness,
embracing my father’s body entered into fire. Then wishing to realize my
father’s wish touching Nārāyana, I have fixed my heart even upon him.
Having made this promise, I have been carrying on rigid austerities.
Thus, O foremost of Rākshasas. I have related unto thee everything.
Nārāyana is my husband, and not any one else than that best of male
beings; and desirous of having Nārāyana I have adopted severe
restraints. I know thee, O king. Go thou O son of Paulastya. By virtue
of my asceticism I know all that takes place in these three regions.’
Thereat descending from the front of his car, Rāvana, afflicted with the
shafts of Kandarpa, again addressed that girl, observant of a mighty
vow, ’O thou of shapely hips, in as much as such is thy intent, thou
must be very proud. O thou having the eyes of a young antelope,
accumulation of religious merit suits old people. Thou, furnished with
every perfection, should not talk thus. Thou art the paragon in these
three worlds. Thy youth waxeth away. I am the lord of Lankā, O gentle
lady, known as Daçagriva. Be thou my wife, and enjoy pleasures according
to thy desire. Who is he whom thou callest Vishnu? O mild one, neither
in prowess, nor in asceticism, nor in enjoyment, nor in strength, is he
my equal, whom, O damsel, thou seekest.’ Thus accosted, Vedavati said
unto the night-ranger ’Do not say so’ in respect of Vishnu, lord of this
triune sphere, bowed down unto by all creatures. Save and except thee
alone, who, that is intelligent, crieth down (Nārāyana), O King of
Rākshasas.’ Thus addressed there by Vedavati, the night-ranger seized
the girl by the hair. Thereat Vedavati, wroth, cut off her hair with her
hand transformed into a sword. And then, flaming up in ire and as if
consuming the night-ranger, she, preparing a funeral pyre, hastened to
make away with herself. ’Thou abject, having been outraged by thee I
wish not to live. Therefore, O Raksha, I will enter into fire in thy
very presence. And as I have in this world been dishonored by thee thou
art nefarious. I shall again be born to compass thy destruction. It
lieth not in a female to slay a male intent on sin; and if I utter a
curse, it shall cost my asceticism. But if I have done anything, given
away any thing, offered oblations unto the fire, then I shall be the
chaste daughter of some virtuous person, albeit unborn of any female
vessel.’ Having delivered herself thus, she entered into the flaming
fire; and thereat a celestial shower of blossoms rained all around from
heaven. O Lord, this is she that hath been born as the daughter of king
Janaka,—thy wife, O mighty-armed one. Thou art the eternal Vishnu. The
enemy, endowed with the splendour of a hill, formerly that had been
slain through the wrath (of Vedavati), hath now been slain by her, by
help of thine superhuman prowess. And this one of eminent righteousnesss
would again spring up on earth like a flame from a field furrowed by the
plough. This one named Vedavati was born in the Krita age; and in the
Tretā age, for compassing the destruction of that Raksha, she was born
in the Maithila line of the high-souled Janaka."


"When Vedavati had entered into fire, Rāvana, ascending Pushpaka, began
to range the earth. And coming to Uçiraviga, Rāvana saw a king (named)
Marutta, sacrificing along with the deities. And a righteous Brahmarshi
named Samvartta, the very brother of Vrihashpati, officiated at the
sacrifice accompanied by the deities. And seeing that Raksha invincible
by reason of the boon he had received, the deities, apprehensive of
being worsted by him, assumed the forms of beasts. And Indra became a
peacock and the king of righteousness, a crow, and the bestower of
riches a lizard, and Varuna a swan; and, O slayer of foes, others also
became other beasts. And then Rāvana entered into that sacrifice like an
unclean dog. And then coming up to the king, Rāvana—lord of
Rākshasas—said: ’Give me battle, or say,—_I am defeated._’ Whereat king
Marutta asked, him—’Who art thou?’ And Rāvana laughing in contempt
said,—’O king, I am delighted, that lacking curiosity, thou dost not
dishonour Rāvana, younger brother unto the bestower of riches. What
other man is there in these three regions that knoweth not the might of
me, who, conquering my brother, has got possession of this car.’ Thereat
Marutta spoke unto Rāvana, saying,—’Blessed for sooth art thou, by whom
thy elder brother hath been vanquished in fight; and a person so
praiseworthy there is not in the three worlds. An act, that is divorced
from righteousness and that is reprehended by people, can never be
praiseworthy. Having committed a foul act, plumest thou upon thy having
vanquished thy brother? And practising what piety hadst thou a-fortune
received the boon? I had never before heard the like of what thou
sayest. But O perverse one, stay now. Living thou shalt not back. To-day
with my sharpened shafts shall I despatch thee to the abode of Yama.’
Then taking up his bow and arrows, that king of men went out for
encounter; but Samavartta stood in the way. And that great sage said
unto Marutta words informed with affection ’If thou hear my speech, thou
shouldst not fight. If this Maheçwara-sacrifice should remain
incomplete, it will burn up thy dynasty. Where is the fight of one
initiated in a sacrifice? And where is the passion of one initiated in a
sacrifice? And victory is ever uncertain; and the Rākshasa is difficult
to vanquish. And thereupon, the lord of Earth—Marutta—desisted in
consonance with the instructions of his spiritual preceptor; and
composed addressed himself to completing the sacrifice, giving up his
bow with the arrow set. And thereat considering him as defeated, Suka
proclaimed this all round; and from delight cried aloud, ’Victory unto
Rāvana!’ And then devouring the Maharshis that were present at the place
of sacrifice, Rāvana, satiated with their blood, again went to the
earth. On Rāvana having departed, the deities, inhabiting the etherial
regions—Indra etc.—assuming their proper forms, addressed those
creatures. And from joy Indra spoke unto the purple-plumed
peacock,—’Pleased am I with thee thou righteous one. No fear shall
spring to thee from serpents; and thy plumage shall be furnished with an
hundred eyes. And when I shall shower, thou shalt be filled with glee as
a token of my satisfaction with thee.’ Thus did Indra—chief of
celestials, confer a boon on the peacock. Formerly, O king, the
peacock’s wings had one unvaried blue. Having received the boon, the
peacock departed. Then O Rāma, the king of righteousness said unto the
crow, seated in front of the sacrificial apartment ’O bird, I am well
pleased with thee. Listen to my words as I utter them. As I have been
pleased with thee, thou shalt without doubt, enjoy immunity from the
various ailments to which the birds are subject. And O bird, from my
curse fear of death shall not approach thee; and thou shalt exist so
long as people do not slay thee. And those men residing in my dominion,
being smitten with hunger, shall be refreshed along with thy relations,
when thou hast eaten and been refreshed.’ Then Varuna addressed that
lord of birds the swan ranging the waters of the Gangā,—’Listen to my
words fraught with joy, thy hue shall be charming, mild, and like unto
the lunar disc; and it shall be beautiful, resembling the sheen of
spotless foam. And approaching my person thou shalt ever be beautiful to
behold; and thou shalt, as a sign of my gratification, attain
unparalleled complacence.’ Formerly, O Rāma, swans had not a hue of one
unvaried whiteness. Their wings ended in blue, and their breasts wore
the spotless hue of tender grass. And then Vaiçravana addressed the
chameleon as it was stationed at the mountain: ’Thy hue shall be
gold-gleaming. Pleased am I with thee. Thy undeteriorating head shall be
ever gold-hued. And this golden hue of thine shall proceed from my
gratification?’ Having thus conferred boons on them at that festal
place, the celestials, along with the king, (on the sacrifice) having
ended, went to their abode."


"Having vanquished Marutta, that lord of Rākshasas—the Ten-faced
one—eager for encounter, began to range the capitals of the foremost
monarchs (of the earth). And coming to the most powerful crowned heads
(in the world) resembling Mahendra and Varuna, the Rākshasa king said:
’Give me battle; or declare—we have been defeated. This I am resolved
upon. Otherewise there is no escape for you?’ Thereat those wise kings,
possessed of great strength, and ever abiding by righteousness, being
frightened (at Rāvana’s intimidation), took counsel of each other. And
knowing the superior strength of the foe, they said,—’We have been
defeated.’ Dushkanta, O child, and Suratha, and Gādhi, and Gaya and king
Pururavā—all these kings said: ’We have been defeated.’ And then
Rāvana—sovereign of the Rākshasas—presented himself before Ayodhyā,
governed by Anaranya, like Amarāvati ruled by Sakra. And coming to that
foremost of men—king like unto Purandara himself in prowess, Rāvana
said,—’ Give me battle; or say I have been defeated. This is my
mandate.’ The lord of Ayodhyā, on hearing the words of that
wicked-minded one, Anaranya, enraged, addressed the Rākshasa-chief,
saying,—’O king of Rākshasas, I will give thee combat, stay thou. At
once prepare for fight, and I also shall go and prepare myself.’ And
when he had heard everything (regarding Rāvana), the forces of that
foremost of kings that had been intended for conquering (Rāvana),
sallied forth ready for bringing about the destruction of the
Raksha,—ten thousand elephants, a _niyuta_ horse, and many thousands of
cars and infantry, O best of men; and, that host consisting of infantry
and cars, marched for encounter, covering up the earth. And then, O thou
proficient in fight, there took place a mighty and wonderful encounter
between king Anaranya and that lord of Rākshasas. And that host of the
king encountering the forces of Rāvana, were extinguished like unto
clarified butter thrown into the (sacrificial) fire. And having fought
valorously for a long time, the remnant of the royal forces, suddenly
coming in contact with the flaming Rākshasa ranks, were destroyed like
unto swarms of locusts entering into fire. And he saw the mighty army of
that powerful monarch destroyed by the (adversary), like unto a hundred
streams absorbed by an approaching ocean. And then himself drawing his
bow resembling the bow itself of Sakra, that foremost of sovereigns,
beside himself with wrath, approached Rāvana. And brought down by
Anaranya, his (Rāvana’s) councillors—Māricha, Suka, and Sārana with
Prahasta,—took to their heels like unto dear. And then that son of the
Ikshwāku race discharged eight hundred arrows at Rāvana’s head. And like
unto showers pouring down on the top of a mountain, his shafts did not
inflict any wound (on Rāvana). And then the king, smitten on the head
with a slap by the enraged king of Rākshasas, dropped down from his car.
And the king, deprived of his senses, fell down on the earth, with his
body trembling all over; as falls in a forest a _sāla_ scathed with
heaven’s fire. And thereat the Raksha, laughing, spoke unto that
Ikshwāku, lord of the earth,—’What is this that thou hast gathered as
the fruit of thy encounter with me. O king, there is none in this triune
sphere that can combat with me. Having hitherto been sunk in lunacy thou
hast not heard of my strength.’ As he was speaking thus, the king, whose
sounds were fast running out said: ’What can I do in this matter. Verily
time is incapable of being controlled. I have been overcome by Time;
thou art merely an instrument. What can I do now, when I am going to
lose my life? I never turned away from fight; I have been slain
fighting. But, O Rākshasa, I shall tell thee something in consequence of
the disgrace that the Ikshwāku race has met with (to-day). If I have
practised charity, if I have offered oblations into fire, if I have
carried on pious penances, if I have governed my people well, then be my
words verified! There shall spring in the line of the high-souled
Ikshwāku, one named Rāma—son unto Daçaratha, who shall deprive thee of
thy life.’ As he uttered this imprecation, the celestial kettle-drums
sounded like the roaring of clouds; and blossoms showered down from the
sky. And then that best of kings went to heaven; and when that king had
gone to the celestial regions, the Rākshasa (also) went away."


"As the lord of Rākshasas was ranging the earth frightening everyone,
Nārada—foremost of ascetics, came to that wood mounted on a cloud. And
thereupon saluting him, the night-ranger Ten-necked one—enquired after
his welfare as well as the occasion of his visit. And that Devarshi—the
exceedingly energetic Nārada of immeasurable splendour, seated on the
back of the cloud, addressed Rāvana, who was stationed in Pushpaka,
saying,—’O lord of Rākshasas, O placid one, O son of Viçravā, stay. I am
well pleased with thy prowess and fame. And even as Vishnu had pleased
me by destroying the Daityas, thou pleased me by harassing the
Gandharvas and serpents. I will tell thee something. If thou wouldst
hear what I have to say then, O child, listen heedfully as I unfold it.
Why, my child, dost thou slay these;⁵⁰ thou art incapable of being slain
by even the celestials. All these (men) are subject to death, they are
verily slain. The world of man is unworthy of being afflicted by thee
who art incapable of being destroyed by Deities, Dānavas, Daityas,
Yakshas, Gandharvas and Rakshas. Who should slay creatures, who are ever
stupid in respect of their welfare, environed by mighty dangers, and
encompassed by decrepitude and hundreds o£ ailments? What sensible
person can set his heart on slaying human beings who are everywhere
beset with a perrennial stream of evils. Do not thou enfeeble those
beings who are already enfeebled and smitten by Divinity with hunger,
thirst, old age etc. and who are overwhelmed with sorrow, and grief. O
mighty-armed one, O lord of Rākshasas, behold man, albeit having their
sense stupified, engaged in the pursuit of various interests, and
themselves not understanding their own ways;⁵¹ some pass their time
merrily with dancing and playing on musical instruments while others
weep distressfully with tears streaming from their eyes down their
cheeks. And down fallen on account of their attachment for their mothers
and fathers and sons, and of their desires touching their wives and
friends they set small store by labours having the hereafter as their
object. What then is the use of afflicting a race that is brought down
ever by its own infatuation. O placid one, this world is verily
conquered by thee. These for certain will have to repair to the abode of
Yama. Therefore, O Paulastya, O captor of hostile capitals, do thou put
down Yama. On him being conquered, all will doubtless be conquered by
thee.’ Thus addressed Lankā’s lord, flaming in native energy, addressed
Nārada, laughing and saluting him, ’O thou that delightest in the sport
of gods and Gandharvas, and that takest pleasure in warfare, I am ready
to go to the nethermost regions for the purpose of conquest. And
conquering the three worlds, and bringing under subjection serpents and
celestials I shall for ambrosia churn the nether regions.’ Then the
reverend sage Nārada spoke Unto the Ten-necked one,—’Who save thee can
forsooth go on that journey? Verily, O irrepressible one, O destroyer of
foes, the way leading to the city of the lord of the dead is difficult
of access.’ Thereat laughing, the Ten-faced one said to the saint
resembling a mass of white clouds, ’This is done. Therefore,⁵² O great
Brahman, intent upon slaying the Vaivaçwata’s son, I will go by this way
which leadeth to the king—the offspring of the sun. And, O master, from
wrath I have vowed that I will, eager for encounter, O reverend one,
conquer the four Lokapālas. Then here go I to the city of the lord of
the Pitris; and I am determined to compass the death of him that
visiteth creatures with smart.’ Having delivered himself thus and
saluted the sage, he, entering the southern way with his councillors,
proceeded along. And the exceedingly energetic Nārada—best of
Brahmans—resembling a smokeless fire, remaining rapt for a while, began
to reflect;—’How can (Rāvana) conquer Time who, when its life waneth,
righteously visiteth with affliction the time, sphere with Indra,
fraught with mobile and immobile. How can this lord of Rākshasas, of
himself, go to him who, resembling another fire, beareth to the gifts
and acts (of persons),—that high-souled one of whom attaining
consciousness, people put forth their activity; and afflicted with the
fear of whom these three worlds fall away? How can (Rāvana) subdue him
who ordaineth things both great and small, who meteth rewards and
punishments for good and bad acts, and who himself hath conquered the
three worlds? Resorting⁵³ to what other means shall Rāvana secure
(victory)? I am curious about it: To Yama’s abode shall I go for
witnessing the encounter between Yama and the Rākshasa."

   ⁵⁰ _i.e._ human beings.

   ⁵¹ _Gati_—according to the commentator, means the time of employment
      and suffering.—I think the ordinary meaning answers, and give it

   ⁵² _i.e._ As thou hast commanded me.

   ⁵³ Explains the commentator: "Time hath every thing under its
      control. Like the all-enclosing space, time pervades all that is.
      This being so, resorting what transcending Time, shall Rāvana
      obtain victory over it."


"Having reflected thus, that foremost of Vipras endowed with fleet
vigor, bent his steps towards the abode of Yama, for the purpose of
relating to him all that had taken place. And there (he) saw that
god—Yama—sitting in front of fire and offering into it the good and evil
fruits of their actions.⁵⁴

"And seeing the Maharshi Nārada arrive there, Yama offering him _arghya_
according to the ordinance, addressed him saying, when he was seated at
his ease: ’O Devarshi, is it well with thee? And doth virtue
deteriorate.’⁵⁵ And, why, O thou honored of deities, and Gandharvas,
dost thou come?’ Thereat the reverend sage, Nārada, said; Hearken. I
shall tell (thee); and (after hearing me out) do thou what is fit. O
king of the Pitris, here cometh the night-ranger named ten-necked, for
bringing thee under his sway—thee who art incapable of being conquered.
And, O master, for this reason it is that I have come hither
hastily,—doubtful what shall befall thee who hast the rod for thy
weapon. In the meanwhile they saw the Raksha’s car approach from afar,
flaming and like unto the ray-furnished (one) risen. And dispelling the
gloom of that region with the effulgence of Pushpaka, that exceedingly
powerful (Rākshasa) came forward. And the mighty-armed ten-necked one
all around saw creatures reaping the consequences of their fair and foul
acts. And there he saw Yama’s soldiery along with Yama’s followers,
fierce-forms, grim-visaged and terrific. And he saw corporeal beings
undergoing torments and pain, and emitting loud cries and sharp shrieks;
preyed on by worms and fell dogs: and uttering words capable of striking
pain and terror into the heart (of the hearer): and people swimming in
the Vaitaraini profusely running blood; and momentarily burning with hot
sands; unrighteous wights pierced in a wood of _asipatra_, (plunged) in
Raurava, in the river of borate of soda; and (cut) with razor-edges;
asking for drinks; and afflicted with hunger and thirst; converted into
corpses, lean, woe-begone, and pallid with hair flowing loosely; having
dust and filth (on their bodies), and running about distressfully with
dry forms;—on the way saw Rāvana by hundreds and by thousands. And
Rāvana also saw some in front of houses engaged in merry-making with
songs and strains of instruments,—as the fruit of their pious acts; and
(saw) the giver of kine regailing themselves with milk; the dispenser of
rice, feeding on the same, the bestower of abodes, enjoying mansions, as
the fruit of their several acts; and persons living with damsels decked
with gold and gems and jewels; and other pious folks, flaming in their
native energy, all these saw Rāvana lord of Rākshasas. And by his might
that mighty one delivered those that were being tormented by their
wicked acts. And on being liberated by that Raksha—the ten-necked one,
those creatures in a moment began to enjoy their release, that had come
to them without thought or suspense. And on the dead being delivered by
the magnanimous Rākshasa, the guards of the dead, getting enraged,
rushed at the Rākshasa sovereign. And there arose a mighty tumult from
all sides; from the heroic warriors of the king of righteousness rushing
(all around.) And those heroes by hundreds and by thousands assailed
(Pushpaka) with _prāças_, and bludgeons, and darts and maces, and spears
and _tomaras_. And swiftly swarming like bees, they began to break the
seats, blocks, daises and gateways (of the car.) And in that conflict
Pushpaka presided over by divine energy, incapable of being destroyed by
virtue of Brahmā power, being broken, resumed its former shape.
Countless were the soldiers of that high-souled one consisting hundreds
and thousands of heroic warriors, (ever) forward for fight. And
according to the measure of their might his (Rāvana’s) councillors—great
heroes all, as well as the ten-faced one himself with might and main,
fought with trees and crags and hundreds of blocks of buildings. And
those councillors of the lord of Rākshasas, assailed with every kind of
weapons, with their persons bathed in blood, fought fiercely. And O
large-armed one the exalted councillors of Yama and Rāvana sore assailed
each other with arms. And leaving the councillors alone the highly
powerful warriors of Yama rushed against Daçānana⁵⁶ with a shower of
spears. And then pierced through and through by those weapons, with his
person covered with blood, the Rākshasa king appeared like a flowering
Kinçuka in Pushpaka.⁵⁷ And thereat that powerful one, by virtue of his
mastery over weapons, began to hurl darts and maces, _prāças_ and spears
and _tomaras_ and crags and trees. And that terrific shower of trees,
rocks and arms, alighted on the army of Yama (fighting) on the earth.
And snapping those weapons and resisting (those vollies of) arms, they
smote at the Rākshasa fighting alone by hundreds and thousands. And
encompassing him even as clouds encompass a mountain, they rendered
(Rāvana) inert by means of _Bhindipālas_ and darts. And with his mail
torn open, his anger raging fiercely, and covered with blood streaming
over his person, he, forsaking his car, stood upon the ground. And then
furnished with his bow and holding his shafts, (Rāvana) regaining his
senses in a short time, increased in energy and stood in the field like
the finisher. And now fixing the divine Pāçupata on his bow, and saying
unto them, ’Slay! Slay!’ he drew that bow. And enraged, (Rāvana)
resembling Rudra himself, in fight drawing his bow to his car,
discharged that shaft even as Sankara had discharged at Tripura. And the
appearance of the shaft was like an extinguishing fire in summer with
smoke with flames, burning up a forest. And garlanded with glory that
shaft followed by ghosts,⁵⁸ in that encounter; rushed on, burning to
ashes the loose bushes and trees lying in its way. And burnt up by its
energy, the most of Vaivaswata fell down in the field like unto banners
of Mahendra. And thereat the Rākshasa of terrific prowess along with his
councillors began to set up tremendous shouts; as if making the earth

   ⁵⁴ Ordaining happiness and misery to the lives of people according to
      their acts.—T.

   ⁵⁵ The original has: "Doth not virtue wane." This in English would
      imply the very reverse what Nārada intends to say. He says: "Doth
      religion deteriorate?"—_i.e._ "I hope, religion doth _not_
      deteriorate." This is an idiom and natural usage accounts for it,
      although that usage must in the nature of things be based on a
      subtle ground of reason.—T.

   ⁵⁶ Rāvana.

   ⁵⁷ This simile is peculiarly appropriate and beautiful. Pushpaka, the
      name of Rāvana’s car, means composed of flowers; and this
      signification shining askance, as it were, over the direct sense
      of the sentence, heightens the delight the reader feels on
      imagining the principal figure. ’Rāvana seated in _Pushpaka_,
      covered with blood, looked like a blossoming Kinsuka.’—T.

   ⁵⁸ The instrument being Siva’s, it naturally was followed by ghosts,
      as his attendants.—T.


"Hearing his mighty shouts, that lord Vaivaswata knew that his adversary
had gained the day and that his own host had been destroyed. And knowing
that his forces had been slain, he, with his eyes crimsoned with passion
hastily spoke unto his charioteer, ’Bring thou my car.’ And thereat the
charioteer brought the noble and mighty car and stood (there) and then
that exceeding energetic one mounted the car. And in front (of his car)
stood death, equipped with _praças_ and maces in his hands, who makes
nothing of this entire triune world; incapable of deterioration. And
beside (him) was the rod of Time in its native from—the divine
instrument of Yama like unto a flaming fire on account of its own
energy. And then on beholding Time, infuriated, tending to strike terror
into all creatures, was agitated the triune universe, and trembling over
took the denizens of heaven. And the charioteer urged on the steeds
possessed of graceful splendour; and arrived where the lord of Rākshasas
was posted. And in a moment those horses like unto thought (in
celerity,) and resembling the steeds themselves of Hari, took Yama where
the warfare had already begun. And seeing the frightful car in that
aspect with Death present in it, the ministers of the Rākshasa monarch
at once took to their heels. And in consequence of their being
comparatively inferior in point of strength they were deprived of their
senses, and afflicted with fear; and saying, ’Here we are not equal to
fighting’ they went their way. But seeing that car capable of striking
terror into folks, the Ten-necked did not experience any agitation, nor
did fear enter his heart. And approaching Rāvana, Yama, enraged,
discharged spears and _tomaras_, and began to pierce Rāvana’s marrow.
But Rāvana, without at all feeling any smart, began to shower arrows on
Vaivaswata’s vehicle, resembling a downpour caused by clouds. And again
at his spacious breast, that Rākshasa who had undergone slender injury,
could not resist, (Yama’s arms) with hundreds of mighty darts hurled.
And in this way that destroyer of foes—Yama fought for seven nights with
various arms; until at length his enemy was driven back and deprived of
his senses. And then, O hero, there took place mighty onset between Yama
and the Rākshasa both eager for victory and both never tiring of fight.
And celestials and Gandharvas and Siddhas, and the supreme saints,
placing Prajapati at their head, presented themselves at the fight. And
the encounter that then took place between that foremost of of Rākshasas
and the lord of the Dead was like the universal upheaval. And stretching
his bow resembling in spleandour the thunderbolt of Indra, he discharged
arrows covering up the sky. And he smote Death with four, the (Yama’s)
charioteer with seven, and swiftly struck Yama in the marrow with
hundreds and thousands of shafts. And then from forth Yama’s mouth there
issued darted flames with his teeth mixed with smoke, the fire of his
fury. And witnessing this wonder in the presence of the deities and
Dānavas, both Death and Time were fired with wrath and were filled with
delight. And the Death, growing still more wroth, addressed Vaivaswata
saying;—’Let me go. I shall slay this sinful Rākshasa. Even this is my
native might this Rākshasa will be no more. Hiranyakaçipu, the graceful
Nemuchi, and Shamvara, Nishandi and Dhumaketu and Virochana’s offspring
Vāli, and the Daitya Shamvu that mighty monarchs, Vritra and Bāna; and
Kājarshis versed in all branches of learnings and Grandharvas, and
mighty serpents, and sages, and Pannagas and Yakshas, and swarms of
Apsarās and the Earth herself containing vasty oceans and mountains and
rivers and trees, at the unrolling of a Yuga—all these, O mighty monarch
have I brought to dissolution. All these and many more endowed with
strength and incapable of being overcome, were at the very sight of me
compassed with peril,—and what is this ranger of the night? Let me go. O
thou cognizant of righteousness,—I shall slay this one. There is none
that, albeit strong, can survive after having been seen by me. Verily
this is not mine strength,—this might pertaineth to me by nature. O
Time, if seen by me, he won’t live for a moment.’ Hearing these words of
his, the puissant king of righteousness spake there unto death,—’Do thou
stay. I myself shall slay him.’ Then with his eyes reddened that lord,
Vaivaswata, wielded with his hand the infallible dart of time; while by
him lay the redoubtable noose of time and the mace in its native shape
resembling fire and the thunderbolt. He, who by his very sight draweth
away the lives of creatures,—what should be said of its touching and
being hurled at people? And touched by that powerful one, that mighty
weapon, _engist_ with flames, attained access of energy, and seemed to
consume the Rākshasa. And in the field of battle, every one afflicted
with fear, ran away from it. And beholding Yama with his rod uplifted,
the celestials were agitated. And on Yama being desirous of slaying
Rāvana, the great-father manifesting himself spake unto Yama: ’O
Vaivaswata, O mighty-armed one, O thou of immeasurable prowess, this
certainly must not be; Thou shouldst not with thy rod slay the
night-ranger; for, O foremost of celestials, I have conferred a boon on
him; and thou shouldst not render false the words that I have uttered.
Verily he, that, whether a god or a human being, shall falsify my words,
shall render this triune universe false. There is no doubt about this.
If this terrific weapon, capable of affrighting the three spheres, be
discharged alike at friends and foes, it will destroy creatures. This
rod of time, of immeasurable might and incapable of being resisted by
creatures, was created by me as having the power of compassing the death
of all beings. Therefore, O mild one, thou forsooth shouldst not bring
it down on Rāvana’s head. If this alights on any one, he doth not live
for a moment, Whether on this weapon allighting, the ten-necked does not
die, or if he does do either way falsehood is the consequence, therefore
do thou keep thy uplifted weapon off Lankā’s lord. If thou have any care
for these worlds do thou establish my truth.’ Thus addressed, Yama then
answered, ’I restrain this rod. Thou art our Lord. But as I can not slay
this one who hath obtained a boon, what then shall I do now in the
field? Therefore shall I disappear from the sight of this Raksha.’
Having said this, even there did he vanish with his car and horses. And
having vanquished him and distinguished his name, he again ascended his
Pushpaka and went out of the abode of Yama. And with a delighted heart
Vaivaswata along with the deities headed by Brahmā—as well as that
mighty ascetic-Nārada, went to the celestial regions."


"Having vanquished Yama, the foremost of celestials, Rāvana delighting
in warfare, saw his adherents. And seeing Rāvana, with his person bathed
in blood, bettered by the weapon discharged at him, they were seized
with surprise. And hailing him with victory, the councillors headed by
Māricha, having been encouraged by Rāvana, ascended Pushpaka. And then
the Raksha entered the region of waters—the abode of Daityas and
serpents, well protected by Varuna. And arriving at Bhogavati—the city
governed by Vāsuki, he brought the serpents under subjection and then,
delighted, bent his course to the palace—Manimayi. There dwelt the
Nivatakavachas, who had obtained boons. Those Daityas were possessed of
prowess and endowed with strength,—carrying various weapons, breathing
high spirits and invincible in battle. And the Dānavas and Rākshasas
growing enraged fell to raving each other with darts and tridents,
Kuliças and axes and _pattiças_. And as they fought one entire year
passed away and neither side obtained victory or was worsted. And then
that way of the triune sphere, that God, the undeteriorating
Great-father, swiftly presented himself on the scene mounted on his
excellent car. And making the Nivatakavachas desist from battle the
ancient great-father spake in clear words—’Even the celestials and the
Asuras are not able to vanquish this Rāvana in battle; nor can the
Dānavas backed by the gods can destroy you. Do you therefore turn your
minds to making friends with the Rākshasa. All interests are forsooth
the common possession of friends.’ Thereat Rāvana made friends with the
Nivatakavachas in the presence of Fire; and then rejoiced greatly. And
duly honored (by them) Daçānana passed there a year, without any feeling
of that place being different from his own home: and spent his time
agreeably. And having learnt there an hundred sorts of illusion, he
directed his course to Rasatala, searching for the city of the lord of
waters. And then going to the city named Açma ruled by the Kalakayas,
(Rāvana) slew the Kalakayas endowed with terrific strength; and then
with his sword cut off his brother-in-law,⁵⁹ the husband of Surpanakhā,
the mighty Vidyutjibha possessed of terrific strength; as that Rākshasa
in the encounter was licking (the limbs of Rāvana’s followers).⁶⁰ Having
vanquished him, he, in a moment, destroyed four hundred Daityas. And
then the lord of Rākshasas saw the grand abode of Varuna resembling a
mass of white clouds, and effulgent like unto Kailāça itself;—and also
saw the milk-conserving Surabhi stationed there; from the streams of
whose milk was produced the ocean named Kshiroda.⁶¹ And there Rāvana saw
the mother of kine and the foremost of bulls; from whom springeth that
maker of night the mild-beaming-moon; taking refuge under whom subsist
the prime saints and those living on froth, the froth⁶² (of milk); and
wherefrom sprang ambrosia as well as the Swadha of Swādhā-subsisting
ones,⁶³ even her that goeth with human beings under the name of Surabhi.
Having gone round this wonderful (cow), Rāvana entered the exceedingly
dreadful abode of Varuna guarded by various kinds of forces. And then he
beheld Varuna’s splendid mansion, streaming with hundreds of torrents,
resembling a mass of autumnal clouds, and always wearing a delightful
aspect. And killing the generals of the forces, after having been
resisted by them, he addressed the warriors, saying,—’Do you speedily
acquaint your king with this. Rāvana hath come here seeking battle. Do
thou give him fight, or say with joined hands, "I have been defeated by
thee," and then thou hast no fear whatever.’ In the meantime the sons
and grandsons of the high-souled Varuna, as well as those of Pushkara
issued forth. And they, endowed with every virtue, accompanied by their
own forces, yoked cars furnished with the effulgence of the rising Sun,
and coursing at the desire of their riders. And then there took place a
mighty encounter capable of making people’s down stand on end, between
the sons of the lord of waters, and those of the intelligent Rāvana. And
in a short while that entire host of Varuna was brought down by the
highly powerful councillor of that Rākshasa Daçagriva. And seeing their
own forces brought to straits in the conflict and driven back in the
fight with networks of shafts, and down on the ground and seeing Rāvana
in Pushpaka, Varuna’s sons swiftly shot into the welkin with their
fleet-footing cars. And after they had attained a station of equal
vantage (with Rāvana) in the sky,⁶⁴ great was the encounter that then
took place in the sky, resembling the encounter of the deities and the
Dānavas. And turning away Rāvana in the conflict by means of shafts
resembling fire, they, exceedingly rejoiced, emitted various shouts. And
then Mahodara, enraged on seeing the king sore pressed, casting off
fear, and wrought up with rage, began to go around, eager for fight. And
smit with his mace by Mahodara, Varuna’s sons coursing at will and
resembling the wind (in velocity), dropped down to the ground. And
having slain those warriors and also those horses of Varuna’s sons
(Mahodara) seeing them lying down deprived of their cars swiftly sent up
a tremendous cheer. And destroyed by Mahodara, their cars and horses
together with their foremost charioteers, lay low on the earth. And then
forsaking their cars, the sons of the high-souled Varuna, stationed in
the sky, did not experience any pain⁶⁵ by virtue of their native power.
And having stretched their bows they pierced Mahodara, and then, all
together they greatly angered prevented Rāvana. As the clouds, with a
thousand torrents cleave a mountain, so they, with dreadful shafts,
resembling thunderbolts and discharged off the bows, pierced him.
Thereupon the Ten-necked (demon), excited with wrath like the fire of
dessolution, pierced them to their very vitals with highly dreadful
arrows. And stationed above, he showered on them variegated maces,
_Vallās_,⁶⁶ _Pātticas_, _saktis_ and huge _Sataghnis_.

"Thereupon with the arrows the infantry were greatly exhausted like unto
young elephants six years old, fallen in mire. Beholding Varuna’s sons
thus worn out and overwhelmed the highly powerful Rāvana roared in
delight like unto clouds. Thereupon emitting loud cries the Rākshaha,
like unto a cloud, with a downpour of diverse shafts, destroyed the
offspring of Varuna. Thereupon they were all defeated and fell dead on
the ground and all their followers fled away from the field of battle to
their homes. Rāvana spoke unto them.—’Do ye communicate this to Varuna.’
Whereto his minister Prahasta replied unto Rāvana saying—’O great
king—Varuna’s sons are slain and the lord of waters, whom thou art
inviting for battle, hath gone to the region of Brahmā, to hear songs.
While the king is away, what is the use of taking trouble, O hero? And
all these heroic sons (of Varuna) have been vanquished.’ Hearing these
words and spreading his own name the lord of Rākshasas expressing sign
of joy, issued out of Varuna’s abode. And returning by the way by which
he had come, the Raksha, stationed in the welkin, proceeded towards

   ⁵⁹ _Cyalā_ means a wife’s brother, Vidyujjibha was however, _the
      husband of his sister_.—T.

   ⁶⁰ This explanation is the commentator’s.

   ⁶¹ Lit. the sea of milk.

   ⁶² A typical instance of the lengths which the self-denial of the
      Hindu sages went is furnished by the case of a certain class of
      ascetics, who, abstaining from every other kind of food, lived
      solely on the froth of milk, falling off from the udders after the
      calf had drunk it. This froth-drinking, in preference to drinking
      the milk itself was dictated by a motive of charity—_viz_, not to
      deprive the calf of her legitimate fare.—T

   ⁶³ The ancestral manes.

   ⁶⁴ Ere this Rāvana was fighting on Pushpaka, while Varuna’s sous
      fought on the earth.

   ⁶⁵ By virtue of their immortal origin.

   ⁶⁶ An arrow with a crescent-shaped head.


"And again journeyed in the city of Açma (the followers of Rāvana)
dreadful in fight. There the Ten-necked demon beheld a highly
picturesque house—adorned with networks of pearls, having gateways
crested with Vaidurjas, golden pillars and abounding in pavements. And
the stairs, of that picturesque house resembling the abode of Mahendra,
covered with girdles, were made of crystal. Beholding that excellent
boost the highly powerful Rāvana thought within himself—’Whose is this
beautiful house, resembling the summit of Meru? Go O Prahasta, and learn
quickly whose house is this.’ Thus ordered, Prahasta entered that
excellent house—and finding none in one appartment he entered another
and thus entering seven apartments he at last saw a flame of fire. There
was a man in that flame, who, when seen, laughed aloud. Hearing that
dreadful laughter Prahasta’s down stood on their end. There was another
man in that flame, as if in a swoon, engarlanded with golden lotuses,
incapable of being looked at, like the sun, and resembling the Yama’s
self. Beholding that the night-ranger speedily issued out of the house
and communicated it unto Rāvana. Thereupon, O Rāma, having descended
from Pushpaka, the Ten-necked demon, black as collyrium, entered that
house. (Immediately) obstructing the door there stood a huge-bodied man,
dreadful like Siva—his tongue was all flame, his eyes were red, rows of
teeth beautiful, lips like _Bimba_, his form was handsome, nose
dreadful, neck like a shell marked with three lines, jaws were spacious,
beards thick, bone fleshy, teeth huge and his appearance was all
dreadful. And taking up an iron mace he stood at the gate. Beholding
him, Daçānana’s hairs stood on their end—his heart and body trembled.
And seeing these bad omens, O Rāma, he began to think within himself. He
thus meditating that man said—’What art thou thinking, O Rākshasa? Tell
me all in confidence. I shall confer upon thee the hospitality of
fighting, O hero, O night-ranger.’ Having said this he again spoke unto
Rāvana, saying—’Dost thou wish to enter into conflict with Bali, or what
else is thy intention?’ Rāvana was so overwhelmed that his hairs stood
on their end; but resorting to calmness he said—’O thou foremost of
those skilled in speech, who residest in this house? I shall fight with
him; speak out what thou wishest.’ He again said (to Rāvana)—’The lord
of Dānavas lives here—he is highly generous, heroic, and hath truth for
his prowess. He is gifted with many qualities, resplendent like unto
Yama with mace in his hand or the newly risen sun and incapable of being
defeated in conflict, impetuous, invincible, victorious, powerful, a
veritable ocean of accomplishments, sweet-speeched, supporter of the
dependants, fond of preceptor and Brahmans, always waiting for opportune
hours, gifted with high powers, truthful, of a handsome person, skilful,
gifted with all accomplishments, heroic and engaged in the study of the
Vedas. He sometimes walks on foot and moves about like the wind—he
shines like fire and spreads heat like the sun. He travels with the
gods, spirits, serpents and birds. He does not know fear; dost thou wish
to fight with him? If thou dost wish to fight with Bali, O lord of
Rākshasas, O thou gifted with great energy, do thou speedily enter (this
house) and engage in the encounter.’ Being thus addressed the Ten-necked
demon entered where Bali was. Beholding the lord of Lankā, the foremost
of Dānavas, resembling the flaming fire, and hard to look at like the
sun, laughed. And taking that Rākshasa by the hand and placing him on
his lap he said. ’O Ten-necked lord of Rākshasas, O thou having long
arms, what desire of thine may I satisfy? Do thou tell me what for thou
hast come hither.’ Being thus addressed by Bali Rāvana said—’I have
heard, O illustrious sir, that formerly thou wast bound by Vishnu.
Forsooth I am capable of releasing thee from the bonds.’ Hearing that
Bali laughed and said—’Hear, I shall relate to thee what thou hast
asked, O Rāvana. The red-hued man, who stands always at the door—by him
formerly all the leading Dānavas and other powerful lords were brought
into subjection—by him I was also bound. He is invincible like unto
death; who is there on this earth that can deceive him? He, who stands
at the door, is the destroyer of all beings, creator and preserver and
the lord of the three worlds. Thou dost not know him nor do I. He is
identical with past, future and present and is the lord. He is Kali and
he is Time—the destroyer of all beings. He is the destroyer and the
creator of the three worlds—and he slays all beings mobile and immobile.
And that lord of all gods again creates the universe without beginning
or end. O night-ranger, he governs and preserves all sacrifices, gifts
and oblations to fire. Forsooth he is the creator and the preserver of
the universe—there is none so wonderful in the three worlds. O son of
Pulasta, He hath been guiding the former Dānavas, myself, yourself like
so many beasts bound with ropes. Vitra, Danu, Suka, Sambhu, Nishumbha,
Sumbha, Kālanemi, Prahlada and others, Kuta, Vairochana, Mridu, Jamala,
Arjuna, Kansa, Kaitabha, and Madhu used to impart heat like the sun,
appear resplendant like the rays, move about like air and pour showers
like Indra. All of them celebrated many a sacrifice and were engaged in
austere penances. All of them were high-souled and considered the
practice of Yoga as a great virtue. Having got by an immense accession
of wealth they enjoyed many pleasures, made many gifts, celebrated many
sacrifices, studied (many lores) and governed their subjects. They were
all protectors of their own kith and kin and slayers of enemies; and in
battle, there was none equal to them in the three worlds. They were all
heroic, of a high pedigree, versed in all sacred writings, proficient in
all branches of learning and indomitable in warfare. Having defeated
thousands of celestials in conflict, the high-souled ones conquered the
regions. They were always engaged in those works which were not liked by
the celestials and used to maintain their own men. They were all
inflated with pride and haughtiness and effulgent like the newly-risen
sun. The glorious Hari, the lord Vishnu, knoweth only how to bring about
their destruction who perpetually assail the celestials. He creates all
these and He, bringing about their destruction, existeth in Himself at
the time of dissolution. These highly powerful and high-souled Danava
chiefs, assuming shapes at will, have been destroyed by the glorious
God. Besides, all these heroes, who have been heard of as being
irrepressible and invincible in warfare, have been discomfitted by the
wondrous power of Kritānta.’ Having said this the lord of Dānavas again
spoke unto the lord of Rākshsas—’O hero, O thou gifted with great
strength, take that flaming discus which thou beholdest and come to my
side. I shall then relate to thee the means of eternal liberation. Do
what I have told thee, O thou having long arms. Delay not Rāvana.’
Hearing this the highly powerful Raksha proceeded, laughing, O
descendant of Raghu, where that celestial _kundala_ was. Rāvana, proud
of his prowess, easily took it up but could not move it by any means.
And being ashamed that highly powerful one again attempted. As soon as
it was uplifted the Rākshasa dropped down on ground, bathed in a pool of
blood, like unto an uprooted Sāla tree. In the meantime there arose a
sound from Pushpaka, and the councillors of that lord of Rākshasas cried
aloud. Regaining his sense that Raksha rose up in a moment and lowered
his head in shame. Bali said to him—’Do thou come, O foremost of
Rākshasas and hear my words. O hero, the _kundala_, crested with jewels,
which thou didst assay to take up, is an ornament for the ear of one of
my forefathers. This fell here on the ground, O thou gifted with great
strength; another _kundala_ was thrown on the summit of the mountain.
Besides these _kundalas_ his crown was also cast off on the ground
before the altar during the encounter. Formerly none bore enmity towards
my ancestor Hiranya Kasipu—Time death, or illness. He had no death
during the day, night, evening or morning. O foremost of Rākshasas, he
did not experience death from any weapon whatsoever. He created a
dreadful enmity with Prahlada. This conflict having taken place with the
high-souled and heroic Prahlada there rose up a dreadful figure of
man-lion—a terror unto all, O foremost of Rākshasas. And that terrible
figure casting his looks about, all the worlds were over-whelmed.

"’Thereupon taking him up with his arms he destroyed him with his nails.
The person, who is standing at the door, is this supreme Yasudeva, void
of passion. I shall now relate to thee the words of that supreme God; do
thou hear, if thy heart is filled with spiritual thoughts. The person,
who is standing at the door, hath brought into subjection, in thousands
of years, a thousand of Indras, an Ayuta of gods and hundreds of great
Rishis.’ Hearing these words Rāvana said—’(I have seen) Kritānta, the
lord of spirits with Death himself, with hairs standing erect. Serpents
and scorpions are his hairs—his tongue is hard as the lightning, his
teeth are dreadful—his eyes are red and he is gifted with great velocity
and a terror unto all beings. He is incapable of being looked at like
unto the sun, unconquerable in battle and is the chastiser of the
sinners. He even was defeated by me in conflict. There I did not feel
the least pain or fear, O lord of Dānavas. I do not know (this
person)—it behoveth thee to give me an account.’

"Hearing the words of Rāvana Bali said—’He is the lord Hari—Nārāyana—the
protector of the three worlds. He is Ananta,⁶⁷ Kapila,⁶⁸ Jishnu,⁶⁹ and
the highly effulgent Man-lion.⁷⁰ He is Kratudhāma,⁷¹ Sudhāma,⁷² and hath
the dreadful mace in his hand. He is like unto the twelve Adityas,
Purana and the excellent Purusha; he is like unto the red clouds—the
lord of gods and the best god. O thou having long arms, he is encircled
by flames, a great devotee and fond of devotees; this lord preserveth
the universe and hath created it. And he, gifted with great strength,
brought about destruction in the form of Time; and this Hari, with a
discus in his hand, is sacrifice and is being worshipped in sacrifices.
He is at one with all gods—all beings, all worlds and all knowledge. He
is all forms, the great form, Baladeva and hath long arms; he slayeth
heroes, hath heroic eyes, is imperishable and the preceptor of the three
worlds. All these sages, who long for final liberation, meditate upon
him—he, who can know this Purusha, is not sullied with sins. By
remembering him, hearing of him and worshipping him, every thing can be
obtained.’ Hearing these words of Bali, the highly powerful Rāvana,
having his eyes reddened with ire, issued out with uplifted weapon.
Beholding him thus excited, the lord Hari, with a club in his hand,
thought within himself, O Rāma, ’I shall not slay this sinner for the
satisfaction of Brahmā’ and assuming his own shape disappeared. And not
beholding that Purusha there, the night-ranger issued out of the abode
of Varuna, shouting with joy. He went away by the way he had come."

   ⁶⁷ Lit, eternal, endless. Here it is the name of Vishnu.

   ⁶⁸ A celebrated Muni or saint, the founder of the _Sankhya_ system of
      philosophy; the son of Kardama by Devahuti and according to some
      an incarnanation of Vishnu.

   ⁶⁹ Lit—victorious, or triumphant, a name of Vishnu.

   ⁷⁰ _Narasinha_—a. name of Vishnu. When prayed for by Prahlada to
      appear from a pillar Vishnu came out in the shape of man-lion and
      slew Hiranya-Kasipu—the king of Daityas and father of Prahlada.

   ⁷¹ Protector of sacrifices—a name of Vishnu.

   ⁷² Here it is evidently one of the names of Vishnu. In Vishnu Purana,
      Book I, Chapter X. we find another account, Vireyas, married to
      Gauri, had Sudaman, a Loka pala, or ruler of the east quarter, as
      his son.


"Thereupon meditating for sometime the lord of Lankā went to the region
of the sun and spent the night upon the picturesque summit of the mount
Meru. And ascending the car Pushpaka having the velocity of the sun’s
steeds, he, by various courses, went on and beheld the glorious sun,
gifted with all radiance, purifying all, wearing golden _Keyuras_ and
clothes crested with jewels. His beautiful countenance was adorned with
a pair of excellent _Kundalas_; and his person was embellished with
_Keyuras_, _Nishkas_ and garlands of red lotuses. His body was annointed
with red sandal and was radiant with a thousand rays. And beholding that
foremost of gods—the sun—that primeval deity, without end or middle,
having Uchaisravas as his carrier, the witness of the world and the lord
of the universe, the foremost of Rākshasas, being overwhelmed with his
rays, said to Prahasta—’O minister, do thou proceed at my behest and
communicate unto him my orders—"Rāvana hath arrived here for battle—do
thou offer him fight." Or say "I have been defeated." Do thou follow one
of these extremes.’ Hearing those words that Rākshasa proceeded towards
the sun and beheld two gate-keepers—Pingala and Dandi by name. And
communicating unto them the resolution of Rāvana he stood there silent,
being over-powered with the rays of the sun. And approaching the sun,
Dandi communicated unto him all this. Hearing of Rāvana’s intention from
Dandi the intelligent sun—the enemy of night—wisely said to him—’Do thou
proceed, O Dandi; either defeat Rāvana or tell him "I have been
defeated." Do whatever thou wishest.’ Hearing those words he approached
the high-souled Rākshasa and communicated unto him what the sun had
said. Hearing the words of Dandi the lord of Rākshasas trumpeted his own
victory and went away."


"Having spent the night on the picturesque summit of the mount Meru and
thinking (for some time) the powerful lord of Lankā went to the region
of the moon. (And he saw a person) proceeding, seated on a car,
sprinkled with heavenly unguents and attended upon by Apsarās. And worn
out with the satisfaction of desire he was being kissed there. Seeing
such a person his curiosity was greatly excited. And beholding a Rishi
there he said to him—’Welcome thou art, O celestial saint. Indeed thou
hast come at a proper season. Who is this shameless wight that is going
seated on a car and attended by Apsarās? Does he not perceive his object
of fear?’ Being thus addressed by Rāvana, Parvata said—’O my child, O
thou gifted with great intellect—Hear I shall describe to thee the
truth. By him all the worlds have been conquered and Brahmā hath been
propitiated And he is now proceeding to that excellent region full of
bliss for obtaining final liberation. As all the worlds have been
conquered by thee by virtue of thy asceticism, O lord of Rākshasas, so
is he going, undoubtedly performing many pious actions and drinking Soma
juice. O foremost of Rākshasas, thou art heroic, and hast truth for thy
prowess. The powerful are never offended with the pious.’ Thereupon he
espied an excellent, huge car, filled with all radiance and effulgence
and the sound of musical instruments and singing. (And Rāvana said)—’O
great Rishi, who is that person, gifted with great effulgence, who goeth
surrounded by charming songsters, dancing-girls and Kinnaras?’ Hearing
his words Parvata, the foremost of saints, again said—’He is heroic and
a great warrior—he never returneth unsuccessful from a battle-field.
Having performed many heroic feats in battle, and slain many enemies, he
hath been assailed with many wounds in fighting and hath renounced his
life for his master. Having destroyed many in battle, he hath at last
been slain by his enemies and is perhaps now going either to the region
of Indra or to some such place. This best of men is now being
entertained by these well-versed in the art of singing and dancing.’

"Rāvana again said—’Who goeth there effulgent like unto the sun?’
Hearing the words of Rāvana, Parvata said—’The person, resembling the
full moon and wearing diverse ornaments and cloths, whom thou beholdest,
O great king, in the golden car abounding in Apasaras, distributed gold.
He, gifted with great effulgence, is now going in a swift-coursing car.’
Hearing the words of Parvata, Rāvana said—’O foremost of Rishis, do thou
tell me, who, of these kings going, if prayed for, may offer me the
hospitality of a battle? For sooth thou art my father; do thou point out
(such a man to me) O thou conversant with piety.’ Being thus addressed,
Parvata again said to Rāvana—’O great king, all these kings wish for
heaven not for battle. I shall point out such a man, O great one, as
shall enter into conflict with thee. There is a highly powerful king—the
lord of seven islands, well known by the name of Māndhāta; he shall
enter into an encounter with thee.’ Hearing the words of Parvata, Rāvana
again said—’Do thou tell me, O thou of great devotion, where this king
resides. I shall go where lives this foremost of men.’ Hearing the words
of Rāvana, the sage again said—’The son of Yuvanaswha hath conquered the
world consisting of seven islands begining with the sea; Māndhāta, the
foremost of kings, is just coming to meet him.’ Thereupon (Rāvana)
having long arms, proud of the boon conferred upon him in the three
worlds, beheld the heroic Māndhāta, the lord of Ayodhyā and the foremost
of kings. The king of seven islands proceeded in a golden and
well-painted car resplendant like that of Mahendra, shining in his
beauty and sprinkled with celestial unguents. The Ten-necked demon said
to him—’Do thou give me battle.’ Being thus addressed, he, laughing,
said to the ten-necked demon—’If thy life is not dear unto thee, do thou
fight with me, O Rākshasa.’ Hearing the words of Māndhāta, Rāvana
said—’Rāvana did not experience any affliction from Varuna Kuvera or
Yama; why should he experience fear from thee, who art a man?’ Having
said this, the lord of Rākshasas as if burning in ire, ordered the
Rākshasas irrepressible in battle. Thereupon the ministers of the
vicious-souled Rāvana, highly enraged and well-skilled in warfare, began
to make a downpour of arrows. Thereupon the highly powerful king
Māndhāta, with sharpened shafts, assailed Prahasta, Suka, Sārana,
Mahodara, Birupaksha, Akampana and other foremost heroes. Prahasta
covered the king with his arrows—but before they had approached him,
that foremost of men shattered them into pieces. Like unto fire burning
down grass, the host of Rākshasas were burnt down by the king Māndhāta
by means of hundreds of _Bhushundis_, _Vallas_, _Vindipālās_ and
_Tomaras_. As Kartikeya, the son of fire, sundered the mount Krauncha
with his shafts so Māndhāta, enraged, pierced Prahasta with five
_Tomaras_ gifted with great velocity. Then hurling his mace again and
again resembling that of Yama, he struck, vehemently, Rāvana’s car
therewith. That club, resembling the lightning, vehemently descended
(upon Rāvana’s car) and Rāvana, like Sakra’s banner, was speedily upset
by that. Like unto the rising of the waters of the salt ocean on the
full moon, the king Māndhāta’s joy and strength were greatly increased.
Thereupon the entire Rākshasa host, emitting loud cries, stood
encircling on all sides the lord of Rākshasas. Thereat speedily
regaining his sense, Rāvana, a terror unto all people, the lord of
Lankā, greatly assailed the person of Māndhāta. And beholding that king
in a swoon, the highly powerful night-rangers were greatly delighted and
emitted leonine roars. Regaining his sense in a moment the king of
Ayodhyā beheld his enemy worshipped by the courtiers and night-rangers.
He was instantly worked up with ire; and assuming a person resplendant
like that of the sun and the moon he began to slay the Rākshasa host
with a dreadful downpour of shafts. With his arrows and the noise
thereof the entire Rākshasa army were overwhelmed like the agitated
deep. Thereupon there arose a dreadful conflict between men and demons.
And those two heroic, high-souled and foremost of men and Rākshasas
seated on warriors’ seats and holding bow and daggers entered (the
field). And possessed by great anger they began to assail one another
with shafts—Māndhāta Rāvana and he again the king. They, being assailed
by one another, were both wounded. And setting the Raudra shaft upon his
bow Rāvana discharged it and Māndhāta baffled it by means of his fiery
shafts. The Ten-necked demon took up the Gandharva weapon and the king
Māndhāta the Brahmā-weapon striking terror unto all. Rāvana then took up
the celestial Pāsupata weapon, dreadful and increasing the fright of the
three worlds, obtained by him from Rudra by virtue of his rigid
penances. Seeing this all animals, mobile and immobile, were stricken
with terror. Thereupon trembled all the three worlds consisting of
mobile and immobile beings—the celestials and all the serpents became
inert. Being apprised (of this conflict) by virtue of meditation the two
foremost of ascetics Pulastya and Gālava remonstrated with them in many
a way and prevented the king (Māndhāta) and the foremost of Rākshasas.
Thereupon that man and demon being reconciled with one another went back
by the ways they had respectively come."


"Those two brahmans having departed, Rāvana, the lord of Rākshasas,
proceeded, at first, by the aerial way, ten thousand leagues, He then
went lo the excellent upper aerial region where live perpetually ganders
gifted with many accomplishments. The extent thereof is also counted by
ten thousand leagues and there are stationed closely three classes of
clouds⁷³ namely Agneya, Pakshaja and Brahma. He, then proceeded to the
third excellent aerial region where perpetually reside the high-minded
Siddhas and Charanas and the extent whereof is also ten thousand
leagues. O slayer of enemies, he then speedily proceeded to the fourth
aerial region where perpetually dwelt the goblins and Vinayakas, He
quickly went to the fifth aerial region which also extends over ten
thousand _yojanas_ where exist Ganga, the foremost of rivers, and the
elephants headed by Kumuda, who pour down waters. They sport in the
waters of the Ganges and pour down her holy waters. And those waters,
parched by the rays of the sun and softened by the wind, pour down holy
waters and dews, O Rāghava, Thereupon that Rākshasa went to the sixth
aerial region, O thou gifted with high radiance, which also extends over
ten thousand _yojanas_ and where dwells Garuda perpetually respected of
his kinsmen and friends. He then went to the seventh aerial region which
is ten thousand leagues above and where dwell the seven Rishis. And
again going up ten thousand leagues he reached the eighth aerial region
where Ganga, known as the Ganges of the sky, having strong currents and
sending high roars, and upheld by air, is situated on the sun’s way. I
shall now describe the region higher than that where resides the moon,
and the extent whereof is counted by eighty thousand leagues. There
dwells the moon encircled by stars and planets from whom proceed
hundreds and thousands of rays which light up the worlds and conduce to
the pleasure of all animals. Thereupon beholding the Ten-necked demon
the moon as if burnt (him) down speedily with his cold fiery rays. And
stricken with the fear of those rays his councillors could not stand
them. Thereupon exclaiming his victory Prahasta said to Rāvana—’O king,
we are destroyed by cold, so we must go away from here. The Rākshasas
have been terrified by the rays of the moon; O foremost of kings, the
cold rays of the moon have the natural property of fire in them.’
Hearing the words of Prahasta, Rāvana, beside himself with wrath, having
uplifted his bow and twanged it, began to assail him with _Narachas_.
Thereupon Brahmā came speedily to the region of the moon and said—’O
Ten-necked one, O thou having mighty arms, O direct son of Visravas, O
gentle one, do thou repair hence speedily—do not oppress the moon—(for)
this highly effulgent king of twice-born ones wisheth well-being unto
all. I shall communicate to thee a mystical incantation; He who
recollects it at the time of death, does not come by it.’ Being thus
addressed the ten-necked demon, with folded hands, said—’If thou art
pleased with me O god! O lord of the worlds, O thou of great penances,
if dost thou wish to communicate that incantation, do thou impart it
upon me, O thou of great piety; reciting which, O great one, I may be
released of the fear of the celestials. Forsooth, by thy favour, O lord
of the celestials, I shall be invincible by all the Asuras, Dānavas and
birds.’ Being thus accosted Brahmā said to the ten-necked demon—’O lord
of Rākshasas, do thou recite it at the time of death and not every day.
Taking a string of beads, thou shouldst recite this holy incantation, on
which, thou, O lord of Rashasas, shalt be invincible, And if dost thou
not recite it thou shalt not meet with success. Hear, I shall
communicate to thee the incantation, O foremost of Rākshasas, reciting
which thou shalt obtain victory in the encounter, "Salutation unto thee,
god, O lord of gods, O thou worshipped of the celestials and Asuras, O
thou identical with past and future, great god, O thou having red
eyes—thou art a boy at thou assumest the form of an old man; thou
wearest tiger skin. O god, thou art worthy of being worshipped, and the
lord of the three worlds. Thou art Hara, Haritanemi, Yugantadahaka and
Valadeva. Thou art Ganesha, Loka-Sambhu, Lokapala, and of huge arms;
thou art great, the holder of a huge dart, having dreadful teeth, and
the greatest of gods. Thou art time, the strength and hast blue neck and
a large belly; thou art the destroyer of the celestials—the foremost of
the ascetics and the lord of all created beings. Thou art the holder of
a dart and hast the bull as thy emblem, art the leader, protector, the
destroyer and the preserver; thou hast beared locks, art Mundi,
Sikhandi, hast a crown, and art greatly illustrious. Thou art the lord
of sprites and goblins, the soul of all, the protector of all,
omniscient, the destroyer of all, the creator and the eternal preceptor.
Thou art lord, carriest a _kamandalu_⁷⁴ in thy hand, art the holder of a
Pinaka⁷⁵ and Dhurjati⁷⁶ thou art, worthy of veneration, the most
excellent OM, the first chanter of Saman, the death, the element of
death, Parijātra⁷⁷ and observant of penances. Thou art an ascetic,
livest in a cave and carriest a Vinā,⁷⁸ Panava,⁷⁹ and quiver in thy
hands; thou art immortal and art like the newly-risen sun to behold.
Thou livest in a cremation ground, art the illustrious lord of Umā, and
above all blemishes Thou didst uproot-the eyes of Vagadeva and teeth of
Pushā. Thou art the destroyer of fever, holdest mace in thy hand and art
(the very) dissolution and time. Thou hast got a fire-brand in thy
mouth, hast fire as thy emblem, art highly resplendent and lord of men.
Thou art mad, makest people tremble, art the fourth, and most respected
of men; thou art a dwarf, Vāmanadeva and the dwarf who circumambulates
the east. Thou art a beggar, wearest the semblance of a beggar and art
by nature crooked; thou didst assail Indra’s hands and the Vasus. Thou
art the season, the maker of seasons, time, honey and hast honeyed eyes.
Thou art a tree bearing fruits and blossoms, hast arrows as thy seat and
worshipped by people of all conditions perpetually. Thou art the
protector and the creator of the universe, the Purusha, eternal and
certain; the lord of all religions, Virupāksha, the three qualities and
the protector of all beings. Thou art three-eyed, assumest many forms
and brilliant as the _Ajuta_ suns; thou art the lord of all celestials,
the foremost deity and wearest bearded locks having the impressions of
the moon; thou art connected with Brahman, worthy of being resorted to
and identical with all created beings. Thou blowest all bugles, severest
all ties; thou dost charm and bind (all) and dost always bring about
death. Thou hast flowery teeth, art a division, the foremost and the
destroyer of all; thou hast dreadful beards, holdest a bow, art fearful
and gifted with dreadful might." These eight hundred holy and excellent
names have been uttered by me which remove all iniquities, are holy and
afford shelter to those who seek for it; if do thou recite them, O
ten-necked one, thou shalt be able to destroy thy enemies.’"

   ⁷³ The three classes are (1) _Agnija_ or produced from fire (2)
      _Pakshaja_ or produced in a fortnight (3) _Brāhma_ or produced
      from Brahma.

   ⁷⁴ An earthen or wooden water pot used by the ascetic and religious

   ⁷⁵ The bow of Siva, A trident or three-pronged spear.

   ⁷⁶ A name of Siva from _dhur_, a burden and _Jati_, a collection; who
      collects or bears the burthen of the three worlds.

   ⁷⁷ The name of a mountain, apparently the central or western portion
      of the _Vindhya_ chain.

   ⁷⁸ A kind of stringed musical instrument.

   ⁷⁹ A sort of musical instrument; a small drum or tabor.


"Having conferred this boon upon Rāvana the father, sprung from lotus,
speedily returned to the region of Brahman. And having obtained the boon
Rāvana too came back. After a few days that Rākshasa Rāvana, the dread
of all people, arrived at the banks of the western Ocean with his
councillors. And on the island a person was seen bright as fire under
the name of Mahajambunada, seated there alone. He had a dreadful figure
and was like unto the fire at dissolution. And beholding that highly
powerful person amongst men like unto the chief of gods amongst the
celestials, the moon amongst the planets, the lion amongst the
Sarabhas,⁸⁰ the Airavata amongst the elephants, the Meru amongst the
mountains, and the Pārijāta amongst the trees, the ten-necked demon
said—’Give me battle.’ Thereat his eyes became agitated like unto
planets and from the clashing of his teeth there arose a sound like the
clapping of thunder-bolts. And the highly powerful Dasānana too roared
with his councillors. And with darts, _Saktis_, _Rishtis_ and _Patticas_
he again and again assailed that highly effulgent person, having long
arms, a dreadful appearance, huge teeth, a grim figure, a conch-like
neck, spacious breast, a belly like that of a frog, a countenance like
that of a lion, legs like the mount Kailāsa, red palms, red hands,
emitting dreadful roars, huge-bodied, gifted with the velocity of mind
and air, dreadful, carrying quiver, bells and chowries, encircled by a
burning flame and emitting a sweet note as a net-work of _Kinkini_ does,
having a garland of golden lotuses hung round his neck, appearing
graceful like unto the Rig-Veda, be-decked with lotus garlands,
resembling the Anjana and golden mountains. As the lion is not moved by
the attack of a wolf, the elephant by that of a bull, the Sumeru by the
king of serpents and the great Ocean by the current of a river, so that
great person was not agitated and said to the ten-necked demon—’O
vicious-minded night-ranger, I shall soon remove they desire for a
battle.’ O Rāma, the might of that person was a thousand times greater
than that of Rāvana which was dreadful unto all the worlds. Piety and
asceticism, which are at the root of attaining to every thing in the
world, are at his thighs; Cupid is his male organ, the Viswadevas are at
his waist and the Maruts are at the sides of his _Basti_; the Vasus are
in the middle portion of his body, the oceans are in his belly, the
quarters are on his sides, the Maruts are at his joints—the manes are
one his back and the grand-father has taken shelter in his heart; the
pious acts of making gifts of kine, gold and lands are his downs; the
mounts Himalaya, Hemkuta, Mandara, and Meru are his bones; the
thunder-bolt is his palm, the sky his body; the evening and watery
clouds are on his neck, the creator, the preserver and the Vidyadharas
are on his two arms. Ananta, Vasuki, Visalaksha Iravat, Kamvala,
Aswatara, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya the venomous Takshaka, and Upatakshaka,
have taken shelter under the nails of his hands, in order to vomit forth
their venom. The fire is in his mouth, the Rudras are on his shoulders,
the fortnights, months, years and seasons are on the rows of his teeth;
the lunar half and the dark half of the month are in his nostrils—and
the airy currents are in pores of his body. Saraswati, the goddess of
words, is his neck, the two Aswins are his ears, the sun and the moon
are his two eyes, O Rāma, all the divisions of the Vedas, Yagmas, the
whole host of stars, good words, energy, asceticism—all these are being
supported by his body, assuming the shape of a man. Thereupon that
Purusha easily struck Rāvana with his hands hard as thunder. Being
assailed thereby Rāvana immediately fell on the ground. Beholding that
Rākshasa fallen and having distressed others that huge person, like unto
the Rig-Veda, resembling a mountain and be-decked with lotus garlands,
entered the region under the earth. Rāvana addressed his councillors
thus—’O Prahasta, O Sukasārana and other ministers, where hath that
person suddenly gone? Do ye tell me this.’ Hearing those words of Rāvana
the night-rangers said—’That man, who crusheth down the pride of the
celestials and demons, hath entered hither.’

"As Garuda goes speedily taking a serpent so that vicious-minded Rāvana
arrived quickly at the entrance of the den. And Rāvana, having no fear,
entered therein. And having entered there he saw males resembling the
red collyrium, wearing _keyuras_,⁸¹ heroic, be-decked with red garlands,
pasted with red sandal and adorned with diverse golden ornaments and
jewels. He saw there three millions of such high-minded persons, devoid
of fear, pure, radiant like fire, dancing being mad after festivities.
Beholding them the Ten-necked demon, of dreadful prowess, was not the
least terrified, and rather saw their dance, standing at the gate. They
were all like the male being he had seen before. They were all of the
same colour, same dress, same figure and equally gifted with great
energy. They were all gifted with four arms and great energy. Beholding
them the down of the Ten-necked demon stood erect though a boon had been
conferred upon him by the Self-born and he speedily issued out of that
place. And he again saw another huge person lying down on a bed. His
house, seat and bed were all white and valuable and he was sleeping
enveloped by fire. And there sat gracefully with a fan in her lotus
hands, the goddess Laksmi—most beautiful in the three worlds—(as if) the
ornament thereof, chaste, adorned with celestial garlands, sprinkled
with excellent sandal paste, be-decked with rich ornaments and clad in a
precious raiment. Having entered there with out any councillor the
vicious Rāvana, the lord of Rākshasas, on beholding that chaste damsel
with sweet smiles seated on a royal seat, being possessed by desire,
grew anxious to hold her by the hand, as one, under the influence of
death, catches a sleeping serpent. Beholding that lord of Rākshasas with
loose cloth and understanding him as desirous of holding (her) the
deity, having huge arms, asleep and enveloped with flames, laughed
aloud. And scorched suddenly by his energy, Rāvana, the dread of all
people, fell down on earth like unto an up-rooted tree. Beholding that
Rākshasa fallen he said the following words:—’Rise up, O foremost of
Rākshasas, thou shalt not meet with death today; thou shalt live and be
protected, O Rākshasa, by the great Patriarch’s boon. Do thou therefore
go away, O Rāvana, with confidence—thou shalt not experience death just
now.’ Regaining his sense instantly Rāvana was stricken with fear. And
being thus addressed, that enemy, of the celestials, stood up and with
his down erect, said to that highly resplendant deity—’Who art thou
gifted with great energy and like unto the fire of dissolution? Tell me,
who art thou, O deity and whence thou hast come hither.’ Being thus
accosted by the vicious-souled Rāvana, the deity, smiling, replied in
words deep as the muttering of clouds, saying—’What shalt thou do with
me O ten-necked demon? Thou art not to be slain by me now.’ Being thus
addressed the Ten-necked demon, with folded palms said—’By the words of
the Patriarch (Brahmā) I shall not tread the path of death; there is
none born amongst men, or the celestials who can equal me, and
disregard; by virtue of his prowess, the great Patriarch’s boon. His
words can never be falsified—every great exertion is weak before them; I
do not behold any such man in the three worlds who can render that boon
useless. O foremost of the deities, I am immortal—I do not fear thee;
and even if I meet with death, I may have it from thee and no one else,
O Lord. My death from thee is both glorious and praise-worthy.’
Thereupon Rāvana, gifted with dreadful prowess, beheld within the body
of that deity, all the three worlds with mobile and immobile creations.
The Adityas, the Maruts, the Sidhas, the two Aswins, Rudras, the manes,
Yama, Kuvera, the oceans, mountains, rivers, all the divisions of the
Veda and knowledge, fire, planets, stars, sky, Siddhas, Gandharvas,
Chāranas, the ascetics conversant with the knowledge of Vedas, Garuda
and the serpents, the other deities, Yakshas, Daityas and Rākshasas,
were all seen in their incorporeal forms, on the person of that great
Purusha, lying down." Thereupon the virtuous-souled Rāma said to
Agastya, the foremost of Munis—"Who is that male being stationed in the
island? Who are those three _kotis_ male beings? And who is this person
who crusheth down the pride of the Daityās and Dānavas?" Hearing Rāma’s
words Agastya said—"O thou existing eternally, O god of gods, hearken, I
shall relate (it) unto thee. The person stationed in the island is the
illustrious Kapila. All those dancing persons are the deities equalling
that intelligent Kapila in energy and power. And that Rākshasa, bent on
sin, was not seen by him with angry looks, and therefore, Rāma, Rāvana,
was not there and then reduced to ashes. And he, resembling a mountain,
with his person pierced, fell on the ground. As a wily wight goes
through a secret so he pierced (Rāvana’s person) with his shaft-like
words. Having regained his sense, however, after a long time, that
Rākshasa, of great prowess, returned where his councillors were."

   ⁸⁰ A fabulous animal supposed to have eight legs.

   ⁸¹ A kind of ornament used on arms.


"While thus returning the vicious-souled Rāvana, with delight, carried
away stealthily, on his way, the daughters of the royal saints,
celestials and Dānavas. And whatever beautiful damsel he saw, married or
unmarried, that demon held them captive in his car, having slain all
their friends and relatives. In this wise he got on his chariot many a
female of the Nagas, Rakshas, Asuras, Yakshas, Dānavas and of men. And
they, all afflicted, shed tears, hot as firey flames, caused by fear and
fire of grief. As the ocean is filled with the currents of the rivers so
that car was flooded with their tears originating from fear and sorrow.
And wept there in the chariot, hundreds of the females of Nagas,
Gandharvas, of great ascetics, Daityas and of Dānavas. They had long
airs, graceful persons, countenances resembling the full-moon, rising
breast, slender waist like that of a black-bee and were graceful with
back like the pole of a car. They were like the females of the
celestials and the burning gold and were all afflicted by grief, sorrow
and terror and were young. And the car was ablaze on all sides with the
sighings of those damsels and Pushpaka looked like the chamber where
fire is kept perpetually. The countenance and eyes, of those beautiful
damsels, brought under the subjection of the ten-necked demon, and
afflicted with sorrow, looked poorly like a hind attacked by a lion.
Some thought—’Will he eat me up?’ and another, stricken with sorrow,
thought—’Will he destroy me?’ Thus remembering their mothers, fathers,
husbands and brothers, all those females, overwhelmed with grief and
sorrow, bewailed, some exclaiming—’What shall befall my son in my
absence? Alas! into what ocean of grief my mother or brother is sunk?
Alas! what shall my husband do in my absence? Therefore, O death, I
propitiate thee, do thou take me, who am subject to miseries. Alas! what
an iniquity did I perpetrate in my former birth in another body?
Therefore, we all, overwhelmed with grief, are sunk in the ocean of
sorrow—and I do not behold the end of my miseries. Oh! fie upon
humanity; there is none more vile than a man for they are weak. As the
stars disappear with the rising of the sun in time, so our husbands have
been destroyed by the powerful Rāvana. Oh! highly powerful is this
Raksha and he is mad after devising the means of destruction. Alas!
being engaged in such vile actions, he does not consider himself cursed;
he is as powerful as he is vicious. And though the ravishment of
another’s wife is a greats sin, still that vile Rākshasa is enjoying us
who belong to others. Therefore this vicious-minded one shall meet with
death, by his own actions.’ As soon as these words were uttered by those
chaste damsels, bugles were sounded in heaven and flowery showers fell
on earth. Being thus imprecated by those chaste females, devoted to
their husbands, he became shorn of energy and effulgence and appeared
like one divested of mind. Hearing their lamentations thus and being
honored by the night-rangers that foremost of Rākshasas entered his city
Lankā. In the interval, Rāvana’s sister, a dreadful and grim-visaged
she-demon, suddenly fell down on the ground. And having raised up his
sister and consoled her Rāvana said—’Tell me speedily, O good sister,
what you wish to say.’ Thereat that she-demon, having blood-red eyes,
closed with tears, said:—’O king, by thee, powerful as thou art, I have
forcibly been made a widow. Fourteen thousand demons, under the name of
Kalakeyas, have been destroyed by thee, O king, in the battle and
amongst them was my highly powerful husband—dearer than my life. He has
been slain by thee, O dear one, an enemy—a brother only in name. I have
been killed by thee, O king, who art my brother. For thee, king, I shall
enjoy the word ’widow’!⁸² My husband⁸³ should have been saved by thee in
the battle. But he was slain by thy ownself in the battle; art thou not
ashamed of this?’ Being thus addressed by his bewailing sister, the
Ten-necked demon, consoling her in sweet words, said:—’Of no avail is
thy lamentation, dear sister; thou needst not be afraid of any of thy
relatives. I shall please thee studiously by gifts, honors and favours.
Being mad after war-fare and desirous of acquiring victory, I was
continually making a downpour of shafts, so I could not distinguish in
the conflict between my own men and enemies,—and thus unwittingly I did
hurt thy husband. And thus, sister, thy husband was slain by me in the
conflict; I shall now do whatever shall conduce to thy well-being. Do
thou ever reside by the side of thy rich brother Khara and he shall be
the lord of fourteen thousand Rākshasas. That highly powerful one shall
give food and clothes to all those Rākshasas. He is thy cousin and that
night-ranger shall always carry out thy orders. Let that hero now
speedily go to protect the Dandaka forest and the highly powerful
Dushana shall be the commander of his forces. And the heroic Khara shall
always obey thy words and be the lord of Rākshasas assuming shapes at
will.’ Having said this the Ten-necked demon issued orders to his
army—fourteen thousand highly powerful Rākshasas. Being encircled by
those grim-visaged Rākshasas, Khara, undaunted, speedily came to the
Dandaka forest. There he governed without thorns and Surpanakha too also
resided in the forest of Dandaka."

   ⁸² This is the literal translation of the passage—_i.e._ for thee, I
      shall for ever be known as widow.

   ⁸³ The word in the text is _Jāmata_, which literally means
      _son-in-law_—but here perhaps it must mean husband for she was his


"Having thus given the command of a huge and dreadful army to Khara and
consoled his sister the Ten-necked demon was satisfied and freed from
anxiety. Thereupon that highly powerful lord of Rākshasas with his
followers entered an excellent garden in Lankā named Nikumbhilā. And
there, he saw, filled with hundreds of sacrificial posts and altars, a
sacrifice being celebrated, as if burning in its lustre. And he beheld
his fearful son Meghnāda too, clad in an antelope skin and holding
_Sikhā_ and _Kamandalu_. Having seen him (there) and embraced him by his
arms the lord of Lankā said:—’What are you after, O my child? Tell me
the truth.’ Thereupon that foremost of twice-born ones Usanas⁸⁴ of
austere penances, wishing the prosperity of the sacrifice, said to
Rāvana—the Rākshasa chief:—’Hear, I shall relate to thee everything, O
king; thy son hath met with the fruits of many a sacrifice—Agnistoma,⁸⁵
Asvamedha,⁸⁶ Bahusubarnaka,⁸⁷ Rajsuya,⁸⁸ Goinedha,⁸⁹ and Baisnaba.⁹⁰ And
being engaged in this Mahesvvara sacrifice, which is incapable of being
celebrated by men, thy son hath obtained boon from Pasupati⁹¹ himself.

"’He has also obtained illusory powers—which create darkness or
ignorance—namely of ranging in the sky, of being eternal, of ascending a
celestial car which courses at will and of creating darkness. O lord of
Rākshasas, these illusory powers being used in a conflict, even the
celestials and Asuras shall not be able to perceive his course. Besides
he has obtained a quiver, the arrows whereof shall never be exhausted, a
bow, which is hard of being got by and a dreadful weapon which destroys
enemies in a conflict. Having obtained these boons thy son, O thou
having ten faces, and myself, the sacrifice being finished, have been
waiting to behold thee.’ Whereto the Ten-necked demon replied—’You have
not done well as you have worshipped, with diverse articles my
enemies—Indra and others. However, what is done is done; there is virtue
in this—no doubt; come, O gentle one, we shall go to our house.’
Thereupon going there with his son and Bibhishana, the Ten-necked demon
got down all those damsels, speechless with tears, gifted with
auspicious marks, the precious females of the celestials, Dānavas and
Raskshasas. Perceiving his vicious desire for those damsels, the
virtuous-souled (Bibhishana) said:—’Thou dost (still) follow thy own
whims, knowing that people are injured by these actions which destroy
piety, wealth and fame. Having slain their kinsmen thou hast brought
these beautiful damsels hither, but disregarding thee, O king, Madhu
hath carried away Kumbhanasi.’ Rāvana said:—’I do not understand all
this. Who is that Madhu, who has been named by thee?’ Worked up with ire
Bibhishana said to his brother:—’Hear, the fruit of thy vicious actions
hath arrived. There was an old Rākshasa, celebrated for his wisdom,
named Malyavān, the elder brother of Sumālin, our maternal grandfather.
His grand-daughter is Kumbhanashi and is born of our maternal aunt
Analā; so she is virtually our sister. Thy son being engaged in the
sacrifice and myself being under waters she was stolen away, O king, by
the powerful Rākshasa Madhu. Kumbhakarna, O great king, was then asleep.
Having slain all the powerful Rākshasas and thy councillors, he had
stolen her away, O king, who was in thy inner apartments. Hearing this
even, O great king, we have pardoned and not slain him: an unmarried
girl should be given away to her husband by her brothers, but that has
not been the case—this is merely the result of thy vicious
actions—wicked-minded as thou art, And this thou hast met with
instantly—so the people say.’ Hearing the words of Bibhishana, Rāvana,
the lord of Rākshasas, became agitated like an ocean, by the
recollection of his vicious deeds. And enraged, with blood-red eyes the
ten-necked demon said—’Get my chariot ready soon and let all the heroes
of our party be prepared. Let my brother Kumbhakarna and other leading
night-rangers, armed with various weapons, ascend their conveyances.
Having slain today in the encounter that Madhu, who is not afraid of
Rāvana, I shall, encircled by my friends, and desirous of battle,
proceed to the region of the celestials.’ Thereupon issued out for
battle leading Rākshasas four thousand Akshauhini strong taking various
weapons. Commanding them Indrajit preceded the army, Rāvana went in the
middle and Kumbhakarna was in the rear; the virtuous-souled Bibhisana
remained in Lankā, being engaged in pious observances. And the rest of
the leading Rākshasas proceeded towards the city of Madhu. And all the
Rākshasas went covering the sky, some on asses, some on camels, some on
horses, some on quick-coursing porpoises and some on huge serpents. And
beholding Rāvana proceed, hundreds of Daityas, inimical to the
celestials, followed him. Having arrived at the city Of Madhu and
entered there the ten-necked demon did not behold Madhu but espied his
sister. Thereupon being afraid of the king of Rākshasas, Kumbheenashi,
with folded palms, touched his feet with her crown. Having raised her up
the Rākshasa-chief Rāvana said ’No fear, what can I do for you?’ Whereto
she replied—’O king, O thou having long arms,—if thou art pleased with
me, do not slay my husband to-day, O conferrer of honours. It is said
there is no other fear like this for damsels of high pedigree. The
greatest of fears is that of being a widow. Be thou truthful, O king of
kings—do thou look towards me, who am thus begging; Thou hast thyself
said, O king; "No fear."’ Being thus addressed Rāvana said to his sister
there:—’Do thou tell me speedily where is thy husband. I shall go with
him for conquests to the region of the celestials. Out of pity and love
for thee I refrain from slaying Madhu.’ Being thus accosted; that
Rākshasi, being pleased, got her sleeping husband, the night-ranger, up
and said:—’Here is my brother, the highly power Daçagriva. Being
desirous of conquering the region of the celestials he prays for thy
help. Do thou therefore proceed to his help, O Rākshasa, with all they
friends; It behoves thee to help him, who out of affection for me, hath
prayed for thy help.’ Hearing those words Madhu said:—’So be it.’ And
approaching a little he beheld that foremost of Rākshasas and duly
welcomed Rāvana. Being thus honoured the highly power Daçagriva spent
one night in Madhu’s house and then, addressed himself for departure.
Thereupon reaching the hill Kailāça, the abode of Baisravan, the lord of
Rākshasas, resembling Mahendra, encamped his army."

   ⁸⁴ Another name of Sukra. Indrajit took the vow of silence so he
      thought it improper to disturb him.

   ⁸⁵ A sacrifice or rather a series of offerings to fire for five days
      to be celebrated in the spring.

   ⁸⁶ The actual or emblematic sacrifice of a horse, this sacrifice is
      one of the highest order, and performed a hundred times, entitles
      the sacrificer to the dominion of Swarga or _paradise_.

   ⁸⁷ A sacrifice in which profuse gifts of gold are made.

   ⁸⁸ A sacrifice in which all the tributary chiefs pay homage to the
      Lord Paramount.

   ⁸⁹ The offering or sacrifice of a cow.

   ⁹⁰ A sacrifice relating to Vishnu.

   ⁹¹ A name of Siva.


"After sunset the highly power Rāvana encamped his army there. And the
clear moon, brilliant as the mountain, having risen, that huge army,
armed with diverse weapons, became asleep. And lying down on the summit
of the mountain, the highly powerful Rāvana espied the caves beautified
with the rays of the moon and the trees. And the interior of the forest
was beautified with the brilliant groves of Karnikar, with Kadamba and
Vakula trees, groves of full blown lotuses, the waters of Mandākini,
with Champaka, Asoka, Punnaga, Mandāra, mangoe, Pātala, Lodra, Pryangu,
Arjuna, Ketaka, Tagara, Coconut, Pyāla, Panasa and various other trees.
And there sang the Kinnaras, possessed by desire, and having sweet
voice, enhancing the delight of the mind. And there danced mirthfully,
with their damsels, the Vidyadharas, inebriete and having their eyes
reddened with drink. There was audible in the house of the lord of
riches, the sweet music of the assembled Apsarās like unto the sound of
the bell. And being shaken by the wind the nectar-smelling trees made
the hill fragrance with the shower of flowers. And carrying the
fragrance rendered salutary with honey and filaments of flowers, the
excellent wind blew enhancing Rāvana’s desire. Being possessed by desire
through songs, richness of flowers, coldness of air, beauty of the
hills, and the rising of the moon in night, the highly powerful Rāvana
espied again and again the moon with heavy sighs. At this time passed by
that way the foremost of Apsarās, Rambhā, adorned with excellent
ornaments and having a countenance like the full moon. Her person was
sprinkled with excellent sandal paste—her hairs were decked with Mandāra
flowers—her body was beautified with other flowers and her movements
tended to increase desire. Her eyes were beautiful and her waist was
high, adorned with Mekhala⁹² and was as if the refuge of Rati⁹³. Her
forehead and other parts of the countenance were painted with the marks
of red sandal and adorned with ornaments of flowers growing in six
seasons. Rambhā appeared like second Sree, in grace and beauty, natural
and artificial. She wore green clothes resembling the clouds; her face
was like the moon, eye brows like excellent bows, thighs like the trunks
of elephants and palms soft as leaves. She was seen by Rāvana as
proceeding in the midst of soldiers. Having got up and been influenced
by lust he took her, shameful as she was, by the hand and smiling
said:—’Where art thou going, O beautiful damsel? Whom art thou going of
thy own accord to satisfy? Whose prosperous time hath appeared, with
whom thou shalt enjoy? Who shall be satisfied with drinking the nectar
of thy mouth smelling like lotus? Whose breast, O fair damsel, thy
rising breast beautiful like two golden pots closely placed, shall
touch? Who is there so beautiful as I—Indra, Vishnu, or two Aswins that
thou art passing by me? Do thou take rest upon this excellent rock, O
thou having charming waist. There is no other lord, save me, in the
three worlds. And Daçānana, the lord of the lords of the three worlds,
thus begs thee, with folded palms. Do thou therefore seek me.’ Being
thus addressed, Rambhā, trembling, with folded palms, said:—’Be thou
propitiated; it doth not behove thee to speak thus, who art my superior.
Rather shouldst thou protect me if any body else trieth to oppress me.
Virtually I am thy daughter-in-law. I speak to thee the truth.’
Thereupon the Ten-necked demon said to her, standing with her face
downwards, and her down standing erect at his very sight. ’Hadst thou
been the wife of my son, thou wouldst have been my daughter-in-law.’
Whereto Rambhā replied:—’Truely it is; I am, by virtue, the wife of thy
son, O foremost of Rākshasas. Thy brother Vaisrabana hath a son, dearer
than his life, celebrated in the three worlds under the name of
Nalakuvara, In virtue he is unto a Brahmin, in prowess he equals a
Kshatriya, in anger he is very fire and in patience he is like the
earth. I been thus directed by that Lokapāla’s son. For him I have
adorned my person with these ornaments. I am not attached to any body
else but him. O king, O slayer of foes, by virtue of (this relation) it
behoveth thee to save me. And that virtuous-souled one is anxiously
expecting me. Thou shouldst not put obstacle in that; it behoveth thee
to let me go; do thou, O foremost of Rākshasas, wend the way treaded by
the pious. Thou art worthy of being revered by me and I am an object of
thy protection.’ Being thus addressed Daçagriva humbly replied:—’"I am
daughter-in-law," as thou hast said, is worthy of being said by one who
is the only wife. This is the everlasting law of the celestials that the
Apsarās have no husband; they cannot be the wife of one husband.’ Having
said this, the Raksha ravished her. Being released from his grasp Rambhā
became divested of her ornaments and garland and became like the river
agitated by the elephants. Her hairs were dishevelled and her hands were
trembling. Like unto a blossoming creeper shaken by the wind, she,
trembling and bashful and with folded hands, went to Nalakuvara and fell
down at his feet. Having seen her in that plight the high-souled
Nalakuvara said—’O fair one, what is this? Why hast thou placed thyself
at my feet?’ Sighing heavily and trembling she, with folded palms,
related to him everything from the beginning to the end. ’O lord, on his
way to heaven, Daçagriva hath arrived here and hath spent the night with
his army. While I was coming to thee, O slayer of foes, I was seen by
him. Then holding me he said—"Where art thou going?" I related to him
everything truly. But being possessed by lust he did not pay heed to my
words. He was again prayed by me, O lord, saying "I am thy
daughter-in-law." But neglecting that he ravished me. O thou of firm
vows, it behoveh thee to forgive me for this folly. O gentle one, a
woman’s strength can never equal that of a man.’ Hearing of this
ravishment Vaisravana’s son was greatly enraged and entered into
meditation. Having ascertained the truth within a moment Vaisravana’s
son, with eyes reddened with ire, took water in his palms. Having taken
this and rinsed his mouth duly, he imprecated a dreadful curse upon that
lord of Rākshasas. ’O fair one, since thou hast been ravished by him
despite thy unwillingness he shall never be able to get by an unwilling
damsel. Whenever he shall, stricken by lust, ravish a reluctant damsel,
his head shall be sundered into seven pieces’. As soon as this curse,
like unto a burning flame, was uttered, the celestial bugles were
sounded and a shower of flowers fell from heavens. Being apprised of the
plight of people (brought about by him) and of the death of that
Rākshasa the patriarch Brahmā and other gods were greatly delighted.
Hearing of that curse capable of making the down erect, Daçagriva
abstained from entertaining lust for unwilling females. And hearing of
the curse imprecated by Nalakuvara all the chaste damsels, that were
kept captive, attained to great delight."

   ⁹² A kind of ornament used on the waist.

   ⁹³ Wife of Kama—the god of love in Hindu mythlogy.


"Having crossed the mount Kailāça, the highly powerful Ten-necked demon,
with his army, reached the region of Indra. And there arose in the
region of celestials an uproar from the Rākshasa army, like unto the
sound of the agitated deep. Hearing of the arrival of Rāvana, Indra
shook on his throne and said to the assembled gods, Adityas, Vasus,
Rudras, Sadhyas and Maruts—’Prepare yourselves, for fighting with the
vicious-souled Rāvana.’ Being thus addressed by Sakra, the celestials,
his equals in the encounter and gifted with great prowess, armed
themselves for fight. And Mahendra, afraid of Rāvana, poorly went to
Vishnu and gave vent to the following accents:—’How shall I, O Vishnu,
withstand, the Rākshasa Rāvana? The highly powerful Rākshasa hath come
here for battle. It is by virtue of the boon that he is powerful, not
for anything else. It is proper to make the words uttered by Brahmā,
truthful. As resorting to thy prowess I destroyed Namuchi, Yitra, Bali,
Nānrin and Samvara, so do thou make some arrangements (for his
destruction). There is no other excellent refuge but thee in the three
worlds, mobile and immobile, O lord, O god of gods, O slayer of Madhu.
Thou art the graceful, ever-existing Nārāyana, having a lotus navel. By
thee the worlds have been settled and myself and Sakra, the lord of the
celestials. Thou hast created the three worlds, the mobile and immobile
and in thee all these shall, O glorious deity, end at the time of
dissolution. Do thou tell me, the truth, O god of gods, that I may
myself fight; or do thou, with thy sword and discus, vanquish Rāvana.’
Being thus addressed by Sakra the lord Nārāyana; said:—’Do not fear,
hear what I say. He is invincible by virtue of the boon, and that
vicious-souled one is incapable of being vanquished even by the
celestials and Asuras. Irrepressible by virtue of his prowess, that
Rākshasa, with his son, shall accomplish a mighty object. O lord of
celestials, even if I am requested by thee, I shall not withstand the
Rākshasa, Rāvana in the conflict. Without slaying the enemies in the
encounter, Vishnu doth never go back—but it is hard to fulfill my desire
from Rāvana, well protected by the boon. However I do promise before
thee, O lord of the celestials, O performer of hundred sacrifices, I
shall, soon become the cause of this Rākshasa’s death. I shall soon
destroy Rāvana with his family in due time and afford delight unto the
celestials. I speak the truth unto thee, O king of the celestials, O
lord of Sachi; do thou divested of fear, fight, O thou gifted with great
strength, along with the celestials.’ Thereupon having issued out of the
city, Rudras, Adityas, Vusus, Maruts and Aswins well-armed with mails,
appeared before the Rākshasas. Meanwhile at the latter part of the night
there was audible the uproar of Rāvana’s army fighting on all sides.
Having got up and cast their looks upon one another the highly powerful
Rākshasas waited there for the battle, delighted. Thereupon beholding
that inexhaustible huge army at the commencement of the battle the
celestial host lost heart. Thereupon there ensued a conflict, setting up
a terrible sound, with various weapons between the Rākshasas and gods.
In the interval issued out for encounter the heroic and grim-visaged
Rākshasas—Rāvana’s councillors. And encircled by Māricha, Prahasta,
Mahāparswa, Mahodara, Akampana, Nikumbha, Suka, Sārana, Sanghrāda,
Dhumaketu, Mahādangstra, Gathodara, Jāmbumāli, Mahāhrada, Virupāksha,
Suptaghna, Yajnakopa, Durmukha, Khara, Trisirā, Karaveerāksha,
Suryyasatru Mahākāya, Atikāya, Devāntaka, Narāntaka,—all those gifted
with great prowess, there entered the battle-field, the highly powerful
Sumālin, Rāvana’s maternal grandfather. And with various sharp-pointed
weapons, he, highly angered, began to assail the celestial host like
unto the winds scattering clouds. Being thus distressed by the
night-rangers the host of the gods fled away into diverse directions
like a herd of deer attacked by a lion. In the meantime, entered the
battle-field, the heroic and brave Savitra, the eighth Vasu, encircled
by soldiers and striking terror into the hearts of the enemies. And the
two Adityas, the highly powerful Tushthā, and Pushā united and
undaunted, entered the arena. Thereupon there arose with Rākshasas a
terrible encounter of the celestials unable to bear their fame in
battle. Then the Rākshasas, with thousands of terrible weapons, began to
belabour the deities in the encounter. And the celestials, as well,
began to send the redoubtable, powerful and terrific Rākshasas, with the
stroke of blameless weapons, to the abode of Death. In the interim, O
Rāma, a Rākshasa, Sumālin, by name, getting enraged and with diverse
weapons, ran amock of the soldiery. As the winds scatter clouds, so, he,
under the influence of rage, with various sharpened weapons, committed a
havoc amongst the celestial soldiers. Thereupon being assailed by a
downpour of huge shafts, maces, Prāsas and diverse dreadful weapons, the
celestials could not keep their ground upon the field of warfare. The
celestials being thus distressed by Sumālin the eighth Vasu Sāvitra
stood there enraged. And encircled by his own car-warriors that highly
powerful one, with his prowess, repulsed the striking night-rangers.
Thereupon there arose a terrible encounter, capable of making down
erect, between Sumālin and the Vasu, who did not retire from the field
of battle. His chariot drawn by serpents was pulled down and destroyed
by the high-souled Vasu by means of his huge shafts. Having taken up
that car in the warfare with hundreds of arrows Vasu took up mace in his
hands for his destruction. Having taken up that mace having a burning
head and resembling the rod of Death Sāvitra struck Sumālin on his head
therewith. Having failed on his head that mace shone like a fire-brand
as the thunderbolt, discharged by Indra, falls roaring on the summit of
a mountain. By the stroke of that mace his person was reduced to ashes
and therefore there was not seen in the battle field either his bone,
head or flesh. Having beheld him slain in the warfare the Rākshasas
bewailing ran about on all sides and being distressed by Vasu they could
not stay in the battle field."


"Beholding Sumālin slain and reduced to ashes by Vasu and being assailed
by the deities the Rākshasa host fled into diverse directions. And
collecting all the Rākshasas stood there the highly powerful Meghanāda,
enraged, the son of Rāvana. Like unto flaming fire approaching towards
forest that great car-warrior encountered the enemies in a precious car
coursing at will. And as soon as he, armed with various weapons, entered
the field the celestials, at his very sight, fled away to all
directions. None could stand before him, well-versed in war-fare.
Thereupon beholding the deities terrified and pierced with shafts,
Indra, the king of gods, said—’Be not afraid, O ye celestials; do not
fly away; come back to the battle; this my son, who has never been
vanquished, goes to battle.’ Thereupon Sakra’s son, known as divine
Jayanta, proceeded towards the field of action in a wondrous car. And
having encircled Sachi’s son and encountered Rāvana’s son the deities
began to assail him. And the encounter between Mahendra’s son Jayanta
and Rāvana’s son Meghanāda, and that between the deities and Rakshas was
like one between gods and demons. Thereupon Rāvana’s son began to
assail, with shafts feathered in gold, his (Jayanta’s) charioteer
Gomukha, Mātali’s son. Sachis’ son too, enraged, assailed on all sides,
Rāvana’s son and his charioteer. And the powerful Rāvani, stricken with
ire and with eyes expanded, covered Sakra’s son with arrows. Thereupon
Rāvana’s son struck the celestial host with thousands of huge mountain
summits, Sataghnis, maces, Prasas, clubs, daggers, Parashus and various
other sharp pointed weapons, Rāvana’s son thus striking Indra’s army the
quarters were enshrouded with darkness by his illusory power. Being
overpowered with arrows on all sides the celestial army, leaving aside
Jayanta, became restless. The deities or the Rākshasa—they could not
recognize one another—and being distressed they ran about on all sides.
Being enveloped with darkness and having their senses bewildered the
celestials killed their own kith and the Rākshasas their own men—and
others fled away. In the interim a heroic and powerful
Daitya-chief—Pulomā by name, taking Sachi’s son disappeared. And taking
his own grand-son he entered into the ocean—Pulomā was his grand-father
for by him Sachi was begotten. And thinking that Jayanta was slain all
the deities greatly sorry and distressed fled away on all sides.
Thereupon Rāvana’s son, enraged and encircled by his own powerful
followers, pursued the celestials emitting loud cries. Not beholding his
son and observing the flight of the deities the king of the celestials
said to Mātali—’Bring my car.’ By Mātali was brought, the celestial,
highly dreadful, huge and quick-coursing chariot, that was ready. (And
he having) ascended the car, the huge clouds, with lightnings, being
driven by winds, began to emit forth loud mutterings before the chariot.
And the Gandharvas began to play on various instruments and the Apsarās
began to dance. And taking up various weapons, Indra, the king of
divinities, set out for the field of action, in the company of Rudras,
Vasus, Adityas, the two Aswins and Maruts. He, having set out for
battle, the wind began to blow high, the sun was divested of its
brilliance and the huge fire-brands began to send out flames. In the
interval the heroic and the highly powerful Daçagriva ascended the
celestial car, constructed by the Architect of the deities, encircled by
the huge-bodied serpents capable of making down erect and by whose
breath the battle-field was ablaze. Surrounded by demons and
night-rangers and with the celestial car he encountered Mahendra in the
battle-field. And having desisted his son he himself stood there. And
having come out from the field of action Rāvana’s son too stood silent.
Thereupon there arose an encounter between the Rākshasas and the deities
and there began a downpour of weapons in the conflict like clouds. And
the vicious-souled Kumbhakarna armed with various weapons came there—but
he did not know,⁹⁴ O king, with whom the conflict was going on. And by
him enraged, the celestials were assailed with his teeth, feet, arms,
hands, Saktis, Tomaras and clubs or any weapon whatsoever. Thereupon the
night-ranger engaged with the highly powerful Rudras and was wounded, in
the conflict, with incessant strokes of weapons. Thereupon the Rākshasa
army began to fight with Maruts and they were overwhelmed in the
encounter with the stroke of various weapons. Some fell down on earth
slain and torn and others became insensible on the back of their
carriers in the battle. And they all stood there in a half-sensible
mood, some holding the car, some elephants, some asses, some camels,
some serpents, some horses, some porpoises, some boars, some
Pisaca-mouthed animals and some embracing the Pannagas. And other
night-rangers, having their bodies sundered by the deities gave up their
being. The Rākshasas being slain and lying down on earth the action
appeared wondrous like a painting. And there issued out in the
battle-field a river from weapons having blood for its silent waters and
infested with crows and vultures. Having beheld his own army slain by
the deities the highly powerful Daçānana, enraged, entered the ocean of
celestial army and slaying the deities in the conflict confronted Sakra.
Thereupon Sakra took up his huge bow by the twang where-of the ten
quarters Were filled. Having unstrung his huge bow Indra struck Rāvana,
on his head, with arrows resembling the flame of fire and the rays of
the sun. And the Rākshasa-chief Daçānana, having long arms, also
assailed Indra with hundreds of shafts discharged off his bow. They
having been thus engaged with each other with the downpour of dreadful
shafts, all the quarters were filled with darkness and in consequence
thereof nothing was visible."

   ⁹⁴ For he was asleep till then so he was not acquainted with the
      particulars of war-fare. He used to sleep for six months at a


"Whereupon darkness having set in all the celestials and Rākshasas,
maddened with their strength, began to fight crushing one another. And
in that darkness—Indra, Rāvana and Meghanāda—these three were not
possessed by the influence of illusion. Beholding his whole army slain
in a moment, Rāvana, worked up with dreadful ire, sent out terrible
roars. And in anger, that irrepressible one said to the charioteer,
stationed on the car—’Do thou take me to the other end of the enemies’
host. I shall soon with the stroke of various weapons despatch the
deities to the abode of Death. I shall slay Indra, Kuvera, Varuna and
Yama—what to speak of more—I shall soon destroy all the deities and
place myself above them. Be not sorry; do thou soon drive my chariot.
To-day I have told you twice to take me to the end of the enemy’s army.
We are now waiting near the Nandana grove—do thou take me to the hill
whence the sun rises.’ Hearing his words the charioteer drove the
steeds, coursing at will through the enemies’ host. Thereupon being
apprised of his intention, Sakra, the king of the celestials, stationed
on car, said to the deities, in the field of battle—’O ye deities—hear
my words, what appear to me best. This Ten-necked demon must be
vanquished by us while alive. Ascending his car, gifted with the
velocity of the wind, the highly powerful one is proceeding amongst the
army like unto the deep with waves rising during Parva. It is not
possible to slay him now—for he shall not meet with death in consequence
of the boon. So let us make him captive—and we should all exert to that
end. Bali being held captive I am enjoying the three worlds—and I think
proper to obstruct the course of this vicious-souled one.’ Having said
this and left aside Rāvana, Sakra went to another side, O King, and
fought terrifying the Rākshasas in the conflict. Dacagriva, incapable of
being thwarted, entered by the northern route and the performer of
hundred sacrifices by the southern. Thereupon having entered into the
army up to a hundred leagues—the lord of Rākshasas overpowered the
celestial host with a downpour of shafts. Thereupon beholding his own
army slain, Sakra returned fearlessly and obstructed the Ten-necked
demon. In the interim beholding Rāvana brought under his grasp by Sakra
the demons and Rākshasas cried aloud. ’Alas we are slain.’ Thereupon
ascending his car Rāvana’s son, beside himself with rage, entered the
dreadful flank. And having resorted to the illusory powers, conferred
upon him in yore by Paçupati he entered into the enemies’ camp and
belaboured them. Having left behind all other deities he pursued Indra
and the highly effulgent Mahendra too espied his enemy’s son. And albeit
assailed by the highly powerful deities, Rāvana’s son, divested of mail,
entertained no fear. Having overpowered the approaching charioteer with
many excellent arrows he covered Mahendra with a downpour of shafts.
Thereat having left his car and charioteer Indra mounted his elephant
Airavat and ran about in search of Rāvana’s son. Being invisible in the
welkin by virtue of his illusory powers and having brought Indra under
the influence thereof he struck him with hundreds of arrows. When
Rāvana’s son came to know that Indra was exhausted he, having bound him
up by virtue of illusion, proceeded towards his army. And having seen
Mahendra carried away by force from the battle field the deities thought
’What is this?’ That conqueror of Sakra and subduer of enemies,
conversant with illusory powers, was not visible, by whom, Indra,
although master of many illusions, was carried away by force. In the
meantime, the celestials, all enraged, covered Rāvana with a downpour of
shafts and belaboured him. And being worn out in the encounter with the
Adityas and Vasus he was not capable of fighting any more. Beholding his
father thus distressed and assailed in warfare with strokes, Rāvana’s
son, although invisible, said—’Do thou come O father, our work in the
battle field is finished; know, we have achieved victory; be thou
consoled and divested of agonies. By virtue of my illusory powers I have
made Mahendra captive—the lord of the three worlds and of the celestial
host and have crushed down the pride of the deities. Having subdued thy
enemy by virtue of thy prowess do thou enjoy the three worlds at thy
pleasure. What is the use of labouring again? And useless it is to fight
again.’ Hearing the words of Rāvana’s son the deities retired from the
battle field, and went away without Sakra. And hearing the sweet words
of his son, the lord of the night-rangers, the enemy of the celestials,
having great prowess and wide spread fame, desisted from fighting and
affectionately said to his son—’Thou hast enhanced the glory of our race
displaying thy prowess like a highly powerful man. Thou hast vanquished
the celestials and their king of unequalled might. Do thou set out hence
for the city, taking Indra on thy chariot and surrounded by soldiers. I
shall, soon, delighted, follow thee with my councillors.’ Thereupon
having returned home with his army and chariots and taking the king of
the celestials, the powerful son of Rāvana dismissed the victorious


"The highly powerful Mahendra being thus defeated by Rāvana’s son, all
the celestials, taking the patriarch Brahmā before them, went to Lankā.
Having obtained Rāvana encircled by his sons and brothers the Patriarch,
stationed in the welkin, calmly said—’My son, Rāvana, I have been
pleased with thy son in the conflict. Oh! what wonderful prowess, what
strength—equal or greater than thine. Thou hast, by thy own prowess,
conquered the three worlds—thy promise hath borne fruits—I have been
pleased with you—both the father and son. O Rāvana, this thy son is
highly powerful and gifted with great strength and he shall be
celebrated in the world under the appellation of ’Indrajit’ or the
conqueror of Indra. And that Rākshasa shall be powerful and
irrepressible, by whose help, O king, the celestials have been brought
under thy subjection. Do thou therefore, O thou having long arms,
release Mahendra, the chastiser of Paka and for setting him free what do
thou want from the celestials?’ Thereupon the highly powerful
Indrajit—the subduer of enemies, said:—’If dost thou say so, O god, I
pray for immortality.’ Thereat the highly powerful patriarch said to
Meghanada—’There is none perfectly immortal on earth amongst created
beings—birds, quadrupeds and other highly powerful beings.’ Hearing the
words uttered by the grand-father—the highly powerful Meghanāda said to
the eternal lord—’Hear, then, what I want in exchange for releasing
Sakra. May a chariot with horses rise up from fire when I shall offer
sacrifices unto it, being desirous of vanquishing my enemies in the
conflict. And may I be immortal as long as I shall remain on that car.
This is the boon I have resolved upon praying for. May I meet with
destruction, O deity, whenever I shall engage in fight without finishing
my offerings unto fire. All others, O god, attain to immortality by
virtue of devout penances but I shall acquire that by dint of my own
prowess.’ Whereto the grand-father replied saying ’So be it.’ Thereupon
Meghanāda released Indra and the celestials returned to their own abode.
In the interval, O Rāma, Indra became poorly, divested of his immortal
brilliance, stricken with anxiety and pensive. Beholding him in that
plight the grand-father of the deities said:—’O performer of hundred
sacrifices, why didst thou formerly perpetrate that mighty iniquity? O
Chief of the immortals! O lord! Some creatures were created by me by
dint of my understanding—they were all of the same colour, same speech,
and same appearance. There was no difference visible in their appearance
or marks. Thereupon, with whole-minded-ness, I began to think of these
created beings. And I created a female distinct from them. Collecting
all those limbs that were most excellent amongst the created, I made a
female under the name of Ahalyā. _Hal_ means ugliness—one born from
_Hal_ is called _Halya_. That female was known as _Ahalyā_ because she
had nothing blameable in her. I gave her that name. Having created that
female I was thinking, O king of the celestials! O foremost of the
deities! On whom I should confer her. Being proud of dignity, O Sakra, O
lord, O Purandara thou didst regard her in thy mind as thy spouse. I
placed her under the care of the high-souled Gautama and he rendered her
back after many long years. Thereupon considering the patience and
accomplished asceticism of Gautama I married her with him. And that
virtuous-souled, great ascetic enjoyed her company; and for my thus
conferring her upon Gautama all the celestials were disappointed. But
being enraged and possessed by lust thou didst repair to the hermitage
of the ascetic and see her resplendant like the flaming fire. Maddened
with lust and ire thou didst ravish her and thou wast seen in that
hermitage by the great ascetic. Thou wast then imprecated by him,
enraged and gifted with great effulgence saying, "O lord of the
celestials, thou hast attained to a change of circumstances—for which, O
Vasava, thou hast fearlessly ravished my spouse. Thou shalt, therefore,
O Sakra, go under the arms of the enemies, in conflict. And this vile
desire, O thou having a vicious intellect, which thou hast first
created, shall undoubtedly spread in the world of mortals. Whoever shall
commit this crime, shall be half responsible for it and the other half
shall descend upon thee; and forsooth thy position shall not be
permanent. And whoever shall be the lord of the celestials, shall not
have his position secure. This is the curse I give, which I have
communicated to thee." And having remonstrated with his wife that one of
devout penances said to her—"O vicious one, let thy beauty be spoiled in
the vicinity of the hermitage. Thou art gifted with beauty and youth but
thy mind is fickle; so thou shalt not continue as the single beautiful
damsel in the world. All created beings shall participate thy beauty;
thy matchless beauty has brought about this mischief." Thenceforward all
created beings were gifted with beauty. Thereupon she propitiated the
ascetic Gautama saying, "O twice-born one, I was unwittingly ravished by
Indra, assuming thy form. I have not committed this willingly, O
ascetic—so do thou be propitiated with me." Ahalyā having said this,
Gautama replied:—"In the race of Ikshwākus, there shall be born a highly
effulgent and mighty car-warrior, known in the world as Rāma; for
performing the rites of a Brahman, the mighty-armed Vishnu, assuming a
human form, shall repair to the forest. Thou shalt be purified when thou
shalt behold him, O fair damsel. He shall be able to purify thee from
the iniquity perpetrated. Having treated him as a guest when thou shalt
come to me again, thou shalt live with me, O thou having a fair
countenance." Having said this that ascetic returned to his hermitage.
And thenceforward the wife, of that ascetic chanting the themes of
Brahman, engaged in austere penances. Thou hast met with all this in
consequence of the imprecation of that ascetic. Therefore, O thou having
long arms, do thou think of thy past iniquity. For that curse and
nothing else, O Vasava, thou hast been brought under the grasp of
enemies. Having controlled thy senses, do thou soon undertake a
sacrifice in honor of Vishnu. Thou shalt be purified by that sacrifice
and go to heaven; and thy son, O lord of celestials, hath not been
destroyed in the conflict. He hath been taken into the ocean by his
grand father.’ Hearing this and having celebrated the sacrifice in honor
of Vishnu he again went to the region of celestials and reigned there as
their king. I have thus described to thee the strength of Indrajit—what
to speak of others he vanquished even Indra—the king of the celestials."
Hearing the words of Agastya, Rāma, Lakshmana, Vānaras and Rākshasas all
said "Wonderful it is," and Bibhishana, who was by the side of Rāma,
said:—"After a long time, the old recollections have come to my mind."
Thereupon Rāma said to Agastya—"All, thou hast said, is true." And
Agastya said "Rāma, Rāvana, the thorn of people, then grew in power, by
whom, in the company of his son, Indra, the lord of the celestials, was


Thereupon having bowed unto Agastya the foremost of ascetics, the highly
effulgent Rāma again surprisingly said:—"O Brahman, O foremost of
twice-born ones, when that cruel Rāvana journeyed over the earth, was it
void of people? Was there no king, or prince on earth to administer
punishment unto him? Were all the kings then shorn of their strength and
prowess? And many kings I (hear) were vanquished and driven out by him
with various excellent weapons." Hearing the words of Rāghava, the
ascetic Agastya, having six sorts of wealth, laughing said, like unto
Brahmā, speaking to Rudra—"O Rāma, O lord of earth, traversing the
earth, Rāvana arrived at the city of Mahismati, resembling the city of
the celestials, where lived perpetually the deity of fire. There reigned
a king named Arjuna, effulgent like fire which was kept perpetually in a
well covered with _Sara_. One day the highly powerful Arjuna, the king
of _Haihayas_, repaired to the river Nerbuda, with his wives to sport.
At the very same day, Rāvana, the lord of Rākshasas, arrived there and
asked his councillors saying. ’Where is the king Arjuna? Do ye speedily
tell me; I am Rāvana, I have come to fight with your king. Do ye, at
first, communicate unto him the news of my arrival.’ Being thus
addressed by Rāvana, the learned ministers informed the lord of
Rākshasas, of the absence of the king. Hearing of the absence of the
king from the citizens Visrasraba’s son came out of the city and reached
the Vindhya mountain resembling the Himalayas. He espied the mountain
extending over the welkin like unto clouds and rising up as if riving
the earth and obstructing the sky. The mountain had a thousand summits
and the lions were residing in the caves and hundreds of fountains were
falling from it; the mountain was as if laughing aloud and the
celestials, Gandharvas, Apsarās and Kinsaras were sporting there with
their females; and it appeared (in consequence thereof) like the region
of celestials; and rivers, with waters transparent like crystal, were
flowing. And it therefore appeared like a thousand serpents having
trembling tongues. And casting his looks upon Vindhya mountain,
resembling the Himalayas and having huge caves, Rāvana, the king of
Rākshasas, reached the river Nerbuda, of holy waters and going rapidly
to the western ocean. Her waters were being agitated by buffaloes, deer,
tigers, lions, bears and elephants distressed by heat. Having covered
her, Chakrabakas, Kārandavas, swans, water-cocks and Sārasas, maddened,
were emitting notes. The charming Nerbuda appeared like a beautiful
damsel—having blossoming trees for her ornaments, Chakrabakas for her
breast, wide spread forest for her waist, the row of swans for Mekhala,
filaments of flowers for paste, watery foams for white silken cloth, the
pleasure of descending into water for the pleasure of touch and
full-blown lotuses for white eyes. Having descended from his car and
bathed in the waters of Nerbuda, the foremost of streams, resembling a
fair one, Rāvana, the lord of Rākshasas, with this councilors, sat on
her coast resided by many an ascetic. Delighted at her beauty and having
spoken highly of Nerbuda like unto Ganges he addressed his ministers
Suka and Sārana with gestures, saying:—’Behold, having rendered the
earth pale, with his many rays, the sun, emitting parching heat, is in
the sky. But seeing me here seated, his rays have become cool like those
of the moon. At my fear, even the wind is blowing carefully, being cold
and fragrant by the touch of the waters of the Nerbuda and removing our
toil. This charming Nerbuda, abounding in crocodiles, fishes and birds,
though a natural stream, is standing still like a terrified damsel.
Being wounded in conflicts with many a king your persons have been
pasted with blood. Therefore like unto Sarvabhauma and other infuriated
elephants going down into the water of the Ganges, do ye descend into
the water of Nerbuda conferring auspiciousness and health. Bathing in
this stream you shall be cleansed from sins. I shall, also on the coast
of this river, like the rays of the autumnal moon, reverentially worship
with flowers Mahādeva, holding Pināka in his hands.’ Hearing the words
of Rāvana, Prahasta, Suka, Sārana, Mahodara, Dhrumākshya and other
councillors descended into the waters of Nerbuda. And she was agitated
by those elephant-like leading Rākshasas like unto the Ganges by Vamana,
Anjana, Padma and other elephants, Thereupon having got up from the
waters the highly powerful Rākshasas culled flowers for Rāvana’s
offerings. And in a moment the Rākshasas collected heaps of flowers on
the picturesque banks of Nerbuda, resembling the white clouds. Flowers
being thus collected, Rāvana, the king of Rākshasas descended, into the
Nerbuda for bathing like a huge elephant into the Ganges. And having
bathed he got up, reciting excellent incantations. Thereupon having left
off his wet cloth he put on a white one. And to find out place for
worshipping, he, with folded hands, proceeded towards the banks. And the
Rākshasas too, like unto so many moving mountains, followed him. And
wherever Rāvana went the golden _Siva Linga_ was brought. Thereupon
Rāvana placed that upon a heap of sands and began to worship it with
various nectar-smelling flowers and sandal. And having finished the
worship of Siva, the foremost of deities, having the moon on his crown,
the conferrer of boons and the remover of miseries, the night-ranger
danced with uplifted hands and sang before it."


"At no distance from where on the banks of the river Nerbuda, that
dreadful lord of Rākshasas collected the flowers, Arjuna, the King of
Mahismati, and the foremost of the victorous, was sporting with his
wives in the water. And being encircled by them the king Arjuna appeared
like a leading elephant surrounded by a thousands of she elephants. In
order to measure the strength of his thousand arms the King of
_Haihayas_ obstructed the course of Nerbuda. Being obstructed by the
arms of Kārtavirjarjuna and having flooded the banks with her pure
waters, Nerbuda flowed in an opposite direction. And the currents,
rising high as during the rainy season flowed with fishes, and
crocodiles. And that stream, as if driven against Rāvana by
Kārtavirjarjuna, carried away his collection of flowers. And having
given up his worship which was half-finished Rāvana looked towards
Nerbuda looking like an unwilling damsel and saw that she, with rising
currents, was flowing towards the east from the west and the waters
beyond that were in a natural state like a quiet lady and the birds were
seated there without any anxiety. Thereupon being anxious to learn the
cause of the rise of the river, the Ten-necked demon, with his right
finger, hinted Suka and Sārana. Being commanded by Rāvana, the two
brothers, the heroic Suka and Sārana proceeded towards the west by the
aerial way. And going half a league, the two night-rangers espied a man
sporting in the waters with some females. He was huge as a Sāla tree,
his hairs were floating on the water, he was inebriete and his eyes were
reddened in consequence thereof. Like unto Sumeru holding the earth with
his thousand feet he obstructed the current of the river with his
thousand arms. And he was surrounded by a thousands of beautiful damsels
like an elephant by a thousands of she-elephants. Beholding that
dreadful spectacle, the Rākshasas Suka and Sārana came back and
approaching Rāvana communicated (all) unto him. ’O lord of Rākshasas, an
unknown person, huge as a Sāla tree, is sporting with females
obstructing the course of Nerbuda like unto a dam. And being withheld by
the thousand arms of that man the waters of Nerbuda were continually
throwing up high waves.’ Hearing the words of Suka and Sārana, Rāvana
exclaimed ’This is Arjuna’ and proceeded to fight with him. Rāvana, the
lord of Rākshasas, having set out with a hostile intention against
Kārtavirjarjuna, the wind mixed with dust began to blow high with
tumultuous sound. And the clouds began to mutter with a downpour of
rain. And the lord of Rākshasas proceeded against Arjuna with Mahodara,
Mahaparswa, Dhrumākshya, Suka and Sairana. Within a short time the
dreadful Rākshasa, powerful as the elephant Arjuna, reached the banks of
Nerbuda and espied there Arjuna encircled by females as an elephant
surrounded by she-elephants. At the very sight the eyes of the lord of
Rākshasas, proud of his prowess, grew red and addressing the councillors
of the king Arjuna he said ’Do ye communicate unto the king of
_Haihayas_ that Rāvana, the lord of Rākshasas, hath come to fight with
him.’ Hearing the words of Rāvana, the ministers of Arjuna stood up with
arms and said ’O good Rāvana, thou art well cognizant of the proper time
for fighting. Now our king is drunk and is sporting with the females in
the waters. And now dost thou wish to fight with him. Therefore, O
Ten-necked one, do thou spend the night here, if thou art bent upon
fighting. Or even if thou art anxious to enter speedily into conflict
with Arjuna do thou slay us all at first, and then fight with the king.’
Thereupon the hungry councillors of Rāvana slew some of the ministers of
the king and devoured some. There arose a dreadful uproar on the banks
of Nerbuda, of the councillors of Rāvana and Arjuna. The warriors of
Arjuna assailed Rāvana and his ministers with hundreds of arrows,
Praças, darts, Tomaras, thunder-bolts and Karpanas. The warriors of
Arjijna became dreadfully furious and emitted cries like the roaring of
the deep infested with crocodiles, fishes and other marine monsters.
Thereupon being enraged and displaying their own prowess Suka, Sārana
and other ministers of Rāvana began to destroy Arjuna’s soldiers.
Thereupon the emissaries, stricken with fear, went to the sporting king
and communicated unto him the proceedings of Rāvana and his ministers.
Hearing those words and saying unto the females ’Do not fear’ he rose up
from the waters like an elephant. The eyes of that fire-like Arjuna were
reddened with ire and he shone dreadfully like the fire of dissolution.
And taking up speedily his club, that one, always using golden clubs,
pursued the Rākshasas like unto darkness following the sun. Holding up
the huge club and hurling it with his arms, Arjuna, resorting to the
velocity of Garuda, went on. Thereupon stood there obstructing his
course the Rākshasa, worked up with anger and with a mace in his hand,
like unto the Vindhya range standing in the way of the sun. And throwing
down off his hand the iron mace, he, in anger, began to roar, like Yama.
And the top of the mace was ablaze like the tips of Asoka flowers. Not
the least agitated on beholding that mace, the king Arjuna, by his club,
baffled its action. Thereupon uplifting the huge club, five hundred
hands long, the king of _Haihayas_ pursued Prahasta. And within a short
time being struck down by that club gifted with great velocity Prahasta
fell down on earth like unto the summit of a mountain clapped down by
the thunder-bolt of Indra. Beholding Prahasta fallen, Māricha, Suka,
Sārana, Mahodara and Dhrumākshya fled away from the battle-field. All
the councillors having thus fled away and Prahasta being slain Rāvana
speedily proceeded towards Arjuna, the foremost of kings. Thereupon
there ensued a terrible encounter capable of making down erect between
the thousand-armed Arjuna, the king of men, and the twenty-armed Rāvana,
the king of Rākshasas. And taking up their clubs Arjuna and Rāvana began
to fight with one another emitting cries like the mutterings of clouds,
like unto two huge bulls fighting for a cow, two agitated oceans, two
moving mountains, two effulgent Adityas, two burning flames, two proud
elephants, two proud lions and like the very Rudra and Kāla. As the
mountains suffer many clappings of thunder-bolts so did they bear many
strokes. And all the quarters were resounded with the sound proceeding
from the stroke of their clubs like unto the sound of thunder-bolts.
Being placed against the breast of Rāvana Arjuna’s club rendered, for a
moment, the welkin look like the burning gold as does the lightning. And
striking again and again against Arjuna’s breast Rāvana’s club looked
like a huge fire-brand. Arjuna was not worn out nor was Rāvana. And the
conflict went on between them like the encounter between Bala and Vasava
in the days of yore. The King of men and the King of Rakshasas assailed
and wounded one another with their clubs like unto two bulls striking
one another with their horns and two elephants with their tusks.
Thereupon worked up with rage, Arjuna, with his full might, smote Rāvana
on his breast, with his club. But Rāvana was well protected by the boon
of the celestial, so the club fell on earth sundered into two pieces
like one hurled by a weak wight. Still wounded by the mace of Arjuna,
Rāvana, shedding tears, ran away at a distance of four feet and sat
there. Beholding Rāvana thus over-whelmed Arjuna sprang up and caught
him like Garuda holding a serpent and Vishnu binding Bali. Daçagriva
being thus bound, the Siddhas, Charanas and the celestials exclaiming
’Well done! Well done!!’ showered flowers upon Arjuna. And the king
emitted leonine roars again and again as a tiger joyous roars like a
cloud, holding a deer under his grasp. Regaining his sense and beholding
Rāvana bound, Prahasta, in great anger, pursued the King of _Haihayas_.
And the Rakshasa force grew tempestuous like unto the rising of the
ocean during rains. Thereupon exclaiming repeatedly ’Leave him off!
Leave him off!! Wait! Wait!!’ The Rākshasa host hurled hundreds of
Musalas and darts in the battle-field. Not the least moved thereby the
king Arjuna, the slayer of enemies, bore those weapons of the enemies of
the celestials. Thereupon baffling the weapons of the Rākshasas by means
of many a dreadful and excellent one, Arjuna, the king of _Haihayas_,
drove them away like winds scattering the clouds. Having thus struck
terror unto the night-rangers, he, encircled by his own kinsmen,
repaired to his own city with Rāvana, carrying him bound like unto Indra
carrying Bali bound. Thereupon flowers and fried paddy were showered
upon him by the Brāhmanas and citizens."


"Thereupon Pulastya heard from the celestials of the capture of Rāvana
like unto the holding of the wind.⁹⁵ And having been moved by the love
for his son, the highly effulgent, great ascetic, proceeded to see the
king of Mahishmati. Proceeding by the aerial way, that twice-born one,
gifted with the velocity of wind and the flight of mind, reached the
city of Mahishmati. Like unto Brahmā entering Indra’s Amaravati, he
entered the city resembling the capital of Indra and filled with
delighted and plump citizens. And beholding that dreadful Rishi approach
like unto Adityā walking on foot, the warders communicated the
intelligence unto the king Arjuna. Understanding from their words that
Pulastya was coming, the king of _Haihayas_, placing his folded palms on
his crown, proceeded to welcome him. Like, unto Vrihaspati preceeding
Purandara, the royal priests went before him carrying _Maduparka_ and
water to wash feet. And beholding the ascetic resembling the rising sun
arrived, the king Arjuna bowed unto him reverentially like Indra
saluting Mahideva. Thereupon offering him Maduparka, cow and water to
wash feet, the king of _Haihayas_ in accents obstructed with delight,
addressed the ascetic saying:—’Reverend Sir, thine visit, it is hard to
obtain. On beholding thee my city Mahishmati hath been turned into
Amaravati. To-day have I obtained all auspiciousness, O lord; to-day
hath my religious observance been fruitful; to-day hath my birth proved
blessed and to-day hath my devout penance been crowned with success, for
I bow unto thy feet, which have been worshipped by the celestials. This
my kingdom, these my sons, this my wife and myself are all at thy
disposal—do thou order me, O Brahman, what I may do for thee.’ Thereupon
having enquired of the king about his piety, offerings and the
well-being of his sons, Pulastya said to Arjuna, the king of
Haihayas:—’O foremost of kings, O thou having eyes like lotus-petals! O
thou having a countenance like the full moon! When thou hast vanquished
Rāvana, thy prowess is matchless in the triple world. Thou hast bound up
my invincible son in the conflict at whose fear the wind and the ocean
stand still. Having drunk up the glories of my son thou hast announced
thine own; so I do say, O my son, do thou release Daçānana.’ Hearing
this command of Pulastya, the king Arjuna did not utter a single word
and set, most delightedly the king of Rākshasas, free. Having released
that foe of the celestials, worshipped him with celestial ornaments and
garlands and established friendship removing all enmities with Rāvana
before fire, and bowed unto Pulastya, the son of Brahmā, he repaired to
his own house. And being released by the influence of Pulastya, the
highly powerful Daçānana, the king of Rākshasas, accepted his
hospitality and being embraced by him, returned home ashamed. And having
set Daçagriva at liberty Pulastya, the son of Brahmā and the foremost of
Munis repaired to the celestial region. O Rāma, in this wise, the highly
powerful Rāvana was defeated by Arjuna and released by Pulastya. Observe
therefore, O descendant of Raghu, there is a mightier man than the
mighty; therefore, one, desirous of his own well-being, should not
disregard another. Having acquired friendship with the thousand-armed
Arjuna, Dacānana, the king of Rākshasas, began again to journey over the
world distressing the kings."

   ⁹⁵ As it is impossible to hold the wind in a short compass so it was
      impossible to bind Rāvana and lead him captive.


"Released by Arjuna, and yet not conceiving any shame, Rāvana, the king
of Rākshasas again began to traverse the earth. Rākshasas or men, of
whom the proud Rāvana heard to be powerful he used to approach and
summon them for fight. After some time he arrived at the city of
Kishkindhā reared by Vāli and invited him, wearing golden garland, to
fight. Thereat, Tāra, her father Sushena and the Prince Sugriva said to
the king of Rākshasas—’O lord of Rākshasas, he is not present here, who
shall be able to withstand thee. What monkey else is capable of standing
before thee? However, O Rāvana, Vāli shall soon return after performing
the Sandhyā rites at the confluence of the four oceans; therefore wait
here for a moment. Behold, O Daçānana, there lie the bones of all those,
like conch, who came ere this to fight with the powerful king of
monkeys. O Rāvana, O Rākshasa, even if thou hast drunk nectar, thou
shalt at this very moment loose thy life, when the encounter with Vāli
shall take place. O Vaisravana, do thou observe the variegated universe
now—wait for a moment after which it will be hard for thee to keep thy
life. Or if thou dost wish to meet with death do thou speedily repair to
the southern ocean and thou shalt behold there Vāli like unto fire
placed on earth.’ Hearing those words, Rāvana, the aggrandiser of the
triple world, remonstrated with Tārā and ascending his flowery car went
to the southern ocean and espied Vāli, having red countenance like the
rising sun, engaged in Sandhyā rites with whole-mindedness. Thereupon
having descended from his Pushpaka car he with silent steps approached
Vāli to bring him under his grasp. Casting his looks at pleasure, Vāli
saw him. Albeit apprised of his evil intention, he was not the least
moved. And he did not care for him as a lion is not moved on beholding a
hare and Garuda on beholding a serpent. He then thought within
himself—’This vicious-souled Rāvana is approaching to catch me; holding
him under my arm pit I shall journey over the three great oceans.
Everyone will behold the enemy Rāvana, under my arm pit as a serpent
possessed by Garuda, with his thighs, arms and clothes loosened.’ Having
thought thus Vāli remained silent for sometime and reciting incantations
he waited there like a mountain. Thereupon the king of monkeys and the
lord of Rakshasas, proud of strength, essayed to catch one another. Vāli
was seated with his back (towards Rāvana); still from his footsteps he
perceived that he had come within the grasp of Rāvana’s army and he at
once caught hold of him like unto Garuda holding a serpent. Getting hold
of Rāvana, the lord of Rākshasas, desirous of catching him, (Vāli) and
placing him under his arm-pit Vāli vehemently rose high up in the
welkin. And he went away carrying him, scratching him again and again
with his nails like unto winds scattering clouds. The Ten-necked demon
being thus carried away, his councillors, to release him, pursued,
exclaiming, Vāli, in the welkin. They thus following him, Vāli, appeared
in the sky like the sun in the midst of clouds. The Rākshasas could not
catch Vāli but were rather exhausted by the stroke of his arms and
thighs. What to speak of animals made of flesh and blood anxious for
their lives even the mountains make way when Vāli goes. Rising high up
into the sky where even the birds cannot reach, Vāli, the lord of
monkeys and gifted with great velocity, by and by finished his Sandhyā
rites above the oceans. Being worshipped by the aerials their lord, with
Rāvana, first proceeded to the western ocean. And having finished there
Sandhyā prayers and recited incantations he, with Daçānana, went to the
northern ocean. And having journeyed over many thousand leagues that
huge monkey, with his enemy, finished his prayers there and then
proceeded to the eastern ocean. And having recited his prayers there
also, Vāli, the son of Indra, and the king of monkeys, carrying Rāvana,
returned to the city of Kishkindhā. Having gone through his Sandhyā
rites at the four oceans and carrying Rāvana, that monkey-chief was
greatly exhausted and (therefore) descended into the gardens of
Kishkindhā. Having got out Rāvana from his arm-pit, the foremost of
monkeys, laughing again and again said:—’Whence art thou coming?’
Thereupon being surprised greatly, Daçānana, the king of Rākshasas, with
eyes shaking with exhaustion, said to the king of monkeys:—’O king of
monkeys, resembling Mahendra, I am Rāvana, the king of Rākshasas; I came
here to fight: but I have been defeated by thee. Alas! What strength is
thine! what prowess!! What gravity!!! Holding me like a beast thou hast
journeyed over the four oceans. O hero! What heroic wight is there who
is not exhausted by carrying me so vehemently? O monkey, mind, wind and
Garuda—these three are gifted with the velocity. Undoubtedly thou hast
got the same velocity. Thy prowess hath been sufficiently displayed. But
now I wish, O king of monkeys, to make friends with thee for ever before
fire. O king of monkeys, from to-day, wife, sons, city, kingdom,
enjoyment, cloth and food shall be our common.’ Thereupon having lighted
up fire the king of monkeys and the king of Rakshasas, embracing each
other, became friends. Thereupon holding each other by the arms they
entered the city of Kishkindhā like unto two lions, entering delightedly
a cave. There like Sugriva Rāvana spent a month. Afterwards his
councillors, desirous of destroying the triple world, took him away. O
lord Rāma, I have thus related to thee the previous history. Having thus
belaboured Rāvana Vāli at last made friends with before fire. O Rāma,
Vāli had unequalled and great strength, Like unto fire burning down
locusts thou didst burn down Vāli."


Thereupon Rāma, being stricken with curiosity, with folded palms and
humbly accosted Agastya, residing in the southern quarter, with pregnant
accents, saying;—"Thou sayest that Rāvana and Vāli had unequalled
strength but methinks theirs can not equal that of Hanumān. Heroism,
liberality, strength, patience, intellect, knowledge of laws and means,
prowess and energy all exist together in Hanumān. When the monkey host
lost heart on beholding the ocean, Hanumān, consoling crossed over the
deep extending over a hundred leagues. Having desecrated the presiding
goddess of Lankā and on beholding Sitā there, he consoled her. What to
speak of more, Hanumān, single-handed, slew Rāvana’s commander-in-chief,
the minister’s son, his servants and his one son. Being released from
the Brahma weapon Hanumān remonstrated with Rāvana, and reduced Lankā
into ashes like unto fire burning down earth. What I have seen myself
performed by Hanumān in the conflict is above the power of Kāla, Vāsava
and even the lord of riches. It is by the strength of the arms of that
Wind-god’s son I have obtained Lankā, Sitā, Lakshrnana, Victory, kingdom
and my friends. What more, had not Hanumān, the friend of the king of
monkeys—Sugriva, been in my company who could have brought Sitā’s
intelligence? Why did not Hanumān, although wishing welfare unto
Sugriva, reduce Vāli to ashes like so many creepers on the occasion of
his quarrel with Sugriva? Methinks, Hanumān was not cognisant of his own
prowess then? And therefore he did stoop to witness the miseries of
Sugriva—the king of monkeys who was dearer than his life. O thou
worshipped of the immortals, do thou truly describe unto me this action
of Hanumān." Hearing those well-meaning words of Rāghava, the ascetic
Agastya said to him in the presence of Hanumān. "O foremost of Raghus,
what thou hast said regarding Hanumān is all true. As regards, strength,
velocity and intellect there is none who can equal Hanumān. O represser
of enemies, in the days of yore Hanumān was imprecated by the ascetics,
whose curses never become fruitless, to the effect that he would never
be conscious of his whole strength. I am not capable of describing to
thee the wondrous childish feat which Hanumān did perform in his
boyhood. But if thou art, O Rāghava, greatly anxious to hear it, I shall
relate—do thou hear with a quiescent mind. Hanumān’s father Keshari
reigned in the mountain Sumeru which resembles gold by the influence of
the sun. Keshari had a well-known wife by the name of Anjanā to whom he
was greatly attached. The deity Wind begot on Anjanā an excellent son.
Repairing to a dense forest for collecting fruits, the excellent damsel
gave birth to Hanumān resembling the tip of a Sāla tree and went away.
Being distressed with hunger on account of the absence of the mother,
Hanumān, just born, cried like Kartikeya, the commander-in-chief of the
celestials, in the forest of _Saras_. At this time the sun resembling
_Yavā_ flowers, having risen, Hanumān, to get a fruit, sprang up. Being
desirous of holding the newly risen sun, Hanumān, resembling it, began
to leap in the middle of the welkin. The child Hanumān having thus
ascended the sky, celestials, Dānavas and Yakshas surprisingly exclaimed
’The velocity, with which Marut’s son is going, is not possessed even by
the Wind, Garuda and mind. If he has got such vehemence in his boyhood
what great strength he shall have in his youth.’ His own son thus
leaping, the wind, becoming cool by the touch of snow, began to follow
him proceeding in the sky lest the rays of the sun might scorch him.
Rising high up in the sky on account of childish freaks and traversed
many thousand leagues by the help of his father Hanumān neared the sun.
Considering that he was a mere child and therefore not tarnished by any
sin and that a great divine work would be accomplished by him in future
the sun did not burn Hanumān. At the every day when Hanumān sprang up to
hold the sun, Rahu too essayed to possess him. Having reached the top of
the sun’s car Hanumān touched Rahu; so he, the represser of the moon’s
rays, accordingly went back on beholding the sun thus possessed. And
repairing to the house of Indra, Sinhika’s son, in wrath and with
frowns, said to him encircled by the celestials:—’O Vasava! O slayer of
Bala and Vitra—to remove my hunger thou didst give me both the sun and
moon; why thou hast then given them to another? On account of the
_Parva_ I came to devour the sun but another Rahu came and possessed
him.’ Hearing the words of Rahu, the King of the deities, wearing a
golden garland, having his understanding bewildered, proceeded, on the
back of his elephant-chief Airavat, huge like the summit of the Kailasa
hill, with temporal juice always trickling, having four tusks, roaring,
and adorned with golden bells, towards Hanumān and the sun with Rahu
before him. Having left behind Indra, Rahu quickly went there but fled
away on beholding the huge-bodied Hanumān resembling a mountain summit.
Thereupon leaving aside the sun and being desirous of holding Rāhu, the
son of Sinhikā considering him as a fruit, Hanumān again sprang up into
the sky. Beholding Hanumān approach renouncing the sun, Rahu with his
countenance only visible, desisted and went back. And considering Indra
as the saviour he again and again cried aloud ’Indra! Indra!!’
Understanding everything by the piteous accents of Rahu Indra said, ’No
fear, I shall soon slay him.’ Thereupon beholding the huge-bodied
Airavat and considering him as a bigger fruit Māruti ran towards him.
Proceeding thus tempestuously when he rose above the head of Indra,
Hanumān, looked in a moment dreadful like the fire of dissolution. But
not greatly enraged the thousand-eyed lord of Sachi, with the
thunder-bolt in his hand, struck the running Hanumān. Belaboured by the
thunder-bolt of Indra Hanumān fell down and broke his left jaw. He being
thus overwhelmed by the stroke of Indra’s thunder-bolt, the Wind-god
became displeased with the king of celestials and was determined upon
bringing about mischief unto all created beings. The all-comprehending
wind, not spreading himself, entered into a cave with his son. Like unto
Vāsava distressing all creatures by putting a stop to the showers, the
wind too put all animals into unbearable suffering by obstructing all
execrations. On account of the anger of the Wind-god their breath was
completely obstructed, and the joints—as if pierced, became hard as
wood. _Sādhya_ _Vasatkār_ and all the religious observances of the
triple world were put a stop to by the anger of the Wind-god. So the
three worlds appeared as if stricken with sorrow. Thereupon the
afflicted celestials, Gandharvas, Asuras and men repaired to the
Patriarch Brahmā with a view to bring about the well-being of created
beings. And with their bellies swollen for the obstruction of the wind
the celestials with folded hands said:—’O lord of created beings, thou
hast created four classes of beings and thou hast given us wind to
preserve our lives. But we do not know, why the wind, the lord of our
beings, is distressing us, by obstructing our movements like unto
females confined in an inner apartment. Being thus distressed by the
wind we have come to seek thy shelter, O thou the remover of miseries—do
thou remove our afflictions consequent upon the obstruction of the
wind.’ Hearing those words of the created beings, their lord (the
Patriarch Brahmā) again said ’Hear, why the wind, being enraged, has
obstructed the course of all beings. Hearing the words of Rahu, Indra,
the king of the celestials, hath belaboured the Wind-god’s son. It is
for this that he hath been offended. Preserving the bodied, the wind,
having no person, passes through them all. Without wind the body becomes
like wood. Therefore the wind constitutes the life, the happiness and
the whole universe. Renouncing the wind the world cannot attain to
happiness. Being cast off by the wind and having their breaths
obstructed, behold, the world, to-day appeareth like dried wood. Let us
therefore go there where the wind, the giver of our afflictions,
waiteth. If we do not please the son of Aditi we shall all meet with
destruction.’ Thereupon the Patriarch Brahmā, the celestials,
Gandharvas, serpents, Guhyakas and other created beings went where the
wind was waiting with his own son belaboured by the king of the
celestials. Thereupon beholding that boy, on the lap of the Wind-God,
resembling gold and Baisvanar, the four-mouthed Brahmā, the celestials,
Gandharvas, Rishis, Yakshas and Rākshasas were all moved with pity."


Hearing the whole history, Rāma, the descendant of Raghu, said to
Agastya "O Reverend Sir, Riksharaja is the name of the father of Vāli
and Sugriva but thou hast not told me the name of their mother. However
I am curious to learn who was their mother, where was their residence,
and how they had been named so—do thou favour me with the account." Rāma
having said this Agastya said:—"O Rāma, I shall relate to thee
everything in short of what I had heard from Nārada when he came to my
hermitage. Once on a time whilst travelling that highly pious ascetic
arrived at my hermitage; I duly worshipped and welcomed him; and when I
asked him out of curiosity, he, seated at pleasure, said:—’Hear, O great
ascetic, the foremost of the pious; there is a mountain named Meru,
highly picturesque, made of gold and greatly charming. The middle peak
is much liked by the celestials, on which is situate the beautiful
assemblage hall of Brahmā extending over a hundred leagues. The
four-mouthed deity, sprung from lotus, always resideth there. And from
his eyes while going through the _Yoga_ practices tears trickled down.
No sooner the Patriarch Brahmā, with his hands, wiped them off into the
ground than a monkey originated from those tears. O foremost of men, as
soon as that monkey was produced, the high-souled Brahmā consoled him in
sweet accents and said—"Do thou proceed to that leading mountain where
the celestials perpetually reside. O foremost of monkeys, living upon
many a fruit and root in that picturesque mountain thou shouldst always
live by me. And while thou shall live in this wise for some time thou
shalt be crowned with auspiciousness." Brahmā having said this, O
Rāghava, the foremost of monkeys saluted that god of gods, placing his
head at his feet and said to that Primaeval deity, the creator of beings
and the lord of the universe. "O god, thou art placing me under thy
behests—verily I shall follow them." Having said this to Patriarch that
monkey immediately went to a forest abounding in fruits and flowers.
There living on fruits and collecting honey and various flowers, he,
every day, used to come to Brahmā in the evening. O Rāma, in this wise
he used to make an offering of excellent fruits and flowers at the feet
of Brahmā, the god of gods. Journeying in this way over the mountain he
spent many long years. Some time having elapsed in this way, O Rāghava,
Riksharaja, the foremost of monkeys, being distressed with thirst,
repaired to the excellent mountain Meru. There is a pond of pure water,
resonant with the notes of various birds. Having shaken his manes with a
delighted heart, Riksharaja saw his reflection in the waters. Beholding
his own image there that monkey-chief, stricken with anger and anxiety
thought—"What arch-enemy of mine is living in the waters? I shall
destroy the excellent abode of the vicious-souled one." Thinking thus
within himself, that monkey, out of fickleness, jumped down into the
lake. And he again sprang up therefrom. And at the time of rising, O
Rāma, that leading monkey found himself metamorphosed into a female
form, which was highly charming, graceful and beautiful. Her waist was
spacious, eye-brows beautiful and hairs were black and curling; her
countenance was beautiful and smiling, breast high and beauty matchless.
And there appeared charming on the banks of the lake, lighting up all
quarters that female, agitating the mind of all, and beautiful in the
triple world like unto simple _Sastilatā_, Ramā, without lotus, pure
rays of the moon, Parvati more beautiful than even Lakshmi. At this time
was returning by that way, Indra, the leader of the celestials after
having worshipped the feet of Brahmā. And the sun too journeying arrived
there. They both simultaneously espied that female form and were
possessed by desire. What more, their whole body, as soon as they saw
her, was moved and the firmness of the mind shaken. Thereupon Indra
begot on her a son named Vāli for he originated from her hairs and the
sun begot on her another son, who was named Sugriva for he originated
from her neck. Thus the two highly powerful monkeys being born, Indra
went back to his region having conferred upon Vāli an un-ending garland
of gold. And having engaged Hanumān, the Wind-god’s son in the service
of Sugriva, the sun too went back to the sky. O king, the sun having
risen after, that night Riksharaja again obtained his own real monkey
shape. Having thus regained his monkey form he made his two highly
powerful sons,—leading monkeys, assuming shapes at will and having tawny
eyes, drink honey, like nectar. Thereupon taking them, he came to the
abode of Brahmā. Beholding his son Riksharaja with his sons, Brahmā, the
grand-father of the celestials, consoled him in diverse ways. Then he
ordered the celestial messenger saying—"At my behest, O emissary, do
thou proceed to the highly picturesque city of Kishkindhā. That golden,
big and charming city is worthy of Riksharajā. There live many thousand
monkeys besides others assuming shapes at will. It abounds in various
jewels, invincible, is inhabited by four _Varnas_, holy and sacred. At
my command Visvvakarmā has constructed the celestial and picturesque
city of Kishkindhā. Do thou place there Riksharāja, the foremost of
monkeys, with his sons; and having invited the leading monkeys and
others and received them courteously do thou install him on the throne.
On beholding this monkey-chief, gifted with intelligence they shall be
all subject to him." Brahmā, having said this, the celestial emissary,
with Riksharāja before him, proceeded to the highly picturesque city of
Kishkindhā. And having entered there with the velocity of the wind, he,
at the command of the Patriarch, crowned the leading monkey Riksharāja
as king. And being sprinkled according to the ceremonies of
installation, and adorned with a crown and various other ornaments he,
with a delighted heart, engaged in governing the monkeys. All the
monkeys, residing on earth consisting of seven insular continents and
bounded by ocean, came under his subjection. Thus Riksharāja was both
the father and mother of Vāli and Sugriva. May good betide thee. The
learned who listen to and make others hear this story, conducing to the
enhancement of their delight, get all their desires and objects
accomplished. I have duty described to thee at length all events and
have recounted the stories relating to the birth of the Kings of monkeys
and Rākahsasas.’"


Hearing this excellent Paurānic theme in the company of his brothers,
Rāghava was greatly surprised. Thereupon hearing the words of the Rishi
he said:—"By thy favour I have listened to the highly sacred theme. O
foremost of Munis. I was greatly worked up with curiosity in this
matter. I am not the least surprised to learn, O twice-born one, that
those two sons of the celestials would be two highly powerful leading
monkeys since their origin is divine." Rāma having said this Agastya
said:—"O thou having long arms, thus in the days of yore the birth of
Vāli and Sugriva was brought about. O king, I shall now again relate to
thee another divine theme. O Rāma I shall now describe to thee why did
Rāvana steal Sitā. Do thou hear it attentively. O Rāma, in the golden
age, having bowed unto the Patriarch’s son, the truthful Rishi
Sanatkumar, highly effulgent, resplendent like unto the sun, shining in
his native brilliance and seated at his own place, Rāvana, the lord of
Rākshasas, said:—’Who is now amongst the celestials brave and powerful,
by whose help the celestials can vanquish their enemies and whom the
twice-born ones daily worship and the devotees meditate upon. O thou
having piety for wealth, O thou gifted with six sorts of wealth, do thou
describe this to me kindly.’ Being apprised of Rāvana’s intention, the
saint Sanatkumar, who saw every thing through his devotion, said to him
out of love—’Hear my son. The learned duly, in their sacrifices, worship
that Hari, respected of people and drinking nectar, who is the lord of
the universe, whoso origin we do not know, who is daily worshipped by
the celestials and Asuras, who is highly powerful Nārāyana from whose
navel has sprung Brahmā, the creator of the world, and who has created
the universe consisting of mobile and immobile beings. The Yogis
meditate upon him and celebrate sacrifices in his honor according to the
Purānas, Vedas, _Pancharātra_ and other rituals. He always vanquisheth
in encounter Daityas Danavas, Rakshasas and all other enemies of the
celestials and every one of them worships him.’ Hearing those words of
the great ascetic Sanatkumar, Rāvana, the lord of Rākshasas, bowing,
replied:—’Being slain by Hari to what station do the Daityas, Danavas
and Rākshasas attain? And why doth Hari destroy them?’ Whereto
Sanatkumar replied:—’Whoever are slain by the celestials do eternally
reside in their region. And being banished therefrom, they again take
their birth on earth. Thus by the misery and happiness acquired in their
pristine existence, they go through births and deaths. O king, all the
monarchs, slain by Janarddana, holding discus and the lord of the triple
world, attained to his own region; even his anger becometh like a boon.’
Hearing those words given vent to by the great ascetic Sanatkumar the
night-ranger Rāvana, being worked up with delight and surprise, began to
meditate how he should enter into conflict with Hari."


"The vicious-souled Rāvana thinking thus the great ascetic again gave
vent to accents. ’O thou having long arms, what thou hast desired in thy
mind shall be encompassed in the great encounter. Be thou happy and wait
for some time.’ Hearing this the long-armed (Rāvana) again said to the
ascetic—’Do thou tell me at length what are his marks.’ Hearing the
words of the lord of Rākshasas, the ascetic replied:—’Hearken, I shall
relate to thee every thing, O foremost of Rākshasas. That great deity
pervadeth all, is minute, invisible ever-existing, and manifest over the
universe consisting of mobile and immobile creations. He is present in
the celestial region, in the earth, in the region underneath the earth,
on the mountains, in the forests, in all stationary objects, in all
rivers and in all cities. He is Om, truth, Sābitri and earth. He is
known as the deity Dharādhara (holder of earth) and Ananta. He is day,
night, morning and evening, Yama, the moon, Kāla, the wind, Brahmā,
Rudra, Indra and water. He makes the world manifest and shine; he
creates them, destroys them and governs them. He sporteth, is eternal,
the lord of men, Vishnu, Purana and the only destroyer of the world.
What is the use of speaking more, O Dasānana, He comprehends the three
worlds, the mobile and immobile. Wearing a yellow raiment like unto the
filaments of lotus, Nārāyana, resembling dark-blue lotus in colour, is
resplendant like unto clouds in the welkin accompanied by lightning. And
covering his person, Lakshmi, in the shape of warfare, lies stationed in
his body like unto lightning in the clouds. The celestials, Asuras or
Nāgas—none is capable of casting his looks upon him. He alone can see
him with whom he is pleased, O my son; neither by the fruits of
sacrifices, asceticism, self-control, gifts, sacrifices, nor by anything
else can one behold the Illustrious Deity. Those alone can see Him, who
have devoted themselves, their life and being, unto Him and who, by
virtue of discriminative knowledge, have got their sins burnt. If thou
art willing to behold him, hear, if thou dost like, I shall describe
everything at length. At the end of the golden age and the beginning of
Tretā Yuga the deity Nārāyana shall assume a human form for the benefit
of men and celestials. A son by the name of Rāma shall be born unto
Dasaratha, of the Ikshwāku race who shall govern earth. Rāma shall be
highly effulgent, highly powerful and in patience like unto earth—and
the enemies in the encounter shall not be able to eye him as they cannot
the sun. In this wise the lord Nārāyana shall appear in a human form. At
the behest of his sire, the pious and the high-minded Rāma shall sojourn
in the forest of Dandaka in the company of his brother. His spouse the
gracious Lakshmi, shall be celebrated under the appellation of Sitā. She
will be born as the daughter of Janaka, the king of Mithilā and will
come out of earth. In beauty she shall be matchless on earth and be
gifted with auspicious marks and shall always follow Rāma like a shadow
as the rays follow the moon. She will be graced with a good conduct,
chaste and patient; and Sitā and Rāma shall always appear together like
the rays of the sun. Rāvana, I have thus related to you everything about
the Nārāyana, the great Brahman, eternal and incomprehensible.’ O
Rāghava, hearing those words, the highly powerful lord of Rākshasas
began to concert plans for entering into conflict with thee. Meditating
again and again over Sanatkumār’s words and delighted he began to
journey for battle." Hearing those words, Rāma, with his eyes expanded
in surprise, was greatly wondered. And being delighted he again said to
Agastya, the foremost of the wise:—"Do thou recount the ancient


The highly effulgent and illustrious Agastya, sprung from a vessel,
again addressed the humble Rāma as the great Patriarch sprung from lotus
spoke unto the Great Deity, he said to Rāma, having truth for his
prowess:—"Do thou hear." Saying this, the highly effulgent Agastya began
to narrate the last portion of the story. The high-minded saint, with a
delighted heart, described unto Rāma all he had heard and narrated. "O
high-minded Rāma, having long arms, it is for this reason that the
vicious-souled Rāvana stole away Janaki, the daughter of king Janaka. O
thou having long arms! O thou of many glories! O thou invincible! Nārada
recounted this story unto me on the summit of the mountain-chief Meru. O
Rāghava, the highly effulgent one narrated unto me the last portion of
this story in the presence of the celestials, Gandharvas, Siddhas,
ascetics and other great men. O lord of kings, O conferrer of honors, do
thou listen to that story which removeth monstrous iniquity. Hearing
this, O thou having long arms, the Rishis, and the celestials with
delighted hearts, said to the ascetic Nārada He who shall reverentially
listen to this story every day, shall be blessed with sons and grandsons
and be honored in the region of the celestials."


"Thereupon being desirous of achieving victories, Rāvana, the lord of
Rākshasas, proud of his strength, began to journey over the earth in the
company of the heroic Rākshasas. Whoever, amongst the Daityas, Dānavas
and Rākshasis was reported to him as being powerful he used to invite
for battle. O king of earth, having thus traversed the whole world, the
ten-necked demon saw the saint Nārada returning to his own region from
Brahmaloka. Like the second sun he was proceeding through the clouds.
Rāvana, with a delighted heart, neared him and addressed the celestial
saint Nārada with folded palms, saying:—’O thou gifted with six sorts of
wealth, thou hast seen many a time all creations from Brahmā down to an
insect. Do thou tell me, O great one, the inhabitants of which world are
more powerful? I wish to fight with them according to my desire.’
Whereto, thinking for a moment, the celestial saint Nārada replied:—’O
king, there is an insular continent near the milky ocean. All the
inhabitants that live there are gifted with strength—effulgent like the
rays of the moon, huge-bodied, highly powerful and have a voice deep as
the muttering of the clouds. They are all greatly beautiful, patient and
have huge arms. O king of Rākshasas, I have seen in Swetadwipa such
powerful men, as thou dost want to see on this earth.’ Hearing the words
of Nārada, Rāvana said:—’O celestial saint, why are the inhabitants of
Swetadwipa powerful? And how did those high-souled ones come to live
there? O lord, do thou relate to me everything at length. Thou dost
observe the whole universe like a myrobalam in thy palms.’ Hearing the
words of Rāvana, the celestial saint said:—’O lord of Rākshasas, the
inhabitants of Swetadwipa are perpetually devoted unto Nārāyana with
whole-mindedness and earnestly worship Him. They have always their
hearts and minds devoted unto Him and are all high-souled. Having
rendered their lives and souls unto Nārāyana, they have been blessed
with their abode in Swetadwipa. Those, who are slain in the encounter
with his bow bent by Vishnu—the holder of discus and the preserver of
the world, attain to the celestial region. Neither by sacrifice, devout
penance, self-control nor excellent gifts may be obtained the celestial
region full of bliss.’ Hearing the words of Nārada, the Ten necked demon
was worked up with surprise and meditating for some time said ’I shall
enter into conflict with him.’ Thereupon inviting Nārada he proceeded to
Swetadwipa. Thinking for a long time and being curious to witness that
wondrous encounter, Nārada speedily went there. He was ever fond of
sport and warfare. Filling all the quarters with dreadful leonine roars
Rāvana with all the Rākshasas moved towards the Swetadwipa. After Nārada
had reached there, the illustrious Daçānana went to that insular
continent beyond even the reach of the celestials. Being struck by the
radiant heat of that insular continent, the Puspaka car, of the mighty
Rāvana, could not stand there like clouds scattered by the wind. Having
arrived at that dreadful insular continent the councillors of the lord
of Rākshasas, fearfully said to Rāvana. ’O lord, we are all stupified
and beside ourselves with fear. We cannot anyhow stand here; how shall
we fight?’ Saying this the Rākshasas fled away into all directions. And
Daçānana too sent away his golden car Pushpaka with them. Having thus
sent away his chariot and assuming a dreadful figure he alone entered
Swetadwipa. At the time of his entering he was seen by the females
there. One of them holding him by the hand and smiling said ’Why hast
thou come hither? Who art thou? Who is thy father? and what for hast
thou come here? Do thou definitely say.’ Hearing those words, O king,
Rāvana, in anger said:—’I am the son of the ascetic Visrava, I am Rāvana
by name; I have come hither being desirous of fighting; but I do not
behold anyone here.’ The vicious-souled Rāvana having said this all the
young damsels laughed gently. But one of them, being enraged, took up
Rāvana, like a child, as if in sport and hurled him amongst her
companions. And addressing another she said:—’Behold, I have caught this
black Rāvana, having twenty arms and ten faces, like a small insect.’
Thereupon Rāvana, being worn out with hurling, passed from one one hand
to another. Being thus hurled the learned and powerful Rāvana, in anger,
severely bit the palms of that fair one. Being overwhelmed with pain
that damsel let him off. Thereupon, another, taking that Rākshasa-chief,
rose up in the welkin. Rāvana, again waxing wroth tore her with his
nails. And being left off by that damsel, the terrified night-ranger
fell down into the waters of the deep. The females, inhabiting that
insular continent again and again in this wise hurled Rāvana. Beholding
him thus distressed the highly effulgent Nārada danced in joy and
surprise. O thou having long arms, being apprised of this, the
vicious-souled Rāvana stole away Sitā with a view to meet death at thy
hands. Thou art Nārāyana, holding discus, conch and club; thou hast in
thy hands the bow, a lotus, thunder-bolt and other weapons; thou art
worshipped of all deities; thou art graced with the mystic mark
Sribatsa, adored by all celestials, hast a lotus navel, art a great
ascetic, and Hrishikesha declaring fearlessness unto all devotees. Thou
hast assumed a human form to bring about the destruction of Rāvana. Dost
thou not recognise thyself as Nārāyana? O great one, do not forget
thyself; do thou recollect thy real self. The Patriarch Brahmā said that
thou art subtler than the subtle. Thou art the the three qualities, the
three Vedas and the regions—that of the celestials, of the mortals and
the region under the earth. Thy work is manifest in time, past, present
and future; thou art the observer of three Vedas and the destroyer of
the enemies of the celestials. With thy three steps, thou didst, in the
days of yore, traverse the three worlds. Thou wert born of Aditi, as the
youngest brother of Indra for binding Bali. Thou art the eternal Vishnu.
To extend thy favours unto humanity thou hast been born as man. O
foremost of the celestials, the work of the deities hath been
accomplished. The vicious Rāvana, with his sons and relatives, hath been
slain. The Rishis, having piety for their wealth and all the deities
have been pleased. O foremost of gods—all this hath been brought about
by thy favours; and the whole universe hath been pacified. Sitā is the
very personation of Lakshmi, sprung from earth. It is for thee that she
hath been born in the race of Janaka. Bringing her into Lankā Rāvana
protected her with care like his mother. Rāma, I have thus related to
thee the entire story. Hearing this from the Rishi Sanatkumar, the
long-lived Nārada described this unto me. Daçānana, to a letter I
followed the instructions of Sanatkumar. Who ever listens to this story
at the time of Sraddha, the rice, offered by him, becoming
inexhaustible, reaches his manes." Hearing this celestial theme, the
lotus-eyed Rāma along with his brothers was greatly surprised. And
having their eyes expanded with delight the monkeys, with Sugriva, the
Rākshasas with Bibhishana, the kings with their councillors, and all
other assembled pious Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras,
delightedly espied Rāma. Thereupon the highly effulgent Agastya said to
Rāma:—"O Rāma, we have all seen thee and been honoured; now we shall
depart." Saying this, they, being honored, repaired to their respective
habitations. The sun set, Rāma, the foremost of men, gave farewell to
monkeys and their king and duly went through the Sandhya rite. Gradually
night set in and he entered the inner appartment.


Kakutstha, knowing himself, being thus duly installed, the first night,
enhancing the delight of the citizens, was spent. At dawn, the
prisoners, to wake up the king, arrived at the palace. And those
songsters, well trained and having a musical voice like the Kinnaras,
began to eulogize the heroic king, to the increase of his joy. "Awake, O
gentle hero, increasing Kausalyā’s joy, O foremost of men. Thyself being
asleep the whole universe will be laid up with sleep. In prowess thou
art like Vishnu, in beauty thou art like two Aswins, in intellect thou
art like Vrihaspati and in the capacity of governing thou art like the
Patriarch Brahmā. Thy patience equals that of earth, thy effulgence
equals that of the sun, thy velocity equals the wind and thy gravity
resembles the deep. Thou art stable like a stake, gentle like the moon.
No king like thee had flourished before—no other shall follow. O
foremost of men, thou art irrepressible, ever pious and engaged in
bringing about welfare unto thy subjects. Fame and wealth shall never
renounce thee. O Kākutstha, in thee are perpetually stationed grace and
wealth." Thus did the panegyrists eulogise him in various sweet accents
and Rāghava got up. Like unto Hari rising up from the bed of serpents
Rāma, thus eulogized, rose up from his bed covered with a a white
coverlet. Taking white vessels full of water, thousands of well-trained
survitors stood waiting before the high-souled (Rāma). Washing his
mouth, being purified and offering oblation unto fire, he entered the
holy room of the tutelary deity much honored by the Ikshwākus. And there
having worshipped duly the celestials, manes and the Brahmins, he,
encircled by men, came to the outer apartment And there arrived the
leading priests headed by Vasishtha and ministers all resplendant like
unto fire. And there sat around Rāma the Kashatrya kings hailing from
various provinces as the celestials sit encircling their lord Indra. The
illustrious Bharata, Lakshmana and Satrughna began to worship him and he
appeared like a sacrifice conducted by Vedic hymns. And the servants,
with their eyes shut, sat around him. The twenty heroic monkeys headed
by the highly powerful Sugriva also began to worship him. As the
Guhyakas worship Kuvera so Bibhishana, accompanied by four Rākshasas,
waited upon him. All those who were advanced in the study of Vedas, born
in respectable families, and learned, bowed unto the king lowering their
beads. Like unto the celestial-king Indra worshipped by the saints the
king Rāma was being perpetually honored by the effulgent saints, kings,
monkeys, and Rākshasas. He appeared more beautiful than Indra at that
time. And religious themes were recited in that assembly by persons
conversant with the knowledge of Puranas.


Thus did the long-armed Rāma spend his days looking into all
administrative works relating to the city and provinces. Some days
having elapsed, he, with folded hands, said to Janaka, the king of
Mithilā, "Thou art our only refuge—we have been reared by thee and by
the help of thy dreadful prowess we have been able to destroy Rāvana. O
king, the relation between the families of Ikshwāku and Mithilā, is
unequalled and delightful. Taking the jewel, do thou proceed to thy own
city and Bharata as a help shall follow thee." Saying "So be it," the
king Janaka bespoke Rāma "O king, I have been delighted with seeing thee
and thy courteous manners. The jewels collected for me, I do confer upon
my two daughters." The royal saint Janaka having gone away, Rāma, with
folded hands and humbly said to his maternal uncle Kaikeya—"O king, this
kingdom, myself, Bharat and Lakshmana are all at thy disposal. The old
king might have been grieved for thy long absence. It therefore behoveth
thee, O king, to go there to-day. With immense wealth and various jewels
let Lakshmana follow thee." Agreeing with his request Yudhājit said, "O
Rāghava, let jewels and wealth be be inexhaustible with thee."
Thereupon, Rāma, at first saluted and went round him and then Yudhājit,
the son of Kekaya, went away to his kingdom in the company of Lakshmana
like unto Indra (leaving for home) in the company of Vishnu on the
destruction of the Asura Vitra. Having bade adieu unto his maternal
uncle Rāma embraced his friend Pratardana, the undaunted king of Kashi
and said:—"Thou hast displayed thy brotherly feelings and delight by
making arrangements for my installation in the company of Bharata. O
king, do thou now leave for thy city Baranushi, highly picturesque,
well-guarded, girt by strong walls on all sides and having
well-decorated gate-ways." Saying this, Rāma, the descendant of
Kākutstha rose up from his seat and embraced him cordially. Having taken
farewell from Rāma enhancing Kausalya’s delight, the king of Kashi, with
his followers, fearlessly and speedily proceeded to his own city. Having
bade adieu to the king of Kashi, Rāma, with a smiling countenance and
sweet accents, said to the three hundred assembled kings: "Being well
protected by your own prowess, you have all displayed your great love
for me. By your piety, truthfulness, sagacity and strength, the
vicious-souled Rāvana hath been slain. Forsooth, I am merely the
instrument in the destruction of Rāvana—he hath been slain by your
strength. Hearing that Sitā, the daughter of Janaka, had been stolen
away from the forest the high-minded Bharata did bring you all—but
fortunately you were not constrained to go through miseries. High-minded
as you are, you were all prepared for this work. Long since you have
come here. I think it better that you should proceed to your respective
habitations." Whereto the kings, greatly delighted, replied: "O Rāma, it
is by thy good fortune that thou hast come off victorious and been
installed on the throne; it is by thy good luck that thou hast got back
Sitā and the enemy Daçānana hath been vanquished. That we behold thee, O
Rāma, victorious and freed from all enemies, is our great benefit and
delight. The encomiums, thou hast showered upon us, are natural with
thee. Thou art Rāma, who always pleases people. Thou art worthy of being
praised but we do not know how to praise thee. With thy permission we
shall now leave for our respective provinces but thou shalt always
reside in our hearts. O thou having long arms, O great king, mayst thou
have that love for us perpetually that we may find place in thy heart."
Whereto Rāma replied saying "So be it." Thereupon the kings, highly
delighted and desirous of going, bade farewell unto Rāma, with folded
palms and being honored by him, left for their respective kingdoms.


Having agitated the earth with thousands of elephants and horses the
kings proceeded to various quarters. And being prepared to help Rāma
many Akshauhini soldiers with many steeds waited at Ayodhyā at the
command of Bharata. Those kings, proud and powerful, spoke to one
another—"We did not face Rāvana—the enemy of Rāma; Bharata did uselessly
invite us after the destruction of Rāvana. Had they brought us earlier,
we would, forsooth, have slain him. We would have, on the other side of
the ocean, well protected by the prowess of Rāma and Lakshmana, and
freed from all disturbances, fought at pleasure." Being thus delighted,
all those assembled princes proceeded to their respective kingdoms,
dwelling on these and various other topics. And having arrived at their
celebrated cities, unscathed, abounding in delighted people, wealth,
crops and jewels they sent various presents of jems to Rāma for his
satisfaction. Besides this they made over to him innumerable horses,
conveyances, infuriated elephants, sandal, excellent ornamants, jewels,
pearls, corals, beautiful female servants and various cars. And taking
all those jewels, the highly powerful Bharata, Lakshmana and Satrughna
returned to their own city. Having arrived at the picturesque city
Ayodhyā those foremost of men, made presents of various jewels unto
Rāma. Having delightedly accepted those gifts Rāma in return made
presents of them unto the successful king Sugriva, Bibhishana and other
Rākshasas and monkeys by whose help he had achieved victory. And those
highly powerful monkeys and night-rangers wore on their heads and arms
those jewels conferred on them by Rāma. Having placed on his lap the
long-armed Angada and Hanumān, the mighty car-warrior—the lotus-eyed
Rāma said to Sugriva "Angada is thy good son and Hanumān is thy wise
councillor. O Sugriva, these are always engaged in my well-being and in
giving me good counsels. For thee, therefore, O king of monkeys, I
should honor them in various ways." Having said this, the illustrious
Rāma took off from his arms valuable ornaments and adorned Angada and
Hanumān therewith. Thereupon having welcomed and casting loving looks
upon the highly powerful and leading monkeys such as Neela, Kesarin,
Kumuda, Gandhamādana, Sushena, Panasa, Mainda, Dwivida, Jāmbavān,
Gabāksha, Dhumra, Baleemukha, Prajaghna, Saunāda, Dareemukha, Dadbimuka,
Indrajānu and others, he addressed them all in sweet accents,
saying:—"You are all my friends like unto my limbs and brothers. O ye
inhabitants of forests, you have saved me from the ocean of danger.
Blessed is the king Sugriva and blessed are the friends like
yourselves." Saying this Rāma, the foremost of men, conferred upon them
duly many precious clothes and ornaments and embraced them all. The
monkeys lived there all happily feasting on fragrant honey, well-cooked
meat and various fruits and roots. In this way they spent more than a
month—but it appeared to them as a moment on account of their devotion
unto Rāma. He, too also spent his time happily with monkeys assuming
shapes at will, the highly powerful Rākshasas and the mighty bears. In
this way the delighted monkeys and Rākshasas spent the second winter
month. Enjoying delight they thus spent their days happily in the city
of Ayodhyā working to the welfare of Rāma.


In this wise, the monkeys, bears and Rākshasas spent their days in
Ayodhyā. Thereupon the highly effulgent Rāma, the descendant of Raghu
said to Sugriva:—"O gentle one, proceeding to the city of Kishkindhā,
hard to be got at by the celestials and Asuras, do thou reign there
undisturbed with thy councillors. O thou having long arms, always look
towards Angada, with loving eyes. Do thou, O Sugriva, protect lovingly
the highly powerful Hanumān, Nala, thy father-in-law Sushena, the mighty
Tāra, irrepressible Kumada, the powerful Neela, the heroic Satabali,
Mainda, Dwivida, Gaya, Gavaksha, Gavaya, Sarava, the irrepressible and
powerful king of bears Jamvaban, Gandhamādana, valiant Rishava,
Supatala, Keshan, Sarabha and Sumbha—these and other heroic monkeys who
dedicated their lives to my service. Do thou never act to their
displeasure." Having said this and embraced Sugriva again and again Rāma
addressed Bibhishana with sweet accents. "I know thou art cognizant of
piety; the citizens, thy councillors and thy brother Kuvera also love
thee; do thou therefore go and govern Lankā piously, O king; never
cherish any vile intention; the honest kings always enjoy the earth. And
my only request to thee, O king, is that thou mayst with love remember
me and Sugriva. Do thou now proceed, divested of sorrow." Hearing the
words of Rāma, the bears, monkeys and Rākshasas repeatedly exclaimed
glory unto Rāma and said "O Rāma, having long arms, thy understanding
resembleth that of the Self-Sprung, thy prowess is equally wonderful and
thy beauty is also _par excellence_." The monkeys and Rākshasas having
said this, Hanumān bowing, said unto Rāma "May my loving reverence be
always in thee, O king; may my devotion unto thee remain unshaken, O
hero; and may my mind be not attached unto any other thing. May my life
remain in my body as long as the stories of Rāma shall be in currency on
earth. Let not this prove otherwise. O foremost of men, O descendant of
Raghu, may the Apsarās make me always hear of thy themes. O hero, as the
winds scatter the clouds so I shall remove my anxiety by listening to
thy nectar-like themes." After Hanumān had said this, Rāma rose up from
his throne and having embraced Hanumān affectionately said, "O foremost
of monkeys, what thou hast said, shall undoubtedly be carried out into
action. As long as my stories shall be current on earth thy fame shall
exist and life shall be in thy body. And as long as the world shall
exist my themes shall be related. I cannot, even at the sacrifice of my
life, release myself from the debts of one good service out of the many,
thou hast done for me, monkey; and I shall for ever remain indebted to
thee for thy last benefaction. Or let them wear out in me, for men, at
the time of danger, become worthy of having their benefits returned."
Having said this, Rāma took off from his neck a chain set with sapphires
brilliant as the rays of the moon and placed it round the neck of
Hanumān. Like unto the mountain Sumeru beautified by the rising of the
moon on its summit, Hanumān, the foremost of monkeys, appeared graceful
with the chain placed on his breast. And hearing the words of Rāghava,
the highly powerful monkeys, one by one, saluted Rāma, touching his feet
and went away. Both Sugriva and the virtuous-souled Bibhishana embraced
Rāma and three of them were beside themselves with tears. And other
monkeys and Rākshasas were all moved with tears and sorrow to take leave
of Rāma. Having received favours thus from the high-souled Rāghava the
monkeys went away to their own houses like-unto bodied creatures leaving
off their bodies. Thereupon the Rākshasas, bears, monkeys, having bowed
unto Rāma, the glory of the Raghu family and with their eyes full of
tears consequent upon his separation, went away to the countries from
which they had hailed.


Having bade adieu unto bears, monkeys and Rākshasas the long-armed Rāma
began to live happily in the company of his brothers. Thereupon he and
his brothers heard from the air the following sweet accents:—"O gentle
Rāma, do thou with a delighted countenance behold me. O lord, know me as
Pushpaka coming from the abode of Kuvera. O foremost of men, at thy
command I did go there to carry him. But he said to me:—’Having slain
the irrepressible Rāvana in battle the high-souled Rāma, the foremost of
men, hath conquered thee. I have greatly been delighted on the
destruction of the vicious-souled Rāvana, with his relatives, sons and
friends. O gentle one, the great Rāma hath conquered thee in Lankā; I
permit thee, therefore to convey him. Thou art the fit conveyance for
traversing all regions. But my earnest desire is that thou shouldst take
Rāma, the descendant of Raghu. Do, thou therefore go there at pleasure
without any sorrow.’ Hearing this command of the high-souled Kuvera I
have come to thee. Do thou fearlessly accept me. I am above the conquest
of all the worlds. At the command of Kuvera I shall valiantly traverse
all regions carrying out your behests." Hearing the words of Pushpaka,
the highly powerful Rāma said to the returning car stationed in the
welkin:—"O foremost of cars, Pushpaka, if such be the case, do thou come
here; while the lord of wealth hath commanded thus, I will not be
blameable for bad character." Having said this and worshipped it with
dried paddy, fragrant flowers and incense, Rāma, having long arms,
addressed Pushpaka—"Do thou go now and come here whenever I shall
remember thee. While proceeding by the welkin, O gentle one, be not
sorry for our separation. And be not obstructed in thy course whilst
traversing all the quarters." Having been adored by Rāma and saving ’So
be it’ Pushpaka proceeded towards its wished-for direction. And the holy
Pushpaka car having thus vanished, Bharata, with folded palms, said to
Rāma, the delight of Raghus—"O hero, during thy divine administration,
we have seen many inhuman creatures and objects speak like men. During
all these months since thy installation subjects have not suffered from
any disease. Even the most aged animals have not met with death. The
female, without any risk, have been giving birth to children and all
people are plump and delighted. The delight of the citizens hath been
greatly increased, O king. Indra hath been pouring nectar-like showers
in due time. The wind is always delightful and wholesome. O king of men,
the inhabitants of the city and provinces are all saying ’We may have
for ever such a king.’" Hearing those sweet accents given vent to by
Bharata, Rāma, the foremost of kings was greatly delighted.


Having sent away the golden Pushpaka, the highly powerful Rāma entered
the Asoka forest beautified by sandal, Aguru, Mangoe, dark sandal and
Debadaru trees, and covered with Champaka, Aguru, Nāga, Kesara, Madhuka,
Panasa, Sarja, Pārijāta, resembling smokeless fire, Sodhra, Neepa,
Arjuna, Nāga, Saptaparna, Muktaka, Mandāra, Kadalee and various
creepers, abounding in Priyanga, Kadamba, Vakula, Jambu, pomegranate,
and Kadali trees, containing various flowers, picturesque, having many
fruits, fragrant, decorated with new leaves and adorned with various
other trees. There were many a tree, having profuse foliage and flowers
and covered with maddened black bees as if constructed by architects.
The forest-land was variegated and beautified by cuckoos, the ornaments
of mangoe trees, black-bees and various birds of various colours.
Amongst the trees beautifying the forest some were gold-hued, some were
radiant as the flame of fire and some were like red collyrium. There
were various flowers, spreading fragrance and making garlands. And there
were various ponds filled with pure water. The stairs of those ponds
were made of corals and the ground was of crystal. And they were all
filled with lotuses and lilies. They were beautified with Chakrabakas
and the banks were graced with variegated trees and flowers. And the
forest was encompassed by stone walls and in the inside were dwelling
many a Sārdula bird resembling _Vaiduryas_. All the trees in the forest
were filled with flowers. And the rocks there, covered with flowers
falling down from trees, appeared like welkin beautified with stars. And
Rāma’s Asoka forest was like unto Indra’s Nandana and Kuvera’s
Chitraratha made by Brahmā. Having entered the rich Asoka forest
abounding in many seats and houses and creepers Rāma sat on an excellent
seat, covered with a beautiful coverlet and well constructed. Like unto
Purandara with Sachi he took Sitā by the hand, made her sit and drink
the wine distilled in the province of Mira. And in no time the servants
brought for him well-cooked meat and various fruits. Being inebriete the
beautiful Apsarās, well-skilled in the art of singing and dancing, began
to dance before Rāma in the company of Kinnaris. The virtuous-souled
Rāma, the foremost of those who know how to please, satisfied those
beautiful damsels adorned with various ornaments. And Sitā sitting by
him, he appeared like the effulgent Vasishtha in the company of
Arundhati. Being greatly delighted the celestial-like Rāma pleased every
day Sitā resembling a celestial damsel. Sitā and Rāghava thus spent
their days happily. And thus was spent the delightful winter giving all
enjoyments. Enjoying various things the high-souled Rāma and Sitā spent
ten thousand years. Once on a time, having performed all the religious
ceremonies, in the fore part of the day, Rāma, to spend the evening,
entered the inner apartment. Sitā, too, having performed all religious
ceremonies, at first attended to the service of her mothers-in-law.
Thereupon wearing a beautifully coloured cloth and being adorned with
various ornaments Sitā appeared before Rāma like unto Sachi approaching
the king of celestials in heaven. And beholding the auspicious signs of
pregnancy in his spouse Rāma attained to excessive delight. Thereupon he
said to the beautiful Sitā resembling a celestial damsel:—"O
Vaidehi—signs of pregnancy are manifest in thee. What desires of thine
can we satisfy?" Smiling a little the daughter of Janaka said:—"O
Rāghava, I wish to behold the holy hermitages. I wish to salute the
greatly effulgent Rishis living on fruits and roots and residing on the
banks of the Ganges. I greatly desire, O Rāma, that I may spend even one
night in the hermitage of the Rishis living on fruits and roots."
Whereto replied Rāma of unwearied actions, saying "So be it. Believe me,
O Vaidehi, that thou shalt undoubtedly go there to-morrow." Having thus
addressed Maithili, the daughter of Janaka, Rāma, the descendant of
Kākutstha, then issued out of the inner apartment and entered the middle
one filled with his friends.


Rāma having taken his seat there, the experienced councillors encircling
him began to dwell upon many amusing stories. Bijoya, Madhumatta,
Kasyapa, Mangala, Kula, Surajni, Kalya, Vadra Dantavakta, Sumagadha—all
delightedly began to introduce many amusings talks before the
high-souled Rāma. Thereupon Rāma incidentally addressed them saying—"O
Vadra, how do the inhabitants of the city and provinces talk about Sitā,
Bharata, Lakshmana, Satrughna and the mother Kaikeyi? The kings, when
they deviate from the paths of justice, become objects of censure in the
houses of men and even in the forests as well." Rāma having said this,
Vadra with folded hands replied:—"O king, the citizens speak many good
things about thee; besides they dilate upon many things in their own
houses regarding thine conquest acquired by the destruction of the
Ten-necked demon." Hearing the words of Vadra, Rāma said:—"Without
hiding any thing, do thou relate every thing from the beginning as they
are; what good and bad things have been given vent to by the citizens.
Hearing the good and bad opinions of the citizens I shall desist from
bad actions and engage in good ones. Whatever vicious actions of mine
are talked of by subjects in cities and provinces do thou relate unto me
confidently and fearlessly." Hearing the sweet accents of Rāma, Vadra,
with a quiescent mind and folded palms, said:—"Hear, O king, I shall
relate to thee all those unpleasant things frequently dwelt upon by
people in court-yards, markets, public roads, forests and, gardens.
Indeed Rāma hath accomplished a wonderfully hard work; our ancestors,
the celestials, the Dānavas—none heard of constructing a bridge over the
ocean? Rāma hath slain the irrepressible Rāvana with his army and
brought over the monkeys, bears and Rakhasas to his own side. Having
discomfitted Rāvana, in the encounter Rāma hath released Sitā, but not
being the least enraged on account of her being touched by Rāvana he
hath brought her to his own city. Rāvana did forcibly place Sitā on his
lap; how can then Rāma enjoy delight in her company? Having taken her to
the city of Lankā, Rāvana did keep her in the Asoka forest and Sitā was
brought under the control of Rākshashes. Still Rāma hath not been worked
up with hatred by Sitā. From now we shall also brooke the bad conduct of
our wives—for the subjects always tread the footsteps of their King. O
King, the subjects thus talk of many things in cities and provinces."
Hearing those words of Vadra, Rāghava was greatly sorry and asked his
friends saying "Do the subjects thus talk about me?" Thereupon lowering
their heads and saluting him they all said to Rāghava, of a depressed
mind—"For sooth, the subjects thus talk about." Thereupon Kākutstha, the
slayer of enemies, hearing all those words, dismissed his friends.


Having sent away his friends and determined what to do, Rāma, the
delight of the Rāghus, commanded the warder, who was seated hard by,
saying:—"Do thou speedily bring here, Lakshmana the son of Sumitra and
gifted with auspicious marks, the great Bharata and the irrepressible
Satrughna." Hearing the words of Rāma and placing his folded palms on
his head the warder reached the house of Lakshmana and unobstructed
entered therein. And having saluted him, with folded palms he said to
the high-souled Lakshmana:—"The King wishes to behold thee—do thou soon
go there." Thereupon being apprised of Rāghava’s command and saying "So
be it," Saumitri ascended his car and went speedily towards Rāma’s
abode. Having beheld Lakshmana’s departure the warder humbly went to
Bharata and having blessed him with folded hands said:—"The King wishes
to see thee." Hearing of the command of Rāma from the warder, the highly
powerful Bharata at once got up from his seat and proceeded on foot.
Seeing Bharata’s departure the warder speedily went to Satrughna and
with folded hands said:—"Do thou come, O foremost Raghus, the King
wisheth to behold thee." Hearing the words of the warder Satrughna
lowered his head and rising up speedily proceeded to Rāma. Thereupon
returning, the warder, with folded hands, communicated unto Rāma, the
arrivals of his brothers. So long Rāma was engaged poorly in anxious
meditation with his crown bent downwards. Informed of the princes’
arrival he commanded the warder, "Do thou soon bring the princes here.
My life depends upon them. They are my dearest life." Having obtained
Rāma’s command, the princes, clothed in white raiment, entered there,
with folded palms and quiescent mind. Having entered there they saw that
Rāma’s countenance was shorn of beauty like unto the moon possessed by
Rāhu, the setting sun and the withered lotus and his eyes were full of
tears. Having approached him quickly, and saluted his feet they
anxiously sat there. Thereupon having wiped off his tears and embraced
them with his arms he raised up the princes and pressed them to take
their seats. Thereupon he said—"You are mine all; you constitute my
life; O princes, I am governing the kingdom gained by you; you are all
learned, pious and intelligent. Do ye follow the duties I point out."
Rāma, the descendant of Kākustha having said this, they, with anxiety
and attention, awaited the orders of the king.


The princes were all waiting with a poorly heart when Rāma, with a dried
countenance, addressed them, saying:—"May good betide you—do not act
against my desire. Hear, what the citizens have been talking about me
and Sitā. The citizens as well as the inhabitants of provinces have been
showering censures upon me. I have been pierced to the very vitals by
those accusations. I have been born in the illustrious family of the
high-souled Ikshwākus. Sitā hath been born also in the holy family of
the great Janaka; gentle Lakshmana, thou knowest how in the solitary
forest of Dandaka, Sitā was stolen away by Rāvana and how have I slain
him. At that time even I was stricken with anxiety regarding Sitā that
how I could take her home since she had resided in the house of the
Rākshasas. To secure my confidence, Sitā, in your very presence, entered
fire. At that time, O Saumitri, fire, carrying sacrificial oblations and
the wind of the sky declared Sitā’s innocence before the celestials. In
the presence of all the Rishis and gods, the Sun and Moon announced the
innocence of the daughter of Janaka. Indra, the king of the celestials,
himself handed over the chaste Sitā unto me in the island of Lankā. My
mind knoweth Sitā as chaste for ever. So, at that time I came back to
Ayodhyā with Sitā. But now a great sorrow consequent upon the censure of
the citizens and villagers hath pierced my heart. He, who is notorious
on this earth and as long as that notoriety remains current, is classed
amongst the vile. Even the celestials speak ill of bad name—whereas fame
is adored in all the regions. Therefore the high-souled exert their best
to acquire reputation. O foremost of men, what to speak of the daughter
of Janaka—I can even renounce my life and yourselves in fear of a bad
name. Do ye therefore perceive into what great abyss of sorrow and
ill-fame I have fallen. Up to this time I have never experienced such a
mighty grief. Do thou, O Lakshmana, next morning, ascending the car
driven by Sumantra, take away Sitā to another country. There is a
picturesque hermitage of the high-souled Vālmiki situate on the Tamasā
on the Other side of the river Ganges. Do thou, O delight of Raghus,
soon come back, leaving behind Sitā in that lovely place; Do thou carry
out my words. Do thou not speak anything regarding Sitā’s banishment, O
Saumitri, if dost thou request me to desist from this, it shall be the
more unpleasant unto me. For my life and arms, do ye not proffer any
request unto me regarding this, If so, you shall only endanger my
well-being and I shall ever regard you as my enemies. If you obey my
behests, do ye honor my words now. Do ye take away Sitā from here. Ere
this Sitā had communicated her intention of beholding the hermitages of
ascetics on the banks of the Ganges. Let that desire of hers be now
satisfied." While saying this, the eyes of the virtuous-souled Rāma were
covered with tears. Sighing hard like unto an elephant, he, with a heart
stricken with grief, departed to his own quarter in the company of his


The night being over, Lakshmana, with a poor heart and dried
countenance, addressed Sumantra, saying:—"O charioteer, do thou soon
yoke quick-coursing steeds to an excellent chariot, and for Sitā place
an excellent seat on the car. At the command of the King, I shall take
Sitā to the hermitage of the ascetics ever engaged in pious actions. Do
thou soon bring the chariot here." Obeying the mandate, and bringing a
beautiful and holy car drawn by first-rate steeds and having excellent
seats, he said to Saumitri, the enhancer of friends’ honor "O lord, here
is the chariot ready—do thou now satisfy thine desire." Hearing the
words of Sumantra, Lakshmana, the foremost of men, approached Sitā in
the inner apartment and said:—"O queen, thou didst request the king to
show thee the hermitage—the king too did promise—he hath now commanded
me to take thee there. Do thou therefore follow me, at the command of
the king. I shall, at his behest, take thee to the forest where dwell
many an ascetic." Hearing the words of the high-souled Lakshmana, Jānaki
attained to excessive delight and became anxious to go. Taking various
jewels and costly clothes she said to Lakshmana on the eve of her
departure—"I shall confer these ornaments, these costly clothes and
riches on the female ascetics." Saying "We shall do the same," he made
Sitā ascend the car and remembering Rāma’s command proceeded, being
carried by quick-coursing steeds. Thereupon Sitā said to Lakshmana, the
enhancer of prosperity:—"O descendent of Raghu, I behold many
inauspicious omens. My right eye and body are trembling. My mind is
growing depressed. It is stricken with anxiety and I have accordingly
grown restless. I behold the earth as void of all happiness. O thou fond
of brothers—hath thy brother met with any calamity? Are all my
mothers-in-law and subjects well?" Saying this Sitā, with folded hands,
began to pray unto gods. Hearing this Lakshmana bowed unto her touching
the ground with his crown, and though greatly sorry, said as if
delighted "All well." Thereupon having arrived at the hermitage situate
on the banks of Gomati Lakshmana spent the night there. Thereupon at
dawn he rose up and asked the charioteer to get the chariot ready,
saying, "Like unto the powerful Mahādeva we shall hold the waters of the
Bhāgirathi on our head." Thereupon Sumantra yoked the horses, gifted
with the fleet course of the mind, to the chariot and with folded hands
said to Sitā. "Do thou ascend the car." According to the request of the
intelligent charioteer, Sitā, with Lakshmana, ascended that excellent
conveyance. In no time the daughter of Janaka, having expansive eyes,
arrived at the banks of the Ganges removing all sins, Reaching the
currents of Bhāgirathi before noon Lakshmana, on beholding her, cried
aloud. Thereupon beholding Lakshmana thus distressed, Sitā, conversant
with piety, waxing anxious said. "Why art thou weeping, Lakshmana? I
have reached the banks of Janhavi, for which I have so long desired. So
this is the time for rejoicing and do not give me pain at this time. O
foremost of men, thou dost spend thine days and nights in the company of
Rāma, Thou hast left him for two days only—art thou sorry for this?
Lakshmana—Rāma is also dearer than my life—but I am not so sorry—do thou
not be therefore overwhelmed with grief. Do thou take me to the other
side of the Ganges so that I may behold the ascetics and confer upon
them clothes and ornaments. Thereupon saluting them duly and spending a
night we shall return to the capital. I am also anxious to sec Rāma,
having eyes like lotus petals, breast like that of a lion and foremost
of men." Hearing the words of Sitā and wiping his beautiful eyes,
Lakshmana, the slayer of enemies, sent for boatmen. As soon as they were
called, with folded hands they said. "The boat is ready." Having then
brought a boat to cross the holy Ganges Lakshmana, with a quiescent
mind, took her to the other side.


Having at first conducted Sitā to the spacious and well decorated boat
plied by fishermen Lakshmana himself got up. Thereupon he ordered
Sumantra to wait there with the chariot, and being beside himself with
sorrow ordered the sailors to move on. Thereupon having reached the
other side of Bhāgirathi, Lakshmana, with subdued voice and folded
palms, said to Sitā—"O daughter of the king of Videha, this hath pierced
my heart like a dart, that my brother, by making me the instrumental of
this action hath made me the object of censure in the world. The death
and the pain consequent upon it are better than the action I am engaged
in. Be thou propitiated, O beautiful damsel, do not hold me responsible
for this." Saying this, the humble Lakshmana began to weep and pray for
death. Beholding him thus overwhelmed, Sitā said "What is the matter,
Lakshmana? I do not understand anything, Do thou speak out everything
plainly unto me. I find thee beside thyself (with grief); is it all well
with the kingdom? In the name of the king, do thou give out unto me, the
cause of thy sorrow." Sitā having addressed him thus, Lakshmana, with a
poorly heart and suppressed tone, said "O worshipful queen, I have kept
within my heart all those words, which the king said, before he entered
his palace, rendered sorry and impatient on hearing in the assembly the
report of censure regarding thee, O daughter of king Janaka. All those
words are indeed above description and so I desist. I only say so much,
that afraid of the calumny of the citizens he hath renounced thee
although thy purity was sufficiently proved before me. But for that, do
not consider thyself in any way guilty. Rāma hath commanded me to leave
thee near the hermitage on the pretext of satisfying thine desire as
thou art big with a child. Do not uselessly give vent to sorrow any
more. There is the holy hermitage of the saints on the banks of Jānhavi.
There lives Vālmiki, the foremost of saints, a great friend of our sire
Daçaratha. O daughter of Janaka, approaching that high-souled saint, do
thou spend thy days happily keeping Rāma always in thy mind. Do thou
satisfy the deities, O chaste damsel. This shall crown thee with


Hearing the ruthless words of Lakshmana, the daughter of Janaka, greatly
sorry, fell down on earth. And remaining senseless for some time, Sitā,
with her eyes full of tears said to Lakshmana:—"Forsooth, O Lakshmana,
the great Dispenser hath created this body to suffer miseries; and all
my afflictions are manifest in form to-day. Methinks; I committed a
mighty iniquity in my pristine existence or brought about separation
between a husband and wife and for that Rāma hath renounced me albeit I
am pure and chaste. O son of Sumitrā, the affliction of residing in the
forest appeared to me as pleasure ere this for I knew that I would be
able to serve Rāma’s feet. But how shall I, O gentle one, live in the
hermitage being divorced from all my kith and kin? And being afflicted
to whom shall I express my sorrow? What reply shall I offer unto the
ascetics when they shall ask me ’Child; why hath the high-souled Rāghava
renounced thee? What sin hast thou committed?’ O Saumitri, shall I just
renounce my life in the waters of Jāhnavi? But I desist from this for it
shall bring about the termination of my husband’s race. O Saumitri, do
thou carry out the orders thou hast received. By renouncing this
wretched wight do thou satisfy the King’s orders. But hear, what I say.
Without making any distinction, do thou, in my name, with folded hands,
bow unto my mothers-in-law and then ask the well-being of the kingdom.
Thereupon saluting the pious King do thou address him, in my name,
saying:—’Thou knowest, O Rāghava, that Sitā is pure, ever devoted unto
thee and engaged in thy well-being. She knows it full well, that afraid
of a bad name thou hast renounced her. It is her duty to put a stop to
thy ill-name and censure; for thou art her excellent refuge.’ Do thou
tell further-more that king established in righteousness to treat the
citizens as his brothers, to acquire piety by protecting his subjects
duly—for this is the greatest morality and by this may be acquired
excellent fame. Tell him that I am not sorry for my person—my greatest
sorrow is that the citizens have vilified me. Husband is a woman’s
god—her friend and spiritual guide. It is proper therefore to work out
husband’s well-being even at the sacrifice of life. Do thou, O
Lakshmana, communicate it in short unto Rāma, in my name; Do thou go now
and behold the signs of pregnancy are manifest in me." Sitā having said
this, Lakshmana, with a bewildered heart, saluted her touching the
ground with his head, he could not speak more. Thereupon bewailing aloud
and circumambulating her, he, meditating a little, said. "What art thou
speaking unto me, O worshipful dame? O thou having no sin, up to this
time I have not seen any portion of thy beautiful person but feet. This
is a solitary forest and besides the worshipful Rāma, is not present
here—under these circumstances how can I cast looks upon thee?" Having
addressed Sitā in this wise Lakshmana again sent for a boat and
ascending it ordered the boatmen to go. Thereupon having reached the
other side and being beside himself with sorrow and grief he speedily
ascended the car. And casting his looks behind while proceeding he
espied that Sitā, on the other side of the Ganges, was roving wildly
like one having none to look after her. Looking again and again when
Sitā saw that Lakshmana and the chariot have gone beyond the range of
her vision, she became overwhelmed with anxiety and grief. Being sunk in
grief and pressed down with the weight of sorrow on not beholding Rāma,
the foremost of the illustrious, the chaste Sitā began to cry aloud in
the forest resounded with the notes of peacocks.


Beholding Sitā thus wailing, the sons of the Rishis there speedily
approached the great Vālmiki, well-established in asceticism. And
saluting him they all communicated unto him Sitā’s bewailings and said,
"O great sir, we do not know the wife of what great man, beautiful like
the very Lakshmi, and not seen before, is crying aloud very poorly? It
is better that thou shouldst see her once. That beautiful damsel, like a
goddess falling from heaven being bewildered, is waiting on the banks of
the river. We saw her alone crying aloud being overwhelmed with sorrow
and grief as if she had none to look after her. A damsel like her should
not be subject to such a condition. She did not appear to us to be a
woman. Do thou receive her duly. She is near the hermitage and so hath
come to seek thy shelter. O illustrious Sir, she is on the look out for
a protector—do thou protect her." The pious Vālmiki could perceive every
thing by virtue of his asceticism; and ascertaining the truth of the
words of the Rishi boys by the power of his understanding, he, with
quick steps, approached Sitā. And the disciples followed that
high-minded ascetic. Thereupon proceeding a little on foot with Arghya
in his hands, the wise Vālmiki reached the banks of the river and saw
that Rāghava’s spouse was bewailing like a helpless woman. Having
gladdened a little the aggrieved Sitā by virtue of his own effulgence
the great ascetic Vālmiki addressed her in following sweet accents. "O
chaste damsel, thou art the daughter-in-law of Daçaratha, the beloved
wife of Rāma and the daughter of Janaka; thy coming here is auspicious.
I am apprized, by virtue of asceticism and meditation, of the object of
thy coming here. O great lady, I am also fully aware that thou art by
all means chaste. In fact I am conscious of all the incidents in the
three worlds. By the eyes of asceticism, I perceive, O daughter of
Janaka, that thou art innocent. Thou hast come under my shelter, O
Vaidehi—be thou consoled. O child, the pious ascetics live around my
hermitage. They shall daily take care of thee as their daughter. Do thou
accept this Arghya now, and confiding in me do thou remove thy grief. Be
not sorry for anything; consider that thou hast come to thy own home."
Hearing the wonderful words of the great ascetic, Sitā humbly touched
his feet and said "Thy desire shall be fulfilled." Saying this, she,
with folded hands, followed the ascetic. Beholding the great ascetic and
Sitā approach, the wives of the Rishis, delighted neared them and
said:—" Do thou come, O foremost of Rishis, thou hast arrived here after
a long time. We all bow unto thee—do thou order what we shall do."
Hearing their words the great Vālmiki replied in worthy accents—"This
Sitā is the wife of the intelligent Rāma, the daughter-in-law of
Daçaratha and the daughter of Janaka. She has now come to our hermitage.
She is chaste and innocent, still her husband hath renounced her. So we
should all protect her. She is worthy of your reverence—specially while
such is the order of mine—your preceptor. So, do ye all take care of her
with great affection." Having consigned the charge of Sitā unto the
hands of the female ascetics, the great and illustrious ascetic Vālmiki,
followed by his disciples, speedily proceeded towards his holy


Beholding the great ascetic Vālmiki thus conducting Sitā into his own
hermitage Lakshmana’s heart was bewildered with grief. Thereupon he said
to the expert charioteer Sumantra. "Do thou perceive Rāma’s grief
consequent upon the separation from Sitā. His spouse—the daughter of
Janaka, is perfectly pure; what can be more painful than that Rāma is
living alone having renounced her? It is clear unto me, O Sumantra, that
this separation of Rāma, hath been brought about by the influence of
destiny—for it is hard to get over accident. Even that Rāma, who, when
enraged, is capable of slaying the celestials, Gandharvas, Asuras and
Rākshasas, hath been engaged in the worship of destiny. Formerly did
Rāma go through miseries, residing in the forest of Dandaka, at the
command of his sire for fourteen years. But this banishment of Sitā
appears to me as exceedingly painful and most ruthless. O charioteer,
the opinion of the citizens is by no means just; consequently what shall
we gain by performing such a bad action for fame as the exile of Sitā?"
Hearing those words of Lakshmana, the wise Sumantra reverentially
replied:—"Be not aggrieved for Sitā, O Saumitri. Formerly in the
presence of thy sire the Brahmananas related this account of Sitā’s
exile. Rāma shall be deprived of all happiness and be separated from his
dear wife; what more, the virtuous-souled Rāma, having long arms, shall,
under the influence of time, renounce thee, Sitā, Satrughna and Bharata.
O Lakshmana, when Durbasa was addressed by the king Daçaratha as to thy
future he replied in the above way. I have told thee the same. Do thou
not communicate this unto Satrughna, Bharata or any body. O foremost of
men, Durbasa said this unto Daçaratha before me, Vasishtha and other
great men. Hearing the words of Rishi, Daçaratha, the foremost of men,
said unto me, ’O charioteer, do not reveal this secret to any body.’ O
gentle one, it is not proper by any means to falsify the words of the
king Daçaratha. I shall always, very carefully, carry out his orders. It
is not proper to reveal this mystery before thee. Still I do so for thy
curiosity hath been greatly excited. Though this mystery was
communicated formerly by the king Daçaratha and though it is not proper
to reveal it to any body, still I express it before thee that thou mayst
not, on hearing it, be worked up with sorrow; for destiny is hard to be
got over. And it is by the influence of that destiny that thou hast met
with such a sorrow and grief. However, do thou not reveal this secret
unto Satrughna and Bharata." Hearing these grave and important words of
Sumantra, Lakshmana ordered him to relate.


Being thus requested by the high-souled Lakshmana, Sumantra began to
reveal the mystery of Durbāsā’s account "In the days of yore the great
ascetic Durbāsā, the son of Atri, resided for a year in the holy
hermitage of Vasishtha. At that time thy sire, the highly effulgent and
illustrious Daçaratha, with a view to see his high-souled priest
Vasishtha, repaired there. He saw the great ascetic Durbāsā, burning
like the sun in his effulgence, seated on the right hand side of
Vasishtha. Thereupon he humbly saluted those two leading ascetics. And
they too, welcoming him, received him duly with seat, water to wash
feet, Arghya, fruits and roots. Then he lived there in the company of
the ascetics. Thereupon during the noon, all those ascetics, seated
there, began to dwell upon various pleasant topics. During an interval
Daçaratha, with folded hands and uplifted arms, said to the high-souled
son of Atri—Durbāsā, having asceticism for his wealth. ’O illustrious
Sir, how long shall my family remain in existence? What is the extent of
the lease of life granted to Rāma and my other sons? How long shall the
descendants of Rāma live? And what shall be the end of my race? Do thou
relate all this unto me.’ Hearing the words of the king Daçaratha the
highly effulgent Durbāsā, replied:—’Hear, the early history, O king.
During the encounter between the celestials and Asuras, the demons,
being remonstrated with by the celestials sought shelter of the wife of
Vrigu—thy priest. Vrigu’s wife having promised them help they lived
there fearlessly. Having beheld the demons thus helped by Vriju’s wife,
Hari, the king of the celestials, enraged, chopped off her head with his
sharp discus. And angry on beholding his wife slain, Vrigu, imprecated a
curse on Vishnu, the slayer of enemies’ race, saying—"Being beside
thyself with anger thou hast slain my wife, not worthy of being killed;
therefore, O Janārddana, thou shalt be born in the region of mortals.
And there thou shalt remain separated from thy spouse for many long
years." Having imprecated this curse, Vrigu was greatly pained and being
propitiated by his adoration, Vishnu, fond of disciples, said: "Having
slain Rāvana and others, I shall be, for the behoof of mankind, subject
to this imprecation." O bestower of kings, the highly effulgent Vishnu,
thus imprecated by Vrigu in the days of yore, hath been born as thy son
in this birth and hath been celebrated under the appellation of Rāma. O
conferrer of honors, for sooth shall Rāma partake of the fruits of
Vrigu’s curse. He shall reign in Ayodhyā for a long time. All his
followers shall be happy and prosperous. Having reigned for eleven
thousand years Rāma shall repair to the region of Brahmā. None shall be
able to vanquish him. He shall celebrate many a horse-sacrifice with
profuse gifts and shall establish many royal families. He shall beget on
Sitā two sons.’ Having thus related unto Daçaratha the past and future
of his family the highly effulgent great ascetic Durbāsā became silent.
He being silent—the great King Daçaratha, having bowed unto the two
high-souled ascetics, again returned to his city Ayodhyā. I had heard
there all these words of the great ascetic Durbāsā. Up to this time they
are lying in my heart. Rishis’ words shall never prove fruitless.
According to the words of Rishi Rāma shall install two sons of Sitā in
Ayodhyā, not anywhere else. Under these circumstances, O Lakshmana, thou
shouldst not grieve for Sitā or Rāma; in their interest do thou become
patient." Hearing those wonderous words of the charioteer Sumantra,
Lakshmana became greatly happy and eulogised him again and again. They
thus conversing with one another on their way back, the sun set. They
accordingly spent that night on the banks of Kesini.


Having spent the night on the banks of Kesini, the mighty car-warrior
Lakshmana got up early in the morning and again proceeded on his journey
(home). And reached in the noon the city of Ayodhyā, filled with various
jewels and delighted and plump citizens. But the high-souled Lakshmana
became greatly sorry stricken with the thought as to what he should
relate on approaching the feet of Rāma. Whilst proceeding with this
thought he saw the highly picturesque palace of Rāma resembling the rays
of the moon. Having descended from his car at the palace-gate,
Lakshmana, the foremost of men, with his face downwards and a distressed
heart, unobstructed, entered the palace. Having entered there he saw his
elder brother Rāma seated poorly on an excellent seat with his eyes full
of tears. Being greatly pained at the sight, Saumitri touched his feet
and with folded palms said:—"O worshipful sir, having obeyed thy behests
I have left the daughter of Janaka at the holy hermitage of Vālmiki near
the banks of the Ganges. Having left that illustrious pure lady at the
skirt of the hermitage I have again dome to serve thy feet. Do thou not
grieve, O foremost of men, for such is the course of time. The
intelligent people like thee do not grieve. Where there is growth there
is decay, where there is prosperity there is ruin, and where there is
birth there is death. Therefore attachment unto wife, sons, friends and
riches is not proper, for surely shall be brought about separation with
them. Whilst thou canst control thyself and thy mind, shouldst thou not
be able to bear this trifling pain of separation? Leading men like
thyself are never overwhelmed by all these things. O Rāghava, thou shalt
again be blamed by the people. In fear of this calumny, O sing that thou
hast renounced Maithili. And if dost thou grieve for that spouse thy
calumny shall undoubtedly be deep-rooted in the kingdom. Therefore do
thou restore thyself patiently, O foremost of men. Do thou give up this
weakness and be not sorry." The intelligent Lakshmana, the son of
Sumitrā, having said this, Rāma, the descendant of Kākutstha and fond of
friends, with great delight said:—"Thou hast spoken the truth, O
Lakshmana, O foremost of men. I have been greatly delighted, O hero for
thy carrying out my orders. O gentle Saumitri, my grief and sorrow have
been removed for those pleasant words of thine."


Hearing those wondrous words of Lakshmana Rāma was greatly delighted and
said "O thou having an auspicious look, thou art gifted with great
intellect and after my heart; a friend like thee is rare at such a time.
But O beautiful Saumitri, do thou, apprised of my intention, carry out
my words. O gentle son of Sumitrā, for not looking to state business for
these four days I have been pierced to the very vitals. Do thou
therefore call here men, or women, priests or councillors who have come
for business. For sooth do a king falls into the dreadful hell where the
wind doth not blow, who does not daily look into his state affairs. I
have heard, O foremost of men, that there lived in the days of yore a
highly illustrious, truthful and pure-minded king, ever devoted unto the
Brāhmanas, by the name of Nriga. Once on a time at the sacred pilgrimage
of Pushpaka that king conferred upon the Brāhmanas one _Koti_ of kine
with calves adorned with golden ornaments. Accidentally on that
occasion, a cow with calf belonging to a poor Brahman, living upon low
means, was given away along with other kine. Undergoing hunger and
thirst, the master of that lost cow travelled for a long time in many
places in search of it. Thereupon having reached the province of
Kanakhal he espied his own cow in the house of a Brāhmana. The cow was
well kept and the young one was grown up. Thereupon the Brahman called
the cow by the name given by him saying ’Savalā, come.’ The cow heard
that and recognizing the voice of the Brahman followed him. And he
preceded her burning like fire. And the Brāhmana, in whose house the cow
so long remained, speedily pursued her and approaching the ascetic said.
’This cow is mine. The king Nriga conferred this upon me.’ So there
arose a great quarrel between the two learned Brāhmanas. And thus
quarreling they both approached him who had given away the cow. And
though they waited for a long time at the gate they did not obtain
permission to enter the palace. Thereat both of them were greatly
engraged and imprecated dreadful curses, saying ’Since thou hast not
granted us an interview though we have been waiting here for a long
time, thou shalt, by our curse, remain invisible, being a lizard. Thou
shalt in this state live in a den for many hundred and thousand years.
When Vishnu assuming a human person shall be born in the Vasudeva family
of Yadavas and enhance their glory he shall liberate thee from the
curse. Immediately before the advent of the Kali Yuga the Rishi Nara
Nārāyana gifted with great prowess shall descend upon earth to relieve
her of the burden.’ Having thus imprecated the curse upon the king the
Rishis became silent. The cow was old and weak so they both, with mutual
consent, conferred that upon another Brahman. O Lakshmana, the king
Nriga is still suffering from that dreadful curse. It is the king’s
folly that is manifest from the mutual disagreement of the workers. Do
thou bring them all speedily to me who have come for business. For,
sooth shall the kings profit by the just administration. Do thou
therefore go in person, O Lakshmana and see who hath come for business."


Hearing the words of the highly effulgent Rāma, Lakshmana, conversant
with discriminative knowledge, replied with folded hands, saying "O
Kākutstha, it is for a very simple folly that the two Brāhmanas
imprecated that Curse upon the king Nriga, dreadful as the rod of Yama.
May I ask thee, O foremost of men, what did that King say unto the
Brahmans when he was thus imprecated?" Whereto Rāma replied saying:—"O
gentle one, hear, what the king Nriga said when imprecated. Hearing of
the departure of the Brāhmanas he sent for his priest, minister, the
citizens and subjects and filled with sorrow said:—’Do ye all hear
attentively my words. Having imprecated a dreadful curse upon me the
jolly saint Nārada and the ascetic Parvata have speedily, like the wind,
repaired to the region of Brahmā. Do ye therefore, even today, place the
prince Vasu on the throne, and let the architects prepare a pleasant den
for me. Living therein I shall waste the curse of the Brahmans. Let the
architects dig one den to protect me against the rains, one against the
affliction of the winter and one against the distresses of summer. Let
them enhance the picturesqueness of those dens by planting many trees
having profuse branches and fruits and flowers. As long as time shall
not change so long I shall spend my days happily in the den. For half a
league on all sides around me let flower trees be planted.’ Having made
those arrangements and placed Vasu on the throne the king Nriga
said:—’Do not swerve from the path of morality, O my son, and do thou
duly govern the subjects according to the custom of the Kshatryas. Thou
hast seen, with thine own eyes, the curse that the Brāhmanas have given
me being enraged for a very trifling folly of mine. Do thou not repent
for me. My son, time is the lord of happiness and sorrow; it is by the
influence of time that I have fallen into such a disaster. Creatures
must meet with what is kept in store by destiny; they must go where they
are bound for and they must acquire what is set apart for them. Pristine
actions are the root of all these; so, be not sorry, O my son.’ O
foremost of men, having given this advice unto his son, the highly
illustrious king Nriga proceeded to live in the sweet fragrant den.
Having entered the den filled with many jewels the high-souled king
began to spend his days in the satisfaction of the curse imprecated by
the two Brāhmanas."


"I have thus given unto thee an account of the curse imprecated on
Nriga. Listen, if dost thou wish to hear of any other theme." Rāma
having said this Lakshmana replied:—"I am not satiated with the account
of those wonderful stories, O king." Hearing the reply of Laksmana,
Rāma, the descendant of Ikshwāku, began again with themes instinct with
morality:—"There lived a highly pious and powerful king by the name of
Nimi. He was the twelfth of Ikshwāku’s sons. That powerful king made a
picturesque city like that of the celestials near the hermitage of
Gautama. The name of that beautiful city was Vaijayanta and the highly
illustrious royal saint used to live there. Having thus reared a highly
picturesque city he thought of worshipping the deity by celebrating a
sacrifice for the satisfaction of his sire. Having thus resolved and
invited his sire Ikshwāku the son of Manu, he first welcomed the
celestial saint. Nimi the descendant of Ikshwāku, then welcomed the
saints Atri, Angiras and Vrigu having asceticism for their wealth.
Thereupon Vasishtha said to Nimi, the foremost of royal saints—’I have
already been engaged by Indra. Do thou therefore wait as long as his
sacrifice is not finished there.’ After the departure of Vasishtha the
great Gautama engaged in the satisfaction of Vasistha’s duties. And the
high-souled Vasishtha too engaged in Indra’s sacrifice. On the other
hand having united all the Brahmans the great king began to celebrate
the sacrifice extending over five thousand years near his city by the
side of the Himalaya. Thereupon having finished the sacrifice of Indra
there came to the King, the blameless and the illustrious Rishi
Vashishtha. Finding Gautama engaged in his room he was exceedingly
enraged. Thereupon he waited there for some time to see the King. On
that day the royal saint Nimi was deeply asleep. And not beholding the
King the high-souled Vasishtha was greatly angry and said:—’Since thou
hast, O King, engaged another neglecting me, thy body shall remain
senseless.’ Thereupon hearing the curse of Vasishtha, the king got up.
There beside himself with ire he said—’I was unconscious in sleep—still
soiled with anger thou hast hurled the fiery curse against me like the
second rod of Yama. Therefore, O ascetic, thy person shall remain
senseless for a long time.’ That king and the ascetic having thus
imprecated one another under the influence of anger, they immediately
were deprived of their bodies."


Hearing the words of the effulgent Rāma, Lakshmana, the slayer of
enemies, said with folded hands:—"Having thus cast off their bodies how
did that Brahman worshipped of the celestials and the king regain them?"
Having been thus accosted by Lakshmana, Rāma, the descendant of
Ikshwākus and the foremost of men, replied:—"Having renounced their
persons both Nimi and the pious Vasishtha, having asceticism for their
wealth, were metamorphosed into air. Thereupon being thus deprived of
his body the highly effulgent and great ascetic Vasishtha went to the
Patriarch Brahmā with the object of acquiring from him another. Being
merged in the air, he, conversant with religion, bowed unto his father
and said:—’O illustrious god of gods! O thou lotus-sprung! By the
imprecation of Nimi I have been now deprived of my body and been
converted into air. O lord, the state of being bodiless is highly
painful to all. The bodiless cannot perform any work; do thou,
therefore, by thy favour, grant me another body.’ Whereto the
self-sprung Brahmā, of unmitigated prowess, replied. ’O great one, do
thou enter into the vital energy of Mitra and Varuna; and even then, O
foremost of twice-born ones, thou shalt not be born of a woman and being
greatly pious shalt attain to the rank of a patriarch.’ The Patriarch
Brahmā having said this, Vasishtha, saluting and circumambulating him,
repaired to the region of Varuna. At that time Mitra in conjunction with
Varuna was reigning in Varuna’s kingdom being worshipped by all
celestials. Meanwhile encircled by her mates the leading Apsarā arrived
there at her pleasure. Beholding the frolicsome and beautiful Urvasi,
Varuna attained to an excess of delight. Thereupon he expressed his
intention of living with that queen of Apsarās, having a moon-like
countenance and lotus-eyes. Thereat Urvasi, with folded hands, said—’O
lord of celestials, Mitra himself has already invited me for the same.’
Being stricken by desire Varuna said to Urvasi ’I shall discharge my
vital energy into this pot if thou dost not wish to live with me.’
Hearing those sweet words of the Patriarch Varuna, Urvasi was highly
pleased and said:—’Do what thou hast said. Now my body is under the
possession of Mitra—but my mind is attached unto thine and thou art
equally attached unto me.’ Urvasi having said this, Varuna discharged
his vital energy into the pot. Thereupon Urvasi approached Mitra. And
thereat highly enraged he said to her ’I invited thee first; O thou of
vicious actions, why hast thou, renouncing me, secured another. For this
vile action, thou shalt, by my curse live in the land of mortals for
some time. The royal saint Puruvarā, the king of Kasi, is the son of
Budha. Do thou go to him, thou of a vicious intellect; he shall be thy
husband.’ Thereupon being thus placed under the influence of curse
Urvasi went to Puruvarā, The king Puruvarā was the begotten son of
Budha. He reigned in the foremost of cities Pratishtaro. He begot on
Urvasi a highly powerful and beautiful son by the name of Ayu. Nahusha,
powerful as Indra, was the son of Ayu. When Indra, the king of the
celestials, was assailed with thunderbolt by the Asura Vitra, Nahusha
governed his kingdom for a hundred thousand years. In this wise Urvasi,
having beautiful teeth, eyes and brow, remained on earth for many years
and then returned to the region of Indra after the period of curse had
been over."


Hearing this wonderful and heavenly theme Lakshmana was highly gratified
and said to Rāma "O Kākuthstha, how did that twice-born one worshipped
by the celestials and the king regain their bodies, after being
bodiless?" Hearing the words of Lakshmana, Rāma, having truth for his
prowess, began to relate the story of Vasishtha. "O foremost of Raghus,
there sprang up two foremost Brahmin saints, from the vital energy
discharged by the high-souled Mitra and Varuna into the pot. At first
therefrom rose up the illustrious Rishi Agastya and saying ’I am not
thine son’ went away leaving Mitra. Before the vital energy of Varuna
was thrown into the pot Mitra discharged his own on Urvasi’s account
which was the source of Agastya’s birth. Into the pot in which Mitra’s
energy was discharged Varuna also put his own, and both the energies
were mixed up. Thereupon after some time from the energies of both Mitra
and Varuna sprang up the effulgent Vasishtha—the priest of Ikshwāku. O
gentle one, the highly effulgent Ikshwāku appointed that blameless Rishi
as the priest of out family as soon as he was born. I have thus
described to you the story of Vasishtha’s birth possessing a wonderful
body. Hear now what befell the king Nimi. And beholding the king Nimi
bodiless the intelligent Rishi initiated him into the rites of
sacrifice. And those leading twice-born ones, with assembled citizens
and servants, began to protect that body with unguents, garlands and
clothes. Thereupon at the end of the sacrifice Vrigu said ’O king, I am
propitiated with thee; I shall restore thee to senses.’ Thereupon the
celestials, highly pleased, addressed the consciousness of Nimi saying
’O royal saint, do thou accept boons; where shall we place thy
consciousness?’ Thereupon being addressed by the celestials the
consciousness said ’I may live in the eyes of the celestials.’ They
agreed to it and said ’O lord of earth, for thee, their eyes shall be
influenced within a moment, The exhaustion that their eyes shall
experience on account of thy moving about as the air, shall be removed
within this moment.’ Having said this the celestials repaired to their
respective quarters and the high-souled Rishis having conveyed Nimi’s
body to the sacrificial ground and dedicated it as an eddy began to
churn it with great energy accompanied by incantations. They being thus
engaged in churning the eddy for the purpose of having a son of Nimi
there sprang up a son of devout austerities. He was called Mithi for he
originated from _Manthana_; he was called Janma for his having sprung up
from _Janan_ and _Vaideha_ from having been born from Videha. In this
wise Janaka, the first king of Videhas, was born. His other name was
Mithi and his family were celebrated as Maithilas. O gentle one, I have
thus related unto thee the wondrous births, in consequence of the curse,
of the great ascetic Vasishtha and the royal saint Nimi."


Rāma having said this, Lakshmana, the slayer of enemies, burning in his
native effulgence, said:—"O foremost of kings, this ancient account of
the ascetic Vasishtha and the king Nimi is highly surprising and
wonderful. But Nimi is a Kshatriya king and a hero—besides although
initiated he did not forgive the high-souled Vasishtha." Being thus
accosted Rāma, the Kshatriya-chief, said to the effulgent Lakshmana
conversant with all Sastras—"O hero, forgiveness is not to be seen in
all men. O Sauinitri, do thou hear attentively, the unbearable anger
which was forgiven by the king Yayāti resorting to the quality of
goodness. Yayāti, the enhancer or the prosperity of cities, was the son
of Nahusha. He had two beautiful wives, one of whom was Sarmishthā,
grand daughter of Aditi, the daughter of Brishaparva. She was the more
beloved of the two; his other spouse was Devajāni, grand daughter of
Usanas. She was not liked by her husband. Both of them gave birth to a
son each and both the sons were beautiful and attentive. Puru was born
of Sarmishtha and Yadu of Devajāni. Puru was the favourite son of the
king, both on account of his mother and of his personal graces. Thereat
Yadu, greatly sorry, said to his mother:—’Born in the race of the
illustrious Vargava of unwearied actions, thou art going through mental
afflictions and unbearable insults; therefore, O mother, let us both
enter into fire. Let the king spend many nights with Sarmishthā—the
daughter of a demon. Thou mayst withstand the insults but I shall never
brooke them. Permit me, I shall, in sooth, renounce my life.’ The son
having, weepingly and distressingly, said this, Devajāni was greatly
enraged and thought of her father. As soon as he was thought of by his
daughter Vargava speedily came there and beholding her senseless and
deprived from joy said ’Daughter, what is the matter?’ The effulgent
father having addressed his daughter repeatedly in this wise, Devajāni,
enraged, replied:—’O foremost of ascetics, I shall either enter into
fire, water, or drink poison—by no means I shall preserve this life of
mine. Thou dost not know of the miseries and insults I have been subject
to. Brahman, when a tree is neglected, those who live thereon are also
distressed. The king having disregarded me, forsooth thou hast also been
neglected.’ Hearing the words of his daughter, Vargava, enraged said to
the king Yayāti ’Thou art vicious-minded, O son of Nahusha; thou hast
dishonored me and therefore in thy youth thou shalt be subject to
decrepitude and infirmities of age.’ Having thus imprecated the curse
and consoled his sorrowful daughter the highly illustrious rishi Vargava
repaired to his own habitation. Having thus conferred solace unto his
daughter, that leading Brahman, effulgent as the sun, returned


"Yayāti, the son of Nahusha, was greatly distressed on hearing of the
ire of the preceptor Sukra. Thereupon meeting with the infirmities of
age by the imprecation of the saint he said to his son Yadu:—’O Yadu,
thou art cognizant of religion, do thou therefore take this decrepitude
for me; I shall satisfy myself with various enjoyments. O foremost of
men, I have not been yet satiated with worldly enjoyments—I shall
therefore again take upon myself this decrepitude after having enjoyed
all objects of sense.’ Hearing those words of Yayāti, the foremost of
men, Yadu replied:—’Let thy most favourite son Puru take upon himself
this decrepitude. O king, thou hast deprived me from all things—what
more, thou dost not allow me to come near thee. Let that Puru take this,
with whom thou dost eat and live.’ Hearing the words of Yadu, Yayāti
said to Puru:—’O thou having large arms, do thou take the decrepitude
for me.’ Hearing the words of Yayāti, Puru, with folded hands, said:—’I
am always ready to satisfy thy commands; and I have been favoured and
honored by this command of thine.’ Hearing those words of Puru Yayāti
was highly pleased and attained to an excess of delight and then
transferred his own decrepitude to him. Thereupon regaining his youth
the king reigned in earth for many thousand years celebrating thousands
of sacrifices. Thereupon after a long time Yayāti said to Puru ’O my
son, do thou bring the decrepitude I have kept as deposit with thee—let
it now assail me. I transferred it to you as a deposit. For this I shall
take it back; be not sorry for this. I have been greatly pleased that
thou hast satisfied my behests. I shall, now pleased, install thee on
the royal throne.’ Having thus addressed his son Puru, the king Yayāti
angrily said to Yadu, the son of Devayani:—’Thou, vicious Rākshasa, art
born of me in the shape of a Kshatriya, or else why shouldst thou
disobey my orders? For this thou shalt never be a king. I am thy father
and preceptor and still thou hast disregarded me. Thou shalt be the
father of dreadful Rākshasas, O vicious minded; thy descendants shall be
degraded from the lunar race and thy children shall be equally
vicious-minded like thee.’ Having thus imprecated Yadu, the royal saint
Yayāti honored Puru, the enhancer of the prosperity of the kingdom, with
installation and then retired to woods. Thereupon after a long time he
breathed his last and went to the abode of the celestials. The highly
illustrious Puru reigned piously in the foremost of cities Prathishtan.
Yadu begot thousands and thousands of Rākhasas and being degraded from
the royal family reigned in a city named Kraunchavana, hard to be got
at. In this wise, according to the custom of the Kshatryas the king
Yayāti took upon himself the imprecation of the preceptor Sukra, but he
did not forgive him. I have thus related unto thee everything. O gentle
one, we shall follow the examples of these illustrious men. And in that
case we shall not be degraded like the king Nriga." While Rāma, having a
moon-like countenance, was speaking thus, the stars became fewer in the
welkin, and east, stricken with the early rays of the sun, appeared like
damsel, clothed in a raiment coloured with the dye of flowers.


Thereupon having performed the morning rites the lotus-eyed Rāma, in the
early morning, sat on his royal throne and in the company of Brāhmanas
and citizens engaged in looking into state affairs. The assembly
consisted of the priest Vasishtha, the saint Kashyapa, ministers well
versed in politics, other religious preceptors, moralists, members and
kings. The assembly of Rāma, of unwearied, actions appeared like that of
Mahendra, Yama and Varuna. Rāma said to Lakshmana, gifted with
auspicious marks "O Saumitri having long arms, do thou proceed to the
city-gate to receive those who have come here for business." According
to Rāma’s command Lakshmana, gifted with auspicious mark, arrived at the
gate and called those who had come there for business. But none said
that he had been brought there by any business. For there was neither
disease nor poverty in the kingdom. During Rāma’s regime the earth was
filled with corns and _Asadhis_. Children young men and middle-aged
people did not meet with death. The earth was governed piously so there
was no obstacle. Thus during the administration of Rāma none was seen
who wanted justice. Lakshmana, with folded hands, said to Rāma, "None
has come for business." Thereat, Rāma, with a delighted heart,
replied—"Do thou go, O Saumitri, and see if any one has come for
business. Royal policy if properly adopted, impiety can stand nowhere.
It is for the fear of the king that people protect one another. And
although laws, instituted by me are protecting the subjects like so many
arrows, still, O thou having long arms, do thou be engaged in governing
the subjects." Being thus addressed Lakshmana issued out of the house
and saw that a dog was waiting at the gate. Casting its looks around it
was again and again barking. Beholding it in that plight the valiant
Lakshmana said "O generous sir, what business has brought thee hither—do
thou relate it confidentially." Hearing the words of Lakshmana the dog
replied—"I wish to relate it unto Rāma, of unwearied actions, who is the
refuge of all creatures and who declares fearlessness unto all." Hearing
the words of the dog Lakshmana entered the beautiful palace to relate it
unto Rāma. And having communicated it unto Rāma he issued out and said
to the dog:—"If thou hast anything true to speak thou mayst come and
communicate it unto the king." Hearing the words of Lakshmana the dog
said—"We cannot enter into the houses of divinities, kings and Brāhmanas
nor can we go there where is fire, Indra, the sun or the wind, for we
are the vilest born; so I cannot enter there. For king is the
personification of virtue and specially the king Rāma is truthful, well
versed in the science of fighting and ever engaged in the welfare of all
beings. He is perfectly cognizant of where the six qualities are to be
applied—master of morality, knoweth all, seeth all and the best of
beautiful. He is the moon, death, Yama, Kuvera, the giver of riches,
fire, Indra, the sun and Varuna. O Saumitri, do thou go and communicate
unto the king protecting his subjects that without his permission I do
not wish to go there." Thereupon the highly effulgent and noble-minded
Lakshmana entered the palace and said to Rāma:—"O thou having long arms,
O thou the enhancer of Kausalyā’s joy—I have communicated thine orders—I
shall relate shortly everything regarding that; do thou hear. That dog,
as a beggar, is waiting at the gate for thy commands." Whereto Rāma
replied:—"Bring him speedily here who is waiting at the gate for


Hearing the words of Rāma the intelligent Lakshmana immediately sent for
the dog and informed Rāma, who, on beholding it, said—"Do thou
communicate thy desire unto me; be not afraid." Thereupon beholding the
king Rāma, the dog, having his head cut off, said "The king is the
protector of animals and their lord. The king is awake when the subjects
are asleep and he protects them. By administering the laws properly the
king protects piety. Without his shelter the subjects meet with
destruction. The king is the lord and father of the whole universe. He
is time, he is Yuga and he is the creation, mobile and immobile. He is
called _Dharma_ because he holdeth all. It is _Dharma_ (virtue) that
upholdeth all mankind. It is by Dharma that the three worlds are being
preserved. It is _Dharma_ or virtue that thwarts the enemies. It is
virtue that governs the subjects duly. It is for this that virtue is
called _Dhārana_ or the holder. The virtue of preservation is the
greatest and confers fruits in after life. There is nothing like virtue
hard to acquire in this world. Charity, kindness, honoring the pious and
innocent conduct constitute the chief virtues; for by those the
well-being of this life and the next is brought about. O Rāghava, O thou
of firms vows—thou art an example of examples. Thou art cognizant of the
conduct of the pious. Thou art like an ocean, the refuge of all virtues.
O foremost of kings, out of ignorance, I have spoken unto thee so many
things. With my head downwards, I beg for thy satisfaction. Be not
offended with me." Hearing those wise words of the dog, Rāma said—"What
shall I do for thee? Do thou mention it confidentially." Whereto the dog
replied, saying:—"It is by piety that a king governs his kingdom—it is
by virtue that a king protects his subjects, becomes a refuge unto all
and removes the fear of his men. Keeping an eye on this, O Rāma do thou
hear, what I say. In the house of a certain Brahman there lives a beggar
by the name of _Sarvarthasiddha_ (_i.e._, who has got all his desires
satisfied). And although I am innocent, he has for nothing hurt me."
Hearing those words Rāma sent his messenger who brought
_Sarvarthasiddha_, master of all subjects. Thereupon beholding Rāma in
the assembly that effulgent and leading twice-born one said:—"O
blameless Rāma, tell me what I shall do for thee." Whereto Rāma said—"O
twice-born one, thou hast hurt this dog. What offence did it commit by
thee that thou didst strike it severely with a rod. Anger is an enemy
which taketh away life. Anger is a sweet-speeched enemy in the garb of a
friend. It is the foremost of passions and like unto a sharp dagger. And
it is anger that stealeth away every thing. It pilfers all that is
acquired by asceticism, sacrifices and gifts. It is proper therefore by
every means to kill anger. Passions are running amock on all sides like
so many exceedingly wicked steeds. Being satiated with of all objects of
enjoyments it is better to govern them by patience. By mind, actions,
words and eyes a man should engage in the well being of people. He
should not injure any body and be not addicted to any thing. The harm,
that a mind not under control, can accomplish, is beyond the range of a
sharp dagger, trodden serpent and of an enemy always enraged. Even the
nature of one, who has learnt humility, cannot be trusted. He, who hides
his nature, himself reveals his true self." Rāma, of unwearied actions,
having said this, _Sarvarthasiddha_, the foremost of twice-born ones,
said:—"Knocking about the whole day for alms I was highly enraged and
struck this dog. It was sitting in the mid-way and I asked it again and
again to move away. Thereupon, moving away and standing with reluctance,
it stood fearfully on the road-side. O descendant of Raghu, I was at
that time stricken with hunger, and struck it for its vicious conduct. O
king of kings, I am guilty in this, and thou must punish me. O lord of
kings, do thou administer punishment unto me,—I shall then be released
from the fear of hell." Thereupon, Rāma asked all the ministers,
saying:—"What is to be done now? What punishment is to be inflicted on
him? We can protect subjects, if we can administer punishment
proportionate to crime." Thereat, Vrigu, Angiras, Kutsa, Vasishtha,
Kashya and other ascetics, the leading preachers, the ministers, the
citizens, and other sages conversant with Sastras, present there,
said:—"A Brāhmana should not be punished with death." The sages
conversant with laws having said this, the ascetics addressed Rāma,
saying:—"O Rāghava, a king is the governor of all—specially thyself.
Thou art the chastiser of the three worlds, the eternal Vishnu." They
all having said this, the dog began:—"Thou didst solemnly say ’What
shall I do for thee?’ Therefore, if thou art gratified with me, and if
thou dost wish to confer boons on me, do thou appoint this Brāhmana as
the head of family." Thereupon, having been thus honored and pleased and
ascending an elephant, he proceeded to occupy his new dignified station.
At this, the councillors of Rāma, surprised, said:—"O thou of great
effulgence, he has not been punished. Rather thou hast conferred on him
a boon." Hearing the words of ministers, Rāma said:—"You do not know the
real truth of the whole thing—the dog knows it well." Being accosted by
Rāma, the dog said:—"O Rāghava, I was the head of the family of
Kālanjava. After the worship of the deities and Brāhmana and the
feasting of the servants, male, and female, I used to take my food. I
used to parcel out things duly, and my mind was not in the least
attached to sin. I used to preserve with great care the articles
belonging to the tutelary deities, was humble, good-natured and engaged
in the well-being of all animals. Still I have fallen into this dreadful
and wretched condition. O Rāghava, this Brāhmana is angry by nature, and
impious, injures others, and is impatient, cruel, harsh in words and
ignorant, and therefore shall degrade his seven generations up and down.
He will by no means be able to discharge the duties of a head of a
family. He, whom thou wishest to take to hell with her son, beasts and
friends, should be engaged in the serving the Brāhmans and kine. For all
his good actions, he is slain who steals the wealth of a Brāhmana, a
deity, a woman, and a boy, and the riches given away by him. O Rāghava,
one who pilfers the riches of a Brāhmana or a deity falls into a hell
called Vichi. Even he who thinks in his mind of stealing it, goes once
and again into hell." Hearing the words of the dog, the eyes of the
effulgent Rāma were expanded with surprise. The dog went back from where
it had come. In its pristine birth the dog was high-minded—it is now
cursed for being born in a degraded state of existence. Thereupon,
repairing at last to Vārānasi the dog took the vow of fasting.


There lived for a long time a vulture and an owl on a mountain extending
over the banks of a river, resonant with the notes of cuckoos and filled
with lions, tigers and various birds, situated in a pleasant forest
abounding in trees near the city of Ayodhyā. Once on a time the vicious
vulture alleging that the nest of the owl was his own, began to quarrel
with him. O worshipful Sir, thereupon they both said:—"The lotus-eyed
Rāma is the king of all people; let us go to him and he will decide to
whom the nest belongs." Having thus settled the vulture and the owl,
being impatient with rage, quarrelling with one another, appeared before
Rāma and touched his feet. Beholding that lord of men, the vulture said:
"O preserver of humanity, thou art the foremost of celestials and
Asuras. O thou of great effulgence, thou art gifted with intelligence
and learning more than Vrihaspati and Sukrachārya. Thou art cognisant of
the good and bad conditions of creatures. In beauty thou art like the
Moon and art irrepressible like the Sun. In glory thou art like
Himalaya, in gravity like the Ocean, in prowess like the Patriarch, in
patience like the Earth, and in velocity like the Wind. O Rāghava, thou
art the preceptor of the mobile and immobile creation, gifted with all
sorts of wealth, illustrious, devoid of a revengeful spirit,
unconquerable, victorious, and master of all Sastras and laws. O
foremost of men, hear. I have an application to thee. O Rāghava, I had
built a nest for myself; this owl is now occupying it as his own;
therefore, O king, do thou save me." The vulture having said this, the
owl began:—"True, it is, O king, that in him are the portions of the
Moon, Indra, the Sun, Kuvera and Yama, but there is in him also a
portion of man. But thou art thyself the omnipresent deity, Nārāyana.
Thou, impelled by thine own self, dost judge all creatures impartially;
therefore, a portion of gentleness is well manifest in thee and
therefore do people call thee, a portion of the Moon. O patriarch, in
anger, punishment, gift and fear, thou art our giver, destroyer and
protector,—it is for this that thou art called Indra. In energy thou art
like fire irrepressible unto all creatures, and because thou dost spread
thy lusture upon all creatures, that thou art called the Sun. Thou art
the very lord of riches or art even superior to Kuvera; like Padmā unto
the lord of riches, Sri is always by thee. Because thou dost discharge
the functions of Kuvera, thou art the giver of wealth unto us. O
Rāghava, thou lookest upon all creatures, mobile and immobile, with an
impartial eye—thou dost regard thy friends and foes with impartiality,
and thou art duly protecting thy subjects. O Rāghava, death pursues him
with whom thou art offended—and it is for this reason that thou art
styled by people ’the highly powerful Yama.’ O foremost of kings,
because thou art forgiving unto all creatures and a kind king that
people sing thy glories as of a man on earth. The king is the strength
of the weak and helpless and he is the eye of the blind and the refuge
of those who have no shelter. Thou art also our king; therefore do thou
listen to our petition. O king, entering into my nest, this vulture is
oppressing me. Thou only, O foremost of men, art the divine chastiser of
mankind." Hearing those words, Rāma sent for his councillors. The
ministers of Daçaratha and Rāma, Vrishthi, Yayanta, Vijaya, Siddhārtha,
Rāshtravarddhana, Asoka, Darmapāla the highly powerful Sumantra and
others were well versed in laws, high-minded, conversant with all the
Sastras, intelligent, born in respectable families, and adepts in
counsel. Having invited them all and ascending his Pushpaka car, he went
to the place in question, and, descending there, asked the vulture, "How
long has this nest been made? Tell me, if thou remember it." Whereto the
vulture replied:—"From the time mankind were first born and spread over
the four quarters of the globe have I been living in this nest." The owl
said:—"At the time when the earth was (first) adorned with trees that
this nest of mine was constructed." Hearing these words, Rāma said to
the councillors:—"That assembly is not an assembly where there are no
friends—nor are they old men who do not dwell upon religious topics.
That religion is not a religion where there is no truth and that truth
is not the truth where there is hypocrisy. Those councillors are liars
who do not give proper replies in time on the subjects they are
well-informed on. He who does give reply to a question under the
influence of passion, anger or fear, binds himself with a thousand
nooses of Varuna, and at the expiration of full one year he is released
from a single sin." Hearing these words, the ministers said to Rāma:—"O
thou having a large mind, what the owl has said is true—the vulture has
not spoken the truth. Thou art the evidence this, O great king—for the
king is the last refuge of all—the root of the subject and the eternal
religion. He who is punished by the king, is not doomed to a degraded
state. He is, in truth, saved from the fear of hell and reaches a better
state." Hearing the words of the ministers, Rāma said:—"Hear what is
mentioned in the Puranas. Formerly the Sun, the Moon, the welkin with
the stars, the earth with the mountains and forests—the three worlds,
the mobile and the immobile, were under water. At that time only
Nārāyana existed as the second Sumeru. In Nārāyana’s belly was stationed
the earth with Lakshmi. Having destroyed the creation and entered water,
the highly effulgent Vishnu, identical with the souls of creatures, lay
asleep there for many long years. Beholding Vishnu asleep after the
destruction of the universe and knowing Vishnu of obstructed breath, the
great ascetic Brahmā entered his abdomen. Thereupon, when a golden lotus
sprang from Vishnu’s navel. That great lord, ascetic Brahmā, originated
therefrom and was engaged in austere penances for the purpose of
creating earth, air, mountains, trees, men, reptiles and all animals
born from womb or egg. At that time from the ears of Nārāyana originated
two valiant and dreadful demons under the name of Madhu and Kaitabha.
Beholding the Patriarch, there they were greatly enraged, and pursued
him. Thereat, the self-born cried aloud hideously. Awakened by that
sound, Nārāyana engaged in fighting with Madhu and Kaitabha, and slew
them with his discus. And with their gore the whole earth was deluged.
Thereupon, purifying the earth again, Hari, preserver of the world,
covered it with trees. And various drugs were also created. And the
earth was called _Medini_ because it was filled with _Medas_ marrow of
Madhu and Kaitabha. It is for this that I hold, O ministers, that this
house does not belong to the vulture, but to the owl. Therefore, this
vicious vulture should be punished—for this wicked, vicious-minded one,
robbing another’s nest, is oppressing him." In the interval a voice was
heard in the sky stating the true facts:—"O Rāma, do not slay the
vulture,—for it has already been reduced to ashes by the force of
Gautama’s asceticism. O lord of men, this vulture, in its pristine
birth, was a heroic truthful and pure king by the name of Brahmadatta.
Once on a time a Brāhamana, by the name of Gautama, the very
personification of Kāla, came to the house of Brahmadatta for food and
said:—’O king, I shall feed in thy house for more than a hundred years.’
Thereupon, offering that effulgent Brāhmana, with his own hands, water
to wash his feet the king Brahmadatta, made arrangements for his meal.
Accidentally flesh was mixed with the food of the high-souled Gautama.
Being enraged thereat, the ascetic imprecated him with a dreadful curse
and said:—’O king, thou become a vulture.’ The king said:—’Be
propitiated, O thou of great vows; do not imprecate me thus. I have, out
of ignorance committed this offence. O great one, O blameless one, do
thou act so that this curse may find termination.’ Thereat understanding
that this offence was committed by the king unwittingly, the ascetic
said—’O king, in the race of Ikshwākus a king shall be born under the
name of Rāma. O foremost of men, thou shalt be released from the curse
when he shall touch thee.’" Hearing the voice in the sky, Rāma touched
Brahmadatta. Thereupon renouncing his vulture from and assuming a
beautiful body smeared with celestial perfumes, he praised Rāma and
said:—"O thou conversant with piety, by thy Favour have I been saved
from the dreadful hell—here hath ended my curse."


As Rāma and Lakshmana were (daily) engaged in conversing thus, the
vernal night, neither hot nor cold, came on. And it came to pass that
one bright morning, after having performed his first diurnal rites,
Kākutstha, understanding the ways of the citizens, became anxious to
present himself at a spot whence he could observe the citizens. At this
time Sumantra, entering, addressed him, saying,—"O king, stopped at the
gate, some ascetics stay there,—_Maharshis_, led by Bhārgava and
Chyavana. And, O mighty monarch, eager for a sight of thee, those
dwellers on the banks of the Yamunā, well pleased, have despatched me
(hither), O tiger among men." Hearing his words, the righteous Rāma
answered: "Let the exalted Dwijas enter." Thereat, honoring the royal
mandate, the warder with joined hands brought those ascetics difficult
of being approached. And numbering over an hundred, flaming up in their
native effulgence, those high-souled anchorets entered the royal
residence. And they presented Rāma with various fruits in profusion and
vessels filled with sanctified waters of all holy spots. Thereupon,
accepting the waters of the holy places as well as the various kinds of
fruit, that mighty-armed one spake to the mighty ascetics: "Do ye
agreeably to desert take these seats." Hearing Rāma’s speech, all the
Maharshis sat down on those graceful and elegant golden seats. And
seeing the saints seated there, that captor of hostile capitals,
Rāghava, restraining himself, with joined hands, observed: "What is the
reason of your visit? What shall I needfully perform for you? I am
worthy of being commanded by the Maharshis; and I must without demur
compass every pleasure of theirs. And this entire monarchy, and the life
that is resident in my heart,—all these are for the regenerate ones.
This I tell you in the name of truth." Hearing his words, the sages of
fierce austerities inhabiting the banks of the Yamunā, broke out into a
peal of plaudits. And those high-souled ones, exceedingly rejoiced,
said: "On earth, O crown of men, this can only be expected from thee and
nobody else. Many kings wielding great power have passed away who,
having regard to the (possible) gravity of the undertaking, could not
bring themselves to promise anything beforehand. But, without knowing he
task, thou hast bound thyself by a promise for the glory of the
Brāhmanas. And thou, without doubt, wilt succeed in effecting the work;
and it behoveth thee to deliver the sages from a mighty fright."


When the sages had spoken thus, Kakutstha said: "O ascetics, tell me
what is the work which I shall have to accomplish in your behalf. Your
fear shall be removed." As Kākutstha was speaking thus, Bhargava
remarked: "O lord of men, do thou hear of the origin of the fear that
threatens our country. O king, formerly in the Krita age, there was a
magnanimous offspring of Diti, the mighty Asura, Madu, eldest son of
Lotā. He was well disposed towards Brāhmanas, kind to those seeking his
refuge, and gifted with high intelligence. The exceedingly generous
deities delighted in him greatly. And by way of honoring him, Rudra
conferred a wonderful boon upon Madhu endowed with prowess and ever
intent on religion. And extracting a dart from his own, possessed of
terrific energy, endowed with great force, and furnished with exceeding
splendour, that high-souled one, well pleased, made it over (to Madhu)
and spoke to him. Thou hast practised excellent and unrivalled
righteousness, which hath won my good graces, and (therefore), I, highly
gratified, bestow on thee this choice weapon. So long as thou, O mighty
Asura, dost not assail celestials and Vipras, so long shall this be
thine,—otherwise it shall come to naught. Reducing to cinders the person
that shall rashly enter upon conflict with thee, this dart shall return
to thy hand." Having thus obtained the boon from Rudra, the mighty
Asura, again bowing to Mahādeva, addressed him, saying: "O reverend one,
may this excellent dart be the possession of my family. O god, thou art
the lord of the immortals.’ Thereat the lord of all beings, the mighty
deity Siva, answered Madhu, when he had spoken thus: ’This will not be.
But in order that thy prayer may not go for nothing, I graciously say in
thy behalf that one of thy sons shall sway this dart. So long that
dart-handed one shall be incapable of being destroyed by any creature.’
Having obtained this wonderful boon from the god, Madhu—foremost of
Asuras—caused a splendid city to be constructed. His beloved wife the
exalted and majestic Kumbhinasi is the offspring of Viçwavasu by Analā.
Her son, the highly powerful wicked, and fierce Lavana, ever since his
boyhood, gave himself up to a sinful course of life. Seeing his son,
committed to an impious course Madhu was overcome with grief, but he did
not say anything to him. And forsaking this world, he entered the region
of Varuna; and making over the dart unto Lavana, communicated to him all
about the boon he had obtained. And by virtue of the power of the dart,
he oppresseth the three worlds in especial the ascetics; such is the
power of Lavana, and such is his dart. Hearing all this O Kākutstha,
thou art capable (of righting our wrong.) Thou art our chief resource. O
Rāma many a monarch hath been already sued by the sages, O hero, to
deliver them from this fear,—but we have not yet found a deliverer.
Hearing, O child, that Rāvana together with all his forces and vehicles
hath been destroyed (by thee), we know that there breathes not another
king on earth capable of delivering us. Therefore our prayer is that
thou mayst deliver us afflicted with the fear of Lavana. Thus, O Rāma,
have we acquainted thee with the occasion of fear that hath arisen. Thou
art capable of coping with the same. Do thou of undeteriorated prowess,
do the needful."


Thus accosted (by the sages), Rāma answered them with joined hands:
"What doth he live on? What are his ways? And where doth Lavana live?"
Hearing Rāghava’s words, the sages informed him of the way in which
Lavana increased in power. "His food is every creature specially
ascetics; his manner of life is regulated by ferocity and his constant
home is Madhuvana. Slaying constantly thousands on thousands of lions
and tigers and deer, and birds and human beings, he provides his daily
food (with their flesh.) And like the Destroyer on the occasion of the
universal dissolution, that one possessed of gigantic strength feeds on
other creatures as well." Hearing this, Rāghava spoke to the mighty
ascetics: "I will slay that Raksha. Let your fright depart." Having thus
bound himself with that promise to the ascetics of fierce energy,
Raghu’s son along with his brothers spoke: "What hero shall slay Lavana?
Do you decide this. On whom shall devolve this duty? Whether the mighty
armed Bharata or the intelligent Satrughna shall (do this work?)" Thus
addressed by Rāghava Bharata remarked: "I will slay this. Let this task
be entrusted to me." Hearing Bharata’s speech instinct with fortitude
and valor, the younger brother of Lakshmana stood up, leaving his golden
seat. And Satrughna, saluting the king represented: "The mighty-armed
second son of Raghu hath already achieved a grand work: he formerly
governed Ayodhyā empty of the noble one,⁹⁶ bearing in his heart the
grief connected with his return. Undergoing many a hardship, king, that
illustrious one passed his days, lying down on a bed of sorrow, and
living on fruits and roots, and wearing rags. Having suffered such
misery, Raghu’s son should not be suffered to undergo trouble, while, O
king I his servant is by." On Satrughna saying this, Rāghava again said:
"Let this be so. Do thou do my bidding. I shall install thee on the
graceful city of Madhu; or if thou wish without and entrust Bharata with
this task, O long-armed one. Heroic, and accomplished, thou art
competent to found a city on the Yamunā as well as flourishing
provinces. He that, having people’s dominion, doth not furnish it with a
king, goeth to hell. So if thou accept my words, then slaying Madhu’s
son, the sinful Lavana, rule the kingdom righteously. O hero, thou must
say anything after what I have spoken. Without doubt, a youthful younger
brother must obey the injunctions of his elder brother. Do thou, O
Kākutstha, accept the installation which I confer on thee, preluded by
the prescribed religious formulae uttered by Vipras headed by

   ⁹⁶ Rāma.


Thus accosted by Rāma, the exceedingly energetic Satrughna was
powerfully wrought up with bashfulness, and replied slowly: "O lord of
men, this doth not appear to be in consonance with morality. Wherefore,
an elder brother existing, wouldst thou install a younger one? I must, O
best of men, do thy behest; for, O exalted one, thy mandate can never be
passed by me. O hero, I have heard from thee as well as from the Sruti
(touching the morality concerned).⁹⁷ When my second brother had already
vowed (that he would slay Lavana), I ought not to have returned the
answer I actually have. I saying,—‘I will in battle slay the dreadful
Lavana,’ I have been guilty of an unrighteous speech. And it is for this
transgression that, O powerful one, I shall have to undergo this
improper process. But, albeit this course is unrighteous and entails
perdition, yet desired by my eldest brother, I certainly ought not to
make any answer. And, O Kākutstha, a second answer I would not return;
so that, O bestower of honor, I may not, by a second reply, render
myself liable to a fresh punishment. In this matter, O chief of men, I
will even do thy desire. Do thou, O descendant of Raghu, so order that
sin may not be mine (in having obeyed thy mandate.)" Thus addressed by
the heroic and high-souled Satrughna, Rāma, delighted, spoke unto
Bharata and Lakshmana,—"Do you carefully provide the things necessary
for the coronation: this very day shall I install that foremost of men,
the descendant of Raghu. And by my order do you summon the Purodhasas, O
Kākutstha, and the citizens and the Ritwijas, and the councillors."
Having received the royal behest, the mighty car-warriors did
accordingly. And the Kshatriyas and the Brāhmanas entered the royal
mansion with the priest as well as the requisite things for the
installation. And then commenced the auspicious sprinkling of the
high-souled Satrughna, gladdening (the hearts of all in) the palace of
Rāghava. And on being installed Kākutstha resembled the Sun; and he like
Skanda formerly installed by the celestials led by Indra. And when
Satrughna had been installed by Rāma of untiring deeds, the citizens as
well as the Brāhmanas of vast Vedic attainments experienced excess of
joy. And Kausalyā and Sumitra and Kaikeyi and the other wives of the
king set up festal salutation in the palace. And on Satrughna having
been installed the high-souled sages dwelling on the banks of the
Jamunā, thought that Lavana had been slain. Then placing the installed
Satrughna on his lap, Rāghava, extolling his prowess, addressed him
sweet words: "O captor of hostile capitals, this divine arrow never
missing is thine. With this, O son of Raghu, thou, O placid one, wilt
slay Lavana. O Kākutstha, this shaft was forged when invisible by
celestials and Asuras the divine self-sprung and invincible (deity)
reposed on the mighty main, and when creation was oppressed by Madhu and
Kaitabha as well as other Rākshasas. He, overwhelmed with rage desirous
of creating the three worlds, created this best of arrows invincible to
all beings, for the destruction of the wicked ones; and destroyed them
in battle by means of this very arrow. And having with this foremost of
shafts finished Madhu and Kaitabha, they set about creating the worlds.
When, O Satrughna, formerly I sought to slay Rāvana, I did not discharge
this arrow, thinking that if discharged, it would inflict great havoc on
creatures. Keeping in his abode that great and redoubted which had been
bestowed on Madhu by the high-souled Tryamvaka, for the destruction of
foes,—and worshipping the same ever, Lavana goeth about and secureth
excellent fare (for himself) when one challenged him, desirous of
reducing him (his antagonist) to ashes. Therefore, O foremost of men,
thou shouldst, before entering the city, stand at the gate obstructing
his course. O thou having long arms, thou shouldst invite him for battle
when he shall be weaponless and in that way wouldst be able to destroy
him. And by no other means he is to be slain. If thou canst encompass
this, he shall forsooth be slain. O my son, I have thus told thee the
way in which the dart should be thwarted. It is impossible to surpass
the prowess of the graceful Nilkantha."

   ⁹⁷ _i.e._ of being installed as a king during the life of my elder


Having thus addressed Satrughna, Rāma again and again praised him and
said:—"O foremost of men, let four thousand horses, two thousand
chariots, one hundred excellent elephants, shops with various articles
and songsters follow thee. O foremost of men, O Satrughna, do thou
proceed with _Nijuta_ gold and silver coins and necessary riches and
conveyances. Do thou so act, O hero, that soldiers might be well-fed and
delighted and be not annoyed with thee. Do thou please them with sweet
words, for the servants, when they face enemies, have not with them
friends or wives—and so they are pleased, O Rāghava when they receive
sufficient food and presents, O Satrughna, having sent before a huge and
well contented army do thou proceed afterwards to _Madhuvana_. Thou
shouldst proceed so fearlessly that Madhu’s son Lavana might not know
that thou wert going for encounter. O foremost of men, he shall not be
slain by any other expedient than that I have acquainted thyself with.
If he can perceive before, whoever that enemy might be, Lavana shall
forsooth destroy him. When rains shall set in after the expiration of
the present summer thou shouldst slay him for that is the proper time
for destroying that vicious-minded one. For he shall then fearlessly
move about leaving off his dart understanding that no one would come to
fight with him during rains. Let the soldiers only now proceed with
ascetics before them; the summer hath not as yet fully expired and this
is the time, when they shall, without any trouble, be able to cross the
Ganges. Afterwards having encamped thy army on the other side of the
Ganges thou shouldst alone proceed speedily with thy bow." Hearing those
words of Rāma and summoning his highly powerful and leading warriors
Satrughna said "Do ye all proceed and halt at those places which are
well known to you. Do not oppress any body." Having thus ordered the
powerful warriors the highly powerful Satrughna bowed unto Kauçalyā,
Sumitrā and Kaikeyi. Thereupon having circumambulated with folded hands
Rāma, Lakshmana and Bharata he reverentially saluted the feet of the
priests. And then with Rāma’s permission and having gone round him the
highly powerful Satrughna issued out. Having thus depatched before a
huge army consisting of selected elephants and horses, Satrughna, the
enhancer of the glory of Raghu’s race, took farewell from Rāma. And all
showed him proper respect.


Having thus despatched his army and waited at Ayodhyā for a month
Satrughna, the slayer of enemies, proceeded alone. Having spent two
nights on his way he arrived at the holy and picturesque hermitage of
the great ascetic Valmiki. And having bowed unto that high-souled Muni
he, with folded palms, said:—"O illustrious Sir, I wish to wait here
this day; I have come here for some business of our master Rāma.
To-morrow morning I shall proceed to the dreadful West." Hearing the
words of the high-souled Satrughna, Vālmiki, the foremost of ascetics,
replied saying:—"O thou of great renown, do thou wait here without any
hesitation. O gentle one, this hermitage belongs to the descendants of
the Raghu race. Do thou fearlessly take thy seat and water to wash thy
feet." Thereupon taking water to wash his feet and feeding upon fruits
and roots Satrughna attained to great delight. And afterwards he asked
the great ascetic Vālmiki saying:—"O great ascetic, to whom belong the
articles of sacrifice in the cast near this hermitage?" Whereto Vālmiki
replied "Satrughna, hear I shall tell thee, whose sacrificial ground was
this in the days of yore. There was a king by the name of Saudāsa—one of
thy ancestors. His son Virjashaha was a highly powerful and pious king.
The heroic Saudāsa was fond of hunting from his boyhood. Once on a time
while a-hunting, he espied two Rakshasas in the forest. He had heard
about them many times before; they were in the shape of tigers and of a
dreadful figure and were not satiated with devouring many thousand deer.
King Saudāsa saw those two Rākshasas and found the forest divested of
all creatures. And enraged in consequence thereof he slew one of them.
Having slain him and been at ease, Saudāsa, the foremost of men, began
to eye that Rākshasa. His mate, greatly aggrieved, said to him:—’O
vicious one, thou hast, without any fault, slain my companion—I shall
therefore mete out becoming punishment unto thee.’ Having said this the
Rākshasa vanished therefrom. Thereupon in time the prince Virjashaha
became king. Saudāsa engaged in celebrating a mighty horse-sacrifice in
the vicinity of this hermitage. Vasishtha officiated as a priest at that
sacrifice. It continued for many Ayuta years. For immense riches the
sacrifice appeared like one performed by the celestials. Thereupon when
the sacrifice was about to be finished the aforesaid Rākshasa,
remembering his former enmity, assumed the shape of Vasishtha and said
to the king Saudāsa:—’O king, to-day the sacrifice shall end; do
therefore, without any delay, feed me with meat.’ Hearing the words of
the Rākshasa in the guise of a Brahman, the king ordered his expert
cooks, saying:—’Do ye soon prepare such dishes of meat as may satisfy my
preceptor Vasishtha.’ Having been ordered by the king the cooks
reverentially went away and the Rākshasa assuming their shape brought
before the king dishes. The king and queen offered those dishes unto the
ascetic Vasishtha, who, after being treated to them, perceived that they
were of human flesh and, terribly enraged, said:—’O king, let this be
thy food which thou hast offered me; this shall not prove otherwise.’
Being enraged on hearing it the king Saudāsa took water in his palms and
was about to imprecate Vasishtha, when his queen, preventing him
said:—’O king, the illustrious great ascetic Vasishtha is our preceptor
and priest and so thou shouldst not imprecate him.’ Hearing those words
of his queen, the king Saudāsa, threw off that powerful water on his own
feet which at once became dark. From that time the illustrious king
Saudāsa became also known by the name of Kalasmpāda. Thereupon the king
with his spouse again and again bowed unto Vasishtha’s feet and informed
him of what the Rākshasa had done under the guise of a Brāhmana. Hearing
the words of the king and being apprised that this vile act had been
done by the Rākshasa, Vasishtha said, ’O king, even what I have said
angrily shall not prove futile. However I confer upon thee this boon
that after twelve years thou shalt be freed from this curse, and by my
favour thou shalt cherish no recollection of thy condition extending
over those twelve years.’ Having thus suffered the consequences of the
curse, Saudāsa, the slayer of enemies, again obtained his kingdom and
governed his subjects. O descendant of Rāghu, the sacrificial ground of
which thou hast asked me, belongs to the king Saudasa." Having thus
heard the dreadful story of the king Saudāsa and saluted the ascetic
Vālmiki, Satrughna entered a thatched cottage.


On the same night Satrughna housed himself in a thatched cottage Sitā
gave birth to twin sons. In the midnight the Muni boys came to Vālmiki
and communicated unto him this auspicious intelligence, saying "O
illustrious Sir, the beloved spouse of Rāma hath given birth to two
sons; do thou so protect them that evil spirits might not injure them."
Hearing those words the highly effulgent Vālmiki went there and attained
to great delight on beholding those two highly effulgent sons,
resembling the newly risen sun and the celestials. Thereupon he made
arrangements against the oppression of ghosts and goblins. Thereupon
taking Kusa (the upper part of the grass) and Lava (the lower part) the
great ascetic Vālmiki made those arrangements. And giving Kusa
sanctified by Mantras unto the hands of elderly women he said, "Do ye
rub the person of the elder boy with these," and giving them Lava he
said "Do ye rub the person of the younger brother with this. And
according to this I shall name the first Son Kusa and the second Lava;
and by those names they shall be celebrated on earth." Thereupon
reverentially taking from the hands of Vālmiki and Kusa Lava, the means
of protection, the elderly ladies engaged in guarding them. Hearing that
Sitā without any trouble had given birth to two sons and elderly female
ascetics had been engaged in protecting them and hearing the chanting of
Rāma’s glories in the midnight, Satrughna thought within himself.
"Blessed it is that Sitā hath given birth to two sons." And with this
joy the live long night of Srābana passed away in no time. Having
performed the morning rites after the expiration of the night and taken
farewell from the ascetic Vālmiki, Lakshmana proceeded towards the west.
And having spent seven nights he at last arrived at the hermitage of the
pious Rishis living on the banks of the Yamunā. Taking shelter there he
engaged in pleasant conversation with Chābanya and other ascetics.
Having remained there for the night and talked with those ascetics the
high-souled, heroic Raghu prince Satrughna was greatly delighted.


Thereupon when the night set in Satrughna accosted Vrigu’s son Chābanya
saying, "O Brahman, how powerful is Lavana? And what is the strength of
his dart? What persons before had been destroyed by this dart in
conflict?" Hearing the words of the high-souled descendant of
Raghu,—Satrughna, the highly effulgent Chābanya replied saying.—"O
descendant of Raghu, Lavana hath accomplished many works by this dart;
amongst them, hear what Māndhāta, born in the race of Ikshwāku, did. The
early king of Ayodhyā was known over the three worlds under the name of
Māndhāta. He was the son of Yavanāshwa, highly powerful and strong.
Having brought the whole world under his subjection the king Māndhāta
engaged in the conquest of the celestial region. He having been engaged
in making preparations to conquer the world of gods—the celestial chief
Indra with other immortals was greatly terrified. With this promise, the
king Māndhāta went up into the celestial region that he would occupy the
half of Indra’s throne and kingdom and the celestials would adore him.
Being apprised of this vicious intention of his, Indra, the slayer of
Paka, consoled him in sweet words, saying;—’O foremost of men, even in
the land of men, thou hast not been able to become the real king.
Without perfectly subjugating the earth how dost thou wish to lord over
the celestial kingdom? If the whole world is under thy subjection, O
hero, be thou, with the whole host of thy servants and soldiers,
installed on the celestial throne.’ Indra having said this, the
high-souled Māndhāta replied:—’O Sakra, who on this earth, hath
disobeyed my commands?’ Whereto Indra replied ’O sinless one, the
night-ranger, Lavana, Madhu’s son, living in Madhuvana, is not under thy
control.’ Hearing those dreadful and unpleasant words from Indra, the
king lowered his head in shame and became silent. Thereupon, having
welcomed Indra in that way, he left there and returned to earth. O
slayer of enemies, with an angry heart, army and conveyance he went to
subjugate Madhu’s son Lavana and sent an emissary inviting him to
battle. The ambassador, having gone there, addressed many unpleasant
words unto Lavana and the night-ranger devoured him. On the other hand
finding the delay of his return the king Māndhāta, enraged, began to
assail the Rākshasa Lavana with arrows from all sides. Laughing wildly
Lavana took up the dart in his hand and discharged it to destroy the
king with his followers. Thereupon growing powerful the dart reduced the
king with his servants and army into ashes and returned to Lavana. In
this wise the high-souled king Māndhāta, with his huge army, was slain.
O gentle hero, incomparable and great is the strength of the dart.
Forsooth thou shalt slay Lavana next morning. Certain is thy victory if
Lavana cannot take up his dart. People shall be at ease if thou canst
bring about the destruction of Lavana. O foremost of men, I shall then
describe unto thee the incomparable and dreadful prowess of the
vicious-souled Lavana and his dart. O king, with great exertions did
Lavana slay Māndhāta and not easily. O high-minded one, next morning
thou shalt surely destroy Lavana. He shall issue out for flesh without
taking his dart. And at that time, O lord of men, thou shalt, for sooth,
be crowned will victory."


They being thus engaged in conversation regarding his achieving victory
without any danger Satrughna in no time passed the night. The clear
morning having arrived, the heroic Lavana issued out of his city to
collect food. In the meantime having crossed the river Yamunā, the
heroic Satrughna, with bow in his hands, stood at the gate of Madhu’s
city. Thereupon returning in the noon with many thousand animals, the
night-ranger Lavana, of dreadful actions, espied Satrughna standing at
the gate with a weapon in his hand. Thereupon he said:—"What shall thou
do with this weapon? O vile wight, enraged I have devoured many thousand
persons holding weapons like thee. I now perceive thou hast also been
possessed by Kāla. O vile man, I am fully fed. How shall thou, of thy
own accord, enter into my mouth?" Lavana having said this again and
again laughing the great hero Satrughna shed tears in anger. The
high-minded Satrughna being beside himself with rage, from all his
person issued burning lustre. Greatly enraged he said to the
night-ranger "O thou of a vicious intellect, I wish to enter into a duel
encounter with thee. I am the son of the great king Daçaratha, brother
of the intelligent Rāma and my name is Satrughna. I slay all my enemies
and have come here to destroy thee. I wish now to fight with thee—do
thou enter into a duel conflict. Thou art the enemy of all animals. Thou
shall not be able to survive at my hands." He having said this, the
Rākshasa, laughing aloud, replied unto that foremost of men;—"Thy
understanding is bewildered. By the influence of destiny thou hast come
under my control. The Rākshasa Rāvana was the brother of my aunts, o
thou of vicious understanding, O vile wight, it is for his wife that
Rāma did slay him. It is out of hatred that I have tolerated the
destruction of Rāvana’s family and have pardoned you all. You are all
vile men; I have slain and defeated all of your family that have passed
away and shall destroy all that are living and shall come into
existence. O thou of vicious intellect, if thou wishest I shall fight
with thee. Do thou wait here so long I do not bring my weapon. Do thou
remain here as long as I with that shall not kill thee." Whereto
Satrughna immediately replied "Where shalt thou go while I am alive? The
practical men should never let off the enemies who come out of their own
accord. He, who inviteth an enemy into battle under the influence of
perverted understanding is slain like a coward. Do thou behold this
world of creatures to thy hearts’ content for I shall by various sharp
weapons despatch thee to Yama’s abode who is the enemy of the three
worlds and Rāghava."


Hearing the words of the high-souled Satrughna Lavana was greatly
enraged and again and again asked him to wait. And clashing his hands
and grinding his teeth he invited that foremost of Raghus, Satrughna, to
fight. And Satrughna, the slayer of celestial’s enemies, said to the
dreadful Lavana, giving vent to those words:—"Satrughna was not born
when thou didst defeat other kings; do thou therefore proceed to Death’s
abode being assailed by shafts. O thou of a vicious soul, as did the
celestials behold Rāvana slain so shall the Rishis and learned Brahmans
behold thee, destroyed by me. O Rākshasa, forsooth shall good crown
cities and villages when thou shalt fall down burnt by my arrows. As the
rays of the sun enter into lotus so shall arrows, hard as lightning,
discharged by my hands, shall enter into thy heart." Being beside
himself with ire on hearing those words of Satrughna, Lavana threw a
huge tree against his breast. And Satrughna too sundered it into a
hundred pieces. Beholding his own action baffled the Rākshasa again took
up many trees and hurled them at Satrughna, who, with three or four
hundred bent arrows, cut them all, one by one, into pieces. Thereupon
when the powerful Satrughna assailed him with arrows the Rākshasa was
not the least pained. Rather laughing aloud the valiant Rākshasa
uprooted a tree and struck him with that on the head. With that stroke
he was wounded and slain. And that hero falling there arose a terrible
uproar amongst the Rishis, celestials, Gandharvas and Apsarās. Thereupon
considering Satrughna slain the night-ranger did not enter his house
albeit he got the opportunity; and moreover beholding him fallen and
destroyed he did not take up his dart. He then began to carry his
collected food. Regaining his sense within a moment, Satrughna, with a
weapon in his hand, stood at the city gate and the Rishis began to
praise him. Thereupon, he having taken up an excellent arrow of
unfailing aim the ten quarters were filled with its native brilliance.
Its face was like lightning and its velocity the same and it looked like
Meru and Mandara; its joints were all bent. None could defeat it in
battle. It was pasted with red sandal resembling blood and its feathers
were beautiful. Beholding that dart like unto the fire of dissolution,
and dreadful like unto the lords of Dānavas, mountains and Asuras, the
creatures were greatly terrified. What more, being disturbed, the
celestials, Asuras, Gandharvas, saints and Apsarās and all other
creatures of the world approached the Great Patriarch, the conferrer of
boons and said;—"The fear of the celestials and the destruction of the
creatures hath arrived." Hearing those words the Patriarch Brahma
replied "Although it is a source of great fear still it is not dreadful
unto the celestials." Thereupon with sweet accents he said:—"Hear, O ye
celestials, Satrughna hath taken up this arrow for the destruction of
Lavana. By the energy thereof we have all been overwhelmed. This
effulgent, ever-existing arrow was made by the Primeval Deity Vishnu—the
lord of creatures. My children, the burning arrow, of which you are
afraid, was made by the high-minded Vishnu for slaying the demons Madhu
and Kaitabha. And Vishnu alone is cognizant of its energy. This
Satrughna is the first portion of Vishnu’s person; do ye all go hence
and behold the destruction of the foremost Rākshasa, Lavana, by the
high-souled, heroic Satrughna, the younger brother of Rāma." Hearing the
words of the Patriarch Brahmā, the celestials arrived at the
battle-field of Satrughna and Lavana and saw that the arrow, held by
Satrughna’s hands, was burning like the fire of dissolution. Beholding
the welkin covered by the celestials, Satrughna, the descendant of
Raghu, emitting leonine roars, again and again looked towards Lavana.
And being again excited by the high-souled Satrughna and enraged Lavana
arrived for encounter. Thereupon expanding his bow up to ears,
Satrughna, the most accomplished archer, discharged his arrow against
the spacious breast of Lavana. And piercing his heart that arrow entered
speedily into Rasātala And having entered Rasātala that arrow, honored
by the celestials, again came to the descendant of Raghu. And being
pierced by that shaft the night-ranger Lavana fell down on earth like a
mountain clapped by a thunder-bolt. The Rākshasa being slain that
celestial, huge arrow came into the possession of Rudra before the gods.
Having removed the fear of the three worlds with one shaft, that heroic
Raghu, Satrughna—younger brother of Lakshmana, holding excellent bow and
arrow, appeared like the Sun of thousand rays removing darkness.
Thereupon chanting the glories of Satrughna, the celestials, Rishis,
Pannagas, Apsarās, said "O son of Daçaratha, it is really fortunate,
that thou, renouncing fear, hast acquired victory and that the Rākshasa
Lavana hath been vanquished like a serpent."


Lavana being slain the celestials headed by Agni and Indra said in sweet
accents to Satrughna the represser of enemies:—"O child, fortunate it is
that thou hast been crowned with success after slaying the Rākshasa
Lavana. Do thou, therefore, O foremost of men, O thou of firm vows,
accept boons. O thou having long arms, all those who can confer boons
have arrived here; they all wish for thy victory; seeing us doth not go
without fruits." Hearing the words of the celestials the large-armed and
self-controlled Satrughna placed his hands on his head and said.—"Let
this picturesque and charming city of Madhu, built by the celestials, be
my capital; this is the only excellent boon I can beg." The celestials,
with a delighted heart, said to the descendant of Raghu:—"Thy desire
shall be fulfilled and forsooth shall thy city be turned into a
picturesque capital under the name of Surashena." The high-souled
celestials having ascended the welkin saying this, the highly effulgent
Satrughna brought the soldiers there, that were encamped on the banks of
the Ganges. When the soldiers arrived there on hearing the commands of
Satrughna he engaged in making encampments in the month of Srāban. In
this wise the fearlessness of the celestial host, taking the shape of a
country, that beautiful and picturesque city was reared in the course of
twelve years. All the fields there were filled with crops and Indra
began to pour showers in due season. And being protected by the strength
of Satrughna’s arms all men there became valiant and were freed from
diseases. That city on the banks of Yamunā appeared beautiful like the
half moon and was filled with yards, shops, streets beautiful houses,
men of four orders and various articles of trade. Satrughna now engaged
in beautifying the spacious, white houses that were made by Lavana
before, with various ornamental works. Beholding the city interspersed
with various excellent gardens, pleasure grounds and prosperously filled
with celestials and men and diverse articles of trade and merchants
hailing from various countries, Satrughna, the younger brother of
Bharata, attained to the satisfaction of desire and excess of delight.
Having thus reared the beautiful city he resolved within himself "The
twelfth year has come. I shall now behold the feet of Rāma." Thereupon
having set up the city resembling the region of the celestials and
filled with various men, the king Satrughna, the enhancer of Raghu’s
race, determined on beholding Rāma’s feet.


Thereupon on the completion of the twelfth year, Satrughna, with few
servants, soldiers and followers, desired to proceed to Ayodhyā
protected by Rāma. Having prevented his minister and leading generals he
proceeded with one hundred chariots and cavalry. And having counted
seven halting stations on his way, the highly illustrious descendant of
Raghu—Satrughna, arrived at the hermitage of Vālmiki. And having bowed
unto the feet of the leading Muni, that foremost of men took from his
hands water to wash feet and _Arghya_ and accepted his hospitality. The
great ascetic Vālmiki addressed to the high-souled Satrughna many sweet
words. Having referred at first to Lavana’s destruction, he
said:—"Having slain Lavana thou hast performed a very hard work. O
gentle one, O foremost of men, Lavana had slain in conflict many hundred
highly powerful kings with their army and conveyances. And thou hast
easily slain that vicious-souled Rākshasa, Lavana. By thy prowess the
whole world hath been divested of fear. With great difficulty Rāma had
slain Rāvana—but without any trouble whatsoever thou hast accomplished
this mighty work. Lavana being slain, the celestials have been greatly
delighted—what more the well-being of the whole universe and all
creatures has been brought about. O Rāghava, O foremost of men, being
present in the assemblage of Vasava—I duly witnessed your combat. O
Satrughna, I too have been greatly delighted—I therefore smell thy crown
for this is the best expression of love." Saying this the high-minded
Vālmiki smelled his crown and made arrangements for his reception as
well as that of his followers. After meals, Satrughna, the foremost of
men, listened to themes relating to Rāma and set in musical notes. Those
themes were composed describing the early actions of Rāma. They were
composed in Sanskrit, set to the tune of a musical instrument, adorned
with all the marks of vocal music and arranged in accompaniment with
notes. Satrughna, the foremost of men, heard them from the beginning to
the end, pregnant with truth and composed of those words. And on hearing
it he was beside himself with joy and his eyes were full of tears. And
remaining stunned for some time and regaining his sense afterwards he
began to breathe hard out of excess of surprise. He heard, in that song,
of past events as things passing on. And hearing it, his followers, with
their heads down and sorrowfully said:—"Wonder," and saying this they
began to converse with one another:—"Alas! Where are we? Is this a
dream? We have been hearing at this hermitage what we had not seen
before. What wonder, that in a dream we hear such an excellent song."
Being in this wise greatly surprised they said to Satrughna:—"O foremost
of men, do thou ask particularly, about this, Vālmiki, the foremost of
ascetics." They being all thus struck with curiosity, Satrughna
said:—"It is not proper for us, O Ye soldiers, to question him in this
way. There are many such wonders in the hermitage of this ascetic. It is
not therefore becoming to ask him about this out of curiosity." Having
thus addressed the soldiers and bowed unto the ascetic, Satrughna, the
desendant of Raghu, entered his own quarter.


Thereupon going to bed, Satrughna began to meditate upon that excellent
theme relating to Rāma and treating of diverse subjects and did not
enter into sleep. In sooth the high-minded Satrughna spent the night in
no time listening to that charming song set in musical notes. The night
being over, he first went through the morning rites and then with folded
hands addressed the foremost of ascetics, Vālmiki, saying:—"O
illustrious Sir, I am anxious to see Rāma, the enhancer of the delight
of the Raghu race. And my desire is that thou mayst with other
illustrious Rishis, grant me permission on this." Satrughna, the slayer
of enemies, having said this, the great ascetic Vālmiki embraced and
bade him farewell. He was greatly anxious to behold Rāma and saluting
the foremost of Munis he speedily proceeded to Ayodhyā. Thereupon having
entered the highly picturesque city Ayodhyā, the graceful descendant of
Ikshwākus, Satrughna reached where the long-armed and the highly
effulgent Rāma was waiting. He espied there Rāma in the midst of the
councillors like Indra amongst the immortals burning in his own
effulgence. And having bowed with folded hands unto Rāma, having truth
for his prowess, Satrughna said:—"O great king, I have carried out all
thine behests; I have slain the vicious Lavana and filled his city with
subjects. O descendant of Raghu, twelve years have passed away without
thee—I do not wish to live any longer separated from thee. Do thou
therefore, O Kākuthstha of unmitigated prowess, have compassion on me.
Without thee, I cannot live for ever in a foreign province like a
motherless child." He having said this, Rāma embraced him and said:—"Be
not sorry, O hero. This is not a becoming action for Kshatriyas. The
kings, O Rāghava, are never tired of living in a foreign land. According
to the morality of the Kshatriyas, their greatest duty consists in
governing the subjects. O heroic and foremost of men, do thou, at
intervals, come to Ayodhyā to see me and return to thy own city.
Forsooth thou art dearer than my life. But it is an incumbent duty to
govern the kingdom. Do thou therefore, O Kākutstha, live with me for
seven nights, and afterwards return to thy city with thy servants, army
and conveyances." Hearing those moral and charming words of Rāma,
Satrughna poorly replied, saying:—"Thy command shall be carried out."
Thereupon Satrughna, well-skilled in the use of bows, remained with Rāma
for seven nights and then addressed himself for departure. Thereupon
having invited Bharata and Lakshmana, the high-souled Rāma, having truth
for his prowess, speedily went for his city in a huge chariot. The
high-souled Lakshmana and Bharata followed him on foot for some


Having bade adieu unto Satrughna, Rāma, the descendant of Raghu, was
greatly delighted by governing his subjects piously in the company of
Bharata and Lakshmana. Some days having passed in this wise—a villager,
an old Brahman, arrived at the palace gate with a dead body. That
Brahman, stricken with affection, again and again bewailed in various
piteous accents, exclaiming "What heinous crime had I committed in my
pristine birth that I have been constrained to witness the death of my
son. My son, thou hast not as yet completed fourteen years. To my misery
thou hast met with untimely death. Forsooth, for thy grief, O my son,
myself and thy mother shall soon be snatched away by death. I do not
remember to have ever uttered a falsehood, or injured an animal or
perpetrated any other crime. Therefore for some other sinful action,
this boy, without performing the son’s duties towards his parents, has
gone to the abode of death. Save under the regime of Rāma, I have never
seen or heard of the dreadful death of such a boy who hath not attained
the age. Forsooth, Rāma hath perpetrated a mighty iniquity for which
boys, during his administration, have been meeting with untimely death.
In other governments boys have no fear of such an untimely death.
Therefore, O king confer life upon this dead child. Or else with my
spouse I shall renounce my life at this gate like one having no lord. O
Rāma, soiled by the sin consequent upon the destruction of a Brāhmana,
do thou live long happily with brothers. O thou of great prowess, up to
this time we have lived happily in thy kingdom. And now, O Rāma, under
thy subjection we are being troubled with the sorrow of our son’s death.
We have been brought under the influence of Kāla; so in thy kingdom
there is not the least happiness for us. Having attained Rāma as its
lord, the kingdom, of the high-souled Ikshwākus, hath attained to the
condition of one having no master, where during Rāma’s regime the death
of a boy hath been brought about. For being impiously governed by a
king, for his sin, the subjects meet with calamities. And a king
following evil tracks and not governing the subjects righteously people
meet with untimely death. Therefore, when a king doth not suppress the
crimes committed by people either in cities or provinces the fear, of
untimely death, comes in. Evident it is therefore that undoubtedly the
sin of the king hath appeared in cities and provinces. And for that
reason this boy hath met with death." Being overwhelmed with sorrow that
old Brahman again and again remonstrated with the king in these piteous
words and afterwards covered the death body (of his son).


Hearing those sorrowful words of the Brahman, Rāma was greatly sorry and
sent for Vasishtha, Bāmadeva, his brothers, citizens and councillors.
Thereupon having entered the apartment in the company of Vasishtha,
eight Brahmans blessed the king Rāma, resembling a celestial, saying
"May victory crown thee." Mārkandeya, Maudgalya, Bāmadeva, Kashyapa,
Kātyāyana, Javali, Gautama, and Narada—these eight leading Brāhmanas
having taken their seats, Rāma, with folded hands, saluted them. And he
showed due civilities towards his minister, citizens, Rishis and all
others. Thereupon all the highly effulgent Rishis being accomodated with
seats Rāma narrated duly before them the account of the Brāhmana and
said. "This Brahman is waiting at the Palace-gate." Hearing those words
of the poorly king, Nārada, in the presence of all other Rishis,
replied:—"Hear, king, why this boy hath met with untimely death. And
hearing this, O descendant of Raghu, do thou settle what thou thinkest
proper. O king, in the golden age, only the Brahmans used to engage in
asceticism. At that age, save the Brāhmanas no other caste used to lead
the life of an anchoret. And for this, the Brahmans were the highest
caste, effulgent in asceticism, shorn of ignorance, above death and
conversant with three ages. Thereupon at the end of the golden age,
Brāhmana’s understanding became loose and the Tretā Yuga set in. At this
age Kshatryas, gifted with the power acquired by pristine asceticism,
were born. And those men, intent upon austere penances, that were born
in the Tretā age, were more powerful and greater devotees than those in
the former age. In the golden age the Brāhmanas were more powerful than
the Kshatryas. But in the Tretā age the Brāhmanas and the Kshatryas were
equally powerful. Thus in the Tretā age, not beholding prominence of the
Brāhmanas greater than that of the Kshatryas, Manu and other religious
leaders of the time composed the Sastra describing and setting in the
four divisions of castes. In this wise the Tretā age was prolific with
virtues of the four Varnas, and many pious sacrifices and was shorn of
iniquities. But being attacked a little with iniquity, one portion of
sin appeared on earth. And growing impious people lost their strength.
And for houses and farms that were the property of the former age,
people of the Tretā Yuga were possessed by envy, the outcome of the
quality of darkness. And with the fading of impiety on earth during
Tretā, the soiled sin of untruth appeared. And this iniquity stretching
one footstep, the lease of people’s lives, for sins, became limited. And
the sin of untruth descending on earth, people, to avoid the extinction
of life in consequence thereof, became truthful and engaged in many
pious observances. During the Tretā age the Brāhmanas and Kshatryas
engaged in austere penances and the Vaisyas and Sudras engaged in
serving them. And the greatest piety of the Vaisyas and Sudras at that
time consisted of serving the Brāhmanas and Kshatryas and specially for
the Sudras the highest religion was to serve people of all Varnas. O
foremost of kings, at the end of the Tretā age, Vaisyas and Sudras being
fully overpowered by the sin of untruth, the Brāhmanas and the Kshatryas
also grew feeble. And the second foot of impiety being ushered into the
world the Dwāpara age set in. O foremost of men, during this age two
legs of piety being cut off, impiety and untruth multiplied. And in Yuga
named Dwāpara the Vaisyas engaged in devout penances. In this wise in
three ages the three Varnas gradually engaged in ascetic performances.
The piety of asceticism by Yugas gradually became established in three
Varnas. But, O foremost of men, in these three Yugas the Sudras were not
entitled to the virtues of devout penances. O foremost of men, the
degraded caste—the Sudras, during thy regime, have engaged in austere
penances. And in the Kali Yuga asceticism shall be established in the
Sudras. O king, even in the Dwāpara, devout penances for Sudras were
considered as impiety, what to speak of the Tretā age. O king, one
Sudra, under the influence of vicious understanding has begun devout
penances within thy kingdom. And for that reason this boy hath met with
death. Calamity sets in that kingdom where a vicious-minded person
commits an iniquity and that vicious wight and the king forsooth
speedily repair to hell. The king, who piously governeth his subjects,
receiveth the sixth portion of their study, asceticism and good actions.
While the king is entitled to the sixth portion of everything why should
he not fully protect his subjects? Therefore, O chief of men, do thou
bring all informations of thy kingdom. And be then studious to repress
vices wherever thou shalt find them. And by that, O foremost of men, the
piety of the subjects shall be increased, the lease of their life shall
be prolonged and this boy shall regain his life."


Hearing the sweet words of the celestial saint Nārada Rāma was greatly
delighted and addressing Lakshmana said:—"O gentle one, do thou console
that foremost of twice-born ones and place the dead body of the boy in a
jar full of oil. Let this body be protected by sweet-scented oil so that
it might not be soiled by any means. See that it is not disfigured, its
joints are not loosened and the hairs do not fall off." The highly
illustrious Rāma, the descendant of Ikshwākus, thus commanded Lakshmana,
gifted with auspicious marks, and thought of his car and desired it to
come soon. Understanding his intention the golden car appeared before
him in no time and saluting him said:—"O thou of long arms, thine
chariot hath come." Hearing the sweet words of Pushpaka the king Rāma
saluted the great ascetics, ascended the car with his burning bow,
quiver and dagger and left Bharata and Lakshmana in charge of the city.
And searching that Sudra devotee here and there Rāghava proceeded
towards the west. And not beholding him there he went to the North
bounded by the Himalayas. And even there he did not espy the Sudra
ascetic and even the smallest iniquity was not seen there. Thereupon
returning from that quarter the king journeyed the whole of east. And
having sat on the Pushpaka car he saw that the eastern quarter was
transparent like a looking glass and there was not the best touch of
sin. From the east Rāghava proceeded towards the south and espied a big
tank by the side of the Saivala mountain. On the banks of that pond one
ascetic was performing the most austere penances with his legs upwards
and head downwards. Thereupon approaching him, Rāma said—"O thou of good
vows, blessed art thou; I do ask thee, now, O thou highly effulgent and
grown old old in asceticism, in what Varna thou art born. I put this
question out of curiosity. I am the son of king Daçaratha and my name is
Rāma. For what art thou going through such hard austerities? Is it
heaven or anything else that thou prayest for? O ascetic, I wish to hear
of the purpose for which thou art performing such hard penances. Art
thou a Brahman, or an irrepresible Kshatriya or the third caste Vaisya
or a Sudra? Do thou speak the truth and thou shaft be crowned with
auspiciousness." Hearing the words of Rāma, the ascetic, whose face was
downwards, gave out his degraded birth and communicated unto him for
what he was performing ascetic observances.


Hearing the words of Rāma of unwearied actions, the ascetic, with his
face downwards, said:—"O highly illustrious Rāma, I am born in the race
of Sudras; and with a view to reach the region of the celestials with my
body I am going through these austere penances. O Kākuthstha, I shall
never utter a falsehood since I am willing to conquer the the region of
gods. I am a Sudra and my name is Sambuka." The Sudra ascetic having
said this, Rāma took out of scabbard a beautiful sharp sword and chopped
off his head therewith. And that Sudra being slain, Indra, Agni and
other celestials praised him again and again and showered flowers. And
being greatly delighted, the celestials said to Rāma, having truth for
his prowess:—"O thou of a great mind, thou hast nicely performed this
god-like work. O slayer of foes, do thou now crave a boon. O descendant
of Raghu, being slain by thee this Sudra hath been able to attain to the
abode of the celestials." Hearing the words of the deities, Rāma, having
truth for his prowess, said with folded hands to Purandara, of a
thousand eyes:—"If the celestials are pleased, I beg for this boon that
the son of the twice-born one may be restored to life. Do ye confer upon
me this boon; this is my wished-for object. It is for my iniquitous
conduct that this only son of the Brahman hath met with untimely death.
Do ye restore him to life. I have promised before that leading
twice-born one that I would restore his son to life—do ye therefore,
make not me a liar." Hearing the words of Rāma the leading celestials
delightedly said:—"Do thou return, O Kākutstha. The Brahmin boy shall
immediately gain back his life and be united with his father, mother and
friends. O Rāghava, with the death of the Sudra the boy has regained his
life. Be thou at ease; may good betide thee. O foremost of men, we, too,
return with delighted hearts. O Rāghava, we desire to behold the
hermitage of the great saint Agastya. Having been initiated, that highly
effulgent Brahman saint hath lived within waters for twelve years; his
vow hath now terminated. O Kākuthstha, we shall now go to welcome that
Muni. Do thou also follow us to see that saint." Saying "So be it!" to
the words of the celestials that descendant of Raghu ascended his golden
car Pushpaka. And having ascended spacious cars the celestials proceeded
to the hermitage of Agastya born of a _Kumbha_. Rāma too also followed
them. Thereupon beholding the celestials present the virtuous-souled
Agastya, the jewel of asceticism, welcomed them particularly. Having
accepted his worship and adored in return that great Muni, the
immortals, delighted, proceeded to their abodes with their followers.
The celestials having departed Rāma descended from Pushpaka and saluted
that effulgent and foremost of Rishis Agastya. And having received due
hospitality he sat there. Thereupon the highly effulgent and leading
ascetic Kumbhajoni said:—"O Rāghava, I have been greatly delighted with
thy coming. By my good fortune I have seen thee to-day. O Rāma, I love
thee because thou art gifted with many qualities. O king, thou art my
worshipful guest. I was thinking of thee. The celestials informed me
that thou wert coming having slain the Sudra ascetic. Thou hast observed
piety and hast given back life unto the dead child of the Brahman. Do
thou spend this night with me, O Rāghava. Thou art the graceful
Nārāyana. In thee the whole universe is established. Thou art the lord
of all creatures and the eternal Purusha. Thou shalt go to thy city next
morning in thy Pushpaka car. This ornament, O gentle one, hath been made
by the architect of the celestials; its make is very beautiful and it is
dazzling by its own lustre. By accepting this, O Kākutstha, do thou
satisfy my desire. It is said that one attains to best fruits if he
makes present unto his deity, of best articles he gets from another.
Thou art the only worthy person to use this ornament. Thou art alone
capable of conferring best fruits. Thou dost protect Indra and other
celestials. Therefore I do duly present thee with this ornament. O king,
do thou accept it." Thereupon meditating upon the duties of the
Kshatryas, the heroic Rāma, the foremost of the intelligent, said:—"O
illustrious Sir, the Brāhmanas only can accept presents—how can the
Kshatryas do? To take gifts is the function of the Brāhmanas—for
Kshatryas it is a source of censure. Besides, to receive presents from a
Brāhmana, is highly culpable. Do thou therefore tell me, how I may
accept this ornament." Hearing the words of Rāma, the great saint
Agastya replied saying:—"O Rāma, O son of Daçaratha, at the beginning of
the golden age, people had no king; but Vāsava was the ruler of the
celestials. Therefore to obtain a king, men approached Brahmā, the god
of gods and said ’O deity thou hast placed Indra as ruler over the
celestials; therefore, O lord of creatures, do thou also confer upon us
a king who shall be foremost among men; by worshipping him we shall be
freed from all sins. We shall not live without the king—even this is our
firm resolution.’ Thereupon the Patriarch Brahmā sent for Indra and
other deities and said:—’Do ye all give a portion of your respective
energies.’ Thereupon the deities gave each a portion of their own
energies. Thereupon Brahma made a _Khshupa_ or sound and therefrom
originated a king under the name of _Khshupa_. And in his person Brahmā
placed in equal proportions the energies of the deities. Thereafter he
made _Khshupa_ the foremost king of men. By virtue of the portion of
Indra’s energy the king _Khshupa_ brought the earth under his control;
by that of Varuna’s energy he fostered his own body; by Kuvera’s portion
he conferred riches upon his subjects; and by that of Yama he governed
them. Therefore, O Rāma, by virtue of Indra’s portion, do thou accept
this ornament and confer upon me the salvation." Hearing the words of
the Muni, Rāma took from him that brilliant celestial ornament burning
like the rays of the Sun. And having taken that excellent ornament,
Dāçarathi asked the great saint Kumbhayoni, saying:—"Whence hast thou
obtained this celestial ornament of a wondrous make? Who hast given thee
this? Brahman, I do accost thee thus out of curiosity. Thou art the mine
of many wonders." Whereto Agastya replied, saying "Hearken, O Rāma, how
I did obtain this ornament in the Tretā age."


"O Rāma, in Tretā age, there was a huge forest extending over a hundred
Yojanas divested of animals and men. In that forest I used to perform my
austere penances. Once on a time I began to roam all over the forest
being willing to see well every nook and corner of it. And I saw that it
was impossible to ascertain how very pleasant that forest was. In every
place there were trees with profuse sweet fruits and roots. In the
middle I espied a pond extending over a Yojana. There was no moss in
that deep, calm, clear and sweet water; there were lotuses and lilies
and swans, Kārandāvas, Chakravakas and many other water fowls were
playing in the waters. O lord of creatures, at no distance from that
pond I saw an old, holy hermitage but there was no creature or animal
around it. It was summer and I spent that night in that hermitage. Next
morning leaving my bed I arrived at the banks of the pond and saw a
plump dead body in the waters. None of its limbs was pale and its beauty
was not spoiled. Beholding it and standing on the banks I began to
meditate upon it. And thought I ’What is this?’ In a moment I espied a
beautiful car, swift-coursing like the mind and drawn by ganders. And I
saw in that chariot a celestial person. He was being attended by
Apasaras adorned with celestial ornaments and having lotus-eyes. Some of
them were singing, some dancing and some playing on Mridanga, Vina and
other musical instruments and some were fanning his lotus-like
countenance with valuable, golden chowries, dazzling like the rays of
the moon. O Rāma, the foremost of Raghu’s race, like unto the moon
renouncing the summit of the Sumeru mount that celestial wight got down
from his seat in the car and engaged in devouring the dead body. And
having taken enough flesh he got down into waters and duly performed
ablution. And thereafter that heavenly being again addressed himself for
ascending the car. O foremost of men, beholding that heavenly being
about to get up I accosted him, saying ‘Who art thou? I see, thou hast a
celestial form, then why hast thou taken such an abominable food? O thou
adored of the immortals, persons like thee should not take such meals. O
gentle one, I have been striken with great curiosity and wish to hear
all. Thine living upon dead body doth not appear agreeable unto me.’ O
king, plainly and out of curiosity I put to him these questions. And
hearing them, the celestial being related everything unto me."


"O Rāma, hearing my words pregnant with sound reasoning, that heavenly
being, with folded hands, said ’Hear, O Brahman, from what unavoidable
cause hath proceeded this happy and again painful incident. There
flourished in the days of yore a highly illustrious and powerful
Vidarbha king under the name of Sudeva known over three worlds. He was
my father. His two queens gave birth to two sons. My name is Sweta and
the name of my youngest brother was Suratha. After the decease of my
sire the subjects installed me on the throne and I governed them piously
and carefully for a thousand years. By some reason I was informed of the
extent of my life. And when I perceived that the lease of my life had
well-nigh expired I entered into the life of Banaprasta. And having
placed my brother Suratha on the throne I entered into a dense forest
devoid of men and animals at no distance from this pond to perform
devout penances. And I performed austerities for a long time near this
pond. Having performed hard penances in this forest, for three thousand
years I at last attained to the region of Brahmā. And albeit I had
reached the Brahmā region I was still being assailed by hunger and
thirst. And gradually I grew tired therewith. Thereupon approaching the
patriarch Brahmā, the lord of three worlds, I said:—"O Brahmā, here
there is no hunger or thirst; still why have I been brought to their
control? Of what iniquity of mine is this fruit? O deity, tell me upon
what I shall live?" Whereto the patriarch replied;—"O son of Sudeva, do
thou live upon sweet savoured meat everyday? O Sweta, thou didst only
look to the growth of thy person when thou didst perform rigid penances.
O thou of a great mind, nothing grows, when nothing is sown. Thou didst
only perform ascetic penances, but thou didst not make any gift of
charity. It is for that reason, O my son, that thou art, even in heaven,
being assailed by hunger and thirst. Thereupon do thou now live upon
thine own dead body fostered by various food. By this thou shalt keep up
thy being. O Sweta, thou shalt be relieved from this affliction when the
irrepressible, great Saint Agastya shall reach that forest. O gentle
one, even unto the immortals he can give salvation; what wonder it is
that he shall relieve thee from the miseries of hunger and thirst." O
foremost of twice-born ones, from the time of hearing those words of the
great Brahmā, the god of gods, I have been engaged in this cursed work
of feeding upon my own dead body. O Brahman, for many long years I have
been living upon this corpse still I have not done with it. O Saint, I,
too, derive satisfaction from it; I now understand that thou art the
illustrious Agastya born of a Kumbha; for none else is capable of coming
here; do thou therefore save me from this pain, who am afflicted with
great miseries. O foremost of twice-born ones, O gentle one, do thou
take this ornament; may good betide thee. Do thou be propitiated with
me. O Brahman, I do confer upon thee, gold, riches various clothes,
eatables, excellent ornaments and diverse other objects of desire and
enjoyment. O foremost of Munis, do thou with compassion save me.’
Hearing those words of the heavenly being, exciting pity, I accepted
this ornament for saving him. And as soon as I took this ornament that
human body of the royal saint disappeared. And the body being dissolved,
the royal saint Sweta, greatly delighted, happily went to the land of
immortals. It is for this reason, O Kākutstha, that royal saint,
resembling Indra, conferred upon me this wondrous, celestial ornament."


Hearing the wondrous words of the great saint Kumbhayoni, Rāma, out of
great curiosity and importance of the subject, again asked him,
saying:—"O Brahman, why was that dense forest, in which the king Sweta
used to perform hard penances, divested of birds and animals? And how
did he proceed to that forest devoid of men and animals for undergoing
penances? I wish to hear the truth." Hearing the words of Rāma stricken
with curiosity, the highly effulgent saint Agastya said:—"O Rāma,
formerly in the golden age, Manu was the king. His son was Ikshwāku.
Having installed the irrepressible Ikshwāku, Manu said: ’Be thou the
lord over creatures.’ Saying ’So be it’ Ikshwāku accepted the command.
Thereupon greatly delighted Manu said to his son:—’I have been highly
pleased with thee. For sooth thou shalt become a very liberal prince.
Thou shalt govern the subjects meting out proper punishment unto them,
but do not punish them without any fault. If the punishment, which a
king inflicts upon the guilty, be just it becomes the instrumental in
taking the giver to heaven. Therefore, O my son having large arms, be
particularly studious as regards punishment for thereby thou shalt
acquire great piety.’ Having in this wise advised Ikshwāku Manu
delightedly repaired to the region of Brahmā. After Manu’s departure,
the effulgent Ikshwāku thought of the means for creating progeny.
Thereupon performing many pious rites Manu’s son engendered a hundred
sons. O descendant of Raghu, the youngest of all those sons became
stupid and ignorant and did not respect his elder brothers. And thinking
that he should therefore be punished he named this son ’Danda.’
Thereupon finding no other province worthy of Danda he allotted the
region between Vindhya and Saivala to him. Danda became king of that
picturesque valley. And having reared a fine city there he named it as
Madhumanta and appointed Sukracharja of firm vows as his priest. Having
thus established his kingdom, Danda, with his priest, began to lord over
it filled with healthy and delighted people like unto the lord of
celestials in their region. O Rāma, like unto Mahendra governing his
kingdom of heaven under the guidance of Vrihaspati, the preceptor of
celestials, Danda, the grand-son of Manu, governed his own kingdom with
the help of Usanās."


Having related this story unto Rāma the great saint Agastya again
said:—"O Kākutstha, having subdued his passions, the king Danda, reigned
undisturbed in this wise for many long years. Thereupon during spring,
in the month of Chaitra the king arrived at the picturesque hermitage of
the preceptor Sukra. At that time, Sukra’s daughter, matchless in beauty
and grace, was walking in the forest. The king saw that jewel of a girl,
and being stricken with lust and growing restless he approached her and
said:—’O thou having a beautiful waist, O fair lady, whose daughter art
thou? O thou having a moonlike countenance, I have been assailed by the
arrows of Cupid and hence I do accost thee thus.’ Hearing the words of
the vicious-souled Danda, maddened with lust, Sukra’s daughter humbly
said:—’O king of kings I am the daughter of the preceptor Sukra of
unwearied actions and my name is Arajās. I am living in this
hermitage—king, do not touch me forcibly for I am a maid and hence under
the guardianship of my father. Besides my father is my preceptor, and
thou art also his disciple. Being enraged he shall imprecate thee with a
curse. O foremost of men, if thou dost cherish any desire for me, do
thou honestly and piously pray for it unto my sire. Or else thou shalt
suffer dreadful consequences in the long run. When worked up with ire,
my father can reduce even the three worlds to ashes. O thou of a
blameless person, if thou dost pray, my father may make me over unto thy
hands.’ Arajās having said this, the king Danda, maddened with lust,
placing folded palms on his head, said:—’Be thou propitiated with me, O
thou having a graceful person; do not tarry even for a moment. My heart
bursts out for thee, O thou having a moon-like countenance. For
acquiring thee I can even take upon myself my own destruction or
dreadful iniquity. Do thou seek me, O fair lady—I am beside myself for
thee.’ Having said this the king forcibly ravished her. Having
perpetrated such a mighty iniquity he speedily returned to his own city
Madhumanta. Arajās cried aloud in forest at no distance from the
hermitage and waited for her sire who had been away on visiting the


"Thereupon having heard everything about Arajās from a disciple, he,
surrounded by his pupils, arrived at his own hermitage and beheld her
there poorly, soiled with dust and like unto the morning rays of the
moon possessed by a planet. He was stricken with hunger and was greatly
incensed on beholding his daughter in that wretched plight, as if
burning the three worlds with rage. Addressing his pupils he said:—’Do
ye witness today the dreadful calamity, arising out of my flaming ire,
of the vicious Danda treading the path of immorality. This vicious wight
hath placed his hands in the burning flame so he shall, along with
followers, meet with destruction. Since that vile being hath perpetrated
such a dreadful crime he shall forsooth suffer the consequence thereof.
Within seven nights, the wicked and vicious Danda, with his son,
soldiers and retinue, shall meet with death. Showering dust Indra shall
destroy, to the extent of a hundred Yojana, the territory of this
vicious king. And all creatures mobile and immobile, wherever they might
be, shall be destroyed with this downpour of dust. All animals as far as
this Dandas’ territory extends, shall be destroyed within seven nights.’
Having said this, with eyes reddened with ire, Usanās, Vrigu’s son, said
to the inmates of his hermitage:—’Do ye all go and wait outside this
kingdom.’ Hearing the words of the preceptor Sukra, the inmates left the
hermitage and lived at a place beyond the limit of Danda’s territories.
Having thus addressed the inmates of the hermitage the great saint, said
to Arajas. ’O unfortunate girl, with a devoted mind do thou wait at this
hermitage. Without any anxiety, O Arajās, do thou wait for the time at
the picturesque banks of this pond extending over a Yojana. Within seven
nights whoever shall approach thee, shall be destroyed with this
downpour of dust.’ Hearing the words of the Brāhmana saint and preceptor
Sukra, Arajās sorrowfully said to her father ’It shall be done.’
Thereupon Sukracharjya went away and lived elsewhere. According to the
words of the saint, the entire kingdom of Danda, with servants, army,
and conveyances, was destroyed within seven nights. Rāma, in the golden
age, the province between the mountains Vindhya and Saivala comprising
Danda’s territories, imprecated by the Brahman saint, in consequence of
the iniquity of the vicious souled, was reduced into a desert. From that
time it passes by the name of Dandaka forest. And it is otherwise called
Janasthāna because the ascetics used to perform austerities there. O
Rāghava, I have thus related unto thee, all thou didst ask of me. O
hero, the time for performing evening rites hath come. Behold foremost
of men, having performed ablution, the great saints, on all sides, with
jars full of water, are worshipping the sun. Having accepted adoration
in the shape of Vedic hymns chanted by Brahmans, well-versed in Vedas,
the illustrious Aditya is about to be set. Therefore, O Rāma, do thou
perform the ceremony."


Hearing the words of the great saint, Rāma, to perform the evening
adoration, went to the pond filled with Apsarās; and having performed
the worship he again returned to the hermitage of the high-souled
Agastya. Thereupon the great ascetic offered him as food many
substantial Kanda, roots, Oshadis and the holy Sāli rice. And taking
that nectar-like cooked rice, Rāma, the foremost of men, was greatly
delighted and spent the night there. Having got up in the morning and
performed the necessary ceremonies he approached the ascetic to bid
farewell, and saluting him said:—"O great Rishi, I do crave for thy
permission to go to my own habitation. Do thou permit me. O high-souled
one, I have been highly favoured and blessed by beholding thee. I shall
come again some other time to free myself from sins." Hearing those
wondrous words of Rāma, Agastya having asceticism for his wealth,
delightedly said:—"O Rāma these words, set in charming letters, are
highly wonderful. O descendant of Raghu, thou art the purifier of all
creatures. O Rāma, one, who beholds thee, even for a moment, becomes
pure and worthy of repairing to heaven. Even the leading deities worship
him. Those on earth, who cast dreadful looks on thee, are immediately
brought under the control of Yama and are constrained to go to hell. O
foremost of Raghus, thou art the purifier of all creatures; people
become perfect even if they only chant thy glories. Kākutstha, do thou
now go with ease and fearlessly, and govern thy kingdom righteously. O
Rāma thou art the refuge of the world." Hearing the words of the great
and truthful Rishi the wise Rāma, with folded hands, saluted him and
other Rishis, and with serene air ascended the golden car Pushpaka. Like
unto the immortals welcoming the Chief of the deities, the Rishis
showered blessings, upon Rāma from all sides while he was proceeding.
And seated on car, he appeared like the moon, after the expiry of the
rainy season. Thereupon being welcomed by the villagers on his way he
reached Ayodhyā at noon and descended at the middle apartment. And
having permitted the charming chariot coursing at will to go away he
said:—"Do thou now go; may good betide thee." Thereupon he said to the
warder, "Do thou speedily go and having communicated my arrival unto
Lakshmana and Bharata bring them here."


According to the command of Rāma of unwearied actions, the warders went
to the princes and communicated unto them (the arrival). Beholding
Bharata and Lakshmana present, Rāma embraced them and said:—"I have, as
promised, performed the work of the excellent twice-born one. I wish now
to perform a Rajshuya sacrifice, the source of religious glory, the
destroyer of all sins, inexhaustible and un-ending. Therefore, with you
like my own self, I wish to engage in the most excellent and eternal
Rajshuya sacrifice. O slayer of foes, by celebrating Rajshuya, Mitra
attained to the dignity of Varuna. And having celebrated the same
sacrifice, Soma, conversant with piety, established eternal fame in the
three worlds. Do ye therefore consult with me even today as to what is
proper. Do ye consider carefully and tell me what is auspicious and
productive of well-being in the long run." Hearing the words of Rāghava,
Bharata, well-skilled in the art of speech, with folded hands, said "O
pious Sir in thee are established piety, earth and fame. O thou of
unmitigated prowess, as the deities honor the patriarch so other kings
hold thee in reverence. O king, all creatures mobile and immobile
consider thee as their father. O thou of great strength, thou art the
refuge of all animals and of the universe. Therefore of what use is such
a sacrifice unto thee? In such a sacrifice all the royal families meet
with ruin. All those kings, who are proud of manliness, being incensed
with great ire on the occasion of this sacrifice, shall bring ruin upon
all. O foremost of men, the whole earth has been brought under thy
subjection so it is not proper to devastate it." Hearing those sweet
accents of Bharata, Rāma, having truth for his prowess, attained to
incomparable delight, and addressed the enhancer of Kaikeyi’s delight
with kind words, saying:—"O thou freed from sins, I have been greatly
delighted with thee. O foremost of men, for the preservation of earth,
thou hast given vent to words, without any hesitation, pregnant with
manliness and piety. O thou conversant with piety, according to thy wise
counsels, I refrain from celebrating this Rajshuya sacrifice. The wise
should never undertake all those works which give affliction unto
people. O elder brother of Lakshmana, it is proper to take wise counsels
even from a boy."


After the conversation between Rāma and Bharata had been over,
Lakshmana, with reasonable words, said to the former:—"O worshipful Sir,
amongst sacrifices Aswamedha is the best and the remover of all sins; it
is my prayer therefore that thy desire might be turned towards this
great and highly purifying sacrifice. It is said in this Purānas, that
Purandara, sullied by the sin consequent upon slaying a Brāhmana, was
again purified by celebrating a horse sacrifice. O thou having long
arms, formerly, during the war between gods and demons there flourished
a highly honored Asura under the name of Vitra. The breadth of his body
was a hundred Yojanas and the height thereof was three hundred Yojanas.
Considering all under his subjection he used to regard them with
affection. He was pious, grateful and used to perform nothing without
proper deliberation. And treading pious tracks he used to govern his
subjects very carefully. During his administration earth produced all
wished-for objects; roots and fruits were tasteful and flowers were
fragrant. Without being cultivated earth used to yield crops. In this
wise for many long years he governed a prosperous and wonderful kingdom.
Thereupon he determined upon performing a hard penance. He considered
asceticism as the best of all and regarded all other things as mere
illusions. Having resolved thus and placed his son Madhureswara on the
throne Vitra engaged in austerities creating terror unto all deities. He
being thus engaged in asceticism, Indra, greatly terrified, approached
Vishnu and said:—’O thou having long arms, by virtue of his asceticism
Vitra is about to conquer all the worlds. He is pious, so I cannot
subdue him. O illustrious Sir, if his ascetic powers grow more we shall
be constrained to live under his control for ever from the creation. Do
thou therefore not neglect any longer this highly generous Asura.
Thyself being enraged, O lord of deities, Vitra shall not live even for
a moment. O Vishnu, from the time he succeeded in propitiating thee, he
hath obtained the sovereignty of the three worlds. Do thou, therefore,
be propitiated now; save thee none can free this world from thorns and
bring it at rest. O Vishnu, all the deities are waiting for thee; do
thou help them by slaying Vitra. O thou having a large mind, thou art
always the help of these high-souled deities. It is impossible for any
one else to accomplish the present work. Thou art the refuge of the


Hearing the words of Lakshmana, Rāma, the slayer of enemies, said:—"O
thou of firm vows, do thou at length, describe the destruction of
Vitra." Hearing the words of Rāghava, Lakshmana, the enhancer of
Sumitrā’s delight, again took up that theme. "Hearing the words of Indra
and other deities Vishnu replied:—’From before I am bound with the
high-souled Vitra by the ties of friendship. For this, even for your
satisfaction, I shall not (myself) slay him. Again I am to afford
excellent felicity unto you. I shall myself divide you into three
classes and then forsooth your king shall be able to destroy Vitra. Of
those three portions the first shall be able to slay him.’ Vishnu, the
god of gods, having said this, the deities replied, saying:—’O slayer of
demons, undoubtedly what thou hast said, shall prove true; may victory
crown thee; we proceed now to slay Vitra. O highly generous deity, do
thou now make Vāsava powerly by infusing thy own energy.’ Thereupon the
highly powerful immortals headed by Indra entered the forest where the
great Asura Vitra was performing austerities. Arriving there they
observed that the leading Asura was spreading rays all over—the outcome
of his own effulgence, as if devouring the three worlds and burning down
the quarters. Beholding that foremost of Asuras, the deities were
greatly terrified and began to think of plans by which they would be
able to slay him and not be defeated. While they were thus thinking,
Indra, of thousand eyes, taking up a thunderbolt, hurled it against
Vitra’s head. That dreadful burning thunderbolt, like unto the fire of
dissolution, falling on Vitra’s head, the three Worlds were agitated.
Thereupon thinking that he has perpetrated an iniquity by slaying Vitra
engaged in asceticism, Indra, out of fear, fled to the other side of
_Lokaloka_, perpetually enshrowded with darkness. And the sin,
consequent upon the destruction of a Brahman, pursuing him vehemently,
entered into his person. In this wise Indra became subject to dreadful
afflictions. Beholding the enemy slain and Indra fled, the deities
headed by fire again and again chanted the glories of Vishnu—the lord of
three worlds, saying ’O great god, thou art the refuge of the three
worlds. Thou art the first-born and the father of the universe. For
protecting all creatures thou hast assumed this Vishnu form. Thou hast
slain this Vitra but the sin of slaying a Brahman has visited Indra.
Therefore, O excellent Purusha, do thou so arrange that he may be freed
from sins.’ Hearing the words of the celestials Vishnu said—’Let your
Chief celebrate a sacrifice in my honor—and by that he shall be cleansed
of the sin. If the slayer of Pāka celebrates a horse sacrifice, he shall
again fearlessly be installed as the chief of deities.’ Having addressed
these nectar-like words to the deities and being glorified by them,
Vishnu, the god of gods, returned to his abode."


Having thus described at length and finished the story of Vitra’s
destruction Lakshmana said:—"The mighty Vitra, the terror of the
deities, being slain, and the slayer Indra, being assailed by the sin of
Brahmanicide, was bewildered and at a loss to ascertain his duty. Being
at his wit’s end he repaired to the other side of the _Lokaloka_
mountain and remained there for some time like a coiled serpent. And
again in consequence of Indra’s separation, the whole world was
agitated, the forests grew dried and the earth was devoid of water. On
account of the rivers being dried up and want of rain all creatures grew
impatient. In this wise, the time of the destruction of creatures having
arrived, the celestials being stricken with anxiety, according to the
previous command of Vishnu, engaged in celebrating the sacrifice With
Rishis and Ritwikas they fearfully approached Purandara; and beholding
him assailed by the sin of Brahmanicide, they with him, at their head,
engaged in celebrating a horse-sacrifice. After the sacrifice the sin
issued out of Indra’s person and addressing the high-souled deities said
’Do ye all ascertain, where I shall go now.’ Thereupon highly pleased
the deities replied:—’Do thou divide thyself into four portions.’
Hearing the words of the high-souled celestials she divided herself into
four parts, and wishing for a separate habitation said:—’By one portion,
I shall at my pleasure, live in rivers full of water during rains and
shall obstruct people from going there. By my second portion I shall
live perpetually on lands as _Ushara_;⁹⁸ I tell you the truth. By my
third portion I shall for three nights every month live in youthful
women proud of their youth—so that men might not live with them. And by
my fourth portion I shall enter into the persons of those who shall slay
innocent Brāhmanas.’ Hearing those words the deities said ’What thou
hast said shall be carried out. Do what thou wishest.’ Thereupon the
celestials, delighted, adored their Chief divested of sins and crowned
with victory. And Vāsava being installed again on the throne, the whole
universe was at rest. Thereupon Indra worshipped Vishnu in the shape of
that wonderful sacrifice. O descendant of Raghu, such is the power of a
horse-sacrifice." Hearing the charming words of Lakshmana, the energetic
and high-souled king, Rāma, powerful like Indra, was greatly delighted.

   ⁹⁸ A spot with saline soil.


Hearing the words of Lakshmana and smiling, the highly effulgent
descendant of Raghu, Rāma, skilled in the art of speech,
replied:—"Lakshmana, O foremost of men, thou hast truly related the
story of Vitra’s destruction and the fruits of horse-sacrifice. O gentle
one, I have heard, that formerly in the province of Valheeka, the
graceful king Ila, the son of the patriarch Kardama, was highly pious. O
foremost of men, having brought the entire earth under his control, the
highly illustrious king Ila used to govern his subjects like unto his
own sons. O descendant of Raghu, being terrified, the generous deities,
the rich Daityas, the highly powerful Nāgas, the irrepressible
Rākshasas, Gandharvas and Yakshas used to adore him perpetually. The
high-souled Ila being enraged, the three worlds used to be convulsed
with terror. And albeit so very powerful the highly illustrious king of
Valheeka never swerved from the path of morality nor neglected his
deities and rather intelligently used to administer all business. Once
on a time in the picturesque season of spring the mighty-armed Ila, with
his army and conveyances, entered into a charming forest, and on the
pretext of hunting, slew hundreds and thousands of deer. With slaying
deer only the high-souled king was not satisfied. He slew millions of
diverse other animals. In this way being engaged in hunting the king Ila
arrived where Kartikeya was born. At that time, in that hilly fountain
there was sporting in the company of his followers, the irrepressible
god of gods, the three-eyed deity with the daughter of the Chief of
mountains. Being desirous of satisfying the goddess Umā, her lord, whose
emblem is bull, was sporting under the guise of a female. In that forest
land, all male animals or trees were metamorphosed into the other sex at
that time. A-hunting, the king Ila, the son of Kardama, arrived at that
place and saw all animals and trees changed into female forms. And
immediately the king, and his army were changed into similar forms.
Finding himself in that plight the king Ila was greatly sorry, and
thinking that the misfortune was owing to the influence of the god of
gods—Umā’s lord, he was greatly terrified. Thereupon with his followers
and army the king took shelter of the high-souled and red-throated
deity. Thereupon the great god, the conferrer of boons, with the
goddess, smiling said:—’Rise up, O son of Kardama, O thou of great
strength, O gentle one, do thou beg of me any other boon than that of
obtaining thy manhood.’ Being thus disappointed by the great deity, the
king Ila, metamorposed into a female, became greatly sorry and did not
pray for any other boon. Being stricken with great sorrow, the king,
with whole heart, saluted the daughter of the mountain-chief and
said:—’O goddess, thou art the protectress of all—thou dost confer boons
on all; seeing thee doth not become fruitless. Do thou therefore have
compassion on me.’ Thereupon, cognizant of that king’s intention, the
goddess, with Hara’s consent, said:—’Half of the boon, that thou shalt
beg of us both, shall be granted by Mahadeva, and the other half shall
be granted by me. Do thou therefore beg of me the half.’ Hearing of that
excellent and wondrous boon the king became greatly delighted and
said:—’If thou art pleased with me, O goddess, do thou confer upon me
this boon, that I may be for one month, a female gifted with wonderful
beauty in the three worlds and for another month I may be a male.’
Thereupon understanding king’s desire, the beautiful goddess Pārvati,
mercifully said:—’The boon, according to thy desire, shall be granted. O
king, when thou shalt attain to the male figure, thou shalt not remember
anything of thy female form. And when thou shalt assume the charming
female figure thou shalt forget everything of thy male state.’ O
Lakshmana, by virtue of this boon, the king Ila for one month used to
become a man and for the next used to become a female, charming in the
three worlds under the name of Ilā."


Having heard of the story of the king Ila from Rāma, Lakshmana and
Bharata were greatly surprised. And with folded hands they, requesting
the noble king Rāma for further particulars, said:—"How could the king
Ila subject himself to those afflictions in the shape of a female? And
how did he use to behave himself in his male form?" Hearing those words
begotten of curiosity, Rāma engaged in relating the whole story as he
had heard before, saying:—"In the first month, assuming his female form
having lotus-eyes and charming the three world, he used to sport in the
forest abounding in groves, in the company of his companions
metamorphosed into the same form. Having sent away all his conveyances
he used to sport in the mountain vale. Thus roaming, Ilā one day espied
Budha, a bundle of rays, resembling the full moon in a picturesque pond
filled with birds at some distance from the mountain. Having compassion
for all creatures Budha, at that time, was performing, hard, glorious
and wished-for austerities within waters. O son of Raghu, on beholding
him Ilā was greatly surprised, and with her female companions began to
agitate waters. As soon as Budha saw her he was assailed by the arrows
of Cupid. Not being able to control himself he grew impatient within
waters and thought “This damsel is far more beautiful even than the
celestial girls. I have never seen before a like beauty amongst the
celestials, Nāgas, Asuras and Apsarās. If she has not been married
before then she is my worthy spouse." With this resolution Budha got up
from the waters, and repairing to his hermitage, sent for the fair ones.
They all saluted him. Thereupon the virtuous-souled Budha accosted them
saying:—"Whose daughter is this graceful girl amongst you and for what
she has come here? Do not delay—tell me soon." Hearing those sweet words
of his, the females said:—"This fair damsel is our supreme lady. She has
no husband. Journeying she has come here with us." Hearing those plain
words, Budha thought of the learning by which one can perceive
everything. And being informed of all regarding the king Ila thereby he
said—"Do ye all live in this mountain being _Kimpurusas_; do ye make
your respective habitations here. I shall give you always fruits and
roots. O ye females, you shall have all _Kimpurusas_ as your husbands."
According to the words of Budha they lived in that mountain as
_Kimpurusas_. In this wise many _Kimpurusa-Budhas_ were procreated.


Having heard of the origin of _Kimpurushas_, both Bharata and Lakshmana
said to Rāma:—"This is a wonderful story." Thereupon the highly
illustrious Rāma, the foremost of the pious, again began with the story
of Ila, the son of the patriarch. "Beholding the Kinnaris repairing to a
distance, Budha the foremost of ascetics, smiling said, to the beautiful
Ilā:—"O thou of a graceful presence, I am the most favourite son of the
moon; O fair one, do thou, with delight, cast looks upon me," Hearing
the words of the highly effulgent and beautiful Budha in the picturesque
forest land divested of men and animals, Ilā said:—"O gentle one, I am
not subject to any body; I surrender myself unto thee out of my own
accord. O son of Soma, thou mayst command me whatever thou wishest."
Hearing those wondrous words, the son of moon, possessed by lust, began
to live with her. And living in the company of Ilā, having a graceful
countenance, Budha, possessed by desire, spent the entire month of Madhu
like a moment. Thereupon after the expiry of a month, the graceful king
Ila, son of the pariarch, awoke from sleep and beholding Budha, the son
of Soma, engaged in austerities with uplifted hands in the midst of
waters, said:—"O illustrious Sir, with my followers I entered this dense
forest—I do not see them now anywhere. Where have they gone?" Hearing
the words of the royal saint, who had lost all recollection, Budha, with
sweet words consoled him and said:—"All thy followers have been
destroyed by a downpour of huge rocks; thyself, being afraid of the
storm, was also asleep in the hermitage. Thou hast no fear now.
Therefore, O hero, being consoled and renouncing all anxiety do thou
live here happily living upon fruits and roots." Being comforted by
those words, the high-minded king Ila, striken with distress in
consequence of the destruction of his servants, poorly replied:—"O
Brahman, I shall renounce my own kingdom. Separated from my servants, I
shall not be able to live, even for a moment. Do thou give me permission
in this. O Brahman, my eldest son, the highly illustrious Sasabindu, the
foremost of the pious, shall be the owner of my kingdom. O Brahman,
renouncing my servants and wives of the country I shall not be able to
wait here. Therefore, O highly effulgent one, do thou not give me such
an unpleasant command of remaining here." Hearing those wonderful words
of the king Ila, Budha consoling him, said:—"Do thou wait here. Be not
aggrieved, O highly powerful son of Kardama. If thou dost live here for
a year, I shall render thy well-being." Hearing the words of Budha, of
unwearied actions, the king Ila desired to live there. Thereupon
becoming a man for the next month he began to perform ascetic penances.
Thereupon in the ninth month, Ilā, having a beautiful waist, gave birth
to a highly effulgent son, under the name of Pururavā, born of the loins
of Budha, and equally graceful like him. And she handed over the highly
powerful son unto his father Budha. Thereupon after a year Ila having
regained the male form, Budha by means of various words afforded delight
unto him.


Rāma having thus described the wonderful birth of Pururava, the
illustrious Bharata and Lakshmana asked him again saying:—"O foremost of
men, tell us what did Ila afterwards do after living in the company of
Soma’s son for a year." Hearing their sweet words Rāma again began with
the story of Kardama’s son and said:—"In turn, the heroic Ila, having
regained his manhood, the highly illustrious and intelligent Budha,
well-informed of birth and well-skilled in the art of speech, sent for
the highly liberal Sangbarta, Vrigu’s son Chyavana, Aristhanemi, the
foremost of Munis, Durvasa, capable of affording delight, and other
friends gifted with patience and said:—’Ye all know well, how this
mighty-armed Ila, Kardama’s son, attained to this peculiar condition.’
Thereupon while those high-souled ones were conversing upon this
subject, the highly effulgent Kardama arrived at the hermitage.
Pulastya, Kratu, Vashatkar and the highly effulgent Omkāra came there
following him. Being greatly delighted for their arrival they all gave
out their individual opinion for bringing about the well-being of the
king of Vālhakee. For the welfare of his son, the patriarch Kardama
said:—’Hear, O twice-born ones, how the well-being of the king Ila may
be secured. For this disease I do not find any other good medicine but
Umā’s lord. And save Aswamedha there is no other sacrifice more
favourite unto the high-souled deity. Let us all therefore celebrate
that hard sacrifice on behalf of this king.’ Thereupon Sambarta’s
disciple, the royal saint Marutha, the conqueror of enemies’ cities,
collected all articles for the sacrifice. Thereupon in the vicinity of
Budha’s hermitage that mighty sacrifice was celebrated. And by that the
Great Rudra attained to delight and said to the twice-born ones, in the
presence of the king Ila:—’O foremost of twice-born ones, I have been
greatly delighted with this sacrifice and your devotion. Tell me now,
what I can do for this king of Valheeka.’ Hearing the words of Mahādeva,
the Brāhmanas, having propitiated him with great devotion, prayed for
Ila’s manhood. Thereupon delighted the highly effulgent Mahādeva, having
conferred upon him manhood, disappeared. In this wise the
horse-sacrifice being finished and Mahādeva having disappeared, the
far-seeing and leading twice-born ones repaired to their respective
hermitages. And having placed his eldest son Sasavindu as the king of
the country of Vālheeka, the king Ila reared another city in the middle
country. In time Ila attained to the excellent Brahmā region and his son
Pururāva obtained that Pratishthāna kingdom. O foremost of men, such is
the power of the horse-sacrifice, that the king Ila, though converted
into a female, regained manhood by virtue thereof."


Having thus addressed his both brothers, Rāma, the descendant of
Kakuthstha of unmitigated prowess, again said to Lakshmana, in words
pregnant with morality:—"O Lakshmana, having invited Vasishtha, the
foremost of twice-born ones, conversant with all the rites of Aswamedha,
Vamadeva, Javali, and Kashyapa and consulted with them duly I shall set
free a horse gifted with all marks." Hearing the words of Rāma,
Lakshmana, of unmitigated prowess, invited all those Brāhmanas and
approached Rāma. Seeing them, Rāma saluted them touching their feet. And
the Brāhmanas too, beholding the irrepressible celestial, like Rāghava,
welcomed him with blessings. Thereupon Rāma, with folded hands, asked of
those leading twice-born ones, questions regarding the Aswamedha
sacrifice. And hearing the words of Rāma, they, too, saluting the deity
Rudra, began to speak highly of the ceremony of horse-sacrifice. And
being informed from the Brāhmanas of many unheard of virtues of
Ashwamedha, Rāma was greatly delighted. And according to their desire he
said to Lakshmana:—"O thou having long arms, do thou soon send an
emissary to the high-souled Sugriva, communicating unto him ’Do thou
come here to enjoy festivities in the company of all those highly
powerful monkeys and bears, under thee; may good betide thee.’ See that
Bhibhishana of unequalled prowess, the king of Rākshasas, encircled by
his followers, coursing at will, may be present at the horse sacrifice.
Let the great kings, wishing my welfare with their followers, be present
at the sacrifice. O Lakshmana, do thou also invite carefully, for
witnessing the ceremony, other pious foreign kings who are friendly unto
me. O thou having long arms, do thou also invite the Rishis, having
asceticism for their wealth and other pious Brāhmanas living in various
provinces. Do thou also invite actors and songsters. Do thou order that
a spacious, sacrificial ground may be made on the banks of the river
Gomoti in the Naimisha forest. O thou having long arms, that part of the
country is best suited and holy. And let ceremonies, invoking peace, be
celebrated everywhere. O thou conversant with piety, do thou soon invite
hundreds of subjects, so that they all, having witnessed the ceremony in
the Naimisha forest, may return delighted and honored. O thou having
long arms, let Bharata go before with a million of beasts carrying rice,
sessamun seed, Kidneybean, Chickpea, pulse, Masha (a sort of Kidney
bean) salt, oil, clarified butter and a hundred koti of silver and
golden coins. Let merchants, to set up shops on the way, actors,
dancers, cooks, and many youthful females follow Bharata. Let soldiers
go before him. And let the highly illustrious Bharata, with children,
old men, Brāhmanas, citizens, servants, cashiers, mothers, wives and the
golden image of my wife to be initiated at the sacrifice, go before."
According to the command of Rāma, Bharata, with Satrughna, made
arrangements for highly valuable quarters, food, drink and clothes. And
the highly powerful monkeys with Sugriva and Brāhmanas engaged in the
work of distribution. And Bibhishana surrounded by various Rakshas and
females, engaged in service of the high-souled Rishis intent on hard


Having speedily despatched before all articles of sacrifice, Bharata’s
elder brother Rāma set free a black horse, gifted with all marks and
worthy of the sacrifice and placed Lakshmana with Rittwigas in charge of
it. Thereupon the mighty-armed Kākuthstha, in the company of his
soldiers, proceeded to the Naimisha forest and beholding the wonderful
sacrificial ground attained to an excess of delight and said:—"It has
become highly charming." And while he remained in the Naimisha forest,
all the kings sent him presents and Rāma also made returns. And diverse
food, drink and clothes were offered to the kings when they arrived
there with profuse presents. Bharata, with Satrughna, engaged in
attending upon the kings. The high-souled monkeys, with Sugriva, being
self-controlled engaged in attending upon the Brāhmanas. Bibhishana, in
the company of many Rākshasas, with a collected mind, began to serve the
Rishis, having asceticism for their wealth. And the highly powerful
Rāma, the foremost of men, set aside valuable houses for the
accomodation of the high-souled kings. Under these proper arrangements
the horse-sacrifice commenced. Lakshmana engaged in looking after the
sacrificial horse. In this wise Rāma, a lion amongst the kings,
undertook the celebration of the horse-sacrifice. And in that Ashwamedha
of Rāma presents were given unto people as long as they were not
satisfied. There was no other sound audible at that time save that of
"Give! Give!!" In sooth at the horse-sacrifice of the high-souled Rāma,
to their fullest satisfaction, sweets and other things were distributed
unto people. Indeed before words came out from the lips of the beggars,
monkeys and Rākshasas satisfied them with gifts. And all the ascetics
living for ever and having asceticism for wealth that were present
there, could not think of any other sacrifice, accompanied by so profuse
presents, they had seen before. In that sacrifice, those, who wished for
gold, obtained it, those who wished for property got it and those, who
longed for jewels, received them. In this wise before all, enough of
gold, jewels, and clothes were given away. The ascetics said:—"We have
never seen before a sacrifice like this, Indra’s, Soma’s, Yama’s or
Varuna’s." And being present everywhere the Rākshasas and Vānaras gave
away enough of riches and clothes even unto them who did not want. And
though this sacrifice, gifted with all marks, of Rāma, a lion among
kings, continued for a year still his accumulated treasure was not
exhausted, but rather was increased.


That sacrifice, the like of which was never seen before, having been
undertaken the illustrious ascetic Vālmiki, with his disciples, came
there. And beholding this wonderful sacrifice resembling that of the
celestials, his followers, the Rishis, made charming cottages in a
solitary corner and at no distance. Inside the highly charming cottage
of Vālmiki they placed his picturesque car full of fruits and roots.
Thereupon Vālmiki said to his disciples, Lava and Kusa:—"Do ye carefully
and delightedly sing the whole of Rāmāyana in the highly holy
hermitages, of the Rishis, in the homes where perpetual fire is kept up
by the Brāhmanas, in streets and palaces, at the gate of Rāma’s house,
in the sacrificial arena and before all Ritwigas. And eating all those
sweet fruits that are on the summit of the mountain near our hermitage,
do ye engage in chanting the sweet Rāmāyana. If you begin singing after
taking all those sweet fruits you not experience exhaustion in singing
nor you shall measure. If Rāma, the lord of earth, invites you to sing
the Rāmāyana, you may fearlessly sing it there in due and measures
before the assembled ascetics. During the day do ye sing, in your sweet
voice, twenty sections out of many I have laid in the Rāmāyana
consisting of many slokas. Do not cherish the least longing for riches,
what avail is wealth unto ascetics living perpetually on fruits and
roots? If Rāma asks you about your father you may say, ’We are both
disciples of the high souled Vālmiki.’ O Kusa and Lava, in your proper
mood do you sing the sweet song with charming Murchanā accompanied by
the sweet notes of Vina. Before you begin with the song, without
disregarding the king, do you bow unto him reverentially. Morally the
king is the father of all. Do you therefore both, delightedly and with a
collected mind, early in the morning, sing the theme in a sweet voice
and accompanied by the music of the stringed instrument." Having in this
wise given counsels, the highly generous and great ascetic Vālmiki, son
of Pracheta, became silent. Being thus commanded by the ascetic,
Janakis’ sons, Lava and Kusa, the slayers of enemies, issued out
therefrom saying. "So we shall do." Like unto the two Aswins following
the moral precepts of Sukra, the two princes, placing those wonderful
counsels of Vālmiki in their minds, spent the night with a heart
stricken with curiosity.


Thereupon the night being over, having bathed and performed the Homa,
both Lava and Kusa, in consonance with Rishi’s command, began the song.
That song was composed by the first preceptor (Vālmiki) never heard of
before, consisting of sounds originating from six places, containing all
metres, many proofs and set in accompaniment with the music of a
stringed instrument. Hearing such a song from the boys Rāma was striken
with curiosity. Thereupon taking leave from business for some time and
inviting the great ascetic Vālmiki, kings, learned men, persons
well-versed in Nyaya, Puranas and science of words, all old men,
twice-born ones, those conversant with the signs of music, Brāhmanas
desirous of hearing the Rāmāyana, persons deep read in palmistry,
Gandharvas, citizens, all those who have mastered the use of words,
letters and Samasas, those who have studied well metres, those well
informed in the science of music, those well-versed in astronomy, those
who are well up in the knowledge of rites and ceremonies, those expert
in the patch of business, logicians whose fame has spread far and wide,
those well-versed in reasonings and arguments, poets, historians, Vedic
Brāhmanas, painters, and songsters Rāma requested Lava and Kusa lovingly
to sing the song before the assembly. The audience being seated there
and engaged in conversation with one another those two Muni boys began
with the song enhancing the delight of all. Wondrous and charming was
their song and the audience were not by any means satiated with the
hearing thereof. Greatly delighted the highly effulgent ascetics and
kings again and again looked towards them as if drinking them up with
their eyes. And they all attentively said to one another—“Both of them
take after Rāma, like unto a bubble resembling the one it rises from.
There would not have been perceived the least difference between them
and Rāma had they not been clothed in bark and used clotted hair.” The
citizens and villagers speaking thus with one another Kusa and Lava
chanted twenty sections beginning from the first, pointed out by Nārada.
Having heard up to twentieth section, Rāma, fond of his brothers, said
to Lakshmana in the afternoon. “O Kākutstha, do thou soon confer upon
these two high-souled ones eighteen thousand gold coins and all other
things they wish for.” Thereupon when Lakshmana addressed himself in no
time to give them gold coins separately Kusa and Lava, not accepting
them and surprisingly said:—“We are dwellers of a forest, living upon
roots and fruits—what shall we do with them (coins)? Therefore living in
the forest what shall we do with the gold?” Hearing those words Rāma and
the audience were greatly worked up with curiosity and surprise.
Thereupon being anxious to learn of the origin of the poem, the highly
effulgent Rāma asked the two Muni boys, saying. "What is the proof of
the story of this poem? How great is his fame who has composed it? What
leading ascetic is the author of this great poem?" Rāma having thus
asked them those two Muni boys said:—"The illustrious Vālmiki is the
author of this poem. He has described in this poem thine endless story.
He has of late come to thy sacrifice. The great ascetic Vālmiki has
composed this poem consisting of a hundred stories and twenty four
thousand slokas. O king, that high-minded ascetic is our preceptor. He
has described thy actions in six books beginning with the first
consisting of five hundred sections. All good actions performed by thee
since thy birth have been recorded in this, O mighty car-warrior, O
king, if thou dost wish to hear the whole of it, do thou, at thy
leisure, hear it delightedly in the company of thy younger brothers."
Saying "So it shall be," Rāma bade them adieu and they too, delighted,
repaired to where Vālmiki, the foremost of Munis was. Thereupon having
heard that charming song in the company of ascetics and kings the
high-minded Rāma repaired to the place of business. He heard the
Rāmāyana sung by Kusa and Lava, gifted with musical characteristics,
consisting of sections, vowels, and consonant and enchanted in
accompaniment with the music of a stringed instrument.


Rāma heard that highly sacred theme for many long days in the company of
ascetics, kings and Vanaras. And understanding from the story that Kusa
and Lava were Jānaki’s sons, Rāma mentioning her name said before the
assembly:—"Send a good emissary unto the illustrious Vālmiki and let him
communicate unto the ascetics that if Jānaki is sinless and has lead a
pure life in the forest; let her give proof of purity by the great
ascetic’s permission. Let the emissaries learn well the intention of the
ascetic in this and if Sitā is at heart willing to bring in proofs. To
uphold her as well as mine purity, let Maithili, the daughter of Jānaka,
swear before the assembly." Hearing those wonderful words of Rāma, the
emissaries speedily went to Vālmiki and saluting the high-souled
(ascetic) burning in his effulgence and of incomparable lustre,
communicated unto him, in sweet words all what Rāma had said. Hearing
the words of the messengers and understanding Rāma’s intention the
ascetic said:—"What Rāma has said shall be satisfied. May good betide
you. Husband is the greatest god for women. So Sitā shall carry out his
behests." The great ascetic having said this, the highly powerful
emissaries, approaching Rāma, communicated unto him what the Muni had
said. Hearing the words of the high-souled Vālmiki, Rāma was greatly
delighted. Having addressed the assembled Rishis and kings he said:—"The
Rishis with their disciples, and the kings with their followers and all
others willing shall see Sitā swear here." Hearing the words of the
high-souled Rāma, all the high-souled Rishis began to speak of him in
high terms and said: "O foremost of men, such an action becomes thee not
any one else." Thereupon having settled that Sitā would swear next day,
Rāma, the slayer of enemies, dismissed them all. And having made
arrangements that Sitā would go through the trial next day, the
high-minded, generous king Rāma bade adieu unto all kings and Rishis.


Next morning Rāma, being present in the sacrificial ground and having
sent for the Rishis, Vasishtha, Vamadeva Javali, Kashyapa, Viswamitra,
carrying on penances for a long time, Durvasa, Pulastya of hard
austerities, Salastri, Vargava, Markandaya living long, the highly
illustrious Madgalya, Gargya, Chyavana, Satananda, conversant with
religions, effulgent Varadwāyā, Agnis’ son Vasuprava, Nārada, Parvata,
the great Gautama and other ascetics of firm vows, assembled with minds
possessed by curiosity. The highly powerful Rākshasas and monkeys also
came there out of curiosity. Besides thousands and thousands of
Kshatryas, Vaisyas, Sudras and Brahmans of firm penances, also hailed
there from various parts to witness Sitā’s trial. Having arrived there
they all sat down motionless like mountains. Thereupon, Vālmiki, the
foremost of ascetics, speedily came there accompanied by Sitā. With her
face downwards, folded palms, eyes full of tears and meditating upon
Rāma in her mind, Sitā, following the Rishi, came before the assembly.
There arose a great uproar of eulogy from the assembly when they saw
Sitā following Vālmiki like unto Sruti following Brahmā. Thereupon
members, stricken with sorrow, made a tumultuous sound. Amongst the
visitors some praised Rāma, some praised Sitā and others eulogised both
of them. Thereupon having entered that huge assemblage in company of
Sitā, the great ascetic Vālmiki addressed Rāma, saying:—"O son of
Daçaratha, in fear of calumny, thou didst renounce her near my
hermitage, albeit Sitā is pure and follows the ways of morality. O Rāma
of firm vows, thou art afraid of the censure of the people. Sitā has
becoming willing to give testimony (of her purity) for removing the
calumny of the public; do thou mercifully give her permission in this. I
tell you the truth, O Rāma, that these irrepressible twin brothers are
your sons, O descendant of Raghu. I am the tenth son of Pracheta, so,
far from speaking untruth it does not even spring up in my mind. I
therefore know the truth that these twins are thy sons. I have performed
austere penances for many thousand years; I now swear before thee, that
if this Maithili is found touched by any sin I shall not reap the fruit
of my ascetic observances extending over many thousand years. I have
never perpetrated before a crime, either in my mind, body, or speech. If
Maithili is found divested of sin I may then partake of the fruits of
piety. O descendant of Raghu, finding Sitā pure in mind and five
elements of body I took her near the spring in the forest. Besides this
Sitā, of pure ways, divested of sins and ever considering her husband as
deity, shall give testimony this day. Thou hast been afraid of the
public calumny. O son of a king, thy mind being possessed by the fear of
public scandal, thou didst renounce this Sitā of a pure character and
always regarding her husband as a god; I came to know this by virtue of
my discriminative knowledge."


After the great Rishi Vālmiki had said this, Rāma, on beholding the
daughter of Janaka resembling a celestial, in the midst of the assembly,
with folded hands, said:—"O great one, thou art conversant with piety.
By thy words shorn of sin, I have been convinced that Jānaki is of pure
ways. Still, O Brahman, what thou hast commanded shall be carried out;
let Sitā produce testimony of the purity of her character. Because
Vaidehi formerly underwent a trial in the city of Lanka before the
celestials I brought her home. O Brahman, vilification of the people is
very powerful. Although I know that Jānaki has not been touched by any
sin still I have renounced her. Do thou therefore forgive me. I know
that these twin brothers Kusa and Lava are my sons. Yet if Jānaki gives
evidence of her own purity before the assembly I shall be greatly
satisfied." Being apprised of Rāma’s intention as to Sitā’s trial the
celestials all came there on the occasion. The Adityas, Vasus, Rudras,
Viswadevas, Maruts, Sadhyas, Siddhas, Nagas and Rishis placing Brahmā
before them, all came there. And beholding the celestials and Rishis
assembled there Rāma again said to Vālmiki:—"O foremost of Munis, the
words of the high-souled Rishis, are divested of sin; therefore on thy
words only I shall consider Sitā as having pure ways. Still all have
come here being anxious to witness Sitā’s trial. I shall therefore be
greatly delighted if Jānaki gives in before them any testimony of her
pure character." As soon as those words were uttered, sweet, fragrant,
cold air, the witness of virtue and vice, blowing mildly, excited the
joy of the assembly. People, hailing from various countries, with all
attention began to witness this wondrous and unthought of event. In the
golden age only the celestial wind used to blow—and it now blew even in
the Treta Yuga and forsooth it was a matter of exceeding surprise.
Thereupon beholding all people assembled there, Janaka’s daughter,
wearing a red cloth, with her face and looks downwards and folded palms
said:—"I have never thought of any other person in my mind but Rāma; by
the strength of this virtue let the goddess Vasundharā give me room. I
have always with my mind, body and words prayed for Rāma’s well-being
and by virtue hereof may the goddess Vasundharā give me room in her
womb." As soon as Sitā swore in this wise a wonderful incident took
place. From inside the earth a celestial and excellent throne rose up.
It was carried on head by the Nāgas of unmitigated prowess, having
celestial persons and adorned with celestial jewels and ornaments.
Having stretched out her arms and taken Maithili, the goddess earth
welcomed her and placed her on the throne. And while seated on the
throne she was entering the earth, she was covered with the continued
showers of celestial flowers. Eulogising her at that time, the
celestials said "Oh! highly praiseworthy is thy conduct, O Sitā." Being
present in the welkin and beholding Sitā enter into the Earth, the
celestials again and again eulogised her in various words. The Rishis,
kings and other leading men present in the sacrificial arena repeatedly
expressed their surprise. Beholding Sitā’s censure thus removed all
animals, animate or inanimate, either on earth or in the sky, were
greatly delighted. Some cried aloud in joy, some remained silent, and
some motionless espied Rāma or Sitā. In this wise beholding Sitā’s
entrance into the Earth the ascetics were greatly delighted. They all
attaining to the same state of mind, the whole universe, for a moment,
was possessed with the state of equality.


Sitā having entered Rasātala, all the monkeys and Rishis repeatedly
eulogised her before Rāma. Stricken with sorrow and grief and lowering
down his head, Rāma, with eyes full of tears, face downwards, and a
dejected mind, sat down. And being possessed by grief and anger and
shedding tears he wept for some time and then said:—"My mind is about to
be possessed by grief, which I had never experienced before, for in the
very presence of mine the graceful Jānaki, like Lakshmi herself, hath
disappeared from view. Formerly, in my absence, Jānaki was once carried
away into the city of Lankā, on the other side of the great ocean and I
brought her back; what wonder it is that I shall get her back from
Patāla? O goddess Vasudha, do thou soon bring Sitā in my view, or else,
worked up with ire I shall give thee the fruits of thy negligence. Thou
art my mother-in-law, since the royal saint Janaka obtained Sitā from
thy womb while cultivating thee with plough share. Do thou therefore
bring back my Sitā or give me a region of the celestials, I wish to live
with Sitā. I am beside myself for her: do thou therefore bring back
Sitā. If thou dost not render back Sitā unto me O Vasudha, I shall
deluge the earth with waters, having assailed, destroyed and drowned
into water thy huge compass with mountains and forests." Rāma, having
given vent to those accents under the influence of ire, the patriarch
Brahmā, with the consent of the celestials, said:—"O Rāma of firm vows,
O slayer of enemies, thou shouldst not grieve thus. Recollect thy former
state of Vishnu and the counsels. I would not have reminded thee of this
secret but for the present necessity. Do thou now once more remember thy
birth from Vishnu. By nature, Sitā is pure, chaste and ever dependent
upon thee. And by virtue of her ascetic dependance upon thee she has
gone to the region of Nāgas. Thou shalt again meet her in heaven. Hear,
what I communicate unto thee before the assembly. Thou shalt be informed
of everything by listening to this excellent poem describing thy own
actions, O hero. Vālmiki has described herein all miseries and joys thou
hast experienced since thy birth and what shall happen in future after
Sitā’s entrance into Patala. O Rāma, this first epic poem, Rāmayan, has
been composed describing thy works. None but thee is worthy of the fame
of this poem. O Rāghava, O highly illustrious one, do thou hear with the
Rishis, Uttarakandam, the last portion of this poem. O descendant of
Raghu, this is not worthy of being heard by any but those who art the
foremost of the royal saints." Having said this, the deity Brahmā, the
lord of the three worlds, with other deities, repaired to the region of
immortals. The high-souled and the highly effulgent ascetics, living in
Brahmā’s region, who were present in the assembly, obtaining Brahmā’s
permission, waited there, to hear Rāma’s future career in the
Uttarakandam. Hearing the words of the great Patriarch instinct with
well-being, the highly effulgent Rāma said to Vālmiki:—"O illustrious
sir, the Rishis living in Brahmā’s region have grown desirous of hearing
my future history. So let it be taken up next morning." Having thus
settled and taken with him Kusa and Lava and sent away the assembled
people he entered his palace and spent the night mourning for Sitā.


The night being over and having invited the leading ascetics, Rāma told
his sons to sing the poem fearlessly. Thereupon the high-souled Rishis
having taken their seats Kusa and Lava began the last portion of the
Uttarakāndam. Sitā having entered Patala by the strength of her vow, and
the sacrifice having terminated, Rāma grew poorly in spirit. In Jānaki’s
absence the whole world appeared to him as blank. Now being overwhelmed
with grief he lost all mental peace. Having conferred various gifts upon
the kings, Rākshasas, monkeys, and leading Brāhmanas, Rāma sent them
away and meditating upon Sitā’s absence entered Ayodhyā. And from the
time of Sitā’s entering into Patala he did not take any other spouse.
And having made a golden image of Sitā he engaged in the performance of
various sacrifices. In this wise for thousand years he celebrated many
Horse-sacrifices, many Bajpeyas with profuse gold, Agnisomas, Atirātras,
numberless Gomedhas and various other sacrifices, Rāma being engaged in
governing the kingdom and performing many pious rites long time passed
away. And being under his subjection, bears, monkeys, Rākshasas and
kings always afforded delight unto him. On account of showers in proper
time there was enough of food in his kingdom. The quarters were pure and
delightful. The citizens and villagers were happy and healthy. None met
with premature death. In fact, in his regime all calamities were
removed. Thereupon after many years, the illustrious Kausalya, Rāma’s
mother, surrounded by her sons and grand-sons, breathed her last.
Performing many pious observances Kakeyi followed her and obtained peace
in the land of immortals. Those noble ladies, being united with the king
Daçaratha, in heaven, were greatly delighted and obtained all virtues.
Besides, having worshipped the deities and manes on the occasion of his
father’s _Srādha_ ceremony the high-souled Rāma distributed many jewels
and engaged in the performance of a very difficult sacrifice. In this
wise having performed many sacrifices and multiplied pieties he spent
many thousand years in happiness.


Once on a time Yudhajit, the king of Kekaya, sent unto the high-souled
Rāma, Gargya—son of his own preceptor Angeras—a Brāhmin saint of
unmitigated prowess; and with him he sent, as tokens of affections,
gifts of ten thousand horses, numberless blankets, various jewels,
diverse clothes and well washed coverlets. Hearing of the arrival of the
great saint Gargya with above valuable presents sent by his material
uncle Yudhajit, the intelligent Rāma, with his brothers, proceeded about
a Krosa to receive him and adored him particularly likely unto the lord
of celestials honoring Vrihaspati. Having thus welcomed that foremost of
Rishis and accepted the valuable presents sent by his maternal uncle he
asked the ascetic about his welfare in every thing. Thereupon the great
Rishi being seated, he said:—"Thou art the foremost of those skilled in
the art of speech like the very preceptor of the celestials. Since thine
own self hath come here my uncle must have commissioned thee with a very
important message." Hearing those words of Rāma the great saint
communicated unto him the object of his coming, saying.—"O thou having
long arms, if thou dost like, hear what loving words thy maternal uncle
Yudhajit, the foremost of men, has said. The Gandharvas, holding weapons
and expert in warfare, guard that beautiful province abounding in fruits
and roots on the banks of the river Sindhu. O hero, those Gandharvas are
Sailuskā’s sons—highly powerful and three kotis in number. Having
hoisted thy flag of victory and conquered that highly picturesque city
of Gandharvas do thou include that kingdom within thine well-established
territories. None can enter there. O thou having long arms, I do not
request thee for any harm of thine. Let that highly charming country be
liked by thee." Hearing the words of the maternal uncle communicated by
the great saint, Rāma, with delight, said:—"What you have commanded
shall be satisfied." Saying this he looked towards Bharta and
delightedly and with folded hands said to the Rishi "O Brahmarshi, these
two princes are Bharata’s sons and their names are Taksha and Pushkala.
Being well protected by uncle Yudhajit and preceded by Bharata with army
and followers they shall subjugate the Gandharvas and divide the kingdom
between them. Having established two kingdoms and installed his two sons
there Bharata, the foremost of the pious, shall come back to me."

Having thus said to the Brahmarshi, Rāma commanded Bharata and welcomed
the two princes. Thereupon under the auspices of favourable stars,
having placed Gargya before them, Bharata with the princes and army,
issued out of the city of Ayodhyā. And Rāma’s army unconquerable even by
the celestials went on for a month, from the city like a celestial host
under the command of Indra. Animals, living upon flesh and huge-bodied
Rākshasas longing for blood followed Bharata. Besides many thousand
birds, moving in the sky, lions, tigers and boars went before the army.
The army, consisting of delighted and healthy subjects spending half a
month in the way, arrived at the Kekaya kingdom in good health.


Hearing of the arrival of the Bharata with the army Gargya and Yudhajit,
the king of Kekayas, were greatly delighted. And with a huge army they
speedily went out for conquering the Gandharvas. Thereupon the highly
powerful and light-armed Bharata and Yudhajit, with the soldiers and
followers, arrived at the city of Gandharvas. Having heard of the coming
of Bharata the highly powerful Gandharvas gathered round and sent up
leonine roars. Thereupon began the battle capable of making down erect
and continued for a week. On neither side there was victory or defeat.
On all sides there flowed streams of blood and there were afloat human
bodies. Daggers, Saktis and bows were like the banks of the river.
Thereupon enraged Bharata, Rāma’s younger brother, discharged a dreadful
arrow named Sangharata resembling the fire of dissolution against
Gandharvas. Having bound them all with the noose of death and sundered
them with Sangharata, Bharata despatched all the Gandharvas to the abode
of death. Even the celestials could not recollect if such a dreadful
encounter had happened before. In a moment the huge Gandharva host was
slain. After the destruction of the Gandharvas, Kaikeyi’s son Bharata
set up two excellent and prosperous cities in the province of Gandharva.
And he placed Taksha in Takshasila and Pushkala in Pushkalabati. Both
the cities were filled with profuse riches and jewels and covered with
various gardens. As for many ornaments both of them as if vied with one
another. By just purchases and sales, and by the conduct of the people
the cities grew highly charming. Both of them were filled with gardens
and conveyances. Rows of shops were well arranged by the streets in both
the cities. Both of them were adorned with many excellent fancy
articles, picturesque houses, charming palaces and many beautiful and
high Tāla, Tamāla, Tilaka and Vakula trees. Having reared up those two
cities within five years, Rāma’s younger brother, the mighty armed
Bharata, son of Kaikeyi, returned to Ayodhyā. And like unto Vāsava
saluting Brahmā he adored the high-souled Rāghava the very personation
of virtue and communicated unto him duly the destruction of the
Gandharvas and the establishment of the two cities. And hearing the
words of Bharata, Rāma attained to an excess of delight.


Hearing the wonderful words of Bharata both Rāma and Lakshmana were
greatly delighted. And then Rāma said to Lakshmana:—"O Saumitri, thy two
sons, Angada and Chandraketu are well-versed in religions, perfectly
qualified in governing the kingdom and highly powerful. I shall
therefore install them on throne. O gentle one, do thou find out such a
country where these two skillful archers may unobstructed roam about.
And where if a kingdom is established it might not disturb the peace and
happiness of other kings." Rāma, having finished his speech Bharata
replied:—"The country of Karupada is highly picturesque and freed from
all thorns. Let the city for Angada be established there. And let the
beautiful country of Chandradyuti be the kingdom of Chandraketu." Rāma
approved of the words of Bharata and having brought the country of
Karupada under his subjection gave it to Angada. He reared a beautiful
and well-protected city for Angada. And in the country of Mallya he
reared a city for Chandraketu, named Chandrakānti highly picturesque and
like unto the city of celestials. Thereupon greatly delighted Rāma,
irrepressible in battle, Lakshmana and Bharata, having performed the
ceremony of installation ordered them to go their respective cities.
Angada started towards the West and Chandraketu towards the North.
Sumitra’s son Lakshmana went with Angada and Bharata accompanied
Chandraketu. Having spent a year in Angada’s city and finding his son
well established in the kingdom Lakshmana returned to Ayodhyā. And
Bharata, according to his desire, having spent more than a year in the
city of Chandrakānti, came back to Ayodhyā and saluted Rāma’s feet. The
pious Lakshmana and Bharata—both the brothers, were greatly attached
unto Rāma; and though they spent their days in another place they did
not experience any pain in consequence of separation from their sons.
Observing all virtues in this way, Rāma, the foremost of the pious,
Bharata and Lakshmana governed the subjects for ten thousand years.
Having spent their days in the city of Ayodhyā, the very city of virtue,
the three brothers, appearing graceful like the burning fire receiving
oblations in a great sacrifice, attained to joy in the fullness of time.


In this wise the virtuous Rāma having spent some time at Kāla, assuming
the shape of an ascetic, arrived at the palace gate. And beholding the
intelligent Lakshmana at the door he said: "Do thou communicate (unto
Rāma) that for some important business I have come here. I am the
messenger of the great saint Atibala of incomparable effulgence. O thou
of great strength, for a particular business, I have come here to see
Rāma." Hearing the words of the great saint, Saumitri speedily went to
Rāghava and communicated unto him the arrival of the ascetic, saying:—"O
thou of great effulgence, observing the royal duties, mayst thou acquire
victory in both the worlds; one ambassador radiant like the sun by
virtue of his asceticism, has come here to visit thee." Hearing the
words of Lakshmana Rāma said:—"Do thou speedily bring here the highly
effulgent ascetic bringing in a message." Thereupon saying "So be it,"
Saumitri conducted the effulgent ascetic unto Rāma’s house. And having
approached Rāma the foremost of Raghus, the ascetic, burning in his own
energy, said to him, in sweet accents:—"O great king, may prosperity
crown thee." And having welcomed him with water and Argya the highly
effulgent Rāma asked him about his well-being. Being asked by Rāma as to
his welfare, that foremost of ascetics, skilled in the art of speech,
sat on a golden seat. Thereupon welcoming him Rāma said:—"Do thou
communicate unto me his words by whom thou hast been sent." Being thus
addressed by Rāma, a lion amongst kings, the ascetic said:—"If dost thou
wish to bring about the well-being of the celestials, my earnest desire
is that we may talk over it in a solitary; place. And if thou hast any
regard for the words of that foremost of ascetics, do thou so order that
whoever shall hear or see us, when we shall converse in a solitary
place, shall be slain by thee." Thereupon Rāma promised that it should
be done and said to Lakshmana:—"O thou having long arms, sending away
the warder do thou wait at the gate. When I shall talk with this ascetic
in this solitary room whoever, shall hear or see us, shall be slain by
me." Having thus placed Lakshmana at the gate Rāma said to that
Rishi:—"O great saint, tell me what he has communicated unto thee. O
Muni, what is thy intention and by what high-souled Rishi thou hast been
sent here. Tell me all this without any fear. I have become anxious to
hear it."


Thereupon the great saint said:—"Hear, O king, O thou gifted with great
energy, for what I have come here. O thou of great strength, the great
Patriarch has sent me to thee. O hero, I am thy son. Thou didst, in thy
pristine birth, beget me on Māyā—I am Kāla, the destroyer of all. Lord
Brahmā, the father of all creatures, has said that thou didst promise to
preserve the three worlds. Formerly when having slain all animals by thy
Māyā thou wert asleep in the waters of the mighty deep I was born.
Thereafter thou didst create the huge-bodied Ananta, living in the
waters as the king of serpents. Then thou didst create two highly
powerful Asuras named Madhu and Kaithabha. At that time the bones of
those two Asuras having been scattered far and wide this earth
containing many mountains was named _Medini_. Having procreated me in
thy lotus navel, dazzling in celestial brilliance thou didst employ me
in the work of generation. I took the charge and procreated men; but
finding no other means to preserve them I worshipped thee, the lord of
the universe and said:—O lord, thou shouldst protect the creatures, for
thou art my father and giver of energy and therefore irrepressible.
Thereupon for concerting means for the preservation of creatures, thou
didst renounce thy irrepressible shape and assume Vishnu form. And
taking thy birth from Aditi’s powerful son, thou wert engaged in
enhancing the delight of my brothers. Thou didst use to protect the
deities whenever they were assailed by any calamity. O lord of the
universe, it is for that reason, on beholding the destruction of
creatures thou wert born on earth to slay the Ten-necked demon. And at
that time thou didst promise that thou wouldst live in the land of
mortals for eleven thousand years. Thereupon thou didst assume a human
form to carry out thine desire. Now that period is ripe and this is the
proper time to inform thee of it. O great king, do thou wait in this
land of mortals if dost thou wish to govern people for some time more.
And if dost thou wish to repair to the region of immortals, do thou
again lord over the deities in thy Vishnu form and let them be freed
from anxiety. O Hero, the Patriarch hath sent this intelligence unto
thee." Hearing those unequalled words of the Patriarch from the mouth of
Kāla, the destroyer of all, Rāma smiling said:—"I have been greatly
pleased and happy for thy coming here, O my son. I descended on earth to
bring about the well-being of the three worlds. May good betide thee. I
shall now repair to from where I have come here. I was thinking of this
when thou didst come here. Therefore, I have no doubt in this. O lord of
destruction, the immortals are dependent on me, so I shall be with them
in all works. The Great Patriarch has said the truth."


While Rāma and Kāla were thus conversing with one another, the great
ascetic Durvāsā arrived at the gate for seeing Rāma and approaching
Lakshmana said:—"O Saumitri, do thou soon take me to Rāma; my time goes
away, so do thou take me first." Hearing the words of the ascetic,
Lakshmana, the slayer of enemies worshipping the feet of that
high-souled one, said:—"O illustrious Sir, kindly mention thy business.
What is thy object? Order me what I am to do. Rāma is engaged in some
business so kindly wait here for some time." Hearing those words that
foremost of Rishis, Durvāsā, impatient with rage, said with blood-red
eyes:—"O Saumitri, if dost thou not go even this very moment and
communicate unto Rāma my arrival, I shall impricate thee, Rāma, Bharata,
Sutrughana, your sons and grand-sons. I shall curse also thy kingdom and
cities. I cannot any longer restrain my growing ire." Hearing those
dreadful and resolute words of the Rishi, Lakshmana thought within
himself:—"My own destruction is far more desirable than that of all."
Having thus resolved Lakshmana approached Rāma and communicated unto him
the intelligence. Hearing the words of Lakshmana and having bade adieu
unto Kāla, Rāma soon came out and saw Atri’s son. And having saluted
that great and powerful ascetic he with folded hands, said "What is
thine business?" Hearing the words of Rāma, the highly powerful Durvāsā,
the foremost of Munis, said. "Hear, O Rāma fond of virtue. For a
thousand years I have carried on the vow of fasting. It has terminated
to-day, so do thou give me food as much as possible." Hearing those
words Rāma was greatly delighted and gave proper food unto that ascetic.
And feasting on that nectar-like sweet food, Durvāsā, the foremost of
Rishis, thanked Rāma and repaired to his own hermitage. Thereupon
remembering the words of Kāla, Rāma was greatly sorry. And thinking of
those dreadful words he was overwhelmed with grief. And with a poorly
heart, and face downwards he remained silent for some time. Thereupon
thinking of Kāla’s words and determining that every calamity would
befall him, that highly illustrious descendant, of Raghus, summoned


Thereupon beholding Rāma with his head downwards and poorly like unto
the moon possessed by Rāhu, Lakshmana, delightedly and with sweet words,
said:—"Be not aggrieved for me, O thou having mighty arms. Such is the
course of time; the movements of creatures are destined by their
pristine actions, good or bad. O gentle one, do thou satisfy thy promise
slaying me without any hesitation. O Kākuthstha, those, who cannot carry
out their promises, repair to hell. O great king, if thou hast any love
or affection for me, do thou satisfy thy promise by fearlessly slaying
me." Hearing those words of Lakshmana Rāma’s mind was greatly moved.
Thereupon having invited his priests and ministers there he communicated
unto them his promise and Durvāsā’s arrival. Hearing it the ministers
and priests remained silent. Thereupon Vasishtha, of unmitigated
effulgence, said:—"O highly illustrious and mighty armed Rāma, I knew
before by virtue of my asceticism, of this thy present destruction and
separation from Lakshmana. Time is powerful; do not falsify thy promise.
Promises not carried out bring on the destruction of virtue. And on the
wane of virtue, forsooth, the three worlds, with celestials, saints,
mobile and immobile creations, shall be destroyed. Therefore, O foremost
of men, do thou protect, the universe by suffering separation from
Lakshmana, in the interest of the preservation of the three worlds." All
other ministers and priests agreed with Vasishtha’s words. Thereupon
hearing their moral counsels, Rāma said to Lakshmana before the
assembly:—"O Lakshmana, it is not proper to act against morality, I do
therefore renounce thee; for the pious hold that destruction and
renounciation are all the same." Rāma saying this, Lakshmana did not go
to his own house, but with eyes full of tears specially repaired
therefrom. Having reached the banks of Saraju and rinsed his mouth he
stood there with folded palms. And having obstructed all passages he did
not breathe any more. Lakshmana, the younger brother of Rāma, being thus
engaged in penances, having obstructed his breath, Apsarās, Indra and
other deities and Rishis showered flowers on him. Thereupon beyond the
sight of men, having taken the highly powerful Lakshmana within his
body, the king of celestials entered his own city. Thereupon beholding
Lakshmana, the fourth portion of Vishnu arrived at their city the
celestials were greatly delighted and engaged in his worship.


Having forsaken Lakshmana and being stricken with sorrow and grief Rāma
said to his citizens and ministers:—"Having placed the pious and heroic
Bharata on the throne of Ayodhyā, I shall to-day repair to woods. Do ye,
without any delay collect there all articles of installation. I shall
follow the way which has been wended by Lakshmana." Hearing the words of
Rāghava, the subjects with their heads downwards remained motionless
like so many dead bodies. Hearing Rāma’s words Bharata was also
stupified and speaking ill of the kingdom, said:—"O King, I swear by
truth, that far from kingdom I do not wish to live in heaven even
without thee: O King, of these two princes, Kusi and Lava do thou place
Kusi in Kosala and Lava in North Kosala. And let quick-moving emissaries
go to Satrughna and communicate unto him the intelligence of our going
there." Hearing those words of Bharata and beholding the subjects
stricken with sorrow having their heads downwards, Vasishtha
said:—"Behold, O Rāma, the subjects have placed themselves on the
ground. Do thou, therefore; apprised of their intention, satisfy their
desire." Raising up the subjects according to the words of Vasishtha
Rāma said:—"What good can I do for you!" Hearing Rāma’s words they
said:—"O King, we shall follow thee wherever thou shalt go. If thou hast
any love or affection for the citizens do thou permit them that they may
follow thy good path with their wives and children. O lord, if thou dost
not forsake us, let us all go wherever thou wilt,—be it a forest, an
intractable tract, a river or an ocean. O great king, by this we shall
be greatly delighted. We pray for this boon only. Our delight consists
in following thee in everything." Observing such a firm devotion of the
citizens Rāma agreed to that. Thereupon having gone through his duties
he installed Kusi in the kingdom of Kosala and Lava in the northern
country. Having thus installed the high-souled and heroic Kusi and Lava
and conferred upon each of them thousand chariots, Ajuta Nāgas, Ajuta
horses and various jewels and riches he established them in their
respective kingdoms. Having thus settled the princes he despatched an
emissary to Satrughna.


Having been despatched by Rāma, quick-moving emissaries speedily arrived
at Mathura. Continually travelling for three nights and days, they
arrived there and communicated unto Satrughna the intelligence. Having
informed him of the renouncing of Lakshmana, Rāma’s promise and the
following of the citizens they said:—"The intelligent Rāma has reared
for Kusi the spacious city of Kusavati at the foot of the Vindhya range.
The city of Sravanti has been reared for Lava, and the mighty
car-warriors Rāma and Bharata, making Ayodhyā void of men, have
addressed themselves for repairing to heaven." Having speedily
communicated unto him this intelligence the emissaries took rest.
Thereupon they asked Satrughna to proceed soon. Observing the dreadful
destruction of his race, Satrughna sent for his subjects and priests and
informed them of everything. He also communicated unto them his own
destruction with his brothers. Thereupon the king Satrughna determined
upon installing his two sons in the kingdom. Suvahu was placed on the
throne of Mathura and Satrughati became the king of Vidisha. Having thus
established Suvahu in Mathura, and Satrughati in Vidisha, the great hero
Satrughna ascended his car and went to Ayodhyā. And there he saw the
great Rāma, clothed in silk raiment burning like fire in the midst of
the ascetics. Thereupon remembering his duty he saluted Rāma, conversant
with piety and with folded hands said:—"I have placed my two sons on the
throne of my kingdom. I have now resolved upon following thee, O King. O
hero, do not command me otherwise. I pray only that I may not neglect
thy command." Thereupon understanding the firm resolution of Satrughna,
the descendant of Raghu agreed. Immediately after Rāma had said this,
monkeys assuming shapes at will, bears, and Rakshas began to assemble
there. Apprised of Rāma’s determination of going to heaven, monkeys,
born of the celestials, Rishis and Gandharvas taking Sugriva before
them, came there to see Rāma. And they all said:—"O Rāma, O foremost of
men, if thou dost repair to heaven forsaking us all, it will be hurling
Yama’s rod upon us." The highly powerful Sugriva too saluting Rāma
said:—"O lord of men, having placed Angada on the throne I have come
hither. I have determined upon following thee, O King." Hearing the
words of monkeys, Rāma said that their desire would be fulfilled. He
then said to Bibhishana the king of Rākshasas:—"As long as people shall
breathe, O Bibhishana, O highly powerful lord of Rākshasas, thou shalt
preserve thy body in Lankā. As long as the moon, the sun and the earth
shall exist and as long as my story shall remain current, thy kingdom
shall be in existence. Thou didst, out of friendship, carry out my
behests and perform my works. Do thou piously govern thy subjects. I
should not speak any thing else. What shall I say more unto thee, O
highly powerful lord of Rākshasas. Worship Jagannath (the lord of the
world), the presiding deity of the Ikshwāku race." Having thus addressed
the king of Rākshasas always obeying Rāghava’s command, Kākuthstha said
to Hanumān:—"It is settled that thou shalt live forever, do thou, now
observe thy promise. As long as my history shall run current in this
world do thou at my command live happily." Being thus addressed by the
high-souled Rāghava Hanumān attained to great delight and said:—"As long
as the sacred theme shall pass current in this world I shall live here
carrying out thy commands." Thereupon he said to the Jambhuvan, Brahmā’s
son, Mainda, Dwivida and five others in his company:—"As long as the
Kali Yuga exists do ye all live." Having thus addressed them all
Kākuthstha said to bears and monkeys, "Do ye come all with me."


After the night had expired the highly illustrious Rāma having a
spacious breast and eyes like lotus petals said to the priest:—"Let the
brilliant umbrellas Agnihotra, and Bājapeya go with the Brāhmanas
before, which look well in the great road." Thereupon the highly
effulgent Vasishtha arranged duly all the ceremonies necessary for going
to the next world. Thereupon wearing a thin cloth, holding kusa grass by
his fingers, and reciting Vedic hymns he proceeded to the banks of
Saraju. Having given up all actions of senses, and suffered the pains of
going on foot he issued out of the city speechless like unto the burning
sun. On his right hand side was the lotus-handed Sree, on his left hand
side was the goddess Earth and before him was the power of destruction.
Various arrows, huge bows, and daggers, assuming forms followed him. And
also went with him the four Vedas in the shape of the Brāhmanas, the all
protecting Gayatri, Omkāra and Vasatkāra. The high-souled Rishis and
great Asuras followed the high-souled Rāma to the open gates of heaven.
All the female servants, old and young, the damsels of the seraglio
accompanied by servants having no manhood, Bharata and Lakshmana
accompanied by their wives, followed him with Agnihotra. All those
high-souled ones, assembled there with Agnihotra and followed Kākuthstha
with their wives and children. The ministers and the servants, with
their sons, beasts and friends, followed Rāma delightedly. Thereupon all
the subjects healthy and delighted went after Rāghava, attracted by his
accomplishments and cleansed of their sins. All the females and males,
with their beasts, birds and friends, delightedly followed Rāghava.
Bathed and delighted, all the monkeys, healthy and joyous following
Rāma, created a continued tumult. There was none poorly, aggrieved or
miserable—all of them appeared wonderfully happy and delighted. When
Rāma issued out of the city, whoever came to see him followed him being
desirous of going to heaven. Bears, monkeys and Rākshasas and all the
citizens followed him with great devotion and collected minds. And all
other animals, that were beyond the view of all in the city went after
Rāghava proceeding to heaven. All creations mobile and immobile, whoever
beheld Kākuthstha followed him. All beings in Ayodhyā, whoever breathe
and are very minute, accompanied Rāma.


Having thus gone for more than a half Yojana, the descendant of Raghu
espied Saraju of holy waters flowing towards the west. And having
crossed that river of rising waves to some extent, Rāma, with his
followers arrived at the place where he should give up his person.
Thereupon at that moment, Brahmā, the grandfather of all encircled by
all high-souled deities and with hundred kotis of celestial cars,
arrived there where Kākuthstha had addressed himself to repair to
heaven. The aerial way was full of lustre but its brilliance was
increased the more by the native effulgence of the inhabitants of
heavens, always performing pious actions. There blew the holy, fragrant
and delightful winds and there fell profusely celestial flowers from the
hands of the deities. The place was filled with the noise of hundreds of
bugles sounded by Gandharvas and Apsarās. And then Rāma prepared himself
to descend to the waters of Saraju. Thereupon the Patriarch gave vent to
the following accents from the welkin:—“Come O Vishnu; may good betide
thee; by our good fortune thou art coming here; O Rāghava hear—O thou
having mighty arms, do thou enter here with thy brothers, resembling the
celestials in brilliance in whatever form thou likest—either in that of
the sky or in thy own Vishnu form. Thou art the refuge of the
creatures—nobody knoweth thee. Thou art above the range of thought;
great immortal and imperishable; nobody knoweth thee save Māyā, having
wide eyes, thy former spouse. Do thou enter here thyself in whatever
effulgent form thou likest.” Hearing the words of the Patriarch and
determining everything the high-minded Rāma entered there bodily with
his brothers in his Vishnu form. Thereupon all the celestials Sādhyas
Marutas, headed by Indra and Agni worshipped that deity, Vishnu. So did
all the celestial Rishis, Gandharvas, Apsarās, Suparnas, Nāgas, Yakhas,
demons, Dānavas and Rākshasas. Thereupon eulogising him the celestials
said:—"Our region is now freed from sins and all here have been
delighted and all their desires have been fulfilled." Thereupon the
highly effulgent Vishnu said to the Patriarch Brahmā:—"It behoveth thee,
O thou of good vows, to allot to those people their proper regions.
These illustrious ones have followed me out of love. They are worthy of
my respect for they are my devotees and have renounced their persons for
me." Hearing the words of Vishnu, the lord Brahmā, father of all
creatures, said:—"All these people who have come here shall go to the
region named Santanaka. This region is intended even for him, who though
born in the most degraded state, thinks of all objects as Vishnu. There
is no question about their attaining to this region who, out of
devotion, have followed thee and renounced their persons. This region
has all the attributes of the Brahmā region and is next to it. The
monkeys and bears shall enter into their respective celestial forms.
They shall enter into the deities from whom they had respectively
originated. Sugriva shall enter into the Sun’s region. And they shall
obtain their respective fathers’ forms among the celestials present."
The lord of the deities having said this, all those who were present at
the holy pilgrimage of _Gopratra_ descended into the waters of Saraju
with eyes full of tears of joy. Having bathed there, given up their
lives delightedly and renounced their human forms they ascended the
celestial cars. And having obtained the waters of Saraju, hundreds of
those that were born in the race of birds attained to the land of
immortals obtaining the respective celestial forms (they had before).
And in those celestial forms, they looked effulgent like the deities.
And going to the waters of Saraju all objects, mobile and immobile,
having bathed there, repaired to the excellent celestial region. Having
renounced their bodies in the water thereof all the bears, monkeys, and
Rakshasas attained to the land of deities. Having thus settled in heaven
all those arrived there the father, of creatures with the deities,
delighted and happy, repaired to the highest heaven.


This Story ends with the Uttara. It is held in reverence by Brahma,
composed by Vālmiki and passes as the foremost of all under the name of
the Rāmāyana. Thereupon as before, Vishnu, who compriseth the three
worlds and all objects, mobile and immobile, again established himself
as before in the land of immortals. Thereupon the celestials the
Gandharvas, the great Rishis used to hear happily every day in heaven
this poem of Rāmāyana. At the Sarādha ceremony the wise should chant
this Rāmāyana sacred like the Vedas, removing sins and increasing life
and prosperity. Reading even a single verse of this poem, one who hath
no son, obtaineth him; one having no riches, gets by them—and people are
freed from all sins. By reading even one sloka people are freed from all
sins which they commit every day. Clothes, cows, and gold should be
conferred upon him who chants this poem, for he being pleased all the
deities remain satisfied. Whoever reads this story of Rāmāyana,
conferring a long life is honoured in this world along with his sons and
grand-sons and as well as in the land of the dead. Whoever shall read
this Rāmāyana either in the morning, noon, or evening, shall never be
wearied. The picturesque city of Ayodhyā remained devoid of men for many
long years but was again peopled under the regime of the King Rishava,
Pracheta’s son Vālmiki composed this poem, conferring long life,
together with the future story of the deity and the Uttara Kandam. Even
Brahmā admitted this.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Rāmāyana Volume 4 Uttara Kānda" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.