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Title: Terrain Exercises
Author: Waldron, William H. (William Henry)
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                           Terrain Exercises


                                   By

                      Lt. Col. William H. Waldron
                          Infantry, U. S. Army

[Illustration]

                               Washington
                   United States Infantry Association
                                  1923



                           Copyright, 1923 By
                   United States Infantry Association


              HAYWORTH PUBLISHING HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D. C.



                          _Table of Contents_


                                                    PAGE
               Introduction                            5


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 1

               Attack of Strong Point—Rifle Company   11


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 2

               Approach March and Deployment          51


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 3

               Defensive Position                    107


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 4

               A Machine Gun Company in Attack       141


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 5

               An Advance Guard                      169


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 6

               A Flank Guard                         221


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 7

               Posting an Outpost                    255


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 8

               A Visiting Patrol                     299


                        TERRAIN EXERCISE NO. 9

               A Reconnoitering Patrol               337



                             _Introduction_


Terrain Exercises are those military exercises in which the students
carry on the operations of imaginary bodies of troops over the actual
terrain. As these exercises involve the study of the utilization of the
ground itself and the application of tactical formations and methods to
it, they are the best means, aside from practical field work with
troops, of giving officers and non-commissioned officers practice in
carrying out the duties that fall to them in war.

In the Terrain Exercise is found the logical step in tactical training,
between the theory and practice of the classroom and the practical
training with troops. This method of training is suited to all arms and
services, and in view of its practical value is constantly employed by
unit commanders in the training of their officers and non-commissioned
officers.

Any class of military operations may be practiced, such as the
operations of covering troops—advance guards, flank guards and outposts;
the operations of the various kinds of patrols; combat—attack and
defense; approach march and deployment, and the tactical cooperation of
all special arms.


                              The Director

The smooth working and success of the Terrain Exercise depends almost
entirely on the ability and tactical knowledge of the Director, the care
he devotes to the selection of the ground, the preparation of the
problem, and his own personal preparation for the conduct of the Terrain
Exercise. To this end a study should be made of the tactical training it
is desired to impart. A problem designed to bring out these points
should be drawn up and fitted to the ground. The successive special
situations must follow in logical sequence.

The Director must have in his mind a solution of the various situations
of the problem and must familiarize himself with all of its phases to
the extent that he will be able to make reasonable answer to any
question that may be propounded.

He must receive all the ideas presented by the members of the class;
take out the good and tactfully discard the poor and indifferent. He
must take care that he does not unduly criticize the members of the
class when they make mistakes and faulty dispositions. Above all, he
must never hold up a solution to ridicule.


                       Preparation of the Problem

Having determined upon the tactical subject to be studied, the next
essential is a problem, clearly and tersely stated, logically drawn and
easily understood. The several tactical situations should follow one
another in their natural sequence. Each should bring out the tactical
points that it is desired to impress upon the members of the class. Long
and complex situations, difficult for the average man to grasp, should
be avoided. Situations should be interesting and instructive, natural
and simple.

The next step is to fit the problem to a particular section of the
terrain that may be available. In this connection it is well to draw up
a tentative problem with its several situations. Then go out on the
ground and fit the problem to it.

The Director should carefully work out on the ground beforehand the
several situations that he desires to develop. He should work out the
details of all possible solutions and prepare himself to discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of measures that may be proposed by members
of the class and to state the solution that he, himself, prefers, with
the reasons therefor.

A sufficient number of copies of the initial problem, together with the
special situations, should be prepared so that a copy may be available
for each member of the class. This is a more satisfactory method than
the Director explaining them verbally. Time is saved and
misunderstandings avoided. The special situations are numbered serially
and issued at the proper time, as the Exercise progresses. It is a good
idea to have an envelope in which to carry the cards or slips of paper
bearing each special situation.


                 General Conduct of a Terrain Exercise

The problem will ordinarily consist of a general situation and several
situations.

Take the class to the point where the Exercise is to begin. Distribute
copies of the problem and allow a few minutes for the members of the
class to look over the problem and the terrain. The Director then reads
the problem aloud and points out the topographical features and places
that are referred to. The members of the class follow from the copies in
their possession.

Questions are asked by the Director. One or more members of the class
are required to make a brief statement of the problem, the idea being to
make certain that every man is entirely familiar with the tactical
situation under consideration. This insures a solid foundation on which
the succeeding situations may be developed.

The first situation is then handed to members of the class. The Director
cautions them that each man is to consider himself as being the
commander of the unit whose operations are to be considered.

The solution of the situation is then proceeded with. This solution may
be required to be reduced to writing; it may be given orally; or a
combination of the two systems may be employed.

For example: The situation involves the preparation of a verbal field
order. The Director proceeds step by step with the details of the matter
to be included in each successive paragraph, arriving at a decision as
to just what the wording should be.

1. Information of the enemy and our supporting troops.

2. Plan of the commander.

3. Distribution of troops and tactical order for each element.

4. Administration arrangements, where applicable.

5. Place of commander or where messages are to be sent.

Having determined upon the wording of each paragraph, the members of the
class are required to write out the body of the order.

Where the members of the class have sufficiently progressed in their
tactical training some of the preliminary discussion and solution may be
omitted and the men be required to write out the body of the order based
on the tactical situation. The written solutions are collected by the
Director and redistributed to the class, taking care that no man
receives his own solution back again. This is productive of good
results, for if a man knows that his work is to be seen by another he
will put forth his best effort and be more careful with his work. Again,
the entire solution may be given orally and nothing reduced to writing.
In this case the Director brings out the elements by questions and
discussion, and in the end one or more members of the class are called
upon to state the contents of the body of the order. This method is
excellent for the training of officers in the giving of verbal tactical
orders.

The solution having been completed, the subject is opened up for
discussion. The members of the class are encouraged to ask questions and
express their views on the various elements under consideration.

The class is then conducted to the place where the next special
situation is to be taken up for solution, and here the same procedure as
outlined above is taken. The Terrain Exercise concludes with a short
conference, in which the Director makes a résumé of the problems,
discusses the several lessons of the day, and shows the application of
tactical principles to them.


                             General Rules

The following general rules should be observed as far as practicable:

_a._ Weather and climatic conditions should be accepted as they actually
exist on the day of the Exercise.

_b._ Interest is best maintained by bringing up a succession of
instructive situations, each designed to teach some tactical lesson,
dealing with each one concisely but thoroughly, and promptly passing on
to the next. Long discussion and personal arguments between members of
the class are to be avoided. Unimportant phases are passed over quickly,
thus allowing the requisite amount of time to be devoted to those that
are really worth while.

_c._ Ordinarily four or five situations are about all that may be
profitably included in one Terrain Exercise.

_d._ All members of the class should be equipped with blank paper of
uniform size (to facilitate the handling of written solutions), message
blanks, pencils, sketching equipment for making rough sketches on which
tactical depositions may be shown.

_e._ Ordinarily large scale maps should not be used. One of the valuable
features of the Terrain Exercise is that all tactical decisions and
dispositions are based on a study of the ground itself. If the members
of the class are allowed to have large scale maps, the exercise may
resolve itself into the solution of a map problem whereby the advantage
of the study of the ground itself is detracted from.

However, sheets of the United States Geological Survey maps should, if
practicable, be obtained and issued, as it is desirable to accustom
officers and non-commissioned officers to work with small scale maps and
to familiarize them with this particular map.

_f._ The number of men in a class should be limited to the number that
one director is able to handle.



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 1._
                  Attack of Strong Point—Rifle Company


General Situation:

The (_a_) forms the boundary between hostile States. An invading Red
force was counter attacked by Blue troops and after severe fighting the
Reds have retired. The Blue advance has been stubbornly contested.


Special Situation—Blue:

The Blue advance was resumed this morning. The 1st Infantry advancing on
the extreme right of the Blue line, has been held up.

After a short delay, the 2nd battalion resumed its forward movement, but
attempts of the assault waves of companies A and B (on its right) to
advance beyond (_b_) were stopped by fire from the front and especially
by enfilading machine gun fire from (_c_).

Heavy firing—artillery and small arms—can be heard along the line to the
left. Shells fall occasionally within and in front of the area occupied
by the 1st battalion.

Lieutenant Colonel X, commanding the 1st battalion, has arrived at this
point (_d_) accompanied by a part of his staff; Captain C, commanding
the support company C; Captain D, commanding the machine gun company;
and Lieutenant Z, commanding a platoon of the Howitzer company, which
organization has been attached to the battalion.

After studying the situation in his front Lieutenant Colonel X summoned
Captains A and B, commanding the assault companies, and issued verbal
orders for continuing the attack.


                     Explanation of Letter Symbols

(_a_) In designating the boundary line some natural topographical
feature should be selected, such as a river, creek, canal, crest of
ridge, etc. In this problem it may be assumed that the Red invading
force has advanced several miles into Blue territory before its advance
was checked by the counter-attack.

(_b_) The general front occupied by the 1st battalion where it is held
up by the fire from the front and that from the enemy strong point to
the right front. In fitting this problem to the ground care will have to
be taken to get all the features properly coordinated. The line of
departure for Company C may be selected first and the general line of
the 1st battalion prolonged to the left. Then select the location of the
strong point with reference to the line of departure of Company C. Cover
for the deployment of the company should be available.

(_c_) Location of the enemy strong point. This should be some
topographical feature that might be logically occupied as a strong point
by the enemy and from which the advance of the 1st battalion might be
interfered with.

(_d_) This point should be near the center of the front covered by the
1st battalion and should command a view of the front. There should be
reasonable cover for the battalion commander and his staff. In other
words, it should not be so exposed to enemy fire that the battalion
commander could not go there to make his personal reconnaissance.


                               Procedure

The class will be assembled at (_d_) where the Terrain Exercise is to
begin.

The Director distributes the sheets containing the problem (General
Situation and Special Situation—Blue). A few minutes are allowed the
members of the class to read over the problem after which the Director
will read it aloud and point out the places of importance. One or more
members of the class will be called upon to state his understanding of
the tactical situation.

Care will be taken to indicate the right of the line occupied by Company
A and the location of the enemy strong point will be accurately pointed
out.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before going further into the problem it is necessary
for every member of the class to have an accurate understanding of the
formation in which the first battalion is advancing. It is necessary for
you to visualize the situation just as it would appear if the operation
were actually taking place.”

The battalion is advancing in attack formation with two companies as
assault companies (Company A is on the right and Company B on the left)
and one company (C) as battalion reserve. The front covered is about 750
yards. The right of Company A is at (indicate). Company C is marching
about the center of the battalion sector and about 500 yards in rear of
the front lines of the assault companies. The 1st battalion, being on
the right of the Blue line has a combat patrol of one squad from the
battalion reserve covering the right flank. This patrol is advancing
about 150 yards to the right and rear of the assault echelon. A
connecting group of two or three men also from the reserve company,
maintains communication with the 2nd battalion on the left. As the
reserve company may be called into action at any moment, these
detachments are taken from the support platoon of the company, the 3rd.
The battalion commander and his staff march between the assault echelon
and the reserve company.

When the battalion was held up by the enemy, information of this fact
was sent back to Lieutenant Colonel X by the commanders of the assault
companies and it was also brought back by the battalion intelligence
scouts who are with the assault companies. On receipt of the information
Lieutenant Colonel X came forward to this point to ascertain the
situation and by a personal reconnaissance, see it for himself.
Accompanying him were his staff officers Bn-2; Bn-3, Captains C and D;
and Lieutenant Z. This is the situation in which we find the battalion
commander at the beginning of this Terrain Exercise. I hope every member
of the class understands this formation and all the details of it. If
there are any doubts about it now is the time to clear them up. If there
are no questions we will proceed.


                               Procedure

The Director will now distribute the sheets bearing Situation No. 1.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 1=:

You, Captain C, commanding Company C, the battalion reserve, took down
the following notes from the battalion commander’s orders:

    “The 1st battalion will resume its advance, attacking the enemy in
    front and enveloping his left, including the strong point.”

    “Time of attack—signal from battalion commander.”

    “Line of departure—present front line.”

    “Companies A and B make frontal attack covering present front of 750
    yards. Company A, Base Company.”

    “Company C will attack the strong point, enveloping its left.”

    “One platoon company D and the 1st platoon Howitzer Company will
    support the attack of Company C. Captain D and Lieutenant Z will
    confer with Captain C regarding the assistance to be rendered.”

    “Captain C will notify the battalion commander when he is ready to
    attack.”

    “The attack will be pushed hard.”

You, Captain C, have with you three platoon runners and two company
runners.

_Required_:

Your action and orders during the next 20 minutes.


                               Procedure

A few minutes are allowed the members of the class to look over the
situation. It is then read aloud and the necessary explanations made.

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, what is the formation of Company
C, at the time the battalion commander’s order is received by Captain
C?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “The formation would depend upon the cover
available, the distance from the front line and the class of fire it is
being subjected to. In this case I should say that the company will be
in dispersed formation either in squad columns or platoon columns. I
would prefer the platoon columns because they are more easily
controlled. I think I would have each platoon in a platoon column. The
first and second platoons would march abreast with an interval of at
least 40 yards with the third platoon marching about 50 yards to the
rear and opposite the interval between the first and second. Company
headquarters would be in the lead.”

_The Director_: “That seems to be a very good formation under the
circumstances.”

    (Note.—The Director should prepare an answer to this question based
    on the lay of the ground.)

“How do you arrive at the interval of 40 yards between the two leading
platoons?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “That is about the minimum distance to avoid
casualties in more than one column from the burst of one shell and it is
about the maximum distance for control and visibility in the woods.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, let us assume that you are Captain C.
You have received the orders of the battalion commander. What is your
mission?”

_Captain Hastings_: “To attack the enemy’s strong point enveloping its
left.”

_The Director_: “In sizing up the situation what points would you
consider?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I would consider the enemy’s position, and if
possible, go to a point where I can make a personal reconnaissance of
it. I would consider the route by which I can get my company up to the
point where I can make the attack and select the line of departure for
the company. I will then decide upon my plan of maneuver and the
formation of the company for attack.”

_The Director_: “In other words, you will make an Estimate of the
Situation and upon this you will base your decision and in turn your
orders?”

_Captain Hastings_: “Yes, sir. That is the idea.”

_The Director_: “I want to emphasize the necessity for this process of
sizing up the situation on the part of all officers charged with a
tactical operation. If you come to a decision without doing so you may
be right and you may be wrong. The chances are greatly in favor of the
latter. If you stop and consider the elements of the problem as outlined
by Captain Hastings the chances are that you will be right. In any event
you have the odds on your side. Lieutenant Wallace, what troops have
been designated to support your company?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “A part of the machine gun company and a howitzer
platoon.”

_The Director_: “You will note that these two units have been ordered to
support your attack. They are not attached to your company. What do you
understand to be the difference between a supporting unit and an
attached unit?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “An attached unit becomes an integral part of the
force and is subject to its commander’s orders. A supporting unit
receives its orders, not from the commander of the force being
supported, but from another source, usually a common superior.”

_The Director_: “That is right. I hope you all note the distinction. It
is the rule, however, that the supporting unit must work with the unit
that it is supporting in every way possible so as to insure teamwork in
the accomplishment of the common mission.”

“Lieutenant Ralston, how would you get your instructions to your platoon
leaders, who are back with the company?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I have a runner with me from each of the three
platoons. I would send these runners back to their respective platoons
to tell the platoon commanders to report to me at ___________”
(Lieutenant Ralston would indicate where the platoon commanders are to
report.)

_The Director_: “Let us assume that you are Captain C. Just what would
you say to the runners?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would call the platoon runners to me and say:

    “‘Do you see that ___________?’ (Designating a tree or other well
    defined object.) ‘Each platoon runner will deliver this message to
    his platoon leader—Platoon leaders will join Captain C at once at
    ___________ (Place). Repeat the message.’”

_The Director_: “All right. Now let us assume that the platoon runners
have started back to their platoons, what would you do now?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would go over to the right to make a personal
reconnaissance of the enemy strong point, select my line of departure
for the attack and get the ‘line-up’ of the supporting weapons.”

_The Director_: “That would seem to be the reasonable thing to do.”

The Class is now conducted over to the right, to a point about the
center of the line of departure for the attack.

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, let us assume that you have come to
this point. You have with you the commanders of the machine gun company,
Captain D, and the Howitzer platoon, Lieutenant Z. You decide that the
line of departure for your attack shall be along here (indicating). What
instructions would you give to Captain D and Lieutenant Z?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would indicate to them where I want the machine
guns, light mortars, and one-pounders to be located to support the
attack.”

_The Director_: “You would tell exactly where to place the weapons,
would you?”

_Captain Harvey_: “Yes, sir.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hodges, do you agree with that solution to the
problem?”

_Captain Hodges_: “No, sir, I do not. It seems to me that it would be
better for Captain C to indicate to Captain D and Lieutenant Z the
dispositions that he proposes to make—where the line of departure is to
be and the direction of the attack. Then to leave it up to those
officers to select the firing positions for the weapons. I think Captain
C would verify the positions selected, but he would at least give the
men who are supposed to be the experts an opportunity to use their
knowledge of the subject.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. I believe in requiring every man
to do his job. These officers have been ordered to support the attack.
It is up to them to select the position where they can get the best fire
effect with their weapons and to get them into position ready to do
business.”

“What precautions would you take to indicate the place where the platoon
leaders are to assemble, Captain James?”

_Captain James_: “I would send one of my company runners to the assembly
point and order him to tell the platoon leaders to wait there for me.”

_The Director_: “I think that is a wise precaution. You do not want to
take a chance on anything going wrong and failing to effect an assembly
of the platoon leaders.”

“Now, let us consider how the attack is to be made. What would be your
tactical dispositions, Captain James?”

_Captain James_: “I would attack with one Platoon (the first), advancing
directly against the enemy strong point, and another (the second)
working around the enemy’s left flank and enveloping it. I would hold
the remaining platoon (the third) as company support.”

_The Director_: “Where is your line of departure?”

_Captain James_: “My line of departure would be along here. The right of
the first platoon would be (indicate). The left of the second platoon
will be (indicate). Each platoon will cover about 150 yards of front.
The third platoon will follow in rear of the second platoon as company
support.”

_The Director_: “That seems to be a logical disposition. Now having
decided all of this you should give the information to Captain D and
Lieutenant X so they can go about the task of selecting positions for
their weapons. How would you do this, Lieutenant Baker?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “Assuming that Lieutenant Z and Captain D have been
with me all the while, I would say:

    “‘My first platoon will attack with its right about (indicate). The
    second platoon with its left about (indicate). Each will cover a
    front of about 150 yards. Select your firing positions to cover the
    attack.’

“That is all that should be required. Before issuing final orders for
the attack I would verify the positions selected.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: I hope you have all followed the process that we have
gone through during the 20 minutes, in order to arrive at a decision and
the point where Captain C is ready to issue his orders for the attack.
Let us review them briefly:

1. Send for the platoon commanders to come to the front.

2. Accompanied by Captain D and Lieutenant Z, and two runners, make a
personal reconnaissance of the enemy’s position and the terrain and
determine:

  (_a_) The line of departure.

  (_b_) The tactical formation.

  (_c_) Direction of the attack.

  (_d_) The position of the supporting weapons.

3. Arrange for a rendezvous where the attack order can be issued.

From all of this you will appreciate that there are many things that
must be done before an attack of this kind can be launched. Battalion
and other commanders should appreciate that it takes time to do all of
these things and should have patience with the officers whom he has
ordered to do it.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Attack of Strong Point=                                =Card No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Assemble class at initial point where the Terrain Exercise is to
        begin.

  2. Distribute sheets containing the general situation and special
        situation Blue. Read and explain. Have members of class state
        understanding of situation.

  3. Formation of battalion for attack—Assault companies, reserve
        company, covering patrol on right, connecting patrol on left.

  4. Information system.

  5. Distribute Situation No. 1. Read and discuss.

  6. Formation of Company C.

  7. Mission of Company C. Personal Reconnaissance. Estimate of the
        situation. Attached and supporting units.

  8. Message to platoon commanders.

  9. Proceed to right and make personal reconnaissance. Firing position
        for the auxiliary weapons.

  10. Mark assembly point for platoon commanders.

  11. Tactical dispositions. Line of departure. Instructions to Captain
        D and Lieutenant Z.

  12. Resumé of what has taken place.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2:=

The platoon commanders have assembled at the appointed rendezvous. You,
Captain C, have come to a decision to attack the enemy strong point with
two platoons and hold the third as company support.

_Required_:

The orders that you would issue for the attack.


                               Procedure

The Director distributes the sheets bearing Situation No. 2, reads it
aloud and makes such explanation as may be necessary.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before going further with the problem I desire to again
call your attention to the five paragraph field order that we use in our
service. This form of field order was evolved before the war and used in
our service schools. It is prescribed by our Field Service Regulations.
When we entered the war and our troops went to France we found on both
the British and French fronts a system of field orders that did not
agree with our American ideas. The orders were most voluminous. They
went into every detail of procedure and left little to the initiative of
the commanders of tactical units. The consequence was that many of these
commanders lost their initiative. When their orders ran out and nothing
further had been prescribed for them to do, they just naturally did not
know what to do and stopped until more orders were sent up to them. I am
not so sure but what this system was responsible in the proposition of
limited objectives that we found when we entered into the campaign. Many
of our own officers fell for the voluminous order system but it did not
last long after we got into action. It was then abandoned and we
reverted to our own five paragraph order which filled the bill and met
all our requirements. You remember that after an attack started and was
seen to be under way, how quickly orders came up to disregard all
objectives and push on. Our own simple field order system stood the test
of war and I do not think it will ever be abandoned again for any other
system.”

The paragraphs of the order include:

1st paragraph:—Information of the enemy and our own troops.

2nd paragraph:—The plans of the commander.

3rd paragraph:—Disposition of troops. Orders for each element of the
command and the tactical instructions that pertain to all elements.

4th paragraph:—Administrative arrangements.

5th paragraph:—Where messages are to be sent or location of the command
post.

In preparing the order for the attack under the requirement to our
Situation No. 2, I wish you would use this form of order.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, just what would you include in the first
paragraph of the order?”

_Captain Hall_: “I would include the information about the enemy holding
up our attack and the part that his strong point has played with the
affair. I would include information of the fact that our second
battalion is resuming the advance and how the rest of our battalion is
to attack. That is all that would be necessary.”

_The Director_: “What would you include in the second paragraph?”

_Captain Hall_: “My plan—To attack the enemy strong point enveloping its
left.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Barry, tell us what you would include in the
third paragraph?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would include orders for the machine guns, the
light mortars and the 37 mm. guns; orders for the assault platoons,
indicating the troops, line of departure, frontage and the objective;
orders for the support platoon; orders for covering and connecting
patrols; indicate the base platoon; orders for the action to be taken
when the enemy strong point is captured.”

_The Director_: “There will be very little to be provided for in an
administrative way. The location of the battalion aid station should be
noted and if there are any instructions regarding extra ammunition, it
should be included here. The C. P. of the company will be near the
support platoon and this information should be placed in the last
paragraph of the order.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now I want each member of the class to write out the
order of Captain C for the attack.”

The necessary time is allowed for this and after the orders are
completed they are collected and again distributed to the members of the
class, making sure that no man gets his own order back again.

Members of the class are called upon to read the order in his possession
and it is discussed.

At the conclusion of this the Director will submit the following order
for discussion:


                                 Order

    “The enemy has held up the advance of our battalion by fire from
    that (ridge, edge of woods or other feature) and especially by
    machine gun fire from that enemy strong point (describe and indicate
    location of the enemy strong point). The second battalion on our
    left has resumed its advance. Our battalion will attack. Companies A
    and B will advance from their present positions on our left and
    attack the enemy in their front (indicate the present positions of
    Companies A and B).

    “Our Company will attack and capture the enemy strong point,
    enveloping its left.

    “The first platoon Company D, will support our advance by direct
    overhead machine gun fire from (indicate firing position of the
    machine guns).

    “The 1st platoon howitzer company will support our advance with
    light mortar fire from (indicate firing position of light mortars)
    and 37 mm. gun fire from (indicate firing position of the 37 mm.
    gun).

    “Lieutenant M. with the 1st platoon, will attack the front of the
    enemy strong point. Line of departure (indicate). Frontage about 150
    yards from that (designate) to that (designate). Objective enemy
    strong point. Direction ______ degrees, magnetic.

    “Lieutenant O, with the 2nd platoon, will attack and envelop the
    left of the enemy strong point. Line of departure (indicate).
    Frontage, about 150 yards, left of platoon at (indicate). Route of
    advance (designate). Objective enemy left.

    “Lieutenant P, with the 3rd platoon (less detachments), will
    constitute the Company support and await orders (indicate
    where—should be in rear of the 2nd platoon). A combat patrol will be
    sent out to cover the right flank. A connecting group of two men
    will maintain connection with the right of Company A on our left.

    “The 1st platoon, base platoon.

    “After capture the enemy’s strong point will be immediately
    organized for defense.

    “The battalion aid station is at a point 700 yards in rear of
    Company A.

    “Messages to the support platoon.

“After issuing the order Captain C will say:

    “It is now ____ o’clock, set your watches to agree.

    “Join your platoons. Get them up to the line of departure.

    “Notify me at this point when you are ready to attack. Begin the
    attack at my signal.”


                               Procedure

The Director will distribute mimeograph copies of this order to the
members of the class. He will read the order. The members of the class
follow from the copy in their possession. He will point out the features
of the terrain referred to in the order as he reads it and make such
comment and explanation as may be necessary.

_The Director_: “You now see what the order for an attack of an infantry
company must contain. If you omit any of these things the order is not
complete. Note how the order conforms to the requirements of our Field
Service Regulations. Are there any questions?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I note that the 1st and 2nd platoons are to attack
on a front of about 150 yards. How does a platoon cover such a front?”

_The Director_: “The normal interval between skirmishers is 5 paces.
This should be adhered to rigidly in extended order drill. Men will,
under the stress of danger and excitement, do as they have been trained.
In spite of the injunction of the Infantry Drill Regulations, I would
not change this interval in drill for it may lead to bunching and the
consequent loss of lives in action.”

The platoon fights in two waves with a section in each wave. This gives
a wave and consequently a platoon a front of 120 yards in action. Where
a larger front than 120 yards is assigned to a platoon to cover, the
platoon is placed at about the center of the front and held responsible
for the interval on each flank to the boundary of the zone of action
assigned. The support section forming the second wave, following at a
convenient distance, is used by the platoon leader in any required part
of the platoon zone of action as the situation develops.

“In rare instances a platoon may be deployed with both sections on one
line, covering a front of 240 yards. Such a line is very difficult for
the platoon leader to control and is to be avoided.”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I note the designation of a ‘base platoon’ in
Captain C.’s orders. What is the significance of that in a converging
attack, such as is contemplated?”

_The Director_: “A Base Platoon is designated only as an aid to the
initial formation of the company. During an approach march, in deploying
on the line of departure and in advancing to the first firing position,
the base platoon forms the guide for the company and helps ensure a
coordinated attack. But as soon as enemy opposition is met, each platoon
makes its own fight within its own zone of action and all consideration
of the ‘base platoon’ is dropped. In action, each platoon must observe
the action of adjacent units and be prepared to assist them. But the
best possible aid consists in the vast majority of cases, in pushing
ahead, ‘where the pushing is good’ and then threatening in the flank or
rear enemy resistances holding up adjacent units.

“In this case, the ‘first firing position’ may be very close to, or even
coincide with the Line of Departure, so that the base platoon
designation is of especial value in the initial deployment.”

_Captain Hastings_: “Will the Director please discuss the personnel of
the headquarters of Company C in action—its positions and formations?”

_The Director_: “A rifle company headquarters in action consists of:

“1. The Captain.

“2. First Sergeant, Signal Sergeant, Agents from the supporting Machine
Gun unit (platoon or company), and two company runners all following in
two short columns behind the captain. When halted these men take cover
within reach of the captain’s voice.

“3. Two buglers, one well to the left flank observing the connecting
group keeping connection with Company A and the other observing combat
patrol covering the right. These buglers will report to the Captain any
item of information they note.

“4. Three platoon runners, arranged in a rough triangle each between his
own platoon and the company headquarters. These runners keep within call
or signaling distance of the Captain and each knows always the position
of his own platoon. By these runners the Captain communicates with his
three platoons.

“5. Two Company runners at the Battalion Command Post. These runners
keep track of the position of their own company and are prepared to take
messages to it from Battalion headquarters.

“The position of Company Headquarters is such that the Captain can
maintain connection with his assault platoons, observe the progress of
the fight personally and especially be ready to throw his support
platoon into the action when and where most needed. During the approach
the Captain precedes his assault echelon. When the fire opens, Company
Headquarters drops back to a position between the assault echelon and
the support platoon.”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “Where is the second in command of the company?
There is no mention of him in the orders.”

_The Director_: “Yes, I am glad you noted the omission. The senior
Lieutenant, or ‘second-in-command’ remains back at the Company rear
echelon during a fight. Here he is responsible that ammunition is
forwarded as necessary, that meals are prepared and that all men
drifting to the rear are held.

“Further, as the casualties among rifle company officers are higher than
in any other unit in the entire army, keeping this officer out of the
fight ensures a trained officer to replace the Captain, in case the
latter becomes a casualty and to reorganize the company after each
battle.

“Whenever the Captain becomes incapacitated for any reason a runner is
sent at once from Company Headquarters back to the rear echelon and the
second in command hastens forward to take command of the company. The
first sergeant or others of the personnel at Company Headquarters
acquaint him with the situation. It is considered most important to have
this trained officer in reserve ready to take command on short notice.”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “Where will the combat patrol on the right flank
march?”

_The Director_: “It will march well out on the right flank and rear of
the 2nd platoon, so that if an enemy machine gun or patrol fires on the
platoon from that direction the patrol will be in position to attack
it.”

_Captain Harvey_: “The Director mentioned something about extra
ammunition. I did not understand what was said?”

_The Director_: “All riflemen of the units of an assault battalion
should carry an extra bandolier of ammunition when they go into action.
This applies to the battalion reserve company as well as the assault
companies. You can see in this case how delay would be occasioned by
stopping to issue extra ammunition to the men.”

_Captain Hodges_: “It is noted that you give orders for the
consolidation and preparation of the enemy strong point for defense as
soon as it is captured. Just what is the purpose of this?”

_The Director_: “At this time Captain C cannot tell just what will
happen when he gets into the enemy strong point. That is the objective
of the attack for the time being. He would want the platoon commanders
to have orders that will carry them until he can get up there and decide
what to do. The Company may not stop at the strong point. If the enemy
is on the run they will follow him up probably. This will depend upon
the action of the rest of the battalion. In any event we will want a
position on which to reorganize the company and prepare for future
eventualities and by preparing the position for defense we gain such a
position and at the same time we are ready to meet a counter-attack if
it comes.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Attack of Strong Point=                                =Card No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Assemble class at point designated for the assembly of platoon
        commanders. Distribute Situation No. 2 and explain.

  2. Explain five paragraph field order.

  3. Consider order for attack in detail, paragraph by paragraph.

  4. Have class write out order. Collect, read and comment on solutions.

  5. Comments of problem. Frontage of platoon. Explanation of base
        platoon. Company headquarters in action. Second in command.
        Covering patrol. Extra ammunition preparations for defense.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before going further with the problem I want to explain
to you what happens between the time the Captain issues his orders for
the attack and the time that it starts.

“Having received and understood their orders, the platoon commanders go
back and join their platoons. In doing so they select the route over
which they are going to conduct their commands up to the line of
departure for the attack.

“Each platoon commander conducts his platoon over to the right and gets
it into approach formation directly in rear of and with its front as
nearly parallel to the line of departure as possible. The proposition of
bringing a platoon or any other unit up to a point immediately in rear
of the line of departure in a column of files and making the deployment
from that formation is fraught with great danger and is almost sure to
result in confusion, losses and great consumption of time. The platoons
must be gotten into an approach formation from which they can readily
deploy on nearing the line of departure. Captain James, suppose you were
commanding the first platoon. What formation would you take up in
bringing your platoon up to the line of departure?”

_Captain James_: “I would form it in two lines or waves each consisting
of one section. Each section would be in line of squad columns. From
this formation I can readily deploy the leading wave in to a line of
skirmishes covering the front allotted to the platoon and hold the rear
wave in a line of squad columns or deploy it as the circumstances may
require. In any event I have my platoon under complete control all the
time.”

_The Director_: “I think we can all agree that your formation is
correct.”

“Now, each platoon commander must get the orders to the men who are to
make the attack. When the platoon arrives at a point in rear of the line
of departure the platoon commanders will assemble their non-commissioned
officers and scouts at a covered location near the line of departure
where they can command a view of the front. Here he will explain the
situation and give his orders for the attack. These orders will be
issued in the regular five paragraph order form which I have already
explained to you. The non-commissioned officers join their units. The
leading wave is brought up and deployed on the line of departure. The
scouts move out to the front. The second section is held in proper
formation (line of squad columns or line of skirmishers) from 50 to 100
yards in rear of the leading wave. The platoon commanders signal Captain
C that they are ready to launch the attack.

“The special weapons, machine guns and light mortars and the 37 mm. gun,
are gotten to their respective firing positions and the unit commanders
signal Captain C that they are ready to cover the attacking troops with
their fire.

“The company support platoon is conducted to its position in rear of the
second platoon and the platoon commander signals that he is ready.

“Captain C then signals the battalion commander that he is all ready to
launch the attack. When he gets the signal from the battalion commander,
he signals the supporting weapon commanders and the platoon commanders
to proceed.

“Now, you may say that all of this sounds well in theory, but, you ask,
how is it done in actual practice? What is the enemy doing all this
time? I ask you to visualize the situation from the enemy point of view.
What would you be doing if you were in his place? You occupy a strong
point on the left of your line. You have been placed there to protect
the flank and to bring machine gun fire to bear on our attacking troops
to your right. The attack is progressing off to your right. The firing
seems to be getting further and further to your rear. You have fears
that the line is not holding. You have visions of being left to your
fate. You get no information of what is taking place over there. In your
own immediate front there is little doing. You see nothing to indicate
what we are doing over here. You have no well defined target to fire on.
A few scouts are seen off to the right oblique (scouts of Companies A
and B). There is nothing in your front that would afford you a target.
The scouts that you send out from the strong point run into our covering
patrol and either become casualties or are driven back. Your strength
does not permit sending out a reconnoitering party of sufficient
strength to break through and get any real information of what is taking
place in your front. You simply have to sit and wait for something to
develop. I am sure if you will place yourself in the enemy’s position at
this time, you must realize his situation and the conflicting thoughts
that come across his mind. He is just a human as you are. He is just as
much afraid. He has just the same feeling about the danger of the
situation as you have, only his situation is worse than yours. He must
sit and wait for something to happen while your activities and
preparations occupy your thoughts and attention. You have the
initiative, you lead and he must follow.

“When you consider all of these things you will see how it is possible
to go about the preparation process in a comparatively deliberate
manner. If you have fairly good cover from the fire and view of the
enemy it is not at all difficult.

“The greatest danger in all of this is from our own side. From the
impatience of our own higher commanders who think the preparations are
taking too much time. Brigade and regimental commanders who are to the
rear and cannot see what is going on get impatient with the apparent
delays and demand that the attack be delivered at once. Even the
battalion commander, who is up at the front and ought to know better,
cannot see how you can possibly consume so much time getting ready.

“That is one of the valuable features of these Terrain Exercises. They
illustrate and demonstrate to officers of all ranks that a certain
amount of time must be allowed a combat unit to get ready to launch an
attack and that they may as well sit down and take it easy until
everything is ready. The war is not to be fought in a day.

“Let us take our problem as an example. Our Company (C) could be brought
up and rushed into action in its attack on the enemy strong point. The
rifleman would have fought it out with his bare hands, so to speak.
There would be no supporting fire from machine guns, light mortars and
one-pounders. It would have been a direct frontal attack, with no
enveloping movement. The chances are that it would be a complete failure
and the whole affair would have to be reorganized and done over again.
Even if it were successful it would be accompanied by ruinous losses
that would render the company totally ineffective for further combat
service in the near future.

“By going about the preparations systematically, as we have done, the
chances for success are infinitely greater, the losses will be very much
smaller and in the long run, a lot of time saved. I hope you will all
consider these things when you give orders to a unit under your command,
be it a battalion or a small patrol, to embark upon a tactical
undertaking. Give the commander time to perfect his preparations. Do not
rush him into action until he is ready.”


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted up to the line of departure of the platoon.
The Director distributes the sheets containing Situation No. 3.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 3:=

The 1st platoon is deployed on the line of departure—one section in the
leading wave in a line of skirmishers, with intervals of 5 yards. The
second section is about 100 yards to the rear in line of squad columns.
The platoon scouts have worked their way forward to _______ (indicate).

The supporting troops are in position ready to open fire.

At this moment Captain C signals “Forward March”. The supporting weapons
open fire on the enemy strong point and shots are heard off to the right
indicating that the 2nd platoon has launched its attack.

You, Lieutenant M, commanding the 1st platoon, are at this point when
the signal is received.

_Required_:

Describe how the attack is conducted.


                               Procedure

The Director reads over the situation and indicates the position of the
troops on the ground. Any points that may be in doubt are cleared up at
this time.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Baker, I wish you would explain to the
class, just what you think takes place.”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “During the preparation process my platoon scouts
would have worked their way forward to (indicate on the ground). I
assume that they have kept under cover and have drawn little fire from
the enemy. The instant I give my signal to advance they will start
forward to get to (indicate) where they can open an effective fire on
the enemy and thus establish the first firing position.

“When our supporting weapons open their first burst of fire on the enemy
strong point it will come as a surprise and his men will naturally seek
cover. I will take advantage of this fact to advance my line as far as
possible to the front. If he opens effective fire I will have to take
cover. If not I will keep on my rush with the platoon until he does and
thus take advantage of the few moments when the enemy is surprised from
the sudden burst of fire from our supporting weapons. When he recovers
and opens fire I will take cover.

“I will then advance my men by filtration up to the line established by
the scouts, each man opening fire as soon as he arrives on the line. The
scouts will indicate the target to the men by the use of tracer bullets.
By this process of fire and movement, I will build up my firing line and
keep up a well directed fire on the enemy position.”

_The Director_: “What kind of fire will your automatic riflemen employ?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “They will employ aimed fire, semi-automatic.”

_The Director_: “About what is the rate of this fire with well trained
automatic riflemen?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I should say that it would be about 30 to 40 shots
per minute.”


                               Procedure

The Class is now conducted to the point where the first fire position is
located.

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, the first section is along this front
firing on the enemy strong point. They are returning the fire, the
volume of which is just about at a balance with your fire. You hear the
firing of the 2nd platoon off to the right. You have had a few
casualties. What would you do now?”

_Captain Hall_: “By a process of fire and movement I would work my
section further to the front and build up a new firing line ________
(indicate the location of the new line).”

_The Director_: “What would your second section be doing?”

_Captain Hall_: “It would be following the advance ready to join the
firing line when I call upon it to do so.”

The class is now conducted up to the new fire position.

_The Director_: “The line has worked forward to this position with a few
more casualties. It is apparent that the enemy’s fire is increasing in
volume and you find that it will be impossible for you to continue the
advance. In other words you cannot attain fire superiority with your
present force on the firing line. What would you do about that,
Lieutenant Barry?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would signal the section “Fire Faster” and under
cover of this increased volume of fire I would bring my 2nd section up
onto the line, and have the men join in the firing.”

    (Note.—The solution of all the above will depend upon the lay of the
    ground where the Terrain Exercise is staged. The points to be
    brought out by the Director are that the first wave will continue
    its advance by its own efforts as far to the front as possible. When
    it cannot longer maintain the superiority of fire necessary to
    enable it to continue, the 2nd section must be brought up and
    continue the forward movement. When the 2nd section has joined the
    1st on the line the subsequent progress of the action will depend
    upon how well the superiority of fire can be maintained. If the
    volume is such that the enemy can be kept down and prevented from
    firing effectively the advance can be continued, by the utilization
    of fire and movement. Ordinarily the enemy will realize the
    hopelessness of the situation and evacuate his position before it is
    necessary to carry it by assault.)


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Attack of Strong Point=                                =Card No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Explain what happens between the time the attack order is issued
        and the time the attack is ready to start: Platoon commanders
        join platoons, and conduct them to the front. Approach march
        formation. Column of files to be avoided. Orders of platoon
        commanders. Deployment for attack. Action of special weapons.
        Signals indicating readiness for attack.

  2. Discuss necessity for thorough preparation for the attack. Describe
        the situation from the enemy’s point of view. Advantage of the
        initiative.

  3. Explain necessity for time being allowed subordinate commanders to
        prepare to launch attack.

  4. Conduct class to line of departure for 1st platoon.

  5. Distribute sheets bearing Situation No. 3; read and explain.

  6. Description of attack. Initial advance. Scouts. Advance of platoon.
        Building up first fire position. Superiority of fire. Continue
        advance by fire and movement. Employment of automatic rifles.

  7. Conduct class to next fire position. Failure to hold superiority of
        fire. Bring up second section. Subsequent progress. Assault.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The Class is now conducted to a point where the operation of both the
1st and 2nd platoons may be observed by the company commander.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 4=:

You, Captain C, have come forward to this point. You see your assault
platoons covered by their own fire and that of the supporting weapons
advancing rapidly on the enemy strong point. They are now (indicate the
general line that each platoon occupies.) The volume of fire of the
enemy has materially decreased. You note that the supporting weapons
have lifted their fire and are now firing well beyond the strong point.
A few moments later you note that both platoons rush towards the strong
point with bayonets fixed.

The 3rd platoon has now arrived at the line of departure of the 2nd
platoon. Companies A and B seem to be carrying out their attack on your
left; there is no machine gun fire to interfere with them now.

_Required._

What do you, Captain C, do?


                               Procedure

The Director distributes the sheets bearing Situation No. 4 to the
class, reads it aloud to them, points out the location of the troops and
makes any verbal explanations that may be necessary.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “I want each member of the class to visualize the
situation as it now stands. In the beginning Captain C assigned definite
missions to each of his platoons. He left the essential details to the
platoon commanders. He is driving a team of two units with a third held
in reserve. His team has been driven into the enemy’s position. They
have accomplished the main part of their mission and something more is
necessary on the part of the Captain. Lieutenant Barry, knowing the
situation as it is, what would you do?”


                                Solution

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would go forward and join my two platoons at the
enemy strong point.”

_The Director_: “Would you take any other action before doing that?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I think not, sir. I would want to know the
situation up there as soon as possible.”

_The Director_: “What would you do, Lieutenant Hunt?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would send a messenger back to the 3rd platoon to
get started on its way to the captured position.”

_The Director_: “Just how would you do that?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would turn to the runner of the 3rd platoon, who
is with me and tell him:

    “‘Take this message to the leader of the 3rd platoon: ‘The 3rd
    platoon will report to Captain C at the enemy strong point at once,
    moving by the shortest route.’

“I would have the runner repeat the message and make sure that he,
himself, understands what is wanted.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “You are right. There is no doubt but that the presence
of the 3rd platoon will be required at the enemy position just as soon
as it can be gotten up there. The assault platoons will be more or less
disorganized by their attack. They will be out of hand. Squads, sections
and platoons will be mixed up. There will be some hand to hand fighting
with some of the enemy who have failed to make their get-away or with
some determined men who will hold on to their local position until they
are driven out with cold steel.

“It is to provide for just such a situation as this, that we hold out a
reserve—a formed body of troops that has not been in the assault. A body
that is absolutely in hand and under control. It can be conducted up to
the enemy position, take it over and be ready for any eventuality that
may occur.

“As a matter of fact the assault troops should not be allowed to go into
the captured position unless it is absolutely necessary to do so to
drive out or capture those remaining. The reasons for this are obvious.
When the enemy abandons the position, he assumes that it is occupied by
his opponent and will turn as great a volume of fire on it as possible
with a view to inflicting losses on our disorganized troops. With a
formed body of troops, under control, we can make such tactical
distribution of the units as may be required, posting them where the
greatest amount of shelter exists and thereby reduce casualties to a
minimum.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, let us assume that you have sent
back the message to the commander of the 3rd platoon. What would you do
now?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would go forward and join my assault
platoons.”

_The Director_: “Would you do anything about getting some of the special
weapons up to the captured position?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “No sir, not yet. It is my understanding that the
machine gun and howitzer platoons were only detailed with Company C to
support the attack on the enemy strong point. At the conclusion of the
affair that they are to report back to the battalion commander.”

_The Director_: “You are right. If, however, Captain C decides that he
needs them he can send a runner to the battalion commander and request
that they be detailed for further duty with the company.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Attack of Strong Point=                                =Card No. 4=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to point where operations of both 1st and 2nd
        platoons can be observed.

  2. Distribute the sheets bearing Situation No. 4. Read and explain.

  3. Visualize situation. Teamwork. Action taken by Captain C.

  4. Send for 3rd platoon to come forward to enemy position. Message in
        detail.

  5. Explain necessity for Reserve Platoon. Assault platoons
        disorganized by attack and out hand. Value of formed body under
        control.

  6. Danger of entering captured positions.

  7. Action with respect to supporting troops.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The Class is now conducted forward to the captured enemy strongpoint.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 5=:

On arriving at the captured strong point, Captain C finds the 1st and
2nd platoons somewhat mixed up and disorganized. Some of the men are on
the far side firing on the retreating enemy. Some are seen to be hunting
souvenirs. There are a considerable number of enemy dead and wounded
lying about. About a dozen enemy prisoners are standing off to one side
with their hands up.

The 3rd platoon is seen advancing in the distance. Lieutenant P, with
the platoon headquarters is coming forward at a run.

Companies A and B to the left are advancing and the whole enemy line is
apparently retreating.

_Required._

What action do you, Captain C, take?


                               Procedure

The Director distributes the sheets bearing the situation to the class,
reads it over and makes the necessary explanations, points out the
places mentioned, etc.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, what would you do under the
circumstances?”

_Captain Hastings_: “In the first place I would want to see the platoon
commanders and give them instructions as to the action to be taken. I
would call the runners of the 1st and 2nd platoons and order them:

    “‘Find your platoon commanders. Tell them to report to me here, at
    once.’

“While waiting for the platoon commanders to come I would size up the
situation and be prepared to issue my orders soon after their arrival.”

_The Director_: “I think we can all agree that that is the logical
procedure. In sizing up the situation, what points would you consider,
Lieutenant Wallace?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would consider what my mission is now. The
company is the battalion reserve. It was thrown into the attack for the
definite purpose of capturing the enemy strong point that was holding up
the advance of the battalion. We have completed that mission, the
battalion is continuing the advance. Up to the moment no other mission
has been assigned. I would not know whether it is the desire of the
battalion commander that we continue the advance as an assault unit of
the battalion or revert to the former status of battalion reserve. Until
I receive definite orders on the subject I would stay right here and
cover the right flank of the battalion. I estimate that I will get such
orders in a very short time.

“The enemy has several courses of action open to him. He may continue to
fall back and not molest us. He may make a counter-attack, though this
is not probable. He may concentrate a large volume of fire on this
particular point with a view to causing serious casualties in our
disorganized ranks.

“Our own battalion is continuing its advance and does not seem to need
our support for the time being. The 1st and 2nd platoons must be
withdrawn and reorganized. The 3rd platoon can take over the duty of
security. The enemy prisoners must be taken care of and others that may
be in the position must be rounded up. Souvenir hunters and stragglers
must be rounded up and sent to their proper units.

“The sanitary troops are now taking care of our wounded.

“The battalion commander will want to know what has happened on our
front and I would send him a message telling him about it.

“My decision would be to withdraw and reorganize the 1st and 2nd
platoons. Have the 3rd platoon take over the duty of security, mop up
the position and take charge of the prisoners. Send a message to the
battalion commander.

“All of this would constitute my hurried estimate of the situation. When
the platoon commanders assemble I will give the necessary orders to put
my decision into effect.”

_The Director_: “That is very good. Now, Lieutenant Ralston, let us
assume that the platoon commanders are assembled and you are ready to
give them their orders. What is the first thing you would do?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would want to get my report off to the
battalion commander as soon as possible.”

_The Director_: “Just how would you do this?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would write it out and send it by a runner.”

_The Director_: “Do you think you would take the time to do that? You
have your first sergeant with you. He should be able to write out the
message and I think you would have him do it. That leaves you free to go
ahead with your orders to the platoon commanders. You would indicate
roughly what you want to go into the message to the battalion commander
and leave the rest to the first sergeant. Now, tell us what you would
include in the orders to the platoon commanders, Captain Harvey?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would give the orders about as follows:

    “The other companies of our battalion are advancing on our left.

    “This company will reorganize and prepare for further service.

    “The 3rd platoon will relieve the firing line with one section and
    take over the security of the position. Have the men of the 1st and
    2nd platoons fall back and assemble by squads on this side
    (indicate) of the position. The remaining section will take charge
    of the prisoners, mop up the position, collect other prisoners and
    stragglers. The covering patrol of one squad will remain out on the
    right.

    “The 1st platoon will assemble at (indicate place).

    “The 2nd platoon will assemble at (indicate place).

    “The 1st and 2nd platoons will reorganize, check casualties and
    report results. Secure ammunition from dead and wounded.

    “Messages to me here.”

_The Director_: “I think that order will meet the immediate requirements
of the situation. Now, Captain Hodges, what would you include in the
message to the battalion commander?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would make it very brief. Something to this effect:

    “‘Enemy strong point captured at ____ (Time). My casualties about
    ____, killed; ____ wounded. Prisoners ____ (number). Am
    reorganizing. (Such additional information about enemy that would be
    of value to the Battalion commander). Await your further
    instructions.’”

_The Director_: “I think that message will give the battalion commander
all the information that he requires immediately. It informs him of the
fact that you have accomplished your mission. It tells him how many
casualties you have had which will enable him to determine the further
effective strength of the company and what it is capable of doing in the
future. It tells him what you are now doing and indicates that further
instructions are desired. His reaction should be to send you
instructions what to do, either to continue to the front as an assault
unit of the battalion or to revert to the role of battalion reserve.
Now, I want each member of the class to write out the orders of Captain
C and the message that he would send to the battalion commander. Follow
out the five paragraph order system.”


                               Procedure

When the orders and the message are complete they will be collected and
redistributed. One or more members of the class will be called upon to
read the order and message in his possession and to criticize it.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “This situation concludes the Terrain Exercise. I hope
that it has been valuable to all of you and has brought out some points
that will stand you well in hand if you ever be called upon to undertake
an operation of this kind in actual service.

“I hope you all now appreciate what training is necessary on the part of
officers and non-commissioned officers to carry on such an operation.

“I thank you for your attention.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Attack of Strong Point=                                =Card No. 5=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to captured enemy strong point.

  2. Hand out Situation No. 5. Read and discuss. Point out places
        mentioned.

  3. Order platoon commanders to report to Captain C.

  4. Estimate of the Situation. Mission, action of enemy, action of own
        troops, withdrawal of the 1st and 2nd platoons to reorganize.
        Relief by 3rd platoon. Decision.

  5. Report to battalion commander. First sergeant to prepare message.

  6. Orders: Information of enemy and own troops. Plan of commander. 3rd
        platoon take over duty of security. Relieve 1st and 2nd
        platoons. Prisoners and stragglers. Mop up position. 1st and 2nd
        platoons assemble and reorganize, check casualties, replenish
        ammunition.

  7. Message to battalion commander: Accomplished mission. Casualties.
        Prisoners. Reorganization. Await further instructions. Reaction
        of battalion commander to message.

                  *       *       *       *       *

    Note.—Acknowledgment is made to Major Reginald H. Kelly, Infantry,
    for the background on which this Terrain Exercise is based.—THE
    AUTHOR.



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 2._
                     Approach March and Deployment


                              The Problem

=Special Situation—Blue=:

The Red forces have been retreating (_a_) before the attack of the Blues
for the past two days, contesting every yard of the advance.

 The 10th Blue division is operating in the Sector:
     Right boundary: (_b_)
     Left boundary: (_c_)

 The Division is disposed:
     19th Brigade as attacking brigade.
     20th Brigade as division reserve.

The attacking brigade is disposed regiments side by side, the ——
Infantry in the right half of the sector: the —— Infantry in the left
half of the sector. Regiments are echeloned by battalion; one as
assault; one as support and one as reserve.

The —— Infantry has the 2nd battalion as assault; the 1st battalion as
support and the 3rd battalion as reserve.

After an all day fight the assault battalion (2nd) has halted along
(_d_) where it has been ordered to stabilize for the night in order to
permit arrangements to be made for the continuation of the attack
tomorrow morning.

The support battalion (1st) has reached (_e_) where it is halted.


                     Explanation of Letter Symbols

(_a_) The compass direction of the retreat of the Red forces: North,
south, east, west.

(_b_) State the right boundary of the sector over which the division is
operating.

(_c_) State the left boundary of the sector over which the division is
operating.

If practicable the problem should be staged so that there may be a well
defined topographical feature that will mark one of these boundaries of
the Division sector.

(_d_) The general location of the front lines of the assault battalion.
This line should in general, be perpendicular to the lines of advance of
the division and if practicable should lay along some well defined
topographical feature of the terrain so that it may be readily indicated
to the class.

(_e_) The location of the halting place of the 1st Battalion. This
should be at least 1500 to 1800 yards in rear of the line (_d_) above.


                               Procedure

The class is conducted to (_e_) where the Terrain Exercise is to begin.
The Director will distribute the sheets containing Special Situation
Blue and a few minutes are allowed the members of the class to read it
over.

The Director will then read the Situation aloud, point out the places
mentioned where practicable and make such explanations as may be
necessary.

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, the situation states that the 10th
division is operating on a certain sector. What do you understand by
that?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “It is the area lying between the two designated
boundaries which has been allotted to the division and to which, in
general, the division confines its operations. As I understand it there
is a division on our right and another on our left. If each were not
given a definite area to operate over I can readily see how there might
be great confusion over the question as to just who is responsible for a
certain area. By assigning definite boundaries this question is
eliminated. The division assigned to the particular sector is
responsible for everything in the sector.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, what do you understand by the term
attacking brigade?”

_Captain Hastings_: “It is the term used to designate the Brigade that
is leading—the brigade that is making the attack against the enemy—as
distinguished from the brigade that is held in reserve.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “There are several ways of disposing the infantry of a
division for combat. I will outline them briefly in order that you may
see what the formations are and the relation that our battalion has to
them.

“The division may be deployed with the two brigades side by side, each
brigade being echeloned in a column of regiments. The leading regiment
of each brigade is in turn echeloned in a column of battalions, one as
assault, one as support and one as local reserve. The second regiment
(less 1 battalion) of each brigade forms the brigade reserve. The
remaining battalion from each of these regiments is held out by the
division commander as a division reserve. In this case the division
commander is driving a two unit team with the units abreast. Under
exceptional circumstances the division may be deployed with the brigades
side by side with all four regiments in line each echeloned in a column
of battalions. This formation uses up a division very rapidly and is
only employed where an exceptionally wide front has been assigned.

“The third method of deployment is that indicated in the problem we have
under consideration. There is an attacking brigade with the regiments
side by side, each regiment echeloned in a column of battalions, one as
attacking, one as support and one as reserve. This is a very good
formation and has many advantages. It is one that was employed by many
of the successful divisions in France. The Reserve brigade is held far
back in order to reduce fatigue and casualties to a minimum, so that
when it is called upon to relieve the attacking brigade it is in the
best of condition and comparatively fresh and rested. In this formation
the division commander drives his team of units in tandem. Now, I want
every member of the class to visualize this formation and get it firmly
fixed in your minds. Let us review it again:

“Our brigade, the 19th is the attacking Brigade. We have our two
regiments abreast. Our regiment occupies the —— half of the sector which
extends right up through here (indicates); the other regiment occupies
the —— half of the sector which extends right along parallel to us along
there (indicating). Our 2nd battalion has been the assault battalion and
has carried the advance forward today. We have been following as support
battalion, and at the end of the day’s work have arrived here. Our 3rd
battalion has been following us at a distance of about 1,000 yards as
the reserve.

“The 1st battalion has gotten as far forward as it possibly can today
and has halted along the ________ (indicate the general line of the
battalion) where it has been ordered to stabilize for the night in order
to permit arrangements to be made for continuing the advance tomorrow
morning. The problem of this Terrain Exercise has to do with those
arrangements, in so far as the Infantry is concerned. We are the support
battalion, it is up to us to relieve the assault battalion tonight and
carry on the fight tomorrow. How are we going to do it?”


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 1=:

It is now (_f_) p. m.

You, Major A, commanding the 1st battalion, which is now support
battalion of the regiment, receive an order from the regimental
commander, the body of which reads as follows:

  1. The enemy has continued to retreat during the day. Our Army is
        pushing him to the limit. Our 2nd battalion has reached the
        ________ (state general line that has been reached) where it is
        in close contact with the enemy. The general attack will be
        continued all along the line tomorrow morning.

  2. A redistribution of troops in the regimental sector will be
        effected tonight.

  3. (_a_) The 1st battalion will relieve the 2nd battalion on the front
        line and be prepared to continue the attack tomorrow morning.
        Details of Artillery preparation, tank assistance and zero hour
        will be communicated later.

   (_b_) The 3rd battalion will relieve the 1st battalion as support and
         take position at ________ (location of the 1st battalion). This
         relief will be completed by (_g_) o’clock p. m.

   (_c_) When relieved the 2nd battalion will fall back to (_h_),
         reorganize and replenish ammunition, equipment and supplies. It
         will be the reserve battalion.

   (_d_) Detachments of the Howitzer Company now with the 2nd battalion
         will remain in position and be reported to the commanding
         officer 2nd battalion, when the relief is effected.

   (_e_) Details of reliefs will be arranged by battalion commanders
         concerned.

  4. Completion of reliefs and moves will be reported to Regimental C.
        P. by telephone and runner.

  5. Messages to Regimental C. P. at ________ (_i_).

_Required_:

Your order for the approach march and arrangements for carrying out the
orders of the regimental commander.

Explanation of Letter Symbols

(_f_) The time at which the order of the regimental commander is
received by the battalion commander. This should be before dark.

(_g_) The time by which the 3rd battalion should relieve the 1st
battalion. This should be an hour or more after the time indicated by
(_f_).

(_h_) The location to which the 2nd battalion is to march and assemble
when it is relieved by the 1st battalion.

(_i_) The location of the regimental C. P. It should be some where in
the regimental sector between the support and reserve battalions.


                               Procedure

The Director will distribute the sheets containing Situation No. 1 to
the members of the class. He will read the situation aloud, point out
the places and locations referred to and make such explanations as may
be necessary.

One or more members of the class will be called upon to state his
understanding of the situation and this will be continued until it is
apparent that all members of the class understand it and are ready to
proceed with a solution on the same basis of understanding.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before going ahead with the problem I want to say a few
words about the importance of this subject of approach march and
deployment.

“Prior to the war we did not appreciate the necessity for extensive
drill and instruction in the subject of approach march, deployment and
the relief of units on the firing line. There was little literature on
the subjects and what there was dealt only in glittering generalities.
Once in a while a training program included the subject ‘Deployment,’
but no one took it seriously and such as we carried out, were executed
in a purely perfunctory manner.

“In the training of troops for modern warfare the subject must be given
the place and attention that it deserves. Troops must be trained to take
up the approach march formation, and make a deployment therefrom, both
day and night, over all kinds of ground. They must be trained in the
methods and technique of making a relief of a force on the firing line
at night and overcome the obstacles that are habitually encountered. The
great danger at night is in losing direction. This results in a command
getting lost and failure to get to the line of departure ready to ‘Jump
off’ at H Hour.

“The failure of a single battalion in this respect may imperil a whole
military operation and cost the lives of thousands of men. Unless the
troops told off to make the attack are in place ready to ‘jump off’ and
follow the barrage at H Hour there is not the slightest chance for
success. The barrage goes on. The enemy is given time to man his
positions and machine guns and the attack on that particular front is
held up, usually with enormous losses. The whole attack has to be
reorganized and started anew. Those of you who have had experience with
an attack which was a failure know how much time is lost and how many
casualties may result from such affairs.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now, let us take up the problem as it concerns our
battalion. The battalion command post we will say is right here where we
are standing. Just how do you visualize the distribution of the
battalion, Lieutenant Wallace?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “The battalion headquarters company would be in
this vicinity. Company A would be the leading company on the right;
Company B would be the leading company on the left; Company C would be
following Company A at a distance of say 100 yards and Company D would
be following Company B at about the same distance. Each company would be
in two echelons, an assault echelon of two platoons and a support
echelon of one platoon, the latter following at about 50 yards. The men
have taken advantage of such natural cover that exists and where there
is none they have dug individual fox holes to get into. These afford a
lot of cover from shrapnel fire.”

_The Director_: “You have given a very good picture of the formation.
Are there any questions? If you do not understand all that is being
said, now is the time to speak out. We must all approach the solution of
the problem on the same basis to get the greatest benefit from it.”

The Director will point out to the members of the class the location of
the various elements of the battalion on the ground and go into the
details of the formation if it is deemed necessary.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “The requirement of the problem involves Major A’s order
for the approach march. Lieutenant Ralston, what must the Major do
before he is ready to issue his orders?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “He must size up the situation, arrive at a
decision as to what he is going to do and then put this decision in the
form of an order.”

_The Director_: “What is the first part of his Estimate of this
Situation?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “He will determine upon his mission. I would say
that the immediate mission is to relieve the 2nd battalion and that the
next phase of it is to prepare to continue the attack tomorrow morning.”

_The Director_: “Very good. What is the next point he will consider,
Captain Harvey?”

_Captain Harvey_: “He must consider the enemy. The enemy has been
retreating before our attack for the past two days. This shows that he
is inferior in strength and morale. His defense arrangements must be
very much impaired and the confusion that exists behind his lines may
readily be imagined. The fact that he is doggedly contesting our advance
and that his retreat has nowhere broken down to the extent that we have
been able to break through his lines with a deep penetration shows that
he still has a lot of fight in him. As soon as it is sufficiently dark
to preclude the possibility of aerial observation the enemy will begin
shifting his defense elements with a view to preparations to resist our
advance again tomorrow. He will be effecting a relief of his worn-out
troops, shifting his machine guns to more advantageous positions,
changing his artillery so as to more effectively cover the ground which
we will have to pass over tomorrow if our attack is a success. All of
this will consume several hours. During the period of readjustment and
redistribution of troops the hostile activity and fire will naturally be
very much diminished. During this same period from dusk until several
hours later these same things will be happening in our lines, as you can
see. Our artillery will have to be brought up to new positions for the
destructive bombardment and the barrage. Our machine guns have to be
placed in position to better support the riflemen. Our tanks have to be
gotten up ready for the ‘jump off’ tomorrow morning and our worn-out
troops on the front lines have to be relieved. It will be a period of
lessened activity on both sides. During this period we will take
advantage of the opportunity to effect the relief of the 2nd battalion
on the line.”

    (Note.—The terrain over which the approach march and the relief
    should now be discussed.)

_The Director_: “That is a very good discussion of the consideration of
the enemy and our troops. Captain Hodges, what other factors enter into
the estimate of the situation?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Our plans, I should say, the Major would want to
determine on the formation that he will adopt for the approach march. He
wants to arrive on the front line with his assault elements in the best
possible formation to go into action. It will be more and more difficult
to make changes in the formation as he approaches the location of the
front lines. He will therefore start his approach march in as nearly the
formation that he wants to be in when he arrives on the line.”

_The Director_: “You are right. In making a relief of this kind you
cannot march a battalion up within the zone of rifle and machine gun
fire in a column of files and then expect to get into combat formation
and effect a relief properly. It simply cannot be done. You must get
into your formation sufficiently far back to make sure of it and then
take advantage of the various invulnerable formations to cross dangerous
ground to the best advantage and with a minimum of losses. Now, Captain
James, what would be your decision?”

_Captain James_: “To march to the front and effect the relief of the 2nd
battalion as soon as possible after dusk.”

_The Director_: “Very good. Now all of what we have said is termed the
‘Estimate of the Situation.’ I hope you all appreciate the necessity for
the battalion commander going through this process of thought before
arriving at his decision and framing up his order based on it.

“We are now ready to proceed with a discussion of the Major’s order.
Lieutenant Baker, what would you include in the first paragraph?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “The information of the enemy and our own troops.
This would include information about the enemy’s retreat all along the
line during the day; of the point reached by the front lines of our 2nd
battalion; of the proposed attack tomorrow morning; of the fact that the
3rd battalion will relieve our battalion tonight; of the action to be
taken by the 2nd battalion after we relieve it. This is all that it
would be necessary for the troops to know at this time.”

_The Director_: “I think you have covered the essential points. Captain
Hall, what would you include in the second paragraph of the order?”

_Captain Hall_: “I would state my plan, to the effect that we are to
relieve the 2nd battalion tonight.”

_The Director_: “What is the next part of the order, Lieutenant Barry?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “The disposition of the troops and the orders for
each element of the battalion: I would want the intelligence section of
my headquarters’ company to get to the front at the earliest possible
moment, secure the intelligence ‘dope’ and be prepared to take over the
intelligence functions as soon as the relief is effected. I would order
the section to proceed up to the C. P. of the 2nd battalion right away
and instruct them to get on the job. I would also want my communications
platoon to get up to the front and make arrangements to take over the
communication net and the message center of the 2nd battalion. If these
outfits get an early start they will be able to accomplish much before
it gets dark. They should lose no time in getting to the front.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, what would you include in the orders
for the companies of the Battalion?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “The Major has decided upon the formation already.
There only remains the task of putting the decision into an order. I
would preserve the present dispositions of the units and direct: Company
A to march at —— (time), in approach march formation; designate the
sector of the company; announce the guide (right or left) towards the
base company; give the compass bearing of the direction of the march and
to make sure that contact will not be lost with the base company will
caution to that effect. I would also include in this part of the order
the fact that Company A is to relieve the Assault Company of the 2nd
battalion which is immediately in its front. The orders for Company B,
which is to be the other Assault Company, would contain the same
instructions as Company A with the addition of a sentence giving the
Company a directing line in addition to the compass bearing of the line
of march.

“I would include in the orders for Company C the same line of
instructions as for Company A except that I would tell them the distance
they are to follow Company A and the fact that they are to relieve the
local support company of the 2nd battalion.

“Company D’s orders will include the same instructions contained in
these for Company C except directions for them to relieve the machine
gun elements of the 2nd Battalion.

“I think these instructions would be all that are necessary for the four
companies of the battalion to get them started on the march.”

_The Director_: “You have covered the points very well. But, there are
some instructions that pertain to all of the units of the battalion.
These would be included in the final sub-paragraph of paragraph 3 of the
order. This paragraph is denominated (x) in the order. What are they,
Lieutenant Hunt?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I should think they would include: The designation
of the base Company; instructions for sending a reconnaissance officer
and party of guides forward at once; designating the place where the
leading elements of the battalion are to halt for the purpose of
receiving final orders for the relief of the units of the 2nd battalion;
designation of the place where unit commanders are to assemble to
receive orders for the relief.”

_The Director_: “Paragraph 4 of a field order includes administrative
arrangements. Can you think of anything that would be necessary to be
included in that paragraph of Major A’s orders?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I can think of nothing. That would depend upon
circumstances. These administrative arrangements include: instructions
for the trains—which have already been attended to; collecting station
for wounded—which will be announced in a later order. It may be assumed
that as soon as the advance halted that the rolling kitchen was brought
up and the men given a hot meal before relieving the 2nd battalion. If
such is the case the kitchen will have to be disposed of in paragraph
4.”

_The Director_: “What will paragraph 5 contain?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “It will contain information of the time when the
present command post of the battalion will close and when and where it
will next be opened.”

_The Director_: “We have now covered the elements of the Major’s order.
Let us review them briefly:

“Paragraph 1: Information of the enemy and our own troops.

“Paragraph 2: The Major’s plan of action in general terms.

“Paragraph 3: Distribution of troops—orders for the various elements of
the battalion.

“Paragraph 4: Administrative arrangements.

“Paragraph 5: Time of closing the present C. P. and when and where it
will next open.

“Now, I want each member of the class to write out the battalion
commander’s order on his pad. Base your order on the dispositions that
we have discussed in the solution of the problem; use the 5 paragraph
order system; endeavor to include all the instructions that we have
included in our solution.”


                               Procedure

The necessary time is allowed for the preparation of the order by the
members of the class. As soon as the orders are completed the Director
will distribute to the class the mimeograph sheets containing the order
that he has prepared as a solution to the situation.

He will read it aloud to the class and have each man compare it with the
order that he, himself, has prepared.

This solution order will be as follows:

  1. The enemy continued his retreat during the day. Our 2nd battalion
        has halted along (_d_)[1] where it is in close contact with the
        enemy. Details of location of units will be given later. The
        attack will be continued tomorrow morning. The 3rd battalion
        relieves our battalion before (_g_)[1] tonight. When relieved
        the 2nd battalion goes to the regimental reserve.

  2. This battalion will relieve the 2nd battalion tonight.

  3. (_a_) The Intelligence Section, Headquarters’ Company will proceed
        at once to the C. P. 2nd battalion and be prepared to take over
        the intelligence functions.

   (_b_) The Communications platoon, Headquarters’ Company will proceed
         at once to the C. P. 2nd battalion and be prepared to take over
         the communications net and message center.

   (_c_) Captain A, with Company A, will march at ____ (hour) p. m., in
         approach march formation in the ____[2] half of the regimental
         sector, preparatory to relieving the ____[2] Assault Company of
         the 2nd battalion. The guide will be ____[3] Compass bearing
         ____ degrees, magnetic. Contact with the ____[3] of Company B
         will be maintained.

   (_d_) Captain B, with Company B, will march at ____ (hour) p. m., in
         approach march formation in the ____[3] half of the regimental
         sector, preparatory to relieving the ____[3] assault company of
         the 2nd battalion. Directing line ____ (state directing line).
         Compass bearing ____ degrees, magnetic.

   (_e_) Captain C, with Company C, will follow Company A in approach
         march formation at a distance of 300 yards, preparatory to
         relieving local support company of the 2nd Battalion. Compass
         bearing ____ degrees, magnetic.

   (_f_) Captain D, with Company D, will follow Company B, in approach
         march formation at a distance of 300 yards, preparatory to
         relieving the Machine Gun elements of the 2nd battalion.
         Directing line ____ (state). Compass bearing ____ degrees,
         magnetic.

   (_x_) Company B, base company.

       A reconnaissance officer from each company, accompanied by scouts
             and guides will be sent forward at once.

       When the leading elements of the battalion have arrived at ____
             (state place), the entire battalion will halt, take cover
             and await orders.

       Company Commanders will assemble at ____ (state point) to receive
             orders covering the details of the relief.

  4. Rolling Kitchens will join the combat train of the reserve
        battalion.

  5. The battalion C. P. will close here at ____ (time) and open at the
        C. P. 2nd battalion at the same hour.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “After issuing this order and making sure that it is
understood the battalion commander accompanied by his battalion staff,
runners, etc., and the remainder of the battalion Headquarters’ Company
will proceed to the front. One officer will be left at the old C. P.
until the troops have moved out. He will then go to the front. The Major
will get in personal communication with the Commanding Officer of the
2nd Battalion, secure all the information he has of the situation and
the location of the troops to be relieved. He will make such
reconnaissance as is practicable and necessary to a complete
understanding of the situation and then prepare his orders for the
relief of the 2nd battalion.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Are there any questions?”

The Director endeavors to answer any questions that may be asked.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Approach March and Deployment=                                =Card
No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct the class to (e) where the Terrain exercise is to begin.

  2. Distribute the sheets containing Special Situation, Blue, read and
        explain.

  3. Meaning of Sector; attacking brigade; attack formations—brigades
        side by side; regiments side by side; attacking brigade and
        reserve brigade—tandem; formation of 19th brigade.

  4. Distribute sheets containing Situation No. 1, read and explain.

  5. Approach march and deployment; importance of; necessity for
        training; training programs; failure of battalion to jump off.

  6. Visualize formation of 1st Battalion. Point out relative location
        of units.

  7. Estimate of situation; mission; enemy; own troops; terrain plans of
        operation; decision.

  8. Order: Information of Enemy and own troops (Refer to copy of order
        to be submitted as solution in bringing out points of order.
        Make discussion along lines of solution). Plan of commander.
        Orders for each unit. Put in paragraph (x). Administrative
        arrangements. Location of C. P. Review the paragraphs of the
        order.

  9. Have class write out order on pads.

  10. Distribute sheets containing the solution (copy of Order). Read
        and explain. Have members of class compare their order with the
        solution.

  11. Explain subsequent actions of Major A.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the area supposed to be occupied by
Company B. The Director will distribute the sheets containing Situation
No. 2 to the members of the class.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2=:

You, Captain B, are commanding Company B. You have the order of the
battalion commander relating to your company as follows:

(_d_) Captain B, with Company B, will march at —— (hour) p. m., in
approach march formation in the right (left) half of the regimental
sector, preparatory to relieving the right (left) assault company of the
2nd battalion. Directing line —— (state directing line). Compass bearing
—— degrees, magnetic.

(_x_) Company B, base company.

A reconnaissance officer from each company, accompanied by scouts and
guides will be sent forward at once.

4. Rolling kitchens will join the combat train of the reserve battalion.

You have returned to your Company.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                               Procedure

The Director will read the situation aloud, make such explanations as
may be necessary and point out the area occupied by Company B. One or
more members of the class may be called upon to state his understanding
of the situation.

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, what do you understand to be the
formation of Company B at this moment?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would say that the company would be in
approach march formation. There would be two platoons, let us say the
1st and 2nd, in the assault echelon and one, the 3rd, in the support
echelon. All three of the platoons would at this time be deployed in two
waves, a section of three squads in each wave. I think each section
would be deployed in a line of skirmishers while at a halt. The company
headquarters would be here, about midway between the assault echelon and
the support echelon.”

    (Note.—Lieutenant Williams will point out the location of the
    various elements of the Company on the ground.)

_The Director_: “Why do you think the Company would be deployed in a
line of skirmishers at this time?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “When the company halts the men will want to take
advantage of existing cover. If there is little cover available, as in
this case, each man will dig himself in—he will dig a ‘fox hole’ big
enough to give him some cover. Shell holes will be improved along their
forward lips to give cover and if large ones are available as much as a
half squad may occupy one of them. Another reason for the support
battalion deploying into a line of skirmishers when it halts for any
length is this: If the enemy should make a counter-attack and break
through our assault battalion, and the companies of our support
battalion are ‘dug in’ in a line of skirmishers they are in position to
meet him without any change in the formation. Everything is all set and
ready to receive the counter-attack.”

_The Director_: “I think you have sized up the formation pretty well. I
think if any member of this class is ever in command of an assault
company of a support battalion in action he will remember this phase of
this Terrain Exercise and when he halts for any length of time he will
get the company into a line of skirmishers and have them dig in. You may
say ‘why dig in for such a short halt.’ I answer that you will have no
trouble getting the men to dig fox holes after they have been in action
a few times. They soon learn the value of them and automatically do it.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, let us assume that you are Captain B.
How do you size up the situation?”

_Captain Hastings_: “My immediate mission is to get my company ready to
march at the appointed hour.

“I have little information of the detailed dispositions of the enemy
that is opposing our 1st battalion but my reconnaissance officer whom I
will send forward right away will secure it and have it available for me
before the orders for the actual relief are to be issued.

“We are to relieve the right (left) assault company of the 1st battalion
which is now in close contact with the enemy along the front lines. Due
to casualties and the progress of the day’s action it is probable that
each of his assault platoons have both waves in the firing line and it
is highly probable that some or all of the support platoon has also been
absorbed in the firing line. It is necessary for Company B in making the
relief to get the assault troops in the proper formation to make the
attack tomorrow morning.

“The present formation of the company is suitable for the purpose and
will need no change. We can march straight to the front in our present
general formation. We will change from a line of skirmishers into a line
of squad columns for each of the waves of the 1st and 2nd platoons and
the 3rd platoon will march in a column of section columns with the
second section staggered to the right of the first.”

    (Note.—Discuss features of the terrain as they actually exist.)

_The Director_: “Your decision will be to march to the front in the
general formation you are now in.”

_Captain Hastings_: “Yes, sir.”

_The Director_: “Now let us go into details a little. Lieutenant
Wallace, what do you understand to be the purpose of the ‘Directing
line’ assigned to the company by the Major?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “The directing line was assigned in addition to
the compass bearing to make doubly sure that the company would keep the
right direction and that there would be little chance for getting lost.
It is a well defined topographical feature and will serve the purpose
very well.”

_The Director_: “You note that the company has been designated as ‘base
company.’ What do you understand by that?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “It is the company on which all the units of the
battalion will guide during the approach march.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “This places an additional responsibility on the
company. If Company B loses its direction the whole battalion will do
the same and it is probable that the troops will not be in position
ready to ‘jump off’ tomorrow morning. You have no idea of the confusion
that can take place in an outfit that loses its direction and gets lost
in an operation of this kind. Every possible precaution must be taken to
prevent it. In this case the Captain must charge the platoon that is to
march nearest to the directing line to guide on that line throughout the
march and for the other platoons to guide on it. In this case the right
(left) assault platoon will be designated ‘base platoon’ and will take
every precaution to keep the right (left) element of the platoon
absolutely on the directing line. You can see that this places the
responsibility for the march direction of the whole battalion on the
squad that is nearest the directing line. I want you to keep this in
mind throughout the problem.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, what preliminary arrangements would
Captain B make for issuing his orders to the company?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “The company command post is supposed to be
located here.

    (Note.—In framing up the problem the Director should locate the
    Company C. P. where there is cover. If it is impracticable to do so,
    it may be assumed that there is a shell hole available.)

“The Captain will assemble the platoon commanders and platoon sergeants
and issue the orders for the initial operation of the Company.”

_The Director_: “What will be included in the first paragraph of the
order?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “The information of the enemy and our own troops.
This will be a repetition of paragraph 1 of the Major’s order with the
addition of information as to what the other companies of the battalion
are going to do. Captain B will go into details, for it must be
remembered, that none of the platoon commanders were present when Major
A issued his orders and they know nothing of the situation except what
they have been able to observe for themselves.”

_The Director_: “I am glad to hear you bring out that point. It takes
only a few minutes to explain the situation in detail and is most
valuable to subordinate officers who are charged with the task of
actually carrying out the operations. They must know the details of the
situation. Now, Captain Harvey, what would you include in the second
paragraph of the order?”

_Captain Harvey_: “My plans. To march at the designated hour,
preparatory to relieving the right (left) assault company of the 1st
battalion. In order to save questions regarding the relief I would state
to the effect that detailed instructions would be issued later.”

_The Director_: “Very good. Now comes the distribution of troops. That
is paragraph 3 of the field order. What points would you include in it?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would give the orders for each platoon separately.
Those for the right assault platoon would come first. I would designate
the platoon by number and the name of the platoon commander; state the
formation; the sector that the platoon is to march in; announce the
guide; and the compass bearing of the march. In the case of the base
platoon I would indicate the directing line of the march in addition.

“I will then follow with instructions for the reconnaissance party and
guides to go to the front right away.

“Then will come that part of the order that is of interest to all the
elements of the Company. The announcement of the base platoon; where the
halt is to be made to receive detailed orders for the relief. Then will
follow the final paragraph of the order designating the place where the
Company Headquarters is to march.”

_The Director_: “I think you have covered the elements of the company
order very well. I hope all of you see the necessity for such an order.
You may say: why all of this long-winded order for the operation of a
single rifle company? Why not have Captain B simply give the signal for
the advance when the time comes and have the company go ahead? Suppose
you were one of the platoon commanders in the company, would you rather
have the detailed order for your operation or would you be more
satisfied with a mere extended order drill formation? I am sure you will
all favor the order procedure and that is the answer to the question. If
every man has information of what is going on and he knows the part that
his unit is to take in the operation he can go about his work in a much
more intelligent manner. I am pleased to note that many of you are
taking notes on the technique of the Captain’s order. They will now
stand you in good stead. Are there any questions?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I note that Captain Harvey made a statement about
sending forward the reconnaissance party. Who would head that party and
just what would it be composed of?”

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, what are your ideas about this?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would have the second in command lead the party. It
would be composed of two runners from each of the platoons and two from
company headquarters.”

_The Director_: “You cannot have the second in command lead the party.
He is not up with the company at this time. He is back with the rear
echelon of the company. The idea is that he will remain there so as to
be available to take charge in case the company commander becomes a
casualty.”

_Captain Harvey_: “That is right. I had overlooked that fact. I would
have the commander of the 3rd platoon conduct the reconnaissance party.
His platoon is to be in support and is the most available officer. The
platoon sergeant can conduct the platoon on the approach march.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. Does that answer your question,
Captain Hodges?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Yes, sir.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to write out
Captain B’s order on his pad. Place yourself in the Captain’s shoes;
visualize the situation just as it is before you; refer to the notes you
have made during the solution and explanations; and write out the order.
This is the very best training you can possibly get. It puts the
proposition right up to you for solution. In writing the order leave a
margin of 1½ inches on the left.”

When the class has finished with the order the Director will direct each
member to pass his order to the member at his left. Each officer will
then correct the order in his possession and make comments on the
margin.

When this has been completed the Director will distribute the mimeograph
sheets containing the order of Captain B and the members of the class
will be allowed a few minutes to compare the order he has written with
the one distributed by the Director.

_The Director_: “Now I want each member of the class to write his name
at the top of the order he has prepared and to place the name of the
officer who commented on it at the top of the left-hand margin.”

When this is done the orders will be collected. The Director will
examine them at his leisure for the purpose of determining the quality
of the work that the class is doing.

Captain B’s order distributed by the Director will be as follows:

  1. The enemy continued his retreat during the day. Our 2nd battalion
        has halted along (_d_)[4] where it is in close contact with the
        enemy. Details of location of units will be given later. The
        attack will be continued tomorrow morning. The 3rd battalion
        relieves our battalion before ——[4] tonight. When relieved the
        2nd battalion goes to the regimental reserve. Our battalion
        relieves the 2nd battalion tonight. Company A marches on our
        left (right); Company C follows Company A at a distance of 300
        yards; Company D follows us at a distance of 300 yards.

  2. This company, as base company of the battalion, will march at
        ______ (hour), preparatory to relieving the right (left) assault
        company of the 2nd battalion. Detailed instructions for the
        relief later.

  3. (_a_) Lieutenant X, with the 1st platoon, will march the right
        (left) half of our company sector. Guide will be left (right).
        Contact with the 2nd platoon will be maintained. Compass bearing
        of march —— degrees, magnetic.

   (_b_) Lieutenant Y, with the 2nd platoon, will march in the left
         (right) half of our company sector. Guiding line (indicate in
         detail) compass bearing of march —— degrees, magnetic.

   (_c_) Sergeant M with the 3rd platoon will march in the center of our
         company sector following the 1st and 2nd platoons at a distance
         of 200 yards.

   (_d_) Lieutenant Z with 8 runners (2 from Company Headquarters and 2
         from each platoon) will proceed at once to the front,
         reconnoiter the sector occupied by the left (right) assault
         company, 2nd battalion, and instruct the runners in order that
         they may act as guides for the elements of the company in
         effecting the relief.

   (_x_) The 2nd platoon Base platoon. When the leading elements of the
         1st and 2nd platoons reach the —— (state line) a halt will be
         made until further orders.

  4. The rolling kitchen will join the combat train of the reserve
        battalion at ——.

  5. I will march ahead of the 3rd platoon.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The platoon commanders will return to their platoons,
assemble their non-commissioned officers and issue their instructions.
Through this chain of command the instructions for the operation will be
gotten right down to the last member of the battalion.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Approach March and Deployment=                                =Card
No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct the class to the area supposed to be occupied by Company B.

  2. Distribute Situation No. 2; read and explain. Call upon one or more
        members of class to state understanding of the situation.

  3. Formation of Company B; cover; formation for advance.

  4. Make estimate of situation; mission; enemy; own troops; plan;
        decision.

  5. Purpose of directing line; meaning of base company. Loss of
        direction.

  6. Preliminary arrangements for issuing order.

  7. Contents of order: information of enemy and own troops; plan of
        commander; dispositions—detailed instructions for elements of
        company.

  8. Necessity for issuing orders.

  9. Reconnaissance party. Second in command.

  10. Write out Captain B’s order. Pass to officer at left. Criticise.
        Distribute solution. Compare. Collect for future examination.

  11. Procedure for platoon commanders. Get order down to last man of
        battalion.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the area over which the 2nd platoon is to
advance.

On arriving at a selected point the class will be halted.

_The Director_: “Captain James, we are now in the area over which the
2nd platoon is advancing to the front. Lieutenant Y, the platoon
commander, is at this point. What do you estimate to be the approach
march formation of the platoon?”

_Captain James_: “I will first locate the platoon commander and then
designate the location of the elements of the platoon with reference to
him. I think that the platoon commander would be marching at this time
about midway between the assault and the support waves. The 1st Section
would be marching in a line of squad columns with the right (left) squad
near the directing line which is right there (indicating). It is the
base section and the squad nearest the directing line is the base squad.
The head of the squad columns is about 25 yards in advance of the
platoon commander.

“The 2nd platoon is following the platoon commander at a distance of
about 25 yards in a line of squad columns.”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “It seems to me that the platoon commander would be
out in front of his platoon at this time.”

_The Director_: “The platoon commander is free to go wherever he
pleases. But you must remember he has two section leaders—one for each
section of the platoon. These men are supposed to be competent to do
their job. The platoon commander should march where he can best direct
the operations of his platoon through his section leaders. In this case
I think Captain James has located the platoon leader in the proper
place.

“Now having definitely fixed in our minds the location of the elements
of the platoon let us proceed with the next situation.”


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 3=:

You., Lieutenant Y., commanding the 2nd platoon have arrived at this
point (indicate).

The 1st section is in a line of squad columns 25 yards to the front; the
2nd section is in a line of squad columns 25 yards in rear of you. For
some minutes enemy shells have been falling in the area which is
occupied by one of our batteries at the rate of about 4 per minute. At
this moment the fire increased materially. The men have left the guns
temporarily.

_Required_:

What do you do?


                               Procedure

The Director distributes the sheets containing Situation No. 3 and
points out to the class the extent of the shelled area. It should be in
the direct line of march of the 2nd platoon.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, how do you size up the immediate
situation?”

_Captain Hall_: “Our original mission has not changed. We must continue
the march to the front regardless of what the enemy does. The 2nd
battalion must be relieved tonight and our battalion must make the
relief. We cannot stand here and wait for the enemy’s fire to let up. It
is obvious that we cannot go through the shelled area without ruinous
losses. The only thing left for us to do is to go around it.”

_The Director_: “Those are the points I wanted to bring out. The
question before us is: How are we going to get around the shelled area?
What have you to suggest, Lieutenant Barry?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “In the first place I will have to decide the
question as to which side of the shelled area we are to use in getting
around it. If the whole platoon goes around one side and the enemy fire
shifts in that direction we may get caught in it and lose a lot of men.
I think we would reduce our chances of loss by using both sides and
having one platoon go around to the right and one to the left.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, what do you think of that
proposition?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I think it is all right. The question that arises in
my mind is that of loss of control by the platoon commander and the
difficulties of getting into the proper formation on the other side of
the shelled area again.”

_The Director_: “When you consider that the platoon commander has a team
of two sections each under the charge of a competent leader the
difficulties are really not so great as they would at first appear. Let
us decide that we are to go around the shelled area on both sides of it,
a section on each side. On which side will you have the leading section
go, Lieutenant Williams?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “The 1st Section is the base section of the
platoon—as such it is the base element of the company and the whole
battalion. It is the unit on which the whole battalion is guiding its
march. It should therefore go around on the —— side so that the 1st
platoon can keep in touch with it and guide on it. When it gets to the
other side of the shelled area it can deploy and get its —— element on
the directing line again. By employing this method there will be no
chance for the 1st platoon losing connection with it. The 2nd section
will go around to the ——.”

_The Director_: “I think your reasoning is logical and if there are no
objections we will accept that method. Now the battery commander of the
battery being shelled will want to know what is going on. Captain
Hastings, how will you provide for this?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I will send a runner to him with a message giving
him the necessary information.”

_The Director_: “Let us assume that we have arrived at the decision
indicated in our discussion. How would you get the orders to the
troops?”

_Captain Hastings_: “When we get up as far as it is safe to go I will
signal the platoon to halt. And then call for the section leaders to
report to me. When they get here I will give them the orders necessary
for the execution of the maneuver.”


                               Procedure

The Class is now conducted forward to the point where it is as far as it
is safe to go and still avoid casualties from the enemy shell fire.

_The Director_: “It is considered that this is as far forward as it is
reasonably safe to go. Lieutenant Y has halted the platoon and the
section leaders have reported to him for orders. Now I want each member
of the class to consider himself being Lieutenant Y and to write out on
your pads the exact words that Lieutenant Y will say to the section
leaders. Then follow this with the contents of the verbal message that
you will send by runner to the battery commander.”

The necessary time is allowed for this. When the solutions are completed
the Director will have one or more members of the class read aloud what
they have written. The solutions are discussed and commented upon.

The Director will then distribute to the class the mimeograph slips
containing the orders of Lieutenant Y and a few minutes are allowed for
the members of the class to compare them with their work.

The order of Lieutenant Y will be as follows:

    “The enemy is shelling the battery in our immediate front. There is
    no further information of our own troops.

    “This platoon will go around the shelled area.

    “The 1st section will go around to the —— (right) (left) side
    towards the rest of the battalion.

    “The 2nd section will go around to the —— (left) (right) side
    towards the directing line.

    “On arriving at the other side of the shelled area the platoon will
    again take up the same formation that it is in now.

    “I will go in rear of the 1st platoon.”

The following message will be sent to the battery commander:

    “Second Platoon Company B —— Infantry is going around your battery
    position to the right and left. Will deploy again on the other side
    of the shelled area.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Approach March and Deployment=                                =Card
No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to area over which the 2nd platoon is marching.

  2. Formation of 2nd platoon. Column of sections in line of squad
        columns. Locate each element on the ground. Location of platoon
        commander.

  3. Distribute Situation No. 3. Read and explain.

  4. Estimate of Situation; mission; action of enemy; decision to go
        around shelled area, on both sides. Base section to keep in
        contact with rest of battalion. Message to the battery
        commander.

  5. Conduct class to safe edge of shelled area. Write out orders and
        message of platoon commander.

  6. Distribute solution. Discuss same. Allow time to compare with work
        of class.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The Class will now be conducted up to the place where the company
commanders have been ordered to meet the battalion commander to receive
orders for the relief of the 2nd battalion.

_The Director_: “This is the place where Major A directed the Company
Commanders to rendezvous to receive the final orders for the relief of
the 1st battalion. We assume that the troops have been halted along the
line —— (indicate) where they have taken advantage of such cover as is
available and are preparing individual cover where none is available.”

The Director will now distribute the sheets containing Situation No. 4.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 4=:

You, Major A, have arrived at this point. You have had a conference with
the commander of the 2nd battalion, made a reconnaissance of the
position and determined the location of the units to be relieved.

The latter are as follows:

Company E occupies the right half of the sector with all three platoons
on the firing line.

Company F occupies the left half of the sector with two platoons and a
part of the third in the firing line and the remainder of the third as
local support.

Company C is located in fox holes at —— (indicate the location) as
battalion reserve. A part of the company has participated in the day’s
action but the men are all now at the location indicated.

Company D has one platoon divided among the assault companies, and the
company (less this platoon) is with the battalion reserve with guns
located to cover approaches and to execute overhead harassing fire on
enemy back areas.

Detachments of the Howitzer Company are in position in the platoon
sectors and are to remain with the 1st battalion for tomorrow’s attack.

The battalion headquarters company has taken over the intelligence
duties, the communications net and the message center.

It is now —— o’clock p. m.

The enemy occupies the —— (give general location of front lines).

There is considerable shelling throughout the area and occasional bursts
of machine gun and rifle fire along the entire battle front.

Your company commanders are assembled here in accordance with the
instructions contained in your last order.

_Required_:

Your orders and instructions.


                               Procedure

The Director will read the situation aloud, make such explanations as
may be necessary and point out the places mentioned. One or more members
of the class will be called upon to state their understanding of the
tactical situation at this time.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Wallace, we have now to consider the orders
and instructions that Major A would issue to his assembled Company
commanders. What is the first thing you would put into the Major’s
order?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “The Major has been out to the front and made a
personal reconnaissance as far as practicable. He has interviewed the
Commander of the 2nd battalion and the officers of his staff who have
detailed information as to the situation. He ought to have pretty
definite information of just how the different elements of the 2nd
battalion are disposed. He should give his Company Commanders all of
this information in the first paragraph of the order. We note that this
information is all contained in Situation No. 3.”

_The Director_: “What would you include in the next paragraph of the
order, Lieutenant Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “My plan, to the effect that our battalion is to
relieve the 2nd battalion.”

_Captain Harvey_: “But we are going to do more than that. We are going
to make the attack tomorrow morning. It seems to me that the Major would
include in the order all the instructions he wants to give the Company
Commanders not only for the relief, but for the attack also. What do you
think about that, sir?”

_The Director_: “The Major would certainly not let his Company
Commanders get away without giving them all the instructions possible
regarding the part they are to play in the attack tomorrow morning. But
there are several things that he must get from higher up before he can
complete his plans for the attack and give them to his Company
Commanders. He must know the time the attack is to begin. He must know
about the artillery preparation and the rate of advance of the rolling
barrage. He must have information regarding the cooperation of the
tanks. While he is waiting for this information, which he momentarily
expects, he will go ahead and issue his orders for the relief. Then if
the other essential information is not at hand by the time the Company
Commanders must join their companies, he will issue as much of the
attack order as possible and leave the rest to go out later. He
certainly will not let his Captains get away until they have all the
instructions it is possible to give them up to the time it is necessary
for them to leave—the arrangements to continue the attack tomorrow
morning.”

_Captain Harvey_: “Those are the points I wanted to know about.”

_The Director_: “Now, Captain Hodges, what is the next part of the
order?”

_Captain Hodges_: “The tactical dispositions. Orders for each element of
the battalion. Designate the relieving unit and the unit to be relieved.
For example: ‘Company A will relieve Company E.’ This same form will
pertain with all the elements of the battalion.”

_The Director_: “Just how much detail would you include? To what extent
would you go in prescribing the formation of the company when the relief
is completed? For instance: Company E has all three platoons in the
assault echelon at this time. Would you want Company A to do the same
and hold out no company supports?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Now, that is quite a point. I had not thought of it.
I might assume that Captain A would take up the proper formation without
my specifying it, but to make sure I believe I would add another
sentence or two and specify the formation. I should say he ought to have
two platoons in the assault echelon and one held out as local support. I
think it would be better to specify that. There would be less chance for
a misunderstanding. I would also give these same instructions to the
Captain of Company B.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. It will certainly do no harm. In
any event you have no doubt as to what you want done. Now, what about
the machine gun company, Captain James? You will note that there is only
one platoon up on the lines now. The rest of the company is back with
the reserve with their guns covering the approaches and set up for
overhead fire on back areas. Do you want to leave them that way?”

_Captain James_: “No, sir. I think I would need the supporting fire of
all the machine guns in the ‘jump off’ tomorrow morning. I would assign
one platoon to support Company A and the company (less 1 platoon) to
support Company B. I think that would be better. If the attack goes over
with a good gain in ground tomorrow morning the machine guns will not be
able to keep up with it, and the Major will have an opportunity to make
an adjustment of their position in the battalion. I certainly would want
the advantage of their fire in the ‘jump off.’”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. Let us decide on that
disposition.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Now, there is another point I want to bring out at this
time. You have pictured in your own mind this formation and advance of
one battalion of Infantry and the relief and retirement of another.
Along side of you to the right are two other battalions going through
the same process. The same is happening to your left and all along the
line. Behind you there are other battalions effecting reliefs. There are
batteries of artillery and transport vehicles, innumerable. In other
words the back area of a force in action is crowded with troops. There
is much activity effecting reliefs, getting up supplies and ammunition
and evacuating the wounded.

“The enemy is doing these same things. His back areas are just as
crowded as our own. He is no better off than we are in this respect.

“It is our job to interfere with him as much as possible—to prevent or
curtail movement, and inflict losses on him. The wounding or killing of
one man by harassing fire will have no effect on the outcome of the war,
but if we can kill and wound a thousand every night it will in time have
its effect.

“The enemy can get away from artillery fire by avoiding shelled areas
but he cannot get away from rifle and machine gun harassing fire for he
never knows when and where it is going to come.

“If there is sufficient small arms ammunition available and it can be
gotten up to the riflemen and machine gunners on the front lines the
back areas of the enemy can be made a perfect ‘hell-hole’ by means of
systematic harassing fire.

“Many of the men whom our men will relieve tonight will have ammunition
in bandoliers with them. By having our men take over this ammunition and
expending it tonight we can get a big increase in fire over the enemy
back areas. Our ammunition supply for tomorrow will not be impaired. The
men being relieved will be re-supplied when they get back to the
regimental reserve. I think arrangements should be made for this
procedure by the Major.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “The Major has made arrangements with the Commanding
Officer 2nd battalion as to when the command of the sector is to pass to
the 1st battalion. He will now have to tell his company commanders when
their full responsibility is to devolve upon them for their respective
sectors within the battalion. What would you do about that, Lieutenant
Baker?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “When a relief is made in larger commands the orders
state the hour when the command is to pass to the relieving troops. But
in a case like this I judge that it passes when the relief is completed.
In order to make sure that the point is understood I would specify:

“‘Command of company sectors will pass when reliefs have been
completed.’”

_The Director_: “I think that would be a good idea.”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “There is another point that should be included in
the order. Let us say I am Captain B. My company is relieving Company F
on the lines. The Captain of Company F either has not received definite
orders as to what he is to do on being relieved or has overlooked the
instructions in the confusion. It seems to me that it might be well for
the Major to tell us just what Major B’s instructions are as to that
point. It might save a lot of confusion in getting the 2nd battalion
troops disengaged and out of the battalion sector. It might save a lot
of casualties from men wandering around in the darkness for my section
and squad leaders to be able to tell the men they are relieving just
where to go.”

_The Director_: “I do not know that such instructions have a place in
the regular order form. But I see no objection to putting it in. It can
do no harm I am sure.

“Now, the Major will want to know when the reliefs have been completed
and he will give instructions to that effect. He will then announce the
location of the battalion command post and this will complete the
details of the order.

“Now, I want each member of the class to write out Major A’s orders for
the relief of the 2nd battalion.”

The necessary time is allowed for this. When completed the Director will
call upon one or more of the members of the class to read his orders
aloud and comments are invited from other members of the class.

The Director will then distribute the mimeograph sheets containing the
Major’s order and an opportunity will be given the members of the class
to compare the work with the solution presented.

The Major’s order will be as follows:


                                Solution

    “The enemy occupies (describe the enemy’s front line in the
    necessary detail in the light of information gained by the Major’s
    reconnaissance).

    “Our 2nd battalion is in close contact all along the line. Troops
    are disposed as follows in the battalion sector:

    “Company E, right half of sector, with all three platoons on the
    line. Right of company at —— (describe location).

    “Company F, left half of sector, with two platoons and part of the
    third on the line and the remainder as local support. Left of
    company at —— (describe location).

    “Company G is located at —— (indicate location of company).

    “Company H has one platoon divided among the assault companies and
    the company (less 1 platoon) is in the battalion reserve with guns
    now located to cover approaches and execute overhead harassing fire
    in the enemy back areas.

    “This battalion will relieve the 2nd battalion.

    “The Headquarters’ Company will relieve the Headquarters’ Company,
    2nd battalion, and take over the duties pertaining thereto.

    “Company A will relieve Company E in the right sector with two
    platoons in the assault echelon and one as local support.

    “Company B will relieve Company F in the left sector with two
    platoons in the assault echelon and one as local support.

    “Company C will relieve Company G as battalion reserve.

    “Company D will relieve Company H, one platoon will support Company
    A and the company (less 1 platoon) will support Company B.

    “Detachments of the Howitzer Company are to remain with the
    battalion. Company commanders will confer with the commanders of
    detachments in their respective sectors and arrange for the support
    of their special weapons. Men of Companies A and B will take over
    from the men of Companies E and F whom they relieve, all ammunition
    in bandoliers, which will be expended to keep up harassing fire
    during the remainder of the night, with a view to curtailing
    movement within the enemy lines. Company D will take over surplus
    ammunition from Company H and expend it for the same purpose. The
    regular ammunition supply will be reserved for the action tomorrow.

    “Command of company sectors will pass when reliefs have been
    completed.

    “When relieved, troops of the 2nd Battalion are to fall back to the
    line —— (describe).

    “Report when reliefs are effected.

    “Battalion C. P. at ——.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Approach March and Deployment=                                =Card
No. 4=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to the point where the company commanders have been
        ordered to assemble to meet the Major.

  2. Distribute Situation No. 4, read aloud, and make necessary
        explanations.

  3. Contents of Order: Information of enemy obtained by reconnaissance
        and reports; plan of commander; question of including orders for
        attack also; zero hour; artillery preparation; progress of
        barrage; tactical dispositions; orders for each element of
        command; orders for machine gun units; when command passes;
        action to be taken by troops when relieved.

  4. Have members of class write out the Major’s order. When completed
        distribute the mimeograph sheets containing the solution. Read
        orders and compare.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 5=:

Just as the order for the relief is completed, you, Major A, receive the
following message from the regimental commander:

    “No further information of the enemy.

    “The general attack will be resumed tomorrow morning at 5.00
    o’clock. Your battalion will attack in regimental sector.

    “Mission: To pierce enemy position and assist division in
    penetrating the position.

    “Zone of action: No change.

    “Line of departure: (Describe in detail).

    “The attack will be preceded by 30 minutes’ artillery preparation.
    The advance of the infantry will be preceded by a rolling barrage.
    Rate of advance of barrage 100 yards in 4 minutes.

    “Station for slightly wounded at ——.

    “Regimental C. P. no change.”

_Required_:

What orders do you give?


                               Procedure

The Director will distribute the sheets containing Situation No. 5, read
the situation aloud and explain the message from the regimental
commander. One or more members of the class will be called upon to state
his understanding of the situation.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Let us visualize the situation. The Major has been
expecting to receive just such a message from the regimental commander.
As a matter of fact he anticipated it when he made the estimate of the
situation before issuing his first order for the approach march before
dark. He ordered his formation for the approach march so that when the
order for the attack came there would be few changes necessary. By his
foresight and knowledge of infantry tactics he now has his battalion in
the proper formation to make the relief of the 2nd battalion and when
this is accomplished he will have his units properly disposed to make
the attack tomorrow morning. In other words, the Major started his
attack when he made his initial dispositions. And this must be so in
every case. When you get into the infantry area of a battle you must get
your troops into a formation from which they can make an attack or repel
an enemy counter-attack and you must keep them in that formation. That
is why the subject of approach march and deployment is so important and
that is why troops must be so thoroughly trained in it. During the war
the subject was given little attention in our divisions. The British and
French instructors brought nothing of it over from the other side. They
had communication trenches as lanes of approach and gave little heed to
the open warfare end of the game. The American divisions soon realized
the necessity for thorough training and the most successful ones were
those that spent many of their nights with units from battalions to
brigades chasing through the woods, up hill and down dale, practicing
the approach march formation. I am sure that when you consider the
proposition seriously and visualize what can happen in a situation such
as we have had to do with today you will realize the necessity for
thorough training in the subject.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Now let us consider what must be included in the
Major’s order for the attack. Captain Hall, what have you to suggest for
the first paragraph?”

_Captain Hall_: “The Major has already given the company commanders
everything he knows about the enemy. He has a little additional
information to the effect that the general attack all along the line
will be resumed tomorrow. This will be included in the first paragraph
of the order.”

_The Director_: “That is all that is necessary. Our second paragraph is
a much more complicated affair. What have you to suggest to go into it?”

_Captain Hall_: “The first thing would be the time of the attack. The
orders from regimental headquarters say 5.00 o’clock. That will be
included in the order. We have a definite mission for the battalion. To
pierce the enemy position and assist our division to penetrate the
position—that is, to make a break through, if possible. In order to do
this we have got to drive hard. There is no change in the zone of action
of the battalion; it remains the same as it was for today. The line of
departure should be given. The information about the artillery
preparation and the rolling barrage should be included. I think that is
about all that must go into paragraph two of the order.”

_The Director_: “Yes. But you have skimped over two very important
points without the explanation they deserve. These are the line of
departure and the information about the artillery preparation and the
rolling barrage. Let us go into these things a little more in detail.

“The division staff has made arrangements for the artillery preparation
to come down along a certain line, and stand there for a period of
thirty minutes. Then the barrage will begin to advance at exactly 5.00
o’clock. Unless we have a definite line of departure some parts of our
front line may work their way to the front and be caught under our own
barrage and you can see what would happen. In case any men do work
forward during the night on reconnaissance they must get back a little
before 4.30 so as not to get caught under the barrage.”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I appreciate all the Director has said. But we have
to keep up a reconnaissance during the night to keep in contact with the
enemy. He might pull his lines back during the night and if he had
decided to make a general retreat we would lose touch and with it a lot
of time in conducting the pursuit. I think some of our patrols would
have to take a chance on getting back so as not to lose contact. Then,
too, if the enemy had pretty definite information that our artillery
preparation is coming down on a certain line and we have no men out in
front he may move his machine gun squads a little to the front and avoid
the barrage altogether and be ready to receive our attack when our first
wave goes over the top. If I were commanding one of those assault
companies I would keep my front thoroughly patrolled during the night
and keep my scouts right up in the enemy’s lines until a minute or two
before the barrage comes down. I would have them beat it back a hundred
yards and take a chance on escaping from the barrage. As soon as they
are out of the way I would then have my special weapons and riflemen
keep up a fire on any enemy troops that showed themselves trying to get
to a position in front of where the barrage is coming down.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “That is all very interesting. Those are important
points that we must not lose sight of in our operations against an
active and crafty enemy. He will pull all kinds of stunts on you and you
have to be just a lap ahead of him to best him. All of this shows the
great necessity for combat training. We must have patrol leaders and
scouts that know the importance of all these things and know how to go
about them. We hear so much about the technical branches and the high
order of training that is required. If there is any training more
difficult than that of the ‘doughboy’ I have yet to see it. Take the
training of patrol leaders and scouts for the single phase of infantry
combat that we have just been discussing. I leave it to you if there is
anything more technical and difficult in the training of soldiers. If
these men fail the whole military operation falls down and may be an
utter failure. A half dozen machine guns on a battalion front that have
moved forward a few yards and escaped the barrage will be able to hold
up a whole battalion. So let us not neglect the training of our scouts.

“If the enemy should fall back during the night our scouts will follow
him up and keep in touch with him, word will go back to the battalion
and on back to the division so that arrangements can be made to alter
the plans. In that case the battalion commander will order a general
advance to keep in contact.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, what would you include in paragraph 3
of the Major’s order?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “The detail orders for each element of the battalion,
giving the designation of the organization and the particular part that
it is to play in the operation. There will be orders for Company A, the
right assault company; Company B, the left assault company; Company C,
the battalion reserve, and Company D, the machine gun company. Then the
orders for the elements of the Howitzer Company hold off to support the
attack. I believe that would complete paragraph 3 of the order.”

_The Director_: “What would you include in paragraph 4, Lieutenant
Williams?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would include the location of the station for
slightly wounded. I do not know of anything else.”

_The Director_: “And paragraph 5 would contain what?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “The location of the regimental and battalion
command posts.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “I think we have discussed everything that must be
included in the battalion order. If you will compare all of this with
some of the battalion orders you, as Company Commanders, received in
France, you will see how sadly lacking some of them were. What we want
to do is to prevent a repetition of those conditions and that is why we
are devoting our time and attention to these things now. We want to be
prepared to solve these problems if the time ever comes when we have to
do so again.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to write out the
Major’s order on his pad. See how much of the details that we have
discussed you can get into the order.”

Sufficient time is allowed for the purpose.

After the orders have been completed the Director will distribute the
mimeograph sheets containing the order and one or more of the members of
the class will be called upon to read his order and follow with the
corresponding paragraph of the solution.

The order will be as follows:

    “There is no further information of the enemy. The general attack
    all along the line will be resumed tomorrow.

    “Our battalion will attack at 5.00 o’clock a. m.

    “Mission: To drive hard, pierce the enemy position and assist our
    division in making a penetration of the position.

    “Zone of action: No change.

    “Line of departure: (Describe line in detail.)

    “The attack will be preceded by 30 minutes artillery preparation.
    The advance of the infantry will be preceded by a rolling barrage.
    Rate of advance of barrage 100 yards in 4 minutes.

    “Company A will attack in the right (left) half of the battalion
    sector.

    “Company B will attack in the left (right) half of the battalion
    sector.

    “Company C will be battalion reserve and follow at a distance of
    about 300 yards. One squad will be sent to the (east) and one to the
    (west) boundary of the battalion sector to maintain connection with
    adjoining units.

    “Company D will support the attack of Companies A and B in
    accordance with previous instructions.

    “Elements of the howitzer company in each company sector will
    support the attack.

    “Station for slightly wounded at ____ (indicate).

    “Plan of signal communication: No change.

    “Command posts:

    “Regiment: At ____ (indicate).

    “Regiment: At ____ (indicate.)”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Approach March and Deployment=                                =Card
No. 5=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Distribute sheets containing Situation No. 5. Read and explain.
        Have one or more members of class state his understanding of the
        situation.

  2. Explain situation. Prepared to receive order for attack. Formation
        from the time of taking up the approach march. Training of
        troops in approach march formation.

  3. Discuss Major’s order. Information of enemy; information of our own
        troops; time of attack; mission of battalion; line of departure;
        artillery preparation.

  4. Details of solution. Necessity for designating line of departure.
        Artillery barrage. Scouting and patrolling. Keeping contact with
        the enemy.

  5. Necessity for infantry combat training.

  6. Paragraph 3 of the order: Orders for each element. Assault
        companies; battalion reserve; machine gun company; howitzer
        elements.

  7. Paragraph 4 station for slightly wounded.

  8. Paragraph 5 of order. Signal communications and location of C.
        P.’s.

  9. Have class write out order. Distribute solution. Have one or more
        members of class read their order and compare it with the
        solution.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “When the battalion commander has finished giving his
orders the Company Commanders will go back to their respective companies
and the Major will go to his command post. By this time the company
reconnaissance parties should be back at their companies and ready to
guide the various elements up to the lines where they are to make the
reliefs.

“The Company Commander will assemble his officers and non-commissioned
officers and go over the whole situation with them and issue the orders
for the company. This order will conform to the five paragraph system;
will contain the essential elements of the Major’s order and detailed
instructions for each element of the company.

“The Company Commander will then conduct his company to the front in
such formation as to take advantage of the natural cover afforded and so
as to be as invulnerable as possible to the enemy’s fire.

“The details of the actual relief will depend upon the cover available
and what the enemy is doing to interfere with it.”



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 3._
                           Defensive Position


                              The Problem

=Special Situation—Blue=:

The Blue forces, after severe fighting, have reached the line (_a_). The
reds have vigorously defended every foot of the ground, and it is
apparent that the resistance is growing stronger.

On account of the exhausted condition of the troops and the lack of
fresh reserves, the Blues are unable to continue the advance and it has
been decided to assume the defensive, temporarily.

The 2nd battalion, which has been the assault battalion, has been
stopped and is now holding the line (_b-c_). It has suffered heavy
casualties.

The 1st battalion, which has been in regimental support, has had
comparatively few casualties.

The 3rd battalion is the regimental reserve.

It is now 4.30 p. m.

It has been decided to have the 1st battalion, with one platoon of the
howitzer company attached, organize and hold a defensive position
covering the front of the regimental sector just in rear of the line now
occupied by the 2nd battalion.

Major A, the battalion commander, accompanied by his company commanders
and Lieutenant Z, commanding the howitzer platoon, has made a personal
reconnaissance of the position and issued the following verbal orders to
the assembled officers:

    “The enemy has stopped our advance temporarily. It is necessary for
    us to assume the defensive until our troops can be reorganized and
    arrangements made to resume the advance.

    “Our 2nd battalion is now holding the line (_b-c_). It will withdraw
    after dark. Our 3rd battalion relieves us as support battalion.

    “The —— infantry on our right will hold the front from (_d_ to _e_);
    the —— infantry on our left will hold the front from (_f_ to _g_).

    “This battalion, with one howitzer platoon attached, will organize
    and hold the line from (_h_ to _i_).

    “Company H will be disposed as follows:

    “One section at (_j_), covering (_k_).

    “One section at (_l_), covering (_m_).

    “One section at (_n_), covering (_o_).

    “One section at (_p_), covering (_q_).

    “The platoon from the howitzer company will be disposed as follows:

    “The 37 mm. gun at (_r_) and the light mortar at (_s_), covering the
    front of the battalion.

    “The firing line and support line are (_t_) and (_t′_) respectively.
    They will be organized into two strong points.

    “Company A will occupy the area (_u_).

    “Company B will occupy the area (_v_).

    “Company C will occupy the battalion reserve line along (_w_).

    “Companies will proceed with their tasks with the least practicable
    delay.

    “Administrative arrangements, later.

    “Battalion C. P. at (_x_).”


                     Explanation of Letter Symbols

(_a_). A brief description of the location of the general line reached
by the Blue forces. This should be identified by some easily recognized
topographical feature of the terrain.

(_b-c_). The specific location of the line occupied by the troops of the
2nd battalion.

(_d_ to _e_), (_f_ to _g_). The boundaries of the front that are to be
organized and held by the troops on the right and left.

(_h_ to _i_). The front to be organized and held by the 1st battalion.
This will be the boundary lines of the sector not occupied by the 2nd
battalion.

(_j_), (_l_), (_n_), (_p_). The location of the several sections of the
machine gun company.

(_k_), (_m_), (_o_), (_q_). The front covered by the several sections of
the machine gun company. Go into detail regarding the bands of fire they
are to put down.

(_r_), (_s_). The location of the 37 mm. gun and light mortar of the
howitzer platoon.

(_t_), (_t′_). The location of the firing line and support,
respectively.

(_u_). The area to be occupied by Company A.

(_v_). The area to be occupied by Company B.

(_w_). The location of the battalion reserve line.

(_x_). The location of the battalion C. P.

    (Note.—The preparation of this problem will require considerable
    work on the part of the Director in order to get all of the features
    of the position worked out in detail so as to be able to include
    them in the order to the company commanders. If it is practicable to
    do so the boundaries of the battalion sector, together with the
    location of the machine guns and howitzer units and the battalion C.
    P., should be marked with flags. This will save many questions
    during the Terrain Exercise and save a lot of time. It will give the
    members of the class a much better idea of the set-up and they will
    be able to proceed with the solution of their part of the problem
    more readily.)


                               Procedure

The members of the class are assembled in the vicinity of (_x_).

The Director distributes the sheets containing the special situation
Blue and reads it aloud. The members of the class follow from the copy
in their possession. The places, localities and areas referred to are
pointed out in detail.

The Director will call upon one or more members of the class to state
his understanding of the tactical situation and this process is
continued until he is satisfied that all members know the details and
are ready to proceed with the solution.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before going further with the problem I want to make
some remarks on the general subject of the defensive and some with
reference to the part that the battalion and its component parts plays
in it. The problem under consideration is that of a passive defense. Our
troops have made such rapid progress that the rear echelons have not
been able to keep up. The enemy has been falling back on his reserves
and naturally his defense is stiffening all along the line. The time has
arrived when it is necessary for us to stop for a period; reorganize our
forces, which have been more or less disorganized by our successes;
bring up our rear echelons; and prepare to continue the advance. During
this period we must so organize our position that the enemy will have
little chance for success should he decide to attack with a view to
interfering with our arrangements.

“Our attacking troops have now arrived on a general line where a
defensive position may be taken up and the high command has ordered such
action. We do not want to give up any ground that has been gained that
is suitable for our purpose. Having this principle in mind Major A has
decided to organize and hold the ground that is now occupied by the
support echelon of the 2nd Battalion.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, what factors exercise the greatest
influence in the selection of a defensive position?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I should say the facilities for communication
and those for observation. The greater ease with which we can move
troops within the position the better we can defend it, and unless we
have facilities for observation we had better move to another place for
the enemy will be able to surprise us on any and all occasions.”

_The Director_: “In a defensive position we deploy in great depth. What
is the object of this, Captain Hastings?”

_Captain Hastings_: “Where a great mass of enemy artillery is to be
encountered we must disperse our troops over a large area to force him
to scatter his fire, and waste a lot of it. In addition to this we must
have room to maneuver our counter-attack units and get them into action
with as little flank marching as possible. In a case like we are
considering here I do not believe such great depth is necessary. This is
open warfare and it will take the enemy quite a while to get his
artillery in shape to employ it effectively on our position. We will
therefore be able to concentrate our troops in a more shallow zone than
is usual in regular position warfare.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Wallace, what are the defensive areas called
in a defensive position?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “They are combat groups; strong points; centers of
resistance; subsectors and sectors.”

_The Director_: “What do you understand a combat group to be?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “It is an area prepared for defense and held by a
small unit such as a platoon or section.”

_The Director_: “What is a strong point, Lieutenant Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “A strong point is an aggregate of combat groups
distributed in width and depth under the command of one officer. It is
usually defended by a rifle company and usually has machine guns
attached. Where practicable, it is arranged for all ’round defense.”

_The Director_: “What is a center of resistance?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “An aggregate of strong points distributed in
width and depth and commanded by one officer. It is usually occupied by
a battalion.”

_The Director_: “I hope you all see how this proposition works out. A
combat group is the smallest element. Two or more of these groups form a
strong point. Two or more strong points linked up together form a center
of resistance. You will note the Major’s disposition for our battalion
here. It forms a center of resistance consisting of the two strong
points held by Companies A and B respectively with Company C as a
reserve with Company D distributed at key points within the area.”

The class is now conducted to area (_u_), which has been assigned to
Company A.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 1=:

You, Captain A, are commanding Company A, the unit assigned to occupy
the area (_u_) in the right (left) of the battalion sector. You have
Major A’s order to proceed with your task with the least practicable
delay.

_Required_:

What do you do?


                               Procedure

The Director will distribute the sheets containing Situation No. 1. He
will read it to the class and make such explanation as may be necessary.

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, what steps do you take to get your
company up to the front?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I have with me one runner from each of my platoons
and two runners from Company Headquarters. I will send the platoon
runners back with a verbal message to their respective platoon
commanders to bring the platoons up. I will have one of my company
runners to go to the (indicate place) with a message to platoon
commanders to halt their platoons there and report to me here. I think
that is all that would be necessary to get the platoons up and assemble
the platoon commanders here to receive orders.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “All right. We will assume that you have sent the
platoon runners back for the platoons and that one of your company
runners has gone back to the rendezvous point. What are you going to do
between now and the time the platoon commanders report to you for
orders?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I am going to make a personal reconnaissance of the
area assigned to my company, size up the situation, arrive at a decision
as to how I am going to occupy the area and dope out my orders for the
platoon commanders.”

_The Director_: “That is the proper procedure. Captain Hodges, in what
ways may the company be distributed in an area of this kind?”

_Captain Hodges_: “In the first place there are three lines included in
the area. The first is the local security or line of observation—the
outpost line; next is the firing line which is the line of defense of
the area—where the fight will take place if the enemy attacks; next is
the support line. The company must cover all three of these lines. There
are several methods of deployment available. The company may be deployed
with two platoons each covering the outpost line and firing line and one
platoon on the support line. In this case each platoon furnishes the
outguards covering its own front. The company may be deployed with two
platoons on the firing line only and one platoon on the support line; in
this case the outguards would be furnished by the support platoon. The
company may be deployed with one platoon on the outpost line; one on the
firing line and one on the support line. Again it may be deployed with
the platoons side by side each platoon covering all three of the lines.
In this case each platoon furnished the outguards covering its own
front.”

    (Note.—The Director will draw these four formations out on the
    ground and explain them to the class.)

_The Director_: “Considering the four methods of deployment which one
would you employ in the organization of this area, Captain James?”

_Captain James_: “I would favor the first method where we have two
platoons covering the outpost line and firing line and one platoon on
the support line. Each platoon to furnish the outguards covering its own
front.”

_The Director_: “What factors lead you to favor this deployment?”

_Captain James_: “By deploying in this manner we have two complete
combat groups each responsible for its own outguards and its firing
line. We have a third combat group on the support line located in the
interval between the two forward groups so that it is readily available
for counter-attack in case the enemy should penetrate the line on our
front. Unity of command is preserved and there will be little
intermingling of men of different units. Each platoon commander has a
definite problem to solve. I think it is by far the best method.”

_The Director_: “Do you see any objections to the second method of
deployment, Lieutenant Baker?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I should say that it is about the same as the first
method. The thing that I do not like about it is the proposition of
taking the outguards from the support platoon. I like the idea of having
each combat group being responsible for its whole front. In addition to
dividing responsibility for the defense of the area occupied it weakens
the support platoon and makes it just that much less effective for
counter-attack work.”

_The Director_: “What objections have you to the third method—the
platoons in echelon one behind the other?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “When the outguards fall back on the firing line you
have the proposition of an intermingling of men of the two platoons.
That will cause endless confusion and destroy the unity of command.”

_The Director_: “Any objections to the fourth method?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I can conceive of circumstances where this method
might be employed to advantage. For example: In woods or in rough,
difficult terrain. I do not think it would be employed in an area such
as we now have under consideration.”

_The Director_: “We seem to be pretty well agreed that the first method
should be employed. Now what considerations will affect your decision as
to the area to be included in each of the two combat groups, Captain
Hall?”

_Captain Hall_: “The battalion commander has assigned the elements of
the machine gun company to certain positions to cover the front. I would
build my combat groups around this distribution and take advantage of
the fire that they are able to produce.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Barry, where would you locate the Company C.
P.?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “The C. P. should be in such a position that it can
be easily reached and found by the runners. It should be so arranged
that the enemy will not be able to observe the runners entering and
leaving. I would say that it should be located in the area lying between
the combat groups and the support platoon.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The Major indicated the firing line and support line of
the battalion center of resistance and designated the area for Company A
to organize and hold. We have decided to organize it with two platoons
on the firing line, each furnishing its own outguards and each forming a
combat group; and one platoon on the support line. The 1st battalion
advanced posts are holding the enemy back and there is every reason to
expect that they will be able to continue to do so for sometime yet.

“The location of the machine guns, the 37 mm. guns and the light mortars
in the area are known.

“It will be necessary for Captain E to assign the platoons, two to the
firing line and one to the support line, and give necessary instructions
regarding the work to be undertaken. These instructions will not go into
any more detail than is absolutely necessary. In any event they must not
be such as will take the initiative away from the platoon commanders.
The platoons are given their missions. It is then up to the platoon
commander to execute them. This initial order is intended merely to get
the work started. It must give the platoon commanders sufficient detail
for them to go about their reconnaissance and plan for the organization
of their combat groups and the defensive preparation of the ground they
are to occupy. The defensive position as it appears finally is not the
result of any one order. It is a gradual growth planned and executed
from day to day. The first elements may be only a line of individual
‘fox holes’ dug by the men. These are connected up and finally form a
short section of trench here and there. As the position is studied more
in detail it will become apparent where other defensive utilities should
be constructed in order to add to the strength of the position. All that
Captain A should include in his order at this time is sufficient detail
to get the work started.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “We have sized up the situation and arrived at a
decision. It is now necessary to put that decision into an order. We
assume that the platoons have arrived at the rendezvous and the platoon
commanders have reported to you here for orders.

“Now I want each member of the class to write out the order that he
would give at this time. You may omit the first paragraph;—information
of the enemy and our own troops. It would be much the same as that
contained in the Major’s order. We will assume that you have already
given that to the platoon commanders. Start your order with paragraph
2.”

When all the members of the class have completed their work the sheets
will be collected and again distributed, making sure that no officer
gets his own paper back again.

The Director will call upon one or more members of the class to read the
order he has in his possession and it will then be discussed.

When all of this discussion is finished the Director will distribute the
mimeographed sheets containing a copy of the Captain’s order. Each
member of the class will receive his solution back again and compare it
with the solution submitted by the Director.


                               The Order

  2. This company will organize and hold the front from —— to ——.

  3. (_a_) Lieutenant M, with the 1st platoon, will organize and hold
        the right half of the company area from —— to ——.

   (_b_) Lieutenant O, with the 2nd platoon, will organize and hold the
         left half of the company area from —— to ——.

   (_c_) Lieutenant P, with the 3rd platoon will constitute the local
         support and will be posted on the support line in the vicinity
         of ——.

   (_x_) Combat groups will furnish the out guards for their respective
         fronts.

  4. Battalion Aid station at ——. Other administrative arrangements
        later.

  5. Company C. P. at ——.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Defensive Position=                                =Card No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Assemble class at (_x_). Distribute sheets containing problem, read
        and explain. Call on one or more members of class to state their
        understanding of tactical situation.

  2. Passive defense. Explain progress of action and necessity for a
        halt. Prepare to ward off enemy attacks.

  3. Factors in selection of position, communication and observation.
        Reasons for distribution in depth. Defensive areas: combat
        groups; strong points; centers of resistance; subsectors and
        sectors. Definition of each.

  4. Distribute sheets containing Situation No. 1. Read and explain. Get
        company up. Message to platoon commanders. Rendezvous for
        company.

  5. Reconnaissance. Size up situation. Methods of distribution of
        company. First, second, third, fourth, advantages and
        disadvantages of each.

  6. Decision to use first method. Explain what must be included in
        order. Avoid details. Give platoon commanders their job and let
        them go to it.

  7. Each member of class write out order. Collect and distribute. Hand
        out mimeograph sheets containing order. Compare work with
        solution.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the area to be occupied by the 1st platoon
and which is to be organized into a combat group.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2=:

You, Lieutenant M, are commanding the 1st platoon which has been
designated to form the combat group in the right half of the company
area.

The area assigned to your platoon is bounded by —— (describe area
boundaries). Your front extends from —— to —— (indicate front). The
firing line extends along (indicate).

You have arrived at this point. You have with you two of your platoon
runners. The platoon is back at the company rendezvous.

_Required_:

How do you carry out your mission?


                               Procedure

The Director will distribute the sheets containing Situation No. 2. He
will read it aloud and make such explanations as may be necessary. He
will point out to the members of the class the boundaries of the area
assigned to the platoon; the front which the platoon is ordered to
cover; and the location of the firing line. He will also indicate the
position of each element of Company D in the platoon area and the
location of the 37 mm. gun and light mortar.

    (Note.—If practicable, the location of machine guns, the 37 mm. gun
    and light mortar should be indicated by flags of a distinctive
    color.)

By questioning members of the class the Director will make sure that
every member understands the situation. They will then be able to
proceed with the solution of the problem on a uniform basis.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, what would you do?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would send one of my runners back with a message
to the platoon sergeant to bring the platoon up.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, do you agree with what Lieutenant
Hunt has just said?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “No, sir. I would not want the platoon to come up
here until I have sized up the situation; decided upon my dispositions;
and made arrangements for them to get to work on the position we are to
occupy. That will take me some little ‘time.’”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. There is no need of exposing any
more men to the enemy’s fire than is absolutely necessary. As soon as
the enemy realizes that our attack has stopped and we are taking up a
defensive position he will do everything in his power to interfere with
our plans. If he observes a lot of men all along the line digging in he
will open up with everything he has available.”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “That is the point I had in mind. It seems to me
that, as a matter of fact, we will not be able to accomplish very much
on the preparation of the position until it begins to get dusk.”

_The Director_: “You are right. If we can get the layout of the position
completed during the remaining full daylight hours; decide how we are to
organize the combat group and get the trenches and other utilities
staked out I think we will have accomplished all that could be
reasonably expected. Do you see the point, Lieutenant Hunt?”

    (Note.—It is assumed that it will be dusk at 6 o’clock.)

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “Yes, sir.”

_The Director_: “Now, taking into consideration what we have said, what
would you do?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would send a runner back to the platoon sergeant
to have the men take cover and make themselves comfortable. I would want
them to have as much rest as possible for they are going to have a night
of hard work. I would have the runner tell the platoon sergeant to turn
the platoon over to Sergeant R (platoon guide) and for himself, the two
section leaders and the other platoon guides to report to me here.”

_The Director_: “I think that is all right. What are you going to do
while you are waiting for the men to report to you?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I will make a personal reconnaissance of the area,
size up the situation and decide upon how I am going to dispose my
troops.”

    (Note.—The disposition of troops will, of course, depend upon the
    lay of the ground and the location of the machine guns in the
    sector. The following procedure is based upon certain dispositions
    and is designed to bring out the points that come up for
    consideration in the organization of a combat group of this kind.
    The Director will have previously worked out his solution to the
    problem and during the course of the discussion will bring out the
    tactical points that are necessary for the training and instruction
    of the members of the class.)

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, what are the component parts of a
combat group?”

_Captain Hastings_: “First there is the local security line—the outpost.
Behind this is the firing line—the fighting line of the group. Outguards
are thrown out to back up their sentinels.”

_The Director_: “How may the deployment of the platoon be made?”

_Captain Hastings_: “It may be made with the sections abreast, each
section furnishing the outpost covering its own front. It may be made
with one section behind the other, the leading section occupying the
firing line.”

_The Director_: “Which form of deployment do you favor?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I favor the first. The sections deployed abreast
and each section providing for its own local security. The advantages of
this is that the section leader is responsible for the whole front
assigned to him and there is unity of command. If the outpost line falls
back to the firing line it falls back on the men of its own section. In
the second method, if the outpost section falls back it does so on the
men of the other section of the platoon and there is bound to be more or
less intermingling of units.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. Let us decide that we are to
make the deployment with the sections side by side, each section to
furnish its own local security—that is, its own outguards. This means
that the front assigned to the platoon may now be divided into two parts
and a section assigned to each. Lieutenant Wallace, what is the
governing factor in the ground assigned to each of the sections?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “Each section must be able to cover the ground to
its front and must be so arranged as to mutually support each other.
That is, its fire must be able to sweep the front of the adjoining
groups.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, how much front can a platoon cover
in this formation?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “In country such as this the platoon can cover
about 400 to 500 yards of front with its fire. This does not mean that
the platoon occupies such a continuous line. It will actually occupy
only a small portion of it. The intervening portion will be covered by
its fire. By deploying with the sections abreast of each other we can
occupy the sector allotted to the platoon without any difficulty.”

_The Director_: “What is the extent of the area that a section may
organize for close defense, Captain Harvey?”

_Captain Harvey_: “Ordinarily it should not be more than 75 yards by 75
yards. This 75-yard front actually occupied by the section makes 150
yards for the platoon. The intervening ground of say 150 to 200 yards
will be covered by fire.”

_Captain Hodges_: “I do not see how you arrive at the short distance of
150 to 200 yards interval between sections.”

_Captain Harvey_: “(Indicating by a diagram on the ground.) Say the
right section is 75 yards from the right boundary of the area; then the
section covers 75 yards of trenches; the interval to the section on the
left is say 150 yards; the left section occupies 75 yards of front and
is 75 yards from the left boundary. All of this, as you will see makes a
front of about 450 yards covered by the platoon. The interval between
sections might well be expanded to 200 yards which would make the
platoon cover a front of 500 yards without serious difficulty. This
would make 1,000 yards for the company and 2,000 yards for the battalion
with two companies on the firing line. I would say this is the maximum
front. It would be better to reduce the interval a little and bring the
total down to about 800 yards.”

_Captain Hodges_: “I see the proposition now. I do not think we would
have any trouble covering the front allotted to our platoon.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “The next question is the allotment of sections in the
platoon area. In this connection you will have to consider the lay of
the ground, and select the location for the section groups, so that the
ground to the front may best be defended and so that the groups are able
to mutually support each other.

“I want the members of the class to go over the ground allotted to the
platoon and each of you select the location of each section group. Keep
in mind the factors I have just spoken of—defense of the foreground,
field of fire, and mutual support of adjacent groups; also consider the
location of the machine guns that have already been made by the
battalion commander. We will all assemble here in 20 minutes.”

The members of the class will now go over the ground allotted to the
platoon and each man will work out his disposition independently.

At the end of the time the class will assemble at the designated point
and the discussion resumed.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “You have now been over the area allotted to the
platoon. Captain James, how would you dispose of the two sections of the
platoon?”

_Captain James_: “I find that the front naturally divides itself into
two parts. A section in the right portion of the area will be able to
cover the foreground with its fire. The right element will be able to
cover the front of the combat group to the right and the left element
will be able to sweep the front of the section on the left. The same
applies to the left section. We can locate our trenches in each area so
that we not only do not interfere with the fire of the machine guns but
will be able to cover areas that form dead space for them. I do not
think there will be any difficulty in preparing the position for
defense.”

_The Director_: “Has any member of the class any other plan to offer?”

    (Note.—The members of the class should be urged to present their
    views on the subject. The more discussion that can be created the
    better it is for all concerned.)

_The Director_: “I agree with Captain James. We can organize the area
allotted to the platoon in fine shape. And this is ordinarily the case
with all these tactical problems. If we go about their solution in a
systematic manner we can usually arrive at a reasonable and suitable
solution to them.

“There is another point that must be decided at this time. That is the
location of the platoon command post. Where would you locate it,
Lieutenant Baker?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I would locate it at —— (indicate place).”

_The Director_: “What factors did you take into consideration in
selecting that location?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “The facilities for observation and communication
with all parts of the combat group.”

_The Director_: “Has any member of the class selected another location
for the command post?”

    (Note.—If a member suggests another location it should be discussed
    and put to the test of facility for observation and communication.
    The place that provides these two elements the best should be
    selected.)

_The Director_: “Now, there are some other arrangements that will have
to be made before the men can actually go to work on the position. In
the first place, they must have the proper tools to work with. Of
course, some work may be accomplished with the individual intrenching
tools that the squads carry, but they will need a number of regular
digging tools in this case. Wire will have to be supplied for the
construction of the obstacles in front of the position. It is presumed
that the battalion staff will attend to all of these things, but what
the platoon commander is interested in is when and where will they be
supplied. I think I would send my platoon sergeant to the company
commander to let him know just what is required and to secure definite
information as to when and where tools and wire will be available. It is
of little use to get a lot of men up to the platoon area unless they
have something to work with. Besides the area is more or less crowded at
this time with men of the support elements of the 2nd battalion. These
are some of the things that the platoon commander must think about at
this time.

“Let us now assume that the platoon sergeant and the other men that you
sent for have joined you here. Let us see what orders and instructions
you would give them. Captain Hall, what would you include in the first
paragraph of the order?”

_Captain Hall_: “All the information of the enemy and our own troops. I
would explain why it is necessary for our troops to go on the defensive
for a time; the situation with respect to the 2nd battalion, which is
holding on a short distance to the front; the location of the troops on
our right and left and the role of the 3rd platoon of our company as
support; the location of the elements of Company D in our area, and the
location of the machine guns in the adjoining area; the location of the
elements of our company. I would indicate the location of the firing
line where it crosses our area. I think that is all that is necessary to
be included under information of the enemy and our supporting troops.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Barry, what would you include in the second
paragraph of your order?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “My plan. This platoon will organize and hold the
front from —— to ——.”

_The Director_: “And what would you include in paragraph 3 of the
order?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “The disposition of my troops:

“The 1st section will organize and hold the front from —— (indicate) to
—— (indicate), connect up and cooperate with the —— Infantry on the
right.

“The 2nd section will organize and hold the front from —— (indicate) to
—— (indicate), connect up and cooperate with the 2nd platoon on the
left.

“Each section will furnish its own outguards along the general line ——
(indicate).

“I think that is all that is necessary at this time. I have not gone
into details as to just how each section leader is to solve his problem.
I will be along the line while they are working it out. If they start
anything that I do not approve of, I will have an opportunity to tell
them so at the time. The company commander has not hampered me with
orders and I will not do so with respect to my section leaders.”

_The Director_: “You are right about that. Give every man a chance to
work out his own salvation. Do not destroy his initiative. Is there
anything to be included in paragraph 4, Lieutenant Hunt?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “Yes, sir. I would give the information about the
intrenching tools and wire being supplied later. This is done to show my
non-commissioned officers that we have not overlooked the subject.

“Information concerning issue of intrenching tools and wire will be
given later.

“The battalion aid station is at ——.”

_The Director_: “And what would be included in the last paragraph,
Captain Hastings?”

_Captain Hastings_: “The location of the company and platoon command
posts.

“Company C. P. at ——.

“Platoon C. P. at ——.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “I think that would cover all that is necessary at this
time. Let us visualize what is now going to happen. The section leaders
with their section guides would go out to the area that has been
assigned to them. They would locate the machine gun positions that were
designated by the battalion commander and then dope out the disposition
that they are to make of the three squads of their respective sections.

“The platoon commander is first concerned with the procurement of the
intrenching tools for digging in his groups and the wire for
constructing an obstacle along the front. As soon as he gets the platoon
sergeant off with a message to the company commander about these things
he will go to the front and join the section leaders. He will find out
from them what dispositions they are planning on and give them such
detailed instructions as may be necessary to carry out his own ideas of
how the position should be organized. He will have everything in
readiness to bring the men forward as soon as it is advisable to do so.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Defense Position=                                =Card No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Distribute sheets containing situation No. 2. Read and explain.
        Point out boundaries of area assigned to the platoon and
        indicate positions assigned to machine gun and special weapons.
        Mark with flags if practicable.

  2. Question as to whether platoon should be brought up now; nothing
        for men to do yet; no necessity for exposing them. Have platoon
        sergeant, section leaders, and platoon and section guides report
        at once. Leave platoon in charge of one section guide.

  3. Size up situation. Determine upon dispositions, component parts of
        combat group, methods of deploying a platoon. Decide to deploy
        sections side by side. Outguards.

  4. Factors that govern selection of position; field of fire to front;
        mutual support with adjoining units. Front that platoon may
        cover. Depth of section area.

  5. Have class go over ground and decide on dispositions. Allotment of
        sections to platoon area. Location of C. P. observation and
        communication.

  6. Question of intrenching tools and wire for obstacles. Platoon
        sergeant to company commander about tools and wire.

  7. The order. Information of enemy and own troops. Plan: Platoon to
        organize and hold front from —— to ——. Orders for each section.
        Supply outguards. Make orders short. Little detail. Let every
        man work out his own salvation.

  8. Explanation: Visualize what is happening. Section leaders and
        guides go to section area; dope out situation and decide on
        disposition. Platoon commander sends platoon sergeant to see
        about tools and wire, then joins section leaders on the line.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class will be conducted to the area assigned to the 2nd section of
the platoon.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 3=:

You, Sergeant K, commanding the 2nd section, have been ordered to
organize and hold the front from —— (indicate) to —— (indicate).

The section is to connect up and cooperate with the 2nd platoon on the
left.

Your section is to furnish its own outguards along the general line ——
(indicate).

You have arrived at this point.

You have with you your section guides.

_Required_:

How do you carry out your mission?


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “While it is not expected that any member of the class
will ever be called upon to command a section of Infantry, it is
nevertheless important for you to know what happens when you issue an
order which requires the action of a section leader.

“Let us visualize this situation. Let us consider ourselves as being
Sergeant K. He is the fellow that all the orders finally get down to and
the one that has to do the real job out here on the line. You hear the
claims of certain staff corps, from time to time, about the necessity
for having high-class men for the key positions in their enlisted
personnel. Can you show me in any branch of the Army where a high-class
man is required any more than he is right here? Here is a doughboy
sergeant face to face with a problem, the proper solution of which means
more to the success of the operations than any so-called “highly
technical” position in the back areas. Upon what he does and how he does
it may depend the success or failure of this whole military operation.
The lives of the men under him are absolutely in his hands. If he
blunders he may lose all of them.

“With these few remarks let us proceed with the problem.”


                               Procedure

The Director will read the situation aloud, and make such explanations
as may be necessary. He will call on one or more members of the class to
state his understanding of the situation.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, how would you go about your task?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “In the first place, I would look over the front
and see what it affords in the way of a field of fire. I would next
locate the section groups on the right and left and see where their fire
could help to protect my front and how fire from my position could help
to protect their fronts. I would see how the bands of fire from the
machine guns in the area lay with relation to my front.”

    (Note.—The Director will point out the location of the adjacent
    section groups on the right and left and the position of the machine
    guns. He will also indicate the direction of the bands of fire of
    the machine guns. All of this should be indicated by flags of
    distinctive color if it is possible to do so.)

_The Director_: “You have done all of the things you mention and the
whole layout is clear to you. What is your next step?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would search out the vacant spaces—the
uncovered ground of the machine guns and so arrange my dispositions to
cover them. I would first determine where my automatic rifles may be
employed to the best advantage. I will want them for flanking fire to
cover the adjacent combat groups and will expect the support of their
automatic rifles to help cover my own front. I will want them to cover
exposed places to the front that the enemy will have to pass over in
making his attack. I will want them to cover certain lines along my wire
entanglements. All of these things will have to be taken into
consideration in locating them. I will next consider my other special
weapons, the rifle grenade and the hand grenade. They are both valuable
adjuncts to the defense, especially the rifle grenade. They will both
serve well to cover dead spaces that are difficult to reach with machine
gun and rifle fire. Such features as ravines, sunken roads and places
where enemy troops may seek cover can be made untenable by the rifle
grenade up to about 200 yards.”

_The Director_: “All right, let us assume that all of these things have
been taken into consideration. How may the troops be disposed to best
meet them, Lieutenant Wallace?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “We have three squads in the section. We are
required to furnish our own outguards in addition to furnishing the
garrison for the firing line. I should say that one squad employed on
the outpost line would be sufficient. That would leave two squads for
the firing line.”

_The Director_: “Now, there are two plans by which the outguards may be
furnished. One is to have each squad cover its own front with an
outguard and the other is to have a complete squad detailed as outguard
for the section. Which of these plans do you prefer to use in this
instance, Lieutenant Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I think it would be better to employ one squad as
the outguards for the section rather than have each squad do it.”

_The Director_: “What factors lead you to such a decision?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “If we have each squad furnish an outguard for its
own front it would take half of the squad for that purpose. The least
that could be sent out would be a cossack post of four men—a leader and
three reliefs for a single sentinel post. I would not want to send our
automatic riflemen on that duty and interfere with our arrangements for
flanking fire. We would not desire to send our rifle grenadier under
ordinary circumstances. This would leave only two rifles in the squad
and one of these is the squad leader. If we send one squad out to
furnish the outguards it can furnish two cossack posts, which are
sufficient to cover our front, and it will leave the other two squads
intact to occupy the firing line with all their weapons. If the enemy
attacks and the outguards are driven in they will fall back on the
flanks so as not to mask the fire of the squads on the firing line. This
will enable them to drift toward an assembly point or trench in rear of
the firing line proper where they will be available to the section
commander as a small local support to be thrown in any of the squad
firing positions where casualties have been relatively heavy or to put
them in where they are most needed to repel the attack.”

_The Director_: “Of course it is always problematical as to how many men
of the outguards will be able to get back; your points are well taken
and convincing. I agree with you that the outguards may best be
furnished by a complete squad, and this leaves the other units intact
for the firing line proper. This now brings us down to the location of
two small groups of a squad each. Captain Hodges, what factors will you
consider in locating these two groups?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would want one near each flank of the area where
they can help cover the front of the adjacent groups, and I would want
also to cover the front of the position. In order to do this I would
break each squad into two groups of four men each. In the right group I
would have the automatic rifleman and three riflemen of the 1st squad.
The automatic rifleman would have a fire position from which he can
cover the front of the adjacent section on the right, and if the one
position does not serve the purpose I will have another fire position
for him from which he can fire to the front. In the next group of four
men I would have the rifle grenadier and three riflemen. They will be
charged with covering the front. The group that the squad leader will
remain with will depend upon circumstances. He would not be definitely
assigned, but would go where his presence is most required. I would have
a group of four men of the 2nd squad next to the left with the rifle
grenade in it, and near the left of my line I would have another group
similar to the one on the right with the automatic rifleman in it. The
3rd squad will furnish the outpost—two cossack posts.”

_The Director_: “I think you have made a very good distribution of
troops. I do not think you can say off hand that you would have the
rifle grenadier always in the interior groups. His position must depend
upon the prospective targets that he may have. Now, the distribution
brings us down to the proposition of the preparation of four short
sections of trench sufficient to shelter four men each. This makes it a
comparatively simple proposition. You see, when you divide all of this
work up in the way we have how it gradually clears up and becomes
perfectly simple.

“Let us now locate on the ground the four short sections of trench that
will have to be prepared.”


                               Procedure

The class will now be conducted to the right of the section area and
then along the front, and the exact location of the four short trenches
will be determined upon. Each will then be traced on the ground so that
the members of the class may see just the sector front that it may
cover. If additional pits are required for the automatic riflemen they
will also be indicated on the ground. One or more members of the class
may be required to lie down on the ground and verify the field of fire
from each trench.

_The Director_: “Captain James, we have made a mark on the ground for
each of these short trench lengths; we call that a trace; what do you
mean by that?”

_Captain James_: “That the line we have made is the upper edge of the
interior slope of the parapet of the trench. It is the firing line of
the trench.”

_The Director_: “Now we have located these trenches; you have noted the
distance apart they are. Would we try to connect them up with a
continuous trench under the circumstances, Lieutenant Baker?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “No, sir. I think not. If any continuous trench is
to be constructed it seems to me that it should be dug a few feet to the
rear and parallel to our line of short trenches. Our short trenches can
then be connected up with it by communication trenches running
obliquely, to give cover from fire. I think this parallel trench should
be traced now so that work can be commenced on it tonight after the fire
trenches are completed. It should be a zigzag trench. The 3rd squad can
get some work done on it before they have to go on outpost.”

_The Director_: “I think we have covered everything that is necessary
preliminary to issuing the order of the section commander except the
location of the command post. Where would you locate it, Captain Hall?”

_Captain Hall_: “I would locate it here (indicates). The questions of
observation and communication are the determining factors in its
selection.”

_The Director_: “Now I want each member of the class to write out this
order that Sergeant K would issue to his section guides. Make it simple
and to the point.”

The members of class will write out the order on their pads and when all
have completed it the sheets are passed to the officer on the left for
criticism.

The Director will read aloud the order he has prepared and the members
of the class compare their work with it.


                               The Order

    “There is no further information of the enemy. You know the location
    of the machine guns in this area; the location of the 37 mm. gun and
    light mortar of the Howitzer company and the location of adjoining
    groups.

    “Our section will organize and hold this area.

    “The 1st squad will prepare the two fire trenches we have traced in
    the right of the area. Sergeant F, you will superintend the task.

    “The 2nd squad will prepare the two fire trenches we have traced in
    the left of the area. Sergeant G, you will superintend the task.

    “The 3rd squad will furnish the outguards along the line ——. I will
    give Corporal B detailed instructions later.

    “When the fire trenches have been completed work will be started on
    the parallel that we have traced.

    “Work will begin as soon as we get the section up and pushed to
    completion as rapidly as possible tonight.

    “Section C. P. at ——.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The section leader will return to the company and get
the section ready to come to the front. He will go himself rather than
send one of the guides. There may be some new orders or instructions
from the company or platoon commander, and he will want to get them
first hand. He will want to be sure that the section is supplied with
the intrenching tools that are necessary for the rapid prosecution of
the mark.

“The section guides will each mark the cutting lines for the section of
trench that he is responsible for and those of the communication
parallel. They will have everything in readiness to start work as soon
as the men get up to the position.

“We have gone into considerable detail in the solution of the problem,
but I am sure every member of the class now realizes the necessity for
it and how simple the final solution is. When we started out with the
problem I am sure you all felt like we were entering upon a hopeless
task but when you finally get down to the last analysis of it and find
that the pressing problem is the digging of four short sections of
trench capable of sheltering four men each and getting started on the
communication parallel you realize that it is not such a big proposition
after all.

“All of this shows the necessity for the systematic training of officers
and men in these things. I am sure you can see what would happen to an
untrained outfit blundering into a proposition of this kind. You can
readily imagine a company rushing madly to the front with no one to tell
the men where to go or what to do. These tactical situations that
confront troops in time of war require time and forethought for their
solution. Unless the proposition is gone about in a systematic and
orderly manner the task is hopeless. I feel sure that if any of you were
confronted with the task of organizing a defensive position in the face
of the enemy you are better equipped for the solution of the task for
having had this Terrain Exercise.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Defensive Position=                                =Card No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to area assigned to the 2nd Section.

  2. Explain purpose of giving this small problem to class. Distribute
        Situation No. 3, read and explain.

  3. Point out location of all defensive elements that have a bearing on
        the area allotted to the 2nd Section. Disposition of
        troops—factors affecting outpost line, firing line.

  4. Location of groups, automatic rifle, rifle grenadier.

  5. Locate trenches on the ground and trace them. Locate parallel
        communication trench.

  6. Issue order. Collect and redistribute. Present order for
        discussion.

  7. Explain necessity for training in tactics.

                  *       *       *       *       *



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 4._
                   A Machine Gun Company in Attack[5]


                              The Problem

=General Situation=:

The (_a_) forms the boundary between hostile states. The Blue Corps has
crossed the boundary. Its advance has been stopped by a Red force of two
divisions at (_b_).

=Special Situation, Blue=:

In a general attack by the Blue Corps, the —— Division is attacking with
(_c_) regiments abreast in the sector bounded on the right (_d_) by
(_e_) and on the left (_d_) by (_e_). The order of the regiments from
right to left is (_f_). Each regiment has one battalion in the assault,
one in regimental reserve, and one in brigade or division reserve (_g_).
The —— Battalion —— Infantry, is the assaulting battalion of the ——
Infantry (_h_). The right (_d_) boundary of the battalion is (_e_). Its
left (_d_) boundary is (_e_).

The battalion is deployed with Company (_i_) on the right and Company
(_k_) on the left, as assault companies, and Company (_l_) as the
reserve company. The machine gun company (_m_) and one platoon of the
howitzer company are operating with the battalion.

=Special Situation No. 1=:

The division began a general advance at (_n_) today. At (_o_), when the
scouts reached (_p_) they were stopped by fire from the vicinity of
(_q_).

At (_r_), Major X at (_s_), received a message from the right (left)
assault company that it was held up by fire from (_t_). The message
stated that the company would assault at (_u_) by building up a firing
line at (_v_) and having a platoon attack in the direction of (_w_), and
requested the assistance of the machine guns and auxiliary weapons. At
the same time Major X received a message from the left (right) assault
company that it had encountered slight resistance from (_x_), but was
continuing to advance.

At the time Major X received the messages the machine gun company was
located as follows: The 1st and 2nd Platoons were in rear of the right
and left assault companies, respectively, at (_y_), with guns mounted on
carts. The captain with his headquarters’ detail was with Major X.


                         Explanation of Symbols

(_a_) In designating the boundary line, some natural topographical or
geographical feature should be selected, such as a river, creek, road,
state boundary, etc. In this problem the boundary may be some miles from
the point where the problem starts and in the opposite direction from
the direction of attack.

(_b_) A general defensive position in rear of the ground selected for
the problem.

(_c_) Two, three or four regiments would be placed in the first line
depending on the frontage assigned to the division and other conditions.

(_d_) Compass direction—north, south, east, or west.

(_e_) Describe boundaries by roads, creeks, towns, points, etc. Distance
between boundaries should be such as to give appropriate frontage to the
division—about 500 yards for each battalion employed as an assaulting
battalion.

(_f_) Give order by enumerating regiments as—1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th
Infantry.

(_g_) The number of battalions in assault and in reserve may vary in
different regiments, depending upon the frontage assigned to the
regiment and the nature of its task.

(_h_) If the regiment has more than one battalion in the first line, the
text should read: “Is the right (left) assault battalion of ——
Infantry.”

(_i_), (_k_), (_l_), (_m_) Use letters appropriate to the companies of
the designated battalion.

(_n_), (_o_) Indicate the hour.

(_p_) Select position suitable for firing line with position in rear
suitable for direct overhead fire of machine guns.

(_q_) Select suitable position for small force on the defensive.

(_r_) Indicate the hour a few minutes later than (_o_).

(_s_) Select a position between the assault and reserve companies with
good visibility.

(_t_) Defensive position for small force of Reds.

(_u_) Indicate an hour that will give the rifle and machine gun
companies time to get into position for the attack.

(_v_) Usually on or in advance of the line of scouts.

(_w_) A direction that will flank or envelop the local resistance.

(_x_) One of the positions from which scouts originally received fire.

(_y_) Platoons should be in rear of positions you plan to have them
occupy and on natural lines of advance.

_Required_:

The action taken by Major X and the orders actually issued by him.

    (Note.—The Machine Gun Company is organized and equipped in
    accordance with Table of Organization 29-W. See Appendix I.)


                               Procedure

The members of the class are assembled at _s_, the point where Major X
receives the messages from his assault companies.

_The Director_: “Before taking up the problem for solution, I wish to
make a few remarks upon the employment of a machine gun company with an
assault battalion.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The following, in general terms, are the principal
tasks of the machine guns on the offensive:

“(1) To cover the deployment of the infantry and its advance to the
first firing position.

“(2) To support the attack of the infantry.

“(3) To support the infantry in continuing the attack or taking up the
pursuit after the enemy’s main position has been captured.

“(4) To assist in the consolidation of the position whenever the limit
of the advance is reached or the infantry is brought to a standstill.

“During the combat the function of the machine guns is to assist
constantly the advance of the infantry by fire power. The use of machine
guns only at decisive points in the fight is not sufficient. They must
be so used as to exert a continuous influence from the beginning to the
end of the fight. They can act by fire alone and cannot be used as
assault troops.

“Every assaulting infantry battalion habitually retains and employs its
machine gun company. The machine gun company almost invariably acts
under the direct orders of the battalion commander. Only in very
exceptional cases will the company act under the orders of the
regimental machine gun officer after H hour, although he frequently will
prescribe tasks for it during the barrage prior to H hour.

“The following are suitable tasks for a machine gun company of an
assault battalion:

“(1) To support the assault companies.

“(2) To protect the flank of the attack.

“(3) To occupy an interval in the line.

“(4) To assist in consolidating the captured ground.

“(5) To assist in resuming the attack.

“_Orders._—The orders of Major X for the use of the machine guns should
be clear and concise and should assign definite tasks to them. The
orders, prior to attack, should assign the machine guns a definite place
in the formation and should give them the mission of supporting the
infantry by fire. The control of the machine guns should be exercised,
as far as possible, through the commanding officer of the machine gun
company. Platoons should be assigned to support rifle companies, but
should not be placed under the command of rifle company commanders
without there are exceptional reasons for so ordering.

“_Formation._—Generally the formation of a machine gun company
supporting an infantry battalion will be with one platoon on either
flank supporting the two assaulting companies. As to whether or not the
platoons should be placed in rear of the assault companies or in rear of
the reserve company depends upon conditions. If the conditions indicate
the probable early use of machine guns and the ground is favorable for
their use, they should be placed in rear of the assault companies. On
the other hand, if their use appears improbable, or the ground is
unfavorable for overhead fire, they should be placed in rear of the
reserve company, where they can use their carts as long as possible. The
formation within the platoon conforms to the infantry with which it is
advancing. The usual formations will be: when dismounted, line of squad
columns or line of skirmishers; when mounted, column of squads. The
purpose of the formation taken should be to make it difficult for the
enemy to distinguish the machine guns from the infantry.

“_Communication._—Where conditions permit, the commanding officer of the
machine gun company will be with the battalion commander. However, the
captain must not let this consideration interfere with the efficient
command of his company. Where the captain does not remain with the major
he will maintain contact with him by means of two runners from the
machine gun company.

“Are there any questions?”


                               Procedure

The Director will endeavor to answer any questions that may be asked by
members of the class.

After all questions have been cleared up the Director will hand a copy
of the problem to each member of the class. A few minutes will be
allowed to read over the problem.

_The Director_: “Please give me your attention while we go over the
problem.”

The Director reads the problem aloud, pointing out the features of the
landscape that are referred to in the problem.

The Director then calls upon one or more members of the class to explain
the problem. He clears up any point that does not appear plain to all
and satisfies himself that all members of the class understand the
situation and what is required of them.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Smith, we shall assume that you are commanding
the battalion and that Captain M, the commanding officer of the machine
gun company, is with you. What would you do when you received the
messages from your assault companies?”

_Captain Smith_: “I would send for all of the captains to report to me
at once, so that I could issue my orders.”

_The Director_: “The captains of the two assault companies are engaged
with the enemy, and it is most essential that they remain in immediate
command of their companies. The captain of the reserve company is at
some distance from Major X. While it is extremely desirable to issue one
complete verbal order to the battalion so that any misunderstanding can
be cleared up, it is not practicable to issue such an order in this
case. Captain Scott, what would you do?”

_Captain Scott_: “I would take a look at the positions of the right
assault company, the machine gun company, and the terrain, to determine
whether it would be possible to support the assaulting company by
overhead machine gun fire. I see that there is an excellent position for
the machine guns and howitzer platoon. The commanding officers of these
organizations are with me, so I at once give them the following verbal
orders:

    “Company —— has encountered heavy fire from (_t_). It will attack at
    (_u_) by building up a firing line at (_v_), and having a platoon
    attack in the direction of (_w_). A red rocket from this platoon
    will indicate the beginning of the attack.

    “The Stokes mortar will lay down a barrage in front of the platoon,
    advancing in the direction of (_w_). The one-pounder will be in
    readiness to engage any hostile machine guns that open fire.

    “The machine guns will open fire from this hill at (_u_), covering
    the enemy’s position at (_t_).

    “Battalion ammunition point 500 yards east of this point in edge of
    woods.

    “I shall remain here.”

_The Director_: “That is an excellent order. It shows that you
understand that Major X should first attempt to give assistance by the
use of his machine guns and auxiliary weapons and not by the use of his
reserve. The reserve company should not be employed as long as the
assaulting companies can overcome the resistance with the assistance of
the machine guns and auxiliary weapons. Fire power should be made to
take the place of man-power to the greatest extent that is practicable.
You have also given an excellent example of the proper coordination of
the machine guns and Stokes mortar. The ground in the direction of (_w_)
is such that the machine guns could not effectively support the platoon
advancing in that direction. The Stokes mortar, however, can search this
ground and provide covering fire for the platoon. Your ordering a red
rocket to be fired by the platoon advancing in the direction of (_w_)
shows that you understand the necessity for synchronizing the launching
of the attack and the opening of fire by the machine guns and auxiliary
weapons. However, the steps that you have taken are not adequate to
secure this. You have failed to notify the commanding officer of the
right assault company of the time that the machine guns will open fire
and have not directed him to have his platoon fire a red rocket at the
beginning of its attack.

“Captain Howe, tell us how you would notify the commanding officer of
the assault companies of your plans.”

_Captain Howe_: “I would send a written message by a runner as follows:

    “Begin your attack at (_u_). The machine guns will open fire from
    (_s_) at (_u_). The Stokes mortar will open fire in the direction of
    (_w_) at (_u_) and will lift their fire 100 yards in two minutes for
    six minutes. The one-pounders will fire on hostile machine guns.

    “Your platoon, advancing in the direction of (_w_), will fire a red
    rocket as a signal that it is leaving its cover and beginning the
    attack.

    “Battalion ammunition point in edge of woods 500 yards east of
    (_s_).

    “I shall remain here.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Machine Gun Co.=                                =Card No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Make copies of the problems and the situation, one for each member
        of the class.

  2. Conduct the class to the point where the battalion commander
        receives the messages from his assault companies.

  3. Make a short talk on the employment of machine guns on the
        offensive: (_a_) tasks of machine guns in general on the
        offensive. (_b_) Tasks of a machine gun company of an assault
        battalion. (_c_) Orders of the battalion commander to the
        machine gun company. (_d_) Formation of the machine gun company.
        (_e_) Communications.

  4. Distribute the sheets bearing problem and situation No. 1.

  5. Read problem and question members of the class on the tactical
        situation.

  6. Take up the solution of the problem: Action of Major X; Orders
        actually issued by Major X.

  7. Explanation by the director of the importance of using fire power,
        and of the necessity for coordination between the rifle
        companies and the machine guns.

  8. May have members of the class write out orders of the battalion
        commander.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “In the situation just completed we have considered the
employment of machine guns from the point of view of the commander who
has the responsibility for the coordination of the rifle companies and
the machine gun company and for the application of fire power to save
man-power wherever it is practicable. In the next situation we shall
take up the methods of applying this fire power to support the rifle
companies. These are technical questions entirely within the province of
the machine gun officer. In the formation the battalion commander
designates the position of the machine gun company with reference to the
rifle companies; the machine gun company commander determines the
formation within his company. Ordinarily the company commander will
determine whether the guns will go forward on carts and when it will be
necessary to abandon the carts. The firing position may be designated by
the battalion commander, or it may be left to the selection of the
machine gun company commander. The manner of occupation of the position
is decided upon by the machine gun officer. The class of fire to be
delivered is a question for the decision of machine gun officers or
non-commissioned officers. The situation may be such as to require the
sections or platoons to employ different classes of fire. The
concentration of the fire of his platoons is a function of the machine
gun company commander. In the absence of orders from the battalion
commander, the company commander will determine whether the fire of the
company will be distributed over the front of the whole battalion or
whether it will be concentrated upon a portion of the front. The method
of advance from one firing position to another will be determined by the
company or platoon commander. Where the company is employed as a whole
the advance may be by platoon. As a rule, however, the platoons will
advance by alternate sections so that a rifle company will never be
without support. The duty of maintaining the ammunition supply from the
battalion ammunition point forward to the guns devolves upon the machine
gun captain. The machine gun company is responsible for communication
forward to the assault companies and to the battalion commander.”

[Illustration: MACHINE GUN COMPANY IN ATTACK—ONE FORMATION—OTHERS MAY BE
USED]


                               Procedure

The Director passes out the papers containing Special Situation No. 2,
reads the situation aloud and calls upon one or more members of the
class to explain it.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2=:

This consists of copies of the orders of Major X to the commanding
officers of the machine gun company and howitzer platoon as given by
Captain Scott, and of the message to the commanding officer of the right
assault company as given by Captain Howe.

_Required_:

The orders actually issued by the commanding officer of the machine gun
company.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Jones, what is the first decision that Captain
M must make when he receives the order of Major X?”

Captain Jones: “He must decide whether he will employ the whole company
to support the right assault company or only the platoon which had been
directed to support this company at the beginning of the fight. Major X
has not indicated whether the whole company will be employed, so Captain
M must make this decision. The left assault company may encounter more
stubborn resistance, so I should employ only the right platoon.”

_The Director_: “Captain Brown, what do you think about that?”

_Captain Brown_: “I think he should employ the whole company.
Concentration of the fire of the platoons on points that are holding up
the battalion is one of the duties of the captain. The left assault
company is continuing to move forward and does not need the support of
the left platoon so it should be used to help advance the right assault
company. There is an excellent firing position directly in its line of
advance and it can be switched to the support of the left assault
company at any time that it becomes necessary. If the only firing
position available were such that the platoon could not support the
advance of the left assault company, if support were needed, and the
position were so situated as to cause the left platoon to deviate
greatly from its line of advance, the case would be different. In that
situation I think the left platoon should continue its advance in rear
of the left assault company with the purpose of bringing flanking fire
on the enemy a little later.”

_The Director_: “Captain Burt, we shall assume that Captain M decides to
employ both platoons to support the right assault company. What does he
do next?”

_Captain Burt_: “He would send the buglers to have the platoon leaders
report to him in advance of their platoons and would direct the
reconnaissance officer to select the firing positions for the two
platoons and obtain the ranges.”

_The Director_: “The captain has a company headquarters to assist him in
commanding the company and the use that the captain makes of this
headquarters is a sure indication of the efficiency of the company. It
is impossible for the captain to command the company by himself and
attend to all details. Part of this headquarters detail is mounted. The
buglers and reconnaissance officer have horses. By having the platoon
leaders precede their platoons they can receive their orders before the
platoons arrive and be ready to move into position without delay. When
the buglers reach the platoons they would turn over their horses to the
platoon leaders and would remain with the platoons to guide them to
their firing positions. The reconnaissance sergeant would assist the
reconnaissance officer by taking the ranges as soon as the positions had
been selected.

“Captain Smith, where would you select the positions and what frontage
would you assign to a platoon?”

_Captain Smith_: “I would assign positions at the crest so that the guns
could use direct overhead fire. The position should be such that the
muzzles of the guns would be just over the crest. In that way the
gunners will have the maximum amount of protection consistent with
direct fire. The distance between guns should be not less than 20 yards,
and preferably more. I would assign the right half of the position to
the right platoon and the left half to the left platoon. This will allow
a little distance between platoons so that the guns will not make such a
conspicuous target.”

_The Director_: “I wish to emphasize the fact that you must select a
position where the guns can employ _direct fire_. Indirect fire is
thoroughly practicable in the beginning of a prepared attack or on the
resumption of an attack that has been stopped for several hours. Often
it is the only kind of fire that can be employed. However, considerable
time is necessary to prepare for indirect fire, and this situation does
not permit of the delay necessary to prepare for indirect fire. Direct
fire is also more effective and should be employed whenever possible. It
seldom will be advisable for a machine gun company of an assault
battalion to use indirect fire. There is a distinct advantage in having
an elevated firing position as the guns are able to give support to the
rifle companies until they approach more closely to the target.

“Captain Jones, what assignment of targets would you make?”

_Captain Jones_: “I would assign a portion of the target to each
platoon. The whole target could be assigned to each platoon which would
permit an entire platoon to advance to a new firing position, while the
other covered the entire target. However, any advance before the
resistance is overcome would probably be by section and not by platoon;
so there is no advantage in giving each platoon the whole target. A
gunner can fire more effectively on a narrow target where it is not
necessary to traverse so much.”

_The Director_: “Captain Howe, would you make any provision for lifting
your fire as the infantry approaches the target?”

_Captain Howe_: “I would leave that to the platoon commanders. The rate
of advance may be different at different parts of the line so that some
guns may continue firing safely after others are forced to stop. I would
want every gun to fire as long as the safety of the infantry would
permit.”

_The Director_: “Captain Burt, what provision would you make for opening
fire?”

_Captain Burt_: “I would have the platoon leaders signal me when they
were ready and open fire on my signal. The positions of the platoons are
plainly visible from my position. Since it has been ordered that fire
will open at a definite time I think it better to depend on one watch
than to take a chance of the platoons opening a few seconds apart.”

_The Director_: “All of the doubtful points have been cleared up.
Assuming that you would do what it has been decided that Captain M
should do, I want each of you to write out the complete fire order of
Captain M. It is understood, of course, that Captain M would give his
order verbally, but it is desired to have you write out this order, so
that the form of the order can be examined more carefully.”


                               Procedure

After the solutions have been written, the Director has one or more
members of the class comment on the solution of other members. The
Director then distributes the sheets containing Situation No. 3, which
is the fire order of Captain M.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Machine Gun Co.=                                =Card No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Explain the duties of the commanding officer of a machine gun
        company of an assault battalion.

  2. Pass out Situation No. 2. Have members of the class explain their
        understanding of it.

  3. Have members of class discuss: Number of platoons to be employed.
        Use of headquarters detail. Selection of firing position. Use of
        direct fire. Assignment of targets. Opening fire.

  4. Have members of class write out fire order of Captain M.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 3=:

Captain M gave the following verbal orders to the platoon leaders at
(_s_):

    “Company —— has encountered heavy fire from (_t_). It will attack at
    (_u_) by building up a firing line at (_v_), and having a platoon
    attack in the direction of (_w_). A red rocket fired by this platoon
    will indicate the beginning of the attack.

    “The Stokes mortar will lay down a barrage in front of the platoon
    advancing in the direction of (_w_). The one-pounder will engage any
    hostile machine guns.

    “This company supports the attack.

    “Firing positions:

    “First platoon, the crest of this hill from 50 yards to the right of
    this point to 150 yards to the right of this point.

    “Second platoon, the crest of this hill from 50 yards to the left of
    this point to 150 yards to the left of this point.

    “Targets:

    “First platoon, right half of enemy’s position at (_t_).

    “Second platoon, left half of enemy’s position at (_t_).

    “Platoon commanders will be responsible for lifting the fire so as
    not to endanger the infantry.

    “Signal me when ready to open fire and open fire on my signal.

    “Battalion ammunition point 500 yards east of here in edge of woods.
    Carts at disposal of platoon leaders.

    “I shall be on the left of the 1st platoon.”

_Required_:

Actions of and orders actually issued by Lieutenant Y, commanding the
1st platoon.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Smith, in general what assistants has the
platoon leader and what are their duties?”

_Captain Smith_: “The platoon sergeant takes command of the platoon when
the lieutenant goes forward, and obtains ranges after the selection of
the firing position.

“The communication corporal, with the agents (normally two), maintains
communication between the platoon and the rifle company which it is
supporting, and sends or signals to the platoon the information
necessary to it.

“The transport corporal moves guns and ammunition carts forward in
accordance with the movements of the platoon. Improvises packs when
necessary. Provides for replenishment of ammunition and replacements for
killed or disabled mules.

“There are seven privates in the headquarters detail. One of these is a
bicyclist, two are agents to the rifle company, four runners maintain
communication with machine gun company headquarters, with the sections
and the platoon ammunition point.”

_The Director_: “Captain Burt, what would Lieutenant Y do after
receiving the order from Captain M?”

_Captain Burt_: “He would proceed to the position assigned to his
platoon. He would decide upon the positions to be assigned to his
sections, and observe the enemy’s position to determine upon an
allotment of targets. As the platoon approached he would halt it well
under the cover of the hill and signal the platoon sergeant and the
section leaders forward. When they arrived he would issue his fire
order.”

_The Director_: “Captain Jones, give the fire order issued by Lieutenant
Y.”

_Captain Jones_: “Lieutenant Y gives the following verbal order:

    “Company —— has encountered heavy fire from (_t_). It will attack at
    (_u_) by building up a firing line at (_v_), and having a platoon
    attack in the direction of (_w_). A red rocket fired by that platoon
    will indicate the beginning of the attack.

    “The Stokes mortars will lay down a barrage in front of the platoon
    advancing in the direction of (_w_). The one-pounder will engage
    hostile machine guns.

    “This platoon and the remainder of our company supports the attack.

    “Firing positions:

    “First section to the right of this rock; 2nd section to the left.
    Mount your guns below the crest and drag them into position without
    disclosing your presence.

    “Targets:

    “First section, the woods on the right of the enemy’s position at
    (_t_). Range 1,300 to 1,400. Combined sights.

    “Second section, the ridge for 100 yards to the left of the woods.
    Range 1,300.

    “Section leaders will be responsible for lifting their fire on the
    approach of the infantry.

    “Rate of fire 200 for first minute, 150 thereafter.

    “Signal me when ready. Open fire on my signal.

    “Platoon ammunition point 100 yards down the hill.

    “I shall remain here.”

_The Director_: “Captain Howe, what do you think of telling the 1st
section to use combined sights? Explain the use of combined sights.”

_Captain Howe_: “The target undoubtedly calls for the use of combined
sights. Whether it would be necessary for Lieutenant Y to direct the use
of combined sights would depend on how well trained the section leader
was. If I were at all doubtful I would order combined sights.

“Combined sights is the method of engaging any required depth of ground
by applying simultaneously overlapping zones of fire from two or more
guns. The depth of the beaten zone is increased by ordering different
elevations to be used by each gun. This type of fire is not necessary
under 800 meters. When it is used, as many guns as possible should be
employed with 100 meters difference if the error in range finding is
probably great, and with 50 meters difference if the error is probably
small. This kind of fire is used either to engage a target which is
deeper than the effective beaten zone or against a small target when the
range is not exactly known.”

_The Director_: “Captain Burt, explain to the class how the section
leader determines when the fire should be lifted.”

_Captain Burt_: “The section leader is equipped with a type EE field
glass which has an inverted sight leaf in the field of view. The glass
is used as follows:

“Align the inverted sight scale so that the announced range to the
target will coincide with the target.

“If the range to the target is 850 meters or less, note where the line
in the graticule representing 1,350 meters cuts the landscape.

“If the range to the target is 850 meters or over, add 500 meters to the
range to the target, and locate the point on the landscape that is cut
by this line.

“If the point located on the landscape is at or above the feet of our
own troops, it will be safe to fire.

“The gunner in a similar manner determines when it is safe to fire by
means of his rear sight so there is always a double check.”

_The Director_: “Captain Smith, do you see any purpose in ordering a
rate of fire of 200 for the first minute?”

_Captain Smith_: “Yes, sir, it is important to place as great a volume
of fire as possible on the enemy at the beginning of the attack.
However, the guns cannot maintain such a rate for but a few minutes, so
it is necessary to lower it. A rate of 125 to 150 could be maintained
for 20 or 30 minutes, so it is safe to order that.”

_The Director_: “Captain Jones, what do you mean by the ammunition
point?”

_Captain Jones_: “The machine gun platoon ammunition point consists of
the transport corporal, one runner, and the four ammunition carts and
four machine gun carts with their drivers. This ammunition point is
responsible for maintaining the ammunition supply from the carts forward
to the guns.”

_The Director_: “You are correct about the composition of the ammunition
point, but not about its duties. Its function is to maintain a supply of
ammunition in the carts sufficiently close to the guns that it can be
gotten forward by the ammunition carriers, but it is not responsible for
getting the ammunition forward. Numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 of each
squad are responsible for getting the ammunition forward from the carts
to the guns. The transport corporal moves the carts forward from one
covered position to another by bounds and keeps the platoon leader
informed of the location of the carts. That is the reason a runner is
assigned to the point. The corporal is responsible for getting the
ammunition forward from the combat wagons. Normally this will be done by
sending the ammunition carts to the battalion ammunition point. The
machine gun carts should be kept filled at all times, if possible, and
at the platoon ammunition point ready to move forward to the guns.

“Captain Brown, what do you think about Lieutenant Y not ordering
emplacements and cover trenches to be constructed?”

_Captain Brown_: “If there is time before opening fire the section
leader should construct them without any orders. However, I believe it
is always safer to order the construction. In this case the time is
limited, so it would be best to get the guns into position and ready to
open fire and then begin construction. Great caution would have to be
used, however, in the construction as emplacements not properly
constructed would show up very distinctly on the crest and would be a
source of danger. Cover trenches behind the trench would not be visible
and would be a great protection for ammunition carriers.”

_The Director_: “Captain Howe, no mention was made in the order of
communications, what do you think of that?”

_Captain Howe_: “It is unnecessary if the platoon is trained properly.
It becomes a matter of routine, and instructions are given only if
something out of the ordinary is required.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Machine Gun Co.=                                =Card No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Pass out Situation No. 3. Have members of the class explain their
        understanding of it.

  2. Have members of the class discuss: Duties of the members of the
        platoon headquarters detail. Action of Lieutenant Y prior to the
        issue of the fire order.

  3. Have a member of the class give the fire order issued by Lieutenant
        Y.

  4. Have members of the class discuss: Combined sights. Safety angles
        for direct overhead fire. Rates of fire. The platoon ammunition
        point. Construction of emplacements and cover trenches.
        Communications.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The Director passes out the papers containing Special Situation No. 4,
reads the situation aloud and calls upon one or more members of the
class to give their understanding of it.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 4=:

A few minutes after fire was opened by the machine guns, the enemy gave
way, and Company —— advanced and disappeared over the ridge at (_t_)
formerly held by the enemy. The left assault company (Company ——) has
continued to make progress and is slightly in advance of the right
assault company.

_Required_:

Orders as actually issued by Captain M, commanding the machine gun
company.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The situation is one in which it would be possible for
the battalion commander to give orders to the machine gun company, but
would be necessary only in case that the company commander was
incompetent. The captain of a company must not expect to receive orders
from the major at every new phase of the situation. The major is
probably eager to get forward to (_t_) to see for himself what the
situation is and has no time to tell Captain M just what he shall do
with his company.

“Captain Smith, assuming you are Captain M, what orders would you give
to the company?”

_Captain Smith_: “I would send the following verbal message to the
platoon commanders:

    “‘Advance your platoon by section to the position at (_t_).’”

_The Director_: “If the enemy were still resisting, advancing the
platoons by alternate sections would be the normal procedure. However,
since the resistance of the enemy has temporarily ceased and he has
passed over the ridge where he cannot at present fire on the machine gun
company, Captain M has a little more choice in the formation that he
will employ in advancing the company. It is perfectly practicable to
advance by platoon, and there is some advantage in so doing as it will
leave the platoon commanders in direct touch with their whole platoons.
The left assault company is slightly in advance of the right, so it
would be better to send the left platoon forward to the position at
(_t_) and have the right platoon go forward just as soon as the left
platoon has reached (_t_).

“Captain Jones, what do you think of immediately sending the whole
company forward?”

_Captain Jones_: “It would not be safe. It is too early to know whether
the enemy will counter-attack. If he should counter-attack and drive the
infantry out of the position at (_t_), part of the machine guns should
be in position to support the infantry. As soon as it appears that the
attack of the infantry has succeeded, part of the guns must be sent
forward to give the infantry closer support, but some guns must be
retained in position until danger of a counter-attack has passed.”

_The Director_: “Captain Burt, would you give the platoon leaders any
additional instructions?”

_Captain Burt_: “Yes, sir; I would instruct them to replenish their
ammunition before sending their ammunition carts forward. They probably
would do this any way, but I would play safe and order it. There has not
been a long period of firing so that one cart from each section probably
would be all that it would be necessary to send to the rear. This would
leave plenty of ammunition with the guns and get additional ammunition
forward much sooner than if the ammunition carts were permitted to
advance without refilling.”

_The Director_: “Captain Howe, would you give any further instructions
to the platoon leaders?”

_Captain Howe_: “Yes, sir; I would direct them to move forward with the
guns on carts. The carts have been placed at the disposal of the platoon
leaders so they should employ them without instructions, as there is no
danger in so doing. However, the captain usually determines when the
guns shall be moved forward by hand, so I think it is safer to caution
them to use their carts. There is a great tendency to continue advancing
the guns by hand for the rest of the fight when it has once become
necessary to dismount them from the carts.”

_The Director_: “Captain Smith, give the complete messages that should
be sent to the platoon leaders to carry out the decisions we have made.”

_Captain Smith_: “Captain M would send the following verbal messages:

    “To the commander of the 2nd platoon:

    “‘Move forward at once with guns on carts to the position from which
    the enemy has just been driven. Replenish ammunition.’

    “To commander of 1st platoon:

    “‘Replenish your ammunition. Remain in position until 2nd platoon
    reaches position from which enemy has just been driven and then move
    forward with guns on carts.’”

_The Director_: “We have covered the different situations that are
likely to occur in an attack with the exception of the opening phases of
a prepared attack and the consolidation. The former is most frequently
an indirect fire problem and should be treated as a separate exercise.
The latter can be handled best as the first phase of a battalion on the
defensive.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Machine Gun Co.=                                =Card No. 4=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Pass out Situation No. 4. Have members of the class explain their
        understanding of it.

  2. Explain the responsibility of the captain for acting on his own
        initiative in the absence of orders from the major.

  3. Have a member of the class give the orders issued by Captain M.

  4. Have members of the class discuss: Different methods of advancing
        the company. Necessity for retaining some guns in position to
        meet counter-attack. Replenishment of ammunition. Use of carts.

  5. Concluding statement by the Director.

                  *       *       *       *       *



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 5._
                            An Advance Guard


                              The Problem

=General Situation=:

The (_a_) forms the boundary between hostile states. A Blue brigade is
marching towards (_b_). Small Red forces are reported in the direction
of (_c_).

=Special Situation—Blue=:

A (_d_) flank guard, consisting of the (_e_) battalion (_f_) infantry,
halts for the night at (_g_).

At (_h_) (date) Company A, which has been designated to form the advance
guard, is assembled at (_i_).

Based on the orders of the battalion commander, Captain A, commanding,
issues the following verbal orders to his assembled officers and
non-commissioned officers:

    “Small Red forces are reported in the direction of (_c_). Our
    brigade marches towards (_b_) today by the (_j_)—(_k_)—(_l_) road.
    Our battalion continues its mission as a (_d_) flank guard. Our main
    body follows the advance guard at a distance of about 500 yards.

    “This company forms the advance guard.

    “Lieutenant W, with the first platoon, will form the advance party.
    March at (_m_) o’clock by the (_n_)—(_o_) road.

    “The rest of the company will form the support and follow the
    advance party at a distance of about 400 yards.

    “Corporal White (signalman) watch for signals from the main body.

    “The rolling kitchen will join the battalion train.

    “I will march with the support.”

    (Note.—Company A is organized in accordance with Table of
    Organization 28-W. See Appendix 1.)


                         Explanation of Symbols

(_a_) In designating the boundary line, some natural topographical or
geographical feature should be selected, such as a river, creek, canal,
crest of ridges, etc. In this problem the boundary may be a number of
miles from the point where the problem starts and in the direction in
which the march is to be made.

(_b_) A point a march away in the direction of the enemy.

(_c_) The locality where the enemy is reported to be. This should be
beyond the border in enemy territory.

(_d_) Indicate whether the battalion is a right or left flank guard. For
example: The Blue brigade is marching north on a certain road. The
battalion is marching north on a road to the west of that on which the
brigade is marching—the battalion would be a left flank guard.

(_e_) Designate as one of the battalions of the regiment to which the
officers participating belong or are attached.

(_f_) See next above. Example “A left flank guard, consisting of the 1st
Battalion, 305th Infantry.”

(_g_) A point in the vicinity of where the terrain exercise is to start.

(_h_) Indicate the hour. Make it about 20 minutes before the time
designated for the advance guard to start the march.

(_j_) The point where the terrain exercise is to begin.

(_j_)—(_k_)—(_l_) A road is designated in field orders by naming two or
more places located on it. Example: “The FOUR POINT—EMMITSBURG—FAIRPLAY
road.” In this case indicate in definite terms the road that the main
body of the brigade is to march on.

(_m_) Designate the hour of marching of the advance guard.

(_n_)—(_o_) See remarks pertaining to the symbol (_j_)—(_k_)—(_l_).


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 1=:

You, Lieutenant W, commanding the first platoon, have been detailed to
form the advance party. It is now (_h_). Your platoon is formed here.

_Required_:

The action that you, Lieutenant W, take, and the orders you issue to
your platoon.


                               Procedure

The members of the class are assembled at (_g_) on the (_n—o_) road (see
explanation of symbols), where it is intended that the advance guard
formation is to be taken up.

_The Director_: “Before taking up the problem for solution, I want to
make a few remarks on the formation of a column of troops on the march
and to review briefly the formation and duties of an advance guard.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “A column of troops on the march consists of a main body
and such covering detachments as may be necessary. These covering
detachments are denominated advance guards, rear guards and flank
guards. They are thrown out for the purpose of gaining information of
the enemy, to protect the main body from surprise, and to hold off the
enemy a sufficient length of time for the main body to prepare for
action.

“The covering detachment that goes ahead of and protects the march of a
marching column is called an ‘advance guard.’ It consists of a series of
detachments or groups increasing progressively in strength from head to
rear, each being charged with the protection of the group immediately
following it from surprise and thus gaining time for the latter to get
ready to fight.

“_Formation._—The advance guard is normally divided into a support and a
reserve. From the support, an advance party is sent to the front a few
hundred yards, and from this advance party a small patrol, technically
called a ‘point,’ is sent out. From time to time as the occasion
demands, patrols are sent out to the right and left. These are called
‘flankers.’

“When the advance guard consists of a small force the reserve is omitted
and we have only a support, from which an advance party is sent out.

“In the problem we have an advance guard composed of one rifle company
of infantry. What is the proper formation?

“The advance party will consist of one platoon, from which a ‘point’ of
one squad will be sent out to the front, a distance of about 200 yards.
The remainder of the company will constitute the support and follow the
advance party at a distance of about 400 yards.

“We do away with a reserve. It would divide the company into too many
component parts and make control just that much more difficult.

“That is what may be termed the usual formation. Conditions may be such
that it would be desirable to make the advance party stronger; as where
the enemy habitually opposes us with relatively small detachments and we
want to run over them and drive them off without bringing the support
into action.

“In any case you must have a knowledge of the functions of an advance
guard. You must know the mission and be able to size up the situation of
the particular case. You must then use your plain commonsense in meeting
the situations as they develop.

“_Duties._—Now let us see what the duties of the advance guard are:

“1. To prevent the main body of our troops from being fired into while
they are in a formation that prevents them from defending themselves.
You can imagine what would happen if an effective fire were suddenly
poured into the company while it is marching in column of squads on the
road.

“2. To gain information of the enemy by sending out detachments to the
front and flanks at such points as may be necessary. Here is an
important thing to remember. Under the conditions of modern warfare, the
haphazard method of sending out flanking patrols has every chance of
resulting in disaster. These men never get back in time to be of use to
you when you need them. Much of this patrolling and marching of flanking
detachments across country is exhausting and wears out your troops. It
should be reduced to the minimum.

“3. To push back small parties of the enemy. The progress of the main
body must not be arrested by small, comparatively insignificant
detachments of the enemy. It is the duty of the advance guard to brush
them aside. How many times at maneuvers have you seen a skillfully
handled patrol make a whole advance guard deploy? It should have been
swept away by the advance party. The idea is, that you simply have to
keep pushing to the front until you really encounter something that will
stop you.

“4. To check the advance of the enemy in force long enough for the main
body to prepare for action. When the enemy is met in sufficient force to
warrant the employment of troops of the main body there is a certain
process that the commander has to go through before he can get his
troops in action. A reconnaissance must be made to determine the
strength and disposition of the enemy, for it would be folly to commit a
force to action without knowing something of these elements. Then, too,
the orders for the deployment have to be issued and the deployment has
to be effected. All of this takes a certain amount of time during which
period the advance guard holds off the enemy.

“5. To remove obstacles, repair the roads, and favor in every way the
uninterrupted progress of the main body.

“These are the duties of the advance guard. These are the things that
platoon, section and squad leaders must ever keep in mind when they are
on advance guard duty. These are the things that we officers must learn
about in time of peace in order that we may do them as a matter of habit
in time of actual service.

“_Distances._—The distances between the several elements of the advance
guard are fixed by the general rule that ‘the element in front must be
at such a distance that the next succeeding element will not be involved
in a disaster to the former.’

[Illustration: Formation of Advance Guard of One Company for a
Battalion]

“The point will be from 150 to 200 yards in advance of the advance
party. The latter will be from 300 to 400 yards in front of the support
and the main body will follow at a distance of from 400 to 500 yards. It
will thus be seen that the head of a battalion with one company as
advance guard will be about 1,400 yards away from the enemy. This allows
a minimum distance of 400 yards from the leading man of the point to the
enemy. If a deployment becomes necessary, it can be made in comparative
security. These distances are not fixed. They are flexible. They may be
increased or diminished to meet the situation. When the advance guard
commander prescribes distances between the several elements it is not to
be taken that the exact distance will be maintained at all times. It is
merely an indication of the approximate distances desired.

“_Communication._—Communication between the several elements of the
advance guard and with the main body is kept up by means of connecting
files which march between them. They employ signals and act as runners
when necessary.

“Are there any questions?”


                               Procedure

The Director will endeavor to answer any questions that may be asked by
members of the class.

After all questions have been cleared up the Director will hand a copy
of the problem to each member of the class. A few minutes are allowed
for the class to read over the problem.

_The Director_: “Please give me your attention while we go over the
problem.”

The Director reads the problem aloud, each member of the class following
from the copy in his possession. The direction of places mentioned are
pointed out.

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, give a brief statement of the
tactical situation, as you understand it.”

Lieutenant Williams states his understanding of the tactical situation.
As he proceeds the Director makes such explanations as may be desirable.
One or more additional members of the class may be called upon to state
their version of the tactical situation. All of this is for the purpose
of fixing the elements of the problem firmly in the minds of the members
of the class and prevent any subsequent misunderstanding of them.

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, you note that the problem states that
our battalion is a right (left) flank guard. Just what do you understand
by that?”

_Captain Hastings_: “Ordinarily the flanks of a column on the march may
be protected by small patrols sent out from the advance guard. There
are, however, occasions when patrols will not suffice and it is
necessary to send out a stronger detachment, to march along a route
essentially parallel to and abreast of the force. A detachment so sent
out is called a flank guard. In this case our whole battalion is a flank
guard sent out to protect the right (left) flank of our brigade in its
march towards (_b_).”

_The Director_: “What do you understand to be the duties of a flank
guard?”

_Captain Hastings_: “They are much the same as those of an advance
guard, that is, to do everything possible to facilitate the
uninterrupted progress of the main body. All other duties are incidental
to this and all have this prime object in view.”

_The Director_: “Very good. Are there any questions at this time? Now I
want each member of the class to consider himself as being Lieutenant W,
commanding the first platoon of Company A. Your platoon is right over
there (pointing), formed up in line, at the right of the company. You,
together with the other officers and non-commissioned officers of the
company, have assembled here and have received the verbal orders of the
captain for the formation of the company as the advance guard of the
battalion. You are now ready to return to your platoon. Just how are you
going to do the job that has been assigned to you?”

The Director will now conduct the class to the point where the first
platoon is supposed to be.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Wallace, we will assume that you are
commanding the platoon. Just how do you go about the task of getting
started on the day’s work?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I should first see if all the men are present,
and then I would inspect the platoon to make sure that everything is all
right.”

_The Director_: “The first part of your problem is simple. All you have
to do is to glance down the ranks to determine whether every man is in
his proper place. Let us assume that all are present. Now, with regard
to the proposition of the inspection. In campaign the platoon commander
should inspect his platoon at reveille—check up the appearance of the
men and note the condition of the arms and equipment. At this time he
should take the steps necessary to remedy deficiencies and make
provision for the evacuation of any man that is physically unfit. This
should be a matter of routine. Then, when the day’s work is to be
started, there is no delay.”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I see the point and realize the necessity for the
procedure you have outlined. There is one other point. When should the
rifles be loaded?”

_The Director_: “Some advocate that the rifles should be loaded and the
safety locks turned to ‘Safe’ just after the inspection in the morning.
I do not believe that to be the best procedure. It increases the chances
for an accident. I would have the men load their rifles, in this case,
just before starting to form the advance party. Let us assume that the
platoon has been inspected at reveille and that all the men are in fit
physical condition and ready for the work in hand. What is the first
move you would make, Lieutenant Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “Well, sir, I would want to get the platoon a
short distance away from the rest of the company. So the first thing I
do is to march the platoon about 75 to 100 yards up the road.”

_The Director_: “What is the idea?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “There is always more or less confusion around the
company on an occasion of this kind, and I want to get my platoon off by
themselves so they can give me their undivided attention while I am
issuing my orders and getting them all set for the work in hand.”

_The Director_: “That seems to be a very good reason. Let us assume that
you have moved the platoon 100 yards away from the rest of the company.
You are formed up in line. What are you going to do now?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would have the men load their rifles.”

_The Director_: “All right; you have done that. Captain Harvey, what is
the next step?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would take a few minutes to dope out the situation
and determine what I am going to do.”

_The Director_: “That is time well spent. Now let us go through the
process you have just mentioned. What is the first thing you are to
determine?”

_Captain Harvey_: “What is the mission of the platoon? It is to form the
advance party.”

_The Director_: “What is the next step, Captain Hodges?”

_Captain Hodges_: “To consider the enemy—where he is, what he is doing,
and what he is likely to do. In this case the only information we have
is that small forces of the enemy are reported in the direction of
(_c_). We have no information of his strength or composition or what he
is doing. We must be prepared to meet him at any time and govern our
action accordingly.”

_The Director_: “What is the next step, Captain Mason?”

_Captain Mason_: “To consider our own supporting forces. We know that
our brigade is to march towards (_b_) by the (_j_)—(_k_)—(_l_) road.
That our battalion continues its mission as a right (left) flank guard.
That our company, less this platoon, is the support, which follows us at
a distance of about 400 yards.”

_The Director_: “What is the next step, Captain Jones?”

_Captain Jones_: “We then consider our plans of action—what we are going
to do. There is no information on which to base our plans very far
ahead. We can only get the advance party into the most favorable
formation and be prepared for eventualities. We will have a point,
consisting of one squad, precede the advance party at about 200 yards.
The rest of the platoon will march in column of twos, a file on each
side of the road. From this formation a rapid deployment can be made,
and we are always ready to meet the enemy. Measures for local protection
will be taken as the march progresses.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Baker, what is the next step in this
process?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “Based upon what has been said before we arrive at a
decision as to what we are going to do. In this case it would be—To
march at (_m_) o’clock by the (_n_)—(_o_) road as advance party of the
advance guard. We then embody this decision in a field order and issue
it verbally to the platoon.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “All of that which we have just discussed is what we
call the ‘Estimate of the Situation.’ It is simply a sizing up of the
tactical situation in a logical and systematic manner. The commander of
troops who fails to do this fails to do everything possible to promote
the success of the military operation he is about to undertake—he does
not take advantage of all the aids at his disposal. The commander who
blunders into action without sizing up the situation as we have outlined
here is doomed to failure and disaster. It may be an operation in which
there is little to consider—where there is little choice of methods—but
you should religiously go through the process, even if only a few
minutes of time are available.

“At this point I want to invite your attention to the merits of the
simple five paragraph field order provided for in our Field Service
Regulations. The elements of it are:

“Paragraph 1. Information of the enemy and our own troops.

“Paragraph 2. The plan of the commander, stated in general terms.

“Paragraph 3. Orders for the several elements of the command.

“Paragraph 4. Administrative and communication arrangements.

“Paragraph 5. The place where messages are to be sent, or where the
commander will march.

“This form of field order has stood the test of time and, what is more
to the point, it has proved to be a suitable and effective method of
issuing orders in time of war. When we went to France we found the
long-winded, highly detailed orders that were the development of years
of trench warfare. No one read them and, if they did, they did not
understand them. We used them in order to conform with requirements from
higher headquarters. When we really got down to the business of fighting
and had to produce results we fell back on our own simple five paragraph
order, and it met all the requirements. Get the elements of this order
firmly fixed in your minds and follow them. They are applicable to any
body of troops, large or small.

“The next point I want to bring out is the necessity for letting every
man in the platoon know what the work for the day is to be. This
information is imparted to them in the form of a verbal order by the
platoon commander, which embraces the points brought out in the
‘Estimate of the Situation,’ which we have just discussed.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, based upon the decision reached in our
‘Estimate of the Situation’ and the discussion prior thereto, state your
solution of the problem in detail.”

_Captain Hall_: “I give the command: 1. Platoon, 2. ATTENTION; then
follow with: 1. With ball cartridges, 2. LOAD. After all pieces are
loaded and locked, I give the command: 1. Order, 2. ARMS. I then give
the command: AT EASE, and direct: ‘Give me your attention.’ I then issue
my order as follows:

    “Small Red forces are reported in the direction of (_c_) (indicating
    the direction). Our brigade marches towards (_b_), by the
    (_j_)—(_k_)—(_l_) road, which is —— miles to the —— of here. Our
    battalion continues its mission as a right (left) flank guard. Our
    company forms the advance guard. The company, less this platoon, is
    the support and follows us at a distance of about 400 yards.

    “‘This platoon forms the advance party.

    “‘Sergeant Roberts (section leader, first section) with the first
    squad will form the point. March by that road (indicating the road).
    I will signal the direction as we go along. Precede the advance
    party by about 200 yards.

    “‘Private Allen (rifleman from front rank, second squad), act as
    connecting file between the point and advance party.

    “‘The remainder of the platoon will march in column of twos, one
    file on each side of the road, at easy marching distances.

    “‘Corporal Howard (section guide, second section), watch for signals
    from the rear.

    “‘I will march at the head of the advance party.

    “‘You have about five minutes before the advance begins. Move out
    with the point, Sergeant Roberts, get your distance and formation
    and await my signal to start.

    “‘Remainder of the platoon REST.’

“When the time for starting arrives I will give the command: 1. Platoon,
2. ATTENTION; and then follow with: 1. Right, 2. FACE; then: 1. Forward,
2. MARCH, and direct: ‘A file on each side of the road.’ I will then
signal the point: FORWARD MARCH.”

_The Director_: “That is very good. Now I want each member of the class
to write out the order of the platoon commander on his pad.”


                               Procedure

Each member of the class writes out the order of the advance party
commander. When all have completed this the Director collects the work
and distributes it, making sure that no member of the class receives his
own solution back again.

One or more of the solutions are read aloud, and a discussion of any
errors or points of importance is conducted. At the conclusion of this
the Director inquires if there are any questions. He endeavors to answer
any questions that may be asked, after which the class is ready to go
ahead with the next situation.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Advance Guard=                                =Card No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Prepare copies of the problem and the situations, one for each
        member of the class.

  2. Conduct the class to the point on the road where it is intended
        that the advance guard formation is to be taken up.

  3. Make a short talk on the subject of advance guard duty: (_a_)
        Formation of a column of troops on the march. (_b_) Description
        of an advance guard. (_c_) Duties of advance guard: Security of
        main body; gain information; push back small parties of the
        enemy; check advance of enemy in force, clear road, etc. (_d_)
        Distances. (_e_) Communication.

  4. Distribute sheets bearing problem and Situation No. 1.

  5. Read problem and question members of class on tactical situation.

  6. Discuss flank guard.

  7. Take up solution of problem: Inspection of platoon; when to load
        pieces; get platoon away from company.

  8. Estimate of the Situation: Mission; enemy; own troops; plans of
        action; decision.

  9. Discussion of Field Orders. Information of enemy and own troops;
        plan of commander; tactical dispositions; administrative
        arrangements; place of commander.

  10. Final solution of problem: Commands of platoon commander; orders
        of platoon commander; getting the platoon in march.

  11. Have members of class write out orders of the platoon commander.
        Collect solutions and redistribute them. Have several solutions
        read and discussed.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “In our solution to Situation No. 1, Captain Hall, in
giving the order of the platoon commander said: ‘Sergeant Roberts, with
the first squad, will form the point, etc.’ That was an eminently proper
order. It did not go into details. He assumes that Sergeant Roberts is
familiar with the methods of forming the point of an advance guard and
conducting its operations.

“It is a very simple matter for the platoon commander to pass the order
along to the sergeant in this manner. But unless the platoon commander
knows how the work should be done he has no means of checking up and
seeing to it that it is done properly.

“While it is not contemplated that any member of this class will ever be
called upon to conduct the operations of the point of an advance guard,
all should be familiar with what happens when he gives someone else an
order to do so.”


                               Procedure

The Director passes out the papers containing Situation No. 2, reads the
situation aloud and calls upon one or more members of the class to give
their understanding of it.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2=:

You, Sergeant Roberts, have been designated to command the point,
consisting of the first squad. Your men have been turned over to you by
the platoon commander. You have been ordered to move out and get your
distance and formation.

_Required_:

What do you do?


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Captain Sands, what is a point?”

_Captain Sands_: “A point is an element of an advance guard that
precedes the advance party.”

_The Director_: “That is right, and it is no more or less than a
fighting patrol that is assigned a definite line of march. Its
operations are conducted on that basis. It can afford to be bold and
aggressive because the advance party is close at hand to back it up.
What factors govern the formation of the point, Lieutenant Wallace?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “The point must have a formation that renders it
the least vulnerable to hostile fire. This means dispersion. On the
other hand, the dispersion should not be so great that the commander is
not able to control its operations. I should say that a patrol
formation, where the men march in pairs on opposite sides of the road,
would be suitable.”

_The Director_: “What should be the distances between the men?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “Twenty to 25 yards. That distance would provide
the necessary dispersion, and at the same time there would be sufficient
compactness to insure control.”

_The Director_: “Where will the point commander march, Lieutenant
Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “He should march at the head of the point.”

_The Director_: “Do you agree with that statement, Captain Harvey?”

_Captain Harvey_: “No, sir; I do not. It seems to me that the commander
should be free to go wherever he is needed. He should not be tied down
to any one place.”

_The Director_: “I agree with you. There are other reasons why he should
not habitually march at the head of the point. In the first place, the
man at the head of the point must always be on the lookout for the
enemy, and if the point commander is the man his whole attention will be
devoted to that task and there will be very little leadership exercised
in the point. Again, we do not want to take a chance on our point
commander becoming a casualty unnecessarily. He has been placed in
command, presumably because he is the best man fitted for the job. He
knows the plans for the day’s work better than any of the other men. If
he becomes a casualty on the first few shots, there may be no one to
take his place without some confusion and delay. If the point commander
marches a little distance back, say in the second or even third pair, he
will be sufficiently close to the front to perform his duty. I prefer to
have him in the second pair. Before leaving this subject of the
formation of the point I would like your opinion, Captain Hughes, on the
question of deploying the men in a line of skirmishers at extended
intervals.”

_Captain Hughes_: “That might be all right after the enemy is
encountered, but I would not do it on an ordinary march. In the first
place, it would be rough going for the men off on the flanks of the
road, and they could not keep up. If the rate of march is held down to
keep abreast of them, the progress of the main body will be delayed. In
the next place, if the intervals are too much extended, the point
commander will not be able to control the operations and will not have
his men where he wants them at the critical moment.”

_The Director_: “Your reasons seem to be logical and possess merit.
Before going further I want to say a few words about the operations of a
point.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The main idea to be instilled into the minds of the
members of a point is that it must keep moving. It positively must not
stop until absolutely compelled to do so by the fire of the enemy.

“When the enemy is encountered the point commander will have to size up
the situation quickly and take the necessary action which invariably
includes getting information back to the advance party commander.

“The men must look to the leader for instructions and guidance and await
his orders.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hastings, what elements are included in the
orders of a point commander to the members of his point?”

_Lieutenant Hastings_: “They are the elements included in every field
order. The point commander must be sure that every man has all the
available information of the enemy and our own supporting troops. In
this case they were given all of this by the platoon commander, and it
is not necessary for Sergeant Roberts to repeat it. That is paragraph 1
of the order. The point commander must then announce his plans, in
general terms, and that constitutes paragraph 2. Then comes the
formation of the point and giving each man his instructions as to where
he is to march in the formation—paragraph 3. He must now arrange for
communication and follow with the place where he, himself, is to march.
That completes the order.”

_The Director_: “Now, Captain Harvey, let us assume that you are
Sergeant Roberts. Your squad is standing here on the road ready to move
out. Let us hear the exact orders that you would give them.”

_Captain Harvey_: “I will take post in front of the squad and command:
1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION.

“I will then address the men as follows:

    “‘You heard what the lieutenant said about the enemy and our
    supporting troops.

    “‘We are going out as the point.

    “‘Crane and Hanson (both riflemen), march on the right and left of
    the road, respectively. Keep about abreast of each other.

    “‘Pendleton (rifle grenadier), follow Crane and Hanson at a distance
    of about 25 yards. March on the right side of the road.

    “‘Alley (rifleman) and Stone (carrier for the automatic rifleman),
    follow Pendleton at 25 yards distance—Stone on left, Alley on right
    of road. Stone, watch the country to the east and Alley, watch the
    country to the west.

    “‘Patrick (automatic rifleman) and Corporal Smith follow Alley and
    Stone at a distance of about 25 yards—Patrick on the right, Corporal
    Smith on the left of road.

    “‘Bailey (rifleman), follow Patrick and Corporal Smith at a distance
    of about 25 yards and watch for signals from the advance party.

    “‘I will march with Pendleton on the left side of the road.

    “‘Move out.’”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Are there any questions?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “Yes, sir. I would like to ask why Captain Harvey
places the automatic rifleman so far back in the formation?”

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, will you please explain your reasons?”

_Captain Harvey_: “If the point encounters the enemy, we would want to
conduct a little reconnaissance before committing the automatic rifleman
to action. If he is any farther to the front, he is most likely to get
involved early in the encounter and perhaps in a position hastily
chosen, where his weapon could not produce his maximum effect. The
automatic rifle has the fire power of several rifles, and we want to
take advantage of this fact. We must therefore get the weapon into the
position where it can be done, and this cannot usually be determined
with the first few shots of an advance guard meeting engagement.”

_The Director_: “Those are very good reasons—ones which I believe all
the members of this class will remember when it comes to training their
own non-commissioned officers. Are there any other questions?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “Why did Captain Harvey omit to designate a
second in command?”

_The Director_: “The succession in military command is determined by
seniority. Corporal Smith is the next senior and will automatically
assume command. If there were no non-commissioned officer with the
squad, Sergeant Roberts would have designated one of the privates as
second in command. Any other questions? (_Pause._) There appear to be
none. I wish you would ask questions to bring out points that are not
fully understood. It is by a discussion of these points that we arrive
at a reasonable solution of these problems. Now, a few remarks before we
pass on to the next situation.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “When you come to the training of your own men you
cannot be too particular about insisting upon their learning the form of
tactical orders and the language to be used in expressing their
contents. It takes long practice to be able to do this without getting
confused and omitting essentials.

“When a non-commissioned officer takes charge of a detachment for any
tactical duty and gives his instructions in a clear and concise manner,
leaving nothing to be guessed at, he inspires the confidence of his men.
They realize immediately that there is someone at the helm who knows his
business and they cheerfully respond. Noncommissioned officers should be
practiced in stating the instructions that they would have to give under
the various tactical situations that they may be called upon to handle.
There is no surer way to gain that confidence so necessary to military
efficiency.[6]

“If there are no further questions we will proceed with the problem.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Advance Guard=                                =Card No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Explain necessity for learning the details of tactics.

  2. Hand out Situation No. 2. Have members of class explain their
        understanding of it.

  3. The Point. What it is. Formation. Distances. Dispersion.

  4. Where commander marches.

  5. Deployment of point as skirmishers.

  6. Operations of point.

  7. Elements of the order for the point.

  8. Solution. Issue of orders.

  9. Position of automatic rifleman in formation.

  10. Second in command.

  11. Training of men.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted forward along the route of march of the
advance guard for a distance of several hundred yards. The distance
should be such that the class will at least be beyond the sight of the
starting point in the Terrain Exercise, so that entirely new terrain
will be available. There should be a considerable stretch of road ahead
in sight so that the various elements of the advance guard could be seen
if they were actually on the road.

The class is halted and the Director passes out the slips containing
Situation No. 3.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 3=:

It is assumed that the advance guard has been marching for a period of
two hours.

You, Captain A, marching at the head of the support of the advance
guard, have reached this point. Nothing has occurred to change the
initial formation of the advance guard.

_Required_:

Point out the formation and location of the various elements of the
advance guard at this moment.


                               Procedure

A few minutes are allowed the members of the class to look over the
situation and get their new bearings. The Director reads the situation
aloud and inquires whether there are any questions, which he endeavors
to answer.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “You will note that the situation indicates that the
advance guard is assumed to have been marching for two hours. This would
make the distance we have marched a little more than 5 miles. As a
matter of fact, we have only come a few hundred yards from our starting
point. You will have to draw on your imagination in this matter,
disregard all things behind you, and consider only those to the front.
It would consume too much time to actually go the distance assumed and
it is not necessary to do so, for we are now on new terrain, which
serves our purpose equally as well as if we were the full distance of 5
miles farther to the front.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “What are the several elements of the advance guard,
Lieutenant Williams?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “First, we have the point, which is the small
body of men farthest to the front; next, we have a connecting file
between the point and the advance party; next comes the advance party,
then the connecting files between the advance party and the support, and
finally the support, which is right here on the road.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, what is the strength and disposition
of these several elements of the advance guard?”

_Captain Hastings_: “The point is composed of one complete squad
commanded by a sergeant. It is in patrol formation, marching on the road
with a distance of about 20 to 25 yards between each pair of men. The
point precedes the advance party by a distance of about 150 to 200
yards. The connecting file between that point and advance party marches
so that he can keep both of these bodies in sight. He has no fixed place
where he is to march—”

_Lieutenant Wallace_ (_interrupting_): “Right there is a point that I
want to bring up. I can conceive of a situation where the connecting
file could not keep both bodies in sight all the time—for example, on a
winding road or in hilly country. What does he do in that case?”

_The Director_: “Under those circumstances the commander of the advance
party would have to send out a sufficient number of men for this duty,
so as to insure communication being kept up at all times. It is simply a
problem to be solved by the advance party commander. Captain Hastings,
proceed with your discussion.”

_Captain Hastings_: “Next comes the advance party composed of the first
platoon, less one squad and connecting file, commanded by Lieutenant W.
It is marching with a column of files on each side of the road at easy
marching distances. The connecting files between the advance party and
support march so that they can keep both bodies in communication with
each other all the time. The distance between the advance party and
support is about 400 yards. Now comes the support, composed of the
company, less the first platoon and connecting files with the advance
party, which marches in a column of squads on the road. Following is the
main body of the battalion, at a distance of about 500 yards.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, what provisions are made for flank
protection?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I do not think that any flank protection is
necessary at this time. No considerable body of the enemy will get
between our column and the main body of our brigade. If they did they
would be doomed to destruction. On the other flank the country is open,
so that no patrols are needed in that direction. I do not believe in
wearing men out on flank patrol duty when there is no necessity for it.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “That is exactly the point that I wanted to bring out.
There is no necessity for wearing men out on flank patrol duty beating
their way over rough country and climbing fences, when they accomplish
no useful purpose. Never send out a flank patrol unless there is some
sound tactical reason for it. Then when the time comes and there is
necessity for patrols, your men will be found ready to put forth
superhuman efforts, if need be, to help you accomplish your mission. If
you are in contact with the enemy, or there is immediate danger of such
contact, flank patrols may be necessary and a commander should not
hesitate to send them out. On the solution of these small tactical
problems, that confront a commander in actual service, will determine
your success or failure as a leader. You must ever keep in mind that it
is a combination of these small tactical situations that go to make up
the big military operations on which the fate of a nation may depend.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to make a rough
sketch of the road occupied by the advance guard and show on it the
dispositions of the advance guard.”

Some 10 or 15 minutes should be allowed for this. After the sketches are
completed they should be collected and passed back to the members of the
class—taking care to see that no man gets his own solution back again.
The members of the class should be invited to make any criticism of the
sketch he has in his possession and following this the next situation
should be proceeded with.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Advance Guard=                                =Card No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct the class to the place where the situation is to be taken
        up for solution.

  2. Hand out Situation No. 3. Read Situation aloud.

  3. Explain why Situation is taken up at this point instead of five
        miles farther on.

  4. Proceed with problem: Elements of the advance guard; strength and
        disposition of the elements of the advance guard; connecting
        files; flank protection.

  5. Explain flank patrols.

  6. Make sketch of road showing the formation of the advance guard.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the point selected for the next tactical
situation. This should be several hundred yards in advance of the point
where Situation No. 3 was staged. The slips bearing Situation No. 4 are
passed out to members of the class.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 4=:

You, Sergeant Roberts, have arrived at this point. The two leading men
of the point (Crane and Hanson) are about 25 yards ahead of you. The
remaining members of the point are on the road behind you. At this
moment both Crane and Hanson take cover and point in the direction of
——. You join them and observe about a squad of the enemy on foot
(_moving around in the woods—describe just what the enemy is doing_).
They apparently have just arrived and have not seen you. Several horses
are being led to the rear.

_Required_:

What do you, Sergeant Roberts, do?


                               Procedure

The Director reads the situation aloud and points out the location of
the enemy.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to consider
himself as being Sergeant Roberts. The incidents contained in the
situation have transpired just as indicated. You were marching along the
road; you saw Crane and Hanson take cover and point in the direction of
the enemy; you joined them here; you see the enemy (_explain what the
enemy is doing_). It is now up to you to make a decision as to what you
are going to do and proceed to do it. Before going into the solution of
the problem I want to make a few remarks on the conduct of the
operations of a point.

“The real work of the advance guard begins when it gets in contact with
the enemy. All formation and all operations are designed to insure
success when this event happens. The point is the first element that
meets the enemy and success or failure may depend upon what is done by
this small body. The big idea is that we must get the jump on the enemy.
We must lead and make him follow. In other words, we must take the
offensive for it is only by offensive action that military success is
gained.

“The commander of the point of an advance guard must be on the lookout
for the enemy all the time. He must continually look ahead and dope out
what he is going to do if the enemy should suddenly appear in this or
that place.

“Sergeant Roberts has been doing this very thing and the proper action
is plain to him. Let us see if it is plain to you.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, when you saw Crane and Hanson take
cover, what is the first thing you would have done?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would join Crane and Hanson immediately just as the
situation indicates.”

_The Director_: “Would you have done anything before going forward?”

_Captain Harvey_: “Well, sir, I would want to see for myself just what
is going on before I took any definite action.”

_The Director_: “Would you have done anything else, Captain Hodges?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Yes, sir. I would have signaled the rest of the point
‘DOWN’ so as to give them warning that the enemy is in sight. I will
tell Pendleton ‘Signal back. Enemy in sight,’ because Lieutenant W will
want to know immediately why the point has halted, and this will give
him the information. Then I would go to the front and join Crane and
Hanson.”

_The Director_: “Those are the points I wanted to bring out. You see
them, Captain Harvey, do you not?”

_Captain Harvey_: “Yes, sir.”

_The Director_: “Now, Captain Harvey, let us take up your solution
again. Let us say that you have joined Crane and Hanson. Just what are
you going to do?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would open fire on the enemy immediately. Then get
the rest of the point up and have them join in the firing.”

_The Director_: “Do you agree with that procedure, Captain Hodges?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Not entirely, sir. I appreciate the necessity for
opening fire right away so as to get the jump on the enemy, but I think
we should get as many rifles up as possible before opening fire and
disclosing our position to the enemy. I would try to get the whole point
in position to fire before opening up, if I could. I would first make
provision for Crane and Hanson to open fire by giving them firing data:
‘Range: —— yards. Target: enemy at (_describe location of target
briefly_). Hold your fire.’ I would then signal the other members of the
point to come up and, as they arrive, indicate the location of the
target and announce the range to them.”

_Captain Jones_: “That solution seems to me to be all right if the enemy
will remain inactive until all of this is done, but suppose he does not
do so. Suppose he discovers us. Suppose he opens fire himself. Suppose
he starts to retreat. Suppose he keeps coming along towards us.”

_Captain Hodges_: “I am coming to all of that. I would keep the enemy
under observation. If he does anything that should cause us to open fire
before all of the squad is up, I would open up with every rifle that is
in position to fire. I would take no chances on the enemy getting the
jump on me. It will only take a minute or two to get the men into
position, and I think I am justified in delaying that long.”

_Captain Jones_: “I would make mighty certain that I did not wait too
long before opening fire.”

_The Director_: “I think Captain Jones is right in his contentions, but
I agree with Captain Hodges’ solution to get as many men as possible up
on the line before opening fire. Of course, if the enemy does anything
that would warrant opening fire before all the men are up, it should be
done.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The advantage of waiting until all the rifles are on
the line is that, as soon as these men are fired on, they will probably
try to make their get-away. They will furnish a target for only a few
seconds. If our point can inflict sufficient casualties, they may fall
back and abandon the attempt at further reconnaissance, especially if
they can down the patrol leader. If the leading men of the point open
fire, by the time the last man gets up, the enemy will be well under way
and there will be no target to fire at. If the enemy returns the fire,
they at once reveal themselves, and Sergeant Roberts will do well to be
seeking out other detachments in the vicinity. A reconnoitering patrol
does not fire on an occasion of this kind unless it is surprised and
forced to do so in self-defense. It has a much better chance of
accomplishing its mission of securing information by avoiding combat. If
this small body of the enemy open fire, it may be reasonably assumed
that they are being backed up by other troops or have accomplished their
mission of finding out the strength and composition of our forces and
have turned themselves into a fighting patrol and open fire to delay us
and thus give information to their own troops that we are advancing in
force. If they immediately try to make a get-away, it will indicate that
they are a reconnoitering patrol and will probably try to work around to
the flanks of the column to get information of our main body. On the
other hand, they will know that we are not a reconnoitering patrol as
soon as we open fire. They know that we are backed up by other troops.

“You now see the elements involved in this simple situation. You see the
responsibility that devolves upon non-commissioned officers when they
are placed in the position of Sergeant Roberts. To know what to do and
how to do it requires training and close attention to detail. Probably
any of us could blunder through a situation of this kind, but it takes a
man trained in military tactics to make his decisions quickly, to act
upon them promptly and take advantage of the fleeting moments to inflict
damage on the enemy. These are the things that we study to become
proficient in. These are the things that we must teach our
non-commissioned officers if we are to have confidence in their ability
to meet tactical situations that confront them, with judgment and
decision. And there is no royal road to success along this line. The
knowledge required can be attained only by thorough study and practice.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Baker, suppose the enemy does something
which, in your judgment, requires fire to be opened before the whole
point is up and in position, would you join in the firing yourself?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “No, sir. I would not. I estimate that I would have
plenty to do to direct the fire of the other men; to search the country
to see if any other parties of the enemy were in our front, and to keep
the advance party commander advised of what is going on at the front.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Barney, let us assume that you were able to
get all of the men on the line before opening fire and were able to open
as a surprise to the enemy. He takes cover and returns the fire. What
further action would you take?”

_Lieutenant Barney_: “I would keep on firing. I would signal the advance
party commander to send up some reinforcements.”

_The Director_: “Do you agree with that solution, Lieutenant Hunt?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “No, sir. I would go after him. I cannot run him out
of his position by fire action alone. I would immediately start
filtering my men forward while keeping up a heavy fire with the other
man.”[7]

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, give us Sergeant Roberts’ solution to the
situation.”

_Captain Hall_: “I will signal the members of the point ‘Down,’ and tell
Pendleton to signal the advance party commander ‘Enemy in sight.’ I will
then join Crane and Hanson. I will locate the enemy, give Crane and
Hanson firing data and order them to hold their fire. I will signal the
other members of the point to come up, and as they arrive on the line I
will give them the range and indicate the target. When all are ready I
will open fire on the enemy. Should the enemy do anything to warrant it
I will open fire immediately, with all the rifles on the line. I will
search the landscape for other parties of the enemy. As soon as I open
fire I will take steps to advance and close with the enemy and drive him
off.”[8]

The members of the class should not be required to make a written
solution to this situation.

After all questions have been answered the class is ready to proceed to
the solution of the next situation.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Advance Guard=                                =Card No. 4=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct the class to the point where the situation is to be taken
        up for solution.

  2. Hand out Situation No. 4. Read situation aloud and explain it.
        Explain action of point, when enemy encountered.

  3. Solution: Signal Down. Information to advance party commander. Join
        leading men. When open fire. Firing data.

  4. Explain action of reconnoitering and fighting patrols. Necessity
        for the training of N. C. O.’s.

  5. Solution of problem.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The Director now passes out slips, bearing Situation No. 5, to the
members of the class.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 5=:

When the point opened fire the enemy retreated under cover of the woods
(or such cover as is actually available). They did not return the fire.
You, Sergeant Roberts, observe two riderless horses galloping through
the woods.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                               Procedure

When the members of the class have had a chance to get their bearings
the Director reads the situation aloud and points out the direction in
which the enemy retreated and where the riderless horses are at this
time.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, what is your estimate of the
enemy?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I should say he forms a reconnoitering patrol
sent out to secure information about our movements. He has not yet
gained the information he desires or he would have given us a fight.
Again, had he been the advance element of a larger body he would have
engaged our point and by now we would begin to see evidences of the
troops following him.”

_The Director_: “Is there any member of the class who does not agree
with the views just expressed?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I agree with them in the main, but it seems to me
that the enemy would have opened fire if for no other purpose than to
make trouble for us and cause delay to our troops.”

_The Director_: “We must always give the enemy credit for being up to
his job. The moment we opened fire the leader of that patrol knew that
he had encountered a fighting element of our forces. If he stops to
engage in a fight, he knows that every minute that passes makes it just
that much more difficult for him to make his get-away. He knows that we
are going to close on him right away and he will not get the information
he has been sent out to secure. You must always remember that a
reconnoitering patrol does not fight except when it is forced to do so
in self-defense, or when it has secured all the information it wants,
has sent it back, and then turns itself into a fighting patrol to delay
the advance of the enemy. Are there any other points to bring up about
the mission of the enemy?

“Lieutenant Wallace, you are assumed to be Sergeant Roberts. What do you
do now?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would form up my point in the original order of
march and move out along the road. We would take up the double-time
until we get our proper distance.”

_The Director_: “Would you do anything else?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would send two members of the point out to the
place where the enemy was to see if we could get an identification.”

_The Director_: “Do you agree with that procedure, Lieutenant Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “Our battalion commander would want an
identification if it is possible to get one, and it seems to me that
something should be done at once to secure it.”

_The Director_: “I agree with you entirely that an identification is
desirable, but it is not the job of the point to get it. Members of the
point do not go off on excursions to the flank. They keep plugging along
on the line of march. If flank patrols are to be sent out, they must
come from the advance party or the support. I cannot conceive of any
circumstances that would warrant sending two members of the point off on
patrol duty. Now, Lieutenant Ralston, assuming that it is desirable to
get an identification, what would you, as point commander, do?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would send a message back to Lieutenant
Wallace, who is with the advance party.”

_The Director_: “By whom would you send this message?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “By Private Bailey, the rear man of the point.”

_The Director_: “Now state the exact message that you would send back.”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would fall back to where Bailey is marching. I
would say to him:

    “‘Bailey, you go back to Lieutenant Wallace. Tell him that we fired
    on an enemy reconnoitering patrol of about one squad. Show him where
    they were. Tell him that they did not return the fire. That when we
    opened fire they withdrew. That there are probably two dead or
    wounded men in the woods. Rejoin the point when you can.’

“I would then double-time up to the point. As I pass Corporal Smith I
would say: ‘Watch for signals from the advance party.’”

_Captain Harvey_: “That solution seems to be all right, but don’t you
think Lieutenant Wallace would come forward to the point when it halted?
In that case he would know all about the situation, and it would not be
necessary to send the message back to him.”

_The Director_: “I am very glad you brought up that point, Captain
Harvey. No; I do not think Lieutenant Wallace would leave his advance
party at such a critical moment. In my opinion it would be absolutely
wrong if he did. In the first place, he has no business up with the
point. Sergeant Roberts is either capable of handling it or he is not
so. If he is, he should be let alone to solve his own problem; if he is
not capable, he should be relieved. On advance guard duty the commander
of each element will have plenty to do if he sticks to his own job and
does not go molesting that of someone else.”


                               Procedure

The class should now be conducted 200 or 300 yards farther along the
road. It is here halted and the Director states: The point has now
gotten into formation and is continuing the advance. A message has been
sent back to the advance party commander as indicated in our solution a
few minutes ago. At this moment you see about six mounted men of the
enemy off in that direction (points out the location toward the flank).


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hodges, how do you size up the situation now?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I estimate that the mounted men are the survivors of
the patrol that we fired on. They are working around to the flank of the
column to secure information of the strength and composition of our main
body. Having this information, it is my job to get it back to the
advance party commander as soon as possible in order that proper
measures may be taken to beat off the enemy patrol and keep him from
getting the information he wants. I would send a verbal message back by
Alley, who is marching just behind me in the point.”

_The Director_: “Now, let us assume that I am Private Alley. Give me the
message that you would send back.”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would fall back to where Alley is marching, and as
we walk along say to him:

    “‘You see those mounted men over there? They are the patrol we fired
    on. Go back to Lieutenant W and show him where you saw them. Tell
    him they are working around our flank to get in touch with the main
    body. Come back to the point when you can.’”

_The Director_: “I think that will cover the situation. Are there any
questions?”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Advance Guard=                                =Card No. 5=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Hand out slips bearing situation No. 5. Read situation and point
        out places mentioned.

  2. Estimate of situation. Reconnoitering patrol. Action of enemy.

  3. Action taken by point commander. Get point in formation and on
        road.

  4. Sending out patrol from point.

  5. Message to advance party commander. State message.

  6. State verbally problem re enemy on the flank. Make solution. Send
        message back to Lieutenant W.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The slips bearing Special Situation No. 6 are passed out to the members
of the class.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 6=:

You, Lieutenant W, with the advance party, have arrived at this point.
Private Alley comes to you with a message from Sergeant Roberts and
points out the place where the enemy was a few minutes ago. You already
have the message from Sergeant Roberts delivered by Private Bailey.

_Required_:

What action do you, Lieutenant W, take?


                               Procedure

The Director reads the situation and explains that each member of the
class is to now consider himself as being Lieutenant W.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Jones, what would you do under the
circumstances?”

_Captain Jones_: “In the first place, the enemy’s patrol is trying to
work around our flank to get in touch with our main body. The question
to my mind is: Is it the job of the advance party to try and prevent
this? We can hardly be expected to send patrols from the advance party
so far afield. It will require a patrol of at least a squad, and
probably two of them, to accomplish such a mission. It would seem to me
that the task should be left to the support. I would, therefore, get
word back to the advance guard commander of what is going on and he
would send out the necessary patrols. In the next place, it will be
necessary to investigate the place where the enemy was when our point
fired on him and secure an identification if possible. This is close-in
reconnaissance and may be undertaken by the advance party. I would send
a patrol of three men under a corporal for the purpose.”

_The Director_: “How would you get the message back to Captain A?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Private Alley has been with the point. He has seen
all that has taken place up there. I would send him back with the
message to Captain A. In order that Sergeant Roberts may know what
action is being taken I would send Bailey to him with a message.”

_Captain Jones_: “Would you make these written or verbal messages?”

_Captain Hodges_: “They would be verbal messages.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “This is a point I want to bring out. The platoon
commander will seldom have time to write messages. He must depend upon
his men, and especially his runners, to see for themselves what is going
on so that when it is desired to send information back all the platoon
commander has to do is to turn to one of his runners, give him a few
words of a message, and the runner is off to make his report. He will
not only carry the message, but he will give accurate information of
what is going on. The careful training of runners will repay the trouble
in large dividends when the time comes.

“In the present situation I think it would be well for Lieutenant F to
send one of his trained runners back to the captain with Private Bailey
so that he can hear the captain’s orders and see just what he does to
meet the situation. The runners will then return to Lieutenant W and
tell him about it.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Now, Captain Hodges, let us assume that you are going
to send Private Alley back with the message; just what instructions
would you give him?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would say to Private Alley:

    “‘You go back to the captain. Repeat your message to him. Tell him
    about what happened at the point during the halt. Tell him I am
    sending a patrol to investigate the place where the enemy was fired
    on.’

“I would adopt the Director’s suggestion and send one of my runners with
Private Alley. I would say to him:

    “‘You go with Private Alley to the captain. See what he does to meet
    the situation, hear his orders, and bring back information of all
    this to me.’”

_The Director_: “That appears to cover the situation very well.
Lieutenant Baker, what message would you send to Sergeant Roberts?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I would say to Private Bailey, who was present when
I gave Private Alley his instructions:

    “‘Go to Sergeant Roberts and tell him what I have done to meet the
    situation.’”

_The Director_: “Let us assume that you have selected Corporal Jansen as
the patrol commander to investigate the place where the enemy was fired
on. Corporal Jansen has reported to you. What orders do you give him,
Captain Hall?”

_Captain Hall_: “As we march along I would say to Corporal Jansen:

    “‘You have heard the message just brought back by Private Bailey.
    Take the front rank of your squad and reconnoiter the edge of that
    wood (pointing). An enemy identification is especially desired.
    Report the facts to the battalion commander when he comes up. Rejoin
    the advance party when you can.’”

_The Director_: “I think these orders cover the situation admirably. I
hope you all now appreciate the multitude of little problems that come
up for solution in the course of a tour of advance guard duty.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Advance Guard=                                =Card No. 6=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Hand out slips bearing Situation No. 6. Explain that each man is
        now to consider himself as being Lieutenant W.

  2. Discussion of enemy patrol. Reconnaissance from advance party—from
        support.

  3. Messages sent back by Sergeant Roberts.

  4. Relay messages to Captain A.

  5. Training of runners and messengers.

  6. Messages of Lieutenant W to Captain A and Sergeant Roberts.

  7. Orders for patrol to investigate place where enemy was fired on.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted along the route of march, for a distance of
several hundred yards, to a place where entirely new terrain is
available and where the lay of the land is such that a march outpost may
be established.

The class is halted and the Director passes out the slips bearing
Situation No. 7.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 7=:

It is assumed that the advance guard has been marching for two hours
since the march was resumed after the enemy patrol was encountered.
During this time enemy scouts have been observed from time to time, but
they have not attempted to interfere with the march of the column.

You, Captain A, are marching at the head of the support. When you arrive
at this point the signal “HALT” is received from the rear. You halt and
relay the signal forward. A moment later the battalion adjutant joins
you and states: “The column will halt for one hour. The major directs
that the advance guard provide for the security of the command for that
time.”

_Required_:

What action do you, Captain A, take?


                               Procedure

The Director reads the situation aloud and makes any explanation that
may appear to him to be necessary.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “When a column on the march halts for any considerable
length of time the advance guard continues its covering duty by forming
march outposts. These are simply patrols sent out to the front and
flanks, a certain distance, where they halt and remain there until
ordered to continue the march or until they are recalled.

“The advance party usually furnishes these patrols which are sent out on
the routes by which the enemy may approach. The support is posted at
some central point from which it may readily reinforce any group that
may be threatened by the enemy.

“In a situation like this the question always comes up as to how the
advance guard commander will issue his orders for the establishment of
the march outposts—that is, whether he will do it by a message to the
several elements or whether he will issue an order and have copies made
and sent out.

“If the message system is employed, the advance guard commander will
have to include the new information of the enemy and our own troops and
give the order to the element. All of this is accomplished by issuing a
simple five paragraph order and sending it out. This is more expeditious
than message writing. The commander has all the information he requires,
and he is given definite instructions as to what he, himself, is to do.
The order method is favored.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, how do you size up the situation?”

_Captain Hall_: “The mission of the advance guard now is to continue to
provide protection to the main body by establishing a march outpost.
Enemy scouts have been observed from time to time, but they have not
interfered with the march. We have no information regarding any
considerable force of the enemy.

“Our main body is halted and will remain so for at least an hour. Our
advance guard is so disposed that it will be able to take up its new
formation without confusion. The advance party can cover the main road
and, in general, the head of the column. Our patrols, of which I assume
there are two on the exposed flank, will form march outguards and
protect that flank. I would send out another patrol of one squad to
cover the other flank and prevent enemy scouts from working around there
and observing the main body.

“My decision is to form a march outpost.”

_The Director_: “What Captain Hall has said constitutes Captain A’s
‘Estimate of the Situation.’ These are the points that would flash
through his mind as soon as he gets the information that the halt is to
be made. Lieutenant Barry, what is now necessary to put the decision
into effect?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “It is necessary to issue an order.”

_The Director_: “How would you go about this?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would assemble the two platoon commanders, the
platoon sergeants and the first sergeant, and have them write down my
order in their message books. This would give me a sufficient number of
copies for all purposes.”

_The Director_: “This shows the necessity for a company commander having
some means whereby several copies of an order may be made by a
duplicating process—carbon paper. I believe the plan of having the first
sergeant or a clerk carry a duplicating book would solve the problem.
Now, Lieutenant Hunt, you may dictate Captain A’s order.”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “In order to save a repetition and at the same time
let all of the company with the support know what is going on I would
have the men give me their attention. My order would be:

    “‘There is no further information of the enemy. Our battalion halts
    for one hour.

    “‘The advance guard will establish march outposts.

    “‘The advance party will be posted on the main road and cover the
    head of the column.

    “‘The two flank patrols on the —— flank will be posted as march
    outguards and cover that flank.

    “‘Sergeant Hamilton with the Fourth Squad, 2nd Platoon, will
    establish a march outguard on the —— flank in the vicinity (point
    out location) and cover the —— flank of the column. The support will
    be posted here.

    “‘Messages to Support.’”

_The Director_: “That seems to cover the situation. Now, how would you
get this order out to all the people to whom it should go?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would send it to Lieutenant W by a runner. I would
send it out to the flank patrols by the section guide of the 3rd Platoon
and direct him to make an inspection of the dispositions out there so as
to make sure they are in position to carry out their mission. I would
send it to the battalion commander by a runner.”

_The Director_: “So much for the distribution of the order. What would
you do now, Lieutenant Barry?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would now see that Sergeant Hamilton gets started
on his mission, and then I would post sentinels at the support to watch
out for signals from the various detachments that are out.”

_The Director_: “I believe that would meet the situation very well.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before terminating this Terrain Exercise I want to
invite the attention of the members of the class to the multitude of
small details that infantry commanders have to attend to in a problem so
simple as the one we have had under consideration today. Let us suppose
we have an active and aggressive enemy opposing our advance, and you can
see how these details would multiply. The point I want to bring up is
that, unless officers and non-commissioned officers prepare themselves
for this duty by study and practice, they have not a chance of being
able to meet these problems intelligently in active service. You must
know what to do under any given situation, and you must know how to go
about doing it. The commander who hesitates, gives his orders and then
changes them several times, soon loses the confidence of his men and
will eventually find himself replaced by another man who has taken
advantage of his opportunities to learn the game and has the ability to
carry it out. The best way I know of to acquire this knowledge is by
actual practice along the lines that we have gone today.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Advance Guard=                                =Card No. 7=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Hand out slips bearing Situation No. 7. Read situation and make any
        necessary explanations.

  2. Explain what advance guard does when the column halts. State
        relative advantages and disadvantages of message and order
        systems.

  3. Estimate of the situation, mission, enemy, own troops, plans of
        action, decision.

  4. Captain A’s orders. Five-paragraph order. Distribution of order.

  5. Remarks on necessity for study and practice.

                  *       *       *       *       *



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 6._
                             A Flank Guard


                              The Problem

=Special Situation—Blue=:

A regiment of Blue infantry, operating in hostile country, is marching
on the (_a_)-(_b_) road, towards (_c_).

The support of the advance guard, composed of Companies A and B (less 1
platoon, Company B), is this time at (_d_). The reserve, consisting of
the remainder of the battalion, is following at a distance of about 400
yards and the main body follows the reserve at a distance of 500 yards.

A (_e_) flank guard, consisting of the 3rd platoon, Company B, has
arrived at this point (_f_) marching on the (_g_)-(_h_) road.

A force of the enemy is reported in the vicinity of (_i_) and
detachments of mounted men have been operating in the direction of
(_j_).

=Situation No. 1=:

You, Lieutenant A, commanding the (_e_) flank guard, and marching at the
head of the main body of your command, have arrived at this point (_f_).

_Required_:

What is the formation of your (_e_) flank guard at this moment?

    (Note.—The platoon is organized in accordance with column 8 T. O.
    28-W. See Appendix I.)


                     Explanation of Letter Symbols

(_a_)-(_b_) The road on which the Blue regiment is marching. In military
orders and problems roads are designated by naming places located on
them. For example, the Longs-Emmitsburg-Fairplay road would mean the
main road passing through these places. When military maps are made all
cross-roads and road-forks should be numbered and all hills and other
prominent topographical features either designated by their local names
or given letter designations. This will greatly facilitate their
designation in orders and messages. When maps have grid lines on them
the location of points may be designated by the use of coordinates.

(_c_) Some point, a number of miles distant, in the direction in which
the troops are marching.

(_d_) The point on the main road where the support of the advance guard
of the column has arrived. It should be about abreast of (_f_), (see
below).

(_e_) The designation of the flank guard, right or left.

(_f_) The point at which the flank guard is supposed to have arrived.
The point where the Terrain Exercise is to begin.

(_g_)-(_h_) The road on which it is intended that the flank guard is to
march and along which the Terrain Exercise is to be conducted. This road
should lie approximately parallel to and not more than a mile distant
from the road on which the main body is marching. If no such network of
roads exist, the Director may explain to the class the conditions and
assume that the nearest road is about a mile distant and work out the
problem on that assumption. This procedure strains the situation a
little and robs it of some of its reality. The members of the class will
have to make the best of it and will have to draw upon their imagination
to picture it.

(_i_) A locality some miles distant in the direction of which the Blue
force is marching.

(_j_) Localities or places some distance to the flank of the Blue force
and in the direction of the road on which the flank guard is marching.


                               Procedure

The members of the class are conducted to (_f_) where the Terrain
Exercise is to begin.

The Director distributes the sheets containing the Special Situation
Blue and the Situation No. 1. A few minutes are allowed the members of
the class to look them over. The Director then reads the problem aloud,
the members of the class following from the copy in their possession,
and makes such explanation as may be necessary. One or more members of
the class are called upon to state their understanding of the tactical
situation.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before going ahead with this exercise I want to make a
few remarks about a flank guard.

“Ordinarily the flanks of a column on the march may be protected by
small patrols sent out from time to time from the advance guard. There
are occasions, however, when patrols will not suffice, as in the present
situation, where it is known that hostile troops are operating on the
flank of our line of march. In this case it is necessary to send out a
stronger detachment to march parallel to the route of the main body.
This detachment is denominated a _Flank Guard_ and is an element in the
system of covering troops provided for the protection of a marching
column.

“The flank guard marches abreast of the column and assumes the general
formation of an advance guard, having a point thrown out to the front,
followed by the remainder of the detachment, much as an advance party
and support. Patrols are sent out to the exposed flank whenever
necessary, and communication is maintained with the main body by means
of small patrols or connecting files. In some cases it may be necessary
to detach a small rear guard, as in the case where a flank guard has
been attacked by a comparatively large force of the enemy and has taken
up a position to hold them off until the main body can pass the danger
point and the flank guard resume its march.

“The general duties of the flank guard are much the same as those of an
advance guard; that is, to do everything possible to provide for the
uninterrupted progress of the main body. All other duties are incidental
to this and all have this prime object in view.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, into what parts is your flank
guard divided at this time?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would have an advance party and a support.
Each element would consist of one section of three squads each. From the
advance party a point consisting of one squad would be sent to the
front.”

_The Director_: “Had you thought of a formation in which the whole
platoon is kept intact as one body with only a point of one squad out in
front?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “Yes, sir. I had considered that possible
formation and abandoned the idea because we can cover more road space
with the formation that I have adopted and the more road space the flank
guard can cover without undue dispersion the more of the column of the
main body it covers and protects.”

_The Director_: “All right. Now let us assume that we adopt your
formation of an advance party with a squad as point and the second
section as a support. What is the formation of your point, Captain
Hastings?”

_Captain Hastings_: “It would be in the ‘Boni Point’ formation, the men
marching on alternate sides of the road with a distance of about 20
yards between them.”

_The Director_: “I think that formation would be just right for this
occasion. What is the next element of the flank guard?”

_Captain Hastings_: “The connecting files, sir.”

_The Director_: “How many of them?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I would have two at least.”

_The Director_: “Wouldn’t one man be sufficient as a connecting file?”

_Captain Hastings_: “At this particular point one man would, but there
are places on this road where one man would not be able to keep up the
communication, and to make sure of that being done all the time I would
detail two men. The duty is no more arduous than marching with the point
or the advance party, and I do not consider that it is any hardship.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Wallace, what would be the distance from the
rear man of the point to the head of the advance party?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “About two hundred yards.”

_The Director_: “What would be the distance from the advance party to
the head of the support?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would have that about 350 yards.”

_The Director_: “You will want to keep in communication with the main
body on the (_a_)-(_b_) road. How would you accomplish that?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would send out two men to march so that they
can see the main body and the flank guard. I realize that they cannot do
this all the time but they will be able to do it at sufficiently
frequent intervals to keep both bodies informed if anything unusual
happens.”

_The Director_: “Would you have a patrol out on the exposed flank at
this time?”

    (Note.—The answer to this question will depend upon the lay of the
    country on the exposed flank. If it is close, a patrol will be
    necessary. If it is open to the limit of effective rifle fire a
    patrol would not be necessary. In any event, the Director should
    bring out the principles stated below, at some point in the Terrain
    Exercise.)

“No, sir; I do not see the necessity for a patrol on the exposed flank
at the present. We can see all the country to the limit of effective
rifle range from the road, and I think a patrol there would be a waste
of men. If, later on, the topography should demand it, I would send out
such patrols as may be necessary. At what distance they would march from
the column cannot be stated. It would depend entirely upon the country.
They would have to go out far enough to see something more than can be
seen from the road, if they are to be of any use.”

_The Director_: “You are exactly right. I think all the members of the
class will agree with you. There is no necessity for wearing men out on
flank patrol duty, beating their way over rough country and climbing
fences, when they accomplish no useful purpose. Never order a
disposition unless there is a sound tactical reason for it. Then when
the time comes your men are ready to put forth superhuman efforts, if
need be, to help you accomplish your mission. On the solution of these
small problems in actual service rests your success or failure as a
tactical leader of men. You must remember that it is the combination of
these small tactical situations that go to make up the big maneuvers.”

_The Director_: “What would be the march formation of the support,
Lieutenant Ralston.”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would have three squads in the support. I would
have them march with a column of files on each side of the road. I would
have two squads on this side of the road towards the enemy and one squad
on the other side.”

_The Director_: “What are the advantages of this formation?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “It makes easier marching than in a column of
squads; the column is not so vulnerable to enemy fire; if a deployment
to the front is necessary it may readily be effected by deploying the
leading squad of each column to the right and left respectively and
deploying the rear squad of the column towards the enemy in rear of
them. If a deployment to the flank towards the enemy is necessary it is
practically already made for we have two squads on that flank now, and
all the men will have to do is get a little more interval, the squad on
the side of the road away from the enemy will get their proper interval
and are in the right position for a small reserve; and deployments can
be made without any confusion in case of sudden attack.”

_The Director_: “I think we can all agree that you have the proper
formation. Now, I want each member of the class to draw a rough sketch
of the road at this point and show on it the detailed formation of the
flank guard. Make the scale large so you can show the details.”


                               Procedure

When the sketches are completed the Director distributes a mimeographed
sketch showing the disposition of the flank guard in order that the
members of the class may compare their sketches with it.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Flank Guard=                                =Card No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to place where the Terrain Exercise is to begin.
        Distribute the problem. Read and explain. Have members of class
        explain their understanding of the problem.

  2. Explain necessity for employment of a flank guard:—protection of
        exposed flank; where march; formation; patrols; rear guard;
        duties.

  3. Solution:—formation; advance party and support; covers more road
        space; dispersion; formation of point; connecting files;
        distances between elements; communication with main body.

  4. Flank patrols:—necessity for; do not use except when necessary.

  5. Marching formation of support. Advantages of column of files on
        each side of the road:—easy marching; invulnerability to enemy
        fire; deployments facilitated.

  6. Have class make sketch; distribute sheets showing solution and
        compare with sketches made.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is conducted along the road on which the flank guard is
supposed to be marching to the point where a road leading from the flank
where the enemy is reported, enters it. It may be assumed that the flank
guard has marched a mile or more to reach this point.

The Director distributes the sheets bearing Situation No. 2, to the
members of the class.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2=:

You, Lieutenant A, commanding the flank guard, and marching at the head
of the support, are approaching this road fork. The flank guard is now
marching abreast of the interval between the reserve of the advance
guard and the head of the main body of the column on the (_a_)-(_b_)
road. There has been no contact with the enemy.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                               Procedure

The Director reads over the problem and makes such explanation as may be
necessary.

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, how do you size up the situation at
this time?”

_Captain Harvey_: “The mission of the flank guard is the protection of
this flank of the column marching on the (_a_)-(_b_) road, and provide
for its uninterrupted progress. The enemy has been reported out on this
flank (_pointing_). He will naturally take advantage of roads leading
towards the Blue column to facilitate his operations. The road we are
approaching leads from the direction of the enemy and must be watched
until our main column has passed the danger point. We are marching
abreast of the interval between the advance guard and the main body of
our main column. This road will have to be watched until the main body
passes beyond it. The road space occupied by the main body of the column
would be about 2,900 yards, including field train of the regiment and
excluding the combat train of the 1st brigade. The column will pass a
given point at the rate of about 88 yards per minute. It will therefore
take about 32 minutes for the main body to pass.

“My decision would be to send a patrol out on the road to the ——
(direction).”

_The Director_: “Your estimate seems to cover the necessary points and I
think we can agree that you have arrived at the proper decision. Just a
mention of this ‘Estimate of the Situation.’ It is a logical process of
thought involving the elements just mentioned by Captain Harvey,
terminating in a tactical decision. This is what you have to do in the
solution of all tactical problems. The patrol leader does it in every
move of his patrol. The platoon as a flank guard requires the same
process on the part of the platoon leader. The company commander, as
commander of the advance party of an advance guard, must consider these
same elements in the conduct of his covering detachment. It is the same
with the battalion commander, the regimental commander, and on up to the
commander of a division. When you are presented with a tactical
situation for solution, figure out all the elements of it; your mission,
your situation with respect to the enemy, the influence of the terrain,
and then arrive at a clean-cut decision as to what you are going to do.
Captain Hodges, what would be the strength of the patrol?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would make it one squad. I think that would be
about right.”

_The Director_: “Whom would you detail in charge of the patrol?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Sergeant Wilkins, the left guide of the platoon.”

_The Director_: “When would you issue your orders for the patrol?”

_Captain Hodges_: “As we march along I will call Sergeant Wilkins to the
head of the support and give him his orders as we march along. That
would do away with the necessity for halting the column while I am
giving the orders.”

_The Director_: “Now, Captain James, tell us just how you would give the
orders to the patrol and just what you would say.”

_Captain James_: “As we approach the cross-road I will call Sergeant
Wilkins to join me. As we march along I will give him the orders for the
patrol:

    “‘We have not heard or seen anything of the enemy. Our flank guard
    is now marching abreast of the distance between the advance guard
    and main body of our column on the (_a_)-(_b_) road.

    “‘You will take the sixth squad and patrol down the road we are
    approaching to the (direction) to cover the passage of the main
    body. Remain out about 35 minutes and then return. Catch up with the
    flank guard when you can.

    “‘Messages to head of support.’”

_The Director_: “That seems to cover the situation very well.”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “It seems to me that if I were Sergeant Wilkins I
would want you to indicate how far I am to go with the patrol. Can the
Director enlighten us on that point?”

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, what do you think about the point that
Lieutenant Baker brings up?”

_Captain Hall_: “Captain James told the Sergeant to stay out about 35
minutes. It seems to me that is sufficient. The Sergeant can keep tab on
his time and judge his distance by that.”

_The Director_: “Yes, I think the time element is one thing, but there
is another point that has not been mentioned. You do not want to hamper
your subordinate with detailed instructions. It may be that there is a
point on this road only a short distance out where Sergeant Wilkins has
a good view over the country and a good position in case the enemy does
come upon him. There would be no necessity for going on beyond such a
point. If he had specific orders to go a certain distance he would feel
that he had to do it. You give the Sergeant his mission, make him
understand what he is out there for. Tell him about how long he is to
remain out and then let him work out his own problem. You must not go
into details. The moment you do so you get beyond your depth. You cannot
foresee all contingencies. There has been only one military commander
that was able to do this. He was the great Napoleon.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Flank Guard=                                =Card No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class along road to point where there is a cross-road.

  2. Distribute sheets bearing Situation No. 2.

  3. Estimates of Situation:—Mission; enemy; own troops; plans of
        action; decision; discuss necessity for.

  4. Selection of commander of patrol. How give orders to him.

  5. Orders:—Enemy and own troops; detail troops for patrol; mission;
        how long stay out; messages.

  6. Questions of distance to go out.

  7. Discuss going into detail in order to subordinates.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 3=:

As the column approached this cross-road the platoon commander calls
you, Sergeant Wilkins, to him. As you march along he gives you the
following verbal orders:

    “We have not heard or seen anything of the enemy. Our flank guard is
    now marching abreast of the distance between the advance guard and
    main body of our column marching on the (_a_)-(_b_) road.

    “You will take the sixth squad and patrol down the road we are
    approaching to the (direction) to cover the passage of the main
    body. Remain out about 35 minutes. Catch up with the flank guard
    when you can.

    “Messages to head of support.”

The sixth squad, marching in column of files has arrived at this point
with Corporal Jenkins at the head.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                               Procedure

The Director distributes the sheets bearing the problem to the members
of the class, and makes such explanations as may be necessary.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “It is realized that it is probable that no member of
this class will ever be called upon to actually conduct the operation of
a small patrol such as we have here. It is, however, necessary for you
to have a knowledge of just what is likely to happen to any patrol that
you may have occasion to send out from a covering detachment of which
you may be in command. It shows you the problem that may be put up to
non-commissioned officers for solution and indicates in a most practical
manner the necessity for their training and instruction.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Barry, let us assume that you are Sergeant
Wilkins. Just what would you do on receipt of the platoon commander’s
order?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would step aside and as the sixth squad comes up
I join it, marching abreast of the squad leader. As we get to the cross
road I look at my watch to get the time. When the head of the squad
reaches the cross-road I command:

    “‘Sixth squad, FOLLOW ME.’

“I conduct the squad down the cross-road for a few yards and then
command:

    “‘1. Squad. 2. Halt.’”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, we have the squad halted near the
cross-road here where Lieutenant Barry has conducted it. Let us assume
you have sized up the situation and are ready to issue your verbal
orders to the squad. Just what would you say? I want you to give the
exact words.”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would say:

    “‘We have seen or heard nothing of the enemy. Our main column
    continues the march on the (_a_)-(_b_) road.

    “‘Our flank guard is now marching abreast of the distance between
    the advance guard and the main body.

    “‘This squad will cover this road until the main body has passed the
    cross-road to the —— (direction).

    “‘Renolds will march on the right-hand side of the road. Shane will
    follow at a distance of 20 yards and march on the left-hand side of
    the road.

    “‘The rest of the squad except Halley, follow me.

    “‘Halley will follow at a distance of 50 yards as get-away man.

    “‘Signals to me.

    “‘MOVE OUT.’”

_The Director_: “Are there any comments on the order as given by
Lieutenant Hunt?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “It seems to me that it would be well to follow
the Lieutenant’s order and tell the men how long we are going to stay
out.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt will you please answer that comment?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I do not calculate that it makes any difference to
the men of the squad. They should be told what they are going out for so
that they may know the purpose of the patrol. But as for their having
any information as to how long they are to stay out, I do not think it
has a place in the order. That part of the order was only for Sergeant
Wilkins.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. The Lieutenant made a mental
calculation of the time that it would take the main body to pass the
danger point and specified that 35 minutes as the time the patrol should
stay out. I do not think that is any concern of the men. Sergeant
Wilkins might well tell it to Corporal Jenkins so if anything should
happen to him he would know the orders. Any further comment?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “Does the Director think that it would be proper
to halt the squad to give them the orders?”

_The Director_: “Yes, I think that was the proper procedure. It is
highly important that every man of the squad know what they are going
out for. Time is not a specially important factor just now. Then, too,
the squad must be gotten into patrol formation. I think time is saved by
taking a minute or two to issue the orders and make sure that every man
understands the mission. The men can then go about the work so much more
intelligently.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Flank Guard=                                =Card No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Distribute Situation No. 3. Read and explain.

  2. Explain that no member of class will be called upon to lead a
        patrol of this kind, but they must know what happens when they
        send one out. Necessity for training of non-commissioned
        officers.

  3. Action of Sergeant Wilkins. Get squad out of column and halt it.

  4. Orders to patrol: Information of enemy and own supporting troops;
        plan of commander; tactical dispositions; signals.

  5. Comment: How long to stay out; halting patrol for orders.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted along the road on which the patrol is
operating to the point selected for the next situation, where it is
halted. The Director distributes the sheets containing Situation No. 4
and makes such explanation as may be necessary.

    (Note.—The terrain selected for this and the following situations
    should be carefully selected for the purpose of bringing out the
    tactical features included in the solutions. In framing up the
    problem and fitting it to the ground the Director will do well to
    first select the terrain on which Situation No. 4 is to be carried
    out and then construct the problem back from this point.)


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 4=:

You, Sergeant Wilkins, have arrived at this point. Your patrol is in the
formation originally adopted. Nothing has yet been seen or heard of the
enemy.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, you have arrived at a point which is
sufficiently far out on the road to prevent the enemy from firing into
the main body. You have here very good observation over the country to
your front and flanks. You have a fairly good field of fire. As you
know, only cavalry has been reported operating on this flank and on
account of obstacles, wire fences, etc., their operations will be
confined more or less to the roads. After considering all of these facts
what is your reaction?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I can see no necessity for going further. I do not
think anything more could be accomplished by doing so. From a position
here we could certainly stop any small body and we could administer
considerable punishment to a body as large as a troop if we caught them
mounted on the road. I would take up a position here and make my
disposition so as to cover the road.”

_The Director_: “Having decided to take up a position in this vicinity,
just how would you do it, Lieutenant Wallace, where would you place your
men?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “There is sufficient space on the road and at the
sides of the road to accommodate the squad. I think I would place them
so they can fire straight down the road.”

_The Director_: “What do you think of that solution, Lieutenant
Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would not do it that way.”

_The Director_: “Why?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “Well, sir, the men would be too much exposed.
Suppose the enemy appeared on the road with as much as a troop. We fire
into him. Perhaps the hostile captain’s orders are to check the advance
of our main body. He decides to take his losses and charges down the
road. Our small detachment would be in a precarious situation, only
eight men against an entire troop. The men know they have no means of
getting out of the way. They would be thinking more of their own safety
than of hitting the enemy. They would shoot wild, and the chances are
that the squad would be ridden down and destroyed. On the other hand, if
we put the men on the other side of the wire fences, they will know that
a mounted charge cannot hurt them. They will have more confidence in
their ability to stop it and the firing will be much more effective.”

_The Director_: “Then you would place your men on the other side of the
fence, would you?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “Yes, sir.”

_The Director_: “On which side of the road would you place them?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “On both sides, sir. Half a squad on each side.
This disposition would give me a good cross-fire on the road.”

_The Director_: “Have you any objections to that disposition, Captain
Harvey?”

_Captain Harvey_: “Yes, sir. It divides the force and makes it very
difficult for Sergeant Wilkins to control and direct the fire.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hodges, do you see any other objections?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Yes, sir. I would not only want all the men on the
same side of the road but I would want them on this side (indicating the
side in the direction of which the flank guard is marching). If it comes
to the point where we are compelled to fall back we can do so directly
on our own troops and not have to expose ourselves while climbing the
fences and crossing the road. And the field of fire is about as good on
this favorable side, too.”

_The Director_: “I think your points are well taken. Let us decide that
we are to place the patrol in position on this side (indicate) of the
road. Captain James just how would you go about it?”

_Captain James_: “I would get the men through the fence, and to the
vicinity of the position that we are to take up.”


                               Procedure

The Director now conducts the class to the place where the position is
to be taken up.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain James, let us assume that you have gotten your
squad here. Tell us just what orders you would give?”

_Captain James_: “I would say:

    “‘There is no further information of the enemy. Our troops continue
    the march.

    “‘We will take up a position here.

    “‘Each man get into a good position along this line (indicating)
    where he has a good field of fire, especially on the road.

    “‘Hasker, you keep a lookout towards the right flank.

    “‘Elliott, you keep a lookout down the road.

    “‘Johnson you keep a lookout towards the left flank.

    “‘I will be here (indicate).’”

_The Director_: “I think that would cover the situation for the time
being. Would you make any personal reconnaissance to the flanks?”

_Captain James_: “No, sir, I would stay right here. If anything happens
I want to be here to direct my men. If I considered a flank
reconnaissance necessary I would send Corporal Jenkins to make it.”

_The Director_: “You are right. Your place is right here with the squad
at this time.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Flank Guard=                                =Card No. 4=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class down the road on which patrol is operating.

  2. Distribute sheets containing Situation No. 4 and explain.

  3. Location: Fire on main body; observation; field of fire; cavalry
        confined to roads; reaction.

  4. Position: In road; both sides of road; one side of road.

  5. Conduct class to side of road when position is to be taken up.

  6. Orders: Information of enemy and own troops; plan; disposition;
        place of commander.

  7. Flank reconnaissance.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

It is assumed that the patrol has taken up a position on the side of the
road towards which the flank guard is marching.

The Director will indicate the exact position of each man so that all
members of the class will enter upon the solution of the next situation
on the same basis.

The Director will now distribute the sheets bearing Situation No. 5 to
the class and make such explanations as may be necessary.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 5=:

The patrol has occupied a position at this point. At this moment you,
Sergeant Wilkins, observe a party of enemy cavalry approaching along the
road at a trot.

Two troopers are in the lead; at a distance of about 75 yards two more
follow; about 150 yards in rear there are four more troopers with short
distances between them. Apparently they have not observed your patrol.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                               Procedure

The Director will point out to the members of the class the position of
each of the troopers at the moment. They should be far enough away to
allow the orders of Sergeant Wilkins to be given.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Baker, what class of cavalry detachment do
you estimate this to be?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I should say it is a contact patrol sent out from a
larger body to reconnoiter. If it were the point of an advance guard we
would now be seeing other troops farther to the rear of them.”

_The Director_: “What would you do?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I would open fire on the cavalrymen.”

_The Director_: “When would you open fire?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “There are only eight of them. We have an ambuscade
and ought to be able to bring down practically all of them. There would
be no danger in letting them come close up.”

_The Director_: “How close would you let them come?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “Well, sir, I would let the leading men come within
50 yards, if they would do so, before opening fire. The man farthest
away would then be about 450 yards distant. I would assign a target to
each man beginning at the right man taking the rear trooper and so on
through the squad to the left. I would make it my particular business to
see that no man passed this point.”

_The Director_: “Just what orders would you give? I want you to state
the exact words that you would employ in meeting the situation.”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “As soon as I determine how close I am going to let
the enemy come before opening fire I will order:

    “‘Four men on right. Range: 450 yards. Target: Enemy cavalry on
    road, four men at rear of patrol. Renolds and Shane. Range: 300
    yards. Target: Enemy cavalry on road, two men in center of patrol.
    Healy fire on second man. Corporal Jenkins take the leading man.
    When you get your man fire on the man next farthest away. Wait for
    my command to open fire.

    “‘When the enemy patrol has advanced to the point where I have
    indicated the ranges I will command:

    “‘Fire at will.’”

_The Director_: “Let us assume that the patrol came up the road and that
you opened fire in accordance with your orders. The two leading men and
one of the next group of two were brought down and one of the latter
made his get-away. At least two of the last group were brought down. You
have then inflicted five casualties on the patrol and the three
remaining men got away. Now, Lieutenant A will hear the firing and will
want to know what it is all about. How would you meet this requirement,
Captain Hall?”

_Captain Hall_: “The action will be over in a minute. I would want to
get an identification as soon as possible. I would say to Corporal
Jenkins:

    “‘Go out to the leading trooper we brought down and see if you can
    get an identification.’

While Corporal Jenkins is doing this I will call Halley, who is the
expert semaphore man to me and say to him:

    “‘Go back to the cross-roads and signal Lieutenant A:

    “‘“Eight men, Sixth Cavalry fired on, disabled five of them, three
    got away.” Bring me any message that Lieutenant A may send.’

    “I would assume that Corporal Jenkins secured an identification on
    the leading cavalryman. If he did not the message would be modified
    accordingly.”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I do not understand why we go to so much trouble at
this particular time to get an identification.”

_The Director_: “Suppose you were commanding the Blue force and you ran
into the enemy in this locality. Cavalry troops are operating on your
front and flanks. If the advance guard picks up an identification of the
6th Cavalry in its front, the flank guard does the same and we get our
identification here. This information put together indicates to the Blue
command that he is being opposed by a single regiment of cavalry and
considering the front he is covering he cannot be very strong at any
point. But suppose the identification of three different regiments are
picked up. This puts a different aspect on the situation. Our commander
would estimate that he is probably confronted by a cavalry division and
his plans would have to be made accordingly. Make it a general rule that
you secure an enemy identification when it is possible to do so. It may
have little value at the time and again it may be most valuable. You
play safe by getting it and sending it in.”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I see the point.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, there are five dead or wounded men of
the enemy lying out there in the road. Would you do anything about
them?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “Except to secure the identification, I would not.
The men of the enemy who made their escape probably did not have a very
clear idea of where the fire came from and I would not want to surrender
any of the advantages I now possess with respect to position and
concealment. When the enemy learns of the disaster to his patrol he may
send out a strong detachment to secure their dead and wounded and punish
us. Our own main body is marching away from us and our position is
becoming momentarily more dangerous. I could do nothing for the enemy
wounded. They would have to stay where they are for the time being.”

_The Director_: “When do you estimate that you should leave here?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “In the absence of orders or other circumstances
which I do not now see, I will leave here when the time designated by
the flank guard commander is up.”


                              The Problem

The Director states the following situation orally:

    “At this moment you hear quite heavy firing which you estimate comes
    from the direction of the main body. There are a few shots from the
    direction of the flank guard. The time you were ordered to remain
    out here is about up.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, how do you size up the situation
now?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “Our original mission was to cover this road for
a certain number of minutes. That time is about up now when we will have
completed the mission. New conditions have arisen which could not have
been provided for when Lieutenant A gave us our original orders and a
new situation confronts us. It would seem to me that our mission would
now be to ‘continue to cover the road.’

“From the firing we have heard, it is possible that our main body has
run into a considerable force of the enemy on the main road. If this is
a Cavalry force covering one of Infantry it will soon transfer its
activities to the flanks and try and cut in on the flanks of our main
body. Under those circumstances our flank guard will have a very
important role to play. The road that we are on leads directly to the
flank and rear of our main body and must be guarded for the time being.
The fact that we have already encountered the enemy indicates that he
intends to make use of it if practicable and the presence of even our
small force here will make him more cautious and delay and hamper his
operations. If our main body has run into only a small Cavalry force of
the enemy it will be quickly brushed aside and the situation will be
cleared up in a few minutes.

“After considering all of these circumstances, I think Sergeant Wilkins’
decision would be to remain here and continue covering this road.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. Now, having arrived at that
decision, what are you going to do next, Captain Hastings?”

_Captain Hastings_: “The men would be looking to me for instructions. I
would say:

    “‘It is apparent that our main body has encountered a force of the
    enemy. It is possible that our flank guard has halted.

    “‘We will remain here for the present.

    “‘Shane, you will keep on the look out for the enemy.

    “‘Take off your packs and put them on the ground behind you.

    “‘Secure your intrenching tools and each man improve his firing
    position.

    “‘I will remain here.’”

_The Director_: “I think that order would meet the immediate
requirements.”


                               Procedure

The Director will bring out the points involved in the preparation of
the position for defense. This will depend entirely upon the terrain. By
questioning members of the class and a discussion the method of
preparing certain of the individual fire positions will be arrived at.
The question of obstacles in the road to interfere with the enemy’s
advance should also be considered and discussed.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Flank Guard=                                =Card No. 5=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Distribute sheets containing Situation No. 5. Read and explain.

  2. Estimate of enemy. Contact patrol. Action—open fire on enemy. How
        close to let them come. Fire orders.

  3. Assumption regarding action of patrol and enemy. Identification.

  4. Message to flank guard commander. Importance of identification.

  5. Action with respect to enemy dead and wounded.

  6. State new situation verbally. Main body encounters enemy. Size up
        new situation.

  7. New mission of patrol. Decision to remain where it is.

  8. Orders for patrol: Information of enemy and own troops; remain
        here; look out for enemy; take off pack; prepare for defense.

  9. Bring out points involved in preparation for defense. Improvement
        of firing position. Obstacles.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 6=:

Halley returns to the patrol. He reports that he sent the message to
Lieutenant A, and that it was acknowledged. He received the following
message from Lieutenant A for Sergeant Wilkins:

    “Advance guard meets strong opposition on main road—Cavalry. Main
    body halted. Flank guard halts abreast of head of main body. Your
    patrol will cover cross-road. Corporal Vincent being sent to you
    with his squad.”

_Required_:

What do you, Sergeant Wilkins, do?


                               Procedure

The Director distributes the sheets containing Situation No. 6 to the
class and makes such explanation as may be necessary.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “What action would you now take, Lieutenant Wallace?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “In the first place, I would not want Corporal
Vincent’s squad to come out here on this road. I have been thinking for
some little time about the fact that there are no troops back at the
cross-roads where we turned off from the flank guard. The enemy finding
his efforts blocked on the roads leading toward our main body will find
that opening sooner or later. I would want Corporal Vincent to take up a
position near the cross-road and cover the approaches from the ——
(direction). I would send Halley back to the cross-roads with a message
to Corporal Vincent to that effect.”

_The Director_: “I think that is a proper move on your part. The
cross-road certainly needs to be covered. We will assume that Halley has
left with your message to Corporal Vincent. Would you take any other
action at the time?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “Yes, sir. The men would know that Halley has come
back with some information. I would give the information to the men in
order that they may know. I would tell them of Corporal Vincent’s squad
coming back to reinforce us and inform them of what I intend to do with
it.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right in giving this information to
your men. They can go about their task more intelligently. Would you go
back to the cross-road to inspect Corporal Vincent’s position after he
had made his disposition, Lieutenant Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “The flank guard commander has charged me with the
defense of the cross-road. He has given me Corporal Jenkins’ and
Corporal Vincent’s squads for the purpose. It is just as important that
I know from personal observation what arrangements are made for the
defense of the main road as it is on this flank. I would turn over the
defense of this position to Corporal Jenkins and then go back and
inspect Corporal Vincent’s dispositions.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right. Are there any questions by any
member of the class?” (The Director will answer any questions that may
be brought up.)


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Flank Guard=                                =Card No. 6=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Distribute sheets containing Situation No. 6. Read and explain.

  2. Decision with respect to Corporal Vincent’s squad. Cover the
        cross-road.

  3. Message to Corporal Vincent.

  4. New information received from flank guard commander given to men.

  5. Inspection of Corporal Vincent’s position.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted back to the cross-road where Situation No. 7
is distributed by the Director.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 7=:

You, Corporal Vincent, commanding the 5th squad, have arrived at this
point. Here you meet Halley, who delivers the following message to you
from Sergeant Wilkins:

    “No further information of the enemy. Corporal Jenkins’ squad has
    taken up a position on the road leading to the flank about —— yards
    from the cross-road.

    “You will take up a position on the road on which the flank guard is
    marching covering the cross-road.

    “Messages to cross-road.”

_Required_:

What action do you, Corporal Vincent, take?


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to consider
himself as being Corporal Vincent. You have just arrived here with your
squad and received the order of Sergeant Wilkins. It is up to you to
select the point where you are going to place your squad to cover the
road. I want each of you to solve this phase of the problem
independently. Make a rough sketch showing the position, and write out
the orders that you will issue as squad commander. Twenty minutes will
be allowed for the purpose. It is now —— (state time).”

At the end of twenty minutes the class is assembled. The solutions are
collected and redistributed. One or more members are called upon to read
the solution he has in his possession.

The position will then be selected and the Director will give a
statement of the orders that would be issued. This may have been
previously prepared for distribution to the class as “a solution.”

The solution of each member of the class is returned to him in order
that he may compare it with the solution submitted by the Director.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “This is the termination of this Terrain Exercise. Let
us see what we have gotten out of it—of what tactical benefit it has
been to us.

“The first situation was devised to show you the tactical necessity for
a flank guard, the duties that devolve upon it, and the formation that
is best calculated to enable it to carry out its functions.

“The second situation was devised for the purpose of illustrating the
necessity for covering approaches by which an enemy may cut in on the
main body of a column and delay or annoy it. Further, the method
employed in giving orders and instructions while continuing to march.

“The third situation was devised to give you experience in giving orders
to and conducting a combat patrol along the road.

“The fourth situation brings out the elements contained in a tactical
‘estimate of the situation’ and the selection and occupation of a small
position.

“The fifth situation was devised to give you practical instruction in
the methods of troop leading; rendering a quick decision on the
appearance of the enemy and handling a squad in action. Also in making
an estimate of the situation and rendering a decision when your mission
has been carried out and circumstances which could not have been
foreseen have arisen and it is necessary to embark on a new mission on
your own initiative and without orders—in other words, when a man is
thrown upon his own resources and has to decide for himself what he is
going to do.

“The sixth situation was devised for the purpose of placing the members
of the class on their own responsibility in the selection of a position
for the defense of a particular point and make practical use of the
knowledge they had gained in the solution of Situations Nos. 4 and 5.

“It is by the constant practice in solving these situations on the
ground that we gain that confidence in our ability to handle them when
we have troops actually present. The idea of these Terrain Exercises is
that you come out here and work out the solution without troops. Then
after you have learned how, you bring your troops out and take them
through the problem according to the solution that you have worked out
in the Terrain Exercise.

“I am sure that any of you are now more competent to handle the
operations of a flank guard and a force sent out to cover a particular
point. I am sure that you would have a very good idea of what to do if
in actual service you were confronted with situations similar to those
we have considered in our exercise today.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Flank Guard=                                =Card No. 7=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class back to cross-road.

  2. Distribute Situation No. 7. Read and explain.

  3. Solution of situation. Each member of class consider himself as
        being Corporal Vincent. Select position, make sketch, write out
        orders.

  4. At end of twenty minutes collect solutions. Read one or more of
        them. Arrive at solution. Distribute solution to the class.

  5. Explain purpose of each situation. Necessity for flank guard;
        covering approaches; giving orders on march; conduct of small
        patrol; estimate of situation; selection of position; troop
        leading and rendering quick decisions; changing to new mission;
        solution of problem on own responsibility.

                  *       *       *       *       *



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 7._
                           Posting an Outpost


                              The Problem

=General Situation=:

The (_a_) forms the boundary between hostile states. A Blue force is
concentrating at (_b_). Red troops have been reported in the direction
of (_c_).

=Special Situation—Blue=:

A Blue detachment consisting of one regiment of Infantry has been sent
out toward the border as a covering force. It is disposed as follows:

The regiment (less 2nd and 3rd Battalions) on the (_d_) road; 2nd
Battalion on the (_e_) road; 3rd Battalion on the (_f_) road.

The 2nd Battalion marching on the (_e_) road, with Company E as advance
guard, has reached (_g_), where the battalion commander decides to halt
for the night. It is now 3 o’clock p. m. The column has halted, and the
company commanders have assembled at this point.

The battalion commander issues verbal orders as follows:

    “Small detachments of the enemy have been reported at (_h_) and
    (_i_). Our 3rd Battalion is halted for the night at (_k_); our
    regiment (less 2nd and 3rd Battalions) is halted for the night at
    (_l_).

    “This battalion halts for the night at (_m_). March conditions
    cease.

    “The advance guard will furnish the outpost along the line (_n_).

    “The remainder of the battalion will bivouac, Company F at (_o_);
    Company G at (_o_); Company H at (_o_); Headquarters Company at
    (_o_). In case of attack the outpost will be supported.

    “The field trains will join the troops.

    “Messages to (_p_).”

    (Note.—Company E is organized in accordance with T. O. 28-W. See
    Appendix 1.)


                     Explanation of Letter Symbols

(_a_) In designating the boundary line, some natural topographical or
geographical feature should be selected, such as a river, creek, canal,
crest of a ridge, etc. In this problem it may be assumed that the halt
of the battalion for the night is made just within the boundary or
across the boundary in enemy territory. The choice will depend upon the
location of suitable ground for the outpost with a view to bringing out
the elements involved in the posting of the outpost.

(_b_) A point within friendly territory. Should be a march or two from
the boundary.

(_c_) A point within enemy territory. Should be a march or two from the
boundary.

(_d_), (_e_), (_f_) Detachments are sent out to cover the concentration
of troops when the concentration is made at a point where there is
danger that the enemy may attempt to interfere with it. Such detachments
proceed toward the border on the main routes by which the enemy must
advance. (_d_) Would be the next main road to the left of the road (_e_)
on which the 2nd Battalion is advancing; (_f_) would be the next main
road to the right of the road on which the 2nd Battalion is advancing.
This places the 2nd Battalion in the center of the formation.

(_g_) A point in the vicinity of the place where the Terrain Exercise is
to be conducted.

(_h_) and (_i_) The places where the enemy troops are reported to be.
They should be several miles away from (_g_), where the battalion is to
halt for the night.

(_k_) The place where the 3rd Battalion halts for the night.

(_l_) The place where the regiment (less 2nd and 3rd Battalions) halts
for the night. The three places where the battalions halt should form a
general line covering the place where the Blue forces are concentrating.

(_m_) The place where our battalion bivouacs for the night.

(_n_) Indicate the general line that the outpost is to occupy. If it is
impossible to do this it may be stated as follows: “Covering the
approaches from the (south, north, etc.).”

(_o_) Designates the locality where each of the companies of the
battalion is to bivouac for the night. The companies should be
separated, and there should be cover from aerial observation if
practicable.

(_p_) The headquarters of the battalion.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 1=:

You, Captain E, are in command of Company E, which is now the advance
guard, and has been designated to form the outpost for the night. Your
company is in advance guard formation on the road.

_Required_:

The action you, Captain E, take and the orders you issue.


                               Procedure

The members of the class are assembled at (_m_) (see explanation of
symbols), where the battalion is to halt for the night.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before taking up the problem for solution I want to
make a few remarks on the subject of the protection of a body of troops
while in bivouac, and to review briefly the duties and formation of an
outpost.

“As a command on the march protects itself from surprise by covering
detachments called advance guards, flank guards and rear guards, so also
does a command at a halt protect itself by a system of covering
detachments denominated outposts.

“_Duties._—Like advance guards on the march, the outpost is charged with
the duties of observation and resistance.

“Specifically these duties are:

“1. To protect the main body so that the troops may rest undisturbed.

“2. In case of attack, to check the advance of the enemy long enough to
enable the main body to make dispositions to meet him.

“3. To reconnoiter the enemy, prevent his reconnaissance and give timely
warning of the approach of hostile bodies.

“_Subdivisions._—The outpost is divided into two general lines. The
first, which is called the ‘line of observation,’ does the watching for
the enemy and prevents his small bodies from getting any information
about our troops or annoying them. The second is a ‘fighting line,’
which holds off larger bodies.

“These lines must cover the front and flanks of the troops at rest. The
‘watching line’ must be so located that the watchers out in front will
be able to see the enemy before he gets close enough to do damage. The
‘fighting line’ must be so located that it will have what we call a
‘good field of fire;’ that is, the ground in front must not be such that
it will hide the movements of the enemy and allow him to get within
effective rifle range without coming under our fire.

“_Formation._—The formation of an outpost may best be described by
referring to an outstretched hand.

“Hold your left hand in front of you with the thumb and fingers extended
and pointing to the front, palm of hand down.

“The wrist will be the location of the troops in camp or in bivouac.

“The knuckle joint of the second finger will be the location of the
reserve of the outpost. This is the body of troops that is held out of
the fight until the direction of the enemy’s main attack is developed,
when it is thrown in to meet it, or to make what we call a
‘counter-attack.’ In very small outposts this reserve is usually
omitted.

“The second joints of the fingers and thumb will mark the positions
occupied by the ‘supports.’ These are the fighting troops and they
occupy the fighting line of the outpost. From these supports, small
detachments, which we call ‘outguards,’ are sent to the front.

“The first joints of the fingers and thumb will mark the positions of
the outguards. These are classified as pickets, sentry squads and
cossack posts. A picket consists of two or more squads and is posted so
as to cover the most important route by which the enemy may come. The
sentry squad consists of one rifle squad. The cossack post is composed
of a non-commissioned officer and three men.

“The tips of the fingers and thumb will mark the line of the sentinels.
These are the ears and eyes of the outpost system.

“The sentinels are sent out to the front from the outguards. A picket
posts one double sentinel post for each of its squads. Each sentry squad
is charged with maintaining one double sentinel post. The cossack post
maintains a single sentinel who is posted nearby.

“Are there any questions?”


                               Procedure

The Director will endeavor to answer any questions that may be asked by
the members of the class. After all questions have been cleared up, the
Director will hand a copy of the problem to each member of the class. A
few minutes are allowed for them to read it and get oriented.

_The Director_: “Please give me your attention while we go over the
problem.”

The Director reads the problem aloud, each member of the class following
from the copy in his possession. The direction of places mentioned are
pointed out.

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, give a brief statement of the tactical
situation as you understand it.”

Lieutenant Hunt states his understanding of the tactical situation. As
he proceeds, the Director makes such explanations as may be desirable.
One or more additional members of the class may be called upon to state
their version of the situation. All of this is for the purpose of fixing
the elements of the problem in the minds of the members of the class and
prevent any subsequent misunderstanding of them.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Barry, what do you estimate the mission of
our battalion to be?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “We are an element of the force sent out to cover
the concentration of the Blue forces and prevent the enemy from
interfering with it.”

_The Director_: “We have not yet gained contact with the enemy. Why do
we halt at this time?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “There may be one or more reasons for it. In the
first place, we are a detachment of a larger force (our regiment), and
it is probable that before we started out, instructions were given our
battalion commander to halt in this locality, so as to be on the general
line of all the covering troops.”

_The Director_: “That is correct. Our battalion must conform to the
general plan of the operation.

“Before going further let us consider the process by which our battalion
commander arrived at his decision to halt and make the disposition
indicated in his order. He has sized up the situation with respect to
his mission, the enemy, our own troops; considered the plans of action
open to him and the enemy; and the terrain. Based on all of this he
decides to halt for the night with the advance guard as the outpost and
the other companies bivouacking as indicated in the order. Now, let us
see how well this order conforms to the form laid down in Field Service
Regulations. Captain Hall, what are the elements of an order as applied
to the halt of a command on the march?”

_Captain Hall_: “The first part contains information of the enemy and
our own troops. The next is the plan of the commander in general terms.
In this case it is merely to halt for the night, with the added sentence
to the effect that march conditions cease. Next comes the tactical
dispositions in which each element of the command is given orders as to
just what it is to do. The last section of this paragraph tells what
action is to be taken in case the enemy should make an attack. Then
comes the disposition of the trains or administrative arrangements, and
finally the location of the battalion C. P. is indicated by telling
where messages are to be sent. All of this is included in the order, and
I should say that every essential point has been covered
satisfactorily.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Baker, why is Company E detailed to furnish
the outpost?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “It is the general rule that troops are detailed on
covering duty for a period of twenty-four hours. Company E has been our
advance guard for today’s march. If the battalion continues the march
again tomorrow morning, another rifle company will be detailed to form
the advance guard. It will get into advance guard formation before it
reaches Company E’s outpost line, and when the advance guard support
crosses the line of outpost supports it assumes responsibility for the
protection of the column, the outpost troops are withdrawn and take
their proper place in the column. Then, too, the advance guard is in the
best position to continue the protection of the battalion. It has merely
to change its formation from an advance guard to that of an outpost,
which involves the least marching on the part of the troops.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “We will now go forward to the point where the support
of the advance guard is halted on the road. How far would that be,
Captain James?”

_Captain James_: “I should say that the support should be about 500
yards in advance of the main body of the battalion.”

The class is now conducted about 500 yards down the road to the place
where the support of the advance guard is supposed to be halted.

_The Director_: “Before proceeding further with the problem it is
necessary for us to decide upon the formation of the advance guard at
this time. Just what do you think the formation would be, Captain
James?”

_Captain James_: “The support would be right here in column of squads on
the road. It would consist of the company (less one platoon and two
connecting files). About 400 yards farther down the road would be the
advance party, consisting of one platoon, from which there would be a
point of one squad, about 150 yards farther to the front.”[9]

_The Director_: “I think we can all agree on those dispositions and
proceed to the solution of our problem based on them. Now, let each
member of the class consider himself to be Captain E, commanding the
advance guard. You have attended the assembly of officers at the head of
the main body and received the major’s orders. You have now returned to
the company and are ready to go ahead with your part of the operation,
that of posting the outpost. Just how are you going about the task that
has been allotted to you? Captain Hodges, tell us what you would do.”


                                Solution

_Captain Hodges_: “I would first send a runner to Lieutenant M,
commanding the advance party, telling him to report to me here. While
waiting for Lieutenant M to come back I would size up the situation and
decide upon my tactical dispositions.”

_The Director_: “What would be your primary dispositions?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would have a line of supports on which I would
employ one platoon and one section and a reserve consisting of the rest
of the company.”

_The Director_: “That would be a reasonable disposition. How many
supports would you have Captain Harvey?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would have three supports—one on the main road and
one at a suitable interval on each side of the road. There would be a
section in each support.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, do you agree with that
disposition?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “No, sir. It seems to me that two supports would
meet the situation better. In the first place, this main road is the
route on which any considerable force of the enemy must advance after
dark, and I would want to cover it with a relatively strong force. I
would put one support on the road and have it extend over to the right
for a sufficient distance to cover the front and the immediate right
flank. It would extend its front to the left of the main road. I would
have support No. 2 off to the left to cover that flank.[10]

“Support No. 1 would consist of one platoon and No. 2 of one section.”

_The Director_: “Explain why you extend the front of your support No. 1
to the left of the road?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “So that the boundary line between supports will
not fall on the road. One man must be made responsible for the covering
of this main road, and if I make it the boundary line between supports,
even if I include it in the front of one of them, it will be more or
less neglected. But if I extend the front of support No. 1 beyond the
road to the left, I am reasonably sure that it will be taken care of
properly.”

_The Director_: “That is the point I wanted to bring out. I hope that
all the members of the class see it. We have now to decide upon the
troops to be designated for each of the supports. What would be your
decision as to that, Lieutenant Wallace?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would have the first platoon, which now forms
the advance party, form support No. 1 which will be posted on this main
and cover the front from that —— (indicating right boundary of front) to
that —— (indicating left boundary of front). The first section of the
second platoon would form support No. 2. It would be posted at —— and
cover the front from —— to ——.”

_The Director_: “That seems to be a reasonable disposition. Where would
you have your reserve?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would have it posted at ——.”

_The Director_: “There is one point on which we have not yet touched.
That is the matter of the covering of the posting of the outguards. What
would you do about that, Captain Hastings?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I would let each support cover the posting of its
own outguards. I believe they can do it better and more efficiently than
any detachment that may be made from the rest of the company for the
purpose.”

_The Director_: “Let us now assume that Lieutenant M has arrived and you
are all ready to issue your orders. Just how would you go about it,
Lieutenant Williams?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would assemble the officers, platoon sergeants
and section leaders in front of the company. I would give the command:
1. Company, 2. ATTENTION, and follow with AT EASE. I would then say:
‘Let me have your attention.’ I would issue my orders as follows:

    “‘Small detachments of the enemy have been reported at (_h_) and
    (_i_) (indicating where the places are). Our 3rd Battalion is halted
    for the night at (_k_). Our regiment (less 2nd and 3rd Battalions)
    is halted for the night at (_l_). Our battalion halts for the night
    at (_m_) (point out location). March conditions have ceased.[11]

    “‘This company furnishes the outpost along the (_n_) (point out
    general line).

    “‘Lieutenant M, with the first platoon, will form support No. 1,
    which, posted on the road at ——, will cover the front from ——
    (inclusive) to —— (inclusive).

    “‘Lieutenant N, with the second platoon (less one section), will
    form support No. 2, which, posted at ——, will cover the front from
    —— (exclusive) to —— (inclusive).

    “‘The remainder of the company will be posted at —— as reserve.

    “‘The rolling kitchen will be with the reserve. Meals will be cooked
    and distributed to the supports.

    “‘Messages to the reserve.’”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “You will note that the order given by Lieutenant
Williams follows the form of the five paragraph order and covers all
essentials. Are there any questions?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “It seems to me that we are imposing on the first
platoon. They have been on advance party duty all day, and now we
propose to keep them on front-line observation duty all night.”

_The Director_: “If the platoon had had any serious contact with the
enemy during the day, it would have been proper to bring it back to the
reserve, but they have just been marching along on the road. They have
had practically no flank patroling to do and are in just as good shape
as the rest of the company. I can see no reason for not detailing them
for support duty tonight. The platoon is out in front, near the place
where it is to be posted.

“Any other questions? There appear to be none.

“Now I want each member of the class to write out, on his pad, the order
of Captain E. Try to get the proper form and wording for each sentence
in it and cover the points brought out by Lieutenant Williams in his
solution.”

The necessary time is allowed for this. The solutions are collected and
redistributed. One or more members of the class may be called upon to
read the solution in his possession and comment upon the wording and
form of the order.

The Director will then distribute slips of paper containing the order of
Captain E as given. This is done in order that each member of the class
may compare his work with it and that the situations following and their
solution may be based on it.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Outpost=                                =Card No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Prepare copies of the problem and Situation No. 1, also the
        solution to Situation No. 1, a copy for each member of the
        class.

  2. Conduct the class to the point on the road where the battalion is
        halted and where it will bivouac for the night.

  3. Make short talk on the protection of troops in bivouac and the
        formation and duties of outposts: (_a_) How a command protects
        itself at a halt; (_b_) Duties of outposts; (_c_) Subdivision of
        outposts; (_d_) Formation of outposts (illustrate by reference
        to outstretched hand), main body, reserve, supports, outguards,
        sentinels.

  4. Distribute sheets bearing problem and Situation No. 1.

  5. Read problem aloud and question members of the class on the
        tactical situation: mission of battalion; why halt; estimation
        of the situation; elements of field order; compare with
        battalion commander’s order; why Company E for outpost.

  6. Conduct class to point where support of advance guard is supposed
        to be.

  7. Discuss formation of advance guard. Each man now consider himself
        as being Captain E.

  8. Discuss formation of outpost: Primary dispositions; number of
        supports; why support on main road; boundaries of support front;
        location of supports; location of reserve; covering posting of
        outguards.

  9. Final solution of problem: Preliminaries; order of Captain E; five
        paragraph order; why first platoon forms one support.

  10. Have members of class write out order. Collect solutions and
        redistribute them. Distribute copies of Captain E’s order. Read
        and discuss solutions.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the point on the road where the advance
party is supposed to be halted.

_The Director_: “We are now at the point where the first platoon, which
is the advance party of the advance guard, is halted. Lieutenant M has
joined his platoon and is ready to proceed with the execution of the
task allotted to him.”


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2=:

You, Lieutenant M, have joined your platoon here. The platoon has been
designated to form support No. 1. The Captain’s order was as follows:

    “Lieutenant M, with the first platoon will form support No. 1,
    which, posted on the road at ——, will cover the front from ——
    (inclusive) to —— (inclusive).”

_Required_:

Carry out your mission.


                               Procedure

The Director reads Situation No. 2 aloud and explains that each member
of the class should now consider himself to be Lieutenant M, commanding
the first platoon, designated to form support No. 1.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, how would you go about carrying out
your mission?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would first size up the situation and arrive at a
decision as to what I am going to do and how I am going to do it.”

_The Director_: “How is security provided for during the time that the
outpost is being posted?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “By sending out some troops to cover the posting of
the outguards. This is sometimes provided for by the outpost commander
detailing a unit for the purpose of covering all the outguards and then
withdrawing to the reserve. The alternative is to have each support
cover the posting of its own outguards. The latter system has been
adopted in this problem, and we will have to provide our own covering
troops.”

_The Director_: “What troops would you detail for this duty?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would send out the first section (less the squad
on duty as point) under the section commander. I would have the point
withdraw to the support as soon as the covering troops have taken over
the duty of security.”

_The Director_: “That seems to be a reasonable solution. Into what parts
is an outpost support divided, Lieutenant Barry?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “Into the support proper and the outguards. From the
outguards sentinels are posted.”

_The Director_: “What are the duties assigned to each of the component
parts of the support?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “The support proper is the fighting element of the
outpost. It is posted on the line where the outpost will make its stand.
The outguards with their sentinels from the observation element. They
are posted on the line of observation.”

_Captain Hall_: “That may be the usual line up for the support. But is
it not a fact that sometimes the outguards are posted on the fighting
line?”

_The Director_: “Yes. It may be that the line of observation is also the
best fighting line for the supports. In that case we say ‘the line of
observation and the line of resistance coincide’—that is, they are the
same. When we issue the order for the support we make provision for that
by stating: ‘In case of attack the outguards will be supported.’ This
means that the outguards will hold their positions and the supports will
come up to them in case the enemy attacks.”

_Captain Hall_: “In that case, why not place the support right up on the
line of resistance in the first place?”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Baker, can you answer Captain Hall’s
question?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I believe I can give a reason for it. If we should
place the support right up on the line of outguards we would commit it
to one position, and in case of attack it would be difficult to move it
to meet the enemy’s main effort. If we keep it at a central point to the
rear of the line, we can readily move it to any point where it may be
most needed.”

_The Director_: “You are right. We do not want to commit our support to
action until we find out the direction of the enemy’s attack. The
shifting of troops along a front line is a most difficult and hazardous
operation. I hope you see the point, Captain Hall.”

_Captain Hall_: “Yes, sir. I do.”[12]

_The Director_: “How many outguards do you think are required on the
front assigned to the support, Captain Jones?”

_Captain Jones_: “I should have one on the main road leading toward the
enemy; another on the right of the road in the vicinity of ——
(indicating); and another to the left of the road in the vicinity of ——
(indicating). I think this would be sufficient for observation
purposes.”

_The Director_: “Upon what main elements do you base the strength of
these outguards?”

_Captain Jones_: “On the number of sentinel posts they must maintain. If
a double sentinel post is required, a sentry squad should be allotted to
the outguard. If only a single sentinel is required, the outguard should
be a cossack post.”

_The Director_: “That is exactly the point I wanted to bring out. We
will take it up in detail later on in the problem. Let us assume that
three outguards will be required to cover the front. No. 1, on the right
of the road, is to be a sentry squad; No. 2, posted on the road, is also
to be a sentry squad; and No. 3, posted on the left of the road, is to
be a cossack post. How many men in a cossack post, Captain Hodges?”

_Captain Hodges_: “A non-commissioned officer and three men. This number
furnishes a commander for the post and three reliefs for a single
sentinel post.”

_The Director_: “That is correct. Are there any questions on the points
that we have been discussing?”[13]


                                Solution

_The Director_: “We are now ready to issue Lieutenant M’s order for the
establishment of support No. 1. Captain Hodges, please tell us the first
and second paragraphs of the order.”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would tell the men about where the enemy is and all
I know about our own troops and then tell them what we are going to do.”

_The Director_: “All right. Now, assume that you are Lieutenant M, and
the rest of us here are the members of your platoon. Put all you have
said in the form of an order to us.”

_Captain Hodges_: “You want me to do everything I would do if I were
Lieutenant M?”

_The Director_: “Exactly.”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would give the command: 1. Platoon, 2. ATTENTION,
and order CLOSE UP. I assume that the men are in columns of files, one
on each side of the road. I then give the command AT EASE, and caution
the men, ‘Let me have your attention.’ I direct, ‘Noncommissioned
officers assemble here.’ I then give the order for the establishment of
the support as follows:

    “‘Small detachments of the enemy have been reported at (_h_) and
    (_i_). Our 3rd Battalion is halted for the night at (_k_). Our
    regiment (less the 2nd and 3rd Battalions) is halted for the night
    at (_l_). Our Battalion halts for the night at (_m_). Our company
    furnishes the outpost with the second platoon (less one section) as
    support No. 2 at —— and the remainder of the company as reserve at
    —— March conditions have ceased.

    “‘This platoon forms support No. 1.’”

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, what does the third paragraph of the
order deal with?”

_Captain Harvey_: “With the disposition of troops.”

_The Director_: “Will you state what you think should go into it?”

_Captain Harvey_: “Yes, sir. I think it should be as follows:

    “‘Sergeant X, with the first section (less one squad), will cover
    the posting of the outguards, and on completion of that duty
    withdraw to the support.

    “‘Corporal W, with the fourth squad, will form outguard No. 1,
    which, posted in the vicinity of ——, will cover the front from ——
    (inclusive) to —— (inclusive).

    “‘Corporal V, with the fifth squad, will form outguard No. 2, which,
    posted on the main road at —— will cover the front from ——
    (exclusive) to —— (exclusive).

    “‘Corporal T, with the front rank of the sixth squad, will form
    outguard No. 3, which, posted at ——, will cover the front from ——
    (inclusive) to —— (inclusive). Communication with outguard No. 1 of
    support No. 2 will be maintained.

    “‘The remainder of the platoon will be posted at —— as support.

    “‘In case of attack the outguards will be supported.’”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, what elements does the rest of the
order contain?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “The next paragraph contains the administrative
arrangements. In the platoon the main thing is the messing of the men.
They will all want to know about the arrangements for meals. I would
say:

    “‘Meals will be distributed to the outguards by details from the
    support.’

“The next item is the designation of the place where to send messages.

    “Message to the support.”

“I would then direct: MOVE OUT.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “I believe we have gone over and discussed the salient
features of the problem. Now, I desire each member of the class to write
out Lieutenant M’s order on his pad. Try to get it in the proper form
and use as far as possible the wording as stated by Captain Hodges,
Captain Harvey and Lieutenant Ralston.”

When the written orders have been completed they are disposed of in the
same manner as indicated under Situation No. 1.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Outpost=                                =Card No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to point on road where advance party is halted.

  2. Hand out Situation No. 2. Read and explain that each member of the
        class is now supposed to be Lieutenant M.

  3. Security while outpost troops are getting into position.

  4. Main elements of support line—observation, resistance. When they
        coincide. Location of support.

  5. Number of outguards required. Basis of strength of outguards;
        sentinel posts; sentry squads; cossack posts.

  6. Details of Lieutenant M’s order. Information of enemy and own
        troops. Plan of commander. Disposition of troops: Three
        outguards, location, strength, front each is to cover, location
        of support, action in case of attack. Meals. Messages.

  7. Have class write order. Collect solutions and redistribute them.
        Read and discuss solutions.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The next phase of our problem deals with the matter of
covering the posting of the outguards. In the posting of the outguards
there will unavoidably be more or less moving around and exposure to
view of the enemy’s patrols, should any be lurking in the vicinity. The
non-commissioned officers will be seeking out the best positions for
their outguards, selecting observation posts for their sentinels and
making arrangements for defense. The officers will be moving from point
to point along the line making inspections, pointing out errors,
rectifying the position of the various elements and making a sketch of
the sector covered.

“In order that all of this may be accomplished in security, it is
necessary to have covering detachments well out to the front to prevent
small parties of the enemy interfering with the work in hand or making
observations that would enable them to form an estimate of the position
occupied by the outposts.

“There are two methods by which the covering force may accomplish its
mission:

“1. It may deploy as a line of skirmishers at greatly extended
intervals.

“2. It may cover the front with a number of small patrols.

“No hard and fast rule can be laid down that will provide for all
contingencies. The first method has the disadvantage of being most
difficult for the non-commissioned officers to control the action of the
men. The second method possesses the great advantage of having each
group directly under the control of a leader, so that in case the
enemy’s patrols are encountered and it is necessary to drive them back,
there can be concert of action instead of dependence on the decisions of
individual men as to what is to be done in the emergency. The method to
be employed will depend upon circumstances, the nature of the country,
the number of men available for the duty and the proximity of the enemy.
It may be advisable to use a combination of the two systems.”


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 3=:

You, Sergeant X, have been detailed to cover the posting of the
outguards. Lieutenant M’s order to you is as follows:

    “Sergeant X, with the first section (less one squad), will cover the
    posting of the outguards and on completion of that duty withdraw to
    the support.”

The troops have been turned over to you and you have been directed to
move out.

_Required_:

Carry out your mission.


                               Procedure

The Director reads the situation aloud and calls upon one or more
members of the class to state his understanding of it.

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to consider
himself as being Sergeant X. You have your troops right here on the road
and everything is ready to proceed with the work in hand. Just how do
you go about carrying out your mission? Lieutenant Wallace, what is the
first move you would make?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would want to get my men away from the rest of
the platoon so I can give them their instructions without having their
attention diverted by other things.”

_The Director_: “All right. Let us assume that you have done so and you
have them right here. We are now ready to proceed. Go ahead with your
solution.”


                                Solution

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “In the first place, I would not want the men to
be burdened with their packs, so I would have them taken off and piled
here.”

_The Director_: “Would you have them take off the entire pack? Tell us
just what equipment they would carry.”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “Only the rifle and belt.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, do you agree with that?”

_Captain Hastings_: “No, sir. I would have the men take off only the
rolls. I would have them carry the haversack with them. The Infantry
pack is designed for this very purpose. We can relieve the men of the
burdensome part of the pack and still retain the essentials. I do not
believe a man should ever be without his haversack in the field.”

_The Director_: “You are correct. Let us assume that we have taken the
rolls off and piled them here. Now, Lieutenant Wallace, what are you
going to do?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I am going to give my orders. All the men of the
section have heard the platoon commander’s orders about the enemy and
our own troops, so there is no necessity for repeating them. The next
thing is to tell the men what our mission is to be. I would cover this
by the simple statement:

    “‘This section (less the first squad) will cover the posting of the
    outguards.’

“I will now have to decide upon the formation that I am going to take
up. The front to be covered is too extensive to be covered by a line of
skirmishers, and besides I do not approve of such a formation. It is too
difficult to control the operations. I would use the patrol method.
Divide the section up into small patrols and keep a small support.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, do you agree with such dispositions?”

_Captain Hastings_: “Yes, sir. I think the patrol formation is best. It
has many advantages over the line of skirmishers.”

_The Director_: “How many patrols would you have?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I should have three patrols of a leader and three
men each. This would account for the second squad and the front rank of
the third squad. I would keep the rear rank of the third squad under my
own control as a support.”

_The Director_: “Based on that disposition, what orders would you give?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I would say:

    “‘Corporal D, take the front rank of your squad and move out to the
    right oblique in the direction of that ——.

    “‘Private E, you are detailed as acting corporal. Take the rear rank
    of the second squad and move to the front along this road.

    “‘Corporal F, take the front rank of your squad and move out to the
    left oblique in the direction of that ——.

    “‘The rear rank of the third squad will accompany me. I will march
    200 yards in rear of Private E’s patrol.

    “‘Patrols will advance about 1,200 yards to the front. Keep in
    communication with me. Remain out until you receive orders to
    withdraw.

    “‘Messages to me.

    “‘Take charge of your patrols and move out.’

“I believe these orders would set the covering troops in motion.”

_The Director_: “I agree with you. Are there any questions? I assume
that when no questions are asked every member of the class not only
understands what is being done, but also the reasons for doing it that
particular way. If there is ever any doubt in your mind about any part
of the problem or the solution, you should ask questions and demand
explanations until the matter is entirely cleared up.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to write out
Sergeant X’s orders on his pad. The information about the enemy and our
own troops that has already been given to the men by the platoon
commander need not be repeated. The first paragraph might be.

    “‘You have heard what the platoon commander said about the enemy and
    our own troops. There is no further information.’”

When all the members of the class have completed writing the order the
papers are collected and redistributed. One or more members may be
called upon to read the order in their possession and comment upon it.
The whole idea is to impress the solution of each phase of the problem
so firmly in the minds of the members of the class that, in case they
should ever be called upon in active service to meet a similar
situation, they would know exactly how to go about it.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Outpost=                                =Card No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Explain necessity for covering the posting of the outguards.
        Formations that may be used: Skirmishers; patrols; advantages of
        patrol system.

  2. Pass out problem and read it. Have members of class explain their
        version.

  3. Disposition of packs. Keep haversacks. Remove rolls.

  4. Orders: Information of enemy and own troops known. Second
        paragraph. Dispositions. Orders for patrols. Three patrols and
        support. How far to go out. When to return.

  5. Asking questions.

  6. Have class write out solution. Collect and redistribute solutions.
        Read and comment on solutions.

  7. Explain object of problem.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted down the road to the point where outguard No.
2 is to be posted.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The order of the platoon commander requires Corporal V,
with the fifth squad, to post outguard No. 2 on the main road in this
vicinity and covering the front from —— (exclusive) to —— (exclusive).

    (Note.—The Director points out the limits of the front to be covered
    by the outguards.)

“There are some definite rules that may be laid down governing the
location of an outguard. In the first place, the location within
reasonable limits has been designated by the support commander in his
order. We are to cover the main road leading from the direction in which
the enemy is reported to be. The outguard should occupy a good defensive
position—that is, it should have a good field of fire to the front and
in oblique directions toward both flanks. It should be so far concealed
that the enemy could not discover it without attacking.”


                               Procedure

Situation No. 4 is now handed out to the members of the class.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 4=:

You, Corporal V, have been given the fifth squad, and ordered to
establish outguard No. 2 in this vicinity. You have arrived at this
point with your squad.

_Required_:

How will you carry out your mission?


                               Procedure

The Director reads the problem aloud and calls upon one or more members
of the class to explain their understanding of it.

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to visualize this
situation—to consider himself as being Corporal V. You have arrived here
with your squad to establish outguard No. 2. Just how do you propose to
go about it? Captain Hastings, what would you do?”

_Captain Hastings_: “Well, sir, I would first decide where I am going to
post the outguard and then decide upon the number of sentinels I am to
post and where I am to post them. I have the limits of the front
assigned to me definitely pointed out. I must first find a location for
the outguard that will cover this front.”

_The Director_: “Have you decided upon such a location?”

_Captain Hastings_: “Yes, sir. My outguard posted at —— would accomplish
the desired results. In the first place, any considerable body of the
enemy must travel at night on a well defined road or trail. He cannot
strike off across country unless elaborate preparations are made for
guiding his columns. We would know about any such preparations and could
counter them. If I cover this main road and the country adjacent to it,
I will be able to accomplish my mission.”

    (Note.—The Director should bring out all the elements connected with
    the selection of the position of the ground in question. There will
    be many small points that may be brought up for consideration such
    as: Is the position selected a good one for defense? Is there a good
    field of fire? Is there cover for the enemy to conceal a formation
    for attack? Is the position naturally strong; if not, can it be made
    so? Can obstacles be so placed as to hold the enemy under effective
    fire of the outguard? Is there ground to the front or flanks within
    rifle or machine gun range that commands the position? Are there
    good approaches to the sentinel posts from the outguard? Is it
    possible to provide for mutual supporting fire with the other
    outguards? Are there good communications with the adjoining
    outguards and with the support? While it is not contemplated that an
    outguard position will fulfill all of these conditions, it should be
    selected so as to fulfill as many of them as possible.)

_The Director_: “In your discussion a minute ago you stated that you
would determine the number of sentinels to be posted. Just what do you
mean by that?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I will want to post a sufficient number of
sentinels to keep the sector of the front allotted to me under
observation at all times. I have not yet decided how many will be
required.”

_The Director_: “That is just the point I wanted to bring out. The
number of sentinels that you can post is determined by the strength of
your outguard. You can post only one double sentinel post from a squad.
If more than one is required your outguard must be allotted additional
men for the purpose. Now, let us see how this proposition works out in
practice. You have seven men besides yourself. This will provide three
reliefs for one double sentinel post and give you one spare man. The
outguard is to be on duty until the march is resumed tomorrow morning.
You cannot expect to keep all the men on post all the time. They must
have their rest if they are expected to march tomorrow. Sentinels are
ordinarily on post for two hours, after which they are given a four-hour
period of rest before going on post again. To do otherwise is to wear
your men out and render them unfit for further service. Let us all get
this system firmly fixed in our minds. A squad furnishes three reliefs
for a double sentinel post. If only a single sentinel is required, a
cossack post will furnish three reliefs for it. I hope you will all see
the point.”

_Captain Hastings_: “I understand the system now. But, suppose I should
determine that at least two double sentinel posts are necessary, what
should I do?”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, can you answer the captain’s
question?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would send a report to the platoon commander
setting forth my views of the situation and request that another squad
be sent to the outguard.”

_The Director_: “That would be a proper procedure. The initial
disposition of the outguard is only tentative. Soon after the outguards
are posted the support commander will be out to make his inspection of
them. At that time the situation may be represented to him, and he can
make his decision as to whether or not he deems it necessary to supply
the additional men.”

    (Note.—The exact location of the outguard should be decided upon at
    this time, and the tentative position of the sentinels should be
    determined.)


                                Solution

_The Director_: “We have decided upon the location of the outguard, and
the dispositions to be made. It is now necessary to embody these in the
form of orders to the members of the squad. Lieutenant Hunt, what should
this order contain?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “Do you want me to give the entire order for the
posting of the outguard?”

_The Director_: “Yes. If any point comes up that is not fully understood
by a member of the class, he should feel free to interrupt with a
question.”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “The men have all the information about the enemy and
our own troops. It is not necessary to repeat that. I would cover this
by saying:

    “‘You have heard the information about the enemy and our own troops.
    The first section is out in front covering the posting of the
    outguards.’

“I would then state the mission of the squad.

    “‘This squad forms outguard No. 2 of support No. 1.’

“The tactical dispositions are next in order. The reliefs have to be
told off and other arrangements made.”

    “‘Hanna and Crow (riflemen), first relief; Smith and Carney
    (riflemen), second relief; Harris and Welch (riflemen), third
    relief; Rainer (automatic rifleman), spare man.

    “‘Rainer, you select the tentative positions for your automatic
    rifle and get ready to prepare them for occupation.

    “‘The members of the second and third reliefs will prepare the
    bivouac for the outguard and the firing positions which I will
    designate later.

    “‘In case of attack we will be supported.’

“The administrative arrangements are simple. They will relate to the
messing of the men.

    “‘Meals will be sent up from the support.’

“Then the location of the outguard commander will be stated:

    “‘Messages to me, here.’

“I will then direct the men to remove their packs and order:

    “‘First relief, FOLLOW ME.’”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “You seem to have covered the essential points of the
order of an outguard commander. Now, in order to impress it on your
minds, I want each member of the class to write out the order on his
pad. Follow the form of the five paragraph order and try to get the
wording just as was given by Lieutenant Hunt.”

When all have finished writing the order the papers are collected and
distributed again. Members of the class are called upon to read and
comment on the order they have in their possession.

    (Note.—The Director should insist that members of the class prepare
    these orders with great care and attention to detail. It will be
    found that there is a tendency to slight them and take a lot for
    granted.)


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Outpost=                                =Card No. 4=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class down the road to location of outguard No. 2. Indicate
        limits of front of outguard.

  2. Hand out Situation No. 4. Read and explain it to class.

  3. Location of outguard. Defense. Field of fire. Cover. Strength of
        position. Obstacles commanding ground. Approaches and
        communications.

  4. Number of sentinels supplied by outguard. Explanation of.

  5. Tentative dispositions.

  6. Orders for posting of outguards: Information of enemy and own
        troops; mission; disposition—division into reliefs; action in
        case of attack; messing; messages.

  7. Write out orders. Collect. Distribute. Read.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “We are now ready to proceed with the next step of the
problem, the posting of the first relief. Before we go into that I want
to make a few remarks about the location of sentinel posts.

“By day the sentinel must be able to see the whole of the ground
allotted to him for observation. He should be provided with sufficient
cover so that the enemy’s patrols will not be able to locate him. He
should have good communication with the outguard and the adjoining
sentinels. Excellent observation posts may sometimes be found in large
trees, one of the sentinels of the double post being located in a tree
and the other on the ground near the foot of the tree. It may be that
the best location for observation is also the best for resistance, in
which case the sentinels may be posted on or very near the actual
locality to be defended by the outguard. There is no objection to this,
provided the members of the outguard, as well as the sentinel, are well
concealed from the view of the enemy.

“The location of the sentinel post at night requires the most careful
consideration. It depends considerably upon the degree of darkness, and
consequently the value of eyesight as compared with hearing. On a very
dark night, when the sentinel can see only a few yards in front of him,
it is evident that his ears will be more useful than his eyes.
Furthermore, the difficulties of the enemy will be increased by the
darkness, and he is likely to make more noise by stumbling over unseen
obstructions. On a still night a sentinel posted on high ground can hear
better than when on low ground, because there is likely to be less
obstruction in the way of trees and other objects to interfere with the
sound waves passing through the atmosphere. It therefore appears that on
a very dark night, when the ears are more efficient than the eyes, the
sentinel should be posted on high ground, with low ground to his front.

“When the darkness is not so great and the powers of sight more nearly
approach in value the powers of hearing, it is better to place the
sentinel on low ground, with the sky line to his front. This is because
approaching persons will be silhouetted on the sky line and that it is
difficult to see when looking down from a height into a dark valley.

“The night post should always be provided with an obstacle placed from
10 to 30 yards to the front of the sentinel. It must be low, so that it
will not be seen by an approaching enemy. Its value is increased if a
wire or rope is attached to some object that will fall down with a loud
noise when anyone trips over the obstacle.”


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the place where the sentinel post is to be
established.

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Barry, where would you locate your sentinel
post?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would locate it at ——”

    (Note.—The location of the sentinel post should be determined upon
    after careful consideration of all the factors that enter into the
    problem.)

The Director now distributes the sheets containing Situation No. 5.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 5=:

It has been decided to locate double sentinel post No. 1 of outguard No.
2 at this point. You, Corporal V, have arrived here with the members of
the first relief.

_Required_:

The orders and instructions you give your sentinels.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The sentinels must have imparted to them all
information of the enemy and our own troops. With respect to the latter,
they must be fully informed of the covering patrols that have been sent
out and the location of the adjoining sentinel posts. The location of
the main body of the outguard should be pointed out, and, if
practicable, the position of adjoining outguards.

“They will be given the number of their own post and the number of the
outguard from which they are posted.

“They will be informed as to the points to which the roads and trails
lead, and, if practicable, the names of important topographical points
in sight.

“They will be given the countersign, if one is used. The method of
challenge and identification of persons approaching the outpost
sentinels at night should be changed from time to time so that there
will be less chance for the enemy to know just what system is being used
on a particular night. On one occasion a countersign using the name of a
battle or general may be used; on another night the system of tapping
the knuckles on the rifle stock may be employed.

“The mistake of giving sentinels too many orders and instructions should
be carefully avoided. If their minds are burdened with too many details,
they are likely to become hesitating, timid and confused. The
controlling idea is that they should know where to look for the enemy
and what to do if they see him.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, having in mind what I have just said,
what orders would you give your sentinels?”

_Captain Hall_: “I would give them the following orders:

    “‘You have all the information of the enemy and our own troops.

    “‘You are double sentinel post No. 1 of outguard No. 2 of support
    No. 1. Outguard No. 1 is —— (point out location). Outguard No. 3 is
    —— (point out location). Information of the exact location of the
    sentinel posts will be given to you later.

    “‘This road leads to ——. That trail leads in the direction of ——.
    That —— is known as the ——.

        (Note—Locate and name other important topographical features in
        view.)

    “‘If you see the enemy, signal to me at the outguard.

    “‘The countersign will be given to you later.’”

_The Director_: “I think that covers the orders for your sentinel very
well. The big idea is that we should not burden them with too many
things to think about. We will omit the written solution of this part of
the problem.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “There are certain rules for the guidance of a sentinel
on post with which all officers and soldiers should be familiar. They
must be scrupulously observed under all circumstances. They are:

“1. He must watch and listen without betraying his presence. Observation
is the first consideration and concealment of secondary importance.

“2. He must not smoke, and matches must not be lighted at night.

“3. Such conversation as is absolutely necessary must be conducted in
subdued tones.

“4. He must not have any arms or accoutrements that will glitter in the
sunlight.

“5. Except at night and in foggy weather, the bayonet must be kept in
the scabbard.

“6. Persons arrested are ordinarily held at the post until a patrol
comes out to take charge of them.

“7. He will not allow his vigilance to be disturbed by the requirements
of military etiquette. He pays no compliments and does not salute
officers unless addressed by them.

“8. Everything that he observes with respect to the enemy must be
communicated to the outguard commander, especial care being taken to
report promptly all indication of the enemy’s approach. If he is
satisfied that the enemy is advancing to attack, the alarm may be given
by firing. When immediate alarm is not necessary, firing should be
avoided.

“There is nothing that so irritates troops as needless outpost firing at
night, when they need rest. Needless firing, besides alarming the
outpost troops, and possibly those of the main body, gives information
to the enemy of the location of the line of observation, from which he
is able to deduce the position of the outguards. It should be an
invariable rule that sentinels do not fire except as a last resort.
There is never any necessity for it except when the covering patrols are
being driven in and are being hard pressed, in which case the sentinel
may fire to assist in covering the withdrawal, if such action is
absolutely necessary. Night firing is of little value in any event. It
is only effective for very short distances, and should be discouraged by
every possible means.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Outpost=                                =Card No. 5=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Location of Sentinel Posts. By day. At night. Obstacles. Field of
        view.

  2. Conduct class to place where sentinel post is to be established.

  3. Discuss location of post.

  4. Hand out Situation No. 5. Read and discuss it.

  5. Orders for sentinels: Information of enemy and own troops; number
        of post; identify support and outguard; countersigns; too many
        orders.

  6. Proceed with verbal solution of problem.

  7. Explain rules for guidance of sentinels: Watch and listen; smoke;
        matches; conversation; arms; vigilance; etiquette; report of
        observations; night firing.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the location of outguard No. 1.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “After sufficient time has elapsed for the outguards to
get into position and post their sentinels the support commander makes
an inspection of the elements of his support. In this inspection any or
all of the following questions may be presented for consideration.

“1. Is the outguard located at the best place to cover the sector of the
front allotted to it? Is there a good field of fire over the ground by
which the enemy may approach?

“2. Are the sentinels so located that they can observe all approaches?
Are they well instructed in their duties? Do they know what to do if
they should see the enemy?

“3. Have provisions been made for rapid communication between sentinels
and the outguard? Has communication been established with adjoining
outguards and sentinels and with the support?

“4. Have fire positions been prepared for all riflemen, the automatic
rifleman and the rifle grenadier? Are the men well supplied with
ammunition?

“5. Are all the men familiar with the plans for defense? Do they know
what to do in case the enemy attacks?

“6. Have necessary arrangements been made for patrolling?

“7. Have necessary arrangements been made for messing?

“In the course of the inspection the support commander will make such
changes in the dispositions as may be necessary and will give such
instructions as he may deem desirable for the proper conduct of the duty
with which the support is charged.

“Having completed this inspection he will return to the support and make
his report to the outpost commander. This report may be made in the form
of a message and must contain information as to the location of the main
body of the support, the location of each of the outguards, their
strength and disposition, the extent of patrolling contemplated, and
finally the place where messages are to be sent is indicated. A report
such as this received from each support and detached post commander
gives the outpost commander detailed information regarding the
disposition of the entire outpost upon which he may base his report to
the commander of the main body.

“When practicable the report is accompanied by a rough sketch showing
the dispositions of the support.”


                               Procedure

While at the location of outguard No. 1, the Director will point out the
location of the outguard and the sentinels and question various members
of the class regarding these locations and the instructions under which
the outguard is operating.

The class is then conducted to the location of outguard No. 3, and the
same procedure is gone through with.[14]

The class is then conducted to the position of the support, and
Situation No. 6 is distributed.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 6=:

You, Lieutenant M, have completed the inspection of your outguards and
returned to your support.

_Required_:

Write out the body of the report that you would send back to the outpost
commander.


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “We have been over the entire front covered by our
support and made a detailed inspection of the dispositions, rearranged
them where it was necessary and given instructions that will insure
efficient outpost service. We have now returned to the position of the
support. Word has been sent out to withdraw the covering troops. It is
now up to Lieutenant M to make his report to the outpost commander. I
want each member of the class to consider himself as being Lieutenant M
and to write out on his pad the body of the report that he would send
in.”

The members of the class write out the report. When this is done they
are collected and redistributed as indicated heretofore. Members of the
class are required to read the solutions and comment on them.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Outpost=                                =Card No. 6=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to location of outguard No. 1.

  2. Explain method of inspection of line of outguards by support
        commander. Considerations that will come up: Location of
        outguard; location of sentinel posts; arrangements for
        communication; fire positions; men familiar with plans for
        defense; patroling; messing; changes in dispositions.

  3. Report and sketch.

  4. Conduct class to outguard No. 3. Discuss dispositions.

  5. Conduct class to support. Pass out Situation No. 6. Write out
        report of support commander.

                  *       *       *       *       *



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 8._
                           A Visiting Patrol


                              The Problem

=Special Situation=:

A blue force operating in hostile country halts at (_a_) and establishes
an outpost along the line (_b_). Support No. 2 is located at (_c_) with
outguard No. 1 at (_d_); outguard No. 2 at (_e_) and outguard No. 3 at
(_f_).

=Situation No. 1=:

You, Lieutenant A are in command of Support No. 2, consisting of your
platoon and located at this point. The first section furnishes the
outguards and the platoon (less 1st Section) the main body of the
support. You have made the inspection of your line of observation and
sent your report to the company commander.

_Required_:

What arrangements do you make for visiting patrols?


                     Explanation of Letter Symbols

(_a_) The location of the bivouac of the main body of the Blue force.
This should be located at a central point with reference to the outpost
line.

(_b_) Designate the general line of the Blue outpost.

(_c_) The location of Support No. 2. It should be located at a central
point with reference to the line of outguards. (_d_)-(_e_)-(_f_) The
location of the three outguards posted from Support No. 2.

In fitting this exercise to the ground the location of the outguards
should be selected first. Care should be taken to so locate them that
the ground is suitable for illustrating the tactical features that are
to be brought out and discussed in the Terrain Exercise. The location of
Support No. 2 should then be selected and finally that of the Blue main
body. If you have had a previous Terrain Exercise covering the subject
of outposts it may be convenient and advantageous to base this Terrain
Exercise on the same situation and covering the same ground.


                               Procedure

The class is conducted to (_c_), the location of Support No. 2.

The Director distributes the sheets containing the Special Situation and
Situation No. 1, reads them aloud to the class and makes such
explanation as may be necessary. One or more members of the class may be
called upon to state his understanding of the situation.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “It is fully realized that no member of this class will
ever be called upon to conduct the operations of a visiting patrol. You
will, however, have to order your non-commissioned officers to do so and
you must have a knowledge of how it should be gone about and whether the
duty is being properly performed.

“The military text-books usually tell you that a visiting patrol
consists of a non-commissioned officer and two or three men that make
the rounds along the outpost line of observation at night. That is about
all. It is assumed that the subject is so simple that you just naturally
know it and there is nothing further to be explained. Such is not the
case and before we have completed this exercise we will demonstrate it
to you. Another good test of the proposition is this: Take your
non-commissioned officers out on a Terrain Exercise and give them the
situations that we will have today. See how many of them get away with
it. I am sure you will be surprised at the results, especially with the
men who have had no previous preparation for the exercise.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, what is a visiting patrol?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “It is a patrol consisting of a non-commissioned
officer and two or three men. It is sent out from the support at
intervals during the night to keep up communication between the elements
of the outpost.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, tell us just how the visiting patrol
makes its rounds.”

_Captain Hastings_: “Let us say that the patrol is to start out from our
support No. 2, which is located at this point. The patrol will go out to
the right and touch upon the left outguard of Support No. 1; then pass
along our own line of observation to the right outguard of Support No. 3
and then come back here.”

_The Director_: “Yes, that is the general procedure. The details of how
the patrol is to do all of this is what we are interested in and that is
what will be brought out in this Terrain Exercise. Lieutenant Wallace,
what do you understand to be the specific duties of a visiting patrol?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “Included in the duties of visiting patrols may be
enumerated:

“1. They bring back information of incidents that may occur along the
line of observation and form a medium of exchange of information between
the various elements of the outpost.

“2. In a measure, they prevent the unobserved approach of the enemy
between sentinel posts. When the enemy is very active there is constant
patrolling between the observation posts.

“3. They drive off small patrols.

“4. They take charge of detained persons and conduct them back to the
support.”

_The Director_: “That is very good. Now, Lieutenant Ralston, suppose you
were Lieutenant A, commanding Support No. 2. What instructions would you
give regarding your visiting patrols?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “The visiting patrol is a night institution. There
is little necessity for its employment in the day time, but I would not
wait until dark to give my instructions regarding it. I would give
orders:

    “‘There is no further information of the enemy and our own troops.

    “‘The second section will furnish the visiting patrols for tonight.

    “‘Corporal Black, with the 4th Squad, will conduct the visiting
    patrols at 8 and 10 o’clock p. m.

    “‘Corporal Canes, with the 5th Squad, will conduct the visiting
    patrols at 12 midnight and 2 o’clock a. m.

    “‘Corporal Dorr with the 6th Squad, will conduct the visiting
    patrols at 4 and 6 o’clock a. m.

    “‘Patrol leaders will go over the route of their patrols before
    dark.

    “‘Messages to support, here.’”

_The Director_: “I think you have covered the necessary points.

“Are there any questions by any member of the class? If so, now is the
time to clear them up.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Visiting Patrol=                                =Card No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Assemble the class at (_c_) the location of Support No. 2.

  2. Distribute sheets bearing the Special Situation and Situation No.
        1. Read and explain. Have members of the class state their
        understanding of the problem.

  3. Explain that no member of class will ever be required to conduct a
        visiting patrol, but it is necessary for them to know how it
        should be done. Definition of visiting patrol. Test by taking N.
        C. O.’s on Terrain Exercise.

  4. Solution: What is visiting patrol. How it makes rounds. Duties.
        Orders given for visiting patrols. Any questions.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2:=

You, Corporal Canes, have been designated to conduct the visiting patrol
that is to go out at 12 o’clock midnight and at 2 o’clock a. m. You have
been given your squad to form the reliefs.

_Required_:

What do you do?


                               Procedure

The Director distributes the sheets bearing Situation No. 2 to the
members of the class, reads it aloud and makes such explanations as may
be necessary.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Now I want each member of the class to consider himself
as being Corporal Canes. Put yourself in his place and consider what you
would do under the orders you have received from the support commander.
We are going to work these situations out in detail to show you how it
ought to be done. Then when you are a support commander and give an
order for your visiting patrols, you will know just how each Corporal
should go about his job.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, what would you do?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would get the men of my squad together and while
they are assembling I would size up the situation and determine just
what orders I am going to give. When the men are together I would give
them their orders:

    “‘Manley, Harrison and Kline will be the first visiting patrol.

    “‘Oliver, Hasker and Payne will be the second visiting patrol.

    “‘We go out at 12 and 2 o’clock tonight. Be ready at those hours.

    “‘I am going over the route of the patrol before dark.

    “‘Dismissed.’

“I do not think of anything else to say at this time.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hodges, have you any criticism to make of
Captain Harvey’s order?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Yes, sir. In the first place, he has left out several
things that ought to be told to the men. He has not provided any
instructions for one man of the squad. He has not made it clear just
which patrol each man belongs to. He has not told the men what equipment
they are to carry with them.”

_The Director_: “To what do you attribute these omissions?”

_Captain Hodges_: “Well, sir, I could not say. The thing that appeals to
me is that if I were one of the men I would want to know about them.”

_The Director_: “I think, if you will all reflect, that the underlying
trouble with Captain Harvey’s order is that he has not followed our five
paragraph order. Had he done so, I am sure he would not have omitted
these essentials. Now I am going to have Captain Harvey give the order
again and follow the five paragraph order system and see how he comes
out. Your first paragraph would be ‘Information of the enemy and our
supporting troops.’ All right, Captain Harvey, what would your first
paragraph contain?”

_Captain Harvey_: “Well, sir, the men know everything that I do
regarding the enemy and our own troops. They all heard the Lieutenants
order when he established the support. So I would say:

    “‘There is no further information of the enemy or our supporting
    troops.’”

_The Director_: “You have stated it exactly in your last sentence. Now
for your plan.”

_Captain Harvey_: “My plan would be to have the squad furnish two of the
visiting patrols—I see what you mean.

    “‘Our squad will furnish two visiting patrols tonight.’”

_The Director_: “Now comes the disposition of troops and orders for each
element.”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would divide up the squad as I did in my previous
order and provide for that extra man that Captain Hodges spoke of. He is
my Automatic Rifleman. I would say:

    “‘Manley, Harrison and Kline will be visiting patrol No. 1. It will
    go out at 12 o’clock midnight.

    “‘Oliver, Hasker and Payne will be visiting patrol No. 2. It will go
    out at 2 o’clock a. m.

    “‘Bailey (automatic rifleman) will be supernumerary.’”

_The Director_: “The next is your administrative arrangements, paragraph
4 of an order. What would you include in that?”

_Captain Harvey_: “The equipment to be carried. I would say:

    “‘Rifle and belts of ammunition only will be carried. The bayonet
    will be fixed. The scabbard and canteen will be left here.’

I would not want the men to carry anything that is not absolutely
essential.”

_The Director_: “You are right. The members of the visiting patrol
travel light. They do not want to be hampered with equipment that is not
necessary. Above all, they do not want anything with them that will
rattle and make a noise. They leave the bayonet scabbard at the post of
the support because if they wear it on the belt it will be dangling
between the men’s legs and interfere with their freedom of movement.
They will probably not need any water on this short march so I see no
objection to leaving the canteen behind, although, on the other hand, I
can see no objection to carrying it. That is a mere matter of opinion.
The bayonets are fixed so as to have them ready for hand to hand night
fighting in case it is required. A great deal of the night work will be
done with the bayonet. Rifle fire is effective only for short distances
due to inability to see the target for any distance. Now, Captain
Harvey, how do you conclude your order?”

_Captain Harvey_: “In the usual manner by telling the men where messages
are to be brought, I would say:

    “‘Messages will be brought back to the support, here.’”

That concludes the order. I see my error and will profit by it in the
future.”

_Captain James_: “There is one point in the order that I did not
understand. Captain Harvey detailed his automatic rifleman as
‘supernumerary.’ Just what does he mean by that.”

_The Director_: “He means that he is an extra man not specifically
detailed with either patrol. But, if for any reason, one of the other
men is unable to go on the patrol when the time comes the supernumerary
will take his place. Do you see the point now?”

_Captain James_: “Yes, sir.”

_The Director_: “I hope you all now realize how far astray you can go in
issuing tactical orders if you fail to follow the five paragraph system.
On the other hand, I hope you have observed how simple it is to include
all of the essential elements in an order if you do follow the system.
You here see the system applied to the most insignificant element in the
domain of tactics, the visiting patrol. You see how nicely it fits. If
you were issuing an order for a division of 20,000 men you would see how
well it works there. I hope you will all stick to this plan of issuing
orders. You positively cannot go far wrong if you will. If there are no
further questions we will proceed.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Corporal Canes will now dismiss the squad and the men
will go about getting ready for their night work. Corporal Canes will go
over the route that he is to conduct the patrol tonight. He will proceed
to the right parallel to and in rear of the line of outguards to the
left outguard of Support No. 1; thence along our own line of observation
to Outguard No. 1 of Support No. 3; and then back to the support. He
will note the route carefully and mark it if necessary. He will
especially note the approaches to the outguard posts and arrange for
recognition signals with the outguard commanders.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Let us assume that it is now 11.50 p. m. The obscurity
is such that a man may see another at a distance of about 12 yards.
Corporal Canes has been awakened by the support sentinel. He is up and
getting ready to start with his patrol. Captain James, you are now
Corporal Canes. What would you do?”

_Captain James_: “I would wake Manley, Harrison and Kline and say to
them:

    “‘It is time to make our 12 o’clock patrol. Get up. You have about 5
    minutes to get ready.’

“At 11:55 I would have the patrol fall in for inspection. I would
inspect the men to see if they had the proper equipment and make sure
that each man is fully awake. I would then give the command:

    “‘With ball cartridges. 2. LOAD.’

“I am now ready to start.”

_The Director_: “All right. It is now 12 o’clock. Give the orders for
the start.”

_Captain James_: “I would say:

    “‘Manley, you will lead; I will follow at a distance of 8 yards;
    Harrison, you follow me at 10 yards; Kline you follow Harrison at 12
    yards. Move out.’

“I think that order would get the patrol under way.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Baker, have you any criticism of the
formation proposed by Captain James?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “Yes, sir. It seems to me that here is one instance
where the patrol commander should actually lead the patrol himself. He
knows the route that is to be taken and no other member of the patrol
knows it. He is the man that knows the recognition signals with the
outguard commanders. I think there is every reason why he should
physically lead the patrol.”

_The Director_: “I think so, too, and feel that Captain James will when
he considers the situation. Now then, this new disposition will change
the orders somewhat. Lieutenant Baker how would you state the orders
now?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I would say:

    “‘I will lead. Manley, you follow me at a distance of about 8 yards.
    Harrison, follow Manley at a distance of about 10 yards; Kline will
    follow Harrison at a distance of about 10 yards.

    “‘Keep the man ahead of you in sight at all times.

    “‘Manley, you will be second in command.

    “‘Follow me.’”

_The Director_: “I think this order will get our patrol under way in the
proper formation. I hope you see and understand the necessity for going
into the minute details of these situations. Herein lies one of the
greatest values of the Terrain Exercise. It not only teaches the student
of Minor Tactics the principles, but affords practice in giving the
orders to meet the various situations and fixes all indelibly on the
mind. When you conduct a Terrain Exercise yourself you cannot be too
particular about going into the details of every situation.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Visiting Patrol=                                =Card No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Distribute sheets containing Situation No. 2. Each member of class
        is now Corporal Canes. Explain why this Terrain Exercise is
        given to officers.

  2. Orders for squad. Failure to use five paragraph order. Information
        of enemy and own troops. Plan of commander. Tactical
        dispositions and order for each element; detail each patrol,
        time of going out, supernumerary, equipment—only rifle and belt
        of ammunition, no bayonets, canteen, messages.

  3. Meaning of supernumerary.

  4. Necessity for following five paragraph order system.

  5. Men get ready for patrol duty before dark. Corporal Canes goes over
        route of the patrol.

  6. State special situation. Now 11:50 p. m. Ready to start. Formation
        of patrol. Corporal leads. Load rifles.

  7. Orders for patrol:—Formation, communication, second in command.

  8. Explain necessity for going into details. Great value of Terrain
        Exercise.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 3=:

You, Corporal Canes, the leading man of your visiting patrol, have
arrived at this point. Outguard No. 1 is right there (indicate); the
double sentinel post is there (indicate).

_Required_:

What do you do?


                               Procedure

The class is conducted to the point selected for Situation No. 3, which
should be located between the outguard and the sentinel post if
practicable. The Director reads the situation aloud and points out the
position of the outguard and that of the sentinels posted from the
outguard.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, let us assume you are Corporal Canes. You
have arrived right here, the other members of your patrol are in the
original formation behind you. Now just what would you do under the
circumstances?”

_Captain Hall_: “I would go to the sentinel post and ask the men.”

_The Director_: “Wait a minute. Let us not go too fast on this
proposition. You have the other men of your patrol with you. What are
you going to do with them?”

_Captain Hall_: “That’s right. I would have to tell them what to do. I
would say to Manley in a low tone;

    “‘Have the patrol halt and remain in place.’

Which means the men would halt where they are and stay there until I
return.”

_The Director_: “We will assume that you have halted the patrol. Would
you go to the sentinel post without first notifying the outguard that
you are going to do so?”

_Captain Hall_: “No, sir. I had forgotten about that. I would go to the
outguard and tell the outguard commander that I am going out to see his
sentinels and would get him to come along with me.”

_The Director_: “Reflect a moment. Remember, yours is not the only
visiting patrol that comes along the route tonight. There is one every
two hours. The outguard commander has to be up every two hours to post
his reliefs. The support commander has arranged his visiting patrols so
that they will come along the line of observation when the sentinels on
post are about in the middle of their tour. If you get the outguard
commander out at this time, he will be up practically all night and will
not be fit for much service tomorrow. I do not think you would insist on
seeing the outguard commander unless he happened to be awake at this
particular time. It would be sufficient to tell the outguard sentinel
what you are going to do.”

_Captain Hall_: “I would go to the outguard and notify the man on duty
there that I am going out to the sentinel.”

_The Director_: “Don’t go too fast. What I want to bring out at this
time is just how you are going to approach the post of the outguard.
Tell us in detail how you would do it.”

_Captain Hall_: “I will go up to this point. (Captain Hall advances to
the point indicated). I will call in a low tone of voice ‘Visiting
patrol.’ If I get no response I will advance a little closer and repeat
my recognition signal and would continue until I am recognized. When the
man on duty hears my call he will probably say to me ‘Give the
countersign.’ I will give the countersign in a low tone of voice. He
will tell me to advance and I will then go to the post of the outguard.”

_The Director_: “Those are the details I wanted to bring out. And that
is the value of the Terrain Exercise. We come out here and learn to do
the things that we must do in actual campaign when we do not have to pay
for the mistakes with our own lives or the lives of our men. You have to
draw upon your imagination to picture the situation that confronts you.
You have to use your gray matter to figure out and decide just what you
are going to do. Finally, you have to draw upon your power of speech to
put your decision into words and express it in a clear and intelligent
manner.

“When you get up to the outguard you find that the outguard commander is
asleep. You decide not to awaken him. You tell the man on duty that you
are going to the sentinel post. Now Lieutenant Barry I want you to tell
us and show us just how you do it.”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would proceed cautiously in the direction of the
sentinel post. When I figure I am within hearing distance I will give
the recognition signal. The sentinel will give me the return signal and
I will know everything is all right and be free to go up to him.”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I do not understand this recognition signal
proposition. Can the director enlighten us on that?”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Yes, we will go into that in a few minutes. Before
doing so I wish to review and consider in detail this comparatively
simple proposition of approaching a sentinel post at night. You must
remember that the line of observation of an outpost is a ‘spooky’ place
at night and that outpost sentinels are as easily flushed as a pheasant.
Their nerves are strung to the breaking point. In every shadow an enemy
lurks. They soon learn to take no chances. It becomes the rule to shoot
first and challenge afterwards. If one makes a practice of running
headlong into sentinel posts on dark nights he may get away with it a
few times, but you are taking serious chances and the game will finally
get you. Having these things in mind, let us review the process of
approaching the sentinel post.

“1. The patrol leader halts his patrol some little distance from the
post. He gives the orders for the other members to stand fast until he
returns. He then goes to the outguard and notifies them that he is going
out to the sentinel. There is no necessity for any other person than the
patrol commander going up to the post. If others go it makes just that
much more confusion and adds that much more chance for lurking scouts to
locate the post and get information.

“2. The patrol leader advances towards the post and when he is near
enough he calls in a low tone, ‘Visiting patrol,’ and continues to call
until he is recognized. We never approach a sentinel post from the front
at night and, if it can be avoided, never from a flank, always from the
rear.

“3. When the sentinel discovers the presence of the patrol leader he
will verify his identity by calling upon him for the countersign.
Corporal Canes gives the countersign, and the sentinel directs him to
advance.

“This countersign is the recognition signal that Lieutenant Hunt asked
about. It may be given by word of mouth. It may consist of whistling a
few bars of some familiar service call. It may be made by tapping with
the knuckles on the stock of the rifle. The number of taps to represent
a number, for example: The countersign or recognition signal is 22-33.
Corporal Canes would approach the sentinel post and strike his rifle,
tap, tap (pause) tap, tap. The sentinel will answer in the same manner
tap, tap, tap (pause), tap, tap, tap. He would then know that he had
been recognized as a friend and proceed to the post. If the sentinel
discovered Corporal Canes first he would keep him under observation and
when he is close enough to hear would challenge him, tap, tap (pause),
tap, tap. Corporal Cane’s answer would be tap, tap, tap (pause), tap,
tap, tap. The system is interchangeable. The first number may be said to
be the challenge or inquiry signal and the second number the
recognition.

“It is not well, however, to confine ourselves to any one set of signals
or method of identification. They should be changed frequently, so that
the enemy will never know what system is being used on any particular
night.

“When the countersign is a word it should be spoken in a very low tone
of voice for fear of betraying it to the enemy’s scouts who may be near
by. History is replete with incidents of disaster to covering
detachments arising from the enemy’s knowledge of the countersign.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Now, Lieutenant Hunt, let us assume that you are at the
sentinel post and ready to make your inspection. Just what would you say
to him?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “Well, sir, I am free to confess that I do not know
just what I would say, but I would make a stab at something.”

_The Director_: “That is just the point. Our text-books are here
deficient again. They assume that this is so simple that we just
naturally know what to do and what to say. Have you ever seen in any
text book, any where, detailed instructions as to just how to inspect a
sentinel on post. They say: ‘The officer of the day will inspect.’ I
should like for you to be in a concealed position and hear some ‘Officer
of the day’ make his inspection of a sentinel. Try it sometime and see
the results.

“During the time that Corporal Canes is with him the sentinel will not
cease his vigilance. The inspection will be conducted in a low
conversational tone. ‘I am Corporal Canes of visiting patrol No. 3 from
Support No. 2.’ ‘What is the number of your post?’ ‘What is the number
of your outguard?’ ‘Where is it located?’ ‘Do you know the location of
the sentinel posts to your right and left?’ ‘In what direction is the
enemy?’ ‘Where does that road (trail) lead to?’ ‘Do you know what that
light is (pointing)?’ ‘Have you observed any signs of the enemy since
you have been on post?’ ‘What is the countersign (recognition signal)
tonight?’ ‘What would you do if you saw any signs of the enemy out in
front?’ ‘How would you alarm the outguard?’ ‘I have no information of
the enemy on this immediate front.’ ‘When I was at outguard No. 3 of
Support No. 1 the outguard commander told me that an enemy scout had
been picked up near the Outguard No. 1 of their support about an hour
ago?’ ‘Notify your outguard commander when you are relieved that I was
here at —— o’clock.’

“These are some of the things that would be included in the inspection
by the patrol commander.

“Corporal Canes would now go back to the outguard and tell the man on
duty that he is going on with the patrol. If, in his inspection of the
sentinel on post, anything happened that the outguard commander should
know about Corporal Canes would wake him and tell him about it. He will
then join the other members of the patrol and proceed along the route
selected before dark.”

    (Note.—To give the Terrain Exercise added interest it may be well to
    send two of the members of the class ahead to represent sentinel
    post No. 2 and one to represent the outguard. They will take post in
    the normal location of those elements of the line of observation.
    Then have four members of the class represent the visiting patrol.
    Have the leader conduct them just as he would under actual service
    conditions. Make the approach to outguard No. 2 in the same manner
    as indicated herein and carry out all the details of the situation.)


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Visiting Patrol=                                =Card No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to point near location of Outguard No. 1.

  2. Distribute Situation No. 3. Point out location of the outguard and
        Sentinel Post.

  3. Details of approach to outguard. Halt patrol. Recognition signal.
        Do not disturb outguard commander. Explain necessity for
        details.

  4. Approach sentinel post. Necessity for caution.

  5. Review problem up to this point. Explain recognition signals.

  6. Corporal Canes inspection of the sentinel. Identify himself to
        sentinel. Number of post, outguard, location. Posts on right and
        left. Road lead to. Light. Any signs of enemy. What he would do
        if he saw enemy. How alarm outguard. Give sentinel any news.
        Notify outguard commander of time of inspection.

  7. Corporal Canes goes back to outguard and then joins patrol.

  8. Send members of class out to represent Outguard No. 2 and sentinels
        posted from it. Detail a patrol from among class and conduct it
        to Outguard No. 2.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

On completion of the problem at Outguard No. 2 the class is conducted to
a point somewhere between Outguard No. 2 and Outguard No. 3 where the
following situation is distributed:


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 4=:

The Visiting Patrol has arrived at this point. You, Corporal Canes, are
right here (indicate). You hear a slight noise in that direction
(indicate). In a moment you see the dim outline of a man. He is armed
with a rifle which he seems to be carrying at the position of “High
Port.” He is stooping forward and moving very cautiously towards you.
Apparently he has not seen you.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                               Procedure

The Director will read the situation aloud and indicate where Corporal
Canes is and where the man is.

    (Note.—The place selected for this situation should be chosen with
    great care. It should preferably be in a woods with some underbrush
    and some cleared places. The place where the patrol is located when
    the situation is given out should preferably be at the near edge of
    one of these clearings.)


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Now I want each member of the class to visualize the
situation as it exists. You are reminded that it is supposed to be night
and you should base your decisions and actions on that assumption.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, what would you do?”

_Captain Hastings_: “Am I to understand that the man approaching is one
of our own force or one of the enemy?”

_The Director_: “That is one of the points of the problem. You do not
know yet whether he is a friend or enemy. It is dark and impossible to
tell. You merely see the outlines of a man. He is crouching. Has his
rifle at a ‘High Port’ which places it in readiness for instant action.”

_Captain Hastings_: “I would not want to shoot one of our own men. I
guess I would halt and wait and see what he is going to do.”

_The Director_: “The moment you let the man take the lead you are just
one lap behind him in decision and action. If you do something and take
the lead yourself he will have to make his decisions rapidly and base
his action on what you do. Never lose the opportunity to put your
opponent in that hole. As far as can be seen, you now have the drop on
the man. Don’t make a blunder and lose the advantage. Of all tactical
offenses, indecision and inaction are the most to be condemned.

“Lieutenant Wallace, how do you size up the situation?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “Well, sir, I would hate to make the mistake of
killing one of our own men. But I consider that no man of this outpost
has any business running around between the lines at this time of the
night unless he is a member of a patrol. If such is the case the
sentinel at No. 2 Outguard would have known about that and told me. So,
I suppose if it came to the point of killing him, he would be paid for.
Next, I do not know whether the man is alone or whether there are others
with him. Up to this time I have only seen one man, and it is not likely
that one man of the enemy would be wandering around in our lines alone.
Considering the possibility of his being one of our men, I would give
him just one chance.”

_The Director_: “That is a very good estimate of the situation. Now
arrive at a decision as to what you are going to do and tell us about
it.”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would halt and crouch down. The other members
of the patrol seeing me do this would follow my action without any
orders. Without making any noise I would unlock my piece and aim it at
the approaching man. As soon as he arrived at a point where I could see
him sufficiently in the dark to make sure of hitting him if it were
necessary to fire I would call out in a tone loud enough for him to hear
and understand that I meant business: ‘Halt! Drop that Rifle! Throw up
your hands!’ If there was the least hesitation on his part or any move
to use his rifle I would fire. In other words, if he did not drop his
rifle instantly and throw up his hands, I would shoot him. If he obeyed
my orders, I would call to him in a low tone, ‘I have the drop on you.
Do as I say, or I will fire. Walk five steps towards me and halt.’ I
would wait a few seconds to see if there were any more men behind him
and then call to Manley and Harrison to join me at the edge of the
clearing. While I still covered him and with my rifle, I would say:

    “‘Manley, you go out and search the man. Take any arms that he may
    have. Keep out of my way, so I can fire if necessary. Now get his
    rifle.’

I now have the man a prisoner, and....”

_The Director_: “Wait a moment. That is as far as I want you to go at
this time. I think you have covered the situation very well.

“Lieutenant Ralston, it develops that the man is one of the enemy. You
have him a prisoner. What are you going to do now?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would post Manley and Harrison to guard against
surprise. I would have Kline join me. Before the prisoner had a chance
to get over his confusion and collect his thoughts I would try to get
some information from him.”

_The Director_: “What questions would you ask him?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would ask him:

    “‘What outfit do you belong to?

    “‘What are you doing in our lines?

    “‘Are there any other men of your outfit around here?

    “‘What is your name and rank?’”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “I hope you have all noted the dispositions that
Lieutenant Ralston made. He posted two men to guard against surprise,
for there may be more of the enemy in the vicinity. It is fair to assume
that this man is not out alone at this time of the night. The remaining
man of the patrol is right here with Corporal Canes while he is
questioning the prisoner. He has him here for a purpose. Kline will take
the prisoner back to the support and having been present at the
examination, if he does give any information Kline will know all about
it and can tell the support commander in case the man changes his
statements after recovering his composure.

“It is one of the duties of a visiting patrol to pick up persons found
in the lines. It is of importance that they be captured and every
precaution towards that end should be taken. Make it a rule that persons
wandering about in the outpost line have no business to be there and
take no chances on them getting away.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Visiting Patrol=                                =Card No. 4=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to a point between outguard No. 2 and No. 3.

  2. Distribute Situation No. 4, read and explain.

  3. Remind class that it is supposed to be night.

  4. Enemy or friend. Size up the situation.

  5. Action. Halt. Cover man with rifle. Call on him to Halt. Drop
        rifle. Hold up hands. Effect capture.

  6. Disposition of Patrol of guard against surprise.

  7. Question prisoner.

  8. Explain dispositions. Kline to take prisoner back. Duty of visiting
        patrol to pick up strangers on outpost line.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 5=:

You question the prisoner. He refuses to give any information. Stands
mute. To your question “What are you doing in our lines?” he answers
“Lost.”

_Required_:

What action do you, Corporal Canes, take?


                               Procedure

The Director distributes Situation No. 5 and makes such explanation so
as may be necessary.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, what would you do?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I am going back to the support in a few minutes now,
so I think I would take the prisoner along with me.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hodges, what do you think about that?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would not want to be bothered with him. Besides we
may run into some more enemy scouts any time and this man would be in
the way and might make his escape. I would take no chances. I would send
him back to the support commander at once.”

_Captain James_: “Why not send him over to outguard No. 2 for the time
being?”

_Captain Hodges_: “That might be all right. But if I were a support
commander and one of my visiting patrols picked up a prisoner, like we
have, I should want to see him as soon as practicable. I think it would
be much better to send him directly back to the support. The support
commander can question him and make his plans for finding out where the
other scouts of the patrol to which he probably belongs, are.”

_The Director_: “That is the point that I wish to bring out. In the
first place, the Outguard Commander will have no time to question the
man. He will have to busy himself immediately making arrangements to
send out patrols in his immediate vicinity to see if he can find any
other members of the enemy’s forces. It is not likely that the man is
running around in our lines alone. There are others with him. Corporal
Canes would send the prisoner back to the support commander immediately
in order that the Lieutenant may question him before he gets over the
confusion of being captured, and in order that patrols may be sent out
to find any of his comrades that may also be within the lines.

“Now, having decided to send the prisoner back, Lieutenant Baker, how
would you go about it?”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “There are several things to be considered in this
procedure. The commander of outguard No. 2 must be informed of what has
happened so that he may take the necessary action. The support commander
must be informed by a verbal message of the circumstances attending the
capture of the prisoner. He must also be informed of the immediate
future action of the visiting patrol. I would cover all of this in
orders and a verbal message. Private Kline has been with me when I was
questioning the prisoner. He knows the circumstances attending the
capture. I would send him back with the prisoner and a verbal message to
the support commander. I would say to the prisoner:

    “‘Step over here and face in that direction. I am going to send you
    back to our support commander by this soldier (indicating Kline). I
    want to warn you that any attempt to escape will be disastrous for
    you.’

“I will say to Private Kline:

    “‘You conduct this prisoner back to the support commander as quickly
    as possible. Have him march in front of you. Place the point of your
    bayonet close to his back. Do not let him escape. As you pass
    outguard No. 2 notify Corporal W of the circumstances and tell him
    that we have gone on over to outguard No. 3. Tell the support
    commander where we captured the prisoner; that I could get nothing
    out of him except that he is lost; that you have notified Corporal W
    at outguard No. 2. That I am going to outguard No. 3 and will
    reconnoiter in that vicinity and over as far as outguard No. 1 of
    Support No. 3. You will remain at the support to be available as a
    guide in case the Lieutenant needs you. Do you understand all that
    you are to do?’

“On receiving an affirmative reply I would direct Kline and the prisoner
‘Move out.’”

_The Director_: “I should say that you have covered the situation most
completely. It is most gratifying to see you officers go about the
solution to these problems in this manner. It shows that you appreciate
the necessity for going into the details of them.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Having disposed of the prisoner, Corporal Canes with
the remaining men of the visiting patrol will go to outguard No. 3 and
make the approach to it in the same manner as heretofore indicated. The
prisoner’s rifle will be hidden in the brush. It can be secured in the
morning. Corporal Canes would not want to be bothered with it at this
time.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Visiting Patrol=                                =Card No. 5=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Distribute Situation No. 5 and explain.

  2. Disposition of prisoners—send back to support commander.

  3. Explain why send prisoner to support commander.

  4. Instructions to prisoner.

  5. Orders to Kline and message to support commander. Conduct prisoner
        back. Notify commander of Outguard No. 2. Contents of message to
        support commander.

  6. Move on to Outguard No. 3. Identification.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the sentinel post of outguard No. 3 where
the following situation is distributed:


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 6=:

You have arrived at outguard No. 3. The outguard has just been alarmed
by the sentinel. The outguard commander suggests that you, Corporal
Canes, accompany him to the sentinel post. You agree. The Corporal and
yourself and the two members of your visiting patrol proceed towards the
sentinel. As you approach the sentinel identifies you and calls
“Silence.” He tells you that he has heard a suspicious noise in front of
his post and points in the direction from whence it came.

_Required_:

What do you do?


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, what would you do under the
circumstances?”

_Captain Hall_: “It is the business of the visiting patrol to
investigate suspicious incidents that may be reported by the sentinels.
So I would go out and investigate this one. I would take the two men of
my patrol with me.”

_The Director_: “We will assume that you are senior to the outguard
commander. Would you give him any instructions?”

_Captain Hall_: “I think I would have him send out a small patrol to the
interval between outguard No. 3 and No. 2.”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “That is a point I had been thinking about and I had
just decided that I would not do that.”

_The Director_: “On what line of reasoning did you base the decision?”

_Lieutenant Barry_: “Well, sir, if I were Corporal Canes and going out
with my visiting patrol I would not want any other patrol out working
around in my immediate vicinity. There would be too much danger of an
accident. I would have to put in about half of my time watching out for
the other patrol to keep from shooting them or to keep them from
shooting me. I am sure if I knew another patrol from the outguard were
out here I could not devote my undivided attention to my reconnaissance
of the enemy. I would have Corporal R bring two of his men up to the
sentinel post and remain there until I get back or if anything happens
to me to come to my assistance. I would have the remaining men of the
outguard remain on the alert at their post.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right in all you have said and I feel
sure that Captain Hall will agree with you on reconsideration. Is that
not so, Captain Hall?”

_Captain Hall_: “Yes, sir.”

_The Director_: “We then decide that Corporal Canes is to make the
reconnaissance with the two remaining men of his visiting patrol; that
he is going to have Corporal R bring up two men of the outguard to the
vicinity of the sentinel post and that the remainder of the outguard is
to remain at the alert at its post. Now, Lieutenant Hunt, just how will
you put this decision into the form of orders?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would issue my orders as follows:

    “‘You have all the information of the enemy and our own troops.

    “‘The visiting patrol will conduct a reconnaissance in that
    direction (indicating).

    “‘Manley and Harrison will follow me at the usual distance.

    “‘Corporal R, have two men of your outguard come up here. If
    anything happens to my patrol come to our assistance. Have the
    remainder of your men remain at the outguard on the alert.’

“When all is ready I will say:

    “‘Manley and Harrison, follow me.’

“We will proceed in Indian file towards the suspicious noise reported by
the sentinel.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Visiting Patrol=                                =Card No. 6=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. On arrival at Outguard No. 3 distribute Situation No. 6 and
        explain.

  2. Duty of visiting patrol to investigate suspicious occurrences on
        outpost line.

  3. Question of Patrol from outguard.

  4. Visiting patrol makes reconnaissance. Two men brought up to
        sentinel post as a reserve. Outguard to remain in place at the
        alert.

  5. Orders.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to a point about 100 yards to the front of
the sentinel post of Outguard No. 3, where Situation No. 7 is
distributed and such explanation as may be necessary is made.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 7=:

You have arrived at this point. You discover a cavalryman’s horse, fully
equipped, tied to that tree. You reconnoiter the vicinity but can find
no other signs of the enemy.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, how do you size up the situation?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I have come to the conclusion that the enemy
prisoner told the truth when he said he was lost. I do not believe there
are any other men of the enemy in this immediate vicinity. Had there
been other men with the prisoner he surely would not have dismounted and
tied his horse to a tree. If there were more in the party one man would
have been left out here to hold the horse while the prisoner went
forward to reconnoiter on foot. I arrive at the conclusion that this is
his horse and that he is a member of the enemy patrol that was operating
over on the right of our line. He got lost and was trying to find some
of the men of his own patrol when he ran into us. I do not think he
realized that he was inside of our lines at the time he was captured.”

_The Director_: “Has any member of the class a different version of the
affair than what Lieutenant Williams has just explained?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I do not think we would be justified in assuming
that there are no more of the enemy in this vicinity. Two enemy scouts
have been captured that we know of. These two men were not scouting
around here alone. There must be more of them somewhere. It may be that
others have come in contact with our outguards that we have not heard
about.”

_The Director_: “Have you heard any firing tonight along our lines?”

_Captain Hastings_: “No, sir.”

_The Director_: “Don’t you think that if there had been very much enemy
activity along our lines that there would have been firing somewhere? I
think it is fair to assume that. I believe we would be pretty well
justified in assuming that the enemy activity is limited to perhaps a
patrol from which our prisoner became lost.

“The question now before us is what are we going to do? Lieutenant
Wallace, what would you do?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would get this horse back as quickly as
possible and then I would extend my reconnaissance farther to the
front.”

_The Director_: “Where would you send the horse?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would send him back to the support commander.”

_The Director_: “Where would you send him, Lieutenant Ralston?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I am not so sure I would send him anywhere for
the present. If we are to continue our reconnaissance to the front I do
not figure that I would spare a man to send the horse back. In any event
I would send him no farther than outguard No. 3. And I am not so sure
that I would go any farther on the reconnaissance. I do not think a
visiting patrol—so few men—should go very far in front of the line of
observation at night.”

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, what do you think about all of this?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I agree with Lieutenant Ralston. Another point that
presents itself to me is this: When the support commander gets the
prisoner we sent back he will probably send our section leader out with
a patrol to reconnoiter the front and the sergeant will want to see me
and get what information I have. The natural place for him to come first
to find me will be outguard No. 3. I think I should get back there at
least by the time the patrol from the support reaches there. I estimate
that I could stay around here for a few minutes yet, but I would have to
be getting back pretty soon.”

_The Director_: “What would be your decision based on your sizing up of
the situation?”

_Captain Harvey_: “To send the horse back to outguard No. 3 right away.

“Manley and myself would stay out here in concealment for, say five
minutes longer, and then go back to the outguard by way of the sentinel
post.”

_The Director_: “Any member of the class that does not agree with that
decision? (After waiting a moment.) There seems to be none, so we will
agree to that solution of the problem.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Visiting Patrol=                                =Card No. 7=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to a point 100 yards in front of sentinel post of
        Outguard No. 3. Distribute Situation No. 7.

  2. Size up situation. Estimate of connection of enemy prisoner with
        the cavalry horse.

  3. Disposition of horse.

  4. Future action of patrol commander.

  5. Decision; send horse to Outguard No. 3; Go to Outguard No. 3 to
        meet commander of patrol sent out from support.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to outguard No. 3, at which place Situation
No. 8 is distributed and explained.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 8=:

You have arrived at outguard No. 3. On your way back the outguard
commander who was at the sentinel post joined you. He left the two
additional men at the sentinel post. You explained to him what happened
on your reconnaissance to the front.

At this moment Sergeant Hamilton, the section leader in command of a
patrol of one squad from the support, arrives, and states that he has
been ordered to make a reconnaissance to the front of our line of
observation. Patrols are going out from the other supports to
reconnoiter their fronts. Sergeant Hamilton says:

    “Corporal Canes, give me all the information you have.”

_Required_:

State the information you, Corporal Canes, would give to Sergeant
Hamilton.


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now, I assume that each of you have followed the
details of the problem. You know just what has taken place. Now, I want
each of you to write out on your pads just what you would say to
Sergeant Hamilton in reply to his instructions,

    “Give me all the information you have.”

“I want you to write down the exact words that you would use if you were
Corporal Canes.”

When all the members of the class have completed their solutions they
will be collected and again distributed, making sure that no man
receives his own solution back again.

The Director calls upon one or more members of the class to read the
solution in his possession and it is discussed.

At the conclusion of this the Director will submit the following
solution for discussion (copies of this will be distributed to the
class):


                                Solution

“When my patrol arrived about midway between outguard No. 2 and outguard
No. 3 we captured a soldier of the enemy. I asked several questions. He
refused to answer, except that he said he was lost. I sent him back to
the support and came on over to outguard No. 3. On arriving there the
sentinel told me that he had heard a suspicious noise out in front of
his post. I took two men and went out about 100 yards where I found a
cavalry horse, fully equipped. Sent him back to the outguard here. Made
examination to see if I could find any evidence of other horses or men.
Found none. Stayed a few minutes out there. Heard nothing.”


                               Procedure

The Director reads the solution aloud. The members of the class follow
from the copy in their possession.

_The Director_: “This is merely one solution of the problem. There may
be others equally good. This situation was devised to give you practice
in imparting information that you may have. On occasions like this time
may be limited and the information will have to be given hurriedly and
without waste of words. The idea is that you should state the
circumstances of the incidents in the fewest words possible and at the
same time make clear just what has happened. You will find practice of
this kind very valuable and will pay you large dividends on actual
service.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “This is the conclusion of our Terrain Exercise on the
subject of the visiting patrol. I feel sure that if any one of you ever
have occasion to order out visiting patrols that you will have a better
idea of how they go about their tasks than you previously had. I am sure
that you know what a visiting patrol is and what it is supposed to do.

“I am sure you will appreciate how necessary it is for your
non-commissioned officers to be trained in this work so they may know
how to meet the situations and solve the problems that may confront
them.

“In outlining the future action of Corporal Canes’ patrol I may say that
Sergeant Hamilton now assumes responsibility for the further
reconnaissance to the front of the line of observation. Corporal Canes
will send Harrison back to the support commander with the horse with a
verbal message. Cline has again joined him at outguard No. 3. The three
men, Corporal Canes, Manley and Cline continue the operations of the
visiting patrol, going on over to outguard No. 1 of support No. 3 and
then back to their own support. On arrival there Corporal Canes finds
that it is about time for him to start out on the rounds with his 2
o’clock patrol. This has been his busy night.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Visiting Patrol=                                =Card No. 8=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to position of outguard No. 3. Distribute Situation
        No. 8 and explain.

  2. Have members of class write out solutions on pad. Collect and
        distribute. Read and comment.

  3. Distribute solution for discussion. Read it aloud.

  4. Explain that this is merely a solution.

  5. Situation designed to give practice in stating information.

  6. Conclusion of Terrain Exercise. Knowledge of work of visiting
        patrol. Necessity for training of non-commissioned officers.

  7. Future action of visiting patrol. Send back horse. Continue patrol
        to outguard No. 1 of support No. 3; thence to support. Time to
        go out with 2 o’clock patrol.

                  *       *       *       *       *



                       _Terrain Exercise No. 9._
                        A Reconnoitering Patrol


                              The Problem

=General Situation=:

A Blue battalion has bivouacked at (_a_). An outpost with support along
(_b_) has been established. Support number (_c_) under the command of
Lieutenant A is at (_d_). It is now 2 o’clock p. m. The posting of the
outguards has been completed. The support commander has made his
inspection and sent in his report to the outpost commander. The covering
troops have been withdrawn to the support. There has been no contact
with the enemy.

=Situation No. 1=:

At 2:05 o’clock p. m., a Mr. ——, who lives at (_e_) comes to you,
Lieutenant A, and gives you the following information:

    I have just had a telephone conversation with a friend of mine, who
    lives about (_f_) miles (_g_) of here. He states that there is a Red
    force in the vicinity of (_h_). The telephone went out before I
    could get any further information.

_Required_:

What action do you, Lieutenant A, take?


                         Explanation of Symbols

(_a_) State the location of the bivouac of the main body of the
battalion. This should be at a logical point with reference to the
location of the outpost line.

(_b_) State the location of the general line of outpost supports.

(_c_) The number of the support commanded by Lieutenant A. This should
be given a logical number with reference to the whole line of supports.

(_d_) The location of support (_c_). The point where the Terrain
Exercise is to start.

(_e_) State where Mr. —— lives.

(_f_) The number of miles from the support to where Mr. ——’s friend
lives. This should be several miles away.

(_g_) The direction stated by points of compass (North, South, East,
West).

(_h_) The general location of the enemy. This should be in the direction
which it is intended to send the reconnoitering patrol.


                               Procedure

The members of the class are assembled at (_d_), where the outpost
support is located.

The Director will distribute copies of the problem to members of the
class. A few minutes are allowed them to read it. The Director then
reads the problem aloud and points out the places mentioned. One or more
of the members of the class are called upon to state their understanding
of the situation.

_The Director_: “Now, I want each member of the class to consider
himself as being Lieutenant A, commanding the outguard located at this
point. Mr. —— has just given you the information as stated in the
situation. What are you going to do about it? Lieutenant Williams, just
what would you do?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would send out a patrol.”

_The Director_: “How do you arrive at this decision so quickly?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “Well, sir, I think that would be the thing to
do. I have gotten some important information about the enemy. Details
are lacking. I would want to know more about how many troops he has,
what kind of troops they are and what he is doing. I can see no better
way to get this information than by sending out a patrol to secure it
for me.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hastings, what do you think about that?”

_Captain Hastings_: “There is always a question in a case like this as
to whether a pair of scouts should be employed or whether a patrol is to
be sent out. I should size up the situation a few minutes. Examine my
map, if I had one, and then decide what measures I would take. Another
point that presents itself to me is the question as to whether I should
send out the men from this support or whether it would be better to send
the information back to the outpost commander and let him decide what is
to be done.”

_The Director_: “Patrolling is usually conducted from the supports. I
think you would be justified in taking the initiative in this case. At
all events, let us assume that you would.”

_Captain Hastings_: “Can the Director give us some information on the
question of the employment of scouts or patrols.”

_The Director_: “There are no hard and fast rules that may be invoked in
arriving at such a decision, but there are certain principles that may
be applied, and when reconnaissance enterprises are to be undertaken the
condition should be examined closely. The scout or pair of scouts would,
as a rule, be preferred when concealment is highly essential, and
usually when concealment, though not essential, is possible throughout
the reconnaissance, or when the enemy habitually conducts his
reconnaissance with strong patrols and scouts have a better chance of
eluding him.

“In the following cases a patrol should be employed: When information
has to be sent in at intervals; when it is desired to capture prisoners;
when concealment is deemed impossible; when the reconnaissance is to be
extended over such a period of time that relief of scouts will be
necessary; when an urgent mission has been assigned and it is necessary
to push through the enemy’s covering troops.

“In some cases it may be advisable to employ a patrol for the first part
of the reconnaissance and at a certain point break up into scouting
parties of a single scout or pair of scouts.

“If possible, the individual preferences of the most efficient scouts
should be considered. Some men lose self-confidence if attached to a
patrol and are limited in their actions by the direction of the patrol
leader; others dislike the responsibility of uncontrolled action.

“These are only general rules and cannot be followed blindly. The
circumstances of each occasion must be taken into consideration in
arriving at a decision.

“Now, considering the points I have stated, would you employ scouts or a
patrol in the case under consideration, Captain Hastings?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I think a small patrol would be more suitable.
There will probably be messages to send back and the patrol may have to
remain out for a considerable length of time. I believe a patrol would
be more suitable than individual scouts.”

_The Director_: “Let us then decide that we are to send out a
reconnoitering patrol to secure the information we desire.

“Before going further with the problem, I want to say a few words about
the patrol.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The first duty of a patrol is to get information, and
information is greatly increased in value if the enemy does not know
that it has been obtained. The patrol is required, primarily, to
discover whether or not the enemy is in a certain locality. This
information is only useful to the officer who sent the patrol out. It
is, therefore, the next duty of the patrol to get the information back
as soon as possible, especially when the enemy is met.

“Next of importance in the duties of the patrol is to continue to
observe the enemy when once discovered, to follow him up and ascertain
the direction taken if he retires, or to fall back if he advances in
strength, endeavoring to keep even with him on a flank. The enemy is
certain to send out scouts to his front, but may neglect his flanks.

“Boldness must be tempered with caution. It is useless to obtain
information if you cannot get it back where it will do some good. A
little information sent in in time to be of use is clear gain to your
side. A patrol that finds out all about the enemy and ends up by falling
into the hands of the enemy is a dead loss not only in men but in time
as other patrols will have to be sent out to get the same information on
which important decisions may depend.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Wallace, one of the first questions that
will present itself to the support commander is the selection of a
patrol leader. What factors would you consider in this matter?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “In the first place I would want a
non-commissioned officer for patrol leader; further, I would want to
send out the best qualified one in the platoon. To meet this requirement
I would select the platoon sergeant to lead this patrol. The importance
of the mission is such as to warrant sending him.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, do you agree with this solution?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “No, sir. I realize the importance of the mission
of the patrol. I know we should have a qualified man to lead it, but I
should hesitate to send my platoon sergeant out.”

_The Director_: “I think you are right and when Lieutenant Wallace
reflects on the matter I think he will agree with you. The platoon
sergeant has a multitude of duties to perform in connection with the
interior administration of the platoon. In his administrative capacity
he is to the platoon what the first sergeant is to the company. In
addition, he has his tactical duties to perform. He is the second in
command, and should anything happen to the platoon leader he
automatically assumes charge. There is no other man in the platoon who
is so familiar with all the details of the dispositions of the support
and the orders under which it is operating. I do not believe it would be
good policy to send the platoon sergeant out on a reconnoitering mission
which may well extend into the night.

“Now, having rejected the idea of sending the platoon sergeant, what man
would you send in charge of the patrol, Captain Harvey?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I would send a section leader. The one whose section
is on the line of outguards. He seems to me to be the most available man
for the duty.”

_The Director_: “I agree with you. Ordinarily in an outpost support of
this kind we take the outguards from one of the sections of the platoon
and hold the other section to form the main body of the support. This
leaves the commander of the outguard section surplus in a way, and makes
him available for important patrol duty, such as that we have under
consideration.

“The next question that comes up is the strength of the patrol. This is
a reconnoitering patrol. Its mission is to gain information of the
enemy. It need not be made strong to give it fighting power, for it will
not engage the enemy in combat except as the last resort. It must not
have any more men than are absolutely necessary to carry out its
mission, for every additional man is a drag on the patrol leader and
subject the patrol to just that much more danger of detection by the
enemy. There will be messages to be sent back, at least one and possibly
two or three. The patrol must be sufficiently strong to provide these
messengers without reducing it below two men.

“Having all of these points in mind, what would be the strength of the
patrol, Captain Harvey?”

_Captain Harvey_: “I should say there would be at least two messages to
be sent back, and it may be necessary to send one of them by two
messengers. I would not want the patrol leader to be left out alone.
These factors would indicate a strength of 5 men. The patrol leader and
4 men.”

_The Director_: “Has any member of the class a different idea than
this?”

_Captain Hodges_: “In my own mind I had tentatively decided to send a
complete squad. It seems to me that we should send enough men so that if
they have to fight their way through to get the information desired they
could do it. Four men would not be sufficient for the purpose. I should
like some enlightenment on this phase of the subject.”

_The Director_: “Captain James, can you answer Captain Hodges?”

_Captain James_: “In the first place, a reconnoitering patrol does not
fight except as a last resort to escape capture or to give warning of
the approach of the enemy and to delay him by firing on him. In the next
place, I do not see how this patrol will ever get close enough to the
enemy to get any really important information if it starts to fight its
way through the Red covering troops. Once a shot is fired the Red
commander will send out sufficient patrols to keep your patrol at a
distance, and it will get no information whatever. My idea is that any
information this patrol gets will be by avoiding the Red covering troops
and not by fighting.”

_The Director_: “I think you are correct. The smaller the patrol, within
limitations, the better. I think a leader and four men is about right.
Lieutenant Baker, tell us what you would include in your order to the
patrol leader.”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I would first tell the patrol leader all the
information I have about the enemy and our troops. I would give him
general direction as to where I want the patrol to go. I would tell him
what information I want regarding the enemy. Tell him in general terms
where to return and where to send messages.”

_The Director_: “The final question that comes up is that of the
equipment of the men. How would you have them equipped, Captain Hall?”

_Captain Hall_: “I would want them to go lightly equipped. They should
have a ration in their haversack; not over 40 rounds of ammunition and
their rifle. I would have them leave the bayonets with their packs. They
will not need them.”


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “You see the process we have gone through to determine
that we are going to send out a patrol of five men from the support. You
see how many things you have to consider in arriving at a decision as to
what you are going to do. This is what we call making an ‘Estimate of
the Situation.’ It is merely a process of sizing up the situation and
deciding on what you are going to do to meet it. An officer who fails to
do this will in the end make a failure of the soldier game. The one who
does it habitually has far greater chances for the operations he is
conducting to turn out a success. Just a few minutes’ systematic thought
will save you a lot of military blunders.

“Based on this estimate of the situation we arrive at a decision to send
out a patrol of five men to secure information of the enemy. Lieutenant
Barry, assume that you are Lieutenant A, commanding the support. Can you
give us the orders necessary to put the decision into operation?”


                                Solution

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I will try, sir. I will order:

    “‘Sergeant C (platoon Sergeant) turn out a reconnoitering patrol of
    four privates, with Sergeant B (section leader) as patrol leader.
    Have the men carry a ration and 40 rounds of ammunition. Leave
    bayonets here. Have Sergeant B report to me as soon as he is ready
    to go out.’

“I will frame up my orders to the patrol leader, and as soon as he
reports to me I will give them to him:

    “‘I have just received information that there is a Red force in the
    vicinity of (_h_). Here is the point. Here is the road leading in
    that direction. (Indicating on the map.)[15]

    “‘There are no other patrols out from this support. I will notify
    the other supports that you are going out.

    “‘You will take this reconnoitering patrol of four men and proceed
    toward (_h_) and find out what you can about the enemy. Information
    as to his strength and composition and what he is doing is
    particularly desired.

    “‘Return when you have accomplished your mission.

    “‘Carlin will be second in command.

    “‘Here is a map.

    “‘Send messages here.’

“I will send a runner to the other support commanders to inform them of
the fact that I am sending out a reconnoitering patrol and give them the
information we have about the enemy.

“I will send the citizen who gave me the information to the outpost
commander accompanied by a runner and a message:

    “‘I am sending you a Mr. ——, who lives at ——. He informs me that he
    just had a telephone conversation with a friend of his who lives ——
    miles —— of here and who states that a Red force is in the vicinity
    of (_h_). The telephone went out before he could get any further
    information. I am sending out a reconnoitering patrol of four men
    under Sergeant B to find out what they can. I will notify other
    supports of the action I have taken.’

“I will explain to Mr. —— that the information he has given me is very
important and tell him that it will be necessary for him to go back to
the outpost commander with the runner.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “That is very good. Are there any questions? Please do
not hesitate to ask questions. They are the very life of the Terrain
Exercise.”

The Director endeavors to answer any question that may be asked.

Each member of the class is now required to write out the orders of the
support commander to Sergeant B, the patrol leader, and the message that
he would send back to the outpost commander by the runner who conducts
Mr. —— to him.

The orders and messages are collected and distributed again. One or more
members of the class are required to read those in his possession.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Reconnoitering Patrol=                                =Card No. 1=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Prepare copies of the problem and situation, one for each member of
        the class.

  2. Conduct the class to the point where the problem is to be started.

  3. Distribute copies of problem. Read problem and have members of
        class explain tactical situation.

  4. Work out solution in detail. Scouts or a patrol. Patrol, messages,
        capture prisoners, concealment, combat.

  5. Duties of patrol. Combat with enemy. Continue observation. Get
        information back.

  6. Selection of patrol leader. Platoon sergeant. Section leader.
        Explain duties of platoon sergeant. Availability of section
        leader.

  7. Strength of patrol.

  8. Order for patrol: Information of enemy and our own troops. Where to
        go. When to return. Where messages are to be sent.

  9. Explain necessity for estimate of situation.

  10. Solution. Orders to platoon sergeant. Order for patrol leader.
        Runner to adjoining supports. Send citizen to outpost commander.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Each member of the class will now consider himself to
be Sergeant B. who has been designated as the patrol leader. Lieutenant
Hunt, what equipment would you carry?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I would not want to be encumbered with a rifle, so I
would not carry one. I would want a pair of field glasses, a compass, a
watch, a wire cutter, pencils and a book of field message blanks. If one
were available I would want a map of the country over which the patrol
is to operate. Each member of the patrol should be provided with a
compass and a wire cutter. At least one man should carry a combination
flag kit for wigwag and semaphore signaling——”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I have understood that visual signaling is about
to be discarded in the service. Can the Director give us some
information on that point?”

_The Director_: “There is a tendency to throw it into the discard, but I
am not so sure that it is right. There are times when visual signaling
has its place and will save a lot of time and trouble. The codes are
easily learned and any intelligent man can master the process within a
comparatively short time. I think there should be a few men in every
rifle platoon who are good signalers. Going back to the equipment of the
patrol, I think Lieutenant Hunt has enumerated the essential items of
equipment.

“Lieutenant Williams, suppose you were out on patrol duty and captured
one of the enemy scouts, what is the first thing you would look for on
him?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I would look for some marking that would give me
an identification—that would give me information as to the outfit to
which he belongs.”

_The Director_: “That is right. During the war both sides took
exceptional measures to secure identification of units that were opposed
to them. Of course, much of this work was done during the period of
so-called trench warfare, but the same idea holds good in open warfare.
Identification of the units to which prisoners belong is always sought
after by the intelligence service. Now, Lieutenant Williams, what does
all of this point to with respect to our own patrol?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “That the members of the patrol should carry
nothing with them that will serve to give the enemy an identification,
should one of them be captured.”

_The Director_: “You are right. Should one of our soldiers be captured,
the enemy should be able to secure from him only his name and rank. The
prisoner should give no other information whatever.

“Before going out with a patrol the patrol leader makes an inspection of
his men. What is included in this inspection, Captain Hastings?”

_Captain Hastings_: “If I were making the inspection I would satisfy
myself that every man is physically fit for the duty to be performed. I
would not want a man who has been on some strenuous duty and is all worn
out. I would see that every man is properly armed and equipped, that
each man has a ration, 40 pounds of ammunition and a canteen full of
water. I would not allow a man to carry his roll. I would see that the
equipment is arranged so that it will not rattle or glisten in the
sunlight. I would see that no man carried anything that would give the
enemy an identification or information that would be of value to him. I
will verify my own equipment and make sure that I have everything that I
will probably require.”

The Director will now hand out the slips bearing special situation No.
2:


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 2=:

You, Sergeant B, have been designated to command the reconnoitering
patrol, consisting of Privates Anderson, Bailey, Carlin and Davis.
Lieutenant A has given you your orders and turned the men over to you.

Your orders are:

    “I have just received information that there is a Red force in the
    vicinity of (_h_). (The point (_h_) and the road leading toward it
    are pointed out on the map or on the ground.)

    “There are no other patrols out from this support. I will notify the
    other supports that you are going out.

    “You will take this reconnoitering patrol of four men and proceed
    towards (_h_), and find out what you can about the enemy.
    Information as to his strength and composition, and what he is doing
    is particularly desired.

    “Return when you have accomplished your mission.

    “Send messages here.”

_Required_:

The orders that you give.


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Wallace, we will assume that you are
Sergeant B. You have made the inspection of your patrol and corrected
all deficiencies. You are ready to give your orders and arrange for the
patrol to move out. Just what would you say and what would you do?”

_Lieutenant Wallace_: “I would spread my map out on the ground where the
men could see it. In the presence of the support commander I would give
my orders:

    “‘Information has been received that there is a Red force in the
    vicinity of (_h_). Here is the place on the map (indicating). We are
    here (indicating). This is the road that we will guide on
    (indicating). There are no other patrols out from our support.

    “‘We are going out as a reconnoitering patrol. We will find out what
    we can about the enemy. Our special mission is to find out his
    strength, his composition and what he is doing.

    “‘Anderson, you will be advance man; march on the left-hand side of
    the road.

    “‘Bailey, you follow Anderson at a distance of 25 yards, on the
    right-hand side of the road.

    “‘Carlin, you will march with me.

    “‘Davis, you are get-away man. Follow me at a distance of 75 yards.

    “‘I will indicate the route and assembly places as we go along.
    Drill regulation signals will be used.

    “‘Messages will be brought to the support commander here.’

“I will then inquire: What time has the Lieutenant? I will set my watch
to agree and direct:

    “‘All men who have watches set them at —— (time).’

“I will then command:

    “‘1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION, and follow with 1. With ball cartridges,
    2. LOAD.’

“I will then direct:

    “‘MOVE OUT.’”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “That is very good. I think you have covered all the
points that should be included in the patrol commander’s order. I wish
each member of the class would compare this order with the kind that is
usually mumbled out to members of a patrol by the average patrol leader
at maneuvers. It is a fact that most patrols go out, either with orders
that they do not understand or with no orders at all. Do not allow this
to be done under any circumstances. You can well afford to hold up the
departure of the patrol until the patrol commander can dope out his
orders and give them properly. And you must insist on this being done.
If you do not do so it will never be done properly.

“Now I want each member of the class to write our Sergeant B’s orders to
his patrol. Try to get the order in the language that Lieutenant Wallace
used in his solution.”

When this is completed the papers are collected and redistributed as
indicated in previous exercises. The class is now ready to proceed with
the next situation.


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Reconnoitering Patrol=                                =Card No. 2=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Each member of the class to consider himself as being Sergeant B.

  2. Equipment of patrol leader: Field glass, compass, watch, wire
        cutter, pencil, message blanks. Members:—Compass, wire cutter,
        flag kit.

  3. Visual signaling. Identification.

  4. Inspection: Physically fit for duty; arms and equipment; equipment
        rattle or glisten; verify own equipment.

  5. Hand out Special Situation No. 2. Explain.

  6. Map. Information of enemy and own troops; mission of patrol;
        tactical dispositions; signals; second in command; messages;
        synchronize watches; load rifles; move out.

  7. Explain necessity for training in giving these verbal orders.

  8. Write out the orders of Sergeant B. Collect and redistribute them.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to the front to the point where one of the
outguards of the support is supposed to be posted.

The slips bearing Situation No. 3 are handed out.

=Situation No. 3=:

At this point is posted Outguard No. ... of Support No. (_c_). The main
body of the outguard is (Indicate). The outguard commander is here.

_Required_:

What do you, Sergeant B, do.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “The commander of a patrol will see the commander of the
outguard at the place where he crosses the line of observation and give
him information as to where he is going and what he is going for. In
addition to this he secures any information that the outguard commander
may have of the country to the front and the enemy.

“This procedure is especially necessary in the present case. Sergeant
B’s mission will probably keep him out late, so that it will be after
dark when he comes back through the lines. In order to avoid chances of
being mistaken for the enemy a recognition signal should be arranged for
at this time.”


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, you are Sergeant B, the patrol
leader. The outguard commander has come out to meet you. Just what would
you do with respect to your patrol and what would you say to the
outguard commander?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “In the first place I will signal the patrol to
halt. I will then tell the outguard commander where we are going and all
about the mission of the patrol. I will arrange a recognition signal
with him. I will find out any information about the enemy that he may
have.”

_The Director_: “All right. You have told us all about what you will do.
Now let us do it. Assume that I am the outguard commander. Now just what
will you say to me?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I will say:

    “‘Information has been received that there is a Red force in the
    vicinity of (_h_). (Indicating on the map.) We are going out as a
    reconnoitering patrol, guiding on the ... road. (Indicating on the
    map.) We are to determine the enemy’s strength, and composition and
    what he is doing. I have four other men with me.

    “‘We will probably be out until after dark and I want to arrange a
    recognition signal with you. If agreeable to you it will be the call
    3—4 or the same tapped on the rifle stock.

    “‘Have you any information about the enemy?’

“After doing all of this I will signal the patrol FORWARD MARCH and
proceed on my way.”

_The Director_: “That is very good. I wish you would explain to the
class just how you propose to employ the recognition signal.”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “In this case we agreed on the signal 3—4. When
any of us approach the sentinel post of the outguard after dark we will
use the recognition signal. If there is no danger of enemy patrols
lurking in the vicinity the man approaching the post calls out 3—4; the
sentinel on post answers the call by calling 3—4 and they both know that
everything is all right and it is safe for the scout to proceed. If
there is danger of enemy patrols discovering the signal should it be
called out, the man coming in would approach the sentinel post
cautiously. He would tap 3—4 on the stock of his rifle until it is
recognized by the sentinel and the signal returned by the latter tapping
3—4 on the stock of his rifle.” (The method should be illustrated.)

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, why do we go to all this trouble?”

_Captain Harvey_: “A sentinel on post, after he has been harassed by
enemy scouts for a while, takes no chances. He generally shoots first
and then challenges. The recognition signal is simply an expedient to
lessen the chances of accident.”

_The Director_: “Now all of these details may seem to be small affairs
to you. But the man who knows them and requires them to be carried out
in service is the man who will be successful in military operations.
Almost any dub can blunder through, paying the price in the lives of his
men. It is the man that knows all of the little details of tactics that
will come through successfully with his command without the sacrifice of
a man more than is necessary to accomplish his mission. The proposition
of measuring accomplishment by the number of casualties is old stuff and
will not go with the commander that is up to his job. It is the man who
accomplishes his mission with the least number of casualties that is the
successful military leader.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Reconnoitering Patrol=                                =Card No. 3=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to point where outguard is supposed to be posted.
        Hand out Situation No. 3.

  2. Explain what is done by patrol leader. Tell outguard commander
        about patrol going out. Arrange for recognition signal. Get
        information of enemy.

  3. Proceed to solution. Require member of class to state exact words
        used by patrol commander.

  4. Explain the method of using the recognition signal.

  5. Explain necessity for details. Measure success by number of
        casualties avoided.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted along the route of the patrol for a distance
of some 600 yards, where it is halted.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “It is assumed that the patrol has advanced a distance
of some two miles from the outpost and has arrived at this vicinity.
This assumption is made in order to save time and energy. We can get
just as much training out of our Terrain Exercise by coming this 600
yards as we could by walking the entire two miles. The idea is that we
get into new terrain for each phase of the problem.”


                               Procedure

The Director now distributes the papers bearing Situation No. 4 to the
members of the class.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 4=:

You, Sergeant B, the patrol leader, have arrived at this point. There
has been no contact with the enemy.

_Required_:

What is the formation of your patrol at this moment?


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “Before going into the details of this situation, I
desire to say a few words about the conduct of the operations of a
patrol. It is impossible to lay down any hard and fast rule for the
conduct of a patrol. Each situation will have to be worked out by
itself. Each solution will vary with the nature of the country over
which you are operating and what the enemy does. A few general
principles only may be enunciated.

“The patrol leader, as he advances toward his objective, will mentally
make note of various intermediate objectives to serve as stepping stones
for his further advance. He can never be certain that he will not
encounter the enemy, and must be prepared at all times for such an
event.

“If the patrol advances in one body, a hostile patrol will allow them to
approach and then ambuscade and capture them. Further, all the members
of the patrol would not be able to see much more than one man. If the
patrol advances in an extended line of skirmishers, capture is rendered
much more difficult, but each man will be acting more or less
independently, and it will be most difficult for the patrol leader to
control the operations.

“A patrol should assume the general formation of a column on the march,
_i. e._, there is an advance guard, a main body, flankers, and a rear
guard. These several elements may be represented by only one man, but
the principle is exactly the same. The advance man is necessary to give
warning of the approach of the enemy. The flankers are necessary to
watch toward the flanks and prevent the enemy from ambuscading the
patrol or working around its rear unobserved and cutting off its line of
retreat. The main body is necessary to back up the advance man and
protect him. The rear man is the “get-away man,” so that in case the
patrol is surprised by the enemy, at least one man will have a good
chance to escape and carry the news back to the support commander. You
must always remember that a patrol that goes out and does not return, or
is not heard from within a reasonable time, is the cause for a great
deal of uneasiness and anxiety back at the outpost line.

“Some authorities advocate that the patrol commander march as the
advance man of the patrol. This is not believed to be good tactics. He
should be centrally located so that he will be able to control the
operations of the patrol. The patrol leader has been selected for this
particular line of work. The officer who sent him out is depending on
him to carry out the mission upon which he has been sent and to get
information back. He should not, therefore, needlessly make himself a
target for the enemy marksman who may be lying in concealment at the
turn of a road or trail. If he is the leading man he will be so busily
occupied with the task of observation, that he will have little time
available for conducting the operations of the other members of the
patrol. Furthermore, if anything happens at the front that needs his
attention, he can go there in a very short space of time.

“When a small patrol is advancing along a road which is more or less
winding and has brush and trees along the side, it is believed that the
Boni point formation will usually meet the requirements. In this
formation the leading man walks along one side of the road, close up to
the brush. The next man follows him at a distance of about 25 yards on
the opposite side of the road. The remaining men follow at varying
distances on alternate sides of the road. The rear or get-away man
should march at least 75 yards in rear of his next preceding man.
Flankers are sent out when necessary and where it is possible to do so.

“You will be surprised to see how admirably this formation will meet the
situation under the conditions stated. The next time you are out on a
winding road through the woods, step over to one side and observe to the
front. Then go to the other side and repeat the operation. You will find
that from one side your view will be very much restricted, while from
the opposite side it will be much more extended. One trial will convince
you of the suitability of this formation.”


                               Procedure

_The Director_: “Now, having in mind what I have just said, I want each
member of the class to determine for himself just where each member of
the patrol would be at the moment he, himself, arrived at this point.
(The Director indicates the point on the ground where the patrol leader
is.) Make a rough sketch of this vicinity to show the solution.

    (Note.—The location selected for this situation should be one where
    there is something that will test the tactical knowledge of the
    student. To base it otherwise would be of little value.)

“We will allow a few minutes for the solution of this part of the
problem, during which time you should look over the ground and decide
upon the disposition of your patrol, just where each man will be at this
particular moment.”

When the members of the class have completed this solution they will be
collected and discussed.

    (Note.—The discussion will depend upon the solution. The points
    included in the Director’s explanation should be brought out and
    fully discussed.)


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Reconnoitering Patrol=                                =Card No. 4=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class along route of patrol to a distance of 600 yards.

  2. Explain distance assumption.

  3. Hand out Situation No. 4 and explain.

  4. Operation of patrol; no hard and fast rules; objectives; advancing
        in one body; skirmishers; column on march; patrol leader; Boni
        point system.

  5. Solution: Make sketch showing disposition of patrol.

  6. Discussion of solution.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The members of the class are now conducted along the line of march of
the patrol to a point where the road may be observed for a distance of
some several hundred yards.

The Director distributes the papers containing the following situation:


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 5=:

The patrol has arrived at this point. You, Sergeant B, are here. The
leading man halts, crouches down, points down the road, and holds his
rifle horizontally above his head.

_Required_:

What action do you, Sergeant B, take?


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, just what would you do under the
circumstances?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would interpret the actions of the leading man
to indicate that he has observed the enemy and that they are in small
numbers. I would signal the patrol to halt and then signal ‘DOWN,’ which
would indicate to the men that they are to take cover. I would then join
the leading man to see for myself what is happening out in front.”

_The Director_: “I think we may all agree that your solution up to this
point is correct. Now, let us assume that the leading man is at ——
(indicate exact location) and you are here. I want you to show the class
exactly how you would join him.

    (Note.—Lieutenant Ralston gives the practical demonstration and the
    class moves up to where the leading man is supposed to be.)

“Is there any member of the class that would do it differently?”

    (Note.—If any member has any criticism of the solution, have him go
    back to the starting point and demonstrate how he would do it.)


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Captain Harvey, let us assume that you are Sergeant B.
You have joined your leading man here and he points out to you what he
has seen. You observe six enemy infantrymen marching down the road in a
formation similar to the one your patrol is now in. The leading man is
at ——. (The Director points out the exact location of the enemy’s
leading man, which should be at least 500 yards distant.) Apparently
they have not observed you. What is your reaction to this situation?”

_Captain Harvey_: “At this moment I would have no means of telling
whether these men are an enemy patrol or the point of an advance guard.
The formation would be about the same. Can the Director give us definite
information on that point?”

_The Director_: “All right. Let us assume for the moment that it is an
enemy patrol. What would you do?”

_Captain Harvey_: “Under those circumstances, I would have my patrol
take cover and let the enemy patrol go on by.”

_The Director_: “That would be the logical thing to do. Now, let us
assume that the enemy are the point of an advance guard. What would you
do?”

_Captain Harvey_: “In that event I would open fire on them immediately.”

_The Director_: “What would be your object in doing that?”

_Captain Harvey_: “By opening fire I give warning to our outpost that
the enemy is advancing and I delay him because he will have to stop and
make more or less reconnaissance before proceeding.”

_The Director_: “Captain Hodges, do you agree with that solution?”

_Captain Hodges_: “No, sir. This is a reconnoitering patrol. Its mission
is to get information of the enemy’s strength and composition. If we
fire on the point of this advance guard, all hope of getting any
information of what is behind it is gone. It will not take the advance
party commander very long to discover that we are only a patrol and he
will simply run over us. Sufficient patrols will be sent out to the
flanks to keep us away and we will get no information of any value to
our own commander. I most certainly would not fire on the enemy at this
time.”

_The Director_: “What action would you take?”

_Captain Hodges_: “I would wait a few minutes to try and determine the
strength of the enemy’s advance party. This would give me a general line
on his strength. I would then send my leading man, who has seen the
enemy himself, back to the support commander as fast as he could go with
the information we have. This would be a verbal message. I would have no
chance to write it out. I would then conduct the rest of my patrol off
to the —— flank under cover with a view to working around abreast of the
enemy’s main body to secure information of his strength and composition.
I would keep in contact with him to try and discover the direction of
his deployment and what his intentions are. I would make strenuous
efforts to get all of this information back to my support commander.”

_The Director_: “Those are the points I wanted to bring out. I do not
think our patrol would be justified in opening fire on the enemy under
the circumstances. We will assume that the enemy troops are a patrol,
and that we have decided to avoid them and let them go on by. Just how
would you go about that task, Captain James?”

    (Note.—Captain James’ solution will depend upon the Terrain and the
    cover available.)


                               Procedure

The Director will point out to the class and dwell upon the principle
that, having decided to avoid the enemy’s patrol, the all-absorbing duty
of the patrol leader is to conceal his patrol so that the enemy will
have no information that it is anywhere in the vicinity. The measures to
accomplish this will then be worked out in the minutest detail. It may
be well to have members of the class take post to represent the members
of the patrol and have other members of the class to go out and
represent the enemy’s patrol and advance just as they would under
service conditions. Then have Captain James solve the problem of getting
his patrol under cover without being discovered by the enemy.


                              Explanation

_The Director_: “We must give the enemy’s patrol credit for being on the
alert and for having such a knowledge of tactics that he will do the
reasonably proper thing. If he sees one member of our patrol, the
difficulty of avoiding him will be doubly increased. Our task, then, is
to get to cover as quickly as possible. It is this seeming trivial
action that sometimes calls for all the ingenuity that the patrol leader
may possess. The road may be open for a considerable distance, so that
if one of the members of our patrol crosses from one side to the other
he will be seen and the position disclosed to the enemy. It may be
necessary for the patrol to fall back a short distance in order to
secure the necessary cover. It may be necessary, in order to avoid
discovery, to direct all men on one side of the road to take cover on
their side and the remainder to seek cover on the opposite side. This
means a dispersion of the patrol and the consequent danger of getting
lost and also the difficulties of assembling again. This points to the
advisability of training the men to all take cover on the same side of
the road when the enemy is encountered as in this case.”


                               Procedure

When members of the class are in place to represent the enemy and our
own patrol, the Director will give a signal and the movement starts. The
enemy patrol moves along as it would naturally and Captain James
proceeds to get the members of his patrol under cover. His method should
be discussed by the class and the defects of it pointed out. It may be
necessary to enact the solution several times before a satisfactory one
is found.

The demonstration completed and the class again assembled, the Director
proceeds with the problem.


                              The Problem

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Baker, would you send back any message to
the support commander about the enemy patrol?”


                                Solution

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I think that is a point that the patrol commander
should consider. I am not clear in my own mind just what should be done
under the circumstances. I would be pleased to have the Director
enlighten us on the subject.”

_The Director_: “We assume that this is a small enemy reconnoitering
patrol. It would have the same mission as our own patrol. The point to
be considered is whether or not anything in the message you send back
would materially assist in the defense of the outpost line, or whether
it could contain any information of special value to the outpost
commander. Our covering patrols sent out from the supports will keep the
enemy away from the outpost line. They will soon discover that it is
only a small patrol and will drive it off. We have only a few men with
the patrol. If one is sent back with a message at this time it may leave
the patrol leader shorthanded when there is something really important
that must be sent back. The mission of the patrol is to secure
information of the enemy’s main body. That is the information that is of
importance to the support and outpost commander. I do not believe the
patrol commander would be justified in sending back a message at this
time.”

_Lieutenant Baker_: “I see the point.”

    (Note.—Should any members of the class insist that a message should
    be sent back, he may be called upon to compose the message, and it
    should be examined to see whether it contains information that is
    vital to the defense of the outpost.)


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Reconnoitering Patrol=                                =Card No. 5=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to point where a view of road to front for several
        hundred yards is available.

  2. Distribute problem.

  3. Enter on solution: Signal of leading man; method of joining leading
        man.

  4. Enemy advance guard or patrol. Question of firing on enemy.

  5. Method of evading enemy patrol. Practical demonstration. Discussion
        of methods; difficulties.

  6. Write out message. Contents; information of enemy main.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted to a point where they have a view of an open
field some 1,200 yards distant. It may be assumed that the patrol has
marched several miles in order to arrive at this place.

The Director now distributes the sheets containing Situation No. 6.

=Situation No. 6=:

The patrol successfully evaded the enemy’s patrol, continued the march,
and without encountering any other enemy troops has arrived at this
point. The enemy patrol proceeded on down the road toward the outpost
line.

On arriving here you observe a force of the enemy marching into that
field. They are apparently going into bivouac. You estimate the enemy to
be one regiment of Infantry.

_Required_:

What action do you take?


                               Procedure

The Director should point out the location of the enemy and should
indicate the exact location of each member of the patrol, so that all
members of the class will make their solutions on the same basis.

_The Director_: “Captain Hall, what would you do under the
circumstances?”

_Captain Hall_: “I would send a message to the support commander telling
him what I have seen.”

_The Director_: “Is there anything that you would do before starting to
compose your message?”

_Captain Hall_: “I do not think so. I have located the enemy and want to
get the information back as quickly as possible.”

_The Director_: “That is true. But there are certain things that must be
done in connection with it. You have discovered what you estimate to be
the enemy’s main body. You know the strength and composition of it. You
know what he is doing for the time being. The members of your patrol are
still in patrol formation and must be told what to do. In other words,
there are several things to be done. In the first place, you want to
dispose your men for observation of the enemy and to prevent surprise.
Enemy patrols may be operating in the vicinity. One of these may pick
you up and prevent you from getting any information back. This is the
thing you must guard against. You must consider the contents of your
message and you must figure out how you are going to get it back
considering the fact that there is an enemy patrol of six men operating
between you and the outpost line.

“When the patrol has encountered the enemy the disposition must be such
as to permit the leader to observe the hostile force for the purpose of
forming an estimate of its strength and composition, dispositions, and
probable intentions. With this end in view, the leader must go to a
vantage point from which he may obtain a good view of the enemy. The
remaining members of the patrol must be so disposed as to guard all the
avenues of approach from the known direction of the enemy’s forces, in
order to prevent surprise.

“Lieutenant Barry, what disposition would you make of the members of the
patrol?”


                                Solution

_Lieutenant Barry_: “I would select a good observation point where I can
see the enemy and what he is doing. I would select two of the men to
carry the message back. I would post a man to watch for enemy patrols
and post a get-away man somewhat to my rear.”

_The Director_: “All right. Select your observation post and give the
orders necessary to carry out what you have just said.”

The solution will depend upon the lay of the ground. The points to be
brought out are that patrol leaders must be able to observe the enemy in
security and not have to bother about being surprised by enemy patrols.
The lookouts will be posted so that they can watch the approaches. The
men that are to carry the message should be with Sergeant B while he is
composing it so that they will be able to tell the support commander all
about the situation when they get back with the message. The get-away
man will be posted in such position as will make sure that he will not
be included in any disaster to the patrol.


                               Procedure

The dispositions having been completed, the next question is that of the
contents of the message.

_The Director_: “I want each member of the class to write out the body
of the message that he would send back to the support commander.”

When the message has been completed and turned in by all the class they
are distributed and various members called upon to read and comment on
the one in his possession. The points that should be included in the
message are:

1. Information of the strength and composition of the enemy main body.
What he is doing.

2. Information of the strength and composition of the enemy patrol that
was passed.

3. The future action of the patrol in so far as it can be determined.


                                Solution

The Director should then compose a message covering the above
requirements and submit it to the class for discussion.

    “Have observed a force of the enemy, estimated one regiment of
    Infantry at —— (give location). They are now going into bivouac. A
    hostile patrol of six men passed my patrol at —— (give location) at
    —— (time) which proceeded in the direction of the outpost line. I
    will remain in observation until forced to retire or darkness
    prevents further reconnaissance.”

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Hunt, how would you get the message back to
the support commander?”

_Lieutenant Hunt_: “I have had Anderson and Bailey here with me while
making my observations and composing the message. I will send it back by
them, each man taking a different route. I will read the message to
them. I will indicate on the map the general route that each man is to
take in going back to the support and caution each of them to look out
for the enemy patrol that is between us and the outpost line. By sending
the message by two men going over different routes I am almost sure to
get it through. If one of them runs into the enemy, it is pretty safe to
say that the other will not.”

_The Director_: “I think your sizing up of the situation is very good.
You have taken all the precautions possible for getting the message back
safely to the support commander.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Reconnoitering Patrol=                                =Card No. 6=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to point where they can see enemy. Distribute
        Situation No. 6. Point out location of the enemy.

  2. Disposition of the patrol for observation—observers, men to carry
        message, get-away man.

  3. Write out message. Contents; information of enemy main body, enemy
        patrol, future plans of the patrol leader. Prepare message for
        discussion.

  4. Send back message by two messengers. Chances for getting through
        with it.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The Director now distributes the sheets containing Situation No. 7 to
the members of the class. A few minutes are allowed to read it over, and
it is explained.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 7=:

You are still observing the enemy. Nothing has happened to cause you to
change your estimate of his strength and composition. His outposts are
being established and they are pushing out patrols to the front and
flanks. Your position is becoming untenable. You have heard distant
firing in the direction of the Blue troops.

_Required_:

What action do you, Sergeant B, take?


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Williams, what would you do?”

_Lieutenant Williams_: “I estimate that it is about time for me to be
getting out with what is left of my patrol. I have accomplished my
mission in so far as the main body of the enemy is concerned. His
bivouac for the night has been located. He has established his outposts,
which indicates that he will probably not make any more moves today. The
operations of the hostile patrols will soon make my position untenable.
There is little to be gained by my staying here any longer and taking a
chance on being picked up. I would get on my way back to my own troops.”

_The Director_: “Has any member of the class any criticism of that
solution?”

_Captain Hastings_: “It seems to me that Sergeant B would now have
another mission imposed upon him by the conditions. It is that of
intercepting enemy scouts from getting back with information from the
patrol that passed us. How about that?”

_The Director_: “That is true. It is the point that I was going to bring
up next. The fact that you have heard firing from the direction of our
own troops indicates that contact has been gained and the enemy patrol
has gotten some information of our forces. This he will endeavor to get
back to his own commander. In view of the fact that the patrol leader
does not know that our patrol is between him and his own troops he may
not think it necessary to take the precautions to send it by two
messengers, and I think it is reasonable to assume that he will direct
his messenger along the main road where he can make the better time than
he can in going across country. You now have two men with you, Carlin
and Davis. How would you manage the withdrawal and what would be your
formation on the way back? What route would you take? How would you
solve all of these points, Captain Hastings?”

_Captain Hastings_: “I would signal Carlin, who is observer, to join me.
This accomplished, I would signal Davis to move out toward the main
road. I would make my withdrawal as rapidly as possible and when we get
away some little distance I would signal Davis to slow down until we
caught up with him. I would get on or near the main road and march with
Davis as the leading man, following him at a distance of about 25 yards
and have Carlin follow me at the same distance. I would keep a sharp
lookout for enemy scouts with a view to intercepting them.”

_The Director_: “I think your solution meets the situation very well.
Are there any questions?”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Reconnoitering Patrol=                                =Card No. 7=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Distribute sheets containing Situation No. 7. Read and explain.

  2. Withdrawal of patrol. Accomplished mission.

  3. New mission to intercept messengers from enemy patrol.

  4. Formation for withdrawal.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                               Procedure

The class is now conducted back along the main road to a point selected
for Situation No. 8.


                              The Problem

=Situation No. 8=:

When you arrive at this point you observe an enemy scout coming down the
road in your direction at a walk. You can see some distance beyond him
and he appears to be alone. (The Director will point out the location of
the enemy scout.)

_Required_:

What do you do?


                                Solution

_The Director_: “Lieutenant Ralston, how do you size up the situation?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I estimate that the man is carrying a message
from his patrol leader to the commander of the Red forces. My mission is
to capture him and prevent the message going back. If practicable the
capture must be effected without resorting to firing. If we have to fire
it will give warning to the enemy’s patrol operating toward our outpost
and the patrol commander would assume that his messenger is in trouble
and would send another message by another route. Furthermore, firing at
this time would give the alarm to the patrols operating from the hostile
outpost, and they would rush to the rescue of their comrades.”

_The Director_: “Tell us just how you would go about the capture of the
messenger?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would form an ambuscade here with Davis and
myself on one side of the road and Carlin on the other side about 25
yards in rear of us. When the messenger arrives at about 10 yards from
us, Davis and myself will jump out into the road and order him to
surrender. We will endeavor to surprise him and take him without firing
a shot. If by any chance he should get by us, Carlin would be in
position to intercept him.”

_The Director_: “Just what would you say when you order him to
surrender?”

_Lieutenant Ralston_: “I would jump out on the side of the road, level
my rifle at him and yell at him as loud as I could, ‘Drop your
rifle—throw up your hands.’ If he did as ordered I would explain to him
that he is now a prisoner of war and that resistance is useless. If he
did not do as I told him on the instant or if he made any attempt to
escape or move to fire on me I would open fire on him at once. I would
take no chances with him.”

_The Director_: “That seems to be a reasonable solution. This is a very
simple proposition and presents little difficulty. It is brought before
you at this time merely to show you the procedure that makes for
reasonable chances for success. The capture of several scouts or a
patrol is a much more difficult undertaking.

“It is a general rule in the attempt to capture members of a patrol that
the situation we desire to produce when we meet them is that they should
be marching and that we should be halted. By adopting this method, we
form an ambuscade.”


                  *       *       *       *       *

  =Reconnoitering Patrol=                                =Card No. 8=

                            =Director’s Key=

  1. Conduct class to point where ambush may be arranged for.

  2. Distribute Situation No. 8 and explain it.

  3. Size up situation. Enemy messenger.

  4. Details of ambush and method of capture.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                 TABLE 28-W.—RIFLE COMPANY, INFANTRY REGIMENT.
                                 (War Strength)

 ══╤══════════════╤═══════╤════════╤════════╤═════╤═════════╤════════╤═════════
   │      1       │   2   │   3    │   4    │  5  │    6    │   7    │    8
 ──┼──────────────┼───────┼────────┼────────┴─────┴─────────┴────────┼─────────
   │              │       │        │                                 │  Total
   │              │       │        │                                 │ Company
   │              │ Spe-  │Company │                                 │   (3
 1 │     Units    │cialist│ Head-  │           One Platoon           │Platoons)
   │              │Rating │quarters│                                 │   and
   │              │(Class)│        │                                 │ Company
   │              │       │        │                                 │  Head-
   │              │       │        │                                 │quarters
 ──┼──────────────┼───────┼────────┼────────┬─────┬─────────┬────────┼─────────
   │              │       │        │        │     │1 Section│ Total  │
   │              │       │        │        │     │(3 Squads│Platoon │
   │              │       │        │Platoon │     │   and   │   (2   │
   │              │       │        │ Head-  │  1  │ Section │Sections│
   │              │       │        │quarters│Squad│  Head-  │  and   │
   │              │       │        │        │     │quarters)│Platoon │
   │              │       │        │        │     │  [16]   │ Head-  │
   │              │       │        │        │     │         │quarters│
 ──┼──────────────┼───────┼────────┼────────┼─────┼─────────┼────────┼─────────
  2│Captain       │       │       1│        │     │         │        │        1
  3│First         │       │   1[17]│     {1}│     │         │     {1}│ 2(1[17])
   │  Lieutenants │       │        │        │     │         │        │
  4│Second        │       │        │     {„}│     │         │     {„}│        2
   │  Lieutenants │       │        │        │     │         │        │
  5│  Total       │       │2(1[17])│       1│     │         │       1│ 5(1[17])
   │  Commissioned│       │        │        │     │         │        │
 ──┼──────────────┼───────┼────────┼────────┼─────┼─────────┼────────┼─────────
  6│First Sergeant│       │       1│        │     │         │        │        1
  7│Sergeants,    │       │       3│       1│     │        1│       3│       12
   │  incl.       │       │        │        │     │         │        │
  8│  Mess        │       │     (1)│        │     │         │        │
  9│  Platoon     │       │        │     (1)│     │         │        │
   │  Sergeants   │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 10│  Section     │       │        │        │     │      (1)│        │
   │  Leaders     │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 11│  Signal      │       │     (1)│        │     │         │        │
 12│  Supply      │       │     (1)│        │     │         │        │
 13│Corporals,    │       │       2│        │    1│        4│       8│       26
   │  incl.       │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 14│  Company     │       │     (1)│        │     │         │        │
   │  Clerk       │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 15│  Section     │       │        │        │     │      (1)│        │
   │  Guides      │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 16│  Signal      │       │     (1)│        │     │         │        │
 17│  Squad       │       │        │        │  (1)│      (3)│        │
   │  Leaders     │       │        │        │     │         │        │
   │Pvts. 1st Cl. │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 18│  & Pvts.,    │       │      17│       4│    7│       21│      46│161[18][19]
   │  incl.       │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 19│  Barber      │       │     (1)│        │     │         │        │
 20│  Buglers     │       │     (2)│        │     │         │        │
 21│  Cobbler     │       │     (1)│        │     │         │        │
 22│  Cooks       │    4th│     (2)│        │     │         │        │
   │  (First)     │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 23│  Cooks       │    5th│     (2)│        │     │         │        │
   │  (Asst.)     │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 24│  Mechanics   │    6th│     (2)│        │     │         │        │
 25│  Riflemen    │       │        │        │  (5)│         │        │
 26│  Riflemen,   │    6th│        │        │  (1)│      (1)│     (2)│      (6)
   │  automatic   │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 27│  Riflemen,   │       │        │        │     │      (2)│     (4)│     (12)
   │  automatic   │       │        │        │     │         │        │
   │  Riflemen,   │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 28│  with grenade│       │        │        │  (1)│         │        │
   │  disch.      │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 29│  Runners and │       │     (6)│     (4)│     │         │        │
   │  Agents      │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 30│  Tailor      │       │     (1)│        │     │         │        │
 31│  Total       │       │      23│       5│    8│       26│      57│  200[19]
   │  Enlisted    │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 ──┼──────────────┼───────┼────────┼────────┼─────┼─────────┼────────┼─────────
 32│  AGGREGATE   │       │      25│       6│    8│   26[16]│      58│      205
 ──┼──────────────┼───────┼────────┼────────┼─────┼─────────┼────────┼─────────
 33│Pistols       │       │       9│       2│    1│        3│       8│       33
 34│Rifles        │       │      16│       4│    6│       20│      44│      148
 35│Rifles,       │       │        │        │    1│        3│       6│       18
   │  automatic   │       │        │        │     │         │        │
   │Rifles, with  │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 36│  grenade     │       │        │        │    1│        3│       6│       18
   │  discharger  │       │        │        │     │         │        │
 ══╧══════════════╧═══════╧════════╧════════╧═════╧═════════╧════════╧═════════

Footnote 16:

  Includes Section Headquarters (1 Sergeant and 1 Corporal).

Footnote 17:

  Second in Command. Not authorized for War Strength Companies organized
  in time of peace.

Footnote 18:

  Includes: 53 Privates 1st Class, 108 Privates. Summary of Specialist
  Ratings: Fourth Class, 2; Fifth Class, 2; Sixth Class, 8.

Footnote 19:

  Includes 6 extra privates.

           TABLE 29-W.—MACHINE GUN COMPANY, INFANTRY REGIMENT
                             (War Strength)

 ══╤════════════════╤══════════╤════════════╤═══════
   │       1        │    2     │     3      │   4
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
   │                │          │            │
   │                │          │            │
   │                │Specialist│            │
 1 │     Units      │  Rating  │  Company   │Company
   │                │ (Class)  │Headquarters│ Train
   │                │          │            │
   │                │          │            │
   │                │          │            │
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
   │                │          │            │
   │                │          │            │
   │                │          │            │
   │                │          │            │
   │                │          │            │
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
  2│Captain         │          │          1h│
  3│First           │          │         1hx│
   │  Lieutenants   │          │            │
  4│Second          │          │         1hc│
   │  Lieutenants   │          │            │
  5│  Total         │          │       3(1x)│
   │    Commissioned│          │            │
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
  6│First Sergeant  │          │          1h│
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
  7│Sergeants, incl.│          │           4│      1
  8│  Mess          │          │         (1)│
  9│  Platoon       │          │            │
   │    Sergeants   │          │            │
 10│  Reconnaissance│          │         (1)│
 11│  Section       │          │            │
   │    Leaders     │          │            │
 12│  Signal        │          │         (1)│
 13│  Stable        │          │            │   (1m)
 14│  Supply        │          │         (1)│
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
 15│Corporals, incl.│          │           2│
 16│  Agents        │          │            │
 17│  Company Clerk │          │         (1)│
 18│  Signal        │          │         (1)│
 19│  Squad Leaders │          │            │
 20│  Transport     │          │            │
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
 21│Privates, 1st   │          │          17│      4
   │  Cl. and Priv. │          │            │
 22│  Barber        │          │         (1)│
 23│  Buglers       │          │        (2h)│
 24│  Cobbler       │          │         (1)│
 25│  Cooks (First) │       4th│         (1)│
 26│  Cooks (Asst.) │       5th│         (2)│
 27│  Gunners       │       6th│            │
 28│  Gunners       │          │            │
 29│  Horseshoer    │       4th│            │    (1)
 30│  Mechanics     │       6th│         (2)│
 31│  Motorcyclist  │       6th│            │    (1)
 32│  Saddler       │       5th│            │    (1)
 33│  Tailor        │          │         (1)│
 34│  Miscellaneous │          │        (7d)│   (1e)
 35│  Total Enlisted│          │          24│      5
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
 36│   AGGREGATE    │          │          27│      5
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
 37│Horses, riding  │          │           6│
 38│Mules, draft    │          │            │
 39│Mules, riding   │          │            │      1
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
 40│ Total Animals  │          │           6│      1
 ──┼────────────────┼──────────┼────────────┼───────
   │Carts,          │          │            │
 41│  ammunition, M.│          │            │
   │  G.            │          │            │
 42│Carts, M. G. gun│          │            │
 43│Bicycles        │          │           1│
 44│Motorcycles,    │          │            │      1
   │  with side cars│          │            │
 45│Miscellaneous   │          │            │
 46│Pistols         │          │          27│      5
 ══╧════════════════╧══════════╧════════════╧═══════

 ══╤════════════════╤════════════╤═══════╤═════════════╤═════════════╤═════════
   │       1        │     5      │   6   │      7      │      8      │    9
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┴───────┴─────────────┴─────────────┼─────────
   │                │                                                │  Total
   │                │                                                │ Company
   │                │                                                │   (2
 1 │     Units      │                  One Platoon                   │Platoons,
   │                │                                                │ Company
   │                │                                                │ Hq. and
   │                │                                                │ Company
   │                │                                                │ Train)
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┬───────┬─────────────┬─────────────┼─────────
   │                │            │1 Squad│1 Section (2 │Total Platoon│
   │                │  Platoon   │  (1   │ Squads and  │ (2 Sections │
   │                │Headquarters│Machine│   Section   │ and Platoon │
   │                │            │ Gun)  │Headquarters)│Headquarters)│
   │                │            │       │     (b)     │             │
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
  2│Captain         │            │       │             │             │        1
  3│First           │           1│       │             │            1│    3(1x)
   │  Lieutenants   │            │       │             │             │
  4│Second          │            │       │             │             │        1
   │  Lieutenants   │            │       │             │             │
  5│  Total         │           1│       │             │            1│    5(1x)
   │    Commissioned│            │       │             │             │
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
  6│First Sergeant  │            │       │             │             │        1
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
  7│Sergeants, incl.│           1│       │            1│            3│       11
  8│  Mess          │            │       │             │             │
  9│  Platoon       │         (1)│       │             │             │
   │    Sergeants   │            │       │             │             │
 10│  Reconnaissance│            │       │             │             │
 11│  Section       │            │       │          (1)│             │
   │    Leaders     │            │       │             │             │
 12│  Signal        │            │       │             │             │
 13│  Stable        │            │       │             │             │
 14│  Supply        │            │       │             │             │
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
 15│Corporals, incl.│           2│      1│            2│            6│       14
 16│  Agents        │         (1)│       │             │             │
 17│  Company Clerk │            │       │             │             │
 18│  Signal        │            │       │             │             │
 19│  Squad Leaders │            │    (1)│             │             │
 20│  Transport     │         (1)│       │             │             │
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
 21│Privates, 1st   │           7│     10│           20│           47│     115a
   │  Cl. and Priv. │            │       │             │             │
 22│  Barber        │            │       │             │             │
 23│  Buglers       │            │       │             │             │
 24│  Cobbler       │            │       │             │             │
 25│  Cooks (First) │            │       │             │             │
 26│  Cooks (Asst.) │            │       │             │             │
 27│  Gunners       │            │    (1)│          (2)│          (4)│      (3)
 28│  Gunners       │            │       │             │             │      (5)
 29│  Horseshoer    │            │       │             │             │
 30│  Mechanics     │            │       │             │             │
 31│  Motorcyclist  │            │       │             │             │
 32│  Saddler       │            │       │             │             │
 33│  Tailor        │            │       │             │             │
 34│  Miscellaneous │        (7d)│   (9f)│             │             │
 35│  Total Enlisted│          10│     11│          23b│           56│      141
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
 36│   AGGREGATE    │          11│     11│           23│           57│      146
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
 37│Horses, riding  │           1│       │             │            1│        8
 38│Mules, draft    │            │      2│            4│            8│       16
 39│Mules, riding   │            │       │             │             │        1
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
 40│ Total Animals  │           1│      2│            4│            9│       25
 ──┼────────────────┼────────────┼───────┼─────────────┼─────────────┼─────────
   │Carts,          │            │       │             │             │
 41│  ammunition, M.│            │      1│            2│            4│        8
   │  G.            │            │       │             │             │
 42│Carts, M. G. gun│            │      1│            2│            4│        8
 43│Bicycles        │           1│       │             │            1│        3
 44│Motorcycles,    │            │       │             │             │        1
   │  with side cars│            │       │             │             │
 45│Miscellaneous   │            │      1│            2│            4│        8
 46│Pistols         │          11│     11│           23│           57│      146
 ══╧════════════════╧════════════╧═══════╧═════════════╧═════════════╧═════════

 Remarks:

      (h) Mounted on horse.

      (m) Mounted on mule.

      (a) Includes: 35 Privates 1st Class, 80 Privates.

          Summary of Specialist Ratings: 4th Class, 2; 5th Class, 3; 6th
            Class, 6.

      (b) Section Headquarters includes 1 sergeant.

      (c) Reconnaissance Officer.

      (d) Signalmen, runners, agents and orderlies, 1 bicyclist.

      (e) Stable orderly.

      (f) Includes 2 drivers for gun and ammunition carts.

      (x) Second in Command. Not authorized for War Strength Companies
            organized in time of peace.

-----

Footnote 1:

  See explanation of Letter Symbols.

Footnote 2:

  Right or left as the case may be.

Footnote 3:

  Right or left as the case may be.

Footnote 4:

  See explanation of Letter Symbols.

Footnote 5:

  Prepared by Major Walter C. Short, Infantry.

Footnote 6:

  When the Terrain Exercise is being conducted for non-commissioned
  officers this explanation should be modified to suit the occasion.

Footnote 7:

  In making a solution to this situation on the ground, the exact
  location of each man of the point, and especially the automatic
  rifleman, should be indicated and staked out.

Footnote 8:

  The details of the advance against the enemy’s position should be
  discussed by the class and worked out on the ground. It is impossible
  to consider it in the abstract.

Footnote 9:

  Captain James would include in his dispositions any flank patrols that
  would be out at this time.

Footnote 10:

  The terrain may be such as to cause a reversal of this disposition.
  The idea is that the support on the flank should be posted so as to
  cover the most exposed flank.

Footnote 11:

  See explanation of Symbols.

Footnote 12:

  In the preparation of the Terrain Exercise and fitting the problem to
  the ground, the Director should decide upon the location of the line
  of observation and the line of resistance and bring out the points
  indicated above. He should decide upon the location of the outguards
  and their strength.

Footnote 13:

  The Director should take advantage of every opportunity to get members
  of the class to ask questions. It is by this means that we are able to
  bring out the tactical points of the problems and make them clear. If
  no questions are asked, it is natural to assume that the members of
  the class understand everything that is under discussion, whereas many
  of them may not understand at all. The more questions a Director can
  get out of a class the more effective will the training be.

Footnote 14:

  The members of the class are already familiar with the detailed
  dispositions of outguard No. 2.

Footnote 15:

  If there is no map available the support commander should indicate as
  well as practicable the location of the enemy and the road.

------------------------------------------------------------------------


                  *       *       *       *       *



                                                  SUBJECTS
 Reserve                                       Administration
 Officers’                                      Military Law
 Examiner                                  Customs of the Service
                                          Field Service Regulations
                                              Military Hygiene

   =“Please RUSH a copy of Reserve Officers’ Examiner to my address”=

This is the form of order that comes to us day after day. Sometimes in a
letter, sometimes by wire, often accompanied by a request for special
delivery service. Many times a passage is added:

   =“I am ordered up for examination and need the book right away.”=

The point we make is this. The mere possession of a copy of Reserve
Officers’ Examiner will not prepare you for examination for promotion or
keep you in touch with the subjects it covers. You must know its
contents. These may not be absorbed by the average man by a casual
glance through the book. Its contents must be studied the same as you
study anything else you want to learn.

You should not put off getting your copy of Reserve Officers’ Examiner
until the last minute—when you are face to face with your examination.
Get your copy now. Devote a little time to the study of its contents.
Then when the opportunity comes for promotion—as it surely will—you will
be prepared for it.

                             _Price, $2.00_

                  *       *       *       *       *


                  *       *       *       *       *



                                Steele’s


_Prepared originally for students of the Army Service Schools in
conjunction with their course in military history._

_Much has been written on the individual campaigns and battles that make
up our military history, but this is the only single work that contains
a comprehensive narrative of the whole down to and including the
Spanish-American War._

_The present edition is a reprint from new type and plates of the work
which originally appeared in 1909, and which has been unobtainable
except in second-hand book shops for many years._


                     =Two handsome volumes in box=

                        =Price, $10.00 per set=

                _A postcard will secure a copy for you_

                  *       *       *       *       *


                  *       *       *       *       *



                             EMPLOYMENT OF
                              MACHINE GUNS


                 _By Major_ WALTER C. SHORT, _Infantry_

The first comprehensive study of American machine gun tactics as
developed in the World War.

The only text on machine guns based on the present Tables of
Organization.

The proper tactical employment of machine guns.

Tactical principles and orders illustrated by means of map problems.

Gives the complete organization and equipment of machine gun units.

Illustrates the effective cooperation of infantry and cavalry machine
gun units.

Shows the company machine gun officer how to support the rifleman.

Duties of the personnel and characteristics of machine guns discussed.

                             =PRICE $3.50=

                  *       *       *       *       *



                  *       *       *       *       *

  Thirty-Minute
  Talks—


                                   By

                         COLONEL M. B. STEWART

                                  and

                         LT. COL. W. H. WALDRON

                         Cloth Bound—387 Pages

Explaining is half the work of instructing. Talk saves work—when it is
the right kind of talk. For the instructor, explaining—talking is the
hardest part because it means constant brushing up, reading, study,
thought and planning—all of which takes time, and time counts heavily in
the game of intensive training.

THIRTY-MINUTE TALKS are offered as time-savers for the instructor. They
are in no sense treatises of the subjects considered—just plain,
everyday talks, in language the man new to the service will be able to
understand. They will save the instructor’s time by furnishing him with
a guide which he may rearrange or elaborate as he chooses.

The subject matter of the Thirty-Minute Talks are as follows:

 ORGANIZATION.
 TRAINING.
 INSTRUCTING.
 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT.
 CLOSE ORDER DRILL.
 EXTENDED ORDER DRILL.
 MILITARY COURTESY.
 MILITARY DISCIPLINE.
 CARE OF ARMS AND EQUIPMENT.
 ADVANCE GUARDS.
 OUTPOSTS.
 SCOUTING AND PATROLLING.
 COMBAT.
 APPROACH MARCH AND DEPLOYMENT.
 MUSKETRY.
 ORDERS AND MESSAGES.
 FIELD FORTIFICATIONS.
 MAP READING.
 MILITARY SKETCHING.
 CONTOURING.

                         PRICE, $2.50, POSTPAID

                       U. S. Infantry Association
                           Washington, D. C.

                  *       *       *       *       *

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES


 1. Silently corrected typographical errors and variations in spelling.
 2. Archaic, non-standard, and uncertain spellings retained as printed.
 3. Footnotes have been re-indexed using numbers and collected together
      at the end of the last chapter.
 4. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.
 5. Enclosed bold font in =equals=.





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