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Title: The Horse's Friend - The Only Practical Method of Educating the Horse and - Eradicating Vicious Habits
Author: Pratt, O. S.
Language: English
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[Illustration: O. S. Pratt]



                           THE HORSE’S FRIEND.

                        THE ONLY PRACTICAL METHOD
                                   OF
                           EDUCATING THE HORSE
                                   AND
                       ERADICATING VICIOUS HABITS,
       FOLLOWED BY A VARIETY OF VALUABLE RECIPES, INSTRUCTIONS IN
      FARRIERY, HORSESHOEING, THE LATEST RULES OF TROTTING, AND THE
                    RECORD OF FAST HORSES UP TO 1876.

                             [Illustration]

                          BY PROF. O. S. PRATT.

                             TENTH THOUSAND.

      ILLUSTRATED BY OVER ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY ELEGANT ENGRAVINGS.

                                BUFFALO:
                        PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR.
                                  1876.

       Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1875, by
                              O. S. PRATT,
     In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C.

      Entered according to the act of the Parliament of Canada, in
                            the year 1876, by
                              O. S. PRATT,
              In the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.

               The Electrotyping, Printing and Binding, by
                          THE COURIER COMPANY,
                             BUFFALO, N. Y.

                    The Drawing and Engraving, by the
                         BUREAU OF ILLUSTRATION,
                             BUFFALO, N. Y.



DEDICATION.


To His Excellency, ULYSSES S. GRANT, President of the United States;
to the members of the two houses of Congress, and to the gentlemen
connected with Foreign Legations, who have belonged to my private
classes, in connection with the thousands in all the principal cities
and towns of the United States and Canada, who have been members of my
various classes, this work on THE EDUCATION OF THE HORSE, is respectfully
dedicated. Cheered by their presence, and encouraged by their approbation
during the eight years in which the author has been engaged in
diffusing a knowledge of his system of Equine Education, their generous
appreciation continues to fill the present with treasured memories of the
past, amongst the most prized of which is that of the friendship it has
been his happiness to secure from gentlemen distinguished alike in the
walks of politics, religion, science, literature and art.

                                                              THE AUTHOR.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


    Portrait of O. S. Pratt,                                  Frontispiece.

    The old homestead,                                                  16

    My first store in Batavia,                                          22

    My second and enlarged store,                                       26

    Gold-headed cane,                                                   51

    Gold-mounted whip,                                                  61

    Portrait of Mrs. Pratt,                                             78

    Washington gold medal,                                              82

    Bridgeport Academy,                                                 94

    Nahant Beach residence,                                            100

    Lewiston Academy,                                                  108

    Music box,                                                         120

    Silver tea-service,                                                130

    New method of haltering a wild colt,                               160

    To educate to the words “Come here”,                               164

    How to lay a horse down,                                           168

    How to get a horse up that throws himself,                         172

    To educate a colt not to be afraid of his heels,                   176

    To educate a colt to drive before being harnessed,                 180

    To educate a colt to move his body and head,                       184

    Improved method of bitting a colt,                                 188

    Educating the colt to ride,                                        192

    Instructions to ride the colt,                                     196

    To halter-break a colt,                                            200

    To educate a horse not to kick in the stable,                      204

    To educate a horse not to paw or kick in the stable,               208

    To educate a horse not to get cast in the stall,                   212

    To educate a colt to lead behind a wagon,                          216

    To educate a horse bad to catch,                                   220

    To educate a horse not to rear,                                    224

    To educate and prevent a horse from cribbing,                      226

    To educate and break a halter-puller,                              232

    To educate a horse not to kick when line gets under his tail,      236

    To educate a horse not to kick,                                    240

    To educate a horse bad to groom,                                   246

    Bits used in educating horses,                                     250

    To educate horses not to fear objects when driving,                256

    To educate a horse not to fear an umbrella,                        260

    Second lesson,                                                     264

    To educate a single-footed horse to trot square,                   268

    To educate a pacing horse to trot,                                 272

    To educate a horse to trot,                                        276

    To educate a horse not to kick while in shafts,                    280

    To educate a lazy horse and infuse life into him,                  286

    To start a balky horse,                                            290

    To educate a balky horse,                                          294

    To educate a horse not to kick while being shod,                   298

    To educate a horse while standing bad to shoe,                     302

    Double-hitch Bonaparte bridle,                                     306

    Controlling a horse bad to shoe,                                   310

    To educate a horse not to fear the cars,                           314

    To educate a horse to back at the word of command,                 318

    To educate horses or cattle not to jump fences,                    322

    To educate a cow not to kick while being milked,                   326

    To educate a cow to let her milk down,                             330

    Practical results of foregoing education,                          334

    To educate cattle to lead behind a wagon,                          338

    To educate a tender-mouthed horse,                                 342

    To educate horses not to fear a buffalo robe,                      345

    Patent steel and hoof-expanding shoe,                              362

    To educate a horse to mount a pedestal,                            366

    To educate a horse to walk on his hind feet,                       370

    To educate a horse to push a vehicle,                              376

    To educate a horse to be vicious,                                  378

    To educate a horse to walk on his knees,                           382

    To educate a horse to drive a boy off the pedestal,                386

    To educate a horse to sit down,                                    390

    To educate a horse to bore for oil,                                394

    A sure method of making a horse bad to catch,                      398

    To educate a horse to take a handkerchief from his side,           402

    To educate a horse to kiss a boy,                                  406

    System of educating dogs,                                          410

    Another illustration of educating dogs,                            414

    Curing colic in horses,                                            418

    The only practical way to give a horse medicine,                   422

    New method of telling the horse’s age,                     426 and 427

    To prevent horses from interfering or overreaching,                440

    Paring the hoof,                                                   451

    Long foot before treatment,                                        452

    Long foot after treatment,                                         453

    Coffin-bone,                                                       454

    Fitting a shoe to remove pressure from the heel,                   456

    Instructions respecting the feet,                                  457

    Contracted foot after treatment,                                   458

    Expanding the foot after it has been pared out,                    461

    Lateral quarter-crack before treatment,                            462

    Quarter-crack under treatment,                                     463

    Straight quarter-crack under treatment,                            464

    Quarter-crack after treatment,                                     467

    Toe crack before treatment,                                        468

    Toe crack after treatment,                                         473

    Four engravings showing thrush and pumice foot,                    474

    Hoof-bound, under treatment,                                       475

    Overgrowth of hoof,                                                479

    Overgrowth of hoof—front view before treatment,                    480

    Overgrowth of hoof—front view after treatment,                     481

    Navicula—enlargement of metacarpal bone,                           482

    Showing how to find enlargement of metacarpal bone,                488

    A foot that is deprived of the free use of the back tendons,       490

    Ossified growth of upper and lower pastern joint,                  491

    The sensitive frog,                                                492

    Section of the pastern and other bones,                            494



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


                               CHAPTER I.

    Introduction—Early Life—Thirst for Knowledge—First Attempts in
    Business—Success—Marriage,                                          11

                               CHAPTER II.

    Enlarging Business—Attachment to the Horse—Visits to Batavia of
    Rarey and Hamilton—My own System—Coming before the Public—Early
    Success,                                                            24

                              CHAPTER III.

    Visit to Montrose—Large Class at Scranton—Diploma—Wilkesbarre
    —Enthusiastic Reception—Complimentary Notice—Testimonial,           35

                               CHAPTER IV.

    Across the Mountains—Easton—Hamburg—Lancaster—Testimonials—
    Westchester—Diploma—Philadelphia—Class of 2,523—Cane,               41

                               CHAPTER V.

    York—Port Deposit—Baltimore—Success—Diploma—Getting Whipped—Class
    of 3,500,                                                           56

                               CHAPTER VI.

    Washington—A Large Class—The President a Pupil—The White
    House—Halls of Congress—Diploma—Dr. Newman’s Address—Gold Medal,    67

                              CHAPTER VII.

    Annapolis—Delaware—New Jersey—New York State—The Great
    Emporium—Chicago in Flames,                                         84

                              CHAPTER VIII.

    Bridgeport—Fall of Academy—Providence—Boston—Class of
    3,000—Lynn—Purchase of a Residence—Portland—Bangor,                 95

                               CHAPTER IX.

    Lewiston—Educating the Horse “Anfield”—Testimonial—Concord—
    Manchester—A Steam Engine in the Ring—Lowell—Lawrence,             104

                               CHAPTER X.

    Tour in Canada—Montreal—Class of 1,000—Victoria Bridge—
    Cathedral—Quebec—Ottawa—Kingston—Detroit—Diploma—Valuable
    Testimonial—Simcoe,                                                113

                               CHAPTER XI.

    Toronto—“British Ensign”—Diploma—Silver Tea-Set—Hamilton—
    Belleville—Diploma—Picton,                                         124

    HISTORY OF THE HORSE,                                              141

    DIRECTIONS FOR FEEDING AND FITTING HORSES,                         154

    SYSTEM OF EDUCATING THE HORSE,                                     161

    INTELLIGENCE OF ANIMALS,                                           345

    TRICK HORSES,                                                      363

    EDUCATING DOGS,                                                    411

    MISCELLANEOUS,                                                     419

    TRAINING STEERS,                                                   428

    TREATISE ON HORSESHOEING,                                          431

    DUNBAR SYSTEM OF HORSESHOEING,                                     445

    RECIPES,                                                           496

    RECORD OF FAST HORSES UP TO 1876,                                  513

    REVISED RULES OF TROTTING COURSE,                                  521



AUTOBIOGRAPHY.



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION—EARLY LIFE—THIRST FOR KNOWLEDGE—FIRST ATTEMPTS IN
BUSINESS—SUCCESS—MARRIAGE.


In the social interchanges of life it is always pleasant to possess some
knowledge of the antecedent history of the ones we meet; to know who and
what they are; while to one who feels that there is something in his own
career not unworthy of notice, there is a satisfaction in recounting
the steps by which his success has been attained; especially, if in
gaining it he has been called to contend with difficulties and vanquish
obstacles which opposed his progress. Such narratives may prove helps and
encouragements, as they show what energy and perseverance have achieved,
and thus stimulate others to stronger and more successful endeavors.
This was taught by the greatest of our American poets in his well-known
lines:

    “Lives of great men all remind us
      We may make our lives sublime;
    And, departing, leave behind us
      Foot-prints on the sands of time.”

Although few men may lay claim to greatness in its military, political
or literary sense, there is something in every earnest life which will
interest and instruct other men, and which may prove an assistance to
some, who, with failing hearts are engaged in life’s stern battle. With
this brief explanation of his design, the author of the following pages
trusts to receive the favorable attention of his readers as he proceeds
to recount the leading incidents of a somewhat eventful career.

I was born in the town of Darien, Genesee County, in the State of New
York, on the seventh day of December, A. D. 1835. There, amidst the
quiet and elevating influences of nature, the bright days of my infancy
and childhood were passed, until my boyhood’s days were over, and my
fifteenth year of life was reached.

My father owned the farm on which we lived, besides being the proprietor
of several mills, and, like many other purely practical men, he had a
higher appreciation of material than of intellectual advantages. As a
consequence, he was more desirous that I should early engage in the
active business of the farm, than that I should employ hours, which might
be made profitable in work, in studies which paid no immediate profit.

At the age of eight years I was often sent after the cows, barefooted,
and a distance of nearly a mile through the woods, coming home after
the shades of night had fallen, and being obliged to trace my way by
following the cows in the narrow path made by them. Day after day, in my
great desire to secure an education, I would beg my father to send me to
school, but always he had work for me to do, and thus my endeavors were
foiled. But such was my determination to secure an education, that I
resolved, at all hazards, to go to school, and often did I jump from my
bed-room window and run a distance of half a mile to the school-house. My
greatest ambition was to be a merchant, and I knew that I must procure
at least a limited scholastic education to enable me to succeed in my
anticipated calling. But, while I was laying my youthful plans for the
future, my father would lay plans for work, and often, on returning at
night from school, I would hide in the barn till after dark, dreading
the punishment which awaited me for having gone to school in place of
working.

[Illustration: THE OLD HOMESTEAD, DARIEN, GENESEE CO., N. Y.]

At the age of ten years I have taken a team, gone alone into the woods
and loaded saw-logs on a sleigh, using the horses to draw up the logs. As
my father owned a saw-mill as well as a farm, it seemed to him necessary
that every effort should be put forth to keep both branches of business
going; therefore, no time was allotted to his children for securing an
education. Many times have I approached him, timidly and with tears,
humbly requesting to be allowed to go to school, when, instead of
responding to my desire, he would send me to the saw-mill to work; and at
the age of twelve or thirteen I ran the mill alone, though, while doing
so, I have had to mount on the lever and load it with extra weight, as
I was not heavy enough to raise the water-gate. Thus I labored on from
month to month, until I was fourteen, in the meantime going but little to
school. Many times I would lay plans to run away, believing that I could
do for myself, and make my own mark in the world.

Money, in those times and in that region, was not plentiful, and I was
early taught its value, a lesson of great practical value to a youth who
has to hew his own path through life. Many times I have traveled miles
on a special errand for a neighbor, or for some traveler, and received
as compensation a single penny. Money, so hardly acquired, was not to be
expended lightly, and I saved my little earnings till the accumulated
sum amounted to four dollars. This seemed to me like quite a fortune. I
now felt myself to be a capitalist, and, naturally, the desire to use
my riches to advantage led me to seek some profitable investment which
would increase my wealth. My earliest speculation was the purchase of a
gun; but after the first pleasure of its possession had passed, I saw
my mistake in having expended money for something that would yield me
no increase, and began to look around for an opportunity to retrieve my
error. Soon a chance occurred for me to trade the gun off for a cow. I
saw there was “money in it,” and closed the bargain, thus turning my
first mistake into a profitable investment. Having become the owner of
a cow, my ambition was awakened to increase my stock, and I kept my
attention fixed in that direction until I was the sole proprietor of
three cows. I had now entered on my fifteenth year, and having learned
one day, in conversing with my father, that his intention was soon to
sell his farm and stock, and remove to the Far West, I proposed to him
to allow me to carve my own way in the world. I felt ambitious to strike
out for myself, and “paddle my own canoe.” To this my father consented,
when, after selling my cows and receiving the money, with all my fortune
in my pockets, I bade farewell to the parental roof and its many pleasant
associations, looking for the last time upon the

    “Old family Bible that lay on the stand,”

and taking that decisive step by which I was to become the architect of
my own fortune.

Having an uncle who resided in the town of Byron, I turned my steps in
that direction, and for the ensuing winter found a home beneath his roof.
During that season I devoted myself to study, attending the village
school under the superintendence of Mr. Bennum, whom I greatly esteemed,
and whose many acts of kindness linger in my memory to the present hour.

On the opening of spring my thoughts turned towards commercial life,
and I devoted my time to becoming better acquainted with various
business avocations, intending to adopt some profitable employment.
After reflecting well, I took the money I had accumulated and with it
purchased a horse, wagon, and harness. Then, through the kindness of
a dear friend, who became responsible for me, I was loaned one hundred
dollars, and with this as my working capital I commenced traveling over
the country, buying produce and shipping it to Buffalo and New York.

I continued in this business until the year 1855, when, having arrived
at the age of twenty, I began to think of enlarging my operations.
Influenced by this desire, I directed my course to the beautiful and
flourishing town of Batavia, where I secured a store and became a dealer
in all kinds of produce, shipping it, as before, to Buffalo and New York.

[Illustration: FIRST STORE IN BATAVIA, N. Y.]

The cut here given is an accurate representation of my first place
of business, and speaks for itself in regard to the size and general
appearance of the place. It was, however, as it proved, insufficient for
the business which flowed in upon me and increased so greatly that soon
I found it necessary to secure larger and more commodious premises. At
the time of doing this I determined to still further extend my business
by opening a wholesale and retail grocery and provision store. Fortune
smiled on my endeavors, and all evidences encouraged the belief that I
was on the direct road to wealth.

Having thus attained a good position in business, my mind began to make
excursions in another direction. The wisest of men has said that “Whoso
findeth a wife findeth a good thing,” and, having a natural liking for
“a good thing,” I found my thoughts led to the important subject of
marriage, until I finally determined to try the experiment of trading
in the matrimonial market. After thus deciding, it took me but a short
time to reach the important object contemplated, for, it would seem, I
was specially directed in my course. I formed the acquaintance of Miss
Northrop, an estimable and accomplished young lady, the only daughter
of the late Dr. Northrop, and soon the fair one was led to the hymeneal
altar and became the wife and partner of O. S. Pratt.



CHAPTER II.

ENLARGING BUSINESS—ATTACHMENT TO THE HORSE—VISITS TO BATAVIA OF RAREY AND
HAMILTON—MY OWN SYSTEM—GOING BEFORE THE PUBLIC—EARLY SUCCESSES.


Having now made myself a home and feeling permanently settled, I desired
to still further increase my business, but finding my capital somewhat
too limited for the amount I wished to transact, I sought assistance
from an esteemed friend, Elandus Dotey, Esq., banker. The aid I sought
was given with a cheerfulness that added to its value, and enabled me to
carry into execution the plans which I had formed. The accommodations I
received frequently amounted to from ten thousand to twenty-five thousand
dollars, thus placing ample means in my hands for extended operations and
enabling me to do a large and remunerative business in which I continued
up to the year eighteen hundred and sixty-seven.

[Illustration: BRICK STORE.]

During these business years in Batavia my attachment for that noble
animal, the horse, gradually increased, and learning that a horse trainer
by the name of Rarey, intended visiting the town, I was one of the first
to seek for and obtain what knowledge I could from him; but finding his
system to be not at all practical, I applied myself to the investigation
of the subject, and began experimenting with a view to the discovery of a
better, simpler and more certain system.

Some years later it was rumored that a gentleman named R. P. Hamilton,
who was self-announced as “the great renowned horse trainer,” would
give instruction on the subject. He soon made his appearance, and, with
others, I attended his lectures. Mr. Hamilton advanced some valuable
ideas which I gladly adopted and added to my former knowledge, and when
I had grasped all that was valuable in his instructions, and united it
to the results of my own experiments, I felt assured that, ere long, I
should reach the height of my ambition and develop a system of educating
the horse far in advance of anything then known, and by which my name
would be handed down to coming generations as one who, more than any
other, had befriended that noble but greatly abused animal. Often in my
retired moments my thoughts would go forward to the time when I should
be able to present my perfected system to the public, and as I looked
down the vista of time to the period when I should announce my system, my
mind pictured to itself the success I since have realized. I was fully
conscious of its value to the world, and thousands have since then freely
acknowledged the practicability and excellence of my system of educating
the horse.

In the autumn of eighteen hundred and sixty-seven I felt myself
sufficiently master of my new and unequaled system to commit myself
unreservedly to its public advocacy: so, after selling out my stock in
trade, I made my preparations to travel for the purpose of bringing it
before the world. Previous to leaving Batavia I had purchased from a
perambulating horse dealer my favorite horse, “Tom Thumb,” then partly
trained.

Feeling now tolerably well equipped, I came before the public with my
new and perfect system, confident that it needed only to be known to be
welcomed with pleasure by every intelligent friend of the horse. In the
month of January, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, I made my debut at
the town of Geneva, erecting, at considerable cost, an academy for the
exhibition of my system of training. My success was immediate; friends
and well-wishers clustered about me; the hand of encouragement was
extended on every side, and in a little while my class in that place
numbered seventy-five members. The reader can scarcely conceive the
feelings of gratification that were excited in my breast by such prompt
and flattering success. It confirmed my own judgment of the superiority
of my system, and inspired a full confidence in its success.

After leaving Geneva, I visited the pleasant town of Waterloo, where
I built another academy and formed a class of about eighty members,
whose hearty appreciation of the ideas embodied in my system of training
afforded me great pleasure.

Leaving that place, I next proceeded to the beautiful village of Penn
Yan, where also I built an academy and met with brilliant success, my
class numbering over ninety members.

Such gratifying success, and at so early a period, was very encouraging
to me. Both myself and my system were new to the public, and, coming
before them almost unheralded and without the prestige of great names to
give it support, its progress and the general approval it met, could be
attributed only to its own merits, which were everywhere conceded.

The next point visited by me was the beautiful and highly picturesque
village called Watkins, so well and widely known to pleasure-seekers as
an attractive summer resort; its famous “Glen” having an almost national
reputation for romantic beauty. Here I formed an interesting class
of about sixty persons, many of whom gave unmistakable evidences of
confidence in the superiority of my rapidly spreading system for rightly
educating the horse.

Cheered by my continued success, I pursued my journey to the city of
Ithaca, where I built an academy much larger than any I had previously
erected. Here I remained about a week, and had the pleasure of forming a
class of one hundred persons.

Finding it somewhat inconvenient to build academies in many places, I
now purchased canvas for a movable tent, which I had constructed, and
this I carried from place to place, erecting academies only where my tent
was insufficient to accommodate the audiences. On the fourth of July I
pitched my tent at the city of Elmira, and soon had the satisfaction
of enrolling the names of one hundred and fifty persons, who eagerly
sought information, and expressed the greatest gratification with the
instruction they had received.

After this, I continued my tour, exhibiting and lecturing in many towns
and villages during that summer and the autumn following. My success
was everywhere of the most gratifying character, and exceeded my most
sanguine expectations.

In bringing my system to the attention of the public, I employed that
great engine of power, the Press to call attention alike to the cruelty
of most of the previous modes of training the horse, and the superiority
of my new and rational system. As an illustration of this, it may not
be out of place to give a single one of my many addresses to the public
through the medium of the press:

    PROFESSOR O. S. PRATT TO THE PUBLIC.—Probably not one person in
    a thousand has any adequate idea of the wonderful intelligence
    displayed by the noblest of the brute creation, the horse.
    Patient, affectionate, sensitive and faithful, possessing
    wonderful powers of endurance and a capacity for education far
    exceeding any animal extant, a study of his characteristics
    is ennobling, and commands the attention of every intelligent
    person. But how often do we see him abused, through ignorance,
    compelled to draw tremendous loads for hours on a stretch,
    whipped, clubbed, and cursed, until patience ceasing to be a
    virtue, and through sheer exhaustion, panting, trembling, and
    discouraged, he stops to breathe, and men call him balky,
    apply the whip again, put sand in his ears, gravel in his
    mouth, twist his tail, and goad him to desperation by a system
    of barbarous inflictions unworthy of even the first stages of
    civilization. Trotting over slippery pavements, imperfectly
    shod, twitched to the right or left as a sudden emergency seems
    to demand, he stumbles and falls. No compassion is excited by
    this mishap. Hastily assisted to arise, and reharnessed, crack
    goes the whip. O, lash him, cut him, until the great ridges
    of swollen flesh stand out upon his back to testify to man’s
    superiority over the brute. Left standing for hours while the
    master attends to business or pleasure, impatient to change his
    position, he starts before the man is comfortably seated in the
    vehicle; crack again goes the whip, until his nerves are strung
    to their highest tension.

    Crazed almost beyond endurance, he leaps forward, suddenly
    a bolt gives way, something strikes his heels, he becomes
    frightened, and then, “O! he’s a runaway!” Confined in a
    dungeon, poorly ventilated, called a stable, improperly fed,
    driven fast, compelled to draw heavy loads, with very little
    attention paid to his requirements, it is a wonder that he
    lives even a year. The question naturally arises, Why is this?
    Simply because the great masses of humanity are ignorant of
    the disposition of the horse. They do not understand how to
    manage or educate him. They do not think and therefore do not
    care. Now any one who succeeds in ameliorating the condition
    of this noble animal, is a public benefactor, deserving of
    the highest praise. Prof. O. S. Pratt has made this the study
    of his life. Slowly, but steadily, he has progressed in his
    investigations respecting the management of the horse, until
    the press, the pulpit and the public acknowledge him to be
    the “Great Horse Educator of the World.” In fact he rules the
    horse by a system so comprehensive, and at the same time so
    simple, that a child of ordinary intelligence can understand
    it. His pupils are numbered by the thousand in almost every
    State, and they all endorse the system heartily. No matter how
    badly the horse has been abused, no matter how disagreeable
    his disposition may be, no matter if he kicks, strikes, bites,
    or is a runaway, in a few minutes the most delicate lady or
    timid child can manage him with ease by using Prof. Pratt’s
    system. Ladies and gentlemen throughout the land! nearly every
    one has had a friend or relative injured or killed by some
    unmanageable horse. It is within the power of every person
    to prevent a like occurrence. “Knowledge is power.” Do not
    neglect the opportunity of acquiring this knowledge. We ask
    it in no selfish spirit. We urge it that a recurrence of the
    accidents that are every day filling our land with sorrow may
    be prevented.



CHAPTER III.

VISIT TO MONTROSE—LARGE CLASS AT
SCRANTON—DIPLOMA—WILKESBARRE—ENTHUSIASTIC RECEPTION—COMPLIMENTARY
NOTICE—TESTIMONIAL.


As the winter had now set in I found it necessary, on reaching the
beautiful town of Montrose, to lay aside my tent. At this place I
received so enthusiastic a reception that I was induced to erect a large
academy, of capacity sufficient to contain at least one thousand persons.
I remained at Montrose about three weeks, my efforts meeting with such
appreciation that my class numbered five hundred and two persons, amongst
whom were many who became my warm friends, and whose cordial greetings
and good wishes attended me on my departure from the town.

My course next led me to the flourishing city of Scranton, at which place
I received a cordial reception, and formed the acquaintance of many
noble-hearted men. I at once entered on the duties of my profession,
and early found that my system was appreciated, the class which I here
gathered numbering four hundred and four members. On the last day of my
stay in Scranton my class presented me with what I may justly call a
diploma, in the following complimentary language:

    The undersigned, citizens of Scranton, Luzerne County, Pa.,
    take this method of assuring all whom it may concern of the
    practicability, as well as the certainty, with which the most
    vicious and dangerous habits so common to the horse can be
    overcome by Prof. O. S. Pratt’s system of training, in evidence
    of which we cite but one or two of the numerous cases which
    have come under our observation as members of his class: A
    kicking horse, owned by Jos. Utley, of Greenfield, and brought
    twenty-two miles, was handled about twenty-five minutes, after
    which he was driven from the arena with the vehicle rattling
    behind his heels. This horse would bite, strike and kick. A
    vicious mule, that could not be shod, and had to be brought
    to him by force, being chained between two other mules, after
    being handled by the Professor about forty minutes, was
    perfectly subdued, and his feet could be handled with safety.
    On the last day of his exhibition here, a horse ran away near
    the amphitheatre, who proved to be a most ferocious kicker. The
    owner was induced by a number of his class to let the Professor
    handle him, and after twenty minutes’ training he was driven
    out of the tent, the whole length of the street, with the cart
    rattling against his heels, without manifesting the slightest
    disposition to repeat his unruly conduct.

    These, and numerous other evidences, we think, are sufficient
    to entitle Prof. Pratt to the encouragement and patronage of
    all interested in the management of the horse.

This testimonial was followed by the names of seventy-six prominent
members of the class, headed by the mayor of the city, Hon. E. S. M.
Hill, and embracing many of the leading citizens of Scranton.

After leaving that thriving city, I passed over a beautiful country for a
distance of twenty-five miles, until I reached the town of Wilkesbarre,
situated in the Susquehanna Valley. Through this city flows one of the
most beautiful of all the charming rivers which adorn our land. The
pencil of the artist and the pen of the tourist have often been employed
in sketching its picturesque charms and extolling its matchless beauty.
At this important town my success surpassed any previously attained. The
exhibitions of my power over the horse, and of my simple yet certain
method of instructing and controlling him created wide-spread interest
and excitement. Ministers, doctors and lawyers, together with others of
the most respectable classes of society, thronged my academy. The press
resounded with the praises of my system, and with many who learned my
plan of educating the horse the interest rose to enthusiasm. A leading
paper of the place, referring to my consenting to prolong my visit, used
the following language:

    Prof. Pratt announces that he will remain in this place two
    weeks longer, agreeably to the wishes of the very large
    class which he has formed here. The Professor’s success in
    this county has been of a most gratifying character, and yet
    not more than has been fully deserved. In Waverly his class
    numbered one hundred and twenty-nine in five days; Scranton
    furnished a class of four hundred and one in thirteen days,
    and Wilkesbarre, thus far, has given him three hundred and
    twenty-three seekers after information in relation to the horse
    and his management. The Professor is a perfect adept in the art
    which he assumes to teach.

As that article announced, in view of the popular interest, I prolonged
my stay in Wilkesbarre, and I have the pleasant recollection that over
FIVE HUNDRED persons there secured the knowledge of properly educating
the horse, and before taking my leave I was presented with a diploma
that would have cheered the heart of a statesman. The following, from
A. Ricketts, Esq., will show how even incredulity was convinced, and
strongly-rooted prejudices were overcome:

                                WILKESBARRE, PA., _April 23, 1869_.

    DEAR SIR: Permit me to introduce Prof. O. S. Pratt, teacher of
    doubtless the best system of horse-training yet discovered,
    and to add my unqualified recommendation of the same to any of
    you that may care to know how to be master of the horse. When
    Prof. Pratt first came here, I, in common with others, passed
    and repassed his amphitheatre daily, thinking no more of it
    than that it was something pertaining to horse-jockeyship,
    and therefore did not think it worth while to turn aside to
    see the “free exhibition” he advertised; but one day the
    representations of a friend induced me to purchase a ticket for
    his instructions. I was at once so impressed with the utility
    of the system that I advised all my friends to become members
    of his class. The satisfaction expressed by all gave me full
    reason to be glad that I had adopted this course, which, by
    the way, was adopted on the principle of doing to others as
    I would they should do to me. I thought I had found a good
    thing, and wished others to share it. It is upon the same
    principle that I write this letter, for I know of nothing so
    well calculated to prevent cruelty to this excellent animal,
    the horse, as the general diffusion of the knowledge of his
    proper management. The simplicity and practicability of Prof.
    Pratt’s system are among its chief recommendations, being such
    that any ordinary man of common-sense can practice it as well
    as the Professor, and without costly appliances. Our best and
    leading men here became members of his class, and I have heard
    but one opinion, and that of approbation.

    You will find Prof. Pratt courteous and gentlemanly, and,
    should you become a member of his class, I doubt not you will
    agree with me that the trifling cost of his tickets is a very
    small consideration for the benefits received.

                       _Very respectfully_,

                                                        A. RICKETTS



CHAPTER IV.

ACROSS THE MOUNTAINS—EASTON—HAMBURG—LANCASTER—TESTIMONIALS—WESTCHESTER
—DIPLOMA—PHILADELPHIA—CLASS OF 2,523—CANE.


It was now my purpose to pursue my journey eastward, in order to do which
it was necessary for me to cross a wild and mountainous tract of country,
fifty miles in extent; but, inspirited by my success and the good fortune
which hitherto had attended my way, I entered on the journey with a stout
and hopeful heart, attended by my men and horses. Before traveling many
miles we reached the foot of Pokeno Mountain, and as I gazed upon the
distant heights which stood out against the sky, I could see that the
elevation extended a distance of at least ten miles. Up the rough road
and along steep acclivities we pressed on until, when the summit was
reached, I found a keen appetite had been awakened by the mountain air
and exercise, and I sought for some abode of man where we might secure
rest and food for man and beast. Keeping up the search, after a few
miles, I discovered a rude old log house, quite in keeping with the wild
region through which we were passing. Approaching the door, I knocked
for admission, when it was opened by an old veteran of seventy winters,
who invited us to enter. After making known my wants, he assured me that
they should be supplied as best he could, and at once he summoned the
hostess who, though like himself, advanced in years, moved across the
rustic floor with almost youthful agility, manifesting a disposition to
relieve our hunger without delay. We partook of the repast she spread
with appetites quickened by the pure mountain air, and, when the meal was
over, after rewarding them for the hospitality they had displayed, we
resumed our journey through dreary solitudes and along the rough mountain
roads until, at length, we reached the city of Easton, in the State of
Pennsylvania.

This beautiful little city is situated near the Delaware River, and is an
enterprising and flourishing place. The inhabitants are chiefly Germans,
or descendants from that stock. Here we pitched our tent and met with
good success, my class numbering over one hundred persons.

From Easton we continued our journey, through valleys and over hills,
reaching Harrisburg, the capital of Pennsylvania, quite late in the
evening; the silver moon shedding her light upon us as we moved along,
made our journey pleasant and lighted our way to the city. Here again
we planted our stakes, pitched our tent and announced our intention of
giving a public exhibition and of imparting instruction to those who
desired, and once more I met with a hearty response from the public. It
was at the time of the annual State Fair, and thousands from all parts
of the commonwealth had gathered. Taking advantage of the occasion
to display the results of my system of training, I built a platform,
elevated about ten feet above the ground, led my horses up a rude stairs,
made for the occasion, and exhibited my trained animals to the gaze and
admiration of thousands of wondering spectators. Here I formed a class
of over one hundred and fifty.

My next effort was made at Lancaster, a city of no small magnitude or
interest, as I there formed a class of nearly two hundred, the major
portion of whom were Germans, or of German descent. On the last day of my
stay in that city I received a testimonial from a leading banker of the
place, which I give below:

                                LANCASTER, PA., _October 16, 1869_.

    PROF. O. S. PRATT:

    _Dear Sir_: I take pleasure in testifying to the success of
    your system of controlling vicious horses as applied to my
    colt. Since you handled and drove him without backing-strap,
    I have driven him twice without his showing the least fear or
    disposition to return to his dangerous habit of kicking.

    I believe you have perfectly taught him to work without
    kicking, and that he will not forget the impression your
    treatment made on him. Your system is so easily learned and
    can be so quickly applied, that it is the owner’s fault if his
    balky, runaway, or kicking horse, ever forgets what you, _or
    any member of your class can teach him in half an hour_.

    Every one who owns or drives a horse ought to join your class.

                              Yours,

                                              B. J. MCGRAUN,
                                     President First National Bank.

I next stopped at a nice country town called Westchester, the inhabitants
of which seemed alive to the great cause I had espoused, as my class
there numbered two hundred and fifty. I was happily surprised, just
before leaving, by receiving a diploma which greatly cheered, at the same
time that it stimulated, me to add more and more to my store of knowledge.

Having now had two years’ experience in the practice of my system, my
confidence in it, and its superiority over any other known system, was
so thoroughly established that I had no fear of submitting it to any
test nor of subjecting it to any criticism. I, therefore, decided upon
visiting the great city of Philadelphia. I fortified myself as best
I could, and on the 28th of November, 1869, I made my _debut_ there.
Whatever solicitude I might have felt would have been speedily removed
by the cordial and flattering reception I received from the people of
the Quaker City. One academy being insufficient to accommodate those who
flocked to listen to my instructions, I built a second, and as the time
rolled on and my success constantly enlarged, I felt as if the summit of
my ambition had been almost attained. The limit of time I had fixed for
remaining was one month, but as the end of that period drew near I was
strongly solicited by many friends to extend my visit, to which, as the
interest was daily augmenting, I consented. Month after month passed,
during which time my class was constantly increasing until, by the close
of the fourth month, it had swelled to the number of four thousand eight
hundred and eighty-six members! At the end of that time my preparations
were made to depart, but I was not allowed to leave before receiving the
most conclusive and gratifying evidence of the high estimation which my
system had secured and of the friendship I had been so fortunate as to
win.

The evening of the 21st of February, 1870, had arrived; a free exhibition
of the power and beauty of my system was in progress in the great tent,
when, most unexpectedly to myself, Elmer Ruan Coates, Esq., a well-known
citizen and poet of Philadelphia, entered the ring. This seeming
intrusion on the business of the evening somewhat surprised me, while,
as I turned towards him, every eye in the vast assembly was fixed on the
well-known poet who, cane in hand, advanced towards me. A brief moment
of suspense ensued, during which the question which ran through every
mind was “what does it mean?” Then, amidst the profound silence which
prevailed, Mr. Coates held up to view the magnificent, gold-headed cane
he carried and, in an eloquent address, presented the elaborately-chased
and beautiful testimonial as a memento given by my Philadelphia class.

The gratification which I experienced in this unexpected compliment may
be conceived by my readers but can scarcely be described by my pen.

Mr. Coates began his address by saying that

    All nations, in all ages, have delighted to honor the
    meritorious. The analytic mind of Greece was promoted to
    the Academy and Groves of that classic land while bright
    intellects gave their homage as they gathered the gems of
    thought and poesy which enriched their varied lore.

    The school-boy-quoted Roman, if a victor, passed under the
    triumphal arch, bowing to popular plaudits. If a poet, he was
    laureated; if philosophic, oratoric, or mechanical, he had
    his meed of honor from proper sources. Even the Tartars were
    grateful, and Tamerlane, the great Usbeck, was elevated in
    proportion to merit.

    The American Indian who exhibits military strategy, is chosen
    chief _pro merito_, and leads the painted warriors. The
    highly-cultured United States never forgets the truly great.
    Here the statesmen, poet, orator, lawyer, divine, artist, man
    of science or mechanism, is both courted and remunerated. Our
    worthy dead live in hearts, monuments, statues, statuettes, and
    oil. The living, acting man of the day is recipient of both
    newspaper glory and _material_ recognition.

Taking me by the hand, he continued:

    My friend, a full consideration of gratitude has timely and
    most heartily determined your large class to offer this
    El-Dorado-headed cane. Sir, we recognize you as the greatest
    equestrian educator in the world. Your humble servant is proud
    of his recent acquisition. You have enabled the palsied old man
    to ride in safety; you allow the old lady to drive minus the
    fear of a broken neck; the young lady or horse-loving master
    can now indulge saddle pleasures, knowing the animal thoroughly
    subdued by some member of your class.

    Every vicious trait a horse can possess is thoroughly cured by
    your unequaled skill. You are a practicalist, a utilitarian, an
    educator in one of the most necessary and recreative branches
    of polite culture. Indeed, a logical lawyer could raise a fine
    issue relative to the comparative merits of your skill and that
    of the statesman. Disparaging no sphere, I would say that the
    live, practical, successful man in any avocation, is the person
    we need and the individual we will honor.

    Your grateful class, at this date numbering two thousand
    five hundred and twenty-three, are of my sentiments, and now
    delegate me to tender this beautiful present—not as a _quid pro
    quo_, but merely as a memento. My dear sir, I trust it will
    be very long ere you require this as a physical staff, but
    when that period does come, may it equally subserve the mental
    and heart-man and aid in happy retrospect of Philadelphia,
    Philadelphians, and your admiring class, a class that mainly
    hails you as both a high-toned, social gentleman and _the_
    horse educator of the age.

As Mr. Coates closed his address the great tent resounded with applause.
It was an hour and a scene never to be forgotten by me. But as the
applause subsided every eye turned to me for the expected response. I had
received the cane from the hands of the gentleman who had so fittingly
and eloquently presented it, but, as I bowed in acknowledgement, my
heart was too full for many words. The papers of the following day,
in describing the event, spoke of my voice as having been “somewhat
tremulous with emotion,” and it may well have been so, all I could say
was to express the surprise and gratitude I felt as follows: “What!
gentleman, can it be that, after your many kind attentions, I am to
receive a further testimonial of your regard, and another reminder of
pleasant times passed with you—times that certainly I never can forget.
Words cannot express my feelings on this occasion, therefore I sincerely
return you thanks.”

Again the great tent rang with thunders of demonstration, and the affair,
so gratifying to all, terminated amidst feelings so warm and kind that in
one heart, at least, they were almost overpowering. The cane bears the
following inscription: “A tribute to merit. To Professor O. S. Pratt,
from his Philadelphia class, numbering 2,523.”

The cut, which follows, will give but a partial idea of the beauty of
this testimonial, which I prize as much as being expressive of the
friendship I was so happy as to secure, as I value it as a testimony to
the superiority of my system. It will be seen that it is accompanied
by a card, signed by leading members of my class, urging me to revisit
Philadelphia and pledging their aid and influence in making such a visit
successful.

[Illustration: A TRIBUTE OF MERIT TO O.S. PRATT FROM HIS PHILADELPHIA
CLASS 4886

MAYOR FOX, J.W. DREXELL, GEO. W. SIMMONDS, GEN. CADWALLADER.]

    PROF. O. S. PRATT, the Horse Educator:

    _Dear Sir_: The undersigned, members of your horse educating
    school, have learned with deep regret that you are forced, by
    various engagements, to leave Philadelphia in a few days. The
    knowledge we have received by your lucid and simple system of
    educating the horse is invaluable to us and all who have been
    pupils in your class. We think that your system of educating
    the horse is far superior to any known before. It prevents
    cruelty to animals, and is effective in all cases if rightly
    applied and persisted in. Your system is as yet far too little
    known in Philadelphia. We, therefore, request you to open your
    school in Philadelphia again during the fall and winter months,
    and we do assure you that we will do our utmost to make your
    school a successful one.

    By urging you to revisit Philadelphia, we express the wishes of
    a great number of our fellow-citizens who are anxious to become
    members of your class.

        J. W. DREXEL, Banker in Phil., New York and London,
        ALBERT FISKE, M. D.,
        D. M. FOX, Mayor,
        HENRY M. FOX,
        LEWIS LADIMUS,
        HOOPES & TOWNSEND,
        M. BAIRD & CO.,
        POWERS & WEIGHTMAN, Chemists,
        CHAS. F. GROSHOLZ,
        A. L. VANSANT,
        W. F. POTTS,
        ADAM STEINMETZ,
        JOS. E. WERNER,
        JAMES DARRACH, M. D.,
        JAS. STELWAGON,
        WM. CHAPIN, and many others.

Other testimonials I received from individuals, a single one of which is
given below; it is from a well-known gentleman of wealth whose name is as
familiar in business as it is in social circles, W. F. Potts, Esq., and
was addressed to friends of his own:

                                    PHILADELPHIA, _Sept. 14, 1870_.

    MESSRS. MORLEY & WHITE,

    _Gent’n_: My coachman and myself attended Mr. Pratt’s lectures,
    last winter, in this city, and I think it paid me well. I
    bought a young horse this spring, as bad a kicker as I ever
    saw, and by putting him through a course of _Pratting_ I am
    using him every day. I do not know what some persons could do,
    but I know what I have done; it is well worth all I paid.

                           Yours, etc.,

                                                      WM. F. POTTS.

I was greatly pleased with the ancient Quaker City as well as its
noble-hearted people. The neatness and quiet pervading so large and
populous a city produce a pleasing effect on the visitor from abroad. The
beautiful parks, with their grand old trees and delightful walks, which
are to be met in all quarters, form a very pleasing feature in that city.
The bright flowers, filling the air with fragrance; the leafy branches
arching over the nicely-arranged walks, with the merry songs of the birds
which sport amidst the foliage, combine to invite the tired pedestrian to
rest his weary feet, as they charm the eye, the ear and sense alike.

To the patriot and the lover of relics of “the times that tried men’s
souls,” when amidst the battle-storm our fathers planted the fair tree
of liberty, Philadelphia offers special attractions, and hours may be
pleasantly and profitably spent in the well-known “Independence Hall.”
Here time seems almost turned back on its track as one stands amidst
the relics of those days of old. We see the very chair once occupied by
him whom we have learned to revere as “the Father of his country”—the
illustrious Washington, and the thoughts are borne backward to the time
when, seated in the chair before us, his hand held the destinies of a
nation in its grasp. Near by we see the pew in which that great man
sat and listened to that gospel whose power and principles controlled
his life. It is taken from the old Gothic church which the General
attended and is preserved amongst the relics of those revolutionary
times. Mementos are there also of the period when the Declaration of
Independence was signed and the eye rests on the autographs of the
illustrious signers. There is also the great bell which rang out the
glorious notes of freedom and on which is inscribed that grandest of
words, “Liberty.” After having became cracked, it was taken down from
its tower and placed on a table in the hall. The National motto, “E
Pluribus Unum,” is arranged in a circle at the top of the bell. But
pleasant as it is to linger amongst these reminiscences of the past,
I must leave the good old Quaker City with the single remark that my
recollections of the place and its people are all of the most pleasant
kind.



CHAPTER V.

YORK—PORT DEPOSIT—BALTIMORE—SUCCESS—DIPLOMA—GETTING WHIPPED—CLASS OF
3,500.


Early in the spring of 1870, I entered the city of York. The roads were
bad, making traveling, outside of the city, difficult and unpleasant,
so that few came in from the surrounding country. Notwithstanding this,
I met with encouraging success, and during the three days of my stay
I formed a class of one hundred and thirty members. Amongst my pupils
was an old man who had numbered a hundred and five years of life. After
studying my system he declared that, during the short period of my stay,
he had received more valuable instruction relating to horse education
than in all his previous life.

I next pitched my tent in the beautiful village, Port Deposit, and was
gratified by receiving a good “deposit” from the hands of the people,
as nearly one hundred of them joined my class. It was at this place
that I achieved a victory which spread my name far and wide. A horse,
notoriously vicious, was brought for me to educate. He was an animal
who, as I was credibly informed, had killed his former owner, eaten the
leg nearly off his son and fearfully mangled the arm of the groom. I
applied my system in all its force, knowing that he would require decided
treatment to subdue him, and, to the amazement of the spectators, in a
little while the ferocious steed became gentle as a lamb. He stood in the
presence of that gazing multitude entirely subdued. When the excitement
had somewhat subsided, some of the leading and influential citizens
were so impressed with the value of my system as to exert themselves
in getting up a testimonial which, after being numerously signed, was
presented to me, and which I have since had the pleasure of exhibiting to
thousands. The following description of the horse referred to and of the
success with which I trained him may prove interesting to the reader:

                              PORT DEPOSIT, MD., _August 31, 1870_.

    We, the undersigned, residents of this place and vicinity,
    were induced to enter Prof. Pratt’s class for instructions
    in educating the horse. At first many of us doubted the
    superiority of his system, especially from the low price he
    charges for instructions, believing it impossible to learn so
    much in a short space of time for so little money; suffice
    it to say, we went in and all were more than satisfied.
    Illustrative of which we give a brief description of the
    “Biting Horse,” owned by Mr. Snyder, near this town. This horse
    is a brown stallion, 15½ hands high, closely built, and an
    animal of great endurance, for which he is highly valued by Mr.
    Snyder, who purchased him of a farmer in New Jersey for a very
    low price on account of his most pernicious habit of _biting_,
    the horse having bitten out two ribs of the farmer and broken
    the leg of the son. Whilst in possession of his present owner
    he has bitten off the arm of his groom, who brought him into
    the Professor’s pavilion. We saw and conversed with this
    groom. The horse had on a strong iron muzzle, a pine stick was
    inserted in the mouth, which he seized with madness; upon its
    removal he gritted his teeth most fiercely. In twenty minutes
    or less, Prof. Pratt had the muzzle off, his hand in the
    horse’s mouth pulling out the tongue. In a few minutes after he
    drove the same horse in the street without holdbacks. When he
    said “whoa,” the horse stopped. When he said “go,” the horse
    went. Thus proving to two hundred that his system is no fraud,
    but of all others “excelsior.”

    The scholars in this place numbered in three days 87, among
    whom were the following named gentlemen:

    W. E. England, pastor M. E. Church, Port Deposit, Md.; J. B.
    Ramsay, cashier Cecil National Bank; Edward West; N. W. Nolan;
    Eli Cosgrove, ex-sheriff Cecil County; F. M. Alexander; Wilbur
    Kidd; Thomas D. Foran; Anthony S. Davis; J. Tome, president
    Cecil National Bank; Wm. M. Long; Thos. E. Davis, etc.

Baltimore, the Monumental City, noted for its beautiful parks, pleasure
grounds and monuments, was my next field of labor. After viewing the city
over and receiving introductions to many of its influential citizens
numbers of whom afterwards became warm friends, I betook myself to labor.

As on some former occasions, I found it necessary to build two academies,
and so erected one in the old and one in the new town. At first there
seemed a backwardness on the part of the people, and a week passed
without the manifestation of much interest; but soon the indifference
gave way and from that point the interest increased daily until, before
the close of the seventy days I remained in Baltimore, I had the great
pleasure of enrolling the names of three thousand five hundred of her
citizens as members of my class.

[Illustration: WHIP PRESENTED BY BALTIMORE CLASS.]

My stay in Baltimore was especially marked by kindnesses from numerous
members of my large class, many of whom it would give me pleasure
to name, associated as numbers of them are with pleasant seasons of
enjoyment, but lest I should become prolix, I will content myself
with saying that most unexpectedly to me my class presented me with a
flattering address accompanied by an elegant whip mounted with gold and
inlaid with pearl—a gift both beautiful and useful. How it occurred is
described by the pen of another as follows:

    HOW PROFESSOR PRATT WAS WHIPPED BY THE BALTIMOREANS.—The
    Amphitheatre of Prof. Pratt, the Horse Educator, at the corner
    of Green and Pratt streets, was crowded on Thursday night,
    by an appreciative audience, to witness the education of a
    number of horses. Near the close of the free exhibition, an
    interruption occurred by a Mr. Murdock, introducing F. P.
    Stevens, Esq., a member of the Baltimore Bar, who made the
    following eloquent and pithy speech, in presenting an elaborate
    whip to Prof. Pratt: “On behalf of the members of your class
    in this city, numbering over 3,000, I have been requested to
    present to you, on parting with us, some memento of our high
    regard for you personally, and of our estimation of your most
    admirable system of Horse Education. That the instructions
    you have imparted to us have been valuable and useful, no one
    of us who own horses would hesitate to testify, not only your
    instructions as to the Management, Education and Treatment of
    the Horse, but in developing to us in the numerous Lectures,
    the disposition and nature of the noble animal; that your
    course of instruction has been popular among us, the numerical
    strength of the class announces you, and I take great pleasure
    in presenting you this token of friendship and good will and
    hope that you may ever recur with pleasure to your visit to the
    Monumental City, and as soon as your engagement will permit, we
    may have the pleasure of seeing you again.”

        Gen. J. S. BERRY,
        ALEC. BROWN,
        R. STOCKHART MATHEWS,
        ICHABOT JEAN,
        MARSHALL GOLDSBOROUGH,
        ENOCH PRATT,
        GEO. W. ROBINSON,
        HENRY TYSON,
        F. L. LAWRENCE,
        F. P. STEVENS,

    Committee.

    Class numbers 3,504.

During the continuance of my classes in Baltimore, I received many
favorable notices from the press of that city. As showing the popular
feeling I may be allowed to give an article from the Baltimore _Sun_,
one of the most able and widely circulated journals of the entire South.
It appeared, as will be seen, before my class had reached its full
dimensions.

    HORSE TRAINING AT PROF. PRATT’S AMPHITHEATRE.—The exhibitions
    of Professor Pratt’s skill in training refractory horses
    continues to interest a large number of the people of
    Baltimore. Every night his Amphitheatre on Linden avenue is
    filled with an appreciative audience, including a large number
    who are members of his school. During one of our recent visits
    the Professor, after some remarks in reference to his systems,
    introduced the little educated pony called “Dollie Dutton,”
    well up in a few tricks. On her exit “Fire Fly,” mate of the
    Professor’s “Tom Thumb,” made his appearance, at the crack of
    a whip. “Fire Fly,” made excellent time with his heels in the
    air, and by the word, walked on his hind legs. The attempt
    by three persons to ride the horse the longest afforded much
    amusement to the audience, as not one of the three could
    remain on a minute. “Gray Eagle, Jr.,” Marshall Goldsborough’s
    thorough-bred stallion, which had not received over ten
    minutes’ instruction, acted in a manner which gave credit to
    the Professor and his system. Prof. Pratt then exhibited a
    massive gold-headed cane, richly mounted and appropriately
    engraved, which was presented him on the night of February
    22d, 1869, in Philadelphia, by his class which numbered 4,886,
    among whom were Mayor Fox, General George Cadwalder, J. W.
    Drexel, banker, who were on the committee of presentation, and
    who gave the testimonial as a token of the appreciation of his
    efforts with the horse and a proof of the value of the system
    to them. After a lecture explanatory of his plan of education
    which lasted nearly an hour, the Professor ordered a horse to
    be brought in which was afraid of a robe. In less than fifteen
    minutes after he came in, he was walking over the robe, had it
    thrown over his head and in his face, but the scare was gone.
    His education in robes being pronounced completed, he was taken
    away and a horse that would not back brought in. He however,
    soon proved very tractable, backing while in and out of harness
    at the words. The next _Animal_ to claim the Professor’s
    attention was a large stiff-neck mule furnished by Mr. S. S.
    Blair, of the Northern Central Railway. As was expected the
    mule was far more difficult to handle, yet in less than three
    minutes after he was subjected to proper treatment and followed
    the Professor, and after the system was entirely applied he was
    mounted and ridden off by an attendant, going quietly as any
    one could desire. Thus closed an evening at Professor Pratt’s.
    On conversing with this worthy gentleman, we learn he is from
    Buffalo, N. Y. Has been giving the system to the public five
    years. He probably handled more horses than any other man
    living. Was in Philadelphia five months, having there a class
    of 4,886. In less than three weeks’ sojourn among us he has
    secured over 1,000 members to his class, and we saw such men as
    M. B. Clarke, Henry Tyson, Drs. McNamus and Whitridge, George
    Robinson, George Small, Gen. W. E. Ross, J. Riddlemoser, Jr.,
    Gen. J. S. Berry, J. Howard McHenry, R. Stockhart Mathews, all
    of whom highly endorse Prof. Pratt’s system of educating the
    horse. Mr. Mathews, who has seen Rarey, Rockwell, and others,
    says this is far superior to all of them.

After closing my labors in Baltimore, I took a few days of rest. My mind
was in search of new knowledge to add to and improve my system, and to
that object I devoted my time while relieved of more active duties. I
thoroughly revised my system of educating and mode of treating the horse;
after which I invited the criticisms of a number of men of intellect and
experience, to whom I submitted my views and asked them for their candid
verdict, when, to my great satisfaction, they expressed their unqualified
approbation. If anything had been needed to confirm my opinion of the
perfection of my now completed system, such an endorsement might justly
have done so; and, as the succeeding chapters will show, my triumphant
successes in the largest cities and before the most exalted personages of
the land, demonstrated the justice of that favorable verdict.



CHAPTER VI.

WASHINGTON—A LARGE CLASS—THE PRESIDENT A PUPIL—THE WHITE HOUSE—HALLS OF
CONGRESS—DIPLOMA—DR. NEWMAN’S ADDRESS—GOLD MEDAL.


In the latter part of the year 1871 I determined to visit the capital
of the nation—that renowned emporium of knowledge and wisdom—the city
of Washington. Fortified by previous success, I determined on such an
effort here as should signalize my profession, and effectually silence
those who sought to stigmatize my system and lessen confidence in myself
by speaking lightly of both. Themselves pretenders to knowledge, and
ignorant of what I taught, I have found them ever ready to insinuate
that all is “humbug” which does not emanate from their would-be fruitful
brains. And now I ask a careful attention to the narrative of my
unexampled success while sojourning in this city, in connection with the
character and intelligence of the gentlemen who united in endorsing me,
and in commending my system.

I entered Washington about the middle of February and speedily secured a
site on which to erect an academy. The place selected was on Pennsylvania
avenue, and the building I erected was of capacity sufficient to contain
three thousand persons. I announced a public exhibition, and on this, the
first day of opening, the place was filled to the utmost. At the close
of the exhibition I invited those of the audience so disposed, to unite
in forming a class. A large number responded to this call, and, as I
entered on my work, I was encouraged by finding the numbers increasing by
hundreds. This nerved me to the utmost, and at length, in sixty days, my
class had reached the gratifying number of two thousand five hundred and
five persons!

President Grant intimated his desire to take private lessons, and
requested me to organize a class to meet in the forenoon of each day.
This I did, and I soon had the honor of imparting instruction to such a
class of distinguished men as have rarely, if ever beside, been gathered
together for a similar purpose. The President invited some special
friends to join him in acquiring the knowledge he desired, and soon I
numbered in my class men distinguished in the pursuits of arms, politics,
literature, and theology, many of whom would rank with the foremost men
of the world. Amongst them were President Grant, General Sherman, Surgeon
General Barnes, General Fremont, General Porter, General Babcock, General
Mechler, Judge Advocate General Holt (the highest position in the army),
General Eli Parker, Count Catacazy, the Russian Minister; Count Turenne,
of the French Legation; P. H. Le Poor, French Legation; H. S. Le Strange,
of the British Legation: Commodore Ammen, Commodore Pickering, Senator
McDonald, Senator Stockton, Hon. W. H. Hooper, Rev. Dr. Newman, Chaplain
to the Senate; Senator Sprague, Governor Cooke, and many others of high
rank and standing.

As is well known, in the national capital may be found learned and
talented men from almost every nation, and as there are gathered objects
of interest to all, a brief sketch of what met my eyes may not prove out
of place.

First of all is the renowned “White House,” the home of the honored head
of our nation, and now occupied by President Grant and his family. It has
been said that

    “Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown,”

and a similar declaration might be made of the occupant of the
Presidential chair; few have found it to be an easy seat. The servants
of a public jealous of their rights and privileges, and exposed to the
adverse criticism of selfish and disappointed opponents, even the most
generous and well-meant movements of those filling that high position are
liable to misconception and ridicule. There may be no personal dislike,
yet the public, ever on the _qui vive_ for news of those in high life,
are seldom disposed to scrutinize a spicy story, whoever it may strike.
In this land every man who deserves them has his friends, and none,
however deserving, are without some enemies.

The external appearance of the “White House” somewhat disappointed me;
yet it is a magnificent structure, with massive pillars in front, while
the interior does credit to the good taste of those in charge.

The Red Room, being generally selected for the receptions held by the
President and his wife, is very handsomely furnished in velvet and
drapery, the color of which corresponds with the name of the room.
I must, however, express my preference for the Blue Room; its light
shade of satin damask, with gold, is so chaste and elegant that one
could scarcely dream of a fairy-land more beautiful; and at “morning
receptions,” from two till five P. M., the guests being received in this
room, it is rendered doubly beautiful by the elegant toilettes of our
American and foreign ladies, who crowd it with the beauty and fashion of
the metropolis.

The large East Room, which occupies that entire end of the building, is
elegantly furnished, while the walls are hung with life-size portraits,
in oil, of Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and others who have formerly
filled the highest national office, but who now have passed away.

It was my pleasure to pass an evening, with my wife, in the private
parlor of President Grant and family, who gave me a cordial reception.
Among those who shared in this social interview were Rev. Dr. ——, L.L.
D., from England, his wife and daughter, and our much-esteemed friends,
Rev. Dr. N—— and wife, of the Metropolitan Church, D. C.

We were shown through some of the pleasant apartments of the Presidential
mansion, and, among others, the private dining-room. In this the
arrangements for meals are perfect and tasteful. A small bouquet of
choice flowers, selected from the conservatory, which abounds with rare
exotics, is placed at the side of every plate at dinner, and, that no
interruption may interfere with the arrangement of the table, a plate is
always provided for a casual visitor.

On entering Washington, the first building to attract the eye of a
stranger is the Capitol, which is built on a prominent height, and forms
the most conspicuous object as one enters the city; especially is this
so when the magnificent dome is lighted; one then gazes with delight on
the beauty of its perfect architecture.

On entering the Capitol by its massive marble portico, the visitor first
views the reception rooms, then passes to the rotunda, the walls of which
are adorned with paintings, many of which are commemorative of important
events in the early history of America, and some of a later date.
Statuary also meets the eye, and prominent amongst it is the life-size
statue of the martyred President, Abraham Lincoln, from the chisel of
Vinnie Ream. As one looks on this work, which has been so severely
criticised, he will feel the injustice done her, and be likely, with the
writer, to believe that the attacks were prompted by the fact that it was
_a lady_ who secured the contract. I enjoyed the pleasure of a visit to
the studio of the gentle sculptor, where we found the lady, surrounded by
specimens of her wonderful skill in this noble art.

To return to the Capitol—that general resort of strangers—one must visit
the dome, and thither we go, laboring up—up—till it seems almost as
though the top would never be reached, though pleasant company served to
beguile the time as we mounted the hundred and eighty feet of ascending
steps. When, at length, we reached the top, and stood in the presence
of the paintings which completely decorate the upper portion of the
dome, all else was forgotten, and it seemed as though we had passed
into another sphere, away from all the cares of ordinary life! Books
can be obtained, explaining the historical paintings, and in the study
of these, days might be profitably employed. The brief time a visitor
can give is far too short, to satisfy the eye, which desires to still
gaze on, reluctant to depart. From the outer side of the dome a view
of unparalleled beauty is presented: Georgetown, General Lee’s old
homestead, in the distance, and the Potomac River, together with the
elegant public buildings, are among the many objects included in the
panoramic view.

As we descend again, and come amongst the sights and sounds of daily
life, a sudden awakening to reality occurs. We now pass to the wings
on either side of the main building devoted to the use of the two
Houses composing our American Congress. On visiting the House of
Representatives, when in session, the visitor is directed to the gallery
which surrounds and looks down upon the hall; and, should he be a favored
one, he is shown to a seat in that portion of the gallery reserved for
the diplomatic corps, friends of members and distinguished visitors.
There one can sit at ease, apart from the crowds which fill the other
portions, and may listen to the speeches of representatives from every
State in the Union, as they deliberate on the laws by which the country
is to be governed; may note the voting, and sometimes hear the exciting
contest as the dignity of debate is lost in some partisan wrangle.

The Treasury Building is a beautiful edifice, and is always the scene of
busy life, the activity extending from the topmost floor to the furnace
in the cellar, where the mutilated currency is burned. It is in this
building that the paper money of the country is prepared, after which it
is sent to the banks for circulation. It is customary for visitors to
exchange a note for one that has never been in circulation, to be kept as
a souvenir.

The elegant Smithsonian Institute, with its numerous objects of interest,
and the Agricultural Buildings, with their beautiful grounds, offer their
attractions to the visitor, while the Patent Office, with its multitude
of models, showing the inventive genius of our countrymen, is of equal
interest. Here, while admiring the ingenuity displayed by the inventors,
we learn by the number of rejected models how many have spent perhaps the
best years of their lives only to reap disappointment at the last.

[Illustration]

While in Washington I was favored with several gratifying testimonials.
The first one was at the great National Carnival, where I received the
prize for the best four-in-hand turn-out, a gold-mounted whip. The second
testimonial was a life-size portrait of President Grant, which was
presented to me at one of the gatherings of the society attending the
Metropolitan Memorial Church, and was accompanied in its presentation
by the following address by Rev. J. P. Newman, D. D., the eloquent and
distinguished pastor of the church:

    LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: Mine is a pleasing task. The ladies of
    this church desire me to present this elegant portrait of our
    honored President to Prof. Pratt, whose public spirit and great
    liberality prompted him to give the proceeds of his academy
    for one week towards the purchase of a chime of bells for this
    church. We much regret that sickness has detained the Professor
    from being present on this occasion, but we are happy to know
    that Mrs. Pratt is here.[1] The donation on his part is the
    more commendable because he came here a stranger, yet such is
    his appreciation of the beautiful and useful that he cheerfully
    gives his large sum for an object which will be, when achieved,
    the pride of the Capital.

    His mission is eminently humane, for he not only educates the
    horse to obey the intelligence of his master, but also educates
    the master to treat the noblest of beasts with humanity.

[1] Her many friends will doubtless be gratified by finding, on the
opposite page, a portrait of this lady—the life-long companion of the
author.

The address, which was received with loud applause, was, in my absence,
responded to by the Member of Congress from Batavia.

The third testimonial I received was presented on the day of closing
my lectures, which had been so regularly attended by the citizens,
officials, and members of the foreign legations, who deemed it proper
to encourage my enterprise by presenting me with a diploma, engrossed
on parchment, over their own signatures, and which was accompanied with
a gold medal. The following is a copy of the diploma presented by the
Washington class, the original of which is now in my possession, on
parchment:

    TO PROF. O. S. PRATT:

    We, the members of your Washington class, appreciate the value
    of the very necessary knowledge which you have imparted to
    us during your sojourn in the national metropolis; and we
    are convinced that your method of educating the horse, and
    reforming his vicious habits, is the only true system. As a
    mark of our estimation of the service rendered us, we beg your
    acceptance of the accompanying testimonial, and our sincere
    wishes for your continued success, health and happiness.

        General W. T. SHERMAN,
        Gen. O. E. BABCOCK,
        General BANKS,
        Count DE CATACAZY,
        Mayor MATTHEW G. EMORY,
        W. S. SHEPHERD,
        Surgeon Gen. BARNES,
        Commodore AMMEN,
        Gen. HORACE PORTER,
        Gen. J. C. FREMONT,
        Senator WM. SPRAGUE,
        Commodore PICKERING,
        Brevet Maj. Gen. ALLEN,
        Gen. ELY S. PARKER,
        Mayor EMORY,
        H. A. L’ASTRANGE, of the British Legation,
        Rev. Dr. NEWMAN, Chaplain to the Senate,
        WM. W. BELKNAP, Secretary of War,
        Gen. MEICHLER,
        Governor COOKE,
        P. H. LA POOR, of the French Legation.

On the next page the reader will find a correct cut of the gold medal
which accompanied the diploma.

On the following day the Metropolitan Church arranged an excursion to
Mount Vernon. The day was beautiful, and the company all that could be
desired. The sail down the lovely stream, with its wooded banks, was
delightful. On our arrival at the spot the laugh was hushed, for we felt
ourselves on sacred soil as we neared the tomb of Washington. After
lingering for a time by the dust of the illustrious dead, we ascended the
hill on which stands the house which was once the home of the Father of
his Country. The furniture having been removed, we saw little more than
the halls, a few relics enclosed in a case, and the marble mantel, which
has been so much coveted by strangers on account of its rare carving,
representing a farm-yard scene. This choice relic has been defaced in
several places by unscrupulous visitors, who have broken off pieces to
carry away as relics. We also visited the spot where Washington and
Lafayette met, under a tree, to reconcile their difficulties.

[Illustration]

During our return to the city, which we reached the evening of the same
day, speeches were made on the boat by the Mayor, ministers and bankers.
We arrived in time to take the cars on our way to Long Branch, at which
popular resort I passed most of the summer in visiting and recreation,
before again resuming the duties of my profession.



CHAPTER VII.

ANNAPOLIS—DELAWARE—NEW JERSEY—NEW YORK STATE—THE GREAT EMPORIUM—CHICAGO
IN FLAMES.


After my period of relaxation, I re-entered the active duties of my
profession feeling greatly invigorated. I visited the pleasant city of
Annapolis, the capital of Maryland, where I met a cordial reception from
many whose warm appreciation of my system of educating the horse was
coupled with marks of personal friendship. Here, as in other places on
former occasions, my endeavors were crowned with a gratifying success.
It is at this place that the United States Naval Academy is situated, an
institution which sustains the same relation to the navy that West Point
bears to the army of our country. In the extent of its bounds, covering,
as it does, an area of about twenty acres, and in the completeness of its
appointments, this academy is unequaled in the United States. Here I was
introduced to General Bovey, who is a lover of that noble animal, the
horse, and is the owner of some of the finest that America can boast. He
manifested much interest in my welfare, and kindly invited me to dine
with him; after spending a long and pleasant hour in his society, I took
my leave, and when, shortly after, I left Annapolis, I bore with me a
grateful recollection of the many kindnesses I had received from the
inhabitants of that beautiful city.

I will here claim the indulgence of the reader while I give a brief
sketch of my journey from this point to New York. It was about the
middle of May, 1871, when I started on my tour, intending to arrive
at New York in the month of October. In passing through the State of
Maryland, I found it a beautiful, level country, with a soil of great
fertility. It is well known to have been one of the slave States, and,
as a result, the population is made up largely of colored people, many
of whom I found to be very, very poor; their houses, within and without,
bespoke wretchedness and want, and many of them seemed on the verge of
starvation. Often was my heart moved to compassion as I viewed their
dilapidated clothing, many of them being almost naked, while in their
countenances want and misery were depicted. As I passed the settlements
and, prompted by pity, gave them some donations, I saw their faces
brighten as I placed the money in their tawny and wrinkled hands, while
their expressions of thankfulness more than rewarded me for the gifts
bestowed. In passing through this State I formed many classes, meeting
with even better success than I anticipated.

Leaving Maryland, I entered the little State of Delaware, renowned for
the extent of its orchards and the excellence of its peaches, which fruit
forms the most profitable crop of the State, and is unequaled by any
grown elsewhere. The country here also is level, but in many parts so
sandy as to weary the traveler, whose animals often labor through sand to
the depth of six inches, while the scorching rays of the sun, reflected
from the sand, add much to the discomfort of a journey through this
State.

At Dover, the capital of the State, I formed an interesting class, of
which the Governor and many distinguished citizens became members. The
buildings in Dover are mostly of wood, there being none of stone and but
few of brick.

After leaving Dover I crossed Delaware Bay, and entered the State of
New Jersey. This, also, in its more southern portions, may be described
as a level country, but the lands there are clothed with dense forests
of pine, where human habitations are rarely met, and even the sound of
the woodman’s axe is seldom heard. These “pine barrens” are in places
destitute of traveled roads, and the one journeying through them sees
his course marked out by “blazed” trees. I wended my way along until I
reached the city of Trenton, the capital of the State, where I formed
a class. Thence I passed to the city of Rahway, then to Elizabeth, and
afterwards to the town of Long Branch, forming interesting classes
at each place. The last-named place is well known as a favorite and
much-admired watering-place, being the summer resort of thousands
who annually seek its pure sea-breezes, and regale themselves in the
pleasures it abundantly affords. I visited many other places in the
State, forming classes and receiving the congratulations of numbers who
appreciated the knowledge it was my aim to impart.

Passing some twenty miles across a pleasant though sandy country, I
reached the village of Red Bank, at which place I took the steamboat,
and, after sailing through the magnificent Bay of New York, passed up the
Hudson River to Sing Sing, at which place I met with success, and formed
a class composed mainly of the first citizens of the town. I devoted my
first leisure to visiting the State Prison, which is situated in the
suburbs, on the bank of the Hudson, and, after being conducted through
the different departments, I was permitted to see a record of the names
of the inmates and the crimes for which they were incarcerated, and I
record it as my conviction that many there have laid a foundation for
after crime by early cruelty to the noblest of all animals save man. One
step of cruelty leads inevitably to others, and thus the disposition may
have grown that has led, finally, to the crime which deprived them of
liberty and condemned them to years of servitude in that dreary abode of
felons.

Retracing my steps down the Hudson, I next pitched my tent at Peekskill,
which is situated on the east bank of the river, and where I met a
gratifying reception, and succeeded as at other places.

Before leaving the place, I strolled about a mile back from the river,
and saw there the farm and summer residence of Rev. Henry Ward Beecher,
the great biblical expounder and platform orator, who has since passed
through an ordeal far from pleasing or profitable, though there are
indications that from all he will yet come out as “gold tried in the
fire,” and perhaps to shine as a star of still brighter lustre.

My next visit was to the city of Poughkeepsie, where, at my first
public exhibition, I was greeted by the presence of a large number
of influential citizens, whose appearance there augured well for my
success. I was pleased with my brief visit to this place, as my class
soon swelled to the number of three hundred and fifty. I here formed
the acquaintance of Prof. Eastman, of Eastman College, who solicited me
to give an exhibition, on the grounds in front of his splendid mansion,
to the Sabbath-school children of the city. I consented, and gave an
exhibition which was received with delight by a multitude of youth of
both sexes.

I now determined to direct my course down the beautiful Hudson to the
great commercial emporium of the country, the city of New York. There I
built an academy, at a cost of nearly three thousand dollars, capable
of accommodating about four thousand persons. I opened, with brilliant
prospects, about the middle of October, 1871, and as the days rolled
by I had ample evidence of the appreciation of my efforts in the daily
increase of my class, until, on the 15th of January, 1872, I had the
pleasure of numbering on my register the handsome amount of three
thousand names, representing amongst them many of the first men of the
city.

I had intended to remain in New York until the opening of spring, but
about this time an event which spread consternation through the land
blighted my fair prospects. Along the wires of the telegraph, flashed
eastward with lightning speed, came the doleful tidings that Chicago, the
Queen City of the West, was in flames! As message after message came,
telling of the progress of the devouring element, all hearts were filled
with sympathy, till the final tidings came that for many square miles
the once beautiful city was a vast plain of smouldering ruins, and that
thousands of human beings, thus rendered homeless and penniless, were in
almost a starving condition. At once the hearts of the people of New York
were moved to compassion. Business was well-nigh suspended. The single
topic which engaged all minds was the great disaster which had befallen
a sister city, and how to devise means for relief to the destitute
and suffering. In this absorbing feeling the interest in my lectures
naturally abated; so much so, that I closed my academy and joined with
my countrymen in the active measures which were at once inaugurated for
extending relief to the needy. I attended the meetings held for that
purpose, and heartily co-operated in sending the greatly needed aid
to suffering humanity. I remained in New York till the excitement had
somewhat abated, and then decided on visiting some of the New England
States; but, before leaving the Great Emporium, I received a diploma
attesting the high value placed on my instructions by those who had
received them.



CHAPTER VIII.

BRIDGEPORT—FALL OF ACADEMY—PROVIDENCE—BOSTON—CLASS OF 3,000—LYNN—PURCHASE
OF A RESIDENCE—PORTLAND—BANGOR.


[Illustration: BRIDGEPORT ACADEMY.]

On entering New England, my first stop was at the beautiful town
of Bridgeport, somewhat celebrated as the home of the renowned
sensationalist, P. T. Barnum, who has, during quite an eventful career,
acquired and lost many fortunes. As the winter had not yet passed, I here
erected an academy, which became the scene of an incident which will
forever remain fixed on my memory. The people of Bridgeport turned out
nobly, filling my academy to its utmost capacity, when, hearing a noise,
I looked in the direction whence it proceeded, and, to my horror, saw the
seats falling, with their occupants, precipitating them to the ground! Of
course all for a time was confusion and affright, but, strange to say,
not one of the immense crowd was injured by the accident.

After the excitement had somewhat subsided, I proceeded to form a class,
which numbered about three hundred, who seemed delighted with the
knowledge they acquired under my instructions.

When my labors had ended I took an opportunity to view the town, and
was greatly interested in visiting some of its principal manufactories.
Amongst these one of special note is the immense establishment for the
manufacture of the Howe Sewing Machines, said to be one of the largest in
the world.

I subsequently visited Providence, the capital of Rhode Island, where I
found it necessary to build another academy, which I erected very near
the public thoroughfare of the city. At this place my most sanguine
expectations were realized, as I met with signal success; nearly one
thousand persons became members of my class, and the financial results
were greatly beneficial to me, as at this time my expenses were great.
My troupe consisted of some eight men and twelve horses, the expenses
of which were large, besides the cost of extensively advertising, that
I might give wider publicity to a system which had gained general favor
wherever it was known.

The far-famed city of Boston was my next resting-place. Here, as at other
places, I found it necessary to exhibit in an academy, and, having fitted
it up, I entered on my work with renewed hope and energy, believing, from
the usefulness and practicability of my system of educating the horse,
that a failure was impossible. Nor was I disappointed; the shrewd minds
of the Bay State saw the value of the knowledge I imparted, and, cheered
on by growing favor, I put forth every effort, and was rewarded by the
most gratifying success, as my class reached the large number of three
thousand persons.

With the close of my labors in Boston the winter had passed away, and
I decided on a trip reaching northward as far as Portland, in Maine,
making short stops at the several towns between Boston and that place,
first stopping at a beautiful town called Lynn, where I purchased a nice
family residence, a good representation of which is given in the cut.

In this charming town and its vicinity there is much to attract
and please the visitor. Among the favorite resorts is a delightful
watering-place known as Nahant Beach, to which, during the summer,
thousands come to enjoy the invigorating breezes of the ocean. Here the
invalid seeks the coveted boon of health, while the healthy come to
reinvigorate their systems. Mrs. Pratt and myself christened the place
the “green spot of earth,” as often, attended by our servants, we drove
in our carriage around the beach, for the time forgetting the toils of
the past, and almost fancying ourselves in the land of Paradise.

[Illustration: NAHANT BEACH RESIDENCE.]

I may be allowed, at this point, to give a letter addressed to me by a
well-known gentleman, a citizen of that pleasant town.

                                             LYNN, _July 12, 1872_.

    PROF. O. S. PRATT.

    _Dear Sir_: I regret your departure from our city. I have
    received a great benefit by joining your school. Your system
    of educating horses is far ahead of any now in use. I belong
    to Rockwell’s class. In nothing has there been greater
    improvement. Its advantage is its simplicity. In no exhibition
    during your short stay have I failed to find some new point.
    There is no deception, no trickery, no unfairness. What you say
    I’ve found you willing to back up with your money; your goods
    are no humbug. Why will people be so skeptical. People ask me
    every day, “Can you do it?” My answer is, “Yes.” Why sir, I
    would not take five hundred dollars for what I’ve learned of
    your system.

    If people would be more willing to join your class and get
    the system, we should have less accidents by that noblest of
    animals, the horse. When you were educating Lannan’s horse
    the other evening, a skeptic stood by my side. I said, “Pratt
    will drive that horse to-morrow.” Says he, “I’ll bet a hundred
    dollars he won’t.” He put his hand in his pocket, attempting to
    draw his wallet. I caught his hand, saying to him, “If you’ve
    friends enough here to raise $5,000, it shall be covered, that
    he will drive him to-night.” I am not a betting man, though.
    The gentleman went into his boots. You have not a pupil, I know
    of, but is willing to back you, as far as able, in anything you
    say you will do with any horse.

    God speed you in the right.

                           Yours truly,

                                                 CHARLES D. TILTON.

After the pleasure season had passed, I again betook myself to my
profession, and, once more upon the road, I stopped at several towns,
giving public exhibitions and forming classes, until I reached Portland,
which place I entered about the first of August, 1872. Here we set our
stakes and spread our canvas, giving, as usual, public exhibitions, and
organizing a class of about two hundred persons. Many vicious horses were
here brought to me, that on them the merits of my system might be tested,
all of which I handled to the satisfaction, and, I may safely say, the
admiration of the class who witnessed their education.

Next, placing my troupe and animals on a steamer, I passed by sea to the
city of Bangor, the most populous in the State of Maine. Here I made
arrangements with the officers of the Agricultural Society, by which
I secured the Fair Grounds, where I erected a spacious pavilion, and
at once commenced operations. It was soon evident that I had secured
the favor of the people, as I was largely patronized. While there I
made arrangements with Dr. Tewksbury to handle his imported stallion,
“Anfield,” who was notorious for his vicious propensities, extending
even to the shedding of human blood, he having fought many battles, and
always had come off victorious. Although my fame had spread far and wide,
and I had educated many vicious horses, yet, had I not possessed implicit
confidence in the virtues of my system, I would have declined; but,
prompted and encouraged by my previous successes, I decided to handle
him on my arrival at Lewiston, Maine, which would be about the first of
September.

While at Bangor I received a letter from the President of the Society for
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as follows:

                                 BANGOR, Me., _September 28, 1872_.

    PROF. O. S. PRATT.

    _My Dear Sir_: I am happy to acknowledge your superior system
    of Horse Education, which deserves the commendation of all who
    desire the improvement of that beautiful and useful animal.
    Your system does not inflict torture or cruelty, but subdues
    and teaches him, and in my opinion it is only to be seen and
    learned to be universally adopted.

    I take much pleasure in recommending it to the notice of all
    who have the care and management of horses.

                        Very respectfully,

                                                J. D. WARREN,
                                Pres. Soc. for P. of C. to Animals.



CHAPTER IX.

LEWISTON—EDUCATING THE HORSE “ANFIELD”—TESTIMONIAL—CONCORD—MANCHESTER—A
STEAM ENGINE IN THE RING—LOWELL—LAWRENCE.


Continuing my tour, I exhibited at many places in the State until I
reached the city of Augusta, where I remained two days, and met with
marked success. Anxious to reach Lewiston by the time I had fixed, I
passed rapidly, through many towns and villages, only remaining a day in
each place, and arrived at Lewiston on the eighth of September. It was
here, as the reader will remember, that I was to handle the notorious
“Anfield.”

After building an academy, and giving a public exhibition, I announced
my intention of controlling that vicious animal. The citizens turned
out _en masse_, but, as the horse was led into the ring, the whole
audience seemed terror-stricken, wondering, no doubt, whether or not
I would share the fate that others had; but speedily their terror
gave place to admiration, as they saw the powerful animal succumb to
the resistless energy and efficacy of my system, for, within one short
hour, the lion-like brute became meek and quiet as a lamb, greatly
to the astonishment of the multitude, who gazed with wonder on the
transformation. I give below the testimonial subsequently presented to
me, in which this feat is described:

    We, the undersigned citizens of Lewiston and vicinity, hereby
    certify that we are members of Prof. O. S. Pratt’s school
    for instruction in the proper education of the horse; that
    from a careful and thorough examination of his method, as
    succinctly demonstrated by him in his admirable lectures and
    apt illustrations, we unqualifiedly pronounce Professor Pratt’s
    system as most practical, and far superior to any ever before
    known.

    His power over the most vicious and ferocious horses is at once
    wonderful and instructive, as verified by his handling of the
    stallion “Anfield,” in Lewiston, on Thursday evening, October
    17, 1872, before an audience of 1,000 persons.

    “Anfield” is an eleven-year-old dark bay stallion, and standing
    sixteen or seventeen hands high, and is owned by Dr. S. H.
    Tewksbury, of Portland, Me. He is reported to have killed
    one man, and was a bad biter, striker, and somewhat given to
    kicking. He had never been harnessed.

    He was led into the academy on the above night, secured by iron
    rods and with a heavy muzzle over his mouth. He manifested an
    ugliness truly characteristic.

    Prof. Pratt, applying the rules of his system, at once so
    comprehensive and yet so simple, within twenty minutes had
    contemptuously thrown away the iron rods, muzzle, etc., and
    exhibited to his audience one of the most tractable of horses,
    who would follow him when commanded, stopping at the word
    “whoa,” and, being harnessed, was driven around the ring in a
    vehicle continually hitting his heels.

    Prof. Pratt’s Lewiston class numbers, at the present time,
    three hundred and sixty members.

    [Illustration: LEWISTON ACADEMY.]

    We most cheerfully commend the system of Prof. Pratt to the
    public generally, assuring them that, in our opinion, it is the
    inauguration of a new and happier era for that noblest of the
    brute creation—_the horse_.

                                  LEWISTON, Me., _October 2, 1872_.

        D. B. STROUT,
        J. P. NORTON,
        H. C. BRADFORD,
        P. M. THURLOW,
        ELI EDGECOMB,
        N. C. HARRIS,
        H. H. RICHARDSON,
        W. M. CHAMBERLIN,
        GEO. S. FOLLENSBER,
        T. H. LANGLEY,
        H. L. JOHNSON,
        B. H. SCRIBNER,
        J. L. PEABODY,
        S. D. THOMAS,
        R. S. BRADBURY,
        J. C. PENDEPTER,
        GEORGE WEHLE,
        S. B. COOK,
        A. B. WATSON,
        JOHN PICKARD,
        H. V. BROWN, M. D.,
        J. B. STRAW,
        DANIEL WOOD,
        S. O. PURINTON,
        C. T. CHAPPELL,
        RUFUS CARR,
        W. H. GARCELEN,
        A. O. EDGECOMB,
        W. W. WOOD,
        ISAAC HARKELL, 2D,
        WM. H. HORR,
        J. A. WHITMAN,
        F. C. HAYES,
        GEO. L. MELLEN,
        RUFUS C. WILLIAMS,
        N. M. FARWELL,
        A. H. PEASLEY,
        J. M. ROOK.

Passing through a beautiful country, and forming a number of classes on
the way, we at length reached Concord, the capital of New Hampshire.
I there obtained the large building used by the mechanics for the
exhibition of their manufactured articles on the days of the regular
Fair. This I fitted up and used for my lectures. The news of my success
at other places had preceded me, and I found the citizens ready to
respond to my invitation to form themselves into a class. This class was
a large and profitable one, adding much to my financial resources in
the business. The city of Manchester was the next place I visited. Its
magnificent water-power and busy manufactories, amongst them some of
the largest producers of carpets and cloth in the United States, make
it a place of great importance. It was here that I achieved a victory
never before known to the public—that of educating the horse not to fear
either the steam engine or the cars. Having had placed at my service the
steam engine manufactured by Amos Keig, I had it brought into the ring.
In a short time the engineer got up steam, and set it in motion. Horses
by the half-dozen were brought in to be educated, and, as my success was
shown in removing all fear of that terrifying object, language almost
fails to describe the enthusiasm excited, and the eulogies pronounced on
my system. As this was the first opportunity that had presented itself
for me to show the power and beauty of that portion of my system, I was
greatly cheered and gratified with the success attending my efforts,
especially as the papers of the city heralded my success in no uncertain
tones, and proclaimed the almost incalculable benefit which would accrue
to society from the adoption of my system.

Traveling southward about fifteen miles, I reached the city of Lowell,
where I built an academy, and had the pleasure of enrolling in my class a
large number of the influential citizens of that place, who were as much
delighted with my system as I was with my successful efforts.

The next place of interest to be named is the city of Lawrence, renowned
for its mills and manufactures. Here may be seen a building nearly a mile
in length, erected along the bank of the famous water-power, and used
exclusively for manufacturing purposes. At this city, also, I built an
academy, remaining a few days, and meeting warm-hearted friends, who gave
me a large class.

By this time I had fully equipped myself with all appliances needed
to confront and convince the most skeptical, so that no person could
successfully assail my almost perfect system of equine education, which,
by the force of its own merits, had thus far won its way, and was daily
gaining new favor in the eyes of the public.

My next effort was made about the first of March, 1873, in the city of
Worcester, where, from the commencement, the interest daily increased
during the whole period of my stay, and abundant success crowned my
endeavors.

Some leading citizens of Springfield now wrote to me, requesting that
I should visit their town, to which I consented, and, on reaching
the place, I found a wide-spread eagerness to secure the knowledge I
possessed. I built an academy, and was much gratified by securing an
appreciative class.

Leaving the old State of Massachusetts, I directed my course to Hartford,
in the State of Connecticut, where, as in former places, I found it
necessary to build an academy, which, on the first day of my exhibition,
I had the pleasure of seeing filled to its utmost capacity, and, when I
turned my attention to forming a class, my endeavors met with a hearty
response.



CHAPTER X.

TOUR IN CANADA—MONTREAL—CLASS OF 1,000—VICTORIA
BRIDGE—CATHEDRAL—QUEBEC—OTTAWA—KINGSTON—DETROIT—DIPLOMA—VALUABLE
TESTIMONIAL—SIMCOE.


Hitherto my labors had been confined to my own country. I had traveled
many hundreds of miles, visiting its great cities, its smaller towns and
thriving villages, and everywhere, even from the highest in the land, I
had met a cordial reception. But now I formed the purpose of crossing the
St. Lawrence River, which divides, on the north, the American from the
British possessions, and of making a tour through a large portion of the
Dominion of Canada. Believing that I had more stock and other property
than I would require, I sold by auction many articles, and, placing my
remaining stock and appendages on several cars, I forwarded them to their
destination. Reaching St. Albans, I was solicited to remain there a few
days, which I did, and had no cause to regret my decision, for the
people gave me a liberal patronage.

Continuing my journey from St. Albans, I arrived at the important
commercial city, Montreal, about the first of May, where I met a cordial
reception. At once I commenced the erection of an academy of capacity
sufficient to hold at least two thousand persons. Soon the tidings of
the great successes I had achieved in my profession spread far and wide
through that populous and wealthy city, and, as a result, during the few
days I remained, I had the pleasure of enrolling nearly one thousand
names.

In this ancient city there are many beautiful and interesting objects
which attract the attention of a visitor. A few of the most prominent
are all that I can mention. Of these the great Victoria Bridge is one.
A massive structure of iron, tightly closed at the sides and nicely
roofed, it spans the St. Lawrence River just at the outskirts of the
city. Windows, at certain intervals, admit the light and air. Carriages
and pedestrians are excluded, the railroad company having the sole right
to use the bridge. The French Catholic Cathedral is to many an object
of great attractiveness, and thousands ascend its circuitous flights of
stairs to the top of the tower, from which the eye may take in the entire
city, with its many public parks and pleasure grounds far exceeding in
number those usual to a commercial city. The mountain, about three miles
distant from the heart of the city, is a favorite resort. A beautiful and
almost level road runs round it, along which, at almost every hour of the
day, carriages may be seen coursing. Many other pleasing sights might be
named, but I close my reminiscences of the beautiful city by the remark
that nowhere, in all my travels, have I seen more elegant and costly
private dwellings than are those which grace Montreal.

Through the solicitation of friends, I was induced to visit Quebec, the
ancient capital and late seat of the Canadian government.

As it is approached, the forest of masts which meets the eye, peering up
in every direction, might suggest reminiscences of some cedar swamp,
with its multitude of tapering trees, but, upon closer inspection, the
eye is delighted with the magnitude and beauty of the shipping which
crowds the port. Some of the finest vessels that plow the ocean are
here to be found. On entering on my work, I met with no difficulty in
interesting the minds of the citizens in my subject. They turned out
nobly to my public exhibitions, and rewarded my exertions by giving me a
large and interesting class.

Leaving Quebec about the middle of May, I ascended the St. Lawrence as
far as the beautiful town of Brockville, exhibiting at many towns on my
way. Here I determined to forward my horses and stock by rail to the
city of Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion and the seat of government,
where annually the assembled wisdom of the country meet to legislate
for the great Canadian Dominion; nor need one cross the ocean to the
mother country, nor even visit the adjoining republic, to meet with
both orators and statesmen, many of whom grace the Canadian Parliament,
the halls of which often ring with eloquence, as, in the discharge of
their responsible duties, the statesmen of the Dominion discuss the
great topics of the day. Although my stay in Ottawa was brief, I had the
satisfaction of forming there a class of three hundred persons.

Passing westward, I held public exhibitions and formed classes in many
places, until I reached Kingston, rightly named the Old Limestone City.
Here I spent a few days very pleasantly, and had the pleasure of forming
a satisfactory class. The strong bulwarks and splendid fortifications of
this city give it a military air, and afford ample protection from an
invading force.

At this point I embarked on one of the Mail Line of steamers, with my
stock and equipments, and passed up Lake Ontario to Burlington Bay, and
thence to the city of Hamilton. As I had been frequently solicited to
visit Detroit, and having determined on spending the ensuing winter in
Hamilton and Toronto, I did not at this time attempt to form a class, but
took the most direct route to Detroit city, exhibiting at a number of
places on my way.

Detroit is situated on the river bearing its name, which divides the
American and Canadian possessions. Its commerce is quite large, and, to
one standing on the banks of the river, a pleasing and animated picture
is presented. The rapid stream, in places running with a current of from
five to eight miles an hour, is difficult of navigation for sailing
vessels, and one sees the sailing craft, loaded with grain and lumber,
towed by large and powerful steam-tugs, built expressly for that purpose,
while the smiling banks on the Canadian side, crowned by the buildings of
Windsor, mirror themselves in the farther waters.

It was in December, 1873, that I reached Detroit, remaining there a
few weeks, and during that time forming a class of over twelve hundred
members. Before taking my leave of that pleasant and enterprising city,
I received from my class a diploma, which I prize more highly than gold,
while, to increase my delight, I was, most unexpectedly to myself, made
the recipient of an elegant cabinet music-box, the value of which could
not be less than five hundred dollars. The following is the diploma, as
signed and presented to me, followed by a cut of the elegant testimonial:

[Illustration: MUSIC BOX FROM DETROIT CLASS.]

    Having attended Prof. O. S. Pratt’s lectures to his class,
    and also having seen the practical application of his system
    as given by him every afternoon and evening at his academy,
    and believing it to be far the best ever seen in this State,
    so clear and practical that the merest novice can understand
    and use it, and yet so comprehensive that the most skillful
    horseman can be instructed by it, we deem it of the utmost
    importance that all persons owning, using, or at all interested
    in horses, should avail themselves of Prof. Pratt’s knowledge
    on that subject. He educates the man to educate the horse, the
    only practical method to be of permanent benefit.

        JARED PATCHIN,
        G. W. BISSELL,
        Dr. J. B. DE GUISE,
        D. BETHUNE DUFFIELD,
        NEWELL AVERY,
        R. HOSIE,
        A. M. STEELE,
        GEORGE JEROME,
        E. FURGUSON,
        GEO. W. VANDYKE,
        W. A. MITCHELL,
        H. A. NEWLAND,
        ALLEN SHELDEN,
        A. SINCLAIR,
        GEO. E. AVERY,
        SYLVESTER LARNED,
        Dr. DAVENPORT,
        Dr. J. F. NOYES,
        Mayor MOFFAT,
        R. C. HODGES,
        JOHN C. WILLIAMS,
        R. SINCLAIR,
        JEROME E. CROUL,
        Dr. COBB,
        R. C. REMICK,
        JAMES A. REMICK,
        HENRY KIBBEE,
        JOHN V. MEHLING,
        B. H. THOMPSON,
        Dr. G. W. FOSTER,
        M. F. MERRICK,
        M. S. SMITH,
        Dr. H. SMITH,
        GEO. DOOLITTLE,
        A. W. MITCHELL,
        ELIJAH SMITH.

Passing from Detroit, I again set foot on Canadian soil, exhibiting at a
town named Sarnia, situated on the Detroit River, and after that at many
other places until I reached the pleasant little town of Simcoe. There I
received a cordial welcome from many lovers of the horse, and found no
difficulty in forming a class of one hundred and ninety, who not only
appreciated my system, but embraced an early opportunity of presenting me
with a diploma testifying that appreciation. It was read in my hearing on
its being presented, and the reader may well believe that I was greatly
gratified and cheered by the sentiments therein expressed.

                                       SIMCOE, _February 24, 1874_.

    Having attended Prof. O. S. Pratt’s lectures to his class and
    also having seen the practical application of his system, as
    given by him every afternoon and evening at his academy, and
    believing it to be far the best ever seen in Canada, so clear
    and practical that the merest novice can understand and use
    it, and yet so comprehensive that the most skillful horseman
    can be instructed by it, we deem it of utmost importance that
    all persons owning, using, or at all interested in horses,
    avail themselves of Prof. Pratt’s knowledge on that subject.
    He educates the man to educate the horse, the only practical
    method to be of permanent benefit.

        GEORGE BATTERSBY,
        ASA A. PURSELL,
        B. W. SHAW,
        B. F. CHADWICK,
        OMER CULVER,
        G. F. COUNTER,
        M. C. BROWN,
        P. P. NEWELL,
        JOHN MATTHEWS,
        ASA J. COOK,
        E. E. COLLINS,
        SAMUEL BARNES,
        W. H. ADAMS,
        J. J. HARRIS,
        JOHN W. LEE,
        D. B. PALMERTON,
        WILLIAM MILLS,
        THOMAS MARSHALL,
        JAMES LANGTRY,
        JOHN MILLS,
        JOHN A. CULVER,
        FRANK L. CULVER,
        JEREMIAH POTTS,
        JAMES BARBER,
        G. R. ROBINSON,
        JOSEPH BROOK,
        JOHN BEAUPRE, JR.,
        S. G. EMES,
        HIRAM BOWLBY,
        J. B. CARPENTER,
        A. R. NELLES,
        JAMES SCHUYLER,
        HENRY BENNETT,
        C. ALLEN,
        A. W. SMITH,
        ALBERT MARLATT,
        GEORGE LOWRIE,
        ALEX. BEAUPRE,
        ROBERT LITTLE,
        CHRIS. COLEMAN,
        W. T. KENDALL,
        THOMAS HAMBLY,
        B. RICHARDSON, V. S.,
        JAMES NICHOLSON.

    Part of Simcoe class numbering 227 in ten days.



CHAPTER XI.

TORONTO—“BRITISH ENSIGN”—DIPLOMA—SILVER TEA
SET—HAMILTON—BELLEVILLE—DIPLOMA—PICTON.


Winter was now drawing nigh, and, as I was desirous to reach Toronto, the
Queen City of the Province of Ontario, as soon as possible, I made but a
short stay at Brantford and other towns on my way. Arriving at Toronto
about the last of November, 1874, I secured possession of the Riding
Academy, and fitted it up at considerable cost, after which I gave public
exhibitions, which awakened an increasing interest. I remained there
sixty days, my class becoming larger daily, until, at the close of my
labors, my register showed the names of nearly thirteen hundred members,
many of whom were amongst the most influential citizens of the place.
During my stay I handled some two hundred horses, each of whom had been
addicted to some bad habit.

[Illustration: TORONTO ACADEMY—PRESENTATION OF TEA SERVICE AND
ILLUMINATED ADDRESS.]

Many members of my class were desirous that I should exhibit the power
of my system to educate horses not to fear the steam engine, and, that I
might meet their wishes, I procured a steam fire engine, which I caused
to be placed in my academy. During my stay there I educated some hundred
horses to the perfect satisfaction of their owners, and the evident
gratification of my class. Amongst others, I may name as a signal triumph
of my system the case of the stallion “British Ensign,” owned at Richmond
Hill, who, from his vicious habits of long standing, was thought to be
incurable, and, as a last resort, I was solicited to handle him. This
was at the close of my labors there, and, the day being announced, the
members of my class gathered in force to witness my last effort in their
city. The horse was led into the ring by two men by means of iron rods
securely fastened on each side of his mouth. From the account given of
this animal, one would almost expect that a man could tame a lion of the
desert as easily as him; but, strange as it may seem, within ten minutes
he followed me around the ring as meekly as a lamb, and within forty-five
minutes I was able to drive him before a vehicle, without reins or
side-straps, greatly to the surprise of the throngs who had assembled to
witness the spectacle.

The power and efficacy of my system was so completely demonstrated
that the leading journals of the city made favorable mention of my
unparalleled success, while my class signalized their sense of the value
of my system for properly educating the horse by presenting me with an
illuminated address, the elegant execution of which reflects credit on
the artist, while the courtly language and graceful sentiments are worthy
of the distinguished gentlemen whose names it bears. Not satisfied with
this, they accompanied the address with a costly tea-service of silver,
the intrinsic value of which was at least three hundred dollars. Long
will the recollections of my Toronto class cluster about my memory,
and fill my mind with pleasing emotions. The following is the diploma
presented by the Toronto class, the original of which can be seen in my
possession, on parchment:

                                          TORONTO, _January, 1875_.

    _Dear Sir_: The undersigned, on behalf of the members of
    your numerous class in this city, desire to testify their
    appreciation of the valuable instructions you have imparted to
    them. The unwearying assiduity with which you have endeavored
    to make those instructions comprehensive and entertaining, and
    their high estimation of your admirable system of educating
    and managing the horse. The knowledge imparted to us during
    the many lectures and exhibitions of your unexampled method of
    treating that noble animal may be of incalculable benefit to
    many of us. We do not hesitate to say that numbers of accidents
    occur daily (many fatally) through an insufficient knowledge
    of managing the animal you have made so perfectly subject to
    your will, and we advise every one whose business or profession
    require frequent, if not constant, use of the horse to embrace
    an early opportunity of acquiring a knowledge of your system.
    Farmers, whom business occasionally calls into our cities, and
    the immediate neighborhood of our railways, we especially urge
    the necessity of learning your simple and effective method
    of control, a method easily understood by the instructive
    faculties of the horse as by the reasoning faculties of men.

    We trust that your sojourn in the Queen City of the West has
    been both pleasant and remunerative, so far at least that will
    at no distant day induce your return.

    In conclusion, we beg your acceptance of the accompanying
    Tea-Service. Hoping that it may recall favorably to your
    recollection those who constituted your class in Toronto and
    who unanimously wish you every success in your laudable and
    humane profession.

    Signed, on behalf of the class, numbering 1,254 members.

        A. MACNABB,
        JOS. GRAND, SR.,
        R. BOND,
        B. COOPER,
        C. W. JOHNSON,
        R. PAUL, V. S.,
        A. GOURAM,
        GEO. GOURAM,
        R. HAY, SR.,
        R. HAY, JR.,
        W. H. SMITH,
        J. HAY,
        HON. GEO. BROWN,
        T. C. PATTERSON, Mail,
        A. MCCALLER, M. P. P.,
        W. BROWN, Shoe Manf.,
        HON. FRANK SMITH,
        ANDREW SMITH, V. S.,
        G. W. TORRANO, Merchant,
        GEO. SMITH, M. P. P.,
        W. A. MURRAY, Merchant,
        F. T. WORTS,
        JAMES G. WORTS,
        AUSTIN SMITH,
        And 1,230 others.

Before closing my notice of Toronto, I would refer with grateful words to
the kind, and even laudatory, notices which my system and myself received
from the ably conducted press of that city, and, I might add, of the
whole Province, as the following extracts will evince.

[Illustration: TEA SERVICE FROM TORONTO CLASS.]

The Toronto _Mail_ thus speaks:

    HORSE EDUCATION.—To-day we place before our readers
    illustrations of several of the numerous articles, with the
    text of the numerous addresses, presented to Prof. Pratt, the
    horse educator. By close observation, an accurate knowledge
    of the construction of the horse and its habits, and above
    all by a recognition of those sound common-sense principles
    advanced by the best teachers of the human kind. Mr. Pratt has
    been enabled to build up a system which for its thoroughness
    and adaptability is unexcelled in the present day. That this
    is not an unwarranted assertion is proved incontestably by
    the testimony of the leading horsemen of the United States
    and Canada, though Mr. Pratt has been but a short time in the
    Dominion. Wherever he has established classes, a just tribute
    has been paid to his great services both to man and beast. In
    Baltimore 3,590 pupils surrounded him, and he left with the
    thanks of the citizens, and was presented with a magnificently
    mounted whip. Detroit rallied 1,200 members, who gave the
    Professor a musical box to sweetly play the song of their
    appreciation. The Washington class of 2,500 members, presented
    a gold medal, and that of Philadelphia, of 4,886 members, a
    gold-headed cane. Toronto has not been behindhand, for, as
    already announced, the class here made a presentation of a
    beautiful tea-service and illuminated address. The Toronto
    class now numbers 1,254 members.

The Toronto _Globe_, in brief but well considered words, declares:

    Prof. Pratt’s lectures on the treatment of animals are
    invaluable to farmers and all owners of horses and cattle. We
    only wish every farmer and farmer’s boy in Canada could attend
    one lecture.

The _Canada Farmer_, the leading agricultural paper of the Province, in
describing a visit to my exhibitions and lectures, remarks:

    We have seldom passed an evening so pleasantly, or with so much
    real profit, and our advice to every farmer and farmer’s son
    in the country is, to take a course of lessons if possible,
    but at all events to attend one of Professor Pratt’s public
    exhibitions. We feel perfectly satisfied that a couple of hours
    spent in witnessing one of these performances will impart a
    better idea of the nature and management of the horse than is
    possible to obtain by any course of reading on the subject, and
    in this respect alone one such entertainment is worth fifty
    times the amount charged for a life-membership.

I next visited the city of Hamilton, where I was welcomed by many warm
friends, who took an active interest in my welfare and seemed delighted
with my system, which, at this time, had gained great favor with the
Canadian people. Here I formed a large and profitable class, and secured
the friendship of many, from whom I have since met a cordial reception.

Leaving Hamilton, I directed my course to the town of Whitby, where I
formed a class of one hundred and twenty-five; next visiting Oshawa,
where my class reached the number of one hundred and forty; then to
Bowmanville, where a class of a hundred rewarded my efforts; from there
to Port Hope, where one hundred and fifty joined the class I opened;
thence to Belleville, where I enrolled about one hundred names. After
having left the latter place for about a week, I was followed by a
messenger, dispatched to me by my class, who bore a diploma highly
eulogizing my system. It was as follows:

                                        BELLEVILLE, _May 11, 1875_.

    PROF. O. S. PRATT.

    _Dear Sir_: We, the undersigned, express our satisfaction of
    the tuition we have received from you in the education of the
    horse and most cheerfully recommend your art to all who own,
    have or use horses, as being the best known and exhibited.

    The manner in which you handled all the vicious horses brought
    to you here, completely subduing them in a very short time,
    gave us the greatest satisfaction.

    Your liberality and gentlemanly deportment have secured
    numerous friends.

    Trusting you will meet with the same success in other places
    that attended you here, and hoping you may be long spared to
    propagate your noble system of horse training, we are, etc.

    (Signed),

        H. B. HUNT, Brewer.
        G. H. RAMOY, C. E.
        C. RAMOY, Coal Merchant.
        DR. TRACEY, M. D.
        S. M. HICKS, Miller.
        E. F. POTS, Wholesale Liquor Merchant.
        J. C. L. WARE, P. O. Clerk.
        JOHN LAKE, Livery.
        T. C. WALBRIDGE, Ex-M. P.
        WELLINGTON BOULTER, Insp. Life Ins. Co.
        GEO. A. SIMPSON, Coal Merchant.
        STEPHEN GARRETT, Bailiff.
        HAWLEY & MORDEN, Hawley House.
        G. W. ALLEN, P.O. Clerk.
        HENRY MCNINCH, Blacksmith.
        And ninety others.

From Belleville I went to the town of Picton, where I found many admirers
of that noble animal, the horse. Though the place is not large, the
people flocked to my exhibitions, and gave me a class of one hundred and
forty members, while, after I had left their town, and was engaged at the
village of Wellington, twelve miles distant, a deputation from Picton
waited on me, and presented me with the following diploma, which will
speak for itself:

                                            PICTON, _May 17, 1875_.

    PROF. O. S. PRATT:

    We, the members of your class, formed in the town of Picton,
    are unwilling to allow you to take your leave without warmly
    expressing the great satisfaction that has been ours since your
    arrival among us. Your plain, lucid and highly interesting
    lectures, combined with your gentlemanly deportment, has been
    such as to leave a lasting and beneficial impression on our
    memories. Your manner of handling vicious and untutored horses
    has been highly gratifying to us, and the rapid progress made
    by you clearly proves the superiority of your system. Your
    book, so replete with instructions, illustrating what we have
    seen practically demonstrated, will, we believe, greatly
    benefit us in the practice of your system in future years.

    Believe us, dear sir, to bespeak for you unequaled success in
    your future efforts.

    Yours, etc., etc.,

        G. STRIKER, M. P. P.,
        E. LOUKS, Rector of Picton.
        A. M. KERR, Bank Agent.
        FRED. WHITE, Teller.
        BIDWELL WAY, Ed. “New Nation.”
        J. H. ALLEN, Mayor,
        J. F. INGSOLL, M. D.,
        COLIN GEARING, Merchant.
        R. A. NORMAN,
        G. E. VANDUSEN,
        RICHARD LAKE, Hotel Keeper.
        M. CLARK, Merchant,
        And one hundred and twenty others.

After forming classes in several places in the old loyal county of Prince
Edward, and meeting with good success, I crossed the beautiful waters of
the Bay of Quintie, arriving at the town of Napanee about the first of
June, 1875. There I formed a class of one hundred. Pursuing my journey,
I traveled north and west, exhibiting at many places, until I reached
the town of Peterborough, where I remained a short time, and formed a
class of one hundred members. Departing thence, I visited many towns and
villages, forming classes in each, on my way to Lindsay, at which place
I enrolled the names of seventy-eight members.

From Lindsay I went to Fenelon Falls, quite a newly-erected town, yet I
found many there to whom my visit was a pleasure, as I soon obtained a
class of some sixty members.

Passing on westward, I continued to meet with success, forming classes
in some few small villages until, on the 9th of September, I entered the
beautiful town of Barrie. There I found warm friends, and many lovers of
the horse, who met me cordially, and gave me a class of one hundred and
thirty-five members.

I next shaped my course northward, to the old town of Penetanguishine, on
the eastern shore of Georgian Bay. The larger portion of the inhabitants
are French Canadians, many of whom are unable to speak our language.
I was informed by some of the old inhabitants that the town was first
settled a century ago; but, notwithstanding this, their progress has been
slow, as at present the population is but about one thousand. My class
in this place numbered about seventy persons, who seemed highly pleased
with my system of educating the horse.

At Penetanguishine I took passage on the steamer Waubuno for Collingwood.
The boat is commanded by Captain Peter Campbell, a courteous gentleman,
who possesses the power of so adapting himself to his passengers as to
make a trip with him pleasant in both the enjoyment and the retrospect,
while the romantic scenery which meets the eye of the voyager who ascends
the bay is so beautiful that, were it not for the severity of the winters
there, one might easily be tempted to select his home amongst the
beauties of nature which adorn the shores of Georgian Bay.

On arriving at Collingwood, I gave an exhibition that created a strong
interest among the citizens, and resulted in my forming a good class, who
manifested both satisfaction and delight with the instructions I imparted.

After exhibiting at small towns on the way, I arrived at the truly
beautiful and lately-incorporated town of Meaford, on the fifth day of
October. A drenching rain was falling, which seemed to indicate that my
prospects of success would be blighted by the inauspicious storm; but,
as the day swept on towards noon, the parting clouds allowed the golden
sunbeams to flow through, and, by two o’clock, the whole aspect of the
scene was changed. I gave a public exhibition, and formed a class of
nearly one hundred members.

From Meaford I traveled over bad roads until I reached Owen Sound. Here
I did not find as many lovers of the horse as I anticipated, yet I was
pleased before the close of my labors by meeting a good degree of success.

Georgian Bay, near the southern bend of which is Owen Sound, is a
beautiful sheet of water, broadening out as it leaves Lake Huron, with
which it is connected, and forming what seems like a land-locked lake
in itself. Large steamers leave this port for Lake Superior, and many
tourists deem this route one of the most pleasing of all on the upper
lakes. Ere long, it is asserted, a communication will be opened from
this point to Winnipeg and the far-off Province of Manitoba.

Having thus brought my narrative down to the present time, I would add
a few words to the reader who may have kindly followed me through the
scenes I have recorded. In what I have written one object has been to
show the strong and unqualified endorsement my system of equine education
has everywhere received from the men best qualified to judge of its
merits, while, at the same time, the narrative is a fitting, and I hope
not an uninteresting, introduction to the system itself, which, with
other matter relating to the general subject, will be fully and clearly
taught in the following portions of the book.

And now, with a hearty appreciation of the unvarying kindness he has
received from his patrons in all portions of the land, the author begs
leave to respectfully dedicate this work to those whose aid, appreciation
and friendship have so often cheered him in his efforts.



HISTORY OF THE HORSE


From the earliest ages this noble animal has been the friend and
companion of man. Prized for his beauty, loved for his docility, and
valued for his strength, he has ever been regarded as the highest in
value and importance of all domesticated animals. In the remotest ages,
as far back as authentic history discloses anything of the life and
pursuits of man, we find that the horse occupied a prominent position in
his service. Painters have pictured on their canvas the majesty and grace
of the spirited animal. Poets have celebrated his strength and beauty in
their verses, and even inspired writers have introduced amongst their
most glowing descriptions the horsemen and chariots which formed a chief
feature in the pomp and magnificence of those early days.

In the most ancient hieroglyphs we find him present, and always so
represented as to show that, even in the remote antiquity from which they
date, he had been brought into complete and serviceable subjection. In
the oldest Egyptian paintings the horse is seen only in the war chariot,
and in the descriptions of the siege of Troy only the charioteer appears,
from which it has been supposed that the first horses used by the Greeks
were too small to be conveniently ridden. But in the lately-discovered
paintings in the palace of Nimrod, at Nineveh, disinterred by Layard, and
supposed to be more than three thousand years old, horsemen are exhibited
both in the chase and war.

But further back than even those distant times, in the ages where
authentic history merges into the shadowy light, amidst which myth and
fable mingle with the real, we find this noble animal figuring, but then
exalted into a semi-human sphere. The Centaurs, who inhabited the passes
of Mts. Pelion and Ossa, and the great plains of Thessaly, in Upper
Greece, were probably a race resembling in many respects the Tartars of
this age, and are supposed to have been the first who brought the horse
into subjection to man. They were fabled as being half horse and half
man. They are represented as perfect horses in all respects below and
behind the withers and the chest; there, at the insertion of the neck,
began a human body, the hip-joints articulating into the shoulders of
the lower animal, and the abdomen of the man passing gradually into the
chest of the horse. Above this the human form was perfect, with the erect
bearing, chest, shoulders, arms, neck and head of a complete man. They
were reputed to be possessed of extraordinary mental as well as physical
powers, and to be as superior to ordinary men in wisdom and art as they
were in fleetness and strength. They were evidently a tribe of horsemen
whom the ignorance and superstition of that early period elevated into
a superior race, in the supposition that the horse and man were united
in one. Everything points to them as being the first who succeeded in
breaking and using the horse.

Coming down to the times of authentic history, we find the Parthians
to have been amongst the most renowned for their skill in training and
using the horse. Their feats of horsemanship in battle showed a complete
mastery of the animal, which, in their battles with the Romans, rendered
them so efficient as mounted archers.

Frequently, in ancient paintings, the mounted steed is represented
without a bridle, and the Numidian cavalry are said to have guided and
restrained their horses without it; an assertion by no means improbable,
as a Comanche Indian of the present day will frequently jump on the back
of a wild and untrained horse, and guide him by the simple expedient of
covering with his hand the eye of the animal on the side opposite to that
in which he wishes to direct it.

In modern times the horse has been so closely associated with man that
he appears in every phase of society, and it is only when his numerous
uses are considered that we realize how greatly the human family is his
debtor. The knight of the days of chivalry would have been impossible
but for the trusty steed which bore him so gallantly in the lists at
the tourney, and amidst the deadlier strife of the battle. Before the
plow and at the harrow he has multiplied the productions of the earth
a hundred-fold beyond what human strength alone could have secured.
Laboring before the loaded wagon, he has been a steady drudge for man.
Harnessed to the elegant equipage or to the humbler “cab,” or bearing
along the dusty highway the stage-coach of the traveler, he has performed
a thousand offices indispensable to human comfort and advancement. It is
not too much to claim for him that civilization itself would have been
shorn of something of its present fair proportions but for the valuable
services rendered by this noble animal.

Yet, with all his acknowledged value, the horse has been too frequently
the victim of neglect and cruelty; often ill-fed, poorly sheltered,
and harshly treated, till, in many cases, the innate nobleness of his
nature has been obscured by vicious habits, contracted through the
mismanagement or abuse to which he has been subjected, and perpetuated
by ignorance and prejudice. Naturally, the horse is usually gentle and
confiding; he is quick to perceive, and possesses an excellent memory,
which qualities render him capable of being educated easily, and to an
extent far greater than is generally supposed. Added to this, he is
capable of deep and lasting attachment.

What the horse may have been in his natural state is not known, as none
at present exist in that condition. The horses which at the present day
are found in a wild state in Northern Asia and America, are known to be
the descendants of individuals formerly domesticated. On the prairies
of the West, the pampas of South America, and the plains of Tartary,
they live in troops, roaming at large, without fixed place of abode,
seeking the richest pasturages by day, and resting at night in dry and
sheltered situations; these large troops, which have lived independently
for many generations, entirely exempt from the influence of man, probably
afford a tolerably correct idea of what the primeval animal was. They
are generally smaller, yet stronger, than the domesticated animal, with
rougher coats, stronger limbs, and larger heads. Even when adult, the
wild horse is readily domesticated, and may be broken to any use without
great difficulty, thus proving the natural gentleness and docility of
his nature. They are captured by the lasso, bitted, mounted, and broken
within an hour by the daring and skillful Gauchos.

The Arabians, long renowned for their attachment to the horse, early
showed the extent to which intelligent training could develop his finer
qualities, and render him the most docile and obedient of animals.
Something in that country or its climate is especially suited to the
development of the horse, and, although introduced there long after his
domestication in other eastern countries, he rapidly attained a degree
of excellence which surpassed all others, until the horses of Arabia and
the adjacent portions of Asia and Africa became the most celebrated for
speed, courage, spirit, intelligence and docility of any of the equine
race. Small in size, he has a beautiful, lean, bony head, with a very
broad forehead, a tapering muzzle, and large, well-opened nostrils; his
mane is very long, thin and silky. It is from the Arabian horse, crossed
with the Barb, that the best stock of England and America has sprung.
Although much of the superiority of these horses is attributable to
peculiarly favorable conditions of the country where they originated,
yet many of their excellent qualities may be traced to kindness and
intelligent training by which those qualities were first developed,
and through which they have been transmitted until they have become
characteristics of the race.

The Arabian understands the value of his horse, appreciates the nobility
of his nature, and treats him accordingly. They kiss and caress them;
they adorn them with jewels, and amulets formed out of sentences of the
Koran, as a preservative against evil and accidents. “In short,” says
a modern author, “they treat them almost like rational beings, which
are ready to sacrifice their lives for their master’s benefit.” In the
desert he is the familiar comrade, tentmate and playmate of his master,
as docile and intelligent as a dog. Rev. V. Monro relates an anecdote
of an Arab, “the net value of whose dress and accoutrements might be
calculated at something under seventeen pence half-penny,” who refused
all offers made to purchase a beautiful mare on which he rode, declaring
that he loved the animal better than his own life. The French author, Dr.
St. Pierre, quotes a remarkable instance of the attachment an Arabian
feels for his horse: “The whole stock of a poor Arabian of the desert
consisted of a most beautiful mare. The French Consul at Said offered
to purchase her, with an intention of sending her to his master, Louis
XIV. The Arab, pressed by want, hesitated for a long time, but at length
consented, on condition of receiving a very considerable sum, which he
named. The Consul, not daring, without instructions, to give so high a
price, wrote to Versailles for permission to close the bargain on the
terms stipulated. Louis XIV gave orders to pay the money. The Consul
immediately sent notice to the Arab, who soon after made his appearance
mounted on his magnificent courser, and the gold he had demanded was
paid down to him. The Arab, covered with a miserable rag, dismounts and
looks at the money; then, turning his eyes to the mare, he thus accosts
her: ‘To whom am I going to yield thee up? To Europeans, who will tie
thee close, who will beat thee, who will render thee miserable. Return
with me, my beauty, my darling, my jewel, and rejoice the hearts of my
children!’ As he pronounced these words, he sprung upon her back and
scampered off towards the desert.”

It is not surprising that such a high appreciation of and fondness for
this noble animal, united to an intelligent training, has resulted in
the production of a race of horses unrivaled in excellence. But among
Europeans and Americans the treatment of the horse has been usually so
harsh, and the mode of training so deficient in intelligence, as to
greatly lessen his value, even where a brutal ignorance has not brought
into activity every vice latent in his nature. Of the numerous faults
ascribed to the horse a very small portion are chargeable to his natural
disposition, the remainder being the direct result of vicious training,
or rather of the absence of training, and the substitution of something
which, under that name, first produces and then fosters the faults for
which the animal is punished; while often the punishment is ineffectual,
because the animal has no conception of why it is made to suffer.

Education is as essential to the horse as it is to man, and in each
case it must proceed on the same general principles. Man, if uneducated
and untrained would degenerate into barbarism, and the horse, unless
brought under subjection to an intelligent will, will remain wild and
ungovernable. In each case education is the process by which the higher
and better qualities are developed and the lower and evil are restrained.
The first grand lesson to be learned by each is that of subjection
to authority; the child is taught that by his parent; the horse must
learn it from his trainer. But, after that, knowledge is required, and
this must be imparted by methods adapted to the nature that is to be
cultivated. The object of the practical portion of this book is to show
in what that knowledge consists and how it may be communicated to the
horse, and so impressed upon his memory that it will never be forgotten.
The author has the fullest confidence that the methods of breaking and
training the horse, herein taught, will, if early applied, prevent his
acquiring any of the faults which, under former systems, have proved so
numerous; while the treatment recommended for correcting bad habits,
already formed, will prove effectual in even the most stubborn cases,
and with the most intractable dispositions. The reader will not be
asked to accept any unproved theory, but will be instructed in a system
which, although subjected to the severest tests, has never failed to
accomplish the desired results. And that it never will fail, the author
feels assured, it being firmly based on reason and experience. That it
may require patience and self-control on the part of the instructor
the author does not deny; but so does the instruction of a child, the
breaking of a dog to the gun, or even the training of a vine to its
trellis; but the satisfactory results which are certain to be attained
will furnish an ample reward.



DIRECTIONS FOR FEEDING AND FITTING A HORSE.


1. TO RAISE A TROTTER SO THAT HE WILL LAST A LONG TIME.—A horse that is
going to display great excellence as a trotter will not attain his speed
at four years, nor at five, but will reach his highest excellence when
the well-bred horse of seven years has been long gone from the turf.
_Nothing in nature, soon matured, lasts long._

In fitting a running horse, the case is different, as his constitution is
not the same; the colts of blooded horses are inclined to mature earlier
than any others, and, being of leaner and wiry build, they can stand more
feed at an early period than a lower-bred horse.

There are good reasons, which I fully endorse, for not feeding growing
colts much grain. If the colt is weaned, I would recommend from one to
two quarts per day, varying the quantity according to his size, as one
with a large, loose frame will require more than a close-built colt,
which keeps in good order and fills out as he grows up. Good pasturage,
however, is the main requisite. Give no corn to colts while they are
young. Late in the fall give your colt all the hay he can eat, and be
careful to have his oats clean and of good quality. When his first winter
comes, let the colt have a good place to run, and be well-housed at
night. Never turn such colts out with old horses, calves and heifers;
should you do so, you may expect a shivering, scrawny colt, scarcely able
to put one leg before the other; while, by avoiding this error, your colt
will be as gay and frisky as when standing by its mother.

When weaning, a warm bran-mash, now and then, with a few oats mixed
in, will be beneficial; it will do the whole system good, and improve
digestion. Give colts and horses all the water they can drink, but do not
give it often. Never give a colt physic unless it is sick; to prevent
sickness, diet when symptoms of indisposition appear.

Yearling colts should have three quarts of oats per day; their other food
must be abundant and good. When two years old in the spring, give four
quarts of oats per day; when three years old give six quarts, and when
four years old give eight quarts daily.

2. TO MOUTH AND BIT A COLT.—The bitting must not be continued long at
a time, from five to twenty minutes is sufficient, great care must be
observed not to overdo the colt as short lessons, often repeated, make a
better impression and are more lasting. When the colt becomes fatigued
his temper will begin to rise, and I am satisfied that two-thirds of
horses viciously inclined are made so by improper handling when young. In
handling a two-year-old trotter the utmost care, as well as gentleness
and firmness, must be exercised. It was not customary, in former times,
to handle colts until they were four years old, but later experience
has shown the advantages of beginning at an earlier age. A colt can be
taught at two years old, and be made to trot at three if the handling
is properly done. But a danger to be especially guarded against is the
impatience of the owner who, when he finds that the young colt can trot
a little, always desires to see him do it more or a little faster. If he
pushes the colt in such a way he will soon have one that will do nothing.
The only proper and safe way is to proceed gradually, but continually;
the colt should be kept at it gently, so as to retain all he learns,
which he will do if he is not forced off his feet.

Then break him to ride; mount and dismount, but do not straddle him till
he gets accustomed to your getting off and on; then ride him for a few
moments, but not so long that he will get leg-weary. I recommend less
walking for trotters than was formerly employed.

3. TO EDUCATE HIM FOR THE ROAD.—In doing this the skeleton is preferable,
to keep the weight off his back. Take your horse to some track; if there
is none, then upon the road; do not speed him along at the same rate;
but in short “spurts,” when he will extend himself without injury. If he
seems tired, let him up a little. You must watch for such indications,
as this is a critical time in the education of your horse. This jogging
should not exceed from two to four miles a day, with “spurts” of not
over a quarter of a mile. You should carefully ascertain whether or not
he improves, as at this age his improvement should be constant. Perhaps,
at this time, you may see him break his gait, showing that he has had
too much work for his age and has become sore. Then suspend your driving
and when he gets well apply my trotting rig as shown in the engraving.
The colt then, finding something on his mouth and legs to keep him
steady, will alter his way of going. Though he is to be taught to go
without being pulled hard, it should still be remembered that the colt or
horse will often want to get his head down and feel the bit. The driver
should then support him, with as little pull as possible, yet enough to
accomplish that purpose; the horse with good mouth will always feel the
driver’s hand.



SYSTEM OF EDUCATING THE HORSE.


_NEW METHOD OF HALTERING A VICIOUS OR WILD COLT._

[Illustration: NEW METHOD OF HALTERING A VICIOUS OR WILD COLT.]

Having directed my attention for many years to compiling a system of
educating the horse, and traveling over twenty-five States of the Union,
together with nearly all the cities and towns in the Provinces of
Ontario and Quebec, during the past eight years, it is highly probable
that few, if any, men are better prepared to impart instruction or to
give direction with regard to the management of the horse than myself.
Therefore, without being egotistic, or overrating my ability, I can but
say that, if the reader will adopt the various ideas found in my work
relating to the colt alone, he will have gained knowledge sufficient to
more than repay him for the amount paid for the book.

I deem it advisable to give special directions to those who raise colts,
not only as to their manner of treatment and education, but, knowing
full well the difficulty sometimes attending the first haltering of wild
colts, I have prepared the foregoing plate as illustrative of my method,
and now proceed to give directions which, if strictly followed, will
insure success.

Take a pole about ten feet long; drive a nail near the end, then drive
another about fifteen inches from it; now take a rope halter, and hang
the part that goes on the top of the head on these nails; then enlarge
the nose-piece, by means of the slip-noose, sufficiently to allow it to
slip on easily, observing to hold the halter stale in your hands with the
pole; approach your colt with great care, and allow him to smell of the
halter, and, in a few minutes, he will yield to your advances, and allow
you to place the halter on him without much difficulty. Make the shank or
stale of the halter about three times the ordinary length, for, as soon
as he finds himself caught, he will use his best exertions to get away
from you.


_TO EDUCATE THE HORSE TO THE WORDS “COME HERE.”_

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE THE HORSE TO THE WORDS “COME HERE.”]

Place a Camanche bridle on the horse, made as follows: take a small cord
about sixteen feet long, tie the end around the neck firmly, so that it
cannot slip; then double your cord, placing it under the neck, from,
the shoulder to the mouth; step back at the side of your horse, and say
“Come here;” at the same time give him a sharp jerk, and he will swing
around to you; when he comes, caress him with your hand on the shoulder;
now repeat the same on opposite side, remembering to caress each time;
do this four or five times, and you will find that your horse will obey
and fully understand the words “come here.” Always speak the words with a
distinct and commanding tone of voice.

I desire that the reader may understand that obedience in the horse is
accomplished by pain; so, when you inflict pain, accompanied by a word,
the horse is made to understand that the words mean pain; and, rather
than suffer pain, he cheerfully obeys the word.

Persons have practiced the foregoing idea and succeeded in accomplishing
their purpose and have, no doubt, been highly gratified that their
horse was so intelligent, yielding a quiet obedience to their efforts
in a very short time; now had the owner known that a foundation for a
complete education was properly laid, how easily could he have built a
superstructure thereon that would have been permanent and beneficial
during the life of the animal. Men are often conceited and think that
because they have experienced no difficulty in the past in breaking and
handling their horses, therefore all will be sunshine in the future. I
would advise a careful perusal of my work, and, by so doing, those of the
character above described will have their conceit supplanted as they gain
the knowledge of a practical system of properly educating the horse.


_HOW TO LAY A HORSE DOWN._

[Illustration: HOW TO LAY A HORSE DOWN.]

Place a rope or rein around the horse’s body, forming a surcingle; pass
the other end under the tail and bring it back, tying it to the part
around the body, thus forming a surcingle and crooper; also put a ring,
say an inch in diameter, in the surcingle on the back; then strap up the
nigh fore-leg as follows: take a quarter-strap, pass it two or three
times around below the fetlock, then through the keeper; bring the leg
up and buckle close to the belly; place around the neck a quarter-inch
strong rope, loosely, fixing the knot so it will not slip; bring the
end down the near side of the head, through the mouth, and back on the
off-side through the ring in the surcingle; now take a position on the
nigh-side of the horse, commencing to pull gently, allowing him to
struggle a short time, after which he will lie down quite easily, without
sustaining any injury.

By adhering strictly to the instructions given, every person will
readily see, that the object in laying the horse down is to give him
to understand that you are master; and, after repeating this two or
three times, he will be perfectly satisfied of the fact. While down,
place a small pole between his legs, moving it about; if he shows fear
or resists, give him a sharp pull on the cord in his mouth by way of
correction. In other words, punish him for doing wrong, and caress him
for doing right, thus making him understand the difference between right
and wrong.


_HOW TO GET A HORSE UP THAT THROWS HIMSELF._

[Illustration: HOW TO GET A HORSE UP THAT THROWS HIMSELF.]

Animals are often sulky, and quickly acquire the habit of lying down.
Balky horses, when urged to go, will lie down and refuse to get up, and
an ox will sometimes lie down in the furrow when before the plough. When
the habit is thoroughly settled, it becomes very annoying to the owner or
driver, who often resorts to severe means, but fails to accomplish the
end desired; therefore, to prevent violence and ill-treatment, I give the
easy and simple remedy subjoined, which, when adopted, will be found to
be practical and _never-failing_:

Raise the animal’s head up, as illustrated in the foregoing plate, and
pour into his nostril a small quantity of water, not to exceed a pint,
from a pitcher or cup, and you will be amused by the pleasing result: the
animal will rise to his feet as quickly as it is possible for him to do
so; he believes himself to be drowning, and will extricate himself with
all speed.

Simple as is this expedient, it is yet unfailing in its efficacy; and
that which most commends it to the acceptance of kind-hearted men is the
absence of all cruelty in its application. No pain is caused, but the
unusual sensation, together with the necessity for air on the part of the
horse, banishes his former feeling of sulkiness or anger and the yields
to the almost irresistible impulse to spring to his feet and free his
nostrils of the water.

If any one who has never applied this remedy should doubt its power, he
only needs to try the experiment in a mild way on himself, when he will
realize its power upon the horse.

I believe it would be impossible to devise another method so free from
pain, so harmless to the horse, and yet so thoroughly efficacious as is
the one we have here given.


_TO EDUCATE A COLT NOT TO BE AFRAID OF HIS HEELS._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A COLT NOT TO BE AFRAID OF HIS HEELS.]

Too much importance cannot be attached to the manner of educating a
horse’s heels, as it is in that point his greatest means of defense and
resistance lies, and most men make the mistake of breaking one end of the
horse, while they allow his hind parts to go uneducated. The instructions
I am about to give will, if properly followed, insure success.

After laying your colt down, commence to handle his hind parts and heels,
being careful to hold the cord firmly in your left hand, so that, if he
attempts to get up, you can control him; then strike him gently with a
stick, and, if he should show fear, which he naturally will, punish him
in the mouth; then place the stick between his legs and commence moving
it around, and, if he makes no resistance, remember to caress him; almost
as much is accomplished by caressing as by punishing.

The above instruction is equally applicable to a kicking horse, but
in his education he will require more lessons before the habit will
be entirely removed; still, kindness and a little patience will soon
accomplish all you desire.

Men in general exercise too little patience in the training of their
colts, and they frequently expect to accomplish more in a short space of
time than can possibly be performed. Yet the time really required, when
measured by days, is so short as to be really surprising. Let us suppose
that in training a colt one were to spend two hours a day for ten days,
which is the longest time that could possibly be needed; compute the time
at ten hours to the day, and the whole amounts to but two days, at the
end of which he would have a well-educated animal. I doubt if a farmer
or horse-raiser could employ his time more profitably in any other way
than in thoroughly educating his colts, as he thus enhances their value,
for there is no sensible man who would not give ten dollars more for a
properly educated animal than for one improperly trained.


_TO EDUCATE A COLT TO DRIVE BEFORE BEING HARNESSED._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A COLT TO DRIVE BEFORE BEING HARNESSED.]

Place on him the Bonaparte bridle, as shown in engraving, with your cord
in the left hand and whip in the right; the cord referred to should be
about eighteen feet long; now drive him around a circle to the right
about fifteen minutes; then drive him to the left about the same time.
You have now educated your colt to drive, and may with safety put on your
harness, observing to put the reins through the shaft tugs at his side;
then commence driving him carefully for some fifteen minutes on a walk,
turning him to the right and left as before directed. Do not use the whip
more than sufficient to give him a knowledge of its use. Never drive a
colt without blinders. It is better to first hitch him to a sulky or a
cart, and do not put on breechings, but allow the cross-bar frequently to
come against his heels, so that he may never be afraid, or learn to kick.
Never forget, when your colt is obedient, to stop him, and walk up to and
caress him.

I am unwilling to pass on to another illustration without more fully
impressing on the minds of those who raise or break colts the necessity
of kind and careful usage in educating their animals. Never approach
your colt quickly. Never, pull the halter or bridle off quickly. Always
handle the colt’s ears with great care. Never punish him on the body
with anything but a whip, and with it as seldom as possible, as many
colts become sulky and show signs of balking when severely whipped. It is
better that you should give your colt two or three lessons each day, as
heretofore directed, at intervals of say two hours apart: by this means
you do not overtax his brain, nor cause him to get weary. In this, as in
many other cases, the wisest course is to “make haste slowly.”


_HOW TO EDUCATE A COLT TO MOVE HIS BODY WHEN HE MOVES HIS HEAD._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A COLT TO MOVE HIS BODY WHEN HE MOVES HIS
HEAD.]

Place on your bridle, then your harness; carry your reins through the
shaft tugs; take your position behind the horse (see engraving); now
commence to drive, turning him round frequently, first to the right,
then to the left, and he will quickly understand to move his body when
he moves his head. By this means you are educating to the shafts, and
educating not to be afraid of his heels, thus thoroughly breaking your
horse at both sides and both ends.

After your colt has been driven two or three times, as above described,
educate him to obey the word “whoa:” let him walk along smartly, then
speak plain, with audible voice, and say “whoa;” at the same time pull on
the reins with some force; when he stops, caress him; repeat this a few
times, and, in the short space of fifteen minutes, you will have taught
him the use of the word. Now your horse is educated to drive and stop at
the word of command.

The next thing in order is to teach him to back. To accomplish this,
grasp your reins firmly, and with a determined effort; speak firmly,
making use of the word “back,” at the same time pulling with all your
might; if he obeys the first time, step up and caress him; if not,
increase the power by inviting one or more of your friends to assist on
the reins, being fully determined to accomplish your purpose. As soon as
he obeys, don’t fail to caress him, and by this process you will educate
your horse to the word, which he will never forget.

Your colt being educated, you may now hitch him up to a vehicle,
observing to drive him very slow, only on a walk, and after thus driving
him a few times, you can with certainty say that you have a thoroughly
educated horse, whose value will be greatly increased, compared with the
old or any other system of breaking the colt. _Always_ observing to drive
your colt with blinders, only using the whip enough to let him know the
use of it. Be kind to your animal, never using harsh means, and he will
reward your kindness by implicit obedience.


_IMPROVED METHOD OF BITTING A COLT._

[Illustration: IMPROVED METHOD OF BITTING A COLT.]

Use the Bonaparte bridle, placing a loop on the lower jaw; carry the cord
back on the neck, bringing the end of the cord down through the loop on
the jaw; then draw the horse’s head up in an easy and graceful position,
and tie a bow-knot. Should the horse attempt to rear and go over
backwards, give a little pull to untie the cord, and the horse is saved
from any accident. The object aimed at in bitting a horse is to give an
easy position, with a high and graceful carriage of the head, and, in our
efforts to do this, we must be careful not to give him a dead bearing on
the bit, or make him what is usually known as a “lugger.” All the bitting
rings which we have examined, and especially those of English make, are
objectionable, as having a tendency to produce this result. The rig which
we here give you is entirely free from this objection, and is better
calculated to produce the desired result of ease and gracefulness than
any ever before presented to the public. Our rig, instead of bearing
on the jaw-bones whenever the horse presses his weight upon the bit,
producing a calloused jaw and indifference to the bit, contracts the side
muscles of the cheek on the molar teeth, with a pain the horse cannot
endure; he lifts his head, the bit falls on the side rein, and the mouth
is at once relieved. Practice has shown that horses bitted with this rig
soon acquire the habit of gently and gracefully raising the head with
that occasional toss, or upward and downward motion, and playing with
the bit, which is the perfection of beauty in a carriage horse, while
standing in the harness.

It is not possible for a horse with our rig to become a “lugger.” This
bit never bears upon the jaw-bone with more than a light pressure, and
when he attempts to rest his head upon the bit, the pressure on the teeth
causes him to desist and elevate his head. He soon dreads to rest upon
the bit, and of his own free will, without the force of the rein, carries
it up with freedom and ease.


_EDUCATING THE COLT TO RIDE_

[Illustration: EDUCATING THE COLT TO RIDE.]

First put on the Bonaparte bridle, make a double half-hitch, bringing
it over the head, back of his ears, and, carrying it down to the mouth,
place it under the upper lip, taking the end of the cord in your right
hand, placing it on the horse’s rump; then place your left hand in the
mane; now spring partly on and off, as seen in the plate on preceding
page. Do this several times; if he moves, punish him in the mouth, by
means of the cord; if he does not move, when you get off caress him;
then go to the opposite side, repeating the same several times, after
which you may safely mount your horse, but be particular not to remain
on his back too long at a time, as the strength of the animal is not yet
sufficiently developed to bear a protracted strain. Like the young of all
animals, the colt has a great deal of energy and spirit, but lacks the
stamina to endure long-continued exertion, nor can it be imposed on them
without certain injury.

Men do not act wisely by practicing the old system of riding colts, viz.,
by mounting on the back with reins and whip in hand, and, so soon as the
colt jumps about or rears, applying the whip or heels; for the reason
that the animal _does not know_ what you require of him, but believes you
design some injury, and therefore resists your efforts to ride him. No
wonder that he repeatedly throws his rider and treats him as an intruder.
He cannot be less terrified than a man would be if a wild animal were to
mount on his back. In order to secure success in educating his colt to
ride let the reader adopt the foregoing instructions, and he will not
have cause for regret, but will find that he has gained more than the
single point of riding, as he has taught his colt that he does not intend
to harm him, and that his duty is to yield a cheerful obedience to his
owner’s commands.


_INSTRUCTIONS TO RIDE THE COLT._

[Illustration: INSTRUCTIONS TO RIDE THE COLT.]

Take a small cord, ten to twelve feet long, divide it in the center; then
place the center back of the ears, cross it in the mouth, then bring
both ends along the neck to the withers, and tie a knot, thus forming a
powerful bridle, sufficient to ride the most vicious animal.

Sacred history contains the declaration that there is “the bridle for
the horse, the whip for the ass, and the rod for the fool’s back,” and,
while writing my book, I have often thought of the first portion of that
quotation. The power of the bridle in controlling the horse is really
wonderful, and the new forms of powerful bridles given in this work
enable the most timid rider to secure the mastery of the most powerful
animal. The one described above is excellent, and can never fail to give
satisfaction when it is used as directed.

There is no exercise so invigorating and scarcely any so delightful as
the manly one of riding the horse, yet three-quarters of the pleasure
of equestrianism depends on the early training of the horse for this
delightful exercise. The rider who feels that he has beneath him an
animal obedient to his slightest wish, and which responds to a touch of
the heel or the lightest pressure of the bit, moving to the lifting or
the falling of the bridle, such a rider feels almost as though the horse
on which he sits forms a portion of himself, and courses onward with a
delightful sense of power and freedom. Nearly all of this excellence in
a riding-horse depends on the way in which he has been educated while
young. Faults then acquired may be corrected, it is true, in later years,
yet it is far more desirable that they should never have been formed,
but, in place thereof, the qualities secured which form the excellence of
a horse.

I throw out these suggestions at this point, for I am now dealing with
the early education of the colt; later in the book I shall have to speak
more of faults to be corrected, and it is my wish to impress on my reader
the great importance of the kind of education which the colt receives at
his hands.


_TO HALTER-BREAK A COLT, AND HITCH IN THE STABLE._

[Illustration: TO HALTER-BREAK AND HITCH A COLT IN THE STALL.]

Place the center of a sixteen-foot cord under the horse’s tail, and bring
it over and cross it on the back; then tie it firmly in front of the
breast (as seen by reference to illustration on preceding page); carry
the halter-strap through the manger, and bring it back under the mouth;
then tie the end of the strap to the cord in front of the breast. The
colt is now tied by the head and tail. While he yields quietly to the
confinement, he is comfortable and easy, but the moment he begins to
resist he punishes himself; this he soon learns, and in a little time
ceases the efforts which he finds to be productive of pain. He will
always remember the lesson, and give no further trouble.

It may seem a trifling thing to have gained the result described above;
yet, as the earth is made up of grains of sand, so the thorough education
of the horse is the result of attention to a multitude of small affairs,
each one seeming to be of little importance in itself, but which, in
their total, make the difference between a gentle and an unruly animal.

Too much care and attention cannot be bestowed on the colt while you
are giving him lesson after lesson, as he is susceptible of impressions
that will take weeks to overcome, provided you should through neglect
or carelessness omit to practice the instructions laid down. Do not
suppose that any of the directions given in this book are unimportant.
They are, one and all, the result of long experience in the management
and education of the horse, and each one, in its place and relation to
the general system, is as necessary, though perhaps not as important,
as any other. To be certain of reaching the best results of the system,
the reader must not pass over any of our directions as unimportant
or unnecessary, but accept each as a part of the system which it has
required years of time and thought to bring to its present state of
perfection.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO KICK AT YOU WHEN ENTERING THE STALL._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO KICK AT YOU WHEN ENTERING THE
STALL.]

Place on the horse the Bonaparte bridle; then drive a staple at the side
of the stall, near the manger, three or four feet from the floor; then
attach another staple at the entrance of the stall, the same distance
from the floor; now pass the cord through both staples and tie it. When
you enter the stall, pull sharply on the rope; at the same time use the
words “go over.” The head of the horse will be drawn towards you, and his
heels to the opposite side. Thus you avoid all danger, and will very soon
educate your horse to abandon this bad habit.

Vicious and annoying habits in horses often owe their origin to bad
management by their owner or groom. Allow me to instance a few examples:
A man walks into the stable and approaches his horse in the stall, and,
if he should move about quickly, the person springs back from him,
evidently showing his fear, which is at once noticed by the horse, and
taken advantage of; so that, after a repetition of this two or three
times, the animal fancies he is master, and uses his heels to help the
intruder out of the stall. Another custom prevails: that of striking a
horse on the rump or hinder parts, with a whip or stick in order to make
him stand over, and the effect is to irritate and cause him to kick.
Now, in order to insure success, walk up to your animal manfully and
determinately, observing never to show fear, and by this means you will
never teach your horse to kick at you.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE THAT KICKS OR PAWS IN THE STALL._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE THAT KICKS OR PAWS IN THE STALL.]

First make the Bonaparte bridle, as before directed; carry the cord
through a surcingle, attached around the body, back to a ring in front
of the hind-leg, to which are attached two straps, one above and one
below the gambol joint of the leg he has the habit of kicking with; thus,
when he kicks, he is punished in the act, and soon gives up the habit.
_Pawing_—Continue the cord forward to a ring attached to two small straps
above and below the knee-joint, as seen on engraving, observing, as above
directed, to attach the appliance to the leg he paws with, reversing the
straps when required, which will give a horse the knowledge that when he
paws he punishes himself, and the reader will see, by this treatment, the
habit speedily broken up.

The habit of kicking in the stall is one that is not only disagreeable
to the owner of the horse addicted to it, but is often destructive and
costly, as a horse viciously inclined to that habit will sometimes even
splinter the boards of the stall, and with so simple and effective a
method of correcting the bad habit it should never be tolerated for a
single day, and the possessor of this book would be inexcusable should he
suffer it to continue in an animal owned by him.

The habit of pawing in the stall, though not so vicious in its nature
as that of kicking, is yet sufficiently troublesome and unpleasant to
deserve a speedy correction, and the owner of a horse addicted to even
the last-named fault will be more than compensated for the slight trouble
caused in its removal.

It may seem needless to repeat what has before been said, in substance,
that the seemingly small faults of a horse are the ones which most
frequently lessen his value and impair his usefulness, and that the
removal of any one, however trifling, adds a money value to the horse
more than sufficient to compensate for the time and trouble expended.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO GET CAST IN THE STALL._

[Illustration: TO PREVENT A HORSE GETTING CAST IN THE STALL.]

Drive a staple in the ceiling over the manger at the side of the stall,
then another in the ceiling in the center of the stall over the horse’s
head; pass a small cord through the staple at the side of the stall; tie
a horseshoe, or the weight of a horseshoe, so that the cord will not draw
through the staple; then put the cord through the staple in the center of
the stall, bring it down within two and a half feet of the floor, and cut
it off, attaching a snap to the end; place a ring in the halter at the
top of the head, in the center, as seen in engraving. Now, when his head
raises up, the weight comes down; when his mouth is on the floor he can
lie down with ease, but he cannot get the top of his head to the floor;
and, if he cannot get the top of his head to the floor, he cannot roll;
and, if he cannot roll, he cannot get cast. This remedy is as simple as
it is certain, and is always perfectly safe.

The habit of rolling in the stable is one often attended with fatal
results, in addition to the anxiety experienced by the owner of the
horse. Various means are resorted to in order to prevent the animal
getting cast, and most of them are wide of the mark; and, in order to
acquaint the reader with the variety of ways practiced, so that he may
contrast the difference between others and mine, I have thought proper to
write more explicitly on the subject.

A favorite idea with many is to tie the halter so short that the
animal cannot get his mouth near the floor; this renders the horse
uncomfortable, as he cannot lie down when he desires. Another is,
hitching the halter-stale at the ceiling directly over the head of the
animal, and allowing cord enough that he may get his mouth on the floor;
this, too, is attended with bad results, for when he raises his head up
there is sufficient slack in the rope so as to permit his getting his
foot over the rope and become so entangled as to render his position
dangerous.


_TO EDUCATE A COLT TO LEAD BEHIND A WAGON._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A COLT TO LEAD BEHIND A WAGON.]

First put on the colt a common halter without a leader, then place a
small cord about eighteen feet long, divided in the center, under the
tail, cross it on the back, then bring the ends through between the
under-jaw of the horse and the nose-piece of the halter, and tie it to
the hind end of the wagon. This idea will be satisfactory, and your colt
will soon be educated to lead without trouble to his owner. The expedient
is a very simple one, yet will invariably prove successful, because the
colt will find his own comfort to be promoted by doing as you wish;
and this is one of the principles which underlie my whole system of
training—to make the horse desire to do that which his owner wishes.

Under this head I am satisfied that I cannot be too particular in giving
instructions, as persons often grow merry when witnessing the results
produced from ideas that are so different from their old and accustomed
ones, practiced for leading colts. After you have hitched your colt in
the manner described, do not start off immediately, but let him remain as
quiet as possible for a few minutes, then start the wagon slowly, and,
if your colt attempts to rear or plunge about, stop your vehicle, get
out and walk up quietly to your colt and caress him, and when you start
him again, if possible, walk along by his side for a short time, then
stop him again, and again caress. His attention will not be attracted
by objects on the road, but very soon he will understand that his chief
business is to walk on quietly away from the punishment inflicted from
the cord under his tail.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE THAT IS BAD TO CATCH._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE THAT IS BAD TO CATCH.]

Horses acquire this habit mainly from improperly turning them out; and,
to illustrate, I will give the reader an example. First, the man or
boy takes his horse to the bars or fence of the field, and lets only a
portion of either down; he now takes off the bridle or halter, and, in
order to make the horse jump over, hits him on the rump and shouts at
him; thus the animal is made to fear the approach of man when loose; so
that, with this kind of training, it soon becomes difficult to catch, and
requires education in order to counteract this bad habit.

Directions: Put on the Bonaparte bridle, and tie a knot at the mouth, so
as to prevent it from slipping down to his teeth, when he might sever
the cord; then carry it up to his mane over the shoulder; tie the mane
together with a string; then pass the cord through the loop thus made
with the mane, and carry the cord through a loop made in the tail by
same means, and let your cord lay out behind from ten to fifty feet,
as required. Now, when you want your horse, go carefully up behind him
and take a firm hold of the cord, and say “Come here,” at the same time
pulling with all your might. By giving him three or four lessons of this
kind, you may safely take off the cord and go into the field, standing
about the same distance as when you last pulled or the cord, and repeat
the words “come here;” he will quickly obey your voice, and give you no
more trouble in catching him.

When it is remembered how much time is often lost in catching a horse
in the field, it will be seen that, in money value, this simple point
of horse education will more than repay the cost of this book to the
owner of a horse that has heretofore been bad to catch; and the saving
of temper as well as time will make the improvement in his habits doubly
valuable. Both the man and the horse are made better by it.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO REAR UNDER THE SADDLE OR BEFORE A CARRIAGE._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO REAR UNDER THE SADDLE OR BEFORE
A CARRIAGE.]

Attach a small cord tightly around the swell of the body, tied with a
loop-knot, and carry it back into the carriage. By doing this you prevent
your horse from rearing, inasmuch as he is unable to expand his body,
and, without doing so, it is impossible for him to rear. Simple as is
this method, the reader, if he should have occasion to practice it, will
find the idea of great value, as it will never fail to prove effectual in
removing this, to say the least, unpleasant and often dangerous habit.
It is possible that the habit might be broken up in other ways, but
there are none so harmless and easy of application as is the one I have
described.

My readers will, I doubt not, receive with kindly feelings not only the
instructions on the important points of educating their horses to break
off bad habits, but will profit by the ideas and examples given of the
various means adopted by horse-handlers to create these habits. In the
present instance, it is rarely, if ever, known that horses acquire the
habit of rearing themselves, but are prompted so to do by the means used,
viz., starting and stopping suddenly; pulling sharply on the reins, and
then striking the animal with the whip, either of which is a sure and
certain means of producing this result—that of causing the horse to rear
up whenever you desire to move off.

The inconvenience and unpleasantness of such a habit are too plain to
need more than a mention, besides its often occasioning great alarm to
a timid driver; and the simple yet practical means I have given for
breaking up the habit, will be found successful whenever it is tried, as
it always should be where the habit exists.


_TO EDUCATE AND PREVENT A HORSE FROM CRIBBING._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE AND PREVENT A HORSE FROM CRIBBING.]

Build a manger on the floor or from the floor up. In many cases this will
prevent a horse from cribbing by getting his mouth below his chest.

Another method, _sure to be effective_, is to place a piece of sheep-skin
of long wool, eight inches wide and about three feet long, or long
enough to reach from one side of the stall to the other, and on the skin
sprinkle cayenne pepper; take soft soap and rub it on any part of the
stall where the horse will be likely to crib. If the above instructions
are strictly adhered to, and the horse is fed regularly, three times a
day, there will be little danger of his ever becoming a cribber. The
slight trouble which this remedy involves will be repaid a hundred-fold
by the satisfaction felt in the prevention or cure of a most disagreeable
habit, and one which, like every other fault, lessens the value of a
horse. In using the cayenne pepper, a small quantity will be sufficient.

There are more bad results accruing from cribbing than many are aware of.
From cribbing the horse may become a crib-sucker, which often results in
colic, or, as it is sometimes termed, belly-ache. When this occurs of
course it becomes a dangerous habit, and no one should think it too much
trouble to adopt the instructions given under this head. Do not think
you can eradicate this habit by nailing tin or iron over the manger; you
cannot remove it thus; your horse may desist for the time being, but when
put into a stall that is not thus arranged, he will relapse into his old
habit; but by adopting the remedy I have provided he will be thoroughly
taught not to attempt to bite or gnaw the manger.

There is a wide difference between preventing a horse from doing what he
still wishes to do, and taking from him the disposition to do wrong; the
latter alone can properly be called education, and is the only way in
which a bad habit can be permanently removed. On this principle I base my
whole system; it is education, by appealing to the intelligence of the
horse.


_TO EDUCATE AND BREAK A HALTER-PULLER._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE AND BREAK A HALTER-PULLER.]

Place on the horse a common halter, without tie-strap; then take a small
cord, about 16 to 18 feet long; divide it on the center, place it under
the tail and cross it on the back; bring the ends each side of the neck,
then place the ends through the halter under the mouth; tie round a post
or tree. Then tie a strap from the mouth to the post or tree one foot
shorter than the rope, after making it taut from the tail; then cut the
strap half off, after which, frighten your horse by rolling a barrel
in front of him; now he will fly back, breaking the strap, and he will
be caught under the tail, which is a severe punishment that will, by
repeating it two or three times, educate him not to pull at the halter
again.

The practical nature of the idea embraced in the foregoing directions
will be seen at a glance, for the following reason: the horse has from
time to time been guilty of pulling on his halter and breaking it, much
to the displeasure of the owner, but probably much to the gratification
of the horse, who, perhaps, has come to take a sort of pleasure in the
act; now he is made to repeat the same thing, unconscious of the result
that will follow, when immediately on carrying out his old habit he
receives a severe punishment inflicted by the very act. The horse is,
no doubt, surprised, but he quickly learns to connect the act and the
suffering in his mind, and so soon as he does that the habit is cured
forever. This I claim as a great excellence in my system, that its
results are all permanent; the cure is not for a day only, but for all
time; the very disposition to do wrong is wiped out of the animal’s
brain.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO KICK WHEN THE LINE GETS UNDER HIS TAIL._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO KICK WHEN THE LINE GETS UNDER
THE TAIL.]

Horses become kickers from various causes, and one most effectual in
producing the habit, is that when a horse gets the rein under his tail,
his driver, getting provoked, pulls strongly on the rein in order to
liberate it, and by this means burns the skin beneath the tail, when the
horse becomes excited and commences to kick. The driver then usually
begins to whip, and oftentimes the horse continues to kick, until he
breaks everything within reach of his heels, and runs away. Now the owner
has a confirmed kicker, and frequently knows not what to do to correct
the fault he has himself established. The instructions below, if properly
applied, will effect a cure.

When your horse is down, as seen in the engraving, place a strap under
his tail and commence moving it up and down; should he kick, or show
signs of resistance, at once punish him; if not, caress him, and in a
short time his tail will become limber and he will be taught to not be
afraid, though, in driving, the rein should get under his tail. Also,
after you allow him to rise to his feet, use the same means as just
directed when he was lying down.

In my book I have endeavored to grapple with almost every bad habit that
the horse is addicted to, and would here advise all persons who handle
them to be extremely careful that if their animals acquire unpleasant
habits, they are not mostly to be blamed themselves. Horses differ
materially in their ability to learn, and many are less susceptible of
impressions than others, therefore, it behooves the educator to first
make himself acquainted with the disposition of his horse, and treat him
accordingly, as the same line of management will not serve for all, but
an observance of one important direction, that of _always_ using the
utmost kindness, will, in most cases, prevent and remove all habits but
those of long standing.


_ANOTHER METHOD OF EDUCATING A HORSE NOT TO KICK._

[Illustration: ANOTHER METHOD OF EDUCATING A KICKING HORSE.]

I design to make this chapter as plain as possible, so that no man need
fail to break up this worst of habits, and in order so to do, I will
commence at the beginning. With the previously-described rig, lay the
horse down, and commence to handle him. Take a stick or a piece of board
and ply it on his hinder parts, then thrust it between his legs. Should
he kick, punish in the mouth with Camanche bridle, but if he offers no
resistance, caress. When you have secured submission allow your horse to
rise to his feet, then put on him a head-stall and lines and commence
driving him on the walk; every three or four rods pull sharply on the
reins and at the same instant say “Whoa,” walk up and caress; start him
off again, and repeat the “Whoa,” say ten times, by that time you have
so educated him to the word that he will scarcely forget it for years.
Take your stick and ply it on his hind parts again; if he resists, jerk
suddenly on the reins and say “Whoa.” Ply the stick until all fear is
removed. You can now safely hitch your animal to a cart, as seen in
engraving, using no breeching. Drive him a short time, simultaneously
pull on the reins and say “Whoa,” at the same time allowing the cart to
come against his heels. Push the cart sharply against him, saying “Whoa,”
each time, speaking with considerable force, that he may understand you
design to conquer. Don’t forget to caress when the horse obeys. Should he
kick the cart and try to rid himself of it, pull with your might quickly
on the reins and repeat the word “whoa” again; so soon as he shall desist
take him from the cart and lay him down again as soon as possible, and,
if need be, summon one of your neighbors to assist you, to prevent being
foiled, for be assured, if you allow him to conquer once you have lost
much and really accomplished nothing. Give the animal another _strong_
lesson while down, afterwards repeat it when on his feet, when by this
time you will have taken the conceit completely out of him. In all your
attempts to handle a vicious horse be resolute and determined and you
will soon give him to understand that you are master, and that his duty
is to yield a cheerful obedience to your command.

I would enjoin upon the reader to practice the same method when educating
colts, but not so severely, because by so doing you may make them
stubborn; great patience must be exercised while handling colts, as the
faults of one misplaced lesson will be visible. Therefore one cannot be
too careful, particularly if the animal is nervous and excitable.


_TO CURE CORNS._

Cut the horn well down, but not to the quick, fit the shoe so that it
will not press upon the part, then saturate well with pine sap or gum,
which is found exuding from pine trees when cut. Fill the part in nicely
with tow, and put on the shoe, which must be so fitted as not to oblige
the part to support, but very slightly, if any, the weight of the horse.
Horses with corns must be oftener and more carefully shod than those free
from them.


_TO HARDEN A TENDER-MOUTHED HORSE._

Place the bits in the animal’s mouth as low as possible, not to have them
drop out, and drive him from two to three weeks with the bits in this
way, and when they are buckled up in proper place he is hard-mouthed.


_TO EDUCATE THE HORSE BAD TO GROOM._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE THE HORSE BAD TO GROOM.]

After making the Bonaparte bridle, put it on the horse, standing at his
side with the end of the cord in your hand, with the other hand use the
curry-comb or brush and commence to groom him. If he should resist your
efforts by attempting to kick or bite you, reprove him by pulling quickly
on the cord, at the same time using the words “stand still.” Afterwards
if he remains quiet, caress him; if the punishment should not prove
effectual make the double half-hitch under the upper lip, as seen in
engraving.


_HUGGING THE POLE._

This is a great annoyance to the other horse, and he will probably learn
to do the same thing, not from imitation, but from leaning inwards, so as
to enable him to stand against the other horse, leaning upon him. This
habit may be broken up by securing a piece of sole leather to the pole
upon the side where the animal leans, having a number of tacks driven
through it in such a manner as to protrude from the leather towards the
horse.


_LUGGERS ON THE BIT._

Buckle a pair of straps, about twelve inches long, with a ring at one
end, and a buckle at the other, to the check-piece, and let the straps
pass through the rings on either side of the bit; buckle the lines to the
rings on these straps, instead of the rings on the bit; this forms a gag
similar to the French twitch-gag, and is a powerful means of controlling
the mouth of a hard-pulling horse.


_BITS USED IN EDUCATING HORSES ADDICTED TO BAD HABITS._

[Illustration: BITS USED IN EDUCATING HORSES ADDICTED TO BAD HABITS.]

NO. 1. TO PREVENT A HORSE GETTING HIS TONGUE OVER THE BIT.—Take a piece
of leather, say three inches long, an inch and a half wide, and drill two
holes in a straight bit; now rivet this leather on the top of the bit,
after which sprinkle on the upper side some pulverized rosin, and take a
hot iron and pass over it so as to form a coating. Allow your horse to
wear this bit say six or eight days when driving, and he will by that
time be sufficiently taught to abandon the habit.

NO. 2. LOLLING THE TONGUE.—Take an ordinary straight bit of five-eighths
of an inch in diameter and drill two holes, each one three-quarters of an
inch from the center; then get a piece of very small chain, attach iron
bullets, about the size of ordinary leaden bullets used in guns, suspend
them not more than one and a half inches from the bit. Now use the bit,
every time you drive your horse, for ten days.

NO. 3. CURE A HORSE OF SUCKING WIND.—A horse that has acquired the habit
of sucking wind is truly to be detested, as it is oftentimes attended
with fatal results, and when once thoroughly settled, great difficulty
has been experienced in removing the habit. The method I have introduced
of treating this habit has proved successful in most cases.

Take a piece of small gas-pipe, say from five-eighths to three-quarters
of an inch in diameter, the ordinary length of a bit, heat it and circle
it a little, then drill on the upper side equal distances apart from each
end, as seen in engraving; also drill three holes on the under side,
making each hole between an eighth and a quarter of an inch in diameter,
and attach a ring near each end and allow your horse to wear this when
driving, say for at least from ten to twenty days or until the habit is
removed.

NO. 4. TO CURE A SIDE-REINER, ONE THAT PULLS HEAVILY ON ONE REIN.—Take
a plain, jointed bit, remove one-half of the part used in the mouth and
supply a small chain from the side ring to the center joint, now on the
side that the animal pulls place the chain; he is not only attracted by
the strange sensation in the mouth, but when pulled on the chain side
receives such severe and unexpected punishment that he will quickly give
up his habit.

NO. 5. DEAD-MOUTH OR JAW BIT.—This bit may be used on horses that pull
very much on the reins, and a lady may with safety drive a horse, as she
can control him quite easily.

The attachment to this bit is made as follows: Take two pieces of leather
about three inches in diameter, make a hole in the center of each to
admit of the bit, cut the leather so as to put pieces on after, sew up
slit, attach two billets on under side with buckle, then buckle on under
jaw. This bit may be used without a head-stall.


_TO EDUCATE HORSES NOT TO BE AFRAID OF OBJECTS WHEN DRIVING._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE HORSES NOT TO BE AFRAID OF OBJECTS WHEN
DRIVING.]

It is impossible to overestimate the value of the subjoined instructions
respecting nervous and shying horses, therefore on this topic I wish to
be particularly clear and explicit. Let the reader understand that horses
take fright at objects because they fancy those objects will harm them,
and if you can by any means appeal to the horse’s brain, and satisfy him
that he is not going to be hurt, you have accomplished your object, and
in order to do so, you must have control of your horse. I do not mean
by this that you are to adopt the too frequent course pursued by many,
viz., subduing with the whip, or other harsh means, which will, without
almost an exception, increase the fear instead of removing the habit;
again, when a horse shies, the driver commences to jerk on the rein
nearest to the object, and at once applies the whip, fully determined to
master his horse; both man and horse get excited, and the horse comes off
victorious, because he cannot control him by the means used, and the
result is that the next time the animal is frightened it bears a two-fold
character, the fear of the object, and the fear of the whip-punishment.

In order to properly educate your horses in this department, I would
specially direct the reader to observe and practice the following
directions: Select, first, the most prominent objects at which he becomes
frightened, then make the Bonaparte bridle of small cord, and place it
on your horse under the bridle, carrying the end of the cord into the
carriage, and when approaching an object at which he takes fright, get
out of your carriage, stand nearly in front of him, give a quick downward
pull, and say, “Come here!” At first do not punish him too severely; but
if he will not obey, increase the punishment, and so soon as he complies,
caress him. Bring him quite near the object, and, if possible, let him
smell of it, as by adopting this method he will quickly understand that
the object will not hurt him. Now turn him around, and drive him past the
object two or three times, and you have accomplished your end.


_FIRST LESSON TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO FEAR AN UMBRELLA._

[Illustration: FIRST LESSON TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO FEAR AN UMBRELLA.]

Place on the animal the throwing rig and proceed to lay him down, when,
should he jump around and show resistance, do not get anxious to throw
him quickly, but let him caper about, he will soon give up. After he is
down present the umbrella to him folded up, allow him to smell of it,
then rub it gently across his nose and head, now open it partly, again
let him smell of it, shut it and open it several times until he becomes
perfectly reconciled to the appearance, open or shut; work slowly and
carefully so as not to excite him more than possible to avoid.

In another part of my book I have illustrated the education of the animal
to the umbrella when on his feet, and will not go further on this point
than to use the old familiar word, _caress_.

On no account should the operator, when practicing any idea in my system,
forget that success greatly depends upon caressing when the animal obeys.


_HORSE BAD TO BRIDLE._

Horses become unwilling to be bridled from various causes, sometimes
from sores on the head or ears, sometimes from hurriedly and improperly
removing the bridle, and sometimes from sheer ugliness of disposition,
prompted by a desire to be master. The treatment in these cases should be
varied. In the latter case named it will be necessary to lay the animal
down, and while thus under control, handle his head and ears, after which
put your bridle on and off several times, exercising patience and being
careful to avoid anything like roughness. Should he resist, punish him
in the mouth, using your best judgment to avoid severity, and so soon
as he submits caress. As to the former, where a dislike to be bridled
arises from abuses, kindness must govern the conduct of the educator. By
using my Bonaparte bridle you will be able to control and counteract all
predisposition to resist your efforts in a very short time. Should there
be sores about the animal’s head, you had better restore to soundness
before you attempt to educate to comply with your wishes.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO FEAR AN UMBRELLA._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO FEAR AN UMBRELLA.]

On page 261 may be found the first lesson to educate a horse that fears
an umbrella. I now proceed to explain the idea illustrated by the
foregoing cut.

Place on the animal the Bonaparte half-hitch bridle—found on page 306.
First present to him the umbrella closed; allow him to smell of it, then
rub it gently across his nose and body, observing not to move quickly.
Should he resist your efforts, jerk on the bridle and say “Whoa!” Make
another attempt, and should he remain quiet, caress him. Now partly open
it, placing it over his head, observing to avoid touching his head or
ears with the umbrella—while doing so, caress; and you will be satisfied
punishment in the mouth and caressing will accomplish all that you may
desire.


_TREATMENT OF WOUNDS._

Wounds are caused by accidents of various kinds, when the skin is much
torn from the flesh. If you are at hand while the wound is quite fresh,
take a square-pointed needle, and a waxed thread, and sew it up. Be sure
to put the needle in straight, one side over against the other, draw the
skin tight, tie a knot, and cut off the thread; then take another stitch
about an inch off, till it is all nicely drawn together. It is quite
wrong to sew up a wound as you would a piece of cloth; the thread should
be cut after each stitch. When you do not see the wound till the place is
growing dead, and the skin is drawing up, then take off the loose skin;
for if you permit it to remain, it will leave a blemish.


_ENGLISH STABLE LINIMENT._

Oil of spikes, aqua ammonia, and oil of turpentine, of each 2 oz.; sweet
oil and oil of amber, of each ½ oz.; oil of origanum, 1 oz. Mix.


_TO EDUCATE A SINGLE-FOOTED HORSE TO TROT SQUARE._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A SINGLE-FOOTED HORSE TO TROT SQUARE.]

Upon the hind leg of the horse that hitches or single-foots, place two
hame-straps, one above and one below the gambol-joint, attaching a ring
on front, by which means the straps are confined; then place a small
strap on the opposite front leg just below the knee-joint, now buckle on
a strap from fore-leg to hind-leg, passing it up under the surcingle (as
seen in engraving). Now proceed to drive your horse, and you will at once
discover that he cannot single-foot, but must trot. By paying particular
attention to the instructions given, the pleasing result will follow
and your horse will be taught to abandon the habit. The reader must be
careful not to trot his horse fast up hill nor allow him to draw too much
weight while trotting.


_RING-BONE REMEDY._

Pulverized cantharides, oils of spike, origanum, amber, cedar, British,
and Barbadoes tar, of each 2 oz.; oil of wormwood, 1 oz.; spirits of
turpentine, 4 oz.; lard, 3 lbs. Melt the lard slowly, and add the other
ingredients, stirring well till cool; clip off the hair, and apply by
rubbing in and heating. In about three days, or when done running, wash
off with suds and apply again. In recent cases, two or three applications
will cure; old cases require more time.


_AN EXCELLENT LINIMENT FOR SPAVIN, SPLINT CURBS, ETC._

Oils of spike, origanum, cedar, British, and spirits of turpentine, of
each 1 oz.; pulverized Spanish flies, ½ oz. Apply once in six or nine
days.


_TO EDUCATE A PACING HORSE TO TROT._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A PACING HORSE TO TROT.]

Take four hame-straps, attach two on each hind-leg, one above and one
below the gambol-joint, confining the straps on the front of the leg by
means of a small ring. Then place two hame-straps on the front legs just
below the knee-joint; buckle a strap from each fore-leg, carrying them up
under the surcingle, and attach them to the rings in front of hind-legs,
crossing strap from off fore-leg to nigh hind-leg, and from nigh fore-leg
to off hind-leg; now commence to drive your horse, walking him very slow,
as the new action of the legs may cause him to stumble; but after a few
minutes you may increase his speed, and you will be delighted to see your
horse trotting at a rate that will astonish you.


_POLL-EVIL AND FISTULA._

Common potash, ¼ oz.; extract of belladonna, 12 drams; gum Arabic, ¼ oz.
Dissolve the gum in as little water as possible; then, having pulverized
the potash, unless it is moist, mix the gum water with it, and it will
soon dissolve; add the belladonna; mix, and it is ready to use.

The best method for getting this into the pipes, is by means of a small
syringe, after having cleansed the sore well with suds. Repeat once in
two days, until the callous pipes, and hard, fibrous base around the
poll-evil or fistula are completely destroyed.


_NERVE AND BONE LINIMENT._

Take beef’s gall, 1 quart; alcohol, 1 pint; volatile liniment, 12 oz.;
spirits of turpentine, 1 lb.; oil of origanum, 4 oz.; aqua ammonia, ½
pint; oil of amber, 3 oz.; tincture of cantharides, 6 oz. Mix.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO TROT._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO TROT FAST.]

The appliance required to form the trotting rig is arranged as follows:

Take four hame-straps, attach two on each hind-leg, one above and one
below the gambol-joint, confining the straps on the front part of the
leg, by means of a small ring. Then take a standing martingale and attach
a small pulley on the lower end of the martingale; then take a small,
strong cord, tying one end in the ring on one hind-leg, passing the other
end through the pulley, bringing it back to the other hind-leg and tie
it in the ring; adjust the rope in accordance with the stride of your
horse, observing to drive him very slow for a time until he shall become
accustomed to the rig.

This idea with alterations as hereinafter set forth may be successfully
applied to horses while being used by the husbandman in ploughing,
that are addicted to the habit of kicking. I have already given the
reader a number of ideas on this point that, if used in accordance with
instructions, will not fail to give satisfaction.

Put on the horse the trotting-rig, as seen in engraving, with the
exception of the standing martingale attached from the pulley to the
bit-ring of the bridle; then through the eye of the pulley insert a small
cord, say twelve feet long, carry both ends up between the fore-legs,
pass one end through the bit-ring on the off-side up over the head, and
down on the nigh-side of the head to the bit-ring, and then tie it.
Now take the other end of the cord and carry it up on the nigh-side
through the bit-ring and pass it over the head down to the bit-ring on
the off-side and there tie it. By thus manipulating your cord you will
perceive that you have a system of severely punishing the horse when he
shall kick.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO KICK WHILE IN SHAFTS._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO KICK WHILE IN SHAFTS.]

Horses are quite often educated to kick in harness as well as out and
almost numberless accidents have been caused by this vicious and bad
habit. Men are found reckless enough to tantalize their horse with a
whip and sometimes punch him with a stick, regardless of consequences.
The result, in most cases, is that the animal becomes a kicker, and the
habit when once formed is not easily eradicated by resorting to the
old stereotyped method of placing a strap over the horse’s rump and
buckling to the shafts on each side. This treatment may in time effect
the purpose, but it will require months to do so. Laying _all others_
aside, I with confidence say to the reader, if he will but practice the
subjoined idea he will find it not only practical but effectual, because
the punishment is so severe that a few lessons will convince the horse
that it will be greatly to his advantage to abandon the habit.

Take a cord twenty feet long, divide it in the center, place it back
of the ears, bring it down and cross it in the mouth, then bring it up
between the eyes, placing a ring or loop there; now bring it back through
a ring attached to the head-stall between the ears, then bring both ends
of your cord under the saddle of the harness and along the back, to a
ring slipped over the crupper against the hip-strap; bring the cords
through the ring down to the shaft on each side of the horse, observing
to leave just slack enough so that your horse may not be too much
confined. The cord used may be quite small, so that it is strong.

Now when your horse makes an attempt to kick he will find a severe
punishment immediately meted out to him, and thus, finding his attempt
fruitless as well as painful, he will be made to understand that
while obedience is rewarded, punishment quickly follows each act of
disobedience. This simple yet effective expedient makes the horse punish
himself for his own misdeeds, and by making the act of kicking the cause
of his suffering disinclines him to attempt it, for neither horse nor man
will voluntarily provoke certain pain.


_DIURETIC DROPS._

These drops are reliable in cases of stoppage of water, foul water, or
inflammation of the kidneys. Take sweet spirits of nitre, 4 oz.; balsam
copaiba, 2 oz.; oil of juniper, 2 oz.; spirits of turpentine, 2 oz.; gum
camphor, pulv., 1 oz. Mix all together, and shake well; bottle; and it is
fit for use, for man or beast, under all circumstances where a diuretic
is required.

Dose for horse, 1 oz. in half a pint of milk, once in six hours.

Dose for man, 1 teaspoonful, in a tablespoonful of milk, once in six
hours.

Be sure to shake the mixture up well before pouring out for use.


_TO EDUCATE A LAZY HORSE, AND INFUSE LIFE INTO HIM._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A LAZY HORSE AND INFUSE LIFE INTO HIM.]

I have already given many ideas referring to balky horses, and as the
old, tried remark is verily true, that “in the midst of council there is
safety,” so with a multitude of ideas there is certain success. I will
add one more to the catalogue.

Something that especially attracts the attention of a horse accustomed
to balk often causes him to forget for the moment his offensive habit
and start off, much to the surprise of his driver. By adopting the idea
illustrated in the engraving and the explanation connected therewith, the
reader will have no difficulty, in ordinary cases, with this peculiar
_tormentor_, in accomplishing his purpose.

By many this may be considered a kind of jockey trick; but the reader
will find the information valuable if he has a lazy horse or one that
does not drive up well on the bit, as by following the directions given
below he will be prepared to show as much style as any man in his county.

_Directions._—Take a small chain, about three feet long, and attach to
it a strap or limber stick about the same length; with this in hand walk
into the stable and commence plying on him a few smart blows, with this
educator, above the gambol-joint, repeating it once a day for three or
four days; when you hit him of course the chain rattles and makes, to
him, a peculiar noise. Now, after you harness him up, put the chain in
your carriage, then take your place behind him and commence driving, and
when you want to show style, just kick the chain about a little with your
boot and you will be surprised at the spirit and zeal manifested by your
horse.


_AN EASY METHOD OF STARTING A BALKY HORSE WHO STOPS ON THE ROAD._

[Illustration: AN EASY METHOD OF STARTING A BALKY HORSE.]

Among the various bad habits which horses acquire there are none which
more severely try the patience of man than does the habit of balking.
Frequently a horse is quiet, kind, and a good roadster, but has this
habit of occasionally stopping in the road. At such times the almost
universal practice is to whip the horse, and sometimes most brutally, or
the more sickening custom of procuring a bundle of straw or some shavings
and setting them on fire under the body of the horse. Such kinds of
treatment I utterly discard, and the reader will find, in another part
of my book, that I give several methods which will prove effectual in
eradicating this habit, only meting out sufficient punishment to secure
obedience.

Below I give an excellent method of starting a balky horse, and one which
will prove effectual, though it will not educate the horse to abandon
the habit. When your horse balks get out of your carriage, walk up to
him and commence kicking him with the toe of your boot under the fetlock
joint, first one then the other, using the word “shoo!” loud and quick
every time you kick. Then take your seat in the carriage and use the word
as before directed, when your horse will start at once. This process
diverts his attention and causes him to move on.


_TO EDUCATE A BALKY HORSE TO DRAW IN DOUBLE HARNESS._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A BALKY HORSE TO DRAW.]

Persons have resorted to many things in order to make a balky horse draw,
and, after laboring for months, have seen all their efforts fail and are
often disappointed by finding their animal worse instead of better. Let
me assure the reader that however other methods may have failed, if he
will but follow the subjoined instructions he will certainly accomplish
the end desired.

_Instructions._—Take a small strong rope, about a quarter of an inch in
diameter and sixteen feet long, double the rope and place it under the
balky horse’s tail; carry the ends up through a ring attached to the
crupper or hip-straps, then pass them through the terret-ring on the
saddle of the harness, and bring the ends to the true horse’s hame-ring;
then tie firmly, exercising judgment about the slack to be given to the
cord; then commence to draw slowly and your balky horse will soon learn
that he has got to move with his mate.


_OINTMENT FOR ALL BRUISES, SCRATCHES, HEEL GREASE, SADDLE GALLS, ETC._

Take 3 oz. white lead, 3 oz. lard, 1 oz. burnt alum, and 5 grains
calomel. If the sore is of long standing, use 10 grains of calomel.


_HOOF LINIMENT, FOR CONTRACTED HOOF._

Venice turpentine, ½ pint; aqua ammonia, 2 oz.; salts of nitre, 1 oz.;
benzine, 1 oz.; alcohol, 3 oz. Apply to edge of the hair and to the hoof,
twice a day for the first three days; once a day for the next three days;
after that, once in two, three, or four days, as the case may require.


_REMEDY FOR BOTTS._

Take oil of turpentine, 8 oz.; alcohol, 1 quart. Mix and bottle for
use. Dose, 4 to 5 oz. in the horse’s feed, once a day for 8 days, will
effectually remove every vestige of botts.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO KICK WHILE BEING SHOD._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO KICK WHILE BEING SHOD.]

The reader has heretofore been instructed how to lay the horse down and
thus get him under his control; but as horses possess a variety of bad
habits, it becomes necessary that I should treat each one separately, and
carefully explain, so that none can misapprehend.

Many horses rigidly resist the efforts of the blacksmith when undertaking
to shoe his hind-feet, but the following ideas will enable you to
thoroughly educate him to stand quiet.

Place a strap or cord between the hoof and fetlock joint; then stand in
front of the horse and commence to pull the foot forward; if he shows
resistance punish him in the mouth; continue to pull and punish until he
will allow you to thus handle the leg, and, so soon as he remains quiet,
step up and caress him; then stand behind him and pull his leg backwards
several times until you have removed all stubbornness or fear; when you
have accomplished this let him get up, after which repeat the same thing,
not forgetting to caress immediately when he submits to your treatment.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE, WHILE STANDING, THAT IS BAD TO SHOE._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE WHILE STANDING THAT IS BAD TO SHOE.]

The treatment for educating the horse after being laid down, which has
been given, is to show him that your power is superior to his; the method
now to be given will show him that you have the same power over him when
standing as when he is down.

Place on him the Bonaparte bridle, as shown in the engraving, and take a
half-hitch, placing it back of the ears and down under the upper lip, as
shown in the engraving. Place a man at the side of his head to punish him
with this bridle when he does wrong, remembering, as soon as the animal
does right, to caress him.

Take a single rein, or a rope, about fifteen feet long, placing it on
the hind-foot below the fetlock joint with loops; then stand behind the
horse and lift his foot; if he shows resistance or kicks, punish him in
the mouth; continue doing this till he will allow you to handle his feet.
If one lesson will not answer give him two, and, if necessary, give him
three, or four, as he has got to submit to this treatment.


_TO PREVENT HORSES BEING TEASED BY FLIES._

Take one-half pound of walnut or butternut leaves, and pour upon them
three quarts of cold water; let it infuse one night, and pour the whole
next morning into a kettle, and let it boil for a quarter of an hour.
When cold it is fit for use.

No more is required than to moisten a sponge, and before the horse goes
out of the stable, let those parts most likely to be irritated be well
smeared over with the liquor, between and upon the ears, neck, flank,
etc.


_DOUBLE-HITCH BONAPARTE BRIDLE._

[Illustration: DOUBLE HITCH BONAPARTE BRIDLE.]

This bridle may be used with great success, for many purposes in
educating horses possessed of vicious or bad habits, and in order that
the reader may not make a mistake I will explain it.

First. Make a small loop with one end of the cord and place it on the
under jaw, then carry the cord on the off-side of the head over back of
the ears, and bring it down through the loop on the nigh-side, you have
now the Bonaparte bridle, afterwards pass the cord through your right
hand, then with your left take hold of the cord and place it over the top
of the head, and bring the cord down with your left hand under the upper
lip.

The great advantage of this bridle is the complete control of the horse
which it gives to the one using it. After the animal has learned its
power all thought of resisting leaves him and he submits to the will
of his owner. Harsh as it may seem to one who does not understand the
principle on which it is used, I do not hesitate to say that it is the
most merciful device which could be originated, a hundred times more
so than the brutal method of whipping a horse to make him obey. In all
the horses I have handled I have never twice drawn blood, and the only
occasion when I did so was by the drawing of a cord too rapidly as a man
might have a rope drawn through his hand. Yet by the use of this bridle
I have controlled and educated the most vicious animals that could be
found, with the greatest ease to me and with the least possible suffering
to themselves. Whipping makes no durable impression on the brain, as this
does; it requires hours where this method takes but minutes; it is often
unsuccessful, which this never is.

I will only add that a horse never should be coaxed, he is first to be
subdued by fear and ever after is controlled only as he has a sense of
the superiority of the one who uses him.


_THE ONLY SAFE METHOD OF CONTROLLING A HORSE BAD TO SHOE._

[Illustration: ONLY SAFE METHOD OF CONTROLLING A HORSE BAD TO SHOE.]

I appended to a former plate instructions whereby a horse may be educated
not to kick while shoeing; but if owners of horses will not take the
pains to educate, it is scarcely reasonable that the blacksmith should be
subject to severe torture in shoeing a vicious horse; therefore I have
provided the foregoing plate as descriptive of the mode of perfectly
controlling the horse’s hind-foot, so that the farrier need have no fears
for his safety. Take a single rein or cord, make a slip-noose and put it
on the horse’s hind-leg between the fetlock-joint and hoof; then bring
the rein or cord forward to the breast and pass it around over the neck
at the shoulder; now bring it down and put it under the rein or cord,
forming a half-hitch, and bring up the leg so as to make it convenient
for the smith to pare the hoof or nail the shoe; then take a pole-strap
or one of similar width, and place it under the other strap or cord,
forming a loop by means of the crupper or loop near the buckle with the
buckle outside, now pass the end of the strap up on the inside and front
of the leg and around the gambol-joint, bring it down and buckle it; when
you want to clinch the nails let out the strap two or three holes and
draw up tightly on the rein or cord that is in front of the breast and
around the neck. By this means you can accomplish the desired end, as you
have the foot and leg under your control.

Should the horse attempt to recline over on the blacksmith, put on the
Bonaparte bridle with double half-hitch, and pull quickly two or three
times, and he will gladly stand erect while being shod.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO BE AFRAID OF THE CARS._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO BE AFRAID OF THE CARS.]

Much difficulty, and loss of property, has resulted from not being
able to control horses that become frightened at the approach of the
locomotive or cars, and, in order to avoid the annoyance and prevent
accidents, I have with great care prepared the foregoing plate, and will
now give an accurate description of the mode of educating the animal, and
the appliance required, I will first describe the bridle, seen at the
right of the horse. Make the Bonaparte bridle as previously directed,
then place it on the horse, stand at the nigh-side holding the cord in
your right hand, now pass your left hand over the right and take hold of
the cord, then by bringing the hand back and stepping in front of the
horse, you have formed a half-hitch, then place it over the head and
bring it down under the upper lip and above the upper jaw, thus you have
a powerful bridle that will control any horse. Use this with great care
and judgment, because you are now in a position to handle the wildest
horse found in the country. Don’t forget to caress the horse the moment
he obeys.


_SWEENY LINIMENT._

Alcohol, and spirits of turpentine, of each 8 oz.; camphor gum,
pulverized cantharides and tincture of capsicum, of each 1 oz.; oil of
spike 3 oz. Bathe this liniment in with a hot iron, and faithfully follow
till a cure is effected.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO BACK AT THE WORD OF COMMAND._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO BACK AT THE WORD OF COMMAND.]

This point in the education of a horse is one of great importance, for
no animal can be considered thoroughly educated till he will obey the
command of his driver without the necessity of using the rein or the
whip. Many persons in order to stop their horse will draw with all their
strength upon the rein, and to back him requires the exertion of a force
enough almost to bring the horse on his haunches, when in either case a
well-educated horse will stop or back at the driver’s voice without the
need for even drawing upon the rein.

To educate the horse to back at the word of command, let the reader take
his stand behind the horse and with the rein in his hand, previously
arranged as shown in the engraving, commence the lesson. He may, if he
pleases, start the horse forward for a few paces, then stop him, and then
with a sudden, short and pretty powerful backward jerk, utter the word
“back!” Great care must be taken to speak the word and give the backward
jerk on the rein at the same instant, for the two must come together so
as to be associated in the mind of the horse. When he obeys caress him,
and continue repeating the lesson, and in a short time you will find that
your horse will back at the word without your needing to even touch the
reins. But in educating him to this there must not be the least interval
between the word and the short, sharp jerk, for if only a few seconds
pass he will not associate the two in his mind.

This method will be invariably successful, and is so far superior to the
protracted and unsatisfactory means formerly employed, that it should be
everywhere adopted.


_TO EDUCATE HORSES OR CATTLE NOT TO JUMP THE FENCE._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE HORSES OR CATTLE NOT TO JUMP FENCES.]

Buckle a surcingle around the horse’s body, then buckle a hame-strap,
making two turns with strap between the knee and fetlock on each
fore-leg; next buckle two hame-straps on each hind-leg, above and
below the gambol-joint, placing a ring, say one and one-half inches in
diameter, as seen in plate. Now place a strap or cord from the ring
on off hind-leg up through the surcingle, then attach it to the nigh
fore-leg; then another strap or cord from the nigh hind-leg to the off
fore-leg. Now when the horse, or other animal, starts to jump over a
fence the appliance will arrest his progress, for, as he throws his
fore-legs forward, at the same time it acts upon his hind legs, taking
them out from under him, and you will find him sitting up in the field
where you turned him out. After three or four lessons your horse will be
thoroughly educated not to jump a fence.


_FOR INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS._

First, bleed thoroughly; then give tinc. veratrum, ½ oz.; laudanum, 4
oz.; tincture aconite, ¼ oz.; shake well, and give a teaspoonful every
three hours, in a pint of water, well sweetened, and, if the pulse is not
reduced in a short time, increase the dose to a tablespoonful, until the
fever abates. As soon as the horse recovers so as to eat and lie down
naturally, keep him on hay, with a few carrots or potatoes, and daily
give a bran-mash, with saltpetre, pulverized antimony and sulphur, for a
week or ten days, and you will prevent dropsy of the chest, which usually
follows this disease.


_A REMEDY TO CURE THE HEAVES._

One-half pint of turpentine, 2 oz. assafœtida, 2 oz. aloes, 4 oz. lobelia
seed, 1 quart of whisky, 2 oz. of sal ammoniac, 4 oz. saleratus, 1 oz. of
camphor.

Dose, one tablespoonful once a day.


_TO EDUCATE A COW NOT TO KICK WHILE BEING MILKED._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A COW NOT TO KICK WHILE BEING MILKED.]

Hitch the cow to a post, then make the Bonaparte bridle as follows: Make
a loop and put it on the lower jaw, carrying the end of the cord on the
off-side of the head and around over behind the horns, bringing it down
to the mouth on the nigh-side, through the loop. Now carry the cord
around the nigh hind-leg, to the off hind-leg and tie it just above the
gambol-joint. Then sit down to milk; now the moment the cow kicks, an
impression is made on her brain, and she soon learns that by kicking she
punishes herself, and rather than suffer the pain inflicted she yields
to the influence and says by her actions, “I will not kick again.” The
principle here is the obvious one that _no_ animal will persist in doing
that which causes suffering to itself, and the moment that it comes to
associate the idea of suffering with any action, it will make that action
distasteful.


_COLIC OR GRIPES._

_Symptoms._—Pawing, manifesting a desire to lie down, and, without doing
so, commence pawing again. As the symptoms increase, the animal cannot be
kept on his feet; he frequently falls as if shot; pulse not altered from
natural condition. Intervals of rest, together with the condition of the
pulse, distinguish the disease from inflammation of the bowels.

Treat as follows:

Frequent injections of soap and water, and give internally spirits of
nitre, 1 oz.; laudanum, 1 oz.; water, ½ pint; mix for drench. This may be
repeated in twenty minutes, if relief is not obtained.

Another remedy, giving _instant_ relief:

From 5 to 10 drops of chloroform, given on sugar, I have never known to
fail giving immediate relief. I have known men to be from home, and have
their horses taken with this disease, and use this remedy, and in thirty
minutes the horses were able to be driven.


_TO EDUCATE A COW TO LET HER MILK DOWN WHILE MILKING._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A COW TO LET HER MILK DOWN.]

Much inconvenience, besides an actual loss of money, is experienced by
persons who own cows that are in the habit of withholding their milk.
Having spent fifteen years of my life in gathering knowledge of value
to the farmer, and to other owners of animals, I am unwilling that even
one valuable idea should be lost to the reader, and therefore I have, at
considerable expense, illustrated the above-named point, believing that
it will be of benefit to many persons. Although the method to be employed
is very simple, it will be found practical in its operation, while
success will be certain where the directions are followed:

Take a common bag, put into it a bushel or a bushel and a half of grain,
or its equivalent in weight of sand, then place the bag across the back
of the animal, as indicated in the engraving and the result will be
shown in the milking. As an indication of the purpose of the cow to hold
up her milk you will always see her hump up her back, then, by applying
the remedy named, the habit will be speedily removed.


_PRACTICAL RESULT OF EDUCATING THE COW TO GIVE DOWN MILK._

[Illustration: PRACTICAL RESULT OF EDUCATING THE COW TO GIVE DOWN MILK.]

Having directed the attention of the reader to the education of the cow
so as not to disappoint her owner in receiving the quota of milk he may
rightly expect, it is but natural that the eye should be gratified by
witnessing the result. For this purpose I have prepared this engraving,
in which is represented the bag and its contents upon the back of the
animal, in just the spot where it should be placed. The reader will
also perceive the impatient wife standing with milking pail and stool
in hand, waiting for the result, which becomes apparent in the freely
flowing milk, and one can almost imagine that he hears her saying to her
husband that it is scarcely necessary now to milk the cow, for the simple
method adopted has caused a spontaneous flow of milk, and nothing now is
needed but to set the pail under her and view with wonder and delight the
pleasing effect produced!


_A CURE FOR HEAVES, NEVER BEFORE PUBLISHED._

Take a common stone jar, fill it with eggs, cover them with cider
vinegar, and let it stand till the vinegar eats up the shells. Then stir
all together. Take a lump of lime about the size of a goose-egg, slack it
in hot water, using about one quart of water. Add one-half pint of the
lime-water to a quart of the egg mixture. Give a teacupful, at feeding
time, in feed, three times a day.


_TO CURE WORMS IN HORSES._

One dram white hellebore in powder, 1 dram sulphate of iron in powder, 1
oz. flaxseed meal.

The above for one dose, mixed with bran-mash, given at night. Repeat in
forty-eight hours, if the horse is old. Two doses are enough for the
worst case.


_TO EDUCATE CATTLE TO LEAD BEHIND A WAGON._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE CATTLE TO LEAD BEHIND A WAGON.]

Make a rope halter and put it on the head of the animal you desire to
lead; then take a small rope, about twenty feet long, double it in the
center, placing it under the tail; cross it on the back, bringing the
ends down each side of the animals neck and then through the nose-piece
of the halter under the lower jaw, and tie the ends firmly to the end of
your wagon.

If you wish to lead more than one, take another rope, twice the length of
the former one, double it in the center, placing it under the tail, cross
it on the back, bringing the ends down each side of the animal’s neck and
then through under the lower jaw. Now bring the ends, one on each side of
the forward cow, and carry the rope through the halter under the jaw and
tie it to the wagon.

By adopting this plan no difficulty will be experienced in educating your
animals to lead, and when you drive home with your cattle following thus
they will be sure to arrive there at the same time as yourself.


_TO EDUCATE A TENDER-MOUTHED HORSE TO PULL ON THE BIT._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A TENDER-MOUTHED HORSE TO PULL ON THE BIT.]

Many horses are very sensitive to a hurt in any part of the body, so much
so that they often grow frantic when severely punished, and it seems
to be the delight of some persons to inflict injury to a horse of this
temperament, sometimes with a view to make him rear or prance about,
believing it adds to the appearance of the animal, when the contrary
is the fact; a bad habit is almost sure to grow out of such treatment,
and then it may take some time to eradicate it. One of the evils often
presented is that the animal becomes tender-mouthed, and I have known
many cases where balking has been the result. Let me urge the reader
never to jerk sharply on the bit, except when educating or correcting a
habit, as heretofore directed.

The only effectual method of treatment for a tender mouth is to use a
large straight bit, leave the check-rein quite loose, and drop the bit
low down in the mouth, as seen in engraving, which will slip up and down
and harden the mouth in a short time.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO BE AFRAID OF A BUFFALO ROBE._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE NOT TO BE AFRAID OF A BUFFALO ROBE.]

The education of the horse being quite a new idea to many persons, it
therefore becomes necessary that, in my characteristic explanations,
I should make my ideas both plain and simple—so that even the most
unlettered may not become fogged while attempting to apply any
illustrated idea in my work.

A Buffalo robe is an article in common use, and one at which very many
horses become frightened, proving a decided source of annoyance. Let not
the reader imagine that one lesson, as below indicated, is sufficient
to warrant success and thoroughly eradicate the habit. Much depends
upon the temperament of the animal; but, in most cases, three lessons
carefully imparted will accomplish the purpose. After you have given two
or three lessons do not tempt your horse by suddenly approaching him with
the robe, and when you do approach him, be sure you have the Bonaparte
bridle on him, that you may be able at once to control when the slightest
resistance is seen.

_Directions._—If your animal is very nervous lay him down, as directed
in other places, fold the robe, hair side in, making it as small as
possible; let him smell of it, rub it gently over his nose, head and
body; punish if he resists—if not caress. When submission is apparent
allow him to rise to his feet; then, with your Bonaparte bridle, properly
adjusted, present the robe to him again. Bearing in mind the grand idea,
punish for disobedience and caress when he obeys. Carefully avoid all
unnecessary excitement while educating any animal, as it only tends to
benumb their senses and make them less susceptible of being taught.



INTELLIGENCE OF ANIMALS.


In discussing the intelligence of animals I am aware that many persons,
at the outset, would question the propriety of the term. Man has so long
arrogated the exclusive possession of mind, or at least of a mind capable
of rational reflection, that he is reluctant to concede the fact of its
possession by the lower orders of animate life. Those acts which, in the
brute creation, seem to proceed from the action of powers analagous to
human intelligence, it has been usual to ascribe to an irrational faculty
called instinct; a power invariable and despotic in its action, but in no
degree the result of reflection; some metaphysicians even going so far as
to assert that the action of animals is purely automatic, the difference
in this respect between them and the automaton moved by wires and springs
being that the former possesses a consciousness of their acts, while the
latter does not. Facts in myriads, exist which challenge the correctness
of such a theory, while in almost equal number they assert the existence,
at least in its embryonic state, of a mind capable of thought, and, to a
limited degree, of reflection and comparison, with the ability to deduce
conclusions from the facts which it considers.

This intelligence varies greatly in the different animal races, in some
species being barely perceptible, while in others it is too conspicuous
to be ignored; and between individuals of the same species there exists
a difference so marked that, in the more favored ones which come under
our observation, the intelligence is so clear as to almost startle us by
the feeling that behind the full, liquid eye of the horse, or prompting
the fixed gaze bent on us by our trusty canine companion, there may be
a mind kindred to our own and which lacks only the power of articulate
expression to respond to our thoughts by answering sentiments. It is the
absence of the power of speech in animals which leaves us in doubt as to
the exact degree of intelligence possessed by them. If, when the farmer
says, “Carlo! the cows are in the corn—turn them out!” the dog should
turn his head and reply, “Yes, sir, I’ll have them out in a moment!”
there could be no doubt of the intelligent interchange of thought. But
the fact of his _doing_ that which in the supposed case he would express,
proves as conclusively his comprehension of the command and his purpose
to obey. The horse or dog, however fully he may understand the directions
he receives, can give no other response than by his acts, and to words
of praise or censure he can reply only by signs; these are clearly
understood by us and show that our meaning is comprehended by the animal,
thus proving a real interchange of thought. A popular author has said: “A
dog may bark, a horse may neigh, but it is not by these sounds that they
express the delicate shades of ever-varying emotion; it is by a thousand
varieties of gesture which few indeed of us can analyze but which all
clearly understand. A dog converses with his master by means of his eyes
and his ears and his tail, nay rather by every muscle of his body.”

To test the existence and extent of intelligence we must determine the
capacity for comprehending thought. We recognize this capacity in a
child long before it can express itself in language. Its dawn is seen as
the infant learns to associate certain articulate sounds with certain
persons, acts, or things, and to distinguish the meaning of tones which
encourage, restrain or chide it. It is only after a twelve-month or more
of constant tuition, lovingly and intelligently given, that our children
begin to express in language the thoughts which are awakened by our
words and acts, yet the comprehension is as evident and the response as
apparent, the whole mental process being as perfect, long before. The
same test which proves the intelligence of the child demonstrates its
existence in animals there is a similar power of comprehending the wishes
expressed, by associating certain articulate sounds with certain acts
required, as well as an equal recognition of the tones of voice by which
approval, reproof or anger are made known; but, lacking the organs of
speech, they are debarred, and forever must be, from any except the most
limited _interchange_ of thought. For this reason, attentive study is
needed in ascertaining the extent to which they comprehend and respond to
the intelligence which addresses them.

In the case of wild or undomesticated animals there is little opportunity
for investigating this interesting subject. We see the beaver build his
dam, and we understand the object so admirably attained by his work. We
know that the elephant, to be taken in the pitfall, must see on the earth
that covers it the foot-prints of one of his fellows, and we surmise the
process of reasoning by which he concludes that he is safe in venturing
where another of his kind has trodden. We learn that the ostrich which
in torrid regions trusts to the heat of the sand for the incubation of
her eggs, will in a more temperate latitude supply the heat which would
else be lacking by setting on her eggs during the cooler nights; but
in none of these, nor in a score of other cases, in which there seems
a rational foresight, can we determine how far the acts result from
intelligent reflection. In domesticated animals, and especially in such
as are trained for the service of man, the action of intelligence may be
clearly traced; it is demonstrated by the ease and certainty with which
they can be educated; it is seen in the readiness with which many receive
and act upon ideas communicated to them; and in a multitude of instances
the mental process is evident by which they have, independently,
reached conclusions rationally deduced from facts of their previous
knowledge. Mr. J. Hope relates a circumstance of a terrier who had been
temporarily left by his master in the care of a Mrs. Langford at St.
Albans. This lady owned a large house-dog which, disliking the presence
of the stranger, quarreled with him, biting and severely wounding him,
after which the terrier disappeared; but in a few days he returned
again, accompanied by a powerful mastiff, when both together fell upon
the original assailant, whom they nearly killed. The mastiff was the
watch-dog at his master’s house, more than a day’s journey distant, and
had been brought by the terrier for the sole purpose of avenging the
injury he had received, after which they left in company and proceeded
together to their home. Here was displayed a power of combining ideas and
of communicating them to one of his own kind, when the two acted on the
plan they had preconcerted.

In a work just issued, an anecdote is related of a dog who had lost his
master and afterwards became old and blind, passing his time sadly in
the same corner, which he rarely quitted. “One day came a step like that
of his lost master, and he suddenly left his place. The man who had just
entered wore ribbed stockings as his master had done. The old dog had
lost his scent and referred at once to the stockings that he remembered,
rubbing his face against them. Believing that his master had returned, he
gave way to the most extravagant delight. The man spoke; the momentary
illusion was dispelled, the dog went sadly back to his place, lay wearily
down, and died.” Here was a double process of reasoning and even a
balancing of testimony with a decision that the negative evidence of
the strange voice outweighed the affirmative proof in the step and the
stockings.

Much evidence favors the belief that animals not only become familiar
with the words habitually addressed to them, but that they, to a certain
extent, understand our language. A dog, belonging to a friend of the
writer, would slink from the room with every indication of shame if
a fault of which he had been guilty was spoken of in his presence.
The author of “Chapters on Animals” describes a dog in his possession
which clearly distinguishes between those visitors at the house who are
favorites with his master and those whom he dislikes, and adds: “I know
not how he discovers these differences in my feelings, except it be by
overhearing remarks when the guests are gone.”

The elephant, though one of the clumsiest of animals, exhibits marks of
high intelligence, and evidently understands the language in which he is
addressed. He can be stimulated to unusual exertions by the promise of
a reward. “I have seen,” says a French writer, “two occupied in beating
down a wall which their keepers had desired them to do and encouraged
them by a promise of fruits and brandy.” They were left alone and
continued at the work, stimulated by the promised reward, until it was
accomplished. “When a reward is promised to an elephant,” says the same
author, “it is dangerous to disappoint him, as he never fails to revenge
the insult.” Nothing of this could occur without an understanding of the
language.

In India they were formerly employed to launch vessels, and it is related
that one being directed to force a large ship into the water, the task
proved beyond his strength; whereupon his master, in a sarcastic tone,
ordered the keeper to take away this lazy beast and bring another; the
poor animal, as if stung by emulation, instantly repeated his efforts,
fractured his skull and died on the spot.

It may be said that the tones of the voice rather than the words are what
the animal understands, yet a dog knows his name however spoken, and a
horse understands a whole vocabulary of orders. But the intelligence
which comprehends the meaning of a tone, is not less than that required
to understand a word or sentence. Mr. Hamerton, the artist, widely known
as a lover of animals, mentions a favorite dog which met an untimely
death by drowning, and in his lament over his lost pet, says: “He was a
dog of rare gifts, exceptionally intelligent, who would obey a look where
another needed an order. He would sit studying his master’s face and had
become from careful observation so acute a physiognomist that he read
whatever thoughts of mine had any concern for him.”

The shrewd intelligence of our countrymen is nowhere more clearly seen
than in the keen bargains the New Englander is famous for driving. But
our domestic animals make bargains with us and sometimes resolutely
keep us to them. On this point a pleasant writer relates an anecdote
of a favorite mare who was so difficult to catch in the pasture as to
often require six men to effect it; “but,” says he, “I carried corn to
her for a long time, without trying to take her, leaving the corn on
the ground. Next, I induced her to eat the corn while I held it, still
leaving her free. Finally I persuaded her to follow me, and now she will
come trotting half a mile at my whistle, leaping ditches, fording brooks,
in the darkness and rain, or in impenetrable fog. She follows me like a
dog to the stable and I administer the corn there. But it is a bargain;
she knowingly sells her liberty for the corn. The experiment of reducing
the reward to test her behavior having been tried, she ceased to obey
the whistle and resumed her former habits; but the full and due quantity
having been restored, she yielded her liberty again without resistance,
and since then she is not to be cheated.”

A horse which is regularly used for attending church, will, from its own
observation, learn to recognize the Sabbath and understand the meaning of
the church bells. Two interesting illustrations of this fact I give on
the authority of a recent number of the Hartford _Post_:

    A pair of horses that had been used during the week in
    team-work to Springfield, on Sunday were harnessed and driven
    to the door unhitched, and, the family being rather tardy that
    morning, as soon as the second bell began to ring the horses
    started off alone, and with their usual Sunday motion went up
    in front of the church, when, after waiting the usual time,
    they quietly went around under the horse-shed.

Here the horses plainly understood the distinction between that day and
the six previous ones when they had been driven to Springfield, else they
would have gone, after starting, to where they had been going through the
week; they also evidently understood that at the ringing of the second
bell it was time to start for church. The gentleman who communicated the
foregoing adds an instance which occurred in his own family:

    The father of the writer, owing to increasing infirmities,
    rode alone to meeting, half a mile, driving an old gray mare
    twenty years old, and had not failed of going every Sabbath
    for some years. On one occasion, owing to a fall, he could not
    go to meeting, and on Sunday morning, as the time for meeting
    approached, the horse, in a lot near the house, manifested
    great uneasiness, and when the second bell struck she leaped
    over the fence and trotted quietly to church, stopping at her
    usual hitching-place, under an old elm tree, until the close of
    the service, when the faithful animal returned safely to the
    house.

When we remember that such exhibitions of intelligence occur continually
where the animals have received no training on the subjects to which they
relate, it seems certain that they are the result of a mental process
which strongly resembles thought, and we would expect, from patient
culture, displays of intelligence greatly in advance of those ordinarily
taking place. Such an expectation is justified by the results which
have followed training when directed to this end. In a paper entitled
“Canine Guests,” Philip Gilbert Hamerton gives an account of the trained
dogs of M. du Rouil which, but for the unimpeachable veracity of the
writer, would be almost incredible. M. du Rouil began to educate his
first dog out of curiosity to see the effect of the sort of education
which seemed to him best adapted for establishing a close understanding
between the human and canine minds; the results astonished himself and
were so gratifying that he subsequently educated two others on the same
principles. Two of these dogs, “Blanche” and “Lyda,” with their master,
were guests of Mr. Hamerton, and the intelligence they exhibited, and
which he describes, is, by his own admission, “incredible,” yet may be
so only because of our ignorance of the nature and extent of the mental
powers belonging to the animal creation. Among the many feats performed
by them were the spelling of words by lettered cards; the correction
of words purposely misspelled; the working out of simple problems in
arithmetic and the playing of cards and dominoes. Of the latter, Mr.
Hamerton says: “Both the dogs played a game at dominoes. This was managed
as follows: the dogs sat on chairs opposite each other, and took up the
domino that was wanted; but the master placed it in its position and
kept announcing the state of the game. Their distress when they could
not go on without drawing from the bank was announced in piteous whines,
and amused us all exceedingly. Lyda was the loser, and precipitately
retreated to hide herself with an evident consciousness of defeat.”

An incident occurred in the course of the evening which showed some
understanding of language. A little girl wanted Blanche to come to her,
but the dog kept away, on which M. du Rouil said, “Blanche, go salute
the little girl!” She immediately went up to the child and made a formal
obeisance.

The owner of Blanche stated that he was going home one night accompanied
by the dog and on his way saw a man who was searching for some object
that he had lost. “What are you seeking?” he asked. The man answered
that he had lost 280 francs. “Possibly my dog may be able to find them
for you; have you any money left? If you have, show her a piece of gold.”
It was done and the dog directed to search. She at once set out and soon
returned, bringing first one piece of gold, then another, and then a
bank-note, till the whole sum that had been lost was regained.

M. du Rouil said that Blanche really knew all the letters and the
playing-cards by their names, and Lyda really knew all the figures. In
addition to this Blanche had studied about one hundred and fifty words in
different languages, something like twenty in each language. So it was
with Lyda and the figures. She knew each one by its name, and would bring
the one called for. In describing the earlier stages of training through
which these dogs had passed, their owner said the first thing was to make
the dog fetch an object, the next to make him discriminate between one of
two very different objects placed together, and bring one or the other
as it was mentioned by its name. In beginning the alphabet he put two
most dissimilar letters side by side to begin with, such as an O and an
I, avoiding the confusion of similar ones, such as O and Q or B and R.
Gradually the dog became observant enough to discriminate between letters
in which the difference was not so marked. M. du Rouil said he had found
the greatest difficulty in teaching Blanche to distinguish between the
knaves and kings in playing-cards, but that she learned the aces very
promptly. When he was asked what, after his ten years’ experience,
was his opinion of the intelligence of dogs, he answered, with great
emphasis, “that it is infinite.”

In subsequent pages I shall set forth my method of educating both dogs
and horses to perform a variety of feats, which will be described, and
from the ideas thus imparted the reader may multiply the number of tricks
to any desired amount.


_FERREN’S PATENTED STEEL HORSESHOE._

[Illustration: HOOF EXPANDING HORSE SHOE FOR CONTRACTED FEET & CORNS

Ground surface of shoe.

The hoof prepared for the shoe.]

One of the most valuable patents for Horseshoes was granted to H. B.
Ferren, of Batavia, N. Y., for a Steel Horseshoe, which promises to come
into general use, and will, to a very large extent, supersede an Iron
Shoe, whether made by a machine or by hand, _because its form is the
best, the material is durable_, and the manner of making is such as to
secure economy, and its adoption will prevent many of the prevalent cruel
malpractices upon a horse’s foot.



TRICK HORSES.


Many horses are susceptible of an education far more extensive than
is necessary for ordinary use, and for the benefit of such persons
as may desire to teach their horses something more than the usual
accomplishments, whether for their own amusement, or for the purpose of
seeing how far the intelligence of the animal can be developed, I have
prepared a description of a variety of tricks, which, as performed by my
horses, have been received with universal applause, both in Canada and
in the United States; to simplify which, I have, at considerable cost,
procured plates, illustrating each of the tricks. But that no person may
be misled into supposing that this forms a part of my general system
of educating the horse, I deem it proper to present these directions
separately.

Though the tricks to be hereafter illustrated and explained will add
nothing of intrinsic value to the horse, nor of real benefit to his
owner, yet the reader will readily see in them the demonstration of a
highly important fact, viz., that horses can be taught the meaning of
words, and to yield obedience to sounds to such an extent as to convince
a candid mind that their intelligence is far in advance of that generally
attributed to them. With these remarks I will proceed to explain the
_modus operandi_, as I call attention to a variety of tricks they may
easily be taught to perform. Before passing to this, let me impress on
the reader some leading principles in educating the horse. First, never
allow yourself to get in a hurry; impatience or excitement on your part
will go far in defeating the object of your instructions. Second, do not
prolong your lessons beyond twenty minutes at one time; and, especially,
never use severity beyond that which may be absolutely necessary. Thus by
kindness and patience in repeating your lessons at short intervals, you
will surmount every difficulty and accomplish your purpose in a manner
satisfactory to yourself.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO MOUNT A PEDESTAL._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO MOUNT A PEDESTAL.]

First make the Bonaparte bridle, and place it on your horse, then lead
him quietly up to the pedestal, and say to him, “Get up with your
fore-feet!” of course he will not obey; now you must teach him your
meaning. While you hold the bridle let some one take hold of his front
foot, raise it carefully and place it on the pedestal; then caress him,
after which say, “Get down!” at the same time using your bridle in gently
backing him. When he puts his foot down do not omit to caress him. Repeat
this until he will obey when spoken to, then go through the same process
with the other foot. After this, place both feet on the pedestal; then
require him to get down, then up and down till he will obey you without
the use of the bridle. Great care should be taken not to excite the horse
while educating him, for when excited his brain becomes muddled, and he
is unfitted for retaining your instruction.

To make your horse stand on three legs: take a pin, and place it in the
end of your whipstock, and with the point prick him slightly on the leg,
in front, just below the fetlock joint, but not hard enough to make him
kick; repeat this several times accompanied by the words, “hold up your
foot!” continuing to repeat the punishment and words until he will obey
the command without punishment.


_HOW TO MAKE A HORSE WALTZ._

Tie his head to his side by means of a surcingle and cord, fastening the
cord at the side, reaching from the mouth; touch him lightly with the
whip. He has to go, and, of course, he must go around and around. He soon
learns perfectly to waltz by the motion of the whip, the teacher still
repeating the word “waltz.”


_TO EDUCATE THE HORSE TO WALK ON HIS HIND FEET._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO WALK ON HIS HIND FEET.]

Make the Bonaparte bridle, and put it on your horse; also put on a
bitting rig, similar to the one shown in the engraving, drawing his head
pretty well up and in. Now stand near his head with bridle in hand, and
jerk upward, as though you desired to lift him up, at the same time
repeating the words, “stand up on your hind feet!” repeat this several
times, and if he does not make a move to please you, take hold of one
leg, raising him up with one hand and using the bridle with the other, as
before directed, not forgetting to caress him if he makes the slightest
move in the direction of obedience. In order to ensure success, kindness
and patience should be the ruling principles. After you have taught
your horse to stand on his hind feet you will next educate him to walk
upright. This can be easily done by observing the following directions.
Stand in front of him, whip in hand, saying, “Get up!” then shake the
whip in front of him, stepping backwards slowly, at the same time say to
him, “Come here!” repeating it sharply and touching him gently with the
whip on the knees. By carefully observing the above directions, you will
quickly teach your horse to stand upright, and to walk on his hind feet.


_HOW TO MAKE A HORSE SAY “NO.”_

Prick him on the neck at the terminus of the mane till he shakes his
head, then remove the pin, caress him, repeat for a while, and your
horse will soon shake his head when you raise your hand to your heart;
be always sure to treat the animal kindly for well-doing, and caress
him when he deserves it, and he will repay you by his love for you and
willingness to do your bidding.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO PUSH A VEHICLE._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO PUSH A VEHICLE.]

After your horse has been taught to mount a pedestal with his fore-feet,
and to stand and walk upright on his hind-feet it is a comparatively easy
task to educate him to mount upon a vehicle and push it. It is not at all
necessary that a horse should be attached to it in front, as appears in
the illustration, where the engraver has placed a representation of my
black horse, Prince Albert, as a matter of taste, not as being necessary
in conducting the instruction.

In this trick it will be scarcely necessary for the educator to put the
Bonaparte bridle on his horse unless he should show some stubbornness,
but, with bitting rig on, stand near his head, whip in hand, and say to
him in rather a loud and sharp tone of voice, “Get up!” Some fear on his
part may be manifested, still do not give up nor lose your patience, but
lift his feet up and caress him. When he does get up do not at first
allow the vehicle to move, nor until he has mounted two or three times,
then say to him, “Push!” and in a short time you will have taught him not
only to get up on the vehicle but to push it in front of him. After your
horse has been thoroughly taught, you will discover that he is delighted
to amuse you, and he will appear pleased to participate in the enjoyment
of the trick.


_HOW TO MAKE A HORSE GO LAME._

Tap him on the fore-leg till he holds it up, then caress him kindly; lead
him with the left hand to the bit, and tap the left fore-leg with a stick
in your right hand; repeat the word “lame, lame, lame,” and your horse
will soon learn to hold up one leg at the command.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO BE VICIOUS._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO BE VICIOUS.]

Many persons are incredulous in regard to the assertion that horses can
be educated; had one lived a hundred years ago he might have been excused
for such incredulity, but in this age of knowledge and advancement in all
departments of human life, no man should close his eyes to any of the
developments wrought by man’s ingenuity. That the horse possesses more
intelligence than many are disposed to admit, facts abundantly prove, and
that he is quite as susceptible of acquiring evil and vicious habits as
is man, the following trick will show.

My horse, Prince Albert, appears to enjoy the subjoined trick greatly,
and I regard it as quite a sensational one. To educate a horse to be
vicious you have only to attract his attention, and then appear to be
afraid of him. For instance, strike him lightly with a whip on the
knees, then run away from him, and after you have repeated this a few
times he will run after you. You may make the trick more interesting by
calling him names, such as “a nigger,” “a mean horse,” and on speaking
the words run from him. But be careful to have some place of safety, so
that, when he follows, you may get out of his reach, as at some time he
may disappoint and overtake you and mete out a punishment that will be
anything but pleasing or desirable.


_HOW TO TEACH A HORSE TO LAUGH._

Prick him with a pin on the nose till he turns his lip up; then caress
him well. He will soon learn that when you point towards him and say,
“Laugh,” that it means a prick in the nose, if he does not turn his lip
up.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO WALK ON HIS KNEES._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO WALK ON HIS KNEES.]

The reader will observe, by reading my book, that great use is made of
the Bonaparte bridle, and if those who handle horses will always resort
to it when obedience from the horse is desired, they will save much time,
trouble and annoyance that so often occur, especially to persons who
quickly loose their tempers. Men can accomplish more in fifteen minutes
using the bridle than in fifteen hours with any other means, as it does
not inflict a severe punishment when properly used, but never fails to
secure obedience. Therefore, as in most cases it is used, I, in the
present, introduce it again.

Put a surcingle on the horse, attach a strap to his nigh fore-foot
between the fetlock joint and hoof and draw it up to within eight or ten
inches of his body, then take a strap or cord, say 6 or 7 feet long,
and fasten it to his off fore-leg in the same manner and secure the
services of some person to assist you, directing him to stand on the
off-side, and, when directed, to pull up his foot. Place on the horse
the Bonaparte bridle, and take your position in front of him with bridle
in hand, requesting assistant to pull, when your horse will come down on
his knees, now pull on your bridle and say, “Come here,” when he will
soon obey you. Do not make your lessons long, but repeat them often; not
forgetting to caress him if he should make the slightest move towards you.

Never attempt to teach a horse this trick with shoes on his hind-feet, as
he might cut himself, which would cause him to dread a second effort.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO DRIVE A BOY OFF THE PEDESTAL._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO DRIVE A BOY OFF THE PEDESTAL.]

It will be necessary to first educate the horse to mount the pedestal.
Instructions to do this may be found elsewhere; then proceed in the
following manner to educate to the above trick. Put on the Bonaparte
bridle, using a cord, say twenty feet long, and send your horse away from
you with a whip, the length of the cord, then give him a slight pull, and
say, “Come here;” then run from him and mount the pedestal yourself; when
he approaches he will try to mount, and as he does so you jump off. After
you have thus exercised him a few times get a boy to assist you. Let the
boy stand on the pedestal, and say to your horse, “Come here and mount
up;” instruct the boy to leave so soon as the animal shall mount.

You will find this trick quite a sensational one, and not difficult to
learn your horse.


_TO SHAKE HANDS._

This is easily accomplished by tying a short strap or piece of cord to
the forward foot below the fetlock; then stand directly in front of the
horse, and hold the end of the strap in your hand, and say, “Shake hands,
sir.” After which pull immediately upon the strap, which will bring his
foot forward, and which you are to accept as shaking hands; then, of
course, you must caress and feed him, and keep him repeating, until, when
you make the demand, he will bring the foot forward in anticipation of
having it pulled up.


_HOW TO MAKE A HORSE BOW._

Prick him in the breast with a pin, till he throws his head down and up
the least bit; then take the pin away, and caress him kindly; repeat for
a few times, until when you stand back and attract his attention, he will
nod his head, expecting a prick in the breast.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO SIT DOWN._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO SIT DOWN.]

Horses differ very much in their capacity for being taught therefore, if
you desire a pleasing subject, select one that is tractable. Directions:
Make the Bonaparte bridle, and place it on your horse, so that you may
have him under proper control, then put on him a common hame collar; now
take two pole-straps and place one on each hind-leg, below the fetlock
joint, and attach a cord, say twelve feet long, to each strap, carry your
cord up through the collar on each side and bring the ends behind him,
holding also the end of the Bonaparte bridle in your hand, and commence
to pull on your cords; now repeat over the words, “sit down;” as he goes
backwards draw up still more on your cords, until he shall sit down. Do
not allow him to remain in this sitting posture more than a minute the
first lesson. Repeat this two or three times a day for five or six days,
and you, with the assistance of a whip pointed downwards to the ground,
will witness the pleasing effect of your instruction by seeing your horse
sit down at the word of command.


_TO CURE THE SCRATCHES IN THE SHORTEST TIME EVER KNOWN._

Use two tablespoonfuls of lard, and one tablespoonful of slacked lime;
brush out the dirt and dust from the foot; _use no water_. Apply the
salve, well mixed, twice each day. It will cure the worst cases in 4 to 6
days.

Another remedy:

Hydrate of potassa, 10 grains; pulverized nut-galls, ½ oz.; white lead,
pulverized opium, each ¼ oz.; lard, ¼ lb. Wash with soap-suds, rub dry,
and apply the mixture night and morning. Give purging ball.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO BORE FOR OIL._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO BORE FOR OIL.]

Place on your horse the Camanche bridle, and educate him to the words,
“Come here,” so that he will mind you readily on hearing the words; by
this you can better control him while educating to the trick in question.
Some difficulty may at first be experienced, but by patience and
perseverance you will not fail.

Take an ordinary pole-strap and place it on your horse below the fetlock
joint on the off fore-foot; now take one loose turn round the nigh
fore-foot, and take the end of the strap in one hand, with the other hand
pull gently on the bridle, using the words as instructed. Your animal
will attempt to obey, but will find himself somewhat hampered, yet he
will quickly learn. If he should at first move a foot to please you,
say “Whoa,” and then caress. Make your lesson short, and do not try to
force him too much, for if you do he will become excited and resist your
effort.


_HOW TO MAKE A HORSE WALK UP._

First put a rope around his neck, bring it down through his mouth, back
through the loop on the neck, jerk him till he raises his fore-feet
the least bit, then stop and caress him; then check him up tight to a
surcingle—from the bit to the side-ring is the better way; then jerk on
the cord, and he will soon get up erect; repeat, still caressing him
well for all he does; he will soon get up at the motion of the whip. You
should, when practicing him, repeat the words, “get up, sir!” It is in
this manner I taught Tom Thumb to go up and down stairs, and to perform
on the stage in different places, affording amusement to thousands of
witnesses.


_A SURE METHOD OF MAKING A HORSE BAD TO CATCH._

[Illustration: A SURE METHOD OF MAKING A HORSE BAD TO CATCH.]

Two or three pages might be written upon this subject, and profitably
read by owners of horses. Young men and boys are largely addicted to the
habit of riding or leading the horse up to the bars or fence, and, some
being too lazy to let down the rails properly, compelling him to jump
over, and if he resists, the first effort is to hit him with the bridle
or halter, and away the animal goes almost frantic with fear. To another
class it proves an amusement, certainly arising from a depraved nature,
as they like to see the animal jump; and to enjoy their sport they hurry
him over regardless of consequences—not thinking they are laying the
foundation of a very bad habit in the horse—that of being bad to catch
in the field. Let those who have been guilty in the past, after reading
this paragraph over, desist from pursuing such a course of conduct
toward horses, and ere long the time will come when there will be no need
to apply the remedy—elsewhere found—to educate the horse that is bad to
catch in the field.


_HIDE BOUND._

This condition of the skin is usually produced by any derangement of
system. Medicine of an alterative character is here indicated. The most
successful remedy is sulphur, pulverized, 8 oz.; nitrate of potassa,
pulverized, 3 oz.; black antimony, pulverized, 2 oz.; sulphate of iron, 4
oz. Mix well together, and give one tablespoonful twice a day.

Another good remedy:

Take saltpetre, 4 oz.; crude antimony, 1 oz.; sulphur, 2 oz. Both the
saltpetre and antimony should be finely pulverized, then add the sulphur,
and mix well together. Dose: tablespoonful of the mixture in bran-mash
daily.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO TAKE A HANDKERCHIEF FROM HIS SIDE._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO TAKE A HANDKERCHIEF FROM HIS SIDE.]

The reader must understand that it is necessary first to educate your
animal to obey the words “come here” and “whoa,” before he can be taught
tricks successfully.

There must be great caution used in teaching the above trick. First
stand on the nigh-side and prick the animal lightly on the shoulder; he
will reach round and bite near where the punishment is inflicted. After
you have repeated this a few times, hold a handkerchief in hand with
the pin and he will soon catch hold of it with his teeth; as you use
the pin, say “Take it from the nigh-side.” Next prick him with a pin on
the off-shoulder, handkerchief accompanying, and say “Take it from the
off-side.” When you have given him five or six lessons, you may hold the
handkerchief on his side and touch him with your finger, repeating the
words above directed. The instructor must be cautious when using the pin
in educating, not to provoke so as to make the animal cross.


_DISTEMPER._

All catarrhal affections are classed by horse owners under the head of
distemper. Common catarrh, epidemic catarrh, laryngitis, bronchitis,
and all other diseases accompanied by nasal discharges, are regarded by
horsemen as one and the same.

The following remedy is to cure distemper in its simple form, as we find
it in colts soon after the disease commences. If there is swelling under
the jaws, poultice the throat with flaxseed meal, or bread and milk.
Apply mustard and vinegar, and give internally one of the following
powders in feed: pulverized gentian, 2 ounces; sulph. copper, 1 oz.;
pulverized ginger, 6 drams; mix, and divide into 8 powders.


_TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO KISS A BOY._

[Illustration: TO EDUCATE A HORSE TO KISS A BOY.]

This kind of education is not particularly beneficial to the horse owner,
but it illustrates clearly the idea foreshadowed in many parts of my
work: first, that the horse may be taught almost anything that is in his
power to do; second, that if you go rightly to work you may so gain his
confidence that he will cheerfully obey every reasonable command.

_Direction._—Take a piece of apple, place it in your mouth and say to
your horse, “Kiss me.” He will approach you to take it; when he does
so caress him. After repeating this a few times, when you approach him
extend your mouth towards his and repeat the words “kiss me.” If he does
not respond, place a piece of apple in your mouth as before, and repeat
it until he shall obey without the use of the apple.


_BONE SPAVIN._

One-half pound of blood root; 1 quart of alcohol; 2 oz. tannin; ¼ lb.
alum. Mix and let stand. Shaking several times a day till the strength is
all in the alcohol, and bathe the spavin twice a day, rubbing with the
hand.


_FOR WINDGALLS._

Olive oil, 2 oz.; nitric acid, ¼ oz. Rub as much in every day, or every
second or third day, as will bear without starting the hair.


_FOR INFLAMED SWELLINGS OR LAMED SHOULDERS._

Equal parts oil amber, oil spike, gum camphor, and ether. Should be
shaken well before using, and well rubbed in with the hand.



EDUCATING DOGS.

[Illustration: EDUCATING DOGS.]


_TO ROLL A BARREL._

Place, on the dog the Bonaparte bridle so that you may control him; then
put his fore-feet upon the barrel, standing in front of him with a piece
of meat extended towards him, and say, “Roll the barrel;” pull gently on
the cord, and if he should start the barrel don’t fail to caress him.
With two dogs, put one on the top of the barrel, and they will quickly
learn to roll it without being enticed by meat.


_TO FIRE A GUN._

Drill a hole in the back of a common chair; attach a piece of iron at the
lower part of the pistol, and place it in the chair as illustrated; tie a
string with a knot in the end, to the trigger; let it run through a ring
in the butt of the pistol, then tie a piece of meat to the end of the
string; now the dog will try to get the meat; in doing so he will fire it
off. Load the pistol with blank cartridges. A few lessons will educate
the animal so that at the order, “Make ready—present—fire!” he will obey.
Place his mate in front of the pistol in a sitting posture and stand
near him, and when the report is heard, teach him to lie down, which
you can easily do by at first pressing him down with your hand until he
will mind the word “dead.” Dogs are remarkably fond of being caressed,
and the reader should not neglect this important accompaniment to his
instructions.

[Illustration: EDUCATION OF DOGS—CONTINUED]


_TO PASS BETWEEN YOUR LEGS._

Hold meat in your hand and pass it from one hand to the other between
your legs. Occasionally give the animal a small piece; you will thus
induce him after a little to obey the command “Pass through,” motioning
in the direction with your hand.


_TO JUMP THROUGH A HOOP._

At the first lesson procure a barrel hoop and elevate it, say six inches
from the ground, holding it in your hand, and with the other hold out
a piece of meat a short distance from the hoop, and say to your dog,
“Jump.” He will go for the meat; increase the height of the hoop a little
each time, and you will soon have taught him so that you may not only
reduce the hoop in size, but he will obey you without the use of meat.


_TO STAND ON CHAIRS._

Place two chairs back to back; then separate the chairs, say one foot
apart, and decoy your dog to mount on one chair; then hold a piece of
meat in your hand elevated above the chairs, and it will attempt to climb
for the meat; repeat this process a few times, and soon you will educate
the animal to rest its feet on the back of each chair; after which
you may increase the distance until you distend the body, as seen in
engraving, in accordance with your wishes. Continue until it will readily
obey you without the use of meat; often caress the animal, as by this
means you increase confidence and secure obedience.



MISCELLANEOUS.


_FOR CURING COLIC IN HORSES._

[Illustration: EFFECTUAL REMEDY FOR COLIC.]

_Symptoms._—Pawing, manifesting a desire to be down, and, without doing
so, commence pawing again. As the symptoms increase the animal cannot be
kept on his feet; he frequently falls as if shot; pulse not altered from
natural condition. Intervals of rest, together with the condition of the
pulse, distinguish the disease from inflammation of the bowels. Treat as
follows:

Take a piece of woolen cloth, about one foot square, or its equivalent
in pieces, saturate the cloth thoroughly with mutton or beef tallow,
using from a quarter to a half pound, then roll up the cloth and it is
ready for use; next place a blanket over the head of the horse, as seen
in engraving; then set fire to the cloth, holding it under the horses
head with a shovel, and allowing him to inhale the smoke. Care should be
used so as not to strangle the horse. By strictly following the foregoing
treatment the efficacy of this remedy will be shown, as the animal will
be relieved in from fifteen to twenty minutes.

Another remedy is:

Frequent injections of soap and water; and give internally, spirits of
nitre, 10 drams; laudanum, 10 drams; water, ½ pint. Mix for drench. This
may be repeated in twenty minutes, if relief is not obtained.

Another remedy, giving _instant_ relief:

From 45 to 50 drops of chloroform, given on sugar, I have never known to
fail giving immediate relief.

I have known men to be from home, and have their horses taken with this
disease, and use this remedy, and in thirty minutes the horses were able
to be driven.


_THE ONLY SAFE AND PRACTICAL WAY TO GIVE A HORSE MEDICINE._

[Illustration: THE ONLY PRACTICAL AND SAFE WAY TO GIVE MEDICINE.]

Much difficulty is experienced in giving medicine to a horse, but those
who view and comprehend the foregoing illustration will see how easily
all difficulty may be removed. In administering the medicine while the
animal is standing, there is a constant liability to annoyance from the
danger of strangling, by holding the head too high, or of spilling the
medicine, in which cases the owner is foiled and the horse is left to
suffer. The idea as illustrated, of which I claim to be the originator,
though simple in itself is of great importance.

_Directions._—If your horse is standing, use the directions previously
given to throw him; when down, turn his mouth upward and pull a little
on the cord used in throwing him, when he will open his mouth, and you
can give the medicine with a spoon without risk of spilling it; always
observing care not to allow it to enter the nostrils, by which a horse
may easily be strangled. Any person following these directions, will soon
appreciate the value of the method described.


_SPAVIN._

This being a valuable recipe, it is worth money to any man dealing in
horses.

Euphorbium, 5 oz.; cantharides, fine, 2 oz., iodine, 1 oz., dissolved in
alcohol; red precipitate, ½ oz.; corrosive sublimate, 2 oz.; quicksilver,
½ oz.; hog’s lard, 6 oz.; white turpentine, 6 oz.; verdigris, ¼ lb. Melt
the lard and turpentine together, then, while hot, add the others, except
the quicksilver, which must be stirred in as it becomes cold. Mix well.
When cold it is fit for use. Rub it in well on the spavin every day for
three days, then wash clean with soap-suds, and omit for three days; then
repeat for three days, and so continue until a perfect cure is effected.
Should it blister, use more cautiously.


_TO TELL A HORSE’S AGE._

There is only one sure way of telling the age of a horse, and that is
by an examination of his teeth, and that only extends to a certain age,
although an experienced horseman can guess very nearly for some time
after that period. There are six teeth in the front part of a horse’s
mouth, above and below, called the gatherers, from which we may judge of
his age. When a colt is foaled, he generally has no teeth in the front
part of his mouth. In a few days, two come in the upper jaw, and two
below; and again, after a few days, four more appear, but the corner
teeth do not make their appearance until he is four or five months old;
these twelve teeth remain unchanged in the front of the colt’s mouth
until he is about two years old, when he sheds the two center nippers.

At three years old, a colt sheds the adjoining teeth. At four years old,
the under or corner teeth. At five years old, the bridle tooth makes its
appearance. At six years old, the cups leave the two center teeth below.
At seven years old, the cups leave the adjoining teeth. At eight years
old, the cups leave the outer or corner teeth. At nine years old, the
cups leave the two center nippers, above. At ten years old, the cups
leave the adjoining teeth. At eleven years old, the cups leave the corner
upper teeth. At twelve years, or past, the groove on inside of the bridle
tooth disappears in a horse. Mares very seldom have them.


_NEW METHOD TO TELL THE AGE._

(See engraving of horse’s teeth from the age of 7 to 18 years. Always
look for the cups in the upper teeth.)

[Illustration: 18 Years.

16 Years.

14 Years.

7 Years.

8 Years.

9 Years.

10 Years.

11 Years.

12 Years.]

     7 years. The cups in center of teeth are large.
     8 years. A trifle smaller.
     9 years. Still smaller.
    11 years. Smaller.
    12 years. Cups in center of teeth are smaller and nearly round.
    14 years. The teeth are round and cups have nearly disappeared.
    16 years. Are a mere speck in the teeth; scarcely discernible.
    18 years. The cups have worn away, and the teeth are round.



TRAINING STEERS.


Drive your steer in a small yard, fenced so that he cannot escape. Then
approach him gently, and if he runs, do not run after him, but follow
slowly and quietly. Should he again run from you, do not strike him with
the whip, or in any way frighten him, he will soon stand and permit you
to approach him. Place then around his body a surcingle or strap, near
the fore-legs. Take a hame-strap and buckle around the near fore-foot;
take a cord or rope, and pass it through under the surcingle, and tie to
the strap which is around the foot. The cord should be twenty or thirty
feet long, to permit him to run about you in the yard, without your
pulling on it. Draw up on the rope to force him to move on three legs;
approach him gently, till he will permit you to handle him as you please.
Then hold up the near fore-foot by the cord, with your left hand, and
holding the whip in your right, pass it over his shoulder, and quietly
touch him on the off-side of his head, and at the same time say, “Haw!”
continue thus till he moves his head towards you, for which caress him
about the head and neck; repeat this till he will “haw,” at the word,
towards you. Should he attempt to run from you, pull on the strap, say
“Haw,” at the same time touch him on the head with the whip. He will soon
learn to stop at the word of command, in, this way, and turn towards you
readily. Then take off the rig and turn him loose. Then proceed with the
mate in the same way, when you can turn it out, and by this time the
other steer will be ready to receive another lesson. Drive it in the
same yard, and repeat the lesson with a whip. Quietly touch on the near
side of the head, and at the same time say, “Gee!” until he will move
around from you. Then caress him, till he will “gee” or “haw” readily. Go
through the same lesson with the other. That is all you should try to do
with them in four hours’ time. Take both together in the yard; repeat
this lesson till both understand what you desire of them. Take one of
them near the wall; stand by his side; hit him gently on the head, at the
same time say “Back!” till he will step back; then caress him. Repeat,
till he will go back readily at the word. Give each the same lesson. This
manner of training steers will make them always do your bidding. When
convenient, repeat the above lessons, with both together. Then put on
the yoke, and let them go. One hour, at first, is long enough to become
accustomed to the restraint of the yoke. Repeat this in the yard.

If the steers should ever run from you, which often occurs in an ordinary
method of training, buckle a hame-strap around the foot, bring it up
through the surcingle back to the sled or wagon, between the steers. Let
the man pull on the cord if they attempt to run away; this will pull up
their feet; whip them over the head, which will stop them and break up
the habit.



TREATISE ON HORSESHOEING.


The main object should be to have the shoe so formed as to size, weight,
fitting, and fastening, as to combine the most advantages of protection,
and preserve the natural tread of the foot the best. In weight, it should
be proportioned to the work or employment of the horse. The foot should
not be loaded with more iron than is necessary to preserve it. If the
work of the horse is principally on the road, at heavy draught, the shoe
should be rather heavy, in order that it may not be bent by contact with
hard, uneven earth; it should be wide in the web, and of equal thickness
and width from the toe to the heel, that it may as much as possible
protect the sole, without altering the natural position of the foot;
it should be well drawn in at the heels, that it may rest on the bars,
thereby protecting the corn place, or angles between the bar and crust,
and should in no part extend beyond the outer edge of the crust.

It is too often the case that the shoe is made according to the smith’s
notions of what the form of the horse’s foot should be, and the foot is
pared, burned, and rasped until it fits the shoe. Now, it should always
be borne in mind that the shoe is intended for the foot, and not the foot
for the shoe, and that it is therefore peculiarly proper to make the shoe
fit the natural form of the foot. It is impossible to have the foot of a
horse sound and safe, for work and use, after bringing it to an unnatural
figure, by the use of the knife and rasp. The foot of the horse being
elastic, it expands to the weight of the horse, in precisely the same
degree, whether resting upon the most open or the most contracted shoe.
Therefore, the shape of the shoe cannot possibly affect the shape of the
foot. The form of the foot is determined by the situation of the nails
If the nails are placed so that the inside quarters and heels are left
free to expand in a natural manner, no shape which we can give to the
shoe can of itself change the form of the foot. It must not be inferred,
however, from this that the shape of the shoe is of no importance; quite
the contrary being the case, as I have already shown. In forming the
shoe, we should always adopt that which produces the greatest number of
advantages with the fewest disadvantages.

We find that the sole-surface of the foot is by nature concave in form,
which seems to offer the greatest fulcrum of resistance to the horse when
traveling. It is important to preserve the natural mechanical action of
the horn and sole; therefore the ground surface of the foot, that is to
say, the ground surface of the shoe, should be leveled cup fashion; its
outer edge being prominent, corresponds to the lower and outer rim of the
hoof; while the shoe being hollow, resembles the natural cavity of the
sole of the foot. The ground surface of the shoe should always be concave.

The pattern that nature has presented us in making the sole concave,
cannot be improved upon by the smith, with all his skill. The expansion
of the heels, and growth of the foot, require that the shoe should be
long enough, and wide enough at the heels, to allow for the natural
growth of the foot in the time it is calculated the shoe should be on
before being reset; for as the foot enlarges, the shoe is brought forward
until it loses its original proportion, and becomes too short and narrow.
The shoe may be about a quarter of an inch wider and longer than the
extreme bearing of the heels; and the nail-holes should be punched coarse
and in the center of the web. The manner of fastening the shoe is what
really affects the foot, and what requires the most special attention in
shoeing; for the foot, being elastic, expands in the same proportion on
the rough as on the nicely-fitted shoe. It is the number and position of
the nails that really affect the foot. If they are placed well back in
the quarters, four on a side, as is common, the crust is held as firmly
to this unyielding shoe as if in a vice, which utterly prevents the free
action necessary to its health. Inflammation is produced, which causes
contraction and the consequent, derangement of the whole foot. If the
free natural expansion of the foot, and the spreading of the quarters
in proportion to the growth of the hoof is prevented by the nailing
of the shoe, irritation of the fleshy substance between the crust and
coffin-bone will result, and ultimately create so much diseased action
of the parts as to cause contraction and navicular disease. Shoes may
be fastened without causing such mischief, if the following method of
nailing is observed.

In experimenting, for the purpose of ascertaining how few nails are
absolutely necessary, under ordinary circumstances, for retaining the
shoe securely in its place as long as it should remain upon the foot, it
has been satisfactorily established that five nails are amply sufficient
for the fore shoes, and seven for the hind ones, three should be placed
on the outside of the foot, and two on the inner side, near the toe,
thereby leaving the foot free to expand in a natural manner. The nails
should not be driven high up in the crust, but brought out as soon as
possible. Another mistake with most smiths is in rasping the clinches
away too fine; they should be turned broad and flat. It is also a custom
with some to rasp and sand-paper the whole surface of the hoof, for
the purpose of making it look nice and smooth. Such a practice should
never be tolerated; the covering thus removed is provided by nature to
protect the too rapid evaporation of the moisture of the hoof, and when
taken away, causes the horn to become dry and brittle. It has so long
been customary to use as many nails as could be conveniently driven, in
fact, of fastening the shoe as if it were to a lifeless block of wood,
that the fear is very commonly entertained that the shoe will not be
held in its place with so few nails. Such fears are utterly groundless,
as both theory and practice demonstrate. If the presence of a nail in
the crust were a matter of no moment, and two or three more than are
really necessary were merely useless, no great reason would exist for
condemning the common practice of using too many nails, but it is far
otherwise; the nails, aside from confining the natural expansion of the
hoof, separate the fibres of the horn, which never, by any chance, become
united again, but continue apart and unclosed, until, by degrees, they
grow down with the rest of the hoof, and are finally, after repeated
shoeing, removed by the knife.

As these holes cannot possibly grow down and be removed under three
shoeings, it will be found, even with a small number of nails, that
three times that number of holes must exist in the hoof all the while;
and as they are often, from various causes, extended into each other,
they necessarily keep it in a brittle, unhealthy state, and materially
interfere with the future nail-hold. As the position of the hind-foot,
and the nature of its office, render it less liable to injury than the
fore-foot, consequently, it less frequently lames; however, disease of
the navicular bone of this foot is by no means impossible. The same care
should be taken as with the fore-foot. Calks, although they may be
turned down of perfectly even length on each side (which is seldom done),
are objectionable appendages, and should be dispensed with, except,
perhaps, for very heavy draughts, or when the roads are frozen or covered
with ice.


_TO PREVENT HORSES INTERFERING._

[Illustration: INTERFERING AND OVERREACHING.

_Fig. 1._ _Fig. 2._ _Fig. 3._]

Nature has provided a proper hoof for the horse, but sometimes it is
round and flat and the animal will strike itself with the crust when not
shod; the natural tendency being to travel very close, especially with
the hind-feet.

Well-informed minds, together with the mechanical skill of many
blacksmiths, have been brought to bear upon this topic, and after years
of experience and research they have been unable to remedy this evil. As
such I term it, because horses have suffered much, and become depreciated
in value because of being addicted to the annoying habit of interfering.

I here propose to give a sure and certain remedy that has never been
known to fail. The preparation of the hoof is by no means as important
as that of the shoe; yet, should the animal interfere very badly, it may
be better to leave the outside a trifle the lowest; however, the smith
ought to be governed by circumstances, not as to the shoe, but to paring
the hoof. All that can be removed from the inside without putting the
hoof out of shape ought to be done. Also pare the hoof at the toe instead
of the heel, simply rasping it so as to form a level surface. Prepare
the shoe carefully in accordance with the following directions, and as
illustrated on foregoing engraving, Fig. 1:

Make the inside twice the width and twice the thickness that you do the
outside, gradually tapering the width and thickness from the toe-calk.
Make the heel-calk on the inside or heavy part of the shoe, about an inch
long, and lengthwise from heel to toe, and incline it a little inward to
the frog of the foot. Don’t allow your shoes to remain on longer than
four weeks at most, and use as small nails as possible.


_OVERREACHING._

Young horses are more subject to overreaching than old ones. It very
frequently disappears as the speed of the animal is increased. At a
moderate gait, the front feet do not always get out of the way in time
for the hind ones, as they are brought forward. Sometimes the heels
are cut or badly bruised, and occasionally the shoes are torn from the
fore-feet.

_Remedy._—Have the front shoes made nearly twice the weight of the hind
shoes. Lower the toe-calk on the fore shoe and increase the ordinary
length of the calk on the hind shoe, and do not make the fore shoe to
project more than half an inch beyond the heel. If the horse should
have a good square heel, don’t allow the shoe to project any. Observe
to instruct the smith to pare the toe or forward part of the fore-foot,
and _not the heel_, simply rasping it to form a level surface. See
illustration of shoes, Figs. 2 and 3.

SURE METHOD OF PRODUCING A RAPID GROWTH IN HORSES’ HOOFS.—Wash the hoof
and apply common soft soap inside and out, twice a day, avoiding to rub
any on the frog of the foot. Care should be used so as not to allow the
soap to remain on the hair near the hoof. By putting a mark near the
hair, the operator will be better able to judge the rapid growth. While
using the above, should the hoof get soft, apply salt, which will quickly
harden. I have grown an entirely new hoof on a horse in six weeks, by
following the above direction.



AN EXPOSITION OF THE DUNBAR SYSTEM OF HORSESHOEING, AND TREATMENT OF THE
HORSE’S FOOT.

_As taught to the Farriers of the United States Army by ALEXANDER DUNBAR,
under the authority of the Joint Resolution of Congress, and for which
Dunbar received twenty-five thousand dollars. Highly recommended to the
U. S. Army by Robert Banner and George Wilkes._


_INSTRUCTIONS FOR FITTING AND DRIVING THE SHOE._

The first thing to be done is to carefully examine the horse’s feet all
around, to see that they are of a natural shape, taking care to abstain
from any action that will tend to excite the horse.

The shoes should be removed one at a time, and the nails carefully drawn
after the clinches are cut, one at a time; anything like tearing off the
shoe by main force should by all means be avoided.

The shoe being removed, the rasp should then be used on the edge of the
foot where the shoe has been, removing all dirt and gravel which may have
accumulated there, and thus prevent injury to the shoeing knife.

If the foot is healthy and of a natural shape, and has been shod
regularly, no alteration is required, but simply to pare out the sole of
the foot, removing the bors entirely, and opening out the heels back. The
surface of the frog should be trimmed off a very little, but the sides
should never be cut.

By reference to Plate No. 12 the exact idea of the system of paring
the foot may be gained. It has been practiced successfully, and is
recommended for the simple reason that by the system of removing the bors
and opening out the heels, contraction is prevented, and the frog retains
its natural shape, because all pressure is removed from each side.

The foot should not be scooped out so as to leave the wall projecting
without any support; for the wall of the hoof is the base upon which the
horse travels, and this should be supported by a sufficiency of the sole
as a “ground surface.” The shoes should be removed and the feet prepared
one at a time.

In fitting a shoe to the foot, after it has been thoroughly prepared, the
farrier should take hold of the foot and see that the shoe is perfectly
easy on the heels, and that he has sufficient room all around in the
manner illustrated on Plate No. 11. If the shoe is found to fit well
everywhere, he will take the foot between his knees, and placing the
shoe properly, drive the nails with great care, so that the shoe cannot
get out of its proper place. When the nails are started he should hammer
them home lightly, or according to the foot he is working on. The three
nails on the inside and outside, toward the toe, should always be driven
a little tighter than the heel nails, so as to prevent pressure on the
heels. No man should be in a hurry in shoeing a horse, but should always
be careful in fitting and driving the shoe as instructed.

A shoe should never be fitted tightly, unless the coffin-bone has too
much play; then it should be fitted tight around the toe and each
quarter, as far as the nail-holes extend back, in order to contract the
foot, and bring the coffin-bone to its proper place. Such cases are,
however, very rare.

The heels of the shoe should never be allowed to curve inward toward the
frog, and the foot should be prepared so as to prevent any pressure from
the shoe on the heel, in the manner shown by Plate No. 14, at the same
time allowing the bearing of the shoe to be perfectly equal.

If the horse has a long foot it should be shortened on the toe as much
as possible—the more the better—for the hoof grows out more quickly
at the toe; and it is necessary, because in a case of this kind the
coffin-bone is necessarily out of its proper position, and the operation
of shortening the toe must be continued until it resumes its natural
shape; but a close operation, and working the horse at the same time, is
not recommended, because the foot can be brought to its proper shape by
cutting gradually in time.

After the cutting has been performed, a shoe should be fitted so as to
have the pressure on each quarter, and with heels, if the horse’s heels
are naturally low, in order to prevent a sudden change.

A horse should be re-shod at least once a month.

PLATE NO. 3—_Paring out the Foot._—By reference to this plate it will be
seen what a difference there exists between the system recommended and
practiced by Mr. Dunbar, and the old style practiced and recommended by
all authorities on the subject heretofore.

[Illustration: No. 3. PARING THE FOOT.

_a_ New Style. _b_ Old Style.]

The bors should be _cut away entirely_, removing the pressure from the
frog, and cutting out the heel. By this system of paring the foot a
ground surface will always be left, commencing at the heel and expanding
gradually, as illustrated by the plates “A” to “C;” the sides of the
frog should never be cut, but the top should be cut down sufficiently to
allow it to be clear of the ground after the shoe is fitted. The cleft of
the frog should always be cleaned out thoroughly every time the shoe is
renewed.

PLATES NOS. 4. AND 5—_Long Feet before and after Cutting._—A horse with
a long foot, as will be easily seen, will suffer from an undue pressure
on the heels (see article on Corns), causing corns, and in addition to
that, if the foot is not shortened in time, it will cause the coffin-bone
to lose its proper shape, but this can be remedied by shortening the toe
every time the horse is shod, thus keeping the foot in its proper shape.

[Illustration: No. 4. LONG FOOT—BEFORE TREATMENT.]

[Illustration: No. 5. LONG FOOT—AFTER TREATMENT.]

The common practice of fitting a shoe tight on the heels, to prevent
interfering, is entirely wrong; an interfering horse does not strike
with his heel, but with the inner side of the toe, not further back than
the heel-nails, both hind and forward. To prevent this, the shoe should
be fitted wider on the _inner_ than on the _outer_ heel. A horse that
interferes should be carefully examined by the farrier before shoeing,
who will notice particularly the shape of his feet. If the animal stands
_inward_ and interferes, the _outside_ quarter should be cut down, and
thus throw the foot level; and if he stands outward and interferes, the
_inside_ quarter should be cut down for the same reason. After this a
shoe should be fitted with no nails on the inner quarter, which
should be _thickest_.

To prevent a horse traveling pigeon-toed is simply to pare off the inner
quarter of the toe, and have the shoe fitted as above. By this operation
the bearing will be level. This will apply also to a horse for light
riding, and for a horse traveling between the shafts; but for the latter
a good block heel on the outer, and a small one on the inner quarter of
the shoe should be made; the toe also to be made thick in proportion, to
make the bearing level.

[Illustration: No. 10. COFFIN-BONE.

Fig. 1.

    _a_ Upper pastern.
    _b_ Lower pastern.
    _c_ Navicular bone.
    _d_ Coffin-bone.

Fig. 2.

    _a_ Upper pastern.
    _b_ Lower pastern.
    _c_ Navicular bone.
    _d_ Coffin-bone, with the horny laminæ.]

PLATE NO. 10 is a representation of a perfectly healthy coffin-bone, with
the upper and lower pastern and navicular bones front, and reverse sides.
The system recommended by the author is intended to prevent any pressure
whatever on the wings of the coffin-bone. Anything that prevents the
perfectly free action of the coffin-bone will cause “navicular disease,”
and “ossified cartilages.” After a foot is pared, as recommended in this,
so as to be easily expanded, the wings of the coffin-bone, which are the
widest part, should be protected by a wide shoe, and there should be no
pressure whatever on the heels.

[Illustration: No. 11. FITTING A SHOE TO REMOVE PRESSURE FROM THE HEEL.]

[Illustration: No. 12. CONTRACTED. NATURAL.

No. 13. OLD STYLE PARING OUT THE FOOT. NEW STYLE.]

[Illustration: No. 14. CONTRACTED FOOT AFTER TREATMENT.]


_CORNS._

The pressure of the bor on one side of the seat of the disease, and of
the horny substance of a contracted heel on the other side, added to
a tight shoe, causes inflammation, which, when it becomes chronic, is
styled a _corn_.

A corn may be detected by paring the foot close. It is not necessary, as
recommended by some authorities, to use pincers, squeezing the hoof all
around to find the corn, thereby giving the horse unnecessary pain. They
are to be found only in the heel, and do not result from bruises, but
from pressure.

_Treatment._—The shoe having been removed, the inside of the hoof should
be pared out thoroughly all around, and if a long hoof, it should be
shortened. If the corn is visible, the heel should be pared down and the
bors weakened, opening the heel as far back as possible (see Plate No.
11), and fitting an open shoe, so as to throw the pressure off the heel.
The pressure having been removed, the corn will disappear, or grow down
in the quarter, in which case the farrier should fit a bor shoe, so as
to throw the weight off the diseased heel and partly on the frog, the
elastic surface of which will prevent severe pressure.

If a horse has a long foot, the pressure is more on the corns, because
his foot is in front of him, and an over-proportion of his weight comes
on his heels. A horse with a long foot is like a man with a thick sole to
his boot and no heels, for with his heels he strikes the ground first.

Every horse should have his feet well _under_ him, and not in _front_ of
him. This fact should be taken into consideration when fitting the open
shoe.

Inflammation should be reduced by placing a swab over the coronet, and
using a hot poultice of linseed meal for the foot.

[Illustration: No. 15. EXPANDING THE FOOT AFTER IT HAS BEEN PARED OUT.]

[Illustration: No. 16. LATERAL QUARTER-CRACK BEFORE TREATMENT. CONTRACTED
FOOT.]

[Illustration: No. 17. QUARTER-CRACK—LATERAL—UNDER TREATMENT.]

[Illustration: No. 18. STRAIGHT QUARTER-CRACK UNDER TREATMENT.]

The pressure having been removed from a corn for a fortnight, it will be
observed to have a light color, representing the color of a new corn, and
if properly treated, it will gradually disappear, and be displaced by a
healthy growth of foot.

The horse should be allowed at least a month in which to recover from
his lameness; but it is not necessary to turn him out to grass, and care
should be taken that his feet are closely attended to, having the shoes
renewed about once in a fortnight.

_Contraction_ is the result of neglect, want of natural moisture, and
tight shoeing. The result is lameness, if in one foot, and if in both
feet, the loss of their free, natural use, causing short steps and
stumbling. If the inner quarter is contracted, it is the cause, if not
soon remedied, of quarter-crack. The practice of fitting a shoe so as to
fit tighter on the inner than the outer quarter, to prevent interfering,
renders it more liable to contraction.

The want of proper moisture causes the horn to shrink, and prevents the
foot from expanding naturally. This should be remedied by soaking the
feet, if feverish, in warm, and if healthy, in cold water, twice a day,
an hour at each time. This moisture should be applied at least two hours
before the horse is used. This will render the foot elastic, and prevent
abuse from traveling over rough roads.

By reference to accompanying plate, No. 12, the difference will be
observed between a natural and a contracted foot. The quarters growing
toward each other in the contracted, cause the coffin-bone to lose its
proper shape, and forcing the sensitive frog upwards from its proper
place, causes scratches and thrush.

Treatment of contraction, briefly speaking, is _expansion_. The foot
should be thoroughly prepared in the following manner: If the horse is
lame, the farrier should shorten the toe, lower the foot all around, and
open the heels back until the blood is drawn. The sole of the foot should
be pared as closely as possible on each side of the frog, in the manner
shown by the illustration on Plate No. 12, “natural foot.” The frog
should be lowered, but the side should _not_ be cut. A groove should be
made with a rasp just under and parallel with the coronet on each side
(see Plate No. 14) deep enough to draw blood, then with a fine shoeing
knife, cut little notches down from the cornet and across the groove at
certain equal distances, as shown by illustration No. 14, the entire
length of the groove. These notches should also be deep enough to draw
blood. This will relieve the pressure caused by contraction from the
cartilages on both sides, and allow them to resume their proper shape.

[Illustration: No. 19. QUARTER-CRACK, AFTER TREATMENT.]

[Illustration: No. 20. TOE-CRACK, BEFORE TREATMENT.]

Having the foot ready for a shoe, a hand should be placed on each side
of the foot, pressing it outward in the manner shown by Plate No, 15.
The shoe must be very carefully fitted, and must have eight nail-holes,
for the reason that it is the heel nails that relieve a horse while in
contraction.

The shoe should be fitted so as to project at least a quarter of an inch
on each side of the foot, so as to see the nail-holes projecting on
each side of the outer and inner quarter. Having this accomplished, the
bearing should be equal; the nails must be driven first toward the toe,
then toward the heel, driving them half-way, and using the utmost care
and skill; the higher the nails are driven the better. The shoe being
fitted so wide, there is no fear of pricking.

The nails toward the heel should be driven by alternate taps on each
side, because the foot expands on each side on account of being pared so
thin on either side of the frog, the source of the expansion.

The heel nails should relieve the wings of the coffin-bone, which suffer
most while in a state of contraction, and allow them to come back to
their proper position.

Considerable soreness will result from this mode of treatment, which can
be remedied by using thin poultices of linseed meal, applied as hot as
possible, to be renewed at least once every two days for the period of
two weeks. The foot should also be thoroughly soaked in a bucket of warm
water for half an hour at each renewal of the poultice; this will remove
all soreness, and prevent the foot from shrinking when exposed to the
weather. The _expansion_ treatment should be continued gradually until
the coffin-bone resumes its natural shape; when this is accomplished, the
growing hoof will naturally accommodate itself to the bone.

The severe treatment recommended is necessary only in an aggravated
case causing lameness. It can be so modified by cutting the hoof, and
expanding the foot gradually, as to allow the horse to be used while
under treatment, if he has not been disabled.


_QUARTER AND TOE-CRACKS._

Quarter-cracks are commonly found in feet of saddle horses, and are
caused by contraction and pressure, and are also the result of a shoe
being fitted tightly on the inner quarter, to prevent interfering, as
stated in remarks on “Contraction.”

Most commonly found on the inner quarter; it commences at the coronet,
extending downward, and when it extends through to the laminæ causes
lameness, and is especially serious if the foot is contracted, as shown
by Plate No. 16.

There are two kinds of quarter-cracks, as shown by plates Nos. 17 and
18—the _lateral_ and the _straight_ the latter being the most serious, if
the separation commences at the coronet.

_Treatment._—If the foot is inclined to contract, it should be prepared
as for contraction; shorten the toe and expand the foot, under the
directions already given. If lameness has resulted, a bor shoe should
be fitted, so as to remove all pressure from half an inch on each side
of the crack, then with a rasp cut a groove under and parallel with the
coronet, extending about half an inch on each side of the crack; with a
shoeing knife cut some small notches on each side of the groove, after
which the edges of the crack may be cut away. (See Plates Nos. 17 and
18.) If the foot bleeds freely so much the better. After this is done
a firing-iron should be applied so as to cauterize the crack. This
operation having been performed, the foot should be dressed with tar
every morning for about three weeks. The pressure being removed, the new
growth will commence at the coronet, and extend downward, as shown in
Plate No. 19, until a permanent cure is effected.

[Illustration: No. 21. TOE-CRACK, AFTER TREATMENT.

Explaining use of “Expansion Plate.”]

[Illustration: No. 22. THRUSH.

Before Treatment. After Treatment.

No. 23. PUMICE FOOT.

Before Treatment. After Treatment.]

[Illustration: No. 24. HOOF-BOUND—UNDER TREATMENT.]

Toe-crack, more common to heavy and draught horses, is caused by want of
room; the space inside the wall of the foot not being large enough to
accommodate the laminæ, it causes inflammation, and breaks out at the
weakest point, which is the coronet, and extends downward to the toe,
causing the foot to assume the appearance of a cloven foot. (See Plate
No. 20.)

_Treatment._—Shorten the toe as much as possible, and then pare the sole
of the foot until it will yield to the pressure of the thumb. No pressure
should be allowed within half an inch on each side of the crack on the
toe, for the reason that the pressure on the toe prevents the coronet
from uniting. Having prepared the sole of the foot, a fine shoeing knife
should be used to remove the horn that is inclined to grow inward on each
side of the crack, after which a groove under the coronet, extending on
each side of the crack, will be made, and the notches on each side of the
groove as already directed. A firing-iron should be applied to cauterize
the crack from the coronet downward. Then the crack should be cut away
in the center, so as to allow the use of an “expansion plate,” as shown
in Plate No. 21. This expansion plate can be made of brass or steel. It
is composed of four pieces, as follows: A plate divided in the center
into two equal parts, A and B (see Plate No. 21), and a thread cut in the
center. Each part is made so as to fit dove-tailed into the crack, held
in place with a screw C, and a burr D, underneath, to prevent the screw
from pressing the laminæ of the foot. The screw, which has considerable
power as a lever, forces the two plates apart, lifts up the wall of the
foot which is pressing each side of the crack, and presses it outward.
This being done, an open shoe should be fitted, wider than the foot, so
as to expand it, which, together with the notches cut in the groove under
the coronet, will cause a new and strong growth from each side of the
crack, commencing at the coronet and extending downward.

The length of time required to effect a removal of the crack depends on
the treatment and skill of the operator. If the foot is expanded by the
plate with skill, and the nails in the shoe driven so as to prevent the
wall of the foot from closing in on the crack, the plate may be removed
at once; otherwise it should remain stationary, which can be done by
substituting the small screw E, which will not prevent the horse from
being used while under treatment. The use of the expansion plate is not
necessary, unless the crack extends the whole length of the hoof. The
crack extending from the coronet, partly down the front of the foot,
should be treated at once, removing pressure by shortening the toe and
expanding the foot, as already instructed; then, by means of the groove
and notches, promote a new growth at the coronet.


_THRUSH._

Is a disease of the frog, most common to a foot which is hoof-bound
or contracted, but all horses’ feet are subject to it when they are
neglected. The frog, pressed on each side by the bors of the foot, and
from the overgrowth of the hoof, becomes inflamed, and the result is
_thrush_. (See Plate No. 22.)

[Illustration: No. 25. OVERGROWTH OF HOOF AND NEGLECT.

After Treatment. Ground Surface before Treatment.]

_Treatment if the Hoof is Hoof-bound._—The farrier, after removing the
shoe, should use his rasp, and lower the wall of the foot all around
from heel to heel; then, by the free use of the knife, pare the foot to
its natural size. Also pare around the frog until the sole of the foot
yields to the pressure of the thumb, then open the heels and remove the
pegs that grow on each side of the heels. All this should be done before
a knife is used on the frog. After all pressure is removed by this paring
operation, the condition of the frog will show how it was affected by
pressure on each side.

[Illustration: No. 26. OVERGROWTH OF HOOF—FRONT VIEW BEFORE TREATMENT.]

[Illustration: No. 27. OVERGROWTH OF HOOF—FRONT VIEW AFTER TREATMENT.]

[Illustration: No. 28. NAVICULA.—ENLARGEMENT OF METACARPAL BONE.]

Next, by the use of the knife, cut a slice off the top of the frog, and
carefully clean out the cleft, which suffers most on account of the
direct pressure of the bors on each side of the frog. After this cleaning
operation is performed, a warm poultice of flaxseed meal should be
applied two or three times, according to the condition of the foot. When
the poultice is removed, the foot should be washed out occasionally with
castile soap and warm water, after which a little salt, ground into fine
powder, should be forced into the cleft, and kept in by a mixture of tar
and oakum as a dressing, after which an open shoe should be fitted so as
to expand the foot gradually. This treatment should be pursued until a
permanent cure is effected.

If the foot is in a state of contraction, it should be expanded under the
instructions already given. By this expansion all pressure is removed,
and a permanent cure is easily effected by following the instructions
already given.

No liquid remedies, such as butter of antimony, or chloride of zinc,
should be used, as they dry up the foot before the inflammation is
removed.

By reference to Plate No. 22 a good idea may be obtained of the manner of
paring out a hoof suffering from thrush.


_PUMICE FOOT._

(See Plate No. 23) should always be pared out on each side of the frog
until it yields to the pressure of the thumb. This paring should,
however, be done immediately around the frog, leaving more than the usual
ground surface (see plate After Treatment). The toe should be shortened
as much as possible, and the heels cut out back. If the horse is lame a
bor shoe is the best to protect the foot, with a leather sole, and some
spirits of tar as a moisture. This shoe should be renewed at least once a
month, with a leather sole, until a cure is effected.


_HOOF-BOUND._

(Plate No. 24.) A horse that is hoof-bound is deprived of his free
action, and resembles a horse that is foundered.

_Treatment._—The foot should be pared out thoroughly, and on each side of
the frog, until it yields to the pressure of the thumb. Open the heels
and remove the bors that press the frog on each side, and cause the
animal much pain.

The toe should be shortened, and if the foot is inclined to contraction,
the shoe should be fitted wider than the foot, which, if done properly,
will expand the foot (see article Contraction). The shoe should be a
good, heavy, open one, well eased off at the heels. Having the foot
prepared, the operation should next be performed around the coronet, as
follows: If the cartilages are hard, as they are generally from being
pressed upwards, a groove should be made with a rasp immediately under
the coronet, and extending all the way across from heel to heel, deep
enough to draw blood. Next, with a fine knife cut notches across the
groove at equal distances the whole length of the groove, and extending
from the coronet downward.

By this operation, illustrated on Plate No. 24, the pressure is removed
from the cartilages. After this a poultice of linseed meal should be
applied around the coronet, which loosens all pressure and starts a new
growth.

If the horse is lame from this disease the close cutting operation should
be performed and the poultice applied one week; otherwise the operation
need not be so severe.

PLATES NOS. 25, 26, 27—_Illustrations of Overgrowth of Hoof and Neglect
before and after Treatment._—The illustration, “Before Treatment,” Plate
No, 25, represents the ground surface of a foot operated upon, and “After
Treatment” represents the same foot after one pound of overgrowth had
been removed from one foot. Plates Nos. 26 and 27 show the difference
between the foot before and after treatment, and show the importance of
being careful in observing a horse’s foot so as to prevent lameness, and
the various diseases caused by neglect.

PLATES NOS. 28 AND 29—_Enlargement of the Metacarpal Bone._—In a great
many cases because the enlargement interferes with the free use of the
flexor tendon, pressing it out of its proper place. A horse with a
contracted foot suffers from this pressure when the shoe is fitted tight
and brings the heels inward. The metacarpal bones extend from the back
of the knee downward to the pastern joint, forming, as it were, a brace
on each side. They become quite small as they extend downward, and the
enlargement is generally found on the inside of the leg. (See Plate No.
28.)

[Illustration: No. 29. ENLARGEMENT OF THE METACARPAL BONE.

_a_ Showing how to find the enlargement.

_b_ Showing the manner in which the incision is made, and the enlargement
removed.]

The enlargement may be discovered by running the hand downward from the
knee, the thumb on the side and the forefinger on the other, until
it is felt (see Plate 29, “A”). If pressed and the horse yields to
the pressure, it is a sure sign that he is affected, and he should be
properly shod at once as if for contraction, or the enlargement should
be removed. To do this, the horse should be in the following position:
First, with plenty of straw under him to prevent bruising; then he should
be thrown on his side and fastened down, so as to allow the operator to
make an incision with a fine pocket knife partly to the front and near
where the enlargement is. This operation will not interfere with the
tendons, or veins that extend upward from the foot. The incision having
been made, the finger may be inserted, as shown in Plate No. 29, “B,”
so as to raise the enlargement and make it visible. Then, with a pair
of nippers, snap the end off with one motion. The incision should be
closed, fastened together with a needle and silk thread; then apply a
linen bandage and over this a woolen cloth, containing a little moisture,
to prevent fever. A little sweet oil should be applied, to keep it clean
while healing. The operation is not severe and is thoroughly effective.

[Illustration: No. 30. A FOOT THAT IS DEPRIVED OF THE FREE USE OF THE
BACK TENDONS.]

PLATES NOS. 30 AND 31 represent a foot which has been deprived of the
free use of the back tendons, caused by a sudden jar or misstep, causing
a horse so affected to travel on his toe, and can be remedied only by
a system of expanding the foot under the directions already given for
contraction.

[Illustration: No. 31.

Ossified growth of Upper and Lower Pastern Joint, also Navicular Joint
and Coffin-bone, in a foot which has been deprived of the free use of the
back Tendons. See Plate No. 30.]

After this a shoe should be fitted with a toe and no heels, for by
raising the toe the bearing is thrown on the heels. If the action is
heavy on the toe, the shoe should be provided with a steel toe-calk.
This will prevent a horse from traveling on his toe, and such a case,
if taken in time, can be remedied, if not permanently cured, by simply
fitting a shoe so as to throw the bearing on the heels.

[Illustration: No. 32. THE SENSITIVE FROG.

Interior surface. Exterior surface.]

PLATES NOS. 30 AND 31 represent an aggravated case, which from neglect
became incurable.

PLATE NO. 32 represents the exterior surface of the sensitive frog. The
great principle of this system of paring the horse’s feet, is to remove
all pressure from the frog. It should be protected from all pressure,
and such diseases as thrush and scratches may be avoided.

PLATE NO. 33 gives a sectional view of all the bones and tendons of the
horse’s foot. Every blacksmith and farrier should thoroughly understand
this and the anatomy of the horse’s foot, in order to be able to know
exactly how to treat any disease which may be brought to their notice.

[Illustration: No. 33. SECTION OF THE PASTERN AND OTHER BONES, LIGAMENTS,
ETC.

    A—Shank-bone.

    B—Upper and larger pastern-bone.

    C—Sesamoid-bone.

    D—Lower or smaller pastern-bone.

    E—Navicular or shuttle-bone.

    F—Coffin-bone, or bone of the foot.

    G—Suspensory ligament inserted into the sesamoid-bone.

    H—Continuation of the suspensory ligament inserted into the
    smaller pastern-bone.

    I—Small inelastic ligament lying down the sesamoid-bone to the
    larger pastern-bone.

    K—A long ligament reaching from the pastern-bone to the knee.

    L—Extensor tendon inserted into both the pastern and the
    coffin-bone.

    M—Tendon of the perforating flexor inserted into the
    coffin-bone, after having passed over the navicular-bone.

    N—Seat of the navicular-joint lameness.

    O—Inner or sensible frog.

    P—Cleft of the horny frog.

    Q—A ligament uniting the navicular-bone to the smaller pastern.

    R—A ligament uniting the navicular-bone to the coffin-bone.

    S—Sensible sole between the coffin-bone and the horny side.

    T—Horny sole.

    U—Crust or wall of the foot.

    V—Sensible laminæ to which the crust is attached.

    W—Coronary ring of the crust.

    X—The covering of the coronary ligament from which the crust is
    secreted.

    Z—Place of bleeding at the toe.]



RECIPES.


The following recipes have been gathered from souses entitled to the
fullest confidence, as remedies of value to all owners of horses, and are
presented with the hope of doing good:


_INFLUENZA._

For several years past a disease has been more or less prevalent in
various sections of this country, known to the Veterinary as epidemic
catarrh or influenza. The symptoms of this disease are so various in
different animals—no two being precisely alike—that a variety of opinions
are current concerning it and its nature; and, as a consequence, various
other diseases are often confounded with it. The usual or leading
symptoms are a slight watery or mucous discharge from the nose; eyelids
presenting a reddish appearance; matter collects in the corner of the
eyes; pulse feeble; great debility, as shown by the quick, feeble action
of the heart—a symptom rarely absent; membrane of nose much reddened;
sore throat and cough; occasionally the feet become fevered as in
founder, causing much stiffness, and might be easily taken for that
disease.

_Treatment._—This being a typhoid disease, it requires a sustaining
treatment, or success will be very doubtful. In the early stage of this
disease, give the first two days ten drops of tincture of aconite, or
bryonia, in a little water, every six hours; after which give a pail
of water to drink, and, once a day, 1 oz. spirits of nitre, or 2 drams
extract of belladonna; and give in the feed, three times a day, one of
the following powders: gentian root, saltpetre, and anise seed, of each 1
oz.; sulphate of quinine, 1 dram; mix, and divide into eight powders. The
throat should be bathed with mustard and vinegar; or with linseed oil,
3 oz., spirits of hartshorn, 1 oz. Mix together. No hay or corn should
be given, but scalded oats or wheat bran, with linseed tea, or oatmeal
gruel, should constitute the diet. I would recommend a few carrots. But
above all, good nursing is to be desired, and by strictly following the
foregoing instructions a successful result is probable.


_CONDITION POWDER._

Fenugreek, cream of tartar, gentian, sulphur, saltpetre, resin,
black antimony, and ginger, of each 1 oz.; cayenne ½ oz.; all finely
pulverized. Mix thoroughly. It is used for yellow water, hide bound,
colds, coughs, distemper, and all other diseases where a condition powder
is needed. They carry off gross humors, and purify the blood.

_Dose._—In ordinary cases one tablespoonful once a day. In extreme
cases give twice daily. This powder has never failed to give entire
satisfaction.


_GLANDERS._

This is one of the most fatal diseases to which the horse is subject.
It is propagated in most cases by contagion, the infection being
disseminated by seed from the nasal discharge, not, as many suppose,
by the breath. According to eminent foreign authors, the disease has
its origin also in a vitiated state of the blood, and this may result
from improper treatment or neglect of almost any disease to which he is
liable. In its early stage it appears to be only a slight inflammation
of the inner membrane of the nose, not, however, attended with the
usual florid red characterizing inflammation, but of a paler hue, and
afterwards becoming darker. The first marked symptom is a discharge
from the nose, scarcely to be distinguished at first from the natural
moisture, either by its color or consistence, and generally coming from
one nostril only, and that the left one. In appearance it is thin and
transparent, closely resembling the natural discharge, a little increased
in quantity, and sometimes continues in this doubtful stage for several
weeks or months. Instances are indeed known where it has existed for
several years before it became fully developed. In such cases it is
attended with no loss of appetite, no cough, or apparent illness of any
kind, with little enlargement of the glands under the jaw, and at the
same time the horse is capable of communicating disease.

Too many of these horses, with a decided glanderous discharge from the
nose and adherent glands under the jaw, are found on our roads, or are
employed in agriculture, which (although they are otherwise in good
health, and perform their work well) should not be permitted; for by such
means the contagion is widely spread. No cough accompanies real glanders
in any of its stages, except the last, which is usually soon cut short by
death.

In addition to the preceding tokens for discovering at an early period
the true glanders from other disorders, let the nostrils be closely
examined. In the real glanders, the left or running nostril will be
found of a deeper color than ordinary, while the other, or dry nostril,
is of a paler color, or almost white.

The reader must bear in mind the varied color of the nostril in deciding
all cases of this character. Also that in colds, etc., both nostrils run.

Before the disease finishes its course, both sides of the nose and head
become affected—the ulcers extend down the windpipe, and fasten upon
the lungs. The virus, secreted by and discharged from the ulcers, is
absorbed and carried through the whole system, and soon puts an end to
the creature’s miserable existence. The best preventives of glanders are
dry, clean, well-ventilated stables, moderate exercise, green food, when
it can be procured, and roots in the winter.

The disease may be cured in its early stages, or before ulcers are
formed in the nose, or the lumps under the jaw adhere to the bone, by
turning the animal on a dry pasture, by proper attention to the bowels,
and by use of alterative medicines, to work the poisons out of the
system. Should the bowels require loosening, give the common purge. For
purifying the blood, the condition powder is the most effectual remedy.
The owner must beware of putting the horse to hard labor too soon, after
having been turned out as before directed, as the disease is liable to
return on subsequent confinement, even after the running at the nose
has entirely disappeared. It is conceded by all, that when this disease
is once seated, it cannot be cured; and humanity dictates, and economy
should prompt us to terminate the animal’s existence at once. This course
has now become an imperative duty, as the fact is established that man
is susceptible to the contagion; and there are numerous cases on record
where those who have had the care of glandered horses have fallen victims
to this disease.


_LOCK JAW._

This disease generally arises from nail wounds in the feet, or from sharp
metallic substances taken into and wounding the stomach or intestines.
The first symptoms of the disease are observed about the ninth or tenth
day after the injury is done, which are a straggling or stiffness of the
hind-legs, to which succeed in a few days the following: on elevating
the head, a spasmodic motion of the membrane in the inner corner of the
eye will be observed, showing little more than the white of the eye; the
muscles of the jaws become rigid; the tongue is swollen, and the mouth
is filled with saliva; the ears are erect, and the nose poked out; the
nostrils expand; respiration becomes much disturbed; and finally, the
jaws become firmly set, and the bowels constipated.

_Treatment._—Tinct. of aconite, 2 drs.; tinct. of belladonna, 2 drs.;
water, ½ oz. Mix, and give 40 drops every 4 hours on the tongue; keep a
ball of aloes in the mouth for several days. There is no fear of giving
too much. I have known half a pound to be given in a few days with good
success. Hydrocyandic acid, 20 drops in a little water, and put upon the
tongue every four hours, is an excellent remedy. Foment the jaws with
bags of hops steeped in hot water, and bathe the line of the back from
the pole to the croup with mustard and vinegar. Be careful not to allow
the animal to be unnecessarily excited by noises and confusion about him.
Go about him quietly; keep a pail of bran slop before him all the time.
If the foot has been injured, poultice with flaxseed meal, and keep the
wound open until a healthy action has been established.


_TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DISTEMPER AND GLANDERS._

The discharge from the nose in Glanders will sink in water. In Distemper
it will not.


_CHRONIC COUGH._

This is generally the consequence of neglected catarrhal affections,
worms, etc. For treatment, give twice each day Barbadoes aloes, 2 oz.;
pulv. foxglove (or digitalis), 1 oz.; linseed meal, 13 oz. Mix with
molasses. Dose, 1 oz.

Another remedy is, sal ammoniac, 1 oz.; squills, pulv., ½ oz.; aloes,
pulv., 1 oz.; linseed meal, 16 oz.; mix with molasses, and divide into
four balls; to be given one each night for four days.


_TREATMENT FOR RHEUMATISM._

Poultice the feet with mustard and flaxseed meal. Give internally of nux
vomica, 1 oz.; pulv. gentian root, 1½ oz.; pulverized ginger, 1 oz. Mix
and divide into 12 powders; give one every night in the feed, keep the
body warm, and give no corn.


_FOUNDER REMEDY._

Give from 1 to 4 ounces of saltpetre, according to the severity of the
case. For a severe case, draw about one gallon of blood from the neck;
then drench with linseed oil, 1 quart; rub the fore-legs with water as
hot as can be borne without scalding, continuing the washing till the
horse is perfectly limber.


_HORSE OINTMENT._

Resin, 4 oz.; beeswax, 4 oz.; honey, 2 oz.; lard, 8 oz.; melt these
articles slowly, bringing gradually to a boil; remove from the fire,
and slowly add a little less than a pint of spirits of turpentine,
stirring all the time this is being added, and stir till cool. This is
an extraordinary ointment for bruises of the flesh, or hoof, or broken
knees, galls or bites, or when a horse is gelded to heal and keep off
flies.


_MAGIC LINIMENT._

Take 2 oz. oil of spike; 2 oz. origanum; 2 oz. hemlock; 2 oz. wormwood;
4 ounces sweet oil; 2 oz. spirits ammonia; 2 ounces gum camphor; 2 oz.
spirits turpentine; 1 quart proof spirits. Mix well and bottle for use.
Cork tight. For sprains, bruises, or lameness of any kind, this liniment
is unsurpassed. This is the same liniment, leaving out the turpentine,
which has achieved so many wonderful cures for human ailment.

A more simple liniment can be made by putting into spirits of turpentine
all the gum camphor it will cut. For ordinary purposes it is fit for
use; but if you wish to reduce pain, add as much laudanum as there is
turpentine.


_FRENCH PASTE FOR BONE SPAVIN._

Corrosive sublimate, quicksilver, and iodine, of each 1 oz., with
sufficient lard to form a paste. Rub the quicksilver and iodine together,
and add the sublimate, and finally add the lard, rubbing thoroughly.
Shave off the hair the size of the bone enlargement, then grease all
around it, but not where the bone is shaved off. This prevents the action
of the medicine only upon the spavin; rub in as much of the paste as will
lie on a five cent piece, each morning for four mornings only, and in
from six to eight days the spavin will come out; then wash out the wound
with suds, soaking well for an hour or two, which removes the poisonous
effects of the medicine, and facilitates the healing, which can be done
by any healing salve. I prefer the horse ointment to any other.


_HOW TO CLEAN AND OIL HARNESS._

First take the harness apart, having each strap and piece by itself; then
wash it with warm water and Castile soap. When cleansed, black each part
with the following dye: 1 oz. extract of logwood; 12 grains bichromate of
potash—both pounded fine; put into two quarts of boiling rain-water, and
stir till all is dissolved. When cool, it may be used. It may be bottled
and kept for future use, if desired. It may be applied with a shoe brush.
When the dye has struck in, you may oil each part with neatsfoot oil,
applied with a paint brush. For second oiling, use one-third castor oil
and two-thirds neat’s-foot oil, mixed. A few hours after, wipe clean
with a woolen cloth, which gives the harness a glossy appearance. This
preparation does not injure the leather or stitching, but makes it
soft and pliable, and obviates the necessity of oiling as often as is
necessary by the ordinary method. When the harness is removed from the
horse, take a woolen cloth or chamois skin, kept for the purpose, and
wipe off the dust and all moisture from rain or perspiration, and when
the harness is nearly dry, rub the damper parts very thoroughly with a
second cloth or skin, until they are quite soft and pliable.

The bits, and plated mountings, should be cleaned and rubbed with a
slightly-oiled rag, before the harness is finally hung in its place; the
harness should be protected from dust either by a covering of cloth, or
by hanging in a closet. Whenever the leather becomes dry and hard, it
should be cleaned and oiled according to the foregoing directions.


_PHYSIC BALL._

Barbadoes aloes, 1 lb.; syrup buckthorn, 3 oz.; cod-liver oil, 3 oz.
Melt the whole, and stir till cool. In winter, add a little water, make
into 18 pills, and give 1 every four hours, or as much as will move the
bowels.


_TO SCATTER POLL-EVIL._

Take a quantity of mandrake root, bruise and boil it, strain and boil
down until rather thick; then form an ointment, simmering with sufficient
lard for the purpose. Anoint the swelling once a day until cured. It has
cured them after they were broken out, by putting it in the pipes a few
times; also, anointing around the sore.


_HEALING SALVE FOR ABRASIONS AND CUTS._

Oxide of zinc, 4 drams; fresh lard, 1 oz.; carbolic acid, 6 grains.
Melt the lard, and stir in the oxide of zinc, which must be very finely
powdered; add the carbolic acid and mix thoroughly. Apply twice a day to
the wound. This salve is very valuable for its healing properties, and
will be found of special service, if there is any foul discharge.


_WASH FOR FOUL ULCERS._

Permanganate of potassa, 1 dram; pure water, 6 fluid ounces. Clean
the sore once or twice a day, with a quart of water, to which a large
tablespoonful of the wash has been added, using a soft sponge.

The discoloration of the solution indicates its complete loss of power as
a disinfectant.

The bottle must be kept tightly corked, as impurities in the air will, in
time, impair its value.


_ANTISPASMODIC TINCTURE._

(_For Man or Beast._)

Oils of cajeput, cloves, peppermint, anise, of each 1 oz.; of alcohol,
1 quart. Mix together, and bottle for use. Dose, for horse, 1 oz. every
15 minutes, in a little whisky and warm water, sweetened with molasses.
Continue till relieved.

Dose for man, one teaspoonful.



RECORD OF FAST HORSES FOR 1875.


The author of this work would not have the reader imagine that he is
known to the popular world as a sporting man, but believing his book will
come into the hands of not only lovers of the noble animal as a beast of
burden, and highly prized by the honest yeomanry of this continent, but
into the hands also of those who admire more for qualities of speed, as
exhibited on the turf, deems it advisable to gratify the appetite of all
who appreciate fast trotting, by devoting a corner to record the driving
of all horses having a public record of 2.30, or better. Considerable
trouble and expense has attended the research, and it embraces a complete
list of horses that have shown on the turf since 1870, compiled in the
most accurate manner, and alphabetically arranged.

    Abdallah, b. s.                                             2.30
    Adelaide, b. m.                                             2.22½
    Ajax, b. s.                                                 2.29
    Albert, blk. g.                                             2.24¾
    Albion Boy, b. g.                                           2.30
    Alice, b. m.                                                2.25
    Allie West, blk. s.                                         2.25
    Alton Boy                                                   2.29½
    [2]American Girl, b. m.                                     2.16½
    Amy, b. m.                                                  2.22¼
    Amy B, b. m.                                                2.30
    Annie Collins, b. m.                                        2.26
    Arthur, blk. g.                                             2.28¼
    Aurora, s. m.                                               2.27
    Baby Boy, wh. g.                                            2.30
    Badger Girl, g. m.                                          2.25½
    Barney Kelley, b. g.                                        2.26¼
    Bashaw, Jr.                                                 2.25
    Bashaw Maid, ch. m.                                         2.30
    Basil Duke, cr. g.                                          2.28½
    Bateman, b. g.                                              2.27
    Bay Henry, b. g.                                            2.30
    Bay Jack                                                    2.30
    Bay Sallie, b. m.                                           2.30
    Bay Whalebone, b. g.                                        2.26¼
    Bella, b. m.                                                2.22
    Belle, b. m.                                                2.28¼
    Belle Brasfield, b. m.                                      2.25¼
    Belle Deane, blk. m.                                        2.30
    Belle of Toronto, g. m.                                     2.28½
    Ben Cummings, ch. s.                                        2.26
    Ben Flagler, g. g.                                          2.26½
    Ben Morrill, br. s.                                         2.28
    Ben Smith, b. g.                                            2.28½
    Ben Star, b. g.                                             2.24¾
    Beppo, or J. W. Conley, b. g.                               2.24½
    Bertie, g. m.                                               2.27
    Billy Hoskins, g. g.                                        2.26¼
    Billy Lambertson, b. g.                                     2.28¼
    Billy Platter, g. g.                                        2.26
    Black Bird, blk. s.                                         2.22
    Black George, blk. s.                                       2.23¾
    Black Mack, blk. g.                                         2.26½
    Black Swan, blk. m.                                         2.28½
    Blanche, blk. m.                                            2.23½
    Bodine, b. g.                                               2.19¼
    Bonner, ch. g.                                              2.23
    Breeze, b. g.                                               2.25½
    Bristol Bill, g. g.                                         2.29
    Bro. Jonathan, b. g.                                        2.24¼
    Brown Dick, br. s.                                          2.24½
    Brown Jack, br. g.                                          2.28½
    Bully Brooks, b. g.                                         2.30
    Buzz, br. g.                                                2.28½
    Byron, s. s.                                                2.25½
    Caledonia Chief, ch. s.                                     2.29½
    California Dexter, b. g.                                    2.27
    Calmar, b. g.                                               2.30
    [2]Camors, blk. g.                                          2.19¾
    Capitola, b. m.                                             2.29½
    Captain, b. s.                                              2.28
    Captain Jinks, s. g.                                        2.30
    Carrie, b. m.                                               2.24½
    Castle Boy, b. g.                                           2.21
    Catskill Girl, b. m.                                        2.28½
    Cattaraugus Chief, b. g.                                    2.29½
    Chas. E. Loew, blk. s.                                      2.25½
    Chas. Hinson, g. g.                                         2.28
    Charlie Green, b. g.                                        2.26¼
    Clara G., b. m.                                             2.26
    Clarence, ch. g.                                            2.27½
    Clementine, b. m.                                           2.21
    Colbourne, dun. g.                                          2.30
    Col. Barnes, ch. g.                                         2.28½
    Col. Moulton, ch. s.                                        2.28½
    Col. Russell, b. g.                                         2.25¾
    Col. Pike, b. g.                                            2.29½
    Comee, b. g.                                                2.24½
    Commodore, b. g.                                            2.25
    Commonwealth, br. s.                                        2.24½
    Cozette, blk. m.                                            2.23
    Crown Prince, wh. g.                                        2.25
    Dan, br. g.                                                 2.28½
    Daniel Boone, g. g.                                         2.28¾
    Dan Voorhies                                                2.26
    Defiance, blk. s.                                           2.29½
    Defiance, br. g.                                            2.24¼
    Delhi, b. g.                                                2.29½
    Denmark, br. g.                                             2.30
    Derby, b. g.                                                2.25½
    Dick Jamison, b. g.                                         2.26
    Dinah, rn. m.                                               2.30
    Doble, blk. s.                                              2.28
    Dolly, b. m.                                                2.30
    Don Elipha (buckskin mustang)                               2.30
    Dot, b. g.                                                  2.29¾
    Doubtful, g. g.                                             2.29½
    Draco Prince, blk. s.                                       2.24½
    Dreadnaught, ch. g.                                         2.27½
    Duchess, b. m.                                              2.28
    Duke, b. g.                                                 2.26½
    Dutchman, b. g.                                             2.30
    Ella Wilson, b. m.                                          2.30
    Ella Lewis, br. m.                                          2.27
    Eva, b. m.                                                  2.25¼
    Ella Madden, b. m.                                          2.26¾
    Ella Wright, b. m.                                          2.24¾
    Everett Ray, b. g.                                          2.25
    Edginton                                                    2.26
    Ed. White, p. g.                                            2.27
    Easton Boy, wh. g.                                          2.25½
    Ella Elwood, b. m.                                          2.29
    Elmo, ch. s.                                                2.27
    Fleetwood, ch. g.                                           2.29
    Frank Wood, b. g.                                           2.24
    Frank, br. m.                                               2.27¼
    Factory Girl, b. m.                                         2.29¼
    Flora Bell, b. m.                                           2.22¾
    Flora Bell, ch. m.                                          2.30
    Frank Palmer, b. g.                                         2.26¼
    Fannie, ch. m.                                              2.29
    Frank J., dun. g.                                           2.23¾
    Frank Davis,                                                2.30
    Frank Munson,                                               2.30
    Frank Reeves,                                               2.30
    Fox, b. g.                                                  2.30
    Fred Hooper, b. g.                                          2.23
    Fleety Golddust, g. m.                                      2.20
    Filbert, g. g.                                              2.28
    Fanny Otis, b. m.                                           2.28¾
    Falmouth Boy, b. g.                                         2.29½
    Frank Ferguson, br. g.                                      2.27
    Flora Shepard, b. m.                                        2.30
    George Miller, b. g.                                        2.30
    Gray Jack, g. g.                                            2.28¼
    Glengarry, b. g.                                            2.27
    George Treat,                                               2.28½
    George M. Patchen,                                          2.23½
    Gray Alex, g. g.                                            2.28¾
    Gazelle, b. m.                                              2.21
    Grace, b. m.                                                2.27¼
    Goldsmith Maid, b. m.                                       2.14
    George, b. g.                                               2.24½
    Gen. Sherman, g. g.                                         2.28¾
    Gold Leaf, s. g.                                            2.28¼
    Gen. Grant, s. s.                                           2.20
    Granville, ch. g.                                           2.29
    Governor, b. g.                                             2.30
    Gen. Howard, br. g.                                         2.30
    [2]Gloster, b. g.                                           2.17
    Geo. B. Daniels, s. g.                                      2.24
    Grafton, ch. g.                                             2.22¼
    Gen. Picton, g. g.                                          2.30
    Gen. Love, s. s.                                            2.30
    Gray Chief, g. g.                                           2.26½
    Great Eastern, br. g.                                       2.28¾
    Gen. Garfield, b. g.                                        2.21
    Gray Eddy, g. g.                                            2.27
    Gov. Sprague, blk. s. (4 years, public trial, 1 mile)       2.21¼
    Grace Bertram, ch. m.                                       2.29
    Grand Duchess, b. m.                                        2.26½
    Henry, b. g.                                                2.20¼
    Hannah D., b. m.                                            2.27½
    Harry Mitchel, b. g.                                        2.28¼
    H. C. Hill, br. g.                                          2.25½
    Honesty, b. s.                                              2.26
    Huntress, b. m.                                             2.21¼
    Hattie, ch. m.                                              2.30
    Hopeful, g. g.                                              2.17¼
    Hotspur, b. g.                                              2.23¾
    Hamperion, br. s.                                           2.29½
    H. W. Genet, b. s.                                          2.25½
    Huckleberry, b. g.                                          2.26½
    Herod, br. g.                                               2.29
    Hope, s. g.                                                 2.28
    Haviland, b. g.                                             2.29½
    Honest Harry, m. g.                                         2.25
    Honest Dutchman,                                            2.26½
    Harry Harley, b. g.                                         2.25¾
    Harvest Queen, b. m.                                        2.29½
    Hal. Terrel, b. g.                                          2.28¾
    Idol, ch. m.                                                2.27¼
    Idol, b. m.                                                 2.23
    J. N. Mansua, b. g.                                         2.29½
    Joe Udell, b. g.                                            2.30
    John Stuart, b. g.                                          2.30
    Joe Brown, g. s.                                            2.26½
    Jerome, ch. g.                                              2.28½
    Jas. Howell, Jr.                                            2.24
    Jubilee Lambert, br. s.                                     2.25
    Judge Fullerton, ch. g.                                     2.18
    Joker, b. g.                                                2.23
    Jennie, b. m.                                               2.22½
    John H., b. g.                                              2.23
    Jim Irving, b. g.                                           2.23
    Jack Draper, g. g.                                          2.29
    John W. Hall, ch. g.                                        2.25
    Joe Green, b. s.                                            2.29½
    John T. Rich, b. s.                                         2.28
    John C. Fero, br. g.                                        2.27½
    John Morrissey, ch. g.                                      2.26½
    J. J. Bradley, b. g.                                        2.25½
    [2]J. H. Burke, blk. g.                                     2.27½
    J. D. McMann, b. g.                                         2.28¾
    Jackson, b. s.                                              2.27¾
    Joe, or Triumph, s. g.                                      2.25¼
    John E., b. g.                                              2.28¾
    Jay Gould, b. s.                                            2.20½
    J. G. Blaine, blk. g.                                       2.28¼
    Joe Coburn,                                                 2.30
    Judge Robertson, b. g.                                      2.29
    John T., br. g. (fraud same as Huckleberry),                2.29½
    [2]Kilburn Jim, b. s.                                       2.23
    Ki-Ki, b. g.                                                2.28
    Kittie D., b. m.                                            2.26¼
    Kansas Chief, b. g.                                         2.21½
    Kate Campbell, br. m.                                       2.25½
    Kittie Cook, br. m.                                         2.29½
    Kate Bennett, rn. m.                                        2.29¼
    Lady Blanchard, g. m.                                       2.26¼
    Lady Garfield, b. m.                                        2.29½
    Lady Hughes, b. m.                                          2.30
    [2]Lady Hamilton, b. m.                                     2.30
    Lydia Thompson, b. m.                                       2.26¼
    Little Longfellow, s. g.                                    2.29¼
    License, ch. g.                                             2.26½
    Lothair, blk. s.                                            2.29½
    Lothair, br. g. (fraud same as Small Hope),                 2.28¼
    Little Gipsy, b. m.                                         2.28
    Lew Ives, b. g.                                             2.28
    Lady Mack, b. m.                                            2.25
    Logan, s. s.                                                2.28
    Lucille Golddust, b. m.                                     2.19½
    Lady Dahlman, br. m.                                        2.28
    Lizzie Keller, br. m.                                       2.30
    Lady Thompson,                                              2.28
    Lady Star, br. m.                                           2.24¼
    Little Mack, br. s.                                         2.28½
    Lady Griswold, g. m.                                        2.29
    Lewinski, b. g.                                             2.26¾
    Lady Emma, ch. m.                                           2.28
    Lady Star,                                                  2.25
    Little Fred, b. g.                                          2.25
    Lady Blanche, b. m.                                         2.28¼
    Lady Turpin, blk. m.                                        2.23
    Lottery, g. g.                                              2.27
    Lulu, b. m.                                                 2.14¾
    Lady Williams, ch. m.                                       2.28½
    Lady Banker, b. m.                                          2.23
    Lady Snell, b. m.                                           2.23¼
    Lida Picton, br. m.                                         2.27½
    Lady Stout, ch. m.                                          2.29
    Lew Scott, b. g.                                            2.30
    Lady Elgin, g. m.                                           2.27¾
    Lillie Shields, s. m.                                       2.29½
    Lady Byron, blk. m.                                         2.28
    Lady H., g. m.                                              2.30
    Lady Maud, b. m.                                            2.18¼
    Lady Ross, b. m.                                            2.29¾
    Major Edsall, b. s.                                         2.29
    Major Allen, s. g.                                          2.24¼
    Mat. Smith, b. s.                                           2.26½
    Mountain Boy, b. g.                                         2.20¾
    Myron Perry, b. g.                                          2.24½
    Mollie Morris, ch. m.                                       2.22
    Mila Caldwell, s. m.                                        2.26½
    Mack, g. g.                                                 2.28
    Mary A. Whitney, b. m.                                      2.28
    May Howard, g. m.                                           2.24½
    Molsey, b. m.                                               2.21¾
    Mary Davis, b. m.                                           2.26¼
    Music, ch. m.                                               2.21¾
    Mollie, b. m.                                               2.28¾
    Mystic, b. g.                                               2.22
    Maud, b. m.                                                 2.29¾
    Medoc, g. g.                                                2.28½
    Mambrino Star, b. g.                                        2.28½
    Mambrino Gift, br. s.                                       2.20
    Monarch, Jr., rn. s.                                        2.25½
    Monroe, ch. s.                                              2.28½
    Mac, br. g.                                                 2.27¾
    Magnolia, g. g.                                             2.26¼
    Major Root, br. g.                                          2.27
    Major King, s. g.                                           2.30
    May Queen, b. m.                                            2.20
    May Bird, blk. m.                                           2.27
    Maggie Briggs, b. m.                                        2.27
    Moscow, blk. g.                                             2.28¾
    Mazoumanie, ch. g.                                          2.27¼
    Mohawk, Jr., b. s.                                          2.25
    Mary, b. m.                                                 2.28
    Newberlin Girl, b. m.                                       2.29½
    None Such, s. m.                                            2.25½
    Natchez, blk. g.                                            2.30
    Nellie Gray,                                                2.24
    Nellie Irwin, b. m.                                         2.25
    Nick, br. g.                                                2.29¾
    Nettie, b. m.                                               2.18
    Nino, b. g.                                                 2.29¾
    Ned Forrest, blk g.                                         2.28½
    Nellie, g. m.                                               2.30
    Nellie Walton, b. m.                                        2.26
    North Star Mambrino,                                        2.26½
    Nettie Burlew, b. m.                                        2.25½
    Nerea, s. m.                                                2.23½
    Ned Wallace, b. s.                                          2.29
    Ohio Boy, b. g.                                             2.27¼
    Observer, ch. g.                                            2.24¼
    Orient, s. g.                                               2.24
    Oakland Maid, g. m.                                         2.26
    Occident, br. g.                                            2.16¾
    Prince Allen, ch. s.                                        2.26½
    Patchen Chief, blk. s.                                      2.25½
    Pownall Mare, br. m.                                        2.29
    Pat Ring,                                                   2.28
    Polly, or Tackney                                           2.26
    Phil Sheridan, blk. s.                                      2.26½
    Pilot Temple, b. s.                                         2.24½
    Parkis’ Abdallah, b. s.                                     2.26¾
    Prince, rn. g.                                              2.28
    Preston, dun. g.                                            2.28½
    Planter,                                                    2.30
    Prospero,                                                   2.22½
    Pumpkin,                                                    2.27½
    Queen of the West,                                          2.26¼
    Royal John, g. g.                                           2.27½
    Red Dick, ch. g.                                            2.28
    Rolla Golddust, b. g.                                       2.25
    Rhode Island, br. s.                                        2.23½
    [2]Ripon Boy, b. s.                                         2.25¾
    Rosalind, b. m.                                             2.21¾
    Ross, sp. g.                                                2.29¾
    Rex Patchen, b. s.                                          2.30
    Randall, ch. g.                                             2.24½
    Red Cloud, b. g.                                            2.18
    Rattler, b. g.                                              2.27
    Royal George, g. g.                                         2.26½
    Rosewood, br. m.                                            2.27
    Rarus, b. g.                                                2.20¾
    Rival, g. s.                                                2.30
    Rutledge, b. g.                                             2.30
    St. Elmo, g. g.                                             2.29¼
    Sleepy John, b. g.                                          2.24½
    Shakespeare, ch. s.                                         2.30
    Susie Parker, b. m.                                         2.27½
    Sentinel, b. s.                                             2.29½
    Skinkel’s Hambletonian, b. s.                               2.28¾
    St. James, b. g.                                            2.23¼
    Sam Purdy, b. g.                                            2.23¼
    Spotted Colt, sp. g.                                        2.25½
    Stump Puller, or Columbia Chief, blk. s.                    2.30
    Shepard Knapp, Jr., b. g.                                   2.27¾
    Sisson Girl, blk. m.                                        2.28½
    Star, s. g.                                                 2.30
    Snowball, wh. g.                                            2.27½
    Scotland Maid, b. m.                                        2.28½
    Silver Side, g. g.                                          2.30
    Stewart Maloney, b. g.                                      2.27
    Surprise, g. g.                                             2.26
    Sam West, b. g.                                             2.29
    Star of the West, bk. s.                                    2.26½
    Smuggler, b. s.                                             2.20
    Susie, s. m.                                                2.25
    Sleepy Tom, b. g.                                           2.30
    Simon, ch. g.                                               2.30
    Snowflake, g. m.                                            2.22
    Sir Wm. Wallace, b. s.                                      2.27¾
    Swallow, b. m.                                              2.30
    Sea Foam, g. m.                                             2.24½
    Sunbeam, b. m.                                              2.30
    San Bruno, br. g.                                           2.25¼
    Silas Rich, s. s.                                           2.28
    Sconchin,                                                   2.25¼
    Sensation,                                                  2.24½
    Sorrel Frank,                                               2.28¾
    Sucker State,                                               2.28¼
    St. Julien, b. s.                                           2.22½
    Sciota Belle, br. m.                                        2.28
    Tennessee, br. m.                                           2.27
    Tanner Boy, g. g.                                           2.27
    Twilight, wh. m.                                            2.27¾
    Tom Wonder, br. g.                                          2.29
    Tom Hendricks,                                              2.30
    Thos. L. Young, ch. g.                                      2.19½
    Tom Keeler, b. g.                                           2.26
    Thos. Jefferson, blk. s.                                    2.23
    Tom Britton, br. g.                                         2.27½
    Tom Walter, s. g.                                           2.29
    Tom Moore, b. g.                                            2.28
    T. A., b. g.                                                2.28
    Tom Brown, s. g.                                            2.27½
    Unknown, ch. g.                                             2.23
    Viola, b. m.                                                2.28
    Vanity Fair, b. g.                                          2.24¼
    Western, b. g.                                              2.30
    Western Girl, b. m.                                         2.27
    W. B. Whitman, or Billy Barr,                               2.23¾
    W. K. Thomas, g. g.                                         2.26½
    W. H. Allen, b. s.                                          2.23¼
    Winthrop Morrill, Jr.                                       2.28¾
    White Cloud, wh. g.                                         2.27½
    Whitestockings,                                             2.30
    Westfield, ch. g.                                           2.26½
    Wild Oats, br. g.                                           2.29¼
    Wellesley Boy, b. g.                                        2.26¾
    Whalebone, b. g.                                            2.29
    Young Bruno, b. g.                                          2.22¾
    York State, b. g.                                           2.23¼
    Young Rattler,                                              2.30
    Young Magna, b. g.                                          2.29
    Young Grafton, ch. h.                                       2.30
    Zephyr, br. m.                                              2.30

[2] Dead.



RULES AND REGULATIONS ADOPTED BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THE AMERICAN
TROTTING TURF.


RULE 1.—_Mandate._—All trotting and pacing engagements and performances
over the several courses which are, or shall be represented by membership
in the “NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE INTERESTS OF THE
AMERICAN TROTTING TURF,” and each and every person who shall in any
way be concerned or employed therein, as well as all associations and
proprietors themselves who are or shall become members of said National
Association, shall be governed by the following rules from and after
February 4th, 1874. [See also Articles 12 and 13 of By-Laws.]

RULE 2.—_Entries._—All entries for premiums must be made under cover,
enclosing the entrance money for purses and forfeits in sweepstakes, and
sealed and addressed to or deposited with the Secretary, or other person
authorized to receive the same, at such time and place as shall have been
prescribed.

Notices by telegraph of intention to enter shall be received up to the
hour advertised for closing, and all such entries shall be eligible,
provided the entrance fee specified shall be paid in due course, by mail
or otherwise. [See also Art. 17 of By-Laws.]

It shall be the duty of the Secretary, or other person authorized, to
prepare the list of entries for publication, comprising all information
necessary for the enlightenment of the general public and parties to the
race; and all entries as aforesaid shall be opened and announced at a
public meeting, of which reasonable notice by advertisement or otherwise
shall be given to the parties in interest.

RULE 3.—_Entrance Fee._—The entrance fee shall be 10 per cent. of the
purse, unless otherwise specified; and any person failing to pay his
entrance dues may, together with his horse or horses, be suspended until
they are paid in full, which shall be with an addition of 10 per cent.
penalty and interest at 7 per cent. per annum until paid—the penalty
to go to the National Association. _Provided_, that no such suspension
imposed after April 1, 1874, shall be lawful unless imposed within
sixty days from the close of the meeting; _and further provided_, that
any entry which shall be accepted upon conditions differing from those
applied by the terms of the race to other entries in the same class shall
be regarded a “conditional entry,” and as such shall be void. And any
associate member who shall accept any such conditional entry, shall,
upon satisfactory evidence produced to the Board of Appeals, be held to
forfeit to the National Association 20 per cent. of the amount of the
purse in which such conditional entry has been accepted.

RULE 4.—_How Many to Enter._—In all purses three or more entries are
required, and two to start, unless otherwise specified.

RULE 5.—_Horses to be Eligible when Entries Close._—A horse shall not be
eligible to start in any race that has beaten the time advertised prior
to the closing of the entries for the race in which he is entered, unless
otherwise specified in the published conditions.

Horses shall not be eligible if the time specified has been beaten by
them at a greater distance; that is, a horse having made two miles in
five minutes is eligible for a 2:30 race, but not eligible for a race
limited to horses of a slower class than that.

RULE 6.—_Description and Name of each Horse Required._—An accurate and
satisfactory description of each entry will be required, and shall be in
the following form, to wit:

_Color._—The color and marks shall be accurately given.

_Sex._—It shall be distinctly stated whether the entry be a stallion,
mare, or gelding, and the names of the sire and dam shall be given in
all cases (and when unknown shall be so stated in the entry), under
penalty of $25 fine for each omission. And the pedigree so given shall be
published by the associate member with the advertisement of entries.

_Name of Horse._—Every horse shall be named, and the name correctly and
plainly written in the entry; and after trotting in a public race such
name shall not be changed, except by permission of the Board of Appeals,
and upon payment of a recording fee of $10, the fee to go to the National
Association; for each violation of this requirement a fine of $100 shall
be imposed, together with suspension or expulsion; and if the horse
has ever trotted in a public race the last name under which he or she
trotted shall be given with the entry; and if the name has been changed
within two years, each name he or she has borne during that time must be
given; and if any horse without a name has ever trotted in a public race,
mention must be made in the entry of a sufficient number of his or her
most recent performances, to enable interested parties to identify the
animal; _provided_, that it shall not be necessary to furnish any one
association or proprietor with the same record the second time.

In entries and nominations hereafter made, the words “no name” shall
not be received as a name; neither shall such descriptive words as “bay
horse,” “gray mare,” &c., be allowed as names, under penalty of a fine
not to exceed the entrance fee, to be imposed on the member who violates
this restriction.

A horse having once been named, shall not again start in a race on
any course in the United States or Canada without a name, nor under a
different name, unless the foregoing requirements have been complied with.

_Double Teams._—In all double-team races the entry must contain the name
and description of each horse, in the manner provided for entry of single
horses.

RULE 7.—_Name and Address._—The residence and post-office address, in
full, of the person or persons in whose name an entry is made, and if
he or they be not the owner, then that of the owner or owners also must
accompany each nomination.

RULE 8.—_Entries that Cannot Start._—As many horses may be entered by one
party, or as many horses trained in the same stable as may be desired,
but only one that has been owned or controlled in whole or in part by the
same person or persons, or trained in the same stable within ten days
preceding the race, can start in any race of heats.

RULE 9.—_No purse for a “Walk Over.”_—No purse will be awarded for a
“walk over,” but in cases where only one of the horses entered for any
premium shall appear on the course, he shall be entitled to his own
entrance money and to one-half of the entrance money received from all
other horses entered for said premium.

RULE 10.—_In Case of Death, Engagements Void._—All engagements, including
obligations for entrance fees, shall be void upon the decease of either
party or horse, so far as they shall affect the deceased party or horse;
but forfeits, also matches made play or pay, shall not be affected by the
death of a horse.

RULE 11.—_Match Races._—In all match races these rules shall govern,
unless the contrary be expressly stipulated and assented to by the club,
association, or proprietor of the course over which the race is to come
off.

RULE 12.—_When Matches Become Play or Pay._—In all matches made to come
off over any of the associate courses, the parties shall place the amount
of the match in the hands of the stakeholder one day before the event
(omitting Sunday) is to come off, at such time and place as the club,
association, or proprietor, upon application may determine, and the race
shall then become play or pay.

RULE 13.—_Purse or Stakes Wrongfully Obtained._—A person obtaining a
purse or stake through fraud or error shall return it to the Treasurer
if demanded within one year, or be punished as follows: He, together
with the parties implicated in the wrong, and the horse or horses, shall
be expelled until such demand is complied with, and such stake or purse
shall be awarded to the party justly entitled to the same.

RULE 14.—_Fraudulent Entries, or Meddling with Horses._—Any person found
guilty of dosing or tampering with any horse, or of making a fraudulent
entry of any horse, or of disguising a horse with intent to conceal his
identity, or being in any way concerned in such a transaction, shall be
expelled.

Any horse that shall have been painted or disguised, to represent another
or a different horse, or shall have been entered in a purse in which he
does not belong, shall forfeit the entrance money and be expelled.

RULE 15.—_Reward._—A reward of $50 will be paid to the person who shall
first give information leading to the detection and conviction of any
fraudulent entry and the parties thereto, to be paid out of the funds
of the National Association for the Promotion of the Interests of the
American Trotting Turf, by the Treasurer, upon the decision and order of
the Board of Appeals; _provided_, that this shall not be construed to
extend to courses outside of this Association.

RULE 16.—_Protests._—Protests maybe made verbally before or during a
race, and shall be reduced to writing, and shall contain at least one
specific charge, and, when required, a statement of the nature of the
evidence upon which they are based, and they shall be filed with the
Judges, Association, or proprietor before the close of the meeting.

The Judges shall in every case of protest demand that the rider or
driver, and the owner or owners, if present, shall immediately testify
under oath, in the manner hereinafter provided; and in case of their
refusal to do so, the horse shall not be allowed thereupon to start or
continue in that race, but shall be considered and declared ruled out,
with forfeit of entrance money.

But if the parties do comply, and take the oath as herein required,
unless the Judges find conclusive evidence to warrant excluding the
horse, they shall allow him to start or continue in the race under
protest, and the premium, if any is won by that horse, shall be retained
a sufficient length of time (say three weeks) to allow the parties
interested a chance to sustain the allegations of the protest, or to
furnish information which shall warrant an investigation of the matter
by the associate member, or the Board of Appeals, and all outside bets
on such horse shall be held in abeyance pending the decision of such
protest; _provided_, that where no action as aforesaid has been taken to
sustain a protest, during three weeks, the associate member shall proceed
as if such protest had not been made.

In any heat which such protested horse shall win, the Judges shall waive
the application of a distance as to all other horses, except for “fouls”
defined in Rule 48.

When a protest is presented before or during a race, and the parties
refuse to make the prescribed oath, if the Judges believe the refusal is
designed to favor a fraud, they may require the horse under protest to
start or continue in the race.

Any person found guilty of protesting a horse falsely and without cause,
or merely with intent to embarrass a race, shall be punished by a fine
not exceeding $100, or by suspension not to exceed one year, or by
expulsion.

When a protest has been duly made, or any information lodged with the
Judges in support of a protest, alleging an improper entry or any act
prohibited or punishable under these rules, the same shall not be
withdrawn or surrendered before the expiration of three weeks, without
the approbation of the association or proprietor of the course upon which
such protest or information was produced; and if any association or
proprietor shall permit such a withdrawal of protest or information, with
a corrupt motive to favor any party who shall be affected by the same,
the association or proprietor so permitting, if convicted thereof by the
Board of Appeals, shall be expelled from all connection with the National
Association.

Associations or proprietors shall be warranted in retaining the premium
of any horse, during the time herein mentioned, without any formal
protest, if before it is paid they shall receive information in their
judgment tending to establish fraud.

The oath required in answer to protest shall be in the following form, to
wit:

I ________ of ________ in the County of ________ State of ________
on oath depose and say that I am the ________ of the ________ called
________ the same entered in a purse for horses that have never trotted
better than ________ minutes and ________ seconds, to be trotted this
day on this course, and the same that has been protested, and to which
protest this affidavit is in answer, hereby declare and affirm that
to the best of my knowledge and belief said before-mentioned horse is
eligible to start or compete in the race aforesaid; and that I fully
believe all the provisions and conditions required in the rules and
regulations for the government or trials of speed over this course were
fully and honestly complied with in making the entry aforesaid.

Given under my hand, at ________ this ________ day of ________ A. D.
187__.

                                                       ________________

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this ________ day of ________ A. D.
187__.

                                                       ________________

                                                  _Justice of the Peace._

[NOTE.—In the absence of a Justice of the Peace, if this oath be
administered by an officer of the association, or one of the Judges
of the race, it will be considered sufficient for the purposes of the
National Association.]

RULE 17.—_When Horses Shall not be Drawn._—No horse shall be drawn except
by permission of the Judges of the race, under penalty of being expelled,
unless at or before seven o’clock P. M. of the day preceding the race
(omitting Sunday), the proper party shall have lodged with the President,
Secretary, or proprietor of the course, a written notice of his intention
not to start, after which notice the horse so drawn shall be ineligible
to start in the race.

Parties having two or more entries in one race shall elect which they
will not start, and notify their decision at the same time, in the same
manner, and under the same penalty as provided above.

RULE 18.—_Power of Postponement._—In case of unfavorable weather, or
other unavoidable cause, each association or proprietor shall have power
to postpone to the next fair day and good track (omitting Sunday), all
purses or sweepstakes, or any race to which they have contributed money,
upon giving notice thereof; and they may exercise this power before or
after the race has commenced. [See also Rule 19.]

RULE 19.—_No Trotting After Dark._—No heat shall be trotted when it is so
dark that the horses cannot be plainly seen by the Judges from the stand,
but all such races shall be continued by the Judges to the next fair day
(omitting Sunday), at such hour as they shall designate.

In all matches and stakes, the above rule shall govern, unless otherwise
especially agreed between the parties and the association or proprietors.

RULE 20.—_Weights and Weighing._—Every horse starting for purse,
sweepstake, or match, in any trotting or pacing race, shall carry, if to
wagon or sulky, 150 lbs., exclusive of harness: and if under the saddle,
145 lbs., the saddle and whip only to be weighed with the rider.

Riders and drivers shall weigh in the presence of one or more of the
Judges previous to starting for any race, and after each heat shall come
to the starting stand, and not dismount or leave their vehicles without
permission of the Judges, and those who are deficient in bodily weight
shall be re-weighed after each heat. Any rider or driver not bringing
in his required weight shall be distanced, unless such decision shall
be deemed to favor a fraud. But a rider or driver thrown or taken by
force from his horse or vehicle, after having passed the winning-post,
shall not be considered as having dismounted without permission of
the Judges, and if disabled may be carried to the Judges’ stand to be
weighed, and the Judges may take the circumstances into consideration
and decide accordingly. And the riders or drivers who shall carry during
the heat and bring home with them the weights which have been approved
or announced correct and proper by the Judges, shall be subject to no
penalty for light weight in that heat; provided the Judges are satisfied
the mistake or fault was their own, and that there has been no deception
on the part of the rider or driver who shall be deficient in weight; but
all parties shall thereafter carry the required weight.

RULE 21.—_Handicaps and Miscellaneous Weights._—In matches or handicaps,
where extra or lesser weights are to be carried, the Judges shall
carefully examine and ascertain before starting, whether the riders,
drivers or vehicles are of such weights as have been agreed upon or
required by the match or handicap, and thereafter the riders and drivers
shall be subject to the same penalties and conditions as if they were to
carry the weights prescribed by the rules.

RULE 22.—_When Riders and Drivers are Overweight._—If the bodily weight
of any rider or driver shall be found to exceed that which is prescribed
in the rules, or that which is required by the conditions of the race,
and the overweight shall exceed twenty pounds, it shall be announced
from the stand before the heat; and the judges shall have power, if in
their belief such extra weight was imposed on the horse for an improper
or fraudulent purpose, to substitute another rider or driver of suitable
weight; and if they believe the horse has been prejudiced in the race by
such overweight, he shall not be allowed to start again or continue in
the race, and all outside bets on such horse shall be declared off. [See
also Rule 28.]

A horse prevented by this rule from continuing in the race shall not be
distanced, but _ruled out_.

RULE 23.—_Length of Whips._—Riders and drivers will be allowed whips
not to exceed the following lengths: For saddle horses, 2 ft. 10 in,;
sulkies, 4 ft. 8 in.; wagons, 5 ft. 10 in.; double teams, 8 ft. 6 in.;
tandem teams and four-in-hand, unlimited: snappers, not longer than three
inches, will be allowed in addition to the foregoing measurement.

RULE 24.—_Judges’ Stand._—None but the Judges of the race in progress,
and their assistants, shall be allowed in the Judges’ stand during the
pendency of a heat, except members of the Board of Appeals.

RULE 25.—_Selection of Judges._—[See also Art. 13 of By-Laws.] In
every exhibition or race, over any course represented in the National
Association, each course for itself, through the proprietor or
association controlling the same, shall choose or authorize the selection
of three (3) competent Judges, for the day or race, who shall understand
the rules of the said National Association, and shall rigidly enforce the
same; and all their decisions shall be subject to and in conformity with
said rules.

Any person having any interest in, or any bet dependent upon the result
of a race, or having any interest in either of the horses engaged
therein, shall thereby be disqualified and restricted from acting as a
Judge in that race. And if any person who is thus disqualified shall
intentionally and deceptively violate this restriction, he shall, upon
conviction thereof by the Board of Appeals, be adjudged guilty of a
dishonorable act, for which he shall be expelled from every course
represented in said National Association.

RULE 26.—_Authority of Judges._—The Judges of the day or race shall have
authority, while presiding, to appoint distance and patrol judges and
timers; to inflict fines and penalties, as prescribed by these rules;
to determine all questions of fact relating to the race over which they
preside; to decide respecting any matters of difference between parties
to the race, or any contingent matter which shall arise, such as are not
otherwise provided for in these rules; but all their decisions shall be
in strict conformity with the rules, or with the principles thereof.
They shall have control over the horses about to start, and the riders
or drivers and assistants of the horses, and, in the absence of other
provision in these rules, they shall have authority to punish by a fine
not exceeding $100, or by suspension or expulsion, any such person who
shall fail to obey their orders or the rules.

RULE 27.—_Distance and Patrol Judges._—In all races of heats there shall
be a Distance Judge appointed by the Judges of the race or by those in
authority, who shall remain in the distance stand during the heats, and
immediately after each heat shall repair to the Judges’ stand and report
to the Judges the horse or horses that are distanced, and all foul or
improper conduct, if any has occurred under his observation.

Patrol Judges may be similarly appointed, and it shall be their duty
to repair in like manner to the Judges’ stand, and report all foul or
improper conduct, if any has occurred under their observation.

RULE 28.—_Powers and Duties of Judges._—The Judges shall be in the stand
fifteen minutes before the time for starting the race; they shall weigh
the riders or drivers, and determine the positions of the horses, and
inform each rider or driver of his place, before starting; they may
require the riders and drivers to be properly dressed; they shall be
prepared to take the time of each heat in the race, and they may appoint
some suitable person or persons to assist them in that respect, and the
time so taken shall be recorded and announced in conformity with these
rules. [See also Rules 39 and 40, and Art. 13 of By-Laws.]

The Judges shall ring the bell, or give other notice, ten minutes
previous to the time announced for the race to come off, which shall be
notice to all parties to prepare for the race at the appointed time,
when all the horses must appear at the stand, ready for the race, and
any rider or driver failing to obey this summons may be punished by a
fine not exceeding $100, or his horse may be ruled out by the Judges
and considered drawn; but in all stakes and matches a failure to appear
promptly at the appointed time shall render the delinquent party liable
to forfeit.

The result of a heat shall not be announced until the Judges are
satisfied as to the weights of the riders or drivers, and sufficient time
has elapsed to receive the reports of the Distance and Patrol Judges.

The Judges shall not notice or consider complaints of foul from any
person or persons except the Distance and Patrol Judges appointed by
themselves or by those in authority, and from owners, riders, or drivers
in the race.

If the Judges believe that a horse is being or has been “pulled,” or
has been ridden or driven in other respects improperly, with a design
to prevent his winning a heat which he was evidently able to win, and
that such act was done on the part of the rider or driver for the
purpose of throwing the race, or to perpetrate or aid a fraud, they
may declare that heat void, and they shall have power to substitute a
competent and reliable rider or driver for the remainder of the race,
who shall be paid a reasonable compensation for his services, but not
to exceed $50; and any professional rider or driver who, without good
and sufficient reason, refuses to be so substituted, may be fined,
suspended, or expelled, by order of the Judges and upon approval of the
Board of Appeals; and if the result and circumstances of the race shall
confirm their belief, the rider or driver so removed shall be expelled
by the Judges. And at the close of the race, if they are warranted under
the foregoing circumstances in deciding that such improper conduct has
changed the result of the race to the prejudice of innocent parties,
they shall declare all outside bets “off,” and if the owner or person or
persons controlling the offending horse shall be a party or parties to
such fraud, he or they, together with the horse, shall be punished by
expulsion. [See also Rules 22 and 48.]

RULE 29.—_Starting and Keeping Positions._—No rider or driver shall cause
unnecessary delay after the horses are called up, either by neglecting
to prepare for the race in time, or by failing to come for the word, or
otherwise; and in scoring, if the word is not given, all the horses in
the race shall immediately turn, at the tap of the bell or other signal
given, and jog back for a fresh start. But there shall be no recall after
the starting word or signal has been given. _Provided, however_, that if
the Judges shall through any error give signal of recall, _after having
given the word_, DISTANCE shall be waived in that heat, except for foul
riding or driving.

When the Judges are prevented from giving a fair start by a horse or
horses persistently scoring ahead of others, or being refractory, or from
any other fault of either horse, rider, or driver, it shall be their
duty, after three scorings, to select one of the contending horses, of
average speed compared with the others, and no driver shall come up in
advance of said horse before crossing the score.

No driver shall be allowed to sponge out his horse or horses oftener than
once in five times scoring.

If these requirements are not complied with on the part of any rider or
driver, the Judges may not only start the race, or give the word without
regard to the absence or position of the offending party or parties,
but the offender may be punished by a fine not exceeding $100, or by
suspension not to exceed one year.

In all cases, the starting word or signal shall be given from the Judges’
stand, and in no instance shall a standing start be given.

When, through any fault of either horse, rider, or driver, the Judges are
prevented from giving a fair and prompt start, they shall warn the faulty
party of the penalties to which he is subject, and if such warning is not
heeded, they shall rigidly enforce said penalties.

The horse winning a heat shall take the pole (or inside position) the
succeeding heat, and all others shall take their positions in the order
assigned them in judging the last heat. When two or more horses shall
make a dead heat, the horses shall start for the succeeding heat in the
same positions they occupied at the finish of the dead heat.

In coming out on the homestretch the foremost horse or horses shall keep
the positions first selected, or be liable to be distanced; and the
hindmost horse or horses, when there is sufficient room to pass on the
inside or anywhere on the homestretch, without interfering with others,
shall be allowed to do so, and any party interfering to prevent him or
them shall be distanced.

If a horse, in attempting to pass another on the homestretch, should at
any time cross or swerve, so as to impede the progress of a horse behind
him, he shall not be entitled to win that heat.

Although a leading horse is entitled to any part of the track, except
after selecting his position on the homestretch, he shall not change from
the right to the left, or from the inner to the outer side of the track,
during any part of the race, when another horse is so near him that in
altering his position he compels the horse behind him to shorten his
stride, or causes the rider or driver of such other horse to pull him out
of his stride; neither shall any horse, rider, or driver, cross, jostle,
or strike another horse, rider, or driver, nor swerve or do any other
thing that impedes the progress of another horse; nor shall any horse, in
passing a leading horse, take the track of the other horse so soon after
getting the lead as to cause the horse passed to shorten his stride.

In any heat wherein there shall be a violation of any of these
restrictions, the offending horse shall not be entitled to win the
heat, and he shall be placed behind all other horses in that heat. And
if the impropriety was intentional on the part of the rider or driver,
the offending horse may be distanced, and the rider or driver shall be
suspended or expelled. [See also Rule 48.]

RULE 30.—_Horses Breaking._—When any horse or horses break from their
gait in trotting or pacing, their riders or drivers shall at once pull
them to the gait in which they were to go the race, and any party failing
to comply with this requirement, if he come out ahead, shall lose the
heat, and the next best horse shall win the heat; and whether such
breaking horse come out ahead or not, all other horses shall be placed
ahead of him in that heat, and the Judges shall have discretionary power
to distance the offending horse or horses, and the rider or driver may be
punished by a fine not to exceed $100, or by suspension not exceeding one
year.

Should the rider or driver comply with this requirement, and the horse
should gain by a break, twice the distance so gained shall be taken from
him at the coming out; but this provision must not be so construed as to
shield any trotting or pacing horse from punishment for running.

In case of any horse (in a trotting race) repeatedly breaking, or
running, or pacing, while another horse is trotting, the Judges shall
punish the horse so breaking, running, or pacing, by placing him last in
the heat, or by distancing him.

A horse breaking at or near the score shall be subject to the same
penalty as if he broke on any other part of the track.

RULE 31.—_Relative to Heats and Horses Eligible to Start._—In heats,
one, two, three, or four miles, a horse not winning one heat in three,
shall not start for a fourth, unless such horse shall have made a dead
heat. In heats best three in five, a horse not winning a heat in the
first five shall not start for a sixth, unless said horse shall have
made a dead heat. But where ten or more horses start in a race, every
horse not distanced shall have the right to compete until the race is
completed—subject, however, to all other penalties in these rules.

RULE 32.—_Dead Heats._—A dead heat shall be counted in the race, and
shall be considered a heat which is undecided only as between the horses
making it, and it shall be considered a heat that is lost by all the
other horses contending therein; and the time made in a dead heat shall
constitute a record for each horse making such dead heat.

Whenever each of the horses making a dead heat would have been entitled
to terminate the race had he won said dead heat, they only shall start
again; and, in that case, each of the horses thus prevented from starting
shall retain his position in the award of premiums as if said dead heat
had been decided in favor of one of the horses which made the same a
“dead heat.”

A horse prevented from starting by this rule shall not be distanced, but
ruled out.

RULE 33.—_Time Between Heats._—The time between heats shall be twenty
minutes for mile heats; and for mile heats best three in five,
twenty-five minutes; and for two-mile heats, thirty minutes; for
three-mile heats, thirty-five minutes; and should there be a race of
four-mile heats, the time shall be forty minutes.

After the first heat the horses shall be called five minutes prior to the
time of starting.

RULE 34.—_Time Allowed in Case of Accidents._—In case of accidents, ten
minutes shall be allowed; but the Judges may allow more time when deemed
necessary and proper.

RULE 35.—_Collision and Break-Down._—In case of collision and break-down,
the party causing the same, whether willfully or otherwise, may be
distanced; and if the Judges find the collision was intentional or to
aid fraud, the driver in fault shall be forthwith suspended or expelled,
and his horse shall be distanced; but, if necessary to defeat fraud, the
Judges may direct the offending horse to start again.

No horse but the offending one shall be distanced in such a heat, except
for foul driving.

The Judges in a concluding heat, finding that a collision involved a
fraudulent object, may declare that heat void. [See also Rule 48.]

RULE 36.—_Placing Horses._—A horse must win a majority of the heats which
are required by the conditions of the race to be entitled to the purse or
stake; but if a horse shall have distanced all competitors in one heat,
the race will then be concluded, and such horse shall receive the entire
purse and stakes contended for.

When more than one horse remains in the race entitled to be placed at the
finish of the last heat, the second best horse shall receive the second
premium, if there be any; and if there be any third or fourth premium,
etc., for which no horse has won and maintained a specific place, the
same shall go to the winner; _provided_, that the number of premiums
awarded shall not exceed the number of horses which started in the race.

The foregoing provisions shall always apply, in such cases, unless
otherwise stated in the published conditions of the race.

In deciding the rank of horses other than the winner, as to second,
third, and fourth places, etc., to be assigned among such as remain
in the race entitled to be placed at the conclusion of the last heat
thereof, the several positions which have been assigned to each horse
so contending shall be considered as to every heat in the race—that is,
horses having won two heats, better than those winning one; a horse that
has won a heat, better than a horse only making a dead heat; a horse
winning one or two heats and making a dead heat, better than one winning
an equal number of heats but not making a dead heat; a horse winning a
heat or making a dead heat and not distanced in the race, better than a
horse that has not won a heat or made a dead heat; a horse that has been
placed “second” twice, better than a horse that has been placed “second”
only once, etc.

When two or more horses shall be equal in the race at the commencement of
a final heat thereof, they shall rank as to each other as they are placed
in the decision of such final heat.

In case these provisions shall not give a specific decision as to second
and third money, etc., the Judges of the race are to make the awards
according to their best judgment, but in conformity with the principles
of this rule.

RULE 37.—_Distances._—In races of mile heats, 80 yards shall be a
distance. In races of two-mile heats, 150 yards shall be a distance. In
races of three-mile heats, 220 yards shall be a distance. In races of
mile heats, best three in five, 100 yards shall be a distance. But if
any association or proprietor shall choose, they can provide, in heats
of not over one mile, wherein eight or more horses contend, to increase
the distance one-half, in which case such change shall be stated in the
published conditions of the race before entry.

All horses whose heads have not reached the distance-stand as soon as the
leading horse arrives at the winning-post shall be declared distanced,
except in cases otherwise provided for, or the punishment of the leading
horse by setting him back for running, when it shall be left to the
discretion of the Judges.

A distanced horse is out of the race, and if in any heat one horse shall
distance all competitors the race will then be completed, and the winner
shall be entitled to the entire purse and stakes contended for, unless
otherwise stipulated in the published conditions of the race.

RULE 38.—_Rank Between Distanced Horses._—Horses distanced in the
first heat of a race shall be equal, but horses that are distanced in
any subsequent heat shall rank as to each other in the order of the
positions to which they were entitled at the start of the heat in which
they were distanced.

RULE 39.—_Time and its Record._—In every public race the time of each
heat shall be accurately taken and placed in the record, and upon the
decision of each heat the time thereof shall be publicly announced by the
Judges, except as provided in these rules concerning those heats which
are “not awarded to either of the leading horses.”

It shall be the duty of the Judges of the race to take the time as
aforesaid, or to appoint some suitable person or persons to assist
them in that respect, and no _unofficial_ timing shall be announced or
admitted to the record. [See also Rule 40.]

RULE 40.—_Two Leading Horses to be Separately Timed._—The two leading
horses shall be separately timed, and if the heat is awarded to either,
his time only shall be announced and be a record.

In case of a dead heat, the time shall constitute a record for the horses
making the dead heat; and if for any other cause the heat is not awarded
to either of the leading horses, it shall be awarded to the next best
horse, and no time shall be given out by the Judges or recorded against
either horse; and the Judges may waive the application of the rule in
regard to distance in that heat, except for foul riding or driving.

RULE 41.—_Suppression of Time._—In any public race, if there shall be
any intentional suppression or misrepresentation in either the record or
the announcement of the time of any heat in the race, procured through
any connivance, or collusive arrangement, or understanding between the
proprietor or Judges or Timers and the owner of the winning horse or his
driver or other authorized agent, it shall be deemed fraudulent. And
any horse winning a heat or making a dead heat wherein there was such a
fraudulent suppression of time, together with the parties implicated in
the fraud, shall by operation of the rules be thenceforth expelled.

RULE 42.—_A Public Race._—Any contest for purse, premium, stake, or
wager, on any course, and in the presence of a Judge or Judges, shall
constitute a public race.

RULE 43.—_When Time Becomes a Bar._—Time made at fairs and on any track,
whether short or not, shall constitute a bar, the same as if made over a
track that was full measurement.

RULE 44.—_When Time shall not be a Bar._—Time made under the saddle, as
well as time made when two or more horses are harnessed together, shall
constitute a record for races of the same character, but shall not be a
bar for races of a different character.

RULE 45.—_Complaints by Riders or Drivers._—All complaints by riders or
drivers, of any foul riding or driving, or other misconduct, must be made
at the termination of the heat, and before the rider or driver dismounts
or leaves his vehicle.

RULE 46.—_Decorum._—If any owner, trainer, rider, driver, or attendant
of a horse, or any other person, use improper language to the officers
of the course or the Judges in a race, or be guilty of any improper
conduct, the person or persons so offending shall be punished by a fine
not exceeding $100, or by suspension or expulsion. [See also Rule 48.]

RULE 47.—_Loud Shouting._—Any rider or driver guilty of loud shouting, or
making other improper noise, or of making improper use of the whip during
the pendency of a heat, shall be punished by a fine not to exceed $25, or
by suspension during the meeting. [See also Rule 48.]

RULE 48.—_Fouls._—If any act or thing shall be done by any owner, rider,
driver, or their horse or horses, during any race or in connection
therewith, which these rules define or warrant the Judges in deciding to
be fraudulent or foul, and if no special provision is made in these rules
to meet the case, the Judges shall have power to punish the offender by
fine not to exceed $100, or by suspension or expulsion. And in any case
of foul riding or driving they shall distance the offending horse, unless
they believe such a decision will favor a fraud.

The term “foul” shall be construed to apply to riding or driving contrary
to rule, to any act of a fraudulent nature, and to any unprincipled
conduct such as tends to debase the character of the trotting turf in the
estimation of the public. [See also Rules 28, 29, 35, 46 and 47.]

RULE 49.—_Fines._—All persons who shall have been fined under these
rules, unless they pay the fines imposed in full on the day of
assessment, shall be suspended until they are so paid or deposited with
the Treasurer of the National Association.

All fines which shall be paid to the association or proprietor on whose
grounds they were imposed, shall by them be reported and paid to the
Treasurer of said National Association.

RULE 50.—_No Compromise of Penalties._—In no case shall there be any
compromise in the manner of punishment prescribed in the rules, but the
same shall be strictly enforced.

RULE 51.—_Suspensions and Expulsions._—Whenever the penalty of suspension
is prescribed in these rules, if applied to a horse, it shall be
construed to mean a disqualification during the time of suspension
to enter or compete in any race to be performed on the course of the
association or proprietor; and if applied to a person, it shall be
construed to mean a conditional withholding of all right or privilege
to make an entry, or to ride, drive, train, or assist on the course and
grounds of the association or proprietor.

If no limit is fixed in an order of suspension and none is defined in
the rule applicable to the case, the punishment shall be considered as
limited to the season in which the order was issued.

Whenever the penalty of expulsion is prescribed in these rules, it shall
be construed to mean unconditional exclusion and disqualification from
any participation in the privileges and uses of the course and grounds of
the association or proprietor.

No penalty of expulsion shall be removed or modified, except by the order
or upon the approval of the Board of Appeals.

Whenever either of these penalties has been imposed on any horse
or person, on the grounds of any association or proprietor holding
membership in said National Association, written or printed notice
thereof shall immediately be forwarded to the Secretary of said National
Association, stating the offense and the character of punishment, who
shall at once transmit the information to each associated course or
member; and thereupon the offender thus punished shall suffer the
same penalty and disqualification with each and every association and
proprietor holding membership in said National Association.

RULE 52.—_Right of Appeal._—Any person who has been subjected to the
penalty of suspension, or a fine, by the decision of the Judges of a
race, can appeal from such decision to the association or proprietor upon
whose grounds the penalty was imposed, and from their decision can appeal
to the Board of Appeals; _provided_, that where the penalty was a fine,
it shall have been previously paid.

All decisions and rulings of the Judges of any race, and of the several
associations and proprietors belonging to said National Association, may
be appealed to the Board of Appeals, and shall be subject to review by
said Board, upon facts and questions involving the proper interpretation
and application of these rules, and their decisions shall be final;
_provided_, that parties to be affected thereby, shall be notified as the
Board shall direct, of a time and place when such appeal will be acted on
by the Board.

_Provided further_, if the appeal relate to the decision of a race,
immediate notice shall have been given to the Judges of the race, of the
intention so to appeal. Notices of all other appeals must be given within
one week from the announcement of the decisions appealed.

Any person who shall appeal from any order suspending him or his horse
for non-payment of entrance money or a fine, may deposit the amount
claimed with the Treasurer of said National Association, who may
thereupon issue a certificate or notice temporarily reinstating or
relieving the party and his horse from such penalty, subject to the final
action of the Board of Appeals.

RULE 53.—_Age of a Horse—How Reckoned._—The age of a horse shall be
reckoned from the first day of January of the year of foaling.

RULE 54.—_Colts and Fillies Equally Eligible to Enter._—All colts and
fillies shall be eligible alike to all premiums and stakes for animals of
their age, unless specially excluded by the conditions imposed.

RULE 55.—_A Green Horse._—A green horse is one that has never trotted or
paced for premiums or money either double or single.

RULE 56.—_Races made and “No Hour Named.”_—All races shall be started at
3 o’clock P. M., from the 1st day of April to the 15th day of September,
and after that date at 2 o’clock P. M., until the season closes, unless
otherwise provided.

RULE 57.—_Race made and no Distance Specified._—When a race is made and
no distance specified, it shall be restricted to the following distances,
viz.: One mile and repeat; mile heats, best 3 in 5; two miles and repeat,
or three miles and repeat, and may be performed in harness to wagon, or
under the saddle.

RULE 58.—_Race made to “Go as they Please.”_—When a race is made to go
as they please, it shall be construed that the performance shall be in
harness, to wagon, or under the saddle; but after the race is commenced
no change shall be made in the mode of going, and the race shall be
deemed to have commenced when the horses appear on the track.

RULE 59.—_Race made to go “in Harness.”_—When a race is made to go in
harness, it shall be construed to mean that the performance shall be to a
sulky.

RULE 60.—_Matches made against Time._—When a horse is matched against
time, it shall be proper to allow any other horse to accompany him in the
performance, but not to be harnessed with or in any way attached to him.

In matches made against time, the parties making the match shall be
entitled to three trials, unless expressly stipulated to the contrary,
which trials shall be had on the same day—the time between trials to be
the same as the time between heats in similar distances.

RULE 61.—_Horses sold with Engagements._—The seller of a horse sold with
his engagements has not the power of striking him out.

In case of private sale, the written acknowledgment of the parties that
the horse was sold with engagements, is necessary to entitle the buyer to
the benefit of this rule.

A true copy from the record.

                                             D. F. LONGSTREET. Secretary.



GENERAL INDEX.


                                                                      PAGE.

    AUTOBIOGRAPHY,                                                      11

    BITS USED IN EDUCATING HORSES ADDICTED TO BAD HABITS:
      To prevent a horse getting his tongue over the bit,              251
      Lolling the tongue,                                              251
      Cure a horse sucking wind,                                       252
      Dead mouth,                                                      253
      Cure a side-reiner,                                              253

    CATTLE, EDUCATION OF:
      To educate a cow not to kick while being milked,                 327
      To educate a cow to give down her milk,                          331
      Practical result of educating cows to give down milk,            335
      To educate cattle to lead behind a wagon,                        339
      System of educating steers,                                      428

    DIRECTIONS FOR FEEDING AND FITTING THE HORSE,                      451

    DOGS, EDUCATION OF:
      To roll a barrel,                                                411
      To fire a gun,                                                   411
      To pass between your legs,                                       415
      To jump through hoops,                                           415
      To stand on chairs,                                              416

    DUNBAR SYSTEM OF HORSESHOEING, ETC.,                               445

    EDUCATING THE HORSE, SYSTEM OF:
      New method of haltering a vicious or wild colt,                  161
      Teaching the words “Come here”,                                  165
      How to lay a horse down,                                         169
      How to get a horse up that throws himself,                       173
      To educate a colt not to be afraid of his heels,                 177
      To educate a colt to drive before being harnessed,               181
      How to educate a colt to move his body when he moves his head,   185
      Improved method of bitting colts,                                189
      Educating a horse to ride,                                       193
      Instructions to ride the colt,                                   197
      To halter-break and hitch a colt in the stall,                   201
      To educate the horse not to kick at you when entering the stall, 205
      To educate the horse that kicks or paws in the stable,           209
      To prevent a horse from getting cast in the stall,               213
      To educate a colt to lead behind a wagon,                        217
      To educate a horse that is bad to catch,                         221
      To educate a horse not to rear,                                  225
      To educate and prevent a horse from cribbing,                    229
      To educate and break a halter-puller,                            233
      To educate a horse not to kick when the rein gets under his
        tail,                                                          237
      Another method of educating a kicking horse,                     241
      To harden a tender-mouthed horse,                                244
      To educate the horse bad to groom,                               247
      Hugging the pole,                                                248
      Luggers on the bit,                                              248
      To educate horses not to fear objects while driving,             257
      First lesson in educating horses not to fear an umbrella,        261
      Second lesson in educating horses not to fear an umbrella,       265
      Horse bad to bridle,                                             262
      To educate a single-footed horse to trot square,                 269
      To educate a pacing horse to trot,                               273
      To educate a horse to trot fast,                                 277
      To educate a horse not to kick while in shafts,                  281
      To educate and infuse life into a lazy horse,                    287
      To educate a balky horse to draw in double harness,              295
      An easy method of starting a balky horse,                        291
      To educate a horse not to kick while being shod,                 299
      To educate a horse while standing bad to shoe,                   303
      Double hitch educating bridle,                                   307
      A boon for the blacksmith,                                       311
      To educate a horse not to be afraid of the cars,                 315
      To educate a horse to back at the word of command,               319
      To educate horses or cattle not to jump fences,                  323
      To educate a tender-mouthed horse to pull on the bit,            343
      To educate horses not to fear a buffalo robe—illustration and
        instructions found between pages,                      344 and 345
      To educate and make a horse bad to catch,                        399

    FAST HORSES, RECORD OF,                                            513

    HISTORY OF THE HORSE,                                              141

    INTELLIGENCE OF ANIMALS,                                           345

    MISCELLANEOUS:
      The only practical way of administering medicine to a horse,     423
      To tell a horse’s age,                                           425
      New method to tell the age,                                      426
      Sure method of producing a rapid growth in horses’ hoofs,        444
      Corns and their treatment,                                       459
      Ferren’s steel horseshoe,                                        362
      Hoof-expanding shoe for contracted feet,                         362

    RECIPES—MANY NEVER BEFORE PUBLISHED:
      An excellent liniment for sprains, splints or curbs,             270
      A remedy for heaves,                                             324
      A sure cure for worms in horses,                                 336
      A cure for colic or gripes,                                      328
      Cure for spavin,                                                 408
      Cure for windgalls,                                              408
      Cure for colic,                                                  419
      Cure for heaves—never before published,                          336
      Diuretic drops,                                                  284
      Treatment of wounds,                                             266
      To prevent horses being teased by flies,                         304
      An English stable liniment,                                      266
      Liniment for contracted hoof,                                    296
      For inflammation of the lungs,                                   324
      To cure the scratches in the shortest time ever known,           392
      To cure distemper,                                               404
      To cure hide-bound,                                              404
      To cure inflamed swellings or lame shoulders,                    408
      Ring bone remedy,                                                270
      Remedy for botts,                                                266
      Another cure for spavin,                                         424
      A valuable liniment for sweeny,                                  316
      Ointment for bruises, scratches, saddle galls, etc.,             296
      Nerve and bone liniment,                                         274
      Sure cure for poll-evil and fistula,                             274
      To cure influenza,                                               496
      Condition powders,                                               498
      Glanders,                                                        499
      Lock-jaw,                                                        503
      To distinguish between distemper and glanders,                   504
      Chronic cough,                                                   505
      Treatment for Rheumatism,                                        505
      Founder remedy,                                                  506
      Horse ointment,                                                  506
      Magic liniment,                                                  507
      French paste for bone spavin,                                    508
      How to clean and oil harness,                                    509
      Physic Ball,                                                     510
      To scatter poll-evil,                                            511
      Healing salve for abrasion and cuts,                             511
      Wash for foul ulcers,                                            512
      Antispasmodic tincture,                                          512

    SHOEING, A TREATISE ON,                                            431
      To prevent horses interfering,                                   441
      To prevent overreaching,                                         443

    TRICK HORSES:
      To educate a horse to mount a pedestal,                          367
      To make a horse waltz,                                           368
      To walk on his hind-feet,                                        371
      To teach to say “No”,                                            372
      To teach to go lame,                                             376
      To teach to be vicious,                                          379
      To teach to push a vehicle,                                      375
      To teach to laugh,                                               380
      To teach to walk on his knees,                                   383
      To teach to drive a boy off a pedestal,                          387
      To teach to make a bow,                                          388
      To teach to shake hands,                                         388
      To teach to sit down,                                            391
      To teach to bore for oil,                                        395
      To teach to walk upright,                                        396
      To teach to take handkerchief from his side,                     403
      To teach to kiss a boy,                                          407

    RULES TROTTING COURSE, REVISED,                                    521





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