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´╗┐Title: USDA Farmers' Bulletin No. 550: Crimson Clover: Growing the Crop
Author: Westgate, John Minton
Language: English
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=Transcriber Note=

Text emphasis denoted by _Italics_ and =Bold=.


                                                      Issued July 9, 1913.

                     U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

                          Farmers' Bulletin 550


                             CRIMSON CLOVER:

                            GROWING THE CROP.


                                    BY

                              J. M. WESTGATE

_Agronomist in Charge of Clover Investigations. Office of Forage-Crop
Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry._



WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1913.



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


                          U. S. Department of Agriculture,
                                    Bureau or Plant Industry,
                                            Office or the Chief,
                                     _Washington, D. C., June 12, 1915_.

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith and to recommend for
publication as a Farmers' Bulletin the accompanying manuscript entitled
Westgate, Agronomist in Charge of Clover Investigations, and has been
submitted by Prof. C. V. Piper, Agrostologist in Charge of Forage-Crop
Investigations, with a view to publication. It is expected that this
bulletin will be followed soon by other bulletins, each treating of some
particular phase of this important crop.

    Respectfully,
                                               Wm. A. Taylor,
                                                   _Chief of Bureau_.

  Hon. D. F. Houston,
      _Secretary of Agriculture_.



CONTENTS.


                                                                 Page.
  Introduction                                                      3
  History and present distribution of crimson clover                3
  Requirements for obtaining and maintaining a stand of
      crimson clover                                                5
    Preparation of the Seed bed                                     6
    Fertilizers for crimson clover                                  6
    Liming soils for crimson clover                                 7
    Inoculation for crimson clover                                  8
    Seeding crimson clover                                          8
  Various methods of seeding crimson clover                         9
    Seeding crimson clover in intertilled crops                    10
    Seeding crimson clover after early-maturing crops              12
    Seeding crimson clover with late summer-seeded annual crops    13
    Crimson clover in mixtures with other legumes and grain        13
    Seeding crimson clover alone                                   15
  Treatment of crimson clover stands after seeding                 15



ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                                                 Page.
  Fig. 1. A single plant of crimson clover.                         4
       2. A crimson-clover failure on ground too poor in humus      5
       3. Seeding crimson clover in corn at the last cultivation   10
       4. Crimson clover in an old cornfield                       11
       5. Crimson clover and wheat in mixture                      14



CRIMSON CLOVER: GROWING THE CROP.



=INTRODUCTION.=


Probably the most important characteristic of crimson clover is its
ability to grow and make its crop during the season when the land is
not occupied by the ordinary summer-growth crops. In sections where it
succeeds, crimson clover can be sown following a grain crop or in an
intertilled crop in late summer and will mature a hay crop the following
spring in time to plow the land for spring-seeded crops, such as corn or
cotton. It may even be held for seed as far north as central Delaware
and the stubble be plowed under in time for seeding the quick-maturing
strains of corn. It may be turned under for soil improvement when only 6
inches high if it Is desired to fit the land for early spring-seeded crops
Even if only the stubble be turned under, the effect upon the succeeding
crop will be marked, especially if the soil be deficient in nitrogenous
fertilizers. The plowing under of the entire plant, however, will more
rapidly correct any deficiency of nitrates or humus in the soil. It is
one of the best cover crops for use in orchards and, in fact, under any
conditions where the soil is likely to wash during the winter months. The
many uses to which this crop may be put merit a careful study of the best
methods of establishing ii stand of crimson clover upon a farm.



=HISTORY AND PRESENT DISTRIBUTION OF CRIMSON CLOVER.=


Crimson clover (fig. 1) is frequently called "Scarlet clover" and,
somewhat loss commonly, "German clover," "Italian clover," "French
clover," "Incarnate clover," "Annual clover," etc. It occurs wild in
England and in eastern and southern Europe and is grown as a forage and
soil-improving crop in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, and Great Britain.
It was introduced into this country as early as 1822, but was grown only
to a very limited extent until about 1880. It has proved especially
adapted to the lighter, sandy soils of the eastern part of the United
States where the winters are not too severe.

In the Middle Atlantic States it is also grown to a considerable extent on
the clay soils of the Piedmont section.

In Michigan it is sometimes used on the sandy soils as a cover crop in
peach orchards, although it frequently winterkills. It can not ordinarily
survive the severe winters of the Northern States.[1]

[1] In such northern sections where a fall-seeded legume is desired it is
suggested that hairy vetch seeded with rye be used instead. See Farmers'
Bulletin 515, entitled "Vetches."

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--A single plant of crimson clover.]

Crimson clover is a "winter annual," that is, it ordinarily makes its
early growth in the autumn, passes the winter in a somewhat dormant but
green state, makes a very early spring growth, and matures its seed and
dies before summer. It makes little or no growth in very hot weather and
therefore should not be sown in the spring, except in the extreme North,
where it may make a satisfactory growth by autumn, so that & hay crop may
be taken from it at that time.



=REQUIREMENTS FOR OBTAINING AND MAINTAINING A STAND OF CRIMSON
CLOVER.=


Unless the conditions of soil and moisture are exactly right it is not an
easy matter to establish a satisfactory stand of crimson clover, even in
the sections where it is most extensively produced. (Fig. 2.) The lack of
timely rains in late summer is responsible for most of the failures to
obtain a satisfactory stand. The young seedlings are very easily killed
by the hot sun or lack of moisture. On the other hand, if the seeding be
delayed too long, as, for instance, in waiting for the proper conditions
of soil moisture, the plants will be unable to make sufficient growth to
withstand the winter. Briefly speaking, crimson clover should be seeded
shallow on a moist, reasonably fertile, well-drained, well-settled seed
bed. Inoculation in some form should be provided, especially when seeding
it for the first time on any fields in sections comparatively new to this
crop.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--A crimson-clover failure on ground too poor in
humus.]

Crimson clover is not adapted to the white-clay lands in their present
condition in some portions of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Such fields
should be seeded to soy beans or cowpeas when a leguminous crop is
desired for soil improvement or other purposes.[2] Crimson clover does
not do well on rough, newly cleared land and it ordinarily requires
the production of two or three crops or a special preparation by liming,
manuring, and inoculating before such land presents conditions
satisfactory for seeding. It is usually better to sow rye for a winter
cover and cowpeas for a summer crop if a cover crop is thought to be
needed. In any section where crimson clover has not been previously grown
the first seeding should be on a small scale to determine whether or not
it is a practicable crop for the locality in question.

[2] These white-clay soils are nearly always sour, deficient In humus, and
poorly drained. If limed, subsoiled, drained, and supplied with humus,
such soils are said to grow crimson clover satisfactorily.


=PREPARATION OF THE SEED BED.=

The seed bed for crimson clover should be firm, moist, well settled,
and fine on top. Any efforts that may be expended to conserve the soil
moisture previous to seeding are usually justified, especially if there
be any lack of rainfall during the month previous or the month following
seeding. Where the clover is seeded in an intertilled crop, such as
corn, cotton, or tomatoes, the customary cultivation received by these
crops is ordinarily sufficient for the needs of crimson clover. Where
grain-stubble land is plowed in preparation for the clover a month or six
weeks are ordinarily required for the soil to settle sufficiently to make
a proper seed bed, since after plowing at least one soaking rain, which
compacts the soil and fills it with moisture, is essential to the proper
preparation of the seed bed for crimson clover. If the ground be disked,
a much shorter time and less rain are required for the proper settling of
the seed bed. The best method of retaining the moisture in the seed bed
is to harrow or give shallow cultivation shortly after each rain. A fine
soil mulch on the surface will largely prevent the soil just beneath the
surface from losing its moisture through evaporation. Such surface tillage
should, of course, be given before seeding the crimson clover.


=FERTILIZERS FOR CRIMSON CLOVER.=

Under the ordinary conditions of soil fertility the fertilizer applied to
the preceding crop is sufficient for the needs of crimson clover. This
is especially true where the clover follows such crops as potatoes or
tomatoes, which are ordinarily heavily treated with fertilizers that are
not entirely used up by these crops. It is important to realize, however,
that crimson clover has a very short period of growth and that to make a
vigorous growth it must have a good supply of plant food. On sandy soils
where there has been no recent application of fertilizers it is often the
practice to apply from 200 to 400 pounds of a mixture of equal parts of
acid phosphate and kainite. On clay soils 300 or 400 pounds per acre of
acid phosphate are ordinarily sufficient. If the soil be low in nitrates a
light application of nitrate of soda will assist materially in giving the
young clover plants a good start and winter which otherwise might have
proved fatal to the stand. If the seeding has been delayed, as by waiting
for suitable rains, an application of nitrate fertilizer will stimulate
the young plants and enable them to make an increased growth before winter.

Any direct application of fertilizer is usually made at seeding time, but
some few farmers have been found who apply it as a top dressing very early
the following spring, giving as a reason that there is no loss from winter
leaching and that the plants are by this method nourished at the time they
are making their most vigorous growth. Such top dressings of fertilizer
should not be made while the leaves are wet with rain or dew. Where stable
manure is applied to crimson clover very marked results follow. It may be
spread just before seeding, when the clover is not grown in an intertilled
crop, or it may be applied as a top dressing in winter or very early
spring.

The more vigorous the growth that can be induced by the application of
suitable fertilizers the more marked will be the increase in the yield
of the succeeding crops. On soil not well supplied with humus or plant
food the use of a reasonable amount of fertilizer will often enable a
successful crop of clover and succeeding crops to be produced where,
had not the fertilizers been applied, the clover would have failed.
Furthermore, the following crop, particularly if it be corn, would also
fail to give the increased yield which follows a successful stand of
crimson clover.

An application of barnyard manure will be found to be especially effective
in obtaining a stand of crimson clover on any thin, galled spots in the
field. The manure should be worked into the ground and, if possible, a
second application as a top dressing should be given such thin places to
partially shade the ground from the August sun while the seedlings are
establishing themselves.


=LIMING SOILS FOR CRIMSON CLOVER.=

Most of the soils in the crimson-clover sections will be found to be
benefited by liming. Crimson clover, however, does not appear to require
lime to the extent that red clover does. Frequently on well-drained soils
in a good state of fertility the crimson clover makes a vigorous growth
without the use of lime. The stands are, however, usually more uniformly
good over the limed parts of such fields than on the parts that have
received no line. The opinion among individual farmers appears to be about
equally divided as to whether or not it pays them to lime their soils
for crimson clover. In considering the advisability of applying lime one
must not lose sight of the need of lime on the part of such other crops
as cantaloupes or peaches, which require lime and which are either grown
with the clover or follow it. Inasmuch as the extent of the benefit is
somewhat uncertain it is suggested that the particular requirements of
the farm in question be determined by liming small plats at different
rates before any considerable areas are limed. The most profitable rate of
application can then be adopted for the whole acreage.


=INOCULATION FOR CRIMSON CLOVER.=

Fortunately most of the soils in the crimson-clover sections appear to
be already inoculated. This is especially true in sandy soil areas where
crimson clover has been grown for a number of seasons. In sections new to
this crop inoculation in some form is usually necessary. On clay soils
inoculation is not always present, even though crimson clover may have
been grown, for a number of successive seasons on other fields of the farm.

An experiment conducted by the Alabama State Agricultural Experiment
Station shows how essential inoculation is on soils which have not
previously grown crimson clover. In this experiment a yield of 4,057
pounds of crimson clover hay was secured where the plants were inoculated,
as compared with only 761 pounds where no inoculation was provided. In
another test by the same station the inoculated plat of crimson clover
yielded at the rate of 6,100 pounds of cured hay per acre, while the
uninoculated plat was a total failure.

Inoculation by the use of soil from a crimson-clover field is considerably
more certain than is inoculation by the use of pure cultures, but soil
inoculation is open to the danger of introducing noxious weeds, insects,
and plant diseases, especially if the soil is brought from a distance.
There is much less danger in this respect if soil from inoculated plants
can be obtained in the same neighborhood. One very practicable method is
to apply a bottle of pure culture[3] to a pound or two of the seed and sow
this in the corner of some field, or even in the garden. The resulting
plants will be quite sure to be inoculated and will furnish an abundant
supply of soil for inoculating much larger areas at the next seeding. Care
must be taken not to allow the sun to shine upon either the pure cultures
or the soil, or even on the seed after it is broadcasted. For this
reason it is safest to seed on a cloudy day or after sundown. One very
satisfactory method of soil inoculation consists merely in mixing together
equal parts of the proper soil and seed and sowing immediately in front of
the covering harrow.

[3] Pure cultures are sent free by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Full instructions for using them accompany each bottle.


=SEEDING CRIMSON CLOVER.=

Crimson clover may be sown broadcast, by hand, with a wheel-barrow
"sheep-trough" seeder, or with any of the familiar types of rotary
seeders. It is sometimes drilled in and there are a number of specially
constructed drills designed for this purpose.

The consensus of opinion among farmers is that shallow seeding is
generally best, especially upon the clay soils. An inch in sandy soils and
half an inch in clay soils appears to be about the right depth except in
times of drought.

The ordinary rate of seeding is 15 pounds per acre, although some use 20
pounds, while others are able to obtain satisfactory stands with only 12
pounds per acre. One pound of seed per acre provides for three seeds for
every square foot; hence, if every seed produced a plant, 2 pounds per
acre would be theoretically sufficient to secure a satisfactory stand.
Under ordinary circumstances, however, it is necessary to allow for some
of the seed being covered too deep, while a considerable proportion may
prove to be covered too shallow for successful growth. The principal
justification of seeding such a quantity and at varying depths lies in
the fact that in case a dry season develops after seeding the more deeply
covered seeds will be able to withstand the drought better than those
covered to a medium depth. If an unusually wet season develops, the
shallow-planted seeds will give the best results. Moreover, some of the
seed will fail to germinate. It is also well to have a fairly thick stand
of the young plants, so that the ground may be well covered even during
early fall, and thus prevent the winter-growing weeds from establishing
themselves.

It is held by many farmers that they are more certain of getting a stand
of crimson clover if they sow the seed in the hull rather than use the
hulled seed as it ordinarily appears on the market. It is claimed that
the hulls hold the moisture to some extent. Seed in the hull can easily
be obtained by flailing out a load of crimson clover which has been left
uncut in the field until the seed is mature. Many farmers run the clover
through an ordinary grain thrasher, which delivers the seed in the hull.



=VARIOUS METHODS OF SEEDING CRIMSON CLOVER.=


Crimson clover may be seeded in late summer in any of the ordinary
intertilled crops. It may be seeded alone following any farm crop which
can be removed from the land by early summer, so that the seed can be
sown in late summer or very early fall. It may also be seeded for hay in
mixture with grain, such as wheat, rye, barley, or winter oats, which are
ready to cut for hay at about the same time as the clover the following
spring. A very light seeding of an animal catch crop, such as buckwheat,
may be made with crimson clover in time for the catch crop to make its
growth before winter.


=SEEDING CRIMSON CLOVER IN INTERTILLED CROPS.=

Although crimson clover may be seeded in almost any of the intertilled
crops, in this country probably half of it is sown in corn at or shortly
after the time of the last cultivation. (Fig. 3.) It is usually possible
to make such a seeding, obtain a good growth during the fall and early
spring, and mature a crop of hay in time for breaking up the land for
another crop of corn. South of the latitude of central Delaware it is even
possible to mature a crop of clover seed in time for corn planting. In
this way it is possible to grow a crop of corn each year and at the same
time steadily increase the fertility of the soil for a series of years.
Treated in this manner each succeeding crop of corn can ordinarily be
materially increased. Instances are reported where the yield of corn has
been gradually increased by this means from 10 bushels per acre at the
start until as high as 70 bushels per acre were secured.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--Seeding crimson clover in corn at the
last cultivation.]

The newly seeded stands of clover in corn are likely to perish if drought
occurs at or after seeding time. Tho growing corn makes heavy demands on
the soil moisture, and if there is not enough moisture for both clover and
corn the latter gets the larger share and the tender clover plants are
likely to succumb. It sometimes happens that a very light rain shortly
after seeding the clover will cause the seeds to germinate, only to perish
during the succeeding days of dry weather. On account of the competition
for moisture between the corn and clover it is best to cover the clover
seed a little deeper than is necessary when it is sown on fallow land.

North, of the Potomac River the last cultivation of the corn comes at
about the right time for the best results with clover seeded at the same
time. Farther south, however, there is too much hot weather after the corn
is laid by, and as a consequence it is best to delay the seeding of the
crimson clover until about 8 or 10 weeks before the first frost may be
expected. A light furrow-toothed cultivator or harrow may be run shallow
between the rows to cover the seed. The seed may be sown broadcast by hand
or even from horseback with a rotary seeder. In such an event, however, it
is necessary to cover the ears of the horse with small bags or socks to
prevent the entrance of the flying seed. A much more even stand is made
possible if the corn is given level tillage rather than the ridged tillage
incident to plowing with a 1-horse corn plow and ridging the land. The
appearance of a field of crimson clover seeded the summer previous in corn
is indicated in figure 4.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--Crimson clover in an old cornfield. The clover
was seeded in the corn at the last cultivation. A fodder stack is to be
observed in the middle foreground. The cornstalks have been removed to
avoid difficulty in mowing the clover.]

In North Carolina and southern Virginia it has been found possible under
favorable conditions to obtain a satisfactory stand of clover by seeding
in cotton. The clover should not be sown until 10 or 12 weeks before frost
and the last working of the cotton comes ordinarily at an earlier date
than this. It is necessary that the cotton be given very clean culture,
as well as special attention paid to conserving the moisture in the
prospective clover-seed bed. Unless the first show of cotton is picked
early it is difficult to cover the clover seed without unduly injuring the
opened cotton bolls. In the higher and more northern parts of the cotton
belt it is possible to make the clover seeding before the bolls begin to
burst.

Crimson clover may be seeded in practically any of the cultivated truck
crops which receive their last cultivation from 8 to 12 weeks before the
first frost. It is not practicable to seed the clover in late potatoes,
as the digging of the potatoes in the fall practically destroys the stand
of clover. The heavy application of fertilizers necessary for the truck
crop makes possible a vigorous growth of the clover. The result is that
the soil is materially built up in both nitrogen and humus. The clover
makes its growth at a season of the year when the land is not ordinarily
occupied by any of the regular truck crops.

When timely rains follow the seeding it is possible to seed the clover
on the surface of the ground among cantaloupe vines and allow the first
rain to cover the seed. The shade is apparently too dense under watermelon
vines for the clover seedlings to survive. The writer has obtained a good
stand by seeding the clover seed, without covering, in sweet potatoes the
first week in August on sandy land near Washington, D. C. By hand-digging
the potatoes with a spade a fair stand of the clover plants was left
unharmed.


=SEEDING CRIMSON CLOVER AFTER EARLY-MATURING CROPS.=

It is possible to seed crimson clover after practically any of the
ordinary farm crops which can be removed from the land three months before
frost.

It is somewhat difficult to obtain anything like an ideal seed bed for
crimson clover where a field of grain stubble has been plowed under. The
soil in a stubble field is apt to be dry and cloddy when plowed, while
the stubble tends to form a dry mat at the bottom of each furrow. Such a
condition is likely to continue for a number of weeks after plowing and
to result disastrously to the clover seedlings unless there be abundant
and frequent rains. It is ordinarily a better practice to disk the grain
stubble and harrow every week, or at least after every rain, in order to
settle the ground and assist in holding the moisture pending the time of
seeding. Such frequent harrowings will also kill the successive crops of
germinating weed seeds, which might otherwise injure the young stand of
clover.

On the other hand, the ground from which early potatoes have been removed
is very favorable for the establishment of a stand of crimson clover.
The residual effect of the fertilizers used on the potatoes is partially
responsible for this, while the well-settled seed bed, which requires
only leveling and harrowing, also presents favorable conditions for the
crimson-clover seedlings.


=SEEDING CRIMSON CLOVER WITH LATE SUMMER-SEEDED ANNUAL CROPS.=

Crimson clover may be seeded in midsummer or in late summer with a very
light seeding of buckwheat. The buckwheat soon forms an ideal shade for
the young clover plants and unless frosts occur very early a crop of
buckwheat may usually be harvested. This method has been suggested as
being applicable when seeding the clover in cotton. If the buckwheat
is not seeded until August it will not ordinarily produce seed in the
latitude of Washington, D. C. Wherever possible, the seeding of buckwheat
and crimson clover should be made so early that there will be time for the
buckwheat to mature its seed crop, as in this way the buckwheat itself
will pay for the expense of starting both stands. A light seeding of the
buckwheat must be made, as an ordinary stand of buckwheat shades the
ground so completely as to destroy the crimson clover.

Another method of preventing the injurious effect of the hot sun of
late summer is to make a light seeding of cowpeas at the same time that
the crimson clover is seeded. The cowpeas germinate promptly, and being
rather thin on the ground do not injure the stand of clover, but on the
contrary afford sufficient shade to prevent the soil from becoming as
hot as it otherwise would. In addition, the clover plants receive some
protection from the direct rays of the sun. There is ordinarily not enough
time for the cowpeas to mature, so they are either mown for hay or left
standing to catch the snow during the winter and protect the stand of
clover. In seedlings made by the writer half a bushel of cowpeas per acre,
broadcasted, gave vary satisfactory results, the seeding being made August
1 on sandy ground near Washington, D. C. The clover and cowpeas were sown
broadcast on early-potato ground and covered from one-half to 1 inch deep.

If a light seeding of turnips be made with the clover, the turnip plants
will afford some protection to the young clover plants and at the same
time will ordinarily yield a fair crop of turnips. About 1 pound of turnip
seed and 15 pounds of clover seed should be sown to the acre. If the
seeding of turnips be at all heavy the coarse-growing turnip plants will
choke out too many of the clover plants. The Cow Horn turnips appear to be
especially adapted for seeding with crimson clover.


=CRIMSON CLOVER IN MIXTURES WITH OTHER LEGUMES AND GRAIN.=

When crimson clover is seeded alone on good soil it is likely to make so
rank a growth as to lodge. To overcome this difficulty it is a common
practice to seed some small-grain crop with the clover at seeding time.
South of the Potomac River winter oats are ordinarily very satisfactory,
especially when seeded with the late white-blooming strain of crimson
clover. In Delaware and eastern Maryland wheat is commonly used. In
addition to wheat and oats, rye or barley is sometimes used. The customary
rate of seeding is about 15 pounds of clover seed and 30 pounds of grain
per acre. The accompanying illustration (fig. 5) indicates the appearance
of a field seeded to a mixture of crimson clover and wheat. The grain
prevents the clover from lodging, facilitates the curing of the clover
hay, and, in addition, forms a valuable constituent of the resulting hay
crop. The yield of the mixture is ordinarily somewhat more than when the
clover is seeded alone. The Alabama State Agricultural Experiment Station
secured as the average for two years' experiments the following yields of
hay:

                                                Yield per acre.

  Crimson clover seeded alone                     2,836 pounds.
  Crimson clover seeded in mixtures:
      Barley and crimson clover                   3,695 pounds.
      Wheat and crimson clover                    3,771 pounds.
      Oats and crimson clover                     4,228 pounds.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--Crimson clover and wheat in mixture. In the
foreground the crop has been cut and fed green to stock. The remainder
was cut the next day for hay. The grain prevents the crimson clover from
lodging.]

The grain is usually well headed but is in the milk or soft-dough stage
when the clover is ready to cut. The presence of the grain hay makes the
clover hay more easily cured. With winter oats it is usually best to seed
the late white-blooming variety of crimson clover, as the oat crop matures
somewhat later than the ordinary crimson clover. Another advantage of this
mixture is that if either should fail the other will be present to serve
as a cover crop during winter and bring some return the following spring.

Crimson clover may be seeded in mixtures with vetch, shaftal clover,
trefoil, or, in fact, any winter-growing legume which has a growing season
similar to crimson clover. Since most of these legumes are not upright in
their growth it is usually necessary to seed some grain crop with them
to serve as a support and to prevent the plants from lodging. The grain
is ordinarily a surer crop than the legumes and practically insures the
ground being covered with some crop during the winter and spring months.


=SEEDING CRIMSON CLOVER ALONE.=

If a good seed bed can be prepared by August 1 in the latitude of
Washington, D. C., crimson clover will ordinarily produce a satisfactory
stand if seeded entirely alone. This is especially true on the clay
soils, where it is often difficult to obtain a successful catch in corn
at the last working. The seed is sown at the same rate as when seeded
in corn, namely, about 15 pounds per acre. It is the common practice to
broadcast the seed and to cover with a very light barrow or weeder. Unless
the August sun be unduly hot and a drought develops, such seeding will
ordinarily produce very satisfactory results if the soil be reasonably
fertile.



=TREATMENT OF CRIMSON CLOVER STANDS AFTER SEEDING.=


Ordinarily no special treatment is required after seeding, and before
winter comes on some fall pasturage may be obtained if the growth be
sufficiently rank. A light pasturing with sheep has been noted to induce
heavier stooling on the part of the crimson clover. Only a light pasturing
with small animals, such as sheep, calves, or chickens, should be made in
either the fall or spring before the early spring growth is well under
way. If the time of seeding has been delayed, or if for any reason it is
feared that the plants will be unable to make sufficient growth before
cold weather, it has been found that a top dressing of nitrate of soda
alone or in mixture with muriato of potash will greatly hasten the fall
growth. This reduces the danger from winterkilling and heaving out in the
early spring.


       *       *       *       *       *


=Transcriber Note=

Minor typos have been corrected. Illustrations were moved to prevent
splitting paragraphs. Produced from files generously made available by
USDA through The Internet Archive. All resultant materials are placed in
the Public Domain.





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