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Title: The Birds of Australia, Vol. 1 of 7
Author: Gould, John
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Birds of Australia, Vol. 1 of 7" ***

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7 ***



                                  THE
                          BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA.


                                    BY

                           JOHN GOULD, F.R.S.,
 F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.E.S., F.ETHN.S., F.R.GEOG.S., M. RAY S., HON. MEMB. OF
    THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF TURIN, OF THE ROY. ZOOL. SOC. OF
  IRELAND, OF THE PENZANCE NAT. HIST. SOC., OF THE WORCESTER NAT. HIST.
  SOC., OF THE NORTHUMBERLAND, DURHAM AND NEWCASTLE NAT. HIST. SOC., OF
   THE NAT. HIST. SOC. OF DARMSTADT AND OF THE TASMANIAN SOCIETY OF VAN
                           DIEMEN’S LAND, ETC.


                            IN SEVEN VOLUMES.


                                 VOL. I.


                                 LONDON:
   PRINTED BY RICHARD AND JOHN E. TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.
        PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 20, BROAD STREET, GOLDEN SQUARE.
                                  1848.



                                   TO
                       HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY
                               VICTORIA,
                  QUEEN OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND,
                               THIS WORK,
                                 ON THE
                          BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA,
                     IS, WITH HER ROYAL PERMISSION,
                               DEDICATED
                            BY HER MAJESTY’S
                       MOST OBEDIENT AND FAITHFUL
                          SUBJECT AND SERVANT,

                                                             JOHN GOULD.



                          LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.


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                             GENERAL INDEX


                                                               Vol. Page
 Ægialitis bicinctus                                              VI. 16
     Monachus                                                     VI. 18
     nigrifrons                                                   VI. 20
 Ægotheles Australis                                               II. 1
     cristatus                                                     II. 1
     leucogaster. Vol. I. p. xxvii                                 II. 2
     lunulatus                                                     II. 1
     Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. xxvii                              II. 1
 Acanthiza albifrons                                             III. 64
     apicalis. Vol. I. p. xlvi                                   III. 57
     Chestnut-rumped                                               V. 56
     chrysorrhœa. Vol. I. p. xlvi                                III. 63
     Diemenensis. Vol. I. p. xlv                                   V. 54
     Ewingii. Vol. I. p. xlvi                                      V. 55
     Ewing’s                                                       V. 55
     frontalis                                                   III. 49
     inornata.  Vol. I. p. xlvi                                  III. 59
     lineata. Vol. I. p. xlvi                                    III. 61
     Little                                                      III. 60
     Little Brown                                                III. 53
     nana. Vol. I. p. xlvi                                       III. 60
     Plain-coloured                                              III. 59
     pyrrhopygia. Vol. I. p. xlvi                           III. 39,  58
     pusilla. Vol. I. p. xlvi                                    III. 53
     Red-rumped                                                  III. 58
     Reguloïdes. Vol. I. p. xlvi                                 III. 62
     Regulus-like                                                III. 62
     Striated                                                    III. 61
     Tasmanian                                                     V. 54
     uropygialis. Vol. I. p. xlvi                                  V. 56
     Western                                                     III. 57
     Yellow-tailed                                               III. 63
 Acanthogenys rufogularis. Vol. I. p. lviii                       IV. 53
 Acanthorhynchus dubius. Vol. I. p. lix                           IV. 61
     superciliosus. Vol. I. p. lix                                IV. 62
     tenuirostris. Vol. I. p. lix                                 IV. 61
 Acanthylis caudacuta. Vol. I. p. xxix                            II. 10
 Accipiter approximans. Vol. I. p. xxi
     cirrhocephalus. Vol. I. p. xxi
     torquatus. Vol. I. p. xxiv                                       19
 Acrocephalus Australis. Vol. I. p. xlv                          III. 37
     longirostris. Vol. I. p. xlv                                III. 38
 Actitis empusa. Vol. I. p. lxxxv                                 VI. 35
 Albatros, Black                                                 VII. 44
     Black-eyebrowed                                             VII. 43
     Cautious                                                    VII. 40
     Culminated                                                  VII. 41
     Short-tailed                                                VII. 39
     Sooty                                                       VII. 44
     Wandering                                                   VII. 38
     Yellow-billed                                               VII. 42
     Yellow-nosed                                                VII. 42
 Albatrus                                                        VII. 38
 Alcedo fusca                                                     II. 18
     gigantea                                                     II. 18
     gigas                                                        II. 18
     tribrachys                                                   II. 25
 Alcyone Australis                                                II. 25
     azurea. Vol. I. p. xxxi                                      II. 25
     Diemenensis. Vol. I. p. xxx
     pulchra. Vol. I. p. xxxi
     pusilla. Vol. I. p. xxxii                                    II. 26
 Alectura Lathami                                                  V. 77
 Amadina acuticauda                                              III. 90
     annulosa                                                    III. 81
     castaneothorax                                              III. 94
     castanotis. Vol. I. p. xlix                                 III. 87
     cincta                                                      III. 93
     Gouldiæ. Vol. I. p. xlix                                    III. 88
     Lathami. Vol. I. p. xlix                                    III. 86
     modesta. Vol. I. p. xlix                                    III. 85
     pectoralis                                                  III. 95
     ruficauda                                                   III. 84
 Amytis leucopterus                                              III. 25
     macrourus. Vol. I. p. xliv                                  III. 30
     striatus. Vol. I. p. xliv                                   III. 29
     textilis. Vol. I. p. xliv                              III. 28,  29
 Anas arcuata                                                    VII. 14
     atrata                                                       VII. 6
     carunculata                                                 VII. 18
     Coromandeliana                                               VII. 5
     fasciata                                                    VII. 13
     jubata                                                       VII. 3
     leucophrys                                                   VII. 9
     lobata                                                      VII. 18
     melanoleuca                                                  VII. 2
     membranacea                                                 VII. 13
     nævosa. Vol. I. p. xcii                                     VII. 10
     plutonia                                                     VII. 6
     punctata. Vol. I. p. xcii                                   VII. 11
     Radjah                                                       VII. 8
     Rhynchotis                                                  VII. 12
     semipalmata                                                  VII. 2
     superciliosa. Vol. I. p. xci                                 VII. 9
     Tadornoïdes                                                  VII. 7
 Anoüs ——?                                                       VII. 35
     cinereus. Vol. I. p. xcvi                                   VII. 37
     leucocapillus. Vol. I. p. xcv                               VII. 36
     melanops. Vol. I. p. xcvi                                   VII. 35
     niger                                                       VII. 34
     stolidus. Vol. I. p. xcvi                                   VII. 34
 Anser Girra                                                      VII. 5
     griseus                                                      VII. 1
 Anseranas melanoleuca. Vol. I. p. xci                            VII. 2
 Anthochæra carunculata. Vol. I. p. lviii                    IV. 54,  55
     inauris. Vol. I. p. lviii                                    IV. 54
     Lewinii                                                      IV. 55
     lunulata. Vol. I. p. lviii                                   IV. 57
     mellivora. Vol. I. p. lviii                                  IV. 56
     Phrygia                                                      IV. 48
 Anthus Australis. Vol. I. p. xlviii                             III. 73
     fuliginosus                                                 III. 70
     minimus                                                     III. 72
     pallescens                                                  III. 73
     rufescens                                                   III. 76
 Aprosmictus erythropterus. Vol. I.
     p. lxv                                                        V. 18
     scapulatus. Vol. I. p. lxv                                    V. 17
 Aptenodyta minor                                                VII. 84
 Aptenodytes chrysocome                                          VII. 83
     minor                                                       VII. 84
     Undina                                                      VII. 85
 Apteryx Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxi                               VI. 2
     Owenii. Vol. I. p. lxxxi                                      VI. 3
     Owen’s                                                        VI. 3
 Aquila albirostris                                                 I. 1
     cuneicaudata. Vol. I. p. xxi
     fucosa. Vol. I. p. xxi                                            1
     Morphnoïdes. Vol. I. p. xxi                                       2
     (Uroaëtus) audax. Vol. I. p. xxi
 Ardea Bullaragang                                                VI. 52
     Caledonica                                                   VI. 63
     cœrulea, var.                                                VI. 60
     flavicollis                                                  VI. 65
     (Herodias) picata                                            VI. 62
     jugularis                                                    VI. 60
     leucophæa. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                                VI. 55
     leucops                                                      VI. 53
     maculata                                                     VI. 68
     Matook                                                       VI. 60
     nigra                                                        VI. 65
     Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                           VI. 53
     Pacifica. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                                 VI. 52
     pusilla                                                      VI. 68
     rectirostris. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                             VI. 54
     Sparmannii                                                   VI. 63
 Ardetta flavicollis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                          VI. 65
     macrorhyncha. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                            VI. 66
     pusilla. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                                 VI. 68
     stagnatilis. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                             VI. 67
 Artamus albiventris. Vol. I. p. xxxii                            II. 30
     albovittatus                                                 II. 27
     cinereus. Vol. I. p. xxxii                                   II. 29
     leucopygialis. Vol. I. p. xxxii                              II. 33
     lineatus                                                     II. 27
     minor                                                        II. 28
     sordidus                                                     II. 27
     personatus. Vol. I. p. xxxii                                 II. 31
     superciliosus. Vol. I. p. xxxii                              II. 32
 Astur albus                                                       I. 15
     approximans. Vol. I. p. xxiv                                     17
     cruentus. Vol. I. p. xxiv                                        18
     fasciatus                                                     I. 17
     Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. xxiv                                  14
     (Leucospiza) Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. xxi
     (Micronisus) torquatus. Vol. I. p. xxi
     Novæ-Hollandiæ, albino                                        I. 15
     radiatus. Vol. I. p. xxiv                                    16, 17
     Raii                                                          I. 14
     testaceus (Ernest). Vol. I. p. xxi
 Athene? connivens. Vol. I. p. xxvii                                  34
 Athene Boobook Vol. I. p. xxvi                                       32
     ? fortis                                                      I. 34
     maculata  Vol. I. p. xxvi                                        33
     marmorata  Vol. I. p. xxvi
     rufa  Vol. I. p. xxvii                                           36
     strenua  Vol. I. p. xxvii                                        35
 Atrichia clamosa  Vol. I. p. xliv                               III. 34
 Attagen Ariel Vol. I. p. c                                      VII. 72
 Atticora leucosternon Vol. I. p. xxix                            II. 12
 Avocet, Red-necked                                               VI. 27
 Avoset, Terek                                                    VI. 34

 Banksianus Australis  Vol. I. p. lxiv
     galeatus                                                      V. 14
 Barita Anaphonensis                                              II. 45
     destructor                                                   II. 52
     Quoyi                                                        II. 53
     strepera                                                     II. 42
     Tibicen                                                 II. 46,  47
 Baza subcristata Vol. I. p. xxvi
 Bee-eater                                                        II. 16
     Australian                                                   II. 16
     Black and Yellow                                             IV. 48
     Blue-cheeked                                                 IV. 68
     Chattering                                                   IV. 76
     Cowled                                                       IV. 58
     Dusky                                                        IV. 20
     Embroidered                                                  IV. 48
     Golden-winged                                                IV. 56
     Knob-fronted                                                 IV. 58
     Mountain                                                     II. 16
     Variegated                                                   II. 16
     Wattled                                                      IV. 55
 Bernicla Coromandeliana                                          VII. 5
     Girra                                                        VII. 5
     jubata Vol. I. p. xci                                        VII. 3
 Bird, Alarm                                                       VI. 9
     Australian Bell-                                             IV. 80
     Bell-                                                        II. 81
                                                                  IV. 80
     Blood                                                        IV. 63
     Brush Wattle-                                                IV. 56
     Butcher                                                      II. 52
     Cat                                                          IV. 11
     Coach-whip                                                  III. 15
     Friar                                                        IV. 68
     Great Bower-                                                  IV. 9
     Little Wattle-                                               IV. 57
     Lunulated Wattle-                                            IV. 57
     Man-of-War                                                  VII. 38
     Mock Regent                                                  IV. 48
     Nankeen                                                      VI. 63
     New Holland, Tropic                                         VII. 73
     Noisy Brush-                                                III. 34
     Regent                                                       IV. 12
     Red-tailed Tropic                                           VII. 73
     Rifle                                                       IV. 100
     Satin                                                        IV. 10
     Satin Bower-                                                 IV. 10
     Silvery-backed Butcher                                       II. 51
     Silvery-crowned Friar-                                       IV. 59
     Small Frigate                                               VII. 72
     Spotted Bower-                                                IV. 8
     Wattle                                                  IV. 54,  55
     Yellow-throated Friar-                                       IV. 60
 Bittern, Australian                                              VI. 64
     Little Brown                                                 VI. 65
     Little Grey                                                  VI. 67
     Minute                                                       VI. 68
     Thick-billed Green                                           VI. 66
     Yellow-necked                                                VI. 65
 Biziura lobata  Vol. I. p. xciii                                VII. 18
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                              VII. 18
 Blue-eye                                                         IV. 68
 Booby                                                           VII. 78
     Brown                                                       VII. 78
 Botaurus Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                          VI. 64
 Brachyptrallus Ralloïdes?                                        VI. 71
 Brachystoma cinerea                                              IV. 17
 Bristle-Bird                                                    III. 32
     Long-billed                                                 III. 33
 Bronze-wing, Harlequin                                            V. 66
     Smith’s Partridge                                             V. 68
     Partridge                                                     V. 67
     Plumed Partridge                                              V. 69
 Brown-tail                                                        V. 54
 Burhinus magnirostris                                             VI. 6
 Bustard, Australian                                               VI. 4
 Buteo melanosternon. Vol. I. p. xxv                               I. 20
 Buzzard, Black-breasted                                           I. 20

 Cacatua chrysolophus                                               V. 1
     Eos. Vol. I. p. lxiii                                          V. 4
     galeata                                                       V. 14
     galerita. Vol. I. p. lxiii                                     V. 1
     Leadbeateri. Vol. I. p. lxiii                                  V. 2
     nasica                                                         V. 5
     rosea                                                          V. 4
     roseicapilla                                                   V. 4
     sanguinea. Vol. I. p. lxiii                                    V. 3
 Calamanthus campestris. Vol. I. p. xlviii                       III. 71
     fuliginosus. Vol. I. p. xlviii                              III. 70
 Calamoherpe longirostris                                        III. 38
 Calidris Australis                                               VI. 31
 Callocephalon Australe                                            V. 14
     galeatum. Vol. I. p. lxv                                      V. 14
 Calodera maculata                                                 IV. 8
     nuchalis                                                      IV. 9
 Callopsitta, Guy                                                  V. 45
 Calyptorhynchus Banksii. Vol. I. p. lxiv                           V. 7
     Baudinii. Vol. I. p. lxv                                      V. 13
     Cookii                                                        V. 10
     funereus. Vol. I. p. lxiv                                     V. 11
     galeatus                                                      V. 14
     Leachii. Vol. I. p. lxiv                                      V. 10
     macrorhynchus. Vol. I. p. lxiv                                 V. 8
     naso. Vol. I. p. lxiv                                          V. 9
     Solandri                                                      V. 10
     stellatus                                                 V. 7,  10
     Temminckii                                                    V. 10
     xanthonotus. Vol. I. p. lxiv                                  V. 12
 Campephaga, Black and White                                      II. 62
     humeralis. Vol. I. p. xxxvi                                  II. 63
     Jardine’s                                                    II. 60
     Jardinii. Vol. I. p. xxxvi                                   II. 60
     Karu. Vol. I. p. xxxvi                                       II. 61
     leucomela. Vol. I. p. xxxvi                                  II. 62
     Northern                                                     II. 61
     White-shouldered                                             II. 63
 Caprimulgus albogularis                                           II. 7
     cristatus                                                     II. 1
     gracilis?                                                     II. 3
     guttatus                                                      II. 8
     macrurus. Vol. I. p. xxix                                     II. 9
     megacephalus. Vol. I. p. xxvii
     mystacalis                                                    II. 7
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                                II. 1
     vittatus                                                      II. 1
 Carbo hypoleucus                                                VII. 68
     sulcirostris                                                VII. 67
 Carpophaga leucomela. Vol. I. p. lxix                             V. 59
     luctuosa. Vol. I. p. lxix                                     V. 60
     magnifica. Vol. I. p. lxix                                    V. 58
 Carvanaca grisea                                                  VI. 6
 Casarca Tadornoïdes. Vol. I. p. xci                              VII. 7
 Cassowary, New Holland                                            VI. 1
     Southern                                                      VI. 1
     Van Diemen’s Land                                             VI. 1
 Casuarius Novæ-Hollandiæ                                          VI. 1
 Catharacta Skua                                                 VII. 21
 Catheturus Australis                                              V. 77
 Ceblepyris humeralis                                             II. 63
     lineatus                                                     II. 58
     melanops                                                     II. 55
 Centropus macrourus. Vol. I. p. lx
     melanurus. Vol. I. p. lx
     Phasianus. Vol. I. p. lxi                                    IV. 92
     variegatus                                                   IV. 92
 Cerchneis immaculatus. Vol. I. p. xxii
 Cereopsis Australis                                              VII. 1
     cinereus                                                     VII. 1
     New Holland                                                  VII. 1
     Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. xc                                VII. 1
 Certhia agilis. Vol. I. p. li
     auriculata                                                   IV. 37
     Australasiæ                                                  IV. 63
     Australasiana                                                IV. 27
     canescens. Vol. I. p. xxxvi
     cœrulescens                                                  IV. 81
     chrysotis                                                    IV. 32
     dibapha                                                      IV. 63
     diluta                                                       IV. 81
     erythropygia                                                 IV. 63
     leucophæa. Vol. I. p. lxi
     leucoptera?                                                  IV. 98
     lunulata                                                     IV. 72
     melanops? Vol. I. p. l
     mellivora                                                    IV. 56
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                               IV. 23
     picumnus                                                     IV. 98
     pyrrhoptera? Vol. I. p. l
     tenuirostris                                                 IV. 61
     sanguinolenta                                                IV. 63
 Ceyx azurea                                                      II. 25
     cyanea                                                       II. 25
     pusilla                                                      II. 26
 Chætura Australis                                                II. 10
     macroptera                                                   II. 10
 Chalcites lucidus                                                IV. 89
     osculans. Vol. I. p. lxi                                     IV. 88
 Chalcophaps chrysochlora. Vol. I. p. lxix                         V. 62
     longirostris. Vol. I. p. lxi
 Channel-Bill                                                     IV. 90
     Australasian                                                 IV. 90
 Charadrius bicinctus                                             VI. 16
     cucullatus                                                   VI. 18
     frenatus                                                      VI. 5
     fuscus                                                        VI. 5
     grallarius                                                    VI. 5
     griseus                                                       VI. 5
     hypomelas                                                    VI. 12
     lobatus                                                       VI. 9
     longipes                                                      VI. 5
     magnirostris                                                  VI. 6
     marginatus                                                   VI. 17
     melanops                                                     VI. 20
     Monachus                                                     VI. 18
     nigrifrons                                                   VI. 20
     pectoralis                                                   VI. 11
     ruficapillus                                                 VI. 17
     tricolor                                                     VI. 11
     veredus. Vol. I. p. lxxxii                                   VI. 14
     xanthocheilus. Vol. I. p. lxxxii                             VI. 13
 Chelidon arborea. Vol. I. p. xx
     Ariel. Vol. I. p. xx
 Cheniscus Coromandelianus                                        VII. 5
 Chenopis atrata                                                  VII. 6
 Cherry-picker                                                    IV. 70
 Chladorhynchus pectoralis. Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                     VI. 26
 Chlamydera maculata. Vol. I. p. lii                               IV. 8
     nuchalis. Vol. I. p. lii                                      IV. 9
 Choristopus semipalmatus                                         VII. 2
 Chough, White-winged                                             IV. 16
 Chrysococcyx osculans. Vol. I. p. lx
     lucidus. Vol. I. p. lxi                                      IV. 89
 Chthonicola, Little                                             III. 72
     minima. Vol. I. p. xlviii                                   III. 72
 Ciconia Australis                                                VI. 51
     leucoptera                                                   VI. 51
 Cincloramphus, Black-breasted                                   III. 75
     Brown                                                       III. 74
     Cantatoris                                                  III. 75
     Cantillans. Vol. I. p. xlviii                               III. 75
     cruralis. Vol. I. p. xlviii                                 III. 74
     rufescens. Vol. I. p. xlviii                                III. 76
     Rufous-tinted                                               III. 76
 Cinclosoma castanotus. Vol. I. p. li                              IV. 5
     cinnamomeus. Vol. I. p. li                                    IV. 6
     Cinnamon-coloured                                             IV. 6
     punctatum. Vol. I. p. li                                      IV. 4
 Circus assimilis. Vol. I. p. xxvi                                    26
     axillaris                                                     I. 23
     Jardinii. Vol. I. p. xxvi                                        27
     (Spilocercus) Jardinii. Vol. I. p. xxv
 Climacteris erythrops. Vol. I. p. lxi                            IV. 95
     melanotus. Vol. I. p. lxi                                    IV. 96
     melanura. Vol. I. p. lxi                                     IV. 97
     picumnus. Vol. I. p. lxii                                    IV. 98
     rufa. Vol. I. p. lxi                                         IV. 94
     scandens. Vol. I. p. lxi                                     IV. 93
 Cobbler’s Awl                                                    IV. 61
 Cockatoo, Banksian                                       V. 7,  10,  11
     Baudin’s                                                      V. 13
     Blood-stained                                                  V. 3
     Cook’s                                                        V. 10
     Funereal                                                      V. 11
     Gang-gang                                                     V. 14
     Great-billed Black                                             V. 8
     Great Sulphur-crested                                          V. 1
     Leach’s                                                       V. 10
     Leadbeater’s                                                   V. 2
     Long-billed                                                    V. 5
     Long-nosed                                                     V. 5
     Pink                                                           V. 2
     Red-tailed Black                                               V. 9
     Rose-breasted                                                  V. 4
     Rose-coloured                                                  V. 4
     Crested                                                        V. 1
     Solander’s                                                    V. 10
     The Red-vented                                                 V. 5
     The Rose                                                       V. 4
     Western Black                                                  V. 9
     White-tailed Black                                            V. 13
     Yellow-eared Black                                            V. 12
 Collared Plain Wanderer                                           V. 80
 Callocalia arborea. Vol. I. p. xxx                               II. 14
     Ariel. Vol. I. p. xxx                                        II. 15
 Colluricincla, Brown                                             II. 76
     brunnea. Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                   II. 76
     Buff-bellied                                                 II. 75
     cinerea                                                      II. 74
     harmonica. Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                 II. 74
     Harmonious                                                   II. 74
     Little                                                       II. 78
     parvula. Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                   II. 78
     rectirostris                                                 II. 77
 Colluricincla rufiventris.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                    II. 75
     rufogaster  Vol. I. p. xxxvii
     Selbii  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                    II. 77
     strigata                                                     II. 77
 Columba Antarctica                                                V. 61
     armillaris                                                    V. 63
     chalcoptera                                                   V. 64
     chrysochlora                                                  V. 62
     cuneata                                                       V. 74
     dilopha                                                       V. 61
     elegans                                                       V. 65
     humeralis                                                     V. 72
     Jamesonii                                                     V. 63
     Javanica                                                      V. 62
     Lawsonii                                                      V. 65
     leucomela                                                     V. 59
     leucomelana                                                   V. 59
     Lophotes                                                      V. 70
     luctuosa                                                      V. 60
     Macquarie                                                     V. 74
     magnifica                                                     V. 58
     melanoleuca                                                   V. 63
     Norfolciensis                                                 V. 59
     pallida.  Vol. I. p. lx
     Phasianella                                                   V. 75
     picata                                                        V. 63
     purpurata                                                     V. 55
     scripta                                                       V. 67
     Smithii                                                       V. 68
     spiloptera                                                    V. 74
     superba                                                       V. 57
 Coot, Australian                                                 VI. 74
 Coracias pacifica                                                II. 17
     sagittata                                                    IV. 13
     strepera                                                     II. 42
     Tibicen                                                      II. 44
 Corcorax Australis                                               IV. 16
     leucopterus.  Vol. I. p. liii                                IV. 16
 Cormorant, Australian                                           VII. 66
     Groove-billed                                               VII. 67
     Pied                                                   VII. 68,  70
     Spotted                                                     VII. 71
     White-breasted                                              VII. 69
 Coronica fuliginosa                                              II. 43
     strepera                                                     II. 42
 Corvus auritus    Vol. I. p. xliii
     Australis                                                    IV. 18
     carunculatus                                                 IV. 55
     Coronoïdes  Vol. I. p. liv                                   IV. 18
     cyanoleucos                                                  II. 54
     graculinus                                                   II. 42
     melanops                                                     II. 55
     squamulosus                                                  IV. 10
     streperus                                                    II. 42
     paradoxus                                                    IV. 55
 Corydon galeatus                                                  V. 14
 Coturnix Australis                                                V. 89
     Chinensis                                                     V. 92
     excalfatoria                                                  V. 92
     pectoralis  Vol. I. p. lxxx                                   V. 88
     Phillippensis                                                 V. 92
 Coucal, New Holland                                              IV. 92
     variegated                                                   IV. 92
 Cracticus argenteus  Vol. I. p. xxxv                             II. 51
     cinereus  Vol. I. p. xxxv
     destructor  Vol. I. p. xxxv                                  II. 52
     fuliginosus                                                  II. 43
     hypoleucus                                                   II. 48
     leucopterus  Vol. I. p. xxxv
     nigrogularis  Vol. I. p. xxxv                                II. 49
     picatus  Vol. I. p. xxxv                                     II. 50
     streperus                                                    II. 42
 Cracticus Tibicen                                                II. 46
     Quoyii Vol. I. p. xxxv                                       II. 53
     varius                                                       II. 49
 Crake, Water                                                     VI. 80
     Spotted Water                                                VI. 79
     White-eyebrowed Water                                        VI. 81
 Crane, Australian                                                VI. 48
     Blue                                                    VI. 53,  60
     White                                                        VI. 58
 Creadion carunculatus                                       IV. 54,  55
 Creeper, Black-backed Tree-                                      IV. 96
     Black-tailed Tree-                                           IV. 97
     Bluish-breasted                                              IV. 81
     Brown Tree-                                                  IV. 93
     cœrulean                                                     IV. 81
     Cochineal                                                     IV. 6
     The Common                                                   IV. 98
     Dirigang?                                                    IV. 98
     Goruck                                                       IV. 56
     Graculine                                                    IV. 68
     Hooded                                                       IV. 61
     mellivorus                                                   IV. 56
     New Holland                                             IV. 23,  25
     Red-eyebrowed Tree-                                          IV. 95
     Red-rumped                                                   IV. 63
     Rufous Tree-                                                 IV. 94
     Sanguineous                                                  IV. 63
     Slender-billed                                               IV. 61
     Small-crested                                                IV. 63
     Spot-eared                                                   IV. 32
     White-throated Tree-                                         IV. 98
 Crow                                                             IV. 18
     Black-faced                                                  II. 55
     Wattled                                                      IV. 55
     White-eyed                                                   IV. 18
 Crow-Shrike, Black-throated                                      II. 49
     Grey                                                         II. 45
     Hill                                                         II. 44
     Quoy’s                                                       II. 53
     Pied                                                    II. 42,  50
     Piping                                                       II. 46
     Sooty                                                        II. 43
     Tasmanian                                                    II. 48
     White-backed                                                 II. 47
 Cuculus albostrigatus                                            IV. 85
     cineraceus.  Vol. I. p. lx                                   IV. 86
     cyanocephalus                                                IV. 91
     dumetorum  Vol. I. p. lx
     flabelliformis                                               IV. 86
     incertus                                                     IV. 86
     inornatus.  Vol. I. p. lx                                    IV. 85
     insperatus.  Vol. I. p. lx                                   IV. 87
     lucidus                                                      IV. 89
     optatus. Vol. I. p. lx                                       IV. 84
     Phasianus                                                    IV. 92
     variolosus                                                   IV. 86
 Cuckoo, Ash-coloured                                             IV. 86
     Australian                                                   IV. 84
     Barred-tailed                                                IV. 86
     Black-eared                                                  IV. 88
     Blue-headed                                                  IV. 91
     Brush                                                        IV. 87
     Fan-tailed                                                   IV. 86
     Flinders’                                                    IV. 91
     Golden or Bronze                                             IV. 89
     Greater                                                      IV. 85
     Lesser                                                       IV. 86
     Pheasant                                                     IV. 92
     Shining                                                      IV. 89
     Unadorned                                                    IV. 85
 Cuncuma leucogaster  Vol. I. p. xxi
 Curlew                                                           VI. 42
 Curlew, Australian                                               VI. 42
     Pygmy                                                        VI. 32
 Cygnus atratus                                                   VII. 5
 Cypselus Australis.  Vol. I. p. xxix                             II. 11
 Cysticola campestris                                            III. 41
     exilis. Vol. I. p. xlv                                      III. 42
     lineocapilla. Vol. I. p. xlv                                III. 43
     magna. Vol. I. p. xlv                                       III. 41
     isura. Vol. I. p. xlv                                       III. 44
     ruficeps. Vol. I. p. xlv                                    III. 45

 Dab-chick                                                       VII. 82
 Dacelo cervina. Vol. I. p. xxxi                                  II. 20
     chlorocephala                                                II. 21
     gigantea. Vol. I. p. xxxi                                    II. 18
     gigas                                                        II. 18
     Leachii. Vol. I. p. xxxi                                     II. 19
 Dædalion candidum. Vol. I. p. xxiv
 Daption Capensis. Vol. I. p. xcix                               VII. 53
 Darter, New Holland                                             VII. 75
 Dasyornis                                                       III. 29
     Australis. Vol. I. p. xliv                                  III. 32
     ? brunneus. Vol. I. p. xliv
     longirostris. Vol. I. p. xliv                               III. 33
 Dendrocygna arcuata. Vol. I. p. xcii                            VII. 14
     Eytoni. Vol. I. p. xcii                                     VII. 15
 Diamond Bird                                                     II. 35
 Dicæum atrogaster                                                II. 34
     hirundinaceum. Vol. I. p. xxxii                              II. 34
     Swallow                                                      II. 34
 Dicrurus Balicassius                                             II. 82
     bracteatus. Vol. I. p. xxxviii                               II. 82
 Didunculus strigirostris. Vol. I. p. lxxii
 Diomedea Antarctica                                             VII. 44
     brachyura. Vol. I. p. xcvii                                 VII. 39
     cauta. Vol. I. p. xcvii                                     VII. 40
     chlororhynchos. Vol. I. p. xcvii                            VII. 42
     chrysostoma                                                 VII. 42
     culminata. Vol. I. p. xcvii                                 VII. 41
     exulans. Vol. I. p. xcvii                                   VII. 38
     fuliginosa. Vol. I. p. xcvii                                VII. 44
     fusca                                                       VII. 44
     gibbosa. Vol. I. p. xcvii
     melanophrys. Vol. I. p. xcvii                               VII. 43
     olivaceorhyncha. Vol. I. p. xcvii
     palpebrata                                                  VII. 44
 Diver                                                           VII. 80
 Dollar Bird                                                      II. 17
 Donacola castaneothorax. Vol. I. p. 1                           III. 94
     flaviprymna. Vol. I. p. 1                                   III. 96
     pectoralis. Vol. I. p. 1                                    III. 95
 Dottrel, Allied                                                  VI. 19
     Australian                                                   VI. 15
     Black-fronted                                                VI. 20
     Double-banded                                                VI. 16
     Hooded                                                       VI. 18
     Red-capped                                                   VI. 17
 Dove, Barred-shouldered Ground-                                   V. 72
     Peaceful                                                      V. 73
     Peaceful Ground-                                              V. 74
     White-quilled Rock                                            V. 71
     Turtle                                                        V. 74
 Dromaius ater                                                     VI. 1
     Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lxxx                               VI. 1
 Dromiceus Australis                                               VI. 1
     Emu                                                           VI. 1
     Novæ-Zelandiæ                                                 VI. 2
 Drongo, Spangled                                                 II. 82
 Drymodes bruneopygia. Vol. I. p. xlii                           III. 10
 Drymophila carinata                                              II. 95
     trivirgata                                                   II. 96
 Duck, Australian Wild                                            VII. 9
 Duck, Black                                                      VII. 9
     Blue-billed                                                 VII. 17
     Chestnut-breasted                                           VII. 11
     Eyton’s                                                     VII. 15
     Freckled                                                    VII. 10
     Grey                                                         VII. 9
     Hawkesbury                                                   VII. 3
     Lobated                                                     VII. 18
     Membranaceous                                               VII. 13
     Mountain                                                     VII. 7
     Musk                                                        VII. 18
     New Holland                                                 VII. 13
     Pink-eyed                                                   VII. 13
     Shovel-nosed                                                VII. 12
     Supercilious                                                 VII. 9
     Whistling                                                   VII. 14
     White                                                        VII. 8
     White-eyed                                                  VII. 16
     White-winged                                                VII. 16
     Wood                                                         VII. 3

 Eagle Hawk                                                         I. 1
     Lacteous                                                      I. 15
     Little Australian                                              I. 2
     Little Swamp                                                   I. 5
     Mountain, of New S. Wales                                      I. 1
     New Holland White                                             I. 15
     Wedge-tailed                                                   I. 1
     Whistling                                                      I. 5
     White-bellied                                                  I. 3
     White-bellied Sea-                                             I. 3
     White-breasted Rufous                                          I. 4
     White-breasted Sea-                                            I. 4
 Egret, Australian                                                VI. 56
     Pied                                                         VI. 62
     Plumed                                                       VI. 57
     Sombre                                                       VI. 59
     Spotless                                                     VI. 58
 Eidopsaris bicinctus                                             IV. 70
 Elanus axillaris. Vol. I. p. xxv                                     23
     melanopterus. Vol. I. p. xxv
     notatus                                                       I. 23
     scriptus. Vol. I. p. xxv                                         24
 Emblema picta. Vol. I. p. 1                                     III. 97
 Emu, The                                                          VI. 1
     of New South Wales                                            VI. 1
 Entomophila albogularis. Vol. I. p. lvii                         IV. 51
     rufogularis. Vol. I. p. lvii                                 IV. 52
     picta. Vol. I. p. lvii                                       IV. 50
 Entomyza albipennis. Vol. I. p. lix                              IV. 69
     Blue-faced                                                   IV. 68
     cyanotis. Vol. I. p. lix                                     IV. 68
 Eöpsaltria Australis. Vol. I. p. xlii                           III. 11
     flavicollis                                                 III. 11
     griseogularis. Vol. I. p. xlii                              III. 12
     leucogaster. Vol. I. p. xlii                                III. 13
     parvula                                                     III. 11
 Ephthianura albifrons. Vol. I. p. xlvii                         III. 64
     aurifrons. Vol. I. p. xlvii                                 III. 65
     Orange-fronted                                              III. 65
     tricolor. Vol. I. p. xlvii                                  III. 66
     Tri-coloured                                                III. 66
     White-fronted                                               III. 64
 Epimachus Brisbanii                                             IV. 100
     regius                                                      IV. 100
 Erismatura Australis. Vol. I. p. xciii                          VII. 17
 Erythrodryas rhodinogaster. Vol. I. p. xli                       III. 1
     rosea. Vol. I. p. xli                                        III. 2
 Erythrogonys cinctus. Vol. I. p. lxxxiii                         VI. 21
 Esacus magnirostris. Vol. I. p. lxxxi                             VI. 6
 Estrelda annulosa. Vol. I. p. xlix                              III. 81
     bella. Vol. I. p. xlix                                      III. 78
     Bichenovii. Vol. I. p. xlix                                 III. 80
     modesta  Vol. I. p. 1.
     oculea.  Vol. I. p. xlix                                    III. 79
     Phaëton.  Vol. I. p. xlix                                   III. 83
     ruficauda.  Vol. I. p. xlix                                 III. 84
     temporalis.  Vol. I. p. xlix                                III. 82
 Eudromias Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxii                           VI. 15
 Eudynamys Australis                                              IV. 91
     Flindersii.  Vol. I. p. lxi                                  IV. 91
     Orientalis                                                   IV. 91
 Eudyptes chrysocome.  Vol. I. p. cii                            VII. 83
     chrysolopha                                                 VII. 83
     demersus                                                    VII. 83
 Eulabeornis castaneoventris.    Vol. I. p. xc                    VI. 78
 Euphema aurantia.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                V. 39
     Bourkii.  Vol. I. p. lxvii                                    V. 43
     chrysostoma.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                 V. 37
     discolor                                                      V. 47
     elegans.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                     V. 38
     petrophila.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                  V. 40
     pulchella.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                   V. 41
     splendida.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                   V. 42
     undulata                                                      V. 44
 Eurostopodus albogularis.  Vol. I. p. xxviii                      II. 7
     guttatus.  Vol. I. p xxviii                                   II. 8
 Eurystomus Australis.  Vol. I. p. xxx                            II. 18
     Orientalis                                                   II. 17

 Falcinellus igneus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvi                           VI. 47
 Falco albus                                                       I. 15
     axillaris                                                     I. 23
     Berigora                                                      I. 11
     Cenchroïdes                                                   I. 13
     clarus                                                        I. 14
     connivens                                                     I. 34
     frontatus.  Vol. I. p. xxiii                                     10
     fucosus                                                        I. 1
     (Hierofalco) subniger                                          I. 9
     hypoleucus.  Vol. I. p. xxii                                      7
     (Hypotriorchis) frontatus  Vol. I. p. xxiii
     leucaëtos.  Vol. I. p. xxiv
     leucogaster                                                    I. 3
     longipennis.  Vol. I. p. xxiii
     lunulatus.  Vol. I. p. xxiii
     macropus.  Vol. I. p. xxii
     melanogenys.  Vol. I. p. xxii                                     8
     melanops.  Vol. I. p. xxiv
     nisus                                                         I. 19
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                                I. 15
     Peregrinus                                                     I. 8
     Ponticerianus.  Vol. I. p. xxii
     radiatus                                                   I. 16,17
     subbuteo.  Vol. I. p. xxiii
     subniger.  Vol. I. p. xxiii                                       9
     torquatus                                                     I. 19
 Falcon, Black                                                      I. 9
     Black-cheeked                                                  I. 8
     Fair                                                          I. 14
     Grey                                                           I. 7
     Little                                                        I. 10
     Radiated                                                      I. 16
     White-fronted                                                 I. 10
     Winking                                                       I. 34
 Falcunculus flavigulus                                           II. 79
     frontatus.  Vol. I. p. xxxviii                               II. 79
     gutturalis                                                   II. 81
     leucogaster.  Vol. I. p. xxxviii                             II. 80
 Fantail, Northern                                                II. 85
     Rufous-fronted                                               II. 84
 Fantail, White-shafted                                           II. 83
 Fig-eater                                                        IV. 82
 Finch, Banded Grass-                                            III. 93
     Beautiful Grass-                                            III. 89
     Bicheno’s                                                   III. 80
     Black-rumped                                                III. 81
     Chestnut-breasted                                           III. 94
     Chestnut-eared                                              III. 87
     Crimson                                                     III. 83
     Fire-tailed                                                 III. 78
     Gouldian                                                    III. 88
     Long-tailed Grass-                                          III. 90
     Masked Grass-                                               III. 91
     Painted                                                     III. 97
     Plain-coloured                                              III. 85
     Red                                                         III. 83
     Red-eared                                                   III. 79
     Red-eyebrowed                                               III. 82
     Red-tailed                                                  III. 84
     Spotted-sided                                               III. 86
     Temporal                                                    III. 82
     White-breasted                                              III. 95
     White-eared Grass-                                          III. 92
     White-headed                                                III. 86
     Yellow-rumped                                               III. 96
 Fire-tail                                                       III. 78
 Flycatcher, Black Fantailed                                      II. 86
     Black-fronted                                                II. 96
     Broad-billed                                                 II. 92
     Brown                                                   II. 93,  94
     Carinated                                                    II. 95
     Coach-whip                                                  III. 15
     Hooded                                                       III. 7
     Orange-rumped                                                II. 84
     Plumbeous                                                    II. 89
     Pretty                                                       II. 90
     Red-bellied                                                  III. 4
     Restless                                                     II. 87
     Rufous-fronted                                               II. 84
     Shining                                                 II. 88,  91
     Soft-tailed                                                 III. 31
     Solitary                                                    III. 69
     Southern                                                    III. 11
     Wagtail                                                      II. 86
     Yellow-eared                                                 IV. 45
     Yellow-tufted                                                IV. 37
 Forty-spot                                                       II. 37
 Fregilus leucopterus                                             IV. 16
 Friar                                                            IV. 58
     Yellow-throated                                              IV. 60
 Fringilla bella                                                 III. 78
     Bichenovii                                                  III. 80
     Lathami                                                     III. 86
     leucocephala                                                III. 86
     oculea                                                      III. 79
     Phaëton                                                     III. 83
     quinticolor                                                 III. 82
     temporalis                                                  III. 82
 Fulica Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxix                              VI. 74

 Gaira fusca                                                     VII. 34
 Gallinago Australis                                              VI. 40
 Gallinula immaculata                                             VI. 82
     tenebrosa.  Vol. I. p. lxxxix                                VI. 73
     ventralis                                                    VI. 72
     Black-backed                                                 VI. 69
     Sombre                                                       VI. 73
     Spotless                                                     VI. 82
 Gannet, Australian                                              VII. 76
     Brown                                                       VII. 78
     Lesser                                                      VII. 79
     Masked                                                      VII. 77
     Red-legged                                                  VII. 79
 Geopelia cuneata.  Vol. I. p. lxxii                               V. 74
     humeralis.  Vol. I. p. lxxi                                   V. 72
     placida.  Vol. I. p. lxxi                                     V. 73
     tranquilla.  Vol. I. p. lxxi                                  V. 73
 Geophaps plumifera.  Vol. I. p. lxxi                              V. 69
     scripta.  Vol. I. p. lxx                                      V. 67
     Smithii.  Vol. I. p. lxx                                      V. 68
 Geronticus spinicollis.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvi                       VI. 45
 Gerygone albogularis.  Vol. I. p. xli                            II. 97
     Buff-breasted                                               II. 101
     chloronotus.  Vol. I. p. xli                                II. 102
     culicivorus.  Vol. I. p. xli                                 II. 99
     fusca.  Vol. I. p. xli                                       II. 98
     Fuscous                                                      II. 98
     Great-billed                                                II. 100
     Green-backed                                                II. 102
     lævigaster.  Vol. I. p. xli                                 II. 101
     magnirostris.  Vol. I. p. xli                               II. 100
     White-throated                                               II. 97
     Western                                                      II. 99
 Glareola Australis                                               VI. 22
     grallaria.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiii                               VI. 22
     Isabella                                                     VI. 22
     Orientalis.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiii                              VI. 23
 Glottis Glottoïdes.  Vol. I. p. lxxxv                            VI. 36
 Glyciphila albifrons.  Vol. I. p. lv                             IV. 29
     fasciata.  Vol. I. p. lv                                     IV. 30
     fulvifrons.  Vol. I. p. lv                                   IV. 28
     ocularis.  Vol. I. p. lv                                     IV. 31
     subocularis                                                  IV. 31
 Gnathodon                                                         V. 76
     strigirostris.  Vol. I. p. lxxii                              V. 76
 Goatsucker, Banded                                                II. 1
     Bristled                                                      II. 1
     Cold-River                                                    II. 3
     Crested                                                       II. 1
     Fichtel’s  Vol. I. p. xxvii
     Gracile                                                       II. 3
     Great-headed. Vol. I. p. xxvii
     Large-tailed                                                  II. 9
     New Holland                                                   II. 1
     Spotted                                                       II. 8
     Wedge-tailed  Vol. I. p. xxvii
     White-throated                                                II. 7
 Godwit, Barred-rumped                                            VI. 29
     Black-tailed                                                 VI. 28
     Terek                                                        VI. 34
 Goose, Beautiful Pygmy                                           VII. 4
     Black and White                                              VII. 2
     Cape Barren                                                  VII. 1
     Cereopsis                                                    VII. 1
     Little                                                       VII. 4
     Maned                                                        VII. 3
     Mother Cary’s                                               VII. 45
     Semipalmated                                                 VII. 2
     Pygmy                                                        VII. 5
 Goshawk, Australian                                               I. 17
     New Holland                                                   I. 14
     Radiated                                                      I. 16
     West Australian                                               I. 18
     White                                                         I. 15
 Gracula cyanotis                                                 IV. 68
     picata                                                       II. 54
     strepera                                                     II. 42
     viridis                                                      IV. 13
 Grallina Australis. Vol. I. p. xxxv                              II. 54
     bicolor                                                      II. 54
     melanoleuca                                                  II. 54
     picata                                                       II. 54
     Pied                                                         II. 54
 Grakle, Blue-eared                                               IV. 68
 Grakle, Green                                                    IV. 13
     Pied                                                         II. 54
     Satin                                                        IV. 10
 Grape-eater                                                      IV. 82
 Graucalus, Ground                                                II. 59
     hypoleucus.  Vol. I. p. xxxvi                                II. 57
     melanops.  Vol. I. p. xxxv                                   II. 55
     melanotis  Vol. I. p. xxxv
     mentalis.  Vol. I. p. xxxvi                                  II. 56
     parvirostris  Vol. I. p. xxxv
     Phasianellus                                                 II. 59
     Swainsonii.  Vol. I. p. xxxvi                                II. 58
     Swainson’s                                                   II. 58
     tenuirostris                                                 II. 60
     varied                                                       II. 56
     White-bellied                                                II. 57
 Grebe, Australian Tippet                                        VII. 80
     Black-throated                                              VII. 81
     Hoary-headed                                                VII. 82
     Green-leek                                                    V. 15
     Greenshank, Australian                                       VI. 36
     Grinder, The                                                 II. 87
     Grosbeak, Black-lined                                       III. 78
     Fascinating                                                  II. 93
     Spotted                                                     III. 86
     Spotted-sided                                               III. 86
 Grus Australasianus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                         VI. 48
 Gull, Crimson-billed                                            VII. 20
     Jameson’s                                                   VII. 20
     Larger                                                      VII. 19
     Little                                                      VII. 20
     Pacific                                                     VII. 19
     Silver                                                      VII. 20
     Skua                                                        VII. 21
 Gygis candida.  Vol. I. p. xcv                                  VII. 30
 Gymnophrys torquatus                                             IV. 72
 Gymnorhina leuconota.  Vol. I. p. xxxiv                          II. 47
     organicum.  Vol. I. p. xxxiv                                 II. 48
     Tibicen.  Vol. I. p. xxxiv                                   II. 46

 Hæmatops lunulatus                                               IV. 72
     validirostris                                                IV. 70
 Hæmatopus Australasianus                                          VI. 7
     fuliginosus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxii                               VI. 8
     longirostris.  Vol. I. p. lxxxii                              VI. 7
     picatus                                                       VI. 7
 Haladroma Urinatrix                                             VII. 60
 Haladrome, Diving                                               VII. 60
 Halcyon incinctus                                                II. 24
     MacLeayii.  Vol. I. p. xxxi                                  II. 24
     MacLeay’s                                                    II. 24
     pyrrhopygia.  Vol. I. p. xxxi                                II. 22
     Red-backed                                                   II. 22
     sacra                                                        II. 21
     Sacred                                                       II. 21
     sanctus.  Vol. I. p. xxxi                                    II. 21
     Sordid                                                       II. 23
     sordidus.  Vol. I. p. xxxi                                   II. 23
 Haliæetus canorus                                                  I. 5
     leucogaster                                                    I. 3
     leucosternus                                                   I. 4
     sphenurus                                                      I. 3
 Haliaëtus Calei                                                   I. 16
     (Ictinoaëtus) canorus  Vol.  I. p. xxii
     (Ictinoaëtus) leucosternon  Vol.  I. p. xxii
     (Pontoaëtus) leucogaster  Vol.  I. p. xxi
 Haliastur leucosternus  Vol. I. p. xxii                               4
     ? sphenurus  Vol. I. p. xxii                                      5
 Harrier, Allied                                                   I. 26
     Jardine’s                                                     I. 27
 Hawk, Blue                                                         I. 8
     Brown                                                         I. 11
     Collared Sparrow                                              I. 19
     Crested                                                       I. 25
     Fish                                                           I. 6
     Little                                                        I. 19
     Little Fish                                                    I. 6
     Nankeen                                                       I. 13
     New Holland Sparrow                                           I. 19
     Orange-speckled                                               I. 11
     Swamp                                                         I. 26
     Western Brown                                                 I. 12
     Whistling                                                      I. 5
     White                                                         I. 15
 Hemipode, Black-backed                                            V. 84
     Black-breasted                                                V. 81
     Chestnut-backed                                               V. 85
     Red-chested                                                   V. 86
     Sparkling                                                     V. 83
     Swift-flying                                                  V. 87
     varied                                                        V. 82
 Hemipodius castanotus.  Vol. I. p. lxxix                          V. 85
     melanogaster.  Vol. I. p. lxxix                               V. 81
     melanotus.  Vol. I. p. lxxix                                  V. 84
     pyrrhothorax.  Vol. I. p. lxxx                                V. 86
     scintillans.  Vol. I. p. lxxix                                V. 83
     varius.  Vol. I. p. lxxix                                     V. 82
     velox.  Vol. I. p. lxxx                                       V. 87
 Hen, Port Egmont                                                VII. 21
 Herodias Greyi.  Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                             VI. 61
     immaculata.  Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                             VI. 58
     jugularis.  Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                              VI. 60
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                               VI. 53
     pannosus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                               VI. 59
     plumiferus.   Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                            VI. 57
     picata.  Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                                 VI. 62
     syrmatophorus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                           VI. 56
 Heron, Australian                                                VI. 55
     Blue Beef                                                    VI. 60
     Caledonian Night                                             VI. 63
     Great-billed                                                 VI. 54
     Nankeen Night                                                VI. 63
     New Holland Night                                            VI. 63
     Pacific                                                      VI. 52
     Spotted                                                      VI. 68
     White-fronted                                                VI. 53
     White-necked                                                 VI. 52
     White Reef                                                   VI. 61
     Yellow-necked                                                VI. 65
 Hiaticula bicincta.   Vol. I. p. lxxxiii                         VI. 16
     inornata.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiii                                VI. 19
     monacha.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiii                                 VI. 18
     nigrifrons.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiii                              VI. 20
     ruficapilla.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiii                             VI. 17
 Himantopus leucocephalus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                     VI. 24
     Novæ-Zealandiæ.   Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                          VI. 25
     palmatus                                                     VI. 26
 Hirundo caudacuta                                                II. 10
     Javanica                                                     II. 13
     leucosternus                                                 II. 12
     neoxena.  Vol. I. p. xxx                                     II. 13
     nigricans                                                    II. 14
     pacifica.   Vol. I. p. xxix                                  II. 10
     pyrrhonota                                                   II. 14
 Honey-eater, Banded                                              IV. 65
     Barred-tailed?                                               IV. 98
     Black                                                        IV. 66
     Black and Yellow                                             IV. 48
     Black-cheeked                                                IV. 45
     Black-headed                                                 IV. 75
 Honey-eater, Black-throated                                      IV. 71
     Blue-cheeked                                                 IV. 68
     Brown                                                        IV. 31
     Buff-winged                                                  IV. 93
     Chattering                                                   IV. 76
     Coach-whip                                                  III. 15
     Cochineal                                                    IV. 63
     Cœrulean                                                     IV. 81
     Cowled                                                       IV. 58
     Dirigang                                                     IV. 98
     Fasciated                                                    IV. 30
     Flapping                                                     IV. 61
     Fulvous-fronted                                              IV. 28
     Fuscous                                                      IV. 44
     Garrulous                                                    IV. 76
     Golden-crowned                                               IV. 12
     Golden-winged                                                IV. 56
     Graculine                                                    IV. 68
     Knob-fronted                                                 IV. 58
     Lanceolate                                                   IV. 47
     Long-billed                                                  IV. 24
     Lunulated                                                IV. 7,  72
     Luteous                                                      IV. 78
     Mellivorous                                                  IV. 56
     Moustached                                                   IV. 26
     Mustachoe                                                    IV. 37
     New Holland                                                  IV. 23
     Obscure                                                      IV. 67
     Painted                                                      IV. 50
     Pale-cheeked                                                 IV. 68
     Pied                                                         IV. 49
     Red-eyed                                                     IV. 72
     Red-headed                                                   IV. 64
     Red-throated                                                 IV. 52
     Rufous-vented                                                II. 67
     Sanguineous                                                  IV. 63
     Singing                                                      IV. 33
     Slender-billed                                               IV. 61
     Sombre                                                       IV. 77
     Spiny-cheeked                                                IV. 53
     Strong-billed                                                IV. 70
     Swan River                                                   IV. 73
     Tasmanian                                                    IV. 27
     Tufted-eared                                                 IV. 37
     Uniform                                                      IV. 46
     Varied                                                       IV. 34
     Warty-faced                                                  IV. 48
     Wattled                                                 IV. 54,  56
     Wattle-cheeked                                               IV. 38
     White-cheeked                                                IV. 25
     White-crowned                                                IV. 68
     White-eared                                                  IV. 36
     White-eyebrowed?                                             IV. 27
     White-fronted                                                IV. 29
     White-pinioned                                               IV. 69
     White-plumed                                                 IV. 43
     White-throated                                          IV. 51,  74
     Yellow                                                       IV. 42
     Yellow-eared                                                 IV. 32
     Yellow-faced                                                 IV. 45
     Yellow-throated                                              IV. 35
     Yellow-tinted                                                IV. 41
     Yellow-tufted                                                IV. 37
     Yellow-winged                                                IV. 24
 Honey-sucker, Black-crowned                                      IV. 72
     Black-throated                                               IV. 29
     Blue-cheeked                                                 IV. 68
     Brown                                                        IV. 31
     Crimson-throated                                             II. 34
     Larger                                                       IV. 33
     White-throated                                               IV. 28
 Hornbill, Psittaceous                                            IV. 90
 Hornbill, Anomalous                                              IV. 90
 Hydrobates lobatus                                              VII. 18
 Hydrochelidon fluviatilis.   Vol. I. p. xcv                     VII. 31
 Hylacola cauta.   Vol. I. p. xlv                                III. 40
     pyrrhopygia.   Vol. I. p. xlv                               III. 39

 Ibis, Black-necked                                               VI. 46
     Falcinellus                                                  VI. 47
     Glossy                                                       VI. 47
     lamellicollis                                                VI. 45
     New Holland                                                  VI. 45
     spinicollis                                                  VI. 45
     Straw-necked                                                 VI. 45
     strictipennis                                                VI. 46
     White                                                        VI. 46
 Ichthyiaëtus leucogaster. Vol. I. p. xx
 Ieracidea Berigora   Vol. I. p. xxiii                                11
     Occidentalis   Vol. I. p. xxiii                                  12

 Jabiru, New Holland                                              VI. 51
 Jackass, Laughing                                                II. 18
 Jungle-fowl                                                       V. 79

 Kestril, Nankeen                                                  I. 13
 Kingfisher                                                       II. 21
     Azure                                                        II. 25
     Bush                                                         II. 24
     Fawn-breasted                                                II. 20
     Giant                                                        II. 18
     Great Brown                                                  II. 18
     Leach’s                                                      II. 19
     Little                                                       II. 26
     Sacred                                                       II. 21
     Tridigitated                                                 II. 25
 Kite                                                              I. 22
     Allied                                                        I. 21
     Black-shouldered                                              I. 23
     Letter-winged                                                 I. 24
     Square-tailed                                                 I. 22
 Kitta holosericea                                                IV. 10
     virescens                                                    IV. 11
 Kiwi-kiwi                                                         VI. 2

 Laniarius albicollis                                             II. 64
 Lanius curvirostris   Vol. I. p. xxx
     frontatus                                                    II. 79
     Karu                                                         II. 61
     macularius                                                   II. 67
     robustus                                                     II. 56
     robustus?  Vol. I. p. xxx
     Saturninus                                                   II. 74
     torquatus   Vol. I. p. xxx
 Lark, Common                                                    III. 73
     Sand                                                         VI. 17
     Singing                                                     III. 76
     Sky-                                                        III. 75
 Larus Catarractes                                               VII. 21
     frontalis                                                   VII. 19
     fuscus                                                      VII. 21
     Georgii                                                     VII. 19
     Jamesonii                                                   VII. 20
     leucomelas                                                  VII. 19
     Pacificus.   Vol. I. p. xciii                               VII. 19
     scopulinus                                                  VII. 20
 Lathamus azureus                                                  V. 41
     concinnus                                                     V. 52
     discolor.   Vol. I. p. lxvii                                  V. 47
     pusillus                                                      V. 54
     rubrifrons                                                    V. 47
 Leather-neck                                                     IV. 60
 Leipoa ocellata.  Vol. I. p. lxxiii                               V. 78
     Ocellated                                                     V. 78
 Lepidogenys subcristatus   Vol. I. p. xxvi                           25
 Leptolophus auricomis                                             V. 45
 Leptopteryx albovittata                                          II. 27
     minor                                                        II. 28
 Leptorhynchus pectoralis                                         VI. 26
 Leptotarsis Eytoni.   Vol. I. p. xcii                           VII. 15
 Lestris Catarractes.   Vol. I. p. xciii                         VII. 21
 Leucosarcia picata.   Vol. I. p. lxx                              V. 63
 Licmetis nasicus.   Vol. I. p. lxiii                               V. 5
     pastinator   Vol. I. p. lxiii
     tenuirostris                                                   V. 5
 Limosa Melanuroïdes.   Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                         VI. 28
     recurvirostra                                                VI. 34
     Terek                                                        VI. 34
     uropygialis.   Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                             VI. 29
 Lobivanellus lobatus.   Vol. I. p. lxxxii                         VI. 9
     personatus.   Vol. I. p. lxxxii                              VI. 10
 Lopholaimus Antarcticus   Vol. I. p. lxix                         V. 61
 Lophorhynchus Antarcticus                                         V. 61
     dilophus                                                      V. 61
 Lorikeet, Porphyry-crowned                                        V. 53
     Red-collared                                                  V. 49
     Scaly-breasted                                                V. 50
     Swainson’s                                                    V. 48
     Swift                                                         V. 47
     Varied                                                        V. 51
 Lory, King                                                        V. 17
     Red-winged                                                    V. 18
 Loxia bella                                                     III. 78
     fascinans                                                    II. 93
 Lyre-Bird                                                       III. 14

 Macropygia Phasianella.   Vol. I. p. lxxii                        V. 75
 Magpie                                                           II. 50
     Black                                                        II. 43
     Lark                                                         II. 54
     Little                                                       II. 54
     White                                                        II. 48
 Malacorhynchus fasciatus                                        VII. 13
     membranaceus.   Vol. I. p. xcii                             VII. 13
 Malurus Brownii   Vol. I. p. xliii                         III. 26,  27
     cruentatus                                                  III. 27
     cyaneus.   Vol. I. p. xliii                                 III. 18
     elegans.   Vol. I. p. xliii                                 III. 22
     exilis                                                      III. 42
     galactotes                                                  III. 35
     Lamberti.   Vol. I. p. xliii                                III. 24
     leucopterus.   Vol. I. p. xliii                             III. 25
     longicaudus.   Vol. I. p. xliii                             III. 19
     malachurus                                                  III. 31
     melanocephalus.   Vol. I. p. xliii                          III. 26
     melanotus.   Vol. I. p. xliii                               III. 20
     pectoralis                                                  III. 21
     pulcherrimus.   Vol. I. p. xliii                            III. 23
     splendens.   Vol. I. p. xliii                               III. 21
     textilis                                                    III. 28
 Manakin, Desmaretian                                             II. 34
     Striped-headed                                          II. 38,  39
 Manorhina viridis                                                IV. 80
 Manorina viridis                                                 IV. 80
 Manikin, Speckled                                                II. 35
 Mareca castanea                                                 VII. 11
     punctata                                                    VII. 11
 Martin                                                           II. 14
     Fairy                                                        II. 15
     Tree                                                         II. 14
 Mawepawk, Little                                                  II. 1
 Megalopterus stolidus                                           VII. 34
 Megalurus cruralis                                              III. 74
     galactotes                                                  III. 35
 Megapode, Mound-raising                                           V. 79
 Megapodius menura                                               III. 14
 Megapodius Tumulus.  Vol. I. p. lxxvii                            V. 79
 Meleagris Lindsayii                                               V. 77
 Melicophila picata.  Vol. I. p. lvii                             IV. 49
 Meliornis Novæ-Hollandiæ                                         IV. 23
 Meliphaga atricapilla                                            IV. 72
     auricomis                                                    IV. 37
     Australasiana.  Vol. I. p. lv                                IV. 27
     Balgonera                                                    IV. 23
     barbata                                                      IV. 23
     Cardinalis                                                   IV. 63
     cœrulea                                                      IV. 81
     chrysocephala                                                IV. 12
     chrysops                                                     IV. 45
     chrysotis                                                    IV. 32
     cyanops                                                      IV. 68
     fulvifrons                                                   IV. 28
     fusca                                                        IV. 44
     inornata                                                     IV. 27
     leucotis                                                     IV. 36
     longirostris.  Vol. I. p. lv                                 IV. 24
     lunulata                                                     IV. 72
     Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lv                                VI. 23
     penicillata                                                  IV. 43
     Phrygia                                                      IV. 48
     sericea.  Vol. I. p. lv                                      IV. 25
     sericeola                                                    IV. 25
     tenuirostris                                                 IV. 61
     torquata                                                     IV. 72
     mystacalis.  Vol. I. p. lv                                   IV. 26
 Melithreptus albogularis. Vol. I. p. lix                         IV. 74
     chloropsis.  Vol. I. p. lix                                  IV. 73
     gularis.  Vol. I. p. lix                                     IV. 71
     lunulatus.  Vol. I. p. lix                                   IV. 72
     melanocephalus.  Vol. I. p. lix                              IV. 75
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                               IV. 23
     validirostris.  Vol. I. p. lix                               IV. 70
 Melopsittacus undulatus.  Vol. I. p. lxvii                        V. 44
 Menura Lyra                                                     III. 14
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                              III. 14
     paradisea                                                   III. 14
     Superb                                                      III. 14
     superba.  Vol. I. p. xlii                                   III. 14
     vulgaris                                                    III. 14
 Merops carunculatus                                              IV. 55
     chrysopterus                                                 IV. 56
     corniculatus                                                 IV. 58
     cyanops                                                      IV. 68
     garrulus                                                     IV. 76
     melanurus                                                    II. 16
     monachus                                                     IV. 58
     ornatus.  Vol. I. p. xxx                                     II. 16
     Phrygius                                                     IV. 48
 Micrœca assimilis  Vol. I. p. x
     flavigaster.  Vol. I. p. xl                                  II. 94
     Great-winged                                                 II. 93
     macroptera.  Vol. I. p. xl                                   II. 93
     Yellow-bellied                                               II. 94
 Microcygna Coromandeliana                                        VII. 5
 Milvus affinis  Vol. I. p. xxv                                       21
     (Hydroictinia) affinis  Vol. I. p. xx
     isurus  Vol. I. p. xxv                                           22
     sphenurus  Vol. I. p. xxii                                        5
 Mimeta flavo-cincta                                              IV. 14
     Meruloïdes                                                   IV. 13
     viridis                                                      IV. 13
 Mimetes flavo-cinctus                                            IV. 14
     viridis                                                      IV. 13
 Miner                                                            IV. 76
     Yellow-throated                                              IV. 79
 Mirafra Horsfieldii.  Vol. I. p. xlix                           III. 77
     Horsfield’s                                                 III. 77
 Monarcha carinata.  Vol. I. p. xl                                II. 95
 Monarcha trivirgata.  Vol. I. p. x                               II. 96
 Moor Hen                                                         VI. 72
 Morepork                                                          II. 4
 Motacilla Australis                                             III. 11
     cyanea                                                      III. 18
     pusilla                                                     III. 53
     solitaria                                                   III. 69
     Southern                                                    III. 11
     superba                                                     III. 18
 Muscicapa auricomis                                              IV. 37
     Australis                                                   III. 11
     barbata  Vol. I. p. xlv
     crepitans                                                   III. 15
     cucullata                                                    III. 7
     erythrogaster  Vol. I. p. xli
     erythrogastra                                                III. 4
     Georgiana Vol. I. p. xli
     Goodenovii                                                   III. 5
     gularis Vol. I. p. xli
     Lathami                                                      III. 1
     malachura                                                   III. 31
     multicolor                                                   III. 3
     mystacea                                                     IV. 37
     pectoralis                                                   II. 67
     rufifrons                                                    II. 84
     vittata Vol. I. p. xli
 Muscipeta carinata                                               II. 95
 Mycteria, Australian                                             VI. 51
     Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                                VI. 51
 Myiägra concinna. Vol. I. p. xxxix                               II. 90
     latirostris. Vol. I. p. xxxix                                II. 92
     macroptera                                                   II. 93
     nitida. Vol. I. p. xxxix                                     II. 89
     plumbea. Vol. I. p. xxxix                                    II. 89
     Rubeculoïdes                                                 II. 91
 Myzantha flavigula.  Vol. I. p. lx                               IV. 79
     flavirostris                                                 IV. 80
     garrula. Vol. I. p. lx                                       IV. 76
     lutea.  Vol. I. p. lx                                        IV. 78
     melanophrys. Vol. I. p. lx                                   IV. 80
     obscura. Vol. I. p. lx                                       IV. 77
 Myzomela obscura. Vol. I. p. lix                                 IV. 67
     erythrocephala. Vol. I. p. lix                               IV. 64
     nigra. Vol. I. p. lix                                        IV. 66
     pectoralis.  Vol. I. p. lix                                  IV. 65
     sanguinolenta. Vol. I. p. lix                                IV. 63

 Nanodes Bourkii                                                   V. 43
     discolor                                                      V. 47
     elegans                                                       V. 38
     pulchellus                                                    V. 41
     undulatus                                                     V. 44
     venustus                                                      V. 37
     ? zonarius                                                    V. 20
 Native Companion                                                 VI. 48
     Hen                                                          VI. 71
 Neomorpha acutirostris                                           IV. 19
     crassirostris                                                IV. 19
     Gouldii Vol. I. p. liv                                       IV. 19
     Gould’s                                                      IV. 19
 Neops chrysoptera                                               IV. 101
 Nettapus albipennis Vol. I. p. xc
     Coromandelianus. Vol. I. p. xci                              VII. 5
     pulchellus. Vol. I. p. xci                                   VII. 4
 Nestor productus. Vol. I. p. lxiv                                  V. 6
 Nightjar, Owlet-                                                  II. 1
     White-bellied Owlet-                                          II. 2
 Nisus Australis                                                   I. 19
     (Urospiza) approximans  Vol. I. p. xxi
     (Urospiza) radiatus Vol. I. p. xxi
     (Urospiza) torquatus Vol. I. p. xxi
 Noctua Boobook                                                    I. 32
     maculata                                                      I. 33
 Noddy                                                      VII. 32,  34
     Black                                                       VII. 34
     Grey                                                        VII. 37
     Lesser                                                      VII. 35
 Noisy Roller                                                     II. 42
 Notodela Karu                                                    II. 61
 Numenius Australis.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvi                           VI. 42
     minutus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvi                                  VI. 44
     uropygialis.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvi                              VI. 43
 Nuthatch, New Holland                                            IV. 98
     Orange-winged                                               IV. 101
 Nycticorax Caledonicus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxviii                     VI. 63
 Nymphicus Novæ-Hollandiæ.  Vol. I. p. lxvii                       V. 45
 Nyroca Australis.   Vol. I. p. xcii                             VII. 16

 Oceanites Wilsonii                                              VII. 65
 Ocyphaps Lophotes.  Vol. I. p. lxx                                V. 70
 Ocypteras albovittatus                                           II. 27
     cinereus                                                     II. 29
     fuscatus                                                     II. 29
     minor                                                        II. 28
     superciliosus                                                II. 32
 Œdicnemus grallarius.   Vol. I. p. lxxxi                          VI. 5
     longipes                                                      VI. 5
     magnirostris                                                  VI. 6
     recurvirostris                                                VI. 6
 Onychoprion fuliginosus? Vol. I. p. xcv                         VII. 32
     Panaya.  Vol. I. p. xcvi                                    VII. 33
     serratus                                                    VII. 32
 Oreocincla lunulata.  Vol. I. p. li                               IV. 7
     macrorhyncha                                                  IV. 7
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                                IV. 7
 Oreoïca, Crested                                                 II. 81
     gutturalis.  Vol. I. p. xxxviii                              II. 81
 Organ-Bird                                                       II. 48
 Origma rubricata.  Vol. I. p. xlvii                             III. 69
     solitaria                                                   III. 69
 Oriole, Crescent-marked                                          IV. 14
     New South Wales                                              IV. 13
 Oriolus affinis  Vol. I. p. liii
     flavocinctus.  Vol. I. p. liii                               IV. 14
     regens                                                       IV. 12
     variegatus                                                   IV. 13
     viridis.  Vol. I. p. liii                                    IV. 13
 Orthonyx maculatus                                               IV. 99
     Spine-tailed                                                 IV. 99
     spinicaudus.  Vol. I. p. lxii                                IV. 99
     Temminckii                                                   IV. 99
 Osprey, White-headed                                               I. 6
 Otis Australis  Vol. I. p. lxxxi
     Australasianus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxi                             VI. 4
 Owl, Boobook                                                      I. 32
     Brown or Cuckoo                                               I. 32
     Chestnut-faced                                                I. 28
     Delicate                                                      I. 31
     Masked Barn                                                   I. 29
     Rufous                                                        I. 36
     Powerful                                                      I. 35
     Sooty                                                         I. 30
     Spotted                                                       I. 33
     Winking                                                       I. 34
 Oxyura Australis                                                VII. 17
 Oyster-catcher, Black                                             VI. 8
     Sooty                                                         VI. 8
     White-breasted                                                VI. 7

 Pachycephala Australis                                          III. 11
     Black-tailed                                                 II. 66
     falcata.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                  II. 68
 Pachycephala fuliginosa                                          II. 64
     fusca                                                        II. 64
     Gilbertii.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                II. 71
     Gilbert’s                                                    II. 71
     glaucura.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                 II. 65
     Grey-tailed                                                  II. 65
     gutturalis.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                               II. 64
     inornata  Vol. I. p. xxxvi
     Lanoïdes.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                 II. 69
     Lunulated                                                    II. 68
     melanura.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                 II. 66
     olivacea.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                 II. 73
     Olivaceous                                                   II. 73
     pectoralis.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                               II. 67
     Plain-coloured                                               II. 72
     Red-throated                                                 II. 70
     rufogularis.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                              II. 70
     Shrike-like                                                  II. 69
     simplex.  Vol. I. p. xxxvii                                  II. 72
     striata                                                      II. 67
 Pachyptila Banksii  Vol. I. p. xci
     Forsteri                                                    VII. 55
     vittata                                                     VII. 55
 Palæornis anthopeplus                                             V. 16
     Barrabandi                                                    V. 15
     melanura                                                      V. 16
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                                V. 45
     rosaceus                                                      V. 15
 Pandion Gouldii  Vol. I. p. xxi
     leucocephalus  Vol. I. p. xxi                                     6
 Paralcyon gigas                                                  II. 18
 Pardalote, Allied                                                II. 39
     Black-headed                                                 II. 40
     Forty-spotted                                                II. 37
     Red-lored                                                    II. 36
     Spotted                                                      II. 35
     Striated                                                     II. 38
     Yellow-rumped                                                II. 41
 Paradalotus affinis.  Vol. I. p. xxxiii                          II. 39
     melanocephalus.  Vol. I. p. xxxiii                           II. 40
     ornatus                                                      II. 38
     punctatus.  Vol. I. p. xxxiii                                II. 35
     quadragintus.  Vol. I. p. xxxiii                             II. 37
     rubricatus.  Vol. I. p. xxxiii                               II. 36
     striatus.  Vol. I. p. xxxiii                                 II. 38
     uropygialis.  Vol. I. p. xxxiii                              II. 41
 Parkinsonius mirabilis                                          III. 14
 Paroquet, Pacific                                                 V. 52
     Red-shouldered                                                V. 47
     Small                                                         V. 54
 Parra Gallinacea.  Vol. I. p. xc                                 VI. 75
     Gallinaceous                                                 VI. 75
 Partridge, Australian                                             V. 89
     New Holland                                                   V. 82
     Sombre                                                        V. 91
     Van Diemen’s Land                                             V. 90
 Parrakeet, Adelaide                                               V. 22
     Barnard’s                                                     V. 21
     Barraband’s                                                   V. 15
     Bauer’s                                                       V. 20
     Beautiful                                                     V. 34
     Black-spotted, of Van Diemen’s Land                           V. 46
     Black-tailed                                                  V. 16
     Blue-banded                                                   V. 37
     Blue-Banded Grass-                                            V. 37
     Blue-bellied                                                  V. 48
     Bourke’s Grass-                                               V. 43
     Brown’s                                                       V. 31
     Cockatoo                                                      V. 45
     Chestnut-shouldered Grass-                                    V. 41
     Crested                                                       V. 45
     Crimson-bellied                                               V. 33
     Crimson-fronted                                               V. 52
     Elegant Grass-                                                V. 38
     Fiery                                                         V. 30
     Ground                                                   V. 38,  46
     Little                                                        V. 54
     Long-billed?                                                   V. 6
     Many-coloured                                                 V. 35
     Musk                                                          V. 52
     Musky                                                         V. 52
     Orange-bellied                                                V. 41
     Orange-bellied Grass-                                         V. 39
     Pacific                                                       V. 52
     Pale-headed                                                   V. 26
     Red-backed                                                    V. 36
     Pennant’s                                                     V. 23
     Red-capped                                                    V. 32
     Red-shouldered                                                V. 47
     Rock                                                          V. 40
     Rock Grass-                                                   V. 40
     Rose-hill                                                     V. 27
     Small                                                         V. 54
     Splendid                                                      V. 28
     Splendid Grass-                                               V. 42
     Swamp                                                         V. 46
     Swift                                                         V. 47
     The Earl of Derby’s                                           V. 29
     Turcosine                                                     V. 41
     Twenty-eight                                                  V. 19
     Undulated                                                     V. 44
     Warbling Grass-                                               V. 44
     Wilson’s?                                                      V. 6
     Yellow-bellied                                                V. 24
     Yellow-collared                                               V. 19
     Yellow-rumped                                                 V. 25
 Parrot, Barnard’s                                                 V. 21
     Bauer’s                                                       V. 20
     Blue                                                          V. 32
     Blue-bellied                                                  V. 48
     Brown’s                                                       V. 31
     Caledonian?                                                   V. 24
     Canary                                                        V. 44
     Crimson-winged                                                V. 18
     Green                                                         V. 24
     Ground                                                        V. 46
     Mountain                                                      V. 16
     New Caledonian?                                               V. 24
     Nonpareil                                                     V. 27
     Orange-bellied                                                V. 41
     Pacific                                                       V. 52
     Pheasant                                                      V. 22
     Phillip Island                                                 V. 6
     Pennantian                                                    V. 23
     Red-crowned                                                   V. 14
     Scarlet and Green                                             V. 17
     Scarlet-breasted                                              V. 15
     Small                                                         V. 54
     Smutty                                                        V. 31
     Sulphur-headed?                                               V. 24
     Tabuan                                                        V. 17
     Undulated                                                     V. 44
     Van Diemen’s                                                  V. 24
     Varied                                                        V. 35
 Passer stultus                                                  VII. 34
 Pedionomus microurus  Vol. I. p. lxxix
     torquatus.  Vol. I. p. lxxix                                  V. 80
 Pelican, Australian                                             VII. 74
 Pelecanoïdes Urinatrix                                          VII. 60
 Pelecanopus Pelecanoïdes                                        VII. 23
 Pelecanus conspicillatus.  Vol. I. p. ci                        VII. 74
     fiber                                                       VII. 78
     nævius                                                      VII. 71
 Pelecanus plotus                                                VII. 78
     punctatus                                                   VII. 71
     Sula                                                        VII. 78
     varius                                                      VII. 68
 Pelidna subarquata                                               VI. 32
 Penguin, Apterous                                                 VI. 2
     Crested                                                     VII. 83
     Fairy                                                       VII. 85
     Little                                                      VII. 84
 Perdix Australis                                                  V. 89
     Chinensis                                                     V. 92
     Manillensis                                                   V. 92
     varia                                                         V. 82
 Peristera chalcoptera.  Vol. I. p. lxx                            V. 64
     elegans.  Vol. I. p. lxx                                      V. 65
     histrionica.  Vol. I. p. lxx                                  V. 66
 Pernis (Hyptiopus) subcristatus  Vol. I. p. xxvi
 Petrel, Allied                                                  VII. 59
     Another Blue                                                VII. 52
     Black-bellied Storm                                         VII. 62
     Blue                                                        VII. 52
     Broad-billed                                                VII. 55
     Cape                                                        VII. 53
     Cook’s                                                      VII. 51
     Diving                                                      VII. 60
     Fleshy-footed                                               VII. 57
     Frigate                                                     VII. 61
     Giant                                                       VII. 45
     Great Grey                                                  VII. 47
     Grey-backed Storm                                           VII. 64
     Pintado                                                     VII. 53
     Short-tailed                                                VII. 56
     Silvery-grey                                                VII. 48
     Soft-plumaged                                               VII. 50
     Spectacled                                                  VII. 46
     Wedge-tailed                                                VII. 58
     White-and-Black spotted                                     VII. 53
     White-bellied Storm                                         VII. 63
     White-faced Storm                                           VII. 61
     White-headed                                                VII. 49
     Wilson’s Storm                                              VII. 65
 Petroïca bicolor.  Vol. I. p. xlii                               III. 7
     erythrogastra.  Vol. I. p. xlii                              III. 4
     fusca.  Vol. I. p. xlii                                      III. 8
     Goodenovii.  Vol. I. p. xlii                                 III. 5
     modesta                                                      III. 4
     multicolor.  Vol. I. p. xlii                                 III. 3
     phœnicea.  Vol. I. p. xlii                                   III. 6
     pulchella                                                    III. 4
     rhodinogaster                                                III. 1
     rosea                                                        III. 2
     superciliosa.  Vol. I. p. xlii                               III. 9
 Petrophassa albipennis.   Vol. I. p. lxxi                         V. 71
 Pewit, Black-breasted                                            VI. 11
     Masked                                                       VI. 10
     Wattled                                                       VI. 9
 Pezoporus formosus.  Vol. I. p. lxvii                             V. 46
     rufifrons                                                     V. 46
 Phaëton erubescens                                              VII. 73
     phœnicurus.  Vol. I. p. ci                                  VII. 73
 Phalacrocorax Carboïdes. Vol. I. p. c                           VII. 66
     hypoleucus.  Vol. I. p. c                                   VII. 68
     leucogaster.  Vol. I. p. c                                  VII. 69
     melanoleucus.  Vol. I. p. c                                 VII. 70
     pica                                                        VII. 68
     punctatus.   Vol. I. p. c                                   VII. 71
     sulcirostris.   Vol. I. p. c                                VII. 67
 Phaps chalcoptera.  Vol. I. p. lxx                                V. 64
     elegans  Vol. I. p. lx
     histrionica  Vol. I. p. lx
 Pheasant                                                        III. 14
     Native                                                        V. 78
 Philedon cœruleus                                                IV. 81
     rubrifrons                                                   IV. 28
 Philemon garrulus                                                IV. 76
     Phrygius                                                     IV. 48
 Piezorhynchus nitidus.  Vol. I. p. xxxix                         II. 88
 Pigeon, Blue                                                     II. 55
     Bronze                                                        V. 64
     Bronze-winged                                                 V. 64
     Brush Bronze-winged                                           V. 65
     Cape                                                        VII. 53
     Crested                                                       V. 70
     Ewing’s Fruit-                                                V. 56
     Little Bronze                                                 V. 65
     Little Green                                                  V. 62
     Magnificent Fruit-                                            V. 58
     Mangrove                                                      V. 72
     Norfolk                                                       V. 59
     of the Marshes, The Crested                                   V. 70
     Opaline                                                       V. 68
     Partridge                                                     V. 68
     Pheasant-tailed                                               V. 75
     Pied                                                          V. 63
     Superb Fruit-                                                 V. 57
     Swainson’s Fruit-                                             V. 55
     Top-knot                                                      V. 61
     Torres’ Strait Fruit-                                         V. 60
     White-faced                                                   V. 63
     White-fleshed                                                 V. 63
     White-headed Fruit-                                           V. 59
 Pinguinaria cristata                                            VII. 83
 Pipit, Australian                                               III. 73
 Pipra Desmaretii                                                 II. 34
     punctata                                                     II. 35
     striata                                                      II. 38
     striata?                                                     II. 39
 Pitta brachyura                                                   IV. 2
     Iris.  Vol. I. p. li                                          IV. 3
     Noisy                                                         IV. 1
     Rainbow                                                       IV. 3
     strepitans.  Vol. I. p. 1                                     IV. 1
     versicolor                                                    IV. 1
     Vigorsii.  Vol. I. p. li                                      IV. 2
     Vigors’                                                       IV. 2
 Platalea flavipes.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                           VI. 49
     regia.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvii                                   VI. 50
 Platycercus Adelaidiæ.  Vol. I. p. lxv                            V. 22
     Barnardi.  Vol. I. p. lxv                                     V. 21
     Baueri.  Vol. I. p. lxv                                       V. 20
     Brownii.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                     V. 31
     erythropterus                                                 V. 18
     eximius.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                     V. 27
     flaveolus.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                   V. 25
     flaviventris.  Vol. I. p. lxv                                 V. 24
     hæmatogaster                                                  V. 33
     hæmatonotus                                                   V. 36
     icterodes                                                     V. 29
     icterotis.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                   V. 29
     ignitus.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                     V. 30
     multicolor                                                    V. 35
     palliceps.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                   V. 26
     Pennantii.  Vol. I. p. lxv                                    V. 23
     pileatus.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                    V. 32
     pulcherrimus                                                  V. 34
     semitorquatus.  Vol. I. p. lxv                                V. 19
     splendidus.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                  V. 28
     scapularis                                                    V. 17
     scapulatus                                                    V. 17
     Stanleyii                                                     V. 29
     zonarius                                                      V. 20
 Plautus albatrus                                                VII. 38
 Plectorhyncha lanceolata.  Vol. I. p. lvi                        IV. 47
 Plotus Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. ci                            VII. 75
 Plover, Australian Golden                                        VI. 13
     Bridled                                                       VI. 5
     Brown                                                   VI. 55,  14
     Chestnut-breasted                                            VI. 16
     Great-billed                                                  VI. 6
     Grey                                                         VI. 12
     Grisled                                                       VI. 5
     High-legged                                                   VI. 5
     Long-billed                                                   VI. 6
     Red-necked                                                   VI. 17
     Southern Stone                                                VI. 5
     Wattled                                                      VI. 10
 Plyctolophus Eos                                                   V. 4
     funeralis                                                     V. 11
     galeatus                                                      V. 14
     galeritus                                                      V. 1
     Leadbeateri                                                    V. 2
     productus                                                      V. 6
     tenuirostris                                                   V. 5
 Podargus Australis?                                               II. 3
     brachypterus  Vol. I. p. xxvii
     cinereus?                                                     II. 3
     Cuvieri                                                       II. 4
     Cuvier’s                                                      II. 4
     ? gracilis?                                                   II. 3
     humeralis.  Vol. I. p. xxviii                                 II. 3
     megacephalus  Vol. I. p. xxvii
     Moth-plumaged                                                 II. 5
     Phalænoïdes.  Vol. I. p. xxviii                               II. 5
     Plumed                                                        II. 6
     plumiferus.  Vol. I. p. xxviii                                II. 6
     Stanleyanus  Vol. I. p. xxviii
     Tawny-shouldered                                              II. 3
 Podiceps Australis.  Vol. I. p. cii                             VII. 80
     Dominicus, var. Vol. I. p. cii
     gularis.  Vol. I. p. cii                                    VII. 81
     Nestor                                                      VII. 82
     poliocephalus.  Vol. I. p. cii                              VII. 82
 Poëphila acuticauda.  Vol. I. p. l                              III. 90
     cincta.  Vol. I. p. l                                       III. 93
     Gouldiæ.  Vol. I. p. l
     leucotis.  Vol. I. p. l                                     III. 92
     mirabilis.  Vol. I. p. xlix                                 III. 89
     personata.  Vol. I. p. l                                    III. 91
 Polophilus leucogaster                                           IV. 92
     Phasianus                                                    IV. 92
     variegatus                                                   IV. 92
 Polytelis Barrabandi.  Vol. I. p. lxv                             V. 15
     melanura.  Vol. I. p. lxv                                     V. 16
 Pomatorhinus, Red-breasted                                       IV. 21
     rubeculus.  Vol. I. p. lv                                    IV. 21
     superciliosus.  Vol. I. p. lv                                IV. 22
     Temporal                                                     IV. 20
     temporalis.  Vol. I. p. lv                                   IV. 20
     trivirgatus                                                  IV. 20
     White-eyebrowed                                              IV. 22
 Porphyrio, Azure-breasted                                        VI. 70
     bellus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxix                                   VI. 70
     Black-backed                                                 VI. 69
     melanotus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxix                                VI. 69
 Porzana fluminea.  Vol. I. p. xc                                 VI. 79
     ? immaculata.  Vol. I. p. xc                                 VI. 82
     leucophrys.  Vol. I. p. xc                                   VI. 81
     palustris.  Vol. I. p. xc                                    VI. 80
 Praticola campestris                                            III. 71
     fuliginosa                                                  III. 70
 Pratincole, Australasian                                         VI. 22
     Oriental                                                     VI. 23
 Prion, Ariel  Vol. I. p. xcix
     Banksii  Vol. I. p. xcix
     Broad-billed                                                VII. 55
     Dove-like                                                   VII. 54
     Turtur.  Vol. I. p. xcix                                    VII. 54
     vittatus.  Vol. I. p. xcix                                  VII. 55
 Procellaria Æquinoctialis  Vol. I. p. xcvi
     Antarctica  Vol. I. p. xcvii
     cœrulea.  Vol. I. p. xcviii                                 VII. 52
     conspicillata,  Vol. I. p. xcvii                            VII. 46
     Cookii.  Vol. I. p. xcviii                                  VII. 51
     flavirostris  Vol. I. p. xcvii
     Forsteri                                               VII. 52,  55
     gigantea.  Vol. I. p. xcvii                                 VII. 45
     Glacialoïdes.  Vol. I. p. xcviii                            VII. 48
     hasitata.  Vol. I. p. xcvii                                 VII. 47
     Lessonii.  Vol. I. p. xcviii                                VII. 49
     leucocephala                                                VII. 49
     leucoptera                                                  VII. 51
     macroptera  Vol. I. p. xcvii
     marina                                                      VII. 61
     mollis.  Vol. I. p. xcviii                                  VII. 50
     nævia                                                       VII. 53
     nivea  Vol. I. p. xcvii
     pelagica                                                    VII. 65
     similis                                                     VII. 52
     Solandri  Vol. I. p. xcvii
     tridactyla                                                  VII. 60
     Turtur                                                      VII. 54
     Urinatrix                                                   VII. 60
     vagabunda                                                   VII. 49
     velox                                                       VII. 51
     vittata                                                     VII. 55
     Wilsonii                                                    VII. 65
 Psephotus hæmatogaster. Vol. I. p. lxvi                           V. 33
     hæmatonotus.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                 V. 36
     multicolor.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                  V. 35
     pulcherrimus.  Vol. I. p. lxvi                                V. 34
 Psilopus albogularis                                             II. 97
     brevirostris                                                II. 103
     culicivorus                                                  II. 99
     fuscus                                                       II. 98
     olivaceus  Vol. I. p. xl
 Psittacula Florentis                                              V. 53
 Psittacus Australis                                          V. 47,  52
     Banksianus                                                    V. 47
     Banksii                                                   V. 7,  10
     Barrabandii                                                   V. 15
     Baueri                                                        V. 20
     Brownii                                                  V. 24,  31
     Caledonicus?                                                  V. 24
     capitatus                                                     V. 27
     chlorolepidotus                                               V. 50
     chrysogaster                                                  V. 41
     chrysostomus                                                  V. 37
     concinnus                                                     V. 52
     Cookii                                                        V. 10
     cyanomelas                                                    V. 20
     cyanopygius                                                   V. 17
     discolor                                                      V. 47
     Edwardsii                                                     V. 41
     elegans                                                       V. 23
     Eos                                                            V. 4
     erythropterus                                                 V. 18
     eximius                                                       V. 27
     flaviventris                                                  V. 24
     formosus                                                      V. 46
     funereus                                                      V. 11
     galeatus                                                      V. 14
     galeritus                                                      V. 1
     gloriosus                                                     V. 23
     humeralis                                                     V. 47
     icterotis                                                     V. 29
     Leachii                                                       V. 10
     magnificus                                                     V. 7
     melanotus                                                     V. 18
     multicolor                                                    V. 35
     nasicus                                                        V. 5
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                                V. 45
     Pacificus                                                     V. 52
     Pennantii                                                     V. 23
     phœnicocephalus                                               V. 14
     pulchellus                                                    V. 41
     purpurea                                                      V. 53
     purpureocephalus                                              V. 32
     purpureus                                                     V. 53
     pusillus                                                      V. 54
     rubrifrons                                                    V. 52
     sagittifer Barrabandi                                         V. 15
     scapulatus                                                    V. 17
     semitorquatus                                                 V. 19
     Solandri                                                      V. 10
     splendidus                                                    V. 23
     Tabuensis                                                     V. 17
     Temminckii                                                    V. 10
     tenuirostris                                                   V. 5
     terrestris                                                    V. 46
     undulatus                                                     V. 44
     velatus                                                       V. 52
     venustus                                                 V. 31,  37
     viridis                                                       V. 20
     zonarius                                                      V. 20
 Psophodes, Black-throated                                       III. 16
     crepitans.  Vol. I. p. xliii                                III. 15
     nigrogularis.  Vol. I. p. xliii                             III. 16
 Pteropodocys Phasianella. Vol. I. p. xxxvi                       II. 59
 Ptilinopus Ewingii.  Vol. I. p. lxix                              V. 56
     purpuratus, var. Regina                                       V. 55
     superbus.  Vol. I. p. lxix                                    V. 57
     Swainsonii.  Vol. I. p. lxix                                  V. 55
 Ptilonorhynchus holosericeus.  Vol. I. p. lii                    IV. 10
     MacLeayii                                                    IV. 10
     nuchalis                                                      IV. 9
     Smithii.  Vol. I. p. lii                                     IV. 11
     squamulosus                                                  IV. 10
     viridis                                                      IV. 11
 Ptiloris paradisea                                              IV. 100
     paradiseus.  Vol. I. p. lxii                                IV. 100
 Ptilotis auricomis.  Vol. I. p. lvi                              IV. 37
     chrysops.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                    IV. 45
     chrysotis.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                   IV. 32
     cratitius.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                   IV. 38
     flava.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                       IV. 42
     flavescens.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                  IV. 41
     flavigula.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                   IV. 35
     fusca                                                        IV. 44
     fuscus.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                      IV. 44
     Graceful                                                     IV. 39
     leucotis.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                    IV. 36
     Lewinii? Vol. I. p. lvi
     ornatus.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                     IV. 39
     penicillatus.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                IV. 43
     Plumed                                                       IV. 40
     plumulus.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                    IV. 40
     sonorus.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                     IV. 33
     unicolor.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                    IV. 46
     versicolor.  Vol. I. p. lvi                                  IV. 34
 Puffinuria Garnotii                                             VII. 60
     Urinatrix.  Vol. I. p. c                                    VII. 60
 Puffinus assimilis. Vol. I. p. xcix                             VII. 59
     Australis                                                   VII. 59
     brevicaudus.  Vol. I. p. xcix                               VII. 56
     carneipes.  Vol. I. p. xcix                                 VII. 57
     sphenurus.  Vol. I. p. xcix                                 VII. 58
 Pyrrhocorax leucopterus                                          IV. 16
     violaceus                                                    IV. 10
 Pyrrholæmus brunneus.  Vol. I. p. xlvii                         III. 68

 Quail, Brown                                                      V. 89
     Chinese                                                       V. 92
     Greater Brown                                                 V. 90
     Little                                                        V. 87
     Manilla                                                       V. 92
     New Holland                                                   V. 89
     Painted                                                       V. 82
     Pectoral                                                      V. 88
     Stubble                                                       V. 88
     Thick-billed                                                  V. 85
     Varied                                                        V. 82
 Quaker                                                           VI. 63

 Rail                                                             VI. 78
     Land                                                         VI. 76
     Lewin’s Water                                                VI. 77
     Pectoral                                                     VI. 76
 Rallus brachipus                                                 VI. 77
     Lewinii.  Vol. I. p. xc                                      VI. 77
     pectoralis.  Vol. I. p. xc                                   VI. 76
 Raven, South Sea                                                 IV. 18
 Recurvirostra Novæ-Hollandiæ                                     VI. 27
     rubricollis.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                              VI. 27
 Red-bill                                                        III. 82
 Red-knee, Banded                                                 VI. 21
 Red-throat, Brown                                               III. 68
 Reed-Lark, Field                                                III. 71
     Striated                                                    III. 70
 Rhipidura albiscapa.  Vol. I. p. xxxix                           II. 83
     Dryas  Vol. I. p. xxxix
     flabellifera                                                 II. 83
     isura.  Vol. I. p. xxxix                                     II. 85
     Motacilloïdes.  Vol. I. p. xxxix                             II. 86
     picata  Vol. I. p. xxxix
     rufifrons.  Vol. I. p. xxxix                                 II. 84
 Rhynchæa, Australian                                             VI. 41
     Australis.  Vol. I. p. lxxxvi                                VI. 41
 Rhynchaspis fasciata                                            VII. 13
     maculatus                                                   VII. 12
     membranacea                                                 VII. 13
     Rhynchotis                                                  VII. 12
 Robin                                                            III. 3
     Black                                                        III. 7
     Dusky                                                        III. 8
     Flame-breasted                                               III. 6
     Grey-breasted                                               III. 12
     Norfolk Island                                               III. 4
     Pied                                                         III. 7
     Pink-breasted                                                III. 1
     Pink-breasted Wood-                                          III. 1
     Red-capped                                                   III. 5
     Rose-breasted Wood-                                          III. 2
     Scarlet-breasted                                         III. 3,  4
     Scrub                                                       III. 10
     White-bellied                                               III. 13
     White-eyebrowed                                              III. 9
     Yellow                                                      III. 11
     Yellow-breasted                                             III. 11
 Roller, Australian                                               II. 17
     Pacific                                                      II. 17
     Piping                                                       II. 46
     Streaked                                                     IV. 13
     Striated                                                     IV. 13
     Varied                                                       IV. 11
 Rose-hill                                                         V. 29
     Moreton Bay                                                   V. 26

 Sandpiper, Curlew                                                VI. 32
     Fairy                                                        VI. 35
     Great                                                        VI. 33
     Green                                                        VI. 35
     Grey                                                         VI. 12
     Grey-rumped                                                  VI. 38
     Least                                                        VI. 31
     Little                                                       VI. 31
     Marsh                                                        VI. 37
     Swiss                                                        VI. 12
     Wattled                                                       VI. 9
 Sarciophorus pectoralis. Vol. I. p. lxxxii                       VI. 11
 Saxicola chrysorrhœa                                            III. 63
     rhodinogaster                                                III. 1
     solitaria.                                                  III. 69
     splendens                                                   III. 21
 Schœniclus albescens.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                         VI. 31
     Australis.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                                VI. 30
     magnus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                                   VI. 33
     subarquatus.  Vol. I. p. lxxxiv                              VI. 32
 Scolopax Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxxv                             VI. 40
     cinerea                                                      VI. 34
     Hardwickii                                                   VI. 40
     subarquata                                                   VI. 32
     Terek                                                        VI. 34
 Scythrops Australasiæ                                            IV. 90
     Australis                                                    IV. 90
     Novæ-Hollandiæ. Vol. I. p. lxi                               IV. 90
 Seïsura inquieta.  Vol. I. p. xxxix                              II. 87
     volitans                                                     II. 87
 Sericornis, Allied                                              III. 48
     Buff-breasted                                               III. 50
     citreogularis. Vol. I. p. xlvi                              III. 46
     frontalis.  Vol. I. p. xlvi                                 III. 49
     humilis.  Vol. I. p. xlvi                                   III. 47
     lævigaster.  Vol. I. p. xlvi                                III. 50
     Large-billed                                                III. 52
     maculatus.  Vol. I. p. xlvi                                 III. 51
     magnirostris.  Vol. I. p. xlvi                              III. 52
     osculans  Vol. I. p. xlvi                                   III. 48
     parvulus                                                    III. 49
     Sombre-coloured                                             III. 47
     Spotted                                                     III. 51
     White-fronted                                               III. 49
     Yellow-throated                                             III. 46
 Sericulus chrysocephalus. Vol. I. p. lii                         IV. 12
     magnirostris. Vol. I. p. lii
     regens                                                       IV. 12
 Shag, Black                                                     VII. 66
     Black and White                                             VII. 68
     Crested                                                     VII. 71
     Little                                                      VII. 70
     Pied                                                        VII. 68
     Spotted                                                     VII. 71
 Shieldrake, Chestnut-coloured                                    VII. 7
     New Holland                                                  VII. 7
     Radjah                                                       VII. 8
 Shoveller, Australian                                           VII. 12
     New Holland                                                 VII. 12
 Shrike, Frontal                                                  II. 79
     Robust                                                       II. 56
 Shrike-Tit, Frontal                                              II. 79
     White-bellied                                                II. 80
 Sitta? chrysoptera                                              IV. 101
 Sittella, Black-capped                                          IV. 104
     chrysoptera. Vol. I. p. lxii                                IV. 101
     leucocephala. Vol. I. p. lxii                               IV. 102
     leucoptera. Vol. I. p. lxii                                 IV. 103
     melanocephala                                               IV. 104
     Orange-winged                                               IV. 101
     pileata.  Vol. I. p. lxii                                   IV. 104
     White-headed                                                IV. 102
     White-winged                                                IV. 103
 Smicrornis brevirostris.  Vol. I. p. xli                        II. 103
     flavescens.  Vol. I. p. xli                                 II. 104
     Short-billed                                                II. 103
     Yellow-tinted                                               II. 104
 Snipe, Land                                                      VI. 31
     New Holland                                                  VI. 40
     Terek                                                        VI. 34
 Soldier, Poor                                                    IV. 58
 Sparrow, Native                                                 III. 79
     Satin                                                        II. 91
 Sparvius cirrhocephalus  Vol. I. p. xxiv
     lunulatus  Vol. I. p. xxiii
     melanops  Vol. I. p. xxiv
     niveus  Vol. I. p. xxiv
     tricolor  Vol. I. p. xxiv
 Spatula Rhynchotis.  Vol. I. p. xcii                            VII. 12
 Sphecotheres Australis.  Vol. I. p. liii                         IV. 15
     Australian                                                   IV. 15
     canicollis                                                   IV. 15
     virescens                                                    IV. 15
     viridis                                                      IV. 15
 Spheniscus                                                      VII. 83
     minor. Vol. I. p. cii                                       VII. 84
     Undina.  Vol. I. p. cii                                     VII. 85
 Sphenœacus galactotes.  Vol. I. p. xliv                         III. 35
     gramineus.  Vol. I. p. xliv                                 III. 36
     Grass-loving                                                III. 36
     Tawny                                                       III. 35
 Sphenostoma cristatum.  Vol. I. p. xliii                        III. 17
     Spine-bill                                                   IV. 61
     Slender-billed                                               IV. 61
     White-eyebrowed                                              IV. 62
 Spoonbill, Royal                                                 VI. 50
     Yellow-legged                                                VI. 49
 Squatarola Helvetica.  Vol. I. p. lxxxii                         VI. 12
 Squeaker                                                         II. 45
 Sterna alba                                                     VII. 30
     candida                                                     VII. 30
     gracilis.  Vol. I. p. xciv                                  VII. 27
     guttata                                                     VII. 32
     melanauchen. Vol. I. p. xciv                                VII. 28
     melanorhyncha. Vol. I. p. xciv                              VII. 26
     Oahuensis.                                                  VII. 32
     Panaya                                                      VII. 33
     Pelecanoïdes                                                VII. 23
     poliocerca                                                  VII. 24
     serrata                                                     VII. 32
     stolida                                                     VII. 34
     (Sylochelidon) strenuus                                     VII. 22
     velox                                                       VII. 26
 Sternula Nereis. Vol. I. p. xciv                                VII. 29
 Stilt, Banded                                                    VI. 26
     New Zealand                                                  VI. 25
     White-headed                                                 VI. 24
 Stipiturus malachurus. Vol. I. p. xliv                          III. 31
 Strepera                                                         II. 42
     arguta. Vol. I. p. xxxiv                                     II. 44
     Anaphonensis. Vol. I. p. xxxiv                               II. 45
     fuliginosa. Vol. I. p. xxxiv                                 II. 43
     graculina. Vol. I. p. xxxiv                                  II. 42
     melanoptera. Vol. I. p. xxxiv
     plumbea                                                      II. 45
 Strepsilas collaris                                              VI. 39
     Interpres. Vol. I. p. lxxxv                                  VI. 39
 Strix Boobook                                                     I. 32
     castanops. Vol. I. p. xxvi                                       28
     Cyclops                                                       I. 29
     delicatulus. Vol. I. p. xxvi                                     31
     flammea?. Vol. I. p. xxvi
     personata. Vol. I. p. xxvi                                       29
     tenebricosus. Vol. I. p. xxvi                                    30
 Struthidea, Grey                                                 IV. 17
     cinerea. Vol. I. p. liii                                     IV. 17
 Sula Australis. Vol. I. p. ci                                   VII. 76
     Brasiliensis                                                VII. 78
     candida                                                     VII. 79
     erythrorhyncha                                              VII. 79
     fiber                                                       VII. 78
     fusca. Vol. I. p. ci                                        VII. 78
     personata. Vol. I. p. ci                                    VII. 77
     piscator. Vol. I. p. ci                                     VII. 79
     rubripes                                                    VII. 79
 Swallow, Australian Spine-tailed                                 II. 10
     Black-and-white                                              II. 12
     Dun-rumped                                                   II. 14
     Grey-breasted Wood-                                          II. 29
     Little Wood-                                                 II. 28
     Masked Wood-                                                 II. 31
     Needle-tailed?                                               II. 10
     New Holland                                                  II. 13
     New Holland?                                                 II. 10
     Pin-tailed                                                   II. 10
     Welcome                                                      II. 13
     White-breasted                                               II. 12
     White eyebrowed Wood-                                        II. 32
     White-rumped Wood-                                           II. 33
     White-vented Wood-                                           II. 30
     Wood-                                                   II. 27,  29
 Swamp-Hen                                                        VI. 70
     Little                                                       VI. 82
 Swan, Black. Vol. I. p. xci                                      VII. 6
     Black, of Van Diemen                                         VII. 6
     Shawian or Black                                             VII. 6
 Swift, Australian                                                II. 11
 Sylvia annulosa                                                  IV. 81
     chrysops                                                     IV. 45
     cyanea                                                      III. 18
     flavigastra. Vol. I. p. xlii
     hirundinacea                                                 II. 34
     lateralis                                                    IV. 81
     leucophæa.   Vol. I. p. xl
     pusilla                                                     III. 53
     rubricata                                                   III. 69
     rufiventris. Vol. I. p. xxxvii
     versicolor. Vol. I. p. lxi
 Sylochelidon poliocerca                                         VII. 24
     strenuus. Vol. I. p. xciv                                   VII. 22
 Synoïcus Australis. Vol. I. p. lxxx                               V. 89
     ? Chinensis. Vol. I. p. lxxx                                  V. 92
     Diemenensis. Vol. I. p. lxxx                                  V. 90
     sordidus. Vol. I. p. lxxx                                     V. 91

 Tadorna Radjah. Vol. I. p. xci                                   VII. 8
 Talegalla Lathami. Vol.I. p. lxxiii                               V. 77
     Wattled                                                       V. 77
 Tantalus Falcinellus                                             VI. 47
     igneus                                                       VI. 47
 Tanypus Australis                                                II. 54
 Teal                                                            VII. 11
     Coromandel                                                   VII. 5
     Girra                                                        VII. 5
 Terekia cinerea. Vol. I. p. lxxxv                                VI. 34
     Javanica                                                     VI. 34
 Tern, Bass’s Straits                                            VII. 24
     Black-billed                                                VII. 26
     Black-naped                                                 VII. 28
     Caspian                                                     VII. 23
     Crested                                                     VII. 23
     Graceful                                                    VII. 27
     Marsh                                                       VII. 31
     Noddy                                                       VII. 34
     Panayan                                                     VII. 33
     Powerful                                                    VII. 22
     Little                                                      VII. 29
     Little Australian                                           VII. 29
 Sooty                                                           VII. 32
     Torres                                                      VII. 25
     Torres’ Straits                                             VII. 23
     White                                                       VII. 30
     White-capped                                                VII. 36
     Yellow-billed                                               VII. 23
 Tetrao Chinensis                                                  V. 92
     Manillensis                                                   V. 92
 Thalasseus Pelecanoïdes. Vol. I. p. xciv                        VII. 23
     poliocercus. Vol. I. p. xciv                                VII. 24
     Torresii. Vol. I. p. xciv                                   VII. 25
 Thalassidroma Tropica. Vol. I. p. c
     leucogaster. Vol. I. p. c                                   VII. 63
     marina. Vol. I. p. c                                        VII. 61
     melanogaster. Vol. I. p. c                                  VII. 62
     Nereis. Vol. I. p. c                                        VII. 64
     Oceanica                                                    VII. 65
     Wilsonii. Vol. I. p. c                                      VII. 65
 Thick-head, Banded                                               II. 67
 Threskiornis strictipennis. Vol. I. p. lxxxvi                    VI. 46
 Thrush                                                           II. 75
     Australian                                                   II. 74
     Black-browed                                                 IV. 80
     Black-crowned                                                II. 64
     Blue-cheeked                                                 IV. 68
     Chestnut-backed Ground-                                       IV. 5
     Crested                                                      II. 81
     Dilute                                                       II. 74
     Grey-headed                                                  II. 74
     Guttural                                                     II. 64
     Harmonic                                                     II. 74
     Lunulated                                                     IV. 7
     Mountain                                                      IV. 7
     Orange-breasted                                              II. 67
     Port Jackson                                                 II. 74
     Punctated                                                     IV. 4
     Restless                                                     II. 87
     Sordid                                                       II. 27
     Spotted Ground-                                               IV. 4
     Volatile                                                     II. 87
     White-eared                                                  IV. 36
     Yellow-breasted                                             III. 11
 Thunder Bird                                                     II. 64
 Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes. Vol. I. p. xxiii                            13
 Tody, Red-breasted                                               II. 91
 Todus Rubecula                                                   II. 91
 Totanus Glottoïdes                                               VI. 36
     griseopygius. Vol. I. p. lxxxv                               VI. 38
     Javanicus                                                    VI. 34
     stagnatilis. Vol. I. p. lxxxv                                VI. 37
 Tribonyx, Black-tailed                                           VI. 72
     Mortieri. Vol. I. p. lxxxix                                  VI. 71
     Mortier’s                                                    VI. 71
     ventralis. Vol. I. p. lxxxix                                 VI. 72
 Trichoglossus Australis                                           V. 52
     chlorolepidotus. Vol. I. p. lxviii                            V. 50
     concinnus. Vol. I. p. lxviii                                  V. 52
     hæmatodus                                                     V. 48
     Matoni                                                        V. 50
     multicolor                                                    V. 48
     porphyrocephalus. Vol. I. p. lxviii                           V. 53
     pusillus. Vol. I. p. lxviii                                   V. 54
     rubritorquis. Vol. I. p. lxviii                               V. 49
     Swainsonii. Vol. I. p. lxviii                                 V. 84
     versicolor. Vol. I. p. lxviii                                 V. 51
 Tringa albescens                                                 VI. 31
     Australis                                                    VI. 30
     Australian                                                   VI. 30
     Helvetica                                                    VI. 12
     Interpres                                                    VI. 39
     lobata                                                        VI. 9
     Squatarola                                                   VI. 12
     subarquata                                                   VI. 32
 Tropidorhynchus argenticeps. Vol. I. p. lviii                    IV. 59
     citreogularis. Vol. I. p. lviii                              IV. 60
     corniculatus. Vol. I. p. lviii                               IV. 58
     cyanotis                                                     IV. 68
     monachus                                                     IV. 58
 Turdus badius                                                    II. 74
     cyaneus                                                      IV. 68
     dilutus                                                      II. 74
     dubius. Vol. I. p. xxxix
     frivolus. Vol. I. p. lv
     gutturalis                                                   II. 64
     harmonicus                                                   II. 74
     inquietus                                                    II. 87
     leucotis                                                     IV. 36
     lunularis                                                    II. 64
     lunulatus                                                     IV. 7
     maxillaris. Vol. I. p. liii
     melanophrys                                                  IV. 80
     muscicola. Vol. I. p. xxxix
     prasinus. Vol. I. p. xxxvii
     punctatus                                                     IV. 4
     sordidus                                                     II. 27
     varius                                                        IV. 7
     volitans                                                     II. 87
 Turkey                                                            VI. 4
     Brush                                                         V. 77
     Native                                                        VI. 4
 Turnix castanotus. Vol. I. p. lxxix
     melanogaster. Vol. I. p. lxxix
     melanotus. Vol. I. p. lxxix                                   V. 84
     pyrrhothorax. Vol. I. p. lxxx
     scintillans. Vol. I. p. lxxix
     varius. Vol. I. p. lxxix                                      V. 82
     velox. Vol. I. p. lxxx
 Turnstone                                                        VI. 39
 Turtur? Lophotes                                                  V. 70

 Vanga cinerea. Vol. I. p. xxxv
     destructor                                                   II. 52
     nigrogularis                                                 II. 49
 Vanellus gallinaceus                                              VI. 9
     griseus                                                      VI. 12
     Helveticus                                                   VI. 12
     lobatus                                                       VI. 9
 Vanellus melanogaster                                            VI. 12
     Novæ-Hollandiæ                                                VI. 9
 Vultur Audax. Vol. I. p. xxi
 Vulture, New Holland                                              V. 77

 Warbler, Dwarf                                      III. 60,  62; V. 53
     Exile                                                       III. 42
     Lineated                                                    III. 43
     Long-billed Sedge-                                          III. 38
     Red-breasted                                                 III. 3
     Reed                                                        III. 37
     Rock-                                                       III. 69
     Ruddy                                                       III. 69
     Rufous-headed                                               III. 45
     Rufous-vented. Vol. I. p. xxxvi
     Rusty-side                                                   IV. 81
     Scarlet-backed                                              III. 26
     Soft-tailed                                                 III. 31
     Square-tailed                                               III. 44
     Superb                                                 III. 18,  24
     Swallow                                                      II. 34
     Variegated                                                  III. 24
 Wedge-bill, Crested                                             III. 17
 Whimbrel, Australian                                             VI. 43
     Little                                                       VI. 44
 Whistling Dick                                                   II. 77
 White-eye                                                        IV. 81
 Wonga-wonga                                                       V. 63
 Wren                                                            III. 57
     Banded                                                      III. 21
     Beautiful                                                   III. 23
     Black-backed                                                III. 20
     Black-headed                                                III. 26
     Blue                                                        III. 18
     Brown’s                                                     III. 27
     Cautious                                                    III. 40
     Emu                                                         III. 31
     Graceful                                                    III. 22
     Lambert’s                                                   III. 24
     Large-tailed                                                III. 30
     Long-tailed                                                 III. 19
     Red-rumped                                                  III. 39
     Striated                                                    III. 29
     Textile                                                     III. 28
     White-winged                                                III. 25

 Xanthomyza Phrygia. Vol. I. p. lvii                              IV. 48
 Xema Jamesonii. Vol. I. p. xciii                                VII. 20
 Xenus cinereus                                                   VI. 34
 Xerophila leucopsis. Vol. I. p. xlvii                           III. 67
     white-faced                                                 III. 67

 Zosterops chloronotus. Vol. I. p. lx                             IV. 82
     dorsalis. Vol. I. p. lx                                      IV. 81
     Green-backed                                                 IV. 82
     Grey-backed                                                  IV. 81
     luteus.  Vol. I. p. lx                                       IV. 83
     Yellow                                                       IV. 83

 The References to the Pages in the above Index will be found correct if
  the Subscribers will cause them to be numbered in the order in which
   the respective volumes are arranged, which could not be done in the
                         course of publication.



                                PREFACE.


Having in the summer of 1837 brought my work on the “Birds of Europe” to
a successful termination, I was naturally desirous of turning my
attention to the Ornithology of some other region; and a variety of
concurring circumstances induced me to select that of Australia, the
Birds of which, though invested with the highest degree of interest, had
been almost entirely neglected. Dr. Shaw, in his “Zoology of New
Holland,” had devoted a few plates to the subject, from specimens
collected by Sir Joseph Banks during the first voyage of Captain Cook;
the “Birds of New Holland” by Lewin comprised not more than twenty-six
plates; and figures and descriptions of a few species were given in the
earlier voyages of Phillip, White and Collins, and the more recent one
of King. At a subsequent period the late Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfield
commenced an elaborate memoir on the Collection of Australian Birds in
the possession of the Linnean Society; but unfortunately, they did not
proceed farther than the _Meliphagidæ_, and the non-completion of their
labours is the more to be regretted, inasmuch as the Linnean Society’s
collection of Australian birds, at that time the finest extant,
comprised many species collected by Mr. Brown during his voyage with the
celebrated navigator Flinders, and was moreover enriched with some
interesting notes by the late Mr. George Caley, by whom the collection
was chiefly formed. Descriptions of many Australian birds were also
included in the works of Latham, Shaw, Cuvier and Vieillot, as well as
in several of the recent French voyages of discovery; still no general
work on the subject had been undertaken, and nearly all that had been
recorded by the various writers above enumerated, had reference almost
exclusively to the productions of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land,
these being almost the only explored portions of that great country. In
the absence, then, of any general work on the Birds of Australia, the
field was comparatively a new one, and of no ordinary degree of
interest, from the circumstance of its being one of the finest
possessions of the British Crown, and from its natural productions being
as remarkable for the anomalous nature of their forms, as for their
beauty, and the singularity of their habits. In the attempt to supply
this desideratum I commenced publishing from the materials then
accessible, but soon found, from the paucity of information extant upon
the subject, that it could not be executed in a manner that would be
satisfactory to my own mind or commensurate with the exigencies of
science; I therefore determined to proceed to Australia and personally
investigate (so far as a stay of two years would allow) the habits and
manners of its birds in a state of nature. Accordingly in May 1838 I
left England, provided, by the liberality of Government, with letters
from Lord Glenelg, at that time Secretary of State for the Colonies, Sir
George Grey, Bart., and Gordon Gairdner, Esq., of the Colonial Office,
recommending me to the countenance and protection of the various
Governors, and requesting them to afford me such aid and assistance in
furtherance of my objects as they might have it in their power to
render; similar favours were also granted me by the authorities of the
Admiralty, who, through their Secretary, Sir John Barrow, directed the
captains and commanders of Her Majesty’s ships and vessels employed on
the coasts of Australia to further my views, by giving myself and my
assistant a passage to such part of the coasts as either of us might be
desirous of visiting, only stipulating that the ships under their
command should not be detained on any parts of the coasts they were not
ordered to visit. His late Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, in his
capacity of President of the Royal Society, was pleased to favour me
with a letter addressed to the authorities, civil and military, of Her
Majesty’s Colonies, recommending me to their kind offices and
protection, as he felt assured that my exertions would materially
promote the interests of Natural History. I was also under considerable
obligations to the kindness of Captain Washington, R.N., at that time
Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, who furnished me with
introductions to Captains Sir John Franklin and Sir Gordon Bremer, R.N.,
and other influential persons. Having thus acknowledged the facilities
afforded me by the home authorities, it becomes my pleasing duty to
state that their recommendations and wishes were responded to in the
warmest manner by Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N., Governor of Van
Diemen’s Land; Sir George Gipps, Governor-General of New South Wales;
Lieut.-Colonel Gawler, Governor of South Australia; John Hutt, Esq.,
Governor of Western Australia; and Captain M’Arthur, Commandant of Port
Essington; all of whom rendered me every assistance compatible with the
instructions under which they were acting. I should be wanting, however,
both in courtesy and gratitude, did I not especially acknowledge the
warm friendship, and the many acts of genuine kindness which I received
at the hands of my valued friends Sir John and Lady Franklin, who,
besides facilitating my views in every way, both publicly and privately,
with the most generous hospitality received myself and family into their
house, where Mrs. Gould and my eldest son, who had accompanied us,
remained for nearly ten months, while I pursued my researches in various
parts of Van Diemen’s Land and the continent of Australia; and it is
only by those who, like myself, have had the advantage of residing in
the bosom of this amiable family, that the kindness of their nature and
the goodness of their hearts can be duly appreciated, and which can
never be erased from my memory. I must acknowledge not less gratefully
the many acts of kindness rendered to me by Sir George and Lady Gipps
during my stay in Sydney. After exploring Van Diemen’s Land, the islands
in Bass’s Straits, South Australia, and New South Wales, into the
interior of which country I penetrated to the distance of nearly four
hundred miles from the coast-line, I despatched my able assistant, Mr.
Gilbert, to explore the western and northern portions of the country,
and returned to England in August 1840; I immediately commenced the work
_de novo_, and the result of my labours is now before the public. It
fortunately happened at the commencement and during the progress of the
work, Her Majesty’s ships the Beagle, under the command of Captains
Wickham and Stokes; the Britomart, under Captain Stanley; the Fly, under
Captain Blackwood, and the Pelorus under Captain Chambers were employed
in surveying the northern and north-western coasts of Australia; and the
Erebus and Terror under Captain Sir James C. Ross, in a voyage of
discovery towards the south pole. While engaged in the performance of
their arduous duties, the officers of those vessels succeeded in
procuring many interesting novelties, which, with the greatest
liberality, were communicated to me for the present work, whereby its
value has been much enhanced. This liberality will be found duly
acknowledged in the histories of the species, for the use of which I am
indebted to the kindness of B. Bynoe, Esq., Surgeon R.N., Lieut. Emery,
R.N., Commander J. M. R. Ince, R.N., Edward Dring, Esq., Purser R.N.,
Dr. Robertson and Robert M’Cormick, Esq., Surgeons R.N., and John
M’Gillivray, Esq.

After spending two years in Western and Northern Australia, Mr. Gilbert
returned to England in September 1841, bringing with him the result of
his labours, which proved of sufficient value and importance to induce
me to believe that much yet remained to be discovered in those
countries, and to direct him to return thither, which he accordingly did
in the ensuing spring; and after again visiting Swan River, and
sedulously exploring the interior so far as practicable, he proceeded to
Sydney, and, unfortunately for himself, allowed his love of science, in
the advancement of which no one was more ardent, to induce him to join
Dr. Leichardt in his overland journey from Moreton Bay to Port
Essington. On this expedition, he, as usual, displayed his wonted zeal
and activity until the 28th of June, when, the party being treacherously
attacked by the natives, his valuable life was sacrificed, I lost a most
able coadjutor, and science has to deplore one of her most devoted
servants; fortunately, however, in despite of the many difficulties and
dangers which beset the party during the remainder of their journey, his
journals and notes, together with the specimens he had been able to
procure, were preserved and transmitted to me by Dr. Leichardt, and
proved of valuable assistance in determining the range of many of the
species.

My own researches commenced immediately after passing the Equator, from
whence, throughout the entire route to Australia, I omitted no
opportunity of studying the habits, and collecting the different species
of the oceanic birds that came under my notice: these observations were
again resumed on my return to England; and as the outward passage was by
the Cape of Good Hope, and the homeward one by Cape Horn, they extended
round the globe, and, as will be seen in the course of the work, have
led to some important results. And here I must acknowledge my
obligations to the various captains with whom I sailed, namely Captain
M^cKellar of the “Parsee,” which vessel conveyed me to Van Diemen’s
Land; Captain Harding of the “Black Joke,” in which I proceeded from
Launceston to Adelaide; Captain Fell of the “Catherine Stewart Forbes,”
in which I returned from Adelaide to Hobart Town; Captain Gilchrist of
the “Potentate,” in which I sailed from Hobart Town to Sydney; and
Lieutenant Mallard, R.N., of the “Kinnear,” which brought me to England;
all of whom rendered me every assistance in their power, and the use of
a boat and crew whenever the weather would admit of one being lowered,
by which means I was enabled to obtain nearly forty species of Petrel,
being the finest collection of the _Procellaridæ_ ever brought together.

At the commencement of the work it was not expected that it would prove
so extensive as it has become, since not more than about 300 species
were then known, which number has now been increased, by the united
efforts of myself and those who have so kindly aided my views, to
upwards of 600 species, among which are comprised many forms remarkable
for their novelty, the anomalous character of their structure, and the
singularity of their habits, such as the Bower Birds (_Ptilonorhynchi_
and _Chlamyderæ_) and the Mound-raising Birds (_Talegalla_, _Leipoa_ and
_Megapodius_). The singular runs or bowers of the _Chlamyderæ_ were
considered by some explorers to be the cradles of the infants of the
aborigines, and the mounds of the _Megapodius_ to be tumuli, errors
which have been rectified in the present work.

It is not to be supposed that an undertaking of such magnitude as the
present could have been brought to a successful termination by the
unaided efforts of a single individual, and I have, therefore, very
great pleasure in stating that my views were most ably seconded by every
one with whom the nature of my investigations brought me in contact; but
by none more than by the Rev. Thomas James Ewing, who, besides
manifesting the warmest friendship, has ever taken especial interest in
promoting the success of the present work; nor must I omit to mention R.
C. Gunn, Esq., Lieut. Breton, R.N., the Hon. Henry Elliot, Aide-de-camp
to the Governor, Lieut. Friend, R.N., and Captain Booth, all of Van
Diemen’s Land. In New South Wales my best thanks are due to George
Bennett, Esq., who, like Mr. Ewing, favoured me with his warmest
friendship, and evinced an equal anxiety for the success of my
undertaking; the Messrs. James and William M’Arthur, of Camden; the
Messrs. Stephen and Charles Coxen, of Yarrundi; Charles Throsby, Esq.,
of Bong-bong; Alexander and William S. MacLeay, Esqs.; Captain P. P.
King, and many others. Much valuable information has been communicated
to me by George Grey, Esq. (now Governor of New Zealand), whose
exertions during his expedition along the north-western coasts of
Australia were characterized by a degree of energy of character and
perseverance but rarely equalled; whose ornithological collection made
during this arduous enterprise, although small, was by no means
destitute of interest; and who, upon succeeding Colonel Gawler in the
Governorship of South Australia, found time amidst his multifarious
occupations to devote considerable attention to Natural History, and to
send me some interesting drawings and other details respecting the
mounds raised by the _Leipoa_, &c. In South Australia I received many
acts of kind attention and assistance from my friend Captain Sturt, whom
I accompanied on one of his expeditions into the interior; and I have
much pleasure in acknowledging my obligations to Mr. Eyre, now
Lieut.-Governor of New Zealand, and the late J. B. Harvey, Esq.

Nor must I conclude my acknowledgements of the kindness of those who
have rendered me their aid, without especially recording the liberality
of the Right Hon. The Earl of Derby, who has at all times most readily
submitted to my inspection every collection of which he has become the
possessor, and allowed me the free use of any objects desirable for the
enhancement of the “Birds of Australia;” neither is the kindness of His
Highness the Prince of Canino, Sir Wm. Jardine, Bart., Robert Brown,
Professor Owen, H. E. Strickland, W. Yarrell, T. C. Eyton, J. J.
Bennett, D. W. Mitchell, and E. Blyth, Esqs., forgotten by one whom they
have ever been sedulous to oblige. My thanks are also due to the
Trustees, to J. E. Gray, and G. R. Gray, Esqs., of the British Museum;
and to the authorities of the Linnean and Zoological Societies of
London, the Royal Museums of Berlin, Leyden and Paris, and the Museum at
Sydney. I am also considerably indebted to my friend W. C. L. Martin,
Esq., author of many valuable works and papers on natural history, for
the readiness with which his varied literary attainments and critical
acumen have at all times been rendered, whenever solicited, to enhance
the accuracy of my labours.

At the conclusion of my “Birds of Europe,” I had the pleasing duty of
stating that nearly the whole of the Plates had been lithographed by my
amiable wife. Would that I had the happiness of recording a similar
statement with regard to the present work; but such, alas! is not the
case, it having pleased the All-wise Disposer of Events to remove her
from this sublunary world within one short year after our return from
Australia, during her sojourn in which country an immense mass of
drawings, both ornithological and botanical, were made by her inimitable
hand and pencil, and which has enabled Mr. H. C. Richter, to whom, after
her lamented death, the execution of the Plates was entrusted, to
perform his task in a manner highly satisfactory to myself, and I trust
equally so to the Subscribers. The colouring, as in the case of the
“Birds of Europe,” and my other works, has been entirely executed by Mr.
Bayfield, to whose unwearied exertions and punctuality I must not fail
to bear testimony, as well as to the minute accuracy with which his
labours have been performed. The printing of the Plates, by Messrs.
Hullmandel and Walton, and the letter-press, by Messrs. R. and J. E.
Taylor, has also been equally satisfactory.

And I cannot refrain from speaking in the highest terms of my assistant,
Mr. Edwin C. Prince, who has been with me from the commencement of my
various works. I left him in charge of the whole of my affairs during my
absence from England, with a perfect conviction that he would zealously
exert himself for my interest, and the confidence I reposed in him has
been fully realized, not only during my absence, but during the long
period of eighteen years.

It was my most anxious wish that the unique and perfect collection of
Australian Birds, forming the originals of the present work, should have
found a resting-place in the National Museum of this country, inasmuch
as it comprised examples of both sexes of nearly every known species in
various stages of plumage, each carefully labelled with its correct
scientific appellation, the date when and the place where killed, the
sex ascertained by dissection, and the colouring of the soft parts;
besides which, it comprised the finest specimens I had been able to
procure during the long period of ten years, collected together at an
expense of more than £2000, and at the cost of three valuable lives,
namely, that of Mr. Gilbert above referred to; that of Mr. Johnson
Drummond, who was killed by a native while seeking for specimens in
Western Australia; and that of a fine young man, one of the attendants
assigned to me by Sir John Franklin, who was accidentally killed by the
explosion of a gun he was removing from a boat when landing on one of
the islands in Bass’s Straits. Regretting that I could not afford to
make a donation of it, I addressed a letter to J. E. Gray, Esq., the
chief Zoological officer of the British Museum, in which, after stating
that the entire collection amounted to nearly 600 species, and upwards
of 1800 specimens, with the full complements of eggs of more than 300
species, I made the following offer,—“I believe that in some instances
the Government has lent its aid and support to works of such magnitude
as the ‘Birds of Australia’ by taking a certain number of copies; were
this done in my own case, and not less than twenty-five copies were
taken, I should be most happy to present to the Museum both the
Collections above-mentioned, but should such an arrangement be declined
then I beg to offer them to the Trustees for the sum of £1000.” To my
own, as well as to the regret of nearly every scientific man in Europe,
my offer was declined by the Trustees. Upon this circumstance becoming
known to Edward Wilson, Esq., of Lydstip House, near Tenby in
Pembrokeshire, that gentleman immediately purchased the entire
collection for his brother, Dr. T. B. Wilson, of Philadelphia in North
America, whither it will be shortly removed, and where it will be at all
times available for the purposes of science, and form a portion of
perhaps the most extensive ornithological collection in the world.

In conclusion I would beg to say, that having brought the “Birds of
Australia” to a close, after devoting nearly ten years to its
production, I trust it will be admitted that it has been terminated in
the same spirit with which it was commenced, and that any errors which
may be found will be viewed with leniency, when the extent of the work,
and the difficulty of procuring and arranging so large a mass of
materials, is taken into consideration; should my labours, such as they
are, merit the approbation of those who have so liberally supported it,
my own efforts will be amply repaid. Although the work comprises every
species known to inhabit Australia up to the present time, it is not to
be supposed that it contains the whole of the birds of that vast
country, of which so large a portion is yet a _terra incognita_. Every
new district towards the north-west that may be explored will doubtless
afford additional species, and which may hereafter form the materials
for a supplement.

I originally intended to include the Birds of New Zealand in the present
work, but upon further investigation of the subject I found that they
belong to a distinct Fauna, which fact, coupled with the vast accession
of new species from the continent of Australia, induced me to omit all
but those that had been published in the first instance, and one or two
others remarkable for their great interest.

Enjoying, by the blessing of Providence, constant good health, and
energies as yet unimpaired, I propose still to devote my humble efforts
to the advancement of Ornithology, that science which treats of one of
the most pleasing portions of the Almighty’s many wonderful works; and
with ample materials at my command for illustrating the Birds of another
magnificent portion of the domains of the British Crown—India—my next
work will probably be on “the Birds of Asia,” which will, irrespective
of all other considerations, be of no little interest as forming the
connecting link between the Birds of Europe and the Birds of Australia.

                                                             JOHN GOULD.

June 12, 1848.



                             INTRODUCTION.


Geological researches into the structure of the globe show that a
succession of physical changes have modified its surface from the
earliest period up to the present time, and that these changes have been
accompanied with variations not only in the phases of animal and
vegetable life, but often in the development also of organization; and
as these changes cannot be supposed to have been operating uniformly
over the entire surface of the globe in the same periods of time, we
should naturally be prepared for finding the now existing fauna of some
regions exhibiting a higher state of development than that of others;
accordingly, if we contrast the fauna of the old continents of
geographers with the zoology of Australia and New Zealand, we find a
wide difference in the degree of organization which creation has reached
in these respective regions. In New Zealand, with the exception of a
_Vespertilio_ and a _Mus_, which latter is said to exist there, but
which has not yet been sent to this country, the most highly organized
animal hitherto discovered, either fossil or recent, is a bird; in
Australia, if compared with New Zealand, creation appears to have
considerably advanced, but even here the order _Rodentia_ is the highest
in the scale of its indigenous animal productions; the great majority of
its quadrupeds being the MARSUPIATA (Kangaroos, &c.) and the MONOTREMATA
(_Echidna_ and _Ornithorhynchus_), which are the very lowest of the
Mammalia; and its ornithology being characterized by the presence of
certain peculiar genera, _Talegalla_, _Leipoa_ and _Megapodius_; birds
which do not incubate their own eggs, and which are perhaps the lowest
representatives of their class, while the low organization of its botany
is indicated by the remarkable absence of fruit-bearing trees, the
_Cerealia_, &c.

My investigation of the natural productions of Australia induces me to
believe, that at some remote period that country was divided into at
least two portions, since, with a few exceptions, I find the species
inhabiting the same latitudes of its eastern and western divisions
differing from, but representing each other. Some writers, Captain Sturt
and Mr. Jukes, _e.g._ are of opinion that its subdivision was even
greater, and that the sandy deserts now met with in the interior were
formerly the beds of the seas that flowed between the archipelago of
islands of which they suppose it to have been composed. In a valuable
paper by Mr. Jukes, entitled ‘Notes on the Geology of the Coasts of
Australia,’ read at the meeting of the Geological Society on the 17th of
November 1847, that gentleman stated, that “The eastern coast is
occupied by a great range of high land, appearing like a continuous
chain of mountains when seen from the sea, and rising in several places
to 5000 feet or more above the sea-level. This chain has an axis of
granite, with occasional large masses of greenstone, basalt and other
igneous rocks. It is flanked on both sides by thick beds of palæozoic
formations, chiefly sandstone, but also containing limestone and coal.
In the northern portion of the chain Dr. Leichardt found similar
formations—and especially trap and granite near the Burdekin river. In
the Port Phillip district there are similar igneous rocks, and on the
coast tertiary formations resting on the edges of upturned palæozoic
beds. In West Australia, the Darling range consists of granite below,
covered by metamorphic rocks; and between it and the sea is a plain
composed of tertiary beds. In the colony of North Australia there is a
great sandstone plateau, rising about 1800 feet above the sea, and
probably of palæozoic age; whilst on the immediate shore and round the
Gulf of Carpentaria are beds supposed to belong to the tertiary period.
Similar formations constitute the substratum of the central desert; in
which Captain Sturt was compelled to turn back, when half-way to the
Gulf of Carpentaria, from the southern coast. Hence these tertiary rocks
are probably continuous through the whole centre of the island, and
during the tertiary period all this portion of the country was
submerged, whilst the high lands on the coast rose like four groups of
islands from the shallow sea.”—_Athenæum_, _Nov. 24, 1847_.

Whichever of these opinions be the correct one, we certainly find the
natural productions of all these portions of the country composed of
precisely the same types, the generality of which differ entirely from
those of the islands of the Indian Archipelago on the one hand, and of
New Zealand and Polynesia on the other.

With respect to the position of Australia, it will only be necessary to
state that it is situated between the 10th and 45th degrees of south
latitude, and the 112th and 154th degrees of longitude east from
Greenwich; its extent, in round numbers, may therefore be said to be
3000 miles in length, or from west to east, and inclusive of Van
Diemen’s Land nearly the same in breadth, or from north to south. In its
present uplifted position its form is nearly square, with a depressed
centre bounded by an almost continuous range of hills and plateaux,
which, varying in altitude from one to six thousand feet above the level
of the sea, in some places approach the coast and present lofty and
inaccessible cliffs to the ocean, while in others they trend towards the
interior of the country at a distance of from twenty to eighty miles
from the coast-line; but inasmuch as these elevations are all of an
undulating and not of a precipitous character, no part of the country
can be considered as strictly alpine. Nothing can be more different than
the features of the country on the exterior and interior of this great
barrier, particularly on the eastern coast, where, between the mountains
and the sea, the vegetation partakes to a great extent of a tropical
character; it is there, on the rich alluvial soil, formed by the debris
washed down from the hills, that we find various species of _Eucalypti_,
_Fici_,and other trees, many of which attain an immense altitude, and
forests of towering palms; the surface of the ground beneath clothed
with a dense and impervious underwood, composed of dwarf trees, shrubs
and tree-ferns festooned with creepers and parasitic plants in the
richest profusion, the continuity of which is here and there broken by
rich open meadow-like districts admirably adapted for the pasturing of
cattle, and to which, from the frequent occurrence of the _Angophoræ_, a
tribe of trees in which the settlers see a fancied resemblance to the
apple-trees of Europe, the name of Apple-tree Flats has been given.
Within the ranges, on the other hand, we find immense open downs and
grassy plains, studded here and there with detached belts and forests of
_Eucalypti_, _Acaciæ_, &c., presenting a park-like appearance, to which,
as we advance farther towards the interior, succeed either extensive
marshes or land of a most sterile description. The face of this vast
country consequently presents much variety of aspect; the infrequency of
rain tends much to give a sombre brown hue to the surface of the ground,
which however is relieved by the constant verdure of its trees, the
peculiar lanceolate form and the pendent position of which render them
almost shadowless. It is in the neighbourhood of the few rivers which
intersect the country, and in the lower flats flooded by the waters,
when floods occur, that we find the vegetation more luxuriant and the
trees attaining a far greater size; the sides of the rivers are moreover
fringed with _Casuarinæ_ and other trees, which, although of large size,
never arrive at the altitude of the stately _Eucalypti_, which attain,
under favourable circumstances, a size and height which appear perfectly
incredible. Mr. Backhouse states that one measured by him on the Lopham
Road, near Emu Bay in Van Diemen’s Land, which, “was rather hollow at
the bottom and broken at the top, was 49 feet round at about 5 feet from
the ground; another that was solid, and supposed to be 200 feet high,
was 41 feet round; and a third, supposed to be 250 feet high, was 55½
feet round. As this tree spread much at the base, it would be nearly 70
feet in circumference at the surface of the ground. My companions spoke
to each other when at the opposite side of this tree from myself, and
their voices sounded so distant that I concluded they had inadvertently
left me, to see some other object, and immediately called to them. They
in answer remarked the distant sound of my voice, and inquired if I were
behind the tree! When the road through this forest was forming, a man
who had only about two hundred yards to go, from one company of
work-people to another, lost himself: he called, and was repeatedly
answered; but getting further astray, his voice became more indistinct,
till it ceased to be heard, and he perished. The largest trees do not
always carry up their width in proportion to their height, but many that
are mere spars are 200 feet high.”

A prostrate tree noticed by Mr. Backhouse in the forest near the
junction of the Emu River with the Loudwater “was 35 feet in
circumference at the base, 22 feet at 66 feet up, 19 feet at 110 feet
up; there were two large branches at 120 feet; the general head branched
off at 150 feet; the elevation of the tree, traceable by the branches on
the ground, was 213 feet. We ascended this tree on an inclined plane,
formed by one of its limbs, and walked four abreast with ease upon its
trunk! In its fall it had overturned another 168 feet high, which had
brought up with its roots a ball of earth 20 feet across.” There are
other remarkable features, which, as they appertain to districts
frequently alluded to in the course of the work, it becomes necessary to
notice, namely the immense deltas formed by the descent of the waters of
the interior, such as the valley of the Murray near its embouchure into
the sea, spoken of as the great Murray scrub of South Australia; this
enormous flat of nearly one hundred miles in length by more than twenty
in breadth is clothed with a vegetation peculiarly its own, the
prevailing trees which form a belt down the centre consisting of dwarf
_Eucalypti_, while the margins are fringed with shrub-like trees of
various kinds. Nor must the immense belts of _Banksiæ_, which grow on
the sand-hills bordering the sea-coast and in some parts of the
interior, or the districts clothed with grass-trees (_Xanthorrhæa_), be
passed over unnoticed; in the intertropical regions of Australia, of
which at present so little is known, we find, besides the _Eucalypti_,
_Banksiæ_ and other trees of the southern coast, dense forests of canes,
mangroves, &c. Each of these districts has a zoology peculiarly its own:
for instance, the _Banksiæ_ are everywhere tenanted by the true
_Meliphagi_; the _Eucalypti_ by the _Ptiloti_ and _Trichoglossi_; the
towering fig-trees by the Regent and Satin birds; the palms by the
_Carpophagæ_ or fruit-eating Pigeons, and the grassy plains by the
ground Pigeons, Finches and grass Parrakeets. The circumstance of the
boles of the trees being destitute of a thick corrugated rind or bark
will doubtless account for the total absence of any member of the genus
_Picus_ or Woodpeckers, a group of birds found in all parts of the world
with the exception of Australia and Polynesia.

Such then is a transient view of a few of the great physical features of
Australia to which I have thought it requisite to allude in the
Introduction of the present work, and I cannot conclude this portion of
the subject without mentioning the very remarkable manner in which many
of the Australian Birds represent other nearly allied species belonging
to the Old World, as if some particular law existed in reference to the
subject, the species so represented being evidently destined to fulfil
the same offices in either hemisphere. As instances in point, I may
mention among the FALCONIDÆ the _F. hypoleucus_ and _F. melanogenys_,
which represent the _F. Islandicus_ and _F. Peregrinus_; our Merlin and
Kestril are equally well represented by the _Falco frontatus_ and
_Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes_ of Australia; the Osprey of Europe also is
represented by the _P. leucocephala_; among the wading birds, the Curlew
and the Whimbrel of Europe are beautifully represented by the _Numenius
Australis_ and _N. uropygialis_, and the bar-tailed and black-tailed
Godwits by the _Limosa uropygialis_ and _L. Melanuroïdes_. Both Europe
and Australia have each one Stilted Plover, one Dottrell (_Eudromias_),
and one Avocet. Among the water birds the Cormorants and Grebes of
Europe are similarly represented by the _Phalacrocorax Carboïdes_, &c.,
and _Podiceps Australis_, _P. Nestor_ and _P. gularis_; and other
instances might be noticed, but as they will all be found in the body of
the work, it will not be necessary to recapitulate them here. Although
so many curious instances of representation and of nearly allied species
are found to occur, no country possesses so many genera peculiar to
itself as Australia, such as _Ægotheles_, _Falcunculus_,
_Colluricincla_, _Grallina_, _Gymnorhina_, _Strepera_, _Cinclosoma_,
_Menura_, _Psophodes_, _Malurus_, _Sericornis_, _Ephthianura_,
_Pardalotus_, _Chlamydera_, _Ptilonorhynchus_, _Struthidea_, _Licmetis_,
_Calyptorhynchus_, _Platycercus_, _Euphema_, _Nymphicus_, _Climacteris_,
_Scythrops_, _Myzantha_, _Talegalla_, _Leipoa_, _Pedionomus_,
_Cladorhynchus_, _Tribonyx_, _Cereopsis_, _Anseranas_, and _Biziura_.

In a country of such vast extent as Australia, spreading over so many
degrees of latitude, we might naturally expect to find much diversity in
the climate, and such is really the case. Van Diemen’s Land, from its
isolated and more southern position, is cooler and characterized by
greater humidity than Australia; its vegetation is therefore abundant,
and its forests dense and difficult of access. The climate of the
continent, on the other hand, between the 25th and 35th degrees of
latitude, is much drier, and has a temperature which is probably higher
than that of any other part of the world; the thermometer frequently
rising to 110°, 120°, and even 130° in the shade; and this high
temperature is not unfrequently increased by the hot winds which sweep
over the country from the northward, and which indicate most strongly
the parched and sterile nature of the interior. Unlike other hot
countries, this great heat and dryness is unaccompanied by night dews,
and the falls of rain being uncertain and irregular, droughts of many
months’ duration sometimes occur, during which the rivers and lagoons
are dried up, the land becomes a parched waste, vegetation is burnt up,
and famine spreads destruction on every side. It is easier for the
imagination to conceive than the pen to depict the horrors of so
dreadful a visitation. The indigenous animals and birds retire to the
mountains, or to more distant regions exempt from its influence.
Thousands of sheep and oxen perish, bullocks are seen dead by the
road-side or in the dried-up water-holes, to which, in the hope of
relief, they had dragged themselves, there to fall and die; trees are
cut down for the sake of the twigs as fodder; the flocks are driven to
the mountains in the hope that water may there be found, and every
effort is made to avert the impending ruin; but in spite of all that can
be done the loss is extreme. At length a change takes place, rain falls
abundantly, and the plains, on which but lately not a blade of herbage
was to be seen, and over which the stillness of desolation reigned,
become green with luxuriant vegetation. _Orchideæ_ and thousands of
flowers of the loveliest hues are profusely spread around, as if nature
rejoiced in her renovation, and the grain springing up vigorously gives
promise of an abundant harvest. This change from sterility to abundance
in the vegetable world is accompanied by a correspondent increase of
animal life, the waters become stocked with fish, the marshy districts
with frogs and other reptiles; hosts of caterpillars and other insects
make their appearance, and spreading over the surface of the country
commence the work of devastation, which however is speedily checked by
the birds of various kinds that follow in their train. Attracted by the
abundance of food, hawks of three or four species, in flocks of
hundreds, depart from their usual solitary habits, become gregarious and
busy at the feast, and thousands of Straw-necked Ibises (_Ibis
spinicollis_), and other species of the feathered race, revel in the
profusion of a welcome banquet. It must not however be imagined that
this change is effected without its attendant horrors; the heavy rains
often filling the river-beds so suddenly, that the onward pouring flood
carries with it everything that may impede its course; and woe to the
unhappy settler whose house or grounds may lie within the influence of
the overwhelming floods! A painful instance of the desolating effects of
this sudden irruption of the waters came under my own observation while
travelling in the plains bordering the Lower Namoi in New South Wales.
On pulling up my horse at one of the huts erected by the stock-keepers
charged with the flocks and herds depastured in this vast
grazing-ground, I found it occupied by Lieut. Lowe and his nephew, who
had gone thither for the purpose of being present at the shearing of the
flocks belonging to the former gentleman. Although strangers, their
reception of me was warm and hospitable, and I left them with a promise
of making their abode a resting-place on my return. My second welcome
was such as friends receive from friends, and rejoicing that I had made
the acquaintance of persons so worthy and estimable, I left them busy in
their operations, happy and prosperous. Seven days after my departure
from their dwelling heavy rains suddenly set in; the mountain-streams
swelled into foaming torrents, filling the deep gullies; the rivers
rose, some to the height of forty feet, bearing all before them. The
Namoi having widely overflowed its banks, rolled along with impetuous
fury, sweeping away the huts of the stock-keepers in its course, tearing
up trees, and hurrying affrighted men and flocks to destruction. Before
there was time to escape, the hut in which Lieut. Lowe and his nephew
were sojourning was torn up and washed away, and the nephew and two men,
overwhelmed by the torrent, sank and perished. Lieut. Lowe stripped to
swim, and getting on the trunk of an uprooted tree, hoped to be carried
down the eddying flood to some part where he could obtain assistance.
But he was floated into the midst of a sea of water stretching as far as
he could discern on every side around him. Here he slowly drifted; the
rains had ceased, the thermometer was at 100°, a glaring sun and a
coppery sky were above him; he looked in vain for help, but no prospect
of escape animated him, and the hot sun began its dreadful work. His
skin blistered, dried, became parched and hard, like the bark of a tree,
and life began to ebb. At length assistance arrived—it came too late; he
was indeed just alive, but died almost immediately. He was scorched to
death.

Sir Thomas Mitchell, in his recently published “Journal of an Expedition
into the interior of Tropical Australia,” has given a most vivid picture
of the manner in which floods occasioned by distant rains fill the
river-beds, and which I beg leave to transcribe. Sir Thomas being
somewhat unwell while encamped on the banks of the Macquarie, the
channel of which was deep and dry, sent Mr. Stephenson, one of his
party, to Mount Foster, to make inquiries about the river and the
stations on it lower down. Mr. Stephenson returned early with two of the
mounted police. To his most important question, “What water was to be
found lower down in the river, the reply was, ‘Plenty, and a _flood
coming down_ from the Turòn mountains.’ The two policemen said that they
had travelled twenty miles with it on the day previous, and that it
would still take some time to arrive near our camp.... In the afternoon,
two of the men taking a walk up the river, reported on their return,
that the flood poured in upon them when in the river-bed so suddenly,
that they narrowly escaped it. Still the bed of the Macquarie before our
camp continued so dry and silent, that I could scarcely believe the
flood coming to be real, and so near to us, who had been put to so many
shifts for the want of water. Towards evening I stationed a man with a
gun a little way up the river, with orders to fire on the flood’s
appearance, that I might have time to run and witness what I so much
wished to see, as well from curiosity as from urgent need. The shades of
evening came, however, but no flood, and the man on the look-out
returned to the camp. Some hours later, and after the moon had risen, a
murmuring sound, like that of a distant waterfall, mingled with
occasional cracks, as of breaking timber, drew our attention, and I
hastened to the river-bank. By very slow degrees the sound grew louder,
and at length so audible as to draw various persons besides from the
camp to the river-side. Still no flood appeared, although its approach
was indicated by the occasional rending of trees with a loud noise. Such
a phænomenon in a most serene moonlight night was new to us all. At
length the rushing sound of waters, and loud cracking of timber,
announced that the flood was in the next bend. It rushed into our sight,
glittering in the moonbeams, a moving cataract, tossing before it
ancient trees, and snapping them against its banks. It was preceded by a
point of meandering water, picking its way, like a thing of life,
through the deepest parts of the dark, dry and shady bed, of what thus
again became a flowing river. By my party, situated as we were at that
time, beating about the country, and impeded in our journey solely by
the almost total absence of water,—suffering excessively from thirst and
extreme heat,—I am convinced the scene never can be forgotten. Here came
at once abundance, the produce of storms in the far-off mountains that
overlooked our homes.... The river gradually filled up the channel
nearly bank-high, while the living cataract travelled onward much slower
than I had expected to see it; so slowly, indeed, that more than an hour
after its first arrival the sweet music of the head of the flood was
distinctly audible, as the murmur of waters and diapason crash of logs
travelled slowly through the tortuous windings.... The next morning the
river had risen to within six feet of the top of its banks, and poured
its turbid waters along in fulness and strength, but no longer with
noise. All night that body of water had been in motion downwards, and
seemed to me enough to deluge the whole country.”

So little has as yet been ascertained respecting the climatology of
western, north-western and northern Australia, that it is not known
whether they also are subject to these tremendous visitations; but as we
have reason to believe that the intertropical parts of the country are
favoured with a more constant supply of rain as well as a lower degree
of temperature, it is most probable that they do not there occur.

Independently of the vast accession of birds attracted by the great
supply of food, as mentioned above, there are many species which make
regular migrations, visiting the southern parts of the continent and Van
Diemen’s Land during the months of summer, for the purpose of breeding
and rearing their progeny, and which retire again northwards on the
approach of winter, following in fact the same law which governs the
migrations of the species inhabiting similar latitudes of the Old World.
There are also periods when some species of birds appear to entirely
forsake the part of the country in which they have been accustomed to
dwell, and to betake themselves to some distant locality, where they
remain for five or ten years, or even for a longer period, and whence
they as suddenly disappear as they had arrived. Some remarkable
instances of this kind came under my own observation. The beautiful
little warbling Grass Parrakeet (_Melopsittacus undulatus_), which,
prior to 1838, was so rare in the southern parts of Australia that only
a single example had been sent to Europe, arrived in that year in such
countless multitudes on the Liverpool plains, that I could have procured
any number of specimens, and more than once their delicate bodies formed
an excellent article of food for myself and party. The _Nymphicus
Novæ-Hollandiæ_ forms another case in point, and the Harlequin
Bronze-winged Pigeon (_Peristera histrionica_) a third; this latter bird
occurred in such numbers on the plains near the Namoi in 1839, that
eight fell to a single discharge of my gun; both the settlers and
natives assured me that they had suddenly arrived, and that they had
never before been seen in that part of the country. The aborigines who
were with me, and of whom I must speak in the highest praise, for the
readiness with which they rendered me their assistance, affirmed, upon
learning the nature of my pursuits, that they had come to meet me. The
_Tribonyx ventralis_ may be cited as another species whose movements are
influenced by the same law. This bird visited the colony of Swan River
in 1833, and that of South Australia in 1840, in such countless myriads,
that whole fields of corn were trodden down and destroyed in a single
night; and even the streets and gardens of Adelaide were, according to
Captain Sturt, alive with them.

If we compare the ornithology of Australia with that of any other
country in similar latitudes and of the same extent, we shall find that
it fully equals, if it does not exceed them all, in the number of
species it comprises; and those parts of the country that are still
unexplored doubtless contain many yet to be added to the list of its
Fauna.

In the course of the present work it will be found that I have given a
wide range of habitat to some of the species, and that I have at the
same time pointed out slight variations, not amounting to a specific
difference, in individuals from different localities. This difference I
am unable to account for. I do not believe the birds to be distinct
species, but am inclined to regard them as varieties or races of the
same species, modified by the character of the situations they frequent.
I may mention some curious instances in point: the _Artamus sordidus_ is
a migratory bird in Van Diemen’s Land, and is partially stationary in
New South Wales, yet all the examples procured in the former country are
the largest and most vigorous, which we should naturally attribute to
the excess of food afforded by its more humid climate; but precisely the
reverse of this occurs with regard to the _Graucalus parvirostris_,
which is also a migratory bird in Van Diemen’s Land, and examples of
which, killed in that island, are much more feeble and diminutive than
the _Graucali_ obtained in New South Wales. The _Halcyon sanctus_,
again, whose distribution is universal in Australia, varies somewhat in
size in every colony, still not sufficiently so as to afford any
tangible specific characters.

Upon taking a general view of the Australian ornithology, we find no
species of Vulture, only one typical Eagle, and indeed a remarkable
deficiency in the number of the species of its birds of prey, with the
exception of the nocturnal Owls, among which the members of the
restricted genus _Strix_ are more numerous than in any other part of the
world; a circumstance which is probably attributable to the great
abundance of small nocturnal quadrupeds.

Among the perching birds there is a great excess of the
INSECTIVORÆ—_Podargi_, _Meliphagidæ_, _Maluridæ_, _Gymnorhinæ_, &c., of
the GRANIVORÆ, such as various species of the _Fringillidæ_ and of the
_Psittacidæ_. The latter tribe of birds is more numerous in Australia
than in any other part of the world, and forms four great groups, viz.
the Calyptorhynchi, which mainly procure their food from the _Banksiæ_,
_Casuarinæ_ and _Eucalypti_; the _Cacatuæ_, which feed upon the
terrestrial _Orchideæ_, &c.; the _Trichoglossi_, which subsist upon the
nectar they extract from the flower-cups and blossoms of the
_Eucalypti_; and the ground and grass Parrakeets, which feed almost
exclusively on the seeds of the various grasses that abound on the
plains; the united groups amounting to nearly sixty species.

Of the Rasorial forms,—while the Pigeons and Hemipodes are numerous, the
larger and typical GALLINACEÆ are entirely wanting; their only
representatives being a few species of _Coturnix_ and _Synoïcus_. The
Grallatorial birds are about equal in number to those of other
countries; and among the water birds the true Ducks are but few, while
the _Procellaridæ_ which visit the coast are more abundant than in any
other part of the world. On a retrospect of the whole we find a greater
number of nocturnal birds than is comprised in the ornithology of any
other section of the globe. I must not omit to mention too the
extraordinary fecundity which prevails in Australia, many of its smaller
birds breeding three or four times in a season; but laying fewer eggs in
the early spring when insect life is less developed, and a greater
number later in the season when the supply of insect food has become
more abundant. I have also some reason to believe that the young of many
species breed during the first season, for among others I frequently
found one section of the Honey-eaters (the _Melithrepti_) sitting upon
eggs while still clothed in the brown dress of immaturity; and we know
that such is the case with the introduced GALLINACEÆ, three or four
generations of which have been often produced in the course of a year.

Another peculiar feature connected with the Australian ornithology is
that of its comprising several forms endowed with the power of
sustaining and enjoying life without a supply of water, that element
without which most others languish and die; for instance, the Halcyons,
which I found living and even breeding on the parched plains of the
interior during the severe drought of 1838–39, far removed from any
water; the food of these birds being insects and lizards.

A considerable number of the older-known of the Australian birds have
been described in the general works of Vieillot, Latham, Shaw and
others; but their descriptions are so vague, and the species themselves
so frequently referred to genera widely different from those to which
they really belong, that it has been impossible to identify the whole of
them; but wherever they could be identified with certainty their names
have been adopted, or quoted in the synonyms.

The “Birds of Europe” were arranged according to the views of the late
Mr. Vigors; and in the “Birds of Australia” the arrangement is mainly
the same, with some modifications of my own which appeared to me to be
necessary.

I have been constrained, for the sake of uniformity in size, to divide
the present work into seven volumes; the first of which comprises the
RAPTORES, the small number of which will account for its being somewhat
thinner than the others; the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth
volumes comprise the INSESSORES, RASORES and GRALLATORES in one
continuous series, and the seventh the NATATORES.

The following synoptical table will give a general view of the whole; it
contains all the additional information I have received, or been able to
procure, during the progress of the work; the characters of the new
genera I have found it necessary to institute, &c.; and the references
to the volumes in which the respective plates are arranged will render
it easy to consult and to quote them.



                         Order RAPTORES, _Ill._


                       Family FALCONIDÆ, _Leach._


                         Genus AQUILA, _Briss._

Numerous species of this genus exist in Asia and Europe; the form also
occurs in Africa, and in North America; so far as I am aware it is not
found in South America, and two species are all that are known in
Australia.

 1. Aquila fucosa, _Cuv._                                 Vol. I. Pl. 1.

      _Vultur audax_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp., p. ii.

      _Aquila cuneicaudata_, Brehm, Isis, 1845, p. 356.

      —— (_Uroaëtus_) _audax_, Kaup, Classif. der Säug. und Vög., p. 12.

This fine Eagle ranges over the whole of the southern portion of
Australia and Van Diemen’s Land, but I have no positive evidence of its
having been seen in the intertropical regions of the country.

 2. Aquila Morphnoïdes, _Gould_                           Vol. I. Pl. 2.

A beautiful representative of the _Aquila pennata_ of Europe and India.
Since the discovery of this bird at Yarrundi in New South Wales, when I
obtained only a single specimen, T. C. Eyton, Esq. has received a second
example in a collection obtained at Port Phillip, and a third was
procured by Captain Sturt at the Depôt in South Australia.


                      Genus ICHTHYIAËTUS, _Lafr._

The members of this genus inhabit India and the whole of the Indian
Islands, and enjoy an equally extensive range over the continent of
Africa. Their natural abode is the margins of large rivers and inlets of
the sea; and their chief food consists of fish, dead cetacea and
carrion.

 3. Ichthyiaëtus leucogaster                              Vol. I. Pl. 3.

      _Haliaëtus_ (_Pontoaëtus_) _leucogaster_, Kaup, Classif. der Säug.
        und Vög., p. 122.

      _Cuncuma leucogaster_, List of Birds in Brit. Mus. Coll., Part I.
        2nd edit. p. 24.

Found all round the coast of Australia, and said to extend its range to
India and even to Africa; but this wants confirmation.

An opinion has been lately expressed that the enormous nests observed by
Captains Cook and Flinders had been constructed by some species of
_Dinornis_; but it is quite evident from the account given by Flinders
that they must have been formed by a bird of the Raptorial order, and I
have no doubt that they were the nests of the present bird.

“Near Point Possession,” says Flinders, “were found two nests of
extraordinary magnitude. They were built upon the ground, from which
they rose above two feet; and were of vast circumference and great
interior capacity, the branches of trees and other matter, of which each
nest was composed, being enough to fill a small cart. Captain Cook found
one of these enormous nests upon Eagle Island, on the east coast.”
Subsequently Flinders found another of these nests in which were
“several masses resembling those which contain the hair and bones of
mice, and are disgorged by the Owls in England after the flesh is
digested. These masses were larger, and consisted of the hair of seals
and of land animals, of the scaly feathers of penguins, and the bones of
birds and small quadrupeds. Possibly the constructor of the nest might
be an enormous Owl; and if so, the cause of the bird being never seen,
whilst the nests were not scarce, would be from its not going out until
dark; but from the very open and exposed situations in which the nests
were found, I should rather judge it to be of the Eagle kind; and that
its powers are such as to render it heedless of any attempts of the
natives upon its young.”—Flinders’ Voyage, vol. i. pp. 64 and 81.

The accumulation of so large a mass of materials is readily accounted
for when we remember that the bird is in the habit of resorting to the
same eyry for a long succession of years, and of annually carrying
additional materials to reconstruct the nest.

I myself found and took young birds of this species from similar nests
placed on the points of rocks and promontories of the islands in Bass’s
Straits.


                       Genus HALIASTUR, _Selby._

The range of the members of this genus extends over Australia and all
the islands to India.

 4. Haliastur leucosternus, _Gould_                       Vol. I. Pl. 4.

      _Falco Ponticerianus_, Shaw, Nat. Misc., pl. 389.

      _Haliaëtus (Ictinoaëtus) leucosternon_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 277.

Confined, so far as I am aware, to Australia, and forming a beautiful
representative of the _Haliastur Ponticerianus_ of India.

 5. Haliastur sphenurus                                   Vol. I. Pl. 5.

      _Milvus sphenurus_, Swains. Class. of Birds, vol. ii. p. 211.

      _Haliaëtus (Ictinoaëtus) canorus_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 277.

Inhabits all parts of Australia yet visited by travellers, even the
Depôt in the interior.


                         Genus PANDION, _Sav._

Of the genus _Pandion_ four species are now known; one inhabiting
America, another Europe and Asia, a third the Indian Islands, and the
fourth Australia.

 6. Pandion leucocephalus, _Gould_                        Vol. I. Pl. 6.

      _Pandion Gouldii_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 270.—List of Birds in
        Brit. Mus. Coll., Part I. 2nd edit. p. 22.

This species of _Pandion_ performs precisely the same office in
Australia that the _P. haliaëtus_ does in Europe and the _P.
Carolinensis_ in America; to both of which species it is very nearly
allied.


                           Genus Falco, Linn.

As they are the most typical of all the Hawks, so are the members of the
genus _Falco_ the most universally dispersed over the face of the globe;
and I question whether the law of representation is in any case more
beautifully and clearly shown than by the members of the present group.

 7. Falco hypoleucus, _Gould_                             Vol. I. Pl. 7.

Up to the present time only four examples of this fine Falcon have been
procured; it is a species admirably adapted for the sport of Falconry,
and is a beautiful representative of the _Falco Gyrfalco_ of Europe. Its
native habitat is the interior of the southern and western portions of
Australia.

 8. Falco melanogenys, _Gould_                            Vol. I. Pl. 8.

      _Falco macropus_, Swains. Anim. in Menag., p. 341.

      —— _melanogenys_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 75.

India, Europe, and North America on the one hand, and Cape Horn, the
Cape of Good Hope and Australia on the other, are all inhabited by
Falcons so nearly allied to each other as to favour the opinion that
they are merely varieties of each other; but I agree with the Prince of
Canino and Professor Kaup in considering them to be distinct and
representatives of each other in the respective countries they inhabit.
It will doubtless be found that the habits and economy of the whole are
as similar as they are in outward appearance; and that the _Falco
melanogenys_ is as destructive to the ducks of the interior of Australia
as the _Falco Anatum_ is in North America.

 9. Falco subniger, _Gray_                                Vol. I. Pl. 9.

A powerful Falcon differing somewhat in structure from the _F.
hypoleucus_ and _F. melanogenys_. Nothing is known of its habits, and as
yet I have only seen four examples, all of which were procured in the
interior of South Australia.

 10. Falco frontatus, _Gould_                            Vol. I. Pl. 10.

      _Falco lunulatus_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl., p. xiii.?

      _Sparvius lunulatus_, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. d’Hist. Nat., tom. x. p.
        324.

      _Falco longipennis_, Swains. Anim. in Menag., p. 341.?

      —— _subbuteo_, Brehm, Isis, 1845, p. 347.?

      —— (_Hypotriorchis_) _frontatus_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 65.

A little Falcon with the habits of the Hobby and Merlin combined; found
in all parts of Australia to the southward of the 25th degree of S.
lat.; among other birds it preys upon the Quails and the little
Partridges belonging to the genus _Synoïcus_.


                       Genus IERACIDEA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ and general form of _Falco_, but the _wings_ less powerful, and
the third quill-feather the longest; _tarsi_ more elongated, slender,
and covered anteriorly with hexagonal scales; _toes_ more feeble, the
hind-toe shorter, and the _claws_ less robust.

So far as our present knowledge extends, the members of this genus are
only three in number, all of which are confined to Australia and New
Zealand.

 11. Ieracidea Berigora                                  Vol. I. Pl. 11.

      _Ieracidea Berigora_, Kaup, Class, der Säug. und Vög., p. 112.

Professor Kaup considers this species and the succeeding one, _I.
occidentalis_, to be identical, but having had numerous opportunities of
observing them, I am satisfied that they are distinct; and in
confirmation of this opinion I may state that the _I. Berigora_, which
is from the eastern coast, is always the largest, has the cere
blue-grey, and the plumage of the adult light brown, sparingly blotched
with white on the breast; while the _I. occidentalis_, from the western
coast, is a more delicately formed bird, has the cere yellow and the
breast white, with faint lines of brown down the centre of each feather.

 12. Ieracidea occidentalis, _Gould_                     Vol. I. Pl. 12.


                      Genus TINNUNCULUS, _Vieill_.

 13. Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes                             Vol. I. Pl. 13.

      _Cerchneis immaculatus_, Brehm, Isis.

A beautiful representative of the Kestrils of Europe and India, where,
as well as in Africa and in most parts of America, members of this group
are to be found.

The range of the _Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes_ extends over the whole of the
southern parts of Australia, and that it extends far towards the
northern portion of the country is proved by Mr. Gilbert having found
it, as well as its nest, during the expedition of Dr. Leichardt from
Moreton Bay to Port Essington.

The following is an extract from his Journal:—“October 2. Found, for the
first time, the eggs of _Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes_, four in number,
deposited in a hollow spout of a gum-tree overhanging a creek; there was
no nest, the eggs being merely deposited on a bed of decayed wood.” They
are freckled all over with blotches and minute dots of rich reddish
chestnut on a paler ground, and are one inch and five-eighths in length
by one inch and a quarter in breadth.


                         Genus ASTUR, _Lacep._

 14. Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ                                Vol. I. Pl. 14.
 15. Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ, albino                        Vol. I. Pl. 15.

      _Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ_, Cuv. Règ. An., 1817, p. 320.

      _Sparvius niveus_, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. d’Hist. Nat., tom. x. p.
        338.

      _Dædalion candidum_, Less. Traité d’Orn., p. 66.

      _Falco leucaëtos_, Forst. Descr. Anim. and Drawings, No. 35.

      _Astur (Leucospiza) Novæ-Hollandiæ_, Kaup, Class, der Säug. und
        Vög., p. 119.

I think Professor Kaup is right in proposing a new generic title for
this species, differing as it does both in structure and habits from the
true _Asturs_; he also, like myself, considers the white birds to be
merely albino varieties of the other; but my friends, the Rev. T. J.
Ewing and Ronald C. Gunn, Esq. of Van Diemen’s Land, are both most
decidedly opposed to this view of the subject, and found their dissent
upon the circumstance of there being none other than white individuals
in Van Diemen’s Land.

So far as it is at present known, the southern and eastern portions of
Australia and the island of Van Diemen’s Land constitute the habitat of
the species.

 16. Astur radiatus                                      Vol. I. Pl. 16.

      _Astur testaceus_ (_Ernest._), Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 367.

A curious form not quite agreeing with _Astur_; it is very rare, and
nothing whatever is known of its habits.

 17. Astur approximans, _Vig. & Horsf._                  Vol. I. Pl. 17.

      _Astur radiatus_, Cuv. Règ. An., 1829, p. 332.

      _Nisus_ (_Urospiza_) _radiatus_, Kaup, Mus. Senckenb., 1845, p.
        259.

      —— (——) _approximans_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 182.

      _Accipiter approximans_, List of Birds in Brit. Mus. Coll., Part
        I. 2nd edit. p. 74.

The _Astur approximans_ has been with propriety removed to the genus
_Accipiter_ by Mr. G. R. Gray, and to this genus my _A. cruentus_ is
also referable; for although of a larger size than the other members of
that form, their structure, except in the shorter middle toe, is very
similar.

 18. Astur cruentus, _Gould_                             Vol. I. Pl. 18.

      _Astur cruentus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part X. p. 113.

This species and the preceding are representatives of each other in the
eastern and western portions of the continent.

I have lately seen specimens from Port Essington.


                       Genus ACCIPITER, _Briss_.

 19. Accipiter torquatus                                 Vol. I. Pl. 19.

      _Sparvius cirrhocephalus_, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. d’Hist. Nat., tom.
        x. p. 328.

      —— _tricolor_, Vieill. ibid. p. 329.

      _Falco melanops_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp., p. 12?

      _Sparvius melanops_, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. d’Hist. Nat., tom. x. p.
        239?

      _Astur_ (_Micronisus_) _torquatus_, Kaup, Mus. Senckenb. 1845, p.
        259.

      _Nisus_ (_Urospiza_) _torquatus_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 181.

      _Accipiter cirrhocephalus_, List of Birds in Brit. Mus. Coll.,
        Part I. 2nd edit. p. 73.

Precisely similar in all its actions and in its economy to the Sparrow
Hawk, _Accipiter nisus_ of Europe.


                          Genus BUTEO, _Cuv._

Species of the genus _Buteo_ are dispersed over the great continents of
Europe, Asia, Africa and America, but only one has yet been discovered
in Australia.

 20. Buteo melanosternon, _Gould_                        Vol. I. Pl. 20.

This bird departs somewhat in form from the typical species of the genus
_Buteo_; but so little is known respecting it that we are ignorant how
far this departure may influence its habits and economy. One most
singular story has been transmitted to me and is here given as I
received it; without vouching for its truth, I may remark that the
testimony of the natives may generally be relied upon.

“The natives, Mr. Drummond, and his son Mr. Johnson Drummond, tell me,”
says Mr. Gilbert, “that this bird is so bold, that upon discovering an
Emu sitting on her eggs it will attack her with great ferocity until it
succeeds in driving her from them; when it takes up a stone with its
feet, and while hovering over the eggs lets the stone fall upon and
crush them, and then descends and devours their contents. I have had
numerous opportunities of observing the bird myself, and can bear
testimony to its great powers of scent or vision; for upon several
occasions, when the natives had placed a small kangaroo or kangaroo-rat
in the fork of a tree or on the top of a _Xanthorrhæa_ with the
intention of taking it again on our return, we have found that the bird
during our short absence had discovered and devoured every part of it
except the skin, which was left so perfect, that at first I could not
believe that it had not been done by the hand of man.”


                          Genus MILVUS, _Cuv._

Asia is the great stronghold of the Kites or restricted genus _Milvus_;
a few species occur in Europe, Africa, and the Indian Islands, and two
are natives of Australia.

 21. Milvus affinis, _Gould_                             Vol. I. Pl. 21.

      _Milvus_ (_Hydroictinia_) _affinis_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 118.

This representative of the _Milvus ater_ of Europe is found all over
Australia, even at Port Essington: Captain Sturt observed it flying over
the far interior of South Australia in great numbers.

 22. Milvus isurus, _Gould_                              Vol. I. Pl. 22.

This species, which is sparingly dispersed over the whole of the
southern part of Australia, is an equally beautiful representative of
the common Kite, _Milvus regalis_ of Europe.


                          Genus ELANUS, _Sav._

Species of this well-defined genus inhabit nearly every part of the
world: two are natives of Australia.

 23. Elanus axillaris                                    Vol. I. Pl. 23.

      _Elanus melanopterus_, Vig. & Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p.
        185.

The _Elanus axillaris_ is a representative of the _Elanus melanopterus_
of Europe.

 24. Elanus scriptus, _Gould_                            Vol. I. Pl. 24.

A fine new species rendered conspicuously different from all the other
members of the genus by the black-lettered form of the markings under
the wings.

Captain Sturt found this bird abundant at the Depôt towards the interior
of Australia.


                    Genus LEPIDOGENYS, _J. E. Gray_.

Of this genus three species are known; they inhabit India, the Indian
Islands and Australia.

 25. Lepidogenys subcristatus, _Gould_                   Vol. I. Pl. 25.

      _Baza subcristata_, G. R. Gray, List of Birds in Brit. Mus. Coll.,
        Part I. p. 19. 2nd edit. p. 41.

      _Pernis (Hyptiopus) subcristatus_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 343.

I have no additional information respecting this noble species; all the
examples of which, that have come under my notice, have been obtained in
the brushes of the east coast of Australia.


                         Genus CIRCUS, _Lacep_.

Two if not three kinds of Harriers inhabit Australia, consequently the
number of species is nearly equal in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and
Australia; those inhabiting the latter country are precisely of the same
form, and perform the same offices as their near allies do in the other
parts of the world.

 26. Circus assimilis, _Jard. & Selb._                   Vol. I. Pl. 26.
 27. Circus Jardinii, _Gould_                            Vol. I. Pl. 27.

      _Circus (Spilocircus) Jardinii_, Kaup, Isis, 847, p. 102.


                       Family STRIGIDÆ, _Leach_.


                          Genus STRIX, _Linn_.

While as a general rule other countries are only inhabited by a single
species of the restricted genus _Strix_, the Fauna of Australia
comprises no less than four, all of which appear to be necessary in
order to prevent an inordinate increase of the smaller quadrupeds which
there abound.

 28. Strix castanops, _Gould_                            Vol. I. Pl. 28.
 29. Strix personata, _Vig._                             Vol. I. Pl. 29.
 30. Strix tenebricosus, _Gould_                         Vol. I. Pl. 30.
 31. Strix delicatulus, _Gould_                          Vol. I. Pl. 31.

      _Strix flammea?_ Vig. & Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 190.


                         Genus ATHENE, _Boie_.

A genus of diurnal Owls, of which five species are natives of Australia;
the smaller kinds are represented in Europe and Asia by the _Athene
noctua_, _A. Cuculoides_ and _A. Brama_; the larger kinds have no
representatives in the northern hemisphere.

 32. Athene Boobook                                      Vol. I. Pl. 32.
 33. Athene maculata                                     Vol. I. Pl. 33.
 34. Athene marmorata, _Gould_.

      _Athene marmorata_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part XIV. p. 18.

All the upper surface, wings and tail dark brown, obscurely spotted with
white round the back of the neck, on the wing-coverts and scapularies;
inner webs of the primaries at their base, and the inner webs of the
lateral tail-feathers crossed by bands, which are buff next the shaft
and white towards the extremity of the webs; face and chin whitish;
under surface dark brown, blotched with white and sandy brown; legs and
thighs fawn-colour; bill horn-colour; feet yellow.

Inhabits South Australia, is much larger than _A. maculata_, but so
nearly allied to, and so much like that species, that I have not thought
it necessary to give a separate figure of it.

 35. Athene connivens                                    Vol. I. Pl. 34.

      _Buteo connivens_, Vieill. Nouv. Dict. d’Hist. Nat., tom. iv. p.
        481.

 36. Athene strenua, _Gould_                             Vol. I. Pl. 35.
 37. Athene rufa, _Gould_                                Vol. I. Pl. 36.



                        Order INSESSORES, _Vig._


                      Family CAPRIMULGIDÆ, _Vig._


                    Genus ÆGOTHELES, _Vig. & Horsf._

The known species of this genus are two in number, both of which, so far
as has yet been ascertained, are confined to Australia. In many of their
actions, and in their nidification, they are very owl-like, depositing,
like those birds, their four or five round white eggs in the hollows of
trees, without any nest.

 38. Ægotheles Novæ-Hollandiæ                           Vol. II.  Pl. 1.

Inhabits the whole of the southern parts of Australia and Van Diemen’s
Land.

 39. Ægotheles leucogaster, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 2.

Inhabits the northern or intertropical parts of Australia, where it
represents the _Æ. Novæ-Hollandiæ_.


                         Genus PODARGUS, _Cuv._

With no one group of the Australian birds have I had so much difficulty
in discriminating the species as the genus _Podargus_. It is almost
impossible to determine with certainty the older species described by
Latham; could this have been done satisfactorily, even in a single
instance, it would have greatly facilitated the investigation of the
remainder. Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield regarded the specimens in the
Linnean Collection as referable to three species, and have described
them under the names of _Stanleyanus_, _humeralis_, and _Cuvieri_;
Latham’s description of the species named by him _megacephalus_ accords
so well with the _P. Stanleyanus_, that I suspect both those terms have
been applied to one and the same species, an opinion strengthened by
Latham’s remarks as to the great size of the head and mandibles of his
bird, the total length of which he states to be thirty inches, which is
evidently an error.

After examining a large number of specimens comprising individuals of
all ages, I have come to the conclusion that the Australian members of
this genus constitute six species; four of which, namely, _P.
megacephalus_, _P. humeralis_, _P. Cuvieri_, and _P. brachypterus_, are
most closely allied to each other; and two, namely, _P. plumiferus_ and
_P. Phalænoides_, which present specific characters that cannot be
mistaken. We have then in Australia a large group of nocturnal birds of
this form destined, as it would seem, to keep in check the great
families of _Cicadæ_ and _Phasmidæ_, upon which they mainly subsist; but
they do not refuse other insects, and even berries have been found in
their stomachs. They are an inanimate and sluggish group of birds, and
do not procure their food on the wing so much as other _Caprimulgi_, but
obtain it by traversing the branches of the various trees upon which
their favourite insects reside; at intervals during the night they sit
about in open places, on rails, stumps of trees, on the roofs of houses
and on the tombstones in the churchyards, and by superstitious persons
are regarded as omens of death, their hoarse disagreeable voice adding
not a little to the terrors induced by their presence.

In their nidification the _Podargi_ differ in a most remarkable manner
from all the other _Caprimulgidæ_, inasmuch as while the eggs of the
_Ægothelæ_ are deposited in the holes of trees, and those of the members
of the other genera of this family on the ground, these birds construct
a flat nest of small sticks on the horizontal branches of trees for the
reception of theirs, which are moreover of the purest white.

Although I have no satisfactory evidence that these birds resort to a
kind of hybernation for short periods during some portions of the year,
I must not omit to mention that I have been assured that they do
occasionally retire to and remain secluded in the hollow parts of the
trees; and if such should prove to be the case, it may account for the
extreme obesity of many of the individuals I procured, which was often
so great as to prevent me from preserving their skins. I trust that
these remarks will cause the subject to be investigated by those who are
favourably situated for so doing; for my own part I see no reason why a
bird should not pass a portion of its existence in a state of
hybernation as well as some species of quadrupeds, animals much higher
in the scale of creation.

So great a similarity in plumage reigns throughout the first four of the
species enumerated below that I have thought it unnecessary to figure
more than two, viz. _P. humeralis_ and _P. Cuvieri_; the other two may
be readily distinguished by the descriptions I have given of them,
particularly if the localities be attended to.

 40. Podargus megacephalus.

      _Caprimulgus megacephalus_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp., p. lviii.

      _Great-headed Goatsucker_, Lath. Gen. Syn. Supp., vol. ii. p.
        265.—Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. x. p. 141.—Lath. Gen. Hist., vol.
        vii. p. 364.

      _Wedge-tailed Goatsucker_, Lath. Gen. Hist., vol. vii. p. 368?

      _Podargus Stanleyanus_, Lath. MSS., Vig. & Horsf. in Linn. Trans.,
        vol. xv. p. 197?

In the general colouring, form and arrangement of its markings, this
species so closely resembles the _P. humeralis_, that one description
applies equally to both; but it may be distinguished by its being
somewhat larger in the body and much larger in the head, and by the very
great development of the mandibles.

It inhabits the brushes of the east coast, and in its habits and economy
resembles the other species of the group.

 41. Podargus humeralis, _Vig. & Horsf._                Vol. II.  Pl. 3.
 42. Podargus Cuvieri, _Vig. & Horsf._                  Vol. II.  Pl. 4.
 43. Podargus brachypterus, _Gould_.

      _Podargus brachypterus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part VIII.
        p. 163.

In its general appearance this bird closely resembles the _P.
humeralis_, but is even smaller in size than _P. Cuvieri_, while at the
same time the bill is larger than that of the former species, and
projects much farther from the face than in any other of its congeners;
it also differs in the shortness of its wings, which circumstance
suggested the specific appellation I have assigned to it.

It is a native of Western Australia.

 44. Podargus Phalænoïdes, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 5.
 45. Podargus plumiferus, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 6.


                      Genus EUROSTOPODUS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ somewhat more produced and stouter than in _Caprimulgus_;
_nostrils_ lateral and linear; _rictus_ entirely devoid of bristles, but
furnished with short, weak, divided and branching hairs; _wings_ longer
and more powerful than in _Caprimulgus_; first and second quills equal
and longest; _tail_ moderately long and nearly square; _tarsi_ stout,
and clothed anteriorly for their whole length; _toes_ short, thick and
fleshy; outer ones equal, and united to the middle one by a membrane for
more than half their length; nail of the middle toe strongly pectinated
on the inner side.

This genus, so far as is yet known, comprises but two species, both of
which are natives of and confined to Australia. They differ considerably
in their habits from the true _Caprimulgi_. Their wing-powers being
enormous, they pass through the air with great rapidity, and while
hawking for insects during the twilight of the early dawn and evening,
they make the most abrupt and sudden turns in order to secure their
prey. Like the typical _Caprimulgi_, they rest on the ground during the
day. In every instance in which the site employed for incubation has
been discovered, a single egg only has been found; it is deposited on
the bare ground, and differs from those of the other _Caprimulgi_ in
being much more round in form, and of a dull olive-green spotted with
jet black.

The members of this genus are very nearly allied to the _Lyncorni_, a
group of birds inhabiting the Indian Islands.

 46. Eurostopodus albogularis                           Vol. II.  Pl. 7.
 47. Eurostopodus guttatus                              Vol. II.  Pl. 8.

      _Fichtel’s Goatsucker_, Lath. Gen. Hist., vol. vii. p. 345.


                       Genus CAPRIMULGUS, _Linn._

Europe, Asia and Africa are the great strongholds of the members of this
genus as at present restricted. A single species only has yet been
discovered in Australia, where it frequents the northern or
intertropical parts of the country.

 48. Caprimulgus macrurus, _Horsf._                     Vol. II.  Pl. 9.

This bird is found in Java, and I believe in Southern India.


                       Family HIRUNDINIDÆ, _Vig._


                       Genus ACANTHYLIS, _Boie_.

A group of birds possessing enormous powers of flight, and the members
of which are distributed over the Indian Islands and Asia; the form is
also found in Africa and in America, but in those countries the species
are fewer in number: one species only has yet been discovered in
Australia.

 49. Acanthylis caudacuta                              Vol. II.  Pl. 10.

A migratory bird in most parts of Australia, but whence it comes or
whither it goes has not yet been ascertained; of its nidification also
nothing is known.

I have alluded to the great wing-powers of the birds of the genus
_Acanthylis_, and in confirmation of which I may mention that an
individual of this species was killed in England during the past year:
it would be interesting to know the route pursued by the bird in
travelling so great a distance as it must have done.


                         Genus CYPSELUS, _Ill._

Of this genus, as of _Acanthylis_, there is but one species peculiar to
Australia: other members of the group inhabit the continents of Europe,
Asia and Africa, but not America.

 50. Cypselus Australis, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 11.

      _Hirundo pacifica_, Lath.?


                        Genus ATTICORA, _Boie_.

The members of this genus are principally American.

I am not fully satisfied of the propriety of placing the bird I
described in the ‘Proceedings of the Zoological Society’ as _Hirundo
leucosternon_ in the present genus: if on a further knowledge of the
Australian birds it should prove that I have been correct in so doing,
the species will be found to inhabit Australia, Africa and America.

 51. Atticora leucosternon, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 12.

Since I described and figured this species I have received numerous
examples from Swan River, where Mr. Gilbert observed it on the 19th of
August flying about the holes of the Boodee (_Bettongia Grayii_) in
pairs; but it was not until the latter end of September that he
succeeded in finding their nests placed at the extremities of holes
bored in the side of a bank. All the holes that he saw were perfectly
round, not more than two inches in diameter, running horizontally, and
of the same dimensions, for three feet from the entrance, and then
expanding to the extent of four inches and forming the receptacle of the
nest, which is constructed of the broad portions of dried grasses and
the dry dead leaves of the Acacia. Mr. Johnson Drummond informed him
that he had frequently found seven and even nine eggs in a single nest,
from which he inferred that more than one female lays in the same nest:
the eggs are white, somewhat lengthened, and pointed in form. It would
seem that the holes are not constructed exclusively for the purpose of
nidification, for upon Mr. Gilbert’s inserting a long grass stalk into
one of them five birds made their way out, all of which he succeeded in
catching; upon his digging to the extremity in the hope of procuring
their eggs, no nest was found, and hence he concludes that their holes
are also used as places of resort for the night.


                         Genus HIRUNDO, _Linn._

The members of the genus _Hirundo_, or true Swallows, inhabit Europe,
Asia, Africa, North America, the Indian Islands and Australia, where the
European and American chimney Swallows, _Hirundo rustica_ and _H. rufa_,
are beautifully represented by the _H. neoxena_.

 52. Hirundo neoxena, _Gould_                          Vol. II.  Pl. 13.

      _Hirundo neoxena_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part X. p. 113.


                        Genus CHELIDON, _Boie_.

I find that by some unaccountable mistake I have placed the Australian
members of this genus in that of _Collocalia_,—an error which I take
this opportunity of correcting.

The two species inhabiting Australia are both represented by others in
Europe, Asia, Africa and America. They differ somewhat from each other
in habits, one always resorting to the holes of trees for the purpose of
nidification, and the other building a clay nest similar to those
constructed by the martins of Europe and America.

 53. Chelidon arborea.
     Collocalia arborea, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 14.
 54. Chelidon Ariel.
     Collocalia Ariel, _Gould_                         Vol. II.  Pl. 15.


                        Family MEROPIDÆ, _Vig._


                         Genus MEROPS, _Linn._

India and Africa may be said to be the great nursery of this lovely
group of birds; one species of which, common in the southern parts of
Europe, is beautifully represented in Australia by the _Merops ornatus_,
the only species inhabiting that country.

 55. Merops ornatus, _Lath._                           Vol. II.  Pl. 16.


                               Family ——?


                      Genus EURYSTOMUS, _Vieill._

One species of this genus is found in Australia, and others inhabit
India and Africa. They are closely allied to the Rollers, and not very
distantly related to the Halcyons.

 56. Eurystomus Australis, _Swains._                   Vol. II.  Pl. 17.


                       Family HALCYONIDÆ, _Vig._


                         Genus DACELO, _Leach_.

The members of the genus _Dacelo_ comprise the largest species of the
great family of the _Halcyonidæ_, and form a conspicuous portion of the
ornithology of Australia; but remarkably enough are confined to the
south-eastern and northern portions of the country, the south-western
parts being uninhabited by any species of this group. I believe that
water is not essential to their existence, and that they seldom if ever
drink. They feed almost exclusively upon animal substances, small
quadrupeds, birds, snakes, lizards, and insects of every kind being
equally acceptable.

Three species inhabit Australia.

 57. Dacelo gigantea                                   Vol. II.  Pl. 18.

Inhabits the south-eastern portion of Australia, from South Australia to
Moreton Bay.

 58. Dacelo Leachii, _Vig. & Horsf._                   Vol. II.  Pl. 19.

Inhabits the north-eastern portion of Australia, and is common at Cape
York.

 59. Dacelo cervina, _Gould_                           Vol. II.  Pl. 20.

Inhabits the north-western parts of Australia, particularly the Cobourg
Peninsula.

In his ‘Journal of an Overland Expedition from Moreton Bay to Port
Essington,’ Dr. Leichardt states that when near the Gulf of Carpentaria,
“The laughing jackass (Dacelo Cervina, _Gould_) of this part of the
country is of a different species from that of the eastern coast, is of
a smaller size and speaks a different language; but the noise is by no
means so ridiculous as that of _Dacelo gigantea_; he is heard before
sunrise, and immediately after sunset, like his representative of the
eastern coast; the latter was observed as far as the upper Lynd, where
the new one made its appearance.”—P. 326.


                        Genus HALCYON, _Swains._

The members of this genus, as now restricted, are found in all the
islands of the Indian Archipelago, Australia, and New Zealand. The
Australian species, which are four in number, have many habits in common
with the _Dacelos_, and like them dwell among other places on the open
plains, far away from water, and consequently must live for considerable
periods without a supply of that element.

 60. Halcyon sanctus, _Vig. & Horsf._                  Vol. II.  Pl. 21.
 61. Halcyon pyrrhopygia, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 22.

Captain Sturt found this species at the Depôt, and I have received
specimens from the Swan River Settlement; consequently it has a very
wide range, but is more an inhabitant of the interior than of the
districts near the coast.

 62. Halcyon sordidus, _Gould_                         Vol. II.  Pl. 23.
 63. Halcyon MacLeayii, _Jard. & Selb._                Vol. II.  Pl. 24.

Independently of the Cobourg Peninsula, I have received specimens of
this bird from Moreton Bay and other parts of the east coast.


                        Genus ALCYONE, _Swains._

The Australian members of this genus are so intimately allied that I
have only deemed it necessary to figure two species, viz. _Alcyone
azurea_ and _A. pusilla_; the two species not figured are both nearly
allied to _A. azurea_, and may be considered its northern and southern
prototypes, since the one to which I have given the name of _pulchra_
inhabits the north coast, and the other, which I have called
_Diemenensis_, inhabits Van Diemen’s Land. The _A. azurea_ inhabits the
intermediate or rather the south-eastern portions of the country, but no
species of the genus has yet been found in Western Australia. They all
frequent the margins of rivers, and live on small fish and insects, and
have many habits in common with the members of the genus _Alcedo_, of
which the Kingfisher of Europe, _A. Ispida_, is the type. Although some
species are found in New Guinea and the Indian Islands, Australia is the
country in which birds of this form are most abundant.

 64. Alcyone azurea                                    Vol. II.  Pl. 25.
 65. Alcyone Diemenensis, _Gould_.

      _Alcyone Diemenensis_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part XIV. p.
        19.

All the upper surface deep blue, becoming more vivid on the rump and
upper tail-coverts; wings black washed with blue; throat buff; under
surface of the body and wings ferruginous orange; on each side of the
chest a patch of bluish black; lores and a small patch behind the ears
buff; crown of the head indistinctly barred with black; irides and bill
black; feet orange. Total length 6½ inches; bill, 2; wing, 3⅛; tail, 1¾;
tarsi, ½.

Inhabits Van Diemen’s Land.

More robust than _Alcyone azurea_, or _A. pulchra_, and differing from
both in the blue of the upper surface being tinged with green.

 66. Alcyone pulchra, _Gould_.

      _Alcyone pulchra_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part XIV. p. 19.

All the upper surface shining purplish blue; wings brownish black;
lores, tuft behind the ear, and throat buff; under surface deep
ferruginous orange; sides of the chest fine purplish blue, passing into
a rich vinous tint on the flanks; irides and bill black; feet orange.
Total length 6 inches; bill, 2; wing, 2⅞; tail, 1½; tarsi ½.

Inhabits the north coast of Australia.

This is the finest coloured species of the Australian _Alcyones_, and is
distinguished by the beautiful vinous colouring of the flanks.

 67. Alcyone pusilla                                   Vol. II.  Pl. 26.


                               Family ——?


                        Genus ARTAMUS, _Vieill._

The members of this singular genus are distributed over New Guinea,
Ceram, the Indian Islands and the continent of India, but are more
numerous in Australia than elsewhere, its fauna comprising no less than
seven well-defined species.

 68. Artamus sordidus                                  Vol. II.  Pl. 27.
 69. Artamus minor, _Vieill._                          Vol. II.  Pl. 28.

Mr. Gilbert found this species breeding in the interior of the country
during Dr. Leichardt’s overland journey to Port Essington.

 70. Artamus cinereus, _Vieill._                       Vol. II.  Pl. 29.
 71. Artamus albiventris, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 30.
 72. Artamus personatus, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 31.
 73. Artamus superciliosus, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 32.
 74. Artamus leucopygialis, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 33.


                               Family ——?


                          Genus DICÆUM, _Cuv._

The continent of India, the Indian Islands and New Guinea are the
countries in which the members of this genus abound; as yet only a
single species has been found in Australia.

 75. Dicæum hirundinaceum                              Vol. II.  Pl. 34.


                         Family PIPRIDÆ, _Vig._


                      Genus PARDALOTUS, _Vieill._

This form is peculiar to Australia, in every portion of which great
country, including Van Diemen’s Land, one or other of the species I have
figured are to be found; some of them associated in the same district,
and even inhabiting the same trees, while in other parts only a single
species exists; for instance, the _P. punctatus_, _P. quadragintus_ and
_P. affinis_ inhabit Van Diemen’s Land; on the whole of the southern
coast of the continent from east to west _P. punctatus_ and _P.
striatus_ are associated; the north coast is the cradle of the species I
have called _P. uropygialis_, and the east coast that of _P.
melanocephalus_, from both of which countries the others are excluded;
the true habitat of the beautiful species I have figured and described
as _P. rubricatus_ is not yet known.

The seven species of this little group are each individually very
numerous, which, together with their general distribution, may enable
them to effect some important operation in the economy of nature; their
chief food consisting of the larvæ of insects.

 76. Pardalotus punctatus                              Vol. II.  Pl. 35.
 77. Pardalotus rubricatus, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 36.
 78. Pardalotus quadragintus, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 37.
 79. Pardalotus striatus                               Vol. II.  Pl. 38.
 80. Pardalotus affinis, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 39.
 81. Pardalotus melanocephalus, _Gould_                Vol. II.  Pl. 40.
 82. Pardalotus uropygialis, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 41.


                         Family LANIADÆ, _Vig._


                        Genus STREPERA, _Less._

Prior to the commencement of the present work only two species of this
form (_S. graculina_ and _S. Anaphonensis_) had been described, and
these had been referred to a different genus by almost every author who
had occasion to mention them; the older writers assigning them to
_Corvus_, _Coracias_ and _Gracula_, and the more modern ones to
_Cracticus_ and _Barita_: finding that their structure did not agree
with the character of either of those genera, I (in 1837) proposed to
make the first-mentioned species the type of a new genus (_Coronica_),
not being aware at the time that this had been done some years before by
M. Lesson, whose name, having the priority, is necessarily the one
adopted.

My researches in Australia have enabled me to add four other species to
the group, three possessing well-defined specific characters, and one,
the distinctive markings of which are not so apparent, but which, in my
opinion, is equally distinct; the specific characters of some groups of
birds are, in fact, so difficult to be determined, both from the
similarity of the species and the want of a knowledge of their natural
habits, as to cause the naturalist no little trouble and research in
properly distinguishing them; and to no group does this remark more
strongly apply than to the one under consideration; the ample materials,
however, at my command, and the possession of a large number of
specimens, the sexes of which have all been ascertained by dissection,
and the habits of which have been observed in their native localities,
enables me to give as perfect an account of this curious group as any I
have yet attempted.

On a careful examination of the members of this genus, it will be
perceived that their relationship to the _Corvidæ_, to which they have
been usually assigned, is very remote, their size and colour being, in
fact, the only features of resemblance; their whole structure and
economy is indeed very different from those of every other bird known,
except those of _Gymnorhina_ and _Cracticus_, with which genera they
form a very natural group among the great family of _Laniadæ_ or
Shrikes.

All the species yet discovered are not only peculiar to Australia, but
are strictly confined to the southern portion of that continent; their
range being limited to the country comprised within the 25th and 40th
degrees of south latitude; future research may, however, add both to the
number of species and to the extent of their range; still their great
stronghold is undoubtedly the most southern portion of the Australian
continent, the islands of Bass’s Straits and Van Diemen’s Land.

Most of these birds seek their food on or near the ground, sometimes in
swampy situations, and even on the sea-shore, at others on the most
sterile plains far distant from water; grasshoppers and insects of every
order are eaten by them with avidity, and to these grain, seeds and
fruits are frequently added; they hop with remarkable agility over the
broken surface of the ground, and leap from branch to branch with great
alacrity: their flight is feeble and protracted, and they seldom mount
high in the air, except for the purpose of crossing a gully, or for
passing from one part of the forest to another, and then merely over the
tops of the trees; during flight they usually utter a peculiar shrill
cry, which is frequently repeated and answered by other birds of the
same troop, for they mostly flit about in small companies of from four
to six in number, apparently the parents and their offspring of the
year. All the species occasionally descend to the cultivated grounds,
orchards and gardens of the settlers, and commit considerable havoc
among their fruits and grain; in many parts of Australia, particularly
in Van Diemen’s Land, they form an article of food, and are considered
good and even delicate eating. They usually build open cup-shaped nests
as large as that of the Crow, composed of sticks and other coarse
materials, lined with grasses or any other suitable substance that may
be at hand; the eggs are generally three, but are sometimes four, in
number. The sexes are similar in plumage, and the young assume the
livery of the adult from the time they leave the nest.

 83. Strepera graculina                                Vol. II.  Pl. 42.
 84. Strepera fuliginosa, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 43.
 85. Strepera Arguta, _Gould_                          Vol. II.  Pl. 44.
 86. Strepera Anaphonensis                             Vol. II.  Pl. 45.

      _Corvus versicolor_, Lath.?

 87. Strepera melanoptera, _Gould_.

      _Strepera melanoptera_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part XIV. p.
        20.

All the upper surface, wings, and tail black; under surface brownish
black, tinged with grey on the abdomen; under tail-coverts and tips of
all but the two centre tail-feathers white; irides yellow; bill and feet
black.

Total length, 19 inches; _bill_, 2; _wings_, 11; _tail_, 9; _tarsi_, 2⅝.

This species inhabits South Australia, and is distinguished from all its
congeners by the total absence of any white mark on the wings; in other
respects it is so similar to _S. Arguta_, that I have not considered it
necessary to give a figure of it.


                    Genus GYMNORHINA, _G. R. Gray_.

Like _Strepera_ this is strictly an Australian form, all the species of
which frequent exclusively the southern parts of the country. Their
structure is a mere modification of that of the members of the last
genus adapted to a somewhat different mode of life and habits. They are
more pastoral than the _Streperæ_, frequenting as they do the open
plains and grassy downs, over which they run or rather hop with great
facility. Their chief food consists of grasshoppers and other insects,
to which berries and fruits are added, when such kinds of food are
procurable. If unmolested in their natural haunts they may be considered
a more familiar race than the _Streperæ_, but if persecuted they become
extremely shy and distrustful. Few birds are more ornamental, or give a
more animated appearance to the country than the members of this genus,
either when running over the surface of the lawn-like ground, or when
pouring forth their singular choral-like notes while perched together on
the bare branches of a fallen _Eucalyptus_. The form and situation of
the nest is the same as those of the _Streperæ_, larger, but not unlike
that of the European Crow.

Specimens of this form from Western Australia exhibit some trifling
differences, but I have not as yet been able to satisfy myself whether
they are or are not distinct.

 88. Gymnorhina Tibicen                                Vol. II.  Pl. 46.
 89. Gymnorhina leuconota, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 47.
 90. Gymnorhina organicum, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 48.


                       Genus CRACTICUS, _Vieill._

The members of this genus, which are universally dispersed over
Australia, prey upon small quadrupeds, birds, lizards and insects, which
they frequently impale after the manner of the ordinary Shrikes. Their
nidification resembles that of the species belonging to the genera
_Strepera_ and _Gymnorhina_, the nest being a large round structure
placed among the branches of the trees, and the eggs four in number. So
great a similarity exists between the birds inhabiting New South Wales,
Van Diemen’s Land, and Swan River, that I have thought it unnecessary to
figure the whole, but the annexed descriptions, with a due attention to
the localities, will obviate all difficulty in determining the species.

 91. Cracticus nigrogularis, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 49.

      _Lanius robustus_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. ii. p. 67?

 92. Cracticus picatus, _Gould_                        Vol. II.  Pl. 50.
 93. Cracticus argenteus, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl 51.
 94. Cracticus destructor                              Vol. II.  Pl. 52.

      _Lanius curvirostris_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. ii. p. 52.

      _Lanius torquatus_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. ii. p. 70.

 95. Cracticus cinereus, _Gould_.

      _Vanga cinerea_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part IV. p. 143.

Inhabits Van Diemen’s Land, and may be distinguished from _C.
destructor_ by its much longer bill, and, when fully adult, by its grey
back.

 96. Cracticus leucopterus, _Gould_.

Inhabits Western Australia; is of the same size as _C. destructor_, but
has the white mark on the wings much larger and more clearly defined.

 97. Cracticus Quoyii                                  Vol. II.  Pl. 53.


                       Genus GRALLINA, _Vieill._

Only one species of this genus is at present known. It is peculiar to
Australia, over every portion of which country it is dispersed; and it
may be considered one of the anomalies of the Australian ornithology,
since its alliance to any group of birds with which we are acquainted is
very remote.

 98. Grallina Australis                                Vol. II.  Pl. 54.


                        Genus GRAUCALUS, _Cuv._

The woods of every part of the Old World from India to Australia are
tenanted by species of this genus, which, from their great size, their
being strictly insectivorous, and individually very numerous, must tend
to keep insect life in check, and consequently perform a most important
part in the economy of nature.

In my description of _Graucalus melanops_, I have stated that New South
Wales, Van Diemen’s Land, Swan River and Port Essington, are each
inhabited by _Grauculi_ so nearly allied to each other that it was
questionable whether they were not one and the same species, and that
the slight differences they present were attributable to some
peculiarity in the districts they inhabit; after much attention to the
subject, I have been induced to regard the Van Diemen’s Land bird as
distinct, and I have therefore assigned it a name, _parvirostris_; those
of the other countries appear to be local varieties or races peculiar to
their respective habitats.

All the members of the group build a flat slight nest of fine short dead
twigs, curiously joined together with cobwebs, on which they lay two
eggs.

 99. Graucalus melanops                                Vol. II.  Pl. 55.

      _Graucalus melanotis_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p.
        143; and in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part IV. Young.

 100. Graucalus parvirostris, _Gould_.

      _Graucalus parvirostris_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p.
        143; and Syn. Birds of Australia, Part. IV.

Forehead, sides of the face and the throat jet black; crown of the head,
all the upper surface and centre of the wings delicate grey; primaries
and the inner webs of the secondaries deep brownish black, the former
narrowly and the latter broadly margined with greyish white; tail grey
at the base, passing into deep brownish black and largely tipped with
white, the grey colour predominating on the two centre feathers, which
are destitute of the white tips; chest grey, into which the black of the
throat gradually passes; lower part of the abdomen, under surface of the
wing and under tail-coverts white; flanks and thighs grey; bill and feet
brownish black.

Total length, 12 inches; _bill_, 1½; _wing_, 7½; _tail_, 6; _tarsi_, 1.

Inhabits Van Diemen’s Land.

 101. Graucalus mentalis, _Vig. &  Horsf._             Vol. II.  Pl. 56.
 102. Graucalus hypoleucus, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 57.
 103. Graucalus Swainsonii, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 58.


                      Genus PTEROPODOCYS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ small, shorter than the head, nearly cylindrical; _tomia_ curved
and pointing downwards; a well-defined notch at the extremity of the
upper mandible; _nostrils_ basal, round, and covered with the short
feathers of the forehead; _wings_ long and pointed, the fourth feather
the longest; _tail_ lengthened, the four middle and the lateral feather
on each side shorter than the rest; _tarsi_ long, stout; _toes_ rather
short, the inner toe longer than the outer one, hind-toe large and
lengthened, the toe and nail nearly equalling in length the middle toe
and nail.

The general structure of the only known species of this form resembles
that of _Graucalus_ and of _Campephaga_, but the bill is so small as to
be quite out of proportion with the body; its lengthened wings and tarsi
adapt it both for flight and for moving rapidly over the surface of the
ground.

 104. Pteropodocys Phasianellus, _Gould_               Vol. II.  Pl. 59.

Inhabits the whole of the interior of Southern Australia from east to
west; the extent of its range northward has not been ascertained. It has
many habits in common with the _Graucali_; but while those birds are
destined for the trees the present bird is adapted for the ground, where
it procures and feeds upon insects of various genera, particularly
locusts and grasshoppers. It frequents the open plains in small
companies of from three to six or eight in number, and is very animated
in its actions, but at the same time most cautious and shy.


                      Genus CAMPEPHAGA, _Vieill._

The members of this genus are spread over India and the Indian Islands,
and the fauna of Australia comprises four species; they are allied to
the _Graucali_, but are much smaller in size, and more active among the
branches.

The sexes are generally very dissimilar in colour and markings, while in
_Graucalus_ they are alike. The nidification and the form of the nests
of the two genera are very similar.

 105. Campephaga Jardinii, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 60.
 106. Campephaga Karu                                  Vol. II.  Pl. 61.
 107. Campephaga leucomela, _Vig. & Horsf._            Vol. II.  Pl. 62.
 108. Campephaga humeralis, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 63.


                     Genus PACHYCEPHALA, _Swains._

The _Pachycephala gutturalis_ may be regarded as the type of this group
of birds, which is peculiarly Australian, and comprises many species,
universally distributed over the country. Their habits differ from those
of most other insectivorous birds, particularly in their quiet mode of
hopping about and traversing the branches of the trees in search of
insects and their larvæ: caterpillars constitute a great portion of
their food; but coleoptera and other insects are not rejected. The more
gaily-attired species, such as _P. gutturalis_, _P. glaucura_, _P.
melanura_ and _P. pectoralis_, resort to the flowering _Acaciæ_,
_Eucalypti_ and other stately trees, while the more dull-coloured ones
frequent the ground: they all build a neat, round, cup-shaped nest, and
the eggs are generally four in number. Their powers of flight are not
great: some of the species enjoy a wide range of habitat, while others
are extremely local. The song of some is loud and rather pleasing, while
others merely emit a whistling note, slowly but frequently repeated.

 109. Pachycephala gutturalis                          Vol. II.  Pl. 64.
 110. Pachycephala glaucura, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 65.
 111. Pachycephala melanura, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 66.
 112. Pachycephala pectoralis                          Vol. II.  Pl. 67.

      _Sylvia rufiventris_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp., p. liv.

      _Rufous-vented Warbler_, Lath. Gen. Syn. Supp., vol. ii. p.
        248.—Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. x. p. 696.

      _Turdus prasinus_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. v. p. 121?

 113. Pachycephala falcata, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 68.
 114. Pachycephala Lanoïdes, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 69.
 115. Pachycephala rufogularis, _Gould_                Vol. II.  Pl. 70.
 116. Pachycephala Gilbertii, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 71.

      _Pachycephala inornata_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part VIII.
        p. 164. Young?

 117. Pachycephala simplex, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 72.
 118. Pachycephala olivacea, _Vig. & Horsf._           Vol. II.  Pl. 73.

The two birds described by me in the Proceedings of the Zoological
Society, Part V. p. 164, as _P. xanthoprocta_ and _P. longirostris_, are
both immature birds, and are, I believe, from Norfolk Island.


                  Genus COLLURICINCLA, _Vig. & Horsf._

Like the last group, the present is strictly confined to Australia,
every one of the colonies of which country, from north to south and from
east to west, is inhabited by a species peculiarly and restrictedly its
own. They have many characters in common with the _Pachycephalæ_, which
they also resemble in their actions, food, economy and nidification.
They are neither Shrikes nor Thrushes, but are most nearly allied to the
former; they are insect-feeders to a very great extent, but occasionally
partake of mollusks and berries. Some of them defend themselves
vigorously with both bill and claws when attacked. Their voice is a loud
whistle, some parts of which are not devoid of melody, particularly the
loud swelling notes.

The nest is rather slightly built, round and cup-shaped in form, and is
mostly placed in the hollow spout of a tree: the eggs are four in
number.

 119. Colluricincla harmonica                          Vol. II.  Pl. 74.

      _Certhia canescens_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. iv. p. 180?

Inhabits New South Wales.

 120. Colluricincla rufiventris, _Gould_               Vol. II.  Pl. 75.

Inhabits Western Australia.

 121. Colluricincla brunnea, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 76.

Inhabits Port Essington.

 122. Colluricincla Selbii, _Jard._                    Vol. II.  Pl. 77.

Inhabits Van Diemen’s Land.

 123. Colluricincla parvula, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 78.

Inhabits the northern parts of the country.

 124. Colluricincla rufogaster, _Gould_.

      _Colluricincla rufogaster_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part
        XIII. p. 80.

I have assigned this name to a bird lately sent to me by Mr. Strange
from the brushes of the Clarence in New South Wales; it may hereafter
prove to be identical with the last-mentioned species, _C. parvula_, the
form and admeasurements being precisely the same; but the bird from New
South Wales has a lighter coloured bill, and the whole of the under
surface washed with deep rufous.

The locality of the bird described by me in the Proceedings of the
Zoological Society, Part IV. p. 6, as _Colluricincla fusca_, being still
unknown, that species has not been included.


                      Genus FALCUNCULUS, _Vieill._

The two species of this genus are not only strictly Australian, but are
confined to the southern parts of the country; the _F. frontatus_
inhabiting New South Wales and South Australia, and the _F. leucogaster_
Western Australia. When attacked by their natural enemies or by man,
both species defend themselves with their powerful bill and claws with
the utmost fury; they also by the same means readily tear off pieces of
rotten wood and the thin scaly bark of the _Eucalypti_ in search of
insects. The branches of trees are their usual place of resort, and in
many of their actions and habits they closely resemble the Tits of
Europe and India (genus _Parus_), while they also assimilate to the
_Pachycephalæ_. They build a round, cup-shaped nest.

 125. Falcunculus frontatus                            Vol. II.  Pl. 79.
 126. Falcunculus leucogaster, _Gould_                 Vol. II.  Pl. 80.

Mr. Gilbert states that while staying in the Toodyay district of Western
Australia in the month of October, he found the nest of this species
among the topmost and weakest perpendicular branches of a Eucalyptus, at
a height of at least fifty feet: it was of a deep cup-shaped form,
composed of the stringy bark of the gum-tree, and lined with fine
grasses, the whole matted together externally with cobwebs; the eggs,
which are three or four in number, are of a glossy white with numerous
minute speckles of dark olive most thickly disposed at the larger end;
they are seven-eighths of an inch long by five-eighths of an inch in
breadth. He adds, that under ordinary circumstances it is a somewhat shy
bird, but when breeding becomes bold and familiar; as an evidence of
which he adduces the fact that a flock of sheep were driven every night
beneath the tree upon which the nest was being constructed without
giving the least alarm to the birds.


                        Genus OREOÏCA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, stout, compressed laterally, and notched
at the tip; _culmen_ bent gradually downwards from the base; lower
mandible nearly as stout as the upper; _nostrils_ basal, round, and
nearly covered with very fine short hair-like feathers directed
forwards, among which are intermingled a few long fine hairs; _wings_
rather long, the first quill short, the third the longest; tertiaries
very long, and nearly equalling the primaries; _tail_ short and very
slightly rounded; _tarsi_ moderately long and stout, entire posteriorly,
and defended anteriorly with hard scuta; feet adapted for the ground;
_toes_ very short, particularly the hind one, inner toe rather shorter
than the outer; _claws_ short, and nearly straight.

The only species known of this form is strictly Australian, and is a
sprightly animated bird frequenting the sterile districts studded with
large trees, scrubs, and open glades, where it hops about on the ground
in search of insects. Notwithstanding the singularly lengthened form of
its scapularies and its terrestrial habits, it appears to me to belong
to the same type of form as the _Pachycephalæ_; its loud piping note and
mode of nidification also favours this opinion. It lays three or four
eggs, in a round, cup-shaped nest, placed either in a grass tree
(_Xanthorrhœa_) or in a hole or stump of a decayed upright tree.

 127. Oreoïca gutturalis                               Vol. II.  Pl. 81.


                       Genus DICRURUS, _Vieill._

A genus of which many species inhabit India and Africa, but of which
only one has yet been found in Australia.

 128. Dicrurus bracteatus, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 82.


                       Family MUSCICAPIDÆ, _Vig._


                    Genus RHIPIDURA, _Vig. & Horsf._

Many species of this genus occur in India, the Indian Islands, New
Guinea, and Polynesia; and five or six are comprised in the fauna of
Australia, over every part of which country, including Van Diemen’s
Land, one or other member of the group is found to exist.

 129. Rhipidura albiscapa, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 83.
 130. Rhipidura rufifrons                              Vol. II.  Pl. 84.
 131. Rhipidura Dryas, _Gould_.

Inhabits the north coast. I have not figured this species because it
only differs from _R. rufifrons_ in being of a smaller size, and in the
red colouring at the base of the tail-feathers being more extensive.

 132. Rhipidura isura, _Gould_                         Vol. II.  Pl. 85.
 133. Rhipidura Motacilloïdes, _Vig. & Horsf._         Vol. II.  Pl. 86.
 134. Rhipidura picata, _Gould_.

Not figured, being similar in colour but much smaller than _R.
Motacilloïdes_; it inhabits Port Essington.


                     Genus SEÏSURA, _Vig. & Horsf._

The present genus and _Rhipidura_ are mere modifications of each other;
a difference of structure, however, exists of sufficient importance to
justify their separation, and, as is always the case, a corresponding
difference is found in the habits of the species.

The present form is restricted to Australia.

 135. Seïsura inquieta                                 Vol. II.  Pl. 87.

      _Turdus muscicola_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. v. p. 123.

      —— _dubius_, Lath.


                     Genus PIEZORHYNCHUS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ longer than the head; deeper than broad, almost cylindrical;
compressed on the sides, notched at the tip; _nostrils_ basal, small and
round; _wings_ short; first primary moderate, the fourth the longest;
_tail_ rather short and round; _tarsi_ moderately long and somewhat
feeble; the inner and middle toes connected as far as the first joint,
the outer one the longest.

The only species of this genus yet discovered is a native of the
northern parts of Australia, from Cape York to Port Essington, where it
frequents the dense beds of Mangroves.

 136. Piezorhynchus nitidus, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 88.


                     Genus MYIÄGRA, _Vig. & Horsf._

A group of insectivorous birds, the greater number of which inhabit the
Indian Islands and Polynesia, and of which four species are found in
Australia.

 137. Myiägra plumbea, _Vig. & Horsf._                 Vol. II.  Pl. 89.
 138. Myiägra concinna, _Gould_                        Vol. II.  Pl. 90.
 139. Myiägra nitida, _Gould_                          Vol. II.  Pl. 91.
 140. Myiägra latirostris, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 92.


                        Genus MICRŒCA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, depressed, broad at the base; _gonys_
straight; curving downwards and slightly notched at the tip; _nostrils_
round, placed at the base of the bill, which is beset with strong
bristles; _wings_ lengthened and powerful, first primary short, the
third the longest; _tail_ rather short and nearly square; _tarsi_
moderate and feeble; _toes_ feeble, the external toe much longer than
the internal one.

Three species of this genus inhabit Australia, to which country they are
confined.

 141. Micrœca macroptera.                              Vol. II.  Pl. 93.

      _Sylvia leucophœa_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. vii. p. 139.

 142. Micrœca assimilis, _Gould_.

      _Micrœca assimilis_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part VIII. p.
        172.

All the upper surface brown, primaries dark brown; tail brownish black;
the tips and the terminal half of the external margins of the two outer
feathers white; the three next on each side also tipped with white, the
extent of the white becoming less upon each feather as they approach the
centre of the tail; the four middle feathers without the white tip;
throat, centre of the abdomen and under tail-coverts white, passing into
pale brown on the sides of the chest and flanks; irides reddish brown;
bill and feet blackish brown.

Total length, 4⅝ inches; _bill_, 9/16; _wings_, 3⅜; _tail_, 2⅛; _tarsi_,
9/16.

Inhabits Western Australia; and is so nearly allied to the _Micrœca
macroptera_, from which it only differs in being much less in size and
in having the base of the outer tail-feather brown, that I have not
considered it necessary to figure it.

 143. Micrœca flavigaster                              Vol. II.  Pl. 94.


                    Genus MONARCHA, _Vig. & Horsf._

Several species of this genus occur in the Indian Islands and two in
Australia. They are insectivorous birds, and procure their food by
quietly hopping about among the branches of the trees.

 144. Monarcha carinata                                Vol. II.  Pl. 95.
 145. Monarcha trivirgata                              Vol. II.  Pl. 96.


                        Genus GERYGONE, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, swollen, notched at the tip; commissure
straight; _nostrils_ basal, lateral, oval; _rictus_ beset with two or
three extremely fine and weak bristles; _wings_ moderately long, first
quill almost spurious, second long, third, fourth and fifth equal and
longest; _tail_ rather short and square; _tarsi_ entire, slender,
moderately long; _toes_ extremely short and small, the lateral toes
even, and united to the middle one nearly to the first joint; _claws_
much curved.

The term _Psilopus_ was originally proposed by me for this genus, but
that name having been previously employed, _Gerygone_ was substituted
for it.

A group inhabiting every part of Australia, and probably New Guinea and
Polynesia. Their chief food consists of insects of the most diminutive
size, such as aphides, gnats and mosquitos. The more thickly-billed
species may probably feed upon larger insects and their larvæ. They
mostly frequent the thick umbrageous woods, where they dart about for
insects under the canopy of the dense foliage, or sally forth into the
open glade like true Flycatchers. Their nests are of a domed form, with
the entrance near the top, some species protecting the opening by
constructing a projection above it like the eaves of a house; the eggs
are generally four in number, and spotted with red like those of the
_Maluri_ and _Pari_.

 146. Gerygone albogularis, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 97.

      _Psilopus olivaceus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p.
        147, Young.

 147. Gerygone fusca, _Gould_                          Vol. II.  Pl. 98.
 148. Gerygone culicivorus, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 99.
 149. Gerygone magnirostris, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 100.
 150. Gerygone lævigaster, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 101.
 151. Gerygone chloronotus, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 102.


                       Genus SMICRORNIS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ very small and short, swollen at the sides; _nostrils_ basal,
oblong and protected by an operculum; at the base of the bill a few fine
hairs; _wings_ moderately long, first quill very short; the first,
third, fourth and fifth equal and the longest; _tail_ short and square;
tarsi moderate; _toes_ rather short, adapted for clinging; the hinder
and the middle toes equal in length.

The members of this genus are the smallest birds of the Australian
fauna. I have described two species, one inhabiting New South Wales and
the other Port Essington; and had I characterized the bird of this form
inhabiting Western Australia as distinct, I should most likely not have
been in error, as it is probable that when the subject has been more
fully investigated it will prove to be so.

 152. Smicrornis brevirostris, _Gould_                Vol. II.  Pl. 103.
 153. Smicrornis flavescens, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 104.


                        Family SYLVIADÆ, _Vig._

Subfamily SAXICOLINÆ, _Bonap._


                      Genus ERYTHRODRYAS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

As in _Petroïca_, but with the _bill_ shorter and more flattened at the
base, where it is beset with a number of fine hairs which curve forward
and overhang the nostrils; _wings_ shorter and more rounded; first and
second primaries much shorter than the rest; the fifth the longest;
_tarsi_ shorter; _toes_ more lengthened; lateral toes nearly even;
_claws_ much sharper and more curved.

The members of the genus _Erythrodryas_ are much more delicate in
structure than the _Petroïcæ_, have their feeble bill strongly beset
with bristles, and are more arboreal in their habits; their usual places
of resort being the innermost recesses of the forest, where, in a state
of quiet seclusion, they flit about in search of insects; the true
_Petroïcæ_, on the other hand, frequent open plains, are more bold and
vigorous, and possess a structure which adapts them for the ground over
which they pass like the _Saxicolæ_.

The two species of this genus, all that are at present known, are
confined to the south-eastern portions of Australia and Van Diemen’s
Land.

 154. Erythrodryas rhodinogaster                        Vol. II.  Pl. 1.
 155. Erythrodryas rosea, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 2.


                       Genus PETROÏCA, _Swains._

The birds I have retained in this genus might with propriety be divided
by separating the pied Robins from the red-breasted species. The dusky
Robin of Van Diemen’s Land and the white eyebrowed Robin of the
north-east coast of Australia would also constitute another group of
equal value with _Erythrodryas_, _Drymodes_ and _Eöpsaltria_.

The red-breasted _Petroïcæ_ are confined to the south-eastern portions
of Australia, Van Diemen’s Land and Norfolk Island; but I believe that
the range of the pied birds extends to New Guinea.

Each of the sections I have indicated present some difference in their
nidification and in the colouring of their eggs, which tends to confirm
the propriety of the view I have taken of the subject.

 156. Petroïca multicolor                               Vol. II.  Pl. 3.
 157. Petroïca erythrogastra                            Vol. II.  Pl. 4.
 158. Petroïca Goodenovii                               Vol. II.  Pl. 5.
 159. Petroïca phœnicea, _Gould_                        Vol. II.  Pl. 6.

      _Muscicapa erythrogaster_, var. Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. vi. p. 217.

 160. Petroïca bicolor, _Swains._                       Vol. II.  Pl. 7.
 161. Petroïca fusca, _Gould_                           Vol. II.  Pl. 8.

      _Muscicapa vittata_, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l’Astrolabe, pl. 3,
        fig. 2?

 162. Petroïca superciliosa, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 9.


                        Genus DRYMODES, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ straight, rather compressed on the sides near the tip, nearly as
long as the head; a slight notch at the tip; beset at the base with a
few fine bristles; _wings_ moderately long, rounded, the first quill
very short, the fifth the longest; _tail_ rather long, slightly rounded;
_tarsi_ long, slender, entire before; _toes_ moderately long, the outer
toe rather longer than the inner; the hind-toe and nail shorter than the
middle toe and nail.

The only species of this genus yet discovered ranges over the whole of
the country from Southern to Western Australia. Its form is adapted for
the ground, but it occasionally resorts to low shrubby trees.

 163. Drymodes brunneopygia, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 10.


                      Genus EÖPSALTRIA, _Swains._

Three species of this genus are all that are yet known; two of these are
natives of Western Australia, and the third of New South Wales.

 164. Eöpsaltria Australis                             Vol. II.  Pl. 11.

      _Sylvia flavigastra_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. vii. p. 137?

 165. Eöpsaltria griseogularis, _Gould_                Vol. II.  Pl. 12.

      _Muscicapa Georgiana_, Quoy. et Gaim. Voy. de l’Astrolabe, pl. 3,
        fig. 4?

 166. Eöpsaltria leucogaster, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 13.

      _Muscicapa gularis_, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de l’Astrolabe, pl. 4,
        fig. 1?

Subfamily MENURINÆ, _G. R. Gray_.


                          Genus MENURA, _Dav._

It might have been expected that the various explorations which have of
late years been made into the previously unknown regions of Australia
would have led to the discovery of some additional species of this
genus, or of some new form more nearly allied to it than those with
which it is associated, but nothing of the kind has occurred.

 167. Menura superba, _Dav._                           Vol. II.  Pl. 14.

This remarkable bird is not only confined to Australia, but exclusively
to the south-eastern part of the country. I regret to say that I have
not been able to gain any further information respecting its
nidification, although I have urged many persons in Australia to pay
particular attention to the subject.


                    Genus PSOPHODES, _Vig. & Horsf._

Among the many novelties comprised in the present work is a second
species of this form, of which only one was previously known.

 168. Psophodes crepitans                              Vol. II.  Pl. 15.

      _Corvus auritus_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. iii. p. 42.

Inhabits the south-eastern parts of Australia.

 169. Psophodes nigrogularis, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 16.

This new species is a native of the western coast.


                      Genus SPHENOSTOMA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ very short, compressed laterally, wedge-shaped, upper mandible
without a notch at the tip, two or three fine hairs at the base; _tomia_
straight; _nostrils_ basal, round, open; _wings_ very short and round,
the fourth, fifth and sixth primaries nearly equal and the longest;
_tail_ long and graduated; _tarsi_ moderately long and strong, shielded
before with several plates, entire behind; _toes_ short, hind-toe
strong, lateral toes unequal, the inner one the shortest.

The only known species of this genus frequents the sterile parts of the
interior of Australia generally, particularly those portions of the
country clothed with low shrubs and bushes.

 170. Sphenostoma cristata, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 17.


                        Genus MALURUS, _Vieill._

The members of this genus are among the most beautiful of the Australian
birds; in no group, in fact, with the exception of the _Trochilidæ_ or
Humming-birds, is the splendour of their plumage excelled. Their gay
attire is, however, only assumed during the pairing season, and is
retained for a very short period, after which the sexes are alike in
colouring.

The genus is strictly an Australian one, and with one or two exceptions,
all the species are confined to the southern parts of the continent and
Van Diemen’s Land.

 171. Malurus cyaneus                                  Vol. II.  Pl. 18.
 172. Malurus longicaudus, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 19.
 173. Malurus melanotus, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 20.
 174. Malurus splendens                                Vol. II.  Pl. 21.
 175. Malurus elegans, _Gould_                         Vol. II.  Pl. 22.
 176. Malurus pulcherrimus, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 23.
 177. Malurus Lamberti, _Vig. & Horsf._                Vol. II.  Pl. 24.
 178. Malurus leucopterus, _Quoy & Gaim._              Vol. II.  Pl. 25.
 179. Malurus melanocephalus, _Vig. & Horsf._          Vol. II.  Pl. 26.
 180. Malurus Brownii, _Vig. & Horsf._                 Vol. II.  Pl. 27.


                         Genus AMYTIS, _Less._

A form nearly allied to _Malurus_, strictly Australian, and of which
three species are known, inhabiting the southern half of the country and
not occurring in Van Diemen’s Land.

 181. Amytis textilis                                  Vol. II.  Pl. 28.
 182. Amytis striatus                                  Vol. II.  Pl. 29.
 183. Amytis macrourus, _Gould_                        Vol. II.  Pl. 30.


                       Genus STIPITURUS, _Less._

A form confined to Australia. Although some slight variation occurs in
the specimens from Van Diemen’s Land, Southern and Western Australia, I
believe that they are all referable to one and the same species, viz.—

 184. Stipiturus malachurus                            Vol. II.  Pl. 31.


                    Genus DASYORNIS, _Vig. & Horsf._

A group of birds adapted for situations covered with an almost
impenetrable vegetation, reed-beds, &c. The two species figured are all
that are at present known; of these one is from the eastern and the
other from the western parts of Australia.

 185. Dasyornis Australis, _Vig. & Horsf._             Vol. II.  Pl. 32.
 186. Dasyornis longirostris, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 33.

Prior to my visit to Australia, I described a bird in the ‘Proceedings
of the Zoological Society,’ Part V. p. 150, as _D.? brunneus_, but as I
have not since met with the bird in any collection from Australia I
presume it is not a native of that country.


                        Genus ATRICHIA, _Gould_.

_Rictus_ totally devoid of bristles; _bill_ as long as the head,
compressed laterally; the upper mandible distinctly notched at the tip;
_gonys_ ascending from the rictus and then following the line of the
bill; _culmen_ ascending high in front; _nostrils_ moderately large,
covered with an operculum, and placed in a groove near the base of the
bill; _wings_ short, round, concave, the first three primaries
graduated, the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh equal; _tail_
lengthened, rounded, the stems rigid, the webs loose and decomposed;
_tarsi_ and feet robust, the hind-toe armed with a strong nail; outer
and inner toes equal in length.

The only species of this genus yet discovered is as singular in its
structure as it is shy and retiring in its habits; the total absence of
vibrissæ in a bird apparently closely allied to _Dasyornis_, in which
they are so much developed, renders it one of the anomalies of the
Australian fauna.

 187. Atrichia clamosa, _Gould_                        Vol. II.  Pl. 34.

Subfamily ——?


                      Genus SPHENŒACUS, _Strickl._

A group of reed- and grass-frequenting birds, which are found not only
in every part of Australia, but also in the Indian Islands and India.

 188. Sphenœacus galactotes                            Vol. II.  Pl. 35.
 189. Sphenœacus gramineus, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 36.


                      Genus ACROCEPHALUS, _Naum._

Of this European and Indian form two species inhabit Australia, where
they frequent the reed-beds and the dense herbage of marshy situations.

 190. Acrocephalus Australis, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 37.
 191. Acrocephalus longirostris, _Gould_               Vol. II.  Pl. 38.

Subfamily ——?


                        Genus HYLACOLA, _Gould_.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, compressed; equally broad and high at the
base; _culmen_ gradually declining from the base to the tip; slightly
notched at the apex; _rictus_ beset with a few fine hairs; _nostrils_
basal, oblong, rather large and defended by an operculum; _wings_ short,
round and concave; first, second and third primaries graduated; the
fourth, fifth and sixth equal, and the longest; _tail_ rather long and
round; _tarsi_ moderate in size; _toes_ rather lengthened, the lateral
toes equal.

A genus comprising two species peculiar to the southern parts of the
country, one of which enjoys an extensive range from South Australia to
Moreton Bay; the other has, as yet, only been found in the Great Murray
Scrub.

 192. Hylacola pyrrhopygia                             Vol. II.  Pl. 39.

 193. Hylacola cauta, _Gould_                          Vol. II.  Pl. 40.

When I characterized this species in the ‘Proceedings of the Zoological
Society of London,’ I had only seen a single example; I have since
received a second, proving the correctness of my view of its being quite
distinct from the _H. pyrrhopygia_, a fact disputed by Mr. Strickland,
who had stated it to be his opinion that my figures were referable to
one and the same species, but who upon an examination of the specimens
themselves acknowledged he was in error.

Subfamily ——?


                        Genus CYSTICOLA, _Less._

However numerous birds of this form may be in Europe, Africa, Asia and
the Indian Islands, Australia outvies them all in the number of species
that frequent its grassy plains. With the exception of Van Diemen’s
Land, every colony is inhabited by one or more species performing there
precisely similar offices to those executed by the remaining species in
the other parts of the world.

 194. Cysticola magna, _Gould_                         Vol. II.  Pl. 41.
 195. Cysticola exilis                                 Vol. II.  Pl. 42.
 196. Cysticola lineocapilla, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 43.
 197. Cysticola isura, _Gould_                         Vol. II.  Pl. 44.
 198. Cysticola ruficeps, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 45.

Subfamily ——?


                       Genus SERICORNIS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ strong, straight, nearly as long as the head, compressed
laterally towards and notched at the tip; _nostrils_ basal, lateral,
oval, and covered by an operculum; _wings_ moderate, rounded, the first
quill very short, the fourth, fifth and sixth nearly equal and the
longest; _tail_ moderate and square; _tarsi_ long; hind-toe and claw
strong, and nearly equal to the middle toe and claw in length; outer and
inner toes equal; _plumage_ soft and silky to the touch.

A group of small birds peculiar to Australia, and confined almost
exclusively to the southern portion of the country. Their habits lead
them to frequent the most retired parts of the forests, damp and
secluded places and scrubby gullies where the herbage is thick and
dense; but some species are found on the flat islands near the coast,
covered with _Salsolæ_ and other shrub-like trees; they usually frequent
the ground, over which they pass with celerity, and when their haunts
are intruded upon conceal themselves under the fallen or elided herbage.
Their flight is peculiar and never protracted, and they all build domed
nests like that of the common Wren (_Troglodytes Europæus_).

 199. Sericornis citreogularis, _Gould_                Vol. II.  Pl. 46.

      _Muscicapa barbata_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. vi. p. 215?

 200. Sericornis humilis, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 47.
 201. Sericornis osculans, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 48.
 202. Sericornis frontalis                             Vol. II.  Pl. 49.
 203. Sericornis lævigaster, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 50.
 204. Sericornis maculatus, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 51.
 205. Sericornis magnirostris, _Gould_                 Vol. II.  Pl. 52.

Subfamily ——?


                    Genus ACANTHIZA, _Vig. & Horsf._

With the exception of the north coast, the _Acanthizæ_ are dispersed
over all the wooded districts of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land; some
species frequenting the brushes, while others tenant the shrubs and
belts of trees on the plains; others again are only found in such
districts as the belts of the Murray.

Like some other large groups at present included under one generic
title, the _Acanthizæ_ might be divided with propriety; thus the _A.
pusilla_, _A. Diemenensis_, &c., which are feeble in structure and
strictly arboreal, might form one section; while the _A. chrysorrhœa_,
_A. Reguloïdes_, &c., which resort to the ground, might form another.
The nests of all the species that I have seen are of a domed form like
that of the European Wren.

The members of this genus and the _Maluri_ are frequently the
foster-parents of the shining Cuckoo (_Chrysococcyx lucidus_).

 206. Acanthiza pusilla                                Vol. II.  Pl. 53.
 207. Acanthiza Diemenensis, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 54.
 208. Acanthiza Ewingii, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 55.
 209. Acanthiza uropygialis, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 56.
 210. Acanthiza apicalis, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 57.
 211. Acanthiza pyrrhopygia, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 58.
 212. Acanthiza inornata, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 59.
 213. Acanthiza nana, _Vig. & Horsf._                  Vol. II.  Pl. 60.
 214. Acanthiza lineata, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 61.
 215. Acanthiza Reguloïdes, _Vig. & Horsf._            Vol. II.  Pl. 62.
 216. Acanthiza chrysorrhœa                            Vol. II.  Pl. 63.


                      Genus EPHTHIANURA, _Gould_.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, nearly straight, compressed laterally,
notched at the tip, gonys incurved; _nostrils_ basal, linear, and
covered by a membrane; _wings_ long, first quill spurious, second very
long, third and fourth equal and longest; _tertials_ very long; _tail_
short and truncate; _tarsi_ entire, moderately long, slight; _toes_
slender, the hinder toe and claw shorter than the middle one, the inner
toe rather shorter than the outer.

Three species of this form are all that are at present known, and of
these two are figured for the first time in the present work. They all
inhabit the southern part of Australia, where they frequent the open
districts studded with bushes and low trees; the _E. albifrons_ is
occasionally found on the open plains.

 217. Ephthianura albifrons                            Vol. II.  Pl. 64.
 218. Ephthianura aurifrons, _Gould_                   Vol. II.  Pl. 65.
 219. Ephthianura tricolor, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 66.


                       Genus XEROPHILA, _Gould_.

  Generic characters.

_Bill_ short, semiconical, robust at the base, without any notch at the
tip; and provided with a few hairs at the base of the upper mandible;
_nostrils_ round and covered by minute feathers; _wings_ moderate in
size; first primary short, the third and fourth the longest; tertiaries
broad and somewhat elongated; _tail_ moderate, square and slightly
concave; _tarsi_ robust; hind-toe strong, anterior toes feeble, the
exterior longer than the inner one.

A curious form, of which only one species is known, and the situation of
which in the natural system is quite undetermined. It has many of the
actions and manners of the _Acanthizæ_, but its robust and gibbose bill
precludes its being placed with that group. It is mainly terrestrial in
its habits and builds a domed nest.

 220. Xerophila leucopsis, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 67.


                      Genus PYRRHOLÆMUS, _Gould_.

  Generic characters.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, slightly compressed at the sides, with a
very minute notch at the tip, and beset with a few hairs at the base;
_nostrils_ linear and covered with an operculum; _wings_ short, round,
first primary rather short, the third the longest; _tail_ short, round
and concave, _tarsi_ moderate; external toe longer than the inner one.

Another anomalous form, the structure of which does not approximate very
nearly to that of any other genus, but is perhaps most nearly allied to
_Acanthiza_. The only species known frequents scrubby places and thick
underwood; is much on the ground, but occasionally mounts on a twig to
sing.

 221. Pyrrholæmus brunneus, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 68.


                         Genus ORIGMA, _Gould_.

_Bill_ nearly as long as the head, incurved, carinated, indented near
the tip; _nostrils_ oval, lateral, basal, and covered by an operculum;
_wings_ moderate, rounded, first quill short, fourth, fifth, sixth and
seventh nearly equal and longest; _tail_ moderate and slightly rounded;
_tarsi_ moderate; _toes_ rather short, the outer toe much longer than
the inner; _plumage_ dense.

We are here again presented with another form, the structure, habits,
and manners of which are all equally singular. The only species yet
discovered inhabits New South Wales, where it frequents stony gullies
and rocky situations in the neighbourhood of caverns, to the roofs of
which it attaches its pendent nest, as shown in the Plate.

 222. Origma rubricata                                 Vol. II.  Pl. 69.


                      Genus CALAMANTHUS, _Gould_.

  Generic characters.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, dilated at the base, compressed laterally
towards the tip; _culmen_ sharp and advancing upon the forehead;
_nostrils_ lateral, large, oval, and covered by an operculum; rictus
destitute of bristles; _wings_ short, round, the fourth quill the
longest, the third, fifth, sixth and seventh equal; _tail_ rather short
and round; _tarsi_ moderately long, defended anteriorly with indistinct
scales; hind-toe rather long, with a long claw; lateral toes uneven, the
outer one the shortest.

This group comprises two species, one inhabiting Van Diemen’s Land, the
other Southern and Western Australia; they are terrestrial in their
habits, but occasionally perch on the smaller branches of the trees.

 223. Calamanthus fuliginosus                          Vol. II.  Pl. 70.
 224. Calamanthus campestris, _Gould_                  Vol. II.  Pl. 71.


                      Genus CHTHONICOLA, _Gould_.

  Generic characters.

_Bill_ short, gradually descending from the base; the upper mandible
slightly notched at the tip, compressed laterally; _tomia_ curving
inwards; _wings_ concave; the first primary very short, the third,
fourth, fifth and sixth nearly equal and the longest; _tail_ slightly
concave, and all the feathers of an equal length; _tarsi_ moderately
long; _toes_ short, the hinder toe somewhat longer than the middle one;
front claws more curved than in the genus _Anthus_.

The single species known of this genus combines in a remarkable manner
the outward appearance, habits and manners of the _Acanthizæ_ and
_Anthi_, but is, I believe, more nearly allied to the former than to the
latter.

 225. Chthonicola minima                               Vol. II.  Pl. 72.

      _Sylvia sagittata_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. vii. p. 136?

Rather widely dispersed over the grassy flats of New South Wales, and
constructs a domed nest in a depression of the ground like the true
_Sylviæ_.

Subfamily MOTACILLINÆ, _Bonap._


                        Genus ANTHUS, _Bechst._

Whether this Old World form is represented in Australia by more than a
single species, is a point I have not satisfactorily determined; every
part of its extra-tropical regions, including Van Diemen’s Land, is
inhabited by Pipits which differ somewhat in size in almost every
colony; still their difference is so slight that I have hitherto
regarded them as mere varieties or local races.

 226. Anthus Australis, _Vig. & Horsf._                Vol. II.  Pl. 73.

Subfamily ——?


                     Genus CINCLORAMPHUS, _Gould_.

_Bill_ rather shorter than the head; _culmen_ slightly arched; the tip
distinctly notched; the commissure slightly angulated at the base, and
somewhat incurved for the remainder of its length; _nostrils_ lateral,
oval; _wings_ moderate, rigid, first quill very long and nearly equal to
the second and third, which are the longest; tertials nearly as long as
the primaries; _tail_ rather small and cuneiform; _tarsi_ very strong
and scutellated anteriorly; _toes_ long and powerful, particularly the
hinder one and claw, which is articulated on the same plane with the
inner toe; lateral toes nearly equal.

The members of this genus, which are three in number, are closely allied
to the Indian genus _Megalurus_, and present even a greater disparity in
the size of the sexes; they are all confined to Australia, where they
frequent the grassy plains and open districts. The song of the males is
more animated than that of any other bird inhabiting the country.

 227. Cincloramphus cruralis                           Vol. II.  Pl. 74.
 228. Cincloramphus cantillans, _Gould_                Vol. II.  Pl. 75.
 229. Cincloramphus rufescens, _Gould_                 Vol. II.  Pl. 76.

Subfamily ALAUDINÆ, _Bonap._


                        Genus MIRAFRA, _Horsf._

One, if not two, species of this well-defined genus inhabit Australia.
At present one only has been characterized; but the bird of this form,
frequenting the intertropical portions of the country, may prove to be a
distinct species.

 230. Mirafra Horsfieldii, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 77.


                       Family FRINGILLIDÆ, _Vig._

The Finches of Australia comprise twenty well-marked species, referable
to several genera or subgenera, each of which exhibit a slight
difference in structure, accompanied, as is always the case, by a
difference in habit, and in the districts inhabited; thus the true
_Estreldæ_ frequent grassy patches in the glades of the forests, the
open parts of gullies, &c.; the _Amadinæ_, the stony hills and flats;
the _Poëphilæ_, the grass beds of the open plains; and the _Donacolæ_,
the grasses of the marshy districts and reed-beds: of the habits of
_Emblema_ nothing is known; its pointed bill indicates some peculiarity
in its economy differing from those of the other genera.

All the species build, I believe, large grassy nests with a spout-like
opening.

The whole of those figured are peculiar to Australia.


                       Genus ESTRELDA, _Swains._

 231. Estrelda bella                                   Vol. II.  Pl. 78.

      _Loxia nitida_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. v. p. 268?

 232. Estrelda oculea                                  Vol. II.  Pl. 79.
 233. Estrelda Bichenovii                              Vol. II.  Pl. 80.
 234. Estrelda annulosa, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 81.
 235. Estrelda temporalis                              Vol. II.  Pl. 82.
 236. Estrelda Phaëton, _Gould_                        Vol. II.  Pl. 83.
 237. Estrelda ruficauda, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 84.
 238. Estrelda modesta.
     Amadina modesta, _Gould_                          Vol. II.  Pl. 85.


                        Genus AMADINA, _Swains._

 239. Amadina Lathami                                  Vol. II.  Pl. 86.
 240. Amadina castanotis, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 87.


                        Genus POËPHILA, _Gould_.

  Generic characters.

_Bill_ considerably swollen at the base, rendering it nearly as deep and
broad as it is long; _wings_ moderately long, the first quill
rudimentary, the four next equal in length; _feet_ plantigrade, _toes_
slender; the middle toe much longer than the lateral ones, which are
equal in length; hind-toe much shorter than the middle one; _tail_
strictly cuneiform, the two middle feathers much produced.

 241. Poëphila Gouldiæ.
     Amadina Gouldiæ, _Gould_                          Vol. II.  Pl. 88.
 242. Poëphila mirabilis, _Homb. et Jacq._             Vol. II.  Pl. 89.
 243. Poëphila acuticauda, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 90.
 244. Poëphila personata, _Gould_                      Vol. II.  Pl. 91.
 245. Poëphila leucotis, _Gould_                       Vol. II.  Pl. 92.
 246. Poëphila cincta, _Gould_                         Vol. II.  Pl. 93.


                        Genus DONACOLA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

As in the genus _Amadina_, but with the _bill_ much more developed and
gibbose at the base, with the _culmen_ elevated and the lower mandible
retiring backward on the face; _wings_ shorter and rounder; feet more
adapted for clinging, and remarkable for the greater development of the
hind-toe and nail; _tail_-feathers rigid.

 247. Donacola castaneothorax, _Gould_                 Vol. II.  Pl. 94.
 248. Donacola pectoralis, _Gould_                     Vol. II.  Pl. 95.
 249. Donacola flaviprymna, _Gould_                    Vol. II.  Pl. 96.


                        Genus EMBLEMA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ nearly as long as the head, conical, and much resembling that of
the genus _Ploceus_; _wings_ moderately long as compared with the body;
first quill rudimentary, the four next equal in length; _tertiaries_
much lengthened; _tail_ moderately long and nearly square, or slightly
rounded; _feet_ plantigrade; _toes_ extremely slender, the middle toe
much longer than the lateral ones, which are equal in length.

 250. Emblema picta, _Gould_                           Vol. II.  Pl. 97.

The single example of this beautiful bird, which was procured and
presented to me by B. Bynoe, Esq., is I believe all that has ever been
seen; I regret to say it no longer graces my collection, having been
stolen therefrom, together with some other valuable birds, in the year
1846.


                        Family MERULIDÆ, _Vig._


                         Genus PITTA, _Vieill._

The members of this genus extend from tropical India throughout the
islands of the Indian Archipelago to Australia; one or two species also
occur in Africa. Of the three inhabiting Australia the _Pitta Iris_ is
figured for the first time in the present work, and is one of the very
finest species of this lovely group of birds.

 251. Pitta strepitans, _Temm._                         Vol. IV.  Pl. 1.

Since my account of this species was printed I have received its eggs,
accompanied by the following notes from Mr. Strange of Sydney:—

“I never saw any bird whose actions are more graceful than those of the
_Pitta strepitans_, when seen in its native brushes, where its presence
is indicated by its singular call, resembling the words ‘_want a
watch_,’ by imitating which you can call it close to the muzzle of your
gun; no sooner, however, does it commence breeding than it becomes shy
and retiring, keeping out of sight in the most artful manner, moving
about from place to place, and occasionally uttering its cry until it
has drawn you away from the nest. The nests I have seen were placed in
the spur of a fig-tree near the ground, outwardly constructed of sticks
and lined with moss, leaves and fine pieces of bark; the eggs are four
in number,” of a pale creamy-white marked all over with
irregularly-shaped blotches of brown and deep vinous grey, the latter
appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell; they are one inch and
a quarter in length by seven-eighths of an inch in breadth.

 252. Pitta Vigorsii, _Gould_                            Vol. IV. Pl. 2.

I regret to say that up to the present time I have not been able to
obtain any information respecting this species, the specimen of which,
in the Linnean Society’s Collection, is the only evidence we have of its
occurring in Australia; I believe New Guinea to be its true habitat.

 253. Pitta Iris, _Gould_                                Vol. IV. Pl. 3.


                   Genus CINCLOSOMA, _Vig. & Horsf._

Among the novelties comprised in the present work, there are none more
important than the additional members of this genus; three well-defined
species being described and figured, of which only one was previously
known. The form is peculiar to Australia, and is, I believe, closely
allied to my genus _Ianthocincla_, a group of birds confined to India.

 254. Cinclosoma punctatum, _Vig. & Horsf._              Vol. IV. Pl. 4.
 255. Cinclosoma castanotus, _Gould_                     Vol. IV. Pl. 5.
 256. Cinclosoma cinnamomeus, _Gould_                     Vol. IV. Pl 6.

When my drawing of this species was made, I had only seen the male;
since then Captain Sturt has presented me with a female, which differs
from the opposite sex in the absence of the black markings of the
throat, breast and wings, which parts are brownish grey.


                       Genus OREOCINCLA, _Gould_.

_Bill_ as long, or longer than the head, slightly incurved, compressed
laterally; the tip of the upper mandible overhanging the under; notch
considerably removed from the tip; _tomia_ or cutting edges sharp;
_nostrils_ basal, oval; _rictus_ beset with a few short hairs; _wings_
moderately long and rigid, first quill very short, the fourth and fifth
nearly equal, and the longest; _tail_ rather short and square, the
feathers rigid, and running to a point exteriorly; _tarsi_ moderate,
scales entire; _toes_ slender, particularly the hinder one; outer toes
nearly equal, but the inner one rather the shortest; _general plumage_
silky to the touch; the _rump-feathers_ spinous, as in _Ceblepyris_ and
_Graucalus_.

Species of this genus inhabit India, the Indian Islands and Australia,
in which latter country, although much difference in size is observable
in specimens from different localities, I believe only one exists. It is
decidedly a brush bird, and has many habits in common with the typical
Thrushes, but is more shy and retiring.

 257. Oreocincla lunulata                                Vol. IV. Pl. 7.


                   Family PARADISEIDÆ, _G. R. Gray_.

I certainly consider the accounts I have given of the extraordinary
habits of the _Chlamyderæ_ and _Ptilonorhynchi_ as some of the most
valuable and interesting portions of my work, and however incredible
they may appear I am happy to say they have been fully confirmed by
other observers.


                       Genus CHLAMYDERA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ moderate, _culmen_ elevated, and arched to the tip which is
emarginated, compressed on the sides; _gonys_ slightly advancing
upwards; _nostrils_ basal, lateral, exposed, rounded, and pierced in a
membrane; _wings_ long and pointed, first primary short, second primary
shorter than the third and fourth, which are equal, and the longest;
_tail_ long and slightly rounded; _tarsi_ robust, defended anteriorly
with broad scuta; _toes_ long and strong; outer toe longer than the
inner, hind-toe long and robust; _claws_ long, curved, and acute.

 258. Chlamydera maculata, _Gould_                       Vol. IV. Pl. 8.

Inhabits South Australia, New South Wales, and according to Mr.
Gilbert’s Journal of his overland journey to Port Essington, the
intertropical regions of the east coast.

In one of Mr. Gilbert’s many interesting letters received since the
account above referred to was printed, he says, “the questions as to the
nidification of _Chlamydera_ is now settled by Mr. C. Coxon having found
a nest in December with three young birds; in form it was very similar
to that of the common Thrush of Europe, being of a cup-shape,
constructed of dried sticks with a slight lining of feathers, and fine
grass, and was placed among the smaller branches of an Acacia
overhanging a pool of water.”

 259. Chlamydera nuchalis                                Vol. IV. Pl. 9.

“I found matter for conjecture,” says Captain Stokes, “in noticing a
number of twigs with their ends stuck in the ground, which was strewed
over with shells, and their tops brought together so as to form a small
bower; this was 2½ feet long, 1½ feet wide at either end. it was not
until my next visit to Port Essington that I thought this anything but
some Australian mother’s toy to amuse her child; there I was asked, one
day, to go and see the ‘birds’ playhouse,’ when I immediately recognised
the same kind of construction I had seen at the Victoria River; the bird
(_Chlamydera nuchalis_ of Mr. Gould’s work) was amusing itself by flying
backwards and forwards, taking a shell alternately from each side, and
carrying it through the archway in its mouth.”—_Discoveries in
Australia_, vol. ii, p. 97.


                     Genus PTILONORHYNCHUS, _Kuhl_.

 260. Ptilonorhynchus holosericeus, _Kuhl_.             Vol. IV. Pl. 10.

That this bird continues its singular habits under the disadvantages of
captivity, I learn from the following passage in a letter lately
received from Mr. Strange of Sydney.

“My aviary is now tenanted by a pair of Satin Birds, which I hoped would
have bred, as for the last two months they have been constantly engaged
in constructing bowers, which I find are built for the express purpose
of courting the female in. Both sexes assist in their erection, but the
male is the principal workman. At times the male will chase the female
all over the aviary, then go to the bower, pick up a gay feather or a
large leaf, utter a curious kind of noise, set all his feather erect,
and run around the bower, into which at length the female proceeds, when
he becomes so excited that his eyes appear ready to start from his head,
and he continues opening first one wing and then the other, uttering a
low whistling note, and like the common Cock, seems to be picking up
something from the ground, until at last the female goes gently towards
him, when, after two turns around her, he suddenly makes a dash and the
scene ends.” This pair of birds was sent to England by Mr. Strange for
the Earl of Derby, and had they not unfortunately died from cold while
rounding Cape Horn, they would doubtless have continued their singular
habits in his lordship’s magnificent aviary at Knowsley.

The habitat of this species appears to be confined to the south-eastern
part of New South Wales, for it has not as yet been found in any other
portion of the country.

 261. Ptilonorhynchus Smithii, _Vig. & Horsf._          Vol. IV. Pl. 11.


                       Genus SERICULUS, _Swains._

A single species only of this form has yet been discovered.

 262. Sericulus chrysocephalus                          Vol. IV. Pl. 12.

      _Sericulus magnirostris_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p.
        145; and in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part IV. Young.

The brushes of the south-eastern part of Australia is the only locality
in which this bird has yet been found.

Family ——?

Subfamily ORIOLINÆ, _G. R. Gray_.


                         Genus ORIOLUS, _Linn._

Typical Orioles are widely distributed over Europe, Africa, Asia, the
Indian Islands and Australia, but none have yet been discovered in
Polynesia or America.

Three species inhabit Australia, two of which are figured; the third
from the northern part of the country is so nearly allied to the _O.
viridis_, that a description alone will be sufficient.

 263. Oriolus viridis, _Gould_                          Vol. IV. Pl. 13.
 264. Oriolus affinis, _Gould_.

Inhabits the neighbourhood of Port Essington, and only differs from the
preceding species in having a shorter wing, a much larger bill, and the
white spots at the tip of the lateral tail-feathers much smaller.

 265. Oriolus flavovinctus                              Vol. IV. Pl. 14.


                     Genus SPHECOTHERES, _Vieill._

Australia presents us with a single species of this genus; others
inhabit New Guinea and the neighbouring islands; but as yet we have no
evidence of the form occurring on the continent of India.

 266. Sphecotheres Australis, _Swains._                 Vol. IV. Pl. 15.

      _Turdus maxillaris_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. v. p. 129?

Nothing whatever is known of the nidification of this bird; in all
probability it will prove to be very similar to that of the Orioles.

Family ——?


                        Genus CORCORAX, _Less._

A genus containing only one species which possesses many singular
habits; its actions among the branches, its mode of progression over the
ground, and its nidification, being equally remarkable.

 267. Corcorax leucopterus                              Vol. IV. Pl. 16.

Family ——?


                       Genus STRUTHIDEA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, robust, swollen, arched above, deeper than
broad; _gonys_ angular; _nostrils_ basal, lateral, round and open;
_wings_ moderate, round, first primary short, the fourth and fifth the
longest; secondaries long and broad; _tarsi_ scutellated in front, plain
behind; _toes_ long and strong, the outer one longer than the inner one;
_claws_ strong, compressed and much curved.

The only known species of this form is confined to the interior of the
southern and eastern parts of Australia, where it inhabits stony ridges,
and is mostly observed on the _Callitris_.

 268. Struthidea cinerea, _Gould_                        Vol. IV. Pl 17.

In my account of this species, I have stated that its actions are very
similar to those of the _Corcorax leucopterus_, and the following
extract from Mr. Gilbert’s Journal of his overland journey to Port
Essington shows that the two birds assimilate still more closely in
their nidification:—

“Oct. 19.—Strolled about in search of novelties, and was amply repaid by
finding the eggs of _Struthidea cinerea_. I disturbed the bird several
times from a rosewood-tree growing in a small patch of scrub, and felt
assured it had a nest, but could only find one, which I considered to be
that of a _Grallina_; determined, if possible, to solve the difficulty,
I lay down at a short distance within full view of the tree, and was not
a little surprised at seeing the bird take possession of, as I believed,
the _Grallina’s_ nest; I immediately climbed the tree and found four
eggs, the medium length of which was one inch and a quarter by
seven-eighths of an inch in breadth; their colour was white, with
blotches, principally at the larger end, of reddish brown, purplish grey
and greenish grey; some of the blotches appearing as if they had been
laid on with a soft brush. From the appearance of the nest I should say
it was an old one of a _Grallina_, but it contained a much greater
quantity of grass for a lining than I ever observed in the nest of that
bird; if this be not the case, then the nests of the two birds are
precisely similar, being like a great basin made of mud, and placed on a
horizontal branch.

“Oct. 21.—In the evening I again met with the _Struthidea_, which I
disturbed from a nest like the one above described, and from the new
appearance of the structure I am inclined to believe it to be
constructed by the bird itself, although it does so closely resemble
that of _Grallina_, especially as in this case the nest was placed in a
situation far from water, and there were no _Grallinæ_ in the
neighbourhood. This nest, like the last, had a very thick lining of fine
grass, and appeared as if just finished for the reception of the eggs.”

There is no doubt that the nests above described by Mr. Gilbert were
those of _Struthidea_; those of _Corcorax_ and _Grallina_ are precisely
similar; and it is somewhat singular that three birds differing so much
in structure should build the same kind of mud nests.


                        Family CORVIDÆ, _Leach_.


                         Genus CORVUS, _Linn._

It is exceedingly interesting to trace the range of the members of this
genus or the true Crows; not so much on account of their wide
distribution, as from the circumstance of the form being non-existent in
some countries which appear admirably adapted for their well-being; thus
while the species are widely distributed over the whole of Europe, Asia,
Africa, North America, the Indian Islands and Australia, none are to be
found in South America, Polynesia or New Zealand.

 269. Corvus Coronoides, _Vig. & Horsf._                Vol. IV. Pl. 18.

This is the only species that has yet been discovered in Australia.

Family ——?


                       Genus NEOMORPHA, _Gould_.

This form is strictly Polynesian, and the species confined to New
Zealand.

 270. Neomorpha Gouldii, _G. R. Gray_                    Vol. IV. Pl. 19


                      Genus POMATORHINUS, _Horsf._

The members of this genus range from India throughout all the islands to
Australia, but are not found in Africa or Polynesia; three species are
comprised in the fauna of Australia.

Much diversity of opinion exists among ornithologists as to the place
this group should occupy in the general system; by most writers they
have been placed with the _Meliphagidæ_, but having had ample
opportunities of observing the Australian species in a state of nature,
I am enabled to affirm that they do not assimilate in any degree with
those birds either in their habits, actions, economy or nidification, in
all which particulars they differ from every group of birds that has
come under my notice.

 271. Pomatorhinus temporalis                           Vol. IV. Pl. 20.

      _Turdus frivolus_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. v. p. 127?

 272. Pomatorhinus rubeculus, _Gould_                   Vol. IV. Pl. 21.

 273. Pomatorhinus superciliosus, _Vig. &               Vol. IV. Pl. 22.
   Horsf._


                       Family MELIPHAGIDÆ, _Vig._

By far the greater and most prominent portion of the botany of Australia
consisting of only two or three genera of trees—the _Eucalypti_,
_Banksiæ_, &c.—we should naturally expect its ornithology to comprise
some great groups of birds destined to dwell thereon, and such we find
to be the case, the true Honey-eaters and the Honey-feeding Parrakeets
being remarkably numerous; the former tribe of birds comprise no less
than fifty-eight species, which appear to be naturally divided into
several groups, each characterized by some modification of structure:
although the whole are truly insectivorous, the pollen and the honey in
the flower-cups of the _Eucalypti_ are largely partaken of, and for
procuring which their lengthened tongue terminating in filaments
assuming the form of a brush is most admirably adapted, combined with
which is a remarkably narrow gape and an incapacious stomach.

Australia is the great nursery of this tribe of birds, but a few species
are found in New Guinea and some of the Polynesian islands.


                    Genus MELIPHAGA, _Vig. & Horsf._

No example of this genus has yet been discovered in the northern or
intertropical regions of Australia, all the species known being confined
to the southern parts of the continent, the islands in Bass’s Straits
and Van Diemen’s Land. The members of this group feed principally upon
the pollen and honey of the flower-cups, but occasionally upon insects;
in disposition they are tame and familiar; and they frequent the
_Banksiæ_ in preference to other trees.

The sexes are alike in plumage, and the young assume the adult plumage
at an early period of their existence.

 274. Meliphaga Novæ-Hollandiæ                          Vol. IV. Pl. 23.
 275. Meliphaga longirostris, _Gould_                   Vol. IV. Pl. 24.
 276. Meliphaga sericea, _Gould_                        Vol. IV. Pl. 25.
 277. Meliphaga mystacalis, _Gould_                     Vol. IV. Pl. 26.
 278. Meliphaga Australasiana                           Vol. IV. Pl. 27.

      _Certhia pyrrhoptera_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. iv. p. 197?


                      Genus GLYCIPHILA, _Swains._

The members of this genus resort to higher trees than the _Meliphaga_,
are more shy in disposition, possess considerable powers of flight, and
partake more exclusively of insect food. Of the four Australian species,
two, _G. fulvifrons_ and _G. albifrons_, inhabit the southern parts of
the country, the _G. fasciata_ the northern portion, and the little _G.
ocularis_ is universally distributed over the country, and if I mistake
not, is also found in New Guinea and Timor.

The young of _G. fulvifrons_ and _G. albifrons_ differ considerably from
the adult in their markings.

 279. Glyciphila fulvifrons                             Vol. IV. Pl. 28.

      _Certhia melanops_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. iv. p. 173?

 280. Glyciphila albifrons, _Gould_                     Vol. IV. Pl. 29.
 281. Glyciphila fasciata, _Gould_                      Vol. IV. Pl. 30.
 282. Glyciphila ocularis, _Gould_                      Vol. IV. Pl. 31.


                       Genus PTILOTIS, _Swains._

The species of this group are not only more numerous than those of any
other division of the _Meliphagidæ_, but they also comprise some of the
most beautiful and gaily-coloured members of the family. Nearly all the
species are either prettily marked about the face, or have the
ear-coverts largely developed and characterized by a colouring different
from that of the other parts of the plumage. The _Eucalypti_ and
_Acaciæ_ are the trees upon which they are usually found; the species
with olive-green backs, such as _P. flavigula_ and _P. leucotis_,
frequent the dwarf or thickly-leaved kinds, the foliage of which
assimilates in colour to that of their plumage; the more gaily-attired
species with bright yellow cheeks and ear-coverts, such as _P. ornatus_
and _P. plumulus_, are most frequently found among the flowering
_Acaciæ_; some species, particularly _P. penicillata_, descend from the
trees and seek Coleoptera and other insects on the ground; the
_Casuarinæ_ are the favourite trees of _P. sonorus_ and _P. versicolor_;
while the _P. chrysotis_, _P. chrysops_ and _P. fusca_ are almost
entirely confined to the brushes and seek their food among the
_Eucalypti_, the hanging festoons of _Tecoma_ and other beautiful brush
creepers. The members of this group are principally Australian, but I
believe that some species inhabit New Guinea; they mainly subsist upon
insects, to which berries are sometimes added.

The sexes are alike in plumage, but the females are smaller than the
males, and the young assume the adult livery from the nest.

 283. Ptilotis chrysotis                                 Vol. IV. Pl 32.

      _Ptilotis Lewinii_, Swains. Class. of Birds, vol. ii. p. 326?

 284. Ptilotis sonorus, _Gould_                         Vol. IV. Pl. 33.
 285. Ptilotis versicolor, _Gould_                      Vol. IV. Pl. 34.
 286. Ptilotis flavigula, _Gould_                       Vol. IV. Pl. 35.
 287. Ptilotis leucotis                                 Vol. IV. Pl. 36.
 288. Ptilotis auricomis                                 Vol. IV. Pl 37.
 289. Ptilotis cratitius, _Gould_                       Vol. IV. Pl. 38.
 290. Ptilotis ornatus, _Gould_                         Vol. IV. Pl. 39.
 291. Ptilotis plumulus, _Gould_                        Vol. IV. Pl. 40.
 292. Ptilotis flavescens, _Gould_                      Vol. IV. Pl. 41.
 293. Ptilotis flava, _Gould_                           Vol. IV. Pl. 42.
 294. Ptilotis penicillatus, _Gould_                    Vol. IV. Pl. 43.
 295. Ptilotis fusca, _Gould_                           Vol. IV. Pl. 44.
 296. Ptilotis chrysops                                 Vol. IV. Pl. 45.
 297. Ptilotis unicolor, _Gould_                        Vol. IV. Pl. 46.


                     Genus PLECTORHYNCHA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ shorter than the head, slightly arched, very pointed, almost
conical and acute; _nostrils_ basal and partly covered by an operculum;
an obsolete notch near the tip of the upper mandible; _wings_ moderate,
the first feather short, the third and fourth the longest; _tail_
moderate and square; _tarsi_ strong; hind-toe and claw long, powerful
and longer than the middle toe and claw; lateral toes unequal; the outer
one the longest, and united to the middle one nearly to the first joint.

Of this singular form only one species has yet been discovered. It
inhabits the plains of the eastern portion of Australia, where it dwells
among the _Eucalypti_ and _Acaciæ_; and is a very noisy garrulous bird.

The sexes are alike in plumage, and the young assume the adult plumage
at a very early age.

 298. Plectorhyncha lanceolata, _Gould_                 Vol. IV. Pl. 47.


                      Genus XANTHOMYZA, _Swains._

Of this genus only one species is known.

 299. Xanthomyza Phrygia                                Vol. IV. Pl. 48.

The habitat of this bird appears to be confined to the south-eastern
portion of Australia. It generally frequents the highest branches of the
lofty _Eucalypti_, both of the brushes and of the plains, but is most
abundant in the districts near the coast. In its disposition it is bold
and extremely pugnacious.

The sexes are alike in plumage, and but little difference is observable
between nestling and adult birds.

The nests I saw were round and cup-shaped, and were mostly placed in the
fork of a tree.


                      Genus MELICOPHILA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ as long as the head, gradually curving downwards from the base,
nearly cylindrical and very pointed; _nostrils_ basal and covered with
an operculum; _wings_ rather lengthened, the first primary short, the
third the longest; _tail_ moderately long, and nearly square; _tarsi_
long and stout.

A genus containing only a single species, which so far as we yet know is
confined to Southern and Western Australia.

 300. Melicophila picata,  _Gould_                      Vol. IV. Pl. 49.

Possesses many singular habits, and differs from most other species of
the _Meliphagidæ_ in the totally different colouring of the sexes; as
well as in assembling in vast flocks, which continue soaring about
during the greater portion of the day. I was not aware until after my
drawing was made that this bird has a small fleshy appendage beneath the
eye of an ashy-grey colour, which is invisible in a dried skin. The nest
and eggs are said to be very similar to those of _Petroïca multicolor_,
and to be placed in similar situations.


                      Genus ENTOMOPHILA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ nearly as long as the head, somewhat broad at the base, becoming
compressed and pointed at the apex; _tomia_ of the upper mandible arched
and slightly notched at the tip; _nostrils_ basal, oval, pierced in a
membrane and protected by an operculum; _wings_ rather long, first quill
spurious, the second nearly as long as the third, which is the longest;
_tail_ short and nearly square; _tarsi_ short and rather feeble;
hind-toe short and stout; lateral toes unequal, the inner one being
rather the shortest.

 301. Entomophila picta, _Gould_                        Vol. IV. Pl. 50.

The pointed wings of the examples of this bird I had seen prior to my
visit to Australia, led me to infer that its habits were more aërial
than those of the other members of the family, and such proved to be the
case; for while the greater number of the latter cling to and creep
about the branches, the present bird flies about the trees, captures
insects on the wing, and during flight displays the beautiful yellow of
its wings and the white markings of its tail to the greatest advantage.

Its frail cup-shaped nest is sometimes suspended among the drooping
leaves of the _Acacia pendula_.

 302. Entomophila albogularis, _Gould_                  Vol. IV. Pl. 51.
 303. Entomophila rufogularis, _Gould_                  Vol. IV. Pl. 52.

I fear I have committed an error in referring the birds from the north
coast (_E. albogularis_ and _E. rufogularis_) to the present genus, for
upon further consideration I believe they will prove to be sufficiently
different from every other form yet characterized to justify their being
separated into a distinct genus.


                      Genus ACANTHOGENYS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ as long as the head, compressed, slightly arched, acute at the
tip; the edges of the upper mandible notched near the tip, and
delicately serrated; _nostrils_ sub-basal; from the base of the
mandibles a naked stripe runs below the eyes, and below this the cheeks
are covered with stiff spines; _wings_ moderate, the first quill-feather
very short, third, fourth and fifth equal and the longest; _tail_
moderate, nearly equal; _feet_ robust, hind-toe strong and longer than
the middle one, outer toe united at its base to the middle toe; _claws_
hooked.

The genus _Acanthogenys_, of which only one species is known, is a form
intermediate in size and in structure between the smaller Honey-eaters
(_Meliphagæ_, _Ptiloti_, &c.) on the one hand, and the larger kinds
(_Anthochæræ_) on the other.

 304. Acanthogenys rufogularis, _Gould_                 Vol. IV. Pl. 53.

This species is widely distributed over the interior of the southern
portion of Australia, from east to west; the sexes are alike in plumage,
and the young are very similar, but are destitute of the spines on the
cheek, which are scarcely assumed during the first year. The _Banksiæ_
are the trees mostly frequented by this bird, the presence of which is
indicative of sterile sandy districts.


                   Genus ANTHOCHÆRA, _Vig. & Horsf._

A genus peculiarly Australian, three species of which are exclusively
confined to the southern or extra-tropical parts of the country, and one
to Van Diemen’s Land.

 305. Anthochæra inauris, _Gould_                       Vol. IV. Pl. 54.
 306. Anthochæra carunculata                            Vol. IV. Pl. 55.
 307. Anthochæra mellivora                              Vol. IV. Pl. 56.
 308. Anthochæra lunulata, _Gould_                      Vol. IV. Pl. 57.

These four birds might with propriety be separated into two genera,
those with auricular appendages, _A. inauris_ and _A. carunculata_,
having many characters differing from those of _A. mellivora_ and _A.
lunulata_.


                 Genus TROPIDORHYNCHUS, _Vig. & Horsf._

The law of representation in Australia is chiefly confined to the
species inhabiting the eastern and western coasts, but with the members
of this genus it takes the opposite direction, or north and south, for
more singular and perfect representatives of each other cannot be found
than are the _T. corniculatus_ and _T. citreogularis_ of the
south-eastern parts of the country, the _T. argenticeps_ and _T.
sordidus_ of the north-western. Extra Australian species inhabit New
Guinea and the neighbouring countries.

 309. Tropidorhynchus corniculatus                      Vol. IV. Pl. 58.
 310. Tropidorhynchus argenticeps, _Gould_              Vol. IV. Pl. 59.
 311. Tropidorhynchus citreogularis, _Gould_            Vol. IV. Pl. 60.
 312. Tropidorhynchus sordidus.

Inhabits the Cobourg Peninsula, and is precisely similar to _T.
citreogularis_, but is smaller in all its admeasurements except in the
bill, which is more developed.


                    Genus ACANTHORHYNCHUS, _Gould_.

_Bill_ elongated, slender and acute, compressed on the sides; _tomia_
incurved; _culmen_ acute and elevated; _nostrils_ basal, elongated, and
covered with an operculum; _wings_ moderate in size and semi-rotund;
first and fifth primaries equal; the third and fourth nearly equal in
length, and the longest; _tail_ moderate in size and slightly forked;
_tarsi_ lengthened and strong; middle toe long and robust, external toe
exceeding the inner one in length.

This genus, like many others of the family, may be regarded as strictly
Australian: it comprises two, if not three, well-marked species, each of
which is confined to a particular part of the country; the _A.
tenuirostris_ dwelling in the eastern, and the _A. superciliosus_ in the
western districts: both inhabit countries precisely in the same degree
of latitude, and form beautiful representatives of each other. Van
Diemen’s Land is the native habitat of the species I have named _A.
dubius_, which, as will be seen, I had made synonymous with _A.
tenuirostris_, but which I am now inclined to consider distinct, an
opinion in which Mr. Blyth coincides.

 313. Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris                      Vol. IV. Pl. 61.
 314. Acanthorhynchus dubius, _Gould_.
 315. Acanthorhynchus superciliosus, _Gould_            Vol. IV. Pl. 62.


                    Genus MYZOMELA, _Vig. & Horsf._

Five well-marked species of this genus are distributed over Australia;
numerous others are found in New Guinea and the neighbouring islands;
the form also occurs in the Polynesian Islands, but is not found in Van
Diemen’s Land.

 316. Myzomela sanguineolenta                           Vol. IV. Pl. 63.
 317. Myzomela erythrocephala, _Gould_                  Vol. IV. Pl. 64.
 318. Myzomela pectoralis, _Gould_                      Vol. IV. Pl. 65.
 319. Myzomela nigra, _Gould_                           Vol. IV. Pl. 66.
 320. Myzomela obscura, _Gould_                         Vol. IV. Pl. 67.


                       Genus ENTOMYZA, _Swains._

Two species of this well-defined genus are comprised in the Australian
fauna, one of which inhabits the south-eastern parts of the country, or
New South Wales; the other, which so far as we yet know is strictly
confined to the north-eastern coast, is very plentiful at Port Essington
and in the neighbouring districts.

The form appears to be confined to Australia, for I have never seen it
from any other country.

 321. Entomyza cyanotis                                 Vol. IV. Pl. 68.

This bird has the habit—a somewhat remarkable one among the
Honey-eaters—of selecting the nest of _Pomatorhinus temporalis_ for the
reception of its eggs.

 322. Entomyza albipennis, _Gould_                      Vol. IV. Pl. 69.


                     Genus MELITHREPTUS, _Vieill._

No one group of birds is more universally distributed over Australia
than the _Melithrepti_, for their range extends from Van Diemen’s Land
on the south to the most northern part of the continent; and they are
equally numerous from east to west, each part of country being inhabited
by a species peculiarly its own. The _Eucalypti_ are the trees upon
which they are almost exclusively found. I believe the form is unknown
out of Australia.

 323. Melithreptus validirostris, _Gould_               Vol. IV. Pl. 70.
 324. Melithreptus gularis, _Gould_                     Vol. IV. Pl. 71.
 325. Melithreptus lunulatus                            Vol. IV. Pl. 72.
 326. Melithreptus chloropsis, _Gould_                  Vol. IV. Pl. 73.
 327. Melithreptus albogularis, _Gould_                 Vol. IV. Pl. 74.
 328. Melithreptus melanocephalus, _Gould_              Vol. IV. Pl. 75.

      _Certhia agilis_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol. iv. p. 204.


                    Genus MYZANTHA, _Vig. & Horsf._

During the progress of this work three additional species of this genus
have been discovered, one in the interior of New South Wales, the second
at Swan River, and the third on the north-west coast; consequently it is
a genus the members of which are widely distributed over nearly every
part of Australia.

 329. Myzantha garrula                                  Vol. IV. Pl. 76.
 330. Myzantha obscura, _Gould_                         Vol. IV. Pl. 77.
 331. Myzantha lutea, _Gould_                           Vol. IV. Pl. 78.
 332. Myzantha flavigula, _Gould_                       Vol. IV. Pl. 79.
 333. Myzantha melanophrys                              Vol. IV. Pl. 80.

Family ——?


                    Genus ZOSTEROPS, _Vig. & Horsf._

Three well-defined species of this genus inhabit the continent of
Australia and Van Diemen’s Land; two are found on Norfolk Island, and
numerous others inhabit the Indian Islands and the continent of India
even to the Himalaya Mountains.

In placing this group next to the Honey-eaters, I have been influenced
by their approximation to those birds in some of their habits: they also
exhibit a further degree of affinity in the form and structure of their
nest, but not in the colouring of their eggs, which are always blue in
colour.

 334. Zosterops dorsalis, _Vig. & Horsf._               Vol. IV. Pl. 81.
 335. Zosterops chloronotus, _Gould_                    Vol. IV. Pl. 82.
 336. Zosterops luteus, _Gould_                         Vol. IV. Pl. 83.


                       Family CUCULIDÆ, _Leach_.

The family _Cuculidæ_ is very fairly represented in Australia, since we
there find species belonging to the greater number of the Old World
genera, and one, _Scythrops_, which has not hitherto, I believe, been
found elsewhere. With the exception of _Centropus_ and _Eudynamys_,
they, like their prototypes, are parasitic in their nidification, and
depend upon other birds for the hatching of their eggs and the feeding
of their offspring.


                         Genus CUCULUS, _Linn._

 337. Cuculus optatus, _Gould_                          Vol. IV. Pl. 84.

Since my description of this species was printed I have seen specimens
from India, with the name of _Cuculus micropterus_ attached to them:
should this name have been published prior to the one I have assigned to
it, my name must sink into a synonym.

 338. Cuculus inornatus, _Vig. & Horsf._                Vol. IV. Pl. 85.

     _Columba pallida_, Lath. Gen. Hist. vol.
   viii. p. 30.

 339. Cuculus cineraceus, _Vig. & Horsf._               Vol. IV. Pl. 86.

 340. Cuculus insperatus, _Gould_                       Vol. IV. Pl. 87.

 341. Cuculus dumetorum, _Gould_

This species, which inhabits the north-western coast, differs from _C.
insperatus_ in being of a much smaller size and in the whole of the
plumage being of a browner hue.


                      Genus CHRYSOCOCCYX, _Boie_.

The members of this genus are distributed over most parts of the Old
World; two species occur in Australia.

 342. Chrysococcyx osculans.
     Chalcites osculans, _Gould_                        Vol. IV. Pl. 88.
 343. Chrysococcyx lucidus                              Vol. IV. Pl. 89.

      _Sylvia versicolor_, Lath. in Lambert’s Drawings.


                        Genus SCYTHROPS, _Lath._

The only known species of this remarkable form inhabits the eastern
parts of Australia, and according to information derived from the notes
made by Mr. Gilbert during Dr. Leichardt’s Expedition, extends its range
northward from thence to within the tropics.

I have recently had a young specimen presented to me by Lady Dowling,
one of two taken from a branch of a tree while being fed by birds not of
its own species, an important fact as showing the parasitic habits of
the bird.

 344. Scythrops Novæ-Hollandiæ, _Lath._                 Vol. IV. Pl. 90.


                    Genus EUDYNAMYS, _Vig. & Horsf._

One species only of this form inhabits Australia; others are found in
the Indian Islands and on the continent of India.

 345. Eudynamys Flindersii                              Vol. IV. Pl. 91.


                        Genus CENTROPUS, _Ill._

On reference to my account of the _Centropus Phasianus_, it will be seen
I have stated that some variation exists in the form of the bill in
specimens from different localities, intimated a belief of there being
more than one species, and remarked that should such prove to be the
case, the term _macrourus_ might be applied to the Port Essington birds,
and _melanurus_ to those from the north-west coast; and these names are
provisionally given until future research has proved whether they be or
be not distinct.

 346. Centropus Phasianus                               Vol. IV. Pl. 92.
 347. Centropus macrourus, _Gould_.
 348. Centropus melanurus, _Gould_.


                        Family CERTHIADÆ, _Vig._


                       Genus CLIMACTERIS, _Temm._

Several species of this well-defined and singular group of Australian
birds have lately been discovered; two out of the six now known are all
that had been described prior to the publication of the present work.
With the exception of Van Diemen’s Land and the Cobourg Peninsula, every
colony is inhabited by one or other of the following species:—

 349. Climacteris scandens, _Temm._                     Vol. IV. Pl. 93.
 350. Climacteris rufa, _Gould_                         Vol. IV. Pl. 94.
 351. Climacteris erythrops, _Gould_                    Vol. IV. Pl. 95.
 352. Climacteris melanotus, _Gould_                    Vol. IV. Pl. 96.
 353. Climacteris melanura, _Gould_                     Vol. IV. Pl. 97.
 354. Climacteris picumnus, _Temm._                     Vol. IV. Pl. 98.

      _Certhia leucophæa_, Lath. Gen. Hist., vol. iv. p. 182.


                        Genus ORTHONYX, _Temm._

Much difference of opinion has arisen among ornithologists respecting
the situation of this bird in the natural system, and as to what genus
it is most nearly allied; I regret to say that not having seen much of
it in its native wilds, I am unable to clear up these disputed points.
The form is strictly Australian, and the single species known is
confined to the south-eastern part of the country.

 355. Orthonyx spinicaudus, _Temm._                     Vol. IV. Pl. 99.

M. Jules Verreaux, who has written a highly interesting account of this
bird, states that it is strictly terrestrial, and scratches among the
detritus and fallen leaves for its food, throwing back the earth like
the _Gallinaceæ_. It never climbs, as was formerly supposed, but runs
over fallen trunks of trees;—is rather solitary in its habits, seldom
more than two being seen together. Its often-repeated cry of
_cri-cri-cri-crite_ betrays its presence, when its native haunts, the
most retired parts of the forest, are visited. Its chief food consists
of insects, their larvæ, and woodbugs. It builds a large domed nest, of
slender mosses; the entrance being by a lateral hole near the bottom.
The eggs are white and disproportionately large. The situation of the
nest is the side of a slanting rock or large stone, the entrance-hole
being level with the surface.—_Revue Zoologique_, July 1847.


                       Genus PTILORIS, _Swains._

In placing this beautiful bird near the _Climacteres_, I am influenced
in the first place by the great similarity of its structure, and in the
next by the account I have received of its actions in a state of nature;
I allude more particularly to its mode of ascending the trees, which
precisely resembles that of the _Certhiæ_. One species only of this form
is found in Australia, but many allied genera, _Promerops_, &c., inhabit
New Guinea and the neighbouring islands.

 356. Ptiloris paradiseus, _Swains._                   Vol. IV. Pl. 100.

That the range of this species extends from the eastern parts of
Australia to within the tropics, is proved by Mr. Gilbert’s having once
seen it near the Gulf of Carpentaria during his last Expedition.


                       Genus SITTELLA, _Swains._

The _Sittella chrysoptera_ was the only species of this Australian form
known to previous writers; to this has been added one from Southern and
Western Australia, another from Moreton Bay, and a third from the north
coast.

The form does not exist in Van Diemen’s Land.

 357. Sittella chrysoptera                             Vol. IV. Pl. 101.
 358. Sittella leucocephala, _Gould_                   Vol. IV. Pl. 102.
 359. Sittella leucoptera, _Gould_                     Vol. IV. Pl. 103.
 360. Sittella pileata, _Gould_                        Vol. IV. Pl. 104.


                      Family PSITTACIDÆ, _Leach_.

No one group of birds gives to Australia so tropical and foreign an air
as the numerous species of this great family, by which it is tenanted,
each and all of which are individually very abundant. Immense flocks of
white Cockatoos may be seen perched among the green foliage of the
_Eucalypti_; the brilliant scarlet breasts of the Rose-hills blaze forth
from the yellow-flowering _Acaciæ_; the _Trichoglossi_ or Honey-eating
Parrakeets enliven the flowering branches of the larger _Eucalypti_ with
their beauty and their lively actions; the little Grass Parrakeets
frequent the plains of the interior and render these solitary spots a
world of animation; nay, the very towns, particularly Hobart Town and
Adelaide, are constantly visited by flights of this beautiful tribe of
birds, which traverse the streets with arrow-like swiftness, and chase
each other precisely after the manner the Swifts are seen to do in our
own islands. In the public roads of Van Diemen’s Land the beautiful
_Platycerci_ may be constantly seen in small companies, performing
precisely the same offices as the Sparrow in England. I have also seen
flocks of from fifty to a hundred, like tame pigeons, at the barn-doors
in the farm-yards of the settlers, to which they descend for the refuse
grain thrown out with the straw by the threshers. As might naturally be
expected, the agriculturist is often sadly annoyed by the destruction
certain species effect among his newly-sown and ripening corn,
particularly where the land has been recently cleared and is adjacent to
the brushes. Fifty-five well-defined species of this great family are
described and figured in the present work. They appear to constitute
four great groups, each comprising several genera, nearly the whole of
which are strictly and peculiarly Australian; for instance, neither
_Calyptorhynchus_, _Platycercus_, _Euphema_, _Psephotus_,
_Melopsittacus_, or _Nymphicus_ have been found in any other country;
and whether we consider the elegance of their forms or the beauty of
their plumage, they may vie with the members of this extensive family
from any part of the world.


                        Genus CACATUA, _Briss._

Australia, the Molucca and Philippine Islands and New Guinea are the
great nurseries of the members of this genus. They incubate in holes of
trees or in rocks, and lay two eggs.

 361. Cacatua galerita                                   Vol. V.  Pl. 1.

There are evidently several varieties or races of this species in
Australia, each possessing a modification in the form of the bill
doubtless given for some specific purpose; the Van Diemen’s Land bird is
the largest, and has the upper mandible attenuated, while the Port
Essington bird is altogether smaller, and has a much more arched bill.

 362. Cacatua Leadbeaterii                               Vol. V.  Pl. 2.

This species ranges over all the southern portions of Australia between
the 20th and 30th degrees of S. latitude. I have never seen a specimen
from the north, and I believe it does not inhabit that part of the
country; its true habitat appears to be the interior, for it is never
found near the coast.

 363. Cacatua sanguinea, _Gould_                         Vol. V.  Pl. 3.

This species has been found on the north coast, and was observed by
Captain Sturt at the Depôt in Central Australia; we may hence infer that
its range extends over all the intermediate country.

 364. Cacatua Eos                                        Vol. V.  Pl. 4.

This fine bird, which is strictly Australian, is distributed over all
parts of the interior of the country, and is as abundant in the north as
it is in the south; it was also observed by Captain Sturt at the Depôt.

The specimens from the north are of a larger size and have the orbits
more denuded than those from the south.


                        Genus LICMETIS, _Wagl._

The two species forming the genus _Licmetis_ are not only confined to
Australia, but, so far as we yet know, to the southern portions of that
continent; one inhabits the western and the other the eastern part of
the country. Their singularly formed bill being admirably adapted for
procuring their food on the ground, they are more terrestrial in their
habits than the other members of the family.

 365. Licmetis nasicus                                   Vol. V.  Pl. 5.
 366. Licmetis pastinator,                                      _Gould_.

      _Licmetis pastinator_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part VIII. p.
        175.

Lores scarlet; general plumage white; the base of the feathers of the
head and front of the neck scarlet, showing through and giving those
parts a stained appearance; the basal half of the inner webs of the
primaries, the inner webs of all the other feathers of the wing, and the
inner webs of the tail-feathers beautiful brimstone-yellow; naked space
round the eye greenish blue; irides light brown; bill white; feet dull
olive-grey.

Inhabits Western Australia.

Differs from _L. nasicus_ in being of a much larger size; but the
colouring being similar, I have not thought it necessary to figure it.


                         Genus NESTOR, _Wagl._

Of this genus two species are known, one of which was exclusively
confined to Phillip Island, and the other inhabits New Zealand; they are
evidently the remains of a race, all the other members of which are
probably extinct.

 367. Nestor productus, _Gould_                          Vol. V.  Pl. 6.

The few examples of this species that may exist in captivity are all
that survive, none remaining on Phillip Island, their native habitat.


                 Genus CALYPTORHYNCHUS, _Vig. & Horsf._

The _Calyptorhynchi_ are strictly arboreal, and are evidently formed to
live upon the seeds of the _Banksiæ_, _Eucalypti_, and other trees
peculiar to the country they inhabit; they diversify their food by
occasionally devouring large caterpillars; as they mostly move about in
small companies of from four to six in number they can scarcely be
considered gregarious. Their flight is rather powerful, but at the same
time laboured and heavy; and their voice is a low crying call, totally
different from the harsh screaming notes of the _Cacatuæ_. Each division
of the country, from the north coast of the continent to Van Diemen’s
Land, is inhabited by its own peculiar species.

I have never seen a member of this genus from any other country than
Australia, but I have heard that an extraordinary Parrot, said to be
larger than any at present in our collections, inhabits New Guinea, and
which, from the description given of it, will probably be of this form.
The _Calyptorhynchi_ lay from two to four eggs in the holes of trees.

 368. Calyptorhynchus Banksii                            Vol. V.  Pl. 7.
 369. Calyptorhynchus macrorhynchus, _Gould_             Vol. V.  Pl. 8.

Inhabits the north coast, where it represents the _C. Banksii_ of the
eastern and the _C. naso_ of the western coasts.

 370. Calyptorhynchus naso, _Gould_                      Vol. V.  Pl. 9.

This species, which is confined to Western Australia, is rendered
conspicuous by the small size of its crest, and by its bill being nearly
as large as that of _C. macrorhynchus_, while its wings are much shorter
than those of that species.

 371. Calyptorhynchus Leachii                           Vol. V.  Pl. 10.

      _Banksianus Australis_, Less. Traité d’Orn. p. 180, Atlas, pl. 18,
        fig. 2, fem.

Inhabits the south-eastern parts of the continent, and differs from all
the others in its smaller size, the gibbose form of its bill, and in the
paucity of its crest.

 372. Calyptorhynchus funereus                          Vol. V.  Pl. 11.

Confined, I believe, to New South Wales, and South Australia?

 373. Calyptorhynchus xanthonotus, _Gould_              Vol. V.  Pl. 12.

The true habitat of this species is Van Diemen’s Land, but I have lately
received a specimen from Port Lincoln, which proves that its range
extends to South Australia. It is distinguished from _C. funereus_ by
its much smaller size, and by the uniformity of the yellow colouring of
the tail.

 374. Calyptorhynchus Baudinii, _Vig._                  Vol. V.  Pl. 13.

Inhabits Western Australia, and is distinguished by its small size and
by the white marks on the tail.


                      Genus CALLOCEPHALON, _Less._

Of this form only a single species is known.

 375. Callocephalon galeatum                            Vol. V.  Pl. 14.

Inhabits the southern coast of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land.


                        Genus POLYTELIS, _Wagl._

This genus comprises two species, both of which are peculiar to the
southern portions of Australia. They have many characters common to, and
resemble in appearance, the _Palæorni_ of India.

 376. Polytelis Barrabandi                              Vol. V.  Pl. 15.
 377. Polytelis melanura                                Vol. V.  Pl. 16.


                      Genus APROSMICTUS, _Gould_.

  Generic characters.

As in _Platycercus_, but the _bill_ more feeble; _cere_ and _nostrils_
covered with fine hair-like feathers; _wings_ longer and less concave;
_tail_ more square; _tarsi_ shorter and _toes_ longer than in that
genus.

Two, if not three species of this form inhabit Australia, and others are
found in New Guinea and the neighbouring islands. They are distinguished
from the _Platycerci_ by the possession of a well-developed _os
furcatorium_, a bone which is entirely wanting in the members of that
genus; in their habits they are mainly arboreal, and in their
disposition are morose and sullen.

 378. Aprosmictus scapulatus                            Vol. V.  Pl. 17.

This species appears to be confined to New South Wales.

 379. Aprosmictus erythropterus                         Vol. V.  Pl. 18.

The red-winged Parrakeets from the north coast are nearly a fourth
smaller than those inhabiting the Liverpool plains and similar districts
of the south coast; are they varieties of each other or distinct
species?


                       Genus PLATYCERCUS, _Vig._

In my opinion the New Zealand birds that have been placed in this genus
are not true _Platycerci_, all the known species of which are confined
to Australia; they comprise fourteen species which appear to be
naturally divisible into minor groups, to which generic appellations may
hereafter be given; for instance the _P. semitorquatus_, _P. Baueri_,
_P. Barnardi_, &c. form one; the _P. Adelaidiæ_, _P. Pennantii_, _P.
flaveolus_, _P. flaviventris_, &c. form another; _P. eximius_, _P.
splendidus_, _P. icterotis_, &c. form a third; and _P. pileatus_ a
fourth.

The members of this and the two next genera lay from seven to ten eggs
in the holes of trees.

 380. Platycercus semitorquatus                         Vol. V.  Pl. 19.
 381. Platycercus Baueri                                Vol. V.  Pl. 20.
 382. Platycercus Barnardii, _Vig. & Horsf._            Vol. V.  Pl. 21.
 383. Platycercus Adelaidiæ, _Gould_                    Vol. V.  Pl. 22.
 384. Platycercus Pennantii                             Vol. V.  Pl. 23.
 385. Platycercus flaviventris                          Vol. V.  Pl. 24.
 386. Platycercus flaveolus, _Gould_                     Vol. V.  Pl. 25
 387. Platycercus palliceps, _Vig._                     Vol. V.  Pl. 26.
 388. Platycercus eximius                               Vol. V.  Pl. 27.
 389. Platycercus splendidus, _Gould_                   Vol. V.  Pl. 28.
 390. Platycercus icterotis                             Vol. V.  Pl. 29.
 391. Platycercus ignitus, _Leadb._                     Vol. V.  Pl. 30.
 392. Platycercus Brownii                               Vol. V.  Pl. 31.
 393. Platycercus pileatus, _Vig._                      Vol. V.  Pl. 32.


                       Genus PSEPHOTUS, _Gould_.

  Generic characters.

As in _Euphema_, but the _cere_, in which the nostrils are placed, more
swollen or developed; _wings_ rather short and the _tail_ much
lengthened; the lateral feathers short and not so regularly graduated;
_feet_ more adapted for terrestrial progression.

All the members of this genus are confined to Australia, and hold an
intermediate station between the _Platycerci_ on the one hand and the
_Euphemæ_ on the other. They pass much of their time on the ground,
where the principal part of their food is procured; inhabit the interior
rather than the country near the coast, and are adapted for the open
plains, where they often assemble in vast flocks.

I have figured four species, and I have seen a drawing in the possession
of Mr. Brown, made by Ferdinand Bauer from a bird said to have been
found near the Gulf of Carpentaria, which will probably form a fifth.

 394. Psephotus hæmatogaster, _Gould_                   Vol. V.  Pl. 33.

This species differs from all the other members of the genus, as well as
from those of the allied genera, in the pointed form of the tips of its
primaries.

If they be not local varieties of each other, there are two birds
confounded under this name, one having yellow and the other scarlet
under tail-coverts; it will be necessary, however, to see other examples
before we can decide whether they are or are not distinct. Captain Sturt
brought specimens with yellow under tail-coverts from the Depôt in the
interior of South Australia.

 395. Psephotus pulcherrimus, _Gould_                   Vol. V.  Pl. 34.
 396. Psephotus multicolor                              Vol. V.  Pl. 35.
 397. Psephotus hæmatonotus, _Gould_                    Vol. V.  Pl. 36.


                         Genus EUPHEMA, _Wagl._

The members of this genus are exclusively Australian and appear to be
confined to the extra-tropical parts of the country, no species having
yet been seen from the north coast. Our knowledge of this group has been
extended from three to seven species, all of which are abundantly
distributed over the southern portions of the continent, and two of them
over Van Diemen’s Land.

 398. Euphema chrysostoma                               Vol. V.  Pl. 37.
 399. Euphema elegans, _Gould_                          Vol. V.  Pl. 38.
 400. Euphema aurantia, _Gould_                         Vol. V.  Pl. 39.
 401. Euphema petrophila, _Gould_                       Vol. V.  Pl. 40.
 402. Euphema pulchella                                 Vol. V.  Pl. 41.
 403. Euphema splendida, _Gould_                        Vol. V.  Pl. 42.

Captain Sturt procured a single male example of this beautiful bird
during his journey into the interior of South Australia.

 404. Euphema Bourkii                                   Vol. V.  Pl. 43.

Captain Sturt found this species in abundance at the Depôt in Central
Australia.


                     Genus MELOPSITTACUS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ moderate; _culmen_ arched; _tomia_ descending at the base, then
ascending and curving downwards to the tip; _nostrils_ basal, lateral,
open, and seated in a broad swollen cere; _wings_ rather long, pointed,
first primary very long, the second the longest; _tail_ long and much
graduated; _tarsi_ moderate and covered with minute scales; _toes_
slender, the outer toe much longer than the inner one.

The only known species of this form is strictly gregarious, assembles in
vast flocks, and is admirably adapted for plains and downs covered with
grasses, upon the seeds of which it entirely subsists.

 405. Melopsittacus undulatus                           Vol. V.  Pl. 44.

In all probability this bird is universally dispersed over the whole of
the interior of Australia, since independently of its previously known
range from Swan River on the west to New South Wales on the east, Mr.
Gilbert observed it in every part of the country between Moreton Bay and
the Gulf of Carpentaria.


                        Genus NYMPHICUS, _Wagl._

As of _Melopsittacus_, there is only one species known of this genus. It
is strictly Australian, and will doubtless hereafter be found to be
universally distributed over that vast country; it is equally adapted
for the plains, and the two birds are frequently found associated.

 406. Nymphicus Novæ-Hollandiæ                          Vol. V.  Pl. 45.

There are two distinct varieties of this species, one having a much
darker colouring than the other.


                        Genus PEZOPORUS, _Ill._

Of this terrestrial form but one species is known, which is very
generally distributed over the temperate portions of Australia, the
islands in Bass’s Straits and Van Diemen’s Land. The eggs are laid on
the bare ground.

 407. Pezoporus formosus                                Vol. V.  Pl. 46.


                        Genus LATHAMUS, _Less._

Of this form only a single species is known to exist in Australia, and
that species had been assigned to a different genus by almost every
recent writer on ornithology, Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield placing it in
their genus _Nanodes_, Wagler in his genus _Euphema_, &c.; subsequently
M. Lesson made it the type of his genus _Lathamus_, giving it at the
same time the specific appellation of _rubrifrons_, which must of course
give place to that of _discolor_, long before applied to it by Latham.

Having had ample opportunities of observing this bird in a state of
nature, I concur in the propriety of M. Lesson’s views in separating it
into a distinct genus; at the same time I must remark that in its
habits, nidification, food and whole economy, it is most closely allied
to the _Trichoglossi_ or honey-eating Parrakeets, and in no degree
related to the _Euphemæ_.

 408. Lathamus discolor                                 Vol. V.  Pl. 47.


                  Genus TRICHOGLOSSUS, _Vig. & Horsf._

The arboreal group of _Trichoglossi_ or honey-eating Lorikeets, if not
so numerous in species as the grass-feeding Parrakeets, are individually
much more abundant and are more universally dispersed, being found in
every part of the country yet visited; several species inhabit New South
Wales: only one has yet been found in Western Australia. Other members
of the genus are found in New Guinea and the Moluccas, but Australia is
the great nursery for the birds of this form.

In their structure, habits and mode of nidification, and in their
economy, no two groups of the same family can be more widely different
than the _Trichoglossi_ and the _Platycerci_; the pencilled tongue,
diminutive stomach, thick skin, tough flesh, and fœtid odour of the
former presenting a decided contrast to the simple tongue, capacious
crop and stomach, thin skin, delicate flesh and freedom from odour of
the latter; besides which the _Trichoglossi_ possess a strong _os
furcatorium_, which organ is wanting in the _Platycerci_; hence while
the _Trichoglossi_ are powerful, swift and arrow-like in their flight,
the _Platycerci_ are feeble, pass through the air in a succession of
undulations near the ground, and never fly to any great distance. The
mode in which the two groups approach and alight upon and quit the trees
is also remarkably different; the _Trichoglossi_ dashing among and
alighting upon the branches simultaneously, and with the utmost
rapidity, and quitting them in like manner, leaving the deafening sound
of their thousand voices echoing through the woods; while the
_Platycerci_ rise to the branches after their undulating flight and
leave them again in the like quiet manner, no sound being heard but
their inward piping note.

The eggs of the _Trichoglossi_ are from two to four in number.

 409. Trichoglossus Swainsonii, _Jard. & Selb._         Vol. V.  Pl. 48.

 410. Trichoglossus rubritorquis, _Vig. &               Vol. V.  Pl. 49.
   Horsf._

     “Procured at Port Molle on the north-east coast, previously only
found at Port Essington.”—J. M’Gillivray.

 411. Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus.                    Vol. V.  Pl. 50.
 412. Trichoglossus versicolor, _Vig._                  Vol. V.  Pl. 51.
 413. Trichoglossus concinnus.                          Vol. V.  Pl. 52.
 414. Trichoglossus porphyrocephalus, _Diet._           Vol. V.  Pl. 53.
 415. Trichoglossus pusillus.                           Vol. V.  Pl. 54.



                         Order RASORES, _Ill._


                       Family COLUMBIDÆ, _Leach_.

The members of this important family are distributed over every portion
of the globe, in no part of which are they more numerous than in
Australia, since that country is inhabited by no less than twenty-one
species, which, like its _Psittacidæ_, comprise several well-marked and
distinct genera, and appear to be naturally divided into two great
groups, the one arboreal, the other terrestrial; the _Ptilinopi_,
_Carpophagæ_ and _Lopholaimus_, with their expansive gullets and broad
hand-like feet forming part of the former, and the _Phaps_, _Geophaps_
and _Geopeliæ_ the latter. The _Ptilinopi_ and other allied forms are,
in consequence of the peculiar character of the vegetation, confined,
without a single exception, to the eastern and northern parts of the
country.

The species of the genus _Phaps_, a form which I believe to be confined
to Australia, are more widely dispersed than those of any other section
of the family, being universally distributed over the entire country
from north to south and from east to west; even the parched deserts of
the interior are visited by them if a supply of water be within reach of
their evening flight, which is performed with the most extraordinary
rapidity and power.


                      Genus PTILINOPUS, _Swains._

The species of this genus, the most brilliant and highly-coloured of the
_Columbidæ_, range over Australia, New Guinea, Malacca, Celebes, and
Polynesia; two of the three Australian species are I believe confined to
that country.

 416. Ptilinopus Swainsonii, _Gould_                    Vol. V.  Pl. 55.
 417. Ptilinopus Ewingii, _Gould_                       Vol. V.  Pl. 56.
 418. Ptilinopus superbus                               Vol. V.  Pl. 57.

      _Ptilinopus superbus_, Steph. cont. of Shaw’s Gen. Zool., vol.
        xiv. p. 279.


                       Genus CARPOPHAGA, _Selby_.

The species of this genus are widely dispersed over Australia, New
Guinea, Malacca, Celebes and Polynesia. Strictly arboreal in their
habits and feeding entirely upon fruits, berries and seeds, they
frequent the towering fig-trees when their fruit is ripe, and the lofty
palms for the sake of their large round seeds. I have frequently
observed large flocks moving about from one part of the forest to
another, consequently they may be considered a gregarious race; their
short tarsi and dilated feet are ill-adapted for the ground, and I have
never seen them descend from the trees, not even for water.

 419. Carpophaga magnifica                              Vol. V.  Pl. 58.
 420. Carpophaga leucomela                              Vol. V.  Pl. 59.
 421. Carpophaga luctuosa                               Vol. V.  Pl. 60.


                    Genus LOPHOLAIMUS, _G. R. Gray_.

The single species of this genus is strictly a fruit-eating Pigeon, and
is confined, so far as we yet know, to the brushes of New South Wales,
where it moves about in large flocks and feeds upon the wild figs and
other fruits and berries which the trees of the brushes afford.

 422. Lopholaimus Antarcticus                           Vol. V.  Pl. 61.

A noble bird ornamented with a large occipital crest.


                      Genus CHALCOPHAPS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

“_Bill_ slender, moderate and straight, the tip vaulted and rather
arched; _nostrils_ lateral, membranous and swollen, with the opening in
the middle of the bill; _wings_ long, second and third primaries nearly
equal and the longest; _tail_ moderate and much rounded; _tarsi_ rather
shorter than the middle toe, robust and covered with transverse scales;
_toes_ long, the lateral and the hind-toes nearly as long as the outer;
_claws_ moderate and curved.”—Gray and Mitchell’s Genera of Birds, Art.
GOURINÆ.

A genus of Brush Pigeons, the members of which seek their food on the
ground and live on the fallen seeds and berries they find there. Two
species inhabit Australia, one of which is confined to the eastern and
the other to the northern coast; other species are found in Java,
Sumatra, and on the continent of India, the whole forming a group well
worthy of investigation by the scientific ornithologist.

 423. Chalcophaps chrysochlora                          Vol. V.  Pl. 62.

The bird of this form inhabiting the country in the neighbourhood of
Port Essington differs from those inhabiting New South Wales in the much
greater length of the mandibles, and is altogether a much finer bird:
consequently I am induced to believe that it is distinct from its
southern prototype; I would therefore provisionally name it—

 424. Chalcophaps longirostris.

I have not figured it, inasmuch as the colouring is similar, but more
brilliant, and has the bands across the rump more distinct than in _C.
chrysochlora_.


                      Genus LEUCOSARCIA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ lengthened, almost cylindrical, fleshy for two-thirds of its
length from the base; _nostrils_ lateral and covered by an oval swollen
operculum; _wings_ very short and concave; _tail_ short; _tarsi_
lengthened and defended in front by large distinct scuta; _toes_ rather
short, hind-toe situated high upon the tarsus.

A genus proposed by me for the reception of the Wonga-Wonga Pigeon of
the Australian Brushes, a bird having many peculiar habits, but which,
being mainly terrestrial, lead it to frequent the ground in the midst of
the dense forests, where it moves about in pairs, feeding upon seeds and
berries. Its flesh being remarkably white and extremely delicate, it is
one of the best birds for the table inhabiting Australia, or indeed any
other country.

The colour of the flesh suggested the generic term I have assigned to
it.

 425. Leucosarcia picata                                Vol. V.  Pl. 63.


                         Genus PHAPS, _Selby_.

The members of this genus, generally known by the name of Bronze-wings,
form an excellent viand for the settlers, and one of the greatest boons
bestowed upon the explorer, since they not only furnish him with a
supply of nutritious food, but direct him by their straight and
arrow-like evening flight to the situations where he may find water,
that element without which man cannot exist.

 426. Phaps chalcoptera.
     Peristera chalcoptera                              Vol. V.  Pl. 64.
 427. Phaps elegans.
     Peristera elegans                                  Vol. V.  Pl. 65.
 428. Phaps histrionica.
     Peristera histrionica, _Gould_                     Vol. V.  Pl. 66.

“This beautiful pigeon,” says Captain Sturt, “is an inhabitant of the
interior. It lays its eggs in February, depositing them under any low
bush in the middle of the open plains. In the end of March and the
beginning of April they collect in large flocks and live on the seed of
the rice-grass, which the natives also collect for food. During the
short period this harvest lasts the flavour of this pigeon is most
delicious, but at other times it is indifferent. It flies to water at
sunset, but like the Bronze-wing only wets the bill. It is astonishing
indeed that so small a quantity as a bare mouthful should be sufficient
to quench its thirst in the burning deserts it inhabits. It left us in
the beginning of May, and I think migrated to the N.E., for the further
we went to the westward the fewer did we see of it.”

Mr. Gilbert observed this species in vast flocks on the plains in
latitude 19° S.


                        Genus GEOPHAPS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ very short and robust; _eyes_ surrounded with a bare skin;
_wings_ very short and rounded; _tertiaries_ long, and broad at their
ends; _tarsi_ moderately long; _toes_ shorter than the tarsus, the inner
toe rather the longest.

The members of this genus are peculiar to Australia; are more
terrestrial in their habits than any other form of pigeons inhabiting
that country; incubate on the ground; squat like the partridges when
their haunts are intruded upon; inhabit the plains and open downs; have
white pectoral muscles; are excellent food for man; run with great
rapidity; fly swiftly for short distances; and when disturbed either
perch on the larger branches, on which they squat lengthwise, or descend
to the ground and run off after the manner of the true _Gallinaceæ_.

 429. Geophaps scripta                                  Vol. V.  Pl. 67.
 430. Geophaps Smithii                                  Vol. V.  Pl. 68.
 431. Geophaps plumifera, _Gould_                       Vol. V.  Pl. 69.

“Lat. 17° 30′, March 6. I was fortunate enough to kill for the first
time _Geophaps plumifera_, a species hitherto only known from a single
specimen sent home by Mr. Bynoe of H.M.S. Beagle. The irides are bright
orange, the naked skin before and surrounding the eyes bright crimson;
the bill dark greenish grey; the scales of the legs and toes greenish
grey; skin between the scales light ashy grey. Its flight and actions on
the ground are precisely similar to those of the other species of the
genus. I only saw the specimen I killed, but afterwards learned that one
of my companions had seen a flock rise precisely like _Geophaps
scripta_.”—_Gilbert’s Journal._

“It was on the return of my party from the eastern extremity of Cooper’s
Creek,” says Captain Sturt, “that we first saw and procured specimens of
this beautiful little bird. Its locality was entirely confined to about
thirty miles along the banks of the creek in question; it was generally
perched on some rock fully exposed to the sun’s rays, and evidently
taking a pleasure in basking in the tremendous heat. It was very wild
and took wing on hearing the least noise, but its flight was short and
rapid. In the afternoon this little pigeon was seen running in the grass
on the creek side, and could hardly be distinguished from a quail. It
never perched on the trees; when it dropped after rising from the
ground, it could seldom be flushed again, but ran with such speed
through the grass as to elude our search.”


                        Genus OCYPHAPS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Head_ furnished with a lengthened occipital crest; _wings_ rather
short, the third primary gradually narrowed to a point; _tail_ rather
long and much rounded; _tarsi_ as long as the middle toe; the inner
_toe_ shorter than the outer.

A genus consisting of a single species whose natural habitat is the
basin of the interior of Australia, over the vast expanse of which its
long pointed wings enable it to pass at pleasure from one district to
another whenever a scarcity of food prompts it so to do: although mainly
terrestrial in its habits, it is more frequently seen on the trees than
the members of the genus _Phaps_; its food consists of small seeds and
berries.

 432. Ocyphaps Lophotes                                 Vol. V.  Pl. 70.


                      Genus PETROPHASSA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

As in _Ocyphaps_, but with the wings shorter, more rounded and destitute
of the bronzy lustre; and with a more rounded tail.

So little is known respecting the single species of this Australian
genus that I am unable to say more than that it inhabits rocky
situations near the sea-coast.

 433. Petrophassa albipennis, _Gould_                   Vol. V.  Pl. 71.


                       Genus GEOPELIA, _Swains._

A form of Ground Doves very generally distributed over the Indian
Islands and Australia, and of which three or four species are peculiar
to the latter country; grassy hills, flats and extensive plains are the
situations these birds affect, consequently in Australia they are almost
exclusively confined to the interior; they pass over the ground in a
quiet and peaceful manner; and when disturbed fly to some neighbouring
tree, descend again almost immediately and search about for the minute
seeds of annuals and other plants, upon which they principally subsist.

 434. Geopelia humeralis                                Vol. V.  Pl. 72.
 435. Geopelia tranquilla, _Gould_                      Vol. V.  Pl. 73.
 436. Geopelia placida, _Gould_.

Inhabits the neighbourhood of Port Essington, is much smaller than _G.
tranquilla_, but in colour and marking is precisely similar to that
species.

 437. Geopelia cuneata                                  Vol. V.  Pl. 74.

“All that we read or imagine of the softness and innocence of the dove,”
says Captain Sturt, “is realized in this beautiful and delicate bird; it
is common on the Murray and the Darling, and was met with in various
parts of the interior. Two remained with us at the Depôt in latitude 39°
40′, longitude 142°, during a great part of the winter, and on one
occasion roosted on the tent-ropes near the fire. Its note is
exceedingly plaintive, similar to, but softer than, that of the
turtle-dove of Europe.”


                      Genus MACROPYGIA, _Swains._

A genus the members of which are distributed over India, Java, New
Guinea, Ceram, the Moluccas, Australia, &c. Only one species, _M.
Phasianella_, has yet been found in the last-mentioned country, but
others may be discovered when its eastern and northern parts have been
more fully explored.

 438. Macropygia Phasianella                            Vol. V.  Pl. 75.

The interior of the dense brushes are the favourite haunts of this bird,
but it occasionally resorts to the crowns of the low hills and the open
glades of the forest, where it searches for its food on the ground; on
being disturbed it flies to the branches of the nearest tree, spreading
out its broad tail at the moment of alighting.


                       Genus DIDUNCULUS, _Peale_.

Since I drew and described this most anomalous form, under the name
assigned to it by Sir William Jardine, two important facts have been
ascertained respecting it, viz. that it is identical with the bird
described by Mr. Titian Peale of America under the name of _Didunculus_,
and that the Samoan Islands and not Australia is its true habitat.

Didunculus strigirostris.

 439. Gnathodon strigirostris, _Jard._                  Vol. V.  Pl. 76.


                    Family MEGAPODIDÆ, _G. R. Gray_.

The genera _Talegalla_, _Leipoa_ and _Megapodius_ form part of a great
family of birds inhabiting Australia, New Guinea, Celebes, and the
Philippine Islands, whose habits and economy are most singular and
differ from those of every other group of birds which now exists upon
the surface of our globe. In their structure they are most nearly allied
to the _Gallinaceæ_, while in some of their actions and in their mode of
flight they much resemble the _Rallidæ_; the small size of their brain,
coupled with the extraordinary means employed for the incubation of
their eggs, indicates an extremely low degree of organization.

The three species of the family inhabiting Australia, although referable
to three distinct genera, have many habits in common, particularly in
their mode of nidification—each and all depositing their eggs in mounds
of earth and leaves, which, becoming heated either by the fermentation
of the vegetable matter, or by the sun’s rays, form a kind of natural
hatching-apparatus, from which the young at length emerge fully
feathered, and capable of sustaining life by their own unaided efforts.


                        Genus TALEGALLA, _Less._

 440. Talegalla Lathami                                 Vol. V.  Pl. 77.

Inhabits all the brushes and scrubby forests of the eastern parts of
Australia. Mr. M’Gillivray informs me, in a letter lately received from
him, dated on board H.M.S. “Rattlesnake,” February 6th, 1848, “At Port
Molle I shot in the brushes both _Megapodius_ and _Talegalla_,” which
proves that the range of the latter bird is much greater than I have
stated.


                         Genus LEIPOA, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ nearly as long as the head, slender, swollen at the base; _tomia_
undulating, and curving downwards; _nostrils_ large, oblong, defended by
an operculum and placed in the centre of a groove; _head_ sub-crested;
_wings_ large, round and concave; the first five primaries equal and
longest; tertiaries nearly as long as the primaries; _tail_ round and
composed of fourteen feathers; _tarsi_ moderately robust, scutellated in
front, posteriorly defended with round scales; _toes_ somewhat short;
the lateral toes nearly equal in length.

 441. Leipoa ocellata, _Gould_                          Vol. V.  Pl. 78.

Since I wrote my account of this bird, it has been found to be
abundantly dispersed over all parts of the Murray Scrub in South
Australia.

The following highly interesting account has been forwarded to me by His
Excellency Captain Sir George Grey, being the result of his observations
of the bird made while Governor of South Australia:—

                       “Government House, Adelaide, December 12th, 1842.

  “MY DEAR MR. GOULD,

  “I have lately returned from the Murray, where I have been studying
  the habits and manners of the _Leipoa ocellata_, which is very
  plentiful in the sandy districts of the Scrub. The eyes of the living
  bird are of a bright, light hazel; its legs and feet dark brown, but
  not so dark as shown in your Plate; whilst the bare parts on the head
  and face are of a very delicate and clear blue. The gizzard is very
  large and muscular; the inner coats peculiarly horny and hard. Its
  food consists chiefly of insects, such as _Phasmidæ_ and a species of
  _Cimex_; it also feeds on the seeds of various shrubs. The entire
  lungs and intestines of the one which I dissected were full of
  _Tænioïdes_. I have never seen any other animal infested with them to
  anything like the same extent, and yet the bird was perfectly healthy.
  It possesses the power of running with extraordinary rapidity; it
  roosts at night on trees, and never flies if it can avoid so
  doing;—the male bird weighs about four pounds and a half.

  “The mounds they construct are from 12 to 13 yards in circumference at
  the base, and from 2 to 3 feet in height; the general form being that
  of a dome. The sand and grass are sometimes scraped up for a distance
  of from 15 to 16 feet from its outer edge.

  “The mound appears to be constructed as follows: a nearly circular
  hole of about 18 inches in diameter, is scratched in the ground to the
  depth of 7 or 8 inches, and filled with dead leaves, dead grass and
  similar materials; and a large mass of the same substances is placed
  all round it upon the ground. Over this first layer a large mound of
  sand, mixed with dried grass, &c., is thrown, and finally the whole
  assumes the form of a dome, as I have before stated.

  “When an egg is to be deposited, the top is laid open, and a hole
  scraped in its centre to within 2 or 3 inches of the bottom of the
  layer of dead leaves. The egg is placed in the sand just at the edge
  of the hole, in a vertical position, with the smaller end downwards.
  The sand is then thrown in again, and the mound left in its original
  form. The egg which has been thus deposited is therefore completely
  surrounded and enveloped in soft sand, having from 4 to 6 inches of
  sand between the lower end of the egg and the layer of dead leaves.
  When a second egg is laid it is deposited in precisely the same plane
  as the first, but at the opposite side of the hole before alluded to.
  When a third egg is laid it is placed in the same plane as the others,
  but, as it were, at the third corner of a square. When the fourth egg
  is laid, it is still placed in the same plane; but in the fourth
  corner of the square, or rather of the lozenge, the figure being of
  this form, ⁘; the next four eggs in succession are placed in the
  interstices, but always in the same plane, so that at last there is a
  circle of eight eggs all standing upright in the sand with several
  inches of sand intervening between each. The male bird assists the
  female in opening and covering up the mound; and provided the birds
  are not themselves disturbed, the female continues to lay in the same
  mound, even after it has been several times robbed. The natives say
  that the females lay an egg every day.

  “Eight is the greatest number I have heard of from good authority as
  having been found in one nest; but I opened a mound which had been
  previously robbed of several eggs, and found that two had been laid
  opposite to each other in the same plane in the usual manner; and a
  third deposited in a plane parallel to that in which the other two
  were placed, but 4½ inches below them. This circumstance led me to
  imagine it was possible that there might be sometimes successive
  circles of eggs in different planes.

  “I enclose three sketches which will convey to you a complete idea of
  the form of the mound, and of the manner in which the eggs are placed
  in it. These sketches were drawn by Mr. Knight, from a rude one of
  mine, and are very accurate.

[Illustration:

  No. 1.

  This sketch represents a section through the mound after the sand has
    been cleared out in
  such a manner that the eggs could all be removed, and the bottom of
    the nest of leaves be laid
  bare. It shows the form of the opening the natives make in the mound
    when they rob it of its
  eggs; this opening has however been continued below where the eggs are
    placed, in order to
  show the form of the interior nest.

  The pale tint represents that portion which is made of sand; the
    darker tint the part which is
  made of leaves, &c.
]

[Illustration:

  No. 2.

  This sketch represents a section through the mound in its undisturbed
    state; the pale tint
  indicates the portion of sand, the darker tint the leaves, &c.
]

[Illustration:

  No. 3.

  This sketch shows a bird’s eye view of the mound as seen from
  above; the sand is supposed to have been so far thrown out as to
  leave the tops of the eggs exposed, and to show them standing
  upright in their relative positions.
]

  “One of the mounds of these birds which had been robbed of its eggs on
  the 11th November, some of which were quite fresh, had two fresh eggs
  laid in it on the 27th of the same month, and the birds were seen at
  the nest on the morning of the 28th, apparently for the purpose of
  laying, when the male bird was shot.

  “Sometimes several of these mounds are constructed close to one
  another. I found two within 200 or 300 yards, and have seen five
  within the distance of four or five miles. They were built in
  precisely the same situations that I have seen them in other parts of
  the continent, that is, in a sandy, scrubby country, the site of the
  mound being in some little open glade, in the very thickest part of
  the scrub.

  “The eggs are of a light pink, the colour being brightest and most
  uniform when freshly laid. As the time of hatching approaches, they
  become discoloured and marked in places with dark spots.

       The greatest length of these eggs is about  3‑6/10 inches.
       The greatest breadth of these eggs is about 2‑2/10 inches.
       Circumference in direction of length            10 inches.
       Circumference in direction of breadth       7‑2/10 inches.

  “The temperature of the nests I have examined has always been warm;
  not so much so, however, as I should have thought necessary for the
  purpose of hatching eggs.

  “There are two great peculiarities about these eggs; the first is,
  that both ends are of nearly the same size; which form is peculiarly
  adapted to the position in which they are always placed; the egg being
  compressed in every part as nearly as possible towards the axis, in
  which the centre of gravity lies, there is the least possible tendency
  to its equilibrium being destroyed when it is placed in a vertical
  position. A second peculiarity is the extreme thinness of the shell,
  and its consequent fragility. This is so great, that unless the egg is
  handled with the greatest care, it is sure to be broken, and every
  effort which has been made to hatch these eggs under domestic fowls
  has failed, the egg having in every instance been broken by the bird
  under which it was placed.

  “The native name for the bird on the Murray River is _Marrak-ko_ or
  _Marra-ko_; in Western Australia the name of the bird is _Ngow-o_ or
  _Ngow_. The name in Western Australia is given from the tuft on its
  head, _Ngoweer_ meaning a tuft of feathers.

  “I have found this bird in different parts of that portion of
  Australia included between the 26th and 36th parallels of south
  latitude, and the 113th and 141st parallels of east longitude, and I
  think that there is every probability that it inhabits a much wider
  range. It is found in all the scrubby districts of South Australia.

                                       “Yours truly,      G. GREY.”

                                                         “December 14th.

  “P.S.—I have, by cross examination of several natives, elicited the
  following account of this bird, and I am quite satisfied of its truth.

  “There is only one male and one female to each nest: they repair an
  old nest, and do not build a new one; both assist in scratching the
  sand to the nest. The female commences laying about the beginning of
  September, or when the spear-grass begins to shoot. Both sexes
  approach the nest together when the female is about to lay, and they
  take an equal share in the labour of covering and uncovering the
  mound. After every sunrise the female lays an egg, and lays altogether
  from eight to ten. If the natives rob the nest, the female will lay
  again in the same nest, but she will only lay the full number of eggs
  twice in one summer. From the commencement of building, until the last
  eggs are hatched, four moons elapse (this would give a very long
  period of time before the eggs were hatched). The young one scratches
  its way out alone; the mother does not assist it. They usually come
  out one at a time; occasionally a pair appear together. The mother,
  who is feeding in the scrub in the vicinity, hears its call and runs
  to it. She then takes care of the young one as a European hen does of
  its chick. When the young are all hatched the mother is accompanied by
  eight or ten young ones, who remain with her until they are more than
  half-grown. The male bird does not accompany them. The two sexes have
  different calls: that of the female is constantly uttered while she
  walks about in the scrub with her young ones.

  “The natives frequently find the eggs and nests, but they seldom see
  the old birds, which are very timid and quick-sighted. They run very
  fast, like the Emu, roost on trees, and live for a long time without
  water, but drink when it rains. The natives state that the _Entozoæ_
  which I found in the bird mentioned above were unusual, and that it
  must have been in ill health.

  “It is a remarkably stout, compact bird, and appears, when alive, to
  have as large a body as the female turkey, but it is shorter on the
  legs.”

To this valuable account I may add the following, furnished by Mr.
Gilbert:—

                   “Wongan Hills, Western Australia, September 28, 1842.

  “This morning I had the good fortune to penetrate into the dense
  thicket I had been so long anxious to visit in search of the Leipoa’s
  eggs, and had not proceeded far before the native who was with me told
  me to keep a good look-out, as we were among the _Ngou-oo’s_ hillocks,
  and in half an hour after we found one, around which the brush was so
  thick that we were almost running over before seeing it; so anxious
  was I to see the hidden treasures within that in my haste I threw
  aside the black fellow and began scraping off the upper part of the
  mound; this did not at all please him, and he became very indignant,
  at the same time making me understand, ‘that as I had never seen this
  nest before I had better trust to him to get out the eggs, or I
  should, in my haste and impatience, certainly break them.’ I therefore
  let him have his own way, and he began scraping off the earth very
  carefully from the centre, throwing it over the side, so that the
  mound very soon presented the appearance of a huge basin; about two
  feet in depth of earth was in this way thrown off, when the large ends
  of two eggs met my anxious gaze; both these eggs were resting on their
  smaller apex, and the earth around them had to be very carefully
  removed to avoid breaking the shell, which is extremely fragile when
  first exposed to the atmosphere; this mound was about three feet in
  height and seven to nine feet in circumference; the form, as left by
  the bird, was in outline the segment of a circle. About a hundred
  yards from this first nest we came upon a second, rather larger, of
  the same external form and appearance; it contained three eggs.
  Although we saw seven or eight more mounds, only these two contained
  eggs; we were too early; a week later and we should doubtless have
  found many more. To give you an idea of the place this bird chooses
  for its remarkable mode of rearing its young, I will describe it as
  nearly as I can:—The Wongan Hills are about thirteen hundred feet
  above the level of the sea, in a north-north-east direction from
  Drummond’s house in the Toodyay; their sides are thickly clothed with
  a dense forest of _Eucalypti_; and at their base is a thicket,
  extending for several miles, of upright-growing and thick, bushy
  plants, so high in most parts that we could not see over their tops,
  and so dense, that if we separated only for a few yards, we were
  obliged to cooey, to prevent our straying from each other; this
  thicket is again shadowed by a very curious species of dwarf
  _Eucalyptus_ bearing yellow blossoms and growing from fifteen to
  thirty feet in height, known to the natives as the spear-wood, and of
  which they make their spears, digging sticks, dowaks, &c.; the whole
  formation is a fine reddish ironstone gravel, and this the Leipoa
  scratches up from several yards around, and thus forms its mound, to
  be afterwards converted into a hot-bed for the reproduction of its
  offspring. The interior of the mounds is composed of the finer
  particles of the gravel mixed with vegetable matter, the fermentation
  of which produces a warmth sufficient for the purpose of hatching. Mr.
  Drummond, who had been for years accustomed to hot-beds in England,
  gave it as his opinion that the heat around the eggs was about 80°. In
  both the nests with eggs the White Ant was very numerous, making its
  little covered galleries of earth around and attached to the shell,
  thus showing a beautiful provision of Nature in preparing the
  necessary tender food for the young bird when emerging from the shell;
  one of the eggs I have preserved shows the White Ant’s tracks most
  beautifully; the largest mound I saw, and which appeared as if in a
  state of preparation for eggs, measured forty-five feet in
  circumference, and if rounded in proportion on the top would have been
  full five feet in height. I remarked in all the nests not ready for
  the reception of eggs the inside or vegetable portion was always wet
  and cold, and I imagine, from the state of others, that the bird turns
  out the whole of the materials to dry before depositing its eggs and
  covering them up with the soil; in both cases where I found eggs the
  upper part of the mound was perfectly and smoothly rounded over, so
  that any one passing it without knowing the singular habit of the bird
  might very readily suppose it to be an ant-hill: mounds in this state
  always contain eggs within, while those without eggs are not only
  _not_ rounded over, but have the centres so scooped out that they form
  a hollow. The eggs are deposited in a very different manner from those
  of the Megapodius; instead of each being placed in a separate
  excavation in different parts of the mound, they are laid directly in
  the centre, all at the same depth, separated only by about three
  inches of earth, and so placed as to form a circle. I regret we were
  so early; had we been a week later, the probability is I should have
  found the circle of eggs complete. Is it not singular that all the
  eggs were equally fresh, as if their development was arrested until
  the full number was deposited, so that the young might all appear
  about the same time? No one considering the immense size of the egg
  can for a moment suppose the bird capable of laying more than one
  without at least the intermission of a day, and perhaps even more. The
  average weight of the egg is eight ounces, and four of them on being
  blown yielded nearly a pint and a half. Like those of the Megapodius,
  they are covered with an epidermis-like coating, and are certainly as
  large, being three inches and three quarters in length, by two and a
  half in breadth; they vary in colour from a very light brown to a
  light salmon. During the whole day we did not succeed in obtaining
  sight of the bird, although we saw numerous tracks of its feet, and
  many places where it had been scratching; we also saw its tracks on
  the sand when crossing the dried beds of the swamps at least two miles
  from the breeding thicket, which proves that the bird, in procuring
  its food, does not confine itself to the brushes around its nest, but
  merely resorts to them for the purpose of incubating. The native
  informed us that the only chance of procuring the bird was by
  stationing ourselves in sight of the mound at a little distance, and
  remaining quiet and immoveable till it made its appearance at
  sun-down; this I attempted, and, with the native, encamped within
  twenty yards of the mound about an hour before sunset, taking the
  precaution to conceal ourselves well with bushes from the quick eye of
  the bird, but leaving just a sufficient opening to get a fair sight
  with my gun; in a half-sitting, half-crouching position I thus
  remained in breathless anxiety for the approach of the bird I had so
  long wished to see, not daring to move a muscle, for fear of moving a
  branch or making a noise by crushing a dead leaf, till I was so
  cramped I could scarcely bear the pain in my limbs; the bird did not
  however make its appearance, and the native, with the fear of wading
  through the thicket in darkness (for there was no moon), became so
  impatient, that he started up and began to talk so loud and make so
  much noise, that I was compelled to give up all hopes of seeing the
  bird that night; however, just as we were passing the mound we started
  the bird from the opposite side, but from the denseness of the thicket
  and the darkness closing around us, I had no chance of getting a shot
  at it. Mr. Roe, the Surveyor-general, who examined several mounds
  during his expedition to the interior in the year 1836, found the eggs
  nearly ready to hatch in the month of November, and invariably seven
  or eight in number; while another authority has informed me of an
  instance of fourteen being taken from one mound.”

In a subsequent letter Mr. Gilbert states that the flavour of the egg is
very similar to that of the Tortoise or Turtle, and that when mixed with
tea its similarity to the peculiar roughness and earthy flavour of that
of the Hawk’s-bill Turtle is very remarkable.


                    Genus MEGAPODIUS, _Quoy & Gaim._

The members of this genus inhabit all the Indian and Philippine Islands
and Australia. Mr. G. R. Gray informs me that “the females of some
species associate together in bands during the night and deposit their
eggs in a cavity which they dig to the depth of two or three feet; that
the successive deposits of eggs amount to a hundred or more and are left
to be hatched by the solar rays; that some cover them with sand and
others with the remains of plants; and that the eggs are extremely large
for the size of the birds, and are generally of a cinnamon colour.”

 442. Megapodius tumulus, _Gould_                       Vol. V.  Pl. 79.

The following interesting account of the breeding-places of this
remarkable bird has been transmitted to me by Mr. John M’Gillivray as
the result of his observations on Nogo or Megapodius Island in Endeavour
Straits. It will be seen that its range is more extensive than I had
assigned to it:—

“The most southern locality known to me for this singular bird is
Haggerston Island (in lat. 12° 3′ south), where I observed several of
its mounds of very large size, but did not see any of the birds. During
the survey of Endeavour Straits in H.M.S. Bramble, I was more fortunate,
having succeeded in procuring both male and female on the island marked
‘Nogo’ upon the chart, where I resided for several days for that sole
purpose. On this small island, not more than half a mile in length,
rising at one extremity into a low rounded hill densely covered with
jungle (or what in New South Wales would be called ‘brush’), three
mounds, one of them apparently deserted before completion, were found.
The two others were examined by Mr. Jukes and myself. The most recent,
judging from the smoothness of its sides and the want of vegetable
matter, was situated upon the crest of the hill, and measured 8 feet in
height (or 13½ from the base of the slope to the summit) and 77 feet in
circumference. In this mound, after several hours’ hard digging into a
well-packed mass of earth, stones, decaying branches and leaves and
other vegetable matter, and the living roots of trees, we found numerous
fragments of eggs, besides one broken egg containing a dead and putrid
chick, and another whole one, which proved to be addled. All were
imbedded at a depth of _six feet_ from the nearest part of the surface,
at which place the heat produced by the fermentation of the mass was
considerable. The egg, 3¼ by 2⅛ inches, was dirty brown, covered with a
kind of epidermis, which easily chipped off, exposing a pure white
surface beneath. Another mound, situated at the foot of the hill close
to the beach, measured no less than 150 feet in circumference, and to
form this immense accumulation of materials the ground in the vicinity
had been scraped quite bare by the birds, and numerous shallow
excavations pointed out whence the materials had been derived. Its form
was an irregular oval, the flattened summit not being central as in the
first instance, but situated nearer the larger end, which was elevated
14 feet from the ground, the slope measuring in various directions 18,
21½, and 24 feet. At Port Lihou, in a small bay a few miles to the
westward, at Cape York and at Port Essington, I found other mounds which
were comparatively low, and appeared to have been dug into by the
natives. The great size the tumuli (which are probably the work of
several generations) have attained on Haggerston and Nogo Islands arises
doubtless from those places being seldom visited by the Aborigines. I
found several eggs of large size in the ovarium of a female shot in
August, while the condition of the oviduct showed that an egg had very
recently passed; hence it is probable that, in spite of their great
comparative size, one bird lays several; but whether each mound is
resorted to by more than one pair, I had not the means of ascertaining.

“Few birds are more wary and less easily procured than the _Megapodius_;
it inhabits the belts of brush along the coast, and I never found the
tumulus at a greater distance from the sea than a few hundred yards.
When disturbed it seldom rises at once, unless on the margin of a
thicket, but runs off to some distance and then takes to wing, flying
heavily, but without any of the whirring noise of the true _Gallinaceæ_.
It seldom takes a long flight, and usually perches on a tree, remaining
there in a crouching attitude with outstretched neck, but flying off
again upon observing any motion made by its pursuer; and it is only by
cautiously creeping up under cover of the largest trees that it can be
approached within gunshot. As an example of its shyness, I may mention
that a party of three persons, scattered about in a small jungle on Nogo
Island, for the purpose of shooting the _Megapodius_, did not see a
single bird, although they put up several, one of which came towards me
and perched, unconscious of my presence, within 20 yards. At Port
Essington I have shot this bird among mangroves, the roots of which were
washed by the sea at high water; and Capt. F. P. Blackwood killed one
while running on the mud in a similar locality, in both instances close
to a mound. I never witnessed the escape of the young from the mound;
but one, as large as a quail, and covered with feathers, was brought to
Lieut. Ince by a native, who affirmed that he had dug it out along with
several eggs.

“Iris yellowish brown; stomach a complete gizzard, being thick and
muscular, containing small quartz pebbles, small shells (_Helix_ and
_Bulimus_), and black seeds; intestine 34 inches in length, of the size
of a goosequill, and nearly uniform in thickness, much twisted and
contracted at intervals; cæcum slender, dilated at the extremity, and
4‑6/8 inches in length.”


                    Family TINAMIDÆ?, _G. R. Gray_.

Subfamily TURNICINÆ, _G. R. Gray_.


                       Genus PEDIONOMUS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ nearly as long as the head, straight, compressed towards the tip;
_nostrils_ basal, placed in a groove, and protected by an operculum;
_wings_ short and concave, first, second and third primaries equal in
length; tertiaries longer than the primaries; _tail_ nearly obsolete;
_tarsi_ elongated and defended in front with transverse scales; _toes_
four in number, the hinder one feeble and placed high on the tarsus.

Few of the discoveries I made in Australia interested me more than that
of the species forming the subject of the present genus, and of which
during my sojourn in the country I only obtained a male. Subsequently
Mr. Strange sent me another example, which from its much larger size and
the circumstance of its neck being adorned with a beautiful collar of
mingled black and white feathers, I considered a distinct species and
characterized it as such, under the name _P. torquatus_, and assigned
that of _microurus_ to the males or birds destitute of the collar, an
error which the observations of Sir George Grey and Mr. Strange have
enabled me to rectify, and which shows that this bird is another of the
anomalies so often met with in Australia, since, contrary to the general
rule, the female is a far finer and more conspicuously-coloured bird
than her mate.

“You ask me,” says Sir George Grey, “to tell you something about
_Pedionomus_. There is but one species; you have described two, _P.
torquatus_ and _P. microurus_; the former is the female and the latter
is the male. We have now three of these birds in confinement, all
similar to your _P. torquatus_. We had four; the fourth, which died, was
like your _P. microurus_; and was certainly a male; they were all caught
in the same net, hence I infer that several females associate with one
male.

“We have had several of these birds in confinement at different times;
they eat pounded wheat, raw and boiled rice, bread and flies; the latter
appear to be their favourite food. They soon become perfectly tame; the
three now in our possession we have had for upwards of four months.

“These birds are migratory; they appear at Adelaide in June and
disappear about January; where they go has not yet been ascertained.
They never fly if they can avoid so doing, and are often caught by dogs;
when disturbed, they crouch down and endeavour to hide themselves in a
tuft of grass. When running about they are in the habit of raising
themselves in a nearly perpendicular position on the extremities of
their toes, so that the hinder part of the foot does not touch the
ground, and of taking a wide survey around them. The Emu sometimes
stands in a similar position. I have not yet ascertained anything
respecting their nests, eggs or time of breeding. The call of those we
have in confinement precisely resembles that of the Emu, not the
whistle, but the hollow-sounding noise like that produced by tapping on
a cask, which the Emu utters, but is of course much fainter.”

The Plate therefore represents two females, and the appellation of
_microurus_ given to the male bird should be the one adopted. As the
male has not been figured, the following description of that sex is
given:—

Crown of the head, back and upper surface mottled with black, brown and
fawn-colour, the latter occupying the external edge of the feathers, and
the black and brown forming alternate circular markings on each feather;
throat, neck, chest and flanks dull fawn-colour, the feathers of the
neck and chest blotched with brown; flanks marked with the same colour,
assuming the form of bars; tail-feathers almost invisible; centre of the
abdomen and under tail-coverts buffy-white, without spots or markings;
irides straw-yellow passing into black at the point; feet greenish
yellow.

Total length, 4½ inches; _bill_, 11/16; _wing_, 3¼; _tarsi_, ⅞.

Independently of the plains of South Australia formerly given as the
restricted habitat of this species, I have lately received a letter from
Mr. Strange of Sydney, in which he states a female had been procured in
the neighbourhood of Botany Bay. I am also in possession of an egg of
this bird, which in general character resembles that of _Turnix_; it is
somewhat suddenly contracted at the smaller end, the ground-colour is
stone-white, sprinkled with small blotches of umber-brown and
vinous-grey, the latter colour appearing as if beneath the surface of
the shell, the sprinkled markings predominating at the larger end; the
length of the egg is 1 inch and one-eighth by seven-eighths in breadth.

 443. Pedionomus torquatus, _Gould_, female             Vol. V.  Pl. 80.
     —— microurus, _Gould_, male.


                         Genus TURNIX, _Bonn_.

However widely the members of this genus are dispersed, inhabiting as
one or other of them do all quarters of the Old World, Australia is the
great nursery of the race, since it is in that country that we find the
species more numerous than elsewhere; they not only inhabit every part
of the continent that has yet been explored, but they extend their range
to the islands adjacent to the coast and even to Van Diemen’s Land; some
species enjoy a wide range across the continent from east to west, while
others are very local; grassy plains and stony ridges thickly
interspersed with scrubs and grasses are the situations they frequent;
their eggs are invariably four in number, pointed in form, and very like
those of the Sandpipers; their only nest is a few grasses placed in a
hollow on the ground; in their habits and actions they differ
considerably from the Quails and Partridges, and, strange as it may
appear, approach more closely to the _Tringæ_, particularly to those
species with the more attenuated form of bill; when rising from almost
beneath your feet, they fly, especially the smaller species, straight
and with arrow-like swiftness to the distance of one or two hundred
yards, and then suddenly pitch to the ground. Their flesh, although
eatable, is dry and deficient in flavour when compared with that of the
Quails and Partridges.

 444. Turnix melanogaster.
     Hemipodius melanogaster, _Gould_                   Vol. V.  Pl. 81.
 445. Turnix varius.
     Hemipodius varius                                  Vol. V.  Pl. 82.
 446. Turnix scintillans.
 447. Hemipodius scintillans, _Gould_                   Vol. V.  Pl. 83.
 448. Turnix melanotus.
     Hemipodius melanotus, _Gould_                      Vol. V.  Pl. 84.
 449. Turnix castanotus.
     Hemipodius castanotus, _Gould_                     Vol. V.  Pl. 85.
 450. Turnix pyrrhothorax.
     Hemipodius pyrrhothorax, _Gould_                   Vol. V.  Pl. 86.
 451. Turnix velox.
     Hemipodius velox, _Gould_                          Vol. V.  Pl. 87.


                      Family TETRAONIDÆ, _Leach_.


                        Genus COTURNIX, _Mœhr_.

One true Quail is all that has yet been described as inhabiting
Australia; as might be expected, it is a denizen of the plains, as well
as of all the open districts of any extent where grass-lands occur; it
also resorts to the arable districts in great abundance. A difference
exists in specimens from the western and eastern coasts, the former
having a deep fawn or light rufous tint pervading the under surface; and
it is possible that this difference of colouring may be characteristic
of a second and distinct species.

 452. Coturnix pectoralis, _Gould_                      Vol. V.  Pl. 88.


                        Genus SYNOÏCUS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

As in _Perdix_, but with no spur on the tarsi, and the tail almost
obsolete.

The great paucity of the _Gallinaceæ_ in Australia is very remarkable,
the members of the present genus being almost the only representatives
of that group of birds inhabiting the country. The similarity of the
habits and economy of these birds to those of the true Partridges,
particularly to our own well-known species the _Perdix cinerea_, allies
them more nearly to those birds than to the Quails.

Grassy meads, the sides of rushy creeks, and districts clothed with
dense herbage, are the favourite resorts of these birds, which move
about in small coveys, and when flushed fly but a short distance before
they again alight. As an article of food they are all that can be
wished.

Every part of the country, from Port Essington on the north to Van
Diemen’s Land on the south, is inhabited by one or other species of the
genus, which are, I doubt not, more numerous than I have represented,
for I feel confident that the bird found at Port Essington is quite
distinct from those of the south coast.

 453. Synoïcus Australis                                Vol. V.  Pl. 89.
 454. Synoïcus Diemenensis, _Gould_                     Vol. V.  Pl. 90.
 455. Synoïcus sordidus, _Gould_                        Vol. V.  Pl. 91.
 456. Synoïcus? Chinensis                               Vol. V.  Pl. 92.



                       Order GRALLATORES, _Ill._


                      Family STRUTHIONIDÆ, _Vig._


                       Genus DROMAIUS, _Vieill._

I formerly entertained an opinion that there were two species of Emu
inhabiting Australia, but I have not had sufficient proofs that such is
the case. The small specimens in the possession of the Linnean Society
of London and in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, may only be stunted
birds which had been kept in captivity, but as some doubt still remains
in my mind the subject should be kept in view.

 457. Dromaius Novæ-Hollandiæ                           Vol. VI.  Pl. 1.


                         Genus APTERYX, _Shaw_.

New Zealand is the only country wherein the members of this genus now
exist; but they doubtless formerly ranged over that continent of which
the greater part is submerged beneath the surface of the ocean, and of
which a few isolated spots—New Zealand, Norfolk and Phillip Islands
among others—alone remain.

 458. Apteryx Australis, _Shaw_                         Vol. VI.  Pl. 2.
 459. Apteryx Owenii, _Gould_                           Vol. VI.  Pl. 3.


                          Genus OTIS, _Linn._

A country better adapted than Australia for the members of this genus
can scarcely be imagined, yet singularly enough only one species has yet
been found there. Africa may be considered the cradle of the race, for
it is on that continent that they are most numerous; Europe and India
are also inhabited by various species. The _Otis nigriceps_ of the
plains of Upper India, and the _O. Australis_ are beautiful
representatives of each other in the respective countries they inhabit.

 460. Otis Australis, _Gray_.

      _Otis Australis_, Gray in Griff. An. King., vol. iii. p. 305.

     Otis Australasianus, _Gould_                       Vol. VI.  Pl. 4.

The range of this bird over the country is probably universal; both Dr.
Leichardt and Mr. Gilbert observed it within the tropical portion of
Australia, and Captain Sturt found it in the desert interior.


                      Family CHARADRIADÆ, _Leach_.


                        Genus ŒDICNEMUS, _Temm._

The Œdicnemi occur in Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia, in which
latter country one if not two species exist that are not found
elsewhere.

 461. Œdicnemus grallarius                              Vol. VI.  Pl. 5.

The birds of this form inhabiting the northern coast have longer legs
and shorter wings, and I have no doubt are distinct; but I have not seen
a sufficient number of specimens to enable me to affirm that such is
actually the case.


                         Genus ESACUS, _Less._

The genera _Œdicnemus_ and _Esacus_ are merely modifications of the same
form; the variation in that of the bill being expressly adapted for
procuring the kinds of food upon which the species respectively subsist;
the _Œdicnemus_ frequenting the stony deserts of the interior of the
country feeds upon insects of various kinds, and the tender shoots of
herbage; while the _Esacus_, resorting to the salt-marshes and the
shores of the sea, lives upon crabs, mollusks and other marine animals.

 462. Esacus magnirostris                               Vol. VI.  Pl. 6.

So far as our knowledge extends, the present bird is confined to the
shores of the northern and north-western parts of Australia. It is
beautifully represented in India by the _E. recurvirostris_, and these
two species are all that are known to ornithologists.


                        Genus HÆMATOPUS, _Linn._

I believe that there is no country in the world of any extent the shores
of which are not inhabited by one or other of the numerous species of
this genus; but it would seem that all those which exist in the southern
hemisphere are totally different from those of the northern.

Two species inhabit Australia, viz.

 463. Hæmatopus longirostris, _Vieill._                 Vol. VI.  Pl. 7.
 464. Hæmatopus fuliginosus, _Gould_                    Vol. VI.  Pl. 8.


                     Genus LOBIVANELLUS, _Strikl._

Two species of this beautiful form inhabit Australia, one the northern
and the other the southern parts of the country; I believe they are both
confined to this portion of the globe. Other species are found in India
and Africa.

 465. Lobivanellus lobatus                              Vol. VI.  Pl. 9.
 466. Lobivanellus personatus, _Gould_                 Vol. VI.  Pl. 10.


                     Genus SARCIOPHORUS, _Strickl._

A genus nearly allied to the last, and of which a single species
inhabits Australia; like _Lobivanellus_, it is an Old World form.

 467. Sarciophorus pectoralis                          Vol. VI.  Pl. 11.


                        Genus SQUATAROLA, _Cuv._

The single species of this genus inhabits Europe, Asia, North America
and Australia.

 468. Squatarola Helvetica                             Vol. VI.  Pl. 12.


                       Genus CHARADRIUS, _Linn._

The Australian fauna comprises two species of this form, of which one,
the _Charadrius veredus_, might, perhaps, with propriety be separated
into a distinct genus, or placed in that of _Eudromias_.

 469. Charadrius xanthocheilus, _Wagl._                Vol. VI.  Pl. 13.
 470. Charadrius veredus, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 14.


                        Genus EUDROMIAS, _Boie_.

Of this genus of upland Plovers two species at least are known, viz. the
_E. morinellus_ of Europe and the _E. Australis_ of Australia.

 471. Eudromias Australis, _Gould_                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 15.

This bird inhabits the low hills and plains of the interior, a kind of
habitat precisely similar to that of its European prototype.

Since my account of this species was written some additional information
has been acquired respecting it.

“This singular bird,” says Captain Sturt, in the Appendix to his Account
of his recent expedition into the interior of South Australia, “made its
appearance in 1841 suddenly on the plains of Adelaide, seeming to have
come from the north. It occupied the sand-hills at the edge of the
Mangrove swamps and fed round the puddles of water on the plains. This
bird afforded my friend, Mr. Torrens, an abundant harvest, as it was
numerous round his house; but although some few have visited South
Australia every subsequent year, they have never appeared in such
numbers as on the first occasion. It runs very fast along the ground.
Mr. Browne and I met or rather crossed several flights of these birds in
August of 1845, going south. They were on the large open plains and were
very wild.”


                     Genus HIATICULA, _G. R. Gray_.

Five species of this genus inhabit Australia, and others occur in New
Zealand, the Indian Islands, India, Europe, Africa and America,
consequently few genera have their members more widely dispersed. Almost
all the species found in Australia are peculiar to the country, and are
more numerous on the southern than they are on the northern parts of
that continent; shingly beaches and low flat shores are their principal
places of resort.

 472. Hiaticula bicincta                               Vol. VI.  Pl. 16.
 473. Hiaticula ruficapilla                            Vol. VI.  Pl. 17.
 474. Hiaticula monacha                                Vol. VI.  Pl. 18.
 475. Hiaticula inornata, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 19.
 476. Hiaticula nigrifrons                             Vol. VI.  Pl. 20.


                      Genus ERYTHROGONYS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ longer than the head, straight, rather depressed; _nostrils_
basal, linear; _wings_ long and powerful, the first feather the longest;
tertiaries nearly as long as the primaries; _tail_ short and nearly
square; _legs_ long; _toes_ four in number, slender, the hind-toe
extremely diminutive and free, the outer toe united to the middle one
nearly to the first joint; thighs naked above the knee.

The single species of this genus appears to be strictly Australian, for
I have never seen examples from any other country.

 477. Erythrogonys cinctus, _Gould_                    Vol. VI.  Pl. 21.

In structure, actions and economy this elegantly formed bird is very
nearly allied to the _Hiaticulæ_ on the one hand, and the _Schœnicli_ on
the other.


                        Genus GLAREOLA, _Briss._

I have for many years questioned the propriety of placing the
Pratincoles in the same group with the Plovers, or even in the same
order, believing them as I do to be a terrestrial form of the
Fissirostral birds. Linnæus placed them near the Swallows, and I think
he was right in so doing; and Mr. Blyth, one of the most philosophical
of ornithologists, entertains, I believe, the same opinion; but as
nearly all other writers have placed them with the _Charadriadæ_, I have
adopted their view of the subject, and have accordingly retained them in
that group.

Species of this genus inhabit India, the Indian Islands, Europe and
Africa.

 478. Glareola grallaria, _Temm._                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 22.
 479. Glareola Orientalis, _Leach_                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 23.


                       Family SCOLOPACIDÆ, _Vig._


                      Genus HIMANTOPUS., _Briss._

Europe, India and Africa are inhabited by one, North America by a
second, South America by a third and perhaps a fourth, New Zealand by a
fifth, and Australia by a sixth species of this elegant but singular
genus; the Australian bird, which is more abundant in the southern than
in the northern parts of the country, is perhaps the finest and most
ornamental of the whole.

 480. Himantopus leucocephalus, _Gould_                Vol. VI.  Pl. 24.
 481. Himantopus Novæ-Zealandiæ                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 25.


                  Genus CHLADORHYNCHUS, _G. R. Gray_.

The only known species of this form is peculiar to Australia.

 482. Chladorhynchus pectoralis                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 26.

Observed in great numbers by Captain Sturt, during his journey into the
interior, in the Appendix to which he says,—“This singular bird, with
legs so admirably adapted by their length for wading into the shallow
lakes and sheets of water, near which it is found, was seen in large
flocks. It was very abundant on Lepson’s Lake to the northward of
Cooper’s Creek; and on Strzelecki’s Creek it was sitting on the water
with other wild fowl making a singular plaintive whistle.”


                      Genus RECURVIROSTRA, _Linn._

This form, like that of _Himantopus_, is widely distributed over the
globe, since species inhabit America, Africa, Europe, India and
Australia, in which latter country, as in Europe, only one species is
found, viz.

 483. Recurvirostra rubricollis, _Temm._               Vol. VI.  Pl. 27.


                         Genus LIMOSA, _Briss._

Two very distinct species of this genus inhabit Australia, one the
southern and the other the northern divisions of the country; others
occur in Java, Sumatra, India, Africa, Europe and North America.

 484. Limosa Melanuroïdes, _Gould_                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 28.
 485. Limosa uropygialis, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 29.


                       Genus SCHŒNICLUS, _Mœhr._

I have figured four species of this genus as inhabiting Australia, not
more than one, or at most two, of which, however, is or are peculiar to
that country. The species of this genus range over many degrees of
latitude, and occur in America as well as in most parts of the Old
World.

 486. Schœniclus Australis                             Vol. VI.  Pl. 30.
 487. Schœniclus albescens                             Vol. VI.  Pl. 31.
 488. Schœniclus subarquatus                           Vol. VI.  Pl. 32.
 489. Schœniclus magnus, _Gould_                       Vol. VI.  Pl. 33.

This species, I believe, also inhabits India and Japan.


                        Genus TEREKIA, _Bonap._

The only known species of this form inhabits Java, Sumatra, India and
Europe, and as I killed a specimen in Australia that country must also
be included within its range.

 490. Terekia cinerea                                  Vol. VI.  Pl. 34.


                         Genus ACTITIS, _Ill._

One species of this genus inhabits Australia, where it represents the
_Actitis hypoleucus_ of Europe and _Actitis macularius_ of America.

 491. Actitis empusa, _Gould_                          Vol. VI.  Pl. 35.


                         Genus GLOTTIS, _Nils._

The only species of this genus found in Australia appears to me to be
identical with the _Glottis Glottoïdes_ of India.

 492. Glottis Glottoïdes                               Vol. VI.  Pl. 36.


                        Genus TOTANUS, _Bechst._

Of this genus two species are all that have yet been discovered in
Australia; one of these I have regarded as identical with the _Totanus
stagnatilis_ of Europe, and if this view be correct, then the range of
the species will extend from Asia to Australia; certain it is that I
have seen specimens from all the intermediate countries which are
strictly identical with the European bird. The second species is an
inhabitant of the north coast, and is allied to the _T. calidris_.

 493. Totanus stagnatilis                              Vol. VI.  Pl. 37.
 494. Totanus griseopygius, _Gould_                    Vol. VI.  Pl. 38.


                        Genus STREPSILAS, _Ill._

If any bird may be regarded as a Cosmopolite it is the Turnstone, for it
inhabits the sea-shores of every part of the globe.

 495. Strepsilas Interpres                             Vol. VI.  Pl. 39.


                        Genus SCOLOPAX, _Linn._

If the slight difference which occurs in the Snipes from Port Essington
on the north and from Van Diemen’s Land on the south be regarded as mere
local variations, then only one species of this form exists in
Australia.

 496. Scolopax Australis, _Lath._                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 40.

Captain Sturt informs us that this Snipe is common in South Australia,
but scarce in the interior of the country; that it breeds in great
numbers in the valley of Mypunga, but is only to be found in those
localities where the ground is constantly soft.


                         Genus RHYNCHÆA, _Cuv._

The few species comprised in this genus are widely dispersed over the
face of the globe; one inhabits the southernmost parts of America,
another South Africa, a third India, and a fourth Australia. They affect
different situations from those resorted to by the true Snipes, usually
selecting drier ground and knolls under low bushes contiguous to marshy
lands, where they can readily procure food and water.

 497. Rhynchæa Australis, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 41.

“This beautiful bird,” says Captain Sturt, “was very scarce in the
interior, and indeed is not common anywhere. Some three or four couples
visit my residence at Grange yearly, and remain in the high reeds at the
bottom of the creek, among which they doubtless breed, but I never found
one of their nests. They lie basking in the shade of a tree on the
sand-hills during the day, and separate when alarmed.”


                        Genus NUMENIUS, _Linn._

Three species of this form are found in Australia, to which part of the
globe they are confined, and wherein they represent the species
inhabiting the northern hemisphere, with which their habits, actions and
economy are strictly in accordance.

 498. Numenius Australis, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 42.
 499. Numenius uropygialis, _Gould_                    Vol. VI.  Pl. 43.
 500. Numenius minutus, _Gould_                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 44.


                        Family ARDEIDÆ, _Leach_.

Subfamily TANTALINÆ, _G. R. Gray_.


                       Genus GERONTICUS, _Wagl._

The three species of _Ibises_ inhabiting Australia have been separated
by ornithologists into as many genera, and the difference which exists
in their habits and economy tends to prove the propriety of their
subdivision; for while the _Geronticus_ congregates in flocks of
thousands and mainly subsists upon caterpillars, grasshoppers and
locusts, a kind of food which it readily obtains on the heated plains,
the _Threskiornis_ assembles in small companies of from four to six in
number and resorts to the rushy banks of the lagoons and other humid
situations, and feeds upon newts, frogs, lizards, snakes and fish, and
the _Falcinellus_ resorts to similar situations, but I have had no
opportunity of observing its habits.

 501. Geronticus spinicollis                           Vol. VI.  Pl. 45.

I have never seen examples of this species from any other country than
Australia, which would therefore appear to be its restricted habitat.


                   Genus THRESKIORNIS, _G. R. Gray_.

 502. Threskiornis strictipennis                       Vol. VI.  Pl. 46.

Found in most parts of Eastern Australia during wet seasons.

 503. Falcinellus igneus                               Vol. VI.  Pl. 47.

This species is numerous in the northern and eastern districts of
Australia, whence its range extends throughout the whole of the islands
to India and Europe.

Subfamily GRUINÆ, _G. R. Gray_.


                          Genus GRUS, _Linn._

Species of this genus inhabit Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and
Australia.

 504. Grus Australasianus, _Gould_                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 48.

The Australian Crane is a noble bird, and is deservedly admired both by
the Aborigines and Europeans. The eastern and northern parts of the
country are the only localities yet known to be inhabited by this fine
bird; future research may however find that it possesses a wider range.

Subfamily PLATALEINÆ, _Bonap._


                        Genus PLATALEA, _Linn._

Two species of this genus inhabit Australia, both of which are, I
believe, peculiar to that country, where they perform precisely the same
offices as their prototypes in Europe, Asia, Africa and America.

 505. Platalea flavipes, _Gould_                       Vol. VI.  Pl. 49.
 506. Platalea regia, _Gould_                          Vol. VI.  Pl. 50.

Subfamily CICONINÆ, _G. R. Gray_.


                        Genus MYCTERIA, _Linn._

The noble species of this genus inhabiting Australia is, I believe,
identical with the bird of the same form inhabiting India, and if such
be the case, then it enjoys a wide range of habitat. Africa and America
are inhabited by species belonging to this or to a very nearly allied
genus.

 507. Mycteria Australis, _Lath._                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 51.

Subfamily ARDEINÆ, _G. R. Gray_.


                          Genus ARDEA, _Linn._

The Herons range over every part of the globe. The sixteen species
inhabiting Australia include examples of the genera _Ardea_, _Herodias_,
_Nycticorax_, _Botaurus_ and _Ardetta_, and I think they should be still
further divided, the Reef Herons, _Herodias jugularis_, _H. Greyii_, &c.
differing considerably both in structure and habits from the other
members of the genus; the _Ardea pacifica_ and _A. Novæ-Hollandiæ_ also,
are not typical _Ardeæ_, but fill a station intermediate between the
true Herons and the Egrets.

 508. Ardea pacifica, _Lath._                          Vol. VI.  Pl. 52.

Numerous in the southern but rare within the tropical parts of
Australia.

 509. Ardea Novæ-Hollandiæ, _Lath._                    Vol. VI.  Pl. 53.

Frequents the whole of the southern coasts of Australia and Van Diemen’s
Land.

 510. Ardea rectirostris, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 54.

Found on the north coast of Australia, and I believe also in the Indian
Islands.

 511. Ardea leucophæa, _Gould_                         Vol. VI.  Pl. 55.

The range of this species, which is very rare in Australia, appears to
extend to the southern parts of India.


                        Genus HERODIAS, _Boie_.

Nearly every part of the globe is tenanted by members of this genus.
Those inhabiting Australia are very nearly allied to, but I believe are
quite distinct from, the species found in India, Europe and America, and
of which they are the Australian representatives.

 512. Herodias syrmatophorus, _Gould_                  Vol. VI.  Pl. 56.
 513. Herodias plumiferus, _Gould_                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 57.
 514. Herodias immaculata, _Gould_                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 58.
 515. Herodias pannosus, _Gould_                       Vol. VI.  Pl. 59.
 516. Herodias jugularis                               Vol. VI.  Pl. 60.
 517. Herodias Greyii                                  Vol. VI.  Pl. 61.
 518. Herodias picata, _Gould_                         Vol. VI.  Pl. 62.


                       Genus NYCTICORAX, _Steph._

Europe, Africa and America are all inhabited by Night Herons;
consequently it is one of the most widely-distributed sections of the
family.

The single Australian species of this well-defined genus is rendered
conspicuously different from all other known species by the cinnamon
colour of its back.

 519. Nycticorax Caledonicus                           Vol. VI.  Pl. 63.

“Shot at Cape York and Port Essington, in which latter place it is
rather abundant. _Yangko_ of the Cape York aborigines, _Alăwool_ of the
Port Essington natives.”—_J. M’Gillivray._


                        Genus BOTAURUS, _Steph._

 520. Botaurus Australis, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 64.

The Australian Bittern is very similar to the European, _B. stellaris_.


                      Genus ARDETTA, _G. R. Gray_.

The members of this genus of Mangrove Bitterns usually frequent the
extensive belts of mangroves and low dells covered with reed-beds and
dense herbage.

Africa and America are each inhabited by birds of this form, one species
of which is also found in Europe, several in India and the adjacent
islands, and three in Australia, viz.—

 521. Ardetta flavicollis                              Vol. VI.  Pl. 65.

This species is said to inhabit Java and India, and although I have
figured it under the name assigned to the Indian and Javanese bird, I am
still inclined to believe that it is distinct.

 522. Ardetta macrorhyncha, _Gould_                    Vol. VI.  Pl. 66.
 523. Ardetta stagnatilis, _Gould_                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 67.
 524. Ardetta pusilla                                  Vol. VI.  Pl. 68.

This species, with the little Bittern of the British Islands and several
others inhabiting Africa and America, would admit of being separated
into a distinct genus.


                        Family RALLIDÆ, _Leach_.

Of this family no less than sixteen species inhabit Australia, and are
comprised in the following genera, viz. _Porphyrio_, _Fulica_,
_Gallinula_, _Rallus_ and _Porzana_, all of which are European forms;
and _Parra_, _Eulabeornis_ and _Tribonyx_: of the latter, the first is
common to India and the Indian Islands, and the other two are confined,
so far as we know, to Australia.


                       Genus PORPHYRIO, _Briss._

 525. Porphyrio melanotus, _Temm._                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 69.
 526. Porphyrio bellus, _Gould_                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 70.


                        Genus TRIBONYX, _DuBus_.

 527. Tribonyx Mortieri, _DuBus_                       Vol. VI.  Pl. 71.

Inhabits the southern parts of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land.

 528. Tribonyx ventralis, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 72.

Inhabits the interior of Australia.

“This bird,” says Captain Sturt, “appeared suddenly in South Australia
in 1840. It came from the north, fresh flights coming up and pushing on
those which had preceded them. It was moreover evident that they had
been unaccustomed to the sight of man, for they dropped in great numbers
in the streets and gardens of Adelaide and ran about like fowls. At last
they increased so much in number as to swarm on all the waters and
creeks, doing great damage to the crops in their neighbourhood. They
took the entire possession of the creek near my house, and broke down
and wholly destroyed about an acre and a quarter of wheat as if cattle
had bedded on it. They made their first appearance in November, and left
in the beginning of March, gradually retiring northwards as they had
advanced.”


                       Genus GALLINULA, _Briss._

The true _Gallinulæ_ are very numerous, and are found in nearly every
part of the world. Australia is inhabited by a species peculiarly its
own, distributed over all the southern parts of the continent.

 529. Gallinula tenebrosa, _Gould_                     Vol. VI.  Pl. 73.

Nearly allied to, and a representative of, the Water-Hen of Europe,
_Gallinula chloropus_.


                         Genus FULICA, _Linn._

_Fulicæ_ are found in nearly every part of the great continents of
Europe, Asia, Africa and America, and one species in Australia.

 530. Fulica Australis, _Gould_                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 74.

This bird, which is strictly confined to Australia, is rather smaller
than its European ally.


                          Genus PARRA, _Linn._

A tropical form, the structure of which is admirably adapted for
progression over the aquatic plants and floating leaves of the lagoons
and inland waters it frequents and over which it passes with facility;
its expansive feet, spreading over a large surface of fallen grasses and
leaves, readily sustaining it, which they would not do were they of the
ordinary form.

Species of this form are found in India, Africa and America.

 531. Parra gallinacea, _Temm._                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 75.

Inhabits the northern parts of Australia and New Guinea.


                         Genus RALLUS, _Linn._

We have here again a genus of birds the range of the species of which is
most extensive, for there is no country in which one or other of them is
not to be found.

 532. Rallus pectoralis, _Cuv._                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 76.
 533. Rallus Lewinii, _Swains._                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 77.


                      Genus EULABEORNIS, _Gould_.

Generic characters.

_Bill_ longer than the head, nearly straight, but slightly curved
downwards; compressed laterally; _nostril_ long and open, situated in a
large groove which runs along the upper mandible for nearly two-thirds
of its length from the base; _wings_ rather short and feeble, very much
rounded; _tertiaries_ long, nearly reaching to the end of the wing;
_legs_ rather long, more powerful than in the genus _Rallus_; _toes_ not
so much lengthened as in that genus; _tail_ long cuneiform; the _webs_
loose and of a decomposed character.

A genus established for the reception of a singular species of Rail
inhabiting the north coast of Australia, and in which Mr. G. R. Gray has
since placed four other species from different localities.

 534. Eulabeornis castaneoventris, _Gould_             Vol. VI.  Pl. 78.


                        Genus PORZANA, _Vieill._

The _Porzanæ_ inhabit Europe, Africa, India and Australia; the four
species inhabiting the latter country are generally distributed, even
within the tropics.

 535. Porzana fluminea, _Gould_                        Vol. VI.  Pl. 79.
 536. Porzana palustris, _Gould_                       Vol. VI.  Pl. 80.
 537. Porzana leucophrys, _Gould_                      Vol. VI.  Pl. 81.
 538. Porzana immaculata                               Vol. VI.  Pl. 82.



                        Order NATATORES, _Ill._

Upon taking a general view of the birds of this Order inhabiting Europe
and Australia, our attention cannot fail to be arrested by some
remarkable contrasts which present themselves to our notice. I allude to
the great excess in the number of species of some of the principal
groups, and the paucity of others; for instance, of the true _Anatidæ_
or Ducks, exclusive of the Mergansers, the European fauna comprises at
least forty species, while eighteen are all that are known in Australia;
of the _Laridæ_ or Gulls, exclusive of the Terns, twenty species inhabit
Europe, while three are all that are known in Australia; on the other
hand, sixteen species of Terns frequent the shores of Australia, while
only twelve resort to those of Europe; of the family _Procellaridæ_ or
Petrels, nearly forty species enliven the Australian seas, while seven
are all that are known to inhabit the seas of Europe; no Puffins or
Guillemots are found in the seas south of the Equator; while the
Penguins are unknown north of the line; and the Grebes and Cormorants
are equally numerous in both hemispheres.


                        Family ANATIDÆ, _Leach_.


                        Genus CEREOPSIS, _Lath._

But one species of this singular and strictly Australian form has yet
been discovered.

 539. Cereopsis Novæ-Hollandiæ, _Lath._                Vol. VII.  Pl. 1.


                        Genus ANSERANAS, _Less._

Like _Cereopsis_, this genus contains but a single species, which is
equally confined to Australia.

 540. Anseranas melanoleuca                            Vol. VII.  Pl. 2.


                        Genus BERNICLA, _Steph._

The Australian bird hitherto referred to this genus should certainly
receive a new generic appellation, since it does not agree either in
form or habits with the true _Berniclæ_.

 541. Bernicla jubata                                  Vol. VII.  Pl. 3.


                       Genus NETTAPUS, _Brandt._

Of this beautiful genus of Pygmy Geese there are at least four species
known; one inhabiting Africa, one India, and two Australia.

 542. Nettapus pulchellus, _Gould_                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 4.
 543. Nettapus albipennis, _Gould_.
     Nettapus Coromandelianus                          Vol. VII.  Pl. 5.

I feel confident that the Australian bird which I have figured under the
name of _N. Coromandelianus_, is quite distinct from the Indian, and I
have therefore assigned it a new name.

My figures are stated to be of the natural size, but this is an error:
they are considerably smaller.


                         Genus CYGNUS, _Linn._

Only one species, the _C. atratus_, is, I believe, found south of the
line; for the Black-necked Swan of Chili will doubtless prove to be
generically distinct.

 544. Cygnus atratus                                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 6.

This “rara avis in terris” is not only strictly confined to Australia,
but is so exclusively an inhabitant of the southern districts, that no
notice has been recorded of its having been seen in Torres’ Straits, or
on any part of the north coast.


                        Genus CASARCA, _Bonap._

This ornamental section of the _Anatidæ_ is not very numerous in
species.

 545. Casarca Tadornoïdes                              Vol. VII.  Pl. 7.

A beautiful representative of the _C. rutila_ of Europe.


                        Genus TADORNA, _Leach_.

 546. Tadorna Radjah                                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 8.

An equally beautiful representative of the _T. Vulpanser_.


                          Genus ANAS, _Linn._

Of true Ducks three species are found in Australia.

 547. Anas superciliosa, _Gmel._                       Vol. VII.  Pl. 9.

This bird assimilates very closely in its structure and in its economy
to the _Anas Boschas_ of Europe, but in its plumage it is very
different.

 548. Anas nævosa, _Gould_                            Vol. VII.  Pl. 10.

A very singular Duck, perhaps more nearly allied to _Chaulelasmus_ than
to _Anas_. It is a very rare bird, and has only yet been seen on the
western and southern coasts of Australia; its true habitat is probably
the distant interior.

 549. Anas punctata, _Cuv._                           Vol. VII.  Pl. 11.

This species has much the appearance of the Teal (genus _Querquedula_),
but in its structure is nearly allied to the true ducks (genus _Anas_),
with which I have provisionally placed it.


                         Genus SPATULA, _Boie_.

The great continents of America, Africa, Asia and Australia, are each
inhabited by one or more species of this restricted genus.

 550. Spatula Rhynchotis                              Vol. VII.  Pl. 12.

This bird is, I believe, restricted to Australia.


                    Genus MALACORHYNCHUS, _Swains._

A very delicate form, of which the single species, confined to
Australia, is the only one known.

 551. Malacorhynchus membranaceus                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 13.


                      Genus DENDROCYGNA, _Swains._

This form is found in India, Africa, America and Australia: the bird I
have separated into a distinct genus, under the appellation of
_Leptotarsis_, should be included in this genus, the difference which it
presents being too slight to warrant their separation.

 552. Dendrocygna arcuata                             Vol. VII.  Pl. 14.
 553. Dendrocygna Eytoni.
     Leptotarsis Eytoni, _Gould_                      Vol. VII.  Pl. 15.

“Many of the reaches,” says Captain Stokes, when speaking of the river
Adelaide of the north-western part of Australia, “swarmed with wild
fowl, consisting almost wholly of ducks, which, from a habit of perching
on the trees, have received the name of Wood Ducks. Their singularly
long legs, with the web very much arched near the toes, gives great
pliability to the foot and a power of grasping, which enables them to
perch on trees. When on the wing they make a peculiar pleasing,
whistling sound, that can be heard at a great distance, and which
changes as they alight into a sort of chatter. Their perching on trees
is performed in a very clumsy manner, swinging and pitching to and fro.
We subsequently often found them on the rivers of the north coast, but
not within some miles of their mouths or near their upper waters, from
which it would appear that they inhabit certain reaches of the rivers
only; we never found them in swamps. The farthest south they were met
with was on the Albert River, in the Gulf of Carpentaria, in lat. 18°
S., which gives them a range of six and a half degrees of latitude over
the northern part of the continent. These ducks are the _Leptotarsis
Eytoni_ of Mr. Gould.”


                         Genus NYROCA, _Flem._

Two species at least of this genus are known, one inhabiting Europe and
India and the other Australia: both have the irides white.

 554. Nyroca Australis, _Gould_                       Vol. VII.  Pl. 16.


                       Genus ERISMATURA, _Bonap._

The members of this genus, although but few in number, are found in
Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia.

 555. Erismatura Australis                            Vol. VII.  Pl. 17.

This species, the only one of the genus inhabiting Australia, is, I
believe, strictly confined to the western parts of the country, as
hitherto it has not been seen elsewhere.


                        Genus BIZIURA, _Leach_.

A genus of which only a single species is known to exist, and which is
singularly different from every other member of the family. It is
strictly Australian, and may be regarded as one of the anomalies of its
fauna.

 556. Biziura lobata                                  Vol. VII.  Pl. 18.


                        Family LARIDÆ, _Leach_.


                          Genus LARUS, _Linn._

The members of this genus are distributed over the sea-shores of every
part of the globe. Only one species inhabits Australia, to which country
it is confined, and where it represents the _Larus marinus_ of Europe
and America.

 557. Larus Pacificus                                 Vol. VII.  Pl. 19.


                          Genus XEMA, _Leach_.

A genus of Gulls, the members of which are delicate in their structure,
elegant in their appearance, and graceful in all their actions. Many
species are found in Europe and America, and others inhabit Africa; one
species only has been characterized as Australian, but I believe that
another will be found in Torres’ Straits very similar to, but much
larger than, the _X. Jamesonii_ of the southern parts of that continent.

 558. Xema Jamesonii                                  Vol. VII.  Pl. 20.

Subfamily ——?


                         Genus LESTRIS, _Ill._

The high latitudes of both the northern and southern hemispheres are
frequented by parasitic Gulls.

One species of this form has been found in the Australian seas, and
another has been discovered within the Antarctic circle.

 559. Lestris Catarractes                             Vol. VII.  Pl. 21.

Although I have figured and described this Australian bird as identical
with the Skua Gull of Europe, it is likely that hereafter reasons may be
found for separating them.

In a letter just arrived from Mr. J. M’Gillivray, dated on board H.M.S.
Rattlesnake, Feb. 6, 1848, that gentleman says, “The _Lestris
Catarractes_ was noticed on various occasions in different parts of the
South Indian Ocean; while off the Cape of Good Hope a solitary
individual and subsequently two in company were seen. I have observed it
following and hovering over a bait towing astern, and once saw it chase
a Cape Petrel and force it to alight on the water. This bird seldom
remained with us for more than half an hour at a time, during which it
made a few circular flights about the ship.”

Subfamily STERNINÆ, _Bonap._

The members of this family inhabiting Australia and Europe are nearly
equal in number, and in each country examples of the same forms are
found to exist; the Australian fauna has also a _Gygis_ and an
_Onychoprion_ neither of which inhabit the European seas, and four
species of _Anoüs_, of which only one frequents the northern hemisphere.


                      Genus SYLOCHELIDON, _Brehm_.

 560. Sylochelidon strenuus                           Vol. VII.  Pl. 22.

A representative of the _S. Caspius_ of Europe.


                       Genus THALASSEUS, _Boie_.

The members of this genus, the type of which is the _T. Cantiacus_ of
the British Islands, are widely dispersed over most parts of the Old
World, and three distinct species inhabit Australia.

 561. Thalasseus Pelecanoïdes                         Vol. VII.  Pl. 23.
 562. Thalasseus poliocercus, _Gould_                 Vol. VII.  Pl. 24.
 563. Thalasseus Torresii, _Gould_                    Vol. VII.  Pl. 25.

Since my account of this species was printed I have seen adult specimens
from Southern India, which country is in all probability its true
habitat.


                         Genus STERNA, _Linn._

The members of this genus, as now restricted, enjoy so wide a range over
the globe, that they may be said to be universally dispersed: three
species are found in Australia.

 564. Sterna melanorhyncha, _Gould_                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 26.
 565. Sterna gracilis, _Gould_                        Vol. VII.  Pl. 27.
 566. Sterna melanauchen, _Temm._                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 28.

“This beautiful bird,” says Mr. M’Gillivray, “is very local in its
breeding-places, the only one known to me being one of the ‘three
sand-banks’ near Sir Charles Hardy’s Islands. The eggs are two in
number, deposited in a slight hollow in the sand. I have seen this bird
on another neighbouring sand-bank, also on Solitary Island, near Cape
York, and in Endeavour Straits, but was unable to procure a specimen
from any of the three last-mentioned localities, on account of its
excessive shyness. It is one of the most noisy of the Terns, and I
generally saw it in small parties of half-a-dozen, or thereabouts. The
fully-fledged young of the year differs from the adult in having the
black on the head dark brown mottled with white, and the whole of the
upper surface and wings variegated with dark brownish grey.”


                        Genus STERNULA, _Boie_.

Europe and Australia are both tenanted by little Terns, the specific
distinctness of which cannot be questioned, however much that of the
large Terns (genus _Sylochelidon_) may be: ought we not then to infer
that some peculiar law prevails, and that if one be distinct the other
is also? However that may be, it is certain that birds regarded as
identically the same, because no external difference is perceptible,
breed at opposite seasons in the two hemispheres, and that if the birds
of one hemisphere be brought and retained in the other, they continue to
moult their feathers and to breed at the same period that they would
have done had they remained in their native country.

 567. Sternula Nereis, _Gould_                        Vol. VII.  Pl. 29.


                      Genus GELOCHELIDON, _Brehm_.

It would be strange if this form did not exist in Australia, when all
the other European genera of Terns are found there; still I have no
other evidence of such being the case, than that of a specimen in the
collection of King’s College, London, which is said to be from Van
Diemen’s Land, and to which in the year 1837 I gave the name of _Sterna
macrotarsa_.

 568. Gelochelidon macrotarsus, _Gould_.

      _Sterna macrotarsa_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 26;
        and in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part II.

Crown of the head and back of the neck black; all the upper surface and
primaries light silvery-grey; remainder of the plumage white; bill and
feet black.

As I did not meet with this bird myself either in Van Diemen’s Land or
in any other of the Australian regions, I have not figured it.


                          Genus GYGIS, _Wagl._

One species of this Polynesian genus of Terns is found in Australia.

 569. Gygis candida                                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 30.


                      Genus HYDROCHELIDON, _Boie_.

The value of minor genera or subgenera, as naturalists may choose to
designate them, is much strengthened, when species, which have been
assigned to either of them from countries so distant from each other as
Australia and Europe, are found to possess similar habits, but differing
from those of the other members of the family. Thus the members of the
present little group inhabit the inland waters and marshes of both
countries; make their nests among the rushes, and lay thickly-marked
eggs, in both of which particulars they differ from the other Terns; the
generality of which deposit their eggs on the shingles of the sea-shore,
while others, the _Gygis candida_ for instance, lay their single egg on
the horizontal branch of a tree, so totally unprotected, that how it is
retained in its position during windy weather is a perfect mystery;
others again, such as the Noddies, bring together large masses of
sea-weed, which they either pile upon the swinging branch of a Mangrove
or on the jutting point of a rock. All these facts should be studied by
ornithologists before they discard subgenera proposed by their
fellow-labourers, and replace the species they may have so divided in
the genera of the older writers, who must necessarily have known less of
the subject; for wherever a difference occurs in the habits of the
members of any great family a variation more or less marked will be
found in their structure. So far as my own observations go, and they
have not been few, if I have read the great book of nature aright, the
genera, instead of being reduced, might with propriety be multiplied
without the risk of our being burthened with a genus for every species,
as some writers affect to fear would then be the case.

 570. Hydrochelidon fluviatilis, _Gould_              Vol. VII.  Pl. 31.

A fine marsh Tern differing from its European prototypes _H. nigra_, _H.
leucoptera_ and _H. leucopareia_.


                       Genus ONYCHOPRION, _Wagl._

Of this form two species frequent the Australian seas.

 571. Onychoprion fuliginosus                         Vol. VII.  Pl. 32.

Although I have figured one of the two Australian birds of this genus
under the above appellation, rather than run the risk of unnecessarily
adding to the number of species, I have no doubt it will prove to be
distinct from the American bird.

“Found breeding in prodigious numbers on Raine’s Islet and Bramble Key
in May and June, associated with Noddies (_Anoüs stolidus_). The Sooty
Tern deposits its solitary egg in a slight excavation in the sand
without lining of any kind. The egg varies considerably in its markings.
After the party employed in building the beacon on Raine’s Islet had
been on shore about ten days, and the Terns had had their nests robbed
repeatedly, the birds collected into two or three large flocks and laid
their eggs in company, shifting their quarters repeatedly on finding
themselves continually molested; for new-laid eggs were much in request
among people who had for some time been living upon ship’s fare. By
sitting down and keeping quiet I have seen the poor birds dropping their
eggs within two yards of where I sat, apparently glad to get rid of
their burthen at all hazards. During the month of June 1844 about 1500
dozen of eggs were procured by the party upon the Island. About the 20th
of June nearly one half of the young birds (hatched twenty-five or
thirty days previously) were able to fly, and many were quite strong
upon the wing. Great numbers of young birds unable to fly were killed
for the pot;—in one mess of twenty-two men the average number consumed
daily in June was fifty, and supposing the convicts (twenty in number)
to have consumed as many, 3000 young birds must have been killed in one
month; yet I could observe no sensible diminution of the number of
young, a circumstance which will give the reader some idea of the vast
numbers of birds of this species congregated on a mere vegetated
sand-bank like Raine’s Islet.”—_J. M’Gillivray._

 572. Onychoprion Panaya                              Vol. VII.  Pl. 33.


                         Genus ANOÜS, _Leach_.

Unlike other Terns which frequent the sea-shores and rivers, the Noddies
inhabit the wide ocean, far remote from land, and which, like the
Petrels, they seldom quit, except at the breeding season, when they
congregate in vast multitudes on small islands suited to the purpose.
Great nurseries of this kind are to be found in every ocean; in the
North Atlantic, one of the Tortugas, called Noddy Key, is a favourite
resort, and the Bahama Islands are another; in the South Pacific and
Indian Oceans, beside other situations, the Houtmann’s Abrolhos, off the
western coast of Australia, are resorted to in such immense numbers that
Mr. Gilbert was perfectly astonished at the multitudes with which he
found himself surrounded, upon landing on those remote and
little-explored islands.

 573. Anoüs stolidus                                  Vol. VII.  Pl. 34.

“The large Noddy,” says Mr. M’Gillivray, “is abundantly distributed over
Torres’ Straits, but I never met with it to the southward of Raine’s
Islet, on which, as at Bramble Key, it was found breeding in prodigious
numbers. Unlike its constant associate, the Sooty Tern, it constructs a
shallow nest of small twigs arranged in a slovenly manner, over which
are strewed about a handful of fragments of coral from the beach,
shells, and occasionally portions of tortoise-shell and bones of turtle.
The nest is sometimes placed upon the ground, but more usually upon
tufts of grass and other herbage, at about a foot from the ground.”

 574. Anoüs melanops, _Gould_                         Vol. VII.  Pl. 35.
 575. Anoüs leucocapillus, _Gould_                    Vol. VII.  Pl. 36.
 576. Anoüs cinereus, _Gould_                         Vol. VII.  Pl. 37.


                     Family PROCELLARIDÆ, _Bonap._

There is perhaps no group of birds respecting which so much confusion
exists and the extent of whose range over the ocean is so little known,
as that forming the present family.

Having, as I have before stated, paid much attention to these birds
during my voyages to and from Australia and in its neighbourhood, my
researches were rewarded by my obtaining a knowledge of at least forty
different species, nearly all of which are peculiar to the seas of the
southern hemisphere. The powers of flight with which these birds are
endowed are perfectly astonishing: they appear to be constantly
performing migrations round the globe from west to east; and Australia
lying in their tract, all the species may be found near its shores at
one or other season of the year.

It is but natural to suppose that this great group of birds has been
created for some especial purpose, and may we not infer that they have
been placed in the Southern Ocean to prevent an undue increase of the
myriads of mollusks and other low marine animals with which those seas
abound, and upon which all the _Procellaridæ_ mainly subsist?


                        Genus DIOMEDEA, _Linn._

Of this genus, which comprises among its members the largest of the
Oceanic birds, three species range over the North Pacific Ocean; and six
others the seas southward of the equator.

 577. Diomedea exulans, _Linn._                       Vol. VII.  Pl. 38.

The weight of this species varies from seventeen to twenty pounds, and
the expanse of its extended wings averages the enormous breadth of 11
feet.

 578. Diomedea brachyura, _Temm._                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 39.
 579. Diomedea cauta, _Gould_                         Vol. VII.  Pl. 40.
 580. Diomedea culminata, _Gould_                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 41.
 581. Diomedea chlororhynchos, _Lath._                Vol. VII.  Pl. 42.
 582. Diomedea melanophrys, _Temm._                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 43.
 583. Diomedea fuliginosa                             Vol. VII.  Pl. 44.
 584. Diomedea gibbosa, _Gould_.

      _Diomedea gibbosa_, Gould in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vol.
        xiii. p. 361.

Face, ear-coverts, chin, abdomen, upper and under tail-coverts white;
the remainder of the plumage very dark brown, approaching on the
occiput, back of the neck and wings to black; bill yellowish
horn-colour, becoming darker at the tip and at the base; feet in the
dried specimen dark brown, but doubtless of a bluish grey, inclining to
flesh-colour in the living bird.

The above is the description of a specimen in the collection of the
Zoological Society of London, to which it was presented by F. Debell
Bennett, Esq., who had procured it in the North Pacific. It differs from
every other that has come under my notice in the peculiar swollen and
raised form of the base of the upper mandible, which moreover advances
high upon the forehead.

 585. Diomedea olivaceorhyncha, _Gould_.

      _Diomedea olivaceorhyncha_, Gould in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,
        vol. xiii. p. 361.

I propose this name for a species, examples of which are wanting to our
collections, and of which a bill only has as yet come under my notice.
It is in the possession of Sir Wm. Jardine, Bart., is 3 inches and ⅜ths
long from the gape to the tip, of a uniform olive-green, and in form
more slender and elegant than that of the other members of the genus.
The locality in which it was procured is not known, but it is supposed
to have been obtained in the China seas.

The last two species were not seen by me in the Australian seas, but are
given in order to complete a monograph of the _Diomedeæ_.


                       Genus PROCELLARIA, _Linn._

Of the fifteen species I have placed in this genus as now restricted,
figures of only eight have been given.

 586. Procellaria gigantea                            Vol. VII.  Pl. 45.
 587. Procellaria Æquinoctialis.
 588. Procellaria conspicillata, _Gould_              Vol. VII.  Pl. 46.
 589. Procellaria hasitata, _Kuhl_.                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 47.
 590. Procellaria Atlantica, _Gould_.

      _Procellaria Atlantica_, Gould in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,
        vol. xiii. p. 362.

Male: the whole of the plumage deep chocolate-black; bill and feet
jet-black.

This is one of the commonest species inhabiting the Atlantic, and no
ship passes between our shores and the Cape of Good Hope without
encountering it; it is a species respecting which very considerable
confusion exists in the writings of nearly all the older authors. It is
the _P. fuliginosa_ of Forster’s Drawings, No. 93 B, and the _P.
fuliginosa_ of Lichtenstein’s edition of Forster’s MSS. p. 23, which
term cannot be retained, as it had already been applied by Latham to a
very different bird from Otaheite; it is the _P. grisea_ of Kuhl but not
of Linnæus, who has given the term to another species, consequently
_grisea_ cannot be retained for it; and hence I have been induced to
give it a new appellation, and thereby prevent misapprehension for the
future.

 591. Procellaria macroptera, _Smith_.

      _Procellaria macroptera_, Smith, Zool. of South Africa, Aves, pl.
        52.

I think that a bird I killed in the seas off Van Diemen’s Land, where it
was tolerably abundant, and which differs from the last in being of a
larger size, in having much longer wings and a greyer face, may be
identical with the _P. macroptera_ of Smith, and I therefore retain it
under that appellation, in preference to assigning it a new name.

 592. Procellaria Solandri, _Gould_.

      _Procellaria Solandri_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part XII. p.
        57; and in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vol. xiii. p. 363.

Head, back of the neck, shoulders, primaries and tail dark brown; back,
wing-coverts and upper tail-coverts slate-grey, each feather margined
with dark brown; face and all the under surface brown, washed with grey
on the abdomen; bill, tarsi, toes and membranes black.

This is a remarkably robust and compact bird. I shot a single individual
in Bass’s Straits on the 13th of March 1839. M. Natterer thought that it
might be identical with the bird figured in Banks’s drawings, to which
Dr. Solander has affixed the term _melanopus_, an opinion in which I
cannot concur; I have therefore named it in honour of that celebrated
botanist. The specimen above described may possibly not be fully adult,
as the dark colouring of the under surface only occupies the extreme
tips of the feathers, the basal portions of which are snow-white.

 593. Procellaria Glacialoïdes, _Smith_               Vol. VII.  Pl. 48.
 594. Procellaria Lessonii, _Garn._                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 49.
 595. Procellaria mollis, _Gould_                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 50.
 596. Procellaria Cookii, _G. R. Gray_                Vol. VII.  Pl. 51.
 597. Procellaria cœrulea, _Gmel._                    Vol. VII.  Pl. 52.
 598. Procellaria flavirostris, _Gould_.

      _Procellaria flavirostris_, Gould in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,
        vol. xiii. p. 365.

Feathers of the head and all the upper surface brown with pearl edges,
fading into white on the tips of the upper tail-coverts; wings and tail
deep blackish brown; all the under surface pure white; the feathers of
the under surface of the shoulder with a streak of brown down the
centre; bill yellow, passing into dark horn-colour at the tip; tarsi and
feet fleshy white.

This fine species was procured off the Cape of Good Hope, in lat. 36°
39′ S., long. 10° 3′ E., by His Excellency Governor Grey, on his passage
to South Australia. It is distinguished from its congeners by its much
larger size, and by the yellow colouring of the bill. The female is
somewhat smaller than her mate.

This bird so nearly approaches in form the members of the genus
_Puffinus_, that it is almost questionable whether it should not be
included in that group.

 599. Procellaria nivea, _Gmel._
 600. Procellaria Antarctica, _Gmel._


                        Genus DAPTION, _Steph._

A genus established for the reception of the _Procellaria Capensis_ of
Linnæus, a species abounding in all the temperate latitudes of the
southern seas.

 601. Daption Capensis                                Vol. VII.  Pl. 53.


                         Genus PRION, _Lacep._

A genus of fairy-like Petrels confined to the southern hemisphere: much
confusion exists respecting these birds, and they are so puzzling that I
regret to say I have not been able to throw any light upon the subject.

Of the following species two only have been figured:—

 602. Prion Turtur                                    Vol. VII.  Pl. 54.
 603. Prion vittatus                                  Vol. VII.  Pl. 55.
 604. Prion Banksii.

      _Pachyptila Banksii_, Smith, Zool. of South Africa, Aves, pl. 55.

      _Prion Banksii_, Gould in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vol. xiii.
        p. 366.

Found in the temperate latitudes of the Atlantic and Pacific, and I
believe in similar latitudes all round the globe.

 605. Prion Ariel, _Gould_.

      _Prion Ariel_, Gould in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., vol. xiii. p.
        366.

I killed this species in Bass’s Straits, where it was rather numerous.


                        Genus PUFFINUS, _Briss._

The members of this genus inhabit the seas of both the northern and
southern hemisphere, but are nowhere more abundant than round Australia,
the fauna of which country comprises four species, which make one or
other of the groups of islands lying off the coast their great nurseries
or breeding-places.

 606. Puffinus brevicaudus, _Brandt_                  Vol. VII.  Pl. 56.

It will be seen that I have alluded in forcible terms to the great
abundance of this species in Bass’s Straits, in confirmation of which I
annex the following extract from Flinders’ Voyage, vol. i. p. 170:—

“A large flock of Gannets was observed at daylight, and they were
followed by such a number of the sooty petrels as we had never seen
equalled. There was a stream of from fifty to eighty yards in depth, and
of three hundred yards or more in breadth; the birds were not scattered,
but were flying as compactly as a free movement of their wings seemed to
allow; and during a full _hour and a half_ this stream of Petrels
continued to pass without interruption, at a rate little inferior to the
swiftness of the Pigeon. On the lowest computation I think the number
could not have been less than a hundred millions. Taking the stream to
have been fifty yards deep by three hundred in width, and that it moved
at the rate of thirty miles an hour, and allowing nine cubic yards of
space to each bird, the number would amount to 151,500,000. The burrows
required to lodge this quantity of birds would be 75,750,000; and
allowing a square yard to each burrow, they would cover something more
than 18½ geographic square miles of ground.”

 607. Puffinus carneipes, _Gould_                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 57.
 608. Puffinus sphenurus, _Gould_                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 58.
 609. Puffinus assimilis, _Gould_                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 59.


                       Genus PUFFINURIA, _Less._

One species of this genus inhabits the Australian seas.

 610. Puffinuria Urinatrix                            Vol. VII.  Pl. 60.


                      Genus THALASSIDROMA, _Vig._

The little tenants of the ocean belonging to this genus are so
universally dispersed, that they are found in all the seas except those
of the very high latitudes of both hemispheres. The Australian fauna is
particularly rich in birds of this form, inasmuch as no less than five
distinct species frequent the seas which wash the shores of that
country.

 611. Thalassidroma marina, _Less._                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 61.
 612. Thalassidroma melanogaster, _Gould_             Vol. VII.  Pl. 62.
 613. Thalassidroma leucogaster, _Gould_              Vol. VII.  Pl. 63.
     Thalassidroma Tropica, _Gould_.

      _Thalassidroma Tropica_, Gould in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,
        vol. xiii. p. 366.

Head, back, wings, tail and breast dark sooty black; chin, under coverts
of the wings, abdomen, flanks, under tail-coverts, and a broad
crescent-shaped band across the upper tail-coverts snow-white; bill,
feet and legs black.

Total length, 7¾ inches; bill, ⅞; wing, 6½; tail, 3½; tarsi, 1¾; middle
toe and nail, 1¼.

I observed this species in the Atlantic, where it is confined to the
equatorial regions, being most abundant in the vicinity of the line. It
is the largest member of the genus with which I am acquainted, and is
rendered very conspicuous by the white mark on its throat.

 614. Thalassidroma Nereis, _Gould_                   Vol. VII.  Pl. 64.
 615. Thalassidroma Wilsonii, _Bonap._                Vol. VII.  Pl. 65.


                      Family PELECANIDÆ, _Leach_.


                     Genus PHALACROCORAX, _Briss._

The great family of the Cormorants, whose range is universal, are well
represented in Australia, since five species inhabit and are peculiar to
that country, where they perform precisely the same offices as the other
species of the genus do in Europe and America.

 616. Phalacrocorax Carboïdes, _Gould_                Vol. VII.  Pl. 66.
 617. Phalacrocorax sulcirostris                      Vol. VII.  Pl. 67.
 618. Phalacrocorax hypoleucus                        Vol. VII.  Pl. 68.
 619. Phalacrocorax leucogaster, _Gould_              Vol. VII.  Pl. 69.
 620. Phalacrocorax melanoleucus, _Vieill._           Vol. VII.  Pl. 70.
 621. Phalacrocorax punctatus                         Vol. VII.  Pl. 71.


                         Genus ATTAGEN, _Mœhr_.

Although I have figured but one, there are evidently two if not three
species of this genus which visit the Australian shores; but I have not
had sufficient opportunities to investigate the subject satisfactorily.

 622. Attagen Ariel, _Gould_                          Vol. VII.  Pl. 72.
 623. Attagen Aquila?


                         Genus PHAËTON, _Linn._

The beautiful species of this form which graces the fauna of Australia,
ranges over the greater part of the Pacific Ocean, and among other
places retires to Norfolk Island and Raine’s Islet for the purpose of
breeding.

 624. Phaëton phœnicurus                              Vol. VII.  Pl. 73.


                        Genus PELECANUS, _Linn._

The members of this genus are very widely dispersed, since every great
country has one or more species assigned to it. That inhabiting
Australia is as fine and as beautifully marked as any other member of
the group.

 625. Pelecanus conspicillatus, _Temm._               Vol. VII.  Pl. 74.


                         Genus PLOTUS, _Linn._

Asia, Africa, America and Australia are each tenanted by a species of
this genus, the members of which, although few in number, are not well
understood nor are their specific differences easily decyphered.

 626. Plotus Novæ-Hollandiæ, _Gould_                  Vol. VII.  Pl. 75.


                          Genus SULA, _Briss._

Four fine species of this genus appertain to the Australian fauna, since
they not only frequent the seas adjacent to the shores of that country,
but all of them resort to its rocks and islands for the purpose of
breeding.

The genus comprises several other species which inhabit the sea coasts
of nearly every part of the globe.

 627. Sula Australis, _Gould_                         Vol. VII.  Pl. 76.

Inhabits the southern coast of Australia and Van Diemen’s Land, and is a
beautiful representative of the _Sula Bassana_ and _S. melanura_ of
Europe.

 628. Sula personata, _Gould_                         Vol. VII.  Pl. 77.

Common on the east coast.

 629. Sula fusca, _Briss._                            Vol. VII.  Pl. 78.

“This species of Booby,” says Mr. M’Gillivray, “is generally distributed
on the north-east and north coasts of New Holland; but I found it
breeding only upon Bramble Key, although I once, on Raine’s Islet, found
a solitary egg. The nest is slovenly made of dried herbage, a foot in
diameter, with scarcely any cavity, and contains two eggs, of which in
every instance one was clean and the other very dirty. The eggs, which
are white, vary considerably in size. The largest measured 2‑8/12 inches
by 1‑7/12; the smallest 2‑4½/12 by 1‑7½/12, and one of average size, 2½
by 1¾ inches. Both sexes incubate, and the birds while sitting on their
eggs allowed of a very near approach, and before flying off disgorged
the contents of their stomachs, chiefly a species of _Clupea_ or
herring. I need scarcely add that their bite is very severe. During our
visits to Darnley Island I observed several tame Boobies among the
native villages, generally perched on the canoes hauled up on the beach.
These birds were allowed their full liberty, and after fishing in the
weirs upon the reefs until they had procured a sufficiency of food,
returned to the huts.”

Inhabits the north coast.

 630. Sula piscator, _Linn._                          Vol. VII.  Pl. 79.

Inhabits the north coast.


                       Family COLYMBIDÆ, _Leach_.


                        Genus PODICEPS, _Lath._

There is no country of any extent wherein Grebes are not to be found;
and as their wing-powers are very limited, they are mostly stationary.

I have elsewhere remarked how beautifully the European Grebes are
represented by those inhabiting Australia, and the truth of this remark
will be rendered at once apparent on reference to the Plates of the
following species:—

 631. Podiceps Australis, _Gould_                     Vol. VII.  Pl. 80.
 632. Podiceps gularis, _Gould_                       Vol. VII.  Pl. 81.

      Podiceps Dominicus, var. Lath., Gen. Hist. vol. x. p. 32.

 633. Podiceps poliocephalus, _Jard. & Selb._         Vol. VII.  Pl. 82.


                      Family SPHENISCIDÆ, _Gould_.

Of this southern group of birds three or four species have been known to
visit the shores of Van Diemen’s Land and the islands in Bass’s Straits,
which, in fact, constitute one of the great breeding-places of some of
the members of this family.


                       Genus EUDYPTES, _Vieill._

 634. Eudyptes chrysocome                             Vol. VII.  Pl. 83.


                       Genus SPHENISCUS, _Briss._

 635. Spheniscus minor, _Temm._                       Vol. VII.  Pl. 84.
 636. Spheniscus Undina, _Gould_                      Vol. VII.  Pl. 85.



           TABLE OF THE RANGE OR DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIES.


 ────────────────────┬─────────────┬──────────┬──────────┬──────────
                     │South-eastern│          │          │
                     │ portion of  │  South   │Swan River│ Northern
   Name of Species.  │Australia or │Australia.│or Western│Australia.
                     │  New South  │          │Australia.│
                     │   Wales.    │          │          │
 ────────────────────┼─────────────┼──────────┼──────────┼──────────
 Aquila fucosa,      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Cuv._            │             │          │          │
 —— Morphnoïdes,     │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Ichthyiaëtus        │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   leucogaster       │             │          │          │
 Haliastur           │             │          │          │
   leucosternus,     │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— sphenurus        │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Pandion             │             │          │          │
   leucocephalus,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Falco hypoleucus,   │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— melanogenys,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— subniger, _Gray_ │             │    *     │          │
 —— frontatus,       │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Ieracidea Berigora  │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— occidentalis,    │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Tinnunculus         │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   Cenchroïdes       │             │          │          │
 Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ│      *      │    *     │          │
 —— —— (albino)      │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— radiatus         │      *      │          │          │
 —— approximans,     │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 —— cruentus, _Gould_│             │          │    *     │    *?
 Accipiter torquatus │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Buteo melanosternon,│      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Milvus affinis,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— isurus, _Gould_  │      *      │    *     │          │
 Elanus axillaris    │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— scriptus, _Gould_│             │    *     │          │    *
 Lepidogenys         │             │          │          │
   subcristatus,     │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Circus assimilis,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Jard. & Selb._   │             │          │          │
 —— Jardinii, _Gould_│      *      │    *     │          │
 Strix castanops,    │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— personata, _Vig._│      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— tenebricosus,    │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— delicatulus,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Athene Boobook      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *?
 —— maculata         │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— marmorata,       │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 ——? connivens       │      *      │          │    *     │
 —— strenua, _Gould_ │      *      │          │          │
 —— rufa, _Gould_    │             │          │          │    *
 Ægotheles           │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   Novæ-Hollandiæ    │             │          │          │
 —— leucogaster,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Podargus            │      *      │          │          │
   megacephalus      │             │          │          │
 —— humeralis, _Vig. │      *      │          │          │
   & Horsf._         │             │          │          │
 —— Cuvieri, _Vig. & │             │    *     │          │
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 —— brachypterus,    │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Phalænoïdes,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— plumiferus,      │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Eurostopodus        │      *      │          │          │
   albogularis       │             │          │          │
 —— guttatus         │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Caprimulgus         │             │          │          │    *
   macrurus, _Horsf._│             │          │          │
 Acanthylis caudacuta│      *      │          │          │
 Cypselus Australis, │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Atticora            │             │          │          │
   leucosternon,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Hirundo neoxena,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Chelidon arborea    │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— Ariel,  _Gould_  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Merops ornatus,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Lath._           │             │          │          │
 Eurystomus          │             │          │          │
   Australis,        │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Swains._         │             │          │          │
 Dacelo gigantea     │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— Leachii, _Vig. & │             │          │          │    *
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 —— cervina, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 Halcyon sanctus,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 —— pyrrhopygia,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— sordidus, _Gould_│      *      │          │          │
 —— MacLeayii, _Jard.│      *      │          │          │    *
   & Selby_          │             │          │          │
 Alcyone azurea      │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— Diemenensis,     │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pulchra, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— pusilla          │             │          │          │    *
 Artamus sordidus    │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— minor, _Vieill._ │      *      │          │          │
 —— cinereus,        │             │          │    *     │    *
   _Vieill._         │             │          │          │
 —— albiventris,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— personatus,      │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— superciliosus,   │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— leucopygialis,   │      *      │    *     │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Dicæum hirundinaceum│      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Pardalotus punctatus│      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— rubricatus,      │     *?      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— quadragintus,    │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— striatus         │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— affinis, _Gould_ │             │          │          │
 —— melanocephalus,  │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— uropygialis,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Strepera graculina  │      *      │          │          │
 —— fuliginosa,      │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— arguta, _Gould_  │             │    *     │          │
 —— Anaphonensis     │      *      │          │    *     │
 —— melanoptera,     │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Gymnorhina Tibicen  │      *      │          │    *?    │
 —— leuconota,       │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— organicum,       │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Cracticus           │             │          │          │
   nigrogularis,     │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— picatus, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— argenteus,       │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— destructor       │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— cinereus, _Gould_│             │          │          │
 —— leucopterus,     │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Quoyii           │             │          │          │    *
 Grallina Australis  │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Graucalus melanops  │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— parvirostris,    │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— mentalis, _Vig. &│             │          │          │
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 Graucalus           │             │          │          │
   hypoleucus,       │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Swainsonii,      │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Pteropodocys        │             │          │          │
   Phasianellus,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Campephaga Jardinii,│      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Karu             │             │          │          │    *
 —— leucomela, _Vig. │      *      │          │          │
   & Horsf._         │             │          │          │
 —— humeralis,       │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Pachycephala        │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   gutturalis        │             │          │          │
 —— glaucura, _Gould_│             │          │          │
 —— melanura, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 —— pectoralis       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— falcata, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— Lanoïdes, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 —— rufogularis,     │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Gilbertii,       │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— simplex, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— olivacea, _Vig. &│      *      │          │          │
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 Colluricincla       │      *      │    *     │          │
   harmonica         │             │          │          │
 —— rufiventris,     │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— brunnea, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— Selbii, _Jard._  │             │          │          │
 —— parvula, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— rufogaster,      │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Falcunculus         │      *      │    *     │          │
   frontatus         │             │          │          │
 —— leucogaster,     │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Oreoïca gutturalis  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Dicrurus bracteatus,│      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Rhipidura albiscapa,│      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— rufifrons        │      *      │          │          │
 —— Dryas, _Gould_   │             │          │          │    *
 —— isura, _Gould_   │             │          │          │    *
 —— Motacilloïdes,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 —— picata, _Gould_  │             │          │          │    *
 Seïsura inquieta    │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Piezorhynchus       │             │          │          │    *
   nitidus, _Gould_  │             │          │          │
 Myiägra plumbea,    │      *      │          │          │
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 —— concinna, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 —— nitida, _Gould_  │      *      │          │          │
 —— latirostris,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Micrœca macroptera  │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— assimilis,       │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— flavigaster,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Monarcha carinata   │      *      │          │          │
 —— trivirgata       │      *      │          │          │    *
 Gerygone            │             │          │          │
   albogularis,      │      *      │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— fuscus, _Gould_  │      *      │          │          │
 —— culicivorus,     │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— magnirostris,    │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— lævigaster,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— chloronotus,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Smicrornis          │             │          │          │
   brevirostris,     │      *      │    *     │    *?    │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— flavescens,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Erythrodryas        │             │    *     │          │
   rhodinogaster     │             │          │          │
 —— rosea, _Gould_   │      *      │          │          │
 Petroïca multicolor │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— erythrogastra    │             │          │          │
 —— Goodenovii       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— phœnicea, _Gould_│      *      │    *     │          │
 —— bicolor,         │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Swains._         │             │          │          │
 —— fusca, _Gould_   │             │          │          │
 —— superciliosa,    │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Drymodes            │             │          │          │
   brunneopygia,     │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Eöpsaltria Australis│      *      │          │          │
 —— griseogularis,   │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— leucogaster,     │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Menura superba,     │      *      │          │          │
   _Dav._            │             │          │          │
 Psophodes crepitans │      *      │          │          │
 —— nigrogularis,    │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Sphenostoma         │      *      │    *     │          │
   cristata, _Gould_ │             │          │          │
 Malurus cyaneus     │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— longicaudus,     │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— melanotus,       │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— splendens        │             │          │    *     │
 —— elegans, _Gould_ │             │          │    *     │
 —— pulcherrimus,    │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Lamberti, _Vig. &│      *      │          │          │
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 —— leucopterus,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Quoy & Gaim._    │             │          │          │
 —— melanocephalus,  │      *      │          │          │
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 —— Brownii, _Vig. & │      *      │          │          │    *
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 Amytis textilis     │      *      │          │          │
 —— striatus, _Gould_│      *      │          │          │
 —— macrourus,       │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Stipiturus          │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   malachurus        │             │          │          │
 Dasyornis Australis,│      *      │          │          │
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 —— longirostris,    │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Atrichia clamosa,   │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Sphenœacus          │      *      │          │          │    *
   galactotes        │             │          │          │
 —— gramineus,       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Acrocephalus        │      *      │    *     │          │
   Australis, _Gould_│             │          │          │
 —— longirostris,    │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Hylacola pyrrhopygia│      *      │    *     │          │
 —— cauta, _Gould_   │             │    *     │          │
 Cysticola magna,    │      A      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— exilis           │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— lineocapilla,    │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— isura, _Gould_   │      *      │          │          │
 —— ruficeps, _Gould_│      *      │          │          │
 Sericornis          │             │          │          │
   citreogularis,    │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— humilis, _Gould_ │             │          │          │
 —— osculans, _Gould_│             │    *     │          │
 —— frontalis        │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— lævigaster,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— maculatus,       │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— magnirostris,    │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Acanthiza pusilla   │      *      │          │          │
 —— Diemenensis,     │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Ewingii, _Gould_ │             │          │          │
 —— uropygialis,     │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— apicalis, _Gould_│             │          │    *     │
 —— pyrrhopygia,     │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— inornata, _Gould_│             │    *     │    *     │
 —— nana, _Vig. &    │      *      │    *     │          │
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 —— lineata, _Gould_ │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— Reguloïdes, _Vig.│      *      │    *     │          │
   & Horsf._         │             │          │          │
 —— chrysorrhœa      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Ephthianura         │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   albifrons         │             │          │          │
 —— aurifrons,       │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— tricolor, _Gould_│      *      │          │          │
 Xerophila leucopsis,│             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Pyrrholæmus         │             │    *     │    *     │
   brunneus, _Gould_ │             │          │          │
 Origma rubricata    │      *      │          │          │
 Calamanthus         │             │          │          │
   fuliginosus       │             │          │          │
 —— campestris,      │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Chthonicola minima  │      *      │    *     │          │
 Anthus Australis,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 Cincloramphus       │      *      │          │          │
   cruralis          │             │          │          │
 —— cantillans,      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— rufescens        │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Mirafra Horsfieldii,│      *      │          │          │    *?
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Estrelda bella      │      *      │          │          │
 —— oculea           │             │          │    *     │
 —— Bichenovii       │      *      │          │    *     │
 —— annulosa, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 —— temporalis       │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— Phaëton          │             │          │          │    *
 —— ruficauda,       │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— modesta, _Gould_ │      *      │          │          │
 Amadina Lathamii    │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— castanotis,      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Poëphila Gouldiæ,   │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— mirabilis, _Homb.│             │          │          │    *
   & Jacq._          │             │          │          │
 —— acuticauda,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— personata,       │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— leucotis, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 —— cincta, _Gould_  │      *      │          │          │
 Donacola            │             │          │          │
   castaneothorax,   │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pectoralis,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— flaviprymna,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Emblema picta,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Pitta strepitans,   │      *      │          │          │
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 —— Vigorsii, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 —— Iris, _Gould_    │             │          │          │    *
 Cinclosoma          │             │          │          │
   punctatum, _Vig. &│      *      │    *     │          │
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 —— castanotus,      │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— cinnamomeus,     │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Oreocincla lunulata │      *      │          │          │
 Chlamydera maculata,│      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— nuchalis         │             │          │          │    *
 Ptilonorhynchus     │             │          │          │
   holosericeus,     │      *      │          │          │
   _Kuhl_            │             │          │          │
 —— Smithii, _Vig. & │      *      │          │          │
   Horsf._           │             │          │          │
 Sericulus           │      *      │          │          │
   chrysocephalus    │             │          │          │
 Oriolus viridis     │      *      │          │          │
 —— affinis, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— flavocinctus     │             │          │          │    *
 Sphecotheres        │             │          │          │
   Australis,        │      *      │          │          │
   _Swains._         │             │          │          │
 Corcorax leucopterus│      *      │    *     │          │
 Struthidea cinerea, │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Corvus Coronoïdes,  │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 Neomorpha Gouldii,  │             │          │          │
   _G. R. Gray_      │             │          │          │
 Pomatorhinus        │      *      │          │          │
   temporalis        │             │          │          │
 —— rubeculus,       │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— superciliosus,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 Meliphaga           │      *      │    *     │          │
   Novæ-Hollandiæ    │             │          │          │
 —— longirostris,    │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— sericea, _Gould_ │      *      │          │          │
 —— mystacalis,      │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Australasiana    │      *      │    *     │          │
 Glyciphila          │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   fulvifrons        │             │          │          │
 —— albifrons,       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— fasciata, _Gould_│             │          │          │
 —— ocularis, _Gould_│      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Ptilotis chrysotis  │      *      │          │          │
 —— sonorus, _Gould_ │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— versicolor,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— flavigula,       │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— leucotis         │      *      │          │    *?    │
 —— auricomis        │      *      │          │          │
 —— cratitius,       │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— ornatus, _Gould_ │             │          │    *     │
 —— plumulus, _Gould_│             │          │    *     │
 —— flavescens,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— flava, _Gould_   │             │          │          │    *
 —— penicillatus,    │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— fusca, _Gould_   │      *      │          │          │
 —— chrysops         │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— unicolor, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 Plectorhyncha       │             │          │          │
   lanceolata,       │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Xanthomyza Phrygia  │      *      │    *     │          │
 Melicophila picata, │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Entomophila picta,  │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— albogularis,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— rufogularis,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Acanthogenys        │             │          │          │
   rufogularis,      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Anthochæra inauris, │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— carunculata      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— mellivora        │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— lunulata, _Gould_│             │          │    *     │
 Tropidorhynchus     │      *      │          │          │
   corniculatus      │             │          │          │
 —— argenticeps,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— citreogularis,   │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— sordidus, _Gould_│             │          │          │
 Acanthorhynchus     │      *      │          │          │
   tenuirostris      │             │          │          │
 —— dubius, _Gould_  │             │          │          │
 —— superciliosus    │             │          │    *     │
 Myzomela            │      *      │          │          │    *
   sanguineolenta    │             │          │          │
 —— erythrocephala,  │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pectoralis,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— nigra, _Gould_   │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— obscura, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 Entomyza cyanotis   │      *      │          │          │
 —— albipennis,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Melithreptus        │             │          │          │
   validirostris,    │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— gularis, _Gould_ │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— lunulatus        │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— chloropsis,      │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— albogularis,     │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— melanocephalus,  │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Myzantha garrula    │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— obscura, _Gould_ │             │          │    *     │
 —— lutea, _Gould_   │             │          │          │    *
 —— flavigula,       │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— melanophrys      │             │          │          │
 Zosterops dorsalis, │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 —— chloronotus,     │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— luteus, _Gould_  │             │          │          │    *
 Cuculus optatus,    │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— inornatus, _Vig. │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   & Horsf._         │             │          │          │
 —— cineraceus, _Vig.│      *      │    *     │    *     │
   & Horsf._         │             │          │          │
 —— insperatus,      │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— dumetorum        │             │          │          │    *
 Chrysococcyx        │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   osculans, _Gould_ │             │          │          │
 —— lucidus          │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Scythrops           │             │          │          │
   Novæ-Hollandiæ,   │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Lath._           │             │          │          │
 Eudynamys Flindersii│      *      │          │          │    *
 Centropus Phasianus │      *      │          │          │
 —— macrourus        │             │          │          │    *
 —— melanurus        │             │          │          │    *
 Climacteris         │      *      │    *     │          │
   scandens, _Temm._ │             │          │          │
 —— rufa, _Gould_    │             │          │    *     │
 —— erythrops,       │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— melanotus,       │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— melanura, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 —— picumnus, _Temm._│      *      │    *     │          │
 Orthonyx            │             │          │          │
   spinicaudus,      │      *      │          │          │
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 Ptiloris paradiseus,│      *      │          │          │    *
   _Swains._         │             │          │          │
 Sittella chrysoptera│      *      │          │          │
 —— leucocephala,    │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— leucoptera,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pileata, _Gould_ │             │    *     │    *     │
 Cacatua galerita    │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— Leadbeaterii     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— sanguinea,       │             │    *     │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Eos              │      *      │    *     │          │    *
 Licmetis nasicus    │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— pastinator       │             │          │    *     │
 Nestor productus,   │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Calyptorhynchus     │      *      │          │          │
   Banksii           │             │          │          │
 —— macrorhynchus,   │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— naso, _Gould_    │             │          │    *     │
 —— Leachii          │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— funereus         │      *      │          │          │
 —— xanthonotus,     │             │    *?    │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Baudinii, _Vig._ │             │          │    *     │
 Callocephalon       │      *      │          │          │
   galeatum          │             │          │          │
 Polytelis           │      *      │          │          │
   Barrabandii       │             │          │          │
 —— melanura         │             │    *     │    *     │
 Aprosmictus         │      *      │          │          │
   scapulatus        │             │          │          │
 —— erythropterus    │      *      │          │          │    *
 Platycercus         │             │          │    *     │
   semitorquatus     │             │          │          │
 —— Bauerii          │             │    *     │          │
 —— Barnardii, _Vig. │      *      │    *     │          │
   & Horsf._         │             │          │          │
 —— Adelaidiæ,       │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Pennantii        │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— flaviventris     │             │          │          │
 —— flaveolus,       │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— palliceps, _Vig._│      *      │          │          │
 —— eximius          │      *      │          │          │
 —— splendidus,      │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— icterotis        │             │          │    *     │
 —— ignitus, _Lead._ │     *?      │          │          │
 —— Brownii          │             │          │          │    *
 —— pileatus, _Vig._ │             │          │    *     │
 Psephotus           │             │          │          │
   hæmatogaster,     │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pulcherrimus,    │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— multicolor       │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— hæmatonotus,     │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Euphema chrysostoma │     *?      │          │          │
 —— elegans, _Gould_ │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— aurantia, _Gould_│             │    *     │          │
 —— petrophila,      │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pulchella        │      *      │          │          │
 —— splendida,       │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Bourkii          │      *      │    *     │          │
 Melopsittacus       │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   undulatus         │             │          │          │
 Nymphicus           │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   Novæ-Hollandiæ    │             │          │          │
 Pezoporus formosus  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Lathamus discolor   │      *      │          │          │
 Trichoglossus       │             │          │          │
   Swainsonii, _Jard.│      *      │    *     │          │
   & Selby_          │             │          │          │
 —— rubritorquis,    │             │          │          │    *
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │             │          │          │
 Trichoglossus       │      *      │          │          │
   chlorolepidotus   │             │          │          │
 —— versicolor,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Vig._            │             │          │          │
 —— concinnus        │      *      │    *     │          │
 —— porphyrocephalus,│             │    *     │    *     │
   _Diet._           │             │          │          │
 —— pusillus         │      *      │    *     │          │
 Ptilinopus          │             │          │          │
   Swainsonii,       │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Ewingii, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— superbus         │             │          │          │    *
 Carpophaga magnifica│      *      │          │          │
 —— leucomela        │      *      │          │          │
 —— luctuosa         │             │          │          │    *
 Lopholaimus         │      *      │          │          │
   Antarcticus       │             │          │          │
 Chalcophaps         │      *      │          │          │
   chrysochlora      │             │          │          │
 —— longirostris     │             │          │          │    *
 Leucosarcia picata  │      *      │          │          │
 Phaps chalcoptera   │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— elegans          │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— histrionica,     │      *      │    *     │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Geophaps scripta    │      *      │          │          │
 —— Smithii          │             │          │          │    *
 —— plumifera,       │             │    *     │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Ocyphaps Lophotes   │      *      │    *     │          │
 Petrophassa         │             │          │          │
   albipennis,       │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Geopelia humeralis  │      *      │          │          │    *
 —— tranquilla,      │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— placida, _Gould_ │             │          │          │    *
 —— cuneata          │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Macropygia          │      *      │          │          │
   Phasianella       │             │          │          │
 Didunculus          │             │          │          │
   strigirostris     │             │          │          │
 Talegalla Lathami   │      *      │          │          │
 Leipoa ocellata,    │             │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Megapodius Tumulus, │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Pedionomus          │      *      │    *     │          │
   torquatus, _Gould_│             │          │          │
 Turnix melanogaster,│      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— varius           │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— scintillans,     │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— melanotus,       │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— castanotus,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pyrrhothorax,    │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— velox, _Gould_   │      *      │    *     │          │
 Coturnix pectoralis,│      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Synoïcus Australis  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— Diemenensis,     │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— sordidus, _Gould_│             │    *     │          │
 ——? Chinensis       │      *      │    *     │          │    *
 Dromaius            │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   Novæ-Hollandiæ    │             │          │          │
 Apteryx Australis,  │             │          │          │
   _Shaw_            │             │          │          │
 —— Owenii, _Gould_  │             │          │          │
 Otis Australis      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Œdicnemus grallarius│      *      │    *     │    *     │    *?
 Esacus magnirostris │             │          │          │    *
 Hæmatopus           │             │          │          │
   longirostris,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Vieill._         │             │          │          │
 Hæmatopus           │             │          │          │
   fuliginosus,      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Lobivanellus lobatus│      *      │    *     │          │
 —— personatus,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Sarciophorus        │      *      │    *     │          │
   pectoralis        │             │          │          │
 Squatarola Helvetica│      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Charadrius          │             │          │          │
   xanthocheilus,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Wagl._           │             │          │          │
 —— veredus, _Gould_ │      *      │    *     │          │
 Eudromias Australis,│             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Hiaticula bicincta  │      *      │          │          │
 —— ruficapilla      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— monacha          │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— inornata, _Gould_│      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— nigrifrons       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Erythrogonys        │      *      │    *     │          │
   cinctus, _Gould_  │             │          │          │
 Glareola grallaria, │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 —— Orientalis,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Leach_           │             │          │          │
 Himantopus          │             │          │          │
   leucocephalus,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Novæ-Zelandiæ,   │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Chladorhynchus      │             │    *     │    *     │
   pectoralis        │             │          │          │
 Recurvirostra       │             │          │          │
   rubricollis,      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 Limosa Melanuroïdes,│             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— uropygialis,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Schœniclus Australis│      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— albescens        │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— subarquatus      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— magnus, _Gould_  │             │          │    *     │
 Terekia cinerea     │      *      │          │          │
 Actitis empusa,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Glottis Glottoïdes  │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 Totanus stagnatilis │      *      │          │          │
 —— griseopygius,    │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Strepsilas Interpres│      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
                     │             │          │          │
 Scolopax Australis, │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Lath._           │             │          │          │
 Rhynchæa Australis, │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Numenius Australis, │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— uropygialis,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— minutus, _Gould_ │      *      │          │    *     │    *
 Geronticus          │      *      │          │          │    *
   spinicollis       │             │          │          │
 Threskiornis        │      *      │          │          │    *
   strictipennis     │             │          │          │
 Falcinellus igneus  │      *      │    *     │          │    *
 Grus Australasianus,│      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Platalea flavipes,  │      *      │    *     │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— regia, _Gould_   │      *      │    *     │          │    *
 Mycteria Australis, │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Lath._           │             │          │          │
 Ardea pacifica,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Lath._           │             │          │          │
 —— Novæ-Hollandiæ,  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Lath._           │             │          │          │
 —— rectirostris,    │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— leucophæa,       │             │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Herodias            │             │          │          │
   syrmatophorus,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— plumiferus,      │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— immaculatus,     │             │          │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pannosus, _Gould_│      *      │          │          │
 Herodias? jugularis │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— Greyi            │             │          │          │    *
 —— picata, _Gould_  │             │          │          │    *
 Nycticorax          │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   Caledonicus       │             │          │          │
 Botaurus Australis, │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Ardetta flavicollis │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
 —— macrorhyncha,    │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— stagnatilis,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— pusilla          │      *      │          │          │
 Porphyrio melanotus,│      *      │    *     │          │    *
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 —— bellus, _Gould_  │             │          │    *     │
 Tribonyx Mortieri,  │             │          │          │
   _DuBus_           │             │          │          │
 —— ventralis,       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Gallinula tenebrosa,│      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Fulica Australis,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Parra gallinacea,   │             │          │          │    *
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 Rallus pectoralis,  │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Cuv._            │             │          │          │
 —— Lewinii,         │             │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Swains._         │             │          │          │
 Eulabeornis         │             │          │          │
   castaneoventris,  │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Porzana fluminea,   │      *      │    *     │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— palustris,       │      *      │    *     │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— leucophrys,      │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 ——? immaculata      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Cereopsis           │             │          │          │
   Novæ-Hollandiæ,   │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Lath._           │             │          │          │
 Anseranas           │      *      │    *     │          │    *
   melanoleuca       │             │          │          │
 Bernicla jubata     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Nettapus pulchellus,│             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— albipennis,      │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Cygnus atratus      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Casarca Tadornoïdes │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Tadorna Radjah      │             │          │          │    *
 Anas superciliosa,  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gmel._           │             │          │          │
 —— nævosa, _Gould_  │             │    *     │    *     │
 —— punctata, _Cuv._ │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Spatula Rhynchotis  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Malacorhynchus      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   membranaceus      │             │          │          │
 Dendrocygna arcuata │      *      │          │          │    *
 —— Eytoni, _Gould_  │             │    *     │    *     │    *
 Nyroca Australis,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Erismatura Australis│             │          │    *     │
 Biziura lobata      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Larus Pacificus     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Xema Jamesonii      │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *?
 Lestris Catarractes │      *      │    *     │          │
 Sylochelidon        │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   strenuus          │             │          │          │
 Thalasseus          │             │          │          │    *
   Pelecanoïdes      │             │          │          │
 —— poliocercus,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Torresii, _Gould_│             │          │          │    *
 Sterna              │             │          │          │
   melanorhyncha,    │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— gracilis, _Gould_│             │          │    *     │
 —— melanauchen,     │             │          │          │    *
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 Sternula Nereis,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Gelochelidon        │             │          │          │
   macrotarsus       │             │          │          │
 Gygis candida       │             │          │          │    *
 Hydrochelidon       │             │          │          │
   fluviatilis,      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Onychoprion         │             │          │    *     │    *
   fuliginosus?      │             │          │          │
 —— Panaya           │             │          │    *     │    *
 Anoüs stolidus      │      *      │          │    *     │    *
 —— melanops, _Gould_│             │          │    *     │
 —— leucocapillus,   │             │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— cinereus, _Gould_│      *      │          │          │    *
 Diomedea exulans,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Linn._           │             │          │          │
 —— brachyura,       │             │          │          │    *?
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 —— cauta, _Gould_   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— culminata,       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— chlororhynchos,  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Lath._           │             │          │          │
 —— melanophrys,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 —— fuliginosa       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— olivaceorhyncha, │             │          │          │    *?
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Procellaria gigantea│      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— Æquinoctialis    │             │          │          │
 —— conspicillata,   │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— hasitata, _Kuhl_ │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— Atlantica,       │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— macroptera,      │             │          │          │
   _Smith_           │             │          │          │
 —— Solandrii,       │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Glacialoïdes,    │      *      │          │          │
   _Smith_           │             │          │          │
 —— Lessonii, _Garn._│      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— mollis, _Gould_  │             │          │          │
                     │             │          │          │
 —— Cookii, _G. R.   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   Gray_             │             │          │          │
 —— cœrulea, _Gmel._ │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— flavirostris,    │             │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— nivea, _Gmel._   │             │          │          │
 —— Antarctica,      │             │          │          │
   _Gmel._           │             │          │          │
 Daption Capensis    │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Prion Turtur        │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— vittatus, _Cuv._ │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— Banksii          │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— Ariel, _Gould_   │             │          │          │
 Puffinus            │             │          │          │
   brevicaudus,      │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Brandt_          │             │          │          │
 —— carneipes,       │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— sphenurus,       │             │          │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— assimilis,       │      *      │          │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Puffinuria Urinatrix│      *      │    *     │          │
 Thalassidroma       │             │          │    *     │
   marina, _Less._   │             │          │          │
 —— melanogaster,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— leucogaster,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Tropica, _Gould_ │             │          │          │
                     │             │          │          │
 —— Nereis, _Gould_  │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— Wilsonii,        │             │          │          │
   _Bonap._          │      *      │    *     │    *     │
                     │             │          │          │
 Phalacrocorax       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   Carboïdes, _Gould_│             │          │          │
 —— sulcirostris     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— hypoleucus       │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 Phalacrocorax       │             │          │          │
   leucogaster,      │      *      │    *     │          │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— melanoleucus,    │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Vieill._         │             │          │          │
 —— punctatus        │             │          │          │
 Attagen Ariel,      │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— Aquila?          │             │          │          │    *
 Phaëton phœnicurus  │      *      │          │          │    *
 Pelecanus           │             │          │          │
   conspicillatus,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │    *
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 Plotus              │             │          │          │
   Novæ-Hollandiæ,   │      *      │    *     │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 Sula Australis,     │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— personata,       │      *      │          │          │    *
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— fusca, _Briss._  │             │          │          │    *
 —— piscator, _Linn._│             │          │          │    *
 Podiceps Australis, │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Gould_           │             │          │          │
 —— gularis, _Gould_ │      *      │    *     │    *     │
 —— poliocephalus,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Jard. & Selb._   │             │          │          │
                     │             │          │          │
 Eudyptes chrysocome │             │          │          │
                     │             │          │          │
 Spheniscus minor,   │      *      │    *     │    *     │
   _Temm._           │             │          │          │
 —— undina, _Gould_  │             │          │          │
 ────────────────────┴─────────────┴──────────┴──────────┴──────────

 ────────────────────┬────────┬──────────────────────┬──────────────────
                     │        │                      │
                     │  Van   │                      │ Number of Volume
   Name of Species.  │Diemen’s│  Extra Australian.   │    and Plate.
                     │ Land.  │                      │
                     │        │                      │
 ────────────────────┼────────┼──────────────────────┼──────────────────
 Aquila fucosa,      │   *    │                      │Vol. I. Pl. 1.
   _Cuv._            │        │                      │
 —— Morphnoïdes,     │        │                      │—      2.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Ichthyiaëtus        │   *    │India and Africa?     │—      3.
   leucogaster       │        │                      │
 Haliastur           │        │                      │
   leucosternus,     │        │                      │—      4.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— sphenurus        │        │                      │—      5.
 Pandion             │        │                      │
   leucocephalus,    │   *    │                      │—      6.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Falco hypoleucus,   │        │                      │—      7.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— melanogenys,     │   *    │                      │—      8.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— subniger, _Gray_ │        │                      │—      9.
 —— frontatus,       │   *    │                      │—     10.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Ieracidea Berigora  │   *    │                      │—     11.
 —— occidentalis,    │        │                      │—     12.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Tinnunculus         │        │                      │—     13.
   Cenchroïdes       │        │                      │
 Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ│        │                      │—     14.
 —— —— (albino)      │   *    │                      │—     15.
 —— radiatus         │        │                      │—     16.
 —— approximans,     │   *    │                      │—     17.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 —— cruentus, _Gould_│        │                      │—     18.
 Accipiter torquatus │   *    │                      │—     19.
 Buteo melanosternon,│        │                      │—     20.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Milvus affinis,     │   *    │                      │—     21.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— isurus, _Gould_  │        │                      │—     22.
 Elanus axillaris    │        │                      │—     23.
 —— scriptus, _Gould_│        │                      │—     24.
 Lepidogenys         │        │                      │
   subcristatus,     │        │                      │—     25.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Circus assimilis,   │   *    │                      │—     26.
   _Jard. & Selb._   │        │                      │
 —— Jardinii, _Gould_│        │                      │—     27.
 Strix castanops,    │   *    │                      │—     28.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— personata, _Vig._│        │                      │—     29.
 —— tenebricosus,    │        │                      │—     30.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— delicatulus,     │        │                      │—     31.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Athene Boobook      │   *    │                      │—     32.
 —— maculata         │   *    │                      │—     33.
 —— marmorata,       │        │                      │Intro., p. xxv.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 ——? connivens       │        │                      │Vol. I. Pl. 34.
 —— strenua, _Gould_ │        │                      │—     35.
 —— rufa, _Gould_    │        │                      │—     36.
 Ægotheles           │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 1.
   Novæ-Hollandiæ    │        │                      │
 —— leucogaster,     │        │                      │—      2.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Podargus            │        │                      │Intro., p. xxviii.
   megacephalus      │        │                      │
 —— humeralis, _Vig. │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 3.
   & Horsf._         │        │                      │
 —— Cuvieri, _Vig. & │   *    │                      │—      4.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 —— brachypterus,    │        │                      │Intro., p. xxvi.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Phalænoïdes,     │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 5.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— plumiferus,      │        │                      │—      6.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Eurostopodus        │        │                      │—      7.
   albogularis       │        │                      │
 —— guttatus         │        │                      │—      8.
 Caprimulgus         │        │Java                  │—      9.
   macrurus, _Horsf._│        │                      │
 Acanthylis caudacuta│   *    │                      │—     10.
 Cypselus Australis, │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 11.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Atticora            │        │                      │
   leucosternon,     │        │                      │—      12.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Hirundo neoxena,    │   *    │                      │—      13.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Chelidon arborea    │   *    │                      │—      14.
 —— Ariel,  _Gould_  │        │                      │—      15.
 Merops ornatus,     │        │                      │—      16.
   _Lath._           │        │                      │
 Eurystomus          │        │                      │
   Australis,        │        │                      │—      17.
   _Swains._         │        │                      │
 Dacelo gigantea     │        │                      │—      18.
 —— Leachii, _Vig. & │        │                      │—      19.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 —— cervina, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      20.
 Halcyon sanctus,    │        │                      │—      21.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 —— pyrrhopygia,     │        │                      │—      22.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— sordidus, _Gould_│        │                      │—      23.
 —— MacLeayii, _Jard.│        │                      │—      24.
   & Selby_          │        │                      │
 Alcyone azurea      │        │                      │—      25.
 —— Diemenensis,     │   *    │                      │Intro., p. xxxi.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pulchra, _Gould_ │        │                      │Intro., p. xxxii.
 —— pusilla          │        │New Guinea.           │Vol. II.  Pl. 26.
 Artamus sordidus    │   *    │                      │—      27.
 —— minor, _Vieill._ │        │                      │—      28.
 —— cinereus,        │        │Timor                 │—      29.
   _Vieill._         │        │                      │
 —— albiventris,     │        │                      │—      30.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— personatus,      │        │                      │—      31.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— superciliosus,   │        │                      │—      32.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— leucopygialis,   │        │                      │—      33.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Dicæum hirundinaceum│        │                      │—      34.
 Pardalotus punctatus│   *    │                      │—      35.
 —— rubricatus,      │        │                      │—      36.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— quadragintus,    │   *    │                      │—      37.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— striatus         │        │                      │—      38.
 —— affinis, _Gould_ │   *    │                      │—      39.
 —— melanocephalus,  │        │                      │—      40.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— uropygialis,     │        │                      │—      41.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Strepera graculina  │        │                      │—      42.
 —— fuliginosa,      │   *    │                      │—      43.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— arguta, _Gould_  │   *    │                      │—      44.
 —— Anaphonensis     │        │                      │—      45.
 —— melanoptera,     │        │                      │Intro., p. xxxiv.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Gymnorhina Tibicen  │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 46.
 —— leuconota,       │        │                      │—      47.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— organicum,       │   *    │                      │—      48.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Cracticus           │        │                      │
   nigrogularis,     │        │                      │—      49.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— picatus, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      50.
 —— argenteus,       │        │                      │—      51.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— destructor       │        │                      │—      52.
 —— cinereus, _Gould_│   *    │                      │Intro., p. xxxv.
 —— leucopterus,     │        │                      │Intro., p. xxxv.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Quoyii           │        │New Guinea.           │Vol. II.  Pl. 53.
 Grallina Australis  │        │                      │—      54.
 Graucalus melanops  │        │                      │—      55.
 —— parvirostris,    │   *    │                      │Intro., p. xxxv.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— mentalis, _Vig. &│   *    │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 56.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 Graucalus           │        │                      │
   hypoleucus,       │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 57.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Swainsonii,      │        │                      │—      58.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Pteropodocys        │        │                      │
   Phasianellus,     │        │                      │—      59.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Campephaga Jardinii,│        │                      │—      60.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Karu             │        │New Guinea.           │—      61.
 —— leucomela, _Vig. │        │                      │—      62.
   & Horsf._         │        │                      │
 —— humeralis,       │        │                      │—      63.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Pachycephala        │        │                      │—      64.
   gutturalis        │        │                      │
 —— glaucura, _Gould_│   *    │                      │—      65.
 —— melanura, _Gould_│        │                      │—      66.
 —— pectoralis       │        │                      │—      67.
 —— falcata, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      68.
 —— Lanoïdes, _Gould_│        │                      │—      69.
 —— rufogularis,     │        │                      │—      70.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Gilbertii,       │        │                      │—      71.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— simplex, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      72.
 —— olivacea, _Vig. &│   *    │                      │—      73.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 Colluricincla       │        │                      │—      74.
   harmonica         │        │                      │
 —— rufiventris,     │        │                      │—      75.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— brunnea, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      76.
 —— Selbii, _Jard._  │   *    │                      │—      77.
 —— parvula, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      78.
 —— rufogaster,      │        │                      │Intro., p. xxxvi.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Falcunculus         │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 79.
   frontatus         │        │                      │
 —— leucogaster,     │        │                      │—      80.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Oreoïca gutturalis  │        │                      │—      81.
 Dicrurus bracteatus,│        │                      │—      82.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Rhipidura albiscapa,│   *    │                      │—      83.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— rufifrons        │        │                      │—      84.
 —— Dryas, _Gould_   │        │                      │Intro., p. xxxix.
 —— isura, _Gould_   │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 85.
 —— Motacilloïdes,   │        │                      │—      86.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 —— picata, _Gould_  │        │                      │Intro., p. xxxix.
 Seïsura inquieta    │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 87.
 Piezorhynchus       │        │                      │—      88.
   nitidus, _Gould_  │        │                      │
 Myiägra plumbea,    │        │                      │—      89.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 —— concinna, _Gould_│        │                      │—      90.
 —— nitida, _Gould_  │   *    │                      │—      91.
 —— latirostris,     │        │                      │—      92.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Micrœca macroptera  │        │                      │—      93.
 —— assimilis,       │        │                      │Intro., p. xl.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— flavigaster,     │        │                      │Vol. II.  Pl. 94.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Monarcha carinata   │        │                      │—      95.
 —— trivirgata       │        │                      │—      96.
 Gerygone            │        │                      │
   albogularis,      │        │                      │—      97.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— fuscus, _Gould_  │        │                      │—      98.
 —— culicivorus,     │        │                      │—      99.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— magnirostris,    │        │                      │—     100.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— lævigaster,      │        │                      │—     101.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— chloronotus,     │        │                      │—     102.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Smicrornis          │        │                      │
   brevirostris,     │        │                      │—     103.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— flavescens,      │        │                      │—     104.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Erythrodryas        │   *    │                      │Vol. II. . Pl. 1.
   rhodinogaster     │        │                      │
 —— rosea, _Gould_   │        │                      │—      2.
 Petroïca multicolor │   *    │                      │—      3.
 —— erythrogastra    │        │Norfolk Island        │—      4.
 —— Goodenovii       │        │                      │—      5.
 —— phœnicea, _Gould_│   *    │                      │—      6.
 —— bicolor,         │        │                      │—      7.
   _Swains._         │        │                      │
 —— fusca, _Gould_   │   *    │                      │—      8.
 —— superciliosa,    │        │                      │—      9.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Drymodes            │        │                      │
   brunneopygia,     │        │                      │—     10.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Eöpsaltria Australis│        │                      │—     11.
 —— griseogularis,   │        │                      │—     12.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— leucogaster,     │        │                      │—     13.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Menura superba,     │        │                      │—     14.
   _Dav._            │        │                      │
 Psophodes crepitans │        │                      │—     15.
 —— nigrogularis,    │        │                      │—     16.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Sphenostoma         │        │                      │—     17.
   cristata, _Gould_ │        │                      │
 Malurus cyaneus     │        │                      │—     18.
 —— longicaudus,     │   *    │                      │—     19.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— melanotus,       │        │                      │—     20.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— splendens        │        │                      │—     21.
 —— elegans, _Gould_ │        │                      │—     22.
 —— pulcherrimus,    │        │                      │—     23.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Lamberti, _Vig. &│        │                      │—     24.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 —— leucopterus,     │        │                      │—     25.
   _Quoy & Gaim._    │        │                      │
 —— melanocephalus,  │        │                      │—     26.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 —— Brownii, _Vig. & │        │                      │—     27.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 Amytis textilis     │        │                      │—     28.
 —— striatus, _Gould_│        │                      │—     29.
 —— macrourus,       │        │                      │—     30.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Stipiturus          │   *    │                      │—     31.
   malachurus        │        │                      │
 Dasyornis Australis,│        │                      │—     32.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 —— longirostris,    │        │                      │—     33.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Atrichia clamosa,   │        │                      │—     34.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Sphenœacus          │        │                      │—     35.
   galactotes        │        │                      │
 —— gramineus,       │        │                      │—     36.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Acrocephalus        │        │                      │—     37.
   Australis, _Gould_│        │                      │
 —— longirostris,    │        │                      │—     38.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Hylacola pyrrhopygia│        │                      │—     39.
 —— cauta, _Gould_   │        │                      │—     40.
 Cysticola magna,    │        │                      │—     41.  A
   _Gould_           │        │                      │  Unknown
 —— exilis           │        │                      │—     42.
 —— lineocapilla,    │        │                      │—     43.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— isura, _Gould_   │        │                      │—     44.
 —— ruficeps, _Gould_│        │                      │—     45.
 Sericornis          │        │                      │
   citreogularis,    │        │                      │—     46.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— humilis, _Gould_ │   *    │                      │—     47.
 —— osculans, _Gould_│        │                      │—     48.
 —— frontalis        │        │                      │—     49.
 —— lævigaster,      │        │                      │—     50.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— maculatus,       │        │                      │—     51.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— magnirostris,    │        │                      │—     52.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Acanthiza pusilla   │        │                      │Vol. II. . Pl. 53.
 —— Diemenensis,     │   *    │                      │—      54.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Ewingii, _Gould_ │   *    │                      │—      55.
 —— uropygialis,     │        │                      │—      56.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— apicalis, _Gould_│        │                      │—      57.
 —— pyrrhopygia,     │        │                      │—      58.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— inornata, _Gould_│        │                      │—      59.
 —— nana, _Vig. &    │        │                      │—      60.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 —— lineata, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      61.
 —— Reguloïdes, _Vig.│        │                      │—      62.
   & Horsf._         │        │                      │
 —— chrysorrhœa      │   *    │                      │—      63.
 Ephthianura         │        │                      │—      64.
   albifrons         │        │                      │
 —— aurifrons,       │        │                      │—      65.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— tricolor, _Gould_│        │                      │—      66.
 Xerophila leucopsis,│        │                      │—      67.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Pyrrholæmus         │        │                      │—      68.
   brunneus, _Gould_ │        │                      │
 Origma rubricata    │        │                      │—      69.
 Calamanthus         │   *    │                      │—      70.
   fuliginosus       │        │                      │
 —— campestris,      │        │                      │—      71.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Chthonicola minima  │        │                      │—      72.
 Anthus Australis,   │   *    │                      │—      73.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 Cincloramphus       │        │                      │—      74.
   cruralis          │        │                      │
 —— cantillans,      │        │                      │—      75.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— rufescens        │        │                      │—      76.
 Mirafra Horsfieldii,│        │                      │—      77.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Estrelda bella      │   *    │                      │—      78.
 —— oculea           │        │                      │—      79.
 —— Bichenovii       │        │                      │—      80.
 —— annulosa, _Gould_│        │                      │—      81.
 —— temporalis       │        │                      │—      82.
 —— Phaëton          │        │                      │—      83.
 —— ruficauda,       │        │                      │—      84.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— modesta, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      85.
 Amadina Lathamii    │        │                      │—      86.
 —— castanotis,      │        │                      │—      87.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Poëphila Gouldiæ,   │        │                      │—      88.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— mirabilis, _Homb.│        │                      │—      89.
   & Jacq._          │        │                      │
 —— acuticauda,      │        │                      │—      90.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— personata,       │        │                      │—      91.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— leucotis, _Gould_│        │                      │—      92.
 —— cincta, _Gould_  │        │                      │—      93.
 Donacola            │        │                      │
   castaneothorax,   │        │                      │—      94.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pectoralis,      │        │                      │—      95.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— flaviprymna,     │        │                      │—      96.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Emblema picta,      │        │                      │—      97.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Pitta strepitans,   │        │                      │Vol. IV. Pl. 1.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 —— Vigorsii, _Gould_│        │                      │—       2.
 —— Iris, _Gould_    │        │                      │—       3.
 Cinclosoma          │        │                      │
   punctatum, _Vig. &│   *    │                      │—       4.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 —— castanotus,      │        │                      │—       5.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— cinnamomeus,     │        │                      │—       6.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Oreocincla lunulata │   *    │                      │—       7.
 Chlamydera maculata,│        │                      │Vol. IV. Pl. 8.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— nuchalis         │        │                      │—      9.
 Ptilonorhynchus     │        │                      │
   holosericeus,     │        │                      │—     10.
   _Kuhl_            │        │                      │
 —— Smithii, _Vig. & │        │                      │—     11.
   Horsf._           │        │                      │
 Sericulus           │        │                      │—     12.
   chrysocephalus    │        │                      │
 Oriolus viridis     │        │                      │—     13.
 —— affinis, _Gould_ │        │                      │Intro., p. liii.
 —— flavocinctus     │        │                      │Vol. IV. Pl. 14.
 Sphecotheres        │        │                      │
   Australis,        │        │                      │—     15.
   _Swains._         │        │                      │
 Corcorax leucopterus│        │                      │—     16.
 Struthidea cinerea, │        │                      │—     17.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Corvus Coronoïdes,  │   *    │                      │—     18.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 Neomorpha Gouldii,  │        │New Zealand           │—     19.
   _G. R. Gray_      │        │                      │
 Pomatorhinus        │        │                      │—     20.
   temporalis        │        │                      │
 —— rubeculus,       │        │                      │—     21.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— superciliosus,   │        │                      │—     22.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 Meliphaga           │   *    │                      │—     23.
   Novæ-Hollandiæ    │        │                      │
 —— longirostris,    │        │                      │—     24.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— sericea, _Gould_ │        │                      │—     25.
 —— mystacalis,      │        │                      │—     26.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Australasiana    │   *    │                      │—     27.
 Glyciphila          │   *    │                      │—     28.
   fulvifrons        │        │                      │
 —— albifrons,       │        │                      │—     29.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— fasciata, _Gould_│        │                      │—     30.
 —— ocularis, _Gould_│        │                      │—     31.
 Ptilotis chrysotis  │        │                      │—     32.
 —— sonorus, _Gould_ │        │                      │—     33.
 —— versicolor,      │        │                      │—     34.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— flavigula,       │        │                      │—     35.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— leucotis         │        │                      │—     36.
 —— auricomis        │        │                      │—     37.
 —— cratitius,       │        │                      │—     38.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— ornatus, _Gould_ │        │                      │—     39.
 —— plumulus, _Gould_│        │                      │—     40.
 —— flavescens,      │        │                      │—     41.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— flava, _Gould_   │        │                      │—     42.
 —— penicillatus,    │        │                      │—     43.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— fusca, _Gould_   │        │                      │—     44.
 —— chrysops         │        │                      │—     45.
 —— unicolor, _Gould_│        │                      │—     46.
 Plectorhyncha       │        │                      │
   lanceolata,       │        │                      │—     47.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Xanthomyza Phrygia  │        │                      │—     48.
 Melicophila picata, │        │                      │—     49.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Entomophila picta,  │        │                      │—     50.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— albogularis,     │        │                      │—     51.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— rufogularis,     │        │                      │—     52.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Acanthogenys        │        │                      │
   rufogularis,      │        │                      │—     53.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Anthochæra inauris, │   *    │                      │—     54.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— carunculata      │        │                      │—     55.
 —— mellivora        │   *    │                      │—     56.
 —— lunulata, _Gould_│        │                      │—     57.
 Tropidorhynchus     │        │                      │Vol. IV. Pl. 58.
   corniculatus      │        │                      │
 —— argenticeps,     │        │                      │—      59.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— citreogularis,   │        │                      │—      60.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— sordidus, _Gould_│   *    │                      │Intro., p. lviii.
 Acanthorhynchus     │        │                      │Vol. IV. Pl. 61.
   tenuirostris      │        │                      │
 —— dubius, _Gould_  │   *    │                      │Intro., p. lix.
 —— superciliosus    │        │                      │Vol. IV. Pl. 62.
 Myzomela            │        │                      │—      63.
   sanguineolenta    │        │                      │
 —— erythrocephala,  │        │                      │—      64.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pectoralis,      │        │                      │—      65.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— nigra, _Gould_   │        │                      │—      66.
 —— obscura, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      67.
 Entomyza cyanotis   │        │                      │—      68.
 —— albipennis,      │        │                      │—      69.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Melithreptus        │        │                      │
   validirostris,    │   *    │                      │—      70.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— gularis, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      71.
 —— lunulatus        │        │                      │—      72.
 —— chloropsis,      │        │                      │—      73.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— albogularis,     │        │                      │—      74.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— melanocephalus,  │   *    │                      │—      75.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Myzantha garrula    │   *    │                      │—      76.
 —— obscura, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      77.
 —— lutea, _Gould_   │        │                      │—      78.
 —— flavigula,       │        │                      │—      79.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— melanophrys      │   *    │                      │—      80.
 Zosterops dorsalis, │   *    │                      │—      81.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 —— chloronotus,     │        │                      │—      82.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— luteus, _Gould_  │        │                      │—      83.
 Cuculus optatus,    │        │                      │—      84.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— inornatus, _Vig. │   *    │                      │—      85.
   & Horsf._         │        │                      │
 —— cineraceus, _Vig.│   *    │                      │—      86.
   & Horsf._         │        │                      │
 —— insperatus,      │        │                      │—      87.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— dumetorum        │        │                      │Intro., p. lx.
 Chrysococcyx        │        │                      │Vol. IV. Pl. 88.
   osculans, _Gould_ │        │                      │
 —— lucidus          │   *    │New Zealand?          │—      89.
 Scythrops           │        │                      │
   Novæ-Hollandiæ,   │        │                      │—      90.
   _Lath._           │        │                      │
 Eudynamys Flindersii│        │                      │—      91.
 Centropus Phasianus │        │                      │—      92.
 —— macrourus        │        │                      │Intro., p. lxi.
 —— melanurus        │        │                      │Intro., p. lxi.
 Climacteris         │        │                      │Vol. IV. Pl. 93.
   scandens, _Temm._ │        │                      │
 —— rufa, _Gould_    │        │                      │—      94.
 —— erythrops,       │        │                      │—      95.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— melanotus,       │        │                      │—      96.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— melanura, _Gould_│        │                      │—      97.
 —— picumnus, _Temm._│        │                      │—      98.
 Orthonyx            │        │                      │
   spinicaudus,      │        │                      │—      99.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 Ptiloris paradiseus,│        │                      │—     100.
   _Swains._         │        │                      │
 Sittella chrysoptera│        │                      │—     101.
 —— leucocephala,    │        │                      │—     102.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— leucoptera,      │        │                      │—     103.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pileata, _Gould_ │        │                      │—     104.
 Cacatua galerita    │   *    │                      │Vol. V.  Pl. 1.
 —— Leadbeaterii     │        │                      │—     2.
 —— sanguinea,       │        │                      │—     3.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Eos              │        │                      │—     4.
 Licmetis nasicus    │        │                      │—     5.
 —— pastinator       │        │                      │Intro., p. lxiii.
 Nestor productus,   │        │Phillip Island.       │Vol. V.  Pl. 6.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Calyptorhynchus     │        │                      │—     7.
   Banksii           │        │                      │
 —— macrorhynchus,   │        │                      │—     8.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— naso, _Gould_    │        │                      │—     9.
 —— Leachii          │        │                      │—    10.
 —— funereus         │        │                      │—    11.
 —— xanthonotus,     │   *    │                      │—    12.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Baudinii, _Vig._ │        │                      │—    13.
 Callocephalon       │   *    │                      │—    14.
   galeatum          │        │                      │
 Polytelis           │        │                      │—    15.
   Barrabandii       │        │                      │
 —— melanura         │        │                      │—    16.
 Aprosmictus         │        │                      │—    17.
   scapulatus        │        │                      │
 —— erythropterus    │        │                      │—    18.
 Platycercus         │        │                      │—    19.
   semitorquatus     │        │                      │
 —— Bauerii          │        │                      │—    20.
 —— Barnardii, _Vig. │        │                      │—    21.
   & Horsf._         │        │                      │
 —— Adelaidiæ,       │        │                      │—    22.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Pennantii        │        │                      │—    23.
 —— flaviventris     │   *    │                      │—    24.
 —— flaveolus,       │        │                      │—    25.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— palliceps, _Vig._│        │                      │—    26.
 —— eximius          │   *    │                      │—    27.
 —— splendidus,      │        │                      │—    28.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— icterotis        │        │                      │—    29.
 —— ignitus, _Lead._ │        │                      │—    30.
 —— Brownii          │        │                      │—    31.
 —— pileatus, _Vig._ │        │                      │—    32.
 Psephotus           │        │                      │
   hæmatogaster,     │        │                      │—    33.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pulcherrimus,    │        │                      │—    34.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— multicolor       │        │                      │—    35.
 —— hæmatonotus,     │        │                      │—    36.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Euphema chrysostoma │   *    │                      │—    37.
 —— elegans, _Gould_ │        │                      │—    38.
 —— aurantia, _Gould_│   *    │                      │—    39.
 —— petrophila,      │        │                      │—    40.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pulchella        │        │                      │—    41.
 —— splendida,       │        │                      │—    42.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Bourkii          │        │                      │—    43.
 Melopsittacus       │        │                      │—    44.
   undulatus         │        │                      │
 Nymphicus           │        │                      │—    45.
   Novæ-Hollandiæ    │        │                      │
 Pezoporus formosus  │   *    │                      │—    46.
 Lathamus discolor   │   *    │                      │—    47.
 Trichoglossus       │        │                      │
   Swainsonii, _Jard.│   *    │                      │—    48.
   & Selby_          │        │                      │
 —— rubritorquis,    │        │                      │—    49.
   _Vig. & Horsf._   │        │                      │
 Trichoglossus       │        │                      │Vol. V.  Pl. 50.
   chlorolepidotus   │        │                      │
 —— versicolor,      │        │                      │—      51.
   _Vig._            │        │                      │
 —— concinnus        │   *    │                      │—      52.
 —— porphyrocephalus,│        │                      │—      53.
   _Diet._           │        │                      │
 —— pusillus         │   *    │                      │—      54.
 Ptilinopus          │        │                      │
   Swainsonii,       │        │                      │—      55.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Ewingii, _Gould_ │        │                      │—      56.
 —— superbus         │        │                      │—      57.
 Carpophaga magnifica│        │                      │—      58.
 —— leucomela        │        │                      │—      59,
 —— luctuosa         │        │                      │—      60.
 Lopholaimus         │        │                      │—      61.
   Antarcticus       │        │                      │
 Chalcophaps         │        │                      │—      62.
   chrysochlora      │        │                      │
 —— longirostris     │        │                      │Intro., p. lxix.
 Leucosarcia picata  │        │                      │Vol. V.  Pl. 63.
 Phaps chalcoptera   │   *    │                      │—      64.
 —— elegans          │   *    │                      │—      65.
 —— histrionica,     │        │                      │—      66.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Geophaps scripta    │        │                      │—      67.
 —— Smithii          │        │                      │—      68.
 —— plumifera,       │        │                      │—      69.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Ocyphaps Lophotes   │        │                      │—      70.
 Petrophassa         │        │                      │
   albipennis,       │        │                      │—      71.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Geopelia humeralis  │        │                      │—      72.
 —— tranquilla,      │        │                      │—      73.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— placida, _Gould_ │        │                      │Intro., p. lxxi.
 —— cuneata          │        │                      │Vol. V.  Pl. 74.
 Macropygia          │        │                      │—      75.
   Phasianella       │        │                      │
 Didunculus          │        │Samoan Islands        │—      76.
   strigirostris     │        │                      │
 Talegalla Lathami   │        │                      │—      77.
 Leipoa ocellata,    │        │                      │—      78.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Megapodius Tumulus, │        │                      │—      79.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Pedionomus          │        │                      │—      80.
   torquatus, _Gould_│        │                      │
 Turnix melanogaster,│        │                      │—      81.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— varius           │   *    │                      │—      82.
 —— scintillans,     │        │                      │—      83.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— melanotus,       │        │                      │—      84.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— castanotus,      │        │                      │—      85.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pyrrhothorax,    │        │                      │—      86.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— velox, _Gould_   │        │                      │—      87.
 Coturnix pectoralis,│   *    │                      │—      88.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Synoïcus Australis  │   *    │                      │—      89.
 —— Diemenensis,     │   *    │                      │—      90.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— sordidus, _Gould_│        │                      │—      91.
 ——? Chinensis       │        │Ind. Isl. and China   │—      92.
 Dromaius            │   *    │                      │Vol. VI.  Pl. 1.
   Novæ-Hollandiæ    │        │                      │
 Apteryx Australis,  │        │New Zealand           │—       2.
   _Shaw_            │        │                      │
 —— Owenii, _Gould_  │        │New Zealand           │—       3.
 Otis Australis      │        │                      │—       4.
 Œdicnemus grallarius│        │                      │—       5.
 Esacus magnirostris │        │                      │—       6.
 Hæmatopus           │        │                      │
   longirostris,     │   *    │                      │—       7.
   _Vieill._         │        │                      │
 Hæmatopus           │        │                      │
   fuliginosus,      │   *    │                      │Vol. VI.  Pl. 8.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Lobivanellus lobatus│   *    │                      │—      9.
 —— personatus,      │        │                      │—     10.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Sarciophorus        │   *    │                      │—     11.
   pectoralis        │        │                      │
 Squatarola Helvetica│   *    │                      │—     12.
 Charadrius          │        │                      │
   xanthocheilus,    │   *    │                      │—     13.
   _Wagl._           │        │                      │
 —— veredus, _Gould_ │        │                      │—     14.
 Eudromias Australis,│        │                      │—     15.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Hiaticula bicincta  │   *    │                      │—     16.
 —— ruficapilla      │   *    │                      │—     17.
 —— monacha          │   *    │                      │—     18.
 —— inornata, _Gould_│   *    │                      │—     19.
 —— nigrifrons       │        │                      │—     20.
 Erythrogonys        │        │                      │—     21.
   cinctus, _Gould_  │        │                      │
 Glareola grallaria, │        │                      │—     22.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 —— Orientalis,      │        │                      │—     23.
   _Leach_           │        │                      │
 Himantopus          │        │                      │
   leucocephalus,    │        │                      │—     24.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Novæ-Zelandiæ,   │        │New Zealand           │—     25.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Chladorhynchus      │        │                      │—     26.
   pectoralis        │        │                      │
 Recurvirostra       │        │                      │
   rubricollis,      │   *    │                      │—     27.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 Limosa Melanuroïdes,│        │                      │—     28.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— uropygialis,     │   *    │                      │—     29.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Schœniclus Australis│   *    │                      │—     30.
 —— albescens        │   *    │                      │—     31.
 —— subarquatus      │   *    │                      │—     32.
 —— magnus, _Gould_  │        │Japan                 │—     33.
 Terekia cinerea     │        │India and Europe      │—     34.
 Actitis empusa,     │        │                      │—     35.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Glottis Glottoïdes  │   *    │                      │—     36.
 Totanus stagnatilis │        │India and Europe      │—     37.
 —— griseopygius,    │        │                      │—     38.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Strepsilas Interpres│   *    │The sea-coasts of all │—     39.
                     │        │  countries           │
 Scolopax Australis, │   *    │                      │—     40.
   _Lath._           │        │                      │
 Rhynchæa Australis, │        │                      │—     41.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Numenius Australis, │   *    │                      │—     42.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— uropygialis,     │   *    │                      │—     43.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— minutus, _Gould_ │        │                      │—     44.
 Geronticus          │        │                      │—     45.
   spinicollis       │        │                      │
 Threskiornis        │        │                      │—     46.
   strictipennis     │        │                      │
 Falcinellus igneus  │        │                      │—     47.
 Grus Australasianus,│        │                      │—     48.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Platalea flavipes,  │        │                      │—     49.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— regia, _Gould_   │        │                      │—     50.
 Mycteria Australis, │        │                      │—     51.
   _Lath._           │        │                      │
 Ardea pacifica,     │        │                      │—     52.
   _Lath._           │        │                      │
 —— Novæ-Hollandiæ,  │   *    │                      │—     53.
   _Lath._           │        │                      │
 —— rectirostris,    │        │Borneo?               │—     54.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— leucophæa,       │        │India?                │—     55.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Herodias            │        │                      │
   syrmatophorus,    │        │                      │—     56.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— plumiferus,      │        │                      │—     57.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— immaculatus,     │        │                      │—     58.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pannosus, _Gould_│        │                      │—     59.
 Herodias? jugularis │        │New Zealand           │Vol. VI.  Pl. 60.
 —— Greyi            │        │                      │—      61.
 —— picata, _Gould_  │        │                      │—      62.
 Nycticorax          │   *    │                      │—      63.
   Caledonicus       │        │                      │
 Botaurus Australis, │   *    │                      │—      64.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Ardetta flavicollis │        │                      │—      65.
 —— macrorhyncha,    │        │                      │—      66.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— stagnatilis,     │        │                      │—      67.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— pusilla          │        │                      │—      68.
 Porphyrio melanotus,│   *    │                      │—      69.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 —— bellus, _Gould_  │        │                      │—      70.
 Tribonyx Mortieri,  │        │                      │—      71.
   _DuBus_           │        │                      │
 —— ventralis,       │        │                      │—      72.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Gallinula tenebrosa,│        │                      │—      73.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Fulica Australis,   │        │                      │—      74.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Parra gallinacea,   │        │New Guinea            │—      75.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 Rallus pectoralis,  │   *    │                      │—      76.
   _Cuv._            │        │                      │
 —— Lewinii,         │        │                      │—      77.
   _Swains._         │        │                      │
 Eulabeornis         │        │                      │
   castaneoventris,  │        │                      │—      78.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Porzana fluminea,   │   *    │                      │—      79.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— palustris,       │   *    │                      │—      80.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— leucophrys,      │        │                      │—      81.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 ——? immaculata      │   *    │                      │—      82.
 Cereopsis           │        │                      │
   Novæ-Hollandiæ,   │   *    │                      │Vol. VII.  Pl. 1.
   _Lath._           │        │                      │
 Anseranas           │        │                      │—       2.
   melanoleuca       │        │                      │
 Bernicla jubata     │        │                      │—       3.
 Nettapus pulchellus,│        │                      │—       4.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— albipennis,      │        │                      │—       5.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Cygnus atratus      │   *    │                      │—       6.
 Casarca Tadornoïdes │   *    │                      │—       7.
 Tadorna Radjah      │        │                      │—       8.
 Anas superciliosa,  │   *    │                      │—       9.
   _Gmel._           │        │                      │
 —— nævosa, _Gould_  │        │                      │—      10.
 —— punctata, _Cuv._ │   *    │                      │—      11.
 Spatula Rhynchotis  │   *    │                      │—      12.
 Malacorhynchus      │   *    │                      │—      13.
   membranaceus      │        │                      │
 Dendrocygna arcuata │        │                      │—      14.
 —— Eytoni, _Gould_  │        │                      │—      15.
 Nyroca Australis,   │   *    │                      │—      16.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Erismatura Australis│        │                      │—      17.
 Biziura lobata      │   *    │                      │—      18.
 Larus Pacificus     │   *    │                      │—      19.
 Xema Jamesonii      │   *    │                      │—      20.
 Lestris Catarractes │   *    │                      │—      21.
 Sylochelidon        │   *    │                      │—      22.
   strenuus          │        │                      │
 Thalasseus          │        │                      │—      23.
   Pelecanoïdes      │        │                      │
 —— poliocercus,     │   *    │                      │—      24.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Torresii, _Gould_│        │India                 │—      25.
 Sterna              │        │                      │
   melanorhyncha,    │   *    │                      │—      26.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— gracilis, _Gould_│        │                      │—      27.
 —— melanauchen,     │        │Indian Islands        │—      28.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 Sternula Nereis,    │   *    │                      │—      29.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Gelochelidon        │   *?   │                      │Intro., p. xcv.
   macrotarsus       │        │                      │
 Gygis candida       │        │                      │Vol. VII.  Pl. 30.
 Hydrochelidon       │        │                      │
   fluviatilis,      │        │                      │—      31.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Onychoprion         │        │                      │—      32.
   fuliginosus?      │        │                      │
 —— Panaya           │        │                      │—      33.
 Anoüs stolidus      │        │                      │—      34.
 —— melanops, _Gould_│        │                      │—      35.
 —— leucocapillus,   │        │                      │—      36.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— cinereus, _Gould_│        │                      │—      37.
 Diomedea exulans,   │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      38.
   _Linn._           │        │                      │
 —— brachyura,       │        │N. Pacific Ocean?     │—      39.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 —— cauta, _Gould_   │   *    │                      │—      40.
 —— culminata,       │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      41.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— chlororhynchos,  │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      42.
   _Lath._           │        │                      │
 —— melanophrys,     │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      43.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 —— fuliginosa       │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      44.
 —— olivaceorhyncha, │        │N. Pacific Ocean?     │Intro., p. xcvii.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Procellaria gigantea│   *    │                      │Vol. VII.  Pl. 45.
 —— Æquinoctialis    │   *?   │S. Indian Ocean       │Intro., p. xcvii.
 —— conspicillata,   │   *    │S. Indian Ocean       │Vol. VII.  Pl. 46.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— hasitata, _Kuhl_ │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      47.
 —— Atlantica,       │   *?   │S. Pacific and S.     │Intro., p. xcvii.
   _Gould_           │        │  Atlantic Oceans     │
 —— macroptera,      │   *?   │South Pacific         │Intro., p. xcviii.
   _Smith_           │        │                      │
 —— Solandrii,       │   *    │                      │Intro., p. xcviii.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Glacialoïdes,    │   *    │New Zealand and S.    │Vol. VII.  Pl. 48.
   _Smith_           │        │  Pacific             │
 —— Lessonii, _Garn._│   *    │                      │—      49.
 —— mollis, _Gould_  │   *?   │S. Indian and S.      │—      50.
                     │        │  Atlantic Oceans     │
 —— Cookii, _G. R.   │   *    │                      │—      51.
   Gray_             │        │                      │
 —— cœrulea, _Gmel._ │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      52.
 —— flavirostris,    │   *?   │S. Indian Ocean       │Intro., p. xcviii.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— nivea, _Gmel._   │   *?   │Antarctic Seas        │Intro., p. xcviii.
 —— Antarctica,      │   *?   │Antarctic Seas        │Intro., p. xcviii.
   _Gmel._           │        │                      │
 Daption Capensis    │   *    │Southern Ocean        │Vol. VII.  Pl. 53.
 Prion Turtur        │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      54.
 —— vittatus, _Cuv._ │   *    │Southern Ocean        │—      55.
 —— Banksii          │   *    │Southern Ocean        │Intro., p. xcix.
 —— Ariel, _Gould_   │        │Bass’s Straits        │Intro., p. xcix.
 Puffinus            │        │                      │
   brevicaudus,      │   *    │                      │Vol. VII.  Pl. 56.
   _Brandt_          │        │                      │
 —— carneipes,       │        │                      │—      57.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— sphenurus,       │        │                      │—      58.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— assimilis,       │        │                      │—      59.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Puffinuria Urinatrix│   *    │                      │—      60.
 Thalassidroma       │        │                      │—      61.
   marina, _Less._   │        │                      │
 —— melanogaster,    │   *    │S. Indian Ocean       │—      62.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— leucogaster,     │   *    │S. Indian Ocean       │—      63.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Tropica, _Gould_ │        │Tropic, in the        │Intro., p. c.
                     │        │  Atlantic            │
 —— Nereis, _Gould_  │   *    │                      │Vol. VII.  Pl. 64.
 —— Wilsonii,        │        │S. Ocean and the      │
   _Bonap._          │   *    │  temperate Lat. of   │—      65.
                     │        │  the northern        │
 Phalacrocorax       │   *    │                      │—      66.
   Carboïdes, _Gould_│        │                      │
 —— sulcirostris     │        │                      │—      67.
 —— hypoleucus       │        │New Zealand?          │—      68.
 Phalacrocorax       │        │                      │
   leucogaster,      │   *    │                      │Vol. VII.  Pl. 69.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— melanoleucus,    │   *    │                      │—      70.
   _Vieill._         │        │                      │
 —— punctatus        │        │New Zealand           │—      71.
 Attagen Ariel,      │        │                      │—      72.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— Aquila?          │        │                      │Intro., p. c.
 Phaëton phœnicurus  │        │                      │Vol. VII.  Pl. 73.
 Pelecanus           │        │                      │
   conspicillatus,   │   *    │                      │—      74.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 Plotus              │        │                      │
   Novæ-Hollandiæ,   │        │                      │—      75.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 Sula Australis,     │   *    │                      │—      76.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— personata,       │        │                      │—      77.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— fusca, _Briss._  │        │                      │—      78.
 —— piscator, _Linn._│        │                      │—      79.
 Podiceps Australis, │   *    │                      │—      80.
   _Gould_           │        │                      │
 —— gularis, _Gould_ │   *    │                      │—      81.
 —— poliocephalus,   │   *    │                      │—      82.
   _Jard. & Selb._   │        │                      │
                     │        │The I. of Tristan     │
 Eudyptes chrysocome │   *    │  D’Acunha, St. Paul’s│—      83.
                     │        │  and Amsterdam       │
 Spheniscus minor,   │   *    │                      │—      84.
   _Temm._           │        │                      │
 —— undina, _Gould_  │   *    │                      │—      85.
 ────────────────────┴────────┴──────────────────────┴──────────────────

On a review of the above Table it will be seen that 385 species inhabit
New South Wales, 289 South Australia, 243 Western Australia, 230
Northern Australia, and 181 Van Diemen’s Land; and that of these, 88 are
peculiar to New South Wales; 16 to South Australia; 36 to Western
Australia; 105 to Northern Australia, and 32 to Van Diemen’s Land.

The great excess in the number of species inhabiting New South Wales is
doubtless attributable to the singular belt of luxuriant vegetation,
termed brushes, which stretches along the southern and south-eastern
coasts between the ranges and the sea, and which is tenanted by a fauna
peculiarly its own.

Although this part of the continent is inhabited by a larger number of
species than any other, it is a remarkable fact that the species
peculiar to Northern Australia are much more numerous than those
peculiar to New South Wales.

It is curious to observe also, that while Southern Australia is
inhabited by a much larger number of species than Western Australia,
those peculiar to the former are not half so numerous as those peculiar
to the latter.

The more southern position, and consequently colder climate of Van
Diemen’s Land, will readily account for the paucity of species found in
that island.

By the term peculiar, I do not mean to convey the idea that the birds
are strictly confined to the respective countries, but that as yet they
have not been found elsewhere.



                             LIST OF PLATES
                               VOLUME I.


     Aquila fucosa, _Cuv._             Wedge-tailed Eagle        1
     —— Morphnoïdes, _Gould_           Little Australian Eagle   2
     Ichthyiaëtus leucogaster          White-bellied Sea Eagle   3
     Haliaster leucosternus, _Gould_   White-breasted Sea Eagle  4
     —— sphenurus                      Whistling Eagle           5
     Pandion leucocephalus, _Gould_    White-headed Osprey       6
     Falco hypoleucus, _Gould_         Grey Falcon               7
     —— melanogenys, _Gould_           Black-cheeked Falcon      8
     —— subniger, _Gray_               Black Falcon              9
     —— frontatus, _Gould_             White-fronted Falcon     10
     Ieracidea Berigora                Brown Hawk               11
     —— occidentalis, _Gould_          Western Brown Hawk       12
     Tinnunculus Cenchroïdes           Nankeen Kestril          13
     Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ              New Holland Goshawk      14
     —— —— (albino)                    White Goshawk            15
     —— radiatus                       Radiated Goshawk         10
     —— approximans, _Vig. & Horsf._   Australian Goshawk       17
     —— cruentus, _Gould_              West Australian Goshawk  18
     Accipiter torquatus               Collared Sparrow Hawk    19
     Buteo melanosternon, _Gould_      Black-breasted Buzzard   20
     Milvus affinis,  _Gould_          Allied Kite              21
     —— isurus, _Gould_                Square-tailed Kite       22
     Elanus axillaris                  Black-shouldered Kite    23
     —— scriptus, _Gould_              Letter-winged Kite       24
     Lepidogenys subcristatus, _Gould_ Crested Hawk             25
     Circus assimilis, _Jard. & Selb._ Allied Harrier           26
     —— Jardinii, _Gould_              Jardine’s Harrier        27
     Strix castanops, _Gould_          Chestnut-faced Owl       28
     —— personata, _Vig._              Masked Barn Owl          29
     —— tenebricosus, _Gould_          Sooty Owl                30
     —— delicatulus, _Gould_           Delicate Owl             31
     Athene Boobook                    Boobook Owl              32
     —— maculata                       Spotted Owl              33
     ——? connivens                     Winking Owl              34
     —— strenua, _Gould_               Powerful Owl             35
     —— rufa, _Gould_                  Rufous Owl               36

[Illustration:

  AQUILA FUCOSA: _Cuv_:

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del^t_ _C. Hallmandel Imp._
]



                         AQUILA FUCOSA, _Cuv._
                          Wedge-tailed Eagle.


  _Mountain Eagle of New South Wales_, Collins, New South Wales, vol.
    ii. pl. in p. 288.

  _Falco fucosus_, Cuv. Règn. Anim., 1st Edit. pl. 3. f. 1.—Temm. Pl.
    Col. 32.

  _Aquila fucosa_, Cuv. Règn. Anim., 2nd Edit. pl. 3. f. 1.—Vig. and
    Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 188.—Less. Traité d’Orn., p.
    39.—Steph. Cont. Shaw’s Gen. Zool., vol. xiv. p. 16.

  _Aquila albirostris_, Vieill. 2nde Edit, du Nouv. Dict. d’Hist. Nat.,
    tom. i. p. 229.—Ib. Ency. Méth. Orn., 3ieme part, p. 1191?

  _Wol-dja_, Aborigines of the mountain and lowland districts of Western
    Australia.

  _Eagle Hawk_, Colonists of New South Wales.

This noble bird is so universally spread over the southern portion of
Australia, that it is quite unnecessary for me to enter more minutely
into detail respecting the extent of its range, than to say that it is
equally distributed over the whole of the country from Swan River on the
west to Moreton Bay on the east; it is also as numerous in Van Diemen’s
Land, and on all the larger islands in Bass’s Straits, being of course
more plentiful in such districts as are suited to its habits, and where
the character of the country is congenial to the animals upon which it
subsists. I have not yet seen it in any collection, either from the
northern portion of Australia or any other country. In all probability
it will hereafter be found to extend its range as far towards the
tropics in the southern hemisphere as the Golden Eagle (_Aquila
chrysaëta_) does in the northern: the two birds are, in fact, beautiful
analogues of each other in their respective habitats, and doubtless
perform similar offices in the great scheme of creation.

All that has been said by previous writers respecting the courage, power
and rapacity of the one applies with equal force to the other; in size
they are also nearly alike, but the lengthened and wedge-shaped form of
its tail gives to the Australian bird a far more pleasing and elegant
contour.

I find by my notes that one of those I killed weighed nine pounds, and
measured six feet eight inches from tip to tip of the opposite pinions;
but far larger individuals than this have, I should say, come under my
notice. The natural disposition of the Wedge-tailed Eagle leads it to
frequent the interior portion of the country rather than the shores or
the neighbourhood of the sea. It preys indiscriminately on all the
smaller species of Kangaroo which tenant the plains and the open crowns
of the hills; and whose retreats, from the wonderful acuteness of its
vision, it descries while soaring and performing those graceful
evolutions and circles in the air, so frequently seen by the residents
of the countries it inhabits: neither is the noble Bustard, whose weight
is twice that of its enemy, and who finds a more secure asylum on the
extensive plains of the interior than most animals, safe from its
attacks; its tremendous stoop and powerful grasp, in fact, carry
inevitable destruction to its victim, be it ever so large and
formidable. The breeders of sheep find in this bird an enemy which
commits extensive ravages among their lambs, and consequently in its
turn it is persecuted unrelentingly by the shepherds of the
stock-owners, who employ every artifice in their power to effect its
extirpation, and in Van Diemen’s Land considerable rewards are offered
for the accomplishment of the same end. The tracts of untrodden ground
and the vastness of the impenetrable forests will, however, for a long
series of years to come afford it an asylum, secure from the inroads of
the destroying hand of man; still with every one waging war upon it, its
numbers must necessarily be considerably diminished. For the sake of the
refuse thrown away by the Kangaroo hunters it will often follow them for
many miles, and even for days together. I clearly ascertained that
although it mostly feeds upon living prey, it does not refuse to devour
carrion or animals almost in a state of putridity. During one of my
journeys into the interior to the northward of Liverpool Plains, I saw
no less than thirty or forty assembled together around the carcase of a
dead bullock, some gorged to the full, perched upon the neighbouring
trees, the rest still in the enjoyment of the feast.

Those nests that I had opportunities of observing were placed on the
most inaccessible trees, and were of a very large size, nearly flat, and
built of sticks and boughs. The eggs, I regret to say, I could never
procure, although I have shot the birds from their aerie, in which there
were eggs, but which it was quite impossible to obtain; no one but the
aborigines, of which none remain in Van Diemen’s Land, being capable of
ascending such trees, many of which rise to more than a hundred feet
before giving off a branch.

The adults have the head, throat, and all the upper and under surface
blackish brown, stained on the edges and extremities of many of the
feathers, particularly the wing and upper tail-coverts with pale brown;
back and sides of the neck rusty-red; irides hazel; cere and space round
the eye yellowish white; bill yellowish horn-colour, passing into black
at the tip; feet light yellow.

The young have the head and back of the neck deep fawn-colour, striated
with lighter; all the feathers of the upper surface largely tipped and
stained with fawn and rusty-red; tail indistinctly barred near the
extremity; throat and breast blackish brown, each feather largely tipped
with rufous; the abdomen blackish brown.

The figure is about one-third of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  AQUILA MORPHNOÏDES: _Gould_

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter, del^t_ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                      AQUILA MORPHNOÏDES, _Gould_.
                        Little Australian Eagle.

  _Aquila Morphnoïdes_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part VIII. p. 161.

I shall perhaps better convey an idea of the rarity of this small but
true species of _Aquila_, by stating that the specimen from which the
accompanying drawing was made, and which forms part of my own
collection, is the only one I have ever seen either living or dead. It
is the second species of the genus known to inhabit Australia, and it is
singular that while the Wedge-tailed Eagle is so common, the present
species should be so rare, or, perhaps, so restricted in its range of
habitat. This Eagle is as clearly an analogue of the _Aquila pennata_ of
Europe, as the Wedge-tailed Eagle is of the Golden. Its specific
distinctions from _Aq. pennata_ are its large size, the total absence of
the white mark on the shoulder, and the cere and feet being of a
lead-colour instead of yellowish-olive.

The part of Australia where I shot the specimen above alluded to, was
Yarrundi on the River Hunter, on a portion of Mr. Coxen’s estate near
Tooloogan. I was led to the discovery of the bird by finding its nest
containing a single egg, upon which it had been sitting for some time. I
regret to add, that although I several times visited the nest after
killing the bird, all my attempts at procuring the other sex were
entirely unsuccessful. The nest was of a large size and was placed close
to the hole, about one-fourth of the height from the top of one of the
highest gum-trees; the egg was bluish white with very faint traces of
brown blotchings, two inches and two lines long by one inch and nine
lines broad.

Face, crown of the head and throat blackish brown, tinged with rufous,
giving it a striated appearance, bounded in front above the nostrils
with whitish; feathers at the back of the head, which are lengthened
into a short occipital crest, back of the head, back, and sides of the
neck, all the under surface, thighs and under tail-coverts rufous, all
but the thighs and under tail-coverts with a stripe of black down the
centre of each feather; back, rump and wings brown, the centre of the
wing lighter; primaries brownish black, becoming darker at the tip, and
barred throughout with greyish buff, which is conspicuous on the under
surface, but scarcely perceptible on the upper, except at the base of
the inner webs; under surface of the wing mottled with reddish brown and
black; tail mottled greyish brown, crossed by seven or eight distinct
bars of blackish brown, the tips being lighter; cere and bill
lead-colour, passing into black at the tip; eye reddish hazel,
surrounded by a narrow blackish brown eyelash; feet and toes very light
lead-colour.

The figure is about three-fourths of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ICHTHYIAËTUS LEUCOGASTER.

  _J & E Gould del^t_ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                       ICHTHYIAËTUS LEUCOGASTER.
                        White-bellied Sea-eagle.

  _Falco leucogaster_, Lath. Ind. Orn., vol. i. p. 13.—Gmel. Linn., vol.
    i. p. 157.—Temm. Pl. Col. 49.

  _White-bellied Eagle_, Lath. Gen. Syn., vol. i. p. 33.—Ib. Gen. Hist.,
    vol. i. p. 242.

  _Haliæetus leucogaster_, Gould, Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _—— —— sphenurus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. 1837, p.
    138.—Ib. Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III. young.

I have little doubt that this noble species of Sea-eagle will be found
to extend its range over all those portions of the Australian continent
that present situations suitable to its peculiar habits. It has been
observed along the whole southern coast, from Moreton Bay on the east to
Swan River on the west, including Tasmania and all the small islands in
Bass’s Straits. It has neither the boldness nor the courage of the
Wedge-tailed Eagle, _Aquila fucosa_, whose quarry is frequently the
Kangaroo and the Bustard; and although, at first sight, its appearance
would warrant the supposition that it pursues the same means for
obtaining living prey as the true _Pandion_, by the act of submersion,
yet I can affirm that this is not the case, and that it never plunges
beneath the surface of the water, but depends almost entirely for its
subsistence upon the dead Cetacea, fish, etc., that may be thrown up by
the sea and left on the shore by the receding waves; to which, in all
probability, are added living mollusks and other lower marine animals:
its peculiar province is consequently the sea-shore, and it especially
delights to take up its abode on the borders of small bays and inlets of
the sea, and rivers as high as they are influenced by the tide;
nevertheless, it is to be met with, though more rarely, on the borders
of lakes and inland streams, but never in the forests or sterile plains
of the interior. As it is almost invariably seen in pairs, it would
appear to be permanently mated; each pair inhabiting a particular bay or
inlet, to the exclusion of others of the same species. Unless disturbed
or harassed, the White-bellied Sea-eagle does not shun the abode of man,
but becomes fearless and familiar. Among the numerous places in which I
observed it was the Cove of Sydney, where one or two were daily seen
performing their aërial gyrations above the shipping and over the tops
of the houses: if I mistake not, they were the same pair of birds that
found a safe retreat in Elizabeth Bay, skirting the property of
Alexander Macleay, Esq., and where they might be frequently seen perched
on the bare limb of a tree by the water’s edge, forming an interesting
and ornamental addition to the scene. In Tasmania it is especially
abundant in D’Entrecasteaux Channel, and along the banks of the Derwent
and the Tamar; and there was scarcely one of the little islets in Bass’s
Straits but was inhabited by a pair of these birds, which, in these
cases, subsisted in a great measure on the Petrels and Penguins, which
resort there in great numbers to breed, and which are very easily
captured.

With regard to the nidification of the White-bellied Sea-eagle, I could
not fail to remark how readily the birds accommodate themselves to the
different circumstances in which they are placed; for while on the main
land they invariably construct their large flat nest on a fork of the
most lofty trees, on the islands, where not a tree is to be found, it is
placed on the flat surface of a large stone, the materials of which it
is formed being twigs and branches of the Barilla, a low shrub which is
there plentiful. While traversing the woods in Recherche Bay, I observed
a nest of this species near the top of a noble stringy bark tree
(_Eucalyptus_), the bole of which measured forty-one feet round, and was
certainly upwards of 200 feet high; this had probably been the site of a
nest for many years, being secure even from the attacks of the natives,
expert as they are at climbing. On a small island, of about forty acres
in extent, opposite the settlement of Flinders, I shot a fully-fledged
young bird, which was perched upon the cone of a rock; and I then, for
the first time, discovered my error in characterizing, in the
“Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London,” and in my “Synopsis,”
the bird in this state as a different species, under the name of
_Haliæetus sphenurus_, an error which I take this opportunity to
correct. The eggs are almost invariably two in number, of a dull white,
faintly stained with reddish brown, two inches and nine lines long, by
two inches and three lines broad.

This Sea-eagle may be frequently seen floating about in the air above
its hunting ground, in circles, with the tips of its motionless wings
turned upwards; the great breadth and roundness of the pinions, and the
shortness of the neck and tail, giving it no inapt resemblance to a
large butterfly.

The sexes are alike in plumage, but the female is considerably larger
than her mate.

Adults have the head, neck, all the under surface, and the terminal
third of the tail-feathers white; primaries and base of the tail
blackish brown, the remainder of the plumage grey; irides dark brown;
bill bluish horn-colour, with the tip black; cere, lores, and horny
space over the eye bluish lead-colour slightly tinged with green; legs
and feet yellowish white; nails black.

The young have the head, back of the neck and throat light buff; all the
upper surface and wings light chocolate-brown, each feather tipped with
buffy white; tail light buffy white at the base, passing into deep brown
towards the tip, which is white; chest brown, each feather margined with
buff; abdomen mingled buff and brown, the latter colour occupying the
margins of the feathers; under tail-coverts, and the under surface of
the tail-feathers white; bill brown; feet yellowish white.

The Plate represents an old and a young bird, the former about half the
natural size.

[Illustration:

  HALIASTUR LEUCOSTERNUS.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                    HALIASTUR LEUCOSTERNUS, _Gould_.
                       White-breasted Sea-Eagle.

  _White-breasted Rufous Eagle_, Lath. Gen. Hist., vol. i. p. 218.

  _Haliæëtus leucosternus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p.
    138; and in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Girrenera_, Aborigines of New South Wales.

  _Me-ne-̏u-roo_, Aborigines of the Cobourg Peninsula.

In size and in the general markings of its plumage, this beautiful
species is more closely allied to the _Falco Ponticerianus_ of Latham,
than to any other; but the total absence of the coloured stripe down the
centre of the white feathers which clothe the head, neck and breast of
the Australian bird, at once distinguishes it from its Indian ally.

The White-breasted Sea Eagle is very common on the northern and eastern
portions of Australia, where it takes up its abode in the most secluded
and retired parts of bays and inlets of the sea. Upon one occasion only
did I meet with it within the colony of New South Wales, but I have
several times received specimens from Moreton Bay; the individual
alluded to above was observed soaring over the brushes of the Lower
Hunter. The chief food of this species is fish, which it captures either
by plunging down or by dexterously throwing out its foot while flying
close to the surface of the water; such fish as swim near the surface
being of course the only ones that become a prey to it: sometimes the
captured fish is borne off to the bird’s favourite perch, which is
generally a branch overhanging the water, while at others, particularly
if the bird be disturbed, it is borne aloft in circles over the head of
the intruder and devoured while the bird is on the wing, with apparent
ease. Its flight is slow and heavy near the ground, but at a
considerable elevation it is easy and buoyant.

“This species,” says Mr. Gilbert in his notes from Port Essington, “is
pretty generally spread throughout the Peninsula and the neighbouring
islands, and may be said to be tolerably abundant. It breeds from the
beginning of July to the end of August. I succeeded in finding two
nests, each of which contained two eggs, but I am told that three are
sometimes found. The nest is formed of sticks with fine twigs or coarse
grass as a lining; it is about two feet in diameter and built in a
strong fork of the dead part of a tree: both of those I found were about
thirty feet from the ground and about two hundred yards from the beach.
The eggs, which are two inches and two lines in length by one inch and
eight lines in breadth, are of a dirty white, having the surface spread
over with numerous hair-like streaks and very minute dots of reddish
brown, the former prevailing and assuming the form of hieroglyphics;
these singular markings being most numerous at one end, sometimes at the
larger at others at the smaller, the difference even occurring in the
two eggs of the same nest.”

The sexes are so much alike in colour that it is by the greater size of
the female alone that they are to be distinguished; the young, on the
other hand, differ considerably from the adult.

Head, neck, chest and upper part of the abdomen snow white; back, wings,
lower part of the abdomen, thighs, upper and under tail-coverts rich
chestnut red; first six primaries chestnut at the base and black at the
tip; tail-feathers chestnut red on their upper surface, lighter beneath,
the eight central feathers tipped with greyish white; irides light
reddish yellow; cere pale yellowish white; orbits smoke-grey; upper
mandible light ash-grey at the base, passing into sienna-yellow and
terminating at the tip in light horn-colour; under mandible smoke-grey;
tarsi cream-yellow, much brighter on all the large scales on the front
of the tarsi and toes.

The figures are those of an adult and a young bird two-thirds of the
natural size.

[Illustration:

  HALIASTUR? SPHENURUS.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                         HALIASTUR? SPHENURUS.
                            Whistling Eagle.

  _Milvus sphenurus_, Vieill. 2nde Edit, du Nouv. Dict. d’Hist. Nat.,
    tom. xx. p. 564.—Ibid. Gal. des Ois., tom. i. p. 41. pl. 15.—Ibid.
    Ency. Méth. Orn., Part III. p. 1204.

  _Haliæetus canorus_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p.
    187.—Gould, in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Moru and Wirwin_, Aborigines of New South Wales.

  _En-̏na-jook_, Aborigines of the Cobourg Peninsula.

  _J̏an-doo_, Aborigines of the lowland districts of Western Australia.

  _Whistling Hawk_, Colonists of New South Wales.

  _Little Swamp Eagle_, Colonists of Western Australia.

This species of Eagle has been observed in every portion of Australia
yet visited by Europeans, but is more abundant in New South Wales than
in any other part of the continent; I have never yet seen an example
from Van Diemen’s Land, and I am consequently led to believe that it
rarely if ever visits that island. As might be expected from its almost
universal diffusion, the _Haliastur? sphenurus_ is not a migratory bird;
at least in New South Wales it is equally as numerous in summer as it is
in winter; not that it is to be observed in the same locality at all
times, the greater or lesser abundance of its favourite food inducing it
to wander from one district to another, wherever the greatest supply is
to be procured. Displaying none of the courage or intrepidity of the
true Eagles, it never attacks animals of a large size; but preys upon
carrion, small and feeble quadrupeds, birds, lizards, insects and fish,
and while on the one hand it is the pest of the poultry yard, on the
other no species of the _Falconidæ_ effects more good during the fearful
visitations of the caterpillar, a scourge of no infrequent occurrence in
Australia. In 1839 it was my lot to witness the inroad of vast swarms of
caterpillars in the region of the Upper Hunter River, and at the same
time I observed many hundreds of the Whistling Eagle assembled on the
Downs near Scone preying solely on them, thus tending in a great measure
to check their progress, and certainly to lessen their numbers; so
partial, in fact, is the Whistling Eagle to this kind of food that the
appearance of one is the certain prelude to the appearance of the other.
The _Haliastur? sphenurus_ is little alarmed by the presence of man, and
when sitting on the branches of low trees, will often admit of a near
approach even to within a few feet: as an evidence of its indifference,
I may mention that, having winged a very rare Tern on the surface of a
lagoon, a Whistling Eagle immediately descended and carried it off; and
although this circumstance took place at a very short distance from me,
neither the shouts of the natives nor of myself deterred the Eagle from
bearing off the bird in triumph, to my extreme vexation. It is generally
to be seen in pairs, inhabiting alike the brushes near the coast and the
forests of the interior of the country. It is incessantly hovering over
the harbours, and sides of rivers and lagoons, for any floating animal
substance that may present itself on the surface of the water or be cast
on the banks; and it is nowhere more common or more generally to be seen
than over the harbour of Port Jackson. Its flight, when high in the air,
is buoyant and easy, and it frequently soars to a great altitude,
uttering at the same time a shrill whistling cry, from which
circumstance it has obtained from the colonists the name of the
Whistling Hawk, and by which it is at once distinguished from all the
other members of the family inhabiting Australia.

The nest, which is constructed of sticks and fibrous roots, is
frequently built on the topmost branches of the lofty _Casuarinæ_,
growing by the sides of creeks and rivers. The eggs, which are laid
during the months of November and December, are usually two in number,
but sometimes single; they are two inches and three lines long by one
inch and nine lines broad, and are of a bluish white slightly tinged
with green, the few brown markings with which they are varied being very
obscure and appearing as if beneath the surface of the shell. I once
found a nest of this species in the side of which had been constructed
that of the beautiful little Finch called _Amadina Lathami_, and both
birds sitting on their respective eggs close beside each other; and both
would doubtless have reared their progenies had I not robbed the nests
of their contents to enrich my collection.

The Whistling Eagle presents the usual difference in the size of the
sexes, but in respect to colour no variation is observable; the plumage
of the young, on the contrary, as shown by the front figure on the
Plate, presents a striking contrast to that of the adult, rendering it
by far the handsomer bird during the first autumn of its existence.

Head, neck and all the under surface light sandy brown, each feather
margined with a darker colour; feathers of the back and wings brown,
margined with greyish white; primaries blackish brown; tail greyish
brown; cere and bill brownish white, gradually becoming darker towards
the tip of the latter; legs pale bluish white; irides bright hazel.

The figures represent an old and a young bird about two-thirds of the
natural size.

[Illustration:

  PANDION LEUCOCEPHALA: _Gould_

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                    PANDION LEUCOCEPHALUS, _Gould_.
                          White-headed Osprey.

  _Pandion leucocephalus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 138;
    and in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Yoon-dȍor-doo_, Aborigines of the lowland districts of Western
    Australia.

  _Jȍor-joot_, Aborigines of Port Essington.

  _Little Fish Hawk_, Colonists of New South Wales.

  _Fish Hawk_, Colonists of Swan River.

The White-headed Osprey, though not an abundant species, is generally
diffused over every portion of Australia suited to its habits; I myself
shot it in Recherche Bay, at the extreme south of Van Diemen’s Land; and
Mr. Gilbert found it breeding both at Swan River on the western, and at
Port Essington on the northern shores of Australia. Like its near allies
of Europe and America, of which it is a beautiful representative in the
southern hemisphere, it takes up its abode on the borders of rivers,
lakes, inlets of the sea, and the small islands lying off the coast. Its
food consists entirely of living fish, which it procures precisely after
the manner of the other members of the genus, by plunging down upon its
victim from a considerable height in the air with so true an aim as
rarely to miss its object, although an immersion to a great depth is
sometimes necessary to effect its accomplishment. Its prey when secured
is borne off to its usual resting-place and devoured at leisure.
Wilson’s elegant description of the habits and manners of the American
bird is in fact equally descriptive of those of the present species.
Independently of its white head, this species differs from its near
allies in the much lighter colouring of the tarsi, which are yellowish
white slightly tinged with grey.

The nest being of great size is a very conspicuous object; it is
composed of sticks varying from the size of a finger to that of the
wrist, and lined with the softer kinds of sea-weed. It is usually placed
on the summit of a rock, but is sometimes constructed on the top of a
large _Eucalyptus_; always in the vicinity of water. A nest observed by
Mr. Gilbert in Rottnest Island measured fifteen feet in circumference.
The eggs are two in number, of a yellowish white, boldly spotted and
blotched with deep rich reddish brown, which colour in some specimens is
so dark as to be nearly black; other specimens again are clouded with
large blotches of purple, which appear as if beneath the surface of the
shell. The medium length of the eggs is two inches and five lines, and
the breadth one inch and nine lines.

When near the water its flight is heavy and flapping, but when soaring
aloft at a great altitude its actions are the most easy and graceful
imaginable, at one moment appearing motionless, and at another
performing a series of beautiful curves and circles, apparently for mere
enjoyment; for from the great height at which they are executed it is
hardly to be conceived that the bird can be watching the motions of its
finny prey in the waters beneath.

Crown of the head, back of the neck, throat, abdomen, thighs and under
tail-coverts white; feathers of the chest mottled with brown, and with a
dark brown mark down the centre; ear-coverts and sides of the neck dark
brown; back, wings and tail clove brown, each feather of the back with a
narrow circle of white at its extremity; primaries black; bill black;
cere and base of the bill bluish lead-colour; feet pale bluish white;
irides primrose-yellow in some, bright orange in others; claws black.

The figure is about two-thirds of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  FALCO HYPOLEUCOS: _Gould_

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                       FALCO HYPOLEUCUS, _Gould_.
                              Grey Falcon.

  _Falco hypoleucus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part VIII. p. 162.

  _Boorh-ga_, Aborigines of Moore’s River in Western Australia.

Of this rare and beautiful Falcon I have seen only four examples, three
of which are in my own collection, and the fourth in that of the Earl of
Derby. The specimen from which my description in the “Proceedings of the
Zoological Society” was taken, was presented to Mr. Gilbert by Mr. L.
Burgess, who stated that he had killed it over the mountains, about
sixty miles from Swan River; subsequently it was obtained by Mr. Gilbert
himself in the vicinity of Moore’s River in Western Australia; and my
friend Captain Sturt had the good fortune to secure a male and a female
during his late adventurous journey into the interior of South
Australia. “They were shot at the Depôt on a Sunday in May 1845, just
after service; they had been soaring very high, but at length one
descended to the trees on the creek, and coming within range was shot;
when the other proceeding to look after its companion was also killed.
It must be a scarce bird, for no others were seen.”

The acquisition of the _Falco hypoleucus_ is highly interesting, as
adding another species to the true or typical Falcons, and as affording
another proof of the beautiful analogies which exist between certain
groups of the southern and northern hemispheres; this bird being as
clearly a representative of the Jerfalcon of Europe, as the _Falco
melanogenys_ is of the Peregrine, and the _Falco frontatus_ of the
Hobby; but as I have more fully entered into this subject in my
observations on the genus, it is unnecessary again to detail them here.

The adult has the whole of the upper and under surface and wings grey,
with a narrow line of black down the centre of each feather; a narrow
ring of black nearly surrounding the eyes; primaries brownish black,
which colour assumes a pectinated form on a mottled grey ground on the
inner webs of those feathers; tail-coverts grey, barred with brownish
grey; tail dark brownish grey, crossed with bars of dark brown; irides
dark brown; cere, orbits, gape, base of the bill, legs and feet
brilliant orange-yellow; the yellow becoming paler from the base of the
bill, until it meets the black tips of both mandibles; claws black.

The young birds have the upper surface mottled brown and grey, and the
under surface nearly white, and more strongly marked with black than in
the adult.

The Plate represents the two sexes of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  FALCO MELANOGENYS: _Gould_.

  _J. & E. Gould del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                      FALCO MELANOGENYS, _Gould_.
                         Black-cheeked Falcon.

  _Falco Peregrinus_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 183.

  _Falco melanogenys_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 139; and
    in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Blue Hawk_, Colonists of Western Australia.

  _Wolga_, Aborigines of New South Wales.

  _Gwet-ul-bur_, Aborigines of the mountain and lowland districts of
    Western Australia.

The present bird, like the _F. hypoleucus_, may be classed among the
noble Falcons, being closely allied both to the Peregrine of Europe and
the Duck-Hawk of North America, to both of which it assimilates also in
its bold and rapacious habits, a character which renders it a favourite
with the Aborigines, who admire it for its courage in attacking and
conquering birds much larger than itself. Like its American congener it
preys eagerly upon ducks, and Mr. Gilbert informs me that he has seen it
attack and carry off the _Nyroca Australis_, a species at least half as
heavy again as itself. Thus we find in this Falcon a bird well adapted
for the sport of Falconry, which though fallen into disuse in Europe,
may at some future time be revived in this new and rising country, since
its lagoons and water-courses are well stocked with herons and cranes,
and its vast plains are admirably suited to such pastime. The
introduction of hounds for the purpose of chasing the native dog (Dingo)
and the Kangaroo has already taken place in Australia, and perhaps it is
not too much to look forward to the time when the noble science of
Falconry shall be resorted to by the colonists. A finer mews of birds
could not be formed in any country than in Australia, with such typical
Falcons as the _F. hypoleucus_, _F. melanogenys_ and _F. frontatus_.

The present bird is universally dispersed over the whole southern
portion of Australia, including Van Diemen’s Land, and probably future
research will discover that its range extends over all parts of the
continent. It gives preference to steep rocky cliffs, and the sides of
precipitous gullies, rather than to fertile and woodland districts, but
especially seeks such rocky localities as are washed by the sea, or are
in the neighbourhood of inland lakes and rivers. In such situations it
dwells in pairs throughout the year, much after the manner of the
Peregrine. Its nest is placed in those parts of the rocks that are most
precipitous and inaccessible. The eggs are two in number; their
ground-colour is buff, but which is scarcely perceptible from the
predominance of the blotching of deep reddish chestnut, with which it is
marbled all over; they are two inches and one line long, by one inch and
seven and a half lines broad.

The stomach is large and membranous; and the food consists of birds,
principally of the Duck tribe.

The sexes present the usual difference in size, the male being
considerably smaller than the female, as will be seen in the
accompanying illustration.

The male has the head, cheeks, and back of the neck deep brownish black;
the feathers of the upper surface, wings and tail alternately crossed
with equal-sized bands of deep grey and blackish brown; outer edges of
the primaries uniform blackish brown, their inner webs obscurely barred
with light buff; throat and chest delicate fawn-colour, passing into
reddish grey on the abdomen; tail-feathers ornamented with an
oval-shaped spot of dark brown; abdomen, flanks, under surface of the
wing, and under tail-coverts reddish grey, crossed by numerous irregular
bars of blackish brown; bill light bluish lead-colour at the tip,
becoming much lighter at the base; cere, legs and feet yellow; claws
black.

The female differs from the male in being larger in all her proportions,
and in having the throat and chest more richly tinted with fulvous,
which colour also extends over the abdomen, the feathers of which are
not so strongly barred with brown as in the male.

The figures are those of a male and a female of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  FALCO SUBNIGER: _Gray_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                        FALCO SUBNIGER, _Gray_.
                             Black Falcon.

  _Falco subniger_, Gray in Ann. Nat. Hist. 1843, p. 371.—Gray and
    Mitch. Gen. of Birds, pl. 8.—List of Birds in Brit. Mus. Coll., part
    i. 2nd edit. p. 50.

  _Falco ( Hierofalco) subniger_, Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 76.

All that I am able to communicate respecting this rare species of Falcon
is that I have seen four examples, which were killed in South Australia;
no particulars of its habits have yet been recorded: it was observed by
Captain Sturt during his expedition into the interior of that country,
and he has favoured me with a note, in which he says, “This well-shaped
and rapid bird was killed at the Depôt, where both male and female were
procured, but it was by no means common, only two others having been
seen.”

It is a fine and powerful species, and is doubtless very destructive to
birds and the smaller quadrupeds.

The entire plumage dark sooty brown, becoming paler on the edges of the
feathers of the upper surface; chin whitish; irides dark brown; cere
yellow; bill lead-colour; legs and feet leaden yellow; claws black.

The figure represents a female, which is one-third larger than the male,
of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  FALCO FRONTATUS: _Gould_.

  _J. & E. Gould del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                       FALCO FRONTATUS, _Gould_.
                         White-fronted Falcon.

  _Falco frontatus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 139.

  _Wow-oo_, Aborigines of the Murray in Western Australia.

  _Little Falcon_, Colonists of Western Australia.

This, one of the least of the true Falcons found in Australia, is
universally spread over the southern portion of that country, including
Van Diemen’s Land and the islands in Bass’s Straits. As its long pointed
wings clearly indicate, it possesses great and rapid powers of flight;
and I have frequently been amused by pairs of this bird following my
course over the plains for days together, in order to pounce down on the
Quails as they rose before me. If I had wished to witness Falconry in
perfection I could not have had a better opportunity than on these
occasions, when it was interesting to observe how instinctively the
Falcons performed their gyrations just above the dogs, in preparation
for the stoop; and on those vast plains where there was not a tree or
any other object to obstruct either the flight of the bird or our view
of the chase, nothing could be more beautiful in its way than the
actions of this species when pursuing the swift-flying Quail, which,
although quickly overtaken, often evades the stroke of its enemy by
suddenly dropping to the ground among the grasses.

The White-fronted Falcon is not a migratory species in any of the
colonies. I succeeded in finding several of its nests, both in Van
Diemen’s Land and on the continent: the situations of all those I
observed were near the tops of the most lofty and generally inaccessible
trees; they were rather large structures, being fully equal in size to
that of a Crow, slightly concave in form, outwardly built of sticks, and
lined with the inner bark of trees and other soft materials: the eggs
are either two or three in number, of a light buff, blotched and marbled
all over with dark buff, one inch and ten lines long by one inch and
four lines broad.

The stomach is rather muscular and capacious, and its food consists of
small birds and insects.

Forehead greyish white; crown of the head, cheeks, ear-coverts, and all
the upper surface uniform dark bluish grey; internal webs of the
primaries, except the tips, numerously barred with oval-shaped markings
of buff; two centre tail-feathers grey, transversely barred with obscure
markings of black; the remainder of the feathers on each side
alternately barred with lines of dark grey and reddish chestnut; throat
and chest white, tinged with buff, the feathers of the chest marked down
the centre with a stripe of brown; the whole of the under surface and
thighs dull reddish orange; irides blackish brown; bill bluish
lead-colour, becoming black at the tip; cere, base of the upper
mandible, legs and feet yellow; claws black.

The sexes exhibit the usual difference in size, the female being much
the largest. The plumage of the young differs from that of the adult in
being more rusty and the markings less defined, in the feathers of the
wings and tail being margined with rufous, and in the whole of the under
surface being washed more deeply with rufous than the adult.

The Plate represents an adult and young bird of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  IERACIDEA BERIGORA.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                          IERACIDEA BERIGORA.
                              Brown Hawk.

  _Falco Berigora_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 184.

  _Ieracidea Berigora_, Gould, Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Berigora_, Aborigines of New South Wales.

  _Orange-speckled Hawk_ of the Colonists.

  _Brown Hawk_, Colonists of Van Diemen’s Land.

This species is universally distributed over Van Diemen’s Land and New
South Wales. It is represented in western and north-western Australia by
a nearly allied species, to which I have given the name of
_occidentalis_. In its disposition it is neither so bold nor so daring
as the typical Falcons, and while it partakes much of the habits and
actions of the true Kestrils, particularly in the mode in which it
hovers in the air, it also often soars and skulks about after the manner
of the Harriers. Although it sometimes captures and preys upon birds and
small quadrupeds, its principal food consists of carrion, reptiles and
insects; the crops of several that I dissected were literally crammed
with the latter kind of food. It is generally to be met with in pairs,
but at those seasons when hordes of caterpillars infest the newly-sprung
herbage it congregates in flocks of many hundreds; a fact I myself
witnessed during the spring of 1840, when the downs near Yarrundi, on
the Upper Hunter, were infested with this noxious insect, which spread
destruction throughout the entire district. By the settlers this bird is
considered one of the pests of the country, but it was clear to me that
whatever injury it may inflict by now and then pilfering the
newly-hatched chickens from the poultry-yard is amply compensated for by
the havoc it commits among the countless myriads of the destructive
caterpillar. After the morning meal it perches on the dead branches of
the neighbouring _Eucalypti_ until hunger again impels it to exert
itself for a further supply. To give an idea of the numbers of this bird
to be met with at one time, I may state that I have frequently seen from
ten to forty on a single tree, so sluggish and indisposed to fly that
any number of specimens might have been secured.

So much difference occurs in the plumage of this species, that unless
the changes it undergoes are known to him, the ornithologist would be
apt to consider that there were more than one species; a close attention
to the subject has, however, convinced me that the contrary is the case,
and that in the countries which I have stated to constitute the true
habitat of this bird there is but one species. During the first autumn
the dark markings are of a much deeper hue, and the lighter parts more
tinged with yellow than in the adult state, when the upper surface
becomes of a uniform brown, and the white of the under surface tinged
with yellow.

The sexes are nearly alike in colour, but the female is the largest in
size. I discovered the _Ieracidea Berigora_ breeding in the months of
October and November both in Van Diemen’s Land and New South Wales, the
nests in both countries being placed on the highest branches of the
lofty _Eucalypti_.

The nest is similar in size to that of a Crow, it is composed outwardly
of sticks, and lined with strips of stringy bark, leaves, &c.; the eggs,
which are two, and sometimes three in number, vary so much in colour,
that they are seldom found alike, even in the same nest; they are also
longer or of a more oval shape than those of the generality of Falcons;
the prevailing colour is,—the ground buffy white, covered nearly all
over with reddish brown: in some specimens an entire wash of this colour
extends over nearly half the egg, while in others it is blotched or
freckled in small patches over the surface generally: their medium
length is two inches and two lines, and breadth one inch and six lines.

Crown of the head ferruginous brown, with a fine black line down the
centre of each feather; a streak of black from the base of the lower
mandible down each side of the cheek; ear-coverts brown; throat, chest,
centre of the abdomen, and under tail-coverts pale buff, with a fine
line of brown down each side of the shaft of every feather; flanks
ferruginous, each feather crossed with spots of buffy white; thighs dark
brown, crossed like the flanks but with redder spots; centre of the back
reddish brown; scapularies and wing-coverts brown, crossed with
conspicuous bars and spots of ferruginous; tail brown, crossed with
ferruginous bars, and tipped with light brown; primaries blackish brown,
margined on their inner webs with large oval-shaped spots of buff; bill
light lead colour, passing into black at the tip; cere and orbits pale
bluish lead colour; irides very dark brown; feet very light lead-colour.

The figures represent the two sexes of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  IERACIDEA OCCIDENTALIS: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                    IERACIDEA OCCIDENTALIS, _Gould_.
                          Western Brown Hawk.

  _Ieracidea occidentalis_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., June 25, 1844.

  _K̏ar-gyne_, Aborigines of the lowland and mountain districts of
    Western Australia.

Hitherto ornithologists, and among them myself, have regarded the Common
Brown Hawks, which occur so numerously in collections from Australia, as
referrible to one and the same species,—an opinion founded principally
upon the circumstance of the members of this genus being subject to a
greater number of changes of plumage from youth to maturity than any
other; observation, however, aided by dissection, and that too of very
many examples, and at all seasons of the year, has convinced me that
there are two species, which appear to occupy opposite portions of the
continent; the present bird, as its name implies, being confined to the
western, and the _I. Berigora_ to the eastern. Both species are
occasionally found in South Australia, but the latter is the most
abundant, and here it would seem that they inosculate.

The present bird is very generally spread over the Swan River
Settlement, and in its habits and economy closely assimilates to its
representative in New South Wales. It feeds upon birds, lizards,
insects, caterpillars, and carrion. Its smaller size renders it a
somewhat less formidable enemy to the farm-yard, still it requires
considerable vigilance to check its depredations upon the broods of
poultry, ducks, &c.

As its smaller legs, more compact body and lengthened pointed wings
would indicate, it flies with ease, making long sweeps and beautiful
curves, which are often performed near the ground. It loves to dwell
among swampy places, which at all times afford it an abundant supply of
lizards, frogs, newts, &c.

It breeds in September and October.

The nest is formed of dried sticks and is usually constructed in thickly
foliaged trees, sometimes near the ground, but more frequently on the
topmost branches of the highest gums; the eggs, which are generally two,
but sometimes three in number, differ very much in their markings, the
rich brown pervading the surface in some more than in others; those in
my collection measure two inches long by one and a half broad.

Crown of the head, back and scapularies rusty brown, with a narrow
stripe of black down the centre; rump deep rusty brown, crossed by broad
bands of dark brown, the tip of each feather buffy white; wings very
dark brown; the inner webs of the primaries with a series of large
spots, assuming the form of bars of a deep rusty brown near the shaft,
and fading into buffy white on the margin; wing-coverts tipped with
rusty red; spurious wing with a row of rusty spots on either side of the
shaft; tail dark brown, crossed by numerous broad irregular bars of
rusty red, and tipped with pale buff; ear-coverts and a stripe running
down from the angle of the lower mandible dark brown; chin, all the
under surface, and a broad band which nearly encircles the neck pale
buffy white, with a fine line of dark brown down the centre; thighs deep
rust-red, each feather with a line of black down the centre and tipped
with buffy white; irides reddish brown; eyelid straw-yellow; orbits
bluish flesh-colour; bill bluish lead-colour, becoming black at the tip;
cere pale yellow; legs and feet light ashy grey, excepting the scales in
front of the tarsi, which are dull yellowish white.

The Plate represents an adult male and female rather less than the size
of life.

[Illustration:

  TINNUNCULUS CENCROÏDES.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                         TINNUNCULUS CENCROÏDES
                            Nankeen Kestril.

  _Falco Cencroïdes_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 183.

  _Nankeen Hawk_, of the Colonists.

Ornithologists will not fail to observe how beautifully the present bird
represents in Australia the well-known Kestril of the British Islands,
to which it closely assimilates in many of its actions and in much of
its economy.

So far as is yet known, this elegant Kestril is not only confined to
Australia, but its habitat is even restricted to the south-eastern
portion of that continent. I observed it to be tolerably abundant in
every part of New South Wales, and also on the plains of the interior in
the neighbourhood of the river Namoi. A large collection of birds from
South Australia, kindly forwarded to me by T. C. Eyton, Esq., also
contained examples.

Mr. Caley states that it is a migratory species, but I am inclined to
differ from this opinion; his specimens were procured in New South Wales
in May and June, while mine were obtained at the opposite season of
December, when it was breeding in many of the large gum-trees on the
rivers Mokai and Namoi; probably some districts are deserted for a short
time, and such others resorted to as may furnish it with a more abundant
supply of its natural food, and this circumstance may have led him to
consider it to be migratory.

The flight of the Nankeen Kestril differs from that of its European ally
in being more buoyant and easy, the bird frequently suspending itself in
the air without the slightest motion of the wings: it also flies much
higher, and having arrived at a great height flies round in a series of
circles, these flights being often performed during the hottest part of
the day; a circumstance which leads me to suppose that some kind of
insect food was the object of the search, it being well known that in
mid-day insects ascend to a much greater altitude than at any other
time.

The sexes present the usual differences in their markings, the female
having all the upper surface alternately barred with buff and brown,
while the male is furnished with a more uniform tint. I once took four
fully-fledged young from the hole of a tree by the side of a lagoon at
Brezi, in the interior of New South Wales; I also observed nests which I
believe were constructed by this bird, but which were placed on the
branches in the ordinary way of the members of this group.

The male has the forehead white; head and back of the neck reddish grey,
with the shaft of each feather black; back, scapularies and wing-coverts
cinnamon-red, with a small oblong patch of black near the extremity of
each feather; primaries, secondaries and greater coverts dark brown,
slightly fringed with white; the base of the inner webs of these
feathers white, into which the dark colouring proceeds in a series of
points, resembling the teeth of a large saw; face white, with a slight
moustache of dark brown from each angle of the mouth; chest and flanks
buffy white, with the shaft of each feather dark brown; abdomen and
under tail-coverts white; upper tail-coverts and tail-feathers for
two-thirds of their length from the base grey; remaining portion of all
but the two centre feathers white, crossed near the tip by a broad
distinct band of deep black, the band being narrow, and only on the
inner web of the external feather; bill horn-colour near the base, black
towards the tip; base of the under mandible yellowish; cere and orbits
yellowish orange; legs orange.

The female has all the upper surface, wings and tail cinnamon-red; each
feather of the former with a dark patch of brown in the centre, assuming
the shape of arrow-heads on the wing-coverts; the scapularies
irregularly barred with the same, and the tail with an irregular band
near the extremity; throat, vent and under tail-coverts white; remainder
of the under surface reddish buff, with a stripe of brown down the
centre of each feather.

The figures represent the two sexes of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ASTUR NOVÆ-HOLLANDIÆ.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                         ASTUR NOVÆ-HOLLANDIÆ.
                          New Holland Goshawk.

  _Astur Raii_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 180.

  _Falco clarus_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp., p. 13?—Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol.
    vii. p. 184?

  _Fair Falcon_, Lath. Gen. Syn. Supp., vol. ii. p. 54?—Lath. Gen.
    Hist., vol. i. p. 226?

The only part of Australia in which I have met with this species is New
South Wales, where it would appear to evince a preference for the dense
and luxuriant brushes near the coast; but so little has at present been
ascertained respecting its economy, range and habits, that its history
is nearly a blank—even whether it is migratory or not is unknown. That
it breeds in the brushes of the district above mentioned is certain, for
I recollect seeing a brood of young ones in the possession of Alexander
Walker Scott, Esq., of Newcastle on the Hunter, a gentleman much
attached to the study of the natural productions of Australia. These
young birds differed but little in colour from the fully adult specimens
in my collection, except that the transverse markings of the breast were
much darker and of a more arrow-shaped form; which markings become
fainter and more linear as the bird advances in age.

The sexes present the usual difference in size, but in colour and
markings they closely assimilate.

All the upper surface grey; throat and all the under surface white,
crossed with numerous irregular grey bars; cere yellowish orange; feet
yellow; bill and claws black.

The irides of the young are brown.

The figures represent the two sexes of the natural size, the smaller
bird being the male.

[Illustration:

  ASTUR NOVÆ-HOLLANDIÆ.

  _White Variety?_

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



            ASTUR NOVÆ-HOLLANDIÆ, _Vig. and Horsf., Albino_
                             White Goshawk.

  _Lacteous Eagle_, Lath. Gen. Hist., vol. i. p. 216.

  _Astur Novæ-Hollandiæ_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p.
    179.—Gould in Syn. of Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Astur albus_, Jard. and Selb. Ill. Orn., vol. i. pl. 1.

  _Falco Novæ-Hollandiæ_, Lath. Ind. Orn., vol. i. p. 16.—Gmel. Syst.
    Nat., vol. i. p. 264.—Daud., vol. ii. p. 56.

  _Falco albus_, Shaw in White’s Voy., pl. in p. 260.—Ib. Gen. Zool.,
    vol. vii. p. 92.

  _New Holland White Eagle_, Lath. Gen. Syn., vol. i. p. 40.—Ib. Supp.,
    p. 12.—Ib. Gen. Hist., vol. i. p. 217.—White’s Voy., pl. in p. 260.

  _Goo-loo-bee_, Aborigines of New South Wales, _Latham_.

  _White Hawk_, of the Colonists.

Although I feel convinced that the white bird to which the name _Falco
Novæ-Hollandiæ_ has been constantly applied by the older writers is
merely an albino of the species figured on the preceding plate, I have
been induced to give a representation of it here, in order to show what
synonyms have reference to that state of plumage, as well as to depict
one of the most ornamental and beautiful of the _Falconidæ_ inhabiting
Australia. As I have before stated, the range of the grey bird would
seem to be confined to New South Wales: on the other hand, the white
bird is not only found in the same districts, but is also very
generally, though sparingly, distributed over Van Diemen’s Land, a fact
which might induce many persons to consider it to be a distinct species;
I am however inclined, with Cuvier, to believe it to be merely an albino
variety, now become permanent,—an event of very rare occurrence among
animals in a state of nature. The diversity in the colouring of the
irides of the many individuals that have come under my notice would
materially tend to confirm this opinion, some having the irides bright
yellow, and others brown; a splendid female I shot under Mount
Wellington in Van Diemen’s Land had the irides bright crimson, like
those of the albinos of many other animals; while another equally fine
female, in the possession of the Hon. Henry Elliot, at Government House,
had the irides bright yellow.

In the size and admeasurements of the various parts of either sex of the
white and grey birds no difference whatever can be detected, another
reason for believing them to be the same; for wherever a specific
difference is found to exist, it is always accompanied by a difference
in the dimensions of the whole or parts of the structure.

A knowledge of the nidification of this and the preceding bird, and of
the state of their plumage from youth to maturity, would greatly tend to
settle the question of their identity.

The disposition of Mr. Elliot’s bird was fierce and wild in the extreme,
exhibiting none of the docility of the true Falcons, but displaying all
the ferocity so characteristic of the group to which it belongs.

The sexes differ very considerably in size, the male being scarcely more
than half the size of the female.

The whole of the plumage pure white; cere and legs yellow; bill and
claws black.

The figures represent the two sexes of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ASTUR RADIATUS.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                            ASTUR RADIATUS.
                           Radiated Goshawk.

  _Falco radiatus_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp., p. xii.—Shaw, Gen. Zool.,
    vol. vii. p. 177.

  _Radiated Falcon_, Lath. Gen. Syn. Supp., vol. ii. p. 53. pl.
    cxxi.—Ib. Gen. Hist., vol. i. p. 222. pl. xi.

  _Haliaëtus Calei_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 186.

The bird here represented I conceive to be the true _Falco radiatus_ of
Latham; it is but little known to ornithologists, from the circumstance
that few specimens only have been sent to Europe. It inhabits the dense
brushes bordering the rivers Manning and Clarence on the eastern coast
of New South Wales, and doubtless enjoys a much greater range than we
are at present acquainted with. It is the largest of the Goshawks
inhabiting Australia, far exceeding in size the _Astur palumbarius_ of
Europe. In some parts of its structure it differs considerably from the
typical Asturs, particularly in the lengthened form of the middle toe,
in which respect it resembles the true Accipiters; in its plumage it
somewhat differs from both those forms, the markings of most of the
feathers taking a longitudinal instead of a transverse direction; these
differences may hereafter be considered of sufficient importance to
warrant its separation into a distinct genus, but for the present I have
retained it with the other Goshawks in that of _Astur_. Of its habits
and economy nothing whatever is known.

The male has the whole of the upper surface blackish brown, each feather
broadly margined with rust-red; wings brown, crossed by narrow bands of
darker brown; tail greyish brown, crossed by irregular bands of dark
brown; shafts of the quills and tail buffy-brown; throat buff, deepening
into the rich rust-red of the under surface of the shoulder and the
whole of the under surface; all the feathers of the under surface with a
narrow stripe of black down the centre; thighs and under tail-coverts
rust-red without stripes.

The female resembles her mate in colour and in the disposition of the
markings, but has the striæ of the under surface broader and more
conspicuous.

The figures are those of a male and a female about two-thirds of the
natural size.

[Illustration:

  ASTUR APPROXIMANS _Vig. & Horsf._

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter, del^t_ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                  ASTUR APPROXIMANS, _Vig. and Horsf._
                          Australian Goshawk.

  _Falco radiatus_, Temm. Pl. Col. 123, young.

  _Astur radiatus_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 181,
    young male.

  _Astur fasciatus_, Ib., adult male and female.

  _Astur approximans_, Ib., young female.—Gould in Syn. Birds of
    Australia, Part III.

  _Bilbil_, Aborigines of New South Wales.

Among the whole perhaps of the Australian birds, certainly among the
Australian _Falconidæ_ we are presented with no species the scientific
appellation of which is involved in so much confusion as is that of the
present bird. This confusion has arisen from two causes: first, authors
have erroneously considered it to be identical with the _Falco radiatus_
of Latham, from which it is entirely distinct; and secondly, the
difference which exists between the plumage of the adult and young is so
great as to have led to a false multiplication of species, and
consequently of specific names. Seven specimens of this Hawk form part
of the collection of the Linnean Society, and are those from which
Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield took their descriptions of _Astur
radiatus_, _A. fasciatus_ and _A. approximans_: on a careful examination
of these specimens, I am satisfied that they are all referable to the
present bird; _A. radiatus_, of which there are two specimens, being the
young male; _A. fasciatus_, of which there are three specimens, the
adult; one an adult male, the other two adult females; and _A.
approximans_, of which there are two specimens, the young female. I have
retained the term _approximans_ in preference to either of the others,
because _radiatus_ actually belongs to another species, and the
employment of _fasciatus_ might hereafter lead to its being confounded
with the “Fasciated Falcon,” an Indian species described under that name
by Dr. Latham.

From the number of synonyms quoted above, it might readily be supposed
that this bird is very common, and such is in reality the case, for it
is one of the most abundant and generally dispersed of the Hawks
inhabiting New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land. It is a species which
ranges pretty far north, but on the western coast its place appears to
be supplied by the _Astur cruentus_. The country between South Australia
and Moreton Bay may be considered its true habitat; and there it is a
stationary resident.

The Australian Goshawk is a bold, powerful, and most sanguinary species,
feeding upon birds, reptiles, and small quadrupeds. It may often be seen
lurking about the poultry-yard of the settler, and dealing destruction
among the young stock of every kind; daring when at large, and morose
and sullen when captured, it never becomes tame and familiar like the
true Falcons, but retains its ferocity to the last.

Its nest is usually built on a large swamp-oak (_Casuarina_), growing on
the side of a brook, but I have occasionally met with it on the
gum-trees (_Eucalypti_) in the forest at a considerable distance from
water; it is of a large size, and is composed of sticks and lined with
gum-leaves. The eggs are generally three in number, of a bluish white,
smeared over with blotches of brownish buff; they are one inch and ten
lines long by one inch and five lines broad.

The male, which is considerably less than the female in size, has the
crown of the head and nape of the neck leaden grey; on the back of the
neck an obscure collar of rufous brown; the remainder of the upper
surface, wings and tail deep greyish brown; the latter numerously barred
with brown of a deeper tint; inner webs of the primaries and secondaries
greyish white, barred with dark brown; throat greyish brown; breast and
all the under surface rufous brown, crossed with numerous white fasciæ,
which are bounded on each side with an obscure line of dark brown;
thighs rufous, crossed by numerous irregular white lines; irides bright
yellowish orange, surrounded by a yellowish lash; inside of the mouth
blue, except the centre of the roof, which is black; gape and base of
the bill olive-green, interspersed with hair-like feathers; tip of the
cere greenish yellow; base of the mandibles pale blue; culmen and tips
black; legs and feet yellow; claws black.

The young differ considerably from the adult, having the feathers of the
head and back of the neck dark brown, margined with rufous brown; the
remainder of the upper surface deep brown, each feather with a
crescent-shaped mark of rufous at the extremity; tail brown, crossed
with obscure bars of a darker tint, and tipped with whitish brown; inner
webs of the primaries fawn-colour, barred with dark brown; throat buffy
white, with a stripe of dark brown down the centre of each feather;
breast buffy white, each feather crossed by two bands of dark brown, the
last of which assumes a triangular form; abdomen and flanks buffy white,
crossed by irregular bands of dark brown, which are blotched with rufous
brown in the centre; thighs and under tail-coverts pale rufous, crossed
by similar bands; irides beautiful yellow; cere, base of the bill and
gape bluish lead-colour; point of the bill blackish brown; legs
gamboge-yellow.

The Plate represents an adult male and female of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ASTUR CRUENTUS: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                        ASTUR CRUENTUS, _Gould_.
                       West-Australian Gos-Hawk.

  _Astur cruentus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., 1842.

  _K̏il-lin-g̏il-lee_ and _Mat-wȅl-itch_, Aborigines of the mountain
    districts of Western Australia.

  _Goȍd-jee-lum_, Aborigines around Perth, Western Australia.

This Hawk is intermediate in size between the _Astur approximans_ and
_Accipiter torquatus_; it is of a more grey or blue colour on the back,
and has the transverse lines on the breast narrower and of a more rufous
tint. It precisely resembles the first-mentioned bird in the rounded
form of the tail, in the short powerful tarsus, and in the more
abbreviated middle toe, which is much longer in the _Accipiter
torquatus_.

The _Astur cruentus_ is a very common species in Western Australia,
particularly in the York district and at the Murray. Like its congener,
it is a remarkably bold and sanguinary species, often visiting the
farm-yard and carrying off fowls and pigeons with much apparent ease.

It breeds in October and the two following months, making a nest of
dried sticks on the horizontal fork of a gum or mahogany tree.

The sexes and young present precisely the same differences, both in size
and plumage, that are observable in their near ally.

The male has the crown of the head and occiput dark slate-colour; sides
of the face grey; at the back of the neck a collar of chestnut-red;
back, wings and tail slaty brown, the brown hue predominating on the
back, and the slate-colour upon the other parts; inner webs of the
primaries fading into white at the base, and crossed by bars of
slate-colour, the interspaces freckled with buff; the inner webs of the
tail-feathers are marked in a precisely similar manner; chin buffy
white; the whole of the under surface rust-red, crossed by numerous
narrow semicircular bands of white; irides bright yellow; cere dull
yellow; bill black at the tip, blue at the base; legs and feet pale
yellow; claws black.

The female differs in having all the upper surface brown; the chestnut
band at the back of the neck wider, but not so rich in colour; in all
other respects she resembles her mate.

The Plate represents the two sexes of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ACCIPITER TORQUATUS: _Vig. & Horsf._

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter, del^t_ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                 ACCIPITER TORQUATUS, _Vig. and Horsf._
                         Collared Sparrow Hawk.

  _Falco torquatus_, Cuv.—Temm. Pl. Col., 43 adult, 93 young.

  _Accipiter torquatus_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p.
    182.—Shaw, Gen. Zool., vol. xiii. p. 30, pl. 33.—Gould, Syn. Birds
    of Australia, Part III. fig. 2.

  _Falco nisus_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp., p. xi.?

  _New Holland Sparrow Hawk_, Lath. Gen. Syn. Supp., vol. ii. p. 51?;
    and Gen. Hist., vol. i. p. 223?

  _Nisus australis_, Less. Traité d’Orn., p. 61.

  _Bilbil_, Aborigines of New South Wales.

  _J̏il-lee-j̏il-lee_, Aborigines of the lowland and

  _̏Min-min_ of the Aborigines of the mountain districts of Western
    Australia.

  _Little Hawk_, Colonists of Swan River.

This species is especially abundant in Van Diemen’s Land and New South
Wales, and would appear to enjoy a wide extent of range, since I have
either seen or received specimens of it from every part of Australia
with the single exception of the north coast.

In its habits and disposition it has all the characteristics of its
European ally, the _Accipiter Fringillarius_, whose boldness and daring
spirit while in pursuit of its quarry have been so often described that
they are familiar to every one; the sexes also exhibit the same
disparity of size, the female being nearly as large and powerful again
as her mate; hence the Swift-flying Quail and the numerous species of
Honey-eaters upon which they feed, find in her a most powerful enemy.
For rapidity of flight and unerring aim, however, she is even surpassed
by her more feeble mate, who may frequently be observed at one moment
skimming quietly over the surface of the ground, and the next
impetuously dashing through the branches of the trees in fearless
pursuit of his prey, which from the quickness of his abrupt turns rarely
eludes the attack. Mr. Caley mentions as an instance of its boldness,
that he once witnessed it in the act of darting at a Blue Mountain
Parrot, which was suspended in a cage from the bough of a mulberry-tree,
within a couple of yards of his door.

The nest is rather a large structure, composed of sticks, and lined with
fibrous roots and a few leaves of the gum-tree; it is usually placed in
the fork of a swamp oak (_Casuarina_) or other trees growing on the
banks of creeks and rivers, but is occasionally to be met with in the
depths of the forests. The eggs are generally three in number, of a
bluish white, in some instances stained and smeared over with blotches
of buff; in others I have observed square-formed spots, and a few
hair-like streaks of deep brown: their medium length is one inch and six
lines by one inch and two lines in breadth.

Head, all the upper surface, wings and tail deep brownish grey, the tail
indistinctly barred with deep brown; on the back of the neck an obscure
collar of reddish brown; throat, the under surface and thighs rufous,
crossed by numerous narrow bars of white, the red predominating on the
thighs; under surface of the wings and tail grey, distinctly barred with
dark brown, which is deepest on the former; irides and eyelash yellow;
cere and gape yellowish green; base of the bill lead-colour, tip black;
legs yellow slightly tinged with green.

The young male has the cere and gape olive-yellow; irides and eyelash
primrose-yellow.

The figures are those of a male and a female of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  BUTEO MELANOSTERNON: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter, del^t._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                     BUTEO MELANOSTERNON, _Gould_.
                        Black-breasted Buzzard.

  _Buteo melanosternon_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part VIII. p.
    162.

  _G̏oo-dap_, Aborigines of the mountain districts of Western Australia.

If we examine the Australian members of the family of _Falconidæ_, we
cannot fail to observe that it comprises representatives of most of the
forms inhabiting similar latitudes in the northern hemisphere; no
example of the genus _Buteo_ had, however, been recorded as an
inhabitant of Australia until I discovered the present species, which is
more nearly allied to the _Buteo Jackall_ of the Cape of Good Hope and
the Red-tailed Buzzard (_Buteo Borealis_) of America than to any other.
It is a fine and noble species, and although it does not appear to be
common in any part of the colonies, it ranges over all the southern
portion of the country. I have received it from Swan River, and procured
it myself during my journey into the interior of New South Wales, about
two hundred miles northwards of Sydney; I have also a specimen which was
killed on the Liverpool Plains by one of the natives in my party.

The Black-breasted Buzzard generally flies high in the air, through
which it soars in large circles, much after the manner of the
Wedge-tailed Eagle; its black breast and the large white mark at the
base of the primaries being very conspicuous when seen from beneath.

The sexes are alike in colouring but present the usual difference in
size, the male being the smallest.

Crown of the head, face, chin, chest and centre of the abdomen deep
black, passing into chestnut-red on the flanks, thighs and under
tail-coverts; back of the head chestnut-red, becoming black in the
centre of each feather; shoulders whitish buff; all the upper surface
deep brownish black, margined with chestnut-red; primaries white at the
base, deep black for the remainder of their length; cere and base of the
bill purplish flesh-colour, passing into black at the tip; irides
wood-brown; feet white tinged with lilac.

The Plate represents a male about two-thirds of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  MILVUS AFFINIS: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter, del^t._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                        MILVUS AFFINIS, _Gould_.
                              Allied Kite.

  _Milvus affinis_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 140; and in
    Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _E-le-nid-jul_, Aborigines of Port Essington.

With the single exception of Van Diemen’s Land, this Kite is universally
dispersed over all the Australian Colonies, and is equally as common at
Port Essington, on the north coast, as it is on the southern portions of
the country.

Its confident and intrepid disposition renders it familiar to every one,
and not unfrequently costs it its life, as it fearlessly enters the
farm-yard of the settler, and if unopposed, impudently deals out
destruction to the young poultry, pigeons, &c. tenanting it. It is also
a constant attendant at the camps of the Aborigines and the hunting
parties of the settlers, perching on the small trees immediately
surrounding them, and patiently waiting for the refuse or offal. The
temerity of one individual was such, that it even disputed my right to a
Bronze-winged Pigeon that had fallen before my gun, for which act, I am
now almost ashamed to say, it paid the penalty of its life; on
reflection I asked myself why should advantage have been taken of the
confident disposition implanted in the bird by its Maker, particularly
too when it was in a part of the country where no white man had taken up
his abode and assumed a sovereign right over all that surrounds him.

The flight of this bird, which is closely allied in character to that of
the _Milvus ater_ of Europe, is much less protracted and soaring than
that of the typical Kites; the bird is also much more arboreal in its
habits, skulking about the forest after the manner of the true Buzzards.
Great numbers have been observed hovering over the smoke of the
extensive fires so common in Australia, closely watching for Lizards and
any of the smaller mammalia that may have fallen victims to the flames,
or have been driven by the heat from their lurking places.

In the southern parts of Australia this bird is a stationary species; I
did not, however, succeed in procuring its eggs, or any account of its
nidification.

The sexes are so nearly alike that the single figure in the accompanying
Plate will serve for a representation of both.

Feathers of the head, and the back and sides of the neck reddish fawn
colour, with a central stripe of dark blackish brown; all the upper
surface glossy brown inclining to chocolate, and passing into reddish
brown on the wing-coverts, the shaft of each feather being black, and
the extreme tip pale brown; primaries black; secondaries blackish brown;
tail, which is slightly forked, brown, crossed by several indistinct
bars of a darker tint, and each feather tipped with greyish white;
throat brownish fawn colour, with the stem of each feather black; the
remainder of the under surface rufous brown, with a central line of dark
brown on each feather, which is broadest and most conspicuous on the
chest; cere, gape and base of the lower mandible yellow; upper mandible
and point of the lower black; tarsi and toes yellow; claws black; irides
very dark brown.

The figure is about two-thirds of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  MILVUS ISURUS: _Gould_.

  _J. & E. Gould del^t._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                        MILVUS ISURUS, _Gould_.
                          Square-tailed Kite.

  _Milvus isurus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. 1837, p.
    140.—Ib. Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Ge-durn-mul-uk_ and _Mar-arl_, Aborigines of the mountain districts
    of Western Australia.

  _Kite_, of the Colonists.

This new species, although possessing the short feet, long wings, and
other characters of the true Kites, may at once be distinguished from
all the other members of that group by the square form of its tail. I
met with it in various parts of New South Wales, and on the plains of
the interior, still it is by no means abundant, and persons who had been
long resident in the colony knew but little about it. I had, however,
the good fortune not only to kill the bird myself, but, in one instance,
to find its nest, from which I shot the female. I have also received two
specimens from Swan River, which shows that, although the species may be
thinly scattered over the country, it nevertheless enjoys an extensive
range of habitat. It is a true Kite in all its manners, at one time
soaring high above the trees of the forest, and at others hunting over
the open wastes in search of food.

The nest which I found near Scone, in the month of November, was of a
large size, built exteriorly of sticks, and lined with leaves and the
inner bark of the gum-trees: it contained two eggs, the ground colour of
which was buffy white; one was faintly freckled with rufous, becoming
much deeper at the smaller end, while the other was very largely
blotched with reddish brown; they were somewhat round in form, one inch
and eleven lines long by one inch and seven lines broad.

In his notes from Western Australia, Mr. John Gilbert remarks, that it
is there “always found in thickly-wooded places. Its flight at times is
rapid, and it soars high for a great length of time. I found a nest on
the 10th of November, 1839; it contained two young ones scarcely
feathered, and was formed of sticks on a lofty horizontal branch of a
white gum-tree, in a dense forest about four miles to the eastward of
the Avon. I have not observed it in the lowlands, but it appears to be
tolerably abundant in the interior. The stomach is membranous and very
capacious: the food mostly birds.”

Forehead and space over the eye buffy white, each feather tipped and
marked down the shaft with black; crown of the head, back and sides of
the neck, throat, shoulders, both above and beneath, and the under
surface generally reddish orange; the feathers on the crown and the back
of the head, like those of the forehead, marked longitudinally and
tipped with black, but in no part are these markings so widely spread as
on the chest, whence they suddenly diminish, and are altogether lost on
the abdomen, the uniformity of which, particularly on the flanks, is
broken by obscure transverse bands of a lighter colour; upper part of
the back and scapularies deep blackish brown; tips of the primaries on
the upper surface dark brown, obscurely banded with black; internal web
of the basal portion of the primaries, together with the stem and under
surface generally, greyish white; secondaries dark brown banded with
black, the remainder of the wing light brown, the edges of the feathers
being still lighter; rump and upper tail-coverts white, with transverse
bands of brown and buff; tail brownish grey, and nearly square in form,
all the feathers, except the two outer on each side, marked with about
four obscure narrow bands of black, the whole tipped with black; irides
very pale yellow, freckled with light rufous; cere, base of the bill and
feet greyish white; culmen and tip of the bill and claws black.

The female has the same character of markings as the male, but is
readily distinguished by her great superiority in size.

The figure is that of a male two-thirds of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ELANUS AXILLARIS.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter, del^t._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                           ELANUS AXILLARIS.
                         Black-shouldered Kite.

  _Falco axillaris_, Lath. Ind. Orn., Supp., vol. ii. p. 42.—Shaw Gen.
    Zool., vol. vii. p. 173.—Vieill. 2nde Edit. du Nouv. Diet. d’Hist.
    Nat., tom. iv. p. 453.

  _Circus axillaris_, Vieill. Ency. Méth., Part. III. p. 1212.

  _Elanus notatus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 141; and in
    Syn. Birds of Australia, Part IV.

A more careful comparison of the birds from various parts of the world,
which have hitherto been classed under the old specific name of _Falco
(Elanus) melanopterus_, has shown that, instead of their being all
identical, each quarter of the globe is inhabited by its own peculiar
species; and that although they all bear a general resemblance to each
other, they each possess well-defined characters, by which they may be
readily distinguished: in their habits, as might be supposed, they are
as closely allied as in general appearance.

The species here represented is a summer visitant to the southern
portions of the Australian continent, over which it is very widely but
thinly dispersed, being found at Swan River on the west coast, at
Moreton Bay on the east, and over all the intervening country; I have
never seen it in collections from Java, although Sir William Jardine
states that it is an inhabitant of that island, neither have I yet seen
it from Van Diemen’s Land.

In its disposition it is much less courageous than the other members of
the Australian _Falconidæ_ and, as its feeble bill and legs would
indicate, lives more on insects and reptiles than on birds or
quadrupeds.

I very often observed it flying above the tops of the highest trees, and
where it appeared to be hawking about for insects; it was also sometimes
to be seen perched upon the dead and leafless branches of the gums,
particularly such as were isolated from the other trees of the forest,
whence it could survey all around.

While under the Liverpool range I shot a young bird of this species that
had not long left the nest; which proves that it had been bred within
the colony of New South Wales, but I could never obtain any information
respecting the nest and eggs.

The sexes closely assimilate to each other in colouring. The young
differ in having the feathers of the upper surface tipped with
buffy-brown.

The adults have the eye encircled by a narrow ring of black; forehead,
sides of the face and under surface of the body pure white; back of the
neck, back, scapularies, and upper tail-coverts delicate grey; a
jet-black mark commences at the shoulders, and extends over the greater
portion of the wing; under surface of the shoulders pure white, below
which an oval spot of jet black; primaries dark grey above, brownish
black beneath; tail greyish white; bill black; cere and legs pale
yellow; irides reddish orange.

The figures are those of a male and a female of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ELANUS INSCRIPTUS: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter, del^t._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                       ELANUS SCRIPTUS, _Gould_.
                          Letter-winged Kite.

  _Elanus scriptus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., June 28, 1842.

I have nothing more to communicate respecting this new species of
_Elanus_, than that I found a single specimen of it among a collection
of skins that had been sent from South Australia. In size it
considerably exceeds the Black-shouldered Kite, from which it also
differs in the colouring of the upper surface, which is much darker and
washed with reddish brown, the same part in the other species being
delicate grey; the principal character, however, by which it may be
distinguished, not only from its Australian relative, but from every
other member of the genus yet discovered, is the great extent of the
black mark on the under surface of the wing, which following the line of
the bones from the body to the pinion, assumes when the wing is spread
the form of the letter V, or if both wings are seen at the same time
that of a W, divided in the centre by the body; which circumstance has
suggested the specific name I have applied to it.

It will be admitted by every one that this new species is an interesting
addition to the Australian _Falconidæ_, a group, of which the Fauna of
that country is more meagre in species than any similar extent of
country known.

Forehead and line over the eye white; head and all the upper surface
dark grey, washed with reddish brown; wing-coverts deep glossy black;
primaries greyish brown, becoming nearly white on their webs, all but
the first two or three margined with white at the tip; secondaries
brownish grey on the outer web, white on the inner and at the extremity;
tertiaries brownish grey; two centre tail-feathers grey; the remaining
tail-feathers pale brown on their outer webs, and white on the inner;
lores black; all the under surface and edge of the shoulder white; on
the under surface of the wing, following the line of the bones, a broad
mark of black, assuming the form of the letter V; bill black; cere and
legs yellow; claws black; irides orange.

The figure is of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  LEPIDOGENYS SUBCRISTATUS: _Gould_

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                   LEPIDOGENYS SUBCRISTATUS, _Gould_.
                             Crested Hawk.

  _Lepidogenys subcristatus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p.
    140; and in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

I regret to say that I am not sufficiently acquainted with this singular
species to give any account of its habits and economy, but, judging from
the feebleness of its bill and talons and the shortness of its tarsi, I
conceive that it principally preys upon insects and their larvæ; and it
is not improbable that honey and the larvæ of bees and ants, which
abound in Australia, may form a portion of its food. Any information on
this head that may have been ascertained by residents in Australia
would, if made known, be of the highest interest to ornithologists, as
an addition to the history of this singular form among the _Falconidæ_.
Its extreme rarity, however, will, I fear, tend much to prevent the
acquirement of this desirable information.

I saw it soaring high in the air over the plains in the neighbourhood of
the Namoi, but never sufficiently near to admit of a successful shot.
All the specimens I have seen were collected either at Moreton Bay or on
the banks of the Clarence.

As little or no difference exists in the plumage of the specimens I have
examined, I presume that the sexes are very similar.

Crown of the head, sides of the face, ear-coverts, and upper part of the
back brownish grey; occiput and lengthened occipital plumes blackish
brown; back and scapulars brown; wings uniform dark brownish grey above,
beneath silvery grey; primaries and secondaries crossed by several
bands, and largely terminated with black; rump and upper tail-coverts
chocolate-brown; tail brownish grey above, lighter beneath, crossed by
three narrow bands of black near the base, and deeply terminated with
the same colour; throat, chest, part of the shoulder, and under
tail-coverts greyish white tinged with rufous; abdomen, flanks and
thighs buffy white, crossed with conspicuous narrow bands of reddish
chestnut; bill bluish horn-colour; tarsi yellowish.

The Plate pourtrays the bird of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  CIRCUS ASSIMILIS: _Jard. & Selb._

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                  CIRCUS ASSIMILIS, _Jard. and Selb._
                            Allied Harrier.

  _Circus assimilis_, Jard. and Selb. Ill. Orn., vol. ii. pl. 51.

  _Swamp Hawk_, of the Colonists.

The _Circus assimilis_ may be regarded as the commonest of the Harriers
inhabiting New South Wales and South Australia; it also occurs, but in
smaller numbers, in Van Diemen’s Land. Another Harrier is rather
abundantly dispersed over all the localities suitable to its existence
in Western Australia, and it is just possible that they may prove to be
mere varieties of each other; if such should be the case, the whole of
the southern portion of the coast of Australia, from east to west, must
be included within the range of its habitat; still, without further
evidence in favour of this supposition, I should consider them to be
distinct species; and if this opinion is well-founded, the two species
will be found to inosculate in the latitude of Spencer’s and St.
Vincent’s Gulfs, as, in the collections lately forwarded to me by Mr.
Harvey of Port Lincoln, I found two or three individuals precisely
identical with those from Swan River. In size the _Circus assimilis_ is
but little inferior to the Marsh Harrier (_Circus æruginosus_) of
Europe, to which it offers a great resemblance in its habits and
economy; being generally seen flying slowly and somewhat heavily near
the surface of the ground, evincing a partiality to lagoons and marshy
places, situations which offer it a greater variety and abundance of
food than any other; the principal part of its food consists of
reptiles, small mammalia and birds. I several times observed this
species in the lagoons near Clarence Plains in Van Diemen’s Land, as
well as in all similar situations in almost every part of New South
Wales I visited.

I was not so fortunate as to find the nest of this Harrier,—a knowledge
of its form and of the colour of its eggs is therefore yet to be
ascertained. That it breeds in the localities in which I observed it I
have little doubt, from the circumstance of the adults paying regular
and hourly visits to the marshes in search of food, which was doubtless
borne away to their young. When in a state of quiescence, this species,
like the other Harriers, perches on some elevation in the open plain
rather than among the trees of the forest; the trunk of a fallen tree, a
large stone, or small hillock, being among its favourite resting-places.

The sexes offer the usual differences in the larger size of the female;
the markings of that sex are also rather less well-defined, and have not
so much of the grey colouring as the male.

Head and all the upper surface rich dark brown; the feathers at the back
of the neck margined with reddish buff; face light reddish brown; facial
disc buffy white, with a dark stripe down the centre of each feather;
all the under surface buffy white, which is deepest on the lower part of
the abdomen and thighs, each feather with a streak of brown down the
centre; upper tail-coverts and base of the tail-feathers white;
remaining length of the tail-feathers brownish grey; irides reddish
orange; eyelash and cere pale yellow; bill dark brown, becoming light
blue at the base; tarsi greenish white; feet bright orange; claws dark
brown.

The female differs in being of a larger size and of a darker brown,
particularly on the under surface, and in having the tail of a deeper
tint and obscurely barred.

The figures are about two-thirds of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  CIRCUS JARDINII: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del. et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                       CIRCUS JARDINII, _Gould_.
                           Jardine’s Harrier.

  _Circus Jardinii_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 141; and
    in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

This very beautiful Harrier, which is distinguished from every other
species of the genus at present known by the spotted character of its
plumage, is plentifully dispersed over every portion of New South Wales,
wherever localities favourable to the existence of the Harrier tribe
occur, such as extensive plains, wastes, and luxuriant grassy flats
between the hills in mountainous districts. The extent of its range over
the Australian continent has not yet been ascertained, and I have never
observed it from any other portion of the country than that mentioned
above, nor do specimens occur in collections formed in other parts.

In the third part of my “Synopsis of the Birds of Australia,” I
expressed an opinion that the _Circus assimilis_ of Messrs. Jardine and
Selby’s “Illustrations of Ornithology” was merely the young of the
present species: this opinion, however, my visit to Australia proved to
be erroneous; the _Circus assimilis_, as will be seen on reference to
the preceding plate, proving to be entirely distinct. The present noble
bird has been named in honour of Sir William Jardine, Bart., one of the
authors of the work above mentioned; and which, as well as his other
valuable publications connected with the science of ornithology, are
well known to every zoologist.

To describe the economy of the Jardine’s Harrier would be merely to
repeat what has been said respecting that of the former species. Like
the other members of the genus, it flies lazily over the surface of the
plains, intently seeking for lizards, snakes, small quadrupeds and
birds; and when not pressed by hunger, reposes on some dried stick,
elevated knoll, or stone, from which it can survey all around. Although
I observed this species in all parts of the Hunter in summer, when
others of the _Falconidæ_ were breeding, I did not succeed in procuring
its eggs, or obtain any satisfactory information respecting its
nidification; in all probability its nest is constructed on or near the
ground, on the scrubby crowns of the low, open, sterile hills that
border the plains.

The sexes present considerable difference in size, but are very similar
in their markings; both are spotted, but the female is by far the finest
bird in every respect.

Crown of the head, cheeks and ear-coverts dark chestnut, each feather
having a mark of brown down the centre; facial disc, back of the neck,
upper part of the back, and chest uniform dark grey; lower part of the
back and scapulars dark grey, most of the feathers being blotched and
marked at the tips with two faint spots of white, one on each side of
the stem; shoulders, under surface of the wing, abdomen, thighs and
under tail-coverts rich chestnut, the whole of the feathers beautifully
spotted with white, the spots regularly disposed down each web, and
being largest and most distinct on the abdomen; greater and lesser
wing-coverts brownish grey, irregularly barred and tipped with a lighter
colour; secondaries dark grey, crossed with three narrow lines of dark
brown, and tipped with a broad band of the same colour, the extreme tips
being paler; primaries black for two-thirds of their length, their bases
brownish buff; upper tail-coverts brown, barred and tipped with greyish
white; tail alternately barred with conspicuous bands of dark brown and
grey, the brown band nearest the extremity being the broadest, the
extreme tips greyish white; irides bright orange-yellow; cere
olive-yellow; bill blue at the base, black at the culmen and tips; legs
yellow.

The young has the whole of the upper surface nearly uniform dark brown,
the tail more numerously barred, and the feathers of the chest and upper
part of the abdomen striated, instead of spotted with white: in other
respects it resembles the adults.

The front figure represents the female and the other the male, about
two-thirds of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  STRIX CASTANOPS: _Gould_.

  _Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                       STRIX CASTANOPS, _Gould_.
                          Chestnut-faced Owl.

  _Strix castanops_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part IV. p. 140; and
    in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

Van Diemen’s Land is the native country of this Owl, a species
distinguished from all the other members of the genus _Strix_, as now
restricted, by its great size and powerful form; few of the Raptorial
birds, in fact, with the exception of the Eagles, are more formidable or
more sanguinary in disposition than the bird here represented.

Forests of large but thinly scattered trees, skirting plains and open
districts, constitute its natural habitat. Strictly nocturnal in its
habits, as night approaches it sallies forth from the hollows of the
large gum-trees, and flaps slowly and noiselessly over the plains and
swamps in search of its prey, which, as is the case with the other
members of the genus, consists of rats and small quadrupeds generally,
numerous species of which abound in the country wherein it is destined
by nature to dwell.

I regret that the brevity of my stay in Van Diemen’s Land did not admit
of sufficient opportunities for observing this bird in its native
haunts, and of making myself acquainted with the various changes which
take place in the colouring of its plumage. Much variety in this respect
exists among the specimens in my collection; occasioned not so much by a
difference in the form of the markings, as by a difference in the hue of
the wash of colour which pervades the face, neck, under surface and
thighs. In some specimens the face, all the under surface and the thighs
are deep rusty yellow; in others the same parts are slightly washed with
buff, while others again have the face of a dark reddish buff
approaching to chestnut, and the under surface much lighter; I have also
seen others with the facial feathers lighter than those of the body,
and, lastly, some with the face and all the under surface pure white,
with the exception of the black spots which are to be found in all.
Whether the white or the tawny plumage is the characteristic of the
adult, or whether these changes are influenced by season, are points
that might be easily cleared up by persons resident in Van Diemen’s
Land, and I would invite those who may be favourably situated for
observation to fully investigate the subject and make known the results.

I found the white variety far less numerous than the others; and so much
smaller in size, as almost to induce a belief that they were distinct.

The sexes differ very considerably in size, the female being by far the
largest, and in every way more powerful than the male: the stroke of her
foot and the grasp of her talons must be immediate death to any animal,
from the size of the little Opossum Mouse to the largest of the
Kangaroo-rats, upon which latter animals it is probable that future
research will prove it sometimes subsists.

Fascial disc deep chestnut, becoming deeper at the margin and encircled
with black; upper surface, wings and tail fine rufous brown, each
feather irregularly and broadly barred with dark brown, with a few
minute white spots on the head and shoulders; under surface uniform deep
sandy brown; sides of the neck and flanks sparingly marked with round
blackish spots; thighs and legs the same, but destitute of spots; bill
yellowish brown; feet light yellow.

The Plate represents the two sexes of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  STRIX PERSONATA: _Vig._

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                        STRIX PERSONATA, _Vig._
                            Masked Barn Owl.

  _Strix personata_, Vig. in Proc. of Com. of Sci., and Corr. of Zool.
    Soc., Part I. p. 60.—Gould in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Strix Cyclops_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part IV. p. 140; and in
    Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.?

It will be recollected that the habitat of the _Strix castanops_ is Van
Diemen’s Land, to which island it is probably restricted; on the other
hand, the bird here figured, although nearly allied to the preceding,
not only differs in so many essential characters as to leave little
doubt in my mind of its being specifically distinct, but is confined to
the continent of Australia, over which it enjoys a wide range. With the
exception of the north coast, I have received specimens from every part
of the country. During my visit to the interior of South Australia,
numerous individuals fell to my gun, which upon comparison presented no
material variation in their colour or markings from others killed in New
South Wales and Swan River.

If I were puzzled with respect to the changes to which the _Strix
castanops_ is apparently subject, I am not less so with those of the
present bird; for although I find the tawny and buff colouring of the
face and under surface is generally lighter, I also find a diversity in
the colouring of the different parts of the under surface; I have
specimens in my cabinet with the face, all the under surface and the
ground-colour of the upper pure white, and prior to my visit to
Australia I characterized specimens thus coloured as a distinct species
under the name of _Strix Cyclops_, but I have now some reason to believe
them to be fully adult males of the bird here figured. I may remark,
that out of the numerous examples I killed in South Australia in the
month of June, I did not meet with one in the white plumage.

The _Strix personata_ is almost a third smaller than the _S. castanops_,
and as the sexes of both species bear a relative proportion in size, the
male of the one is about equal to the female of the other. The white
spottings of the upper surface of the former are larger than those of
the latter, and the surrounding patches of dark brown and buff are not
so deep, giving the whole of that part of the bird a more marbled or
speckled appearance.

Pale buff; the upper part of the head, the back and the wings variegated
with dark brown, and sparingly dotted with white; under surface paler
with a few brown spots; tail buff, undulated with brown fascia; facial
disc purplish buff, margined with deep brown spots; bill pale
horn-colour; toes yellow.

The figures represent the two sexes of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  STRIX TENEBRICOSUS: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                      STRIX TENEBRICOSUS, _Gould_.
                               Sooty Owl.

  _Strix tenebricosus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part XIII. p. 80.

A fine specimen of this species is comprised in the collection of the
British Museum, and a second example graces my own; its habitat is
undoubtedly the dense brushes of the east coast of Australia, where,
like other Owls, it remains secluded during the day, and sallies forth
at night in search of its natural prey. It is a fine and powerful
species, and the rarest of the Australian members of the genus to which
it belongs, from all of which it is conspicuously distinguished by the
dark sooty hue of its plumage, and by the primaries being of one colour,
or destitute of the bars common to all the other species.

Facial disc sooty grey, becoming much deeper round the eyes; upper
surface brownish black, with purplish reflexions, and with a spot of
white near the tip of each feather; wings and tail of the same hue but
paler, the feathers of the wing of a uniform tint, without bars, those
of the tail faintly freckled with narrow bars of white; under surface
brownish black, washed with buff, and with the white marks much less
decided; legs mottled brown and white; irides dark brown; bill
horn-colour; feet yellowish.

The figure is of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  STRIX DELICATULIS: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                      STRIX DELICATULUS, _Gould_.
                             Delicate Owl.

  _Strix delicatulus_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part IV., 1836, p.
    140; and in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Y̏on-ja_, Aborigines of the lowlands of Western Australia.

This is the least of the Australian Owls belonging to that section of
the group to which the generic term of _Strix_ has been restricted; it
is also the one most generally distributed. I observed it in almost
every part of New South Wales that I visited; it is a common bird in
South Australia, and I have also seen specimens of it from Port
Essington. It has not yet been found in the colony of Swan River, nor
can it be included in the fauna of Van Diemen’s Land. Although good
specific differences are found to exist, it is very nearly allied to the
Barn Owl (_Strix flammea_) of our own island, and, as might be naturally
expected, the habits, actions and general economy of the two species are
as similar as is their outward appearance: mice and other small mammals,
which are very numerous, are preyed upon as its natural food. To attempt
a description of its noiseless flight, its mode of capturing its prey,
or of its general habits, would be merely to repeat what has been so
often and so ably written relative to the Barn Owl of Europe.

Although the plumage of youth and that of maturity do not differ so
widely in this species as in the other Australian members of the genus,
the fully adult bird may always be distinguished by the spotless and
snowy whiteness of the breast, and by the lighter colouring of the upper
surface.

Facial disc white, margined with buff; upper surface light greyish brown
tinged with yellow, very thickly and delicately pencilled with spots of
brownish black and white; wings pale buff lightly barred with pale
brown, marked along the outer edge and extremities with zigzag
pencillings of the same, each primary having a terminal spot of white;
tail resembles the primaries, except that the terminal white spot is
indistinct, and the outer feathers are almost white; under surface
white, sparingly marked about the chest and flanks with small brownish
dots; legs and thighs white; bill horn-colour; feet yellowish.

The figure is of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ATHENE BOOBOOK.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                            ATHENE BOOBOOK.
                              Boobook Owl.

  _Strix Boobook_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl., p. xv. no. 9.—Shaw, Gen.
    Zool., vol. vii. p. 262.

  _Boobook Owl_, Lath. Gen. Hist., vol. i. p. 362. no. 66.—Id. Gen. Syn.
    Suppl., vol. ii. p. 64.

  _Noctua Boobook_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 188.

  _Athene Boobook_, Gould in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part I.

  _Buck-buck_, Aborigines of New South Wales.

  _Goȍr-goȍr-da_, Aborigines of Western Australia.

  _Mȅl-in-de-ye_, Aborigines of Port Essington.

  _Koor-koo_, Aborigines of South Australia.

  _Brown_ or _Cuckoo-Owl_ of the Colonists.

I have seen individuals of this Owl from every one of the Australian
colonies, all presenting similar characters, with the exception of those
from Port Essington, which differ from the others in being a trifle
smaller in size and paler in colour.

In Van Diemen’s Land this species is seldom seen, while it is very
common throughout the whole length of the southern coast of the
continent. It appears to inhabit alike the brushes and the plains, that
is, those plains which are studded with belts of trees. It is no unusual
occurrence to observe it on the wing in the day-time in search of
insects and small birds, upon which it mainly subsists. It may be
readily distinguished from _Athene maculata_ by its larger size, and by
the spotted markings of its plumage; features which will be at once
perceived by a reference to the figures of the two species.

The flight of this bird is tolerably rapid, and as it passed through the
shrubby trees that cover the vast area of the belts of the Murray, it
strongly reminded me of a woodcock. In such places as those I have last
mentioned, travellers frequently flush it from off the ground, to which,
after a flight of one or two hundred yards, it either descends again or
takes shelter in any thickly-foliaged trees that may be at hand, when it
can neither be easily seen nor forced from its retreat.

It breeds in the holes of the large gum-trees, during the months of
November and December, and lays three eggs on the rotten surface of the
wood, without any kind of nest. Three eggs procured on the 8th of
November, by my useful companion Natty, were in a forward state of
incubation; their contour was unusually round, the medium length of the
three being one inch and seven lines, and the breadth one inch and four
lines. They were perfectly white, as is ever the case with the eggs of
owls.

“The native name of this bird,” says Mr. Caley, “is _Buck-buck_, and it
may be heard nearly every night during winter uttering a cry
corresponding with the sound of that word. Although this cry is known to
every one, yet the bird itself is known but to few; and it cost me
considerable time and trouble before I could satisfy myself of its
identity. The note of the bird is somewhat similar to that of the
European _Cuckoo_, and the colonists have hence given it that name. The
lower order of settlers in New South Wales are led away by the idea that
everything is the reverse in that country to what it is in England; and
the _Cuckoo_, as they call this bird, singing by night is one of the
instances they point out.” I believe that its note is never uttered
during the day-time.

The sexes offer but little difference in the colouring of their plumage,
but the female is the largest in size. A great diversity is found to
exist in the colouring of the irides; some being yellowish white, others
greenish yellow, and others brown.

Its food is very much varied, but consists principally of small birds
and insects of various orders, particularly locusts and other
Neuroptera.

Fore part of the facial disc greyish white, each feather tipped with
black; hinder part dark brown; head, all the upper surface, wings and
tail reddish brown; the wing-coverts, scapularies, and inner webs of the
secondaries spotted with white; primaries and tail-feathers irregularly
barred with light reddish brown, the spaces between the bars becoming
buffy white on the under surface; breast and all the under surface
rufous, irregularly blotched with white, which predominates on the
abdomen; thighs deep tawny buff; irides light brown in some, greenish
brown inclining to yellow in others; cere bluish grey; feet lead-colour.

The figures are male and female of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ATHENE MACULATA.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
]



                            ATHENE MACULATA.
                              Spotted Owl.

  _Noctua maculata_, Vig. and Horsf. in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 189.

  _Athene maculata_, Gould in Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

This species is very generally distributed over Van Diemen’s Land; it
also inhabits South Australia and New South Wales, but in far less
numbers. It generally takes up its abode in the thickly-foliaged trees
of the woods and gulleys, and usually selects those that are most
shielded from the heat and light of the sun.

Little or no difference is observable in the habits and economy of this
species and those of the diurnal Owls of Europe. The whole day is spent
in a state of drowsiness bordering on sleep, from which, however, it can
be easily aroused. Its visual powers are sufficiently strong to enable
it to face the light, and even to hunt for its food in the day-time.
Like other members of the genus it preys chiefly upon small birds and
insects, which, from the more than ordinary rapidity of its movements,
are captured with great facility.

The sexes are precisely alike in colour, and differ but little in size;
the female is however the largest.

The drawing in the accompanying Plate was made from a pair of living
examples which I kept for some time during my stay at Hobart Town, and
which bore confinement so contentedly, that had an opportunity presented
itself I might easily have sent them alive to England.

Facial disc white, each of the feathers immediately above the bill with
the shafts and tips black; head and all the upper surface brown, the
scapularies and secondaries numerously spotted with white; tail brown,
crossed by irregular bands of a lighter tint, which become nearly white
on the outer feathers; chest and all the under surface brown, blotched
and spotted with tawny and white; primaries brown, crossed with bands of
a lighter tint; thighs tawny buff; bill dark horn-colour; irides yellow;
feet yellowish.

The figures are of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ATHENE CONNIVENS.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                           ATHENE? CONNIVENS.
                              Winking Owl.

  _Falco connivens_, Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp., p. xii.—Shaw, Gen. Zool.,
    vol. vii. p. 186.

  _Winking Falcon_, Lath. Gen. Syn. Supp., vol. ii. p. 53.—Ib. Gen.
    Hist., vol. i. p. 221.

  _Athene? fortis_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 141; and in
    Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

  _Goora-a-gang_, Aborigines of New South Wales.

  _Wool-bȍo-gle_, Aborigines of the mountain district of Western
    Australia.

The range of this fine Owl appears to extend over the whole of the
southern coast of Australia. I have received it from Swan River and from
nearly every part of New South Wales; specimens from these distant
localities differ a little in their plumage; those obtained in Western
Australia being rather lighter in colour, and having the markings less
clear and defined than those from New South Wales. There is no
difference in the plumage of the sexes, but the female is somewhat the
largest in size.

Brushes, wooded gulleys, and the sides of creeks are its favourite
places of resort; it is consequently not so restricted in the localities
it chooses as the _Athene strenua_, which I have never known to leave
the brushes. It sallies forth early in the evening, and even flies with
perfect use of vision during the mid-day sun, when roused and driven
from the trees upon which it has been sleeping. I have frequently
observed it in the day-time among the thick branches of the _Casuarinæ_
which border the creeks.

It will be seen, on reference to the synonyms, that I described this
bird in the “Proceedings of the Zoological Society,” and figured it in
my “Synopsis” under the specific name of _fortis_; but I have since
ascertained, through the kindness of the Earl of Derby in affording me
the use and inspection of the three volumes of drawings of Australian
Birds, formerly in the possession of the late A. B. Lambert, Esq., that
it is identical with the Winking Falcon of Latham; any seeming
inattention on my part in describing an apparently new Owl without
consulting that author will I hope be readily excused, as few
ornithologists would think of looking for the description of this bird
under the genus _Falco_.

Face and throat greyish white; crown of the head and all the upper
surface dark brown, tinged with purple; scapularies, secondaries and
greater wing-coverts spotted with white; primaries alternately barred
with dark and greyish brown, the light marks on the outer edges
approaching to white; tail dark brown, transversely barred with six or
seven lines of greyish white, the extreme tips of all the feathers
terminating with the same; the whole of the under surface mottled brown
and white, the latter occupying the outer edges of the feathers; tarsi
clothed to the toes, and mottled brown and fawn-colour; irides bright
yellow; cere yellowish olive; bill light yellowish horn-colour; toes
long, yellow, and covered with fine hairs.

The figure is about four-fifths of the natural size.

[Illustration:

  ATHENE? STRENUA: _Gould_.

  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ _C. Hullmandel Imp._
]



                        ATHENE STRENUA, _Gould_.
                             Powerful Owl.

  _Athene strenua_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., Part V. p. 142; and in
    Syn. Birds of Australia, Part III.

With the exception of the Eagles, _Aquila fucosa_ and _Ichthyiaëtus
leucogaster_, this is the most powerful of the Raptorial birds yet
discovered in Australia. Its strength is prodigious, and woe to him who
ventures to approach its clutch when wounded. So far as I have been able
to ascertain, the habitat of the _Athene strenua_ is confined to New
South Wales; at all events no examples occur in collections made in any
other part of Australia. It is strictly an inhabitant of the brushes,
particularly of those which stretch along the coast from Port Philip to
Moreton Bay. I have also obtained it in the interior on the precipitous
sides of the Liverpool range, which are known to the colonists by the
name of the cedar brushes, where the silence of night is frequently
broken by its hoarse loud mournful note, which more resembles the
bleating of an ox than any other sound I can compare it to. During the
day it reposes under the canopy of the thickest trees, from which
however it is readily roused, when it glides down the gulleys with
remarkable swiftness; the manner in which so large a bird threads the
trees while flying with such velocity is indeed truly astonishing.

Its food consists of birds and quadrupeds, of which the brushes furnish
a plentiful supply. In the stomach of one I dissected in the Liverpool
range were the remains of a bird and numerous green seed-like berries,
resembling small peas; but whether they had formed the contents of the
stomach of a bird or quadruped the Owl had devoured, or whether the
large Owls of Australia, which certainly offer some difference in their
structure from every other group of the family, live partly on berries
and fruits, it would be interesting to know; a fact which can only be
ascertained by residents in the country.

The bill of this species stands out from the face very prominently; it
has also a smaller head and more diminutive eyes than the _Athene
connivens_, although it is a much larger bird.

The sexes differ but little in the colouring of the plumage or in size.

Crown of the head, all the upper surface, wings and tail dark
clove-brown, crossed by numerous bars of broccoli-brown, which become
much larger, lighter, and more conspicuous on the lower part of the
back, the inner edges of the secondaries and of the tail; face, throat,
and upper part of the chest buff, with a large patch of dark brown down
the centre of each feather; the remainder of the under surface white,
slightly tinged with buff, and crossed with irregular bars of brown;
bill light blue at the base, passing into black at the tip; feet pale
gamboge-yellow; toes covered with whitish hairs; irides yellow; cere
greenish olive.

The Plate represents the bird about two-thirds of the natural size, with
a young Koala (_Phascolarctos fuscus_, Desm.) in its claws, an animal
very common in the brushes.

[Illustration:

  ATHENE RUFA: _Gould_.

  .ta h:47 r:23 s=''
  _J. Gould and H. C. Richter del et lith._ | _Hullmandel & Walton Imp._
  .ta-

]



                         ATHENE RUFA, _Gould_.
                              Rufous Owl.

  _Athene rufa_, Gould in Proc. of Zool. Soc., February 24, 1846.

  _Ng̏or-gork_, Aborigines of Port Essington.

A single specimen of this fine Owl was obtained at Port Essington by Mr.
Gilbert, who shot it in a thicket amidst the swamps in the neighbourhood
of the settlement. It is a most powerful species, fully equalling in
size the _Athene strenua_, from which however it is at once
distinguished by the more rufous tint of its plumage and by the more
numerous and narrower barring of the breast. No other specimen was
procured during Mr. Gilbert’s residence in the colony, neither have the
collections transmitted from that locality since his departure furnished
us with additional examples.

Facial disc dark brown; all the upper surface dark brown, crossed by
numerous narrow bars of reddish brown; the tints becoming paler and the
barrings larger and more distinct on the lower part of the body, wings
and tail; all the under surface sandy red, crossed by numerous bars of
reddish brown; the feathers of the throat with a line of brown down the
centre; vent, legs and thighs of a paler tint, with the bars more
numerous but not so decided; bill horn-colour; cere, eyelash and feet
yellow, the latter slightly clothed with feathers; irides light yellow.

The figure is of the natural size.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES


 1. Silently corrected typographical errors and variations in spelling.
 2. Archaic, non-standard, and uncertain spellings retained as printed.
 3. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.
 4. Superscripts are denoted by a caret before a single superscript
      character, e.g. M^r.



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search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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