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Title: An account of the empire of Marocco, and the districts of Suse and Tafilelt; compiled from miscellaneous observations made during a long residence in, and various journies through, these countries. To which is added an account of shipwrecks on the western coast of Africa, and an interesting account of Timbuctoo, the great emporium of Central Africa
Author: Jackson, James Grey
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "An account of the empire of Marocco, and the districts of Suse and Tafilelt; compiled from miscellaneous observations made during a long residence in, and various journies through, these countries. To which is added an account of shipwrecks on the western coast of Africa, and an interesting account of Timbuctoo, the great emporium of Central Africa" ***

                        THE EMPIRE OF MAROCCO,
                               _&c. &c._

[Illustration: _James Grey Jackson._

_Engraved by E. Scriven (Historical Engraver to H.R.H. the Prince
Regent.) from an Aquatinta profile by Mrs. Read._

_Published Augst. 12th. 1811. by G. & W. Nicol. Pall Mall._]

[Illustration: An _Accurate Map_ of WEST BARBARY, _Including SUSE AND
TAFILELT, forming the Dominions of the present_ EMPEROR OF MAROCCO,
_Containing several Towns, & Districts never inserted in any former

_London Published Augst. 30th. 1811. by G. & W. Nicoll Pall Mall._

_S. T. Neele. sc. Strand._]

                        THE EMPIRE OF MAROCCO,
                                AND THE
                             COMPILED FROM
                    TO WHICH IS ADDED AN ACCOUNT OF
                          AND AN INTERESTING
                         ACCOUNT OF TIMBUCTOO,

                               * * * * *

  العالم بارض ميلاده

  كالد هب في معدنه

                 Vide Proverbs of Lokman.

                               * * * * *

                      BY JAMES GREY JACKSON, ESQ.

                               * * * * *


                            SECOND EDITION,

                               * * * * *
                        PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR,

                          HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS
                           PRINCE OF WALES,
                            &c. &c. &c. &c.
                             THIS ACCOUNT
                        THE EMPIRE OF MAROCCO,
                           WITH PERMISSION,
                        RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,
                         HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS’S
                            MOST OBEDIENT,
                                                THE AUTHOR.

   _May_ 30, 1809.

                        TO THE SECOND EDITION.

                               * * * * *

The very favourable manner in which the first Edition of this Account
of Marocco was received by the Public, and the flattering terms in
which it was spoken of by the most eminent Critical Journals of the
day,[1] afford me now an opportunity, in presenting a second Edition to
the world, of thus publicly returning my most grateful acknowledgments,
and at the same time of enlarging and improving the work, and thereby
rendering it still more worthy of public approbation: this I have been
enabled to do from my own original notes, many of which were forgotten
or overlooked in the first arrangement of the book.

_The new matter now submitted to the Public, consists principally
in a fuller account of the revenues of the state, several additions
on various other subjects, as the natural history of the country,
its inhabitants, and their modes of life, administration of
justice, treatment of children, and education of youth; some
further observations on the plague, and the diseases incident to
the inhabitants; a comparison between the ancient language of the
Canary Islands and that of the Shelluhs of South Atlas; Mr. Betton’s
philanthropic Will and patriotic intentions, manifested in his liberal
bequest to emancipate British seamen from captivity; cautions to
navigators; laws, manufactures, and customs of Timbuctoo; and, for the
amusement of the Arabic scholar, three Letters are introduced, with
their translations, to enable him to compare the Arabic of Africa with
that of Asia. Finally, there is scarcely a page that has not received
some additional matter or improvement._

Indeed I have been anxious to discuss every subject that could in any
manner tend to illustrate the actual state of the Empire of Marocco,
being confident that the more these subjects are discussed among us,
the more they will merit our attention: and that, if ever the interior
of Africa is to be explored by Europeans, if ever we are to reach
the grand object of our research, the Emporium of Central Africa
(Timbuctoo), Marocco is the most eligible point to set out from. But
it is indispensably necessary that we should first overcome our own
prejudices and misconceptions respecting this country; _we should first
secure to ourselves all those advantages which would result from an
active and uninterrupted commercial intercourse with the principal Sea
Ports of the Western Coast;_ and when these objects shall have been
accomplished, the rest will readily follow.

In the first Edition I promised that, should my labours meet with
approbation, I would publish the political history of Marocco: this
I had written, and intended as a second part to this Edition (indeed
three sheets of it were printed); but considering that the subject
has been before discussed, and being unwilling to trouble the public
with intelligence _not altogether new_, I have thought it expedient to
suppress it.

It is not probable that I shall do any thing more to this work, I
therefore now dismiss it as perfect as I can render it. The greater
part of it, I repeat, is the fruit of my own knowledge and experience;
and I have never spoken on the authority of others, but when I have had
opportunities of investigating the sources of their intelligence, and
when I have had every reason to believe their information correct.[2]

                                                          J. G. JACKSON.
   _Burton Street,_
  _Sept. 30th_, 1811.


[Footnote 1: Edinburgh Review, No. 28. Critical Review, Aug. 1809.
London Review, August 1809. Anti-jacobin Review, Aug. and Sept. 1809.
&c. &c.]

[Footnote 2: Since this book first appeared, the Proceedings of the
Society for promoting the Discovery of the interior Parts of Africa
have been published in two volumes octavo. In the second volume are two
letters from me to Sir Joseph Banks, wherein I observe the following
errors of the press, which I take the liberty here to correct: P. 366,
for zahaht, read _rahaht_; p. 373, for Alshærrah, read _Emsharrah_; p.
376, for Ait Elkoh, read _Ait Ebkoh_; for Idantenan, r. _Idautenan_;
for Kitrivæ, read _Kitiwa_; and for Alsigina, read _Emsegina_.]


                               * * * * *

The following sheets have been compiled from various notes and
observations made during a residence of sixteen years in different
parts of the Empire of Marocco, in the successive reigns of Cidi
Mohammed ben Abdallah ben Ismael, Muley Yezzid, Muley el Hesham, and
Muley Soliman ben Mohammed; and which were originally intended merely
as memoranda for my own use; but shortly after my last arrival in
England, I had the honour to converse with a distinguished Nobleman[3]
on the subject of African knowledge, and from his Lordship’s
suggestions I first determined to submit to the public such information
as a long intercourse with the natives of Barbary, as well in a
political as a commercial capacity, and a thorough knowledge of the
languages of North Africa had enabled me to obtain.

It was justly observed by Mr. Matra, our late consul at Marocco, that
“there are more books written on Barbary than on any other country,
and yet there is no country with which we are so little acquainted.”
The cause of this is to be found in the superficial knowledge which
the authors of such books possessed respecting this part of the world;
having been generally men who came suddenly into the country, and
travelled through it without knowing any thing either of the manners,
character, customs, or language of the people. Indeed, the greater
part of the compositions respecting North Africa, are narratives of
journies of Ambassadors, &c. to the Emperor’s court, generally for the
purpose of redeeming captives, compiled by some person attached to the
embassy, who, however faithfully he may relate what passes under his
own eye, is, nevertheless from his situation, and usual short stay,
unable to collect any satisfactory information respecting the country
in general, and what he does collect, is too often from some illiterate
interpreter, ever jealous of affording information to Europeans even on
the most trifling subjects.

Leo Africanus is, with very few exceptions, perhaps the only author
who has depicted the country in its true light; and although he has
committed some errors, chiefly geographical, yet Marmol, as well as
many moderns, have servilely copied him. There is some original matter
contained in a book, entitled, “A Journey to Mequinez, on the occasion
of Commodore Stuart’s Embassy, &c. &c.” London, 1725. Lemprière’s
Marocco contains an interesting description of the Horem, or the
Seraglio; but the rest of his account has many errors; the map appears
to be copied chiefly from Chenier, some of whose orthographical errors
he has adopted. The work of the last mentioned author is the best I
have seen,[4] and this is to be attributed to his having resided in the
country several years; and though his ridiculous pride did not allow
him to associate generally with the Moors, yet a partial knowledge of
their language, and his natural penetration and judgment, enabled him
to make many useful observations derived from experience.[5]

It must be obvious to every one, that a considerable portion of
time and study is requisite to obtain a thorough acquaintance with
the moral and political character of any nation, but particularly
with one which differs in every respect from our own, as does that
of Marocco; _he, therefore, who would be thoroughly acquainted with
that country, must reside in it for a length of time; he must possess
opportunities of penetrating into the councils of the State, as well
as of studying the genius of the people; he must view them in war and
in peace; in public and in domestic life; note their military skill,
and their commercial system; and finally, and above all, he must have
an accurate and practical knowledge of their language, in order to
cut off one otherwise universal source of error, misconception, and

Certainly no country has of late occupied so much attention as Africa,
and the exertions of the African Association to explore the interior
of this interesting quarter of the globe, do them the highest credit;
and if their emissaries have not always been successful, or obtained
information only of minor importance compared with the great object of
their researches, it is to be attributed to their want of a sufficient
knowledge of the nature of the country, and the character and
prejudices of its inhabitants, without which, _science to a traveller
in these regions_, is comparatively of little value. When we consider
the disadvantages under which Mr. Parke laboured in this respect, and
that he travelled in an European dress, it is really astonishing that
that gentleman should have penetrated so far as he did, in his first
mission; and we are not so much surprised at the perils he endured,
as that he should have returned in safety to his native country. Had
he previously resided a short time in Barbary, and obtained there a
tolerable proficiency in the African Arabic, and with the customs
adopted the dress of the country, what might we not have expected
from his perseverance and enterprising spirit? Whatever plans future
travellers may adopt, I would recommend to them to lay aside the dress
of Europe; for, besides its being a badge of Christianity wherever he
goes, it inevitably exposes him to danger; and it is so indecent in the
eyes of the Arabs and Moors, that a man with no other clothing than a
piece of linen round his middle, would excite in them less indignation.

Mr. Horneman, in the above respects, certainly set out with a more
probable chance of success; though I much fear the expectations which
he raised will never be fulfilled. From his Journal, indeed, he appears
to have been of far too sanguine a disposition, and to have relied
too much on the fair professions of his African fellow-travellers, an
instance of which occurs in his letter from Mourzouk, where he says,
“Under protection of two great Shereefs I have the best hopes of
success in my undertaking.” Here the hopes of success originate in the
very cause that would induce a man versed in the character and springs
of action of the Africans, to despair of success. It was the promises
of these people that led Major Houghton to his ruin; and the fair
representations made by some of them to the first emissaries of the
African Association have been proved to be false by the difficulties
and dangers which their successors have had to encounter, in attempting
to penetrate to Timbuctoo. The Shereefs are very plausible people;
many of them possess uncommon suavity of manners, which is too apt to
throw the confiding European off his guard, and make him the victim of
their artful designs; as to their information, it is not to be depended
on; they will say every thing to mislead, an instance of which will
be presently mentioned in the case of Mr. Parke. In another place Mr.
Horneman says, “In respect to my astronomical instruments, I shall
take special care never to be discovered in the act of observation;
should these instruments, however, attract notice, the answer is ready,
they are articles of sale, nor is there fear I should be deprived of
them whilst master of my price.” Nothing can evince greater ignorance
of the people than this; indeed I am surprised Mr. Horneman could
entertain such an idea. The mode of travelling in Africa will prevent
the possibility of his availing himself of these precautions; there
is no cafilah, or caravan of itinerant merchants and traders in that
country, which does not contain some person who has either been to
sea, or has seen nautical instruments, and knows their use. That they
are articles for sale would indeed sound very well for a person going
through Europe, but there are no purchasers for such things in Africa;
besides, no people under heaven are more jealous, or suspicious of
every thing which they do not comprehend, than the Africans. The
description of them by Sallust holds at this day, and is perhaps a
better drawn character of the modern African (although it alludes to
their ancestors) than any description which has hitherto been given of
this extraordinary people. These ignorant, barbarous savages, as we
call them, are much more sagacious, and possess much better intellects,
than we have yet been aware of.

The error above alluded to, into which Mr. Parke was led by a Shereef,
was in regard to the distance from Marocco through Sueerah, or Mogodor,
to Wedinoon, which he makes _twenty_ days,[6] when it is in reality
but _ten_, as I have repeatedly travelled the distance; viz. Marocco
to Sueerah, or Mogodor, three days; to Agadeer, or Santa Cruz, three;
to Wedinoon four. There is also another error in the same gentleman’s
book, which it is proper to notice; he says, _Saheel_ signifies the
_north country_; nothing but an ignorance of Arabic could have thus
misled him; Saheel in that language signifying nothing more than an
extensive plain; thus the extensive plains south-east of the river
Suse are called Saheel; the low country near El Waladia is called
Saheel; and if an Arab were to pass over Salisbury Plain, he would
term it Saheel. In these few notices respecting the travels of two of
the hitherto most successful emissaries of the African Association,
I have no other object in view than to point out errors which may
mislead those who follow them, and I therefore hope, that they will
be favourably received by that respectable body, and by the authors
themselves, should they happily return to this country. I had written
several remarks on Mr. Horneman’s Journal, which I intended to give
in an appendix, but as they might create ill-will, and involve me in
useless controversy, I have suppressed them.

With regard to the following Work, it has been my endeavour throughout,
to give the reader a clear account of the present state of the Empire
of Marocco, and of its commercial relations with the interior, as
well as with Europe: on the latter some readers may perhaps think I
have enlarged too much, but it was my wish to be particular, on that
subject, and to shew the advantages which this country _might_, and
_ought_ to derive from an extensive trade with Barbary. In other
respects, I have been as concise as possible, introducing little or
nothing of what has been satisfactorily detailed by late writers on
the same subject. In the Map of Marocco, I have given the encampments
of the various tribes of Arabs, and omitted such towns and villages as
are found in modern maps, but which now no longer exist. The track of
the caravans through the Desert to Timbuctoo, is, together with the
account of that city and the adjacent country, given from sources of
information which I had every reason to believe correct. The engravings
are from drawings made on the spot by myself; but from the extreme
jealousy of the natives, particularly those of the interior provinces,
and the consequent difficulty of taking views without being discovered,
trifling inaccuracies may have been committed in some of them. Some
apology ought perhaps to be made for my language; but any defect, in
this respect, will, I trust be excused, when it is recollected that
a plain relation of facts, and not an elegant composition, was all I
had in view. Some readers, probably may express surprise, that I have
said nothing of the political history of the country; but this I have
reserved for a future publication should the present one meet with the
approbation of the public.


[Footnote 3: The Right Hon. the Earl of Moira.]

[Footnote 4: There is a small volume translated from the French of the
Abbé Poiret, entitled, Travels through Barbary in a series of letters,
written from the Ancient Numidia, in the years 1785 and 1786, which
contains many judicious observations. The Abbé was doubtless a man
of penetration, and understood the character of the people whom he

[Footnote 5: There is an interesting and, I believe, a very faithful
account of an embassy from Queen Elizabeth to Muley Abd El Melk,
Emperor of Marocco in 1577, in the Gentleman’s Mag. September 1810,
page 219, in which the reader may correct the following errors of the
press: for Elchies, r. _Alkaids_; for lintals, r. _quintals_.]

[Footnote 6: See Parke’s Travels, 4to. edit. page 141.]

                          LIST OF PLATES, &c.

                               * * * * *


   1.  MAP of the Empire of Marocco to face the title

   2.  View of the Atlas as seen from the Terraces at Mogodor         10

   3.  View of the Plains of Akkurmute and Jibbel Heddid              46

   4.  View of Mogodor                                                47

   5.  View of the Port and Entrance of ditto                         48

   6.  View of the City of Marocco and Atlas Mountains                57

   7.  Camelion                                                       99

   8.  Locust                                                        103

   9.  Buskah                                                        109

  10.  El Efah                                                       110

  11.  Euphorbium Plant                                              134

  12.  Feshook ditto                                                 136

  13.  Dibben Feshook                                                136

  14.  Map, shewing the track of the Caravans across Sahara          282


                               * * * * *

                              CHAPTER I.

  GEOGRAPHICAL Divisions of the Empire of Marocco                      1

                              CHAPTER II.

  Rivers, Mountains, and Climate of Marocco                            4

                             CHAPTER III.

  Description of the different Provinces — their Soil, Culture,
  and Produce                                                         13

                              CHAPTER IV.

  Population of the Empire of Marocco. — Account of its Sea-ports,
  Cities, and Inland Towns                                            25

                              CHAPTER V.

  Zoology                                                             74

                              CHAPTER VI.

  Metallic, Mineral, and Vegetable Productions                       126

                             CHAPTER VII.

  Description of the Inhabitants of West Barbary — their Dress —
  Religious Ceremonies and Opinions — their Character — Manners
  and Customs — Diseases — Funerals — Etiquette of the Court —
  Sources of Revenue                                                 140

                             CHAPTER VIII.

  Some Account of a peculiar species of Plague, which depopulated
  West Barbary in 1799, and 1800, and to the effects of which the
  Author was an eye-witness                                          171

                              CHAPTER IX.

  Some Observations on the Mohammedan Religion                       196

                              CHAPTER X.

  Languages of Africa — Various Dialects of the Arabic Language —
  Difference between the Berebber and Shelluh Languages — Specimen
  of the Mandinga — Comparison of the Shelluh Language with that of
  Siwah, and also with that of the Canary Islands, and Similitude
  of Customs                                                         209

                              CHAPTER XI.

  General Commerce of Marocco — Annual Exports and Imports of the
  Port of Mogodor — Importance and Advantages of a Trade with the
  Empire of Marocco — Cause of its Decline — Present State of our
  Relations with the Barbary Powers                                  234

                             CHAPTER XII.

  Shipwrecks on the Western Coast of Africa about Wedinoon and
  Sahara — State of the British and other Captives whilst in
  possession of the Saharawans, or roving Arabs of the Desert —
  Suggestion of the Author for the Alleviation of their Sufferings
  — Mode of their Redemption                                         269

                             CHAPTER XIII.

  Commercial Relations of the Empire of Marocco with Timbuctoo,
  and other Districts of Soudan — Route of the Caravans to and
  from Soudan — Of the City of Timbuctoo — The productive Gold
  Mines in its Vicinage — Of the navigable Intercourse between
  Jinnie and Timbuctoo; and from the latter to Cairo in Egypt:
  the whole being collected from the most authentic and
  corroborating testimonies of the Guides of the Caravans,
  Itinerant Merchants of Soudan, and other creditable sources
  of Intelligence                                                    282

                              AN ACCOUNT
                        THE EMPIRE OF MAROCCO,
                               _&c. &c._

                               * * * * *

                              CHAPTER I.

          _Geographical Divisions of the Empire of Marocco._

The empire of Marocco,[7] including Tafilelt,[8] is bounded on
the north by the Mediterranean sea; on the east by Tlemsen,[9]
the Desert of Angad, Sejin Messa,[10] and Bled-el-jerrêde;[11]
on the south by Sahara (or the Great Desert); and on the west by
the Atlantic Ocean. It may be divided into four grand divisions.

1st, The northern division, which contains the provinces of
Erreef,[12] El Garb, Benihassen, Temsena, Shawia, Tedla, and the
district of Fas;[13] these are inhabited by Arabs of various tribes,
living in tents, whose original stock inhabit Sahara; to which may
be added the various tribes of Berebbers, inhabiting the mountains
of Atlas,[14] and the intermedial plains, of which the chief
clans or Kabyles are the Girwan, Ait Imure, Zian,[15] Gibbellah,
and Zimurh-Shelluh.

The principal towns of this division are, Fas (old and new city,
called by the Arabs Fas Jeddede and Fas el Balie), Mekinas, or
Mequinas, Tetuan, Tangier, Arzilla, El Araiche, Sla, or Salée,
Rabat, Al Kassar, Fedalla, Dar-el-beida, and the Sanctuary of Muley
Dris Zerone, where the Mohammedan religion was first planted in
West Barbary.

2d, The central division; which contains the provinces of Dukella or
Duquella, Abda, Shedma, Haha, and the district of Marocco.[16] The
chief towns being Marocco, Fruga, Azamore, Mazagan, Tet, Al Waladia,
Asfie, or Saffee, Sueerah, or Mogodor.[17]

3d, The southern division; containing the provinces of Draha and
Suse; which latter is inhabited by many powerful tribes or Kabyles,
the chief of which are Howara, Emsekina, Exima, Idautenan, Idaultit,
Ait-Atter, Wedinoon, Kitiwa, Ait-Bamaran, Messa, and Shtuka; of these
Howara, Wedinoon, and half of Ait-Bamaran are Arabs; the others
are Shelluhs. The principal towns of this division are Terodant,
Agadeer,[18] or Santa Cruz, Inoon, or Noon, Ifran, or Ufran, Akka,
Tatta, Messa, and Dar-Delemie.

4th, The eastern division, which lies to the east of the Atlas, and
is called Tafilelt; it was formerly a separate kingdom. A river of
the same name passes through this territory, on the banks of which
the present Emperor’s father, Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah, built
a magnificent palace. There are many other adjacent buildings and
houses inhabited by sherreefs, or Mohammedan princes of the present
dynasty, with their respective establishments.[19]


[Footnote 7: Marakusha in the original Arabic; and called by the
Spaniards Marruecos.]

[Footnote 8: Commonly called Tafilet.]

[Footnote 9: In many maps called Tremecin.]

[Footnote 10: Commonly called Sigelmessa.]

[Footnote 11: Commonly called Biledulgerid.]

[Footnote 12: It is through this province that the chain of mountains
called the Lesser Atlas passes, viz. from Tangier to Bona, in the
Kingdom of Algiers.]

[Footnote 13: Commonly called Fez.]

[Footnote 14: The Atlas mountains are called in Arabic Jibbel Attils,
i.e. the mountains of snow; hence, probably, the word Atlas.]

[Footnote 15: Zian is a warlike tribe; it lately opposed an imperial
army of upwards of thirty thousand men. This Kabyle is defended from
attacks by rugged and almost inaccessible passes.]

[Footnote 16: By the negligence of authors Marocco has been called
Morocco, as Mohammed or Muhammed has been transformed to Mahommed,
and Mohammedan to Mahommedan.]

[Footnote 17: Sueerah is the proper name; Europeans have called it
Mogodor, from a saint who was buried a mile from the town, called Sidy
Mogodool, which last word, from oral tradition, has been corrupted
to Mogador, and sometimes to Mogadore.]

[Footnote 18: Agadeer is the Arabian name, Guertguessem the ancient
African name, and Santa Cruz is the Portugueze appellation.]

[Footnote 19: The modern Arabs divide Northern Africa into three grand
divisions: the first extends from the Equator to the Nile el Abeede,
or river of Nigritia, and is called Soudan, which is an African
word indicative of black, the inhabitants being of that colour: the
second extends from the river of Soudan to Bled-el-jerrêde, and
is denominated Sahara, from the aridity and flatness of the land:
the third division comprises Bled-el-jerrêde, the maritime states
of Barbary, Egypt, and Abyssinia. Some authors have affirmed that
Bled-el-jerrêde signifies the Country of Dates; others, that it
signifies the Country of Locusts; dates certainly abound there; but
the name does not imply dates. Jerâad is the Arabic for locusts;
but it is a different word from Jerrêde, which signifies dry.]

                              CHAPTER II.

             _Rivers, Mountains, and Climate of Marocco._

The following are the principal rivers in the empire of Marocco:

_The Muluwia_, which separates the empire from Angad and Tlemsen,
rises at the foot of the Atlas, and, passing through the desert of
Angad, discharges itself into the Mediterranean about thirty miles
S.E. of Mellilla. This is a deep and impetuous stream, impassable in
(Liali) the period between the 20th of December and 30th of January
inclusive, or the forty shortest days, as computed by the old style;
in summer it is not only fordable, but often quite dry, and is called
from that circumstance El Bahar billa ma, or, a sea without water.

_El Kose_, or _Luccos_, at El Araiche, so called from its arched
windings, El Kose signifying in the Arabic of the western Arabs an
arch. Ships of 100 or 150 tons may enter this river at high water;
it abounds in the fish called shebbel: it is never fordable, but
ferries are constantly crossing with horses, camels, passengers and
their baggage, &c.

_The Baht_ rises in the Atlas, and partly loses itself in the swamps
and lakes of the province of El Garb; the other branch probably
falls into the river Seboo.

_The Seboo_ is the largest river in West Barbary; it rises in a
piece of water situated in the midst of a forest, near the foot
of Atlas, eastward of the cities of Fas and Mequinas, and winding
through the plains, passes within six miles of Fas. Another stream,
proceeding from the south of Fas, passes through the city, and
discharges itself into this river: this stream is of so much value
to the Fasees, from supplying the town with water, that it is called
(Wed el Juhor) the river of pearls. Some auxiliary streams proceeding
from the territory of Tezza fall into the Seboo in Liali (the period
before mentioned). This river is impassable except in boats, or
on rafts. At Meheduma, or Mamora, where it enters the ocean, it is
a large, deep, and navigable stream; but the port being evacuated,
foreign commerce is annihilated, and little shipping has been admitted
since the Portugueze quitted the place. This river abounds more than
any other in that rich and delicate fish called shebbel. If there
were any encouragement to industry in this country, corn might be
conveyed up the Seboo to Fas at a very low charge, whereas it is now
transported to that populous city on camels, the expense of the hire
of which often exceeds the original cost of the grain.

_The Bu Regreg._—This river rises in one of the mountains of Atlas,
and proceeding through the woods and valleys of the territory of Fas,
traverses the plains of the province of Beni Hassen, and discharges
itself into the ocean between the towns of Salée and Rabat, the
former being on the northern, the latter on the southern bank: here
some of the Emperor’s sloops of war, which are denominated by his
subjects frigates, are laid up for the winter. This river is never
fordable, but ferries are constantly passing to and fro.

_The Morbeya_ also rises in the Atlas mountains, and dividing the
territory of Fas from the province of Tedla, passes through a part
of Shawia, and afterwards separates that province and Temsena
from Duquella; dividing that part of the empire west of Atlas
into two divisions. There was a bridge over this river at a short
distance from the pass called Bulawan, built by Muley Bel Hassen,
a prince of the Mareen family; at this pass the river is crossed on
rafts of rushes and reeds, and on others consisting of inflated goat
skins. Westward of this pass, the river meanders through the plains,
and enters the ocean at the port of Azamor. The Morbeya abounds in
the fish called shebbel, the season for which is in the spring. This
river not being at any time fordable, horses and travellers, together
with their baggage, are transported across by ferries.

_The Tensift._[20]—This river rises in the Atlas, east of Marocco,
and passing about five miles north of that city, it proceeds through
the territory of Marocco, Rahamena, and nearly divides the two
maritime provinces of Shedma and Abda, discharging itself into the
ocean about sixteen miles south of the town of Saffy. This river
receives in its course some tributary streams issuing from Atlas,
the principal of which is the Wed Niffis, which, flowing from the
south, enters it, after taking a northerly course through the plains
of Marocco or Sheshawa. The Tensift is an impetuous stream during
the Liali, but in summer it is fordable in several places; and at
the ferry near the mouth of the river, at low water, reaches as high
as the stirrups. In many places it is extremely deep, and dangerous
to cross without a guide; about six miles from Marocco, a bridge
crosses it, which was erected by Muley El Mansor; it is very strong
but flat, with many arches. One of the Kings of Marocco attempted
to destroy this bridge, to prevent the passage of an hostile army,
but the cement was so hard that men with pick-axes were employed
several days before they could sever the stones; and they had not
time to effect its destruction, before the army passed. The shebbel
of the Tensift is much esteemed, as is also the water, which is
extremely salubrious, and aids considerably the powers of digestion,
which, from the intense heat of the climate, are often weakened and
relaxed. This river is supposed to be the _Phut_ of Ptolemy; on the
northern bank, where it falls into the ocean, is to be perceived
the ruins of an ancient town, probably the _Asama_ of that Geographer.

There is a small stream two miles south of Mogodor, from whence that
town is supplied with water; and about twelve or fourteen miles more
to the south, we reach

_The River Tidsi_, which discharges itself into the ocean a few
miles south of Tegrewelt, or Cape Ossem, where the ancient city of
Tidsi formerly stood. Passing to the south in the plains at the foot
of that branch of Atlas which forms Afarnie, or the lofty Cape de
Geer,[21] we meet

_The River Benitamer_, which, with the before mentioned branch of
Atlas, divides the provinces of Haha and Suse.

Farther to the south is another river called

_Wed Tamaract_; and about sixteen or seventeen miles south of that
place, and about six south of Agadeer, or Santa Cruz,[22] the majestic

_River Suse_ discharges itself into the ocean. This fine river rises
at Ras-el-Wed, at the foot of Atlas, about thirty miles from the city
of Terodant. The (fulahs) cultivators of land, and the gardeners of
Suse have drained off this river so much in its passage through the
plains of Howara and Exima, that it is fordable at its mouth at low
water in the summer, so that camels and other animals are enabled
to cross it with burthens on their backs: at its mouth is a bar of
sand which at low water almost separates it from the ocean. The banks
of this river are inundated in winter, but in summer are variegated
with Indian corn, wheat, barley, pasture lands, beautiful gardens,
and productive orchards. Either this river, or that of Messa, must
have been the _Una_ of Ptolomy, which is placed in lat. 28° 30′
N. We may presume that the Suse was anciently navigable as far as
Terodant, as there are still in the walls of the castle of that city
immense large iron rings, such as we see in maritime towns in Europe,
for the purpose of mooring ships.

_Draha._—The river of this name flows from the north-east of
Atlas to the south, and passing through the province of Draha,
it disappears in the absorbing sands of Sahara. A great part of the
country through which it passes being a saline earth, its waters have
a brackish taste, like most of the rivers proceeding from Atlas, which
take their course eastward. It is small in summer, but impetuous and
impassable in winter, or at least during Liali. It is not improbable
that this river formerly continued its course westward, discharging
itself into the ocean at Wednoon, and called by the ancients Darodus;
but it often happens in Africa, particularly on the confines of any
desert country, that the course of rivers is not only changed by
the moveable hills of dry sand, but sometimes absorbed altogether,
as is now the case with the Draha, after its entrance into the Desert.

_River of Messa_, called Wed Messa, flows from Atlas; it is, as before
observed, a separate stream from the river Suse, and is drained off
by the (fulah) cultivators or farmers during its passage. It was
navigated by the Portugueze before they abandoned this place for
the New World. Leo Africanus has committed another error (which has
been copied by modern writers,[23] in calling the river of Messa the
river Suse,[24] which I ascertained to be quite a different stream
when I was at Messa, and thirty miles distant from the former,
though they both flow from E. to W. A bar of sand separates this
river entirely at low water from the ocean, but at flood tide it
is not fordable. Between the mouth of the river Messa and that of
Suse, is a road-stead called Tomée; the country is inhabited by the
Woled Abbusebah Arabs, who informed me, when I went there, during
the interregnum, with the (Khalif) Vice-regent Mohammed ben Delemy,
by order of the (Sherreef) Prince, that British and other vessels
often took in water there: it is called by the Arabs (Sebah biure)
the place of seven wells, of which wells three only remain, and these
we found to contain excellent water. After inspecting the place,
and the nature of the road-stead, we returned to the Vice-regent’s
castle in Shtuka. Concerning this remarkable sea-port it would be
inexpedient at present to disclose more.

_River Akassa._—This river is navigable to Noon, above which it
becomes a small stream, fordable in various places; it has been
called by some Wed Noon, i.e. the river of Noon, but the proper name
is Wed Akassa; the word Wedinoon is applied to the adjacent territory.

The Mountains of West and South Barbary are the Atlas and its
various branches, which receive different names, according to the
provinces in which they are situated. The greater Atlas, or main
chain of these mountains, extends from (Jibbel d’Zatute) Ape’s
Hill to Shtuka and Ait Bamaran, in Lower Suse, passing about thirty
miles eastward of the city of Marocco, where they are immensely high,
and covered with snow throughout the year. On a clear day, this part
of the Atlas appears at Mogodor, a distance of about a hundred and
forty miles, in the form of a saddle; and is visible at sea, several
leagues off the coast. These mountains are extremely fertile in many
places, and produce excellent fruits; having the advantage of various
climates, according to the ascent towards the snow, which, contrasted
with the verdure beneath, has a singular and picturesque effect.

[Illustration:_Plate 2._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_A Distant View of the Atlas Mountains East of the City of Marocco
as they appear from Mogodor on a clear morning before the rising Sun
taken from the Terras of the British Vice Consuls House._

1 _Mosque of Seedy Usif._

2 _Atlas Mountains, distant 140 Miles._

3 _Genoese Consuls Tower._

4 _Sand Hills._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by W. & G. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

In many places the mountains are uninhabited, and form immense chasms,
as if they had been rent asunder by some convulsion of nature;
this is the case throughout the ridge that intersects the plains
which separate Marocco from Terodant. In this part is a narrow pass,
called Bebawan, having a chain of mountains on one side, ascending
almost perpendicularly; and on the other side, a precipice as
steep as Dover Cliff, but more than ten times the heighth. When the
army which I accompanied to Marocco crossed this defile, they were
obliged to pass rank and file, the cavalry dismounted: two mules
missed their step, and were precipitated into the abyss: the path
was not more than fifteen inches wide, cut out of a rock of marble,
in some parts extremely smooth and slippery, in others rugged.

In the branches of the Atlas east of Marocco, are mines of copper; and
those which pass through the province of Suse produce, besides copper,
iron, lead, silver, sulphur, and salt-petre: there are also mines of
gold, mixed with antimony and lead ore. The inhabitants of the upper
region of Atlas, together with their herds (which would otherwise
perish in the snow), live four months of the year in excavations in
the mountains; viz. from November to February, inclusive.

The climate of Marocco is healthy and invigorating; from March to
September the atmosphere is scarcely ever charged with clouds; and
even in the rainy season, viz. from September till March, there is
seldom a day wherein the sun is not seen at some interval. The heat
is cooled by sea-breezes during the former period; in the interior,
however, the heat is intense. The rainy season, which begins about
October, ends in March; but if it continue longer, it is generally
accompanied with contagious fevers. The trade winds (which begin
to blow about March, and continue till September or October) are
sometimes so violent, as to effect the nerves and limbs of the natives
who inhabit the coast. The inhabitants are robust; and some live to
a great age. The Shelluhs, or inhabitants of the mountains of Atlas,
south of Marocco, are, however, a meagre people, which proceeds,
in a great measure, from their abstemious diet, seldom indulging in
animal food, and living for the most part on barley gruel, bread,
and honey: the Arabs, the Moors, and the Berebbers, on the contrary,
live in a hospitable manner, and eat more nutritious food, though
they prefer the farinaceous kind.


[Footnote 20: This river is vulgarly called Wed Marakosh, or the river
of Marocco, because it passes through the district of that name;
but the proper name is Wed Tensift, or the river Tensift; and this
is the name given it by Leo Africanus (Book IX.), the only author
who has hitherto spelt the word correctly; he has however committed
a considerable error in affirming that it discharges itself into
the ocean at Saffy.]

[Footnote 21: A Shelluh name, expressive of a quick wind, because
there is always wind at this Cape; but ships should be extremely
careful not to approach it, in going down the coast; not but that
the water is very deep, as the Cape rises almost perpendicularly from
the ocean, but because the land is so extremely high that those ships
which approach within a league of it, are almost always becalmed on
the south side of it, and are in consequence three days in getting
down to Agadeer, whilst other vessels which keep more to the west,
reach that port in a few hours. This Cape is a western branch of
the Atlas.]

[Footnote 22: Leo Africanus, who undoubtedly has given us the best
description of Africa, commits an error, however, in describing this
river. “The great river of Sus, flowing out of the mountains of
Atlas, that separate the two provinces of Hea and Sus (Haha and Suse)
in sunder, runneth southward among the said mountains, stretching unto
the fields of the foresaid region, and from thence tending westward
unto a place called Guartguessen,[a] where it dischargeth itself
into the main ocean.” See 9th book of Leo Africanus. The Cape de
Geer was formerly the separation of the provinces of Haha and Suse,
but now the river of Tamaract may be called the boundary, which is
fifteen miles to the northward of the mouth of the river Suse; and
Guartguessen, or Agadeer, or Santa Cruz, is six miles north of the
river Suse. Had I not resided three years at Santa Cruz, in sight
of the river Suse, which I have repeatedly forded in various parts,
I should not have presumed to dispute Leo’s assertion.]

[Footnote a: The ancient name of Agadeer or Santa Cruz in Leo’s

[Footnote 23: Vide Brooks’s Gazeteer, 12th edition, title Messa.]

[Footnote 24: Through the three small towns of Messa runneth a
certain great river called Sus. Vide Leo Africanus, 2d book, title
Town of Messa.]

                             CHAPTER III.

     _Description of the different Provinces, their Soil, Culture,
                             and Produce._

In describing the soil and produce of this extensive empire, we will
proceed through the various provinces, beginning with the northern,

                            ERREEF, or RIF.

This province extending along the shore of the Mediterranean sea,
produces corn and cattle in abundance; that part of it contiguous
to Tetuan produces the most delicious oranges in the world; also
figs, grapes, melons, apricots, plums, strawberries, apples, pears,
pomgranates, citrons, lemons, limes, and the refreshing fruit of
the opuntia, or prickly pear, called by the Arabs (Kermuse Ensarrah)
Christian fig. This fruit was probably first brought into the country
from the Canary Islands, as it abounds in Suse, and is called by the
Shelluhs of South Atlas, (Takanarite) the Canary fruit. A ridge of
mountains passes from Tangier, along this province to the eastward,
as far as Bona, in Algiers; these mountains are called Jibbel Erreef
by the natives, and the Lesser Atlas by Europeans.

                               EL GARB.

The next province is called El Garb[25] (g guttural.) It is of the
same nature with that already described; from the port of El Araiche,
eastward, as far as the foot of Atlas, is a fine champaign country,
extremely abundant in wheat and barley: here are the extensive
plains of Emsharrah Rumellah, famous for the camp of Muley Ismael,
great grandfather of the present Emperor Soliman, where he retained
his army of Bukarrie Blacks to the amount of one hundred thousand
horse. This army possessed the finest horses in the empire. The
remains of the habitations are still discernible. There is a forest
eastward of El Araiche of considerable extent, consisting chiefly
of oak, with some cork, and other valuable large trees; more to
the southward and eastward, we discover a forest of cork only,
the trees of which are as large as full grown oaks. From Mequinas
to Muley Idris Zerone, the renowned sanctuary at the foot of Atlas,
east of the city of Mequinas, the country is flat, with gentle hills
occasionally, and inhabited by the tribe of Ait Imure, a Kabyle which
dwells in straggling tents, and a warlike tribe of Berebbers. The
Emperor Seedy Mohammed, father to the reigning Emperor Soliman,
used to denominate the Ait Imure the English of Barbary.[26]


The country between Fas and Mequinas, and from thence to Salée,
is of the same description as the foregoing; a rich champaign,
abounding prodigiously in corn, and inhabited altogether by Arabs,
with the exception, however, of the Zimur’h Shelluh, another Kabyle
of Berebbers. In short, the whole northern[27] division of this empire
is an uninterrupted corn field; a rich black, and sometimes red soil,
without stones or clay, with scarcely any wood upon it (the forests
before mentioned, and the olive plantations and gardens about the
cities of Fas and Mequinas excepted), but incalculably productive. The
inhabitants do not use dung, but reap the corn high from the ground,
and burn the stubble, the ashes of which serve as manure. During
this period of the year, viz. August, enormous clouds of smoke are
seen mounting the declivities of hills and mountains, penetrating
without resistance the woods, and leaving nothing behind but black
ashes and cinders: these fires heat the atmosphere considerably, as
they continue burning during two months. In sowing, the husbandmen
throw the grain on the ground, and afterwards plough it in. Oats
they make no use of: beans, peas, caravances, and Indian corn,
are cultivated occasionally in lands adjacent to rivers: the fruits
are similar to those before described, and are in great abundance,
oranges being sold at a ducket or a dollar a thousand, at Tetuan,
Salée, and some other places; grapes, melons, and figs of various
kinds, and other fruits, are proportionally abundant. Cotton of
a superior quality is grown in the environs of Salée and Rabat,
also hemp. The tobacco called Mequinasi, so much esteemed for making
snuff, is the produce of the province of Benihassen, as well as the
country adjacent to the city of Mequinas.

                         DISTRICT OF MAROCCO.

These are most productive in corn; the crop of one year would be
sufficient for the consumption of the whole empire, provided all the
ground capable of producing wheat and barley were to be sown. These
fine provinces abound in horses and horned cattle; their flocks are
numerous, and the horses of Abda are of the most select breed in
the country. The cavalry of Temsena is the best appointed of the
empire, excepting the black troops of the Emperor, called Abeed
Seedy Bukarrie.

Two falls of rain in Abda are sufficient to bring to maturity a good
crop of wheat; nor does the soil require more. The water-melons of
Duquella are of a prodigious size, and indeed everything thrives
in this prolific province: horses, horned cattle, the flocks,
nay even the dogs and cats, all appear in good condition. The
inhabitants are, for the most part, a laborious and trading people,
and great speculators: they grow tobacco for the markets of Soudan
and Timbuctoo. Nearly midway between Saffee and Marocco is a large
salt lake, from which many camels are daily loaded with salt for
the interior.

The province of Shedma produces wheat and barley; its fruits are
not so rich as those of the north, or of Suse; it abounds however
in cattle. Of goats it furnishes annually an incalculable number,
the skins of which form a principal article of exportation from the
port of Mogodor; and such is the animosity and opposition often among
the merchants there, that they have sometimes given as much for the
skin, as the animal itself was sold for. Honey, wax, and tobacco
are produced in this province, the two former in great abundance;
also gum arabic, called by the Arabs Alk Tolh, but of an inferior
quality to that of the Marocco district.

                           PROVINCE OF HAHA.

Haha is a country of great extent, interspersed with mountains
and valleys, hills and dales, and inhabited by twelve Kabyles
of Shelluhs. This is the first province, from the shores of the
Mediterranean, in which villages and walled habitations are met
with, scattered through the country; the before mentioned provinces
(with the exception of the sea-port towns and the cities of Fas,
Mequinas, Marocco, and Muley Idris Zerone) being altogether inhabited
by Arabs living in tents. The houses of Haha are built of stone,
each having a tower, and are erected on elevated situations,
forming a pleasing view to the traveller. Here we find forests of
the argan tree, which produces olives, from the kernel of which the
Shelluhs express an oil,[28] much superior to butter for frying fish;
it is also employed economically for lamps, a pint of it burning
nearly as long as double the quantity of olive or sallad oil. Wax,
gum-sandrac and arabic, almonds, bitter and sweet, and oil of olives,
are the productions of this picturesque province, besides grapes,
water-melons, citrons, pomgranates, oranges, lemons, limes, pears,
apricots, and other fruits. Barley is more abundant than wheat. The
Shelluhs of Haha are physiognomically distinguishable (by a person
who has resided any time among them) from the Arabs of the plains,
from the Moors of the towns, and from the Berebbers of North Atlas,
and even from the Shelluhs of Suse, though in their language,
manners, and mode of living they resemble the latter. The mountains
of Haha produce the famous wood called Arar, which is proof against
rot or the worm. Some beams of this wood taken down from the roof
of my dwelling-house at Agadeer, which had been up fifty years,
were found perfectly sound, and free from decay.

                           PROVINCE OF SUSE.

We now come to Suse, the most extensive, and, excepting grain, the
richest province of the empire. The olive, the almond, the date,
the orange, the grape, and all the other fruits produced in the
northern provinces abound here, particularly about the city of
Terodant (the capital of Suse, formerly a kingdom), Ras-el-Wed,
and in the mountains of Edautenan.[29] The grapes of Edautenan are
exquisitely rich. Indigo grows wild in all the low lands, and is
of a vivid blue; but the natives do not perfectly understand the
preparation of it for the purpose of dying.

Suse contains many warlike tribes, among which are Howara, Woled
Abbusebah, and Ait Bamaran; these are Arabs;— Shtuka, Elala,
Edaultit, Ait Atter, Kitiwa, Msegina, and Idautenan, who are Shelluhs.

There is not, perhaps, a finer climate in the world than that of Suse,
generally, if we except the disagreable season of the hot winds. It is
said, however, and it is a phenomenon, that at Akka rain never falls;
it is extremely hot there in the months of June, July, and August;
about the beginning of September the (Shume) hot wind from Sahara
blows with violence during three, seven, fourteen, or twenty-one
days.[30] One year, however, whilst I resided at (Agadeer) Santa Cruz,
it blew twenty-eight days; but this was an extraordinary instance.[31]
The heat is so extreme during the prevalence of the Shume, that it is
not possible to walk out; the ground burns the feet; and the terraced
roofs of the houses are frequently peeled off by the parching heat
of the wind, which resembles that which proceeds from the mouth of
an oven: at this time clothes are oppressive. These violent winds
introduce the rainy season.

The (Lukseb) sugar-cane grows spontaneously about Terodant. Cotton,
indigo, gum, and various kinds of medicinal herbs are produced
here. The stick liquorice is so abundant that it is called (Ark
Suse) the root of Suse. The olive plantations in different parts of
Suse are extensive, and extremely productive; about Ras-el-Wed and
Terodant a traveller may proceed two days through these plantations,
which form an uninterrupted shade impenetrable to the rays of the
sun; the same may be said of the plantations of the almond, which
also abound in this province. Of corn they sow sufficient only for
their own annual consumption; and although the whole country might be
made one continued vineyard, yet they plant but few vines; for wine
being prohibited, they require no more grapes than they can consume
themselves, or dispose of in the natural state. The Jews, however,
make a little wine and brandy from the grape, as well as from the
raisin. The date, which here begins to produce a luxurious fruit, is
found in perfection on the confines of the Desert in Lower Suse. At
Akka and Tatta the palm or date-tree is very small, but extremely
productive; and although the fruit be not made an article of trade,
as at Tafilelt, it is exquisitely flavoured, and possesses various
qualities. The most esteemed kind of date is the Butube, the next
is the Buskrie.

Suse produces more almonds and oil of olives than all the other
provinces collectively. (Gum Amarad) a red gum partaking of
the intermediate quality between the (tolh gum) gum arabic and
the Aurwar, or Alk Soudan Senegal gum, is first found in this
province. Wax is produced in great abundance; also gum euphorbium,
gum sandrac, wild thyme, worm-seed, orriss root, orchillo weed,
and coloquinth. Antimony, salt-petre of a superior quality, copper,
and silver, are found here; the two latter in abundance about Elala,
and in Shtuka.

                          DRAHA AND TAFILELT.

Draha and Tafilelt produce a superior breed of goats, and a great
abundance of dates: the countries situated near the banks of the
rivers of Draha and Tafilelt have several plantations of Indian
corn, rice, and indigo. There are upwards of thirty sorts of dates
in this part of Bled-el-jerrêde;[32] the best and most esteemed
is that called Butube, which is seldom brought to Europe, as it
will not keep so long as the Admoh date, the kind imported into
England, but considered by the natives of Tafilelt so inferior,
that it is given only to the cattle; it is of a very indigestive
quality: when a Filelly[33] Arab has eaten too many dates, and finds
them oppressive, he has recourse to dried fish, which, it is said,
counteracts their ill effects. This fruit forms the principal food
of the inhabitants of Bled-el-jerrêde, of which Tafilelt is a
part; the produce of one plantation near the imperial palace[34]
at Tafilelt sold some few years past for five thousand dollars,
although they are so abundant there that a camel load, or three
quintals, is sold for two dollars. The face of the country from the
Ruins of Pharoah to the palace of Tafilelt is as follows:

Tafilelt is eight (erhellat[35] de lowd) days journey on horseback
from the Ruins of Pharoah; proceeding eastward from these ruins, the
traveller immediately ascends the lofty Atlas, and on the third day,
about sun-set, reaches the plains on the other side; the remaining
five days journey is through a wide extended plain totally destitute
of vegetation, and on which rain never falls; the soil is a whitish
clay, impregnated with salt, which when moistened resembles soap. A
river, which rises in the Atlas, passes through this vast plain from
the south-west to the north-east; at Tafilelt it is described to be
as wide as the Morbeya at Azamor in West Barbary, that is, about the
width of the Thames at Putney; the water of this river receives a
brackish taste, by passing through the saline plains: after running
a course of fifteen erhellat,[36] or four hundred and fifty miles,
it is absorbed in the desert of Angad. It has several (l’uksebbat)
castles of terrace wall on its banks, inhabited by the (Sherreefs)
princes of the reigning family of Marocco. Latterly wheat and barley
have been cultivated near the river and the castles. The food of
the inhabitants, who are Arabs, consists, for the most part (as
already observed), in dates; their principal meal is after sun-set,
the heat being so intolerable as not to suffer them to eat any thing
substantial while the sun is above the horizon.

There is another river, inferior to the one before mentioned, which
rises in the plains north of Tafilelt, and flowing in a southerly
direction, is absorbed in the great desert, of Sahara: the water of
this river is so very brackish, as to be unfit for culinary purposes;
it is of a colour similar to chalk and water, but if left to stand
in a vessel during the night it becomes clear by the morning,
though it is still too salt to drink. These extensive plains abound
every where in water, which is found at the depth of two cubits,[37]
but so brackish as to be palatable only to those who have been long
accustomed to the use of it.

The people have among themselves a strict sense of honour; a robbery
has scarcely been known in the memory of the oldest man, though
they use no locks or bars. Commercial transactions being for the
most part in the way of barter or exchange, they need but little
specie: gold dust is the circulating medium in all transactions of
magnitude. They live in the simple patriarchal manner of the Arabs,
differing from them only in having walled habitations, which are
invariably near the river.

It is intensely hot here, during a great part of the year, the
(Shume) wind from Sahara blowing tempestuously in July, August,
and September, carrying with it particles of earth and sand, which
are very pernicious to the eyes, and produce ophthalmia.

A considerable trade is carried on from this place to Timbuctoo,
Houssa, and Jinnie, south of Sahara, and to Marocco, Fas, Suse,
Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. Indigo abounds here, but from the
indolence of the cultivators it is of an inferior quality. There
are mines of antimony and lead ore: the Elkahol Filelly,[38] so much
used by the Arabs and African women to give a softness to the eyes,
and to blacken the eye-brows, is the produce of this country. The
common dress of the inhabitants consists of a loose shirt of blue
cotton, with a shawl or belt round the waist.

An Akkabah, or accumulated caravan, goes annually from hence to

Woollen hayks[39] for garments are manufactured here of a curious
texture, extremely light and fine, called El Haik Filelly.

If we except the habitations and castles near the river, the
population of the plains is very inconsiderable: a few tents of
the Arabs whose original stock inhabit Sahara, are occasionally
discovered, which serve to break the uniformity of the unvaried
horizon. A person who imagines a vast plain, bounded by an even
horizon, similar to the sea out of sight of land, will have an
accurate idea of this country.

The goats of Tafilelt are uncommonly large: there is a breed of them
preserved by the Emperor of Marocco on the island of Mogodor.


[Footnote 25: This is the westernmost province of Marocco northward,
as its name denotes, El Garb signifying the West. There is a tradition
among the Arabians, that it was originally united to Trafalgar and
Gibraltar, shutting up the Mediterranean sea, the waters from which
passed into the western ocean by a subterraneous passage; and at this
day they call Trafalgar _Traf-el-garb_, i.e. the piece or part of El
Garb; and Gibraltar _Jibbel-traf_, i.e. the mountain of the piece,
or part of El Garb.]

[Footnote 26: The ignorance of the Mohammedans in geography, added to
their vanity, induces them to imagine that the empire of Marocco is
nearly as large as all Europe, and they accordingly ascribe to the
inhabitants of the various provinces the character of some European
nation: thus the warlike Ait Imure are compared to the English,
the people of Duquella to the Spaniards, and those of Shawia to
the Russians.]

[Footnote 27: The country north of the river Morbeya. See the Map.]

[Footnote 28: This oil possesses a powerful smell, which is extracted
from it by boiling with it an onion and the crumb of a loaf; without
this preparation it is said to possess qualities productive of
leprous affection.]

[Footnote 29: North of Santa Cruz, and south-east of Cape de Geer,
are several lofty inaccessible mountains, proceeding from the main
chain of Atlas, which form some intermediate plains, inhabited by a
bold and warlike race of Shelluhs, denominated Edautenan. On account
of certain essential services afforded by this people to Muley Ismael,
or some ancient Emperor of Marocco, they are free from all imposts
and taxes, a privilege which is confirmed to them, whenever a new
Emperor ascends the throne of Marocco. They wear their hair long
behind, but shaved, or short, before; they have an interesting and
warlike appearance.]

[Footnote 30: If it blow more than three days, it is expected to
continue seven; and if it exceed seven, it is said to continue
fourteen, and so on. During the years that I was in the country,
it never blew at Mogodor more than three or seven.]

[Footnote 31: The Bashaw then informed me that he had never before
known it to continue more than twenty-one days, and he was a man of
seventy, and a native of Suse.]

[Footnote 32: Bled-el-jerrêde is the country situated between the
maritime states of Barbary and Sahara, or the Desert.]

[Footnote 33: Filelly is the term given to the natives of Tafilelt,
as Drahawie is to those of Draha.]

[Footnote 34: The father of the present Sultan Soliman built a
magnificent palace on the banks of the river of Tafilelt, which
bounds his dominions to the eastward; the pillars are of marble,
and were many of them transported across the Atlas, having been
collected from the (Ukser Farawan) Ruins of Pharoah, near to the
sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone, west of Atlas.]

[Footnote 35: A horse erhella (or day’s journey) is thirty-five
miles English.]

[Footnote 36: An ordinary erhella is thirty English miles.]

[Footnote 37: A cubit is twenty-one inches.]

[Footnote 38: Elkahol Filelly signifies lead ore of Tafilelt.]

[Footnote 39: The hayk of the Arabs is a plain piece of cloth,
of wool, cotton, or silk, and is thrown over their under dress,
somewhat similar to the Roman toga.]

                              CHAPTER IV.

  _Population of the Empire of Marocco. —  Account of its Sea-ports,
                          Cities, and Towns._

Various and contradictory statements have been made by travellers,
of the population of this country. From all the accounts which I have
been able to collect on the subject, and from authentic information,
extracted from the Imperial Register, of the inhabitants of each
province, I think the following as correct a statement as can possibly
be made:


  The city of Marocco                                           270,000

              Fas, old and new city                             380,000

              Mequinas                                          110,000

              Muley Dris Zerone                                  12,000

              Tetuan                                             16,000

              Tangier                                             6,000

              Arzilla                                             1,000

              El Araiche                                          3,000

              Mamora                                                300

              Salée                                              18,000

              Rabat                                              25,000
                        Total                                   841,300

                     Brought over                               841,300

  El Mensoria, Fedalla, and El Kasser Kabeer                      1,000

  Dar el Beida                                                    1,000

  Azamor                                                          1,000

  Mazagan, Tet, and El Woladia                                    3,000

  Saffy, or Asfee                                                12,000

  Mogodor, or Sueerah                                            10,000

  Santa Cruz, or Agadeer                                            300

  Terodant                                                       25,000

  Messa                                                           1,000
             Total population of the towns                      895,600
  The Province of Erreef                                        200,000

                  El Garb                                       200,000

                  Benihassen                                    300,000

                  Tedla                                         450,000

  District of Fas, exclusive of the cities or towns           1,280,000

              Duquella                                          966,000

              Temsena and Shawia                              1,160,000

              Abda                                              500,000

              Shedma                                            550,000

  District of Marocco                                         1,250,000

              Haha                                              708,000

              Draha                                             350,000
                   Carried forward                            7,914,000

                   Brought forward,                           7,914,000

                               _Suse_, viz.

  Benitamer,                                                     11,000

  Idautenan,                                                     10,000

  Msegina                                                        87,000

  Exima,                                                         11,000

  Howara                                                         80,000

  Kitiwa                                                         50,000

  Shtuka                                                        380,000

  Ait Bamaran                                                   300,000

  Wedinoon                                                      200,000

  Ras el Wed                                                     80,000

  Elala                                                          25,000

  Seedi Hamed O Musa sanctuary and district                      20,000

  Akka, and territory                                            10,000

  Tatta, and ditto                                               10,000

  Ufran, or Ifran                                                10,000

  Ilirgh                                                         10,000

  Messa, and territory                                           10,000

  Teeselerst                                                     25,000

  The district of Agadeer, or Santa Cruz including Tildi,         1,000
  Taddert, and Tamaract

  Woled Busebbah, the part of that Kabyle, which now              1,000
  inhabits Suse

  Ait Atter                                                     360,000

  Idaultit,                                                     400,000
                     Carried over                            10,005,000

                     Brought over                            10,005,000

  Inferior Kabyles, forming other parts of Suse, not            336,000


  The tribes of the Berebbers of North Atlas altogether       3,000,000

  District of Tafilelt                                          650,000

  Provinces of the Marocco Empire, West of Atlas             10,341,000

  Inland cities, towns, and ports                               895,600
  Total population of the whole empire, including Tafilelt   14,886,600

Persons who have travelled through the country, unacquainted with
the mode of living of the inhabitants, may, probably, consider the
above as an exaggerated statement: but it should be understood,
that a stranger, in such cases, sees little of the population, as
the various _douars_ of Arabs are at a considerable distance from
the roads, from which they always retire, to avoid the visits of
travellers, whom they are compelled, by the laws of hospitality, to
furnish with necessary provisions for three days, without receiving
any pecuniary remuneration; of this fact travellers, in general,
have not been apprised, and have, in consequence, formed calculations
which represent the population very inferior to what it actually is.

The western coast of Marocco is defended with numerous rocks, level
with the surface of the water, which extend along the shore in various
parts, from the Streights of Gibraltar to Agadeer: we find, however,
occasionally, in the intermediate places, an extensive beach, where
the water is shallow, and the surf runs high. The empire of Marocco
is separated from Algiers by the river Muluwia, which falls into
the Mediterranean sea, in long. W. from London, 1° 30′.

The sea-ports of this empire have but a limited commerce with foreign
nations: and are consequently neither very extensive nor populous.

Proceeding along the coast of the Mediterranean, we come to the town
of Melilla, (the ancient Ryssadirium,) called by the Arabs Melilia,
in possession of the Spaniards, who have a garrison here; the country,
in its vicinity, abounds with wax and honey, which latter is equal to
that of Minorca, and when kept a year, is nearly as hard and white as
loaf sugar. The Goths, in whose possession Melilla was when the Arabs
invaded the country, abandoned it; and the latter, after retaining
it some years, forsook it to dwell in their tents. The Spaniards
took possession of it about the beginning of the 15th century. It
was besieged by Seedy Mohammed ben Abdallah, Emperor of Marocco,
in the year 1774, but without effect.

The next town worthy of notice is Bedis de Gomaira, situated between
two mountains, at the bottom of which there was anciently a city
called Bedis, supposed to have been founded by the Carthaginians. The
Arabs call it Belis, and some Europeans, by a corruption of the
word, Velis, the name given it in most of our maps and charts. In
the neighbourhood of this place are forests of excellent timber,
with which the Moors, before the Spaniards obtained possession of it,
built fishing-vessels.

Proceeding from hence westward, we discover the river Busega, near
Tetuan, or Tetawan, as it is called by the Arabs, where some of the
Emperor’s gallies occasionally winter. About four miles inland
from the roadstead, stands the town of Tetuan, in the province of
El Garb: this town is built on the declivity of a rocky hill, but
is neither large nor strong: its walls are built of mud and mortar,
framed in wooden cases, and beaten down with mallets. The inhabitants
are rich from commerce, receiving from Spain and Gibraltar dollars,
German linens, and cloths, also British manufactures, for which they
barter wax, skins, leather, raisins, almonds, olives, oranges, honey,
&c. It is inhabited by Moors and Jews, who, for the most part, speak
a corrupt Spanish, in which language their commercial negociations
are transacted. The environs of Tetuan abound in gardens of the
most delicious fruits; here are grown the finest oranges in the
world, and they are in great abundance; the adjacent country abounds
also in vineyards, the grapes of which are exquisite, and in great
variety. From the raisins and figs the Jews distil an ardent spirit
(called Mahaya), which, when a year old, is similar to the Irish
usquebah, and they prefer it to European brandy or rum, because it
does not (as they pretend) heat the blood: they drink immoderately
of this spirit, and generally take a glass of it before eating.

Tetuan was founded, according to report, by the Africans, and was a
populous town at the time the Moors were driven out of Spain. It was
the place of residence for many of the consuls of the European powers,
till the year 1770, when an Englishman having shot or wounded a Moor,
all the Europeans were ordered to quit the place, and the Emperor
Seedy Mohammed declared, he would never suffer an European to settle
there again. It is remarkable, that in this declaration he literally
kept his word.

This port carried on a considerable trade in provisions with
Gibraltar, as vessels are obliged to come here in preference to
Tangier, whenever the wind is in the west, and does not permit them
to make the latter place; at this time ships may lie in security,
and our fleets often water and victual here, as did that of the
immortal Nelson, previous to his victory in Aboukeer Bay.[40]

We next come to Cibta, or Ceuta, as it is called by Europeans; it
is situated near (Jibbel d’Zatute) Ape’s Mountain, called by
the ancients Abyla, one of the pillars of Hercules.

The town of Ceuta is probably of Carthaginian origin; the Romans
colonized it; it afterwards became the metropolis of the places
which the Goths held in _Hispania Transfretana_; was next occupied
by the Arabs; and, in 1415, taken by the Portugueze; it is now in
the possession of Spain. It is celebrated for the strength of its
fortifications, its advantageous situation at the entrance of the
Mediterranean, being the nearest point to Europe. It is situated
on a rising ground, at the foot of the mountain; near it stands the
mountain with seven summits, called by the Arabs Sebat Jibbel, and
by the ancients, Septem Fratres. If the Emperor Yezzed had succeeded
in taking Ceuta, which he twice besieged about the close of the last
century, without success, his intention was to harass the trade of
the European nations, by fitting out gallies and rovers, for the
purpose of capturing and carrying the merchant ships into Tangier,
Tetuan, and Ceuta, as they passed through the Streights; but the
place is capable, on the land side, of resisting every attack that
may be made upon it by the Mohammedans, unless they were aided by
some European naval force.

The whole coast from hence to Tangier, the next town we come to, is
rugged, and interspersed with projecting cliffs. Tangier, anciently
called Tinjis, and Tingia, and now, by the Arabs, Tinjiah, is situated
at the western mouth of the Streights, and a day’s journey distant
from Tetuan. This town was first possessed by the Romans, next by
the Goths, and was given up by Count Julian to the Mohammedans. It
was taken in the 15th century by the crown of Portugal, which gave
it, in 1662, as part of the dowry of the princess Catherine of
Portugal, upon her marriage to Charles the Second of England. The
English, however, finding the expenses of keeping it to exceed the
advantages derived from the possession of it, abandoned it in 1684,
after destroying the mole and fortifications. It still retains some
batteries in good condition, facing the bay, at the bottom of which
is a river, and the remains of the bridge of Old Tangier; but the
sand has so accumulated at the mouth of this river, that the bridge,
had it stood, would have been now useless.

Tangier is favourable to Moorish piracy, even without the possession
of Ceuta, being the narrowest part of the Streights; but it will
never become a commercial town, having but few productions in its
vicinage. The Spaniards here ship eggs, fowls, vegetables, and some
fruits; but the chief exports are cattle and edible vegetables,
which are carried to Gibraltar for the supply of the garrison: this
supply is allowed by the Emperor, not perhaps from any predilection
towards us (although he apparently prefers the English to any other
European power), but because it was a grant from his great grandfather
Muley Ismael, whose successors have not infringed on the ordinances
of their renowned ancestor, the Mohammedans having a great respect
for the deeds of their forefathers.

Westward of Tangier is Cape Spartel, the headland which divides the
Streights from the western ocean; after doubling this Cape, at the
distance of 15 miles, stands the little town of Arzilla, called by
the Carthaginians Zilia, and by the Romans, who had a garrison here,
Julia Traducta; it belonged afterwards to the Goths, and latterly
to the Mohammedans. Alphonso of Portugal took it in 1741; but about
the end of the 16th century, it was abandoned by the Portuguese,
and again fell into the hands of the Moors. A river discharges itself
at this place into the ocean; but there is no trade carried on.

Proceeding down the coast southward, we discover, at the distance of
33 miles, the town of El Araiche, standing on the river El Kos. El
Araice, whence its name is derived, signifies, in the Arabic, flower,
or pleasure gardens.[41] This was formerly a town of some commerce;
remains of the commercial houses, which appear to have been large
and spacious, still exist. The adjacent country is very fine and
productive, and furnishes corn, wax, and oil, the two former in
abundance; it also contains woods of full-grown trees, fit for ship
building. The river El Kos has a bar of sand at its entrance, but
is sufficiently deep to admit ships of 100 tons. The gardens of the
Hesperides have been supposed to have been situated here.

El Araiche was fortified about the end of the 16th century by Muley
ben Nassar; in 1610 it was given up to Spain, and in 1689 retaken
by Muley Ismael. There is an excellent market-place in the town: the
castle, which commands the entrance of the road, is in good repair,
and the guns well mounted, an uncommon thing in this country: and
it is further strengthened by several batteries on the banks of the
river. The French entered the river in 1765, but by a feint of the
Moors, they were induced to go too far up, when they were surrounded
by superior numbers, and fell victims to their own impetuosity.

Some foreign commerce was carried on here by the nations of Europe
so late as the year 1780, when the Emperor Seedy Mohammed, for some
reason unavowed, caused it to be evacuated, and ordered the Europeans
to quit it; some of whom went to Mogodor, and others to Europe.

The larger vessels of the Emperor, which, however, are but small,
when compared to our ships of the line, generally winter in a cove
on the north side of the river, where there are magazines of naval
stores, sufficient for the equipment of such force. The soil is
sandy, and too loose to admit of the erection of stocks for ship
building. The road is not secure in winter, when the winds blow
from the south and west, but from April to September inclusive,
it is a safe anchorage. El Araiche stands in 35° 11′ N. lat.

Proceeding southward from El Araiche, we reach Maheduma (or Mamora,
as it is called by Europeans), distant sixty-five miles. This town is
situated on an eminence, close to the river, near the southern banks;
it is a poor neglected place, the ferrymen and the inhabitants of
which subsist by fishing for (Shebbel) a species of salmon, of which
they take an incredible quantity, for the supply of the interior,
as well as the neighbouring country, from the autumn till the spring.

The country hereabouts is a continued plain, in which are three
fresh-water lakes, one of which is 20 miles in length. This country
was formerly populous, but the incalculable number of musquitos,
gnats, nippers, and other annoying insects, have obliged the
inhabitants to quit the place. These lakes abound in eels, which
are taken and salted for preservation and sale; ducks and all kinds
of water-fowl also abound on them. Skiffs made of the fan palm and
of rushes, about seven feet long and two broad, are used by the
fisherman, who guides them with a pole, and pierces the eels with
a lance, or long dart, when he sees them in the water, which is
not deep. There are a few insulated spots in the largest lake, on
which are (Zawiat) sanctuaries, inhabited by the Maraboots, who are
held in veneration by the inhabitants of the plains. The plains and
valleys are delightfully pleasant in the months of March and April;
but in June, July, and August, when musquitos are so indescribably
troublesome, they are parched up. On an eminence, at the southern
extremity towards the river Seboo, is a sanctuary and asylum for
travellers, annexed to which are several gardens and plantations
of olives and almonds. The sand bank at the mouth of the Seboo has
partially disappeared, and perhaps a little nautical skill might
make the river navigable with safety to ships of 200 tons burden.

Travelling to the south from Meheduma, at the distance of sixteen
miles we reach Slâa, or Salée, on the northern bank of the river,
which is formed by the junction of the streams of the Buregreg and
Wieroo; the river at Salée was formerly capable of receiving large
vessels; when going thence, however, a few years since, to Mogodor,
the vessel which conveyed me, being about 150 tons burden, struck
three times on the bar; and as the sand continues to accumulate,
it is likely that in another century there will be a separation from
the ocean at ebb tide, as is the case in some of the rivers of Haha
and Suse already mentioned.

Salée is encompassed by a strong wall, about thirty-five feet high
and three feet thick, on the top of which are battlements flanked
with towers of considerable strength. At the south-west corner of
the town there is a battery of twenty-four pieces of cannon, which
commands the entrance of the Buregreg. To the north of the town,
in the plains, are the remains of many gardens, and the ruins of
a town, built by Muley Ismael for his (Abeed Seedy Bukaree) black
troops. When I visited Salée, I was conducted to the subterraneous
apartment, where the Europeans were formerly confined, who had the
misfortune to fall into the hands of these miscreants:[42] it is
a miserable dungeon, though spacious. The streets of Salée, like
those of all old towns in this country, are narrow; and the Kasseria,
or department for shops and buying and selling, as well as many of
the streets, have a canopy which extends across from house to house,
which is expedient to the comfort of the people, protecting them
from the fierce effulgence of the meridian sun. Salée stands in
34° 2′ N. lat.

After crossing the river we enter the town of Rabat, sometimes
denominated New Salée, which is more modern, and rather larger than
Salée. European factories have been established at different times
in Rabat, but have been frequently quitted, or altogether abandoned,
on account of some new order from the Emperor, the instability of
whose decrees, whenever they relate to commerce, is but too well
known. At other times these establishments have been neglected from
the insufficiency of the supplies from Europe, owing to a want of
confidence in the security of property in a country whose affairs
are directed too frequently by the momentary impulse of a despot,
who often orders, judges, and executes, without considering cause
or consequence. The walls of this town enclose a number of gardens,
orchards, and corn-fields. Near the entrance of the river, at Rabat,
on an eminence, are to be seen the ruins of an old castle, built
by the Sultan El Monsor, in the 12th century: some subterraneous
magazines, remarkable for their strength, being bomb proof, are
still preserved; there is also the remains of a small battery, which
defended the entrance of the river. Some batteries were rebuilt
here in 1774, on a more extensive plan, but the engineer has made
the embrasures so close, that it would be inconvenient to work the
guns against an attacking enemy. At a short distance south of the
castle, on an elevated situation, is a square fort erected by Muley
El Arsheed. The walls were built by the Sultan El Monsor, when he
resided here; they are about two miles in circuit, and strengthened
by square towers; they enclose the castle, the town of Rabat,
and a large space of ground, where a palace, and the mausoleum of
Seedy Mohammed, the reigning Emperor’s father, stand; here lamps
are burning night and day, and fakeers are continually praying with
a loud voice, under the colonnade surrounding the latter building,
which gives an air of solemnity to the place, impressing with awe the
minds of the passengers, who halt and repeat an ejaculatory prayer.

The town and walls of Rabat having been built by Spanish slaves,
taken by the Sultan El Monsor, in his wars with Spain, are not very
strong; and it has even been reported that the Christians expressly
built the houses weak, that the roofs might fall on the Moors, which,
it is also said, actually happened, and the Emperor, in retaliation,
ordered the same Spaniards to be decapitated at the iron gate.[43]

This Sultan repaired the Roman well at Shella, and built a spacious
mosque at Rabat, the roof of which was supported by 360 columns of
marble; toward the east were apartments for those who had employment
in the mosque. Many of the rough marble columns are still remaining,
broken and scattered about; there are also the remains of a large
(mitfere) subterranean cistern, which was attached to the mosque,
the tower of which is called (Sma Hassen,) the tower of Beni Hassen,
so named from the province in which it stands. I have frequently
visited this curious tower, and once went to the top of it with a
very ingenious Frenchman, the Comte de Fourban;[44] it is built of
hewn stone, and is 180 feet in height: the view from it is pleasing
and extensive. It has a gradual ascent to the top, made of a mixture
of lime and sand, which time has so hardened, that when the Emperor
Seedy Mohammed ordered the building to be destroyed (he having been
informed that it was a place of assignation to gratify illicit
passions), the workmen, after hammering at it for several days,
were able only to destroy a few cubits of the terraced floor; the
Emperor afterwards came to Rabat, and having been informed of the
slow progress of the workmen, he himself visited the tower, and was
so struck with the durability of the work, that he ordered them to
desist, and caused the entrance to be closed up, which, however,
has since been opened. A man on horseback may ride up to the top
of this building. At every two or three circles of the terrace are
apartments, built of solid stone. It is reported that this tower,
the grand tower at Marocco, and the tower of Seville in Spain, were
built after the same plan, and by the same architect, in the 12th
century. At a small distance to the north of it, are to be seen the
ruins of an ancient wall, on which were formerly erected a battery
and a castle.

The country, in the neighbourhood, is planted with vines, olives,
figs, pomgranates, almonds, oranges, and cotton of an excellent
quality; at Rabat there is a manufactory of cotton cloth, which is
made more for durability than sale. There are docks for ship-building
at Salée, as well as at Rabat; at the latter place, when I was last
there, the hulls of two sloops of war were nearly finished; I went
aboard of them, and was astonished to learn that they had been built
by a man who must have had a natural genius for ship-building, as he
built them _by the eye_, without the use of rules and compasses, a
circumstance which appeared to me very extraordinary and incredible;
but I was repeatedly informed by many of the inhabitants of Rabat,
Moors, Jews, and Christians, that it was a known fact, and might be
ascertained by going to see the daily progress made in the building
of them.

The road of Salée is dangerous for shipping, and the accumulation
of sand at the entrance, will scarcely permit a vessel of 100 tons to
enter the river without danger. Vessels may lie in safety out of the
river, near Rabat, from April till September inclusive; but they are
not secure the rest of the year, the wind blowing from the southern
quarter, and often obliging them to quit their moorings. The best
anchorage in this season, is between the Mosque of Rabat and the old
Tower of Hassen, having the latter to the north. A great number of
anchors having been lost, much attention must be paid to the cables
and buoys. Rabat stands in 34° 3′ N. lat.

On the eastern side of Rabat is a walled town named Shella: this
is sacred ground, and contains many Moorish tombs, held in great
veneration: the town is a sacred asylum, and is entered only by
Mohammedans. Once, however, when I was staying at Salée, an English
captain dressed himself in the Arabian habit, and accompanied by
a confidential friend, entered this sacred town, and viewed what
his guide told him were the tombs of two Roman generals; but he had
not time to examine the inscriptions thereon, for fear of exciting
observation. Shella was probably the Carthaginian metropolis on the
coast of the ocean. Various Roman and ancient African coins used to
be continually dug up here, but the exorbitant price given for them
by some agents of European antiquarians, induced the Jews to imitate
them, which they did so correctly, that these amateurs were deceived;
and lately people have fallen into the opposite extreme, being now so
over cautious as to dispute even the antiques themselves; for this
reason the Moors often sell them to the silver and goldsmiths for
their weight in silver. The last time I was in Africa, I collected
a number of these coins, but the vessel, in which I was coming to
England, sprung a leak, and foundered: and although I saved some
clothes, I could not get at the coins, which were stowed away in a
secret part of the ship, to be secure from discovery, in the event
of our falling in with any French privateer.

About twenty-five miles south of Rabat is a square building called
(El Monsoria) the Building of El Monsor, it having been erected by
that Sultan in the 12th century, as a refuge for travellers during
the night; as the adjacent country is favourable to the depredations
of robbers; and the people of this neighbourhood have been noted,
from time immemorial, as mischievous plunderers.

Following the coast southward for 25 miles more, we reach Fedala;
where a peninsula, which forms an indifferent shelter to small
vessels, has been called in some maps an island. The Emperor Seedy
Mohammed, before he founded Mogodor, was desirous of building a
city here. The situation, as to country and produce, is delightful;
and to encourage commerce, he caused the corn to be brought from the
Matamores[45] of the adjacent provinces, and allowed it to be shipped
here; it being cheap, he induced the merchants to build houses,
as a condition of their being allowed to export it; but the place,
although an excellent situation, was abandoned soon after the corn
was shipped, owing to some new whim of the Emperor; for such is the
fickle instability of the Moors, that it is no uncommon thing in this
extraordinary country, to see a town deserted before the buildings
are all completed, and such indeed was the case with this delightful
place. The road here is, I believe, with the exception of that of
Agadeer, the only one where ships may ride at anchor in security
in winter, which is owing to the land south of the peninsula before
mentioned, projecting into the ocean towards the west.

About twelve miles to the south of Fedala, is Dar el Beida,[46] a
town formerly belonging to Portugal, but now in ruins, and consisting
only of some huts. The plains in the vicinage of Dar el Beida are so
abundant in grain, that when the old Emperor (Seedy Mohammed) reigned,
he received annually for duties on corn shipped at this place, five
or six hundred thousand Mexico dollars; but since the accession of
his son, the present Emperor, and the consequent prohibition of the
exportation of grain, the soil here and elsewhere has lain fallow,
as it would be useless for a people, whose mode of life renders
their wants so few, to sow corn, without having a market to sell
it at; and I myself know, that in consequence of this prohibition,
corn had become so cheap, that many husbandmen, after the famine
and plague in 1800 had subsided, let their crops stand, the value
of them being insufficient to pay the expense of reaping them.

Forty-four miles south of Dar el Beida, stands the town of Azamore, in
the Arab province of Duquella, at some distance from the mouth of the
river Morbeya; the entrance to this river being dangerous, the town
of Azamore is not adapted to commerce. The walls built here by the
Portuguese are still standing. It was besieged in 1513 by the Duke of
Braganza, but abandoned by the Portuguese about a century afterwards.

There is an immense quantity of storks here, insomuch that they
considerably exceed the number of inhabitants. The air is very

A little to the south of Azamore, on the northern extremity of the
bay of Mazagan, are the ruins of Têtt, which signifies in Arabic
Titus, and is therefore supposed to be the ruins of the ancient city
of Titus, founded by the Carthaginians. On the southern extremity of
this bay stands the town of Mazagan, built in 1506 by the Portuguese,
and called by them Castillo Real, or the Royal Castle. There is
a dock on the north side of the town, capable of admitting small
vessels, but large vessels anchor about two miles from the shore,
on account of the Cape of Azamore stretching so far westward, as,
in the event of a south-west wind blowing, they would not be able
to clear it, if they lay nearer.

Mazagan was besieged by the Moors in 1562 ineffectually, and in 1769
the Portuguese had resolved to abandon it when the Emperor Seedy
Mohammed ben Abdallah laid siege to it, and took it, the Portuguese
having previously evacuated it. It is a strong and well built town,
having a wall twelve-feet thick, strengthened with bastions mounting
cannon. The air of Mazagan is peculiarly salubrious; the water is also
excellent, and has a good effect on horses soon after their arrival
here, after passing a country where that element is very indifferent,
and is taken up in buckets from wells about one hundred feet deep.

There still exists in this town a subterranean cistern, constructed by
the Portuguese in a very elegant style, sufficiently large to supply
the garrison with water, which is collected in the rainy season from
the terraces of the houses, which are made with a gentle inclination
towards the cistern; this water becomes extremely clear, and the lime
brought with it from the terraces, clarifies and preserves it from
worms and corruption; the cistern was somewhat damaged by the bombs
thrown into the town during the siege in 1769, but it still serves
the purpose of preserving the water. The vaulted roof is supported by
twenty-four columns of the Tuscan order; and the descent is by stairs.

The exportation of corn and wax from this place was very considerable
in the time of Seedy Mohammed ben Abdallah.

At a short distance south-west of Mazagan, is an ancient town, called
Bureeja, whence the Moorish name Bureeja, which they give to Mazagan.

Thirty-five miles south of Mazagan, is the town of El Waladia,
situated in an extensive plain. Here is a very spacious harbour
sufficiently extensive to contain 500 sail of the line: but the
entrance is obstructed by a rock or two, which, it is said, might be
blown up; if this could be effected, it would be one of the finest
harbours for shipping in the world. The coast of El Waladia is lined
with rocks, at the bottom of which, and between them and the ocean,
is a table land, almost even with the surface of the water, abounding
with springs, where every necessary and luxury of life grows in
abundance. The view of this land from the plains above the rocks,
is extremely beautiful and picturesque.

The town of El Waladia is small, and encompassed by a square wall:
it contains but few inhabitants. It may have been built towards
the middle of the 17th century by Muley El Waled, as the name seems
to indicate.

To the south of this, at the extremity of Cape Cantin, are the
ruins of an ancient town, called by the Africans Cantin, probably
the Conte of Leo Africanus.

Twenty-five miles south of El Waladia, we discover the ancient town of
Saffy, situated between two hills, which render it intolerably hot,
and in winter very disagreeable, as the waters from the neighbouring
mountains, occasioned by the rains, discharge themselves through the
main-street into the ocean, deluging the lower apartments of the
houses; and this happens sometimes so suddenly and unexpectedly,
that the inhabitants have not time to remove their property from
the stores.

The walls of Saffy are extremely thick and high; it was probably
built by the Carthaginians; but in the beginning of the 16th century
it was taken by the Portuguese, who voluntarily quitted it in 1641,
after having resisted every effort of the Mooselmin princes, who
endeavoured to take it. The road is safe in summer; but in winter,
when the winds blow from the south or south-west, vessels are obliged
to run to sea, which I have known some do several times in the course
of a month whilst taking in their cargoes.

There are many sanctuaries in the environs of Saffy, on which account
the Jews are obliged to enter the town barefooted, taking off their
sandals, when they approach these consecrated places; and if riding,
they must descend from their mule, and enter the town on foot. The
people of Saffy, although it has been a place of considerable trade,
particularly in corn, are inimical to Europeans, fanatical, and
bigotted, insomuch that till lately, Christians found it an unpleasant
residence. The surrounding country abounds in corn, and two falls
of rain a year are sufficient to bring the crops to maturity.

South of Saffy, we come to a defile close to the road, where only one
person can pass, called (Jerf el Eudee) the Jew’s Cliff, so named,
(as it is reported,) from a Jew, who, in passing, slipped, and fell
down the cavity, which is some hundred feet deep.

Sixteen miles south of Saffy, we reach the river Tensift, which
discharges itself into the ocean, near the ruins of an ancient town,
probably the _Asama_ of Ptolomy. Travellers pass the Tensift on
horseback in summer, but on rafts in the rainy season, which,
in passing, drift down to a square fort surrounded by trees,
on the opposite side of the river, built by Muley Ismael for the
accommodation of travellers.

Proceeding through the plains of Akkeermute, we discover the ruins
of a large town near the foot of Jibbel el Heddid,[47] depopulated
by the plague about 50 years since; and after a journey of 48 miles
from the river, we reach Mogodor, built by the Emperor Seedy Mohammed
ben Abdallah ben Ismael, in 1760, and so named from a sanctuary in
the adjacent sands, called Seedi Mogodol; but the proper name is
Saweera,[48] a name given by the Emperor in allusion to its beauty,
it being the only town altogether of geometrical construction in
the empire.

Mogodor is built on a sandy beach forming a peninsula, the foundation
of which is rocky adjoining to a chain of lofty hills, of moveable
sand impelled by the wind into waves continually changing their
position, resembling the billows of the ocean, and hence aptly
denominated a sea of sand, which sandy sea separates it from the
cultivated country. The town is defended from the encroachment of
the sea by rocks, which extend from the northern to the southern
gate, though at spring tides it is almost surrounded. There are two
towns, or rather a citadel and an outer town; the citadel (Luksebba)
contains the custom-house, treasury, the residence of the Alkaid,
and the houses of the foreign merchants, together with those of some
of the civil officers, &c. The Jews who are not foreign merchants
are obliged to reside in the outer town, which is walled in, and
protected by batteries and cannon, as well as the citadel.

[Illustration: _Plate 9._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_West View of (Jibbel Heddeed) the Iron Mountains from the plains
of Akkurmute_


1 _Circular encampment of Arabs._

2 _Ruined town of Akkermute destroyed by the plague._

3 _Circular encampment of Arabs at a distance._

4 _Palm of Date Trees._

5 _Sanctuary at the top of the Iron Mountains._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by W. G. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

[Illustration: _Plate 10._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_A South East View of Mogodor._

1. _Part of the Island of Mogodor._

2. _A Ship entering the Port._

3. _A Battery at the entrance of the Port._

4. _Do.    Do._

5. _A Battery at the Landing Place._

6. _Building over the Emperor’s Scale._

7. _Emperor’s Coffee Alcove._

8. _British Vice Consuls tower._

9. _Mosque of the Citadel._

10. _French Vice Consuls tower._

11. _Spanish Vice Do._

12. _Batavian Vice Do._

13. _Entrance Port to the outer town._

14. _Grand Mosque of Seedy Usif._

15. 16. & 17. _Mosques._

18. _Duquella Battery._

19. _Duquella Gate._

20. _Gate near the Sea._

21. _Sandy Beach with loaded Camels approaching the town with the
(Stata) or Convoy on horseback._

22. _Boat entering the passage._

23. _Landing Place._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by G. & W. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

The wind being high all the summer, with little intermission, nothing
will grow here in sufficient quantity to supply the inhabitants,
all kinds of fruits and vegetables are therefore brought from gardens
from four to twelve miles distant; and the cattle and poultry are also
brought from the other side of the sandy hills, where the country,
although interspersed with (Harushe) stony spots, is yet capable of
producing every necessary of life. The insulated situation of Mogodor,
and the want of fresh water, which is brought from the river a mile
and a half distant, deprive the inhabitants of all resource, except
that of commerce, so that every individual is supported directly or
indirectly by it: in this respect it differs from every other port
on the coast. The island which lies southward of the town is about
two miles in circumference, between which and the main-land is a
passage of water, where the ships anchor; but as there is but ten
or twelve feet at ebb tide, ships of war, or those of great burden,
do not enter the port, but lie at anchor about a mile and a half west
of the (Skalla) Long Battery, which extends along the west side of
the town towards the sea. This battery was constructed by a Genoese,
and is perhaps more remarkable for beauty than strength, and better
calculated for offensive than defensive operations. Proceeding
southward, towards the entrance of the road, we come to a circular
battery, on which are cannon and some mortars, besides a curious brass
gun taken by General Lord Heathfield, during the siege of Gibraltar:
the carriage, which is also of brass, is in the form of a lion,
opens in the middle, and contains the gun within it.[49] Underneath
this Battery is an extensive and copious mitfere, or cistern, into
which the rain falls from the flat roofs or terraces during the wet
season, and is sufficient to supply the garrison a twelvemonth.

Within the harbour, at the landing-place, are two long batteries
mounted with very handsome brass eighteen pounders, which were
presented to the Emperor Seedy Mohammed, by the Dutch government. The
town is defended on the landside by a battery of considerable force
to the eastward, and is fully adequate to keep the Shelluhs and
Arabs at a distance.

[Illustration:_Plate 11._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_North View of the Port of Mogodor taken on the Terras of a House._

1. _Vessel entering the Road._

2. _Battery on the Island._

3. _The Island._

4. _Battery on the Island._

5. _A Mosque on Do._

6. _A Battery on Do._

7. _A Bastion where the powder is deposited._

8. _A long Battery mounted with brass Cannon._

9. _Custom House Entrance._

10. _Emperor’s Scale._

11. _Warehouses._

12. _Sandy Hills and Desert Country._

13. _Battery near the River._

14. _The Emperor’s Palace._

15. _Village of Diabet._

16. _Dwaria or Summer house, attached to the Emperor’s Palace._

17. _Wall to prevent the encroachment of the Sea._

18. _Battery on a Rocky ground, forming the North entrance to
the port._

19. _Cape Tegriwelt or Ossim._

20. _Road for Shipping._

21. _Battery where the State Prisoners are confined, previous to
their transportation to the Island._

22. _Sandy Beach._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by W. & G. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

Various opinions have been given of the strength of Mogodor by
the different naval officers who have visited it, and with whom I
have gone round the fortifications by permission of the Governor
of the citadel; I think the best one is, that if the works were
all completely mounted, and well manned, it would require six or
seven large frigates to capture, or rather destroy the place;[50]
for if it were entered by storm, a dreadful slaughter would be made
among the assailants by the inhabitants from the tops of the houses,
every house being a battery from whence the most destructive fire
might be kept up with small arms. This was the case when the Arabs of
Shedma, headed by their Sheiks, entered the town one Friday afternoon
after prayers.[51] The cause was this: some persons in the town
being dissatisfied with the Governor, who was a Bukarie black, or
slave, and not a (horreh) freeman, engaged the Bashaw of Shedma[52]
to enter the town with the chiefs of his province, assuring him, the
people were well disposed towards him, and would, in the event of his
forcing an entrance, give up the government to him, thereby securing
to the town the necessary supplies of provisions, with which it had
of late been but ill supplied, owing to the enmity between the Alkaid
of the town, and the Bashaw of the neighbouring province. Things
being mature for execution, the army of Arabs secreted themselves
behind the sand hills in the hollows, about a mile from the town,
whilst the Bashaw and chiefs rode in, and reached the entrance gate,
just as it was opened after prayers, and secured the gate-keepers
until about 17 or 18 of the chief Arabs of the province had passed
into the town: by this time the inhabitants made a desperate push, and
got the gate closed again; and the chiefs running about the streets,
were fired upon by the armed populace from the tops of the houses,
until the whole were killed. The Bashaw took refuge in an old house
near the Haha gate, and offered a large sum of money if they would
spare his life, but to no purpose; he was shot by the rabble. In
the mean time the scouts from the army secreted in the bottoms
seeing no signal from the town for their approach, were dismayed,
and too soon found it necessary to return to their homes, with the
loss of the flower of the province, the most undaunted warriors,
who had so often signalized themselves against their neighbours,
the Abda and Haha clans. The Arabs entered the town one by one,
with fixed bayonets, a very unusual thing in that country, and the
whole was conducted in so private a manner, that whilst I was walking
round the town with Mr. C. Layton, we met the Bashaw, who saluted us
(for he was attached to the English) and said we had nothing to fear,
that all would terminate to our satisfaction before the morning. As
the balls were flying in all directions, we went to the battery at
the landing-place, and there remained till the tumult was over; and
when we returned again into the town, were received by the Governor
with compliments of congratulation on our escape.

The houses at Mogodor are built as in other towns of the empire; but
those of the foreign merchants are more spacious, having from eight
to twelve rooms on a floor, which are square or long, and open into
a gallery which surrounds a court or garden in the interior of the
house, which, if occupied by merchants, is appropriated to the packing
and stowing of goods. The roofs are flat and beat down with terrace,
a composition of lime and small stones, and when this is properly
done, it will remain several years without admitting the rain,
provided it be washed over once every autumn with lime white-wash:
these terraces serve to walk on to take the air, and are preferable
to the walks out of the town, where there is nothing but barren sands
drifting with the wind. When, however, the trade-wind does not blow
strong, which is but seldom the case, during the summer months,
one may walk without being annoyed by the sand.

Mogodor has a very beautiful appearance at a distance, and
particularly from the sea, the houses being all of stone, and white:
but on entering the streets, which cross each other at right angles,
we are greatly disappointed, for they are narrow, and the houses
having few windows towards the street, they have a sombre appearance.

In case of an attack, Mogodor would find some difficulty in procuring
water, which is brought from the river, about a mile and half to
the south, in jars and casks, by mules and asses.

The Emperor Seedy Mohammed, to impress on the minds of his subjects,
his desire to make Mogodor the principal commercial port on the ocean,
ordered the Bashaw Ben Amaran, and others of the great officers
about his person, to bring him mortar and stones, whilst he with his
own hands began to build a wall, which is still to be seen on the
rocks west of the town; and, in order to encourage the merchants
to erect substantial houses, he gave them ground to build on, and
allowed them to ship produce, free of duty, by way of remuneration
for their expenses. This is the only port which maintains a regular
and uninterrupted commercial intercourse with Europe.

A winter seldom passes but some ships are driven ashore here by the
south-west winds, and this happens generally between the 12th of
December, and the 22d of January, the season called Liali by the
Arabs, and the only period dangerous to shipping in the bay.

Proceeding to the south along the coast, the next port we reach
is Agadeer, or Santa Cruz, called, in the time of Leo Africanus,
Guertguessem; it is the last port in the Emperor’s dominions, on
the shores of the Atlantic. The town, which stands on the summit of
the Atlas, is strong by nature, and almost impregnable; its walls
are also defended by batteries; but the principal battery is at a
short distance from the town, half way down the west declivity of
the mountain, and was originally intended to protect a fine spring of
fresh water, close to the sea; this battery also commands the approach
to the town, both from the north and south, and the shipping in the
bay. The town called by the Portuguese Fonté, and by the Shelluhs
Agurem, is still standing at the foot of the mountain towards the
sea, and the arms of that nation are yet to be seen in a building
erected over the spring. This town was appropriated to warehouses
for the merchants of Santa Cruz to deposit their effects during
its establishment.

Santa Cruz was walled round and strengthened by batteries in 1503,
by Emanuel, king of Portugal, but it was taken from the Portuguese
by the Moors in 1536.

This place would make an excellent depot for the produce of South
America; the natural strength of the place, situated on the summit of
Atlas, would secure it from the attacks of the Shelluhs and Arabs,
who would soon become hospitable and friendly: they are addicted to
traffic. Plantations of olives, vines, dates, and oranges abound in
the adjacent country; it produces also gum, almonds, copper, lead,
salt-petre, and sulphur. Gold dust is brought here from Soudan,
silver from the adjacent mountains, and ambergris from the coast to
the southward.

The bay of Agadeer is probably the best road for vessels in the
empire, being large, deep, and well defended on every side from all
winds: a proof of this is, that during my three years residence there,
there was not a ship lost or injured. It abounds in exquisite fish,
immense quantities of which are caught by the inhabitants of the town,
and prepared in ovens, for transportation to the interior.[53]

In the reign of Muley Ismael, Agadeer was the centre of a very
extensive commerce, whither the Arabs of the Desert, and the people
of Soudan, resorted to purchase various kinds of merchandize for
the markets of the interior of Africa; and caravans were constantly
passing to and from Timbuctoo. The natural strength of the place,
however, its imposing situation, and capability of resisting any
force, excited the jealousy of the Emperors, which was confirmed
in 1773 by the inhabitants becoming refractory, and Talb Solh,
the governor, refusing to deliver it up. On learning this, the
Emperor Seedy Mohammed immediately levied an army, and marched from
Marocco against it; the place did not make a long resistance, for the
rebellious governor, finding it impossible to withstand the imperial
army, yielded to the persuasions of the chiefs to accept an invitation
the Emperor had sent him to come and declare his allegiance, as on
doing that he should receive his pardon; he accordingly repaired to
Tamaract,[54] but found, too late, that this was only a stratagem to
seize his person, as he was immediately imprisoned; but procuring,
by the assistance of a friend, a penknife, which was sent to him,
baked in a loaf of bread, he with this terminated his existence,
and the town soon after surrendered. The merchants were allowed
but a short time to collect together their effects, when they were
ordered to proceed to Mogodor, where the Emperor, as before mentioned,
encouraged them to build houses.

Beyond Santa Cruz there is no port frequented by shipping: there is
a tract of coast, however, which holds out great encouragement to
commercial enterprize, and secure establishments might be affected
upon it, which would amply remunerate the enterprizing speculator; the
people of Suse are also well disposed towards Europeans, particularly
the English; and the communication, and short distance, between this
place and the provinces, or districts, where most of the valuable
products of Barbary are raised, render it peculiarly adapted to trade.

When curiosity induced me to visit this coast, I was invited by the
Amarani Arabs to establish a factory at a certain eligible place;
the Sheik offered to get a house built for me, free of expense,
and declared that all exports and imports should be regulated by
a duty of only two per cent. on the value; as he was, however,
liable to be shot, being a celebrated warrior, and as I was not
sufficiently known in England to procure the credit necessary to
carry on advantageously such an establishment, I thought it prudent
at that time to decline the overture. If, however, I had been able to
procure the same support from Europe that I should have had from the
natives and their Sheik, an eligible opportunity would have presented
itself to open an extensive and lucrative trade with the interior,
which in a short time would have supplied the whole of the inland
countries of North Africa with European manufactures and produce.

From Santa Cruz southward the sovereignty of the Emperor
slackens, so that at Wedinoon it is scarcely acknowledged, and the
difficulty of passing an army over that branch of the Atlas which
separates Suse from Haha, secures to the Wedinoonees their arrogated
independence. There are but two roads yet discovered fit for shipping
between Santa Cruz and Cape Bojador, an extent of coast, for the
most part desert, of seventy leagues, the whole of which is inhabited
by various tribes of Arabs, who have emigrated at different periods
from the interior of Sahara, and pitched their tents wherever they
could find a spot capable of affording pasture to their flocks. All
along this dangerous and deceitful coast, there are rocks even with,
or very near, the surface of the water, over which the waves break
violently; and the rapidity of the currents, which invariably set
in towards the land, too often drive vessels ashore here.[55]

In these southern climates the people are more superstitious than in
the northern provinces; the heat inflaming the imagination, multiplies
the number of fanatics, who under the name of Fakeers, or saints,
impose on the credulity of the people: they have but few mosques,
and therefore pray in the open air, or in their tents. Here we see
horses, camels, and other beasts, living together with men, women, and
children indiscriminately. When they are in want of water for their
religious ablutions, they substitute the use of sand. These restless
people are continually at war with their neighbours, which originates
in family quarrels; plunder keeps them incessantly in motion, and
they traverse the Desert to Soudan, Timbuctoo, and Wangara, with as
little preparation as we should make to go from London to Hampstead.

Wedinoon is a kind of intermediate depot for merchandize on its way to
Soudan, and for the produce of Soudan going to Mogodor. Gums and wax
are produced here in abundance; and the people living in independance,
indulge in the luxuries of dress, and use many European commodities. A
great quantity of gold dust is bought and sold at Wedinoon. They
trade sometimes to Mogodor, but prefer selling their merchandize on
the spot, not wishing to trust their persons and property within
the territory of the Emperor of Marocco. With Timbuctoo, however,
they carry on a constant and advantageous trade, and many of the
Arabs are immensely rich; they also supply the Moors of Marocco with
(Statas) convoys through the Desert, in their travels to Timbuctoo.

Some of the more enlightened merchants of Mogodor, towards the
close of the last century, had a great opinion of an establishment
somewhere on this coast, between the latitude of 27° and 30° north;
but a famine, and afterwards a most destructive plague, added to
various other incidents, conspired to prevent the execution of the
plan. It is certain that a very profitable commerce might be carried
on with these people; and most probably Bonaparte, if he succeed
in the final conquest of Spain, will turn his mind decidedly to an
extensive factory somewhere here, which (besides many advantages,
which existing circumstances prevent me explaining here) would
effectually open a direct communication with Timbuctoo, and Soudan,
and supply that immense territory with European manufactures at the
second hand, which they now receive at the fifth and sixth.

Having said thus much about the coast, we will proceed to describe
the principal inland towns, viz. Marocco, Mequinas, Fas, and Terodant.

[Illustration:_Plate 12._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_West View of the City of Marocco with the Mountains of Atlas._

1 _Circular encampment of Arabs Tents._

2 _Strait encampment of Arabs Tents._

3 _Grove of Palm of Date Trees._

4 _Do.Do._

5 _Atlas Mountains._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by W. & G. Nicholl Pall Mall._]


The city of Marocco is situated in a fruitful plain, abounding in
grain, and all the other necessaries of life, and depastured by sheep
and cattle, and horses of a superior breed, called (Sift Ain Toga)
the breed of Ain Toga. At a distance, the city has a beautiful and
romantic appearance, the adjacent country being interspersed with
groves of the lofty palm, and the towering snow-topped mountains
of Atlas, in the back-ground, seem to cool the parched and weary
traveller reposing in the plains; for although none

  “Can hold a fire in his hand,

  “By thinking on the frosty Caucasus;”


yet, in the sultry season, the traveller, by viewing these mountains,
experiences an agreeable sensation, difficult to be described. The
lily of the valley, the fleur-de-lis, lupins, roses, jonquils,
mignonet, jasmines, violets, the orange and citron flowers, and many
others, grow here spontaneously; and in the months of March and April,
the air in the morning, is strongly perfumed with their grateful and
delicious odours. The fruits are, oranges of the finest flavour,
figs of various kinds, water and musk melons, apricots, peaches,
and various kinds of grapes, pears, dates, plums, and pomgranates.

The city of Marocco was founded in the 424th year of the Hejira[56]
(1052) by Jusuf Teshfin, of the family of Luntuna, a tribe of Arabs
inhabiting the plains east of Atlas, on the way to Tafilelt; and in
the time of his grandson, Aly ben Yusif, it is said to have contained
a million of inhabitants; latterly, however, it has been much
depopulated, and owing to the devastations of succeeding conquerors,
retains little of its ancient magnificence; the accumulated ruins
of houses and gardens within the town, which were once the sites of
habitations, indicate its decay. It is surrounded by extremely thick
walls, formed of a cement of lime and sandy earth,[57] put in cases,
and beaten together with square rammers. These walls were in many
places broken and decayed, so that horses might pass through them;
but the breaches were repaired previous to the siege and capture of
the city by Muley Yezzid, in February, 1792. Some of the houses are
built with much elegance and taste, but being all behind high walls,
they are not visible from the street; and these outer walls are of
the rudest construction, for every individual here is anxious to
conceal his wealth, and to impress the public and the State with an
idea that he is poor and distressed!

The imperial palace of Marocco, which faces Mount Atlas, is built
of hewn stone, ornamented with marble. It is not so magnificent a
building as that of Mequinas; the architecture of the principal gates
is Gothic, embellished with various ornaments in the Arabesque taste;
the walls of some of the rooms are of filligree-work, and others of
(ezzulia, or) glazed tiles, similar to the Chinese tiles, which are
fixed in the walls with much art, and have a cool effect. Three
gardens are attached to the palace, the first and largest is
called Jinen el Erdoua, the second Jinen el Afia, and the third,
which is the smallest, and situated at a private door, Jinen Nile,
or the Garden of the Nile, so named from its containing the fruits
and plants of the Nile, Timbuctoo, and Soudan, with many others,
the produce of Barbary. In the two former of these gardens, the
Emperor allows the foreign merchants to pitch their tents whenever
they visit him, which is generally every time he goes to Marocco,
and in the Jinen Nile they have their audience of business, that is,
the second audience, the first being an interview of ceremony, and the
third, an audience of leave to depart. The two first gardens abound
with olives, oranges, grapes of various kinds, apricots, peaches,
pomgranates, water-melons, citrons, limes, &c.; these, however, are
surpassed in richness by the Jinen Nile, the orange trees of which
are small, but very fruitful, and the flowers extremely odoriferous;
the roses, in particular, are unequalled, and matrasses are made of
their leaves for the men of rank to recline upon. In these gardens
are (Kobba) pavilions about forty feet square, with pyramidal roofs
covered with glazed tiles of various colours, and lighted from four
lofty and spacious doors, which are opened according to the position
of the sun; they are painted and gilt in the Arabesque style, and
ornamented with square compartments containing passages from the
Koran, in a sort of hieroglyphic character, or Arabic shorthand,
understood only by the first scholars. As the luxury and convenience
of tables, chairs, and curtains are unknown in this country,
the furniture of these apartments is very simple, consisting of a
couple of sofas or couches, some china, and tea equipage, a clock,
a few arms hung round the walls, a water-pot, and carpets to kneel
upon in prayers. Here the Emperor takes coffee or tea, and transacts
business with his courtiers.

The grand pavilion in the middle of the enclosure is appropriated
to the women; it is a very spacious building, and fitted up in the
same style of neatness and simplicity as the others.[58]

Near to the palace is (the M’shoar, or) Place of Audience, an
extensive quadrangle, walled in, but open to the sky, in which the
Emperor gives audience to his subjects, hears their complaints,
and administers justice.

In Marocco are many temples, sanctuaries, and mosques; of these,
the most curious is one in the middle of the city, called Jamâa
Sidi Yusif, built by a prince named Muley el Mumen, on the site of
one erected by Sidi Yusif, which the former destroyed with a view
to obliterate the latter prince’s name; in this, however, he was
disappointed, for though he expended great sums in the erection of
the present building, and called it after himself, for the purpose
of transmitting his own name to posterity, yet the people continued
to call it by the old name, which it retains to the present time.

There is another mosque, said to have been built by Muley el
Monsore;[59] the body of it is supported by many pillars of marble,
and under it is a (mitfere) cistern, which holds a large quantity of
water, collected in the rainy season, and used by the Mohammedans
for their ablutions. The tower is square, and built like that of
Seville in Spain, and the one near Rabat already described;[60]
the walls are four feet thick, and it has seven stories, in each of
which are windows, narrow on the outside, but wide within, which
renders the interior light and airy: the ascent is not by stairs,
but by a gradually winding terrace composed of lime and small stones,
so firmly cemented together as to be nearly as hard as iron. On the
summit of the tower is a turret in the form of a square lantern,
hence called (Smâa el Fannarh) the Lantern Tower, which commands a
most extensive prospect, and from whence Cape Cantin, distant about
120 miles, is distinctly visible. The roofs of the different chambers
in this building, which are all quadrangular, are very ingeniously
vaulted: and indeed the whole workmanship is of the most excellent
kind. Prayers are performed here every Friday in presence of the
Emperor. That part of the city adjoining this edifice is quite a
heap of ruins.

There is another tower in the city, which may be mentioned,
from the circumstance of its having three golden balls on its
top, weighing together, it is said, 10 quintals, equal to 1205
lbs. avoirdupois. Several kings, when in want of money, have, it is
said, attempted to take them down, but without success, as they are
very firmly and artfully fixed; the superstitious people say they
are fixed by magic, that (jin) a spirit guards them from all injury,
and that all those who have attempted their removal, were soon after
killed.[61] There is a tradition, that the wife of Muley el Mumen,
desirous of ornamenting the temple built by her husband, caused these
globes to be made of the gold melted down from the jewels which the
king gave her.

At the extremity of the city, towards the Atlas, and near the imperial
palace, is the department for the Jews, called El Millah, the gates
of which are shut at night: these people have an Alkaid appointed
over them, to whom they apply for protection against insult: they
pay a certain tribute or poll-tax, (called Elgazia), to the Alkaid;
they are for the most part rich; but from motives of policy, under
this despotic government, they endeavour to appear poor, miserable,
and dirty. Not more than two thousand Jewish families now reside here,
great numbers having been induced, from various causes, to emigrate
to the adjacent mountains, where they are free from taxation.

In this quarter stands the Spanish convent, which, till lately,
was inhabited by two or three friars; but it is now deserted.

The Kasseria, or department for trade, is an oblong building,
surrounded with shops of a small size, filled with silks, cloths,
linens, and other valuable articles for sale. Here the people resort
to transact business, hear the news, &c. much in the same manner as is
done on the exchanges of European towns; and independent gentlemen,
who have no occupation at court, often hire one of these shops,
merely for the purpose of passing the morning here in conversation
on politics, and other subjects.

The principal gates of Marocco are the Beb El Khumise and Beb
Duquella; the former takes its name from a market called Soke El
Khumise, or the fifth day’s market, or Thursday’s market, where
horses, cattle, and all kinds of merchandize are bought and sold;
the latter, or Duquella Gate, takes its name from the province of
that name. Besides these, there is the Gate of the Millah, the Gate
of the Luksebba, or palace, and two or three other gates.

The city of Marocco is supplied with water from numerous wells and
springs amongst the different olive plantations, and the rich procure
it from the river Tensift, which flows at a short distance from the
city: this water is very salubrious, and anti-bilious, and is drank
in cases of indigestion. There is also a subterraneous aqueduct built
of brick, which surrounds the town, twenty feet below the surface,
and from which, at about every hundred yards, pipes of brick-work
branch off, and convey the water into the different houses; over each
of these branches are excavations from the surface, through which
persons descend to repair any injuries below; but this aqueduct is
now much neglected, and out of repair.

This city being now on the decline, little can be said of its
cleanliness; the streets are mostly filled with ruins of houses
which have gone to decay; and in the Millah, or Jews’ quarter,
heaps of dung and other filth are seen, as high as the houses. The
Moors, however, from a natural desire of cleanliness, in which the
Jews are scandalously deficient, pay more attention to the streets
in which they reside. The houses of the Alkaids, Shereefs, or nobles,
and other military officers, are lofty, spacious, and strongly built,
with a turret in the middle, or on one side, where the women take the
air, and pass the evening _in fresco_. The rest of the houses being
almost all old, they swarm with vermin, particularly bugs, which, in
the summer season, are literally a plague, the walls being covered
with them; at this period also, the inhabitants are much annoyed
with scorpions, which are frequently found in the beds, and other
places;[62] to these may be added the domestic serpent, but this is
rather considered as an object of veneration, than a nuisance.[63]

The air about Marocco is generally calm; the neighbouring mountains of
Atlas defend the plain in which it stands from the scorching Shume,
or hot wind (which blows from Tafilelt and Sahara), by arresting its
progress, and the snow with which they are always covered, imparts
a coolness to the surrounding atmosphere; in summer, however, the
heat is intense, though the nights during that period are cool; in
winter the cold is very sensibly felt: but the climate is altogether
extremely healthy. The inhabitants, particularly the Jews, are,
however, affected with ophthalmia.

On the death of Aly ben Yusif, a private individual named El Meheddi,
a man of ambitious character, sprung up in the Atlas mountains, and
levying a large army, proceded to Marocco, and laid siege to the town,
which was then commanded by Muley Bryhim, successor to Aly ben Yusif,
who collecting his forces, marched out to give El Meheddi battle;
but being completely overpowered and defeated, he fled to Imsmise in
the Atlas east of Marocco. El Meheddi not satisfied with his escape,
ordered his general in chief to pursue him with one half of his
numerous army, whilst he took possession of Marocco with the other;
the general pursued the King so closely, that he arrived immediately
after him at Oran, where the latter, finding no support, and being
driven to despair, mounted his horse in the night, and placing his
queen behind him, rode out of the place, and clapping spurs to the
horse, passed over a precipice, and was, together with his queen,
dashed to pieces. His body being discovered, the general, who was
a prince, and named Muley el Mamune, returned with the army to the
city of Marocco, where, on his arrival, finding El Meheddi dead,
and succeeded by his son, he attacked the city, and after a year’s
siege took it; irritated at being so opposed, he put El Meheddi’s
son to death, and a dreadful massacre of the army and citizens ensued,
after which he was proclaimed Sultan and Amer el Mumenine,[64] and
established the first Diwan, which consisted of ten men learned in
the Arabic language, and in the laws of the Koran. This El Mamune’s
posterity reigned at Marocco from the 516th to the 668th year of
the Hejira,[65] and then were dispossessed by a king of the tribe
of Marin, whose posterity reigned with despotic sway till the year
785 of the Hejira.


The city of Mequinas stands in a beautiful valley about sixty
miles from Salée, near the sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone; and
is surrounded by gentle eminences, and highly cultivated vales,
ornamented with plantations of dates, grapes, figs, pomgranates,
oranges, olives, &c., all which grow in abundance, the surrounding
country being well watered by various springs and streams.

This city owes its present extent and consequence to the Sultan
Muley Ismael, who, after having secured to himself the undisputed
sovereignty of the small kingdoms which now form the empire of
Marocco, determined, in order to keep his people in more complete
subjection, to have two imperial cities, and in consequence made
Marocco the capital of the south, and Mequinas that of the north;
he at the same time considerably enlarged the city to the westward,
and erected a beautiful palace, which is defended by two bastions
mounted with a few guns of small calibre.

In the plain, on that side of the city towards the Atlas mountains,
is a wall of circumvallation about six feet in height, which was built
as a defence against the Berebbers, whose attacks, though impetuous,
are momentary, and do not require a long defence. Muley Ismael, and
his successor, Muley Abdallah, have repeatedly defended themselves
in this city against these people, when, in attempting to bring them
under their yoke, they have been routed, and their armies pursued
to its very walls.

At the south end of the city stands the palace (which encloses
the Horem, or seraglio), a very extensive quadrangular edifice,
built by Ismael, after his own design; it contains several
gardens admirably laid out, and watered by numerous streams from
the adjacent country. I obtained permission to view this building
from the Emperor’s brother, as no person is suffered to enter it
without leave. In the centre of the enclosure is the horem, within
which is a spacious garden, planted with tall cypress trees; it is
surrounded by a gallery, supported by columns, which communicates
with the adjoining apartments, the largest of which are appropriated
to the women (the smaller rooms being for the eunuchs and female
attendants), and terminate in a hall, or large chamber, built on a
causeway which divides the gardens; here the females look through
the iron-latticed windows, and take the air, which, in the summer,
is perfumed with the smell of violets, jasmines, roses, wild thyme,
and other delectable odours. The palace is also interspersed with
buildings called Kobbah, which contain a spacious square room, the
roof of which is pyramidical, and on the inside curiously carved
and ornamented with painting and gilding.

This extensive palace is rendered more spacious by being built
altogether on the ground floor; the rooms are long and lofty, but
narrow, being about 12 feet wide, 18 high, and 25 long; the walls
are inlaid with glazed tiles of bright colours, which give an air
of coolness to the apartments; and the light is communicated by
means of two large folding doors, which are opened, more or less,
according to the degree of light required in the room. Between the
different suites of apartments are courts regularly paved with squares
of black and white marble; and in the centre of some of these stands
a marble fountain.

The Millah, or that part of the city inhabited by the Jews, is walled
round, and is extensive, and in good repair. Many of the Jews live
in affluence.

Contiguous to the Millah is another enclosure called the Negroes’
quarter, built by Ismael for the residence of the families of his
black troops;[66] of this, however, nothing remains but the walls.

In this city was an hospitium, or convent of Spanish monks, founded
about a century since by the king of Spain, for the relief and
spiritual comfort of Catholic captives, and Christian travellers. This
convent, and that at Marocco, were much respected by the Mooselemin,
from the essential service afforded by the monks to the poor, whom
they used to supply with medicines gratis; but, after a long practice,
they found their prescriptions were grossly abused by the Moors,
who took them without any regard to regimen; they were therefore
obliged to make a general medicine for all applicants, composed of a
decoction of simples with honey, and this they denominated the _dua
sheriff_, or princely remedy. This convent was deserted by the monks
previous to the accession of Soliman, the present Emperor.

The streets of Mequinas are not paved, and on this account it is
a very disagreeable place in winter, as the rains cause the mud
to accumulate, which renders walking abroad very unpleasant. The
inhabitants are extremely hospitable: they invite strangers to their
gardens, and entertain them sumptuously: indeed, the manners of the
people in this part of the empire, are more mild, perhaps, than in
any other.

Nature seems to have favoured the women of Mequinas, for they are
handsome without exception, and to a fair complexion, with expressive
black eyes, and dark hair, they unite a suavity of manners rarely
to be met with even in the most polished nations of Europe.


This city (which is divided into old and new, called Fas Jedide,
and Fas El Bâlee) is the most celebrated in West Barbary; it was
founded about the 185th year of the Hejira (A.C. 786) by Idris,[67]
a descendant of Mohammed. It stands for the most part upon gentle
hills, except the centre, which is low, and in winter very wet and
dirty. It is not so extensive as Marocco, but the houses being more
lofty and spacious, it contains more inhabitants. The houses have
flat roofs ingeniously worked in wood, and covered with terrace,
on which the inhabitants spread carpets in summer, to recline upon,
and enjoy the cool breezes of the evening; a small turret, containing
a room or two, is also erected upon them for the use of the females
of the family, who resort thither for amusement and pastime. In the
centre of each house is an open quadrangle surrounded by a gallery,
which communicates with the staircase, and into which the doors of
the different apartments open; these doors are both wide and lofty,
and are made of curiously carved wood painted in various colours. The
beams of the roofs of the different apartments are whimsically painted
with gay colours in the arabesque style. The portals of the houses
are supported with pillars of brick plaistered over. The principal
houses have (Mitferes) cisterns under them, containing water used
in the baths, which are built of marble or stone. Every house is
also supplied with water from a river which rises in the Atlas, and
enters the town in various places by covered channels. The hospitals,
colleges, and houses of the great and wealthy have, withinside,
spacious courts, adorned with sumptuous galleries, fountains,
basons of fine marble, and fish-ponds, shaded with orange, lemon,
pomgranate, and fig trees, abounding with fruit, and ornamented with
roses, hyacinths, jasmine, violets, and orange flowers, emitting a
delectable fragrance.

In the city are a great number of mosques, sanctuaries, and other
public buildings; about fifty of these are very sumptuous edifices,
being ornamented with a kind of marble, unknown in Europe, procured
in the Atlas mountains.[68]

The maintenance of professors and students in the mosques, has
lately become very scanty, the wars having destroyed many of the
possessions by which learning was promoted. The students are mostly
employed in reading the Koran; if any one read a text which he
does not understand, the professor explains it to him in public;
at other times they dispute among themselves, and the professor
finally explains the passage.

A public bath is attached to each mosque, for religious ablutions;
there are also public baths in various parts of the town, whither
the common people resort;[69] the men at one hour and the women at
another; when occupied by the latter, a rope is suspended from the
cieling of the first apartment, as a signal to the stranger not
to proceed farther; and so particular are they in this respect,
that a man would not be here permitted to speak to his own wife,
such regard have they for their reputation. These baths produce
a considerable sum annually. Besides these there are chalybeate,
sulphureous, and antimonial baths; there is also a bath celebrated
as a specific for the venereal disease, which is said to be an
infallible cure in three months.

The hospitals which have been mentioned by early writers as being in
Fas, must have fallen greatly into decay, as there are now very few;
in these the poor are fed, but no surgeon or physician is attached to
them; women attend the infirm and sick till they recover, or death
terminate their sufferings. There is a Muristan, or mad-house,
where deranged people are confined; they are chained down, and
superintended by men who use them very harshly; their apartments
are disgustingly filthy.

There are nearly two hundred caravanseras or inns, called Fondaque,
in this city; these buildings are three stories high, and contain from
fifty to one hundred apartments, in each of which is a water-cock to
supply water for ablution and various other purposes. As the mode
of travelling is to carry bedding with one, they do not provide
beds in these inns, but leave you to make use of what you have got,
providing only a mat: and if you want any refreshment you cannot
order a meal, but must purchase it at a cook’s shop, or procure
it at the butcher’s, and get it dressed yourself, paying so much
per day for your apartment, the master of the Fondaque supplying
charcoal and Umjummars, or portable earthen fire-pots, &c.

There are a great many corn-mills in Fas; for the inhabitants being
mostly poor, and unable to lay up corn sufficient in store, they
purchase meal of the millers, who make great profit by it. The rich
buy their own corn, and send it to the mills to be ground.

Each trade or occupation has its separate department allotted to
it; in one place are seen several shops occupied by notaries or
scriveners, two in each shop; in another stationers; in another
shoe-makers: here a fruit market, there wax chandlers; another part
is allotted to those who fry meat, and make a light kind of bread
called Sfinge, fried in oil, and eaten with honey. Animals are not
suffered to be slaughtered in the city; this is done at a distance
from it, near the river, and the meat is sent from thence to the
different shops in the town, but first to the Mutasseb, or officer
who superintends the price of provisions, who, after examining it,
sets a price upon it on a piece of paper; this the venders show to
the people, who buy at the rate affixed.

The inhabitants of Fas are fond of poultry, which they rear in cages
to prevent them from running about the house, and dirting the rooms.

The Kasseria is a square place walled round, and divided into twelve
wards, two of which are allotted to the shoe-makers, who work for
the princes and gentlemen; the others consist of silk-mercers and
cloth and linen shops. There are sixty (Dellel) criers, or itinerant
auctioneers, who receive from the various shops, pieces of cloth,
linen, &c. and going about crying (al ziada) “who bids more,”
sell the lot to the highest bidder.

Fas Jedide, or New Fas, which lies contiguous to Old Fas, is a
well built town, in which are the looms and other machinery for
the different trades. The gardens here abound with all sorts of
delicious fruits; and roses and other odoriferous flowers perfume
the serene air, so that it is justly called a paradise. Westward,
towards the Emperor’s palace, stands a castle, built by one of the
princes of the Luntuna family, wherein the Kings of Fas kept their
court before the palace was built; but when New Fas was begun by the
sovereigns of the Marin dynasty, the castle became the residence of
the Governor of the city.


This is the metropolis of the South, and was formerly that of
the kingdom of Suse: the town is spacious, and very ancient. The
buildings, generally speaking, are handsome. There is a magnificent
palace here, with gardens producing in abundance a variety of
the most delicious fruits. The adjacent plains are incredibly
fertile. The population of this city has decreased considerably; it
is now celebrated for salt-petre of a very superior quality; for the
manufacture of leather, and for saddles; also for dyeing. The river
Suse passes through the town. Terodant has stood various sieges;
and during the last, the inhabitants were reduced to the necessity
of eating rats and dogs, and burning their doors for fuel.


[Footnote 40: There is in the middle of the town a mattamora, or
dungeon, where they used to confine their Christian captives taken
by the corsairs.]

[Footnote 41: In distinction from El Bahaira, which implies a
kitchen garden.]

[Footnote 42: It is well known that the vessels formerly fitted out
by the town of Salée, for the purpose of capturing the defenceless
merchant ships of Europe, were navigated by desperate banditti.]

[Footnote 43: One of the entrances of the town.]

[Footnote 44: The Count was nephew to the Duke de Crillon, and
had been confined in France during the reign of Robespierre, but
had effected his escape; the rigour of his confinement, however,
brought on a disorder which carried him off.]

[Footnote 45: Subterraneous vaults, or holes made in the form of a
cone, where corn is deposited, and these being closed at the opening,
it will keep thirty years or more.]

[Footnote 46: Formerly called Anafa, probably from the quantity of
anise-seed grown in the neighbourhood, _anafa_ being the Arabic word
for anise-seed.]

[Footnote 47: These mountains are said to abound in iron, as the
name expresses; they are covered with bole armoniac or red bole.]

[Footnote 48: Saweera being derived from Tasaweera, which, in the
African Arabic, signifies a drawing or painting.]

[Footnote 49: A cargo of corn free of duty, was given by the Emperor
to the person who presented him with this gun.]

[Footnote 50: When Commodore Crosby, in his Majesty’s ship Trusty,
accompanied by three small frigates, came down to Mogodor, he anchored
off the Long Battery, at about a mile and a half distant; at this
time the town was so little prepared for defence, that the guns were
not mounted, and when they began to do this, they were half an hour
in mounting one! It was understood that the Commodore’s orders were
indefinite; he was to act according to circumstances; but the Governor
was apprised by the Emperor of the probability of a visit from the
English, and had received orders at the same time to treat them in a
friendly manner; cattle and other provisions were accordingly sent
off to the ships, and all hostile operations were thus prevented;
the Commodore departed on the third day after his arrival; and the
two nations continued on friendly terms with each other.]

[Footnote 51: In all Mohammedan countries in Africa, the gates of
the town are shut on the Friday during prayers, on account of an
ancient superstitious tradition among the people, that their country
will be attacked by the Christians, and taken from them by surprise,
at that time.]

[Footnote 52: The Bashaw Billa.]

[Footnote 53: I have seen the fishermen draw more fish at one haul
of the net, than a boat could carry. After depositing the first
boat-load, they have gone back to load the remainder left on the

[Footnote 54: See the Map of West Barbary.]

[Footnote 55: See Chapter XII.]

[Footnote 56: It appears from the testimony of the Moors as well
as the Berebbers, that Marocco is a more ancient town than Fas: we
have not, however, any written account of it previous to the 424th
year of the Hejira.]

[Footnote 57: This cement is called Tabia by the Moors. Livy tell
us that the walls of Saguntum were built with mortar made of earth.]

[Footnote 58: The Emperor, Seedy Mohammed, who died in 1790, after
reigning thirty-three years, shewed a great predilection for the
city of Marocco, and caused several regular pavilions to be built
by Europeans in the midst of the palace gardens; these are of hewn
stone, and finished in a plain substantial style. There are many
private gardens in the city, containing the most delicious fruits,
and having pavilions decorated much in the style of those above
described, which form a curious contrast with the real, or apparent
wretchedness of the surrounding buildings.]

[Footnote 59: This is the man to whom Rhazes, the Arabian physician,
dedicated his book de Variolis et Morbillis.]

[Footnote 60: See page 38.]

[Footnote 61: It appears, however, that they have been taken down,
and afterwards replaced, or others substituted.]

[Footnote 62: See under Zoology.]

[Footnote 63: See under Zoology. Though not now worshipped, the
serpent was probably one of the deities previous to the introduction
of Mohammedanism.]

[Footnote 64: An Arabic title implying commander of the faithful.]

[Footnote 65: The year of the Mohammedans is lunar. The Hejira began
in July 622 A.C.]

[Footnote 66: He built a town for the same purpose in the plains
of M’sharrah Rumellah, and in other places, all which are now
in ruins.]

[Footnote 67: This prince fled from Medina in Arabia, to avoid
the persecution of the Khalif Abd Allah, and retiring into Africa,
penetrated to the west of the Atlas, where, being struck with the
beauty of the adjoining plains, he founded the city of Fas, having
previously propagated the religion of the Arabian prophet at the
place now called the Sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone, in the Atlas
mountains, west of the city of Mequinas.]

[Footnote 68: There are many other kinds of marble in this country,
similar to what is found in different parts of Italy, and the rest
of Europe.]

[Footnote 69: Most of the principal inhabitants have baths in their
own houses.]

                              CHAPTER V.


The horses of West Barbary, though small, are renowned for fleetness
and activity; the breed, however, has been much neglected, except
in Abda, and about Marocco, at a place called Ain Toga; these horses
have stronger sinews than those of Europe, and after a little training
are peculiarly docile. The stallions only are rode, the mares being
kept for breeding, except among the Shelluhs, who use them for
riding. Geldings are unknown in Mohammedan countries; a Mooselmin
will neither castrate, nor sell the skin of the beast of the Prophet.

The Arab is particularly attached to the horse: he rises with the
sun, visits him, and laying his right hand on the horse’s face,
he ejaculates the words (Bissim illah) In the name of God; he then
kisses his hand, which is supposed to have received a benediction
from the touch of the favourite animal of their Prophet Mohammed;
he then has the place where the horse stands swept clean, some dry
sand spread, and an arm full of straw trodden small by oxen, placed
before him at such a distance, that he can by stretching out his
neck just reach it (for the horse being picqueted, and fastened by
ropes round the fetlock, cannot move from his place): this is done
to lengthen the neck, and to strengthen the fore-hand by exertion;
the length of neck is considered as a great perfection, so that when
the Arabian jockies purchase a horse, they measure from the top of
the shoulder to the tip of his nose; and then from the top of the
shoulder, to the end of the fleshy part of the tail; if the length
of the former exceed that of the latter, it is the criterion of a
good horse; but if the latter half exceed the front half in length,
the horse is considered of an inferior kind. Such a predilection have
Mohammedans for ablution, that the best horses are sprinkled with
water every morning on the chest, loins, and sexual parts; this, as
they pretend, improves the strength of the animal, and promotes his
health; at noon only he is watered; then he has a little more straw,
and remains afterwards fasting till sun-set, when they feed him with
a bag of barley, attached to his head like our hackney-coach horses:
they reprobate Christians for feeding their horses in a manger,
and observe, that when a horse is used to a manger, he will not eat
out of a bag, and as mangers are not to be found in this country
in travelling, the plausibility of preferring the bag is evident:
they do not suffer him to eat any straw after the feed of barley,
alleging, that it would destroy the good effect of the latter.

The Arabs are expert farriers; their horses are generally healthy,
but are subject to jaundice, which they cure by drawing the skin
from the flesh at certain places with a pair of pinchers, and then
piercing it with a hot iron like an awl. They turn them out to grass
every spring during forty days, after which they physic them thus:
they give them a pound of old butter, called budra,[70] which they
mix with two ounces of pepper; they give this to the horse in a fluid
state, that it may be the more easily swallowed; they then let him
remain the whole day fasting, giving him in the evening only half
of his accustomed quantity of barley; they next keep them without
riding seven days: this process is said to secure the horse against
disorders, and quickly takes off the prominent belly common after
grass, disposing the flesh to the flanks.

To the various colours of horses they attach various properties;
they assert, that a dark-coloured or black horse is in his fullest
vigour towards dark, or night; that the powers of a chesnut horse
come with the rising sun, and he is not so fleet in the evening; to a
white horse they attribute vigilance; and of a gray they signify the
soundness of their feet, by an Arabian adage,[71] which indicates
that if a cavalcade be passing through a stony country, the gray
horses will break the stones with their feet; this opinion appears
founded on experience, for in the Atlas mountains, in some parts
of Suse, and in all harsh stony districts, we find a much greater
proportion of gray horses than of any other colour; their feet are
so hardy, that I have known them to travel two days journey through
the stony defiles of Atlas without shoes, over roads full of loose
broken stones, and basaltic rocks.

Besides horses, mules and asses abound every where in Barbary,
also camels, and horned cattle. In the Atlas, and in the forests
near Mequinas, there are lions, panthers, wild hogs, hyænas, apes,
jackals, foxes, hares, serpents, lizards, camelions, &c.

The birds are, ostriches, pelicans, eagles, flamingoes, storks,
herons, bustards, wild geese, wood pigeons, pigeons, turtle-doves,
ring-doves, partridges, red ducks, wild ducks, plovers, tibibs,[72]
larks, nightingales, black birds, starlings, and various others.

The same varieties of fish that are found in the Mediterranean are
taken on the shores of West Barbary; mullet, red and gray, brim,
anchovies, sardines, herrings, mackarel, rock cod, skaite, soles,
plaice, turbot, turtles, besides fish peculiar to the coast, called
by the Shelluhs, Azalimzi, Tasargalt, and Irgal, which are very
abundant, particularly in the bay of Agadeer, and on the coast of
Wedinoon; they are prepared in the ovens of Aguram, a town at the
foot of the mountain whereon Agadeer stands, for the purpose of
being conveyed to the interior, to Bled el-jerrêde, and Sahara;
these fish form a considerable article of commerce, and are much
esteemed in Bled-el-jerrêde.

As there is no country in the world so little explored as Africa,
nor any that produces such a variety of animals, a few observations
on some of the most remarkable may not be uninteresting.


_The Thaleb._—The animal called thaleb[73] is the red fox; it
emits the same strong scent as the fox of Europe, and is found in all
parts of the country; but is far from being so common as the deeb,
which some have compared to the jackal, others to the brown fox. It is
certain, that the deeb emits no offensive smell; it is a very cunning
animal, and its name is applied metaphorically to signify craft,
which it possesses in a greater degree than any other animal; this
circumstance alone seems to ally it to the fox species. It is very
fond of poultry; and at night, a little after dark, the still air of
the country is pierced with its cries, which alternately resemble
those of children, and that of the fox. They assemble in numbers,
and abound throughout the country, particularly in the environs of
plantations of melons and other vinous plants. Some of these deebs
have longer hair than others, and their skins are particularly soft
and handsome. The provinces of Shedma, Haha, and Suse abound with
this animal: the Arabs hunt it, and bring the skins for sale to the
Mogodor market.

_The (Dubbah) Hyæna._—The Dubbah, a term which designates the
hyæna among the Arabs, is an animal of a ferocious countenance;
but in its disposition, more stupid than fierce; it is found in all
the mountains of Barbary, and wherever rocks and caverns are seen;
this extraordinary animal has the opposite quality of the deeb,[74]
having a vague and stupid stare, insomuch that a heavy dull person is
designated by the term dubbah.[75] The flesh of this animal is not
eaten, except in cases of extreme hunger: those, however, who have
tasted it assert, that it causes stupefaction for a certain time;
hence, when a person displays extraordinary stupidity, the Arabs say
(_kulu ras Dubbah_), he has eaten the head of a hyæna.

The mode of hunting this animal is singular; a party of ten or twelve
persons, accompanied with as many dogs of various kinds, go to the
cavern which they have previously ascertained to be the haunt of the
hyæna; one of the party then strips himself, and taking the end of
a rope with a noose to it in one hand, he advances gradually into
the cave, speaking gently, and in an insinuating tone of voice,
pretending to fascinate the hyæna by words; when he reaches the
animal, he strokes him down the back, which appears to soothe him;
he then dexterously slips the noose round his neck, and instantly
pulling the rope to indicate to those on the outside of the cave,
who hold the other end, that it is fixed, he retires behind, throwing
a handkerchief or cloth over the eyes of the hyæna; the men then
pull the rope from without, whilst he who fixes the noose urges
the animal forward, when the dogs attack him. Some of the Shelluhs
are very expert at securing the hyæna in this manner, and although
there may be some danger in case the rope breaks, yet the man who
enters the cave always carries a dagger, or large knife with him,
with which he has considerably the advantage, for this animal is by
no means so ferocious as he appears to be: in the southern Atlas I
have seen them led about by the boys; a rope being fastened round the
animal’s neck, and a communicating rope attached to it on either
side, three or four yards long, the end of each being held by a boy,
keep him perfectly secure. It is confinement that is inimical to a
hyæna,[76] and which increases his ferocity. There are other modes
of hunting this stupid animal, either in the night with dogs, or by
shooting him; but he never comes out of his cave in the day-time,
but sits at the further end of it, staring with his eyes fixed. Their
general character is not to be afraid of man, nor indeed to attack
or avoid him; they will, however, attack and destroy sheep, goats,
poultry, asses, and mules, and are very fond of the intoxicating
herb called Hashisha.[77] The hyæna is said to live to a great age.

The dubbah and the deeb resemble each other in their propensity to
devour dead bodies; so that whilst the plague ravaged West Barbary
in 1799 and 1800, these animals were constant visitors of the
cemeteries. The drawing of the hyæna in the fifth volume of the
work just quoted is very correct.

_The Gazel_ (antelope).—The gazel is that pretty light and elegant
animal, swift as the wind, timid as a virgin, with a soft, beautiful,
large, and prominent black eye, which seems to interest you in its
favour. In its general appearance, the gazel resembles our deer; it is
however much smaller, and has straight black horns, curving a little
backwards. The eye and figure of the gazel, so well known to all
Arabian poets, are emblematical of beauty, and the greatest compliment
that can be paid to a beautiful women, is to compare her eyes to those
of the gazel.[78] Much art is employed by the Arabian females to make
their eyes appear like those of this delicate animal. Eyes originally
black and lively, are made to appear larger and more languishing by
tinging the outer corner with _El kahol Filelly_, a preparation of
lead ore procured from Tafilelt, which gives an apparent elongation
to the eye. The eye-lashes and eye-brows being also blackened with
this composition, they appear peculiarly soft and languishing;
it is said also to improve and strengthen the sight. Every one who
has accurately observed the eye of the African gazel will acquiesce
in the aptness of the simile before alluded to. The word _angel_,
so often employed by our poets to designate a beautiful female, is,
with the Arabs, transformed to gazel: thus the Arabian sonnet;

  ڧل الغزالِ راكَ

  خليتني نرجاكَ

  كيڢ اَلما مُل معاك

  اش حليتيِ و اش عماليِ

  رڢڧي بالي يهواك

  يا تاَج اَلريام غزالِ

  Kul el _gazelli_ râk

  Kulitini nerjak

  Kif el m’ amul mak

  Ash heliti wa ash amelli

  Rafki billi ihuak

  Ia taj miriamme _gazelli_,

  Say, thou _Antelope_ in beauty,

    Since permitted to return,

  Say, what is a lover’s duty,

    Who with ardent fire doth burn.

  Sympathize with him who loves you,

    Crown of all my hopes and joys,

  ’Tis your constant swain approves you,

    His _Gazel_ all his soul employs.

Great numbers of gazels are found in all those extensive plains
situated at the foot of the Atlas mountains; in those of Fruga,
south of Marocco, after descending the Atlas, I have seen a hundred
together; they also abound in the plains of Sheshawa near Anek
Jimmel. Wild as the hare, and more fleet than the Barbary courser,
they are seen bounding over the plains in large numbers. The
antelope, however, soon fatigues, so that the horses of the Arabs
gain on it, and the dogs are enabled finally to come up with it;
it is hunted rather for the meat, which is similar to venison, than
for actual sport, the Arabs having little desire to hunt merely for
amusement. They kill and cut the throats of as many animals as they
can procure. They often hunt the gazel with the (slogie) African
greyhound, a peculiarly fine breed of which is produced in the
province of Suse. The Arabs and Moors whilst hunting the antelope,
often throw (zerwâta) thick sticks about two feet long at their
legs, to break them, and thereby incapacitate them from running:
a cruel device, at which the natural predilection for this delicate
and beautiful animal recoils.

_El Horreh._—This, as its name implies,[79] is reckoned among the
Arabs the prince of animals, and the emblem of cleanliness. It is
an inhabitant of Sahara and its confines, and is not found north of
the river Suse. It is somewhat similar to the gazel in its form and
size; the colour of its back and head is of a light red, inclining
to that of a fawn; the belly is of a beautiful and delicate white,
insomuch that its brilliancy affects the eyes in a similar manner to
the sensation produced in them by looking stedfastly at fine scarlet.

This animal, according to the tradition of the Arabs, never lies
down, lest it should deface the colour of its belly, of the beauty of
which it appears to be conscious. The stone called in Europe bizoar
stone,[80] is produced by the horreh, but whether it be a concretion
formed in its stomach, or an egg, or the testicle, is probably not
accurately ascertained. The Bide el horreh, or egg of the horreh,
signifies also the testicle of the animal, and I am inclined to think
it is either the testicle, or a peculiar concretion formed in its
stomach, all those which I have seen being nearly of the same size
and form, similar to a pigeon’s egg. This stone is scraped and
taken as an antidote against poison. Some whimsical people carry it
about with them, taking it frequently in tea.

From this rare and beautiful animal’s being an emblem of purity,
its skin (Jild el Horreh) is held in great estimation by the Bashaws,
and men of rank, who prefer it to every other substance, to prostrate
themselves upon at prayers. The Bashaws generally have an attendant
with them, who carries this skin, which is cured or prepared with
allum and tizra,[81] and assumes a white colour when it comes from
the tanners.

_The Aoudad._—This animal is to be found only in the very steep and
inaccessible cliffs, and in the woods and forests of the mountains of
Atlas, south of Marocco and in Lower Suse, except when it descends
to the rivers to drink. It throws itself from lofty precipices into
the plains below, alighting generally on its horns or shoulders.

None of them have ever been caught in a state to allow of their being
kept alive, being so very wild that it is not possible to approach
them without great danger. In size and colour the Aoudad is similar
to a calf; it has a beautiful long mane or beard, growing from the
lower part of the neck; its teeth are very strong, and indicative of
its longevity; the horns are about twelve inches in length, curved,
of a dark colour, and are used for various purposes.

The only two skins of this animal which ever came to Europe,
I had the honour of sending to the Right Honourable President of
the Royal Society;[82] the horns and teeth were with one of them,
which I had much difficulty in procuring from a Shelluh merchant, who
having inadvertently observed to some of his friends the interest
I took in procuring it, the jealousy of the Moors was raised,
and they conceiving it to be some rich treasure, the officers of
the Custom-house obliged me to pay an enormous duty for it. No
other skin of this hitherto undescribed animal has been brought
to Europe since; nor do I apprehend we shall know more respecting
the animal itself, whilst the present imperfect knowledge of Africa
continues. Emissaries, whether commercial or philosophical, to that
country, should furnish themselves with a general and practical
knowledge of the Arabic language, without which little progress can
be expected in its discovery.

_The Wild Boar._—This animal, the hunting of which affords so much
sport, is by the Arabs called El Kunjar, or El Helloof; they abound
in the Shelluh province of Haha, and in Suse, where they are called
Amuren; they are so plentiful about Agadeer, that it is not unusual
to catch two or three before mid-day; one day we saw seven. They will
sometimes run by a group of men without appearing at all alarmed;
an instance of which happened once, as I remember, near Agadeer,
where at a pic-nic party under some high trees, some Europeans who
were present were not a little alarmed at seeing two wild hogs pass
close by them; but they never attack a person unless wounded by
him. In hunting this animal, whose strength is proverbial, the dogs
should be good, and strong enough to keep him at bay; for if he be
fired at and wounded by a man on foot, he will immediately make up
to him, if he discovers from whence the wound was inflicted; but in
the mean time he is either attacked by the dogs, diverted from his
object by a stratagem, or brought down by some other shot. A boar
will sometimes rip open the dogs as well as the horses with their
tusks; but this rarely happens when the hunt is well appointed:
a strong dog of the greyhound breed is the best and most effectual
in securing this ferocious animal. The (slogies) greyhounds of Suse,
of the third breed, always attack the boar on the nape of the neck,
and never quit their hold.

_The Nïmmer._—The word Nimmer may be translated Leopard; it is
spotted rather than striped, and in size resembles the royal tiger
of Asia. The strength and agility of this animal is wonderful; I have
seen one receive nine balls, before he fell. When the Nimmer is known
to be in any particular district, deep holes are made in the ground,
and covered lightly over, on which if he happen to tread, the ground
sinks, and he falls in. The sides of the hole being formed like an
inverted cone, the animal cannot get out, though he will make many
efforts to regain his liberty; in the mean time the hunters come
up and shoot him. At other places where he is supposed likely to
pass, they build up a wall, and cover it over, making a hole or two
sufficiently large to admit a musket-barrel, and here the patient
Shelluh will wait whole days for his enemy, living all the time on
(Hassowa) barley-meal mixed with water. After building a few of
these walls enclosed like rooms, several Shelluhs will go in quest
of the Nimmer, each taking his station either in these buildings,
or in some lofty tree, and waiting a favourable opportunity to get a
shot at him. The Arabs say that this ferocious animal, after he has
seized his prey, if he be not impelled by hunger, will leave it for
a few days, and afterwards return to the spot and devour the carcase,
even if it be putrid.

_The Lion_ is too well known to need a particular description in this
place: he is hunted by the Africans in the same manner as the Nimmer;
but they do not consider the chase to be so dangerous: the lion is not
so active, nor does he climb as the Nimmer does. The Arabs say that
if a person unarmed meet the Nimmer, he is sure of being destroyed;
but that if, on the sight of a lion, he let his garments drop off,
and stand before him undaunted, seeming to defy him, the lion will
turn round and quietly walk off. Few people would be inclined to try
the experiment for the purpose of ascertaining the truth of this
assertion. In the forests near the city of Mequinas the lions are
very fierce, and have frequently been known so to infest the roads,
as to render it impracticable for the caravans to pass. They are seen
also at the foot of the Atlas, where the country is well wooded. The
flesh, when eaten, is said, by the Arabs, to inspire courage.

_The Bear._—Various conjectures have been formed respecting this
animal’s being a native of Africa: from the concurrent testimony
of the inhabitants, I am of opinion that it does not exist in West
Barbary; it may, however, have been seen (as I have heard it has)
in the upper regions of Atlas, which are covered with snow during the
whole year. The name given by the Arabs to this animal is _Dubb_.[83]

_The Sibsib._—This animal appears to be of an intermediate species
between the rat and the squirrel; it is somewhat similar to the
ichneumon in form, but not half its size; it inhabits the Atlas, and
lives in holes among the stones and caverns of the mountains; it has
brown hair, and a beautiful tail (resembling that of the squirrel)
about the length of its body. The Shelluhs and Arabs eat this animal,
and consider it a delicacy: and it is the only one the Mohammedans
torment before death; this is done by taking hold of its fore and
hind legs, and rubbing its back on a stone or flat surface for a
few minutes, which causes the animal to scream out; they then cut
its throat according to the Mohammedan custom. Seeing some Shelluhs
in South Atlas performing this operation, and asking their motives
for it, they informed me that the rubbing made the flesh eat tender;
that in taste it resembled a rabbit, but that without the friction
it was not palatable. Being a subterraneous animal, it is prohibited
food; but the eating of any forbidden thing becomes lawful to the
Mohammedan, by ascribing to it some medicinal property; it is then
denominated (Dûah) medicine, and not food: by this evasion, wine
is drank by many who are not rigorous Mooselmin.

I never saw the Sibsib north of the province of Suse, but it abounds
in the mountains of that district. Its motions are so excessively
quick, that it is extremely difficult to shoot it.

_Wild Cat._—El Cat el berranie is the Arabic name for this animal;
it is much larger than the domestic cat, but similar in form; the
back, neck, and forepart of the legs are of a dirty gray, inclining
to brown; the belly is of a dirty white, spotted with brown; and
the tail is long and handsome. The wild cat is so fierce, that when
pressed with hunger it will sometimes attack a man.

_The Ape._—This animal, which appears to form the intermediate
link between the human species and the brute, is found of a very
large size in North Atlas, and also about Ceuta.[84] There are
various species of the ape; some are called by the Arabs D’Zatute,
others El Kurd; the Berebbers, or Africans, call them Tongemon, or
Babuin, and affirm that the (Hel Shouel) tailed men of Sahara, are
a production from these animals with the human species. They live
upon fruits, grass, and corn, and are often seen in great numbers
in the fields, having a centinel to keep watch on some eminence;
and when any person appears he gives the alarm, and they all run off
together to the woods, climbing the trees. The females will jump
from one branch to another with their young on their shoulders;
they are very subtle and vindictive, though easily appeased.

_The Rhinoceros._—Reem is the Arabic name of the Rhinoceros. Various
and contradictory have been the accounts both of the ancients and
moderns respecting the beast with one horn, called the Unicorn,
which is probably no other than the young Rhinoceros, which is said,
by the Arabs, to have but one horn, till of a certain age, when a
second appears, and some affirm that a third appears when the animal
grows old. The horn of the Reem is called Kirkadune by the Arabs,
and figuratively, gurn min gurn, i.e. horn of horns, being extremely
hard and fine-grained, and receiving a high polish; it is sold at a
most enormous price, and is used for the hilts of swords. With regard
to the animal called by our heralds the unicorn, and represented
in armorial bearings, I doubt if ever such an animal existed; the
Reem[85] is called also Huaddee, which signifies the beast of one
horn, Aouda signifies a mare, hence, perhaps, by an easy corruption
of names, the Aouda has been mistaken for Huaddee, and the figure
of a horse with a horn has been adopted as the figure of the _Reem_
in our heraldic supporters; for I have frequently conversed with men
who had been twenty years in the different countries of the interior
of Africa, but never could learn that a beast with one horn existed
in figure resembling a horse.[86] The Reem is also figuratively
denominated _boh gern el harsh_, i.e. the father of the hard horn.

_Jumars._—The reputed offspring of the ass and the bull, or cow,
is an animal whose existence is still doubted; I have never, in any of
my travels, seen such a one; but I was once informed by Sid Mohammed
E——m, that such a beast was sometimes seen in Bled-el-jerrêde;
he had not, however, seen it himself. Dr. Shaw has described one
that he saw in Barbary; notwithstanding which, the Count de Buffon
disputes its existence.

These observations on the more remarkable _wild_ animals may serve
as a clue to future travellers; their names in the language of the
country being accurately given, it will not be difficult to procure
some of the natives to direct where to find them, by which means their
respective species may be ascertained by those who may be desirous of
elucidating natural history. I shall now mention the most particular
_domestic_ quadrupeds, or such as are subservient to the use of man.

_El Heirie_, or _Erragual._—Nature, ever provident, and seeing the
difficulty of communication, from the immense tracts of desert country
in Sahara, has afforded the Saharawans a means, upon any emergency,
of crossing the great African desert in a few days; mounted upon the
(Heirie) desert camel (which is in figure similar to the camel of
burden, but more elegantly formed), the Arab, with his loins, breast,
and ears bound round, to prevent the percussion of air proceeding from
a quick motion rapidly traverses, upon the back of this abstemious
animal, the scorching desert, the fiery atmosphere of which parches,
and impedes respiration so as almost to produce suffocation. The
motion of the heirie is violent, and can be endured only by those
patient, abstemious, and hardy Arabs who are accustomed to it.[87]
The most inferior kind of heirie are called Talatayee, a term
expressive of their going the distance of three days journey in one:
the next kind is called Sebayee, a term appropriated to that which
goes seven days journey in one, and this is the general character;
there is also one called Tasayee, or the heirie of nine days; these
are extremely rare. The Arabs affirm that the Sebayee does not always
produce another Sebayee, but sometimes a Talatayee, and sometimes
a Tasayee; and that its class is ascertained by the period which
elapses before the young one takes the teat of the mother; thus,
if it be three days, it is considered to be a Talatayee, if seven
days, a Sebayee, and if nine days, it proves to be a Heirie of nine
days journey. If it prove a Tasayee, there are great rejoicings,
it being an accession of wealth to the proprietor, as a Tasayee
is bartered for two hundred camels; the Sebayee for one hundred,
and the Talatayee for thirty, or thereabout.

This valuable and useful animal has a ring put through its upper lip,
to which is fixed a leathern strap which answers the purposes of
a bridle; the saddle is similar to that used by the Moors, or what
the mountaineers of Andalusia use. With a goat skin or (a bakull)
a porous earthen pitcher filled with water, a few dates, and some
ground barley,[88] the Arab travels from Timbuctoo to Tafilelt,
feeding his heirie but once, at an oasis in the desert, for these
camels, on an emergency, will abstain from drinking and from food
seven days or more.

A journey of thirty-five days caravan travelling will be performed
by a Sebayee in five days; they go from Timbuctoo to Tafilelt in
seven days. One of these animals once came from Fort St. Joseph,
on the Senegal river, to the house of Messrs. Cabane and Depras,
French merchants at Mogodor, in seven days.

In the great desert of Africa, where cultivation is so rare that one
may travel several days on an ordinary camel with baggage, without
seeing any habitation, the use of the heirie must be evident, for
it is more abstemious, and bears a longer continuation of fatigue,
than the (Sh’rubah Er’reeh) desert horse, hereafter described.

The self-exiled Muley Abdrahaman, a prince of undaunted courage and
great penetration, son of the old Emperor, Seedy Mohammed bn Abdallah
bn Ismael, of the Tafilelt dynasty whilst residing among the Arab
clan of Howara in Suse, kept, night and day, at the door of his
(keyma) tent, two heiries, ready caparisoned, one having a load of
gold dust and jewels, and the other for riding, in case of a sudden
surprise, that he might pass into the desert out of the reach of his
father’s power. The Emperor’s soldiers, by their master’s order,
having treated his highness’s woman in a manner disgraceful to a
Mooselmin, he had retired to the confines of Sahara for more security.

The swiftness of the heirie is thus described by the Arabs in their
figurative style: “When thou shalt meet a heirie, and say to the
rider, Salem Alick, ere he shall have answered thee, Alick Salem,
he will be afar off, and nearly out of sight, for his swiftness is
like the wind.[89]”

Talking with an Arab of Suse, on the subject of these fleet camels,
and the desert horse, he assured me that he knew a young man who
was passionately fond of a lovely young girl, whom nothing would
satisfy but some oranges: these were not to be procured at Mogodor,
and as the lady wanted the best fruit, nothing less than Marocco
oranges would satisfy her; the Arab mounted his heirie at the dawn
of day, went to Marocco,[90] purchased the oranges, and returned
that night after the gates were shut, and sent the oranges to the
lady by a guard of one of the batteries. I am aware, in relating
this circumstance, that I shall incur the imputation of credulity;
but Mr. Bruce, who related many things very common in Africa, was
lampooned by Munchausen; much, however, of what was doubted, has been
confirmed by other travellers after him, and I am persuaded that in
a short time much more will be ascertained to be fact, which he has,
by the ignorant and presuming, been censured for relating.[91] If
transactions and facts well known by the African be incompatible with
the European’s ideas of probability, and, on that account rejected
as fables, it is not the fault of the former, but of the latter,
who has neglected to investigate a neighbouring quarter of the globe.

_The Sh’rubah Er’reeh_,[92] or Desert horse, is to the common
horse what the desert camel is to the camel of burden; this animal
does not, however, answer the purpose so well for crossing the
barren desert, as he requires a feed of camel’s milk once every
day, which is his only sustenance, so that there must necessarily
be two she camels wherever he goes to afford this supply: for he
will touch neither barley, wheat (oats are never given to horses in
Africa), hay, straw, nor indeed any other thing but camel’s milk:
they are employed chiefly to hunt the ostrich, at which sport they
are very expert.

When the desert horses are brought to Marocco, as they sometimes are,
they fall away; and if obliged ultimately from hunger to eat barley
and straw, the Moorish provender, they recover, gradually fill up,
and become handsome to the sight, but lose entirely their usual speed.

Alkaid Omar ben Daudy, an Arab of Rahammenah, when Governor
of Mogodor, had two Saharawan horses in his stables; finding it
inconvenient to feed them constantly on camel’s milk, he resolved to
try them on the usual food given to Barbary horses; he accordingly had
their food gradually changed, and in a short time fed them altogether
with barley,[93] and occasionally with wheat and straw: they grew fat,
and looked better than before (for those of Sahara of this particular
breed are by no means handsome; they have a small slender body, formed
like that of the greyhound, a powerful broad chest, and small legs),
but they lost their speed, and soon afterwards died, as if nature
had designed them to be appropriated solely to that district, whose
arid and extensive plains render their use essentially necessary.

A person unaccustomed to ride the Sh’rubah Er’reeh, finds its
motion uneasy at first; but the saddle forms a safe seat, and a man
who never rode before, acquires a facility in these saddles in a
few days; the pommel rises perpendicularly in front, and the back
part rises reclining a little from a perpendicular, and supports
the back as high as the loins; the stirrups are placed far back,
and give the rider a firm hold,[94] inducing him to grasp the
horse’s sides with the knees, as, from the form and disposition
of the stirrups and the seat, the legs and knees naturally incline
inwards, and press the horse, so that the rider can, by this means,
turn the animal whichever way he pleases, without using the reins;
the stirrup is broad at the bottom, and receives the whole length
of the foot; at the heel of the stirrup is hung loosely a spike, six
inches long, which is the Moorish spur, a barbarous looking weapon,
which a person, unacquainted with the dexterous manner of using it,
would expect to rip open the horse’s sides; but a good horseman
seldom uses it in a way to injure the horse; it is sufficient that
he shake it against the stirrups, to animate him. The whole art of
riding is confined to the dexterous management of the spurs, and a
good rider is distinguished from a novice by their position, as the
points should never be nearer to the flank than about four inches;
sometimes they are not within eight. I have seen one of the Arabs
of the warlike and powerful province of Shawiya, whilst mounted and
the horse curvetting, mark his name in Arabic characters, with the
spur, on the horse’s side: this is accounted the perfection of
horsemanship among the Shawiyans, who are acknowledged to be the
first horsemen in Marocco, and not inferior to the Bukarie cavalry
of the Emperor’s life guard, both of whom consider the Mamulukes
as very inferior to them, in every thing but their gaudy trappings:
their exercise of cavalry consists in what they call El Harka, which
is running full speed, about a quarter of a mile or less, till they
come to a wall, when the rider fires his musquet, and stops his horse
short, turning him at the same time; this amusement, of which they
are ridiculously fond, they continue several hours, wasting much
powder to little purpose, as they do not improve in the direction
of their piece, having no ball with the charge, nor mark to fire at;
their pieces have nothing in them but gunpowder rammed down, for if
they had wadding, many accidents would happen from their discharging
them close to one another’s faces. Ten or twenty horsemen suddenly
dart off at full speed, one half turning to the right, and the other
to the left, after firing, so as not to interfere with each other.

The men who ride these Sh’rubah Er’reeh, as well as the Arabs
who ride the Heiries, have their bowels relaxed at the termination
of their journey; for which, on leaving the Desert, they drink
a draught of camel’s milk,[95] called Hallib Niag, which being
rejected by the stomach, they drink again; this second draught,
after remaining a longer time, is sometimes also rejected; the third
draft, finding the tone of the stomach somewhat restored, remains,
and turns to nourishment.

_(Jimmel)._—The Camel of burden. This most useful animal serves for
various purposes of domestic life: its flesh is good, and when young,
is preferred by the Arabs to beef; it is, however, rather insipid,
but very easy of digestion; the milk of the _(Naga)_ female camel, is
extremely nutritious, and if taken in the morning for breakfast is an
infallible remedy for _(murd irkek)_ consumption; on this account it
is in high estimation among all ranks of people: the Arabs of Sahara,
for the most part, live on nothing else; it is of a bluish hue, and
possesses a rather glutinous quality. In Soudan and Sahara the camel
carries a load not exceeding four hundred weight; those of Duquella
and the north of Marocco carry six, seven and eight hundred weight:
the difference of the burden varies with the abundance or paucity
of food; and the camel will never rise from the ground with a burden
which he cannot proceed with.

_Sheep._—This useful animal is found in all parts of west Barbary,
even to the confines of Sahara, where their flesh is of a peculiarly
fine flavour, which is occasioned by the aromatic herbs on which they
feed. About the mountains of Lower Suse and Wedinoon the mutton is
of such a superior flavour, that when the Emperor is at Marocco, it
is often sent to him in presents. As the aromatic herbs of Africa are
much stronger scented than those of Europe, the flesh of the Wedinoon
sheep has accordingly a stronger aromatic flavour than those of the
Sussex South Down; they are larger than the ordinary sheep; the ewes
are very prolific, yeaning twice a year, and having often two or more
lambs at a time. I sent a ram of this breed to England, where it did
not (with the change of climate) lose altogether its prolific nature,
for the ewes to which he was admitted produced two lambs each.

The wool of these sheep varies considerably, that of some being very
coarse, whilst that of others is extremely fine; no care is taken of
the quality, but nature is left, in this respect (as in all others
in this country), to take its course.

Tedla, a rich province bordering on Atlas, north of Marocco,
abounds in sheep, whose wool is so fine, that no silk is softer:
it is used in the manufacture of caps, worn by the opulent, and is
sold at Fas for a very high price: its exportation being prohibited,
it is consumed by the inhabitants. A breed of these sheep would be
an acquisition in Europe, and they might be procured. The average
price of a fleece of wool in Barbary is (wahud drahim) one ounce,
or five-pence English, that of a sheep is one Mexico dollar. Wool
was, till lately, exported to Europe; particularly to Marseilles, and
other ports in the Mediterranean, to Amsterdam, Hamburgh, and London,
but a very inferior quality being sent to the latter place, it got a
bad name; the demand, however, from other places was so great, that
the Emperor had representations made to him, that wearing apparel of
the Barbary manufacture was rising in value, in consequence of the
unlimited exportation of wool, and an order was accordingly issued,
prohibiting it, the Emperor, to gratify his people, assuring them
that for the future he would not suffer it to be carried out of
the country.

_Goats._—Every lady in England has contributed to the Emperor of
Marocco’s treasury, by consuming the leather which is made from
the skin of the goat; that denominated Spanish leather being prepared
from the Marocco goat skins.

The goats of Africa are very prolific, particularly those of Tafilelt,
which is one cause of such an immense number being exported: the
duty on this article of commerce forms a considerable part of the
custom-house revenue. They have young twice a year, and often one
goat is followed by six or seven kids of her own, the production of
nine months.

The goats of the Arab province of Shedma, and the Shelluh province
of Haha, are the finest in West Barbary, but the Tafilelt goats,
as before observed, surpass them in size and quality; their milk
is richer and more abundant; their meat more delicate, particularly
when young.

The (jild Filelly) Tafilelt leather, is the softest and the finest in
the world, and much superior to that of Marocco, or even to that of
Terodant: soft and pliable as silk, it is impervious to water. The
tanners of Tafilelt use the leaves of a shrub called tizra, which
grows in the Atlas mountains; this, it is pretended, gives their
leather that peculiar softness for which it is so much esteemed;
this however is doubtful, as the tanners, above all people, are
cautious of discovering to strangers their art of tanning. Some
quality in the air and water possibly may contribute to give the
leather that extraordinary pliability.

                   REPTILES, INSECTS, SERPENTS, &c.

_The Camelion._—Tatta is the Arabic, and Tayuh the Shelluh name
for this extraordinary and complicated animal; its head resembles
that of a fish, the body that of a beast, the tail that of a serpent,
and the legs and feet are somewhat similar to the arms and hands of
a human being; the tongue is pointed like that of a serpent, and is
so instantaneous in its motion, that the human sight can scarcely
perceive it when it darts it out to the length of its body, to catch
flies (its ordinary food); in doing this it never misses its mark, so
that I imagine there must be some glutinous substance which attaches
the fly to the tongue, or else it pierces the insect with its point,
which is very sharp. I have often admired the velocity with which
the camelion thus secures its food, but never could discover whether
it were to be attributed to the former, or the latter cause. It is
partly nourished by the sun and air; it delights to bask in the sun
with its mouth open, to receive the heat of its rays.

[Illustration:_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_(Tûta) The Chamælion; Natural Size_

_London Published June 4. 1811. by W. G. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

The length of the camelion when full grown is ten or twelve inches,
including the tail. When suddenly discovered, and pursued, it runs
fast, forgetting its wonted caution, which is never to trust to the
tread of the foot, the toes of which grasp the object they tread on:
in its ordinary movements, its step is geometrically exact; it looks
carefully around to discover the state of the surrounding place,
and to ascertain if every thing be safe, one eye looking behind,
the other before, and in all transverse directions; for this organ
is a perfect hemisphere, projecting from the head, and moving in
various and independant directions. Having ascertained that its feet
are safe, and that the substance on which they are fixed is firm, the
camelion disengages its tail, and proceeds on, with the same caution,
again fastening the tail, by twisting it round some branch or twig,
till it has ascertained the safety of the next step.

Many doubts have arisen with regard to the camelion’s mode of
changing its colour; from the various and repeated observations
which I have from time to time made on this most extraordinary
animal, in a confined as well as in a free state, I have been
enabled to ascertain, that in gardens (its ordinary resort), it
gradually changes its colour, assuming that of the substance over
which it passes, and to do this it requires two or three minutes;
the change beginning by the body becoming covered with small spots of
the colour of the substance over which it actually passes, and which
gradually increase, till it is altogether of that particular colour;
green appears its favourite, or at least it assumes that hue more
distinctly than any other, for I have seen it on vines so perfectly
green, that it was scarcely distinguishable from the leaves; when it
assumes a white or black colour these are not clear, but of a dirty
hue, inclining to brown. When irritated, it will gradually assume
a dirty blackish colour, which it retains whilst the irritation
lasts, swelling its sides, and hissing like a serpent; when asleep,
or inclined to rest, it is of a whitish cast. In the course of
the various experiments which my curiosity and admiration of the
camelion induced me to make, I discovered that it never drinks,
and that it always avoids wet and rain. I kept three in a cage for
the period of four months, during which time I never gave them any
food: they appeared withered and thin. Others, which I kept in a
small confined garden, retained their original size and appearance;
consequently it is to be supposed that they feed on the leaves of
vegetables: those confined in the cage did not vary their colour
much, appearing generally that of the cage; but if any thing green,
such as vegetables, were placed near it, they would assume that hue;
those confined in the garden assumed so much the colour of the object
over which they progressively passed, as to render it difficult
to discover them. Various medicinal qualities are assigned to the
flesh of the camelion; and many whimsical effects are attributed
to fumigation with it when dried; debilitated persons have recourse
to it, and it is accordingly sold in all the drug shops at Marocco,
Fas, and other places, which shops are named Hanute El Attari: the
smell arising from the fumigation is by no means grateful; but what
scent will prevent an African from using that remedy which credulity
or superstition has persuaded him will give strength to the impotent?

The Arabs assert, that the camelion is the only animal which destroys
the serpent,[96] and it is said to do it in the following manner:
it proceeds cautiously on the bough of some tree, under which the
serpent sleeps, and placing itself perpendicularly over its head,
discharges a glutinous thread of saliva, having a white drop at the
end, which falling on the serpent’s head, soon kills him. This
assertion being general and uncontroverted, among the Arabs, I have
mentioned it, as a hint to future travellers, who may be desirous
of investigating its truth.

The camelion is, by some persons, said to be venemous: but I never
knew any harm done by them, though the boys sometimes carry them in
their bosoms.

_The Dub, or Saharawan Lizard._—This animal always avoids water; it
is about eighteen inches long, and three or four inches broad across
the back; it is not poisonous, being an inhabitant of Sahara, which,
like Ireland, is said to contain no venomous animals:[97] it lays
eggs like the tortoise; it is very swift, and if hunted, will hide
itself in the earth, which it perforates with its nose, and nothing
can extricate it, but digging up the ground. The similarity between
the name of this reptile, and the Arabic name of the bear (Dubb), has
probably led some persons to assert, that there are bears in Africa.

_Locusts (Jeraad)._—This destructive creature, which the French
call sauterelle, confounding it with the common grasshopper, differs
very much from that insect, in the direful effects and devastation it
causes in the countries it visits. Dr. Johnson, in his translation
of Lobo’s Abyssinia, has rendered it _grasshopper_, although it
evidently should have been translated _locust_.

[Illustration:_Plate 3._

_(Jeraada) a Locust, natural size._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by G. & W. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

Locusts are produced from some unknown physical cause, and proceed
from the Desert, always coming from the south. When they visit a
country, it behoves every individual to lay in a provision against a
famine; for they are said to stay three, five, or seven years. During
my residence in West and South Barbary, those countries suffered
a visitation from them during seven years. They have a government
among themselves, similar to that of the bees and ants; and when the
(Sultan Jerraad) king of the locusts rises, the whole body follow
him, not one solitary straggler being left behind to witness the
devastation. When they have eaten all other vegetation, they attack
the trees, consuming first the leaves, and then the bark, so that the
country, in the midst of summer, from their general rapacity, bears
the face of winter. In my travels, I have seen them so thick on the
ground, as sometimes actually to have covered my horse’s hoofs, as
he went along; it is very annoying to travel through a host of them,
as they are continually flying in your face, and settling on your
hands and clothes. At a distance, they appear, in the air, like an
immense cloud, darkening the sun; and whilst employed in devouring the
produce of the land, it has been observed that they uniformly proceed
one way, as regularly as a disciplined army on its march; nor will
it be possible to discover a single one going a different way from
the rest. In travelling from Mogodor to Tangier, before the plague
in 1799, the country was covered with them: a singular incident then
occurred at El Araiche; the whole country from the confines of Sahara
to that place was ravaged by them, but after crossing the river El
Kos,[98] they were not to be seen, though there was nothing to prevent
them from flying across it; moreover, they were all moving that way,
that is to the north; but when they reached the banks of the river,
they proceeded eastward, so that the gardens and fields north of El
Araiche were full of vegetables, fruits, and grain. The Arabs of the
province of El Garb[99] considered this remarkable circumstance as
an evident interposition of Providence.

This curse of heaven can only be conceived by those who have seen
the dismal effects of their devastation: the poor people by living
on them, become meagre and indolent, for no labour will yield fruit,
whilst the locusts continue increasing in numbers. In the rainy
season they partially disappear, and at the opening of the spring
the ground is covered with their young; those crops of corn which
are first mature, and the grain which becomes hardened before the
locust attains its full growth, are likely to escape, provided there
be other crops less forward for them to feed upon.

In the year 1799, these destructive insects were carried away into
the Western Ocean by a violent hurricane; and the shores were
afterwards covered with their dead bodies, which in many places
emitted a pestilential smell; that is, wherever the land was low,
or where the salt water had not washed them:[100] to this event
succeeded a most abundant crop of corn, the lands which had lain
fallow for years, being now cultivated; but the produce of the
cultivation was accompanied with a most infectious and deadly
plague, a calamity of which the locusts have often been observed to
be the fore-runners.[101] The Saharawans, or Arabs of the Desert,
rejoice to see the clouds of locusts proceeding towards the north,
anticipating therefrom a general mortality, which they call (el-khere)
_the good_, or _the benediction_; for after depopulating the rich
plains of Barbary, it affords to them an opportunity of emanating
from their arid recesses in the Desert, to pitch their tents in the
desolated plains, or along the banks of some river; as was done
by one of the kabyles of Tuat, after the plague had depopulated
Barbary in the summer and autumn of 1799, and the spring of 1800,
when these wild Arabs poured into Draha from Sahara, and settled
along the banks of the river of that devastated country.

Locusts are esteemed a great delicacy, and during the above periods
dishes of them were generally served up at the principal repasts;
there are various ways of dressing them; that usually adopted, was
to boil them in water half an hour; then sprinkle them with salt and
pepper, and fry them, adding a little vinegar; the head, wings, and
legs are thrown away, the rest of the body is eaten, and resembles
the taste of prawns. As the criterion of goodness in all eatables
among the Moors is regulated by the stimulating qualities which they
possess, so these locusts are preferred to pigeons, because supposed
to be more invigorating.[102] A person may eat a platefull of them,
containing two or three hundred, without any ill effects.

When the locust is young, it is green; as it grows, it assumes a
yellow hue, and lastly becomes brown. I was informed by an Arab,
who had seen the (Sultan Jeraad) king of the locusts, that it was
larger and more beautifully coloured than the ordinary one; but I
never myself could procure a sight of it.

The mode of catching locusts is thus: several persons go out in
the evening, and where they find the bushes covered, they through
Haicks, or garments, over them, beating them with sticks or canes;
they then collect the insects together, and put them in a sack,
which they will fill, by this means, in half an hour.

A drawing of this devouring insect will be found in Plate 8th,
page 103.

_The Venomous Spider (Tendaraman)._—This beautiful reptile is
somewhat similar to a hornet in size and colour, but of a rounder
form; its legs are about an inch long, black, and very strong;
it has two bright yellow lines, latitudinally crossing its back;
it forms its web octagonally between bushes, the diameter being two
or three yards; it places itself in the centre of its web, which
is so fine, as to be almost invisible, and attaches to whatever
may pass between those bushes. It is said to make always towards
the head before it inflicts its deadly wound. In the cork forests,
the sportsman, eager in his pursuit of game, frequently carries
away on his garments the Tendaraman, whose bite is so poisonous,
that the patient survives but a few hours.

_The Scorpion (El Akarb)._—The scorpion is generally two inches
in length, and resembles so much the lobster in its form that the
latter is called by the Arabs (Akerb d’elbahar) the sea-scorpion:
it has several joints or divisions in its tail, which are supposed
to be indicative of its age; thus, if it have five, it is considered
to be five years old. The poison of this reptile is in its tail, at
the end of which is a small, curved, sharp-pointed sting; the curve
being downwards, it turns its tail upwards when it strikes a blow.

The scorpion delights in stony places, and in old ruins; in some stony
parts of the district of Haha they abound so much, that on turning
up the stones, three or four will be found under each. Some are of a
yellow colour, others brown, and some black; the yellow possess the
strongest poison, but the venom of each affects the part wounded with
frigidity, which takes place soon after the sting has been inflicted.

During the summer, the city of Marocco is so infested with this
venomous reptile, that it is not uncommon to find them in the beds;
all persons, therefore, who visit Marocco at this season of the year,
should have the feet of their bedsteads placed in tubs or pans of
water; this precaution will also prevent the attack of bugs, which
in summer are a perfect nuisance; but the inhabitants are accustomed
to all these sorts of inconveniences, and care little about them.

Most families in Marocco keep a bottle of scorpions infused in olive
oil, which is used whenever any person is stung by them; for although
the scorpion carries an antidote in itself, it is not always to be
caught, as it often stings a person whilst asleep, and disappears
before he awakes, or thinks of looking for it; in which event
the body of the live scorpion cannot of course be procured. It is
necessary to bind the part, if possible, above the place stung, then
to cauterize, and afterwards to scarify the puncture, to prevent the
venom from pervading the system; this method is sometimes effectual,
and sometimes not, according to the situation of the part wounded,
and the nature of the scorpion, some being more poisonous than others;
but where the flesh of the reptile can be obtained, the cure is said
to be infallible.

_Musquitos (Namuse)._—Musquitos, gnats, and various other kinds
of annoying insects, appear to have made the lakes of West Barbary
their general rendezvous. I was once compelled to encamp, during
the night, on the banks of the lake of Mamora (having travelled, on
horseback, a fatiguing day’s journey of fifty-six miles), where I
was intolerably tormented with the musquitos; it being suggested,
that they were attracted by the lights in the tents, these were
extinguished, but without affording any relief: fatigued as I was,
as well as every one else, I endeavoured in vain to sleep, and was at
length obliged to cause the tents to be struck, the camels loaded,
and to proceed on my way in the night, all which the servants and
Arabs cheerfully performed, though nearly exhausted with the heat
of the preceding day. In the morning, I found my face and hands in
a most deplorable condition, being similar to those of a person in
the worst stage of the small-pox.

The musquitos and other insects attack strangers with great keenness,
biting them, and sucking their blood in a most distressing manner. The
thick skins of the Arabs, exposed daily to the scorching heat of
the sun, are impenetrable to their bite, otherwise they would not
be able to exist; for although the country is productive, and the
soil good, yet nothing can compensate for the vexation arising from
the unremitted attacks of these irritating insects.

_Cricket._—This insect abounds in the Atlas mountains, piercing
the still air of night with its incessant noise. They are very large,
having beautiful gray wings, covered with several gold coloured spots;
the back is yellow, variegated with green.

_Serpents (Henushe)._—Of these there are various species in Barbary,
but two only are extremely venomous; the one is of a black colour,
about seven or eight feet long, with a small head, which it expands
frequently to four times its ordinary size, when about to attack
any object. This serpent is called _Bûska_, and is the only one
that will attack travellers; in doing which, it coils itself up,
and darts to a great distance, by the elasticity of its body and
tail. I have seen it coil itself, and erect its head about twelve or
eighteen inches above the ground, expanding it at the same time when
it darted forward. The wound inflicted by the bite is small, but the
surrounding part immediately turns black, which colour soon pervades
the whole body, and the sufferer expires in a very short time. This
serpent is carried about by the (Aisawie[103]) charmers of serpents.

[Illustration:_Plate 4._

_The Bûskah._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by G. & W. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

_El Effah_ is the name of the other serpent remarkable for its quick
and penetrating poison; it is about two feet long, and as thick as a
man’s arm, beautifully spotted with yellow and brown, and sprinkled
over with blackish specks, similar to the horn-nosed snake. They
have a wide mouth, by which they inhale a great quantity of air,
and when inflated therewith, they eject it with such force as to be
heard at a considerable distance. These mortal enemies to mankind
are collected by the Aisawie before-mentioned, in a desert of Suse,
where their holes are so numerous, that it is difficult for a horse
to pass over it without stumbling.

[Illustration:_Plate 5._

_El Efah._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by G. & W. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

_The Boah_, or desert snake, is an enormous monster, from twenty to
eighty feet long, as thick as a man’s body, and of a dingy colour:
this inhabitant of Sahara is not venomous, though it is not less
destructive: the Arabs (speaking of it figuratively)[104] affirm,
that as it passes along the desert it fires the ground with the
velocity of its motion. It is impossible to escape it; it will twist
itself round an ox, and after crushing its bones, will swallow it
gradually, after which it lies supinely on the ground two or three
days, unable to proceed till the animal be digested. Two of these
monsters stationed themselves near the road from Marocco to Terodant,
near to the latter city, a few years since; one of them was killed,
the other remained there several days, and prevented travellers from
passing the road: they were both young ones, being about twenty feet
long. Various stories are related by the Arabs of Sahara respecting
the Boahs; but they are mostly ingenious fables, originally intended
to inculcate some moral lesson. Without speaking of all the various
kinds of serpents which are either timid, harmless or not venomous,
I must observe, that

_The Domestic Serpents_ claim some attention. In the city of Marocco
these animals abound; there is scarcely a house without its domestic
serpent, which is sometimes seen moving along the roofs of the
apartments; they are never molested by the family, who would not
hurt them on any consideration, conceiving them a benediction on
the household; they have been known to suck the breasts of women
whilst asleep, and retire without offering any further injury. They
are so susceptible, as to be sensible of enmity towards them, and
it is thought imprudent to incur their displeasure; for this reason
the inhabitants of Marocco treat them kindly, and as members of the
family, not wishing to disturb an animal that claims the rights of
hospitality by settling in their house.

THE TORTOISE. _(Fackrone.)_ Land-tortoises of a very large size
abound in Barbary and in Suse, where, in the afternoon of a hot day,
one may collect a dozen in the course of an hour. They are esteemed
good eating by the French, and the inhabitants of the shores of the
Mediterranean.[105] The wonderful geometrical construction of this
animal is such, that it will bear a ton weight on its back.

In Sahara the turpins, or land tortoises, are reported to be very
large, weighing four, five, or six hundred weight; but I never heard
of any like those found at the time Leo Africanus wrote, who mentions
a man who had seen one as big as a tun, and he himself says he saw
one the size of a barrel.


_The Ostrich._—_Ennaam_ is the name given by the Western Arabs to
the ostrich; it is found on the confines of Sahara, in every part
from Wedinoon on the western ocean as far as Senaar: those which are
taken about Wedinoon and Cape Bojador are the largest in the world,
and have the finest plumage; the feathers of the male bird are the
best, being thicker and more tufted than those of the female: the
black feathers are taken from the tail; the fine long white plumes
used by our females of fashion are from the fore part of the wings:
the smaller feathers of the wing are also sometimes black. I have
seen ostriches from Cape Bojador eight feet high from the foot to
the beak, when the neck was erect, which is the natural position. The
ostrich appears to be a stupid bird, and indifferent to every thing;
taking no notice of persons, except they have metal buttons on their
clothes, at which they will eagerly snap; it is not however to be
credited that they digest iron or any other metal, although pieces
of such are often found in their stomachs, when cut up by the hunters.

The ostrich forms the intermediate gradation between the bird and the
beast, for it neither simply flies nor runs, but rather does both,
never rising however from the ground, but is assisted considerably
by its wings, in its progress through the desert, running over many
hundred miles of ground in a short time. They are sometimes seen in
Sahara by the Akkabahs of Soudan, in great numbers, appearing at a
distance, at twilight, like a host of plundering Arabs.

The ostrich lays several eggs, of the size of an African citron, or a
six-and-thirty pound shot, white, and of an oval form, weighing from
eight to ten pounds; after laying these eggs, the bird goes away,
forgetting or forsaking them, and if some other ostrich discover
them, she hatches them, as if they were her own, forgetting probably
whether they are or are not; so deficient is the recollection of this
bird. In addition to their usual food, they swallow stones, gravel,
sand, and metals; it is not ascertained whether they drink or not.

Among the various animals which the Arabs hunt for sport or profit,
that which most fully rewards their exertions, is the ostrich: a
party of about twenty Arabs, mounted on the desert horses already
described,[106] set out together, riding gently against the wind,
one after the other, at the distance of about half a mile asunder;
they walk on, tracing the foot-marks, till they discover those of
the ostrich, which they then follow; when they come in sight of their
game, they rush towards it at full speed, always keeping nearly the
same distance as at first; the bird finding her wings an impediment to
her progress against the wind, turns towards the horsemen, and after
escaping the first and second, is perhaps shot, or brought down by
the third or fourth, or some of those that follow; they are, however,
often a whole day in the chase before they secure their bird. Were
it not for this stratagem, aided by the stupidity of the ostrich,
it would be impossible to take it. The Saharawans carry muskets,
but in hunting the ostrich they rarely use them, trusting rather
to their Zerwata, which is a stick about two feet long, and three
inches in circumference, taken from the Alk Soudan tree, or the tree
that produces the Senegal gum, being a hard close-grained heavy wood;
this Zerwata they throw with extraordinary dexterity at the legs of
the birds, and by breaking or maiming them, impede their progress,
and by that means secure them. Having cut the throat according to the
Mohammedan practice, they pluck off the feathers and divide them, as
well as the carcase, into different portions: on these occasions,
as on all others, whether in hunting, pillaging, or attacking
(Akkabahs) the accumulated caravans from Soudan, they divide the
booty into as many shares as there are persons to partake, caring but
little about the equality of them; then each person taking something
that he has about him (such as a key, a knife, or a piece of money),
they put it into the corner of a hayk or garment, and covers it over,
waiting till some stranger or uninterested person appears, whom they
engage to take out of the garment before mentioned, the different
articles deposited therein, and to place one on each of the parcels
or lots of feathers and meat, when each person takes up that portion
on which the article belonging to him is placed; they then separate,
and retire to their respective douars, where they regale themselves
and their families with the produce of their sport. The flesh of
the ostrich is by no means palatable to an European; it is a dark
coloured and strong meat; the fat is much esteemed in medicine for
all kinds of bruises and sprains, and is sold at a very high price:
but money will not always procure it, friendship or hospitality being
more powerful in these regions than even money itself! this medicine,
therefore, is often procurable only through the former. The feathers
are sold by the hunters to the agents of the merchants of Mogodor
established at Wedinoon, for the purpose of transportation finally
to Europe, to adorn the heads of our fashionable females.

Writing as I am for the information of merchants as well as others,
it may not be unacceptable to my readers, some of whom may perhaps be
induced to form establishments in those unknown regions, to learn the
method of purchasing ostrich feathers in West and South Barbary. It
is as follows:

A quintal, or 100 lbs. weight, is thus distributed according
to custom from time immemorial:

  75 lb. small black feathers.

        { Zumar.      }
        {             }
  25 lb { Lobar.      } of each one-third.
        {             }
        { Long black. }

N.B. The feathers denominated Zumar, are preferable to Long Black,
and these are preferable to Lobar. To this quintal of assorted
feathers are added 6 lb. 4 oz. of passable or fine feathers, which
are delivered in the following proportions:

  No.  1. Surplus face feathers, called Uguh, No. 1.               2 lb.

       2. Fine face feathers, of which three count
          for two of No. 1. so that 3 lb. of No. 2
          being delivered count for                                2

       3. Face feathers valued 2 for one surplus
          face, so that 4 lb count for                             2

       4. Basto face 3 lb. count for one                           1
                                                          lb. 7    0

                                        to each quintal       6    4
                                         Surplus              0   12 oz.

These 12 oz. over the quintal are brought into imaginary pieces,
or single feathers; thus 4½ surplus face feathers are equivalent
to one ounce, so that 12 oz. will make fifty-four feathers; the
contract will therefore stand thus:

  100 lb. at 90 drahims per lb. is 9000 drahims, or 900 Mexico dollars.

   54 feathers or pieces, at 9 drahims
      per piece, is                     486 drahims.
                                       9486 drahims,

which sum is equivalent to 948⁶⁄₁₀ Mexico dollars.

   4½ surplus face feathers are calculated at    1  oz.

  100 ditto      ditto      ditto               22⅕ oz.

But custom makes 100 feathers count for 22 oz. without the fraction
before mentioned.

This explanation may give some idea of the mode of purchasing this
article of commerce, which requires much practice and experience,
before the purchaser will be free from imposition. There are but
two or three persons at Mogodor who perfectly understand it, and
the method of passing them at the custom-house.

The price here affixed is the average. The competition among the Jews,
and the almost entire monopolization of the Marocco trade by these
people, has latterly enhanced the price; for, by contriving to exclude
the English, and the Christians in general, as much as possible
from commerce, they are too often induced to trade beyond their
capital, and by frequently overstocking the market, cause a forced
trade, thereby throwing the profits, which before were reaped by the
European, into the hands of the natives; the consequence of this is,
that the Emperor, displeased at his subjects becoming too suddenly
rich, exacts an additional duty on the exportion of the article,
whereupon its price in the country immediately falls, and the surplus
of profit is, by this policy, thrown into the imperial exchequer.

_The Vulture (Nesser)._— Excepting the ostrich, this is the
largest bird in Africa; it is common in all places where the gum
ammoniac plant grows, and it is said to feed on the horned beetle,
which lives upon that plant. In the plains east of El Araiche,
where the plant abounds, I have seen at least twenty of these birds
in the air at once, darting down on the insects with astonishing
rapidity. They build their nests on lofty precipices, high rocks,
and in dreary parts of the mountains. Mr. Bruce calls this bird
the Nessir, or golden eagle, but I apprehend he has committed an
error in denominating it an eagle, the generical name of which,
in the Arabic language, is El Bezz.

_The Eagle._—Bezz el Horreh designates the largest species of eagle,
with undescribably clear and beautiful eyes of an orange colour. I
shot one of these birds in crossing the Atlas mountains between
Marocco and Terodant, and attempted to preserve it for the purpose
of sending it to Europe, but it died on the third day. This is the
bird which is reported by the Africans to engender the dragon on the
female hyæna; a chimera originating undoubtedly in some Arabian fable
or allegorical tradition, though generally credited by the inhabitants
of Atlas, who affirm the dragon thus engendered to have the wings and
beak of an eagle, a serpent’s tail, and short feet like a hyæna,
the eye-lids never closed, and that it lives in caves like the hyæna.

_Hawks and Falcons._—The Shereefs and Bashaws, and higher orders
of society, are much attached to falconry. Muley Teib, brother to
the present Emperor, was passionately fond of this kind of sport,
and had the best falcons in the country. They teach these young hawks
dexterously to fly at and catch ducks, wild-geese, partridges, hares,
bustards, and antelopes; the latter, however, is too strong to be
held by the falcon, which hovers about its head, and impedes its
progress, till the greyhounds come up with it and secure it. I have
hunted with the prince Muley Teib and his falconers several times,
accompanied by Dr. Bell, an English surgeon who attended him.

_White Herons (Bufullel)._—The white heron differs from the
garde bœufs[107]) ox-keepers; it is called bufula in the singular
number; the garde bœuf is called by the Arabs Teer el bukkera,
which signifies _the cow bird_, as the large red-spotted lizard is
called Erdar el bukkera, because it sucks the cows’ milk. A person
might, however, easily mistake the garde bœuf for the white heron,
as I did once myself; having killed about a hundred at different
times, I have often shot the former for the latter; the Arabs always
persuaded me they were not the same; and in fact so I found, for
I never saw a heron killed near a cow; they are found on the banks
of rivers, where they feed on worms; at a distance of fifty yards,
they are exactly the same in appearance; the heron, however, when
examined, appears to differ in the colour of the legs, which are
black, whereas those of the garde bœuf are yellowish, or brown:
the heron has two long narrow feathers on the crown of the head,
hanging over the neck; the garde bœuf has none: the heron has from
twenty to a hundred aigrette feathers on its back; the garde bœuf
has none. With regard to what is said in the note below,[108] it may
be observed that the transposition or omission of one point or dot,
in the Arabic language, is sufficient to make bufula, bukula; nay
more, what is bukula in the west, is written the same in the east,
and pronounced bufula, for the _k_ of the western Arabs is the _s_
of the eastern. But the curlew is called bukula, and the white heron,
or egret, bufula in the east, as well as in the west.

_The Bustard_ abounds in the provinces of Temsena, Benihassen, and
Duquella; some are also found in Abda and Suse: being a shy bird, the
Arabs approach it gradually, and in a circular line: when they reach
within a hundred yards, they fall down, and creep along the ground
gently till they come within shot. The flesh of this bird is much
esteemed, and is considered an acceptable present by men of high rank.

_The Stork (B’elharge.)_—The general colour of the stork’s
plumage is white, the extremities of the wings being tipped with
black; they are from two to three feet in height from the feet
to the bill. During the summer, the old towns of West Barbary are
frequented by these birds, which go generally in pairs: they are
migratory, and when they do not return to their usual haunts at the
accustomed season, it is considered ominous of evil. Any person that
should presume to shoot this sacred bird, would incur the resentment
of the whole city, and be accounted a sacrilegious infidel; for,
besides being of the greatest utility in destroying serpents and other
noxious reptiles, they are also emblematical of faith and conjugal
affection, and on that account held in the highest estimation by all
true Mooselmin. They build their nests, which are curious, on the top
of some old tower or castle, or on the terraces of uninhabited houses,
where they constantly watch their young, exposed to the scorching
rays of the sun. They will not suffer any one to approach their nests.

The cities and towns of Mequinas, Fas, Marocco, Muley Driss Zerone,
Rabat, Salée, El Araiche, Azamore, and Saffy, are annually visited
by the stork; there are none at Mogodor, it being not only a new
town, but situated on a peninsula, at the extremity of vast heaps
of moving sand, which separate it from the cultivated country,
and prevent serpents and other noxious animals from harbouring there.

_The Partridge._—This beautiful bird abounds in every part of
West Barbary; it is larger, and finer feathered than that of Europe;
the legs are red. The Moors have a peculiar manner of _hunting_ the
partridge: in the plains of Akkermute and Jibbel Hedded, in Shedma,
they take various kinds of dogs with them, from the greyhound
to the shepherd’s dog, and following the birds, on horseback,
and allowing them no time to rest, they soon fatigue them, when
they are taken by the dogs: but as the Mooselmin eats nothing but
what has had its throat cut, he takes out his knife, and exclaiming
(Bismillah), “In the name of God,” cuts the throat of the game,
and by letting it bleed destroys the flavour; for this reason game
is not esteemed at the repasts of the Arabs, where mutton and beef
are preferred; lamb and veal are unlawful, it being an injunction
of the Mohammedan law to eat nothing till it is full grown, which
is one cause of the great quantity of cattle which feed in the plains.

_El Rogr._—This bird is similar to the English partridge, having
however darker plumage; it is found only in arid stony places,
where the shrubs are stunted, and in all (harushe) plains or places
covered with basaltic rocks; but I believe no where else, except when
on the wing to drink at some river, which they do regularly at noon
and at sun-set; basking in the sun all the day, and pecking at the
harsh stunted shrubs found in the above mentioned situations. The
Rogr is unknown in Europe, according to Dr. Broussonet, an eminent
botanist, for whom I shot several during his residence at Mogodor,
in the quality of French Chargé des Affaires.

_Pigeons._—Pigeons, denominated El Hammem by the Arabs, are in
prodigious numbers all over West Barbary, tame as well as wild: the
turtle dove (called El Imam) also abounds in the woods and gardens,
adding considerably, by their plaintive notes, to the soothing
pleasures of the country. There are immense quantities of wild pigeons
in the island of Mogodor, which build their nests in the holes,
and excavated rocks of the island; and as it is unlawful to shoot
there, it being the state prison of the empire, they are harmless
and domesticated. Early in the morning, they fly in immense flocks,
to the adjacent province of Haha, where they feed on the corn and
vegetables during the day, and return about an hour before sun set.

The beautiful cream-coloured dove, with a black ring round its neck,
is a native of Marocco and Terodant.

_Curlews (Bukullel[109])._—These birds abound in various parts
of West Barbary, and are so numerous at El Waladia, that one would
imagine it was the roosting place for all the curlews on the earth;
the peninsula which encompasses the large bay of water at this
place, being rocky and uninhabited, is full of all kinds of them;
it is a very delicious bird when the blood is not lost by the throat
being cut.

_Tibib._—The sparrow, denominated Zuzuh, is rare in most parts
of Barbary; but the Tibib, which resembles it, is very common: this
little bird visits the houses every morning, coming into the rooms
undismayed. It is originally an inhabitant of Atlas, from whence it
was brought by an English merchant[110] about twenty years since,
to Mogodor, where the breed has continued to multiply ever since.

_The Crested Lark_ is common also in this country.

_The Cuckoo, Deekuke_, as it is called by the Arabs, is a gray bird,
with large black spots, having much feather, and long wings, with a
small and short body. They are esteemed a delicacy by the Arabs. I
shot some one day for the purpose of tasting them, and found them
extremely delicate, and not inferior to a partridge.

_El Hage._ This is a small cinereous coloured bird, and scarcely
so large as the common blackbird; it lives upon beetles and other
insects of a similar kind, which it never eats till they begin to
putrify; it frequents thorny bushes, on the upper thorns of which
it sticks the beetles, where remaining till they begin to decay,
the Hage, in passing through the air is attracted by their scent,
and feeds upon them. The argan tree is the favourite resort of this
bird; on the top, or some conspicuous part of which, it is generally
seen, and often alone, without its female. It is called El Hage,
because it accompanies the caravans to Mecca;[111] it is therefore
held to be a sacred bird; on this account it would be imprudent to
shoot it in presence of any Mooselmin. As they destroy beetles and
vermin, they are certainly entitled to the deference paid to them;
and are canonized, perhaps, from having visited the tomb of Mohammed.

_The Owl._—The owl of Africa (called Muka) is similar to that of
Europe, having the eye of a bright yellow. The screech owl (called
Saher) is an ominous bird, and is superstitiously thought to be the
forerunner of evil.


The same variety of fish that is found in the Mediterranean is caught
on the shores of West and South Barbary. Of the fresh water fish,

_Shebbel_—is in most request; it is similar to our salmon, but
neither so large nor so red in the flesh, though extremely rich and
delicate. Immense quantities are caught in the rivers of Barbary,
particularly in those of El Kos, Mamora, Tensift, and Suse: they are
salted, or baked and preserved for the supply of Bled-el-jerrêde,
and other places of the interior, even as far as Soudan; but the
greatest consumption of the dried shebbel is in Bled-el-jerrêde,
where the inhabitants live for the most part on dates, as these fish
are accounted a corrective of any ill effects produced from eating
immoderately of that fruit.

The people who catch the shebbel give to the Emperor a per centage
by way of duty.

There is a very considerable fishery on this coast, managed by the
Spaniards from the Canary Islands, which extends from lat. N 20°
30′ to lat. N. 29°, being nearly 600 miles, and abounds in all
kinds of excellent fish; as there is at present no town, village, or
fixed habitation on the coast, within the district above mentioned,
the Spaniards fish unmolested; neither do cruizers ever approach
these parts, except by accident, so that the fishermen are secure from
capture. In the spring and summer the fish are said to abound on the
northern part of this extent of coast; and as the autumn approaches,
they go gradually southward. Whilst I was established at Agadeer,
I saw many kinds of curious fish which I have never seen in any
other part of Africa or Europe.

_Whales._—About the coast of Africa, from Agadeer to Arguin,
whales are frequently cast on shore,[112] deluded, perhaps, like
the unfortunate mariners, who being led away imperceptibly by the
impetuosity of a deceitful current, are ashore before they are aware
of being even near the land. Whenever the whale is cast ashore,
ambergris is found on the shore, and is brought to Agadeer for
sale. The Moors being very partial to this perfume, consume all
that comes to market; so that none is sent to Europe. It is called
in Arabic El Amber, and is supposed to possess highly stimulating
qualities, for which purpose it is often infused in tea by the
African Arabs, Moors, and others.


[Footnote 70: This budra is preserved in earthen pots under ground,
many, sometimes 20 or 30 years, as it is said, to improve by age;
it is of so subtile and penetrating a nature, that it quickly passes
to the capillary vessels of the body, and being rubbed on the inside
of the hand, is quickly absorbed through the pores into the blood.]

[Footnote 71: Ida dez el Herka fee el bled wa kan trek harushe el
Zirg ce herse el hager eladi fee’h.]

[Footnote 72: A small bird unknown in Europe, similar to a sparrow.]

[Footnote 73: Buffon informs us, that Bruce told him this animal was
common in Barbary, where it was called Taleb; but Pennant observes,
that Bruce should have given it a more characteristic appellation, for
taleb, or thaleb, is no more than the Arabic name for the common fox,
which is also frequent in that country. See Eng. Encyclopedia, 1802.]

[Footnote 74: The dubbah and the deeb are so totally different, that
I cannot account for the error of Bruce in saying they are the same
animal; for, besides various other differences, the dubbah is more
than twice as large as the deeb. It is surprising that Mr. Bruce, who
appears to have been a great sportsman, did not perceive this. Vide
Select Passages of Natural History collected in Travels to discover
the Source of the Nile. Title Hyæna, Vol V. p. 110.]

[Footnote 75: M’dubbah, stupified or hyænaized, from the word

[Footnote 76: Bruce, in speaking of this animal, observes that most
of the animals confounded with him, are about six times smaller
than he is. The want of a critical knowledge of the Arabic language,
and of natural history at the same time, has, in some measure, been
the occasion of these errors among the moderns. Bochart discusses
the several errors of the ancients with great judgment, and the
Count de Buffon, in a very elegant and pleasant manner, hath nearly
exhausted the whole. See Select Specimens of Nat. Hist. collected
in Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, Vol. V. Appendix,
p. 108. Title Hyæna.]

[Footnote 77: A description of this herb will be given in its
proper place.]

[Footnote 78: Andik aineen el Gazel ia Lella. Beek zin el Gazel ia
Lella. You possess the eyes of an antelope, O Lady—You possess the
beauty of a gazel, O Lady, are irresistible compliments with the
Arabs. Again, Zin el mikkumule, and Zin el Gazel, perfect beauty,
and gazel beauty, are synonymous terms.]

[Footnote 79: _Horreh_ signifies any thing pure and free; thus
a free-born man, (having a handsome person and virtuous mind,)
is called Rajel _Horreh_; a horse of high breed is called Aoud el
_Horreh_; it is also opposed to _Abd_, which signifies a slave.]

[Footnote 80: Possibly _bizoar_ may be a corruption of _Bide el

[Footnote 81: A shrub of Atlas used in tanning.]

[Footnote 82: Sir Joseph Banks.]

[Footnote 83: The Saharawan lizard is also called Dubb by the Arabs
(See under Reptiles), and from the similitude of name, the conjecture
that bears are found in Africa may have originated.]

[Footnote 84: The mountain at Ceuta is called Jibbel D’Zatute,
the Mountain of Apes.]

[Footnote 85: Job, ch. 39, v. 9, 10.]

[Footnote 86: I met with a very intelligent Shelluh in Shtuka, whilst
I was staying at the castle of the Khalif Mohammed ben Delemy,
who had been thirty years travelling through various countries
of the interior; he had frequently seen the Aoudad, the Horreh,
the hippopotamus, the rhinoceros, the elephant, the hyæna, and
various other animals, but he declared he had never seen an animal
resembling a horse or mare, having one horn, nor had he ever heard,
in the different Kaffer countries (as he called them) he had visited,
that such an animal existed.]

[Footnote 87: These heirie riders will travel three days without food;
or a few pipes of tobacco, or a handful of dates, will furnish their
meal; so that a regiment of Arabs would subsist on less than would
be sufficient to maintain a company of English soldiers.]

[Footnote 88: On the journey, a man who had been travelling with the
caravan asked me for bread. “How long have you been without it?”
said I. Two days was the reply. “And how long without water?”
“I drank water last night.” This was at sun-set, after we had
been marching all day in the heat of the sun. See Brown’s Travels
in Africa, &c. Vol. II. p. 288.]

[Footnote 89: Incredible stories are told of them, as that they
will hold out for twenty-four hours together, travelling constantly
at the rate of ten miles an hour. See Brown’s Travels in Africa,
&c. Vol. II. p. 259.]

[Footnote 90: Marocco is about one hundred miles from Mogodor.]

[Footnote 91: On this subject M. de Florial aptly observes, that
“le plus part des hommes mesurant leur foi par leur connoissance
acquise, croyent à fort peu de choses.”]

[Footnote 92: This term literally signifies Wind-sucker; the animal
is so called from his hanging out his tongue at one side of his mouth,
when in speed, and as it were sucking in the air.]

[Footnote 93: The straw being trodden out by cattle to separate it
from the corn, is similar to chopped straw, and is the only substitute
for hay.]

[Footnote 94: It is to the fashion of the saddle, stirrups, and
bridle, that the Arabs are considerably indebted for their agility
in horsemanship, and for their dexterous management of the horse.]

[Footnote 95: A food of extraordinary and incredible nourishment,
and a sovereign remedy for consumption.]

[Footnote 96: It is called (Adû el hensh) the serpent’s enemy.]

[Footnote 97: Even the Bo’ah, or desert serpent (described in a
subsequent page), is not venomous.]

[Footnote 98: The river called Luccos should be El Kos, so named
from its winding through the country in semi-circular forms; El Kos
in Arabic signifies a bow or arch.]

[Footnote 99: El Garb (the g guttural) signifies in Arabic the west;
this is the western province.]

[Footnote 100: See the Author’s observations on the Plague in
Barbary, in the Gentleman’s Magazine, February 1805, page 123.]

[Footnote 101: In the consulship of Marcus Plautius Hypsæus,
and Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, Africa scarce breathing from bloody
wars, a terrible and extraordinary destruction ensued; for now
throughout Africa an infinite multitude of locusts were collected,
and having devoured the growing corn, and consumed the vegetables,
and leaves of the trees, their tender boughs, and their bark, they
were finally driven, by a sudden and tempestuous wind, into the air,
and being driven by the wind through the air, at length were drowned
in the sea; their carcases, loathsome and putrified, being cast up
by the waves of the sea in immense heaps, in all parts of the shore,
bred an incredible and infectious smell, after which followed so
general a pestilence of all living creatures, that the dead bodies of
cattle, wild beasts, and fowls, corrupted by dissolution, filled the
atmosphere with a contagious miasma, and augmented the fury of the
plague; but how great and extraordinary a death of men there was,
I cannot but tremble to report; in Numidia, where Micipsa was the
king, died eighty thousand persons: on the sea-coast, near Carthage
and Utica, about two hundred thousand are reported to have perished;
from the city of Utica itself were, by this means, swept from the face
of the earth thirty thousand soldiers, who were appointed to be the
garrison of Africa, and the destruction was so violent, according
to report, that from one gate of Utica were carried to be buried,
in one and the same day, the bodies of above fifteen hundred of the
aforesaid soldiers; so that by the grace of God (through whose mercy,
and in confidence of whom I speak of these events), I boldly affirm
that sometimes, even in our days, the locusts do much mischief, yet
never before happened, in the time of the Christians, a calamity so
insupportable, as this scourge of locusts, which, when alive, were
insufferable, and after their death, produced much more pernicious
consequences, which, if they had lived, would have destroyed every
vegetable thing; but being dead, destroyed, through the plague which
they produced, all earthly creatures. Vide Paulus Orosius contra
Paganos, Lib. V. Cap. ii.]

[Footnote 102: This invigorating quality is expressed by the term
Skoon, the k guttural.]

[Footnote 103: These Aisawie have a considerable sanctuary at
Fas. They go to Suse in large bodies about the month of July to
collect serpents, which they pretend to render harmless by a certain
form of words, incantation, or invocation to (Seedy ben Aisah[a])
their tutelary saint. They have an annual feast, at which time they
dance and shake their heads quickly, during a certain period, till
they become giddy, when they run about the towns frantic, attacking
any person that may have a black or dark dress on; they bite, scratch,
and devour any thing that comes in their way. They will attack an
Unjumma, or portable fire, and tear the lighted charcoal to pieces
with their hands and mouths. I have seen them take the serpents,
which they carry about, and devour them alive, the blood streaming
down their clothes. The incredible accounts of their feats would fill
a volume; the following observations may suffice to give the reader
an idea of these extraordinary fanatics. The Bûska and the El Effah
here described, are enticed out of their holes by them; they handle
them with impunity, though their bite is ascertained to be mortal;
they put them into a cane basket, and throw it over their shoulders:
these serpents they carry about the country, and exhibit them to the
people. I have seen them play with them, and suffer them to twist
round their bodies in all directions, without receiving any injury
from them. I have often enquired how they managed to do this, but
never could get any direct or satisfactory answer; they assure you,
however, that faith in their saint, and the powerful influence of
the name of the Divinity, _Isim Allah_, enables them to work these
miracles: they maintain themselves in a miserable way, by donations
from the spectators before whom they exhibit. This art of fascinating
serpents was known by the ancient Africans, as appears from the
Marii and Psylli, who were Africans, and shewed proofs of it at Rome.]

[Footnote a: Aisah signifies Jesus: thus Jesus Christ is
denominated by the Mohammedans, Seedna Aisah, i.e. Our Lord Jesus.]

[Footnote 104: Ky herk el bled beshuelhu.]

[Footnote 105: The turtle called the Hawk’s bill is excellent on
this coast. I never eat any superior in Europe; they are plentiful
at Agadeer, but as the natives do not eat them, they care not about
catching them, except when employed so to do by some European.]

[Footnote 106: See the description, page 94.]

[Footnote 107: Vide Sonini’s Travels in Egypt, page 217.]

[Footnote 108: I cannot suppress a smile when I recollect a trifling
adventure to which the egrets gave occasion in my journey from Rosetta
to Alexandria with M. Tott; he took with him a surgeon, puffed up
with folly and conceit, and combining their knowledge of natural
history, they had decided that the numerous egrets, whose dazzling
whiteness (so interesting an emblem of candour and virginity),
constituted the most beautiful ornament of the banks of the Nile,
were the Ibis or Curlews of the ancients; birds on which antiquity
conferred the highest honours. Whatever I could say, they would not
relinquish their opinion. Vide Sonini’s Travels.]

[Footnote 109: This is the plural; the singular is Bukula.]

[Footnote 110: Mr. Wynne.]

[Footnote 111: Those who go to Mecca, receive on their return,
the title of El Hage, to which (whatever their rank in life may be)
is prefixed the appellation of Seedy, or Monsieur.]

[Footnote 112: During my stay at Messa, I saw two enormous jaw-bones
of a whale erected in the form of an arch, and on enquiring how they
came there, was informed that they had been there (min zeman) from
time immemorial, and that the fish was thrown on the shore, having a
man in his belly, whose name was recorded to be Jonah. Having laughed
heartily at this whimsical story, I was surprized to find my informant
not only very serious, but desirous to impress my mind with a belief,
that there was no doubt of the fact. It has been handed down, said he,
by tradition, and nobody but a Christian would doubt the fact! See
Brookes’s Gazetteer, title Messa.]

                              CHAPTER VI.

            _Metallic, Mineral, and Vegetable Productions._

                         METALS AND MINERALS.

_Gold and Silver Mines_ are found in several parts of the Empire
of Marocco; but more particularly about Messa in the province of
Suse. Being once on a visit to the Vicegerent of this province,
Alkaid Mohammed ben Delemy, at Shtuka, and desirous to examine
the country in the vicinity of Messa, together with its mines, I
requested an escort from the Vicegerent, to accompany me thither,
which he readily granted. On my arrival at Messa, I proceeded to the
southern banks of the river, where I was shewn a gold mine, which,
I was informed, had been worked by the Portuguese, when they were in
possession of this district, and who, previous to their departure,
had thrown stones into the aperture, which the Shelluhs had frequently
attempted in vain to remove. These stones were of an immense size,
and it would have required considerable mechanical powers to effect
their removal. I was next conducted through the bed of the river,
when I discovered, on a bluish soil, two separate strata of blue sand
intermixed with silver dust; of this I collected a small quantity,
and sent it to England to be analyzed; but such is the disposition
of the people, that they will not allow the sand to be taken away in
any quantity for the purpose of extracting the metal; though they
make no use of it themselves, being unacquainted with the proper
method of refining it.

Near Elala and Shtuka, in the same province, there is a very
rich silver mine; but being situated between two clans, they are
continually fighting about it, and by this means both parties are
deprived of the benefit it offers. I have purchased lumps of this
silver, which had been refined by the natives, and it was more pure
than the silver of Spanish dollars.

There is another silver mine in the plains of Msegina, near Santa
Cruz: this was reported to the Emperor Seedi Mohammed, to be extremely
rich, and he accordingly sent some persons conversant in minerals to
inspect, and report upon it. Previous to their departure, however,
they were secretly informed, that he wished to discourage the working
of this mine, lest the province might be thereby rendered too rich and
powerful, and the people be enabled to throw off their allegiance. In
consequence of this, after a formal examination had been made, it
was reported that the mine would not pay for the expense of working
it. The entrance was then broken in, and the Shelluhs, discouraged
by this unfavourable report, and not suspecting the motive for
destroying the mine, paid no further attention to it. This mine had
probably been worked by the Portuguese, when they were in possession
of Santa Cruz and Agurem.

Gold is also found in the Atlas mountains, and in Lower Suse, but
the mines are not worked.[113]

Suse also produces iron, copper, and lead ore. In the mountains of
Idaultit, they have iron, which they manufacture themselves into
gun-barrels, and other articles. At Tesellergt the copper mines
are extremely abundant; but they work them only as they want the
metal. In Tafilelt are mines of antimony; it abounds also in lead ore.

_Mineral Salt._—West Barbary, Bled-el-jerrêde, and parts of Sahara,
abound in mineral salt, of a red colour, which is dug from quarries
and mines. In the province of Abda there is a very extensive lake,
which furnishes salt of a superior quality to the mineral; they
are both exceedingly strong, and are not fit to prepare meat with,
having been frequently tried; this, however, may be owing to the
unskilfullness of the Moors in curing meat.

Near the cities of Fas and Mequinas a similar salt is also found;
and a beautifully white and pure kind is procured among the rocks,
which bind many parts of the coast; this is produced by the effulgence
of the meridian sun, exhaling the water from the salt which remains
in the cavities.

Vast quantities of salt are conveyed by the Akkabahs to Soudan, where
none is produced, and on that account is so valuable at Timbuctoo,
that a pound weight is frequently bartered for an ounce of gold dust.

_Salt-petre._—This article, now prohibited from exportation, except
under certain restrictions, and particular grants, is the produce of
Fas, Marocco, and Terodant; that of Terodant or Suse is the best,
purest, and strongest, and in its unrefined state is equal to that
of Marocco when refined.[114]

_Lead Ore (El Kahol)._—There are two kinds of this mineral; that
which is the best and most esteemed sells for double the price of
the common kind, and is the basis of the black substance used by the
African ladies to tinge their eyes, eye-brows, and eye-lashes. The
Atlas mountains abound with this lead ore, particularly the eastern
side of them, towards Fighig and Tafilelt. The best kind, as already
observed, is called El Kahol Filelly (i.e. lead ore of Tafilelt).

_Sulphur._—Before this mineral was imported from the Mediterranean,
it was dug from the foot of Atlas, opposite to Terodant, where there
are immense quantities.[115]

                          FRUITS, PLANTS, &c.

_Figs_, called by the Western Arabs, Kermuse; there are many kinds
of this fruit, some of which are purple, others green; they are
esteemed wholesome, and abound in every part of the empire. At
Terodant, Marocco, Fas, and Tetuan, they are uncommonly fine, and of
an exquisite flavour; those of Mogodor, however, are very inferior,
as are most of the fruits that grow in the environs of that arid
and sandy country. The Jews extract (mahaya) an ardent spirit from
figs, which they drink immoderately whilst hot from the alembic;
but when they have patience to keep it a year or two, it becomes a
mild spirit, losing its heating and pernicious quality.

_Indian Fig_, or _Prickly Pear (Cactus Opuntia)_, called
_Takanareele_, by the Shelluhs, and _Kermuse d’Ensarrah_, by
the Arabs and Moors. The tree which produces this fruit grows from
ten to twenty feet in height; its leaves, from the sides of which
the fruit springs, are thick and succulent, and impregnated with a
transparent mucilaginous juice, which, from its peculiarly cooling and
anti-inflammatory qualities, was much used with gum ammoniac, during
the plague, for cataplasms and fumigations. The Indian fig is very
different from other figs; when ripe, it is of an oval form, and of a
colour inclining to orange or yellow; it has a thick succulent rind,
so covered with fine sharp prickles, as to render leather gloves,
or some other substitute necessary, when peeling it. This fruit is
of an extraordinary refrigerating quality, and is, on that account,
eaten in the early part of the morning by the people of Haha and Suse,
where it abounds. In hot weather it is a grateful restorative to the
relaxed state of the bowels. The tree grows in stony arid situations,
and frequently affords refreshment to the traveller, when he least
expects to find so cooling a fruit.

_Almonds._—The quantities of this fruit produced in the province of
Suse are incalculable, and have, latterly, been much increased. The
bitter kind is exported to Europe; but the sweet, being an article of
food, has been, by the present Emperor, prohibited from exportation,
which has recently diminished considerably the cultivation of this
nutritious fruit.

_Gum Sandrac Tree._—Thuya, Arar, or Sandrac-tree, is probably the
Arbor vitæ of Theophrastus: it is similar in leaf to the juniper,
and, besides producing the gum sandrac, the wood is invaluable, being
somewhat like cedar, having a similar smell, and being impenetrable
to the worm; it is, however, a harder wood, and would be a great
acquisition in ship-building; and _there are_ means of procuring
it. The roofs of houses, and cielings of rooms, are made of this
unperishable wood.

_El Rassul._—A small plant little known, but used by the tanners
in the preparation of leather.

_Tizra_, or _Seuhayha._—A shrub about three feet high, used also
in the preparation of leather; it grows near the Jibbel Heddid in
the plains[116] of Akkermute, in the province of Shedma. (See the
map of West Barbary).

_Hashisha_, and _Kief._—The plant called Hashisha is the African
hemp plant; it grows in all the gardens; and is reared in the
plains at Marocco, for the manufacture of twine: but in most parts
of the country it is cultivated for the extraordinary and pleasing
voluptuous vacuity of mind which it produces in those who smoke it:
unlike the intoxication from wine, a fascinating stupor pervades
the mind, and the dreams are agreeable. The kief, which is the
flower and seeds of the plant, is the strongest, and a pipe of it
half the size of a common English tobacco-pipe, is sufficient to
intoxicate. The infatuation of those who use it is such, that they
cannot exist without it. The kief is often pounded, and mixed with
(_El Majune_), an invigorating confection, which is sold at an
enormous price; a piece of this as big as a walnut will for a time
entirely deprive a man of all reason and intellect; they prefer
it to opium, from the voluptuous sensations which it never fails
to produce. Wine or brandy, they say, does not stand in competition
with it. The Hashisha, or leaves of the plant, are dried and cut like
tobacco, with which they are smoked, in very small pipes; but when
the person wishes to indulge in the sensual stupor it occasions, he
smokes the Hashisha pure, and in less than half an hour it operates;
the person under its influence is said to experience pleasing images:
he fancies himself in company with beautiful women; he dreams that he
is an emperor, or a bashaw, and that the world is at his nod. There
are other plants which possess a similar exhilirating quality,
among which is a species of the Palma Christi, the nuts of which,
mixed with any kind of food, affect a person for three hours, and
then pass off. These they often use when they wish to discover the
mind of a person, or what occupies his thoughts.

_Snobar._—This is a plant much used by the tanners in the
preparation of leather: it grows on Mount Atlas and about Tetuan.

_Lotus._—The Lotus, or water lily, grows in the rivers and streams
of El Garb; it is called by the Arabs Nufar. The lotus, or nymphæa
lotus, has often been mistaken for a very different plant, called by
the ancients _Lotus_, or _Rhamnus Lotus_, and which served formerly
for food to a certain people in Africa, thence named Lotophagi; this
plant, which is a shrub similar in appearance to the wild jujube,
or buckthorn, is called by the Arabs _Seedra_, and grows about the
Atlas mountains east of Marocco and Terodant. It has been described
by Mr. Mungo Park in his Travels in Africa.

_Mallows._—This herb is much used by the Arabian doctors; and the
fruit is eaten by the Arabs as antifebrile: the generical name is
Kubbaiza.[117] The garden Jew’s mallow, called _Melokia_, is also
much esteemed as a strong incentive to venery.

_Coloquintida_, called by the Arabs El Hendal, is found along the
coast, on the sandy shore above the high water mark from Agadeer to
Wedinoon, an extent of about two hundred miles: it had never been
imported into this country till last year, by myself, when it sold at
3_s._ 8_d._ per lb. Throughout this fertile country roses, and various
beautiful flowers which are carefully reared in hot houses with us,
grow spontaneously in the plains: of these I have seen in Temsena, and
about Rabat, and in Suse, lupins, jonquils, wall-flowers and hyacinths
of various colours and exquisite fragrance (of the latter there is
a beautiful kind, being a Spanish brown, inclining to scarlet.) The
roses about Marocco grow in the streams and ditches. At Tafilelt
they have a powerful fragrance: it is from the leaves of the Worde
Fillelly, or Tafilelt rose, that the celebrated _Attar_ of roses
(commonly called _Otto_ of roses) is extracted: the word _Attar_
is an Arabic word signifying a distillation or filtration.[118]

_Surnag._—This vegetable grows on the declivities of the Atlas
mountains. The Moors drink a decoction of it for the purpose of
inciting them to venereal pleasure.

_Truffles._—This root, called by the Arabs Terfez, is somewhat
similar to the potatoe, and about the size of a lemon; it grows in
sandy places, near the surface of the earth, where it is discovered
by the light soil appearing swelled and cracked. It is not planted,
but grows spontaneously; some are black, others white, but the
former are the best; both, however, have a black rind, which does
not peel off like that of a potatoe, but is cut or pared like that
of an apple. The Arabs, Moors, Shelluhs, and Jews, equally prize
the truffle; it is therefore in great demand, and used in all made
dishes, and is a very delicate, nutritious, and wholesome food:
they are also highly stimulating, on which account they are more
esteemed among this amorous people than for their delicate taste;
they are particularly palatable with wine, and often introduced in
the dessert. They are very good boiled in water or in steam. In Suse,
Abda, and Bled-el-jerrêde, they are found in great abundance. The
season for them is March, when the storms of thunder prevail. After
a storm, the people repair to the sandy plains, dig them up, and
bring them to the towns, where, being in great demand, they sell at
a costly price.

                            GUMS, OILS, &c.

_Euphorbium._—_Furbiune_ is the Arabic name of this gum, which is
produced by a very curious succulent plant, growing on the Atlas
mountains, and called by the Shelluhs and Arabs, _Dergmuse_;[119]
in its general form, it resembles a large goblet (see the Plate),
and is somewhat like a wild thistle. From the main body of the
plant proceed several solid leafless branches, about three inches
in circumference, and one in diameter, from the top of which shoot
out similar ones, each bearing on its summit a vivid crimson flower;
these branches are scolloped, and have on their outer sides small
knots, from which grow five extremely sharp pointed thorns, about
one-third of an inch in length.[120] The stalk is at first soft and
succulent, but becomes hard in a few years, when the plant assumes
the above mentioned form, and may then be considered at its maturity;
if cut in this state with a sword, it emits a large quantity of
corrosive, lacteous juice, which, if squeezed between the fingers,
will excoriate; when old, the plant withers, and this juice becomes
dry, and turns to powder. The inhabitants of those parts of the lower
regions of Atlas make incisions in the branches of the plants with a
knife, whence the juice issues, which, after being heated by the sun,
becomes a substance of a whitish yellow colour, and in the month
of September drops off, and forms the gum Euphorbium. The plants
produce abundantly once only in four years, but this fourth year’s
produce is more than all Europe can consume; it being a very powerful
cathartic. The people who collect the gum, are obliged to tie a cloth
over their mouth and nostrils, to prevent the small dusty particles
from annoying them, as they produce incessant sneezing.

[Illustration:_Plate 6._

_(Dergmuse) Gum Euphorbium Plant._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by G. & W. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

The branches of the plant are brought to Mogodor, for the use of
the tanners, by the boats which go from thence to Agadeer (where it
abounds), and to it probably the Marocco leather owes its reputed
pre-eminence. It is also in great request among the women, as a
_depilatory_. Though the plant abounds at Agadeer, yet, either from
the nature of the soil, or the climate not being sufficiently hot,
it is stunted, and never comes to perfection. During the three years
I resided there, I never saw any gum attached to it. It flourishes
in stony mountainous situations, interspersed with rocks, whose
interstices are filled with a black loam of decomposed vegetable

_Ammoniacum_, called _Feshook_ in Arabick, is produced from a plant
similar to the European fennel, but much larger. In most of the plains
of the interior, and particularly about El Araiche, and M’sharrah
Rummellah, it grows ten feet high. The Gum Ammoniac is procured by
incisions in the branches, which, when pricked, emit a lacteous,
glutinous juice, which being hardened by the heat of the sun, falls
on the ground, and mixes with the red earth below: hence the reason
that Gum Ammoniac of Barbary does not suit the London market. It
might, however, with a little trouble, be procured perfectly pure,
by spreading mats under the shrubs to receive the gum as it falls. The
gum in the above mentioned state, is used in all parts of the country
for cataplasms and fumigations. The sandy light soil which produces
the Gum Ammoniac, abounds in the north of Marocco. It is remarkable,
that neither bird nor beast is seen where this plant grows, the
vulture only excepted.[121] It is, however, attacked by a beetle,[122]
having a long horn proceeding from its nose, with which it perforates
the plant, and makes the incisions whence the gum oozes out.

[Illustration:_Plate 7._

_(Fashook) Gum Ammoniac Plant._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by G. & W. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

[Illustration:_Plate 8._

_(Dibben Fashook,) Gum Ammoniac Fly._

_Drawn by J. G. Jackson._

_Engraved J. C. Stadler._

_London Published June 4. 1811. by G. & W. Nicholl Pall Mall._]

_Gum Arabic._—The gum called Marocco or Barbary gum, is produced
from a high thorny tree called Attaleh, having leaves similar to
the Arar, or Gum Sandrac tree, and the juniper. The best kind of
Barbary gum is procured from the trees of Marocco, Ras-el-wed,
in the province of Suse and Bled-hummer, in the province of Abda;
the secondary qualities are the produce of Shedma, Duquella, and
other provinces; the tree grows abundantly in the Atlas mountains,
and is found also in Bled-el-jerrêde. The gum, when new, emits a
faint smell, and when stowed in the warehouse, it is heard to crack
spontaneously for several weeks; and this cracking is the surest
criterion of new gum, as it never does so when old; there is,
however, scarcely any difference in the quality. The Attaleh is
not so large a tree as the Arar, which produces the Sandrac gum,
nor does it reach the size of the Aurwar tree, which produces the
gum Senegal. It has a low crooked stem, and its branches, from the
narrowness of its leaves (long and scanty), have a harsh, withered,
and unhealthy appearance at the time it yields the most gum, that is,
during the hot and parching months of July and August; but although
not an ornamental tree, it is a most useful plant, and will always
be considered valuable. Its wood is hard, and takes a good polish;
its seeds, which are enclosed in a pericarpium, resemble those of
the lupin, yield a reddish dye, and are used by the tanners in the
preparation of leather. These seeds attract goats, who are very fond
of eating them. The more sickly the tree appears, the more gum it
yields; and the hotter the weather, the more prolific it is. A wet
winter and a cool or mild summer are unfavourable to the production
of gum.

_Oil of Olives._—The province of Suse produces great abundance of
this oil.[123] The people of Ras-el-wed make two sorts, _Tabaluht_,
and _Zit-el-aud_;[124] the former is made from the olives when green,
and nearly ripe, with which they frequently grind limes, or wild
thyme. This oil is very rich, and white, and not inferior to the
best Lucca or Florence oil, and might, with due attention, be made a
considerable article of commerce to this country. The _Zit-el-aud_,
is made from the olives when quite ripe, and alter they have laid on
the ground some time; in this state they yield the greatest quantity
of oil, but it has a strong, and often a rancid taste, which is not,
however, disliked by the natives. It is used in Europe in the woollen
and soap manufactories.

_Oil Arganic_ is also in abundance in Suse: it is much used for
frying fish,[125] and burning in lamps.

_Pitch._—The pitch of the Arabs, called _Kitran_, is obtained from
the wild juniper, which abounds in the Atlas mountains, as well as
in many parts of the champaign country: the manner of obtaining it is
thus: they dig a large and deep round hole, in the side of which, near
the bottom, they excavate another in the form of a cauldron, which
they plaister round; they then fill up the communicating aperture
with stones or bricks, leaving a small channel of communication;
the large hole is then filled with the boughs of the wild juniper,
which they call _Toga_, broken into small pieces, after which the
mouth of the furnace is closed up, and fire set to the wood; the
sap, which forms the pitch, then oozes out of the burning boughs,
and runs into the communicating hole; when the whole is cooled,
it is taken out, and put into skins or bladders.


[Footnote 113: I procured several specimens of gold and silver ores
from the various mines in this province, which I sent to Europe
to be analyzed; but the smallness of the quantity precluded any
considerable advantage from the analyzation, and I had not an
opportunity afterwards of repeating the trial to a larger extent.]

[Footnote 114: It is probably owing to the deficiency of knowledge
in African languages among Europeans (which not only impedes, but
often renders abortive, our negociations with the Emperor) that
we have been hitherto prevented from obtaining very considerable
supplies as well of this as of many other useful articles, such as
naval stores and provisions, from West Barbary.]

[Footnote 115: The Arabs of Woled Abussebah manufacture gun-powder
of a quality far superior to that of Europe; for if it be immersed
in water during a night, and then taken out, it is perfectly dry
and fit for use; but they keep the process a secret. That which
is made by the Moors is, in general, of a very inferior quality,
having neither strength nor quickness.]

[Footnote 116: Harushe is a name applied in Africa to all plains or
places covered with basaltic stones, bearing marks of some ancient
convulsion of nature. These places are interspersed over the Desert,
or Sahara, and in other parts of Africa.]

[Footnote 117: Sonini, in his travels in Egypt, called it hobezé;
there is, however, no _h_ in the word, but a guttural _k_ (خ)
an error originating in a partial, and but an oral, knowledge of
the Arabic language; or possibly he had seen the word written by
a professed Arabian scholar, who frequently omits the punctuation,
which he can make out by the tenour of the discourse; in this case
the word would have been written with the letter _h_ (ح).]

[Footnote 118: In passing these plains, where such a variety of
beautiful flowers grow spontaneously, it has often occurred to
me that this country was once in a considerably higher degree of
cultivation than it is at present.]

[Footnote 119: Probably the Euphorbium officinalis of Linnæus.]

[Footnote 120: These adhere to every thing which touches them,
and seem to have been intended by nature, to prevent cattle from
eating this caustic plant, which they always avoid on account of
its prickles.]

[Footnote 121: See page 118.]

[Footnote 122: See the plate, where it is represented of the natural

[Footnote 123: The plantations of olive-trees in this province
are very numerous: there is an extensive one in the neighbourhood
of Messa, the trees of which are of great size and beauty, and are
planted in a very whimsical and peculiar manner. When I visited Messa,
I enquired the cause of their being so arranged, and learnt from
the viceroy’s aide-de-camp, who attended me, that one of the kings
of the dynasty of Saddia, being on his journey to Soudan, encamped
here, with his army; that the pegs with which the cavalry picketed
their horses, were cut from the olive-trees in the neighbourhood,
and that these pegs being left in the ground on account of some
sudden cause of departure of the army, the olive-trees in question
sprung up from them. I confess, while I acknowledged the ingenuity
of the idea, (for the disposition of the trees exactly resembled the
arrangement of cavalry in an encampment), I treated it as fabulous;
some time afterwards, however, the following circumstance occurred,
which induced me to think the story was not only plausible, but very
credible. Having occasion to send for some plants for a garden which
I had at Agadeer, or Santa Cruz, the gardener brought, amongst other
things, a few bits of wood without any root or leaf, about eighteen
inches long, and three in circumference, which he with a large stone
knocked into the ground. Seeing the fellow thus employed, I asked
him what he meant by trifling in that way? “I am not trifling,”
said he, “but planting your pomegranate trees.” I began to take
them out of the ground; but some persons who were near assuring me
that it was the mode in which they were always planted, and that they
would (with the blessing of God) take root, and shoot forth leaves
the next year, I was at length prevailed on to leave a few in the
ground, merely for experiment, and they certainly did take root,
and were in a fair way of becoming good trees when I left Santa Cruz!]

[Footnote 124: _Zit_ is the Arabic for oil; _Zitune_ for olives.]

[Footnote 125: When used for frying fish, a quart of it should
be boiled with a large onion cut in quarters; and when it boils,
a piece of the inside of a loaf, about the size of an orange, should
be put in, after which it should be taken off the fire, and let stand
to cool; and when quite cold, should be strained through a sieve;
without this precaution, it is supposed to possess qualities which
promote leprosy. DOCTOR BARRATA.]

                             CHAPTER VII.

_Description of the Inhabitants of West Barbary — their Dress —
Religious Ceremonies and Opinions — their Character — Manners
and Customs — Diseases — Funerals — Etiquette of the Court
—  Sources of Revenue._

The inhabitants of the Emperor of Marocco’s dominions may be
divided into four classes, namely, Moors, Arabs, Berebbers, (which
latter are probably the aborigines,) and Shelluhs.

The _Moors_ are the descendants of those who were driven out of Spain;
they inhabit the cities of Marocco, Fas, Mequinas, and all the coast
towns, as far southward as the province of Haha. Their language
is a corrupt Arabic, intermixed with Spanish. In my transactions
with these people, I have generally observed in them a misanthropic
insolence whenever they are addressed with courtesy and respect,
but much civility when treated with dignity. They seem to imagine
suavity of manners to be an indication of fear.

The _Arabs_ have their original stock in Sahara, from whence they
emigrate to the plains of Marocco, whenever the plague, famine, or any
other calamity depopulates the country so as to admit of a new colony,
without injuring the territory of the former inhabitants. These
Arabs live in tents, inhabiting the fertile and extensive plains,
and indeed the whole territory west of Atlas, and as far south as
Mogodor, or the confines of the Arab province of Shedma. (See the map
of Marocco). These populous tribes travel over the whole of Africa;
and are the agriculturists of Barbary and of Bled-el-jerrêde. They
speak the Korannick Arabic somewhat corrupted. They are a restless and
turbulent people, continually at war with each other: in one province
a rebellious kabyle, or clan, will fight against a neighbouring
loyal one, and will thus plunder and destroy one another, till,
fatigued by the toils of war, they mutually cease, when, the next
year perhaps, the rebellious clan will be found fighting for the
Emperor against the former loyal one, now become rebellious. This
plan of setting one tribe against another is an act of policy of the
Emperor, because, if he did not, in this manner, quell the broils
continually breaking out amongst them, he would be compelled, in
order to preserve tranquillity in his dominions, to employ his own
army for that purpose, which is generally occupied in more important
business. Hospitality is a prominent feature in the character of
these people, insomuch that if an enemy be driven to the necessity
of seeking an asylum among them, hostility is immediately forgotten.

The _Berebbers_ inhabit the mountains of Atlas north of the city
of Marocco, living generally in tents; they are a robust, nervous,
and warlike people, having a language peculiar to themselves, which
differs more from the Arabic, or general language of Africa, than
any two languages of Europe differ from each other; it is probably
a dialect of the ancient Carthaginian. In travelling through the
Berebber Kabyles of Ait Imure, and Zemure Shelluh, I noticed many of
the inhabitants who possessed the old Roman physiognomy. The general
occupation of these people is husbandry, and the rearing of bees
for honey and wax. They possess much cunning and duplicity, and are
never outwitted by the Moors, or entirely worsted by the troops of the
Emperor, with whom they have had very frequent encounters, but have
never been permanently subdued: they esteem it the greatest advantage
possible to fight on their own territory. Their allegiance to the
Emperor has often been secured by retaining their chiefs at court,
conferring favours on them, appointing them to offices of state,
and to seats in the Diwan; thus making them hostages, as it were,
for the peaceable conduct of their respective Kabyles.

The _Shelluhs_ inhabit the Atlas mountains, and their various branches
south of Marocco; they live generally in walled habitations, or in
towns, and are, for the most part, occupied in husbandry like the
Berebbers, though differing from them in their language,[126] dress,
and manners; they live almost entirely on (Assoua) barley meal made
into gruel, and (Zimeta) barley roasted or granulated, which they
mix with cold water, when travelling. They occasionally indulge in
(_cuscasoe_) a nutritive farinaceous food, made of granulated flour,
and afterwards boiled by steam, and mixed with butter, mutton, fowls,
and vegetables. Many families among these people are reported to be
descended from the Portuguese, who formerly possessed the ports on the
coast; but who, after the discovery of America, gradually withdrew
thither. East of Marocco, near Dimenet, on the Atlas mountains,
there is still remaining a church, having inscriptions in Latin
over the entrance, supposed to have been built by the Portuguese,
which, being superstitiously reported to be haunted, has escaped
destruction. The language of the Shelluhs is called Amazirk.

The Shelluhs are a crafty people; they are, perhaps, better disposed
towards Christians than the Moors or the Arabs. The term Kabyle
applies to all cultivators of land, and to those who rear the cattle
and flocks. Sometimes we discover, in traversing this country, an
encampment of Bedouin Arabs, who, in their migrations to far distant
countries, pitch their tents wherever they find the country productive
and unoccupied; here they sojourn till their flocks have consumed
all the pasture, when they strike their tents and proceed on their
long journey. These people live, for the most part, on camel’s
milk; they are an indolent race, and neither cultivate the earth,
nor do any kind of work, attacking and plundering caravans whenever
they can do it with impunity. It is these Bedouins, or Saharawans,
who sometimes plunder the Akkabahs and caravans whilst traversing
the Great Desert of Africa. The Arabs of Woled Abbusebah[127] place a
string over the crown of the head, bringing it down behind the ears,
and shave the front hair, to prevent, as is pretended, their enemies
from catching hold of them. The same custom predominates among the
independant Shelluhs of Idautenan, inhabitants of Atlas near Cape
de Geer. See the Map of Marocco, lat. N. 30° 30′.

The Moors, as well as the other natives of this country, are generally
of a middle stature: they have not so much nerve as the Europeans,
and are, for the most part, thick and clumsy about the legs and
ancles, insomuch that a well-formed leg is seldom seen among them;
this may proceed from their constantly sitting cross legged, with
their legs under them, like the tailors of Europe, or perhaps from
their wearing no covering to their legs, which are thus exposed to
all weathers. Deformed persons are rarely met with; the loose Arabian
dress covers deformity, and their mode of bringing up children, (every
thing being left to follow nature,) generally prevents it. Corns and
deformed feet are unknown; the toes take their natural growth, and are
as useful to the mechanics as their fingers. Lame people are seldom
seen; but the blind are more numerous than in Europe. Both sexes
have remarkably fine teeth; they universally use a dentifrice,[128]
which is procured from vegetables from the interior country. Their
complexion, from frequent intermarriage, or intercourse with the
Soudanic race, is of all shades, from black to white. The women
of Fas are as fair as the Europeans, with the exception of their
eyes and hair, which are universally dark.[129] Those of Mequinas
are in general so handsome, that it is a rare thing to see a young
woman in that city who is not lovely or pretty. With large, black,
and expressive sparkling eyes, they possess a healthy countenance,
uniting the colours of the lily and the rose, that beautiful red and
white so much admired by foreigners in our English ladies; indeed
their beauty is proverbial, as the term _Mequinasia_[130] is applied
to any beautiful woman of elegant form, with black sparkling eyes,
and white teeth; they also possess a modesty and suavity of manners
rarely met with elsewhere. It is extraordinary that the inhabitants
of two great and populous cities, situated within thirty miles of
each other, should discover such a physiognomical difference, as is
apparent between the females of Fas and those of Mequinas, the former
being generally of a sallow or pale complexion. The women of Duquella
are ordinary and diminutive, whilst the men are the reverse; being
tall, and well-limbed, with regular features. The men of Temsena,
and Shawia, are a strong, robust race, of a copper colour: the women
possess much beauty, and have features highly expressive; and the
animation of the female countenance is encreased by the use of El
kahol filelly, with which they tinge the eye lashes and eye brows,
as already described. In these provinces they are particularly
fond of dying their hands and feet with a decoction or preparation
of the herb Henna,[131] which gives them an orange colour, and, in
hot weather, imparts a pleasing coolness and softness to the hands,
by obstructing, in a certain degree, the quickness of perspiration.

The Moorish dress resembles that of the ancient patriarchs, as
represented in paintings; that of the men consists of a red cap
and turban, a (Kumja) shirt, which hangs outside of the drawers,
and comes down below the knee, a (Caftan) coat, which buttons close
before, and down to the bottom, with large open sleeves; over which,
when they go out of doors, they throw carelessly, and sometimes
elegantly, a hayk or garment of white cotton, silk, or wool, five
or six yards long, and five feet wide: the Arabs, however, often
dispense with the caftan, and even with the shirt, wearing nothing
but the hayk. The Berebbers wear drawers, and a cloak of dark blue
cloth, called a Silham. The poor and penurious are contented with the
Burnose, or black cloak of woollen cloth, of a close texture, made
so as to resist the rain. To this dress is added a pair of yellow
sandals. The dress of the women nearly resembles that of the men,
except in the adjustment of the hayk, or surtout covering, and in the
(Rahayat) slippers, which are scarlet or red. The hair is concealed
in a black silk handkerchief, over which they wear shawls of silk or
handkerchiefs of various gay colours; they wear bracelets, and armlets
above the elbow, and massive rings of silver round their ancles;
their ear-rings are of gold about the thickness of a goose’s quill,
and set with precious stones, or coloured glass, the ring being about
six inches in circumference; these ear-rings have a gaudy appearance,
or, as the French express it, _“font beaucoup de parure;”_ they
wear also a number of necklaces, generally of amber beads or coral,
some large, and others small, and a variety of rings on their fingers.

In their dress, they are partial to striped silks, ginghams, and
cottons of particular patterns.

The people belonging to the court have a particular dress, never
appearing before the Emperor in a hayk, but in a silham, or large
hooded cloak of white woollen cloth; and in presence of a bashaw,
or governor, the hayk is thrown down on the shoulders, which at other
times covers the cap, a mode of salutation similar to that of taking
off the hat among Europeans.

The religion of the Emperor of Marocco’s dominions is Islaemism,
or Mohammedism,[132] which was first planted in West Barbary by
the renowned Muley Dris Zerone, on the spot where the town and
sanctuary of that name is built, being east of Mequinas, at the
western declivity of the Atlas, near an ancient and magnificent ruin,
called by the Arabs (Kasser Farawan)[133] the Ruins of Pharoah;
from hence assuming the name of (Deene-el-Wasah) the unconfined law,
it quickly spread itself to the shores of the Atlantic ocean, to
Bled-el-jerrêde, Sigin-Messa, Suse, and Sahara. At the beginning
of the present reign of Seedy Soliman ben Mohammed, a considerable
body of people, who professed Deism, sprung up, and spread themselves
over the northern provinces, exclaiming (la Illah ila Allah) There
is no God but the true God; in distinction from the Mohammedan,
whose creed is (la Illah ila Allah, wa Mohammed, arrasule, Allah),
There is no God but the true God, and Mohammed is his prophet. The
Emperor, however, by discouraging such tenets, found no difficulty
in annihilating this sect.

Throughout the country are discovered buildings of an octagonal form,
with domes of stone, or plastered with lime; these are called (Zawiat)
Sanctuaries: and attached to each is a piece of ground, uninclosed,
for the interment of the dead. The priest or saint, who is called el
fakeer, or maraboot, superintends divine service and the burial of
the dead, and is often referred to for the adjusting of disputes or
controversies. Criminals taking refuge in these consecrated places are
screened from the hand of justice; and the opulent men of the country
often, for security, deposit their treasure in them. The toleration
of the western Arabs and Moors is such, that the Emperor (although
religiously disposed himself) will allow, on proper application
being made, any sect which does not acknowledge a plurality of gods,
to appropriate a place to public worship;[134] and even the more
ignorant and bigotted Mohammedans maintain, that every man should be
allowed to worship God according to his own conscience, or agreeably
to the religion of his ancestors. They have a rooted contempt for all
who change their religion, even if it be to Islaemism; such people
are distinguished by the appellation of (el Aluge) Renegades, who,
after having embraced the Mohammedan faith, are obliged to practise
a system of dissimulation, and to affect more than ordinary contempt
for Christians, in order to appear islaemized, and to prevent their
being harassed and upbraided for their want of faith in Mohammed.

This people have a particular aversion to the sound of bells,
originating perhaps from their being peculiar to the (Ajemi)
Barbarians,[135] as they denominate Christians; or because Mohammed
reprobated the ancient trumpet of the Jews, as well as the rattel
of the oriental Christians, and substituted the human voice to call
people to prayer: accordingly a man (denominated El Muden) goes to the
top of the tower of each (Jamâa) mosque, and exclaims with a loud
voice, first to the east, or towards Mecca, and then to the south,
west, and north, the following words (Allah kabeer! A’shed-en,
la illa ila Allah, Mohammed arrasule Allah; haiala essla, Allah
kabeer. Allah!) God is great; witness that there is no God but
one God, and Mohammed is his prophet: come to prayers: God is
great. God![136]

This religious ceremony is performed several times a day, and the
different prayers are called (Sala’at el fejir) prayers at the dawn
of day; (Sala’at el dohor) prayers at half-past one o’clock, P.M.;
(Sala’at el assar) prayers at four o’clock, P.M.; (Sala’at el
mogorb) prayers at sun-setting; and (Sala’at el ashaw) prayers an
hour and an half after sun-setting. The principal of these prayers
is the Sala’at el dohor, when all such as are desirous of being
thought true Mohammedans go to the (Jamâa) mosque, on entering
which, every one must take off his slippers. Every (Jma)[137]
Friday, the Mufti preaches a discourse on religion, similar to
the sermons of Christian priests. The mosques have square towers
adjoining the body of the building; the principal side faces Mecca,
on which is erected a flag-staff: and a white flag called (el Alem)
the Signal, is hoisted every day at twelve o’clock, to warn the
people out of hearing, or at a great distance, to prepare, by the
necessary preliminary ablutions[138], to prostrate themselves before
God at the Dohor service of prayer. At the dawn of day on every
(Jma) Friday, the (Muden) man who announces the prayers from the
summit of the principal mosque, chants a hymn out of the Koran,
which being scientifically sung, in the stillness of the morning,
makes a most pleasing impression on the mind. This hymn is concluded
with the annunciation of the unity of God, and the glory of heaven,
impressing the mind of the Mohammedan with that grand fundamental
principle of Islaemism, the unity of God.

The people of this empire being born subjects of an arbitrary despot,
they may be said to have no established laws; they know no other
than the will of the prince, which is called (_Shra el Mukkuzzen_)
military law, or (_Amer Seedna_) our Lord’s decree; and if this
should deviate, as it sometimes does, from the moral principles
laid down in the Koran, it must nevertheless be obeyed; for no
appeal can be admitted against _Amer Seedna_, unless his Imperial
Majesty should discover an error in judgment, in which case he,
and he alone, can alter the decree. Where the Emperor resides,
he administers justice, in person, generally twice, and sometimes
four times a week, in the (M’shoire) place of audience, whither
all complaints are carried:[139] here access is easy; he listens
to every one, foreigners or subjects, men or women, rich or poor;
there is no distinction, every one has a right to appear before him,
and boldly to explain the nature of his case; and although his person
is considered as sacred, and established custom obliges the subject
to prostrate himself, and to pay him rather adoration than respect,
yet every complainant may tell his story without the least hesitation
or timidity; indeed, if any one is abashed, or appears diffident,
his cause is weakened in proportion. Judgment is always prompt,
decisive, plausible, and generally correct.

Civil law is administered by the (Cadi’s) judges, who have attached
to their court several (Lokiels) attornies; some of whom manage civil
controversies, others misdemeanors, and others matters relating to
religion, marriages, divorces, &c. These controversies are decided
by the laws of the Koran, than which, and the commentaries thereon,
they have no other written law. When two persons are engaged in a
law-suit, they retain their respective attornies; if they cannot
settle the dispute, they go to the Cadi, who generally sets on the
ground at the gate of his house, where any one may be present. The two
disputants stand before him, surrounded by their respective friends;
the plaintiff speaks first, the defendant replies: in these law-suits
the respective claims of the suitors are investigated. The Arabs
(however ignorant they may be in other respects) defend themselves,
whether right or wrong, so long as they have hope of gain, or fear of
loss; but their well laid plans to conceal the truth, and elude the
purposes of justice, are often exposed and rendered abortive by the
penetrating sagacity with which their pretensions are investigated
by the Cadi. The Cadi takes the evidence of the witnesses, and
pronounces sentence, which is sometimes without appeal. The culprit
is then taken into custody till he has satisfied the law; but in
cases where he is entitled to an appeal, it is made to the Emperor,
who takes the opinion of the (L’Alemma) learned, and decides the
controversy by pronouncing judgment. If the crime be punishable by
death, the sentence is either executed, or the criminal is delivered
over to the aggrieved, and may then purchase of him his life, by
money or contrition.

In places remote from the Emperor’s court, the (Kalif) viceregent,
or bashaw, has his M’shoire, where he administers justice,
sometimes according to the laws of the Koran, and at others as his
caprice dictates; for the same imperious despotism which the Emperor
too frequently exercises over his bashaws and alkaids, is exercised
by them over those who fall under their government; and the same is
done again by their subalterns, when they have it in their power;
thus tyranny proceeds progressively from the prince to the lowest
of his officers: these petty tyrants are dispersed over the whole
empire, and often give sanction to their extortions by effecting them
in the name of their master; the accumulation of wealth is the grand
object of all their desires; when they learn from their emissaries,
or spies, that an individual has acquired considerable property,
they contrive to find out some cause of accusation against him,
and by that means extort money from him. It often happens, however,
that those who amass the greatest sums in this way enjoy their ill
gotten wealth but a very short time; some unexpected order from
the Emperor, accusing them of crimes or misdemeanors, is made a
pretext for depriving them, in their turn, of their property, which
his majesty never fails to inform them can be of no use to them,
being more than sufficient to procure the necessaries of life,
and ought therefore to belong to the (Biet el Mel el Mooselmin)
Mohammedan treasury, into which it is accordingly delivered, never
more to return to its former possessor.

The influence of this mode of government upon the people is such
as might naturally be expected; they are suspicious, deceitful, and
cruel; they have no respect for their neighbours, but will plunder
one another whenever it is in their power; they are strangers to every
social tie and affection, for their hearts are scarcely susceptible of
one tender impression; the father fears the son, the son the father;
and this lamentable mistrust, and want of confidence, diffuses itself
throughout the whole community.

The pride and arrogance of the Moors is unparalleled; for though
they live in the most deplorable state of ignorance, slavery, and
barbarism, yet they consider themselves the first people in the world,
and contemptuously term all others barbarians. Their sensuality knows
no bounds: by the laws of the Koran, they are allowed four wives,
and as many concubines as they are able to support, but such is
their wretched depravity, that they indulge in the most unnatural and
abominable propensities;[140] in short, every vice that is disgraceful
and degrading to human nature, is to be found amongst them.

It must be confessed, however, that some of the well educated
Moors are courteous and polite, and are possessed of great suavity
of manners. They are affable and communicative where they repose
confidence; and if in conversation the subject of discussion be
serious, and the parties become warm in dispute, they have generally
the prudence to turn the subject in a delicate manner; they are slow
at taking offence, but when irritated, are noisy and implacable.

There is one noble trait in the character of this people which
I cannot avoid mentioning, that is fortitude under misfortune;
this the Moor possesses in an eminent degree; he never despairs; no
bodily suffering, no calamity, however great, will make him complain;
he is resigned in all things to the will of God, and waits in patient
hope for an amelioration of his condition. In illustration of this,
I will take the liberty to relate the following anecdote, as it will
also tend to show the great risks to which merchants are exposed in
traversing this country, and Sahara, or the Great Desert.

A Fas merchant (with whom I had considerable transactions) went,
with all his property, on a commercial speculation from Fas to
Timbuctoo; and after remaining at the latter place a sufficient time
to dispose of and barter his effects for gold dust and gum Soudan,
he set out on his return to Fas; after passing the Desert, he began
to congratulate himself on his good fortune and great success, when
suddenly a party of Arabs attacked the (cafila) caravan, and plundered
all who belonged to it, leaving the Fas merchant destitute of every
thing but the clothes he had on his back. During the interregnum,
between the death of the Sultan Yezzid and the proclamation of the
present Sultan Soliman, this man was plundered again on his way to
Mogodor, whither he was going to discharge some debts, and to dispose
of gum and other Soudanic produce. Four wives and a numerous family
of children rendered his case peculiarly distressing; yet, when
condoling with him a few days after his misfortunes had happened,
he very patiently observed (Ash men doua, Allah bra; u la illah,
ila Allah), What remedy is there? God willed it so, and there is none
but God. This man afterwards collected together what merchandize he
could procure on credit, and proceeded again to Timbuctoo, where he
realized much property, and travelling therewith through Wangara and
Houssa to Egypt, he was plundered a third time of all he possessed,
near Cairo, and reduced to the greatest distress: this last misfortune
he bore with the same fortitude as the former. He is now, however,
one of the principal merchants established at Timbuctoo.

The Moors are equal by birth; they know no difference of rank except
such as is derived from official employments,[141] on resigning
which the individual mixes again with the common class of citizens;
the meanest man in the nation may thus aspire, without presumption,
to the hand of the daughter of the most opulent, and accident, or
the caprice of the prince, may precipitate the latter into misery,
and elevate the former to prosperity and honour.

The Moors are, for the most part, more cleanly in their persons, than
in their garments. They wash their hands before every meal, which,
as they use no knives or forks, they eat with their fingers: half a
dozen persons sit round a large bowl of _cuscasoe_, and, after the
usual ejaculation (Bismillah) “In the name of God!” each person
puts his hand to the bowl, and taking up the food, throws it, by a
dexterous jerk, into his mouth, without suffering his fingers to touch
the lips. However repugnant this may be to our ideas of cleanliness,
yet the hand being always washed, and never touching the mouth in the
act of eating, these people are by no means so dirty as Europeans have
sometimes hastily imagined. They have no chairs or tables in their
houses, but sit cross-legged on carpets and cushions; and at meals,
the dish or bowl of provisions is placed on the floor. They have an
excellent dish, which they call El Kalia; it is prepared without salt;
the meat is cut in long slips, about an inch wide, and hung in the
air for a few days, when it is put into jars, which are filled with
clarified butter (Smin): this preparation will keep several years;
it is used by the rich and affluent when crossing the Desert to
Timbuctoo, or when on a journey to Mecca, and indeed whenever they
travel through a country where food is not readily procurable. Bread
is seldom used in the traverse of the Desert, but certain flat cakes,
similar to crumpets, but without leaven, are kneaded, and put on
embers, where they are half baked, and eaten with honey and butter
by the merchants and traders who accompany the caravans.

The women are not less cleanly than the men; for besides performing
the usual ablutions before and after meals, they wash their face,
hands, arms, legs, and feet, two or three times a day, which
contributes greatly to their beauty. The poorer classes, however,
look deplorable, and excite disgust. The faces of the old women
appear shrivelled, from the immoderate use of cosmetics and paint
during their youth.

The chief delight of the women is to attend diligently to their
children, and a numerous posterity is fervently desired. In obedience
to the injunction of Mohammed, mothers suckle their children two
years.[142] When circumstances oblige them to take a nurse, she is
not treated as a servant, but becomes one of the family, and passes
her days among the children she has suckled, by whom she is _ever
afterwards_ cherished and protected; the children are taught to
consider her as their own relation, and she is called (_Emuh d’el
Hellib_) the milk mother: in case of future adversity, she never
applies ineffectually for succour to these children, who consider
it a duty incumbent on them to assist her to the utmost extent
of their power. These milk-mothers are chosen from well formed,
young, and healthy women. The new born infant is not swaddled
up in a profusion of clothes, but is laid naked on a carpet, and
exposed in a lofty and spacious apartment, where, breathing freely,
it gradually acquires strength, while daily ablution renders it
vigorous and healthy. The females are not taught to read or write,
but learn early, and from experience, the domestic offices of the
household; their body and limbs are never confined by tight dresses,
their garments are loose and easy, suffering the limbs to have free
action, and the body to take its natural form; they are occupied
in grinding the corn, baking the bread, and preparing the food
for their husbands and family. Ancient custom, and a predilection
for the manners of their primogenitors, rendering these necessary
occupations pleasant and agreeable.

The male children, whose mode of education is equal throughout the
empire, on attaining the eighth year (not eighth day, as some have
asserted,) are circumcised, and then begin to study the Koran. He is
taught to fear and adore God, to respect old age and his parents;
he is initiated in the principles of hospitality, which virtues
being inculcated at school, and being afterwards seen constantly
practised in his father’s family, then cannot fail to be, at the
age of puberty, indelibly engraven on his heart. His inclination
directs him to learn the useful arts, the care of the flocks, the
tillage of the soil, or the exercise of arms; those engaged in the
latter are particularly noticed by the Emperor, and if they discover
a Machiavellian or despotic policy, they are generally promoted to
the government of some province or town.

The Moors are not very fond of games or diversions; they are often
seen sitting in the streets for hours together, sometimes in a
dull lethargic humour, at others so vociferous and full of action
with each other, that a person unacquainted with their manner would
suppose they were going to fight.

Their usual games are leap-frog, jumping, and foot-ball; the last is
the favourite diversion, at which they do not seek to send the ball
to a goal, but kick it up, and amuse themselves with it, without
any definitive purpose.

Of their military exercises the (lab el Borode) riding full speed,
and firing, is the only one; this is performed by all those who
keep horses; a party starts off together, and running full gallop
fire their muskets, stopping short close to some wall, those being
considered the best horsemen who approach nearest the wall, and
stop shortest; they then return, load again, and renew the race:
this is the mode after which they charge an enemy.

In the markets and public streets are seen expert jugglers, who
perform astonishing feats of _leger-de-main_ with most curious and
unaccountable deceptions: the province of Suse is most celebrated
for these arts.

Certain theatrical orators go about the most busy parts of the cities,
and arrest the attention of the passengers by declamation. Some of
these players personify all the various characters of a drama with
exquisite spirit and humour. In the evening these amusements are laid
aside and the Assfæhna, or dancing boys, excite the attention of
the populace; these boys are accompanied by a governor, or master,
who is indispensibly of a musical turn, and is accompanied by
a kettle-drum, a flute made of a reed, and similar in sound to
the pandean pipe, and an instrument with two strings, somewhat
like the Greek lyre. These dancers are habited in gaudy attire,
and move their feet in dancing without taking them off the ground,
but gradually proceeding forwards, till they, by a signal from their
chief, vault into the air, and perform various evolutions somewhat
similar to the tumblers at Sadler’s Wells. Decency forbids the
recital of what usually occurs after this entertainment is terminated.

Amongst the Arabs the girls dance in a very superior style; the
Arabian ladies of the Mograffra tribe, as well as those of Woled
Abbusebah, eminently excel. I remember passing a night in one of
their douars, on the confines of Sahara, with a large party of Arabs,
and instead of going to sleep, the Sheik of the douar sent for six
elegant females, who engaged our admiration till the morning. Judging
of the movements of these dancing Arabs with the sentiments of an
Englishman, they would be thought somewhat lascivious; but the manners
and customs of the country reconciles to propriety these spirited
movements. Signor Andrea de Christo, a Venetian merchant, was with
me, and declared that he had never seen better dancing in Italy.

When a Mooselmin is inclined to marry, he makes enquiry of some duena
or confidential servant respecting the person of her mistress, and
if he receive a satisfactory description of the lady, an opportunity
is sometimes procured to see her at a window, or other place; this
interview generally determines whether the parties are to continue
their regards; if the suitor be satisfied with the lady, he seeks an
occasion of communicating his passion to the father, and proposes
to marry his daughter. The father’s consent being obtained,
he sends presents to the lady, according to his circumstances,
which being accepted, the parties are supposed to be betrothed,
and marriage follows.

Of the marriage ceremony much has been said by various authors. The
bridegroom is mounted on a horse, with his face covered, surrounded
by his friends, and those of the parents, who run their horses,
and fire their muskets at the feet or face of the bridegroom; the
(Tabla) kettle drum, the (Erb’eb) triangle, an instrument similar to
the Greek lyre, (having however but two strings,) and a rude kind of
flute, form the band of music; whilst the friends of the married party
dance and jump about, twirling their muskets in the air, and otherwise
discovering their satisfaction. This ceremony being terminated,
the parties go to the house of feasting, where the evening is passed
in conviviality, till the bride and bridegroom retire to rest. The
sheets are afterwards produced, somewhat indecently, as a proof of
the virginity of the bride, and exhibited in triumph to the relations.

It is not expected that the woman should have a fortune or a
settlement; but if the father be rich, he generally gives a dowry
to his daughter, and a quantity of pearls, rubies, diamonds, &c. The
dowry remains the property of the female, and in case of a divorce, by
consent of the husband, is returned to her: these separations proceed
from various causes, as barrenness, the disappointment of expectation,
incapability of performing the domestic duties, or incompatibility
of disposition. Separation, however, not originating in the above
causes, is reprobated as immoral and disreputable. A plurality of
wives is allowed in all Mohammedan countries; the lawful number is
limited by the Koran to four, in addition to which they are allowed
as many concubines as they can support; in this latitude of luxury,
however, they seldom indulge. The Emperor, the princes, and some
of the bashaws, have often four wives, but _even with them_ this
number encreases _gradually_; thus, the first wife, after having had
a child, or when her bloom has passed, or the marks of age appear,
makes way for a young one, who is taught to respect the former,
who still remains mistress of the household; when the second lady
loses her bloom, she is supplanted by a third, and the third by a
fourth; so that the rich and independant Mooselmin, however old he
be himself, has generally a young wife, or a young concubine,[143]
to cherish him; and this, they say, enables them to enjoy life longer
than the Christians; for they maintain, that as an old woman destroys
the vigour of a man, a young woman encreases it; but these luxurious
debauchees, these devotees to the pleasures of the fair sex, from
their irregular excesses, are often, about the age of fifty, and
sometimes before, totally incapable of performing the duties of the
matrimonial contract; under these circumstances, stimulating drugs,
and aromatic compositions are in vain resorted to, and the wretched
man becomes at once the victim of inflamed desire, and impotency.

It must not, however, be imagined, that this insatiable desire for
young females pervades the mass of the people; Mooselmin, in general,
are satisfied with one wife, and, in a tract of country possessing a
population of one hundred thousand souls, a hundred men will scarcely
be found who keep four. Such is the state of polygamy in this country.

With regard to the (Kadeem[144]) concubines, they are generally
black women, purchased originally at Timbuctoo; they reside in
the house with the wives, performing the menial offices of the
domestic establishment. The children of these concubines, when not
the master’s offspring, are born slaves, and inherited by him,
who either keeps them for the purpose of marrying them to some black
slave of his own, or sells them in the public market; this latter
mode of disposing of them, however, is seldom practised, except
in cases of necessity; for although the law gives great latitude
to masters having slaves, yet the children are generally brought
up under the mother’s care, and become members of the family;
by serving at an early age in domestic occupations, they earn their
living by their work; for in a country where the necessaries of life
are prohibited from exportation,[145] the expense of maintenance is
inconsiderable: so that a large and numerous family is a blessing,
and the more numerous the greater the blessing. Living on simple
food, for the most part of the farinaceous kind, their appetites
are easily satisfied: their wants are few, and their resources many.

This system of prohibiting the exportation of provisions does not,
however, as might be supposed, reduce their value; for it has been
observed, in the reign of Seedy Mohammed ben Abd Allah, when the
prohibition was enforced only when a scarcity was anticipated, that
during the prohibition the price of corn rose; the Arab farmers,
preferring a market and sale to Europeans for dollars, to the
tardiness of sale for domestic consumption, kept their corn in their
Matamores till an exportation was again permitted, and then brought
it to market. Neither is there policy in the prohibition, (except the
Mohammedan principle of policy be admitted, that of promoting the
poverty of the people or community), for by it the agriculturists
not having a sufficient market for the whole produce of his land,
he cultivates but a third or a fourth part, leaving the remaining
part fallow; and even this fourth part is found to produce quite as
much as is necessary for the domestic consumption. The same argument
applies to the other articles of produce, viz. sweet almonds, dates,
raisins, figs, olive oil, &c. Accordingly, since their prohibition,
the immense plantations of these articles in all the provinces,
particularly in Suse, where they abound, have been neglected, and
are gradually decreasing, the produce being more than the domestic
demand, insomuch, that the price is insufficient to pay the labour
of gathering; for among this abstemious and parsimonious people,
it would be difficult to find the individual who would give two
shillings for the same quantity of provision of one kind, that he
could procure of another kind for one shilling.

The women are not so much confined as has been generally imagined;
they frequently visit their relations and friends,[146] and
have various ways of facilitating intrigues; thus, if a lady’s
(rahayat) sandals be seen at the door of an apartment, the husband
himself dare not enter; he retires into another room, and directs
the female slave to inform him when her (Lela) lady is disengaged,
which is known by the sandals being taken away. On the other hand
when an ill-disposed husband becomes jealous or discontented with
his wife, he has too many opportunities of treating her cruelly;
he may tyrannize over her without control; no one can go to her
assistance, for no one is authorised to enter his Horem without
permission. Jealousy or hatred rises so high in the breast of a Moor,
that death is often the consequence to the wretched female who has
excited (perhaps innocently) the anger of her husband. The fate of
those women who are not so fortunate as to bear a male child is too
often to be lamented; those who do, are treated with extraordinary
respect, the father being careful not to ill-treat the mother of
his son or heir. A father, however fond of his daughter, cannot
assist her, even if informed of the ill-treatment she suffers; the
husband alone is lord paramount: if, however, he should be convicted
of murdering his wife, he would suffer death, but this is difficult
to ascertain, even should she bear on her the marks of his cruelty,
or dastardly conduct, for who is to detect it? Instances have been
known where the woman has been cruelly beaten and put to death,
and the parents have been informed of her decease as if it had
been occasioned by sickness, and she has been buried accordingly;
but this difficulty of bringing the men to justice holds only among
the powerful bashaws and persons in the highest stations; and these,
to avoid a retaliation of similar practices on _their_ children,
sometimes prefer giving their daughters in marriage to men of an
inferior station in life, who are more amenable to justice.

The etiquette of the court of Marocco does not allow any man to
mention the word Death to the Emperor; so that when it be necessary
to communicate to him the news of the decease of any Mohammedan, the
courtiers thus express themselves: (Ufah Ameruh) he has completed his
destiny or his period; to which the reply is (Allah eê erhammoh)
God be merciful to him. When a Jew dies, the Moors express it by
(Maat bel Karan), the son of a cuckold is dead. On the death of a
Christian, if he bore a good character, they say (Maat Mesquin),
the inoffensive man is dead; but if he was unpopular, or disliked,
(Maat el Kaffer) the infidel is dead.

All persons at this court who have no faith in Mohammed being
considered as infidels, a stigma is attached to their names when
uttered before the Emperor; accordingly they say (Lihudi ashawk
asseedi. El Kaffer ashawk asseedi.) He is a Jew, _ashawk_, Master. He
is an Infidel, _ashawk_, Master. This term _ashawk_ is an Arabic
idiom, and signifies, “I beg pardon for mentioning so degraded or
contemptible a name in my master’s presence.”

There is a ridiculous prejudice throughout this country, which extends
as far as the Nile El Abeede, or Nile of Soudan, in considering the
word _five_ as indecorous; it is therefore never mentioned in the
Emperor’s presence, nor even to any prince, bashaw, or powerful man:
the speaker expressing himself thus (Arbat u Wahud) i.e. Four and one.

The number 5 is emblematical of the hand of power or tyranny; so that
the poor Jews, who are treated in this country somewhat worse than
dogs in Christian countries, have a hand with the fingers spread
out, painted on their doors or houses, as an amulet to charm away
oppression. Accordingly (Khumsa alik), “Five be upon thee, or the
hand of power be upon thee,” is a curse or malediction frequently
conferred by the Moors on the oppressed Jews.

The imperial revenue consists of the following imposts:

1st. (_Ska u Lashor_,) Two per cent. on camels, horses, mules,
asses, cattle, sheep, goats, &c. and ten per cent. on corn and the
produce of land. The payment of this branch of the revenue which is
the most considerable, is made either in cash or in kind, optional
in the subject.

2nd. (_Daira’s and Sokra’s_,) Fines and presents, viz. Fines
levied at discretion by the bashaws of provinces, alkaids of cities
and towns, and douars, and others employed by them; these consist
in satisfaction for offences; thus, if two men quarrel, and blood
be spilt in the fray, half the property of the aggressor is often
exacted as a fine for disturbing the peace. If a traveller be robbed,
the douar, or encampment, where the robbery was committed, is fined
in double the sum, viz. the sum stolen is returned to the robbed,
and an equal sum is paid to the bashaw for the imperial treasury. The
inhabitants of the douar are then left to discover the robbers,
and recover of them the property stolen; the beneficial effects of
this salutary law must be evident to every man, but particularly
to those who have frequently travelled through this country, and by
their own experience have seen and felt the influence which it has
on every individual, and the interest that is diffused throughout
the community to protect travellers from plunder. In an extensive
champaign country like this, where the population of the provinces
consists of encampments in the plains, open to the attack of robbers,
and undefended, there would be no security were it not for the good
effects of this law, which renders every individual a guard to the
property of the person sojourning in the district of which he is
an inhabitant.

A traveller may exact a fine from a douar for inhospitable treatment,
by making a complaint to the bashaw under whose government the Sheik
of the douar lives.

3d. Legal disputes. Considerable sums are presented to the bashaws,
alkaids, &c. to procure their attention to the interest of the
parties disputing, and to accelerate the termination. Thus a douceur
to a bashaw of a few hundred dollars, will sometimes give a man as
much advantage over his antagonist, as would be gained in England
by the retaining of an eminent counsel to plead his cause. These
douceurs are often paid to ministers by persons desirous to obtain
some privilege from the Emperor, and are usually regulated according
to the rank of the applicant, and the importance of the favour to
be conferred. The ministers, and other persons in authority, do not
conceal their operations; but will tell you what you are to pay for
such a privilege or favour, which has at least this good effect,
that you have a certain _quid pro quo_, and you are not seduced,
under false promises, to attend on ministers ineffectually: your
business is expedited generally to your satisfaction. A knowledge
of the ministers, and of the spirit of the court, as well as the
character of the Emperor, is, perhaps, indispensibly necessary to
ensure success. When these sums and douceurs have been repeatedly
given, and have, by accumulation, become considerable, a pretext is
seldom wanting to attack these bashaws, cadis, alkaids, and other
officers, for some misdemeanor, or for mal-administration of justice,
and they are accordingly heavily mulcted; but they readily pay the
fine, which thus ultimately forms a part of the imperial revenue,
that they may again enter into their oppressive offices.

In cases of dispute, which come into the province of the civil law,
the cadi determines the case; and the retaining, in such cases, able
(Lokiels) pleaders, is attended with similar advantages, as with
us. In these disputes, however, a paper or two, written in the most
concise manner, is all that is necessary; the wheels of justice are
not clogged with such volumes of cases and briefs as with us.

4th. Immense presents are occasionally made by the bashaws, alkaids,
&c. to the Emperor, to secure the imperial favor, and to enable them
to hold their places against the attacks continually made by others,
who spare no expense in presenting, through the ministers, their
claims for preferment. The bashaw Ben Hammed, who governed Duquella
in the reign of the present Emperor’s father, Seedy Mohammed,
every Friday, as the Emperor came out of the mosque, presented him
with a large wedge of pure gold of Soudan.

5thly. The fish called Shebbel (similar to salmon), the produce of the
great rivers, viz. the El Kose, the Seboo, the Morbeya, the Tensift,
and the river Suse, pay to the imperial treasury a heavy duty; but
that duly is generally farmed to some wealthy individual, who pays
about 20 per cent. on the value of the fish caught, or gives so much
per annum for the privilege of fishing in the rivers.

6th. _El Beb_, or gate-duty, an impost of from (one blanquil to two
ounces) 1½_d._ to 1_s._ on every camel-load of merchandize carried
out or brought into any city or town.

7th. (_Gizzia_,) The poll-tax levied on the Jews, viz. the pro rata
of every Jew is calculated according to his property, by a committee
appointed by themselves. This tax may amount to about ten per cent. on
their income or profits.

8th. (_El Worella_.) The hereditary tax. The Emperor is heir to
all the estates of his subjects who die without heirs; so that at
the termination of the plague, in 1800, he gained an incalculable
accession of wealth in gold, silver, and in estates, many of which
latter he has since given to the (Jamaat) mosques. This property of
the mosques is called _Wak’f_, a term significant of any thing,
the right of which continues in the original proprietor, but the
profit issuing from it belongs to some charitable institution;
so that the _mosque lands_ are now extensive, and, consequently,
the priests are amply provided for.

9th. Duties on the importation of merchandize from Europe, and on
the exportation of the produce of the country. On the former, the
regulation is generally 10 per cent., which is paid in kind, except
only on iron, steel, Buenos Ayres hydes, lead, and sulphur, which
pay a duty on importation of three dollars per quintal. The duties on
the produce of the country are regulated by the option of the Emperor.

  The duty on Wax now is       12²⁄₁₂ per cent.

           on Bitter Almonds    2

           on Gum               3

              Oil            }
              Sweet Almonds  }
              Raisins        }
              Figs           } now prohibited from exportation.
              Dates          }
              Corn           }
              And all kinds  }
              of Provisions  }

10th. All ambassadors, envoys, consuls, merchants, and, in short,
every individual who presents himself to the Emperor, whether in a
public or private capacity, must necessarily be accompanied with
a present, a custom established from time immemorial in Africa,
as well as in the East; and these presents are in proportion to
the magnitude of the negociation. The king of Spain, during the
reign of Seedy Mohammed ben Abd Allah, the father of the reigning
Emperor, sent presents to an enormous amount, in order to purchase
the friendly alliance of the Emperor, and to induce him to continue
the exportation of grain to Spain.

11th. In addition to all these sources of revenue, may be mentioned
the duties on the exportation of cattle and vegetables to our garrison
of Gibraltar, and on a few similar supplies to Spain and Portugal.

Before the present Emperor ascended the throne, the produce of the
country was allowed to be exported from all the ports on the coast,
and formed a very considerable source of revenue; the duties on
grain alone, from Dar El Beida, in one year, amounted to 722,000
dollars. The exportation from the ports of Arzilla, El Araiche,
Mamora, Rabat, Fedella, Azamor, Mazagan, Saffy, Mogodor, and Santa
Cruz, in Suse, were not quite so considerable. The present prohibition
of the exportation of grain, together with all the articles enumerated
above, to which may be added, wool, flax, and cotton, cannot be a
proof of the Emperor’s avarice, a passion ascribed to him by many;
as, by allowing their exportation, and encouraging their cultivation,
an accession of several millions would annually be added to the
revenue of his empire.


[Footnote 126: Some persons have affirmed that the Berebber and
Shelluh languages are one and the same. I had considerable difficulty
in procuring incontestible proofs to the contrary; a specimen of
the difference will be seen by the vocabulary in the chapter on

[Footnote 127: Lat. N. 22°. See Map of the tract across the Desert.]

[Footnote 128: This dentifrice has been imported lately, and is sold
at Bacon’s Medicinal Warehouse, No. 150, Oxford Street.]

[Footnote 129: Whenever a blue, or gray-eyed Mooress is seen, she
is always suspected to be the descendant of some Christian renegade.]

[Footnote 130: _Mequinasia_, a woman of Mequinas.]

[Footnote 131: This is the _Lawsonia inermis_ of Linnæus.]

[Footnote 132: See some observations on this religion in a subsequent

[Footnote 133: When I visited these ruins, in my journey from the
Sanctuary of Muley Dris Zerone, near to which they are situated,
in the plains below, the jealousy of the (_Stata_) protecting
guide sent by the Fakeers to see me safe to the confines of their
district was excited, and he endeavoured to deter me from making any
observations, by insinuating that the place was the haunt of large
and venomous serpents, scorpions, &c. A great number of cauldrons
and kettles filled with gold and silver coins have been excavated
from these ruins.]

[Footnote 134: Besides the Catholic establishments in Marocco and
Mequinas, before mentioned, there is one at Tangier, and another
at Mogodor.]

[Footnote 135: Ajem in Arabic signifies Barbarian. Ajemi in the same
language signifies the Europeans; Wosh kat douee bel Ajemi? Do you
speak the Barbarian or European language?]

[Footnote 136: Mohammedans utter the word Allah with great respect,
sounding it long, and making a full stop after uttering it; they never
use the pronoun to signify the Supreme Being, but always repeat the
noun, and generally begin and end all religious sentences with the
word Allah.]

[Footnote 137: Jma signifies the conclusion of any thing; as the
conclusion of the week, and is the Arabic name appropriated to
Friday, or the Mohammedan day of rest; from the radical word Jamaa,
to collect or gather together. The Mohammedans name the days of
the week, first day, second day, and so on, calling Sunday El hed,
i.e. the first day; El thenine the second day, or Monday, &c. They do
not entirely shut their shops on Friday, but work less than on any
other day; they refuse, however, altogether to work for Christians,
unless particularly or clandestinely feed, when they will condescend
to do almost any thing.]

[Footnote 138: O believers! before ye pray, wash your faces, your
hands, and your arms to the elbows, and wipe yourselves from head
to feet. Vide _Koran_.]

[Footnote 139: It is customary here, as in the East, for every person
to accompany his complaint with (el Heddia) a present suited to his
condition; and none must appear without something, as it would be not
only contrary to the established usages, but highly disrespectful;
even such a trifle as three or more eggs is accepted.]

[Footnote 140: By the laws of the Koran, these crimes are punishable
by death; but they are so generally indulged in, as to be mutually
connived at.]

[Footnote 141: Persons bearing the name of Mohammed, which is
generally given to the first male child born in marriage, are always
addressed by the title of Seedy, which answers to Signor, or Monsieur;
even the Emperor himself observes this towards the meanest subject
that may happen to appear before him; when the name is Achmet, Aly,
Said, Kossem, &c. this honourable distinction is observed or not,
according to the situation and character of the person addressed. The
Jews, however, whatever their condition, must address every Mooselmin
with the term Seedy, or incur the danger of being knocked down;
while, on the other hand, the lowest Mooselmin would consider it a
degradation to address a Jew of the highest rank or respectability
by this title.]

[Footnote 142: “Let the mother suckle her child full two years,
if the child does not quit the breast; but she shall be permitted
to wean it with the consent of the husband.” Vide Koran.]

[Footnote 143: These young wives and concubines often find
opportunities clandestinely to cuckold their men or husbands.]

[Footnote 144: The k guttural, for when not guttural, the word
signifies _old_ or _worn out_.]

[Footnote 145: The supply of the garrison of Gibraltar, with bullocks,
&c. excepted.]

[Footnote 146: Women of rank, who reside in the towns, seldom walk
abroad, it being considered a degradation to the wife of a gentleman
to be seen walking in the street; when, however, they are going to
pay a visit, they have a servant, or slave, to accompany them.]

                             CHAPTER VIII.

_Some Account of a peculiar Species of Plague which depopulated West
Barbary in 1799 and 1800, and to the Effects of which the Author
was an eye-witness._

From various circumstances and appearances, and from the character of
the epidemical distemper which raged lately in the south of Spain,
there is every reason to suppose, it was similar to that distemper
or plague which depopulated West Barbary; for whether we call it by
the more reconcileable appellation of the epidemy, or yellow fever,
it was undoubtedly a plague, and a most destructive one, for wherever
it prevailed, it invariably carried off, in a few months, one-half,
or one-third, of the population.

It does not appear how the plague originated in Fas in the year
1799.[147] Some persons, who were there at the time it broke out, have
confidently ascribed it to infected merchandize imported into that
place from the East; whilst others, of equal veracity and judgment,
have not scrupled to ascribe it to the locusts which had infested
West Barbary during the seven preceding years,[148] the destruction
of which was followed by the (jedrie) small-pox, which pervaded
the country, and was generally fatal. The jedrie is supposed to be
the forerunner of this species of epidemy, as appears by an ancient
Arabic manuscript, which gives an account of the same disorder having
carried off two-thirds of the inhabitants of West Barbary about four
centuries since. But however this destructive epidemy originated,
its leading features were novel, and its consequences more dreadful
than the common plague of Turkey, or that of Syria, or Egypt. Let
every one freely declare his own sentiments about it; let him assign
any credible account of its rise, or the causes that introduced so
terrible a scene. I shall relate only what its symptoms were, what
it actually was, and how it terminated, having been an eye-witness
of its dreadful effects, and having seen and visited many who were
afflicted, and who were dying with it.

In the month of April, 1799, a dreadful plague, of a most destructive
nature, manifested itself in the city of Old Faz, which soon after
communicated itself to the new city. This unparalleled calamity,
carried off one or two the first day, three or four the second day,
six or eight the third day, and increasing progressively, until the
mortality amounted to two in the hundred of the aggregate population,
continuing _with unabating violence_, ten, fifteen, or twenty days;
being of longer duration in old than in new towns; then diminishing in
a progressive proportion from one thousand a day to nine hundred, then
to eight hundred, and so on until it disappeared. Whatever recourse
was had to medicine and to physicians was unavailing; so that such
expedients were at length totally relinquished, and the people,
overpowered by this terrible scourge, lost all hopes of surviving it.

Whilst it raged in the town of Mogodor, a small village (Diabet),
situated about two miles south-east of that place, remained
uninfected, although the communication was open between them: on the
_thirty-fourth day_, however, after its first appearance at Mogodor,
this village was discovered to be infected, and the disorder raged
with great violence, making dreadful havock among the human species
for _twenty-one_ days, carrying off, during that period, one hundred
persons out of one hundred and thirty-three, the original population
of the village, before the plague visited it; none died after this,
and those who were infected, recovered in the course of a month or
two, some losing an eye, or the use of a leg or an arm.

Many similar circumstances might be here adduced relative to the
numerous and populous villages dispersed through the extensive
Shelluh province of Haha, all which shared a similar or a worse
fate. Travelling through this province shortly after the plague had
exhausted itself, I saw many uninhabited ruins, which I had before
witnessed as flourishing villages; on making enquiry concerning
the population of these dismal remains, I was informed that in one
village, which contained six hundred inhabitants, four persons only
had escaped the ravage. Other villages, which had contained four
or five hundred, had only seven or eight survivors left to relate
the calamities they had suffered. Families which had retired to
the country to avoid the infection, on returning to town, when all
infection had apparently ceased, were generally attacked, and died;
a singular instance of this kind happened at Mogodor, where, after
the mortality had subsided, a corps of troops arrived from the city of
Terodant, in the province of Suse, where the plague had been raging,
and had subsided; these troops, after remaining three days at Mogodor,
were attacked with the disease, and it raged exclusively among them
for about a month, during which it carried off two-thirds of their
original number, one hundred men; during this interval the other
inhabitants of the town were exempt from the disorder, though these
troops were not confined to any particular quarter, many of them
having had apartments in the houses of the inhabitants of the town.

The destruction of the human species in the province of Suse was
considerably greater than elsewhere; Terodant, formerly the metropolis
of a kingdom, but now that of Suse, lost, when the infection was
at its height, about eight hundred each day: the ruined, but still
extensive city of Marocco,[149] lost one thousand each day; the
populous cities of Old and New Fas diminished in population twelve
or fifteen hundred each day,[150] insomuch, that in these extensive
cities, the mortality was so great, that the living having not time
to bury the dead, the bodies were deposited or thrown altogether
into large holes, which, when nearly full, were covered over with
earth. All regulations in matters of sepulture before observed were
now no longer regarded; things sacred and things prophane had now
lost their distinction, and universal despair pervaded mankind. Young,
healthy, and robust persons of full stamina, were, for the most part,
attacked first, then women and children, and lastly, thin, sickly,
emaciated, and old people.

After this violent and deadly calamity had subsided, we beheld
general alteration in the fortunes and circumstances of men; we
saw persons who before the plague were common labourers, now in
possession of thousands, and keeping horses without knowing how
to ride them. Parties of this description were met wherever we
went, and the men of family called them in derision (el wurata)
the inheritors.[151] Provisions also became extremely cheap and
abundant; the flocks and herds had been left in the fields, and
there was now no one to own them; and the propensity to plunder,
so notoriously attached to the character of the Arab, as well as to
the Shelluh and Moor, was superseded by a conscientious regard to
justice, originating from a continual apprehension of dissolution,
and that the El khere,[152] as the plague was now called, was a
judgment of the Omnipotent on the disobedience of man, and that it
behoved every individual to amend his conduct, as a preparation to
his departure for paradise.

The expense of labour at the same time encreased enormously,[153]
and never was equality in the human species more conspicuous than
at this time; when corn was to be ground, or bread baked, both were
performed in the houses of the affluent, and prepared by themselves,
for the very few people whom the plague had spared, were insufficient
to administer to the wants of the rich and independant, and they were
accordingly compelled to work for themselves, performing personally
the menial offices of their respective families.

The country being now depopulated, and much of the territory without
owners, vast tribes of Arabs emigrated from their abodes in the
interior of Sahara, and took possession of the country contiguous to
the river Draha, as well as many districts in Suse; and, in short,
settling themselves, and pitching their tents wherever they found
a fertile country with little or no population.

The symptoms of this plague varied in different patients, the variety
of age and constitution gave it a like variety of appearance and
character. Those who enjoyed perfect health were suddenly seized
with head-aches and inflammations; the tongue and throat became of a
vivid red, the breath was drawn with difficulty, and was succeeded
by sneezing and hoarseness; when once settled in the stomach, it
excited vomitings of black bile, attended with excessive torture,
weakness, hiccough, and convulsion. Some were seized with sudden
shivering, or delirium, and had a sensation of such intense inward
heat, that they threw off their clothes, and would have walked about
naked in quest of water wherein to plunge themselves. Cold water was
eagerly resorted to by the unwary and imprudent, and proved fatal
to those who indulged in its momentary relief. Some had one, two,
or more buboes, which formed themselves, and became often as large
as a walnut, in the course of a day; others had a similar number of
carbuncles; others had both buboes and carbuncles, which generally
appeared in the groin, under the arm, or near the breast. Those who
were affected[154] with a shivering, having no buboe, carbuncle,
spots, or any other exterior disfiguration, were invariably carried
off in less than twenty-four hours, and the body of the deceased
became quickly putrified, so that it was indispensably necessary to
bury it a few hours after dissolution. It is remarkable, that the
birds of the air fled away from the abode of men, for none were to
be seen during this calamitous period; the hyænas, on the contrary,
visited the cemeteries, and sought the dead bodies to devour them. I
recommended Mr. Baldwin’s[155] invaluable remedy of olive oil,
applied according to his directions; several Jews, and some Mooselmin,
were induced to try it, and I was afterwards visited by many, to
whom I had recommended it, and had given them written directions in
Arabic how to apply it: and I do not know any instance of its failing
when persevered in, even after the infection had manifested itself.

I have no doubt but the epidemy which made its appearance at Cadiz,
and all along the southern shores of Spain, immediately as the plague
was subsiding in West Barbary, was the same disorder with the one
above described, suffering, after its passage to a Christian country,
some variation, originating from the different modes of living,
and other circumstances; for nothing can be more opposite than the
food, dress, customs, and manners of Mohammedans and Christians,
notwithstanding the approximation of Spain to Marocco. We have been
credibly informed, that it was communicated originally to Spain,
by two infected persons, who went from Tangier to Estapona, a small
village on the opposite shore; who, after eluding the vigilance of
the guards, reached Cadiz. We have also been assured that it was
communicated by some infected persons who landed in Spain, from a
vessel that had loaded produce at L’araiche in West Barbary. Another
account was, that a Spanish privateer, which had occasion to land
its crew for the purpose of procuring water in some part of West
Barbary, caught the infection from communicating with the natives,
and afterwards proceeding to Cadiz, spread it in that town and the
adjacent country.

It should be observed, for the information of those who may be
desirous of investigating the nature of this extraordinary distemper,
that, from its character and its symptoms, approximating to the
peculiar plague, which (according to the before mentioned Arabic
record) ravaged and depopulated West Barbary four centuries since,
the Arabs and Moors were of opinion it would subside after the first
year, and not appear again the next, as the Egyptian plague does;
and agreeably to this opinion, it did not re-appear the second
year: neither did St. John’s day, or that season, affect its
virulence; but about that period there prevails along the coast
of West Barbary a trade wind, which beginning to blow in the month
of May, continues throughout the months of June, July, and August,
with little intermission. It was apprehended that the influence of
this trade wind, added to the superstitious opinion of the plague
ceasing on St. John’s day, would stop, or at least sensibly diminish
the mortality; but no such thing happened, the wind did set in, as
it invariably does, about St. John’s day; the disorder, however,
encreased at that period, rather than diminished. Some persons were of
opinion, that the infection maintained its virulence till the last;
that the decrease of mortality did not originate from a decrease of
the _miasma_, but from a decrease of population, and a consequent
want of subjects to prey upon; and this indeed is a plausible idea;
but admitting it to be just, how are we to account for the almost
invariable fatality of the disorder, when at its height, and the
comparative innocence of it when on the decline? for _then_, the
chance to those who had it, was, that they would recover and survive
the malady.

The old men seemed to indulge in a superstitious tradition, that
when this peculiar kind of epidemy attacks a country, it does not
return or continue for three or more years, but disappears altogether
(after the first year), and is followed the seventh year by contagious
rheums and expectoration, the violence of which lasts from three
to seven days, but is not fatal. Whether this opinion be in general
founded in truth I cannot determine; but in the spring of the year
1806, which was the seventh year from the appearance of the plague
at Fas in 1799, a species of influenza pervaded the whole country;
the patient going to bed well, and on rising in the morning, a thick
phlegm was expectorated, accompanied by a distressing rheum, or cold
in the head, with a cough, which quickly reduced those affected to
extreme weakness, but was seldom fatal, continuing from three to seven
days, with more or less violence, and then gradually disappearing.

During the plague at Mogodor, the European merchants shut themselves
up in their respective houses, as is the practice in the Levant;
I did not take this precaution, but occasionally rode out to take
exercise on horseback. Riding one day out of the town, I met the
Governor’s brother, who asked me where I was going, when every
other European was shut up? “To the garden,” I answered. “And
are you not aware that the garden and the adjacent country is full
of (Genii) departed souls, who are busy in smiting with the plague
every one they meet?” I could not help smiling, but told him,
that I trusted to God only, who would not allow any of the Genii
to smite me unless it were his sovereign will, and that if it were,
he could effect it without the aid of Genii. On my return to town in
the evening, the sandy beach, from the town-gate to the sanctuary of
Seedi Mogodole,[156] was covered with biers. My daily observations
convinced me that the epidemy was not caught by approach, unless that
approach was accompanied by an inhaling of the breath, or by touching
the infected person; I therefore had a separation made across the
gallery, inside of my house, between the kitchen and dining parlour,
of the width of three feet, which is sufficiently wide to prevent
the inhaling the breath of a person. From this partition or table
of separation I took the dishes, and after dinner returned them to
the same place, suffering none of the servants to come near me; and
in the office and counting-house, I had a partition made to prevent
the too near approach of any person who might call on business;
and this precaution I firmly believe to be all that is necessary,
added to that of receiving money through vinegar, and taking care
not to touch or smell infectious substances.

Fear had an extraordinary effect in disposing the body to receive
the infection; and those who were subject thereto, invariably caught
the malady, which was for the most part fatal. At the breaking out
of the plague at Mogodor, there were two medical men, an Italian and
a Frenchman, the latter, a man of science, a great botanist, and of
an acute discrimination; they, however, did not remain, but took the
first opportunity of leaving the place for Teneriffe, so that the
few Europeans had no expectation of any medical assistance except
that of the natives. Plaisters of gum ammoniacum, and the juice of
the leaves of the opuntia, or kermuse ensarrah, i.e. prickly pear,
were universally applied to the carbuncles, as well as the buboes,
which quickly brought them to maturity: many of the people of property
took copious draughts of coffee and Peruvian bark. The _Vinaigre de
quatre voleurs_ was used by many, also camphor, smoking tobacco,
or fumigations of gum Sandrac; straw was also burned by some, who
were of opinion, that any thing which produced abundance of smoke,
was sufficient to purify the air of pestilential effluvia.

During the existence of the plague, I had been in the chambers of
men on their death-bed: I had had Europeans at my table, who were
infected, as well as Moors, who actually had buboes on them; I took no
other precaution than that of separation, carefully avoiding to touch
the hand, or inhale the breath; and, notwithstanding what may have
been said, I am decidedly of opinion that the plague, at least this
peculiar species of it, is not produced by any infectious principle
in the atmosphere, but caught solely by touching infected substances,
or inhaling the breath of those who are diseased; and that it must
not be confounded with the common plague of Egypt, or Constantinople,
being a malady of a much more desperate and destructive kind. It has
been said, by persons who have discussed the nature and character
of the plague, that the cultivation of a country, the draining of
the lands, and other agricultural improvements, tend to eradicate or
diminish it; but at the same time, we have seen countries depopulated
where there was no morass, or stagnate water for many days journey,
nor even a tree to impede the current of air, or a town, nor any
thing but encampments of Arabs, who procured water from wells
of a great depth, and inhabited plains so extensive and uniform,
that they resemble the sea, and are so similar in appearance after,
as well as before sun-rise, that if the eye could abstract itself
from the spot immediately surrounding the spectator, it could not
be ascertained whether it were sea or land.

I shall now subjoin a few cases for the further elucidation of this
distemper, hoping that the medical reader will pardon any inaccuracy
originating from my not being a professional man.

CASE I.—One afternoon, I went into the kitchen, and saw the cook
making the bread; he appeared in good health and spirits; I afterwards
went into the adjoining parlour, and took up a book to read; in
half an hour the same man came to the door of the room, with his
eyes starting from his head, and his bed clothes, &c. in his hands,
saying, “open the gate for me, for I am (m’dorb) smitten.” I
was astonished at the sudden transition, and desired him to go out,
and I would follow and shut the gate. The next morning he sent his
wife out on an errand, and got out of bed, and came to the gate half
dressed, saying that he was quite recovered, and desired I would
let him in. I did not, however, think it safe to admit him, but told
him to go back to his house for a few days, until he should be able
to ascertain that he was quite well; he accordingly returned to his
apartments, but expired that evening, and before day-break his body
was in such a deplorable state, that his feet were putrefied. His
wife, by attending on him, caught the infection, having a carbuncle,
and also buboes, and was confined two months before she recovered.

CASE II.—L’Hage Hamed O Bryhim, the old governor of Mogodor,
had twelve or more children, and four wives, who were all attacked,
and died (except only one young wife); he attended them successively
to the grave, and notwithstanding that he assisted in performing
the religious ceremony of washing the body, he never himself caught
the infection; he lived some years afterwards, and out of the whole
household, consisting of wives, concubines, children, and slaves, he
had but one person left, which was the before mentioned young wife:
this lady, however, had received the infection, and was confined
some time before she recovered.

CASE III.—Hamed ben A—— was smitten with the plague, which
he compared to the sensation of two musket balls fired at him, one
in each thigh; a giddiness and delirium succeeded, and immediately
afterwards a green vomiting, and he fell senseless to the ground; a
short time afterwards, on the two places where he had felt as if shot,
biles or buboes formed, and on suppurating, discharged a fœtid black
pus: a (jimmera) carbuncle on the joint of the arm near the elbow
was full of thin ichor, contained in an elevated skin, surrounded by
a burning red colour; after three months confinement, being reduced
to a skeleton, the disorder appeared to have exhausted itself, and
he began to recover his strength, which in another month was fully
re-established. It was an observation founded on daily experience,
during the prevalence of this disorder, that those who were attacked
with a nausea at the stomach, and a subsequent vomitting of green
or yellow bile, recovered after suffering in various degrees, and
that those who were affected with giddiness, or delirium, followed
by a discharge or vomiting of black bile, invariably died after
lingering one, two, or three days, their bodies being covered with
small black spots similar to grains of gun-powder: in this state,
however, they possessed their intellects, and spoke rationally till
their dissolution.

When the constitution was not disposed, or had not vigour enough
to throw the miasma to the surface in the form of biles, buboes,
carbuncles, or blackish spots, the virulence is supposed to have
operated inwardly, or on the vital parts, and the patient died in
less than twenty-four hours, without any exterior disfiguration.

CASE IV.—It was reported that the Sultan had the plague twice during
the season, as many others had; so that the idea of its attacking
like the small-pox, a person but once in his life, is refuted: the
Sultan was cured by large doses of Peruvian bark frequently repeated,
and it was said that he found such infinite benefit from it, that he
advised his brothers never to travel without having a good supply. The
Emperor, since the plague, always has by him a sufficient quantity
of quill bark to supply his emergency.

CASE V.—H. L. was smitten with the plague, which affected him by
a pain similar to that of a long needle (as he expressed himself)
repeatedly plunged into his groin. In an hour or two afterwards, a
(jimmera) carbuncle appeared in the groin, which continued enlarging
three days, at the expiration of which period he could neither support
the pain, nor conceal his sensations; he laid himself down on a
couch; an Arabian doctor, applied to the carbuncles the testicles
of a ram cut in half, whilst the vital warmth was still in them;
the carbuncle on the third day was encreased to the size of a small
orange; the beforementioned remedy was daily applied during thirty
days, after which he resorted to cataplasms of the juice of the
(opuntia) prickly pear-tree, (feshook) gum ammoniac, and (zite el
aud) oil of olives, of each one-third: this was intended to promote
suppuration, which was soon effected; there remained after the
suppuration a large vacuity, which was daily filled with fine hemp
dipped in honey; by means of this application the wound filled up,
and the whole was well in thirty-nine days.

CASE VI.—El H——t——e, a trading Jew of Mogodor, was sorely afflicted;
he called upon me, and requested some remedy; I advised him to use oil
of olives, and having Mr. Baldwin’s mode of administering it,[157] I
transcribed it in the Arabic language, and gave it to him; he followed
the prescription, and assured me, about six weeks afterwards, (that
with the blessing of God) he had preserved his life by that remedy
only; he said, that after having been anointed with oil, his skin
became harsh and dry like the scales of a fish, but that in half an
hour more, a profuse perspiration came on, and continued for another
half hour, after which he experienced relief: this he repeated forty
days, when he was quite recovered.

CASE VII.—Moh——m’d ben A—— fell suddenly down in the street; he was
conveyed home; three carbuncles and five buboes appeared soon after in
his groin, under the joint of his knee, and arm-pits, and inside the
elbow; he died in three hours after the attack.

CASE VIII.—L. R. was suddenly smitten with this dreadful calamity,
whilst looking over some Marocco leather; he fell instantaneously;
afterwards, when he had recovered his senses, he described the
sensation as that of the pricking of needles, at every part wherein
the carbuncles afterwards appeared: he died the same day in defiance
of medicine.

CASE IX.—Mr. Pacifico, a merchant, was attacked, and felt a pricking
pain down the inside of the thick part of the thigh, near the sinews;
he was obliged to go to bed. I visited him the next day, and was
going to approach him, but he exclaimed, “Do not come near me,
for although I know I have not the prevailing distemper, yet your
friends, if you touch me, may persuade you otherwise, and that
might alarm you; I shall, I hope, be well in a few days.” I took
the hint of Don Pedro de Victoria, a Spanish gentleman, who was in
the room, who offering me a sagar, I smoked it, and then departed;
the next day the patient died. He was attended during his illness
by the philanthropic Monsieur Soubremont, who did not stir from his
bed-side till he expired; but after exposing himself in this manner,
escaped the infection, which proceeded undoubtedly from his constantly
having a pipe in his mouth.

CASE X.—Two of the principal Jews of the town giving themselves up,
and having no hope, were willing to employ the remainder of their
lives in affording assistance to the dying and the dead, by washing
the bodies and interring them; this business they performed during
thirty or forty days, during all which time they were not attacked:
when the plague had nearly subsided, and they began again to cherish
hopes of surviving the calamity, they were both smitten, but after
a few days illness recovered, and are now living.

From this last case, as well as from many others similar, but too
numerous here to recapitulate, it appears that the human constitution
requires a certain miasma, to prepare it to receive the pestilential

_General Observation._—When the carbuncles or buboes appeared to
have a blackish rim round their base, the case of that patient was
desperate, and invariably fatal. Sometimes the whole body was covered
with black spots like partridge-shot; such patients always fell
victims to the disorder, and those who felt the blow internally,
shewing no external disfiguration, did not survive more than a
few hours.

The plague, which appears necessary to carry off the overplus
of encreasing population, visits this country about once in every
twenty years: the last visitation was in 1799 and 1800, being more
fatal than any ever before known.

The Mohammedans never postpone burying their dead more than
twenty-four hours; in summer it would be offensive to keep them
longer, for which reason they often inter the body a few hours
after death; they first wash it, then lay it on a wooden tray,
without any coffin, but covered with a shroud of cotton cloth; it
is thus borne to the grave by four men, followed by the relations
and friends of the deceased, chaunting, (La Allah illa Allah wa
Mohammed rassul Allah.) There is no God but _the true_ God, and
Mohammed is his prophet. The body is deposited in the grave with the
head towards Mecca, each of the two extremities of the sepulchre
being marked by an upright stone. It is unlawful to take fees at
an interment, the bier belongs to the (Jamâ) mosque, and is used,
free of expense, by those who apply for it. The cemetery is a piece
of ground _uninclosed_, attached to some sanctuary, outside of the
town, for the Mohammedans do not allow the dead to be buried among
the habitations of the living, or in towns; they highly venerate the
burying-places, and, whenever they pass them, pray for the deceased.

_Diseases._—The inhabitants of this country, besides the plague
already described, are subject to many loathsome and distressing

Many of the cities and towns of Marocco are visited yearly by
malignant epidemies, which the natives call fruit-fevers; they
originate from their indulgence in fruit, which abounds throughout
this fertile garden of the world. The fruits deemed most febrile
are musk-melons, apricots, and all unripe stone fruits. _Alpinus,
de Medicina Egyptiorum_, says, “Autumno grassantur febres
pestilentiales multæ quæ subdole invadunt, et sæpe medicum et
ægrum decipiunt.”

_Jedrie (Small-pox)._—Inoculation for this disease appears to have
been known in this country long before we were acquainted with it in
Europe. The Arabs of the Desert make the incision for inoculation
with a sharp flint. Horses and cattle are very much subject to the
jedrie: this disease is much dreaded by the natives; the patient
is advised to breathe in the open air. The fatality of this disease
may proceed, in a great measure, from the thickness of the skin of
the Arabs, always exposed to the sun and air, which, preventing the
effort which nature makes to throw the morbid matter to the surface,
tends to throw it back into the circulation of the blood.

_Mjinen_ and _Baldness._—Children are frequently affected with
baldness; and the falling sickness is a common disease; the women are
particularly subject to it; they call it _m’jinen_, i.e. possessed
with a spirit.

_Head-ache, Bowel Complaints, and Rheumatism._—The head-ache is
common, but it is only temporary, arising generally from a suddenst
oppage of perspiration, and goes off again on using exercise, which,
in this hot climate, immediately causes perspiration. The stomach is
often relaxed with the heat, and becomes extremely painful, this they
improperly call (Ujah el Kulleb) the heart ache. They are frequently
complaining of gripings, and universal weakness, which are probably
caused by the water they continually drink; they complain also of
(Ujah el Adem) the bone-ache, rheumatism, which is often occasioned
by their being accustomed to sit on the ground without shoes.

_(Bu Telleese) Nyctalopia._—This ophthalmic disease is little known
in the northern provinces; but in Suse and Sahara it prevails. A
defect of vision comes on at dusk, but without pain; the patient
is deprived of sight, so that he cannot see distinctly, even with
the assistance of candles. During my residence at Agadeer, in the
quality of agent for the _ci-devant_ States General of the United
Provinces, a cousin of mine was dreadfully afflicted with this
troublesome disease, losing his sight at evening, and continuing in
that state till the rising sun. A _Deleim Arab_, a famous physician,
communicated to me a sovereign remedy, which being extremely simple,
I had not sufficient faith in his prescription to give it a trial,
till reflecting that the simplicity of the remedy was such as to
preclude the possibility of its being injurious: it was therefore
applied inwardly; and twelve hours afterwards, to my astonishment,
the boy’s eyes were perfectly well, and continued so during
twenty-one days, when I again had recourse to the same remedy,
and it effected a cure, on one administration, during thirty days,
when it again attacked him; the remedy was again applied with the
same beneficial effect as before.

_Ulcers and eruptions._—Schirrous ulcers, and other eruptions,
frequently break out on their limbs and bodies from the heated state
of the blood, which is increased by their constant and extravagant
use of stimulants; for whenever they sit down to meat, the first
enquiry is (Wosh Skune) Is it stimulating? if it be not, they will
not touch it, be it ever so good and palatable. These eruptions
often turn to leprous affections.

_The Venereal Disease._—The most general disorder, however, is the
venereal disease, which is said to have been unknown among them,
till the period when Ferdinand King of Castille expelled the Jews
from Spain, who coming over to Marocco, and suffering the Africans
to cohabit with their wives and daughters, the whole empire was,
as it were, _inoculated_ with the dreadful distemper; they call it
_the great disease_,[158] or _the woman’s disorder_; and it has now
spread itself into so many varieties, that, I am persuaded, there is
scarcely a Moor in Barbary who has not more or less of the virus in
his blood; they have no effectual remedy for it; they know nothing of
the specific mercury, but usually follow a course of vegetable diet
for forty days, drinking during that time decoctions of sarsaparilla,
which afford them a temporary relief. The heat of the climate
keeping up a constant perspiration, those who have this disorder,
do not suffer so much from it as persons do in Europe; and this,
added to their abstaining in general from wine, and all fermented
liquors, may be the cause of their being enabled to drag through
life without undergoing a radical cure, though they are occasionally
afflicted with aches and pains till their dissolution. From repeated
infection, and extreme negligence, we sometimes see noseless faces,
no remedy having been administered to exterminate the infection;
ulcers, particularly on the legs, are so common, that one scarcely
sees a Moor without them. I have heard many of them complain, that
they had never enjoyed health or tranquillity since they were first
infected. If any European surgeon happen to prescribe the specific
remedy, they generally, from some inaccuracy of interpretation,
want of confidence, or other cause, neglect to follow the necessary
regimen; this aggravates the symptoms, and they then discontinue
the medicine, from a presumption of its inefficacy; it has even
been asserted that mercury does not incorporate with the blood,
but passes off with the fæces, producing no salutary effect. In
cases of gonnorrhœa they apply, locally, (the Hendal) coloquinth,
which (assisted with tisanes and diuretics) is attended with most
beneficial effects.

The Bashaw Hayanie, an old man of 100 years of age, who governed
Suse and Agadeer part of the time when I was established there
(and who was a favourite of the Emperor Muley Ismael) has assured
me, that by compelling the Bukarie blacks to carry burdens up the
mountain to the town of Agadeer, in the heat of the day, they have
been cured of this disease. If this be true, it can be attributed
only to the profuse perspiration induced by violent exercise in a
hot country. The constant and general use of the warm bath may also
tend to assuage the virulence of this enemy to the human constitution.

_Leprosy._—Leprosy, called Jeddem, is very prevalent in Barbary;
people affected with it are common in the province of Haha, where oil
argannick is much used, which, when not properly prepared, is said
to heat the blood.[159] The lepers of Haha are seen in parties of
ten or twenty together, and approach travellers to beg charity. In
the city of Marocco there is a separate quarter, outside of the
walls, inhabited by lepers only. In passing through this place,
I observed that its inhabitants were not generally disfigured in
personal appearance; the women, when young, are extremely handsome;
some few have a livid, spotted, or cracked skin: they are sometimes
flushed in the face, and at others pale: when they appear abroad,
they assist their complexion with (el akker) rouge, and (el kahol)
lead ore, with which latter they blacken their eye-lashes and eye
brows, and puncture the chin from the tip to the middle of the lower
lip; but this practice, which they think increases their beauty,
rather disfigures them.

Leprosy being considered epidemical, those who are affected with it
are obliged to wear a badge of distinction whenever they leave their
habitations, so that a straw hat, with a very wide brim, tied on in
a particular manner, is the signal for persons not to approach the
wearer; the lepers are seen in various parts of Barbary, sitting on
the ground with a wooden bowl before them, begging; and in this way
they collect sometimes a considerable sum for such a country: they
intermarry with each other; and although the whole system is said
to be contaminated, yet they seldom discover any external marks of
disease, except those before-mentioned, and generally a paucity or
total want of eye-brows. On any change of weather, and particularly
if the sky be overcast, and the air damp, they will be seen sitting
round a fire, warming their bones, as they term it, for they ache
all over till the weather resumes its wonted salubrity.

_Elephantiasis and Hydrocele._—Persons affected with the
elephantiasis, dropsy, and hydrocele, are frequently met with,
particularly about Tangier, the water of which is said to occasion the
latter; and those who are recently affected with it, affirm, that it
leaves them on removing from the place.[160] During my stay once at
Tangier, after travelling through the country, I observed one of my
servants labouring under the disorder; on speaking to him about it,
and regretting that there was no physician to afford him relief,
he laughed, and made light of it, saying he hoped I would not stay
long in Tangier, as it was occasioned by the water of the place, and
would leave him as soon as we departed; which was actually the case,
for two days after our departure it had almost entirely subsided. The
elephantiasis has been thought a species of leprosy, for it desiccates
the epidermis of the legs, which swell and appear rugous.

_(El Murrar) Bile._—This is a very general disease, as well as all
those which proceed from a too copious secretion of bile. The Jews,
and the Mohammedans who are not scrupulous, use brandy made from
raisins or figs to remove the bilious sensation, which operates as
an anodyne. Senna, rhubarb, and succotrine aloes, mixed with honey,
are administered with temporary success.

_(Bu Saffra) Jaundice._—Men, as well as horses, having the jaundice,
are punctured with a hot iron, through the skin, at the joints. I
have seen both cured in six or seven days by this operation.

_(Tunia) Tape-worm._—This is a disease to which the people are
particularly subject; they take large quantities of (El Assel ou
Assheh) honey and worm-seed, which produces beneficial effects. The
children are generally afflicted with this disease; the eyes appear
hollow, with a whiteness of the adjacent skin.

_(Bu Wasir), Hæmorrhoides._—This disease is very general;
refrigerants are applied for its cure internally, and an unguent,
composed of oil of almonds, and the juice of the opuntia, or
prickly-pear tree.

_Hydrophobia_ is entirely unknown in West Barbary, which is the more
extraordinary, as dogs abound every where, are frequently destitute
of water, and suffer intolerably from heat and exposure to the sun.

_Hernia._—Cases of hernia are sometimes met with, though not so
frequently as in Europe.

They have no effectual remedy for any of the before mentioned
diseases; their whole materia medica consists, with little
exception, of herbs and other vegetables, from their knowledge
of the medical virtues of which much might be learned by European
physicians. Bleeding is a general remedy for various complaints;
the healthy let blood once a year. Scarification on the forehead,
at the back of the head, below the root of the hair, on the loins,
the breast, and the legs is generally practised in cases of violent
head-ache proceeding from an obstructed perspiration.

The classification of remedies among the Arabs is remarkably simple,
the two grand divisions are refrigerants and heating medicines:
they quote some ancient Arabian, who says,

  Shrub Dim           Wine produces blood.

  El Ham el Ham       Meat produces flesh.

  Khubs Adem          Bread produces bone.

  U el bakee makan    But all other things produce no good.


[Footnote 147: See the Author’s observations, in a letter to
Mr. Willis, in Gentleman’s Magazine, February 1805.]

[Footnote 148: See page 105.]

[Footnote 149: I have been informed that there are still at Marocco,
apartments wherein the dead were placed; and that after the whole
family was swept away the doors were built up, and remain so to
this day.]

[Footnote 150: There died, during the whole of the above periods,
in the city of Marocco, 50,000; in Fas, 65,000; in Mogodor, 4,500;
and in Saffy, 5,000; in all 124,500 souls!]

[Footnote 151: Des gens parvenues, as the French express it;
or upstarts.]

[Footnote 152: The good, or benediction.]

[Footnote 153: At this time I received from Marocco a caravan of
many camel loads of beeswax, in serrons containing 200 lbs. each;
I sent for workmen to place them one upon another, and they demanded
one dollar per serron for so moving them.]

[Footnote 154: M’drob is an idiom in the Arabic language
somewhat difficult to render into English; it is well known that
the Mohammedans are predestinarians, and that they believe in the
existence of spirits, devils, &c. their idea of the plague is,
that it is a good or blessing sent from God to clear the world of a
superfluous population—that no medicine or precaution can cure or
prevent it; that every one who is to be a victim to it is (mktube)
recorded in the Book of Fate; that there are certain Genii who
preside over the fate of men, and who sometimes discover themselves
in various forms, having often legs similar to those of fowls; that
these Genii are armed with arrows: that when a person is attacked
by the plague, which is called in Arabic l’amer, or the destiny
or decree, he is shot by one of these Genii, and the sensation of
the invisible wound is similar to that from a musquet-ball; hence
the universal application of M’drob to a person afflicted with the
plague, i.e. he is shot; and if he die, ufah ameruh, his destiny is
completed or terminated (in this world). I scarcely ever yet saw
the Mooselmin who did not affirm that he had at some time of his
life seen these Genii, and they often appear, they say, in rivers.]

[Footnote 155: Late British Consul in Egypt.]

[Footnote 156: A sanctuary a mile south-east of the town of Mogodor,
from whence the town receives its name.]

[Footnote 157: Mr. Baldwin observed, that whilst the plague ravaged
Egypt, the dealers in oil were not affected with the epidemy, and he
accordingly recommended people to anoint themselves with oil every
day as a remedy.]

[Footnote 158: In Arabic, el murd el kabeer, or el murd En’sâh.]

[Footnote 159: See page 138.]

[Footnote 160: I mention this, from its being the popular, and
generally received opinion of the natives only; the case of my
servant would, indeed, seem to favour such an opinion, but his cure
was probably owing to other causes.]

                              CHAPTER IX.

            _Some Observations on the Mohammedan Religion._

I shall not attempt to give a philosophical dissertation on the
tenets of the religion of Mohammed, a subject that has been often
ably discussed by various authors; but a few desultory observations
may, perhaps, be not improper in this place.

Many writers have endeavoured to vilify the Mohammedan religion, by
exposing the dark side of it, and their representations have been
transmitted to posterity by enthusiasts who, probably, have been
anxious to acquire ecclesiastical fame; but we shall, on a minute
examination of the doctrines contained in the Koran, find that it
approaches nearer to the Christian religion, in its moral precepts,
than any other with which we are acquainted. Indeed, were there as
many absurdities in this religion as some persons have attributed to
it, it is probable that it would not have extended itself over so
great a portion of the habitable globe; for we find it embraced,
with little exception, from the shores of West Barbary, to the
most eastern part of Bengal, an extent of upwards of 8000 miles;
and from the Mediterranean to Zanguebar and Mosambique, with the
exception of some nations of Pagans; neither is there any language
spoken and understood by so great a proportion of the population of
the world as that in which it is promulgated.

Koran, chap. vii.—“Forgive easily: command nothing but what is
just: dispute not with the ignorant”

Koran, chap. xi.—“O earth, swallow up thy waters: O heaven,
withhold thy rain; immediately the waters subsided, the ark rested on
Mount Al Judi, and these words were heard: Wo to the wicked nation!”

Chap. xiii.—“They who do good for evil shall obtain paradise
for their reward.”

From these extracts we see that the Mohammedans have some of the same
moral precepts laid down for their guidance which are inculcated
by the Gospel of Christ. They believe in the flood; they teach
forgiveness of injuries, justice, and rendering good for evil. The
nations which followed paganism were taught by Mohammed the unity
of God. He exhorted them to believe with the heart, that there is
only one God, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, eternal, and that
he is spiritual. That the angels are subtle, pure bodies, formed of
light; neither eating, drinking, or sleeping; not of different sexes;
having no carnal desires, nor degrees of relationship, and are of
various forms.

Mohammed maintained that Jesus Christ was a prophet, and that those
who believed it not were infidels. He says, the sacred books are 104,
of which the Almighty gave

  To Adam               10

  To Seth               50

  To Idris, or Enoch    30

  To Abraham            10

  To Moses               1, which is the Law

  To David               1

  To Jesus               1, which is the Gospel

  To Mohammed            1, the Koran;

and he asserts, that whoever rejects, or calls in question the divine
inspiration of any of the foregoing books, is an infidel. He says
also, that he who can lay his hand on his heart and say, “I fear
not the resurrection, nor am I in any concern about hell, and care
not for heaven,” is an incorrigible infidel.

Religion and the State are considered as twins, inseparable; if one
die, the other cannot survive.

The most refined and intelligent Mohammedans are not of opinion,
that God is the author of all good and evil; but maintain that every
man who follows the direct or good way, has the protecting eye of
God upon him, and that God is with him; but that, if he withdraw his
influence from any one, then evil or misfortune ensues; not actively
from God, but passively from the withdrawing of that protecting
influence; that this is an act of the Almighty, which cannot be easily
comprehended by our weak reason: and that it is not willed by him with
approbation, but necessarily. The Mohammedan thinks himself unworthy
to prostrate himself before God, until he be clean and undefiled:
this opinion makes ablutions so necessary; of which there are three
kinds: the first is El gasul (the g pronounced guttural), which is
an immersion of the whole body, and is performed by the affluent,
or those in easy circumstances; the second is El woden, which is a
washing of the hands, fingers, and arms, up to the elbows, the feet,
face, and head, the sexual parts, the mouth and nostrils, the toes,
separately and singly; and this should be repeated three times:
the third mode of purification is practised only in the Desert,
where the difference is the substitution of sand for water, as the
latter can seldom be procured there.

Charity is considered a cardinal virtue, and an indispensible duty:
those, however, who possess not five camels, or thirty sheep, and
200 pieces of silver, are not considered as obligated to give alms;
for it is held, that the alms-giver should not injure himself. It is
expected that a person of good property ought to give a muzuna[161]
in a mitkal, which is equivalent to 6_d._ in the pound, to the poor,
out of his annual profits, which being calculated at the end of the
sacred month of Ramadan, the people have ten days to prepare their
donations, when the feast of L’ashora commences, and the poor
go about to the inhabitants to collect their respective donations,
which they call (mtâa Allah) _God’s property_.[162]

During the fast of the moon, or month of Ramadan (which, from their
years being lunar, happens at various periods of the year), they
are very rigorous; it is necessary that the fast should be begun
with an intention in the heart to please God: during this month
they do not eat, nor even smell food, drink, smoke, nor communicate
with women, from the rising to the setting sun; but at night they
eat plentifully. Even those who indulge in wine at other times,
refrain from it in the sacred month of Ramadan.

Mohammed declared that the Jews, Christians, and Pagans, cannot be
saved, so long as they remain in infidelity and idolatry: of which
last, the Mohammedans accuse the Roman Catholics, who worship a
cross, or an image, carved by the hands of man: as to the English,
they seem not to have determined what denomination to give them; they
are commonly called infidels, who never pray; this opinion having
obtained among them because Protestants have no public chapels in
the Mohammedan towns in Africa, which the Catholics have, as already
mentioned. They have it on record, that the sultan of the English
(Richard Cœur de Lion) received from the Sultan Solhaden or Saladine,
or from Mohammed himself, the letter admitting him and his followers
as Mohammedans: but that the English king being engaged in various
negociations whilst in Palestine, he did not give so much attention
to the letter as was expected, and that after returning to England,
he still doubted whether he should embrace the Mohammedan doctrine,
or remain a Christian!

It is highly probable, in that age of fanaticism, when the holy
wars were undertaken, that the Sultan Saladine, apprehensive for the
cause of Mohammedanism, did make overtures to Richard; for it was the
custom in the days of Mohammed, and afterwards in the days of those
enthusiasts, to invite all powerful princes to embrace their religion.

The 2nd, 5th, and 9th chapters of the Koran declare a believer to be
one who embraces the Mohammedan faith (i.e. a belief in the divine
inspiration of the Prophets, of Jesus, and of Mohammed); this and
Islaemism are synonymous terms.

Koran, chap. v.—“If Jews and Christians believe, they shall be
admitted into paradise.”

1. Believe, implies a belief in one God, and of the day of judgment,
the two grand pillars of Islaemism.

2. Believe in Islaemism; this admits of various interpretations:
Islaem is performing obedience and prostration before God! in another
interpretation it implies Mohammedanism, or a belief in the divine
mission of Mohammed.

The generality of religions, which have made any progress in the
world, make it indispensable to believe in its own tenets: Mohammed,
although he naturally gives the preference to the religion of his
own forming, yet he has the liberality to acknowledge, that those who
have professed other religions may be saved, after suffering a degree
of chastisement or damage in the life to come, as it is termed by him.

“Whoever shall have professed any religion except Islaemism,
his belief shall not be acceptable to God, and he shall receive
damage in the life to come, or be not so well received, as if he
had professed Islaemism, or the law of peace and obedience.”

Although the Prophet reprobated the Jews as well as the Christians,
whom he accused of perverting the Scriptures, yet he took care
to keep up the latitudinarian principle of his own law, called
Dêne-el-Wasah (the extended doctrine) by believing the divine
inspiration of both the Old and New Testament, thus giving an
opportunity to the expounders of the law, to regulate themselves
according to circumstances.

The Mohammedans, when disputing with Christians, which they rarely
do, say, that Christians believe faith will save the soul: they
also believe so; and that if their religion is the true one, they
will go to Paradise; they tell us, if your’s be the true one, we
both shall go there, because we believe in the divinity of Christ,
but you do not believe in that of Mohammed, therefore, if faith
save the soul, we have the advantage of you in being, in any case,
on the safe side.[163]

The Mooselmin’s ideas of the Creator are grand and elevated. Whatever
is, exists either necessarily and of itself, and is God, or has not its
being from itself, and does not exist necessarily, and is of two sorts:
substance and accidents: substances are of two kinds, abstract and
concrete; abstract substances are, all spirits and intellectual beings:
concrete being the matter and form.

Whenever God is spoken of by the Mohammedans, as having form, eyes,
&c. it is meant, allegorically, to convey the idea of some particular

They deny that Christ was crucified.

Finally, the Mohammedan religion recommends toleration; and all
liberal Mohammedans insist that every man ought to worship God
according to the law of his forefathers. “If it pleased God,”
say they, “all men would believe; why then should a worm, a
wretched mortal, be so foolish as to pretend to force other men to
believe? The soul believes only _by the will of God_: these are the
true principles of Mohammedans.”

It must, however, be observed, that the principles here laid down
are not always the rule of action, any more than the sublime truths
inculcated by the Christian religion are altogether acted upon by
its professors.

Both religions acknowledge the greatness of God, and yet _bigotry is
so prevalent at Old Fas_, that if a Christian were there to exclaim
Allah k’beer, God is great, he would be invited immediately to add
to it, and Mohammed is his prophet, which, if he were inadvertently to
utter before witnesses, he would be compelled to become a Mohammedan,
and would be circumcised accordingly: so that Europeans should be
extremely cautious, when unprotected, or not in the suite of an
ambassador, what words they ever repeat after a Mohammedan, even if
ignorant of the meaning thereof. I do not apprehend, however, that
it is necessary to observe this caution in any part of the empire
except at Old Fas, where bigotry, as before observed, _predominates_.

Martin Martinius, the jesuit, and Abraham Ecchellensis, professor
of Oriental languages at Rome in the 17th century, tax the Koran
with asserting, that God himself prays for Mohammed; this absurdity
has probably originated in an incorrect translation of the Koran,
published about 270 years since, which translates, “may the blessing
of God be upon thee, may the prayers of God be upon thee:” the
same Arabic word (Sollah) which signifies peace or blessing, when
applied to a man, signifies prayer. Sollah Allah ala Seedna Mohammed,
signifies, “pray to God through our master Mohammed,” not,
“the prayers of God are upon Mohammed.”

It has been said by Maccarius, in his Theolog. Polemic. p. 119, that
Mohammed does not acknowledge any hell. Why then does he explain the
seven gates of hell, mentioned in the Koran, chap. xv.? which are an
emblem of the seven deadly sins, and of their various punishments;
for, according to the Arabian prophet, hell has seven gates,
allegorically, and heaven has seven heavens, or degrees of happiness;
the highest and chiefest of which, according to the Mohammedans,
is to see God. The (Gehennume) hell of Mohammed is not an _eternal_

Monsieur de St. Olon, ambassador from the King of France at Marocco,
says, in his description of the kingdom of Marocco, chap. ii.—“The
Mohammedans maintain, that by washing their head, hands, and feet,
they are purified from all sin:” but this is an error, and I may
presume, from the nature of the assertion, that the Ambassador, like
many others, who are sent to Mohammedan countries, knew nothing of
the Arabic language, and that he was obliged to negotiate through
some Jewish interpreter. The washing is merely a necessary ceremony,
and is similar to our custom of going washed and clean to church;
it is a purifying of the shell, or the outward man, prayers are a
purifying of the kernel or inward man; as by purifying the kernel,
the amendment of the heart is implied.

With regard to spirits or devils (called Jin, Sing. and Jinune (pl.);
Sale translates Genii, which is the word Jin, with the vowel point
thus, جنِ jinee), Philip Guadagnolo,[164] in his apology for
the Christian religion, p. 291, asserts, that the Koran is full of
contradictions, from what it says about devils in the chapter called
_the chapter of Devils_; but this is really the chapter of spirits
(Genii, spirits), for of these Mohammedans admit three kinds,
besides the departed souls of men, called Rôh Benadam, viz.

1. Lucifer, the chief of the devils, is called Shetan.

2. All rebellious or deformed spirits belonging to Shetan are
called Iblis.

The 3d kind are called Genii, in Arabic Jinune; they are both good
and bad, offensive and inoffensive, and assume various forms. The
good are called Melik.

Of sins, the Mooselmin affirm _envy_ to have been the first committed
in heaven and on earth; they say Iblis envied Adam; when God ordered
all Angels to honour him, he tacitly condemned God; and expostulated
with him on ordering him, who was made of fire, to adore or honour
the first man, who was made from earth. ‘Now,’ said the wretch
Iblis, ‘it is not just that the superior being should honour the
inferior;’ and he was cast down from heaven for his disobedience:
thus envy was the first sin in heaven.

Kabel and Habel (the Arabic names of Cain and Abel) offered sacrifice
to God; the offerings of Habel met with a more favourable reception;
Kabel envied him and killed him; so envy first occasioned infidelity
in heaven, and murder on earth.

The heighth of the celestial happiness is to see God; all those
elegant descriptions of beautiful virgins, rivers flowing with honey,
gardens of delicious fruits, &c. which are said by some to compose the
happiness of the Mohammedan paradise, are allegorical descriptions.

Chap. xl.—“Whoever shall believe and do good works, whether man
or woman, shall enter paradise.”

Thus we see that the fate of the Mohammedan women is not altogether
so deplorable as some Christians have made it.

Peter Cevaller, in his _Zelus Christi contra Saracenos_, p. 137,
speaking of Mohammed, says—“This madman places Haman in the time
of Pharoah, which is such a proof of his ignorance, as ought to put
him and all his beastly followers to an eternal silence.”

Peter Cevaller, it appears, was not apprised that Pharaoh was
a general name for all the kings of the Pharoah dynasty, which
continued to reign in Egypt many centuries. The Mohammedans,
moreover, have many traditions about a man of the name of Haman,
who was a general of one of the Pharaohs.

Bartholomew of Edessa, in p. 442 of the _Varia Sacra_, published by
Stephen le Moine, reproaches Mohammed with saying, that the blessed
Virgin became pregnant by eating dates:

Koran, chap. xix.—“Remember what is written of Mary. We sent to
her our spirit, (or angel,) in the shape of a man; she was frightened,
but the angel said to her, O Mary! I am the messenger of your Lord,
and your God, who will give you an active and prudent son. She
answered, How shall I have a son without knowing any man? The angel
replied, God has said it, the thing shall happen; it is easy to
your Lord, and your son himself shall be a proof of the almighty
power of God. Then she conceived, and retired for some time into
a solitary place, near a date-tree, and her labour-pains began
forthwith; but the angel said, Do not afflict thyself; shake the
date-tree, and gather the dates; eat them, drink water, and wash
your eyes.” Now this passage, which is the one alluded to, does
not say that the pregnancy proceeded from the eating of the dates,
although the dates eased the pains of pregnancy. Hence, probably,
that superstitious African tradition, that when the Virgin Mary was
in pain, she exclaimed, O that I had some dates! and immediately the
exclamation, or letter O, was marked on the stone of the fruit.[165]

_Dog_ and _hog_ are synonymous terms of contempt or degradation
among the Mohammedans: they are the two unclean animals; and if
either of them drink out of a cup, it must be washed. They will not
sit down where a dog has been, nor will they wear the skin of the
animal, even if made into leather. Some men of rank, however, keep
greyhounds, and other dogs for hunting; but seldom let them go into
those apartments of their houses, where the women are, for they say,
no angel or benediction comes to any place where a dog is.

In the xivth chap. of the Koran Mohammed makes Abraham beg of God
to protect Mecca, and to make it a place of peace or safety (aman
المعان in the original) to all the world. The learned Robert
of Retz, who translated the Koran in the 16th century, has rendered
this word, Aman or Hammon, and hence the prophet has absolutely
been accused of _placing Mecca_ in the country of the Hammonites,
and consequently abused for his geographical ignorance, as if any man
of common understanding could so far mistake the place of his birth,
a place he had lived in so long, had conquered, and from whence he
had made so many eruptions against his neighbours. The word Aman in
the original is _a consecrated place, or place of faith, of safety,
of refuge, of protection_. Birds, fish, or animals, are not allowed
to be killed in such places, neither is blood to be spilt therein.

Mohammed has also been accused of contradicting himself, in saying,
sometimes, that he could read, and at others, that he could not; and
the following passage of the Koran (ch. xlvii.) is thence produced
as evidence that he could read: God is introduced as saying to
Mohammed—“God knows what you do, and what you read.”[166] But
the whole is a mistake, both of the version and of the annotator,
for in the original Arabic, God does not speak to Mohammed, but
the latter speaks to other men, and says, “God knows what ye do,
and what ye meditate,” (not read).

With regard to marriage, the Koran (chap. iv.) allows four wives:
“Receive in marriage such women as you like, two, three, or four
wives, at the most. If you think you cannot maintain them equally,
marry only one.” (This subject has been elucidated in a preceding
chapter, it is therefore unnecessary to say any thing further upon
it here).

It has been said by Euthymius Zygabenus, and an anonymous author,
who wrote Mohammed’s life, in Sylburgh’s _Saracen._ p. 60,
that Mohammed, in his Koran, placed Moses amongst the damned; but
whoever has the least knowledge of Arabic, must know, by consulting
the Koran, that Moses is every where mentioned with great respect,
and the Mohammedans call him Seedna, i.e. _our Lord_ or _Master_.

From the foregoing observations, it will be perceived that the
principles of the Mohammedan religion are neither so pernicious nor
so absurd as many have imagined. They have sometimes been vilified
from error, or for the purpose of exalting the Christian doctrine;
but that doctrine is too pure and celestial to need any such aids.


[Footnote 161: Forty muzuna make one mitkal.]

[Footnote 162: In the evening of the feast of L’ashora, they
have a masquerade, during which the masquers proceed through the
different streets, and go to the houses, to collect charity: their
masks are made in a rude way, but the characters are well represented
throughout. Amongst them we generally find an English sailor, a French
soldier, a cooper, a lawyer, an apothecary, and a sheik or alkaid,
who determines all disputes, and whose decree is absolute.]

[Footnote 163: This is similar to the Catholic lady, who, worshipping
the picture of Satan alternately with that of the Virgin, declared
that her object was to secure a friend on both sides.]

[Footnote 164: He translated the Bible into Arabic in 1671.]

[Footnote 165: All date-stones have a circular mark on them, like
the letter O.]

[Footnote 166: Robert de Retz’s translation.]

                              CHAPTER X.

_Languages of Africa — Various Dialects of the Arabic Language —
Difference between the Berebber and Shelluh Languages —  Specimen
of the Mandinga — Comparison of the Shelluh Language with that of
the Canary Islands, and Similitude of Customs._

Yareb, the son of Kohtan,[167] is said to have been the first who
spoke Arabic, and the Mohammedans contend that it is the most eloquent
language spoken in any part of the globe, and that it is the one which
will be used at the day of judgment. To write a long dissertation
on this copious and energetic language, would be only to repeat what
many learned men have said before; a few observations, however, may
not be superfluous to the generality of readers. The Arabic language
is spoken by a greater proportion of the inhabitants of the known
world than any other: a person having a practical knowledge of it,
may travel from the shores of the Mediterranean sea to the Cape
of Good Hope, and notwithstanding that in such a journey he must
pass through many kingdoms and empires of blacks, speaking distinct
languages, yet he would find men in all those countries versed in
Mohammedan learning, and therefore acquainted with the Arabic; again,
he might cross the widest part of the African continent from west
to east, and would every where meet with persons acquainted with it,
more particularly if he should follow the course of the great river
called the Nile of the Negroes, on the banks of which, from Jinnie
and Timbuctoo, to the confines of Lower Egypt, are innumerable cities
and towns of Arabs and Moors, all speaking the Arabic. Again, were
a traveller to proceed from Marocco to the farthest shore of Asia,
opposite the islands of Japan, he would find the Arabic generally
spoken or understood wherever he came. In Turkey, in Syria, in Arabia,
in Persia, and in India, it is understood by all men of education;
and any one possessing a knowledge of the Korannick Arabic, might,
in a very short time, make himself master of the Hindostannee,
and of every other dialect of the former.

The letters of this language are formed in four distinct ways,
according to their situation at the beginning, middle, or end of
words, as well as when standing alone; the greatest difficulty,
however, to be overcome, is the acquiring a just pronunciation,
(without which no living language can be essentially useful), and to
attain which, the learner should be able to express the difference
of power and sound between what may be denominated the synonymous
letters, such as ط and ث with ت; ع with ا; ص with س; ض and
ظ with د; ه with ح; ڧ and ك with خ; غ with ر.

Besides these, there are other letters, whose power is extremely
difficult to be acquired by an European, because no language in Europe
possesses sounds similar to the Arabic letters ع غ خ, nor has any
language, except, perhaps, the English, a letter with the power of
the Arabian ث. Those who travel into Asia or Africa scarcely ever
become sufficiently masters of the Arabic to speak it fluently, which
radical defect proceeds altogether from their not learning, while
studying it, the peculiar distinction of the synonymous letters. No
European, perhaps, ever knew more of the _theory_ of this language
than the late Sir William Jones, but still he could not converse
with an Arabian, a circumstance of which he was not conscious until
he went to India. This great man, however, had he been told that his
knowledge of this popular eastern language was so far deficient, that
he was ignorant of the separate powers of its synonymous letters,
and consequently inadequate to converse intelligibly with a native
Arab, he would certainly have considered it an aspersion, and have
disputed altogether that such was the fact. Considering how much we
are indebted to the Arabians for the preservation of many of the
works of the ancients, which would otherwise have never, perhaps,
been known to us, it is really surprising that their language should
be so little known in Europe. It is certainly very difficult and
abstruse (to learners particularly), but this difficulty is rendered
insurmountable by the European professors knowing it only as a dead
language, and teaching it without due attention to the pronunciation
of the before mentioned synonymous letters, a defect which is not
likely to be remedied, and which will always subject the speaker to
incessant errors.

To shew the Arabic student the difference between the Oriental and
Occidental order of the letters of the alphabet, I shall here give
them opposite each other.

   1   Alif        ا    —   1   Alif       ا

   2   ba          ب    —   2   ba         ب

   3   ta          ت    —   3   ta         ت

   4   thsa        ث    —   4   tha        ث

   5   jim         ج    —   5   jim        ج

   6   hha         ح    —   6   hha        ح

   7   kha         خ    —   7   kha        خ

   8   dal         د    —   8   dal        د

   9   dsal        ذ    —   9   dth’al     ذ

  10   ra         ر    —   10   ra         ر

  11   za         ز    —   11   zain       ز

  12   sin        س    —   12   ta         ط

  13   shin       ش    —   13   da         ظ

  14   sad        ص    —   14   kef        ك

  15   dad        ض    —   15   lam        ل

  16   ta         ط    —   16   mim        م

  17   da         ظ    —   17   nune       ن

  18   ain        ع    —   18   sad        ص

  19   gain       غ    —   19   dad        ض

  20   fa         ف    —   20   ain        ع

  21   kaf        ق    —   21   r’gain     غ

  22   kef        ك    —   22   fa         ف

  23   lem        ل    —   23   kaf        ق

  24   mim        م    —   24   sin        س

  25   nun        ن    —   25   shin       ش

  26   waw        و    —   26   hha        ه

  27   he         ه    —   27   wow        و

  28   ya         ي    —   28   ia         ي

  29   lam-alif   لا   —   29    lam-alif   لا

Besides this difference of the arrangement of the two alphabets,
the student will observe that there is also a difference in the
punctuation of two of the letters: thus—

  Oriental.      Occidental.

   fa    ف         fa    ڢ

  kaf    ق        kaf    ڧ

Among the Western Arabs, the ancient Arabic figures are used, viz. 0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9: they often write 100 thus, 1 . .-200, 2 . .

To explain the force of the synonymous letters on paper would
be impossible; the reader, however, may form some idea of the
indispensable necessity of knowing the distinction by the few words
here selected, which to one unaccustomed to hear the Arabic language
spoken, would appear similar and undistinguishable.

   ENGLISH.                 ARABIC.                        ARABIC.

                        Rendered as near
                          to European
                          as the English
                        Alphabet will admit.

  A horse                 Aoud                               عودْ

  Wood                    Awad                             اعوادْ

  To repeat               Aoud                              عَودْ

  Fish                    Hout                              حُوتْ

  A gun                   Mokhalla                       امُكْحلَ

  A foolish woman         Mokeela                         مُخيلهَ

  A frying-pan            Makeela                           مَڧلُ

  A lion                  Sebah                          اَّلسبعْ

  Morning                 Sebah                          اَّلصبحْ

  Seventh                 Sebah                          اَّلسبعْ

  Hatred                  Hassed                           احسَدْ

  Harvest                 Hassed                            احصدْ

  Learning                Alem, or El Alem       العالمْ or عالمْ

  A flag                  El Alem                        الاعلامْ

  Granulated paste        Kuscasoe                         كسكْسُ

  The dish it is made in  Kuscas                           كسكاسْ

  Heart                   Kul’b                              ڧلبْ

  Dog                     Kil’b                              كلبْ

  Mould                   Kal’b                             ڧالبْ

  Captain                 Rice                           الرُايسُ

  Feathers                Rish                             الرُيش

  Mud                     Ris                              الغيسْ

  Smell                   Shim                             الشُمْ

  Poison                  Sim                          ألسمْ[168]

  Absent                  R’gaib                          الغايبْ

  Butter milk             Raib                          الرَّايبْ

  White                   Bëad                             اْبيضْ

  A black                 El Abd                           العبدْ

  Eggs                    Baid                            البَيضْ

  Afar-off                Baid                            ابْعيدْ

  A pig                   Helloof                           حلوڢْ

  An oath                 Hellef                            احلڢْ

  Feed for horses         Alf                             العّلڢ

  A thousand              Alf                                الڢْ

It is difficult for any one who has not accurately studied the
Arabic language, to imagine the many errors which an European
commits in speaking it, when self-taught, or even when taught in
Europe. Soon after my arrival in Africa, when I had not attained
the age of eighteen, I happened one day to be in the house of an
European gentleman who had then been in the country twenty years; an
Arab of the province of Tedla came in, when the former (at all times
desirous of exhibiting his knowledge of their language) addressed him,
and after making a long speech, the Arab very coolly replied, “I
entreat thee to speak Arabic, that I may understand thee (_tkillem
Eaudie b’lorbea besh en fhemik_).” This was interpreted to me
by a friend, who was present, and it made such a strong impression
on my mind, that I resolved to apply myself assiduously to discover
the reason why a person who spoke the language tolerably quick,
should be altogether so little understood, and I was some time
afterwards, by making various observations and trials, convinced
that the deficiency originated in the inaccuracy of the application
of the synonymous letters.

The ain ع and the غ r’gain cannot be accurately pronounced by
Europeans, who have not studied the language grammatically when
young, and under a native; I have, however, heard an Irishman,[169]
who did not understand it grammatically, but had acquired it by ear,
pronounce the latter equally as correct as any Arabian; but this was
a rare instance. He was in England whilst Elfie Bey was here, who,
as I was afterwards informed, had declared, that he was the only
European whose Arabic he could easily understand. The aspirated _h_,
and the hard _s_, in the word for _morning_ (sebah), are so much like
their synonymes, that few Europeans can discern the difference; the
one is consequently often mistaken for the other; and I have known a
beautiful sentence absolutely perverted through an inaccuracy of this
kind. In the words rendered _Hatred_ and _Harvest_, the two synonymes
of س and ص or _s_ hard and _s_ soft, are indiscriminately used by
Europeans in their Arabic _conversations_, a circumstance sufficient
to do away the force and meaning of any sentence or discourse.

The poetry as well as prose of the Arabians is well known, and has
been so often discussed by learned men, that it would be irrelevant
here to expatiate on the subject; but as the following description of
the noblest passion of the human breast cannot but be interesting to
the generality of readers, and without any exception to the fair sex,
I will transcribe it.

“Love (العشك) beginneth in contemplation, passeth to meditation; hence
proceeds desire; then the spark bursts forth into a flame, the head
swims, the body wastes, and the soul turns giddy. If we look on the
bright side of love, we must acknowledge that it has at least one
advantage; it annihilates pride and immoderate self-love: true love,
whose aim is the happiness and equality of the beloved object, being
incompatible with those feelings.

“Lust is so different from true love (العشك), and so far from
a perfection, that it is always a species of punishment sent by God,
because man has abandoned the path of his pure love.”

In their epistolary writing, the Arabs have generally a regular and
particular style, beginning and ending all their letters with the
name of God, symbolically, because God is the beginning and end of
all things. The following short specimen will illustrate this:

Translation of a letter written in the Korannick Arabic by
Seedy Soliman ben Mohammed ben Ismael, Sultan of Marocco, to his
Bashaw —— of Suse, &c. &c.

      “Praise be to the only God! for there is neither power, nor
             strength, without the great and eternal God.”

    [L.S. containing the Emperor’s name and titles, as Soliman ben
                    Mohammed ben Abdallah, &c. &c.]

“Our servant, Alkaid Abdelmelk ben Behie Mulud, God assist,
and peace be with thee, and the mercy and grace of God be upon thee!

“We command thee forthwith to procure and send to our exalted
presence every Englishman that has been wrecked on the coast of
Wedinoon, and to forward them hither without delay, and diligently
to succour and attend to them, and may the eye of God be upon thee!”

26th of the lunar month Saffer, year of the Hejira 1281.

(May 1806.)[170]

The accuracy of punctuation in the Arabic language is a matter
that ought to be strictly attended to; thus they maintain writing to
be the first qualification of a scholar, and that, from a want of
a due knowledge of punctuation, the Christians have misunderstood
the word of God, which says, “I have begotten thee, and thou art
my son.” This passage, they say, first stood as follows, (which
if the Scriptures had been originally written in Arabic would have
had some plausibility.)

“I have adopted thee, and thou art my prophet.” The difference of
punctuation in one word makes all this difference in signification,

  ٮٮ punctuated thus بن signifies _son_, and

  ٮٮ punctuated thus, نب signifies _prophet_.

It has been already observed, that the Mohammedans believe in Jesus
Christ, and that he was a prophet sent from God; but they acknowledge
no equal with God. The doctrine of the Trinity is incomprehensible
to them, hence they will not admit of the punctuation بن but allow
that of نب.

The foregoing observations will serve to prove the insufficiency of a
knowledge of this language, as professed or studied in Great Britain
when unaccompanied with a practical knowledge. These observations
may apply equally to the Persian language.[171]

If the present ardour for discovery in Africa be persevered in,
the learned world may expect, in the course of a few years, to
receive histories and other works of Greek and Roman authors, which
were translated into the Arabic language, when Arabian literature
was in its zenith, and have ever since been confined to some
private libraries in the cities of the interior of Africa, and in
Arabia. Bonaparte, aware of the political importance of a practical
knowledge of this language, has of late given unremitting attention
to the subject, and if we may believe the mutilated accounts which we
receive occasionally from France, he is likely to obtain from Africa
in a short period relics of ancient learning of considerable value,
which have escaped the wreck of nations.

Having said thus much with regard to the Arabic of the western
Arabs, which, with little variation, is spoken throughout all the
finest districts of North Africa, I shall proceed to say a few words
respecting the other languages spoken north of Sahara: these are the
Berebber and its dialects, viz. the Zayan and Girwan, and Ait Imure;
the Shelluh of Suse and South Atlas, all which, though latterly
supposed by some learned men to be the same, differ in many respects;
any one possessing a knowledge of the Berebber language might, with
little difficulty, make himself understood by the Zayan of Atlas,
the Girwan, or the Ait Imure; but the Shelluh is a different language,
and each so different from the Arabic, that there is not the smallest
resemblance, as the following specimen will demonstrate:


  Tumtoot     Tayelt     Ishira    A girl

  Ajurode     Ayel       Ishire    A boy

  Askan       Tarousa    Hajar     A thing

  Aram        Algrom     Jimmel    Camel

  Tamtute     Tamraut    Murrah    A woman

  Ishiar      Issemg’h   L’abd     A slave

  Aouli       Izimer     Kibsh     A sheep

  Taddert     Tikimie    Dar       House

  Ikshuden    Asroen     Lawad     Wood

  Eekeel      Akfai      Hellib    Milk

  Tifihie     Uksume     El Ham    Meat

  Buelkiel    Amuran     Helloof   A hog

  Abreede     Agares     Trek      A road

  Bishee      Fikihie    Ara       Give me

  Adude       Asht       Agi       Come

  Alkam       Aftooh     Cire      Go

  Kaym        Gäuze      Jils      Sit down

  Imile       Imeek      Serire    Little


  SHELLUH.              ARABIC                ENGLISH.

  Is sin Tamazirkt      Wash katarf Shelluh   Do you understand

  Uree sin              Man arf huh           I do not understand

  Matshrult             Kif enta              How are you?

  Is tekeete Marokshe   Wash gite min         Are you come from
                        Marockshe             Marocco?

  Egan ras              Miliah                Good

  Maigan                Ala’sh                Wherefore?

  Misimmink             As’mek                What is your name?

  Mensh kat dirk        Shall andik           How much have you

  Tasardunt             Borella               A mule

  Romi                  Romi                  An European

  Takannarit            Nasarani              A Christian

  Romi                  Kaffer                An infidel

  Misem Bebans          Ashkune mula          Who is the owner?

  Is’tkit Tegriwelt     Wash jite min         Are you come from
                        Tegriwelt             Cape Ossem?

  Auweete Imkelli       Jib Liftor            Bring the dinner

  Efoulkie              Meziana               Handsome

  Ayeese                El aoud               A horse

  Tikelline             El Baid               Eggs

  Amuran                Helloof               Hog

  Tayuh                 Tatta                 Camelion

  Tasamumiat            Adda                  Green lizard

  Tandaraman            Ertella b’hairie      Venemous spider

  Tenawine              Sfune                 Ships

Marmol says, the Shelluhs and Berebbers write and speak one language,
called Killem Abimalick,[172] the name of the person who was accounted
the inventor of Arabic letters; but the foregoing specimen, the
accuracy of which may be depended on, clearly proves this assertion to
be erroneous, as well as that of many moderns who have formed their
opinion, in all probability, on the above authority. Now, although
the Shelluh and Berebber languages are so totally dissimilar, that
there is not one word in the foregoing vocabulary which resembles its
corresponding word in the other language, yet, from the prejudice
which Marmol has established, it will still be difficult, perhaps,
to persuade the learned that such an author could be mistaken on
such a subject. My account therefore must remain for a future age to
determine upon, when the languages of Africa shall be better known
than they are at present; for it is not a few travellers occasionally
sent out on a limited plan that can ascertain facts, the attainment
of which requires a long residence, and familiar intercourse with
the natives. Marmol has also misled the world in saying that they
write a different language; the fact is, that when they write any
thing of consequence, it is in the Arabic, but any trifling subject
is written in the Berebber words, though in the Arabic character. If
they had any peculiar character in the time of Marmol, they have
none now; for I have conversed with hundreds of them, as well as
with the Shelluhs, and have had them staying at my house for a
considerable time together, but never could learn from any that a
character different from the Arabic had ever been in use among them.

In addition to these languages, there is another spoken at the Oasis
of Ammon, or Siwah, called in Arabic (الواح الغاربي) El Wah El Garbie,
which appears to be a mixture of Berebber and Shelluh, as will appear
from the list of Siwahan words given by Mr. Horneman,[173] in his
Journal, page 19, part of which I have here transcribed, to shew the
similitude between those two languages, whereby it will appear that the
language of Siwah and that of the Shelluhs of South Atlas are one and
the same language.

  ENGLISH.           SIWAHAN,               SHELLUH.
                   as given by Mr.
                  Horneman, p. 19.

  Sun                Itfuckt                Atfuct

  Head               Achfé                  Akfie

  Camel              Lgum                   Arume

  Sheep              Jelibb                 Jelibb

  Cow                Tfunest                Tafunest

  Mountain           Iddrarn                Iddra[174]

  Have you a horse?  Goreck Ackmar          Is derk Achmar?[175]

  Milk               Achi                   Akfie

  Bread              Tagor                  Tagora[176]

  Dates              Tena                   Tenie (sing.)

                                            Tena (plural.)

South of the Desert we find other languages spoken by the blacks;
and are told by Arabs who have frequently performed the journey
from Jinnie to Cairo, and the Red Sea, that thirty-three different
Negroe languages are met with in the course of that route, but that
the Arabic is spoken by the intelligent part of the people, and the
Mohammedan religion is known and followed by many; their writings
are uniformly in Arabic.

It may not be improper in this place, seeing the many errors and
mutilated translations which appear from time to time of Arabic,
Turkish, and Persian papers, to give a list of the Mohammedan moons
or lunar months, used by all those nations, which begin with the
first appearance of the new moon, that is, the day following, or
sometimes two days after the change, and continue till they see the
next new moon; these have been mutilated to such a degree in all
our English translations, that I shall give them, in the original
Arabic character, and as they ought to be spelt and pronounced in the
English character, as a clue whereby to calculate the correspondence
between our year and theirs. They divide the year into 12 months,
which contain 29 or 30 days, according as they see the new moon;
the first day of the month Muharam is termed راس العام Ras
Elame, i.e. the beginning of the year.

As we are more used to the Asiatic mode of punctuation, that will
be observed in these words.

  Muharam           مُحَارَمْ

  Asaffer           اَصاَفرْ

  Arabia Elule      الَّرابيع الَّوله

  Arabea Atthenie   الَّرابيع الَّثاني

  Jumad Elule       جوماد الول

  Jumad Athenie     جوماد الَّثاني

  Rajeb             راجب

  Shaban            شعبان

  Ramadan           رامدان

  Shual             شوال

  Du’elkada         دُلكعدهَ

  Du Elhagah        دُلحاجَهْ

The first of Muharram, year of the Hejira 1221, answers to the 19th
March of the Christian æra, 1806.

Among the various languages spoken south of the Desert, or Sahara,
we have already observed that there are thirty-three different ones
between the Western Ocean and the Red Sea, following the shores of
the Nile El Abide, or Niger: among all these nations and empires,
a man practically acquainted with the Arabic may always make himself
understood, and indeed it is the language most requisite to be known
for every traveller in these extensive regions.

The Mandinga is spoken from the banks of the Senegal, where that
river takes a northerly course from the Jibel Kumera to the kingdom of
Bambarra; the Wangareen tongue is a different one; and the Houssonians
speak a language differing again from that.

_Specimen of the difference between the Arabic and Mandinga
language; the words of the latter extracted from the vocabularies
of Seedi Mohammed ben Amer Soudani._

  ENGLISH.              MANDINGA            ARABIC.

  One                   Kalen               Wahud

  Two                   Fula                Thanine

  Three                 Seba                Thalata

  Four                  Nani                Arba

  Five                  Lulu                Kumsa

  Six                   Uruh                Setta

  Seven                 Urn’klu             Sebba

  Eight                 Säae                Timinia

  Nine                  Kanuntée            Taseud

  Ten                   Dan                 Ashra

  Eleven                Dan kalen           Ahud ash

  Twelve                Dan fula            Atenashe

  Thirteen              Dan seba            Teltashe

  Nineteen              Dan kanartée        Tasatash

  Twenty                Mulu                Ashreen

  Thirty                Mulu nintau         Thalateen

  Forty                 Mulu fula           Arbä’in

  Fifty                 Mulu fula neentan   Kumseen

  Sixty                 Mulu sebaa          Setteen

  Seventy               Mulu sebaa nintan   Sebä’in

  Eighty                Mulu nani           T’ammana’een

  Ninety                Mulu nani neentaan  Tasa’een

  One hundred           Kemi                Mia

  One thousand          Uli                 Elf

  This                  Neen                Hadda

  That                  Waleem              Hadduk

  Great                 Bawa                Kabeer

  Little                Nadeen              Sereer

  Handsome              Nimawa              Zin

  Ugly                  Nuta                Uksheen (k guttural)

  White                 Kie                 Bead

  Black                 Feen                Abeed, or khal

  Red                   Williamma           Hummer

  How do you do?        Nimbana mountania   Kif-enta

  Well                  Kantée              Ala khere

  Not well              Moon kanti          Murrede

  What do you want      Ala feeta matume    Ash-bright

  Sit down              Siduma              Jils

  Get up                Ounilee             Node

  Sour                  Akkumula            Hamd

  Sweet                 Timiata             Helluh

  True                  Aituliala           Hack

  False                 Funiala             Kadube

  Good                  Abatee              Miliah

  Bad                   Minbatee            Kubiah

  A witch               Bua                 Sahar

  A lion                Jatta               Sebaâ

  An elephant           Samma               El fele

  A hyæna               Salua               Dubbah

  A wild boar           Siwa                El kunjer

  A water horse         Mali                Aoud d’Elma

  A horse               Suhuwa              Aoud

  A camel               Kumaniun            Jimmel

  A dog                 Wallee              Killeb

  Hel el Killeb or the  Hel Wallee          Hel El Killeb
  dog-faced race

  A gazel               Tankeen             Gazel (g guttural)

  A cat                 Niankune            El mish

  A goat                Baâ                 El mâize

  A sheep               Kurenale            Kibsh

  A bull                Nisakia             Toôr

  A serpent             Saâ                 Hensh

  A camelion            Mineer              Tatta

  An ape                Ku’nee              Dzatute

  A fowl or chicken     Susee               Djez

  A duck                Beruee              El Weese

  A fish                Hihu                El hout

  Butter                Tulu                Zibda

  Milk                  Nunn                El hellib

  Bread                 Mengu               El khubs (k guttural)

  Corn                  Nieu                Zra

  Wine                  Tangee              Kummer (k guttural)

  Honey                 Alee                Asel

  Sugar                 Tobabualee          Sukar

  Salt                  Kuee                Mil’h

  Ambergris             Anber               Anber

  Brass                 Tass                Tass

  Silver                Kudee               Nukra

  Gold-dust             Teber               Tiber

  Pewter                Tass ki             Kusdeer

  A bow                 Kula                El kos

  An arrow              Binia               Zerag

  A knife               Muru                Jenui

  A spoon               Kulia               Mogerfa

  A bed                 El arun             El ferrashe

  A lamp                El kundeel          El kundeel

  A house               Su                  Ed dar

  A room                Bune                El beet

  A light-hole or       Jinnee              Reehâha

  A door                Daa                 Beb

  A town                Kinda               Midina

  Smoke                 Sezee               Tkan (k guttural)

  Heat                  Kandia              Skanna (k guttural)

  Cold                  Nini                Berd

  Sea                   Bedu baba           Bahar

  River                 Bedu                Wed

  A rock                Berri               Jerf

  Sand                  Kinnikanni          Rummel

  The earth             Binku               Dunia

  Mountain              Kuanku              Jibbel

  Island                Juchüi              Dzeera

  Rain                  Sanjukalaeen        Shta

  God                   Allah               Allah

  Father                Fa                  Ba

  Mother                Ba                  Ma

  Hell                  Jahennum            Jehennume

  A man                 Kia                 Rajil

  A woman               Musa                Murrah

  A sister              Bum musa            Kat (k guttural)

  A brother             Bum kia             Ka

  The devil             Buhau               Iblis

  A white man           Tebabu              Rajil biad

  A singer              Jalikea             Runai (r guttural)

  A singing woman       Jalimusa            Runaiah (r guttural)

  A slave               June                Abeed

  A servant             Bettela             Mutalem

Having now given some account of the languages of Africa, we shall
proceed to animadvert on the similitude of language and customs
between the Shelluhs of Atlas and the original inhabitants of the
Canary Islands. The words between inverted commas are quotations
from Glasse’s History of the Discovery and Conquest of the Canary

“The inhabitants of Lancerotta and Fuertaventura are social and
cheerful;” like the Shelluhs of Atlas; “they are fond of singing
and dancing; their music is vocal, accompanied with a clapping of
hands, and beating with their feet:” the Shelluhs resemble them
in all these respects; “Their houses are built of stone, without
cement; the entrance is narrow, so that but one person can enter at
a time.”

The houses of the Shelluhs are sometimes built without cement,
but always with stone; the doors and entrances are low and small,
so that one person only can enter.

“In their temples they offered to their God milk and butter.”

Among the Shelluhs milk and butter are given as presents to princes
and great men: the milk being an emblem of good will and candour.

“When they were sick (which seldom happened) they cured themselves
with the herbs which grew in the country; and when they had acute
pains, they scarified the part affected with sharp stones, and burned
it with fire, and then anointed it with goat’s butter. Earthen
vessels of this goat’s butter were found interred in the ground,
having been put there by the women who were the makers, and took
that method of preparing it for medicine.”

The custom of the Shelluhs on similar occasions is exactly similar;
the butter which they use is old, and is buried under ground many
years in (bukul) earthen pots, and is called budra: it is a general
medicine, and is said to possess a remarkably penetrating quality.

“They grind their barley in a hand-mill, made of two stones,
being similar to those used in some remote parts of Europe.”

In Suse, among the Shelluhs, they grind their corn in the same way,
and barley is the principle food.

“Their breeches are short, leaving the knees bare;” so are those
worn by the Shelluhs.

“Their common food was barley meal roasted and mixed with goats
milk and butter, and this dish they called Asamotan.”

This is the common food of the Shelluhs of Atlas, and they call it
by a similar name, Azamitta.

The opinion of the author of the History and Conquest of the Canary
Islands, is, that the inhabitants came originally from Mauritania,
and this he founds on the resemblance of names of places in Africa
and in the islands: for, says he, “Telde,[177] which is the name of
the oldest habitation in Canaria, Orotaba, and Tegesta, are all names
which we find given to places in Mauritania and in Mount Atlas. It
is to be supposed that Canaria, Fuertaventura, and Lancerotta,
were peopled by the Alarbes,[178] who are the nation most esteemed
in Barbary; for the natives of those islands named milk Aho, and
barley Temecin, which are the names that are given to those things
in the language of the Alarbes of Barbary.” He adds, that

“Among the books of a library that was in the cathedral of St. Anna
in Canaria, there was found one so disfigured, that it wanted both the
beginning and the end: it treated of the Romans, and gave an account,
that when Africa was a Roman province, the natives of Mauritania
rebelled and killed their presidents and governors, upon which
the senate, resolving to punish and make a severe example of the
rebels, sent a powerful army into Mauritania, which vanquished and
reduced them again to obedience. Soon after the ringleaders of the
rebellion were put to death, and the tongues of the common people,
together with those of their wives and children, were cut out, and
then they were all put aboard vessels with some grain and cattle,
and transported to the Canary islands.”[179]

The following vocabulary will shew the similarity of language between
the natives of Canaria and the Shelluhs (inhabitants of the Atlas
mountains south of Marocco).

      AND           OR

  Temasin         Tumzeen      Barley

  Tezzezes        Tezezreat    Sticks

  Taginaste       Taginast     A palm-tree

  Tahuyan         Tahuyat      A blanket, covering or petticoat

  Ahemon          Amen         Water

  Faycag          Faquair      Priest or lawyer

  Acoran          M’koorn      God

  Almogaren       Talmogaren   Temples

  Tamoyanteen     Tigameen     Houses

  Tawacen         Tamouren     Hogs

  Archormase      Akermuse     Green figs

  Azamotan        Azamittan    Barley meal fried in oil

  Tigot           Tigot        Heaven

  Tigotan         Tigotan      The Heavens

  Thener          Athraar      A mountain

  Adeyhaman       Douwaman     A hollow valley

  Ahico           Tahayk       A hayk or coarse garment

  Kabehiera       Kabeera      A head man or a powerful

  Ahoren             —         Barley meal roasted

  Ara                —         A goat

  Ana                —         A sheep

  Tagarer            —         A place of justice

  Benehoare, the name of the natives of Palma.

  Beni Hoarie, a tribe of Arabs in Suse between Agadeer and


[Footnote 167: This Kohtan is the Yoctan, son of Eber, brother to
Phaleg, mentioned in Genesis. Chapter 10, verse 25.]

[Footnote 168: The African Jews find it very difficult in speaking,
to distinguish between _shim_ and _sim_, for they cannot pronounce
the _sh_, (ش) but sound it like _s_ (س); the very few who have
studied the art of reading the language, have, however, conquered
this difficulty.]

[Footnote 169: Mr. Hugh Cahill.]

[Footnote 170: When they write to any other but Mohammedans, they
never salute them with the words “Peace be with thee,” but
substitute—“Peace be to those who follow the path of the true
God,” Salem ala min itaba el Uda.]

[Footnote 171: “One of the objects I had in view in coming to Europe
was to instruct young Englishmen in the Persian language. I however
met with so little encouragement from persons in authority, that I
entirely relinquished the plan. I instructed however (as I could not
refuse the recommendations that were brought to me) an amiable young
man, Mr. S——n, and thanks be to God, my efforts were crowned with
success! and that he, having escaped the instructions of _self-taught_
masters, has acquired such a knowledge of the principles of that
language, and so correct an idea of its idiom and pronunciation,
that I have no doubt after a few years residence in India he will
attain to such a degree of excellence, as has not yet been acquired
by any other Englishman.” Vide Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan,
vol. i. p. 200.]

[Footnote 172: Killem Abimalick signifies the Language of Abimalick.]

[Footnote 173: In reading Mr. William Marsden’s observations on
the language of Siwah, at the end of Horneman’s Journal, in page
190, I perceive that the short vocabulary inserted corresponds with
a vocabulary of the Shelluh language, which I presented to that
gentleman some years past.]

[Footnote 174: Plural Iddrarn.]

[Footnote 175: Or, Is derk ayeese?]

[Footnote 176: This is applied to bread when baked in a pan, or over
the embers of charcoal, or other fire; but when baked in an oven it
is called Agarom (g guttural.)]

[Footnote 177: Telde or Tildie is a place in the Atlas mountains,
three miles east of Agadeer; the castle is in ruins.]

[Footnote 178: The Alarbes, this is the name that the inhabitants
of Lower Suse and Sahara have, _El Arab_ or Arabs.]

[Footnote 179: One Thomas Nicols, who lived seven years in the Canary
Islands, and wrote a history of them, says that the best account he
could get of the origin of the natives, was that they were exiles
from Africa, banished thence by the Romans, who cut out their tongues
for blaspheming their gods.]

[Footnote 180: For further particulars see Glasse’s History of
the Canary Islands, 4to. page 174.]

                              CHAPTER XI.

_General Commerce of Marocco. — Annual Exports and Imports of the
Port of Mogodor. — Importance and Advantages of a Trade with the
Empire of Marocco. — Cause of its Decline. — Present State of
our Relations with the Barbary Powers._

The city of Marocco, besides its trade with the various districts
of the interior, receives the most considerable supplies of
European merchandize from the port of Mogodor, which is distant
from it four days journey, caravan travelling;[181] some of the
more valuable articles, however, are transported from Fas to the
Marocco market, such as muslins, cambricks, spices, teas, pearls,
coral, &c. and the elegant Fas manufactures of silk and gold. There
is a considerable market held at Marocco every Thursday, called
by the Arabs Soke-el-kumise,[182] which all articles of foreign
as well as home manufacture are bought and sold, also horses,[183]
horned cattle, slaves, &c. Samples of all kinds of merchandize are
carried up and down the market and streets of the city by the Delels,
or itinerant auctioneers, who proclaim the price offered, and when
no one offers more, the best bidder is apprised of his purchase,
the money is paid, and the transaction terminated.

The shops of Marocco are filled with merchandize of various kinds,
many of which are supplied by the merchants of Mogodor, who receive,
in return for European goods, the various articles of the produce
of Barbary for the European markets. The credit which was given by
the principal commercial houses of Mogodor to the natives has of
late considerably decreased owing to the change of system in the
government; for, in the reign of the present Emperor’s father, the
European merchants were much respected, and their books considered
as correct, so that a book debt was seldom disputed, and every
encouragement was given to commerce by that Emperor; but Muley
Soliman’s political principles differ so widely from those of his
father, that the most trifling transaction should now be confirmed
by law, to enable the European to be on equal terms with the Moor,
and to entitle him to recover any property, or credit given; these
measures have thrown various impediments in the way of commerce,
insomuch that credit is either almost annihilated, or transformed
into barter, which has necessarily thrown the trade into fewer hands,
and consequently curtailed it in a great degree. For the purpose
of showing at once the traffic carried on in the port of Mogodor,
I shall here give an accurate account of its exports and imports
during the years 1804, 1805, and the first six months of 1806,
which are carefully extracted from the imperial custom-house books.

                     IMPORTS INTO MOGODOR IN 1804.

  From London, 661 pieces, of from 40 to 50 yards each piece.

               210 pieces, scarlet or media grana, from 40 to 50 yards
                   each piece.

               150 pieces, plunkets, about 40 yards each piece.

  _Superfine Cloths._ — From London      50 pieces.

                             Leghorn     12

                             Other parts  —

                                          -- 62 pieces.

  _Long Ells._ — From London 640 pieces, coloured.

                              30         scarlet

                              60         embossed.

                     Leghorn 300         coloured.

  _Druggets._ — From London 40 pieces,

  _Red Cloth._ — From Amsterdam 17 pieces.


  _Creas._ — From London    902 pieces.

                  Amsterdam 765

                  Leghorn    60

                             --- 1115 pieces.

  _Plattilias._ — From London    1047 pieces.

                       Amsterdam 4708

                       Leghorn    650

                                 ---- 6405 pieces.

  _Brettagnias._ — From London     500 pair.

                        Amsterdam  400

                                   --- 900 pair.

  _Cambricks._ — From London 20 pair.

  _Muslins._ — From London     21

                    Amsterdam  20

                               -- 41 pieces.

  _Indian Blue Linens._ — From London    749 pieces.

                               Amsterdam  30

                                         --- 779 pieces.

  _Striped India Silk._ — From London 40 pieces.

  _Silk Velvets._ — From London   131 cubits.[184]

                         Leghorn  250

                                  --- 381 cubits.

  _Damask._ — From Leghorn    456 cubits.

                   Amsterdam  150

                              --- 606 cubits.

  _Raw Silk._ — From London   1150 lb.

                     Leghorn  1200

                     Lisbon    560

                              ---- 2910 lb.

  _Allum._ — From London 95524 lb.

  _Copperas._ — From London 91061 lb.

  _Sugar in loaves._ — From London    36966

                            Amsterdam  9653

                            Lisbon     9600

                                      ----- 56219 lb.

  _Raw Sugar._ — From London 7100

                      Lisbon 2100

                             ---- 9200 lb.

  _Iron._ — From London    8871 bars.

                 Amsterdam 1415

                 Leghorn    375

                           ---- 10661 bars, 522700 lb.

  _Gum Benzoin._ — From London 14239 lb.

  _Gum Lac._                   51800 lb.

  _Hardware._ — From London    19 cases.

                     Amsterdam  4 barrels

  _Gum Tragacant._ — From London    1058

                          Amsterdam  370

                                    ---- 1428 lb.

  _Pepper._ — From London 9231 lb.

  _Cloves._ — From London    6444

                   Amsterdam 1056

                             ---- 7504 lb.

  _Nutmegs._ — From London 712 lb.

  _Rhubarb._ — From London 246 lb.

  _Green Tea._ — From London    1310

                      Amsterdam  200

                                ---- 1510 lb.

  _Wrought Pewter._ — From London    5

                           Amsterdam 7

                                     - 12 casks

  _Tin Plates._ — From London 60 cases, 13875 pieces.

  _White Lead._ — From London 2530 lb.

  _Copper in sheets._ — From Amsterdam 1035 lb.

  _Thread._ — From Leghorn   800

                   Amsterdam 200

                             --- 1000 lb.

  _Mirrors, called in Holland Velt Spiegels._

    From Amsterdam 7250 dozen.

         Leghorn    350

  _Mirrors of various sizes._ — From Amsterdam 1750 pieces.

  _Earthen Ware._ — From Amsterdam 70 cases.

                         London    16 crates.

  _Wool Cards._ — From Amsterdam 210 dozen.

  _Dutch Knives._ — From Amsterdam 13738 dozen.

  _Brass Pans._ — From Amsterdam 550 lb.

  _Osnaburg Linen._ — From Amsterdam 180 pieces.

  _Irish Linen._ — From London   170 pieces.

                        Leghorn  150

                                 --- 320 pieces.

  _Lanthorns._ — From London 100 dozen.

  _Glass._ — From London 5 cases.

  _Red Lead._ — From London 1853 lb.

  _Calamine._ — From London 2100 lb.

  _Argol._ — From London 3 cases.

  _Paper._ — From Leghorn 27 bales.

  _Cotton._ — From Leghorn 2400 lb.

  _Tin in bars._ — From London 6000 lb.

  _Espique Romano._ — From Leghorn   3850

                           Amsterdam 3000

                                     ---- 6850 lb.

  _Coral Beads._ — From Leghorn 50 lb.

  _Amber Beads._ — From Leghorn    150

                        Amsterdam  100

                                   --- 250 lb.

  _Sal Ammoniac._ — From London 1200 lb.

  _Chaplets._ — From Leghorn 7 barrels.

  _Gold Lace._ — From Amsterdam 10 lb.

  _Looking Glasses, called bulls’ eyes._ — From Leghorn 4 barrels.

  _Silk Handkerchiefs._ — From London    100

                               Amsterdam  10

                               Leghorn   100

                                         --- 210 dozen.

  _Glasses._ — From Amsterdam 20

                    Leghorn    1

                              -- 21 cases.

  _Corrosive Sublimate._ — From Amsterdam 50

                                Leghorn   50

                                          -- 100 lb.

  _Venetian Steel._ — From Leghorn 2500 lb.

  _Hebrew Books._ — Leghorn 10 cases.

  _Romals._ — From London 286 pieces.

  _Baftas._ — From London 821 pieces.

                   Lisbon 350

  _Rouans._ — From Amsterdam 505 pieces.

  _China._ — From London    330 dozen cups and saucers.

                  Amsterdam  30 dozen ditto.

  _Cochineal._ — From London 375

                      Cadiz  700

                      Lisbon 230

                             --- 1305 lb.

  _Wire._ — From Amsterdam 5000 mass.

  _Copper Tea Kettles._ — From Amsterdam 119

  _Brazil Wood._ — From Lisbon 600 lb.

  _Iron Nails._ — From London    11573

                       Amsterdam  1000

                       Leghorn    1000

                                 ----- 13573 lb.

  _Deals._ — From Amsterdam 1886 pieces.

  _Empty Cases._ — From Amsterdam 900 cases.

  _Sealing Wax._ — From Amsterdam 20 lb.

  _Coffee Mills._ — From Amsterdam 20

  _Buenos Ayres Hides._ — From London 350

                               Cadiz  300

                                      --- 650 hides.

  _Mexico Dollars._ — From London    18000

                           Cadiz     47000

                           Lisbon    16000

                           Teneriffe 10000

                           Amsterdam  8000

                                     ----- 99000

Total value of Imports in 1804, £151450.


    _Sweet Almonds._ — To London      6853

                          Amsterdam 231638

                          Leghorn     4505

                          Lisbon     15524

                          Cadiz      61041

                          Teneriffe   2356

                                    ------ 321917 lb.

  _Bitter Almonds._ — To London    233019 lb.

                         Amsterdam 126607

                         Leghorn     2980

                                   ------ 362606 lb.

  _Gum Barbary._ — To London      99417

                      Amsterdam  213540

                      Leghorn     10254

                      Lisbon       2583

                      Marseilles   9642

                                 ------ 335436 lb.

  _Gum Soudan or Senegal, from Timbuctoo, by the caravans._

    To London     36416 lb.

       Amsterdam  59021 lb.

       Marseilles   519

                  ----- 95956 lb

  _Gum Sandrac._ — To London    16995

                      Amsterdam  9056

                      Leghorn    3314

                      Lisbon     2869

                                ----- 32234 lb.

  _Bees Wax._ — To London      1957

                   Leghorn    52616

                   Lisbon     11595

                   Marseilles 30022

                   Cadiz      93791

                   Teneriffe   4878

                              ----- 194859 lb.

  _Goat Skins._ — To London 12726 dozen.

  _Oil of Olives._ — To London     5850 lb.

                        Amsterdam 30757

                        Lisbon    14729

                        Teneriffe  5900

                                  ----- 57236 lb.

  _Cow and Calf Skins._ — To London     64376

                             Leghorn    41611

                             Marseilles 14496

                                        ----- 120483 lb.

  _Sheeps Wool._ — To Amsterdam  62972

                      Marseilles 29624

                      Teneriffe   5300

                                 ----- 97896 lb.

  _Ostrich Feathers._ — To London 555 lb.

  _Elephants Teeth._ — To Amsterdam 800 lb.

  _Pomegranate Peels._ — To London     2184

                            Amsterdam 44097

                                      ----- 46281 lb.

  _Dates, of the quality called Adamoh, from Tafilelt._

    To London 1129

       Lisbon 1305

              ---- 243 lb.

  _Raisins._ — To London 200 lb.

  _Worm Seed._ — To London  465

                    Lisbon 2468

                           ---- 2933 lb.

  _Rose leaves._ — To Amsterdam 138 lb.

  _Wild Thyme (Zater)._ — To Amsterdam 2860

                             Lisbon    1714

                                       ---- 4574 lb.

  _Glue._ — To Amsterdam 84 lb.

  _Anice-seeds._ — To London     200

                      Amsterdam 4650

                      Lisbon     829

                                ---- 5679 lb.

  _Fennel._ — To Amsterdam 856 lb.

  _Gingelin Seed._ — To London     460

                        Amsterdam 2044

                                  ---- 2504 lb.

  _Walnuts._ — To Lisbon 240 lb.

  _Straw._ — To Lisbon 24 bales.

  _Tallow._ — To Teneriffe 1465 lb.

  _Tallow Candles._ — To Teneriffe 350 lb.

  _String._ — To Teneriffe 2852 lb.

  Total value of Exports from Mogodor in 1804, in Europe, after paying
  freight, European duties, &c. £127679. sterling.

                     IMPORTS INTO MOGODOR IN 1805.

                            WOOLLEN CLOTHS.

  _Yorkshire Cloths._

  From London, Scarlet 300 demi-pieces from 20 to 25 yards each.

               Alto of various colours 970 demi-pieces from ditto
               to ditto.

               Tier blue, or plunkets   80 ditto.

               Superfine cloths         62 ditto.

               Long Ells               900 ditto.

               Embossed Purpetts        85 ditto.

  _German Cloths._ — From Leghorn and Amsterdam 22 pieces.

  _Nankeens._ — From Lisbon 1000 pieces.


  _Plattilias._ — From London    1300

                       Amsterdam 6050

                       Leghorn   1395

                                 ---- 8745 pieces.

  _Creas._ — From London    600

                  Amsterdam 788

                  Leghorn   550

                            --- 1938 pieces.

  _Rouans._ — From Amsterdam 618

  _Brettagnias._ — From London     625

                        Amsterdam 1000

                                  ---- 1625 pieces.

  _Baftas._ — From London 1600 pieces.

  _Romals._ — From London  1010

                   Leghorn  300

                           ---- 1310 pieces.

  _Muslins._ — From London 70 pieces.

  _Blue Linens._ — From Amsterdam 117 pieces.

  _Gum Benjamin or Benzoin._ — From London 19237 lb.

  _Stick-lack._ — From London    18546

                       Amsterdam  7959

                                 ----- 26505 lb.

  _Musk._ — From London 20 lb.

  _Raw Sugar._ — From London     6568

                      Teneriffe 10400

                                ----- 16968 lb.

  _Sugar in loaves._ — From London    7892

                            Amsterdam 3913

                            Lisbon    3759

                                      ---- 15564 lb.

  _Green Tea._ — From London    1420

                      Amsterdam  350

                                ---- 1770 lb.

  _Cloves._ — From London    10941

                   Amsterdam  2159

                   Leghorn     476

                             ----- 13576 lb.

  _Sal Ammoniac._ — From London 8941 lb.

  _Cochineal._ — From London 558 lb.

  _Tin in plates._ — From London 295 cases.

  _Tin in bars._ — From London 5114 lb.

  _Wrought Pewter._ — From London    7 barrels.

                           Amsterdam 5 ditto.

  _Iron._ — From London    10753 bars,

                 Amsterdam  2074

                           ----- 641756 lb.

  _Copperas._ — From London 147882 lb.

  _Allum._ — From London 93600 lb.

  _Raw Silk._ — From London    1300

                     Amsterdam  255

                     Leghorn   2478

                               ---- 4033 lb.

  _German Looking-glasses or Mirrors._

    From Amsterdam 18696

         Leghorn     600

                   ----- 19296 dozen.

  _Dutch Knives._ — From Amsterdam 12874 dozen.

  _Gum Tragacant or Dragon._

    From Amsterdam 150

         Leghorn   675

                   --- 825 lb.

  _Wire._ — From Amsterdam 3900 mass.

  _Cowries._ — From Amsterdam 32000 lb.

  _Needles._ — From Leghorn 200 million.

  _Red and While Lead._ — From London 3320 lb.

  _Brass Pans._ — From Amsterdam 1000 lb.

  _Thread._ — From Leghorn   1050

                   Amsterdam  430

                             ---- 1480 lb.

  _Arsenic._ — From London 1872 lb.

  _Silk Handkerchiefs._ — From London     93

                               Leghorn   100

                               Amsterdam  10

                                         --- 203 dozen.

  _Files._ — From London    200

                  Amsterdam 135

                            --- 335 dozen.

  _Lavender._ — From Leghorn 14800 lb.

  _Razors._ — From Leghorn 500 dozen.

  _Box Combs._ — From Leghorn 3600 dozen.

  _Amber Beads._ — From Leghorn 300 lb.

  _Coral._ — From Leghorn 50 lb.

  _Nails._ — From Amsterdam 1181 lb.

  _Wool Combs._ — From Amsterdam 2268 pair.

  _Padlocks._ — From Amsterdam 515 dozen.

  _British China._ — From London 40 dozen.

  _Osnaburgh Linens._ — From Amsterdam 50 pieces.

  _Swedish Steel._ — From Amsterdam 7000 lb.

  _Espiquo Romano._ — From Amsterdam 13088

                           Leghorn    5213

                                     ----- 18301 lb.

  _Hebrew Bibles._ — From Amsterdam 4 cases.

  _Dutch Boxes._

    Green Gin Boxes containing 12 square bottles each.

    Case 392 cases full.

         300 do. empty.

  _Potatoes._ — From London 9000 lb.

  _Bellows._ — From London 60 dozen.

  _Copper Kettles._ — From London    242 dozen.

                           Amsterdam  13

                                     --- 255 dozen.

  _Cotton._ — From Teneriffe 5400 lb.

  _Vermillion._ — From Amsterdam 150 lb.

  _Turners Boxes._ — From Amsterdam 1000 nests.

  _Venetian Steel._ — From Leghorn 11400 lb.

  _Planks._ — From London     886

                   Amsterdam 1250

                             ---- 2136 pieces.

  _Coffee._ — From Teneriffe 3600 lb.

  _Sarsaparilla._ — From Amsterdam 150 lb.

  _Scales for Gold._ — 48 pair.

  _Candlesticks._ — 64 pieces

  _Painted Boxes._ — From Amsterdam 240 pieces.

  _Earthen Ware_ or _British China._ — From London 10 crates.

  _Sealing Wax._ — From Amsterdam 100 lb.

  _Medicinal Drugs._ — From Amsterdam 1 case.

  _Chaplets._ — From Leghorn   3 casks.

                     Amsterdam 1 cask.

                               - 4 casks.

  _Toys._ — From Amsterdam 300 dozen.

  _Capillaire._ — From Leghorn 2200 boxes, or 2200 bottles.

  _Confectionary._ — From Leghorn 300 boxes.

  _Ivory Combs._ — From Leghorn 25 dozen.

  _Quicksilver._ — From Amsterdam 50 lb.

  _Mercery._ — From Amsterdam 1 case.

  _Glasses._ — From Amsterdam 2 cases.

  _Gold Thread._ — From Leghorn 25 lb.

  _Manufactured Silks._ — From London     50 pieces

                               Amsterdam 239 cubits

                                         --- 1239 cubits.[185]

  _Hardware._ — From London 3 barrels.

  _Wrought Copper._ — From Amsterdam 1 case.

  _Clocks._ — From Amsterdam 20.

  _Mexico Dollars._ — From London    24,000

                           Amsterdam  3,200

                           Lisbon    29,500

                           Cadiz      4,000

                           Gibraltar 12,000

                           Leghorn   12,000

                           Teneriffe  4,000

                                     ------ 88,700

As the prices of these merchandise vary considerably, the calculation
of their value in West Barbary is omitted.

                     EXPORTS FROM MOGODOR IN 1805.

  _Sweet Almonds._ — To London     24020 lb.

                        Amsterdam 474994

                        Barcelona   6148

                        Teneriffe    300

                                  ------ 505462 lb.

  _Bitter Almonds_ — To London    128442

                        Amsterdam 357198

                        Barcelona   2620

                                  ------ 488260 lb.

  _Gum Barbary._ — To London    277534

                      Amsterdam 211598

                      Lisbon      2409

                      Barcelona    809

                                ------ 492350 lb.

  _Gum Senegal._ — To London     8047

                      Amsterdam 23509

                                ----- 23509

  _Gum Sandarac._ — To London      11367

                       Amsterdam   27776

                       Other ports  1040

                                   ----- 40183

  _Gum Euphorbium._ — To Amsterdam 782 lb.

  _Elephants Teeth._ — To London    1373 lb.

                          Amsterdam  336 lb.

                                    ---- 1709 lb.

  _Sheeps Wool._ — To Amsterdam 29731 lb.

  _Cow and Calf Skins._ — To London 250783

                             Lisbon 9178

                                    ------ 259961 lb.

  _Goat Skins._ — To London 9957 dozen.

                     Lisbon   80

                            ---- 10,037 dozen.

  _Pomgranale Peals._ — To Amsterdam 650,40 lb.

  _Citrons._ — To Amsterdam 1540 pieces.

  _Olive Oil._ — To Teneriffe 35727

                    Lisbon    10217

                              ----- 45944 lb.

  _Worm Seed._ — To Amsterdam 12483 lb.

  _Fennel._ — To Teneriffe 1360 lb.

  _Tallow._ — To Teneriffe 1600 lb.

  _Tallow Candles._ — 178 lb.

  _Packing Thread._ — To Teneriffe 3895 lb.

  _Marocco Goat Leather._ — To Teneriffe 600 skins.

  _Marocco Calf Leather._ —  300 _pieces_.

                          IMPORTS TO MOGODOR

               _During the first seven Months of 1806._

  _Cloths._ —  79 pieces Superfine Cloth

              360 pieces Media Grana

              230 pieces Alto

  _Long Ells._ — 120 pieces coloured

                 180 pieces embossed

  _Linens_, viz. Osnaburgs, 50 pieces

  _Baftas_ (India Cottons) 1303 pieces

  _Irish Linen_ — 33 pieces

  _India Blue Linens_ — 784 pieces

  _Muslins_ — 300 pieces

  _Plattilias_ — 3224 pieces

  _Creas_ — 1020 pieces.

  _Rouans_ — 200 pieces

  _Striped Silks_ — 80 pieces

  _Brettagnias_ — 632 pair

  _Silk Handkerchiefs_ — 406 dozen

  _Romals_ — 200 pieces

  _Raw Silk_ — 68 lb.

  _Cloves_ — 875 lb.

  _Gum Benjamin_ — 5113 lb.

  _Ginger_ — 675 lb.

  _Stick-lack_ — 18600 lb.

  _Arsenic_ — 4876 lb.

  _Sal Ammoniac_ — 8029 lb.

  _Spianter_ — 1673.

  _Mercury_ — 150 lb.

  _Vitriol_ — 375 lb.

  _Red Lead_ — 1852 lb.

  _Tin plates_ — 70 boxes.

  _Hardware_—viz. Tea-trays, Tea-pots, Candlesticks, Knives, &c.
  — 28 cases.

  _Allum_ — 578,27 lb.

  _Copperas_ — 655 lb.

  _Pepper_ — 3123 lb.

  _Sarsaparilla_ — 400 lb.

  _Wine_ — 12 pipes

  _Iron_ — 2864 bars.

  _Raw Sugar_ — 5000 lb.

  _Loaf Sugar_ — 213,48 lb.

  _Green Tea_ — 1074 lb.

  _Paper_ 30 bales

  _Venetian Steel_ — 19000 lb.

  _Cochineal_ — 571 lb.

  _Liqueurs_ — 2 cases

  _Coral_ — 1 case

  _Capillaire_ — 400 bottles

  _Razors_ — 1000 dozen

  _Files_ — 100 dozen

  _Wire_ — 2000 mass.

  _Wool Cards_ — 128 dozen pair

  _Gum Tragacanth_ — 801 lb.

  _Dutch Looking Glasses_, called _Velt Spiegles_ — 4950 dozen

  _Crown Mirrors_ — 450 pieces

  _Brass Pans_ — 850 lb.

  _Needles_ for _Tapestry_ — 9000

  _Coffee_ — 1823 lb.

  _Dutch Knives_ — 875 dozen

  _Spico Romano_ — 1236 lb.

  _Turners’ Boxes_ — 4000 nests

  _Coffee Mills_ — 100

  _Empty Bottles_ for _Tea_ — 200

  _Mexico Dollars_ — 78,000

                      EXPORTS OF BARBARY PRODUCE

     _From the Port of Mogodor from January 1, to July 31, 1806._

  _Sweet Almonds_ — 5062,58 lb.

  _Bitter Almonds_ — 2138,11 lb.

  _Bees Wax_ — 2345,55 lb.

  _Gum Barbary, Tolh_, or _Arabic_ — 1839,12 lb.

  _Gum Sandrac_ — 270,000 lb.

  _Gum Soudan_ (Senegal) — 6330 lb.

  _Calf Skins_ — 2130,30 lb.

  _Raisins_ — 842 lb.

  _Anice-seeds_ — 3687 lb.

  _Carraway Seeds_ — 219 lb.

  _Dates_ (Adamoh) — 1237

  _Pomgranate Peals_ — 5155 lb.

  _Worm Seed_ — 563 lb.

  _Elephants Teeth_ — 5536 lb.

  _Goat Skins_ — 6480 dozen

  _Ostrich Feathers_ — 556 lb.

  _Cummin Seeds_ — 2013 lb.

  _Lead Ore_ — 320 lb.

  _Citrons_ — 340 lb.

  _Capers_ — 100 lb.

  _Caraway Seeds_ — 219 lb.

  _Oil of Olives_ — 5604 lb.

  _Tanned Leather_ — 2660 lb.

  _Packing Thread_ — 3900 lb.

  _Tallow_ — 625 lb.

By a careful perusal of the foregoing account of the exports from,
and imports into, the port of Mogodor, the commercial reader will
be enabled to form an accurate idea of the trade of that place:
there are several things exported in such small quantities, that
they cannot be reckoned as articles of trade, but rather as samples;
but being in the custom-house books, they are given here to make the
account complete; they shew the produce of the country, and might,
if the trade were duly encouraged and protected, form articles of
considerable importance in a commercial view; but, with consuls, who
are equally unacquainted with the language of the country, and the
manners, politics, and complexion of the court, we must not expect
that the British merchant will be sufficiently encouraged to make
considerable adventures to West Barbary; and hence one reason why
the trade has of late years been in a great degree abandoned by us,
and has fallen into the hands of a few Jews, subjects of the Emperor.

The French, aware of the importance of a trade which _carries
off manufactured goods of all kinds, and furnishes in return raw
materials_, were induced to attempt an establishment of considerable
capital; but the British cruizers in the Mediterranean rendering it
almost impossible for their ships to sail to or from Marseilles, have
lately obliged them to relinquish their enterprize for the present,
though, there can be no doubt, that in the event of a permanent
peace, it will be resumed with additional vigour. The same causes
have also compelled the other merchants, natives of countries now
under the dominion of France, to remain almost entirely inactive,
waiting impatiently for some change that may enable them to resume,
with some security, their commercial negociations; so that, with the
exception of two or three houses, there is, at present, no European
establishment of any consequence at Mogodor.

The commerce of Mogodor with America during the years 1804 and 1805,
was impeded by a dispute between that country and the Emperor,
which however has been amicably adjusted, and the trade is now
resumed. Vessels going from Salem, Boston, and other parts of America
with East and West India produce to Mogodor, receive, in return,
the various articles of Barbary produce; and by this means, the
agents of the American merchants established at Mogodor are enabled
to undersell us in all East and West India articles.

A close connexion with the empire of Marocco is of the greatest
importance to Great Britain both in a political and commercial point
of view; for besides the various articles of trade already enumerated,
it affords ample supplies of provisions; and if a friendly intercourse
between the two nations were firmly established, we should never
have any difficulty in victualling not only Gibraltar, but also all
our different fleets which cruize in the Mediterranean, and on the
northern coast of Africa, a resource, which, in the present state of
things, certainly merits the serious attention of this country. The
advantages of a trade with this empire must be evident from what
has been detailed in the preceding pages, where it will be seen that
_nearly the whole of the exports to Marocco consists of manufactured
goods, and that the returns for these are entirely raw materials_,
many of which are essentially necessary in our manufactures. That
the present trade is so inconsiderable, arises entirely from the
little encouragement and support it meets with; for British subjects,
finding they had to depend on their own exertions alone, for the
protection and safety of the property embarked in this traffic, have,
for the most part, abandoned it, and now it is falling into the hands
of subjects of Marocco, established in England. This is the more to be
regretted, as we have it in our power, by proper representations and a
judicious negociation, to supply, through this channel, a great part
of the interior of Africa with our superfluous manufactures, while
we might receive in return many very valuable and useful articles,
such as oil of olives, hides, skins, almonds, gums, wax, silver,
and gold, in addition to which may be mentioned oranges and lemons,
of which a greater quantity might be procured from two ports[186] in
the empire, than is afforded by both Spain and Portugal. The oranges
of Tetuan are the finest in the world, and are sold for eight drahims,
or about 3_s._ 6_d._ per thousand. Those of Marocco, of Terodant,
of Fas, of Mequinas, of Rabat, and the adjacent country, are also
very good, abundant, and equally cheap; they might be imported from
Rabat to England with considerable advantage: but I believe the
exportation has lately been prohibited, this fruit being included in
the general prohibition to the exportation to Europe of all articles
of provision. The season for gathering them for exportation is from
November till January.

It may, perhaps, be objected by some, who have experienced
difficulties in treating with the Emperor, that he would not,
probably, allow fruit to be exported: to this I answer, that it
is possible, by proper means, to obtain almost any favour from a
Sovereign who is uncontrollable; it is not gold which rules his
conduct, though some ingenious persons have imagined that to be the
only means of procuring any thing from him: had this been the case,
he would not have granted me the privilege of exporting mules to the
West Indies at half the duty that another house offered him. In short,
nothing is wanting to secure a most extensive and lucrative trade
with Marocco, but an established friendship between the two nations,
strengthened by a mutual return of good offices and attentions. Indeed
the present Emperor, Muley Soliman, may be said to have made overtures
of this nature; but from our impolicy, and inattention, added to the
ignorance of the proper mode of treating with him, these overtures
were neglected.

When we recollect, however, that the envoys to Marocco for the last
century, have been men almost wholly unacquainted with the manners,
customs, and religious prejudices of the people, and ignorant of their
language, we shall cease to be surprised that our connection with that
empire has been so limited, and impeded by mutual misunderstanding
of each others sentiments, originating, but too often, in deficiency
and inaccuracy of interpreters. What expectations can be indulged of
terminating successfully negociations with a prince, in conversing
with whom some ignorant illiterate interpreter, generally a Jew,
and a devoted subject of the Emperor, must be made the confidential
servant of the party treating? besides, every one acquainted with the
nature of the government, and political principles of the Court of
Marocco, is well aware, that, even supposing it possible to procure
a Jew, capable of interpreting accurately the English into Arabic,
and vice versa, yet there are many expressions necessary for an
Envoy to use to the Emperor, which no Jew in the country would
dare to utter in the imperial presence on pain of losing his head:
the general garrulity of these people, moreover, is such, that they
are perhaps unworthy of being entrusted with any secret wherein the
interest of a nation is concerned. Of this the Emperor himself is
convinced, as was also his father, who frequently, during his reign,
expressed his regret to Mr. A. Layton, that no English consul could be
found, capable of holding direct intercourse with him. The weakness
and instability of our treaties are generally in proportion to the
weakness and inaccuracy of the interpreter, their force and meaning
being often frittered away by the misplacing of a word through his
indecision or fear; and possessing, probably, but a slight knowledge
of the style of writing, he is obliged to have the treaty read by
a Moor, and explained according to his own manner, in the vulgar
Arabic, or Moorish language, which alone is sufficient, without any
additional cause, to do away the force and intent of any document,
possessing that energy of expression for which the Arabic language is
so remarkable. Suppose we were negociating a peace with France, what
would be the probable result if there were no person attached to our
embassy but a French subject, who understood the French and English
languages sufficiently to convey the aggregate only, but not the
precise sense of the stipulations? we should certainly have but little
expectation of success under such circumstances, and should probably
be worse off than if no treaty had been concluded, so easy would it
be to give a turn to any clause, the force and point of which was not
distinctly ascertained. This has been literally our case with Marocco:
treaties have been made without being understood, or even translated,
till many months after the conclusion of them; how then can we expect
to acquire influence or consideration at a court, where a man who
does not speak the Arabic is considered as an illiterate barbarian
(ajemmie m’dollem), and is treated accordingly? The Emperor has
frequently expressed a wish to communicate with our Sovereign, but
the publicity to which his sentiments must be exposed in the present
routine of British diplomacy, deters him from it, and restricts or
diminishes the intercourse between the two countries.[187]

By way of shewing the extreme disadvantages under which our
negotiations are carried on with the Barbary powers, I will relate
a circumstance which happened during the last embassy to Marocco; I
do not mean to say any thing prejudicial to Mr. Matra, who conducted
that embassy; he was a man of capacity, and understood the nature
of the court, as well as a long residence in the country, without
a knowledge of the language, could enable him: he was attended by
a Jewish interpreter, a subject of Marocco, who was required by
the Emperor to wear the dress of his tribe,[188] but being in the
suite of the Ambassador, and his interpreter, Mr. Matra repeated his
injunction to the Emperor, alleging, that as he was in his immediate
service, he was, and ought to be considered as, a British subject, and
therefore entitled to wear the dress which the Jews of Great Britain
wore: this argument was admitted by the Emperor, and the Jew was
accordingly permitted to appear before him in the English dress. This
was certainly a point gained by the Ambassador, and might have been
the prelude to more considerable concessions, had it been judiciously
followed up; indeed, the Emperor was desirous to temporise with the
English, and treated the Ambassador and his suite in a better style
than he had done any former one, and, as I was credibly informed,
even permitted Mr. Matra to sit down by him, an honour never before
conferred on any but a prince. Much affability and politeness of this
kind was terminated by a long treaty of peace and amity, written in
Arabic, but which unluckily nobody in the Ambassador’s suite could
properly understand, except by circuitous and inaccurate explanation
by a Moor to the Jew interpreter, and then from him to the consul;
the latter, however, being dissatisfied with it, was persuaded to
entrust it to a Spanish student, who, instead of giving an accurate
translation to the Ambassador, sent one, as it was reported, to
Madrid, kept the paper a month, and then returned it to Mr. Matra,
so that the whole treaty was known at Madrid before it was known at
London, or even by the Ambassador himself at Tangier! and in this
manner, I am sorry to say, are our affairs conducted at Marocco. In
short, I am well persuaded, that so long as gentlemen are sent to the
Barbary powers as ambassadors or consuls, and remain there four or
five years before they can make themselves sufficiently acquainted
with the complection of the Mohammedan courts and intrigues, not
to say the language, which but very few are at all likely ever to
acquire sufficiently to hold colloquial intercourse at Court: we
must not expect to gain any considerable commercial or political
advantages with these countries.

It may also be necessary here to observe, that there are various
expressions, not considered indelicate, among Europeans, which ought
not to be used before the Ceed, or Emperor, by any one who is desirous
to negociate advantageously. I have known a negociation totally
frustrated by one trifling, or incautious expression. Accuracy of
pronunciation, and refinement of expression, added to easy and affable
manners, and a good person, would be attended with incalculable
advantages in negociations at this court, the language, as well
as the manners and customs of which, although fixed and regulated
by invariable rules, are unknown and unattended to by the nations
of Europe, at least by those of the North: and this I conceive to
be one of the reasons why a negociation with the Court of Marocco
seldom or ever terminates advantageously to the European negociator.

In treaties of peace between any European power and the Sultan of
Marocco, one of the clauses always affects to protect the subject:
so in the English treaties, if an Englishman residing in the empire
commit any misdemeanor, he is not to be judged by the Mohammedan
law, but by that of his own country, and is to be delivered up
to the Consul until satisfaction be given; From the supineness of
Consuls, however, this clause, as well as many others, has been often
disregarded, and the wording altogether misunderstood or misconstrued.

As various reports have gone abroad relative to the affair of
Mr. A. Layton, a British merchant at Mogodor, having had his teeth
pulled out by order of the Emperor, it may be interesting to set
that transaction in its true light.

Mr. A. Layton was the chief partner in a house of considerable capital
and respectability; the other partners were Frenchmen, who having
had official notice given them, that as the King of France had broken
off all connection with Marocco, the French merchants should quit the
country, or seek some other protection; accordingly, the affairs of
this House being extended in the country, various impediments rose
against their quitting their establishment suddenly; they proposed
therefore to take Mr. A. Layton as a partner under the firm of
A. Layton and Co. making it by this stratagem an English house. One
afternoon the three partners, A. Layton, Secard, and Barré, together
with a clerk, went out on horseback with some greyhounds belonging
to the former; and in returning towards Mogodor, one of the dogs
attacked a calf belonging to a neighbouring village; a Shelluh, who
was the owner of the calf, shot the dog; on this a fray ensued, and
the village was soon in an uproar; in the scuffle some Shelluh women
were seen to throw stones, and Mr. Barré was considerably bruised:
Layton also received and gave several blows. The party returned to
Mogodor, when Layton immediately made a complaint to the Governor,
who promised him justice should be done, and accordingly sent for
the parties, who on their part insisted on justice being done to
them, alleging, that a woman had had two of her teeth knocked out
by Layton, and called out in the name of God and the Prophet for
justice from the Emperor himself: this appeal obliged the Governor
to write to the Emperor, and the parties were ordered up to Marocco:
witnesses having been brought against Layton, who declared that he
had knocked the woman’s teeth out with the thick end of his whip,
the Emperor was compelled to order two of his teeth to be pulled
out as a satisfaction to the lady for the loss of her’s: his
Majesty, however, did not appear disposed to put the sentence into
execution, but the people, who had assembled in immense numbers on
this extraordinary occasion, exclaimed loudly for retaliation;[189]
when the tooth drawer approached, Layton requested that he might have
two of his back teeth taken out, in lieu of two of his front teeth,
which request the Emperor granted. His Majesty was pleased with the
courage with which Layton suffered the operation, and apologized
to him the next day, and it was intimated, that he would not have
allowed the sentence of the law to have been executed, had it not
been necessary to allay the fury of the people; he then desired
him to ask any favour, and he would grant it; Layton accordingly
requested permission to load a cargo of wheat, which was granted,
and, I believe, free of duty; he afterwards conferred on him similar
favours, and wished so much to have him appointed British Consul,
that he offered to request his Majesty to appoint him, but this
Layton declined; the Emperor, however, often repeated to him this
wish, alleging the advantages of negotiating with a person who could
converse with him in his own language, and promising, in case of
his accepting the appointment, to grant every favour that England
should ask of him. Whether Layton felt himself not sufficiently
supported by his country, after this personal outrage, or what other
reason he had to refuse the repeated overtures of Seedy Mohammed,
is not for me here to declare. Some general remonstrance was made
by all the European Consuls collectively respecting this affair,
and the Emperor, it appeared, would have made proper apology to the
British Consul had it been demanded with energy and resolution; the
influence of Great Britain suffered by not supporting her subject,
and ever since this transaction, encroachments have been making
on the privileges of Europeans, insomuch, that it is now a remark
at the Court of Marocco, that, “If the European nations will
not protect their own subjects, how can they expect that we should
protect them? The Consuls at Tangier are of no use but to determine
disputes of captures amongst the belligerent powers of Europe, which
we do not understand, nor wish to interfere in, and if they refuse
to adjust these matters they may all leave the country, they are of
no further service to us.”[190]


[Footnote 181: A caravan journey is 24 miles.]

[Footnote 182: The word kumise signifies the 5th day of the week.]

[Footnote 183: The (Delels) auctioneers, who sell the horses, have
a mode of shewing them off to great advantage, so that if a person
be not experienced in the purchase of them he will very often be
imposed upon; to prevent which, the best judges, even the Arabs,
give a small fee to the Delel, by way of purchasing his fidelity;
and when this mode is adopted, he may be depended on as far as his
judgment extends. When the horse has been rode up and down the market
several times in different paces, he is sold to the highest bidder,
who is immediately apprised of his purchase: he then repairs to the
Cadi, or chief judge, and procures from the court of law a (Akad el
beah) declaration of sale, which is signed by two (Ukils) attorneys,
and confirmed by the Cadi at the bottom or left corner of the paper;
the declaration expresses the purchase to be, for better or for worse,
by the Arabic term Eladem fie el Kunshah, which, if literally rendered
into English, means the bones in the sack or skin. The same custom
is observed in the sale and purchase of mules, and other animals.]

[Footnote 184: Seven cubits make four yards English measure.]

[Footnote 185: 1¾ cubit = 1 yard. To bring cubits into yards,
multiply by 4, divide by 7.]

[Footnote 186: Viz. Tetuan and Rabat or Sallée.]

[Footnote 187: In a conversation with the Minister at Marocco for
European affairs, his Excellency asked me if, in the event of his
master’s writing to his Majesty, the latter would be able to get
the letter interpreted; I answered in the affirmative, and a very
polite and friendly letter was afterwards written, which requested
an answer; but it remained here in the Secretary of State’s office,
without any attention being paid to its contents, a mark of disrespect
which gave great offence to the Emperor.

It appears to me extraordinary, that a language which is spoken
over a much greater extent of country than any other on earth—a
language combining all the powers and energy of the Greek and Latin,
should be so little understood, that an Arabic letter written by the
present Emperor of Marocco, to the King of Great Britain, actually
lay in the Secretary of State’s office some months without being
translated. The circumstance coming to the knowledge of the Chancellor
of the Exchequer (the Right Hon. Spencer Percival), that gentleman
expressed a wish to a friend of mine, to have a translation,
and the letter was transmitted to me for that purpose. Doctor
Buffé, who delivered it, assured me, it had been sent to one,
if not both Universities, and to the post-office, but that, either
from a difference in the punctuation of the characters, or in the
language itself, no one could be found capable of rendering it into
English. This statement, however unaccountable it may appear to many,
was afterwards farther confirmed, by passports and other papers in
African Arabic being sent to me for translations, the want of which
had detained vessels in our ports, and caused merchants in London
to suffer from a loss of markets.]

[Footnote 188: The Emperor being on horseback in the place of
audience one day at Marocco, he perceived a man at a distance
dressed in an European dress of scarlet and gold; he enquired if he
was an Ambassador, and sent some of the people in waiting to know
his business; he was found to be a Jew, which being reported to the
Sultan, he was highly displeased, and ordered him to be stripped, and
Jewish clothes put on; this was instantly performed, and orders were
issued to every port in his dominions, that Jews should be allowed
to appear only in their own dress, in order that they might not,
in future, be mistaken for ambassadors, alleging, that nothing was
more proper and agreeable to reason, than that a Mooselmin should
dress in his costume, a Christian in his, and a Jew also in his,
that it might be known, and not concealed, which was which!]

[Footnote 189: The laws of Mohammed, like those of Moses, adhere
strictly to retaliation— “An eye for an eye, and a tooth for
a tooth.”]

[Footnote 190: This observation was made a few years since by the
prince Muley Teib, at that time Khaliff at Tangier, to shew the
contempt in which he held the representatives of the European powers!]

                               * * * * *
                          ACCOUNT OF WRECKS,
                                AND THE
                     CAPTIVITY OF BRITISH SAILORS,
                                ON THE
                       WESTERN COAST OF AFRICA.
                               * * * * *

                             CHAPTER XII.

_Shipwrecks on the Western Coast of Africa about Wedinoon and Sahara
— State of the British and other Captives whilst in possession
of the Saharawans, or roving Arabs of the Desert — Suggestion
of the Author for the Alleviation of their Sufferings — Mode of
their Redemption._

That part of the western coast of Africa, which lies between the
latitudes of 20 and 32 degrees north, has been differently laid down
in various charts, but, perhaps, never yet accurately. The Spaniards,
who fish on this coast eastward of the Canary Islands, assure us that
soundings are to be found quite across to the Continent; and there is
a tradition among the Arabs, that in very remote ages those islands
formed part of the African continent. In support of this tradition, it
may be observed, that the aborigines of Lancerotta, one of the Canary
islands situated about thirty-five leagues from this coast, resemble
in manners, in physiognomy, in person, and in language the Shelluhs,
inhabitants of South Atlas, and retain many of their customs.

That part of the coast, which lies between the above-mentioned
latitudes, is a desert country interspersed with immense hills
of loose and moveable sand, which are from time to time driven
by the wind into various forms, and so impregnate the air with
particles of sand for many miles out at sea, as to give to the
atmosphere an appearance of hazy weather: navigators not aware of
this circumstance, never suspect, during such appearances, that
they are near land until they discover the breakers on the coast,
which is so extremely flat, that one may walk a mile into the
sea without being over the knees, so that ships strike when at a
very considerable distance from the low-water mark; added to this,
there is a current, which sets in from the west toward Africa, with
inconceivable force and rapidity, with which the navigator being too
often unacquainted, he loses his reckoning, and in the course of a
night, perhaps, when he expects to clear the African coast in his
passage southward, he is alarmed with the appearance of shoal water,
and before he has time to recover himself, finds his ship aground,
on a desert shore, where neither habitation nor human being is to be
seen. In this state his fears are soon encreased by a persuasion
that he must either perish in fighting a horde of wild Arabs,
or submit to become their captive; for soon after a ship strikes,
some wandering Arabs strolling from their respective duars in the
Desert, perceive the masts from the sand hills; and without coming
to the shore, repair to their hordes perhaps 30 or 40 miles off,
to apprise them of the wreck; when they immediately assemble,
arming themselves with daggers, guns, and cudgels. Sometimes two or
three days or more elapse before they make their appearance on the
coast, where they await the usual alternative of the crew either
delivering themselves up to them, rather than perish with hunger,
or throwing themselves into the sea. When the former takes place,
quarrels frequently ensue among the Arabs, about the possession of
the sailors, disputing for the captain or mate because he is better
dressed, or discovers himself to them in some other way, and because
they expect a larger ransom for him. They afterwards go in boats,
and take every thing portable from the vessel, and then if the sea
do not dash it to pieces, set fire to it, in order that it may not
serve as a warning to the crews of other ships, and thereby save
them from a similar misfortune.[191] Sometimes, in these wrecks,
the poor seamen perceiving what savages they have to contend with,
(though they are far from being so savage and inhospitable as their
appearance indicates) determine on making resistance, and by means
of cannon, small arms, &c. maintain a temporary defence, until a
few falling from the superiority of numbers, they at length yield,
and deliver themselves up.

Vessels bound to Senegal, the coast of Guinea, Sierra Leone, the Cape
de Verde Islands, should vigilantly watch the currents that invariably
set in from the west towards this deceitful coast, which has in
times past and now continues to enveigle ships to destruction. A
flat hazy coast difficult to be perceived at a distance is the bane
of navigators, who too often terminate their hard fate on this coast,
it is impossible sufficiently to impress on the minds of our valuable
mariners the dangers of this coast, and their subsequent sufferings;
sufferings which no tongue can utter, no pen can accurately describe.

About three leagues from this flat shore off Wedinoon, or the river
Akassa, a bank of sand near the level of the water extends southward
towards Cape Bojador, extremely dangerous to approach; moreover,
I have reason to believe, that this coast is laid down too far to
the eastward in all our maps.

The Arabs going nearly in a state of nature, wearing nothing but
a cloth or rag to cover their nakedness, immediately strip their
unhappy victims, and march them up the country barefooted, like
themselves. The feet of Europeans, from their not being accustomed,
like the Arabs, to this mode of travelling, soon begin to swell
with the heat of the burning sand over which they pass; the Arab
considering only his booty, does not give himself the trouble
to enquire into the cause of this, but abstemious and unexhausted
himself, he conceives his unfortunate captive will, by dint of fatigue
and travelling, become so too. In these marches the Europeans suffer
the pains of fatigue and hunger in a most dreadful degree; for the
Arab will go 50 miles a day without tasting food, and at night will
content himself with a little barley meal mixed with cold water:
miserable fare for an English seaman, who (to use the term that is
applied to the richest men among the Arabs) eats meat every day.

They carry the Christian captives about the Desert, to the different
markets to sell them, for they very soon discover that their habits
of life render them altogether unserviceable, or very inferior to the
black slaves, which they procure from Timbuctoo. After travelling
three days to one market, five to another, nay sometimes fourteen,
they at length become objects of commercial speculation, and the
itinerant Jew traders, who wander about from Wedinoon to sell their
wares, find means to barter for them tobacco, salt, a cloth garment,
or any other thing, just as a combination of circumstances may offer,
and then return to Wedinoon with the purchase. If the Jew have a
correspondent at Mogodor, he writes to him, that a ship had been
wrecked, mentioning the flag or nation she belonged to, and requests
him to inform the agent, or consul, of the nation of which the captain
is a subject; in the mean time flattering the poor men, that they will
shortly be liberated and sent to Mogodor, where they will meet their
countrymen: a long and tedious servitude, however, generally follows,
for want of a regular fund at Mogodor for the redemption of these
people. The agent can do nothing but write to the consul-general
at Tangier; this takes up nearly a month, before an answer is
received, and the merchants at Mogodor being so little protected
by their respective governments, and having various immediate uses
for their money, are very unwilling to advance it for the European
interest of five per cent.: so that the time lost in writing to the
government of the country to whom the unfortunate captives belong, the
necessity of procuring the money for their purchase previous to their
emancipation, and various other circumstances, form impediments to
their liberation. Sometimes, after being exchanged several times from
one owner to another, they find themselves in the inmost recesses of
the desert, their patience is exhausted, the tardiness and supineness
of diplomacy effaces all hope, and after producing despondency,
they are at length, under promises of good treatment, induced to
abjure Christianity, and accordingly become Mooselmin; after which
their fate is sealed, and they terminate their miserable existence,
rendered insupportable by a chain of calamities, in the Desert, to
the disgrace of Christendom, and the nation under whose colours they
navigated. If the interest of the munificent bequest of Mr. Thomas
Betton, (who himself experienced during his life the calamity
of bondage in Barbary), which now amounts, at simple interest,
to 55,900_l._, had been appropriated, agreeably to the spirit
of his will,[192] to the alleviation of the dreadful sufferings;
to shortening the duration of captivity; to establishing (with the
Emperor of Marocco’s consent) a respectable resident agent, who,
to a knowledge of the country, people, and language, added such a
philanthropic disposition, as would induce him to exert his utmost
energies towards the emancipation of these poor unfortunate men,
and direct his time and attention exclusively to this charitable and
laudable object, how many an unfortunate Englishman would have been
delivered from bondage? how many of our valuable countrymen would
have returned to their families and connections? how many valuable
sailors would be navigating on the ocean, who, dreadful to relate,
are now bereft of all hope of ever again seeing their native land, and
are dragging out a miserable existence in the interior of the wild,
uncouth African Desert? It is true, that a competent agent would, with
difficulty, be found; the inducements of African commerce have not led
many of our countrymen to exile themselves from civilized society,
to pass their days in regions like these; but where remuneration
is offered adequate to the sacrifice, an _efficient_ agent might
probably be procured, whose philanthropic soul, glowing with the
anticipation of relieving so many useful members of society; of being
instrumental in alleviating the hard sufferings of so many fellow
creatures, would exult in self-satisfaction, and would experience,
in the accomplishment of this great and national object, pleasures

       ----------------“compared with which

  “The laurels that a Cæsar reaps are weeds.”


I knew an instance where a merchant of Mogodor (Mr. James Renshaw)
had advanced the money for one of these captives, who, had his ransom
not been paid by him to the Arab, would have been obliged to return
to the south, where he would have been sold, or compelled to embrace
the Mohammedan religion; for the British Vice-Consul had not the
purchase money, nor any orders to redeem him, having previously sent
to the Consul-General an account of the purchase of the rest of the
crew. This man was delivered up by the merchant who had redeemed him,
to the British Vice-Consul, to whom he looked for payment; various
applications were made to the Consul-General, but the money was not
paid two years afterwards, all applications to government having
failed; a representation of the case was next made to the Ironmongers
company in London,[192] which agreed to pay the merchant the money
he had advanced. The purchase-money in this case was paid to me as
agent for Mr. Renshaw, and including the cost of clothes (for the man
was naked when purchased) did not amount altogether to forty pounds;
there was, however, so much trouble attending the accomplishment
of the business, that no individual merchant has since ventured
to make an advance on a similar security; for, not to mention the
difficulty of recovering the principal at the expiration of a long
period, the value of money is such at Mogodor, that merchants are
unwilling to advance it at a low interest, six per cent. per month
being often paid for it. It is in this manner that the subjects of
a great maritime power have been neglected in a country where, by
adopting some judicious regulations, all the hardships of bondage,
and the privations which necessarily follow in a barren country,
might be prevented.

The coast of Noon or Wedinoon extends to the southward nearly as
far as Cape Bojador. The Wed Akassa, or river Akassa, (which is
erroneously called in the maps the river Nun, and in some Daradus),
is a large stream from the sea to the town of Noon, which is about
fifteen miles inland, and about two miles in circumference; from
hence the river becomes shallow and narrow; it is to the southward
of this river, that the ships are generally wrecked. Between the
river Akassa and the province of Ait Bamaran in Suse, is a peninsula
extending into the ocean, resembling that on which Mogodor is built,
where are the remains of a fort built formerly by the Portuguese,
but evacuated by them at the time they discovered America; they
afterwards endeavoured to obtain possession of it, for the purpose
of establishing a commercial factory, but the natives objected
to the proposal. _The French have been endeavouring to establish a
settlement here at the nearest point of coast to Timbuctoo, with which
emporium they are anxious to become better acquainted._ The district
of Wedinoon is nominally in the Emperor of Marocco’s dominions,
but lately no army having been sent farther south than Terodant, the
Bashaw Alkaid Mohammed ben Delemy being deceased, this district has
suffered neglect, and I apprehend the people pay no taxes or tenths;
the Emperor has even lately ordered his Bashaw of Haha to _purchase_
the British slaves that had been wrecked there. This place being
thus only nominally in his dominions is another impediment to the
redemption of the mariners who happen to be shipwrecked about
Wedinoon, for if the Emperor had the same authority over this
district, that he has over the provinces north of the river Suse,
measures might be adopted by the Consul, _acting under his orders_,
for their delivery, without pecuniary disbursement.

Whilst the Europeans remain in the hands of the Arabs and Jews, they
are employed in various domestic services, such as bringing water,
possibly the distance of nine or ten miles, to the habitation, and in
collecting fire-wood. In performing these offices, their feet, being
bare, and treading on the heated sand, become blistered and inflamed,
the sandy particles penetrate into these blisters when broken,
and irritate in such a manner as sometimes to cause mortification,
and death. The young lads, of which there are generally two or
three in every ship’s crew, are generally seduced by the Arabs to
become Mohammedans; in this case, the Sheick or chief of the duar
adopts him, and initiates him in the Koran, by sending him to the
(Mdursa) seminary, where he learns to read the sacred volume, and is
instructed in the pronunciation of the Arabic language; he is named
after the Sheick who adopts him, after which an Arabian woman is
offered to him as a wife; he marries, has a family, and becomes one
of the clan, thus abandoning for ever the religion of his father,
his native country, and his connexions.

The state of domestic comfort enjoyed by Christians established in
West Barbary or Marocco is far from being impeded by those degrading
distinctions practised in Egypt and other Mohammedan countries, where
they are not allowed to ride on horses (the prophet’s beast), to
wear green (the prophet’s colour,) &c. &c.; here they may do either:
they may even enter towns on horseback, a privilege, however, which
was not granted till of late years: Mons. Chenier, the French consul,
first broke through this degrading custom, for being opposed by the
gate-keepers at Saffy, he drew his sword, and forced his entrance,
adding, that no one should stop the representative of the King of
France: and when I went to Agadeer, by order of the Sultan Muley
Yezzid, to establish a commercial intercourse with Holland, on my
arrival at the gate, the Bashaw’s son objected to my entering on
horseback, alleging, that it was near a sanctuary, and that Christians
had never been allowed to enter the gate on horseback; I immediately
turned my horse, ordered the baggage to be put on board the ship
from which I had just landed, and declared, that I would not reside
in any town, where I was not on an equal footing with a Mooselmin:
but the old Bashaw, El Hayanie, a man of ninety years of age, sent
two of his sons to request me to return: “Old customs,” said he,
(when I afterwards met him at the gate,) “are abolished; we wish to
see this place flourish with commerce, as in its former establishment;
enter and go out on horseback when ever you please;” accordingly,
ever since this circumstance, Christians have been allowed to enter
the town on horseback: they may ride about the country in safety,
and amuse themselves in the sports of the field; they are not
obliged to stop at the approach of a Bashaw or his family, or to
alight till the great man has passed;[193] it is expected that he
salute him in his own country fashion, by taking off his hat, which,
however, is considered by Mooselmin (unaccustomed to Christians)
much in the same light that we should a man taking off his wig;
for they go uncovered in presence of the Emperor, or wear a red cap,
which is a substitute for a wig, their heads being shaved.

Of the vessels wrecked from time to time on the coast of the Desert,
or Sahara, many are probably never heard of; but if any of the
crew survive their hardships, they are induced, seeing no prospect
of emancipation, to become Mahommedans, and nothing is afterwards
known or heard of them; the vessel is supposed by its owners to have
foundered at sea, and all passes into oblivion. Of vessels whose loss
has been learnt by any chance (such as that of the sailors falling
into the hands of Wedinoon Jews, or Moors), there may have been
from the year 1790, to the year 1806, thirty of different nations,
part of whose crews have afterwards found their way to Marocco, and
given some account of their catastrophe; these may be thus divided,

  English                        17

  French                          5

  American                        5

  Dutch, Danish, Swedish, &c.     3

Of the English vessels the crews probably amounted to 200 men and
boys, who may be thus accounted for:

  Young men and boys either drowned, killed, or induced to
  embrace the Mohammedan religion                                     40

  Old men and others killed by the Arabs in the first scuffle,
  when making opposition, or defending themselves! also drowned
  in getting ashore                                                   40

  Dispersed in various parts of the Desert, after a lapse of time,
  in consequence of the Consul making no offers sufficiently
  advantageous to induce the Arabs to bring them to Mogodor (which
  should always be done as soon as possible after the wreck, and a
  price given superior to that of a native slave)                     40

  _Redeemed after a tedious existence among the Arabs of from one
  to five years, or more, originating from various causes, such as
  a want of application being made through the proper channel, want
  of remitting money for their purchase, or want of a competent
  agent settled on the coast._                                        80

If any nation of Europe ought to enquire into the mode of remedying
this evil, it is certainly Great Britain, whose influence at the
Court of Marocco, by adopting a judicious system, might be made very
considerable and advantageous to the country; a small sum would be
sufficient at Mogodor (if the expense of an express agent for this
particular purpose were disapproved), if deposited in the hands of the
Vice-Consul, or any merchant of respectability, where it might remain
ready to be employed in the purchase of these unfortunate people, and
by allowing a sum rather above the price of a black slave, the Arabs
would immediately bring them to Mogodor, knowing they could depend
on an adequate price; by this means they might be procured for half
what they now cost; and it would be an infinitely better plan than
that of soliciting the Emperor to procure them through the Bashaw of
Suse; for, besides the delay, and consequent protracted sufferings
of the captives, the favour is undoubtedly considered by the Emperor
as incalculably more than the cost and charges of their purchase.[194]

It is generally a month or two before the news of a shipwreck reaches
Mogodor, at which time, if a fund were there deposited, in the hands
of a competent agent, a hundred and fifty dollars would be sufficient
to purchase each man; yet, often from the scarcity of specie, or the
various commercial demands which the merchants have for their money,
they have it not in their power (however philanthropically disposed)
to redeem these poor men: and if they do, it is at their own risk,
and they must necessarily wait to know if the government chooses to
reimburse their expenses.


[Footnote 191: I will here mention a stratagem by which a sailor,
a few years since, saved a ship on this coast, as it may be of use
to some future navigator:—The vessel was stranded, and one of
the crew being a Spaniard, who had been used to fish there from the
Canaries, advised the Captain to let go an anchor, as if the vessel
were riding and in safety: some Arabs coming on board, the captain
told them to bring their gums and other produce, for that they were
come to trade with them, and were going away again in a few days;
as it happened to be low water, the vessel on the return of the tide
floated, they then weighed anchor, and set sail, leaving the Arabs
astonished at their unexpected departure.]

[Footnote 192: Mr. Thomas Betton, of Hoxton-square, a Turkey merchant,
by his will, dated in 1724, devised to the Ironmongers Company in
trust about 26,000_l._ one moiety of the interest and profit thereof
to be perpetually employed in the redemption of British captives
from Moorish slavery. See Maitland’s History of London. See also
Mr. Betton’s will proved at Doctor’s Commons 15th June 1725, by
his executors, viz by John Cox, and four others of the Ironmongers

[Footnote 193: This latter is expected by a prince of the first
dignity; but I have often passed princes on horseback without being
required to alight: on such occasions I uncovered, and bowed in the
European manner.]

[Footnote 194: As a further proof of the practicability of
establishing an advantageous alliance with the present Emperor, it
should be here observed, that his predecessors often obliged the
English to send an ambassador, with presents, &c. to solicit the
liberation of British seamen; but Muley Soliman gives them up to
the British consul, _without exacting such kind of remuneration_.]

                             CHAPTER XIII.

_Commercial Relations of the Empire of Marocco with Timbuctoo,
and other Districts of Soudan — Route of the Caravans to and from
Soudan — Of the City of Timbuctoo — The Productive Gold Mines
in its Vicinage — Of the navigable Intercourse between Jinnie and
Timbuctoo; and from the latter to Cairo in Egypt: the whole being
collected from the most authentic and corroborating testimonies of
the Guides of the Caravans, Itinerant Merchants of Soudan, and other
creditable sources of Intelligence._

Timbuctoo,[195] the great emporium of central Africa, has from time
immemorial carried on a very extensive and lucrative trade with the
various maritime States of North Africa, viz. Marocco, Tunis, Algier,
Tripoli, Egypt, &c. by means of (akkabaahs) accumulated caravans,
which cross the great Desert of Sahara, generally between the months
of September and April inclusive; these akkabaahs consist of several
hundred loaded camels, accompanied by the Arabs who let them to the
merchants, for the transport of their merchandize to Fas, Marocco,
&c. at a very low rate. During their route, they are often exposed
to the attacks of the roving Arabs of Sahara, who generally commit
their depredations as they approach the confines of the Desert.

[Illustration:_Pl. XIII._

Map _shewing the_ TRACT as followed by the CARAVANS _from_ _FAS to
TIMBUCTOO_ by _Jas. G. Jackson,_ 1811.

_London Published Augst. 30th. 1811. by G. & W. Nicoll Pall Mall._]

In this fatiguing journey, the akkabaahs do not proceed in a direct
line across the trackless Desert to the place of their destination,
but turn occasionally eastward or westward, according to the situation
of certain fertile, inhabited, and cultivated spots, interspersed in
various parts of Sahara, like islands in the ocean, called Oas,[196]
or Oases; these serve as watering-places to the men, as well as to
feed, refresh, and replenish the hardy and patient camel: at each
of these Oases, the akkabaah sojourns about seven days, and then
proceeds on its journey, until it reaches another spot of the same
description. In the intermediate journies, the hot and impetuous winds
denominated Shume,[197] convert the Desert into a moveable sea, aptly
denominated by the Arabs (El Bahar billa maa), a sea without water,
more dangerous than the perfidious waves of the ocean. In the midst
of the latter the pilot always entertains some hopes, but in these
parching Deserts, the traveller never expects safety, but from the
cessation of the wind. If it continues, the most numerous caravans
are often buried under mountains of sand, which, like the tempestuous
billows in a storm, advance in an undulating manner, stopping and
accumulating wherever they find the smallest substance to impede
their progress, insomuch that in a few hours a mountain of sand is
thus accumulated, where it was before an uninterrupted plain, then the
wind shifting, scatters in the air these newly constructed mountains,
forming amidst this chaos dreadful gulphs and yawning abysses;
the traveller continually deceived by the aspect of the place, can
discover his situation only by the position of the stars; moreover
the desiccating nature of these winds is such, that they exhale the
water carried in skins by the camels for the use of the passengers and
drivers; on these occasions, the Arabs and people of Soudan affirm,
that 500 dollars have been given for a draught of water, and that
10 or 20 are commonly given when a partial exhalation has occurred.

In 1805, a caravan proceeding from Timbuctoo to Tafilelt,
was disappointed, in not finding water at one of the usual
watering-places, when, horrible to relate, the whole of the persons
belonging to it, 2000 in number, besides 1800 camels, perished of
thirst! Accidents of this sort account for the vast quantities of
human and other bones which are found mingled together in various
parts of the Desert.

It is generally affirmed, that the guides, to whom the charge of
conducting these numerous and accumulated caravans is committed,
in their routes to and from Marocco, direct their course by the
scent of the sandy earth; but I could never discover any reasonable
foundation for such an opinion, and apprehend it to be an artful
invention of their own, to impose on the credulity of this
superstitious and ignorant people, and thus to enhance the value
of their knowledge. These guides possess some idea of astrology,
and the situation of certain stars, and being enabled by the two
pointers to ascertain the polar star, they can by that unvarying
guide steer their course with considerable precision, preferring
often travelling in the night, rather than under the suffocating
heat of the effulgent meridian sun.

When the akkabaah reaches Akka, the first station on this side of the
Desert, and situated on the confines thereof, in Lower Suse, which
is a part of Bled-el-jerrêde, the camels and guides are discharged,
and others there hired to proceed to Fas, Marocco, Terodant, Tafilelt,
and other places.

The akkabaahs perform the traverse of the Desert, including their
sojournments at El-wahaht, or Oases, in about 130 days. Proceeding
from the city of Fas, they go at the rate of 3½ miles an hour,
and travel seven hours a day; they reach Wedinoon, Tatta, or Akka in
eighteen days, where they remain a month, as the grand accumulated
akkabaah proceeds from the latter place.

In going from Akka to Tagassa[198] they employ sixteen days, here
sojourning fifteen days more to replenish their camels; they then
proceed to the Oasis and Well of Taudeny, which they reach in seven
days; here again they remain fifteen days; their next route is to
Arawan, another watering place, which they reach in seven days; here
they sojourn fifteen days; and then proceed and reach Timbuctoo the
sixth day, making a journey of fifty-four days actual travelling,
and of seventy-five days repose, being altogether, from Fas to
Timbuctoo, one hundred and twenty-nine days, or four lunar months
and nine days.[199]

There is another akkabaah which sets out from Wedinoon and Sok Assa,
and traversing the Desert between the black mountains of Cape Bojador
and Gualata, touches at Tagassa, El Garbie (both g’s guttural, being
the letter غ), or West Tagassa, and staying there to collect salt,
proceeds to Timbuctoo. The time occupied by this akkabaah is five
or six months, as it goes as far as Jibbel-el-biëd, or the White
Mountains, near Cape Blanco, through the desert of Mograffra and
Woled Abbusebah, to a place called Agadeen,[200] where it sojourns
twenty days.

The akkabaahs which cross the Desert may be compared to our fleets of
merchant vessels under convoy, the (stata) convoy of the Desert being
two or more Arabs, belonging to the tribe through whose territory the
caravan passes; thus, in passing the territory of Woled Abbusebah,
they are accompanied by two Sebayhées, or people of that country,
who on reaching the confines of the territory of Woled Delim, receive
a remuneration, and return, delivering them to the protection of two
chiefs of Woled Deleim; these again conducting them to the confines
of the territory of the Mograffra Arabs, to whose care they deliver
them, and so on, till they reach Timbuctoo: any assault made against
the akkabaah during this journey, is considered as an insult to the
whole clan to which the (stata) convoy belongs, and for which they
never fail to seek ample revenge.

Besides these grand accumulated caravans, there are others which cross
the Desert, on any emergency, without a stata or guard of soldiers:
but this is a perilous expedition, and they are too often plundered
near the northern confines of the Desert, by two notorious tribes,
called Dikna and Emjot.[201] These ferocious hordes are most cruel
and sanguinary, poor and miserable, ignorant of their situation, but
unsubdued and free; when they attack the akkabaahs they generally
succeed; sometimes they put all the persons to death, except those
whom they cannot pursue. In the year 1798, an akkabaah consisting
of two thousand camels loaded with Soudanic produce, together with
seven hundred slaves, was plundered and dispersed, and many were
killed. These desperate attacks are conducted in the following manner:
a whole clan picket their horses at the entrance of their tents, and
send out scouts to give notice when an akkabaah is likely to pass;
these being mounted on the Heirie, or Shrubba Er’reeh, quickly
communicate the intelligence, and the whole clan mount their horses,
taking with them a sufficient number of (niag) female camels, to
supply them with food (they living altogether on the milk of that
animal); they place themselves somewhere in ambush near an oasis, or
watering-place, from whence they issue on the arrival of the akkabaah,
which they plunder of every thing, leaving the unfortunate merchants,
if they spare their lives, entirely destitute.

Those who have philosophy enough to confine their wants solely to
what nature requires, would view the individual happiness of the
people who compose the caravans, with approbation. Their food, dress,
and accommodation, are simple and natural; proscribed from the use
of wine, and intoxicating liquors, by their religion, and exhorted
by its principles to temperance, they are commonly satisfied with a
few nourishing dates, and a draft of water; and they will travel for
weeks successively without any other food; at other times, a little
barley meal and cold water is the extent of their provision, when they
undertake a journey of a few weeks across the Desert; living in this
abstemious manner, they never complain, but solace themselves with a
hope of reaching their native country, singing occasionally during
the journey, whenever they approach any habitation, or whenever
the camels appear fatigued; these songs are usually sung in trio,
and in the chorus all the camel drivers, who have a musical voice,
join; it is worthy observation, how much these songs renovate the
camels, and the symphony and time they keep surpasses what any one
would imagine, who had not heard them. In traversing the Desert they
generally contrive to terminate the day’s journey at l’Asaw a
term which they appropriate to our four o’clock, P.M. so that
between that period and the setting sun, the tents are pitched,
prayers said, and the (Lashaw) supper got ready; after which they
sit round in a circle, and talk till sleep overcomes them, and next
morning, at break of day, they proceed again on their journey.

The Arabic language, as spoken by the camel-drivers, is peculiarly
sweet and soft; the guttural and harsh letters are softened, and
with all its energy and perspicuity, when pronounced by them, is as
soft, and more sonorous than the Italian; it approaches the ancient
Korannick language, and has suffered but little alteration these
twelve hundred years. The Arabs of Moraffra, and those of Woled
Abbusebah, frequently hold an extempore conversation in poetry, at
which the women are adepts, and never fail to shew attention to those
young Arabs who excel in this intellectual and refined amusement.[202]

The articles transported by the company of merchants trading from Fas
to Timbuctoo, are principally as follows: various kinds of German
linens, viz. plattilias, rouans, brettanias, muslins of different
qualities, particularly muls, Irish linens, cambricks, fine cloths
of particular colours, coral beads, amber beads, pearls, Bengal
raw silk, brass nails, coffee, fine Hyson teas, refined sugar, and
various manufactures of Fas and Tafilelt, viz. shawls and sashes of
silk and gold, hayks of silk, of cotton and silk mixed, of cotton
and of wool; also an immense quantity of (hayk filelly) Tafilelt
hayks, a particularly light and fine manufacture of that place,
and admirably adapted to the climate of Soudan; to these may be
added red woollen caps, the general covering of the head, turbans,
Italian silks, nutmegs, cloves, ginger, and pepper; Venetian beads,
cowries, and a considerable quantity of tobacco and salt, the produce
of Barbary and Bled-el-jerrêde.

The produce of Soudan, returned by the akkabaahs, for the above
articles, consists principally in gold dust, twisted gold rings
of Wangara,[203] gold rings made at Jinnie,[204] bars of gold,
elephants’ teeth, gum of Soudan, (guza Saharawie) grains of Sahara,
called by Europeans grains of paradise, odoriferous gums, called
el b’korr’h Soudan, much esteemed by the Arabs for fumigating,
to which they ascribe many virtues; a great number of slaves,
purchased at Timbuctoo, from the Wangareen, Houssonian, and other
slatees,[205] who bring them from those regions which border on
the Jibbel Kumra,[206] or Mountains of the Moon, a chain which,
with little or no intermission, runs through the continent of Africa
from west to east, viz. from Assentee in the west, to Abyssinia in
the east.

Ostrich feathers and ambergris are collected on the confines of the
Desert, and are added to the merchandize before mentioned. The gold
jewels of Jinnie[207] are denominated by the Arabs El Herrez, from
the supposed charm they contain; they are invariably of pure gold,
and some of them of exquisite workmanship, and of various forms,
but hollow in the middle for the purpose of containing the Herrez,
or amulet, which consists of passages from the Koran, arranged in
some geometrical figure, on paper, which being enclosed in the gold
jewel, is suspended from the neck, or tied round the arms, legs, or
elsewhere. These charms have various and particular powers attributed
to them, some insuring the wearer against the effects of an evil eye,
others from an evil mind; some are intended to secure a continuation
of prosperity and happiness, or to avert misfortune, whilst others
secure to the wearer health and strength. This superstition,
and predilection for charms, pervades the greater part of Africa:
thus, in the northern maritime states, in Suse, and other parts of
Bled-el-jerrêde, the fakeers, or saints, attach half a hundred Herrez
(without, however, the gold covering, for which they substitute
a leathern one) to different parts of their body, and even to the
horses: at Marocco I have seen eleven round one horse’s neck.[208]
The inhabitants of these countries imagine no disorder incident to
mankind can attack either man or beast without the aid of some (jin)
spirit, or departed soul, or (drubba del’ain) an evil eye.

The slaves brought by the akkabaahs are more or less valuable in
Barbary, according to their beauty and symmetry of person, and
also according to their age, and the country from whence they are
procured: thus a Wangareen slave is not worth so much as one from
Houssa; the former being a gross, stupid people, little superior
in understanding to the brute creation, whilst those of Houssa are
intelligent, industrious, acute, and possess a peculiarly open and
noble countenance, having prominent noses, and expressive black eyes:
those of Wangara, on the contrary, have large mouths, thick lips,
broad flat noses, and heavy eyes. A young girl of Houssa, of exquisite
beauty, was once sold at Marocco, whilst I was there, for four hundred
ducats,[209] whilst the average price of slaves is about one hundred,
so much depends on the fancy, or the imagination of the purchaser.

These slaves are treated very differently from the unhappy victims who
used to be transported from the coast of Guinea, and our settlements
on the Gambia, to the West India islands. After suffering those
privations, which all who traverse the African Desert must necessarily
and equally submit to, masters as well as servants and slaves, they
are conveyed to Fas and Marocco, and after being exhibited in the
sook, or public market place, they are sold to the highest bidder,
who carries them to his home, where, if found faithful, they are
considered as members of the family, and allowed an intercourse with
the (horraht) free-born women of the household. Being in the daily
habit of hearing the Arabic language spoken, they soon acquire a
partial knowledge of it, and the Mohammedan religion teaching the
unity of God, they readily reject paganism, and embrace Mohammedanism;
their Mooselmin masters then instil into their vacant minds, ready
to receive the first impression, the fundamental principles of the
Mooselmin doctrine; the more intelligent learn to read and write,
and afterwards acquire a partial knowledge of the Koran; and such
as can read and understand one chapter, from that time procure
their emancipation from slavery, and the master exults in having
converted an infidel, and in full faith, expects favour from heaven
for the action, and for having liberated a slave. When these people
do not turn their minds to reading, and learning the principles of
Mohammedanism, they generally obtain their freedom after eight or
ten years servitude; for the more conscientious Mooselmin consider
them as servants, and purchase them for about the same sum that
they would pay in wages to a servant during the above period,
at the expiration of which term, by giving them their liberty,
they, according to their religious opinions, acquire a blessing
from God, for having done an act, which a Mooselmin considers more
meritorious in the sight of Heaven, than the sacrifice of a goat,
or even of a camel. This liberation is entirely voluntary on the
part of the owner; and I have known some slaves so attached to their
masters from good treatment, that when they have been offered their
liberty, they have actually refused it, preferring to continue in
servitude. It should not, however, be supposed, that the Arabs and
Moors are always inclined thus to liberate these degraded people;
on the contrary, some of them, particularly the latter, are obdurate,
and make an infamous traffic of them, by purchasing, and afterwards
intermarrying them, for the purposes of propagation and of sale,
when they are placed in the public market-place, and there turned
about, and examined, in order to ascertain their value.

The eunuchs which the Emperor and princes keep to superintend their
respective Horems, are, for the most part, procured from the vicinage
of Senaar in Soudan; these creatures have shrill effeminate voices:
they are emasculated in a peculiar manner, and sometimes in such a
way, as not to be incapacitated from cohabiting with women;[210] they
are in general very fat and gross, and from the nature of the charge
committed to them, become very confidential servants: indeed their
fidelity is surpassed only by their unbounded insolence. I knew one
of these creatures, who was chief of the eunuchs superintending the
Horem of Muley Abd Salam,[211] at Agadeer, who was one hundred and
ten years old; he was then upright, and walked about without a stick.

Persons unaccustomed to, or unacquainted with, the mode of living in
Africa, may imagine the expense and trouble of conveying the slaves
across the Desert, would be more than the advantage derivable from
their sale; but it must be recollected that these people are very
abstemious, particularly whilst travelling; ten dollars expended
in rice in Wangara is sufficient for a year’s consumption for one
person; the wearing apparel is alike œconomical, a pair of drawers,
and sometimes a vest, forming all the clothing necessary in traversing
the Desert.

It is not ascertained when the communication between Barbary and
Soudan was first opened, yet it is certain, that the enterprising
expedition of Muley Arsheede to the latter country[212] tended
considerably to encrease and encourage the exchange of commodities,
and caused the establishment of the company of Fas merchants, at Fas,
as well as that of their factory at Timbuctoo, which has continued
to increase and flourish ever since.

The circulating medium at Timbuctoo is (tibber) gold dust, which is
exchanged for merchandize, thus a plattilia is worth 20 mizans[213]
of gold: a piece of Irish linen, of 25 yards, is worth 30 mizans:
and loaf sugar is worth 40 mizans of gold per quintal.

Having in some measure explained the nature of the trade with
Timbuctoo, we may now proceed to discuss the extent of its territory,
and although this does not appear to have been ascertained, yet it may
be said to extend northward to the confines of Sahara, or the Desert;
a tract of country about ninety miles in breadth; the western boundary
is one hundred and thirty miles west of the city, and the eastern
extends to the Bahar Soudan, or the Sea of Soudan, which is a lake
formed by the Nile El Abeede, whose opposite shore is not discernible;
this is the description given of it by the Soudanees, who have visited
it; on its opposite or eastern shore begins the territory of white
people hereafter mentioned, denominated by the Arabs (N’sarrath)
Christians, or followers of Jesus of Nazareth: south of the river is
another territory of immense extent, the boundary of which extends
to Lamlem, or Melli, which latter is reported to be inhabited by
one of the lost, or missing tribes of Israel.

The city of Timbuctoo is situated on a plain, surrounded by sandy
eminences, about twelve miles north of the Nile El Abeede,[214]
or Nile of the Blacks, and three (erhellat) days journey from the
confines of Sahara: the city is about twelve miles in circumference,
but without walls. A ditch or excavation, about four cubits in
depth, and the same in breadth, but without water, circumscribes the
city. The town of Kabra, situated on the banks of the river, is its
commercial depot, or port. By means of a water carriage east and
west of Kabra, great facility is given to the trade of Timbuctoo,
from whence the various articles of European, as well as Barbary
manufactures brought by the akkabaahs from the north of Africa, are
distributed to the different empires and states of Soudan, and the
south. This great mart is resorted to by all nations, whither they
bring the various products of their respective countries, to barter
for the European and Barbary manufactures.

The houses of Timbuctoo have, for the most part, no upper apartments:
they are spacious, and of a square form, with an opening in the
centre, surrounded by a gallery similar to the houses at Fas and
Marocco; they have no windows, as the doors, which are lofty and wide,
opening in the gallery before mentioned, admit sufficient light to
the rooms when thrown open. The walls of the houses are erected thus:
they put boards on each side of the wall, supported by stakes driven
in the ground, or attached to other stakes laid transversely across
the wall, the intermediate space is then filled with sand, mud, and
lime, and beat down with large wooden mallets till it becomes hard
and compact: the cases are left on for a day or two; they then take
them off, and move them higher up, until the wall be finished, which
is generally erected to the heighth of eight or nine cubits.[215]
Contiguous to the house door is a building consisting of two rooms,
called a Duaria, in which visitors are received and entertained, so
that they see nothing of the women, who are extremely handsome. The
men are so excessively jealous of their wives, that, when the latter
visit a relation, they are obliged to muffle themselves up in every
possible way to disguise their persons; their face also is covered
with their garment, through which they peep with one eye to discover
their way.

In various parts of the city are spacious (fondaque) caravanseras,
built on a plan similar to that of the houses, having a gallery
round the area, the access to which is by stairs: the rooms which
surround and open into the gallery are very numerous, and are hired by
merchants and strangers for themselves and their merchandize. These
are private property, and the rooms are let each for about twenty
okiat, or two dollars per month; the agent of the proprietor
of the fondaque usually resides in some apartment, in order to
accommodate the strangers with provisions and other necessaries,
having messengers, or porters, who perform the domestic offices of
the house until the strangers become settled, and have leisure to
provide themselves with domestics, or to purchase slaves from the
market to cook their victuals, clean their rooms, and attend their
persons, whilst they are employed in bartering and exchanging their
commodities till they have invested the whole in Soudanic produce,
which they endeavour to accomplish by autumn (September), in order
to be ready for the akkabaah, either to proceed to Marocco, Cairo,
Jidda,[216] or elsewhere.

The king, whose authority has been acknowledged at Timbuctoo ever
since the death of Muley Ismael, Emperor of Marocco, is the sovereign
of Bambarra; the name of this potentate in 1800 was Woolo; he is a
black, and a native of the country which he governs; his usual place
of residence is Jinnie, though he has three palaces in Timbuctoo,
which are said to contain an immense quantity of gold. Many of the
civil appointments at Timbuctoo, since the decease of Muley Ismael
before mentioned, and the consequent decline of the authority of the
Emperor of Marocco, have been filled by Moors of Maroquin origin;[217]
but the military appointments, since the above period, have been
entirely among negroes of Bambarra, appointed by the King Woolo;
the inhabitants are also for the most part Negroes, who possess much
of the Arab hospitality, and pride themselves in being attentive to
strangers. The various costumes exhibited in the market-places and
streets, indicate the variety and extent of the commercial intercourse
with the different nations of central Africa; the individuals being
each habited in the dress of his respective country, exhibit a variety
both pleasing and interesting to every stranger who goes there.

The toleration in a country like this is particularly deserving of
notice. The Diwan, or L’Alemma, never interfere with the tenets
of the various religions professed by the different people, who
resort to Timbuctoo for commercial or other purposes; every one is
allowed to worship the great Author of his being without restraint,
and according to the religion of his father, or in the way wherein
he may have been initiated.

The police of this extraordinary place is extolled, as surpassing
any thing of the kind on this side of the Desert; robberies and
house-breaking are scarcely known; the peaceable inhabitants of
the town each following their respective avocation, interfere
with nothing but what concerns them. The government of the city is
entrusted to a Diwan of twelve Alemma, or men learned in the Koran,
and an umpire, who retain their appointments, which they receive from
the king of Bambarra, three years. The power of the Alemma is great,
and their falling into the mass of citizens after the expiration of
the above period, obliges them to act uprightly, as their good or
bad administration of justice either acquits or condemns them after
the expiration of their temporary power. The civil jurisprudence is
directed by a Cadi, who decides all judicial proceedings according to
the spirit of the Koran; he has twelve talbs of the law, or attornies,
attending him, each of whom has a separate department of justice to
engage his daily attention.

Daggers and stillettos are generally worn: if any one disputes with
his comrade, and becomes irritated, the daggers are drawn, and one
stabs the other, without premeditation, whilst under the influence
of passion. Revenge, or retaliation for injuries, is so precise,
and so eagerly followed, as to become hereditary in a family. Thus
if a man be killed or stabbed, it devolves on the next of kin to
him to seek retaliation, and to obtain satisfaction, who accordingly
seeks every opportunity of destroying the man who killed his brother
or relation; when he dies the charge devolves on his next of kin. In
the mean time, if the officers of police discover that any sanguinary
assault has been committed, they pursue the aggressor, and oblige
him to attend the wounded man, at his own expense, till he recovers;
but if he dies, the aggressor is condemned, by law, to death, unless
the next of kin to the deceased chooses to grant him a pardon, in
consideration of some pecuniary compensation, regulated according
to the circumstances of the aggressor.

There is but one prison in this extensive city, where the prisoner
is not confined, but suffers the bastinado, or pays a fine, and
is liberated. Robberies attended with personal violence, stealing
cattle, or provisions, are capital crimes, and are thus punished
by decapitation:

The criminal sits down on the ground, and whilst a person engages his
attention, by pushing him on the back or shoulder, the executioner
seizes that opportunity of striking off his head with a sabre, at
which he is very adroit. Strangling is seldom practised. Bastinadoing,
when the crime is extremely aggravated, is sometimes practised till
the criminal expires under the chastisement.

A debtor may be arrested and sent to prison, but on proving his
insolvency, he is liberated, but still remains accountable to his
creditors; and, in the event of his becoming afterwards a man of
property, his creditors may claim and sue him to the extent of the
debt previously contracted.

The Diwan, when the King is in the town, sit in his presence round
the throne, and examine capital culprits. The king never decides
contrary to the opinion of the Diwan, or El Alemma.

Slaves may complain to the Alemma of illegal severity received
from their masters, of want of food or cloathing, either of which,
if substantiated, he is ordered to liberate him.

A native of Timbuctoo cannot be a slave; he must necessarily have
been born in another country, and these are generally captives taken
in battle. The children of slaves are inherited by the masters of
their parents. Slaves of different masters cannot marry without the
consent of the latter: the master of a negress endeavours to purchase
the negro to whom she is attached.

It is asserted that until lately no Jews were permitted to enter
the town, and various conjectures have been made as to the cause
of this interdiction. It is also reported that those Jews who do
now resort thither, are obliged to become Mohammedans, the forms
of which religion they probably relinquish on their return to their
native country; but whatever may be the ostensible, I am inclined to
think the true cause why the Jews are not admitted into Timbuctoo,
is the extreme jealousy of the individuals of the Moorish factory,
whose avarice induces them to exclude every person from sharing
their emoluments whenever a plausible pretext can be found.

The climate of Timbuctoo is much extolled as being salubrious and
extremely invigorating, insomuch that it is impossible for the sexes
to exist without intermarriage; accordingly it is said, there is no
man of the age of eighteen who has not his wives or concubines, all
which are allowed by the laws of the country, which are Mohammedan;
and it is even a disgrace for a man who has reached the age of puberty
to be unmarried. The natives, and those who have resided there any
considerable time, have an elegance and suavity of manners which is
not observed on this side of Sahara: they possess a great flow of
animal spirits, and are generally so much attached to the country,
that they invariably return, when insurmountable difficulties do
not prevent them.

With regard to the manufactures of different kinds of apparel at
Timbuctoo, and other places of the interior, they are made, for
the most part, by the women in their respective houses, whenever
they cannot procure European cloths and linens, or when there is
a great scarcity of Fas and Tafilelt manufactures of silk, cotton,
and woollen.

It has been said that there is an extensive library at Timbuctoo,
consisting of manuscripts in a character differing from the
Arabic; this, I am inclined to think, has originated in the fertile
imagination of some poet; or, perhaps, some Arab or Moor, willing to
indulge at the expense of European curiosity, has fabricated such a
story. In all my enquiries, during many years, I never heard of any
such library at Timbuctoo. The state library, which is composed for
the most part of manuscripts in the Arabic, contains a few Hebrew,
and perhaps Chaldaic books; amongst the Arabic, it is probable there
are many translations from Greek and Latin authors at present unknown
to Europeans.

The Nile El Abeede, or Nile of the Negroes, overflows in the same
manner as the Nile Massar, or Nile of Egypt,[218] when the sun
enters Cancer; this is the rainy season in the countries south of
the Great Desert, and in Jibbel Kumra, or the Mountains of the Moon,
from whence the waters descend which cause the river to overflow its
banks. At Kabra, near Timbuctoo, it becomes a very large stream. River
horses are found in the Nile El Abeede, as well as crocodiles,
and the country contiguous to its southern banks is covered with
forests of primeval growth, in which are many trees of great size
and beauty. These forests abound with elephants of an enormous size.

The river, according to the concurrent testimony of the Arabs and
the Moors, and all travellers who have been on the spot, flows from
west to east, and is about the width of the Thames at London; the
stream is so very rapid in the middle, as to oblige the boats which
navigate to Jinnie to keep close to the shore: and the boatmen,
instead of oars, push the boat on with long poles.[219]

The soil about Timbuctoo is generally fertile, and near the river
produces rice, millet, Indian corn, and other grain; wheat and
barley grow in the plains, and are cultivated principally by the
Arabs of the tribe of Brabeesh.[220] Coffee[221] grows wild here, as
does also indigo; the latter, however, is cultivated in some parts,
and produces a very fine blue dye, which they use in their various
cotton manufactures; a specimen of this colour may be seen in the
British Museum, in a piece of cloth of cotton and silk, which I had
the honour to present to that national depository of curiosities some
years since: it is of a checquered pattern, similar to a draft board,
the squares are alternate blue and white; these pieces of cotton are
manufactured at Jinnie and Timbuctoo, and used as covers to beds;
they are valuable from the strength and durability of the texture,
and are therefore sold at a high price in Barbary, according to the
quantity of silk that is in them, and the quality of the cotton;
those however which have no silk interwoven, but are simply cotton,
of blue and white patterns, are not so costly: the width varies
from two to twelve inches; the pieces are sewed together so closely
afterwards with silk or thread, that one can scarcely perceive the
seams, the whole appearing as one piece.

The husbandmen (whom they call fulah) are very expert in the œconomy
of bees; honey and wax are abundant, but neither is transported
across the Desert; first, because the articles abound in Barbary,
and secondly, because they are used by the natives of Timbuctoo,
the former as an article of food, and the latter for candles.[222]

The fish called shebbel, similar to our salmon in the formation of its
bones, and not unlike it in taste, abounds in the Neele El Abeede,
near Kabra: it is much esteemed by the natives; eels also abound
in the river. There are various other kinds of fish, the names of
which I do not recollect.

The mines of gold which lie south of the bed of the river belong
to the Sultan Woolo, who resides at Jinnie; he has three palaces,
or spacious houses at Timbuctoo, where his gold is deposited, of
which he is said to possess an enormous quantity. The persons who
are daily employed in working the mines are Bambareen negroes, who
are extremely rich in gold, for all pieces of ore which they take
from the mines not weighing twelve mizans, or about two ounces,
become a perquisite to themselves, as a remuneration for their
labour, and all pieces of a greater weight belong to the Sultan,
and are deposited in his before mentioned palaces.

It is asserted that the mines are so pure, that lumps of virgin
gold are constantly found of several ounces in weight; this being
admitted, it will not be surprising that the value of this precious
metal, here so abundant, should be inconsiderable, and that some
articles of small value with us in Europe, such as tobacco, salt,
and manufactured brass, should often sell at Timbuctoo for their
weight in gold. But here I would wish to be understood as speaking
with some latitude, as the precise value of the circulating medium of
Soudan is subject to great fluctuation, originating from a company of
enterprising speculators of great capital at Fas, who are extremely
jealous of the trade, and particularly cautious in communicating any
information respecting it. In my various enquiries on this subject, I
have constantly been guarded from receiving any information respecting
Soudan from men who have had commercial establishments there; but
have been rather induced to prefer the testimony of those, whom I have
frequently met from time to time in my various journies through West
and South Barbary, who were strangers to the motives of my enquiries,
considering them merely as the natural suggestions of curiosity; some
of these, however, I have by chance met with afterwards at Mogodor
and Agadeer, where my commercial establishments were, when finding
I was engaged in foreign commerce, they became very circumspect and
cautious, and apparently regretted having communicated intelligence
to me concerning their country.

I cannot attempt to give the exact geographical bearing and distance
of places from Timbuctoo, in a country like this, as the Africans
are ignorant of geography as well as other sciences; but from the
several accounts which I have at different times received during
my residence in Africa, and which were from respectable people who
have resided years at Timbuctoo, and had travelled across Africa,
it appears to be situated fifteen hundred miles SSE of Fas, eleven
hundred and fifty miles about SSE of Akka, Tatta, and Wedinoon;
thirteen hundred miles in nearly the same direction from Marocco;
one thousand three hundred and twenty miles from Tafilelt: it is also
about two hundred and thirty miles eastward of the city of Jinnie;
one thousand miles west of Houssa.

The country north of Timbuctoo is inhabited by the powerful tribe of
Arabs called Brabeesh, whose original stock emigrated in the eighth
century, and took possession of a tract of country bordering on
Egypt westward; there are several duars of that kabyle, inhabitants
of the western confines of Egypt, who long since emigrated from the
original stock, on account of family disputes; they are a turbulent,
restless, and warlike tribe, but extremely afraid of fire arms,
having no means of defence against such, being armed only with
(zeraga) the lance, and occasionally with knives, or daggers: hence
the inhabitants of the towns, when they go far into the country,
carry guns and pistols with them.

There is another nation situated many (erhellat) journies south-east
of Timbuctoo, who worship the sun, and abstain from animal food,
living on milk and vegetables. One of these people was at Mogodor
about ten years since, and continued his national custom, nor could
all the flattering invitations to Mohammedanism induce him to renounce
his doctrine.

In some part of the country between Timbuctoo and Casina, or Cashna,
which is called (Beb Houssa) the Entrance of Houssa, is discovered
a race of people, whom the Arabs compare to the English, alleging,
that they speak a distinct language of their own, different from all
the others known in Africa, and that it resembles the whistling of
birds, to which they compare the English language. The people ride
on saddles, similar to those of England, and wear rowelled spurs,
the only nation in Africa that does, without shoes. Their faces are
covered to the eyes, by their turbans folding round their necks and
faces. Their weapons are swords, bows, arrows, and lances. When they
engage in battle, each man selects an antagonist, they therefore never
risk an engagement unless they think themselves superior in number,
or at least equal to their enemy, resembling, in this respect, the
Chinese. They are represented as a grossly superstitious people;
their bodies as well as their horses being covered with (herrez)
charms, or amulets.

About fifteen (erhellat) journies east of Timbuctoo, is an immense
lake, called (El Bahar Soudan) the Sea of Soudan; on which are decked
vessels, and the borders of it are inhabited by the above people;
they brought, in or about the year 1793, some of their decked vessels
to Timbuctoo, and transported thence goods to Jinnie; but as they
were ascertained to be neither Arabs, Moors, Negroes, Shelluhs, nor
Berebbers, the boatmen of Timbuctoo complained to the Cadi, that if
these people were permitted to go to and from Jinnie, they would lose
their business, as their boats performed the passage at less expense,
and in half the time. On this suggestion the Cadi ordered them out
of the country: some report that they were all poisoned, and their
boats broken to pieces, and that since then none of their vessels
have been used westward of this lake: the boats are described to
be about forty cubits[223] in length, and eight in breadth, having
the planks fastened together by shreet, or bass rope, and carry
one hundred and fifty or two hundred men, and forty tons of goods;
they have no sails, but when the wind is favourable, two oars are set
up perpendicularly on each side of the boat, to which is fastened a
large hayk, or spreading garment, which serves as a substitute for
a sail: these boats are rowed by sixteen oars: at night they come to
anchor by throwing a large stone overboard tied to a rope or cable,
as before mentioned, which serves as an anchor.

With regard to the water communication between Timbuctoo and Cairo,
there is no doubt but such a communication exists; it does not,
however, facilitate the purposes of transport, the expense of land
carriage by means of camels being more moderate than that by water,
besides the advantages to a traveller of a continued succession
of rich and fertile country, make the journey rather an excursion
of pleasure when compared to the toils of a desert, where heat and
thirst are so much dreaded by the weary traveller. In the interior
of Africa; and among the rich traders who engage in this traffic
across the Continent, _there is but one opinion with regard to the
Nile of Egypt and the Nile of Timbuctoo, and that opinion is, that
they are one and the same river, or rather that the latter is the
western branch of the former_. It may be further observed, that the
source of the Nile of Timbuctoo is at the foot of the western branch
of the chain of mountains called Jibbel Kumra, or Mountains of the
Moon, where it forms (merja) a swamp; and on the western side of
the same mountain is another lake or swamp, which is the source of
the Senegal river; hence the established African opinion, that the
Senegal and Nile have the same source, although these two merjas
are separated by the mountain: the copious springs, which throw
the water up with great force, are very numerous, and are found on
both sides of the mountain, that is on the eastern as well as on the
western side. The western stream takes a northerly direction, as does
also the eastern stream, which is increased in its course by various
others issuing from the Jibbel Kumri, more to the east of the source,
before described; but where the two streams unite (i.e. the Nile
of Egypt, and that of Soudan) is not accurately ascertained.[224]
It is proper, also, to observe, that the Africans express their
astonishment whenever the Europeans dispute the connection of these
two rivers, justly observing, that it is a folly to dispute a thing
which the experience of a succession of ages has proved to be true;
indeed it is remarkable how many empty hypotheses and idle reasonings
the course of this river, or the Egyptian Nile, has given rise to;
but there are people so bigotted to the opinions which are founded
on these empty hypotheses as to disregard the relation of travellers
who have actually been upon the spot, and who have, by the evidence
of their eyes, confuted all that has been written on the subject.

In confirmation of the opinion that there is a navigable communication
between Timbuctoo in Soudan, and Cairo in Egypt, the following
circumstance was related to me by a very intelligent man, who has,
at this time, an establishment in the former city:

In the year 1780, a party of seventeen Jinnie Negroes proceeded in
a canoe, to Timbuctoo, on a commercial speculation; they understood
the Arabic language, and could read the Koran: they bartered their
merchandize several times during the passage, and reached Cairo,
after a voyage of fourteen months, during which they lived upon rice
and other produce, which they procured at the different towns they
visited; they reported that there are twelve hundred cities and towns,
with mosques or towers in them, between Timbuctoo and Cairo, built
on or near the banks of (the Nile el Abeede, and the Nile Massar)
the Nile of Soudan, and the Nile of Egypt.

During this voyage they remained in many towns several days,
when trade, curiosity, or inclination induced them to sojourn:
in three places they found the Nile so shallow, by reason of the
numerous channels which are cut from the mainstream, for the purpose
of irrigating the lands of the adjacent country, that they could
not proceed in the boat, which they transported over land, till
they found the water flowing again in sufficient body to float it;
they also met with three considerable cataracts, the principal of
which was at the entrance from the west of Wangara; here also they
transported the boat by land until passing the fall of water, they
floated it again in an immense (merja) lake, whose opposite shore
was not visible; at night they threw a large stone overboard as a
substitute for an anchor, and watch was regularly kept to guard
against the attacks of crocodiles, elephants, and river horses,
which abound in various parts. When they arrived at Cairo they joined
the great accumulated caravan of the west, called Akkabah el Garbie,
and proceeded therewith through Barca, Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and
Angad, to Fas and Marocco, where they joined the Akka caravan, and
again reached Jinnie, after an absence of three years and two months.

Finally it appears from the corroborating testimony of all who have
performed the journey from Timbuctoo to Egypt, that the country
contiguous to the Nile El Abeede is rich and productive, that the
banks of the river are adorned with an incredible number of cities
and towns of incalculable population, that the Mohammedan religion
prevails; that the Arabic is the general language spoken throughout
these countries. The cities and towns are crowded with mosques,
having square towers attached to them: fondaques or caravanseras
for the accommodation of travellers are spacious and convenient,
so that we may conclude that the banks of the Nile El Abeede from
Timbuctoo to the confines of Egypt may be as populous as the banks
of any river in China.


[Footnote 195: See the author’s letter to Sir Joseph Banks in
Proceedings of the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the
Interior Parts of Africa, in 2 vols. 8vo. vol. ii. page 364.]

[Footnote 196: الواح _Elwah_; this is the Arabic name; modern
Europeans have, by adding an s made it wahs, the Romans not having the
letter w have made it oas, and by the propensity to use this letter,
it has been again added to make it plural; hence the word oasis,
or wahsis. The plural in Arabic is _El Wahaht_.]

[Footnote 197: اّلشُومْ Asshume, or Shume; this wind has
been already mentioned; during its continuance, it is impossible to
live in the upper rooms of the houses, the inhabitants, therefore,
retire to subterraneous apartments, cellars, or warehouses on the
ground floor, eating nothing but fruits, as the water melon, and the
prickly pear, for animal food at this period is loathsome whilst
hot, and has scarcely time to cool before it becomes tainted. The
walls of the bed chambers being of stone, buckets of water are
thrown against them to render the rooms habitable towards night;
and so great is their heat, that in doing this, the effect is
similar to what is produced by casting water on hot iron. I have
felt the Shume 20 leagues out at sea; when in lat. north 30°,
longitude west 11° 30′, I astonished the captain of the ship,
by directing his attention to particles of sand which fell on the
deck; and although the mariners actually collected about a wine
glass full of this sand by sweeping the deck, yet he would scarcely
credit the cause to which I ascribed it, until we reached Agadeer,
when he met with many daily proofs of the extraordinary effects of
this tremendous wind. I never found any extreme inconvenience from
the Shume north of the province of Suse, although at Mogodor it is
sometimes felt, but seldom or ever continues more than three days.

The Akkabaahs are sometimes obliged suddenly to strike their tents,
and proceed on their journey, from the Shume arising, and drifting the
loose sand along the plains, which attaches to every fixed object in
its course, and soon buries it. Savary, who often sacrifices truth
to the pomp of language, has committed a gross error in describing
the Desert; he says—“Woe to him, whom a whirlwind from the
south surprises in the midst of the solitude, if he have not a
tent to shelter him; he is assailed by clouds of burning dust which
fills his eyes, ears, and mouth, and deprives him of the faculty of
sight and breathing.” (See Letters on Egypt.) Now, so far from
tents being any permanent protection during these winds, they are
rather an annoyance, for it is impossible to keep them upright;
and if they are not immediately struck, they, and all within them,
are soon buried in the overwhelming torrent of sand.]

[Footnote 198: A person pronouncing this word in Africa, unless he
knows the power and force of the letter غ and how to pronounce _that
difficult guttural_, would be unable to make himself intelligible.]

[Footnote 199: Some akkabaahs perform the journey in less, I myself
having, when I had a commercial establishment at Agadeer, received
a caravan of gum Soudan from Timbuctoo in eighty-two days.]

[Footnote 200: Arguin in the maps.]

[Footnote 201: There is an emigration from this tribe of one hundred
families, now residing in several encampments near the city of

[Footnote 202: During my visit to the Viceroy of Suse, Mohammed ben
Delemy, he introduced me to four Arabs of the Woled Abbusebah tribe,
who conversed in our presence on various subjects, in this poetic
manner, and it is astonishing what accuracy in measure and expression
is acquired by a long habit in this mode of entertainment. The old
Emperor, Seedy Mohammed, encouraged this poetic conversation, and
when any one excelled, he never failed to reward him munificently; for
although no scholar himself, he encouraged every one who contributed
to diffuse a knowledge of the Arabic language.]

[Footnote 203: I presented one of these rings, some years since,
to Mr. James Willis, ci-devant consul for Seni-Gambia; they are of
pure gold, twisted, and open at the extremity, for the purpose of
inserting them in the middle cartilage of the nose; and such is the
fashion, that it is esteemed more genteel to appear in rags with
a nose-ring, than in fine garments without one. I saw a party of
these Wangareens whilst I was on a visit to the Viceroy of Suse,
the Khalif Mohammed ben Delemy, who, when eating, threw the ring
upwards, to prevent it from coming in contact with their mouth.]

[Footnote 204: The Arabs acknowledge the superiority of Europeans in
mechanical arts, and allow that they excel the Africans in general,
with the exception, however, of the working in gold, in which the
natives of Jinnie do most eminently excel. I have seen trinkets,
particularly a figure of an eagle, of such workmanship as would have
been difficult to imitate either in England or France.]

[Footnote 205: Slatee is a slave merchant, or seller of men.]

[Footnote 206: Sometimes called Jibbel Kumrie, or the White or Lunar
coloured Mountains (see map the 2d); so a white horse is called by
the Arabs a moon-coloured horse (aoud kumri).]

[Footnote 207: It may not be irrelevant here to observe, that the air
of Jinnie is inimical to all but those of Soudanic origin, that is
negroes, on which account the Arabs, Moors, and others, denominated El
Horreh, carefully avoid entering the town, but transact any business
in the adjacent plains. The inhabitants, who are universally black,
are adepts in the occult sciences, and hither men of all descriptions,
who are infected with the worm of superstition, resort to gratify
the phantasms of their heated imagination, by purchasing the charms,
or incantations mentioned in the text.]

[Footnote 208: In purchasing horses I have cut off these incantations,
for which they have looked upon me as a desperate infidel.]

[Footnote 209: The mitkal, called by Europeans ducat, is worth eight
tenths of a Mexico dollar, or 3s. 8d. sterling.]

[Footnote 210: An eunuch of the horem of Muley Abd El Melk, whilst
at Agadeer, had the audacity to cohabit with one of the concubines
of the horem; the prince hearing of it, was so exasperated, that he
ordered a punishment to be inflicted upon him which soon terminated
his existence.]

[Footnote 211: Elder brother to the reigning sultan Soliman.]

[Footnote 212: Muley Arsheede, about the year 1670, proceeding
to Suse, laid siege to the sanctuary of Seedy Aly ben Aidar, near
Ilirgh; Seedy Aly, making his escape in disguise, fled to Soudan,
whither he was followed by Muley Arsheede, who, on his arrival on
the confines of Soudan, between Timbuctoo and Jinnie, was met by
a numerous host of blacks, of the king of the negroes; the prince
demanded Aly ben Aidar, but the negro prince, who was king of
Bambara, replied, that as he had claimed his protection, it would
be an infringement on the laws of hospitality to deliver him up,
adding, moreover, that he desired to know if the views of Arsheede
were hostile or not; to which the latter replied, after endeavouring
in vain to procure the person of Aly, that he was not come hostilely,
but was about to return, which he forthwith did; and the Bambareen
king having received from Aly two beautiful renegade virgins, was so
much flattered with the present, that he promised him any thing that
he should ask; whereupon he requested permission to go to Timbuctoo,
and to settle there with his numerous followers, which being granted,
he proceeded thither, and having established a Moorish garrison,
resided there several months, and afterwards returned to Barbary,
bringing with him many thousand Bambareen blacks; but on his reaching
Suse, he heard of the death of Muley El Arsheede, and having then
no further occasion for the blacks, he dismissed them; they went to
different parts of the country, and served the inhabitants in order
to procure subsistence; but the politic Muley Ismael, who had then
recently been proclaimed, ordered them to be collected together,
and incorporated in his black army, which was, however, before this,
very numerous, consisting, for the most part, of blacks brought away
from Soudan by Muley Arsheede the year preceding. Muley Ismael also
seized this opportunity of establishing his power at Timbuctoo; and
he met with no opposition in putting that place under contribution:
having sent fresh troops to occupy the Moorish garrison there, the
inhabitants were glad to make a contribution in exchange for the
protection and power which it afforded them, for previous to this,
they had been subject to continual depredations from the Arabs of
the adjacent country, to whom they had been compelled to pay tribute
as a security for their caravans, which were constantly passing the
country of these Arabs, who are of the race of Brabeeshee.

In the year 1727, when Muley Ismael died, it is reported that he
possessed an immense quantity of gold, of the purity of which, some of
his gold coins to be seen at this day, at Timbuctoo, bear testimony;
it is also said that the massive bolts in his different palaces
were of pure gold, as well as the utensils of his kitchen. After
his decease, however, the tribute was not regularly transmitted,
and his successors having no means of exacting it, it was entirely
discontinued: the Moorish garrison too intermarrying with the natives,
and dispersing themselves about the vicinage, has given to the latter
that tincture of Mooselmin manners which they are known to possess,
their descendants forming at this period a considerable portion of
the population of Timbuctoo.]

[Footnote 213: Twenty-four nuaih’t make 1 mizan; 5⁹⁄₁₀ mizan is equal
to 1 Spanish ounce, or the weight of a gold dollar, or doubloon.
The value of a mizan of gold is about eleven shillings sterling.]

[Footnote 214: The river Niger.]

[Footnote 215: One cubit and three quarters make one yard.]

[Footnote 216: Timbuctoo, but more particularly Jinnie, carries on a
considerable trade to Darbeyta, a port in the Red Sea, in the country
of Senaar, from whence they are transported to Jidda, and other parts
of (Yemin) Arabia Felix; among other articles is an immense quantity
of the gold trinkets of the manufacture of Jinnie already mentioned.]

[Footnote 217: Seed Abd Allah ben Amgar, the person who was Cadi
in 1800, was a principal trader at Mogodor, and son-in-law to the
Governor of that place, who being unsuccessful in his commercial
affairs, crossed the Desert, and soon obtained the appointment
of Cadi; he was a shrewd clever man, about thirty-five years old:
he is lately dead.]

[Footnote 218: Some writers have thought that the word Nile is
applied to all great rivers; what foundation they may have for this
supposition I am not learned enough to ascertain; but I know that
among the African Arabs, there are but two streams, which are called
Nile, and these have been made two separate rivers by Europeans only,
for in Africa there is decidedly but one opinion respecting them,
viz. that they are streams which communicate with each other, the
Nile El Abeede being the greater, and running through a larger tract
of territory than the Nile Cham, or Nile Massar, hence it is called
Nile el Kabeer, the greater Nile; the Nile of Egypt, however, is not
called the smaller Nile, but always the Nile Cham, or Nile Massar,
i.e. the Nile of Egypt, Cham being also an Arabic name for Egypt
when united to Syria and other countries.]

[Footnote 219: These boats are thirty days in reaching Jinnie;
during the passage the Nile takes a considerable turn to the south,
and returns again, forming a semi-circle; this curve is denominated
(El Kos Nile) the curve, or bow of the Nile. A large stone is a
substitute in these boats for an anchor, which would not hold in
the muddy bottom of the river; these are attached to a cable, and
thrown overboard at night, during which, watch is kept to prevent the
Negroes from approaching, who often swim to, and plunder the boats,
when not kept off by fire-arms.]

[Footnote 220: Some tribute is paid by the town of Timbuctoo to
this tribe, by way of securing their forbearance from plundering
the caravans from the north, which pass through their territory.]

[Footnote 221: I sent a quantity of this coffee to Mr. James Willis,
who had formerly the appointment of Consul for Senegambia; but this
gentleman informed me, on my arrival in England, that it was of a
very inferior quality.]

[Footnote 222: Persons acquainted with the respective value of African
produce, will perhaps ask how it happens that the akkabaahs transport
Gum Soudan from Timbuctoo to Barbary, which is not so valuable as
wax? The reason is evident, the wax is useful, and being consumed by
the natives, always commands a price; the gum is not of any use or
value to the Africans, but is collected and transported to Barbary
only to be sold to the European factors on the coast.]

[Footnote 223: Seven cubits make four yards.]

[Footnote 224: An African manuscript, written by Seedi Mohammed
ben Amran Soudanie, who, however, I do not quote as an author of
the first respectability, has the following passage, which I have
translated for the curious reader. “Respecting the Neele it has
been ascertained by various travellers, that it hath (besides many
inferior) two principal sources, one of which latter is the larger
source, and rises at the foot of the Jibbel Kumri, (i.e. a chain
of mountains which extend from east to west across Africa, passing
through lat. N. 10°) north of Genowa (Guinea), where it forms a
lake or swamp, out of which proceeds another river, which, passing
N.W. through Soudan discharges itself near Asenagha (Senegal), in the
El Bahar Kabeer (id est, the Western or Atlantic ocean); the larger
source proceeds northward, and entering the country of Bambara,
takes an eastern direction, and passing through the city of Segoo,
Jinnée, and Kabra near Timbuctoo, it continues its course through
Wangara; between the two latter cities, it receives from the south
two auxiliary streams of considerable magnitude, which increase it
so that the whole flat country of Wangara is one immense morass,
formed by the overflowing of the waters: one of these auxiliary
streams falls into the Neele 10 erhellat (i.e. 10 days journey)
east of Timbuctoo; the other at Wangara, and the whole body of
accumulated water hence, aptly denominated the Neele El Kabeer
(the Great Nile), proceeds eastward till it communicates with the
Neele Masser (the Nile of Egypt); the distance between the source
of the greater Nile and its junction with the Nile of Egypt, is 99
erhellat of continual travelling.”]


                               * * * * *

The following Specimens of _African_ Arabic are given for the
animadversion of the Arabian Scholar, as their translations are to
shew the reader the style of writing generally used by the Arabs of
Africa. The Asiatic punctuation is adopted to facilitate the perusal
by the Students of Asiatic Arabic; the difference, in this respect,
may be seen by referring to pp. 212 and 213, ante.

_Letter from Muley Ismael, Emperor of Marocco, to Captain or Colonel
Kirke, at Tangier, Ambassador from King Charles the Second, dated
7th Du El Kadah, in the 1093d year of the Hejra [corresponding to
the 27th October, 1682, Christian æra.]_

الحمد الله تعالي و حده * و صلي الله علي من لانبيُه بعده * من عبيد الله
المتو كل علي الله امير المومنين المجاسر في سبيل ربِ العالمين الشريف *

                               (L. S.)

ايد الله اوامره وظفّر جنوده و عساكوه امين * الي قيتان طنجه كرك السلام
علي من اتّبع اِلهدي هذا وقد اتصل بعلمي مقامنا كتابك و فهمنا ما احتوي
عليه خطابك فاما مسألة المهادنه في البحر فاعلم انها لم تصرف منالكم الي
الان وما جعلنا معكم الا المهادنة في طنجة فقد حيُت جيت انت المي عارنا
الشريفة و تكلمنا معك علي ذلك لاربع سنين ولو بقيت انت براسك في طنجه
ما دخل عليك فيها مسلم ابدا الا تاجراً واما المهادنة في البحر فماصرفت
مناولا تكلمنا فيها واذا اردتمونا فيها نحن كتبنا السيدكم با لانكطرة و
قلنا له اذا اراد مهادنة البحر وغيره واراد ان ياخذ السلام الصحيح منا
فليبعت لنا رجلين عاقلين من اعيان ديوان الانكطرة الذي يثق بهم سلام جنمن
النصرانيه هنلك وبعد مايقدمان الي علي مقامنا ويجلسان امامناكل مايسمعانه
منا من عقدة او عهد او غير ذلك يكون عليه المعول وقد جعلنا لكم الامان في
البحر اربعة اشهر من يوم دخول الكتاب الذي ارسلنا اليكم


Praise be to God the most high alone! and God’s blessing be upon
those who are for his prophet.

From [the servant of God, who putteth his trust in God, the Commander
of the Faithful, who is courageous in the way of the omniscient God]
the Sherriff

                                 (L.   Ismael son of a Sherrif,    S.)
                                     God illumine and preserve him.

God assist his commanders, and give victory to his forces and
armies! Amen. To the Captain of Tangier, Kirk; peace be to those who
follow the right way! this by way of preface. Your letter came to the
lofty place of our residence, and we understand what your discourse
contained. As for the asking a cessation of arms by sea, know that
it was not treated of between us till this present time. Neither
did we make truce with you concerning any thing but Tangier alone:
when you came to our illustrious house we treated with you about
that matter for four years; and if you had sojourned there yourself,
no Mooselmin would ever have gone into that town hostilely against
you, but merely as a (peaceable) merchant.

As to a cessation of arms by sea, it was not negociated by us, neither
did we discourse about it; but when you desired it of us, we wrote
to your master, in England, saying, “If you desire a cessation
of arms by sea, and are willing to receive a firm peace from us,
send us two understanding men of the chief of the Diwan of England,
by whom the peace of all the Christians here may be confirmed; and
when they shall arrive at the lofty place of our residence, and sit
before us, whatsoever they shall hear from us, by way of agreement,
shall be acceded to.” And we have given you security at sea for
four months, viz. from the time

بطنجه الي يوم ورود الجواب منه وقدوم الرجلين المذكورين علي الوصف المدكور
واما هولا الذي دكرت في كتابك وانهم قبضوا في البحر فلم يكن عندي بهم علم
ولاخبر لان كلامكم في ذلك كان مع علي بن عبد الله وقد انصفكم من المسلمين
الذين اخذوا من اشتكيتم لنا بسببه وردّاكم النصارة وسجن البحريين علي
ذلك ولم عرفت انا انّهم ظلموكم و وقعت بيني و بينكم مهادنة في البحر كما
وقعت لاربع سنين في البر بواسطتك وسبب محبك اكنت انا علقتم و محوت اثارهم
و انتقمت منهم اشد الانتقام وقد دكر لنا خدعينا محمد بن حدُ اعطار الذي
جامن عندكم ان السباع ببلاد كم قليل وانكم تحبون ر ويته فحين جاء خدعيكم
الينا وجد عندنا فرخين صغيرين من السباع فوجهناها لكم معه واعلم اناجاء
لنا من عند سيدكم ثلاثة من الخيل المعدّين بحّر الكرثن مع خدامنا الذين
كانوا هنالك و الكرثين يحتاج الي اربعة من الخيل يجرونه فلابد ان تبعث لنا
حصاناءَ اخر من دلك الوصف ومن دلك ابحعر و من ذلك القدّ والقدر يجرّوه
باربعة واغرموا لنا به ولابدّ ولابدّ والسّلام و به لبّتٌ * في السابع من
ذي القعده الحرام عام ثلاثة وتسعين و الف

we sent to you our letter to Tangier, till the day that there comes
an answer from him, and until the arrival of the two ambassadors
aforementioned, after the aforesaid manner. As for those men, who in
thy letter thou didst say were taken at sea, I neither know nor have
heard any thing of them; your discourse about that matter having
been with Ali ben Abd Allah, and he administered justice [to you]
upon the Mooselmin who had taken these men prisoners, for the sake
of him for whom you made your complaint to us, and he returned
the Christians to you, and imprisoned the sailors for capturing
them. Now if there shall happen to be a peace between me and you
at sea, as there is for four years by land, through your mediation,
and by reason of your coming to us, I will hang them, and blot out
their footsteps, and be revenged on them with the most severe revenge.

Our Servant, Mohammed ben Hadu Aater, who came from your presence,
told us that lions are scarce in your country, and that they are in
high estimation with you. When your servant came to us, he found we
had two small young lions; wherefore by him we send them to you. And
know, that we have received, by our servants, from your master, three
coach-horses; now a coach requires four horses to draw it, wherefore
you must needs send us another good one of the same kind and size,
that they may draw the coach with four horses. Oblige us in this,
by all means. Farewell! We depend upon it. Written on the seventh of
the sacred month Du El Kadah, in the year ninety-three and a thousand.

   _Letter from Seedi Muley Soliman, Emperor of Marocco, &c. &c. to
                    His Majesty George the Third._

                     بسم الَّله الَّرحمن الَّرحيم

   وهَو حسبنا و نعم الوكيل * ولا حول ولاقوة اِلا بالله العلي العظيم

من عبد الله اِمير المومنين المتوكل علي بن العالمين سُليمان بن محمد بن
عبد الله بن اِسماعيل الشريف الحسَني العلوي اعلا الله امرا سلطان فاس و
مراكش و سوس و درعه و تافيلالت و أتوات و جميع الا قاليم المغريبه

                        (L. سليمن ابن محمد  S.)
                              بن عبد الله
                          غفدْ الله له زولاد

الي محب جانبنا العلي بالله السلطان جرج الثالث سلطان الاِ قاليم الملاقيه
من اكرن ابرطانيه وارلنظه نزوك انبرك ابرنسبي من سلطنة دي روم و المقدس و

اما بعد فانا نسال عنكم كثيرا و نريدكم تكونون علي خير دايما ازياد تكم في
محبتنا اكثر ماكنت لابابكم مع اسلا فنا


In the name of God! the all merciful and commiserating God! on whom
is our account, and we acknowledge his support; for there is neither
beginning nor power, but that which proceeds from God, the High,
Eternal God.

From the Servant of God, the Commander of the Faithful [in
Mohammed],[225] upheld and supported by the grace of God.

Soliman, the son of Mohammed, the son of Abd Allah, the son of
Isma’ael, Prince of [the House or Dynasty of] Hassan, who was ever
upheld by the power of God, Sultan of Fas and Marocksh, and Suse,
and Draha, and Tafilelt, and Tuwat, together with all the territories
of the West.

            (L.   son of Mohammed, [who was the]   S.)
                         son of Abd Allah,
                            God illumine
                            and support

To our dearly beloved and cherished, exalted by the power of God,
the Sultan[226] George the Third, Sultan of the territories of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, Duke of Mecklenburg
Strelitz, Prince, descended from the dynasty of the Sultans of Rome
and Palestine, &c.

This premised, we inform you that we continually make friendly and
diligent enquiry about you, desiring heartily that you may be at
all times surrounded by wealth and prosperity. We wish you to

الكرام رظوان الله عليهم والدي اوجبه اليكم هوا علامكم ان خديمكم دَكْثر
بُفَ ورد علي حظرتنا العالية بالله واعجبنا علاجه و معرفته فاردناكم ان
تعطوه امركم يبقي مقيما بقربنا بجبل طراف و مهمي وجهنا عليه ياتي الحضرتنا
الشريفه سريعا من غير امهال ولاتماطل و تعطوته جميع مايحتاجه الينا من
الادوية الجيدة المنتخبة اليكم و تزيدونه اكراما و تعظيما لاتيانه الينا و
اغننابه بامرنا وانا نحبكم ان تكو نوا دايما بخير و عافية و السلام في 4
جُمادي الاولي عام 1221.

encrease in friendship with us, that our alliance may be more strongly
cemented than heretofore, even stronger than it was in the days of
our ancestors, whom God guard and protect.

Now, therefore, we make known to you, that your physician and servant,
Doctor Buffé, has been in our royal presence (which is) exalted by
the bounty of God, and we have been well pleased with his medical
knowledge and diligent attention, and moreover with the relief he
hath given to us.

We have, therefore, to entreat of you, to give him your royal order
to return to Gibraltar, in our neighbourhood, well provided with
all good and necessary medicines; that he, residing at Gibraltar,
may be ready to attend quickly our royal presence whenever we may
be in need of his (medical) assistance. We trust you will return
him without procrastination to our throne, seeing that he has been
of essential service to us.

We recommend you to exalt Doctor Buffé in your favour and esteem
on our account, and we will always be your allies and friends. May
you ever be well and in prosperity! Peace be with you! the 4th day
of the month Jumad El Lule, in the year (of the Hejra) 1221.[227]

                               * * * * *

                         _Laws of Bankrupts._

The following letter is given, to explain to the commercial reader the
method adopted in order to enable an European merchant to quit the
kingdom of Marocco; and it should be observed, that the Mohammedan
law of bankrupts is such, that an insolvent man continues liable to
his creditors all his life, till his debts be discharged: but he
can claim, by law, his liberation from prison, on making oath and
bringing proof of his insolvency; but then, if he succeed afterwards,
and become possessed of property, he is compelled to pay the debts
he before contracted; so that an European should be careful how he
contracts debts with the Moors, lest the misfortunes incident to
commerce oblige him to remain for ever in the country.

                               * * * * *

                                                        الحمد لله و حده

  L.  ابن محمد بن  S.
    عبد الله بن اِسمعايل

خديمنا الحاج احمد ابن براهيم و السيد محمد بن الكاهيه سلام عليكم ورحمت
الله و بعد فنامركما ان تتركان النصْراني جَاكصن يركب لبلاده اذا لصرتكن
عليه لا حد من الناس تباعة شرعية كما كتبنا لكَم بدلك في الكتب الاخر وَان
كان لا يسْالة احد حقًا فلَا تتعرضا ولهُ وَالله يعينكم وَ السلام في صفر
الخير عام 1220


                        Praise be to God alone!

                                                 ben Mohammed
                                           (L.   ben Abd Allah   S.)
                                                  ben Ismaael,

Our servants, El Hage Mohammed O Bryhim, and Seid Mohammed ben El
Kahia, peace, and the mercy of God be with you! This premised, I
command you to suffer the Christian merchant Jackson, to embark for
his own country, _if it appears to you that no one pursues him in law_
(for debt), as I wrote to you on this subject in my last letter;
_if no one claims of him any right by law, allow him to go, and do
not impede him_.[228] God protect you, and peace be with you. 3 day
of Saffer, the good year 1220. [A.C. 1805.]


[Footnote 225: The words between brackets are not in the original,
but implied.]

[Footnote 226: This, perhaps, is the only letter extant wherein a
Mooselmin prince gives the title of Sultan to a Christian king.]

[Footnote 227: The above date corresponds with the 5th July, 1806,
Christian æra.]

[Footnote 228: This repetition of the principal subject of a letter is
a mode of impressing on the mind more forcibly the subject intended,
and is commonly practised by the best writers in Africa.]


_Abd_, A slave.

_Abeede Seedi Bukaree_, The Bukarree blacks of the Emperor’s army.

_Adul_, An accountant.

_Agem_, A European, or Barbarian.

_Akad El Beah_, Declaration of sale.

_Akkabaah_, Several caravans accumulated together for the purpose
of crossing the Desert of Africa.

_Alem_, A white flag suspended at the top of a mosque at noon,
to announce prayers.

_Bedowin_, Wandering Arabs of the Desert.

_Bu’dra_, Old butter melted, and put into earthen jars, and
preserved in the matamores ten, twenty, or thirty years: supposed
to contain extraordinary medicinal properties.

_Bussorah_, A city in Arabia; derived from the Arabic words Bu and
Surah, i.e. father of walls.

_Cuscasoe_, Granulated wheat, or barley-meal, mixed with water,
and rolled into small particles about the size of partridge-shot,
and prepared for food, by steam, with meat, fowls, and vegetables.

_Deeb_, A brown fox.

_Delel_, An itinerant auctioneer.

_Diwan_, Generally called Divan; but the letter v is not in the
Arabic language: the word is derived from Diwee, to converse.

_Douar_, An encampment of Arabs tents.

_El Wah_, An oasis.

_Erhella_, A day’s journey of about eight hours continual

_Ezzulia_, Small glazed tiles of various colours, with which the
Moors ornament their rooms, &c.

_Fondaque_, A caravansera, or inn.

_Hashisha_, A species of hemp, the seeds and leaves of which
intoxicate, and are said to produce an agreeable vacuity of mind.

_Harushe_, A stony district.

_Hassoua_, Barley-gruel.

_Hayk_, A piece of woollen, or cotton cloth, or silk, made light,
and of the natural colour of the article of which it is manufactured,
being about two yards wide and five long, thrown over the dress,
and resembling the Roman Toga.

_Hejra_, The Mohammedan æra, which began 16th July, A.D. 622. The
year is lunar, consisting of 357 days; so that in the calculation of
chronological events, 103½ lunar years are equal to 100 solar years.

_Horreh_, A free born, or noble born person.

_Jimmel_, A camel.

_Kasseria_, An enclosed building consisting of many shops.

_Keyma_, An Arab’s tent.

_Kief_, The seed of the Hashisha, an intoxicating herb.

_Liali_, The period of the forty longest nights.

_Luksebba_, A citadel.

_Matamore_, Subterraneous caverns or excavations, wherein is
deposited corn, which by being closed so as to preclude the air,
will keep the corn sound and good thirty years or more.

_Millah_, A department of a town inhabited by Jews.

_Murristan_, A mad-house.

_Mutassib_, An officer who regulates the weights and price of
meat, &c.

_M’shoar_, Place of audience.

_Naga_, A female camel.

_Niag_, Female camels.

_Semaimi_, The period of the forty longest days.

_Sfinge_, Spongy bread.

_Shebbel_, A fish similar to salmon.

_Sheik_, An Arabian chief.

_Smin_, Butter melted and preserved with salt.

_Soudanee_, A native of Nigritia.

_Stata_, A convoy through the Desert, or other unsafe country, being a
Sheick, or his friend, who accompanies and protects a caravan through
his territory, and delivers it to the protection of a Sheick of the
next adjoining district or clan, for which he generally receives a
pecuniary remuneration.

_Talb_, A man versed in the Mohammedan laws.

_Thaleb_, The red fox.

_Tibber_, Gold dust.

_Ukill_, An attorney, or agent.

_Zawiat_, Sanctuaries.

_Zemeeta_, Meal mixed with cold water; a food used by the inhabitants
of Mount Atlas.

_Zibda_, Fresh butter.

_Zite_, Oil.

_Zitune_, Olives.

                               * * * * *


  Page  20, line  1, _for_ River Suse, _read_ Province of Suse.

        80, note     _for_ Appendix, p. 1808, _read_ Appendix, page 108.

       107, line  6, _for_ plate 2nd, _read_ plate 8th, page 103.

       196,   —  19, _for_ Eastern part of Chinese Tartary, _read_
                     Eastern part of Bengal.

              —  20, _for_ to the Cape of Good Hope, _read_ to
                     Zanguebar and Mosambique.

       283,   —  14, _for_ Latter, _read_ Letter.

       298,   —  29, _for_ three quarters of a cubit, _read_ one cubit
                     and three quarters.

       299,   —   4, _for_ Skiat, _read_ Okiat.

              * * * * *
  London: Printed by W. Bulmer and Co.
      Cleveland row, St. James’s.

Transcriber's note:

  Instances of long s-shaped kāf ڪ have been transcribed as kāf ك.

  The changes listed in the ERRATA have been done.

  pg 1 (footnote 7) Marruccos to: Marruecos

  pg 11 sarcely ever to: scarcely

  pg 16 the mose select to: most

  pg 18 pefectly understand to: perfectly

  pg 21 near the imperial place to: palace

  pg 21 (footnote 34) Sultaun Soliman to: Sultan

  pg 23 to gives a softness to: give

  pg 31 No reference symbol can be found throughout this page or
  the adjacent ones for footnote 40, in any of the editions that
  include this passage. It has been assumed to refer to Tetuan and
  a reference has been placed at the end of one of the paragraphs
  that allude to this town.

  pg 38 were aparments for to: apartments

  pg 42 It was beseiged to: besieged

  pg 64 affected with opthalmia to: ophthalmia

  pg 80-81 (footnote 78) ar irresistible to: are

  pg 83 or the teticle to: testicle

  pg 92 he ad retired to: he had retired

  pg 108 thi precaution to: this precaution

  pg 152 scarcely ssuceptible to: susceptible

  pg 185 this was intened to: intended

  pg 209 that it i the most to: is

  pg 212 Two variants of "lam-alif" were originally shown in this
  table: "[lam-alif var. 1] [lam-alif var. 2]" under the "Oriental
  Order" column and "[lam-alif var. 2], or [lam-alif var. 1]" under
  the "Occidental Order" column. These have been changed into لا

  pg 213 Mokhalla امْـَكْحلَ to: امُكْحلَ

  pg 215 Eggs - Baid البَيصْ to: البَيضْ

  pg 224 Shaban ﻌبان to: شعبان

  pg 230 in the gronnd to: ground

  pg 234-235 (footnote 183) custom is observad to: observed

  pg 265 we do dot understand to: we do not

  pg 275 The reference to a footnote in this page, seemingly to
  footnote 192 in the First edition, has been left in (The footnote
  and its reference are in pg 274 in this edition).

  pg 299 (footnote 216) the manufcture of to: manufacture

  Other spelling inconsistencies have been left unchanged.

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "An account of the empire of Marocco, and the districts of Suse and Tafilelt; compiled from miscellaneous observations made during a long residence in, and various journies through, these countries. To which is added an account of shipwrecks on the western coast of Africa, and an interesting account of Timbuctoo, the great emporium of Central Africa" ***

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